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Sample records for abundant functional groups

  1. Differential Abundance of Microbial Functional Groups along the Elevation Gradient from the Coast to the Luquillo Mountains

    EPA Science Inventory

    Microbial communities respond to multiple abiotic and biotic factors that change along elevation gradients. We compare changes in microbial community composition in soil and review previous research on differential abundance of microbial functional groups along an elevation gradi...

  2. Study of model systems to test the potential function of Artemia group 1 late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins.

    PubMed

    Warner, Alden H; Guo, Zhi-hao; Moshi, Sandra; Hudson, John W; Kozarova, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Embryos of the brine shrimp, Artemia franciscana, are genetically programmed to develop either ovoviparously or oviparously depending on environmental conditions. Shortly upon their release from the female, oviparous embryos enter diapause during which time they undergo major metabolic rate depression while simultaneously synthesize proteins that permit them to tolerate a wide range of stressful environmental events including prolonged periods of desiccation, freezing, and anoxia. Among the known stress-related proteins that accumulate in embryos entering diapause are the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins. This large group of intrinsically disordered proteins has been proposed to act as molecular shields or chaperones of macromolecules which are otherwise intolerant to harsh conditions associated with diapause. In this research, we used two model systems to study the potential function of the group 1 LEA proteins from Artemia. Expression of the Artemia group 1 gene (AfrLEA-1) in Escherichia coli inhibited growth in proportion to the number of 20-mer amino acid motifs expressed. As well, clones of E. coli, transformed with the AfrLEA-1 gene, expressed multiple bands of LEA proteins, either intrinsically or upon induction with isopropyl-β-thiogalactoside (IPTG), in a vector-specific manner. Expression of AfrLEA-1 in E. coli did not overcome the inhibitory effects of high concentrations of NaCl and KCl but modulated growth inhibition resulting from high concentrations of sorbitol in the growth medium. In contrast, expression of the AfrLEA-1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae did not alter the growth kinetics or permit yeast to tolerate high concentrations of NaCl, KCl, or sorbitol. However, expression of AfrLEA-1 in yeast improved its tolerance to drying (desiccation) and freezing. Under our experimental conditions, both E. coli and S. cerevisiae appear to be potentially suitable hosts to study the function of Artemia group 1 LEA proteins under environmentally

  3. A new strategy for integrating abundant oxygen functional groups into carbon felt electrode for vanadium redox flow batteries

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki Jae; Lee, Seung-Wook; Yim, Taeeun; Kim, Jae-Geun; Choi, Jang Wook; Kim, Jung Ho; Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Young-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The effects of surface treatment combining corona discharge and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on the electrochemical performance of carbon felt electrodes for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) have been thoroughly investigated. A high concentration of oxygen functional groups has been successfully introduced onto the surface of the carbon felt electrodes by a specially designed surface treatment, which is mainly responsible for improving the energy efficiency of VRFBs. In addition, the wettability of the carbon felt electrodes also can be significantly improved. The energy efficiency of the VRFB cell employing the surface modified carbon felt electrodes is improved by 7% at high current density (148 mA cm−2). Such improvement is attributed to the faster charge transfer and better wettability allowed by surface-active oxygen functional groups. Moreover, this method is much more competitive than other surface treatments in terms of processing time, production costs, and electrochemical performance. PMID:25366060

  4. A new strategy for integrating abundant oxygen functional groups into carbon felt electrode for vanadium redox flow batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ki Jae; Lee, Seung-Wook; Yim, Taeeun; Kim, Jae-Geun; Choi, Jang Wook; Kim, Jung Ho; Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Young-Jun

    2014-11-01

    The effects of surface treatment combining corona discharge and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on the electrochemical performance of carbon felt electrodes for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) have been thoroughly investigated. A high concentration of oxygen functional groups has been successfully introduced onto the surface of the carbon felt electrodes by a specially designed surface treatment, which is mainly responsible for improving the energy efficiency of VRFBs. In addition, the wettability of the carbon felt electrodes also can be significantly improved. The energy efficiency of the VRFB cell employing the surface modified carbon felt electrodes is improved by 7% at high current density (148 mA cm-2). Such improvement is attributed to the faster charge transfer and better wettability allowed by surface-active oxygen functional groups. Moreover, this method is much more competitive than other surface treatments in terms of processing time, production costs, and electrochemical performance.

  5. A new strategy for integrating abundant oxygen functional groups into carbon felt electrode for vanadium redox flow batteries.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Jae; Lee, Seung-Wook; Yim, Taeeun; Kim, Jae-Geun; Choi, Jang Wook; Kim, Jung Ho; Park, Min-Sik; Kim, Young-Jun

    2014-01-01

    The effects of surface treatment combining corona discharge and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on the electrochemical performance of carbon felt electrodes for vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs) have been thoroughly investigated. A high concentration of oxygen functional groups has been successfully introduced onto the surface of the carbon felt electrodes by a specially designed surface treatment, which is mainly responsible for improving the energy efficiency of VRFBs. In addition, the wettability of the carbon felt electrodes also can be significantly improved. The energy efficiency of the VRFB cell employing the surface modified carbon felt electrodes is improved by 7% at high current density (148 mA cm(-2)). Such improvement is attributed to the faster charge transfer and better wettability allowed by surface-active oxygen functional groups. Moreover, this method is much more competitive than other surface treatments in terms of processing time, production costs, and electrochemical performance. PMID:25366060

  6. THE ABUNDANCES OF HYDROCARBON FUNCTIONAL GROUPS IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM INFERRED FROM LABORATORY SPECTRA OF HYDROGENATED AND METHYLATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    SciTech Connect

    Steglich, M.; Jäger, C.; Huisken, F.; Friedrich, M.; Plass, W.; Räder, H.-J.; Müllen, K.; Henning, Th.

    2013-10-01

    Infrared (IR) absorption spectra of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) containing methyl (-CH{sub 3}), methylene (CH{sub 2}), or diamond-like CH groups and IR spectra of mixtures of methylated and hydrogenated PAHs prepared by gas-phase condensation were measured at room temperature (as grains in pellets) and at low temperature (isolated in Ne matrices). In addition, the PAH blends were subjected to an in-depth molecular structure analysis by means of high-performance liquid chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Supported by calculations at the density functional theory level, the laboratory results were applied to analyze in detail the aliphatic absorption complex of the diffuse interstellar medium at 3.4 μm and to determine the abundances of hydrocarbon functional groups. Assuming that the PAHs are mainly locked in grains, aliphatic CH {sub x} groups (x = 1, 2, 3) would contribute approximately in equal quantities to the 3.4 μm feature (N {sub CHx}/N {sub H} ≈ 10{sup –5}-2 × 10{sup –5}). The abundances, however, may be two to four times lower if a major contribution to the 3.4 μm feature comes from molecules in the gas phase. Aromatic ≅CH groups seem to be almost absent from some lines of sight, but can be nearly as abundant as each of the aliphatic components in other directions (N{sub ≅CH}/N {sub H} ∼< 2 × 10{sup –5}; upper value for grains). Due to comparatively low binding energies, astronomical IR emission sources do not display such heavy excess hydrogenation. At best, especially in protoplanetary nebulae, CH{sub 2} groups bound to aromatic molecules, i.e., excess hydrogens on the molecular periphery only, can survive the presence of a nearby star.

  7. The Abundances of Hydrocarbon Functional Groups in the Interstellar Medium Inferred from Laboratory Spectra of Hydrogenated and Methylated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steglich, M.; Jäger, C.; Huisken, F.; Friedrich, M.; Plass, W.; Räder, H.-J.; Müllen, K.; Henning, Th.

    2013-10-01

    Infrared (IR) absorption spectra of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) containing methyl (\\sbondCH3), methylene (\\protect{\\epsfbox{art/apjs484229un01.eps}}CH2), or diamond-like \\protect{\\epsfbox{art/apjs484229un02.eps}}CH groups and IR spectra of mixtures of methylated and hydrogenated PAHs prepared by gas-phase condensation were measured at room temperature (as grains in pellets) and at low temperature (isolated in Ne matrices). In addition, the PAH blends were subjected to an in-depth molecular structure analysis by means of high-performance liquid chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Supported by calculations at the density functional theory level, the laboratory results were applied to analyze in detail the aliphatic absorption complex of the diffuse interstellar medium at 3.4 μm and to determine the abundances of hydrocarbon functional groups. Assuming that the PAHs are mainly locked in grains, aliphatic CH x groups (x = 1, 2, 3) would contribute approximately in equal quantities to the 3.4 μm feature (N CHx /N H ≈ 10-5-2 × 10-5). The abundances, however, may be two to four times lower if a major contribution to the 3.4 μm feature comes from molecules in the gas phase. Aromatic \\epsfbox{art/apjs484229un03.eps} CH groups seem to be almost absent from some lines of sight, but can be nearly as abundant as each of the aliphatic components in other directions (N_{\\epsfbox{art/apjs484229un03.eps} CH}/N H lsim 2 × 10-5 upper value for grains). Due to comparatively low binding energies, astronomical IR emission sources do not display such heavy excess hydrogenation. At best, especially in protoplanetary nebulae, \\protect{\\epsfbox{art/apjs484229un01.eps}}CH2 groups bound to aromatic molecules, i.e., excess hydrogens on the molecular periphery only, can survive the presence of a nearby star.

  8. Model-measurement comparison of functional group abundance in α-pinene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene secondary organic aerosol formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggeri, Giulia; Bernhard, Fabian A.; Henderson, Barron H.; Takahama, Satoshi

    2016-07-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed by α-pinene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene photooxidation under different NOx regimes is simulated using the Master Chemical Mechanism v3.2 (MCM) coupled with an absorptive gas-particle partitioning module. Vapor pressures for individual compounds are estimated with the SIMPOL.1 group contribution model for determining apportionment of reaction products to each phase. We apply chemoinformatic tools to harvest functional group (FG) composition from the simulations and estimate their contributions to the overall oxygen to carbon ratio. Furthermore, we compare FG abundances in simulated SOA to measurements of FGs reported in previous chamber studies using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. These simulations qualitatively capture the dynamics of FG composition of SOA formed from both α-pinene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene in low-NOx conditions, especially in the first hours after start of photooxidation. Higher discrepancies are found after several hours of simulation; the nature of these discrepancies indicates sources of uncertainty or types of reactions in the condensed or gas phase missing from current model implementation. Higher discrepancies are found in the case of α-pinene photooxidation under different NOx concentration regimes, which are reasoned through the domination by a few polyfunctional compounds that disproportionately impact the simulated FG abundance in the aerosol phase. This manuscript illustrates the usefulness of FG analysis to complement existing methods for model-measurement evaluation.

  9. Remote sensing data to classify functional groups of vegetation and their distribution and abundance in a semiarid mountain watershed, Idaho, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loughridge, R. E.; Benner, S. G.; McNamara, J. P.; Flores, A. N.

    2012-12-01

    In water-limited montane ecosystems, topography is a significant driver of energy balance and soil moisture and therefore governs the distribution and abundance of terrestrial vegetation. Few studies have made a concerted effort to quantify spatial patterns in vegetation along physiographic gradients that control microclimate such as slope, elevation, and aspect. Furthermore, spectral mixing of different vegetation species within individual visible and near-infrared remote sensing pixels makes it difficult to constrain the temporal growth and senescence of individual plant functional types. We report on a study that seeks to understand the interacting roles of topography, soil moisture, and solar radiation on the distribution of different plant functional types within the Dry Creek Experimental Watershed (DCEW). Boise State University maintains the 27 km2 watershed which is located in the Boise Front Mountains of southwest Idaho. It is qualitatively observed in DCEW that low elevations are dominated by sage-steppe ecosystems and high elevations transition to conifer forests. It is also observed that aspect has a major control in which sage-steppe is evident at high elevations on south facing slopes conversely from north facing slopes. To quantify these trends we measured percent ground cover of functional groups (i.e. forbs, grass, shrubs, etc.) at 77 sites within DCEW spanning a large gradient in the controlling biophysiographic variables. In addition, vegetation water content (VWC) and spectral reflectance from the 325 to 1075 nm wavelengths was collected for specific vegetation types at eight permanent soil moisture monitoring sites contained in DCEW throughout the 2012 green-up/senescence transition. To develop a watershed-wide classification we built a supervised multilayer perceptron (MLP) backpropagating artificial neural network (ANN) using temporal Landsat 5 images to classify 4 major groups: sage-steppe, Douglas fir, ponderosa pine, and deciduous trees

  10. Chemical abundances of massive stars in Local Group galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venn, Kim A.; Kaufer, Andreas; Tolstoy, Eline; Kudritzki, Rolf-Peter; Przybilla, Norbert; Smartt, Stephen J.; Lennon, Daniel J.

    The relative abundances of elements in galaxies can provide valuable information on the stellar and chemical evolution of a galaxy. While nebulae can provide abundances for a variety of light elements, stars are the only way to directly determine the abundances of iron-group and s-process and r-process elements in a galaxy. The new 8m and 10m class telescopes and high-efficiency spectrographs now make high-quality spectral observations of bright supergiants possible in dwarf galaxies in the Local Group. We have been concentrating on elemental abundances in the metal-poor dwarf irregular galaxies, NGC 6822, WLM, Sextants A, and GR 8. Comparing abundance ratios to those predicted from their star formation histories, determined from color-magnitude diagrams, and comparing those ratios between these galaxies can give us new insights into the evolution of these dwarf irregular galaxies. Iron-group abundances also allow us to examine the metallicities of the stars in these galaxies directly, which affects their inferred mass loss rates and predicted stellar evolution properties.

  11. New Abundant Microbial Groups in Aquatic Hypersaline Environments

    PubMed Central

    Ghai, Rohit; Pašić, Lejla; Fernández, Ana Beatriz; Martin-Cuadrado, Ana-Belen; Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; McMahon, Katherine D.; Papke, R. Thane; Stepanauskas, Ramunas; Rodriguez-Brito, Beltran; Rohwer, Forest; Sánchez-Porro, Cristina; Ventosa, Antonio; Rodríguez-Valera, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    We describe the microbiota of two hypersaline saltern ponds, one of intermediate salinity (19%) and a NaCl saturated crystallizer pond (37%) using pyrosequencing. The analyses of these metagenomes (nearly 784 Mb) reaffirmed the vast dominance of Haloquadratum walsbyi but also revealed novel, abundant and previously unsuspected microbial groups. We describe for the first time, a group of low GC Actinobacteria, related to freshwater Actinobacteria, abundant in low and intermediate salinities. Metagenomic assembly revealed three new abundant microbes: a low-GC euryarchaeon with the lowest GC content described for any euryarchaeon, a high-GC euryarchaeon and a gammaproteobacterium related to Alkalilimnicola and Nitrococcus. Multiple displacement amplification and sequencing of the genome from a single archaeal cell of the new low GC euryarchaeon suggest a photoheterotrophic and polysaccharide-degrading lifestyle and its relatedness to the recently described lineage of Nanohaloarchaea. These discoveries reveal the combined power of an unbiased metagenomic and single cell genomic approach. PMID:22355652

  12. Renormalization group functional equations

    SciTech Connect

    Curtright, Thomas L.; Zachos, Cosmas K.

    2011-03-15

    Functional conjugation methods are used to analyze the global structure of various renormalization group trajectories and to gain insight into the interplay between continuous and discrete rescaling. With minimal assumptions, the methods produce continuous flows from step-scaling {sigma} functions and lead to exact functional relations for the local flow {beta} functions, whose solutions may have novel, exotic features, including multiple branches. As a result, fixed points of {sigma} are sometimes not true fixed points under continuous changes in scale and zeroes of {beta} do not necessarily signal fixed points of the flow but instead may only indicate turning points of the trajectories.

  13. Comparing Amino Acid Abundances and Distributions Across Carbonaceous Chondrite Groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burton, Aaron S.; Callahan, Michael P.; Glavin, Daniel P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Dworkin, Jason P.

    2012-01-01

    Meteorites are grouped according to bulk properties such as chemical composition and mineralogy. These parameters can vary significantly among the different carbonaceous chondrite groups (CI, CM, CO, CR, CH, CB, CV and CK). We have determined the amino acid abundances of more than 30 primary amino acids in meteorites from each of the eight groups, revealing several interesting trends. There are noticeable differences in the structural diversity and overall abundances of amino acids between meteorites from the different chondrite groups. Because meteorites may have been an important source of amino acids to the prebiotic Earth and these organic compounds are essential for life as we know it, the observed variations of these molecules may have been important for the origins of life.

  14. Lead and uranium group abundances in cosmic rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yadav, J. S.; Perelygin, V. P.

    1985-01-01

    The importance of Lead and Uranium group abundances in cosmic rays is discussed in understanding their evolution and propagation. The electronic detectors can provide good charge resolution but poor data statistics. The plastic detectors can provide somewhat better statistics but charge resolution deteriorates. The extraterrestrial crystals can provide good statistics but with poor charge resolution. Recent studies of extraterrestrial crystals regarding their calibration to accelerated uranium ion beam and track etch kinetics are discussed. It is hoped that a charge resolution of two charge units can be achieved provided an additional parameter is taken into account. The prospects to study abundances of Lead group, Uranium group and superheavy element in extraterrestrial crystals are discussed, and usefulness of these studies in the light of studies with electronic and plastic detectors is assessed.

  15. Functional Group Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Walter T., Jr.; Patterson, John M.

    1984-01-01

    Literature on analytical methods related to the functional groups of 17 chemical compounds is reviewed. These compounds include acids, acid azides, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, amino acids, aromatic hydrocarbons, carbodiimides, carbohydrates, ethers, nitro compounds, nitrosamines, organometallic compounds, peroxides, phenols, silicon compounds,…

  16. The Heavy Element Abundance in Groups of Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    David, Laurence

    2000-01-01

    Over the past few years we have analyzed a sample of clusters observed by the Advanced Spacecraft for Cosmology Astrophysics (ASCA) X-ray satellite. We performed spatially resolved X-ray spectroscopy of a sample of 18 relaxed clusters of galaxies with gas temperatures below 4 keV. The spectral analysis was done using ASCA/SIS (Solid state Imaging Spectrometer) data combined with imaging data from ROSAT/PSPC (German acronym for X-ray satellite/Position Sensitive Proportional Counter) and Einstein/IPC (Imaging Proportional Counter) observations. We derived temperature profiles using single-temperature fits for all of the clusters in the sample, and also corrected for the presence of cold gas in the center of so-called 'cooling flow' clusters. For all of the clusters in the sample we derived Si and Fe abundance profiles. For a few of the clusters we also were able to derive Ne and S abundance profiles. We compared the elemental abundances derived at similar overdensities in all of the clusters in the sample. We also compared element mass-to-light ratios for the entire sample. We concluded that the preferential accretion of low entropy, low abundance gas into the potentials of groups and cold clusters can explain most of the observed trends in metallicity. In addition, we discussed the importance of preheating of the intracluster medium by Type II supernovae on the cluster scaling relations.

  17. Platinum-group element abundance patterns in different mantle environments

    SciTech Connect

    Rehkaemper, M.; Halliday, A.N.; Barfod, D.; Fitton, J.G.; Dawson, J.B.

    1997-11-28

    Mantle-derived xenoliths from the Cameroon Line and northern Tanzania display differences in their platinum-group element (PGE) abundance patterns. The Cameroon Line lherzolites have uniform PGE patterns indicating a homogeneous upper mantle over several hundreds of kilometers, with approximately chondritic PGE ratios. The PGE patterns of the Tanzanian peridotites are similar to the PGE systematics of ultramafic rocks from ophiolites. The differences can be explained if the northern Tanzanian lithosphere developed in a fluid-rich suprasubduction zone environment, whereas the Cameroon Line lithosphere only experienced melt extraction from anhydrous periodotites. 32 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Cluster functional renormalization group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuther, Johannes; Thomale, Ronny

    2014-01-01

    Functional renormalization group (FRG) has become a diverse and powerful tool to derive effective low-energy scattering vertices of interacting many-body systems. Starting from a free expansion point of the action, the flow of the RG parameter Λ allows us to trace the evolution of the effective one- and two-particle vertices towards low energies by taking into account the vertex corrections between all parquet channels in an unbiased fashion. In this work, we generalize the expansion point at which the diagrammatic resummation procedure is initiated from a free UV limit to a cluster product state. We formulate a cluster FRG scheme where the noninteracting building blocks (i.e., decoupled spin clusters) are treated exactly, and the intercluster couplings are addressed via RG. As a benchmark study, we apply our cluster FRG scheme to the spin-1/2 bilayer Heisenberg model (BHM) on a square lattice where the neighboring sites in the two layers form the individual two-site clusters. Comparing with existing numerical evidence for the BHM, we obtain reasonable findings for the spin susceptibility, the spin-triplet excitation energy, and quasiparticle weight even in coupling regimes close to antiferromagnetic order. The concept of cluster FRG promises applications to a large class of interacting electron systems.

  19. Functional Group Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Walter T., Jr.; Patterson, John M.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses analytical methods selected from current research articles. Groups information by topics of general interest, including acids, aldehydes and ketones, nitro compounds, phenols, and thiols. Cites 97 references. (CS)

  20. Abundance trends in kinematical groups of the Milky Way's disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soubiran, C.; Girard, P.

    2005-07-01

    We have compiled a large catalogue of metallicities and abundance ratios from the literature in order to investigate abundance trends of several alpha and iron peak elements in the thin disk and the thick disk of the Galaxy. The catalogue includes 743 stars with abundances of Fe, O, Mg, Ca, Ti, Si, Na, Ni and Al in the metallicity range -1.30 < [Fe/H] < +0.50. We have checked that systematic differences between abundances measured in the different studies were lower than random errors before combining them. Accurate distances and proper motions from Hipparcos and radial velocities from several sources have been retreived for 639 stars and their velocities (U, V, W) and galactic orbits have been computed. Ages of 322 stars have been estimated with a Bayesian method of isochrone fitting. Two samples kinematically representative of the thin and thick disks have been selected, taking into account the Hercules stream which is intermediate in kinematics, but with a probable dynamical origin. Our results show that the two disks are chemically well separated, they overlap greatly in metallicity and both show parallel decreasing alpha elements with increasing metallicity, in the interval -0.80 < [Fe/H] < -0.30. The Mg enhancement with respect to Fe of the thick disk is measured to be 0.14 dex. An even larger enhancement is observed for Al. The thick disk is clearly older than the thin disk with tentative evidence of an AMR over 2-3 Gyr and a hiatus in star formation before the formation of the thin disk. We do not observe a vertical gradient in the metallicity of the thick disk. The Hercules stream has properties similar to that of the thin disk, with a wider range of metallicity. Metal-rich stars assigned to the thick disk and super-metal-rich stars assigned to the thin disk appear as outliers in all their properties.

  1. Functional genotypes are associated with commensal Escherichia coli strain abundance within-host individuals and populations.

    PubMed

    Blyton, Michaela D J; Banks, Sam C; Peakall, Rod; Gordon, David M

    2013-08-01

    The selective pressures that determine genotype abundance and distribution frequently vary between ecological levels. Thus, it is often unclear whether the same functional genotypes will become abundant at different levels and how selection acting at these different scales is linked. In this study, we examined whether particular functional genotypes, defined by the presence or absence of 34 genes, of commensal Escherichia coli strains were associated with within-host abundance and/or host population abundance in a wild population of 54 adult mountain brushtail possums (Trichosurus cunninghami). Our results revealed that there was a positive correlation between a strain's relative abundance within individuals and the strain's abundance in the host population. We also found that strain abundance at both ecological levels was predicted by the same group of functional genes (agn43, focH, micH47, iroN, ygiL, ompT, kspmT2 and K1) that had associated patterns of occurrence. We propose that direct selection on the same functional genes at both levels may in part be responsible for the observed correlation between the ecological levels. However, a potential link between abundance within the host and excretion rate may also contribute. PMID:23786329

  2. THE ABUNDANCE OF BULLET GROUPS IN ΛCDM

    SciTech Connect

    Fernández-Trincado, J. G.; Forero-Romero, J. E.; Foex, G.; Motta, V.; Verdugo, T. E-mail: je.forero@uniandes.edu.co

    2014-06-01

    We estimate the expected distribution of displacements between the two dominant dark matter (DM) peaks (DM-DM displacements) and between the DM and gaseous baryon peak (DM-gas displacements) in DM halos with masses larger than 10{sup 13} h {sup –1} M {sub ☉}. As a benchmark, we use the observation of SL2S J08544–0121, which is the lowest mass system (1.0 × 10{sup 14} h {sup –1} M {sub ☉}) observed so far, featuring a bi-modal DM distribution with a dislocated gas component. We find that (50 ± 10)% of the DM halos with circular velocities in the range 300-700 km s{sup –1} (groups) show DM-DM displacements equal to or larger than 186 ± 30 h {sup –1} kpc as observed in SL2S J08544–0121. For DM halos with circular velocities larger than 700 km s{sup –1} (clusters) this fraction rises to (70 ± 10)%. Using the same simulation, we estimate the DM-gas displacements and find that 0.1%-1.0% of the groups should present separations equal to or larger than 87 ± 14 h {sup –1} kpc, corresponding to our observational benchmark; for clusters, this fraction rises to (7 ± 3)%, consistent with previous studies of DM to baryon separations. Considering both constraints on the DM-DM and DM-gas displacements, we find that the number density of groups similar to SL2S J08544–0121 is ∼6.0 × 10{sup –7} Mpc{sup –3}, three times larger than the estimated value for clusters. These results open up the possibility for a new statistical test of ΛCDM by looking for DM-gas displacements in low mass clusters and groups.

  3. Expanded haloes, abundance matching and too-big-to-fail in the Local Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, Chris B.; Di Cintio, Arianna

    2015-07-01

    Observed kinematical data of 40 Local Group (LG) members are used to derive the dark matter halo mass of such galaxies. Haloes are selected from the theoretically expected LG mass function and two different density profiles are assumed, a standard universal cuspy model and a mass-dependent profile which accounts for the effects of baryons in modifying the dark matter distribution within galaxies. The resulting relations between stellar and halo mass are compared with expectations from abundance matching. Using a universal cuspy profile, the ensemble of LG galaxies is fit in relatively low-mass haloes, leaving `dark' many massive haloes of Mhalo ≳ 1010 M⊙: this reflects the `too-big-to-fail' problem and results in a Mstar-Mhalo relation that differs from abundance matching predictions. Moreover, the star formation efficiency of isolated LG galaxies increases with decreasing halo mass when adopting a cuspy model. By contrast, using the mass-dependent density profile, dwarf galaxies with Mstar ≳ 106 M⊙ are assigned to more massive haloes, which have a central cored distribution of dark matter: the `too-big-to-fail' problem is alleviated, the resultant Mstar-Mhalo relation follows abundance matching predictions down to the completeness limit of current surveys, and the star formation efficiency of isolated members decreases with decreasing halo mass, in agreement with theoretical expectations. Finally, the cusp/core space of LG galaxies is presented, providing a framework to understand the non-universality of their density profiles.

  4. Iron-group Abundances in the Metal-poor Main-Sequence Turnoff Star HD~84937

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneden, Christopher; Cowan, John J.; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Pignatari, Marco; Lawler, James E.; Den Hartog, Elizabeth A.; Wood, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    We have derived new, very accurate abundances of the Fe-group elements Sc through Zn (Z = 21-30) in the bright main-sequence turnoff star HD 84937 based on high-resolution spectra covering the visible and ultraviolet spectral regions. New or recent laboratory transition data for 14 species of seven elements have been used. Abundances from more than 600 lines of non-Fe species have been combined with about 550 Fe lines in HD 84937 to yield abundance ratios of high precision. The abundances have been determined from both neutral and ionized transitions, which generally are in agreement with each other. We find no substantial departures from the standard LTE Saha ionization balance in this [Fe/H] = -2.32 star. Noteworthy among the abundances are [Co/Fe] = +0.14 and [Cu/Fe] = -0.83, in agreement with past studies of abundance trends in this and other low-metallicity stars, and < [{{Sc,Ti,V/Fe}}]> = +0.31, which has not been noted previously. A detailed examination of scandium, titanium, and vanadium abundances in large-sample spectroscopic surveys reveals that they are positively correlated in stars with [Fe/H] < -2 HD 84937 lies at the high end of this correlation. These trends constrain the synthesis mechanisms of Fe-group elements. We also examine the Galactic chemical evolution abundance trends of the Fe-group elements, including a new nucleosynthesis model with jet-like explosion effects.

  5. Learning the Functional Groups: Keys to Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrd, Shannon; Hildreth, David P.

    2001-01-01

    Points out the difficulties students have when they are expected to learn functional groups, which are frameworks for chemical and physical properties of molecules. Presents a classification key for functional groups categorized by 10 common functional groups. (YDS)

  6. Radial pulsation as a function of hydrogen abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffery, C. S.; Saio, H.

    2016-05-01

    Using linear non-adiabatic pulsation analysis, we explore the radial-mode (p-mode) stability of stars across a wide range of mass (0.2 ≤ M ≤ 50{ M_{{⊙}}}), composition (0 ≤ X ≤ 0.7, Z = 0.001, 0.02), effective temperature (3000 ≤ Teff ≤ 40 000 K), and luminosity (0.01 ≤ L/M ≤ 100 000 solar units). We identify the instability boundaries associated with low- to high-order radial oscillations (0 ≤ n ≤ 16). The instability boundaries are a strong function of both composition and radial order (n). With decreasing hydrogen abundance we find that (i) the classical blue edge of the Cepheid instability strip shifts to higher effective temperature and luminosity, and (ii) high-order modes are more easily excited and small islands of high radial-order instability develop, some of which correspond with real stars. Driving in all cases is by the classical κ-mechanism and/or strange modes. We identify regions of parameter space where new classes of pulsating variable may, in future, be discovered. The majority of these are associated with reduced hydrogen abundance in the envelope; one has not been identified previously.

  7. Abundance and functional diversity of riboswitches in microbial communities

    PubMed Central

    Kazanov, Marat D; Vitreschak, Alexey G; Gelfand, Mikhail S

    2007-01-01

    Background Several recently completed large-scale enviromental sequencing projects produced a large amount of genetic information about microbial communities ('metagenomes') which is not biased towards cultured organisms. It is a good source for estimation of the abundance of genes and regulatory structures in both known and unknown members of microbial communities. In this study we consider the distribution of RNA regulatory structures, riboswitches, in the Sargasso Sea, Minnesota Soil and Whale Falls metagenomes. Results Over three hundred riboswitches were found in about 2 Gbp metagenome DNA sequences. The abundabce of riboswitches in metagenomes was highest for the TPP, B12 and GCVT riboswitches; the S-box, RFN, YKKC/YXKD, YYBP/YKOY regulatory elements showed lower but significant abundance, while the LYS, G-box, GLMS and YKOK riboswitches were rare. Regions downstream of identified riboswitches were scanned for open reading frames. Comparative analysis of identified ORFs revealed new riboswitch-regulated functions for several classes of riboswitches. In particular, we have observed phosphoserine aminotransferase serC (COG1932) and malate synthase glcB (COG2225) to be regulated by the glycine (GCVT) riboswitch; fatty acid desaturase ole1 (COG1398), by the cobalamin (B12) riboswitch; 5-methylthioribose-1-phosphate isomerase ykrS (COG0182), by the SAM-riboswitch. We also identified conserved riboswitches upstream of genes of unknown function: thiamine (TPP), cobalamine (B12), and glycine (GCVT, upstream of genes from COG4198). Conclusion This study demonstrates applicability of bioinformatics to the analysis of RNA regulatory structures in metagenomes. PMID:17908319

  8. CHEMICAL ABUNDANCES OF SEVEN IRREGULAR AND THREE TIDAL DWARF GALAXIES IN THE M81 GROUP

    SciTech Connect

    Croxall, Kevin V.; Van Zee, Liese; Lee, Henry; Miller, Bryan W.; Skillman, Evan D.; Lee, Janice C.; Cote, Stephanie; Kennicutt, Robert C. E-mail: vanzee@astro.indiana.ed E-mail: skillman@astro.umn.ed E-mail: stephanie.cote@nrc-cnrc.gc.c E-mail: bmiller@gemini.ed

    2009-11-01

    We have derived nebular abundances for 10 dwarf galaxies belonging to the M81 Group, including several galaxies which do not have abundances previously reported in the literature. For each galaxy, multiple H II regions were observed with GMOS-N at the Gemini Observatory in order to determine abundances of several elements (oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, neon, and argon). For seven galaxies, at least one H II region had a detection of the temperature sensitive [O III] lambda4363 line, allowing a 'direct' determination of the oxygen abundance. No abundance gradients were detected in the targeted galaxies, and the observed oxygen abundances are typically in agreement with the well-known metallicity-luminosity relation. However, three candidate 'tidal dwarf' galaxies lie well off this relation: UGC 5336, Garland, and KDG 61. The nature of these systems suggests that UGC 5336 and Garland are indeed recently formed systems, whereas KDG 61 is most likely a dwarf spheroidal galaxy which lies along the same line of sight as the M81 tidal debris field. We propose that these H II regions formed from previously enriched gas which was stripped from nearby massive galaxies (e.g., NGC 3077 and M81) during a recent tidal interaction.

  9. Fe-Group Elements in the Metal-Poor Star HD 84937: Abundances and their Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneden, Chris; Cowan, John J.; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Pignatari, Marco; Lawler, James E.; Den Hartog, Elizabeth; Wood, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    We have derived accurate relative abundances of the Fe-group elements Sc through Zn in the very metal-poor main-sequence turnoff star HD 84937. For this study we analyzed high resolution, high signal-to-noise HST/STIS and VLT/UVES spectra over a total wavelength range 2300-7000 Å. We employed only recent or newly-applied reliable laboratory transition data for all species. Abundances from more than 600 lines of non-Fe species were combined with about 550 Fe lines in HD 84937 to yield abundance ratios of high precision. From parallel analyses of solar photospheric spectra we also derived new solar abundances of these elements. This in turn yielded internally-consistent relative HD 84937 abundances with respect to the Sun. For seven of the ten Fe-group elements the HD 84937 abundances were from both neutral and ionized transitions. In all of these cases the neutral and ionized species yield the same abundances within the measurement uncertainties. Therefore standard Saha ionization balance appears to hold in the HD 84937 atmosphere. We derived metallicity [Fe/H] = -2.32 with sample standard deviation of 0.06. Solid evidence is seen for departures from the solar abundance mix in HD 84937, for example [Co/Fe] = +0.14, [Cu/Fe] = -0.83, and <[Sc,Ti,V/Fe]> = +0.31. Combining our Sc, Ti, and V abundances for this star with those from large-sample spectroscopic surveys suggests that these elements are positively correlated in stars with [Fe/H] < -2. HD 84937 is unusually enriched in Sc, Ti, and V. Our analysis strongly suggests that different types of supernovae with a large scatter of explosion energies and asymmetries contributed to the creation of the Fe-group elements early in the Galaxy's history.This work has been supported in part by NASA grant NNX10AN93G (J.E.L.), by NSF grants AST-1211055 (J.E.L.), AST-1211585 (C.S.), PHY-1430152 (through JINA, J.J.C. and M.P.), EU MIRGCT-2006-046520 (M.P.), and by the ``Lendlet-2014'' Programme of the Hungarian Academy of

  10. A Functional Analytic Approach to Group Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandenberghe, Luc

    2009-01-01

    This article provides a particular view on the use of Functional Analytical Psychotherapy (FAP) in a group therapy format. This view is based on the author's experiences as a supervisor of Functional Analytical Psychotherapy Groups, including groups for women with depression and groups for chronic pain patients. The contexts in which this approach…

  11. DISTINCTIVE LOCALIZATION OF GROUP 3 LATE EMBRYOGENESIS ABUNDANT SYNTHESIZING CELLS DURING BRINE SHRIMP DEVELOPMENT.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo Yong; Song, Hwa Young; Kim, Mi Young; Lee, Bong Hee; Kim, Kyung Joo; Jo, Kyung Jin; Kim, Suhng Wook; Lee, Seung Gwan; Lee, Boo Hyung

    2015-07-01

    Despite numerous studies on late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins, their functions, roles, and localizations during developmental stages in arthropods remain unknown. LEA proteins protect crucial proteins against osmotic stress during the development and growth of various organisms. Thus, in this study, fluorescence in situ hybridization was used to determine the crucial regions protected against osmotic stress as well as the distinctive localization of group 3 (G3) LEA(+) cells during brine shrimp development. Several cell types were found to synthesize G3 LEA RNA, including neurons, muscular cells, APH-1(+) cells, and renal cells. The G3 LEA(+) neuronal cell bodies outside of the mushroom body projected their axonal bundles to the central body, but those inside the mushroom body projected their axonal bundles toward the deutocerebrum without innervating the central body. The cell bodies inside the mushroom body received axons of the G3 LEA(+) sensory cells at the medial ventral cup of the nauplius eye. Several glands were found to synthesize G3 LEA RNA during the nauplius stages of brine shrimp, including the sinus, antennal I and II, salt, and three ectodermal glands. This study provides the first demonstration of the formation of G3 LEA(+) sinus glands at the emergence stages of brine shrimp. These results suggest that G3 LEA protein is synthesized in several cell types. In particular, specific glands play crucial roles during the emergence and nauplius stages of brine shrimp. PMID:25781424

  12. The functions of ritual in social groups.

    PubMed

    Watson-Jones, Rachel E; Legare, Cristine H

    2016-01-01

    Ritual cognition builds upon social learning biases that may have become specialized for affiliation within social groups. The adaptive problems of group living required a means of identifying group members, ensuring commitment to the group, facilitating cooperation, and maintaining group cohesion. We discuss how ritual serves these social functions. PMID:26948744

  13. Population Signatures in Planetary Nebulae from Abundances of Fe-group and Neutron-Capture Elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinerstein, Harriet L.; Geballe, Thomas R.; Sterling, N. C.

    2015-08-01

    There are two categories of elements for which abundances are measured in planetary nebulae (PNe). The first are species whose abundances may be modified by nuclear reactions in the star prior to PN formation, such as He, C, N, and nuclei made by slow neutron captures (Karakas & Lattanzio 2014, PASA, 31, 30). In contrast, elements unaffected by evolution should indicate the star’s initial composition. These include S, Ar, Cl, and (with certain exceptions) O and Ne, most of which are alpha species. A long-missing piece of the puzzle has been the abundances of the Fe-group elements. We cannot determine a meaningful elemental abundance from the gas-phase Fe lines seen in PNe, since Fe is heavily depleted into dust. Another approach is to use a different element as a proxy for Fe. Dinerstein & Geballe (2001, ApJ, 562, 515) identified a line at 3.625 μm as due to Zn, the least refractory Fe-group element. Observations of this line in Milky Way PNe yield -1 ≤ [Zn/H] ≤ 0 (Smith, Zijlstra, & Dinerstein 2014, MNRAS, 441, 3161; Dinerstein et al. 2015, in preparation). Substituting Zn for Fe, PNe can be placed in the [alpha/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] diagram used to characterize stellar populations. Dividing our sample into probable thin and thick disk members using the kinematic criterion of Peimbert’s Type II and III classes (1978, IAU Symp. 76, 215), we find that they occupy similar regions in [alpha/Fe] vs. [Fe/H] phase space as the stars of those populations. Elevated [alpha/Fe] values at subsolar [Fe/H], which tend to be higher for thick than thin disk PNe, cause degeneracies that make alpha species ambiguous metallicity indicators. This is important for self-enrichment studies, since if the initial abundance of an element is lower than projected from an alpha species, internal synthesis may be required to produce even a solar final abundance. Low observed abundances of the n-capture element Se suggest that many Type III PNe may have subsolar initial abundances of n

  14. Archaea of the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group are abundant, diverse and widespread in marine sediments

    PubMed Central

    Kubo, Kyoko; Lloyd, Karen G; F Biddle, Jennifer; Amann, Rudolf; Teske, Andreas; Knittel, Katrin

    2012-01-01

    Members of the highly diverse Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group (MCG) are globally distributed in various marine and continental habitats. In this study, we applied a polyphasic approach (rRNA slot blot hybridization, quantitative PCR (qPCR) and catalyzed reporter deposition FISH) using newly developed probes and primers for the in situ detection and quantification of MCG crenarchaeota in diverse types of marine sediments and microbial mats. In general, abundance of MCG (cocci, 0.4 μm) relative to other archaea was highest (12–100%) in anoxic, low-energy environments characterized by deeper sulfate depletion and lower microbial respiration rates (P=0.06 for slot blot and P=0.05 for qPCR). When studied in high depth resolution in the White Oak River estuary and Hydrate Ridge methane seeps, changes in MCG abundance relative to total archaea and MCG phylogenetic composition did not correlate with changes in sulfate reduction or methane oxidation with depth. In addition, MCG abundance did not vary significantly (P>0.1) between seep sites (with high rates of methanotrophy) and non-seep sites (with low rates of methanotrophy). This suggests that MCG are likely not methanotrophs. MCG crenarchaeota are highly diverse and contain 17 subgroups, with a range of intragroup similarity of 82 to 94%. This high diversity and widespread distribution in subsurface sediments indicates that this group is globally important in sedimentary processes. PMID:22551871

  15. Localization of functions defined on cantor group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivoshein, Aleksander V.; Lebedeva, Elena A.

    2013-10-01

    We introduce a notion of localization for dyadic functions, i. e. functions defined on Cantor group. Both non-periodic and periodic cases are discussed. Localization is characterized by functionals UCd and UCdp similar to the Heisenberg (the Breitenberger) uncertainty constants used for real-line (periodic) functions. We are looking for dyadic analogs of uncertainty principles. To justify definition we use some test functions including dyadic scaling and wavelet functions.

  16. Land use change alters functional gene diversity, composition and abundance in Amazon forest soil microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Paula, Fabiana S; Rodrigues, Jorge L M; Zhou, Jizhong; Wu, Liyou; Mueller, Rebecca C; Mirza, Babur S; Bohannan, Brendan J M; Nüsslein, Klaus; Deng, Ye; Tiedje, James M; Pellizari, Vivian H

    2014-06-01

    Land use change in the Amazon rainforest alters the taxonomic structure of soil microbial communities, but whether it alters their functional gene composition is unknown. We used the highly parallel microarray technology GeoChip 4.0, which contains 83,992 probes specific for genes linked nutrient cycling and other processes, to evaluate how the diversity, abundance and similarity of the targeted genes responded to forest-to-pasture conversion. We also evaluated whether these parameters were reestablished with secondary forest growth. A spatially nested scheme was employed to sample a primary forest, two pastures (6 and 38 years old) and a secondary forest. Both pastures had significantly lower microbial functional genes richness and diversity when compared to the primary forest. Gene composition and turnover were also significantly modified with land use change. Edaphic traits associated with soil acidity, iron availability, soil texture and organic matter concentration were correlated with these gene changes. Although primary and secondary forests showed similar functional gene richness and diversity, there were differences in gene composition and turnover, suggesting that community recovery was not complete in the secondary forest. Gene association analysis revealed that response to ecosystem conversion varied significantly across functional gene groups, with genes linked to carbon and nitrogen cycling mostly altered. This study indicates that diversity and abundance of numerous environmentally important genes respond to forest-to-pasture conversion and hence have the potential to affect the related processes at an ecosystem scale. PMID:24806276

  17. Galaxy interactions in compact groups - II. Abundance and kinematic anomalies in HCG 91c

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, Frédéric P. A.; Dopita, Michael A.; Borthakur, Sanchayeeta; Verdes-Montenegro, Lourdes; Heckman, Timothy M.; Yun, Min S.; Chambers, Kenneth C.

    2015-07-01

    Galaxies in Hickson Compact Group 91 (HCG 91) were observed with the WiFeS integral field spectrograph as part of our ongoing campaign targeting the ionized gas physics and kinematics inside star-forming members of compact groups. Here, we report the discovery of H II regions with abundance and kinematic offsets in the otherwise unremarkable star-forming spiral HCG 91c. The optical emission line analysis of this galaxy reveals that at least three H II regions harbour an oxygen abundance ˜0.15 dex lower than expected from their immediate surroundings and from the abundance gradient present in the inner regions of HCG 91c. The same star-forming regions are also associated with a small kinematic offset in the form of a lag of 5-10 km s-1 with respect to the local circular rotation of the gas. H I observations of HCG 91 from the Very Large Array and broad-band optical images from Pan-STARRS (Panoramic Survey Telescope And Rapid Response System) suggest that HCG 91c is caught early in its interaction with the other members of HCG 91. We discuss different scenarios to explain the origin of the peculiar star-forming regions detected with WiFeS, and show that evidence points towards infalling and collapsing extraplanar gas clouds at the disc-halo interface, possibly as a consequence of long-range gravitational perturbations of HCG 91c from the other group members. As such, HCG 91c provides evidence that some of the perturbations possibly associated with the early phase of galaxy evolution in compact groups impact the star-forming disc locally, and on sub-kpc scales.

  18. Relating Functional Groups to the Periodic Table

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Struyf, Jef

    2009-01-01

    An introduction to organic chemistry functional groups and their ionic variants is presented. Functional groups are ordered by the position of their specific (hetero) atom in the periodic table. Lewis structures are compared with their corresponding condensed formulas. (Contains 5 tables.)

  19. Life strategies of a ubiquitous and abundant subsurface archaeal group Bathyarchaeota

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Y.; Li, M.; Perumal, V.; Feng, X.; Sievert, S. M.; Wang, F.

    2015-12-01

    Archaea belonging to the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeota Group (MCG, "Candidatus Bathyarchaeota") are widespread and abundant in the deep biosphere, yet their life strategies and ecological roles remain elusive. Metagenomic sequencing of a sample enriched in Bathyarchaeota (up to 74%) that originated from Guaymas Basin deep-sea vent sediments revealed 6 partial to nearly completed Bathyarchaeota genomic bins. ranging ~900kb-3.3Mb. The Bathyarchaeota bin size ranged from approximately 0.9 to 3.3 Mb, with coverage ranging from approximately 10× to 28×. The phylogeny based on 110 concatenated conserved archaeal single copy genes confirmed the placement of Bathyarchaeota into a novel archaeal phylum. Genes encoding for enzymes involved in the degradation of organic polymers such as protein, cellulose, chitin, and aromatic compounds, were identified. In addition, genes encoding glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, beta-oxidation pathways and the tricarboxylic acid cycle (except citrate synthase) were present in all genomic bins highlighting the heterotrophic life style of Bathyarchaeota. The presence of a wide variety of transporters of organic compounds further supports the versatile heterotrophic metabolism of Bathyarchaeota. This study highlights the life strategies of a ubiquitous and abundant subsurface archaeal group that thrives under energy-limited conditions, and expands the metabolic potentials of Archaea that play important roles in carbon cycling in marine sediments.

  20. Density and abundance of badger social groups in England and Wales in 2011-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judge, Johanna; Wilson, Gavin J.; MacArthur, Roy; Delahay, Richard J.; McDonald, Robbie A.

    2014-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, European badgers Meles meles are a protected species and an important wildlife reservoir of bovine tuberculosis. We conducted a survey of badger dens (main setts) in 1614 1 km squares across England and Wales, between November 2011 and March 2013. Using main setts as a proxy for badger social groups, the estimated mean density of badger social groups in England and Wales was 0.485 km-2 (95% confidence interval 0.449-0.521) and the estimated abundance of social groups was 71,600 (66,400-76,900). In the 25 years since the first survey in 1985-88, the annual rate of increase in the estimated number of badger social groups was 2.6% (2.2-2.9%), equating to an 88% (70-105%) increase across England and Wales. In England, we estimate there has been an increase of 103% (83-123%) in badger social groups, while in Wales there has been little change (-25 to +49%).

  1. Functional environmental proteomics: elucidating the role of a c-type cytochrome abundant during uranium bioremediation.

    PubMed

    Yun, Jiae; Malvankar, Nikhil S; Ueki, Toshiyuki; Lovley, Derek R

    2016-02-01

    Studies with pure cultures of dissimilatory metal-reducing microorganisms have demonstrated that outer-surface c-type cytochromes are important electron transfer agents for the reduction of metals, but previous environmental proteomic studies have typically not recovered cytochrome sequences from subsurface environments in which metal reduction is important. Gel-separation, heme-staining and mass spectrometry of proteins in groundwater from in situ uranium bioremediation experiments identified a putative c-type cytochrome, designated Geobacter subsurface c-type cytochrome A (GscA), encoded within the genome of strain M18, a Geobacter isolate previously recovered from the site. Homologs of GscA were identified in the genomes of other Geobacter isolates in the phylogenetic cluster known as subsurface clade 1, which predominates in a diversity of Fe(III)-reducing subsurface environments. Most of the gscA sequences recovered from groundwater genomic DNA clustered in a tight phylogenetic group closely related to strain M18. GscA was most abundant in groundwater samples in which Geobacter sp. predominated. Expression of gscA in a strain of Geobacter sulfurreducens that lacked the gene for the c-type cytochrome OmcS, thought to facilitate electron transfer from conductive pili to Fe(III) oxide, restored the capacity for Fe(III) oxide reduction. Atomic force microscopy provided evidence that GscA was associated with the pili. These results demonstrate that a c-type cytochrome with an apparent function similar to that of OmcS is abundant when Geobacter sp. are abundant in the subsurface, providing insight into the mechanisms for the growth of subsurface Geobacter sp. on Fe(III) oxide and suggesting an approach for functional analysis of other Geobacter proteins found in the subsurface. PMID:26140532

  2. Testing surrogacy assumptions: can threatened and endangered plants be grouped by biological similarity and abundances?

    PubMed

    Che-Castaldo, Judy P; Neel, Maile C

    2012-01-01

    There is renewed interest in implementing surrogate species approaches in conservation planning due to the large number of species in need of management but limited resources and data. One type of surrogate approach involves selection of one or a few species to represent a larger group of species requiring similar management actions, so that protection and persistence of the selected species would result in conservation of the group of species. However, among the criticisms of surrogate approaches is the need to test underlying assumptions, which remain rarely examined. In this study, we tested one of the fundamental assumptions underlying use of surrogate species in recovery planning: that there exist groups of threatened and endangered species that are sufficiently similar to warrant similar management or recovery criteria. Using a comprehensive database of all plant species listed under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and tree-based random forest analysis, we found no evidence of species groups based on a set of distributional and biological traits or by abundances and patterns of decline. Our results suggested that application of surrogate approaches for endangered species recovery would be unjustified. Thus, conservation planning focused on individual species and their patterns of decline will likely be required to recover listed species. PMID:23240051

  3. Identifying copepod functional groups from species functional traits

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Fabio; Gasparini, Stéphane; Ayata, Sakina-Dorothée

    2016-01-01

    We gathered information on the functional traits of the most representative copepod species in the Mediterranean Sea. Our database includes 191 species described by 7 traits encompassing diverse ecological functions: minimal and maximal body length, trophic group, feeding type, spawning strategy, diel vertical migration and vertical habitat. Cluster analysis in the functional trait space revealed that Mediterranean copepods can be separated into groups with distinct ecological roles. PMID:26811565

  4. Using plant functional traits as a link between land use and bee foraging abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakeman, R. J.; Stockan, J.

    2013-07-01

    Many recent studies have shown that plant functional traits can be used to predict the response of plant assemblages to management or other environmental change. A further challenge is to use them to predict changes in the assemblages of other groups. Using data from a study of the impact of land use on biodiversity, the linkages between management drivers, a range of plant functional traits and the overall foraging numbers and assemblage of bees was assessed. Bee foraging numbers were only weakly predicted by plant traits, though bee foraging assemblage was closely related to a number of different groups of plant traits (flower colour and Forage Index, as well as taxonomic group). In turn, the selected traits were significantly correlated to some of the response traits that linked the plant assemblage to management, indicating that there was a predictive pathway from management to bee abundance and assemblage structure. However, models developed with just the environmental drivers proved superior at predicting both bee numbers and assemblage. Plant traits proved to be a moderately effective predictor of bee assemblage structure. However, the use of plant traits as a link between the bees and management did not offer any improvement on models directly developed from management variables. This suggests that the bee assemblage is responding to traits that have not been quantified and that developing these trophic linkage models may have to take a different approach.

  5. Cold-regulated cereal chloroplast late embryogenesis abundant-like proteins. Molecular characterization and functional analyses.

    PubMed

    NDong, Christian; Danyluk, Jean; Wilson, Kenneth E; Pocock, Tessa; Huner, Norman P A; Sarhan, Fathey

    2002-07-01

    Cold acclimation and freezing tolerance are the result of complex interaction between low temperature, light, and photosystem II (PSII) excitation pressure. Previous results have shown that expression of the Wcs19 gene is correlated with PSII excitation pressure measured in vivo as the relative reduction state of PSII. Using cDNA library screening and data mining, we have identified three different groups of proteins, late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) 3-L1, LEA3-L2, and LEA3-L3, sharing identities with WCS19. These groups represent a new class of proteins in cereals related to group 3 LEA proteins. They share important characteristics such as a sorting signal that is predicted to target them to either the chloroplast or mitochondria and a C-terminal sequence that may be involved in oligomerization. The results of subcellular fractionation, immunolocalization by electron microscopy and the analyses of target sequences within the Wcs19 gene are consistent with the localization of WCS19 within the chloroplast stroma of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and rye (Secale cereale). Western analysis showed that the accumulation of chloroplastic LEA3-L2 proteins is correlated with the capacity of different wheat and rye cultivars to develop freezing tolerance. Arabidopsis was transformed with the Wcs19 gene and the transgenic plants showed a significant increase in their freezing tolerance. This increase was only evident in cold-acclimated plants. The putative function of this protein in the enhancement of freezing tolerance is discussed. PMID:12114590

  6. Cold-Regulated Cereal Chloroplast Late Embryogenesis Abundant-Like Proteins. Molecular Characterization and Functional Analyses

    PubMed Central

    NDong, Christian; Danyluk, Jean; Wilson, Kenneth E.; Pocock, Tessa; Huner, Norman P.A.; Sarhan, Fathey

    2002-01-01

    Cold acclimation and freezing tolerance are the result of complex interaction between low temperature, light, and photosystem II (PSII) excitation pressure. Previous results have shown that expression of the Wcs19 gene is correlated with PSII excitation pressure measured in vivo as the relative reduction state of PSII. Using cDNA library screening and data mining, we have identified three different groups of proteins, late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) 3-L1, LEA3-L2, and LEA3-L3, sharing identities with WCS19. These groups represent a new class of proteins in cereals related to group 3 LEA proteins. They share important characteristics such as a sorting signal that is predicted to target them to either the chloroplast or mitochondria and a C-terminal sequence that may be involved in oligomerization. The results of subcellular fractionation, immunolocalization by electron microscopy and the analyses of target sequences within the Wcs19 gene are consistent with the localization of WCS19 within the chloroplast stroma of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and rye (Secale cereale). Western analysis showed that the accumulation of chloroplastic LEA3-L2 proteins is correlated with the capacity of different wheat and rye cultivars to develop freezing tolerance. Arabidopsis was transformed with the Wcs19 gene and the transgenic plants showed a significant increase in their freezing tolerance. This increase was only evident in cold-acclimated plants. The putative function of this protein in the enhancement of freezing tolerance is discussed. PMID:12114590

  7. Dominant Functional Group Effects on the Invasion Resistance at Different Resource Levels

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiang; Ge, Yuan; Zhang, Chong B.; Bai, Yi; Du, Zhao K.

    2013-01-01

    Background Functional group composition may affect invasion in two ways the effect of abundance, i.e. dominance of functional group; and the effect of traits, i.e. identity of functional groups. However, few studies have focused on the role of abundance of functional group on invasion resistance. Moreover, how resource availability influences the role of the dominant functional group in invasion resistance is even less understood. Methodology/Principal Findings In this experiment, we established experimental pots using four different functional groups (annual grass, perennial grass, deciduous shrub or arbor and evergreen shrub or arbor), and the dominant functional group was manipulated. These experimental pots were respectively constructed at different soil nitrogen levels (control and fertilized). After one year of growth, we added seeds of 20 different species (five species per functional group) to the experimental pots. Fertilization significantly increased the overall invasion success, while dominant functional group had little effect on overall invasion success. When invaders were grouped into functional groups, invaders generally had lower success in pots dominated by the same functional group in the control pots. However, individual invaders of the same functional group exhibited different invasion patterns. Fertilization generally increased success of invaders in pots dominated by the same than by another functional group. However, fertilization led to great differences for individual invaders. Conclusions/Significance The results showed that the dominant functional group, independent of functional group identity, had a significant effect on the composition of invaders. We suggest that the limiting similarity hypothesis may be applicable at the functional group level, and limiting similarity may have a limited role for individual invaders as shown by the inconsistent effects of dominant functional group and fertilization. PMID:24167565

  8. The abundance and organization of polypeptides associated with antigens of the Rh blood group system.

    PubMed

    Gardner, B; Anstee, D J; Mawby, W J; Tanner, M J; von dem Borne, A E

    1991-06-01

    Twelve murine monoclonal antibodies, which react with human red cells of common Rh phenotype but give weak or negative reactions with Rh null erythrocytes, were used in quantitative binding assays and competitive binding assays to investigate the abundance and organization of polypeptides involved in the expression of antigens of the Rh blood group system. Antibodies of the R6A-type (R6A, BRIC-69, BRIC-207) and the 2D10-type (MB-2D10, LA18.18, LA23.40) recognize related structures and 100,000-200,000 molecules of each antibody bind maximally to erythrocytes of common Rh phenotype. Antibodies of the BRIC-125 type (BRICs 32, 122, 125, 126, 168, 211) recognize structures that are unrelated to those recognized by R6A-type and 2D10-type antibodies and between 10,000 and 50,000 antibody molecules bind maximally to erythrocytes of the common Rh phenotype. The binding of antibodies of the R6A-type and the 2D10-type, but not of antibodies of the BRIC-125-type could be partially inhibited by human anti-D antibodies (polyclonal and monoclonal) and a murine anti-e-like antibody. These results are consistent with evidence (Moore & Green 1987; Avent et al., 1988b) that the Rh blood group antigens are associated with a complex that comprises two groups of related polypeptides of M(r) 30,000 and M(r) 35,000-100,000, respectively, and suggest that there are 1-2 x 10(5) copies of this complex per erythrocyte. The polypeptide recognized by antibodies of the BRIC-125 type is likely to be associated with this complex. PMID:9259831

  9. A volume-limited sample of X-ray galaxy groups and clusters - III. Central abundance drops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panagoulia, E. K.; Sanders, J. S.; Fabian, A. C.

    2015-02-01

    We present the results of a search and study of central abundance drops in a volume-limited sample (z ≤ 0.071) of 101 X-ray galaxy groups and clusters. These are best observed in nearby, and so best resolved, groups and clusters, making our sample ideal for their detection. Out of the 65 groups and clusters in our sample for which we have abundance profiles, 8 of them have certain central abundance drops, with possible central abundance drops in another 6. All sources with central abundance drops have X-ray cavities, and all bar one exception have a central cooling time of ≤1 Gyr. These central abundance drops can be generated if the iron injected by stellar mass-loss processes in the core of these sources is in grains, which then become incorporated in the central dusty filaments. These, in turn, are dragged outwards by the bubbling feedback process in these sources. We find that data quality significantly affects the detection of central abundance drops, inasmuch as a higher number of counts in the central 20 kpc of a source makes it easier to detect a central abundance drop, as long as these counts are more than ˜13 000. On the other hand, the magnitude of the central abundance drop does not depend on the number of these counts, though the statistical significance of the measured drop does. Finally, in line with the scenario briefly outlined above, we find that, for most sources, the location of X-ray cavities acts as an upper limit to the location of the peak in the radial metallicity distribution.

  10. The circular velocity function of group galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Abramson, Louis E.; Williams, Rik J.; Benson, Andrew J.; Kollmeier, Juna A.; Mulchaey, John S.

    2014-09-20

    A robust prediction of ΛCDM cosmology is the halo circular velocity function (CVF), a dynamical cousin of the halo mass function. The correspondence between theoretical and observed CVFs is uncertain, however: cluster galaxies are reported to exhibit a power-law CVF consistent with N-body simulations, but that of the field is distinctly Schechter-like, flattened compared to ΛCDM expectations at circular velocities v {sub c} ≲ 200 km s{sup –1}. Groups offer a powerful probe of the role environment plays in this discrepancy as they bridge the field and clusters. Here, we construct the CVF for a large, mass- and multiplicity-complete sample of group galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Using independent photometric v {sub c} estimators, we find no transition from field to ΛCDM-shaped CVF above v {sub c} = 50 km s{sup –1} as a function of group halo mass. All groups with 12.4 ≲ log M {sub halo}/M {sub ☉} ≲ 15.1 (Local Group analogs to rich clusters) display similar Schechter-like CVFs marginally suppressed at low v {sub c} compared to that of the field. Conversely, some agreement with N-body results emerges for samples saturated with late-type galaxies, with isolated late-types displaying a CVF similar in shape to ΛCDM predictions. We conclude that the flattening of the low-v {sub c} slope in groups is due to their depressed late-type fractions—environment affecting the CVF only to the extent that it correlates with this quantity—and that previous cluster analyses may suffer from interloper contamination. These results serve as useful benchmarks for cosmological simulations of galaxy formation.

  11. The Abundances of the Fe Group Elements in Early B Stars in the Magellanic Clouds and Bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Geraldine J.; Adelman, Saul J.

    2016-01-01

    The abundances of three Fe Group elements (V, Cr, and Fe) in 9 early main-sequence band B stars in the LMC, 7 in the SMC , and two in the Magellanic Bridge have been determined from archival FUSE observations and the Hubeny/Lanz NLTE programs TLUSTY/SYNSPEC. Lines from the Fe group elements, except for a few weak multiplets of Fe III, are not observable in the optical spectral region. The best set of lines in the FUSE spectral region are Fe III (UV1), V III 1150 Å, and Cr III 1137 Å. The abundances of these elements in early B stars are a marker for recent SNe Ia activity, as a single exploding white dwarf can deliver 0.5 solar masses of Ni-56 that decays into Fe to the ISM. The Fe group abundances in an older population of stars primarily reflect SNe II activity, in which a single explosion delivers only 0.07 solar masses of Ni-56 to the ISM (the rest remains trapped in the neutron star). The abundances of the Fe group elements in early B stars not only track SNe Ia activity but are also important for computing evolutionary tracks for massive stars. In general, the Fe abundance relative to the sun's value is comparable to the mean abundances for the lighter elements in the Clouds/Bridge but the values of [V,Cr/Fe]sun are smaller. This presentation will discuss the spatial distribution of the Fe Group elements in the Magellanic Clouds, and compare it with our galaxy in which the abundance of Fe declines with radial distance from the center. Support from NASA grants NAG5-13212, NNX10AD66G, STScI HST-GO-13346.22, and USC's Women in Science and Engineering (WiSE) program is greatly appreciated.

  12. Topology of Protein Interaction Network Shapes Protein Abundances and Strengths of Their Functional and Nonspecific Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Maslov, S.; Heo, M.; Shakhnovich, E.

    2011-03-08

    How do living cells achieve sufficient abundances of functional protein complexes while minimizing promiscuous nonfunctional interactions? Here we study this problem using a first-principle model of the cell whose phenotypic traits are directly determined from its genome through biophysical properties of protein structures and binding interactions in a crowded cellular environment. The model cell includes three independent prototypical pathways, whose topologies of protein-protein interaction (PPI) subnetworks are different, but whose contributions to the cell fitness are equal. Model cells evolve through genotypic mutations and phenotypic protein copy number variations. We found a strong relationship between evolved physical-chemical properties of protein interactions and their abundances due to a 'frustration' effect: Strengthening of functional interactions brings about hydrophobic interfaces, which make proteins prone to promiscuous binding. The balancing act is achieved by lowering concentrations of hub proteins while raising solubilities and abundances of functional monomers. On the basis of these principles we generated and analyzed a possible realization of the proteome-wide PPI network in yeast. In this simulation we found that high-throughput affinity capture-mass spectroscopy experiments can detect functional interactions with high fidelity only for high-abundance proteins while missing most interactions for low-abundance proteins.

  13. Functional trait responses to grazing are mediated by soil moisture and plant functional group identity.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shuxia; Li, Wenhuai; Lan, Zhichun; Ren, Haiyan; Wang, Kaibo

    2015-01-01

    Abundant evidence has shown that grazing alters plant functional traits, community structure and ecosystem functioning of grasslands. Few studies, however, have tested how plant responses to grazing are mediated by resource availability and plant functional group identity. We examined the effects of grazing on functional traits across a broad range of species along a soil moisture gradient in Inner Mongolia grassland. Our results showed that trait syndromes of plant size (individual biomass) and shoot growth (leaf N content and leaf density) distinguished plant species responses to grazing. The effects of grazing on functional traits were mediated by soil moisture and dependent on functional group identity. For most species, grazing decreased plant height but increased leaf N and specific leaf area (SLA) along the moisture gradient. Grazing enhanced the community-weighted attributes (leaf NCWM and SLACWM), which were triggered mainly by the positive trait responses of annuals and biennials and perennial grasses, and increased relative abundance of perennial forbs. Our results suggest that grazing-induced species turnover and increased intraspecific trait variability are two drivers for the observed changes in community weighted attributes. The dominant perennial bunchgrasses exhibited mixed tolerance-resistance strategies to grazing and mixed acquisitive-conservative strategies in resource utilization. PMID:26655858

  14. Functional trait responses to grazing are mediated by soil moisture and plant functional group identity

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Shuxia; Li, Wenhuai; Lan, Zhichun; Ren, Haiyan; Wang, Kaibo

    2015-01-01

    Abundant evidence has shown that grazing alters plant functional traits, community structure and ecosystem functioning of grasslands. Few studies, however, have tested how plant responses to grazing are mediated by resource availability and plant functional group identity. We examined the effects of grazing on functional traits across a broad range of species along a soil moisture gradient in Inner Mongolia grassland. Our results showed that trait syndromes of plant size (individual biomass) and shoot growth (leaf N content and leaf density) distinguished plant species responses to grazing. The effects of grazing on functional traits were mediated by soil moisture and dependent on functional group identity. For most species, grazing decreased plant height but increased leaf N and specific leaf area (SLA) along the moisture gradient. Grazing enhanced the community-weighted attributes (leaf NCWM and SLACWM), which were triggered mainly by the positive trait responses of annuals and biennials and perennial grasses, and increased relative abundance of perennial forbs. Our results suggest that grazing-induced species turnover and increased intraspecific trait variability are two drivers for the observed changes in community weighted attributes. The dominant perennial bunchgrasses exhibited mixed tolerance–resistance strategies to grazing and mixed acquisitive–conservative strategies in resource utilization. PMID:26655858

  15. The (32)S/(33)S abundance as a function of galactocentric radius in the Milky Way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhouse, M. A.; Thronson, H. A., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Astration of heavy elements by the stars of the Milky Way forms a fossil record which may preserve spacial distribution of the mass function for the stars in the galaxy. Sulfur is among the last common element for which the relative abundance of its various isotopes have yet to be completely measured within our galaxy. Explosive oxygen burning in massive stars is thought to be the process which dominates sulfur production within stars. There models predict that the various isotopes (S-32, S-33, S-34) are formed in relative abundance which depend strongly upon the mass of the parent star. This relative abundance is thought to be unaffected by subsequent stellar procesing since all important sinks of sulfur destroy it without regard for isotopic form. Hence the spacial variation of the mass function (MF) can be studied by measuring the abundance variation of sulfur isotopes in the galaxy provided that the product yields for these isotopes are known accurately as a function of stellar mass.

  16. Functional renormalization group approach to noncollinear magnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delamotte, B.; Dudka, M.; Mouhanna, D.; Yabunaka, S.

    2016-02-01

    A functional renormalization group approach to d -dimensional, N -component, noncollinear magnets is performed using various truncations of the effective action relevant to study their long distance behavior. With help of these truncations we study the existence of a stable fixed point for dimensions between d =2.8 and d =4 for various values of N focusing on the critical value Nc(d ) that, for a given dimension d , separates a first-order region for N Nc(d ) . Our approach concludes to the absence of a stable fixed point in the physical—N =2 ,3 and d =3 —cases, in agreement with the ɛ =4 -d expansion and in contradiction with previous perturbative approaches performed at fixed dimension and with recent approaches based on the conformal bootstrap program.

  17. Functional traits predict relationship between plant abundance dynamic and long-term climate warming.

    PubMed

    Soudzilovskaia, Nadejda A; Elumeeva, Tatiana G; Onipchenko, Vladimir G; Shidakov, Islam I; Salpagarova, Fatima S; Khubiev, Anzor B; Tekeev, Dzhamal K; Cornelissen, Johannes H C

    2013-11-01

    Predicting climate change impact on ecosystem structure and services is one of the most important challenges in ecology. Until now, plant species response to climate change has been described at the level of fixed plant functional types, an approach limited by its inflexibility as there is much interspecific functional variation within plant functional types. Considering a plant species as a set of functional traits greatly increases our possibilities for analysis of ecosystem functioning and carbon and nutrient fluxes associated therewith. Moreover, recently assembled large-scale databases hold comprehensive per-species data on plant functional traits, allowing a detailed functional description of many plant communities on Earth. Here, we show that plant functional traits can be used as predictors of vegetation response to climate warming, accounting in our test ecosystem (the species-rich alpine belt of Caucasus mountains, Russia) for 59% of variability in the per-species abundance relation to temperature. In this mountain belt, traits that promote conservative leaf water economy (higher leaf mass per area, thicker leaves) and large investments in belowground reserves to support next year's shoot buds (root carbon content) were the best predictors of the species increase in abundance along with temperature increase. This finding demonstrates that plant functional traits constitute a highly useful concept for forecasting changes in plant communities, and their associated ecosystem services, in response to climate change. PMID:24145400

  18. Functional characterization of the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein gene family from Pinus tabuliformis (Pinaceae) in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jie; Lan, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are a large and highly diverse gene family present in a wide range of plant species. LEAs are proposed to play a role in various stress tolerance responses. Our study represents the first-ever survey of LEA proteins and their encoding genes in a widely distributed pine (Pinus tabuliformis) in China. Twenty-three LEA genes were identified from the P. tabuliformis belonging to seven groups. Proteins with repeated motifs are an important feature specific to LEA groups. Ten of 23 pine LEA genes were selectively expressed in specific tissues, and showed expression divergence within each group. In addition, we selected 13 genes representing each group and introduced theses genes into Escherichia coli to assess the protective function of PtaLEA under heat and salt stresses. Compared with control cells, the E. coli cells expressing PtaLEA fusion protein exhibited enhanced salt and heat resistance and viability, indicating the protein may play a protective role in cells under stress conditions. Furthermore, among these enhanced tolerance genes, a certain extent of function divergence appeared within a gene group as well as between gene groups, suggesting potential functional diversity of this gene family in conifers. PMID:26781930

  19. Functional characterization of the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) protein gene family from Pinus tabuliformis (Pinaceae) in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jie; Lan, Ting

    2016-01-01

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are a large and highly diverse gene family present in a wide range of plant species. LEAs are proposed to play a role in various stress tolerance responses. Our study represents the first-ever survey of LEA proteins and their encoding genes in a widely distributed pine (Pinus tabuliformis) in China. Twenty–three LEA genes were identified from the P. tabuliformis belonging to seven groups. Proteins with repeated motifs are an important feature specific to LEA groups. Ten of 23 pine LEA genes were selectively expressed in specific tissues, and showed expression divergence within each group. In addition, we selected 13 genes representing each group and introduced theses genes into Escherichia coli to assess the protective function of PtaLEA under heat and salt stresses. Compared with control cells, the E. coli cells expressing PtaLEA fusion protein exhibited enhanced salt and heat resistance and viability, indicating the protein may play a protective role in cells under stress conditions. Furthermore, among these enhanced tolerance genes, a certain extent of function divergence appeared within a gene group as well as between gene groups, suggesting potential functional diversity of this gene family in conifers. PMID:26781930

  20. Biogeographical boundaries, functional group structure and diversity of Rocky Shore communities along the Argentinean coast.

    PubMed

    Wieters, Evie A; McQuaid, Christopher; Palomo, Gabriela; Pappalardo, Paula; Navarrete, Sergio A

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the extent to which functional structure and spatial variability of intertidal communities coincide with major biogeographical boundaries, areas where extensive compositional changes in the biota are observed over a limited geographic extension. We then investigate whether spatial variation in the biomass of functional groups, over geographic (10's km) and local (10's m) scales, could be associated to species diversity within and among these groups. Functional community structure expressed as abundance (density, cover and biomass) and composition of major functional groups was quantified through field surveys at 20 rocky intertidal shores spanning six degrees of latitude along the southwest Atlantic coast of Argentina and extending across the boundaries between the Argentinean and Magellanic Provinces. Patterns of abundance of individual functional groups were not uniformly matched with biogeographical regions. Only ephemeral algae showed an abrupt geographical discontinuity coincident with changes in biogeographic boundaries, and this was limited to the mid intertidal zone. We identified 3-4 main 'groups' of sites in terms of the total and relative abundance of the major functional groups, but these did not coincide with biogeographical boundaries, nor did they follow latitudinal arrangement. Thus, processes that determine the functional structure of these intertidal communities are insensitive to biogeographical boundaries. Over both geographical and local spatial scales, and for most functional groups and tidal levels, increases in species richness within the functional group was significantly associated to increased total biomass and reduced spatial variability of the group. These results suggest that species belonging to the same functional group are sufficiently uncorrelated over space (i.e. metres and site-to-site ) to stabilize patterns of biomass variability and, in this manner, provide a buffer, or "insurance", against spatial variability

  1. Biogeographical Boundaries, Functional Group Structure and Diversity of Rocky Shore Communities along the Argentinean Coast

    PubMed Central

    Wieters, Evie A.; McQuaid, Christopher; Palomo, Gabriela; Pappalardo, Paula; Navarrete, Sergio A.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the extent to which functional structure and spatial variability of intertidal communities coincide with major biogeographical boundaries, areas where extensive compositional changes in the biota are observed over a limited geographic extension. We then investigate whether spatial variation in the biomass of functional groups, over geographic (10′s km) and local (10′s m) scales, could be associated to species diversity within and among these groups. Functional community structure expressed as abundance (density, cover and biomass) and composition of major functional groups was quantified through field surveys at 20 rocky intertidal shores spanning six degrees of latitude along the southwest Atlantic coast of Argentina and extending across the boundaries between the Argentinean and Magellanic Provinces. Patterns of abundance of individual functional groups were not uniformly matched with biogeographical regions. Only ephemeral algae showed an abrupt geographical discontinuity coincident with changes in biogeographic boundaries, and this was limited to the mid intertidal zone. We identified 3–4 main ‘groups’ of sites in terms of the total and relative abundance of the major functional groups, but these did not coincide with biogeographical boundaries, nor did they follow latitudinal arrangement. Thus, processes that determine the functional structure of these intertidal communities are insensitive to biogeographical boundaries. Over both geographical and local spatial scales, and for most functional groups and tidal levels, increases in species richness within the functional group was significantly associated to increased total biomass and reduced spatial variability of the group. These results suggest that species belonging to the same functional group are sufficiently uncorrelated over space (i.e. metres and site-to-site ) to stabilize patterns of biomass variability and, in this manner, provide a buffer, or “insurance”, against spatial

  2. The Abundances of the Fe Group Elements in Three Early B Stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, G. J.; Adelman, S. J.

    2005-12-01

    The photospheric abundances of V, Cr, and Fe have been determined for three sharp-lined early B stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud using FUV spectra obtained from the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE) and the Kurucz LTE model atmosphere/spectrum synthesis codes ATLAS9/SYNTHE. The program stars include NGC1818/D1, NGC2004/B15, and NGC2004/B30 (star designations are from Robertson 1974, A&AS, 15, 261). The calculations were carried through with model parameters close to those adopted by Korn et al. (2000, A&A, 353, 655). Values of Teff, log g, ξ T, and v sin I are 25000/4.0/0/30, 20000/3.1/6/25, and 23500/3.3/14/30 for NGC1818/D1, NGC2004/B15, and NGC2004/B30, respectively. The abundances quoted below are in sequence for the latter stars. The vanadium abundances, [V/H], determined from V III λ λ 1150,1152 (UV 2), are -0.6, -0.9, and -0.9 dex. Cr was determined from Cr III λ λ 1118,1136. Values of -0.5, -0.8, and -0.7 dex were found. Uncertainties in the V and Cr abundances are ˜0.3 dex. The Fe abundance is primarily from 7 lines of Fe III (UV 1) in the region λ λ 1122-32. Values are -0.8±0.3, ˜-1.1, and -0.4±0.3. Since there is no evidence for N enhancement in the program stars ([N/H] ˜ -0.9, -1.0, and -0.6 from the N III doublet at 1183,1184 Å) the photospheric abundances have probably not been altered by mixing of processed material from the star's interior and the derived abundances represent pristine values for the two young clusters in the LMC. It should be noted that the N and Fe abundances derived for NGC1818/D1 are about 0.5 dex lower than those determined by Korn et al. from much weaker optical lines. We will discuss possible reasons for the discrepancy. The generally low abundances for the Fe group elements in these young cluster B stars imply that supernova activity has been minimal in the regions of the LMC in which the stars were formed. GJP appreciates support from NASA grant NAG5-13212.

  3. GeoChip-based insights into the microbial functional gene repertoire of marine sponges (high microbial abundance, low microbial abundance) and seawater.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Kristina; Moitinho-Silva, Lucas; Brümmer, Franz; Cannistraci, Carlo V; Ravasi, Timothy; Hentschel, Ute

    2014-12-01

    The GeoChip 4.2 gene array was employed to interrogate the microbial functional gene repertoire of sponges and seawater collected from the Red Sea and the Mediterranean. Complementary amplicon sequencing confirmed the microbial community composition characteristic of high microbial abundance (HMA) and low microbial abundance (LMA) sponges. By use of GeoChip, altogether 20,273 probes encoding for 627 functional genes and representing 16 gene categories were identified. Minimum curvilinear embedding analyses revealed a clear separation between the samples. The HMA/LMA dichotomy was stronger than any possible geographic pattern, which is shown here for the first time on the level of functional genes. However, upon inspection of individual genes, very few specific differences were discernible. Differences were related to microbial ammonia oxidation, ammonification, and archaeal autotrophic carbon fixation (higher gene abundance in sponges over seawater) as well as denitrification and radiation-stress-related genes (lower gene abundance in sponges over seawater). Except for few documented specific differences the functional gene repertoire between the different sources appeared largely similar. This study expands previous reports in that functional gene convergence is not only reported between HMA and LMA sponges but also between sponges and seawater. PMID:25318900

  4. Organic amendments enhance microbial diversity and abundance of functional genes in Australian Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldorri, Sind; McMillan, Mary; Pereg, Lily

    2016-04-01

    Food and cash crops play important roles in Australia's economy with black, grey and red clay soil, widely use for growing cotton, wheat, corn and other crops in rotation. While the majority of cotton growers use nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers only in the form of agrochemicals, a few experiment with the addition of manure or composted plant material before planting. We hypothesized that the use of such organic amendments would enhance the soil microbial function through increased microbial diversity and abundance, thus contribute to improved soil sustainability. To test the hypothesis we collected soil samples from two cotton-growing farms in close geographical proximity and with mostly similar production practices other than one grower has been using composted plants as organic amendment and the second farmer uses only agrochemicals. We applied the Biolog Ecoplate system to study the metabolic signature of microbial communities and used qPCR to estimate the abundance of functional genes in the soil. The soil treated with organic amendments clearly showed higher metabolic activity of a more diverse range of carbon sources as well as higher abundance of genes involved in the nitrogen and phosphorous cycles. Since microbes undertake a large number of soil functions, the use of organic amendments can contribute to the sustainability of agricultural soils.

  5. Platinum group element abundances in the upper continental crust revisited - New constraints from analyses of Chinese loess

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jung-Woo; Hu, Zhaochu; Gao, Shan; Campbell, Ian H.; Gong, Hujun

    2012-09-01

    Platinum group element (PGE) abundances in the upper continental crust (UCC) are poorly constrained with published values varying by up to an order of magnitude. We evaluated the validity of using loess to estimate PGE abundances in the UCC by measuring these elements in seven Chinese loess samples using a precise method that combines NiS fire assay with isotope dilution. Major and trace elements of the Chinese loess show a typical upper crustal composition and PGE abundances are consistent with literature data on Chinese loess, except for Ru, which is a factor of 10 lowe than published values. We suggest that the high Ru data and RuN/IrN values of Chinese loess reported by Peucker-Ehrenbrink and Jahn (2001) (Geochem. Geophys. Geosys.2, 2001GC000172) are an analytical artifact, rather than a true geochemical characteristic of loess because likely sources of loess are not significantly enriched in Ru and transport and deposition processes cannot preferentially enrich Ru in loess. The effect of eolian fractionation on PGE abundances in loess appears to be limited because Chinese loess from different locations shows similar PGE patterns and concentrations. This conclusion is supported by strong positive correlations between the PGE (except for Pt) and other compatible elements such as Fe2O3, Ni, Cr, Co. Using a compilation of PGE data for loess from China, Argentina and Europe, including our data but excluding one sample with an anomalously high Pt content, we propose average PGE abundances for global loess of Ir = 0.022 ppb (ng/g), Ru = 0.030 ppb, Rh = 0.018 ppb, Pt = 0.599 ppb, and Pd = 0.526 ppb, and suggest that these are the best current estimates for the PGE abundances of the UCC.

  6. Abundance and Relative Distribution of Frankia Host Infection Groups Under Actinorhizal Alnus glutinosa and Non-actinorhizal Betula nigra Trees.

    PubMed

    Samant, Suvidha; Huo, Tian; Dawson, Jeffrey O; Hahn, Dittmar

    2016-02-01

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was used to assess the abundance and relative distribution of host infection groups of the root-nodule forming, nitrogen-fixing actinomycete Frankia in four soils with similar physicochemical characteristics, two of which were vegetated with a host plant, Alnus glutinosa, and two with a non-host plant, Betula nigra. Analyses of DAPI-stained cells at three locations, i.e., at a distance of less than 1 m (near stem), 2.5 m (middle crown), and 3-5 m (crown edge) from the stems of both tree species revealed no statistically significant differences in abundance. Frankiae generally accounted for 0.01 to 0.04 % of these cells, with values between 4 and 36 × 10(5) cells (g soil)(-1). In three out of four soils, abundance of frankiae was significantly higher at locations "near stem" and/or "middle crown" compared to "crown edge," while numbers at these locations were not different in the fourth soil. Frankiae of the Alnus host infection group were dominant in all samples accounting for about 75 % and more of the cells, with no obvious differences with distance to stem. In three of the soils, all of these cells were represented by strain Ag45/Mut15. In the fourth soil that was vegetated with older A. glutinosa trees, about half of these cells belonged to a different subgroup represented by strain ArI3. In all soils, the remaining cells belonged to the Elaeagnus host infection group represented by strain EAN1pec. Casuarina-infective frankiae were not found. Abundance and relative distribution of Frankia host infection groups were similar in soils under the host plant A. glutinosa and the non-host plant B. nigra. Results did thus not reveal any specific effects of plant species on soil Frankia populations. PMID:26143359

  7. Preconversion catalytic deoxygenation of phenolic functional groups

    SciTech Connect

    Kubiak, C.P.

    1991-01-01

    The deoxygenation of phenols is a conceptually simple, but unusually difficult chemical transformation to achieve. Aryl carbon-oxygen bond cleavage is a chemical transformation of importance in coal liquefaction and the upgrading of coal liquids as well as in the synthesis of natural products. This proposed research offers the possibility of effecting the selective catalytic deoxygenation of phenolic functional groups using CO. A program of research for the catalytic deoxygenation of phenols, via a low energy mechanistic pathway that is based on the use of the CO/CO{sub 2} couple to remove phenolic oxygen atoms, is underway. We are focusing on systems which have significant promise as catalysts: Ir(triphos)OPh, (Pt(triphos)OPh){sup +} and Rh(triphos)OPh. Our studies of phenol deoxygenation focus on monitoring the reactions for the elementary processes upon which catalytic activity will depend: CO insertion into M-OPh bonds, CO{sub 2} elimination from aryloxy carbonyls {l brace}M-C(O)-O-Ph{r brace}, followed by formation of a coordinated benzyne intermediate.

  8. Linking Carbonic Anhydrase Abundance and Diversity in Soils to Ecological Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, E.; Meredith, L. K.; Welander, P. V.

    2015-12-01

    Carbonic anhydrase (CA) is an ancient enzyme widespread among bacteria, archaea, and eukarya that catalyzes the following reaction: CO2 + H2O ⇌ HCO3- + H+. Its functions are critical for key cellular processes such as concentrating CO2 for autotrophic growth, pH regulation, and pathogen survival in hosts. Currently, there are six known CA classes (α, β, γ, δ, η, ζ) arising from several distinct evolutionary lineages. CA are widespread in sequenced genomes, with many organisms containing multiple classes of CA or multiple CA of the same class. Soils host rich microbial communities with diverse and important ecological functions, but the diversity and abundance of CA in soils has not been explored. CA appears to play an important, but poorly understood, role in some biogeochemical cycles such as those of CO2 and its oxygen isotope composition and also carbonyl sulfide (COS), which are potential tracers in predictive carbon cycle models. Recognizing the prevalence and functional significance of CA in soils, we used a combined bioinformatics and molecular biology approach to address fundamental questions regarding the abundance, diversity, and function of CA in soils. To characterize the abundance and diversity of the different CA classes in soils, we analyzed existing soil metagenomic and metatranscriptomic data from the DOE Joint Genome Institute databases. Out of the six classes of CA, we only found the α, β, and γ classes to be present in soils, with the β class being the most abundant. We also looked at genomes of sequenced soil microorganisms to learn what combination of CA classes they contain, from which we can begin to predict the physiological role of CA. To characterize the functional roles of the different CA classes in soils, we collected soil samples from a variety of biomes with diverse chemical and physical properties and quantified the rate of two CA-mediated processes: soil uptake of COS and acceleration of the oxygen isotope exchange

  9. Temperature-dependent nuclear partition functions and abundances in the stellar interior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabi, Jameel-Un; Nasser Tawfik, Abdel; Ezzelarab, Nada; Abas Khan, Ali

    2016-05-01

    We calculate the temperature-dependent nuclear partition functions (TDNPFs) and nuclear abundances for 728 nuclei, assuming nuclear statistical equilibrium (NSE). The theories of stellar evolution support NSE. Discrete nuclear energy levels have been calculated microscopically, using the pn-QRPA theory, up to an excitation energy of 10 MeV in the calculation of the TDNPFs. This feature of our paper distinguishes it from previous calculations. Experimental data is also incorporated wherever available to ensure the reliability of our results. Beyond 10 MeV, we employ a simple Fermi gas model and perform integration over the nuclear level densities to approximate the TDNPFs. We calculate nuclidic abundances, using the Saha equation, as a function of three parameters: stellar density, stellar temperature and the lepton-to-baryon content of stellar matter. All these physical parameters are considered to be extremely important in the stellar interior. The results obtained in this paper show that the equilibrium configuration of nuclei remains unaltered by increasing the stellar density (only the calculated nuclear abundances increase by roughly the same order of magnitude). Increasing the stellar temperature smoothes the equilibrium configuration showing peaks at the neutron-number magic nuclei.

  10. Modeling wetland blackbird populations as a function of waterfowl abundance in the prairie pothole region of the United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forcey, G.M.; Linz, G.M.; Thogmartin, W.E.; Bleier, W.J.

    2008-01-01

    Blackbirds share wetland habitat with many waterfowl species in Bird Conservation Region 11 (BCR 11), the prairie potholes. Because of similar habitat preferences, there may be associations between blackbird populations and populations of one or more species of waterfowl in BCR11. This study models populations of red-winged blackbirds and yellow-headed blackbirds as a function of multiple waterfowl species using data from the North American Breeding Bird Survey within BCR11. For each blackbird species, we created a global model with blackbird abundance modeled as a function of 11 waterfowl species; nuisance effects (year, route, and observer) also were included in the model. Hierarchical Poisson regression models were fit using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods in WinBUGS 1.4.1. Waterfowl abundances were weakly associated with blackbird numbers, and no single waterfowl species showed a strong correlation with any blackbird species. These findings suggest waterfowl abundance from a single species is not likely a good bioindicator of blackbird abundance; however, a global model provided good fit for predicting red-winged blackbird abundance. Increased model complexity may be required for accurate predictions of blackbird abundance; the amount of data required to construct appropriate models may limit this approach for predicting blackbird abundance in the prairie potholes. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  11. Feminist Research Methodology Groups: Origins, Forms, Functions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinharz, Shulamit

    Feminist Research Methodology Groups (FRMGs) have developed as a specific type of women's group in which feminist academics can find supportive audiences for their work while contributing to a feminist redefinition of research methods. An analysis of two FRMGs reveals common characteristics, dynamics, and outcomes. Both were limited to small…

  12. Functional group diversity increases with modularity in complex food webs

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, D.; Yallop, M.L.; Memmott, J.

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity increases the ability of ecosystems to provide multiple functions. Most studies report a positive relationship between species richness and the number of ecosystem functions. However, it is not known whether the number of functional groups is related to the structure of the underlying species interaction network. Here we present food web data from 115 salt marsh islands and show that network structure is associated with the number of functional groups present. Functional group diversity is heterogeneously distributed across spatial scales, with some islands hosting more functional groups than others. Functional groups form modules within the community so that food webs with more modular architectures have more functional group diversity. Further, in communities with different interaction types, modularity can be seen as the multifunctional equivalent of trophic complementarity. Collectively, these findings reveal spatial heterogeneity in the number of functional groups that emerges from patterns in the structure of the food web. PMID:26059871

  13. On the Abundance of Water in Extrasolar Planetary Systems as a Function of Stellar Metallicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominguez, Gerardo

    2016-06-01

    The discovery, to date, of several hundred confirmed extra solar planets and a statistical analysis of their properties has revealed intriguing patterns in the abundance and types of extrasolar planets. The metallicity of the host star appears to be a driver in determining extrasolar planetary system characteristics, although a mechanistic understanding of these relationships is not currently available. Understanding the broad relationship(s) between the characteristics of extrasolar planets and stellar metallicity thus appears timely.Recent work examining the timescales for water production in protoplanetary disks suggest that ionizing radiation required to drive surface chemistry in protoplanetary disks is insufficient and production timescales too slow to account for a significant amount of water in protoplanetary disks. Here we focus on the timescales for water production in cold molecular clouds and examine the relationship of this timescale as a function of molecular cloud metallicity. To do this, we consider the distribution of surface area concentration (dA/dV) in molecular clouds as a function of their metallicity and various MRN-like dust grain size distributions. We find that molecular cloud metallicity is a significant factor in determining upper-limits to the availability of water in molecular clouds and by extension, protoplanetary disks. The spectral index of the MRN distribution affects the upper-limits to H2O abundance, but the effect is not as significant as metallicity. We find that the ratio of H2O/SiO2 produced in a molecular cloud of solar metallicity can easily account for Earth’s present day ratio , supporting the “wet” hypothesis for the origins of Earth’s water. Future studies will focus on the retention of water on interstellar dust grain surfaces in protoplanetary disk environments inside the water line, the abundance of other volatile species, more detailed estimates of H2O destruction timescales in molecular clouds, and

  14. Species, Abundance and Function of Ammonia-oxidizing Archaea in Inland Waters across China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Leiliu; Wang, Shanyun; Zou, Yuxuan; Xia, Chao; Zhu, Guibing

    2015-11-01

    Ammonia oxidation is the first step in nitrification and was thought to be performed solely by specialized bacteria. The discovery of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) changed this view. We examined the large scale and spatio-temporal occurrence, abundance and role of AOA throughout Chinese inland waters (n = 28). Molecular survey showed that AOA was ubiquitous in inland waters. The existence of AOA in extreme acidic, alkaline, hot, cold, eutrophic and oligotrophic environments expanded the tolerance limits of AOA, especially their known temperature tolerance to -25 °C, and substrate load to 42.04 mM. There were spatio-temporal divergences of AOA community structure in inland waters, and the diversity of AOA in inland water ecosystems was high with 34 observed species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs; based on a 15% cutoff) distributed widely in group I.1b, I.1a, and I.1a-associated. The abundance of AOA was quite high (8.5 × 104 to 8.5 × 109 copies g-1), and AOA outnumbered ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the inland waters where little human activities were involved. On the whole AOB predominate the ammonia oxidation rate over AOA in inland water ecosystems, and AOA play an indispensable role in global nitrogen cycle considering that AOA occupy a broader habitat range than AOB, especially in extreme environments.

  15. Species, Abundance and Function of Ammonia-oxidizing Archaea in Inland Waters across China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Leiliu; Wang, Shanyun; Zou, Yuxuan; Xia, Chao; Zhu, Guibing

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia oxidation is the first step in nitrification and was thought to be performed solely by specialized bacteria. The discovery of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) changed this view. We examined the large scale and spatio-temporal occurrence, abundance and role of AOA throughout Chinese inland waters (n = 28). Molecular survey showed that AOA was ubiquitous in inland waters. The existence of AOA in extreme acidic, alkaline, hot, cold, eutrophic and oligotrophic environments expanded the tolerance limits of AOA, especially their known temperature tolerance to −25 °C, and substrate load to 42.04 mM. There were spatio-temporal divergences of AOA community structure in inland waters, and the diversity of AOA in inland water ecosystems was high with 34 observed species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs; based on a 15% cutoff) distributed widely in group I.1b, I.1a, and I.1a-associated. The abundance of AOA was quite high (8.5 × 104 to 8.5 × 109 copies g−1), and AOA outnumbered ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the inland waters where little human activities were involved. On the whole AOB predominate the ammonia oxidation rate over AOA in inland water ecosystems, and AOA play an indispensable role in global nitrogen cycle considering that AOA occupy a broader habitat range than AOB, especially in extreme environments. PMID:26522086

  16. Species, Abundance and Function of Ammonia-oxidizing Archaea in Inland Waters across China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Leiliu; Wang, Shanyun; Zou, Yuxuan; Xia, Chao; Zhu, Guibing

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia oxidation is the first step in nitrification and was thought to be performed solely by specialized bacteria. The discovery of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) changed this view. We examined the large scale and spatio-temporal occurrence, abundance and role of AOA throughout Chinese inland waters (n = 28). Molecular survey showed that AOA was ubiquitous in inland waters. The existence of AOA in extreme acidic, alkaline, hot, cold, eutrophic and oligotrophic environments expanded the tolerance limits of AOA, especially their known temperature tolerance to -25 °C, and substrate load to 42.04 mM. There were spatio-temporal divergences of AOA community structure in inland waters, and the diversity of AOA in inland water ecosystems was high with 34 observed species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs; based on a 15% cutoff) distributed widely in group I.1b, I.1a, and I.1a-associated. The abundance of AOA was quite high (8.5 × 10(4) to 8.5 × 10(9) copies g(-1)), and AOA outnumbered ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the inland waters where little human activities were involved. On the whole AOB predominate the ammonia oxidation rate over AOA in inland water ecosystems, and AOA play an indispensable role in global nitrogen cycle considering that AOA occupy a broader habitat range than AOB, especially in extreme environments. PMID:26522086

  17. Atom-efficient regioselective 1,2-dearomatization of functionalized pyridines by an earth-abundant organolanthanide catalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudnik, Alexander S.; Weidner, Victoria L.; Motta, Alessandro; Delferro, Massimiliano; Marks, Tobin J.

    2014-12-01

    Developing earth-abundant, non-platinum metal catalysts for high-value chemical transformations is a critical challenge to contemporary chemical synthesis. Dearomatization of pyridine derivatives is an important transformation to access a wide range of valuable nitrogenous natural products, pharmaceuticals and materials. Here, we report an efficient 1,2-regioselective organolanthanide-catalysed pyridine dearomatization process using pinacolborane, which is compatible with a broad range of pyridines and functional groups and employs equimolar reagent stoichiometry. Regarding the mechanism, derivation of the rate law from NMR spectroscopic and kinetic measurements suggests first order in catalyst concentration, fractional order in pyridine concentration and inverse first order in pinacolborane concentration, with C=N insertion into the La-H bond as turnover-determining. An energetic span analysis affords a more detailed understanding of experimental activity trends and the unusual kinetic behaviour, and proposes the catalyst ‘resting’ state and potential deactivation pathways.

  18. Differences in ecological structure, function, and native species abundance between native and invaded Hawaiian streams.

    PubMed

    Holitzki, Tara M; MacKenzie, Richard A; Wiegner, Tracy N; McDermid, Karla J

    2013-09-01

    Poeciliids, one of the most invasive species worldwide, are found on almost every continent and have been identified as an "invasive species of concern" in the United States, New Zealand, and Australia. Despite their global prevalence, few studies have quantified their impacts on tropical stream ecosystem structure, function, and biodiversity. Utilizing Hawaiian streams as model ecosystems, we documented how ecological structure, function, and native species abundance differed between poeciliid-free and poeciliid-invaded tropical streams. Stream nutrient yields, benthic biofilm biomass, densities of macroinvertebrates and fish, and community structures of benthic algae, macroinvertebrates, and fish were compared between streams with and without established poeciliid populations on the island of Hawai'i, Hawaii, USA. Sum nitrate (sigmaNO3(-) = NO3(-) + NO2(-)), total nitrogen, and total organic carbon yields were eight times, six times, and five times higher, respectively, in poeciliid streams than in poeciliid-free streams. Benthic biofilm ash-free dry mass was 1.5x higher in poeciliid streams than in poeciliid-free streams. Percentage contributions of chironomids and hydroptilid caddisflies to macroinvertebrate densities were lower in poeciliid streams compared to poeciliid-free streams, while percentage contributions of Cheumatopsyche analis caddisflies, Dugesia sp. flatworms, and oligochaetes were higher. Additionally, mean densities of native gobies were two times lower in poeciliid streams than in poeciliid-free ones, with poeciliid densities being approximately eight times higher than native fish densities. Our results, coupled with the wide distribution of invasive poeciliids across Hawaii and elsewhere in the tropics, suggest that poeciliids may negatively impact the ecosystem structure, function, and native species abundance of tropical streams they invade. This underscores the need for increased public awareness to prevent future introductions and for

  19. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis of the abundance of virulent exoproteins of group A streptococcus caused by environmental changes.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Tadahiro; Hasegawa, Tadao; Torii, Keizo; Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Shimokata, Kaoru; Ohta, Michio

    2004-01-01

    Group A streptococci regulate the expression of virulence factors in response to environmental change. In order to investigate this mechanism, the growth of group A streptococci and the abundance of virulent exoprotein production in culture supernatant were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-D electrophoresis) under several culture conditions. Judging from alterations in their growth, group A streptococci were affected by various environmental stresses. Under high O(2) and low CO(2 )concentrations, streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin B (SpeB) and streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxin F (SpeF) significantly decreased, and the streptococcal inhibitor of complement (Sic) increased. At 30 degrees C, increases in endo-beta- N-acetylglucosaminidase (EndoS) and alpha-amylase were also detected, while at 41 degrees C EndoS became undetectable and SpeB and SpeF decreased. Sic, SpeF and mitogenic factor 3 (Mf3) decreased when cells were cultured in higher NaCl concentrations, and EndoS disappeared following culture of the cells in high glucose concentration. An increase in acid phosphatase and a decrease in several other proteins were detected when the cells were cultivated in high iron concentrations. These results suggest that group A streptococci have a versatile adaptation system that responds to several environmental stresses by altering the level of exoprotein production. PMID:14673516

  20. The Unstructured N-terminal Region of Arabidopsis Group 4 Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) Proteins Is Required for Folding and for Chaperone-like Activity under Water Deficit.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Velazquez, Cesar L; Saab-Rincón, Gloria; Reyes, José Luis; Covarrubias, Alejandra A

    2016-05-13

    Late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are a conserved group of proteins widely distributed in the plant kingdom that participate in the tolerance to water deficit of different plant species. In silico analyses indicate that most LEA proteins are structurally disordered. The structural plasticity of these proteins opens the question of whether water deficit modulates their conformation and whether these possible changes are related to their function. In this work, we characterized the secondary structure of Arabidopsis group 4 LEA proteins. We found that they are disordered in aqueous solution, with high intrinsic potential to fold into α-helix. We demonstrate that complete dehydration is not required for these proteins to sample ordered structures because milder water deficit and macromolecular crowding induce high α-helix levels in vitro, suggesting that prevalent conditions under water deficit modulate their conformation. We also show that the N-terminal region, conserved across all group 4 LEA proteins, is necessary and sufficient for conformational transitions and that their protective function is confined to this region, suggesting that folding into α-helix is required for chaperone-like activity under water limitation. We propose that these proteins can exist as different conformers, favoring functional diversity, a moonlighting property arising from their structural dynamics. PMID:27006402

  1. Annual trend patterns of phytoplankton species abundance belie homogeneous taxonomical group responses to climate in the NE Atlantic upwelling.

    PubMed

    Bode, Antonio; Estévez, M Graciela; Varela, Manuel; Vilar, José A

    2015-09-01

    Phytoplankton is a sentinel of marine ecosystem change. Composed by many species with different life-history strategies, it rapidly responds to environment changes. An analysis of the abundance of 54 phytoplankton species in Galicia (NW Spain) between 1989 and 2008 to determine the main components of temporal variability in relation to climate and upwelling showed that most of this variability was stochastic, as seasonality and long term trends contributed to relatively small fractions of the series. In general, trends appeared as non linear, and species clustered in 4 groups according to the trend pattern but there was no defined pattern for diatoms, dinoflagellates or other groups. While, in general, total abundance increased, no clear trend was found for 23 species, 14 species decreased, 4 species increased during the early 1990s, and only 13 species showed a general increase through the series. In contrast, series of local environmental conditions (temperature, stratification, nutrients) and climate-related variables (atmospheric pressure indices, upwelling winds) showed a high fraction of their variability in deterministic seasonality and trends. As a result, each species responded independently to environmental and climate variability, measured by generalized additive models. Most species showed a positive relationship with nutrient concentrations but only a few showed a direct relationship with stratification and upwelling. Climate variables had only measurable effects on some species but no common response emerged. Because its adaptation to frequent disturbances, phytoplankton communities in upwelling ecosystems appear less sensitive to changes in regional climate than other communities characterized by short and well defined productive periods. PMID:26283032

  2. Integrating abundance and functional traits reveals new global hotspots of fish diversity.

    PubMed

    Stuart-Smith, Rick D; Bates, Amanda E; Lefcheck, Jonathan S; Duffy, J Emmett; Baker, Susan C; Thomson, Russell J; Stuart-Smith, Jemina F; Hill, Nicole A; Kininmonth, Stuart J; Airoldi, Laura; Becerro, Mikel A; Campbell, Stuart J; Dawson, Terence P; Navarrete, Sergio A; Soler, German A; Strain, Elisabeth M A; Willis, Trevor J; Edgar, Graham J

    2013-09-26

    Species richness has dominated our view of global biodiversity patterns for centuries. The dominance of this paradigm is reflected in the focus by ecologists and conservation managers on richness and associated occurrence-based measures for understanding drivers of broad-scale diversity patterns and as a biological basis for management. However, this is changing rapidly, as it is now recognized that not only the number of species but the species present, their phenotypes and the number of individuals of each species are critical in determining the nature and strength of the relationships between species diversity and a range of ecological functions (such as biomass production and nutrient cycling). Integrating these measures should provide a more relevant representation of global biodiversity patterns in terms of ecological functions than that provided by simple species counts. Here we provide comparisons of a traditional global biodiversity distribution measure based on richness with metrics that incorporate species abundances and functional traits. We use data from standardized quantitative surveys of 2,473 marine reef fish species at 1,844 sites, spanning 133 degrees of latitude from all ocean basins, to identify new diversity hotspots in some temperate regions and the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean. These relate to high diversity of functional traits amongst individuals in the community (calculated using Rao's Q), and differ from previously reported patterns in functional diversity and richness for terrestrial animals, which emphasize species-rich tropical regions only. There is a global trend for greater evenness in the number of individuals of each species, across the reef fish species observed at sites ('community evenness'), at higher latitudes. This contributes to the distribution of functional diversity hotspots and contrasts with well-known latitudinal gradients in richness. Our findings suggest that the contribution of species diversity to a range of

  3. Sniffing for Clues to the Dinosaurs Demise: Measurement of Osmium Isotope Compositions and Platinum Group Element Abundances in Volcanic Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sims, K. W.; Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Mather, T.; Pyle, D.; Martin, R.; Gauthier, P.; Aiuppa, A.

    2005-12-01

    Platinum Group Elements (PGE: Os, Ir, Rh, Ru, Pt, Pd) and osmium isotopes measured in marine and terrestrial sediment, snow and ice records are important paleo-tracers of riverine, hydrothermal, extraterrestrial, volcanic and anthropogenic inputs into the global surficial environment. For instance, the marine Os isotope record across the Cretaceous-Tertiary Boundary (KTB) indicates that the onset of the main phase of Deccan volcanism and the transient late Maastrichtian warming preceded the large extraterrestrial impact and the related KTB mass extinction by several hundred thousand years [Ravizza and Peucker-Ehrenbrink, 2003]. Distinguishing extraterrestrial from volcanic PGE sources has been difficult due to the similarity in Os isotopic compositions, complex PGE fractionations, and our lack of knowledge of the Os isotopic composition and PGE abundances in volcanic aerosols. These difficulties have fueled vigorous debate about extraterrestrial vs. volcanic triggers of mass extinctions in the geologic record. To assess the volcanic contribution to the global Re-Os-PGE cycle we have initiated a study of Os isotopic compositions and PGE abundances in volcanic emissions from volcanoes around the globe. Here we report preliminary data on PGE abundances and Os isotopes measured in gas and aerosol filter samples from Vulcan Masaya, Nicaragua and Mt Etna, Italy. Samples were analyzed by ID-ICPMS (ThermoFinnigan ELEMENT 2 and NEPTUNE) at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. Osmium isotope compositions of the filters are unradiogenic (0.1272 to 0.187). Osmium concentrations range from 28 to 97 pg/cubic meter and are 3-4 orders of magnitude lower than those measured by Krahenbuhl et al. [1992] during the spring 1984 eruption of Mauna Loa just after the lava fountaining phase. Normalized PGE abundance patterns are fractionated relative to carbonaceous chondrites and two important features distinguish the pattern from other important PGE sources: 1) Os/Ir is much higher

  4. Dwarf Galaxies in the Leo I Group: the Group Luminosity Function beyond the Local Group (Oral Contribution)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flint, K.; Bolte, M.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.

    We present first results of a survey of the Leo I group at 10 Mpc for M_R < -10 dwarf galaxies. This is part of a larger program to measure the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function in nearby poor groups. Our method is optimized to find Local-Group-like dwarfs down to dwarf spheroidal surface brightnesses, but we also find very large LSB dwarfs in Leo I with no Local Group counterpart. A preliminary measurement of the luminosity function yields a slope consistent with that measured in the Local Group.

  5. Detection of Differential Item Functioning in Multiple Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Seock-Ho; And Others

    Detection of differential item functioning (DIF) is most often done between two groups of examinees under item response theory. It is sometimes important, however, to determine whether DIF is present in more than two groups. A method is presented for the detection of DIF in multiple groups. The method, the Q(sub j) statistic, is closely related to…

  6. Functional Analytic Psychotherapy for Interpersonal Process Groups: A Behavioral Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoekstra, Renee

    2008-01-01

    This paper is an adaptation of Kohlenberg and Tsai's work, Functional Analytical Psychotherapy (1991), or FAP, to group psychotherapy. This author applied a behavioral rationale for interpersonal process groups by illustrating key points with a hypothetical client. Suggestions are also provided for starting groups, identifying goals, educating…

  7. Local renormalization group functions from quantum renormalization group and holographic bulk locality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Yu

    2015-06-01

    The bulk locality in the constructive holographic renormalization group requires miraculous cancellations among various local renormalization group functions. The cancellation is not only from the properties of the spectrum but from more detailed aspects of operator product expansions in relation to conformal anomaly. It is remarkable that one-loop computation of the universal local renormalization group functions in the weakly coupled limit of the super Yang-Mills theory fulfils the necessary condition for the cancellation in the strongly coupled limit in its SL(2, Z) duality invariant form. From the consistency between the quantum renormalization group and the holographic renormalization group, we determine some unexplored local renormalization group functions (e.g. diffusive term in the beta function for the gauge coupling constant) in the strongly coupled limit of the planar super Yang-Mills theory.

  8. Differential Item Functioning Detection across Two Methods of Defining Group Comparisons: Pairwise and Composite Group Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sari, Halil Ibrahim; Huggins, Anne Corinne

    2015-01-01

    This study compares two methods of defining groups for the detection of differential item functioning (DIF): (a) pairwise comparisons and (b) composite group comparisons. We aim to emphasize and empirically support the notion that the choice of pairwise versus composite group definitions in DIF is a reflection of how one defines fairness in DIF…

  9. A group 6 late embryogenesis abundant protein from common bean is a disordered protein with extended helical structure and oligomer-forming properties.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Najera, Lucero Y; Saab-Rincón, Gloria; Battaglia, Marina; Amero, Carlos; Pulido, Nancy O; García-Hernández, Enrique; Solórzano, Rosa M; Reyes, José L; Covarrubias, Alejandra A

    2014-11-14

    Late embryogenesis-abundant proteins accumulate to high levels in dry seeds. Some of them also accumulate in response to water deficit in vegetative tissues, which leads to a remarkable association between their presence and low water availability conditions. A major sub-group of these proteins, also known as typical LEA proteins, shows high hydrophilicity and a high percentage of glycine and other small amino acid residues, distinctive physicochemical properties that predict a high content of structural disorder. Although all typical LEA proteins share these characteristics, seven groups can be distinguished by sequence similarity, indicating structural and functional diversity among them. Some of these groups have been extensively studied; however, others require a more detailed analysis to advance in their functional understanding. In this work, we report the structural characterization of a group 6 LEA protein from a common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (PvLEA6) by circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance showing that it is a disordered protein in aqueous solution. Using the same techniques, we show that despite its unstructured nature, the addition of trifluoroethanol exhibited an intrinsic potential in this protein to gain helicity. This property was also promoted by high osmotic potentials or molecular crowding. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PvLEA6 protein is able to form soluble homo-oligomeric complexes that also show high levels of structural disorder. The association between PvLEA6 monomers to form dimers was shown to occur in plant cells by bimolecular fluorescence complementation, pointing to the in vivo functional relevance of this association. PMID:25271167

  10. A Group 6 Late Embryogenesis Abundant Protein from Common Bean Is a Disordered Protein with Extended Helical Structure and Oligomer-forming Properties*

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Najera, Lucero Y.; Saab-Rincón, Gloria; Battaglia, Marina; Amero, Carlos; Pulido, Nancy O.; García-Hernández, Enrique; Solórzano, Rosa M.; Reyes, José L.; Covarrubias, Alejandra A.

    2014-01-01

    Late embryogenesis-abundant proteins accumulate to high levels in dry seeds. Some of them also accumulate in response to water deficit in vegetative tissues, which leads to a remarkable association between their presence and low water availability conditions. A major sub-group of these proteins, also known as typical LEA proteins, shows high hydrophilicity and a high percentage of glycine and other small amino acid residues, distinctive physicochemical properties that predict a high content of structural disorder. Although all typical LEA proteins share these characteristics, seven groups can be distinguished by sequence similarity, indicating structural and functional diversity among them. Some of these groups have been extensively studied; however, others require a more detailed analysis to advance in their functional understanding. In this work, we report the structural characterization of a group 6 LEA protein from a common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) (PvLEA6) by circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance showing that it is a disordered protein in aqueous solution. Using the same techniques, we show that despite its unstructured nature, the addition of trifluoroethanol exhibited an intrinsic potential in this protein to gain helicity. This property was also promoted by high osmotic potentials or molecular crowding. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PvLEA6 protein is able to form soluble homo-oligomeric complexes that also show high levels of structural disorder. The association between PvLEA6 monomers to form dimers was shown to occur in plant cells by bimolecular fluorescence complementation, pointing to the in vivo functional relevance of this association. PMID:25271167

  11. Structure and function of a mitochondrial late embryogenesis abundant protein are revealed by desiccation.

    PubMed

    Tolleter, Dimitri; Jaquinod, Michel; Mangavel, Cécile; Passirani, Catherine; Saulnier, Patrick; Manon, Stephen; Teyssier, Emeline; Payet, Nicole; Avelange-Macherel, Marie-Hélène; Macherel, David

    2007-05-01

    Few organisms are able to withstand desiccation stress; however, desiccation tolerance is widespread among plant seeds. Survival without water relies on an array of mechanisms, including the accumulation of stress proteins such as the late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins. These hydrophilic proteins are prominent in plant seeds but also found in desiccation-tolerant organisms. In spite of many theories and observations, LEA protein function remains unclear. Here, we show that LEAM, a mitochondrial LEA protein expressed in seeds, is a natively unfolded protein, which reversibly folds into alpha-helices upon desiccation. Structural modeling revealed an analogy with class A amphipathic helices of apolipoproteins that coat low-density lipoprotein particles in mammals. LEAM appears spontaneously modified by deamidation and oxidation of several residues that contribute to its structural features. LEAM interacts with membranes in the dry state and protects liposomes subjected to drying. The overall results provide strong evidence that LEAM protects the inner mitochondrial membrane during desiccation. According to sequence analyses of several homologous proteins from various desiccation-tolerant organisms, a similar protection mechanism likely acts with other types of cellular membranes. PMID:17526751

  12. Using Text Analysis to Identify Functionally Coherent Gene Groups

    PubMed Central

    Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Schütze, Hinrich; Altman, Russ B.

    2002-01-01

    The analysis of large-scale genomic information (such as sequence data or expression patterns) frequently involves grouping genes on the basis of common experimental features. Often, as with gene expression clustering, there are too many groups to easily identify the functionally relevant ones. One valuable source of information about gene function is the published literature. We present a method, neighbor divergence, for assessing whether the genes within a group share a common biological function based on their associated scientific literature. The method uses statistical natural language processing techniques to interpret biological text. It requires only a corpus of documents relevant to the genes being studied (e.g., all genes in an organism) and an index connecting the documents to appropriate genes. Given a group of genes, neighbor divergence assigns a numerical score indicating how “functionally coherent” the gene group is from the perspective of the published literature. We evaluate our method by testing its ability to distinguish 19 known functional gene groups from 1900 randomly assembled groups. Neighbor divergence achieves 79% sensitivity at 100% specificity, comparing favorably to other tested methods. We also apply neighbor divergence to previously published gene expression clusters to assess its ability to recognize gene groups that had been manually identified as representative of a common function. PMID:12368251

  13. Effect of Habitat Size, Quality, and Isolation on Functional Groups of Beetles in Hollow Oaks

    PubMed Central

    Pilskog, Hanne Eik; Birkemoe, Tone; Framstad, Erik; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne

    2016-01-01

    One of the largest threats to biodiversity is land use change and habitat loss. Hollow oaks (Quercus spp. L.) are well-defined patches that are hotspots for biodiversity and red-listed species, but they are often rare and fragmented in the landscape. We investigated the effect of patch size, habitat quality, and isolation on functional groups and red-listed saproxylic beetles in hollow oaks (n = 40) in Norway. The groups were defined by host tree association, trophic grouping, and red-listed status. Habitat quality, represented by tree form was most important in explaining species richness for most groups. Patch size, represented by circumference and amount of dead branches, was most important in explaining abundance. Isolation, that is single oaks compared with oaks in groups, had a negative effect on the abundance of beetles feeding both on wood and fungi (xylomycethopagous), as well as on species associated with broadleaved trees (oak semi-specialists), but did not affect species richness. This indicates that at this scale and in this landscape, isolated oaks are as species rich and valuable for conservation as other oaks, although some functional groups may be more vulnerable to isolation than others. The red-listed species only responded to patch size, indicating that oaks with large circumference and many dead branches are especially important for red-listed species and for conservation. PMID:26945089

  14. Effect of Habitat Size, Quality, and Isolation on Functional Groups of Beetles in Hollow Oaks.

    PubMed

    Pilskog, Hanne Eik; Birkemoe, Tone; Framstad, Erik; Sverdrup-Thygeson, Anne

    2016-01-01

    One of the largest threats to biodiversity is land use change and habitat loss. Hollow oaks (Quercus spp. L.) are well-defined patches that are hotspots for biodiversity and red-listed species, but they are often rare and fragmented in the landscape. We investigated the effect of patch size, habitat quality, and isolation on functional groups and red-listed saproxylic beetles in hollow oaks (n = 40) in Norway. The groups were defined by host tree association, trophic grouping, and red-listed status. Habitat quality, represented by tree form was most important in explaining species richness for most groups. Patch size, represented by circumference and amount of dead branches, was most important in explaining abundance. Isolation, that is single oaks compared with oaks in groups, had a negative effect on the abundance of beetles feeding both on wood and fungi (xylomycethopagous), as well as on species associated with broadleaved trees (oak semi-specialists), but did not affect species richness. This indicates that at this scale and in this landscape, isolated oaks are as species rich and valuable for conservation as other oaks, although some functional groups may be more vulnerable to isolation than others. The red-listed species only responded to patch size, indicating that oaks with large circumference and many dead branches are especially important for red-listed species and for conservation. PMID:26945089

  15. Evaluating Functional Diversity: Missing Trait Data and the Importance of Species Abundance Structure and Data Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Bryndová, Michala; Kasari, Liis; Norberg, Anna; Weiss, Matthias; Bishop, Tom R.; Luke, Sarah H.; Sam, Katerina; Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Yoann; Lepš, Jan; Götzenberger, Lars; de Bello, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Functional diversity (FD) is an important component of biodiversity that quantifies the difference in functional traits between organisms. However, FD studies are often limited by the availability of trait data and FD indices are sensitive to data gaps. The distribution of species abundance and trait data, and its transformation, may further affect the accuracy of indices when data is incomplete. Using an existing approach, we simulated the effects of missing trait data by gradually removing data from a plant, an ant and a bird community dataset (12, 59, and 8 plots containing 62, 297 and 238 species respectively). We ranked plots by FD values calculated from full datasets and then from our increasingly incomplete datasets and compared the ranking between the original and virtually reduced datasets to assess the accuracy of FD indices when used on datasets with increasingly missing data. Finally, we tested the accuracy of FD indices with and without data transformation, and the effect of missing trait data per plot or per the whole pool of species. FD indices became less accurate as the amount of missing data increased, with the loss of accuracy depending on the index. But, where transformation improved the normality of the trait data, FD values from incomplete datasets were more accurate than before transformation. The distribution of data and its transformation are therefore as important as data completeness and can even mitigate the effect of missing data. Since the effect of missing trait values pool-wise or plot-wise depends on the data distribution, the method should be decided case by case. Data distribution and data transformation should be given more careful consideration when designing, analysing and interpreting FD studies, especially where trait data are missing. To this end, we provide the R package “traitor” to facilitate assessments of missing trait data. PMID:26881747

  16. Evaluating Functional Diversity: Missing Trait Data and the Importance of Species Abundance Structure and Data Transformation.

    PubMed

    Májeková, Maria; Paal, Taavi; Plowman, Nichola S; Bryndová, Michala; Kasari, Liis; Norberg, Anna; Weiss, Matthias; Bishop, Tom R; Luke, Sarah H; Sam, Katerina; Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Yoann; Lepš, Jan; Götzenberger, Lars; de Bello, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Functional diversity (FD) is an important component of biodiversity that quantifies the difference in functional traits between organisms. However, FD studies are often limited by the availability of trait data and FD indices are sensitive to data gaps. The distribution of species abundance and trait data, and its transformation, may further affect the accuracy of indices when data is incomplete. Using an existing approach, we simulated the effects of missing trait data by gradually removing data from a plant, an ant and a bird community dataset (12, 59, and 8 plots containing 62, 297 and 238 species respectively). We ranked plots by FD values calculated from full datasets and then from our increasingly incomplete datasets and compared the ranking between the original and virtually reduced datasets to assess the accuracy of FD indices when used on datasets with increasingly missing data. Finally, we tested the accuracy of FD indices with and without data transformation, and the effect of missing trait data per plot or per the whole pool of species. FD indices became less accurate as the amount of missing data increased, with the loss of accuracy depending on the index. But, where transformation improved the normality of the trait data, FD values from incomplete datasets were more accurate than before transformation. The distribution of data and its transformation are therefore as important as data completeness and can even mitigate the effect of missing data. Since the effect of missing trait values pool-wise or plot-wise depends on the data distribution, the method should be decided case by case. Data distribution and data transformation should be given more careful consideration when designing, analysing and interpreting FD studies, especially where trait data are missing. To this end, we provide the R package "traitor" to facilitate assessments of missing trait data. PMID:26881747

  17. Single or functionalized fullerenes interacting with heme group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, Wallison Chaves; Diniz, Eduardo Moraes

    2014-09-01

    The heme group is responsible for iron transportation through the bloodstream, where iron participates in redox reactions, electron transfer, gases detection etc. The efficiency of such processes can be reduced if the whole heme molecule or even the iron is somehow altered from its original oxidation state, which can be caused by interactions with nanoparticles as fullerenes. To verify how such particles alter the geometry and electronic structure of heme molecule, here we report first principles calculations based on density functional theory of heme group interacting with single C60 fullerene or with C60 functionalized with small functional groups (-CH3, -COOH, -NH2, -OH). The calculations shown that the system heme + nanoparticle has a different spin state in comparison with heme group if the fullerene is functionalized. Also a functional group can provide a stronger binding between nanoparticle and heme molecule or inhibit the chemical bonding in comparison with single fullerene results. In addition heme molecule loses electrons to the nanoparticles and some systems exhibited a geometry distortion in heme group, depending on the binding energy. Furthermore, one find that such nanoparticles induce a formation of spin up states in heme group. Moreover, there exist modifications in density of states near the Fermi energy. Although of such changes in heme electronic structure and geometry, the iron atom remains in the heme group with the same oxidation state, so that processes that involve the iron might not be affected, only those that depend on the whole heme molecule.

  18. Matrix Intensification Alters Avian Functional Group Composition in Adjacent Rainforest Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Deikumah, Justus P.; McAlpine, Clive A.; Maron, Martine

    2013-01-01

    Conversion of farmland land-use matrices to surface mining is an increasing threat to the habitat quality of forest remnants and their constituent biota, with consequences for ecosystem functionality. We evaluated the effects of matrix type on bird community composition and the abundance and evenness within avian functional groups in south-west Ghana. We hypothesized that surface mining near remnants may result in a shift in functional composition of avifaunal communities, potentially disrupting ecological processes within tropical forest ecosystems. Matrix intensification and proximity to the remnant edge strongly influenced the abundance of members of several functional guilds. Obligate frugivores, strict terrestrial insectivores, lower and upper strata birds, and insect gleaners were most negatively affected by adjacent mining matrices, suggesting certain ecosystem processes such as seed dispersal may be disrupted by landscape change in this region. Evenness of these functional guilds was also lower in remnants adjacent to surface mining, regardless of the distance from remnant edge, with the exception of strict terrestrial insectivores. These shifts suggest matrix intensification can influence avian functional group composition and related ecosystem-level processes in adjacent forest remnants. The management of matrix habitat quality near and within mine concessions is important for improving efforts to preserveavian biodiversity in landscapes undergoing intensification such as through increased surface mining. PMID:24058634

  19. Abundance- and functional-based mechanisms of plant diversity loss with fertilization in the presence and absence of herbivores.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhongling; Hautier, Yann; Borer, Elizabeth T; Zhang, Chunhui; Du, Guozhen

    2015-09-01

    Nutrient supply and herbivores can regulate plant species composition, biodiversity and functioning of terrestrial ecosystems. Nutrient enrichment frequently increases plant productivity and decreases diversity while herbivores tend to maintain plant diversity in productive systems. However, the mechanisms by which nutrient enrichment and herbivores regulate plant diversity remain unclear. Abundance-based mechanisms propose that fertilization leads to the extinction of rare species due to random loss of individuals of all species. In contrast, functional-based mechanisms propose that species exclusion is based on functional traits which are disadvantageous under fertilized conditions. We tested mechanistic links between fertilization and diversity loss in the presence or absence of consumers using data from a 4-year fertilization and fencing experiment in an alpine meadow. We found that both abundance- and functional-based mechanisms simultaneously affected species loss in the absence of herbivores while only abundance-based mechanisms affected species loss in the presence of herbivores. Our results indicate that an abundance-based mechanism may consistently play a role in the loss of plant diversity with fertilization, and that diversity decline is driven primarily by the loss of rare species regardless of a plant's functional traits and whether or not herbivores are present. Increasing efforts to conserve rare species in the context of ecosystem eutrophication is a central challenge for grazed grassland ecosystems. PMID:25969333

  20. Diversity and abundance of dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scaraebidae) at several different ecosystem functions in Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Din, Abdullah Muhaimin Mohammad; Yaakop, Salmah; Hazmi, Izfa Riza

    2015-09-01

    Dung beetles has known for its bioindicator characteristic. Sensitive towards forest disturbance, dung beetles population and diversity will be less in disturbed and modified area. The objective of this study is to evaluate the diversity and distribution of dung beetles in different type of ecosystems in Peninsular Malaysia. Fifteen baited pitfall traps aligned in three transects were used in this study. Samples were collected after 24 h and repeated three time collections and identified afterwards. Two ecosystem types were selected, which are forested and agricultural ecosystem (livestock and plantation). A total of 4249 individuals, 47 species, in 11 genera was successfully collected from all localities. The H' index for Fraser Hill, Langkawi, Bangi Reserve Forest, Selangor (HSB), Sungkai Reserve Forest, Perak (SRF), Chini Lake, Bera Lake, chicken farm, goat farm, Longan plantation, and palm oil plantation were 1.58, 1.74, 2.17, 2.63, 1.80, 1.52, 1.63, 0.46, 0.00 and 1.98 respectively.Forest ecosystem, SRF shows the highest abundance (1486 individuals) and diversity, while for agricultural ecosystem,palm oil plantation shows the highest with 273 individuals and 16 species. Based onDetrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) shows two groups that separate forest ecosystem with the agricultural ecosystem, with palm oil is the nearest to the forest. Palm oil ecosystem can sustain a dung beetles population due to the area can provide the requirements for the dung beetles to survive, such as food which comes from local domestic cows, shade from sunlight provide by the palm oil trees, and ground cover from small plants and shrubs.Even though modified ecosystem should have lower diversity of dung beetles, but some factors must be measured as well in order to have a better point of view.

  1. The luminosity function of galaxies in compact groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ribeiro, A. L. B.; De Carvalho, R. R.; Zepf, S. E.

    1994-01-01

    We use counts of faint galaxies in the regions of compact groups to extend the study of the luminosity function of galaxies in compact groups to absolute magnitudes as faint as M(sub B) = -14.5 + 5 log h. We find a slope of the faint end of the luminosity function of approximately alpha = -0.8, with a formal uncertainty of 0.15. This slope is not significantly different from that found for galaxies in other environments. Our results do not support previous suggestions of a dramatic underabundance of intrinsically faint galaxies in compact groups, which were based on extrapolations from fits at brighter magnitudes. The normal faint-end slope of the luminosity function in compact groups is in agreement with previous evidence that most galaxies in compact groups have not been dramatically affected by recent merging.

  2. Functional Group and Substructure Searching as a Tool in Metabolomics

    PubMed Central

    Kotera, Masaaki; McDonald, Andrew G.; Boyce, Sinéad; Tipton, Keith F.

    2008-01-01

    Background A direct link between the names and structures of compounds and the functional groups contained within them is important, not only because biochemists frequently rely on literature that uses a free-text format to describe functional groups, but also because metabolic models depend upon the connections between enzymes and substrates being known and appropriately stored in databases. Methodology We have developed a database named “Biochemical Substructure Search Catalogue” (BiSSCat), which contains 489 functional groups, >200,000 compounds and >1,000,000 different computationally constructed substructures, to allow identification of chemical compounds of biological interest. Conclusions This database and its associated web-based search program (http://bisscat.org/) can be used to find compounds containing selected combinations of substructures and functional groups. It can be used to determine possible additional substrates for known enzymes and for putative enzymes found in genome projects. Its applications to enzyme inhibitor design are also discussed. PMID:18253485

  3. Quantitative distribution and functional groups of intertidal macrofaunal assemblages in Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, South Shetland Islands, Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoshou; Wang, Lu; Li, Shuai; Huo, Yuanzi; He, Peimin; Zhang, Zhinan

    2015-10-15

    To evaluate spatial distribution pattern of intertidal macrofauna, quantitative investigation was performed in January to February, 2013 around Fildes Peninsula, King George Island, South Shetland Islands. A total of 34 species were identified, which were dominated by Mollusca, Annelida and Arthropoda. CLUSTER analysis showed that macrofaunal assemblages at sand-bottom sites belonged to one group, which was dominated by Lumbricillus sp. and Kidderia subquadrata. Macrofaunal assemblages at gravel-bottom sites were divided into three groups while Nacella concinna was the dominant species at most sites. The highest values of biomass and Shannon-Wiener diversity index were found in gravel sediment and the highest value of abundance was in sand sediment of eastern coast. In terms of functional group, detritivorous and planktophagous groups had the highest values of abundance and biomass, respectively. Correlation analysis showed that macrofaunal abundance and biomass had significant positive correlations with contents of sediment chlorophyll a, phaeophorbide and organic matter. PMID:26233302

  4. Use of stoichiometry to predict the abundance and functioning of root symbioses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, N. C.

    2012-04-01

    Plants form nutritional symbioses with fungi and bacteria and the importance of these partnerships varies with the mineral fertility of soil. There is strong evidence that plants acclimate and adapt to their local soil conditions through root symbioses; nitrogen limitation is ameliorated by symbiosis with diazotrophic prokaryotes and mycorrhizas ameliorate phosphorus limitation. Corollaries of ecological stoichiometry may be useful for predicting the abundance and functioning of mycorrhizas and N-fixation symbioses. A series of field experiments show that arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses in grasslands in North America and in the African Serengeti are most beneficial to plant nutrition when plants are phosphorus limited and have sufficient nitrogen and carbon. A reciprocal inoculation experiment shows that locally adapted communities of AM fungi, associated soil organisms and plants arise such that mutualistic benefits are maximized; both AM fungi and plants grew best in their "home" soil-symbiont combination compared to "away" soil-symbiont combinations. Plants in their home combination acquired more limiting resource (either phosphorus or nitrogen) and consequently grew larger; similarly, AM fungi in their home combination formed more arbuscules and extraradical hyphae. Genetic analysis of the AM fungi inside plant roots indicate that these results correspond to variation in the community composition of AM fungi and also to variation in the symbiotic performance of local isolates of one particular species of AM fungus. The next step is to conduct landscape scale studies of root symbioses to test the hypothesis that plants cultivate microbial communities in and around their roots such that the species and ecotypes of microorganisms within these communities is customized for optimal nutrient acquisition under site-specific environmental conditions. If locally adapted communities of root and rhizosphere organisms are common, then plants may be optimizing their

  5. Using the Group Presentation to Foster Functional Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Kim M.

    1990-01-01

    Suggests using group presentations as a method for instructors with large introductory courses to help students gain functional skills and also make the courses more interesting. Provides examples of group presentation projects. States goals of projects as showing how sociology can be used in everyday life and providing a review of the examination…

  6. Application of functional data analysis to investigate seasonal progression with interannual variability in plankton abundance in the Bay of Fundy, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeda, Takayoshi; Dowd, Michael; Martin, Jennifer L.

    2008-06-01

    The statistical technique of functional data analysis (FDA) is applied to a time series analysis of plankton monitoring data. The analysis is focused on revealing patterns in the seasonal cycle to assess interannual variability of several different taxonomic groups of plankton. Cell concentrations of diatom, dinoflagellate and zooplankton abundances from the Bay of Fundy, Canada provide the observations for analysis. FDA was performed on the log-transformed abundance data as a new approach for treating such types of sparse and noisy data. Differences in the seasonal progression were seen, with peak numbers, timings and abundance levels varying for the three groups as determined by curve registration and higher order derivatives using the objectively fit FDA curves. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling was used to capture seasonal variation among years. These results were further assessed in terms of dominant species and the relationships between groups for different seasons and years. It is anticipated that the easy to use, general and flexible technique of FDA could be applied to a wide variety of marine ecological data that are characterized by missing values and non-Gaussian distributions.

  7. Most Low-Abundance "Background" Symbiodinium spp. Are Transitory and Have Minimal Functional Significance for Symbiotic Corals.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moo Joon; Jeong, Hae Jin; Jang, Se Hyeon; Lee, Sung Yeon; Kang, Nam Seon; Lee, Kyung Ha; Kim, Hyung Seop; Wham, Drew C; LaJeunesse, Todd C

    2016-04-01

    Speculation surrounds the importance of ecologically cryptic Symbiodinium spp. (dinoflagellates) that occur at low abundances in reef-building corals and in the surrounding environment. Evidence acquired from extensive sampling, long-term monitoring, and experimental manipulation can allow us to deduce the ecology and functional significance of these populations and whether they might contribute to the response of coral-dinoflagellate mutualisms to climate change. Quantitative PCR was used here to diagnose the prevalence, seasonal variation, and abundances of Symbiodinium spp. within and between colonies of the coral, Alveopora japonica. Consistent with broader geographic sampling, only one species comprised 99.9 %, or greater, the population of symbionts in every sample. However, other Symbiodinium including the non-mutualistic species, Symbiodinium voratum, were often detected, but at estimated cell densities thousands-fold less than the dominant symbiont. The temporal variation in prevalence and abundances of these "background" Symbiodinium could not be definitively related to any particular environmental factor including seasonality and water chemistry. The prevalence (proportion detected among host samples), but not abundance, of S. voratum may weakly correspond to increases in environmental inorganic silica (SiO2) and possibly nitrogen (NO3). When multiple background Symbiodinium occurred within an individual polyp, the average cell densities were positively correlated, suggesting non-specific processes of cell sorting and retention by the animal. While these findings substantiate the existence of a broader, yet uncharacterized, diversity of Symbiodinium, we conclude that only those species which can occur in high abundance and are temporally stable are ultimately important to coral-dinoflagellate mutualisms. Many transient Symbiodinium spp., which occur only at trace abundances in the coral's microbiome, belong to different functional guilds and likely have

  8. Evaluation of the ecotoxicological impact of the organochlorine chlordecone on soil microbial community structure, abundance, and function.

    PubMed

    Merlin, Chloé; Devers, Marion; Béguet, Jérémie; Boggio, Baptiste; Rouard, Nadine; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2016-03-01

    The insecticide chlordecone applied for decades in banana plantations currently contaminates 20,000 ha of arable land in the French West Indies. Although the impact of various pesticides on soil microorganisms has been studied, chlordecone toxicity to the soil microbial community has never been assessed. We investigated in two different soils (sandy loam and silty loam) exposed to different concentrations of CLD (D0, control; D1 and D10, 1 and 10 times the agronomical dose) over different periods of time (3, 7, and 32 days): (i) the fate of chlordecone by measuring (14)C-chlordecone mass balance and (ii) the impact of chlordecone on microbial community structure, abundance, and function, using standardized methods (-A-RISA, taxon-specific quantitative PCR (qPCR), and (14)C-compounds mineralizing activity). Mineralization of (14)C-chlordecone was inferior below 1 % of initial (14)C-activity. Less than 2 % of (14)C-activity was retrieved from the water-soluble fraction, while most of it remained in the organic-solvent-extractable fraction (75 % of initial (14)C-activity). Only 23 % of the remaining (14)C-activity was measured in nonextractable fraction. The fate of chlordecone significantly differed between the two soils. The soluble and nonextractable fractions were significantly higher in sandy loam soil than in silty loam soil. All the measured microbiological parameters allowed discriminating statistically the two soils and showed a variation over time. The genetic structure of the bacterial community remained insensitive to chlordecone exposure in silty loam soil. In response to chlordecone exposure, the abundance of Gram-negative bacterial groups (β-, γ-Proteobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Bacteroidetes) was significantly modified only in sandy loam soil. The mineralization of (14)C-sodium acetate and (14)C-2,4-D was insensitive to chlordecone exposure in silty loam soil. However, mineralization of (14)C-sodium acetate was significantly reduced in soil

  9. Group 3 late embryogenesis abundant proteins from embryos of Artemia franciscana: structural properties and protective abilities during desiccation.

    PubMed

    Boswell, Leaf C; Menze, Michael A; Hand, Steven C

    2014-01-01

    Group 3 late embryogenesis abundant (LEA) proteins are highly hydrophilic, and their expression is associated with desiccation tolerance in both plants and animals. Here we show that two LEA proteins from embryos of Artemia franciscana, AfrLEA2 and AfrLEA3m, are intrinsically disordered in solution but upon desiccation gain secondary structure, as measured by circular dichroism. Trifluoroethanol and sodium dodecyl sulfate are both shown to induce α-helical structure in AfrLEA2 and AfrLEA3m. Bioinformatic predictions of secondary-structure content for both proteins correspond most closely to conformations measured in the dry state. Because some LEA proteins afford protection to desiccation-sensitive proteins during drying and subsequent rehydration, we tested for this capacity in AfrLEA2 and AfrLEA3m. The protective capacities vary, depending on the target enzyme. For the cytoplasmic enzyme lactate dehydrogenase, neither AfrLEA2 nor AfrLEA3m, with or without trehalose present, was able to afford protection better than that provided by bovine serum albumin (BSA) under the same conditions. However, for another cytoplasmic enzyme, phosphofructokinase, both AfrLEA2 and AfrLEA3m in the presence of trehalose were able to afford protection far greater than that provided by BSA with trehalose. Finally, for the mitochondrial enzyme citrate synthase, 400-μg/mL AfrLEA3m without trehalose provided significantly more protection than the same concentration of either AfrLEA2 or BSA. PMID:25244376

  10. Implement the medical group revenue function. Create competitive advantage.

    PubMed

    Colucci, C

    1998-01-01

    This article shows medical groups how they can employ new financial management and information technology techniques to safeguard their revenue and income streams. These managerial techniques stem from the application of the medical group revenue function, which is defined herein. This article also describes how the medical group revenue function can be used to create value by employing a database and a decision support system. Finally, the article describes how the decision support system can be used to create competitive advantage. Through the wise use of internally generated information, medical groups can negotiate better contract terms, improve their operations, cut their costs, embark on capital investment programs and improve market share. As medical groups gain market power by improving in these areas, they will be more attractive to potential strategic allies, payers and investment bankers. PMID:10181647

  11. Runoff source or sink? Biocrust hydrological function strongly depends on the relative abundance of mosses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowker, M. A.; Eldridge, D. J.; Maestre, F. T.

    2012-04-01

    The redistribution of water in semi-arid environments is critical for overall ecosystem productivity. To a large degree, ecosystem engineers may determine the redistribution of water. Biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are one such group of ecosystem engineers. Their effects on infiltration have been somewhat controversial, varying from place to place and ranging from strongly positive to strongly negative. In addition, they coexist with and are modified by additional ecosystem engineers. We used a systems approach to examine the interactive effects of multiple engineers on infiltration processes across two analogous sets of interactors. First in Spain, we examined interactions among Stipa tenacissima, biocrusts, and the European rabbit; and in Australia, the interaction between biocrusts and the bilby (a rabbit-like marsupial). We focused on the effects of particular community properties of biocrusts such as species richness, total cover, species composition, and spatial patterning to characterize their variable effects on infiltration. We measured the early (sorptivity) and later (steady-state infiltration) stages of infiltration at two supply potentials using disk permeameters, which allowed us to determine the relative effects of different engineers and soil micropores on water flow through large macropores. In the Spanish case, structural equation modeling showed that both Stipa and biocrust cover exerted substantial and equal positive effects on infiltration under ponding, whereas indirectly, rabbit disturbance negatively affected infiltration by reducing crust cover; rabbits had negligible direct effects. The biocrust influence could be partitioned roughly equally between total cover and composition. All lichen species were negatively related to infiltration and almost all mosses were positively related to infiltration. In the Australian study, bilby forage pits had a direct and strong positive influence on steady state infiltration under ponding and most

  12. Facile one-step coating approach to magnetic submicron particles with poly(ethylene glycol) coats and abundant accessible carboxyl groups

    PubMed Central

    Long, Gaobo; Yang, Xiao-lan; Zhang, Yi; Pu, Jun; Liu, Lin; Liu, Hong-bo; Li, Yuan-li; Liao, Fei

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Magnetic submicron particles (MSPs) are pivotal biomaterials for magnetic separations in bioanalyses, but their preparation remains a technical challenge. In this report, a facile one-step coating approach to MSPs suitable for magnetic separations was investigated. Methods Polyethylene glycol) (PEG) was derived into PEG-bis-(maleic monoester) and maleic monoester-PEG-succinic monoester as the monomers. Magnetofluids were prepared via chemical co-precipitation and dispersion with the monomers. MSPs were prepared via one-step coating of magnetofluids in a water-in-oil microemulsion system of aerosol-OT and heptane by radical co-polymerization of such monomers. Results The resulting MSPs contained abundant carboxyl groups, exhibited negligible nonspecific adsorption of common substances and excellent suspension stability, appeared as irregular particles by electronic microscopy, and had submicron sizes of broad distribution by laser scattering. Saturation magnetizations and average particle sizes were affected mainly by the quantities of monomers used for coating magnetofluids, and steric hindrance around carboxyl groups was alleviated by the use of longer monomers of one polymerizable bond for coating. After optimizations, MSPs bearing saturation magnetizations over 46 emu/g, average sizes of 0.32 μm, and titrated carboxyl groups of about 0.21 mmol/g were obtained. After the activation of carboxyl groups on MSPs into N-hydroxysuccinimide ester, biotin was immobilized on MSPs and the resulting biotin-functionalized MSPs isolated the conjugate of streptavidin and alkaline phosphatase at about 2.1 mg/g MSPs; streptavidin was immobilized at about 10 mg/g MSPs and retained 81% ± 18% (n = 5) of the specific activity of the free form. Conclusion The facile approach effectively prepares MSPs for magnetic separations. PMID:23589687

  13. Richness and abundance of the cardini group of Drosophila (Diptera, Drosophilidae) in the Caatinga and Atlantic Forest biomes in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Cláudia; Silva, Diva Maria Izabel O; Oliveira, Geórgia F; Monteiro, Liv S; Montes, Martín A; Garcia, Ana Cristina L

    2014-12-01

    Brazil has a high diversity of flies of the genus Drosophila, and part of this richness is represented by the cardini group. We analyzed the fluctuations in the richness and abundance of this group, in environments that had never previously been studied in the northeastern region of Brazil. Among the 28,204 drosophilids sampled, 1,294 belonged to the cardini group and were represented by D. polymorpha, D. cardini, D. neocardini and D. cardinoides. Occurrences of D. neocardini and D. cardinoides were registered for the first time in the Caatinga. In this biome, D. cardini stood out as having the highest abundance, and D. polymorpha was not observed. In the coastal Atlantic Forest, D. cardini was not registered, but D. polymorpha was found in all the localities investigated. Mangrove swamps were the environment with the lowest abundance and richness of the cardini group. The High-altitude Forest presented the highest richness of this group. We suggest that the high abundance of D. polymorpha in the High-altitude Forest and in the coastal Atlantic Forest may be a reflection of the historical relationship between these two environments. PMID:25590710

  14. Richness and abundance of the cardini group of Drosophila (Diptera, Drosophilidae) in the Caatinga and Atlantic Forest biomes in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rohde, Cláudia; Silva, Diva Maria Izabel O; Oliveira, Geórgia F; Monteiro, Liv S; Montes, Martín A; Garcia, Ana Cristina L

    2014-11-11

    Brazil has a high diversity of flies of the genus Drosophila, and part of this richness is represented by the cardini group. We analyzed the fluctuations in the richness and abundance of this group, in environments that had never previously been studied in the northeastern region of Brazil. Among the 28,204 drosophilids sampled, 1,294 belonged to the cardini group and were represented by D. polymorpha, D. cardini, D. neocardini and D. cardinoides. Occurrences of D. neocardini and D. cardinoides were registered for the first time in the Caatinga. In this biome, D. cardini stood out as having the highest abundance, and D. polymorpha was not observed. In the coastal Atlantic Forest, D. cardini was not registered, but D. polymorpha was found in all the localities investigated. Mangrove swamps were the environment with the lowest abundance and richness of the cardini group. The High-altitude Forest presented the highest richness of this group. We suggest that the high abundance of D. polymorpha in the High-altitude Forest and in the coastal Atlantic Forest may be a reflection of the historical relationship between these two environments. PMID:25387390

  15. [Macrozoobenthos functional groups in intertidal flat of northwest Jiaozhou Bay].

    PubMed

    Xin, Jun-hong; Ren, Yi-ping; Xu, Bin-duo; Zhang, Chong-liang; Xue, Ying; Ji, Yu-peng

    2011-07-01

    Based on the survey of macrozoobenthos at 35 locations of 7 sections in the intertidal flat of northwest Jiaozhou Bay in February, May, August, and November 2009, three zones including high tidal zone (A), mid tidal zone (B, C, and D), and low tidal zone (E) were selected to study the functional groups of macrozoobenthos in the flat. A total of 71 macrozoobenthos species were recorded, most of which were of mollusk (31 species), polychaete (20 species), and crustacean (14 species). The species number in A, B, C, D, and E was 26, 33, 35, 38, and 31, respectively. According to their food preferences, the macrozoobenthos were classified into 4 functional groups, i. e., planktonphagous, carnivorous, omnivorous, and detritivorous. The percentage of the species number of each functional group in the total species number of macrozoobenthos was in the order of carnivorous > planktophagous > detritivorous > omnivorous. Carnivorous group had the highest species diversity index, while omnivorous group had the lowest one. Overall, the species richness index, evenness index, and species diversity index were higher in mid tidal zone and lower in high and low tidal zones. The present study showed that the distribution of macrozoobenthos functional groups varied with the environment of tidal zones, being an integrative reflection of their habitat conditions. PMID:22007469

  16. Single or functionalized fullerenes interacting with heme group

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, Wallison Chaves; Diniz, Eduardo Moraes

    2014-09-15

    The heme group is responsible for iron transportation through the bloodstream, where iron participates in redox reactions, electron transfer, gases detection etc. The efficiency of such processes can be reduced if the whole heme molecule or even the iron is somehow altered from its original oxidation state, which can be caused by interactions with nanoparticles as fullerenes. To verify how such particles alter the geometry and electronic structure of heme molecule, here we report first principles calculations based on density functional theory of heme group interacting with single C{sub 60} fullerene or with C{sub 60} functionalized with small functional groups (−CH{sub 3}, −COOH, −NH{sub 2}, −OH). The calculations shown that the system heme + nanoparticle has a different spin state in comparison with heme group if the fullerene is functionalized. Also a functional group can provide a stronger binding between nanoparticle and heme molecule or inhibit the chemical bonding in comparison with single fullerene results. In addition heme molecule loses electrons to the nanoparticles and some systems exhibited a geometry distortion in heme group, depending on the binding energy. Furthermore, one find that such nanoparticles induce a formation of spin up states in heme group. Moreover, there exist modifications in density of states near the Fermi energy. Although of such changes in heme electronic structure and geometry, the iron atom remains in the heme group with the same oxidation state, so that processes that involve the iron might not be affected, only those that depend on the whole heme molecule.

  17. The carbon functional group budget of a peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moody, Catherine; Worrall, Fred; Clay, Gareth; Apperley, David

    2016-04-01

    Organic matter samples were taken from each organic matter reservoir and fluvial flux found in a peatland and analysed by elemental analysis for carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen content, and by 13C solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) for functional group composition. The samples analysed were: aboveground, belowground, heather, mosses and sedges, litter layer, four different depths from a peat core, and monthly samples of fluvial particulate and dissolved organic matter. All organic matter samples were taken from a 100% peat catchment within Moor House National Nature Reserve in the North Pennines, UK. The proportion of carbon atoms from each of the eight carbon functional groups (C-alkyl, N-alkyl/methoxyl C, O-alkyl, O2-alkyl/acetal C, aromatic/unsaturated C, phenolic C, aldehyde/ketone C and amide/carboxyl C) from each type of organic matter were combined with an existing carbon budget from the same site, to give a functional group carbon budget. The budget results show that the ecosystem is accumulating N-alkyl/methoxyl C, O-alkyl, O2-alkyl/acetal C and phenolic C groups, but losing C-alkyl, aromatic/unsaturated C, amide/carboxyl C and aldehyde/ketone C. Comparing the functional group compositions between the sampled organic matter pools shows that DOM arises from two distinct sources; from the peat itself and from a vegetation source.

  18. Platinum-group element abundance and distribution in chromite deposits of the Acoje Block, Zambales Ophiolite Complex, Philippines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bacuta, G.C., Jr.; Kay, R.W.; Gibbs, A.K.; Lipin, B.R.

    1990-01-01

    Platinum-group elements (PGE) occur in ore-grade concentration in some of the chromite deposits related to the ultramafic section of the Acoje Block of the Zambales Ophiolite Complex. The deposits are of three types: Type 1 - associated with cumulate peridotites at the base of the crust; Type 2 - in dunite pods from the top 1 km of mantle harzburgite; and Type 3 - like Type 2, but in deeper levels of the harzburgite. Most of the deposites have chromite compositions that are high in Cr with Cr/(Cr + Al) (expressed as chromium index, Cr#) > 0.6; high-Al (Cr# Pd, thought to be characteristic of PGE-barren deposits) and positive slope (Ir < Pd, characteristic of PGE-rich deposits). Iridium, Ru and Os commonly occur as micron-size laurite (sulfide) inclusions in unfractured chromite. Laurite and native Os are also found as inclusions in interstitial sulfides. Platinum and Pd occur as alloy inclusions (and possibly as solid solution) in interstitial Ni-Cu sulfides and as tellurobismuthides in serpentine and altered sulfides. Variability of PGE distribution may be explained by alteration, crystal fractionation or partial melting processes. Alteration and metamorphism were ruled out, because PGE contents do not correlate with degree of serpentinization or the abundance and type (hydroxyl versus non-hydroxyl) of silicate inclusions in chromite. Preliminary Os isotopic data do not support crustal contamination as a source of the PGEs in the Acoje deposits. The anomalous PGE concentrations in Type 1 high-Cr chromite deposits are attributed to two stages of enrichment: an early enrichment of their mantle source from previous melting events and a later stage of sulfide segregation accompanying chromite crystallization. High-Al chromite deposits which crystallized from basalts derived from relatively low degrees of melting owe their low PGE content to partitioning of PGEs in sulfides and alloys that remain in the mantle. High-Cr deposits crystallized from melts that were

  19. Functionalization of carbon nanotube by carboxyl group under radial deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara, Ivi Valentini; Zanella, Ivana; Fagan, Solange Binotto

    2014-01-01

    The dependence of the structural and the electronic properties of functionalized (5, 5) single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT) were investigated through ab initio density functional simulations when the carboxyl group is bonded on the flatter or curved regions. Radial deformations result in diameter decrease of up to 20 per cent of the original size, which was the limit reduction that maintains the SWNT functionalized structure. Changes on the electronic structure were observed due to the symmetry break of the SWNT caused by both the carboxyl group and the C-C bond distortions resulted by the radial deformation. It is observed that the functionalization process is specially favored by the sp3 hybridization induced on the more curved region of the deformed SWNT.

  20. Species, functional groups, and thresholds in ecological resilience

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sundstrom, Shana M.; Allen, Craig R.; Barichievy, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The cross-scale resilience model states that ecological resilience is generated in part from the distribution of functions within and across scales in a system. Resilience is a measure of a system's ability to remain organized around a particular set of mutually reinforcing processes and structures, known as a regime. We define scale as the geographic extent over which a process operates and the frequency with which a process occurs. Species can be categorized into functional groups that are a link between ecosystem processes and structures and ecological resilience. We applied the cross-scale resilience model to avian species in a grassland ecosystem. A species’ morphology is shaped in part by its interaction with ecological structure and pattern, so animal body mass reflects the spatial and temporal distribution of resources. We used the log-transformed rank-ordered body masses of breeding birds associated with grasslands to identify aggregations and discontinuities in the distribution of those body masses. We assessed cross-scale resilience on the basis of 3 metrics: overall number of functional groups, number of functional groups within an aggregation, and the redundancy of functional groups across aggregations. We assessed how the loss of threatened species would affect cross-scale resilience by removing threatened species from the data set and recalculating values of the 3 metrics. We also determined whether more function was retained than expected after the loss of threatened species by comparing observed loss with simulated random loss in a Monte Carlo process. The observed distribution of function compared with the random simulated loss of function indicated that more functionality in the observed data set was retained than expected. On the basis of our results, we believe an ecosystem with a full complement of species can sustain considerable species losses without affecting the distribution of functions within and across aggregations, although

  1. The pattern of change in the abundances of specific bacterioplankton groups is consistent across different nutrient-enriched habitats in Crete.

    PubMed

    Fodelianakis, Stilianos; Papageorgiou, Nafsika; Pitta, Paraskevi; Kasapidis, Panagiotis; Karakassis, Ioannis; Ladoukakis, Emmanuel D

    2014-07-01

    A common source of disturbance for coastal aquatic habitats is nutrient enrichment through anthropogenic activities. Although the water column bacterioplankton communities in these environments have been characterized in some cases, changes in α-diversity and/or the abundances of specific taxonomic groups across enriched habitats remain unclear. Here, we investigated the bacterial community changes at three different nutrient-enriched and adjacent undisturbed habitats along the north coast of Crete, Greece: a fish farm, a closed bay within a town with low water renewal rates, and a city port where the level of nutrient enrichment and the trophic status of the habitat were different. Even though changes in α-diversity were different at each site, we observed across the sites a common change pattern accounting for most of the community variation for five of the most abundant bacterial groups: a decrease in the abundance of the Pelagibacteraceae and SAR86 and an increase in the abundance of the Alteromonadaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, and Cryomorphaceae in the impacted sites. The abundances of the groups that increased and decreased in the impacted sites were significantly correlated (positively and negatively, respectively) with the total heterotrophic bacterial counts and the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and/or dissolved nitrogen and chlorophyll α, indicating that the common change pattern was associated with nutrient enrichment. Our results provide an in situ indication concerning the association of specific bacterioplankton groups with nutrient enrichment. These groups could potentially be used as indicators for nutrient enrichment if the pattern is confirmed over a broader spatial and temporal scale by future studies. PMID:24747897

  2. The Pattern of Change in the Abundances of Specific Bacterioplankton Groups Is Consistent across Different Nutrient-Enriched Habitats in Crete

    PubMed Central

    Fodelianakis, Stilianos; Papageorgiou, Nafsika; Pitta, Paraskevi; Kasapidis, Panagiotis; Karakassis, Ioannis

    2014-01-01

    A common source of disturbance for coastal aquatic habitats is nutrient enrichment through anthropogenic activities. Although the water column bacterioplankton communities in these environments have been characterized in some cases, changes in α-diversity and/or the abundances of specific taxonomic groups across enriched habitats remain unclear. Here, we investigated the bacterial community changes at three different nutrient-enriched and adjacent undisturbed habitats along the north coast of Crete, Greece: a fish farm, a closed bay within a town with low water renewal rates, and a city port where the level of nutrient enrichment and the trophic status of the habitat were different. Even though changes in α-diversity were different at each site, we observed across the sites a common change pattern accounting for most of the community variation for five of the most abundant bacterial groups: a decrease in the abundance of the Pelagibacteraceae and SAR86 and an increase in the abundance of the Alteromonadaceae, Rhodobacteraceae, and Cryomorphaceae in the impacted sites. The abundances of the groups that increased and decreased in the impacted sites were significantly correlated (positively and negatively, respectively) with the total heterotrophic bacterial counts and the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and/or dissolved nitrogen and chlorophyll α, indicating that the common change pattern was associated with nutrient enrichment. Our results provide an in situ indication concerning the association of specific bacterioplankton groups with nutrient enrichment. These groups could potentially be used as indicators for nutrient enrichment if the pattern is confirmed over a broader spatial and temporal scale by future studies. PMID:24747897

  3. Assemblage patterns of fish functional groups relative to habitat connectivity and conditions in floodplain lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miyazono, S.; Aycock, J.N.; Miranda, L.E.; Tietjen, T.E.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the influences of habitat connectivity and local environmental factors on the distribution and abundance patterns of fish functional groups in 17 floodplain lakes in the Yazoo River Basin, USA. The results of univariate and multivariate analyses showed that species-environmental relationships varied with the functional groups. Species richness and assemblage structure of periodic strategists showed strong and positive correlations with habitat connectivity. Densities of most equilibrium and opportunistic strategists decreased with habitat connectivity. Densities of certain equilibrium and opportunistic strategists increased with turbidity. Forested wetlands around the lakes were positively related to the densities of periodic and equilibrium strategists. These results suggest that decreases in habitat connectivity, forested wetland buffers and water quality resulting from environmental manipulations may cause local extinction of certain fish taxa and accelerate the dominance of tolerant fishes in floodplain lakes. ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Chapter 8. Resident Group Influences on Team Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burford, Gale E.; Fulcher, Leon C.

    2006-01-01

    Research has documented important interplays between the diagnostic characteristics of residents in group care centers and the functioning of staff teams responsible for the delivery of services. Factors that impact on the quality of working life satisfactions and frustrations are variable over time and may originate from within the team, the…

  5. Investigation of oxygen functional groups in low rank coal

    SciTech Connect

    Hagaman, E.W.; Lee, S.K.

    1993-07-01

    The distribution of the organic oxygen content of coals among the principal oxygen containing functional groups typically is determined by a combination of chemical and spectroscopic methods (1,2) and results in a classification scheme such as % carboxyl, % hydroxyl, % carbonyl, and % ether. A notable subdivision in this classification scheme is the differentiation of phenols in a coal on the basis of their ortho-substitution pattern (3). Apart from this distinction, the further classification of oxygen into functional group subsets is virtually nonexistent. This paper presents initial experiments that indicate a fuller characterization of oxygen distribution in low rank coal is possible. The experimental approach couples selective chemical perturbation and solid state NMR analysis of the material, specifically, the fluorination of Argonne Premium Coal {number_sign}8, North Dakota lignite, and spectroscopic examination by high resolution solid state {sup 19}F NMR (4). The fluorination reagent is diethylaminosulfur trifluoride (DAST), (Et){sub 2}NSF{sub 3}, which promotes a rich slate of oxygen functional group interconversions that introduce fluorine into the coal matrix (5). The virtual absence of this element in coals make {sup 19}F an attractive NMR nuclei for this application (6). The present experiments use direct detection of the {sup 19}F nucleus under conditions of proton ({sup 1}H) heteronuclear dipolar decoupling and magic angle spinning (MAS). The ca 300 ppm range of {sup 19}F chemical shifts in common carbon-fluorine bonding configurations and high {sup 19}F nuclear sensitivity permit the identification of unique and chemically dilute functional groups in the coal milieu. The unique detection of aromatic and aliphatic carboxylic acids and primary and secondary alcohols provide examples of the exquisite functional group detail that is revealed by this combination of techniques.

  6. Platinum Group Element (PGE) Abundances in Lava Flows Generated by the Hawaiian Plume: Insights into Plume Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shafer, J. T.; Neal, C. R.

    2003-12-01

    Picritic and high-MgO (7.7-24 wt.%) basalt samples from Detroit (/sim81-76 Ma) and Koko (/sim48 Ma) Seamounts along the ESC have been analyzed for PGEs (Ru, Rh, Pd, Ir, and Pt) allowing an examination of how the PGEs in lavas from the Hawaiian plume have changed over time. Major and trace element (including the PGEs) concentrations were quantified by ICP methods at the University of Notre Dame. See Ely et al. (1999, Chem. Geol. 157:219) for the PGE analytical method. Bennett et al. (2000) analyzed Hawaiian picrites and found PGE abundances slightly greater than average MORB and comparable to the low-PGE basaltic komatiites. These authors modeled the PGE abundances of these picrites by using variable amounts of residual sulfide during melting, such that Koolau (low PGE contents) formed from a relatively sulfide-rich source and Loihi (high PGEs) from a sulfide-poor source. Our PGE data from Detroit Seamount show slightly higher PGE abundances than Loihi and Kilauea, suggesting these picrites formed from a source lacking residual sulfide. These results suggest that, if the model of Bennett et al. (2000) is correct, the dilution of plume lava with MORB source, as hypothesized on the basis of depleted isotope ratios and lower trace element abundances than modern Hawaii (Keller et al., 2000, Nature 405:603; Kinman & Neal, 2002, Eos 83:F1282; Regelous et al., 2003, JPet 44:113), was not the controlling factor in PGE abundances. However, since MORB PGE concentrations are not substantially different than low-PGE Hawaiian picrites, incorporation of MORB material within the Hawaiian plume at Detroit Seamount would not have drastically reduced the PGE abundances. Koko Seamount has relatively high PGE concentrations (/sim3-12 times greater than those from Detroit lavas). This may be the result of a lack of residual sulfide facilitated by higher degrees of partial melting. Although our initial data are consistent with variable degrees of partial melting and/or source

  7. Functional gene group analysis identifies synaptic gene groups as risk factor for schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Lips, E S; Cornelisse, L N; Toonen, R F; Min, J L; Hultman, C M; Holmans, P A; O'Donovan, M C; Purcell, S M; Smit, A B; Verhage, M; Sullivan, P F; Visscher, P M; Posthuma, D

    2012-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a highly heritable disorder with a polygenic pattern of inheritance and a population prevalence of ∼1%. Previous studies have implicated synaptic dysfunction in schizophrenia. We tested the accumulated association of genetic variants in expert-curated synaptic gene groups with schizophrenia in 4673 cases and 4965 healthy controls, using functional gene group analysis. Identifying groups of genes with similar cellular function rather than genes in isolation may have clinical implications for finding additional drug targets. We found that a group of 1026 synaptic genes was significantly associated with the risk of schizophrenia (P=7.6 × 10−11) and more strongly associated than 100 randomly drawn, matched control groups of genetic variants (P<0.01). Subsequent analysis of synaptic subgroups suggested that the strongest association signals are derived from three synaptic gene groups: intracellular signal transduction (P=2.0 × 10−4), excitability (P=9.0 × 10−4) and cell adhesion and trans-synaptic signaling (P=2.4 × 10−3). These results are consistent with a role of synaptic dysfunction in schizophrenia and imply that impaired intracellular signal transduction in synapses, synaptic excitability and cell adhesion and trans-synaptic signaling play a role in the pathology of schizophrenia. PMID:21931320

  8. Computing the effective action with the functional renormalization group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codello, Alessandro; Percacci, Roberto; Rachwał, Lesław; Tonero, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The "exact" or "functional" renormalization group equation describes the renormalization group flow of the effective average action Γ _k. The ordinary effective action Γ _0 can be obtained by integrating the flow equation from an ultraviolet scale k=Λ down to k=0. We give several examples of such calculations at one-loop, both in renormalizable and in effective field theories. We reproduce the four-point scattering amplitude in the case of a real scalar field theory with quartic potential and in the case of the pion chiral Lagrangian. In the case of gauge theories, we reproduce the vacuum polarization of QED and of Yang-Mills theory. We also compute the two-point functions for scalars and gravitons in the effective field theory of scalar fields minimally coupled to gravity.

  9. Properties of graphene inks stabilized by different functional groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Di; Li, Hongwei; Han, Dongxue; Zhang, Qixian; Niu, Li; Yang, Huafeng; Bower, Chris; Andrew, Piers; Ryhänen, Tapani

    2011-06-01

    Different graphene inks have been synthesized by chemical methods. These uniform dispersions were stabilized by various functional groups such as room temperature ionic liquid, polyaniline, polyelectrolyte (poly[2,5-bis(3-sulfonatopropoxy)-1,4-ethynylphenylene-alt-1,4-ethynylphenylene] sodium salt) and poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS). The dispersions can be easily cast into high-quality, free-standing films but with very different physiochemical properties such as surface tension and adhesion. SEM and AFM methods have been applied to have a detailed study of the properties of the inks. It is found that graphenes modified by p-type polyaniline show the highest surface tension. Diverse surface adhesive properties to the substrate are also found with various functional groups. The different viscoelasticities of graphene inks were related to the microscopic structure of their coating layer and subsequently related to the configuration, chemistry and molecular dimensions of the modifying molecules to establish the property-structure relationship. Modifications of graphene inks made from chemical reduction cannot only enable cost-effective processing for printable electronics but also extend the applications into, for example, self-assembly of graphene via bottom-up nano-architecture and surface energy engineering of the graphenes. To fabricate useful devices, understanding the surface properties of graphene inks is very important. It is the first paper of this kind to study the surface tension and adhesion of graphene influenced by different functional groups.

  10. Properties of graphene inks stabilized by different functional groups.

    PubMed

    Wei, Di; Li, Hongwei; Han, Dongxue; Zhang, Qixian; Niu, Li; Yang, Huafeng; Bower, Chris; Andrew, Piers; Ryhänen, Tapani

    2011-06-17

    Different graphene inks have been synthesized by chemical methods. These uniform dispersions were stabilized by various functional groups such as room temperature ionic liquid, polyaniline, polyelectrolyte (poly[2,5-bis(3-sulfonatopropoxy)-1,4-ethynylphenylene-alt-1,4-ethynylphenylene] sodium salt) and poly(styrenesulfonate) (PSS). The dispersions can be easily cast into high-quality, free-standing films but with very different physiochemical properties such as surface tension and adhesion. SEM and AFM methods have been applied to have a detailed study of the properties of the inks. It is found that graphenes modified by p-type polyaniline show the highest surface tension. Diverse surface adhesive properties to the substrate are also found with various functional groups. The different viscoelasticities of graphene inks were related to the microscopic structure of their coating layer and subsequently related to the configuration, chemistry and molecular dimensions of the modifying molecules to establish the property-structure relationship. Modifications of graphene inks made from chemical reduction cannot only enable cost-effective processing for printable electronics but also extend the applications into, for example, self-assembly of graphene via bottom-up nano-architecture and surface energy engineering of the graphenes. To fabricate useful devices, understanding the surface properties of graphene inks is very important. It is the first paper of this kind to study the surface tension and adhesion of graphene influenced by different functional groups. PMID:21508455

  11. Slug responses to grassland cutting and fertilizer application under plant functional group removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everwand, Georg; Scherber, Christoph; Tscharntke, Teja

    2013-04-01

    Current studies on trophic interactions in biodiversity experiments have largely relied on artificially sown gradients in plant diversity, but removal experiments with their more natural plant community composition are more realistic. Slugs are a major part of the invertebrate herbivore community, with some species being common pests in agriculture. We therefore investigated how strongly slugs are influenced by grassland management, plant biodiversity and composition. Here we analysed the effects of cutting frequency, fertilizer application and plant functional group composition on slug densities and their contribution to herbivory on Rumex acetosa in a removal experiment within a >100-year old grassland in Northern Germany. The experiment was laid out as a Latin rectangle with full factorial combinations of (i) plant functional group removal (3 levels) using herbicides, (ii) fertilizer application (2 levels) and (iii) cutting frequency (2 levels). The resulting 12 treatment combinations were replicated 6 times, resulting in 72 plots. We collected a total of 1020 individuals belonging to three species Arion distinctus (60.4% of individuals), Deroceras reticulatum (34.7%) and Arion lusitanicus (4.9%) using a cover board technique and additionally measured herbivore damage to R. acetosa. We found the highest slug abundance on plots with a low cutting frequency and high food resource availability (increased cover of forbs and taller vegetation). Fertilizer application had no significant effect on slug abundance, but caused higher herbivore damage to on R. acetosa, possibly as a result of increased tissue quality. The negative effect of higher cutting frequency on slug abundance was lowest in control plots with their naturally developed graminoid-forb communities (cutting reduced slug density by 6% in the control vs. 29% in herbicide plots). Our experiments therefore support the idea that more natural plant species compositions reduce the impact of disturbances (e

  12. Functional renormalization group analysis of tensorial group field theories on Rd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geloun, Joseph Ben; Martini, Riccardo; Oriti, Daniele

    2016-07-01

    Rank-d tensorial group field theories are quantum field theories (QFTs) defined on a group manifold G×d , which represent a nonlocal generalization of standard QFT and a candidate formalism for quantum gravity, since, when endowed with appropriate data, they can be interpreted as defining a field theoretic description of the fundamental building blocks of quantum spacetime. Their renormalization analysis is crucial both for establishing their consistency as quantum field theories and for studying the emergence of continuum spacetime and geometry from them. In this paper, we study the renormalization group flow of two simple classes of tensorial group field theories (TGFTs), defined for the group G =R for arbitrary rank, both without and with gauge invariance conditions, by means of functional renormalization group techniques. The issue of IR divergences is tackled by the definition of a proper thermodynamic limit for TGFTs. We map the phase diagram of such models, in a simple truncation, and identify both UV and IR fixed points of the RG flow. Encouragingly, for all the models we study, we find evidence for the existence of a phase transition of condensation type.

  13. Functional renormalization group approach for tensorial group field theory: a rank-6 model with closure constraint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetti, Dario; Lahoche, Vincent

    2016-05-01

    We develop the functional renormalization group formalism for a tensorial group field theory with closure constraint, in the case of a just renormalizable model over U{(1)}\\otimes 6, with quartic interactions. The method allows us to obtain a closed but non-autonomous system of differential equations which describe the renormalization group flow of the couplings beyond perturbation theory. The explicit dependence of the beta functions on the running scale is due to the existence of an external scale in the model, the radius of {S}1≃ U(1). We study the occurrence of fixed points and their critical properties in two different approximate regimes, corresponding to the deep UV and deep IR. Besides confirming the asymptotic freedom of the model, we find also a non-trivial fixed point, with one relevant direction. Our results are qualitatively similar to those found previously for a rank-3 model without closure constraint, and it is thus tempting to speculate that the presence of a Wilson-Fisher-like fixed point is a general feature of asymptotically free tensorial group field theories.

  14. Geographic differences between functional groups in patterns of bird species richness in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carnicer, Jofre; Díaz-Delgado, Ricardo

    2008-03-01

    Geographic divergences in patterns of species richness were studied for the terrestrial birds of North America using Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) census data subdivided for guild and migratory groups. Our aim was to study if species richness patterns for North American birds were best viewed as the convergent response of different groups to a common mechanism or as the result of several different processes. We observed opposite geographical patterns of species richness and differences in the variables associated with species richness depending on the guild or migratory status considered. Several ecological variables seem to regulate large-scale patterns of terrestrial bird species richness in North America, mainly temperature-, productivity- and landscape habitat structure-related variables. These variables are diverse and group-specific. For instance, the results supported the productivity hypothesis in migratory and frugivore groups and the winter tolerance hypothesis in residents. Habitat structure was also identified as an important factor driving species richness, total abundance and community body mass variation. Overall, our results indicate that the large-scale patterns of bird species richness are the result of several divergent, group-specific processes, and that understanding diversity gradients requires the identification of the functional ecological groups included.

  15. Characterization of Sea Lettuce Surface Functional Groups by Potentiometric Titrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebling, A. M.; Schijf, J.

    2008-12-01

    In pursuit of our ultimate goal to better understand the prodigious capacity of the marine macroalga Ulva lactuca (sea lettuce) for adsorbing a broad range of dissolved trace metals from seawater, we performed an initial characterization of its surface functional groups. Specifically, the number of distinct functional groups as well as their individual bulk concentrations and acid dissociation constants (pKas) were determined by potentiometric titrations in NaCl solutions of various ionic strengths (I = 0.01-5.0 M), under inert nitrogen atmosphere at 25°C. Depending on the ionic strength, Ulva samples were manually titrated down to pH 2 or 3 with 1 N HCl and then up to pH 10 with 1 N NaOH in steps of 0.1-0.2 units, continuously monitoring pH with a glass combination electrode. Titrations of a dehydrated Ulva standard reference material (BCR-279) were compared with fresh Ulva tissue cultured in our laboratory. A titration in filtered natural seawater was also compared with one in an NaCl solution of equal ionic strength. Equilibrium constants for the ionization of water in NaCl solutions as a function of ionic strength were obtained from the literature. Fits to the titration data ([H]T vs. pH) were performed with the FITEQL4.0 computer code using non-electrostatic 3-, 4-, and 5-site models, either by fixing ionic strength at its experimental value or by allowing it to be extrapolated to zero, while considering all functional group pKas and bulk concentrations as adjustable parameters. Since pKas and bulk concentrations were found to be strongly correlated, the latter were also fixed in some cases to further constrain the pKas. Whereas these calculations are currently ongoing, preliminary results point to three, possibly four, functional groups with pKas of about 4.1, 6.3, and 9.5 at I = 0. Bulk concentrations of the three groups are very similar, about 5-6×10-4 mol/g based on dry weight, which suggests that all are homogeneously distributed over the surface and

  16. Tree Plantation Systems Influence Nitrogen Retention and the Abundance of Nitrogen Functional Genes in the Solomon Islands

    PubMed Central

    Reverchon, Frédérique; Bai, Shahla H.; Liu, Xian; Blumfield, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Tree mono-plantations are susceptible to soil nutrient impoverishment and mixed species plantations have been proposed as a way of maintaining soil fertility while enhancing biodiversity. In the Solomon Islands, mixed species plantations where teak (Tectona grandis) is inter-planted with a local tree species (Flueggea flexuosa) have been used as an alternative to teak mono-plantations and are expected to increase soil microbial diversity and modify microbial biogeochemical processes. In this study, we quantified the abundance of microbial functional genes involved in the nitrogen (N) cycle from soil samples collected in teak, flueggea, and mixed species plantations. Furthermore, we measured soil properties such as pH, total carbon (C) and total N, stable N isotope composition (δ15N), and inorganic N pools. Soil pH and δ15N were higher under teak than under flueggea, which indicates that intercropping teak with flueggea may decrease bacterial activities and potential N losses. Higher C:N ratios were found under mixed species plantations than those under teak, suggesting an enhancement of N immobilization that would help preventing fast N losses. However, inorganic N pools remained unaffected by plant cover. Inter-planting teak with flueggea in mixed species plantations generally increased the relative abundance of denitrification genes and promoted the enrichment of nosZ-harboring denitrifiers. However, it reduced the abundance of bacterial amoA (ammonia monooxygenase) genes compared to teak mono-plantations. The abundance of most denitrification genes correlated with soil total N and C:N ratio, while bacterial and archeal nitrification genes correlated positively with soil NH4+ concentrations. Altogether, these results show that the abundance of bacterial N-cycling functional guilds vary under teak and under mixed species plantations, and that inter-planting teak with flueggea may potentially alleviate N losses associated with nitrification and denitrification

  17. Tree Plantation Systems Influence Nitrogen Retention and the Abundance of Nitrogen Functional Genes in the Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Reverchon, Frédérique; Bai, Shahla H; Liu, Xian; Blumfield, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    Tree mono-plantations are susceptible to soil nutrient impoverishment and mixed species plantations have been proposed as a way of maintaining soil fertility while enhancing biodiversity. In the Solomon Islands, mixed species plantations where teak (Tectona grandis) is inter-planted with a local tree species (Flueggea flexuosa) have been used as an alternative to teak mono-plantations and are expected to increase soil microbial diversity and modify microbial biogeochemical processes. In this study, we quantified the abundance of microbial functional genes involved in the nitrogen (N) cycle from soil samples collected in teak, flueggea, and mixed species plantations. Furthermore, we measured soil properties such as pH, total carbon (C) and total N, stable N isotope composition (δ(15)N), and inorganic N pools. Soil pH and δ(15)N were higher under teak than under flueggea, which indicates that intercropping teak with flueggea may decrease bacterial activities and potential N losses. Higher C:N ratios were found under mixed species plantations than those under teak, suggesting an enhancement of N immobilization that would help preventing fast N losses. However, inorganic N pools remained unaffected by plant cover. Inter-planting teak with flueggea in mixed species plantations generally increased the relative abundance of denitrification genes and promoted the enrichment of nosZ-harboring denitrifiers. However, it reduced the abundance of bacterial amoA (ammonia monooxygenase) genes compared to teak mono-plantations. The abundance of most denitrification genes correlated with soil total N and C:N ratio, while bacterial and archeal nitrification genes correlated positively with soil NH4 (+) concentrations. Altogether, these results show that the abundance of bacterial N-cycling functional guilds vary under teak and under mixed species plantations, and that inter-planting teak with flueggea may potentially alleviate N losses associated with nitrification and

  18. Intracellular localization of a group II chaperonin indicates a membrane-related function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trent, Jonathan D.; Kagawa, Hiromi K.; Paavola, Chad D.; McMillan, R. Andrew; Howard, Jeanie; Jahnke, Linda; Lavin, Colleen; Embaye, Tsegereda; Henze, Christopher E.

    2003-01-01

    Chaperonins are protein complexes that are believed to function as part of a protein folding system in the cytoplasm of the cell. We observed, however, that the group II chaperonins known as rosettasomes in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus shibatae, are not cytoplasmic but membrane associated. This association was observed in cultures grown at 60 degrees C and 76 degrees C or heat-shocked at 85 degrees C by using immunofluorescence microscopy and in thick sections of rapidly frozen cells grown at 76 degrees C by using immunogold electron microscopy. We observed that increased abundance of rosettasomes after heat shock correlated with decreased membrane permeability at lethal temperature (92 degrees C). This change in permeability was not seen in cells heat-shocked in the presence of the amino acid analogue azetidine 2-carboxylic acid, indicating functional protein synthesis influences permeability. Azetidine experiments also indicated that observed heat-induced changes in lipid composition in S. shibatae could not account for changes in membrane permeability. Rosettasomes purified from cultures grown at 60 degrees C and 76 degrees C or heat-shocked at 85 degrees C bind to liposomes made from either the bipolar tetraether lipids of Sulfolobus or a variety of artificial lipid mixtures. The presence of rosettasomes did not significantly change the transition temperature of liposomes, as indicated by differential scanning calorimetry, or the proton permeability of liposomes, as indicated by pyranine fluorescence. We propose that these group II chaperonins function as a structural element in the natural membrane based on their intracellular location, the correlation between their functional abundance and membrane permeability, and their potential distribution on the membrane surface.

  19. Intracellular localization of a group II chaperonin indicates a membrane-related function

    PubMed Central

    Trent, Jonathan D.; Kagawa, Hiromi K.; Paavola, Chad D.; McMillan, R. Andrew; Howard, Jeanie; Jahnke, Linda; Lavin, Colleen; Embaye, Tsegereda; Henze, Christopher E.

    2003-01-01

    Chaperonins are protein complexes that are believed to function as part of a protein folding system in the cytoplasm of the cell. We observed, however, that the group II chaperonins known as rosettasomes in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Sulfolobus shibatae, are not cytoplasmic but membrane associated. This association was observed in cultures grown at 60°C and 76°C or heat-shocked at 85°C by using immunofluorescence microscopy and in thick sections of rapidly frozen cells grown at 76°C by using immunogold electron microscopy. We observed that increased abundance of rosettasomes after heat shock correlated with decreased membrane permeability at lethal temperature (92°C). This change in permeability was not seen in cells heat-shocked in the presence of the amino acid analogue azetidine 2-carboxylic acid, indicating functional protein synthesis influences permeability. Azetidine experiments also indicated that observed heat-induced changes in lipid composition in S. shibatae could not account for changes in membrane permeability. Rosettasomes purified from cultures grown at 60°C and 76°C or heat-shocked at 85°C bind to liposomes made from either the bipolar tetraether lipids of Sulfolobus or a variety of artificial lipid mixtures. The presence of rosettasomes did not significantly change the transition temperature of liposomes, as indicated by differential scanning calorimetry, or the proton permeability of liposomes, as indicated by pyranine fluorescence. We propose that these group II chaperonins function as a structural element in the natural membrane based on their intracellular location, the correlation between their functional abundance and membrane permeability, and their potential distribution on the membrane surface. PMID:14673104

  20. Pelagic functional group modeling: Progress, challenges and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, Raleigh R.; Laws, Edward A.; Armstrong, Robert A.; Bates, Nicholas R.; Brown, Christopher W.; Carlson, Craig A.; Chai, Fei; Doney, Scott C.; Falkowski, Paul G.; Feely, Richard A.; Friedrichs, Marjorie A. M.; Landry, Michael R.; Keith Moore, J.; Nelson, David M.; Richardson, Tammi L.; Salihoglu, Baris; Schartau, Markus; Toole, Dierdre A.; Wiggert, Jerry D.

    2006-03-01

    In this paper, we review the state of the art and major challenges in current efforts to incorporate biogeochemical functional groups into models that can be applied on basin-wide and global scales, with an emphasis on models that might ultimately be used to predict how biogeochemical cycles in the ocean will respond to global warming. We define the term "biogeochemical functional group" to refer to groups of organisms that mediate specific chemical reactions in the ocean. Thus, according to this definition, "functional groups" have no phylogenetic meaning—these are composed of many different species with common biogeochemical functions. Substantial progress has been made in the last decade toward quantifying the rates of these various functions and understanding the factors that control them. For some of these groups, we have developed fairly sophisticated models that incorporate this understanding, e.g. for diazotrophs (e.g. Trichodesmium), silica producers (diatoms) and calcifiers (e.g. coccolithophorids and specifically Emiliania huxleyi). However, current representations of nitrogen fixation and calcification are incomplete, i.e., based primarily upon models of Trichodesmium and E. huxleyi, respectively, and many important functional groups have not yet been considered in open-ocean biogeochemical models. Progress has been made over the last decade in efforts to simulate dimethylsulfide (DMS) production and cycling (i.e., by dinoflagellates and prymnesiophytes) and denitrification, but these efforts are still in their infancy, and many significant problems remain. One obvious gap is that virtually all functional group modeling efforts have focused on autotrophic microbes, while higher trophic levels have been completely ignored. It appears that in some cases (e.g., calcification), incorporating higher trophic levels may be essential not only for representing a particular biogeochemical reaction, but also for modeling export. Another serious problem is our

  1. Molecular dynamics simulations of functionalized carbon nanotubes in water: Effects of type and position of functional groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foroutan, Masumeh; Moshari, Mahshad

    2010-11-01

    In this work the behavior of the (8,2) single walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and functionalized carbon nanotubes (FCNTs) with four functional groups in water were studied using molecular dynamic (MD) simulation method. Glutamine as a long chain functional group and carboxyl as a short chain functional group have been used as functional groups in FCNTs. Four functional groups in each FCNT were localized at two positions: (i) all four functional groups were in the sidewalls of nanotube, (ii) two functional groups were at the ends and two functional groups were in the sidewalls of nanotube. The intermolecular interaction energies between CNTs or FCNTs and water molecules, the plots of radial distribution function and the diffusion coefficients of CNTs and FCNTs in water were computed for investigating the effects of type and position of functional groups on the behavior of FCNTs in water. The obtained results from three methods are consistent with each others. Results showed that the position of the functional groups in FCNTs has an important role in the interaction of hydrophilic groups of FCNTs with water molecules. Furthermore we also investigated the behavior of FCNTs with sixteen carboxyl functional groups in water. The presence of these large numbers of carboxyl functional groups on the carbon nanotubes prevents water molecules from moving towards hydrophilic carboxyl functional groups. This demonstrates the advantage of using lower number of functional groups each containing many hydrophilic groups like glutamine functional group.

  2. Functional group-specific traits drive phytoplankton dynamics in the oligotrophic ocean

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Harriet; Rouco, Mónica; Haley, Sheean T.; Wilson, Samuel T.; Karl, David M.; Dyhrman, Sonya T.

    2015-01-01

    A diverse microbial assemblage in the ocean is responsible for nearly half of global primary production. It has been hypothesized and experimentally demonstrated that nutrient loading can stimulate blooms of large eukaryotic phytoplankton in oligotrophic systems. Although central to balancing biogeochemical models, knowledge of the metabolic traits that govern the dynamics of these bloom-forming phytoplankton is limited. We used eukaryotic metatranscriptomic techniques to identify the metabolic basis of functional group-specific traits that may drive the shift between net heterotrophy and autotrophy in the oligotrophic ocean. Replicated blooms were simulated by deep seawater (DSW) addition to mimic nutrient loading in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre, and the transcriptional responses of phytoplankton functional groups were assayed. Responses of the diatom, haptophyte, and dinoflagellate functional groups in simulated blooms were unique, with diatoms and haptophytes significantly (95% confidence) shifting their quantitative metabolic fingerprint from the in situ condition, whereas dinoflagellates showed little response. Significantly differentially abundant genes identified the importance of colimitation by nutrients, metals, and vitamins in eukaryotic phytoplankton metabolism and bloom formation in this system. The variable transcript allocation ratio, used to quantify transcript reallocation following DSW amendment, differed for diatoms and haptophytes, reflecting the long-standing paradigm of phytoplankton r- and K-type growth strategies. Although the underlying metabolic potential of the large eukaryotic phytoplankton was consistently present, the lack of a bloom during the study period suggests a crucial dependence on physical and biogeochemical forcing, which are susceptible to alteration with changing climate. PMID:26460011

  3. Functional group-specific traits drive phytoplankton dynamics in the oligotrophic ocean.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Harriet; Rouco, Mónica; Haley, Sheean T; Wilson, Samuel T; Karl, David M; Dyhrman, Sonya T

    2015-11-01

    A diverse microbial assemblage in the ocean is responsible for nearly half of global primary production. It has been hypothesized and experimentally demonstrated that nutrient loading can stimulate blooms of large eukaryotic phytoplankton in oligotrophic systems. Although central to balancing biogeochemical models, knowledge of the metabolic traits that govern the dynamics of these bloom-forming phytoplankton is limited. We used eukaryotic metatranscriptomic techniques to identify the metabolic basis of functional group-specific traits that may drive the shift between net heterotrophy and autotrophy in the oligotrophic ocean. Replicated blooms were simulated by deep seawater (DSW) addition to mimic nutrient loading in the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre, and the transcriptional responses of phytoplankton functional groups were assayed. Responses of the diatom, haptophyte, and dinoflagellate functional groups in simulated blooms were unique, with diatoms and haptophytes significantly (95% confidence) shifting their quantitative metabolic fingerprint from the in situ condition, whereas dinoflagellates showed little response. Significantly differentially abundant genes identified the importance of colimitation by nutrients, metals, and vitamins in eukaryotic phytoplankton metabolism and bloom formation in this system. The variable transcript allocation ratio, used to quantify transcript reallocation following DSW amendment, differed for diatoms and haptophytes, reflecting the long-standing paradigm of phytoplankton r- and K-type growth strategies. Although the underlying metabolic potential of the large eukaryotic phytoplankton was consistently present, the lack of a bloom during the study period suggests a crucial dependence on physical and biogeochemical forcing, which are susceptible to alteration with changing climate. PMID:26460011

  4. Organized thiol functional groups in mesoporous core shell colloids

    SciTech Connect

    Marchena, Martin H.; Granada, Mara; Bordoni, Andrea V.; Joselevich, Maria; Troiani, Horacio; Williams, Federico J.; Wolosiuk, Alejandro

    2012-03-15

    The co-condensation in situ of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) and mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane (MPTMS) using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a template results in the synthesis of multilayered mesoporous structured SiO{sub 2} colloids with 'onion-like' chemical environments. Thiol groups were anchored to an inner selected SiO{sub 2} porous layer in a bilayered core shell particle producing different chemical regions inside the colloidal layered structure. X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) shows a preferential anchoring of the -SH groups in the double layer shell system, while porosimetry and simple chemical modifications confirm that pores are accessible. We can envision the synthesis of interesting colloidal objects with defined chemical environments with highly controlled properties. - Graphical abstract: Mesoporous core shell SiO{sub 2} colloids with organized thiol groups. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Double shell mesoporous silica colloids templated with CTAB. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sequential deposition of mesoporous SiO{sub 2} layers with different chemistries. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer XPS shows the selective functionalization of mesoporous layers with thiol groups.

  5. FTIR Analysis of Functional Groups in Aerosol Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shokri, S. M.; McKenzie, G.; Dransfield, T. J.

    2012-12-01

    Secondary organic aerosols (SOA) are suspensions of particulate matter composed of compounds formed from chemical reactions of organic species in the atmosphere. Atmospheric particulate matter can have impacts on climate, the environment and human health. Standardized techniques to analyze the characteristics and composition of complex secondary organic aerosols are necessary to further investigate the formation of SOA and provide a better understanding of the reaction pathways of organic species in the atmosphere. While Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS) can provide detailed information about the elemental composition of a sample, it reveals little about the chemical moieties which make up the particles. This work probes aerosol particles deposited on Teflon filters using FTIR, based on the protocols of Russell, et al. (Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, 114, 2009) and the spectral fitting algorithm of Takahama, et al (submitted, 2012). To validate the necessary calibration curves for the analysis of complex samples, primary aerosols of key compounds (e.g., citric acid, ammonium sulfate, sodium benzoate) were generated, and the accumulated masses of the aerosol samples were related to their IR absorption intensity. These validated calibration curves were then used to classify and quantify functional groups in SOA samples generated in chamber studies by MIT's Kroll group. The fitting algorithm currently quantifies the following functionalities: alcohols, alkanes, alkenes, amines, aromatics, carbonyls and carboxylic acids.

  6. Individual Functional ROI Optimization via Maximization of Group-wise Consistency of Structural and Functional Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Li, Kaiming; Guo, Lei; Zhu, Dajiang; Hu, Xintao; Han, Junwei; Liu, Tianming

    2013-01-01

    Studying connectivities among functional brain regions and the functional dynamics on brain networks has drawn increasing interest. A fundamental issue that affects functional connectivity and dynamics studies is how to determine the best possible functional brain regions or ROIs (regions of interest) for a group of individuals, since the connectivity measurements are heavily dependent on ROI locations. Essentially, identification of accurate, reliable and consistent corresponding ROIs is challenging due to the unclear boundaries between brain regions, variability across individuals, and nonlinearity of the ROIs. In response to these challenges, this paper presents a novel methodology to computationally optimize ROIs locations derived from task-based fMRI data for individuals so that the optimized ROIs are more consistent, reproducible and predictable across brains. Our computational strategy is to formulate the individual ROI location optimization as a group variance minimization problem, in which group-wise consistencies in functional/structural connectivity patterns and anatomic profiles are defined as optimization constraints. Our experimental results from multimodal fMRI and DTI data show that the optimized ROIs have significantly improved consistency in structural and functional profiles across individuals. These improved functional ROIs with better consistency could contribute to further study of functional interaction and dynamics in the human brain. PMID:22281931

  7. Difference in nutritional risk between mild cognitive impairment group and normal cognitive function elderly group.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kang Soo; Hong, Chang Hyung; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Oh, Byoung Hoon

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to delineate the difference in nutritional risk between mild cognitive impairment (MCI) groups and normal cognitive function (NCF) elderly groups in the community. Data obtained from 490 subjects (237 NCF elderly and 253 MCI subjects) between 60 and 90 years of age were analyzed. The study protocol comprised demographic characteristics, history of current and past illnesses, drug history, Korean version of short-form Geriatric Depression Scale (K-SGDS), and nutritional screening initiative (NSI) checklist. Cognitive function was assessed by digit span, Korean short version of Boston naming test (K-BNT), simple Rey figure test, auditory verbal learning test (AVLT), controlled oral word association test (COWAT), stroop, go-no go, and contrasting program. Also, we examined the blood pressure, fasting serum glucose level, lipid profile, body mass index (BMI), and ApoE genotype. Multiple logistic regression analysis found that MCI was associated with moderate or high nutritional risk after adjustment for age, sex, educational level, and K-SGDS score (odds ratio (OR)=1.13, 95%; confidence interval (CI)=1.01-1.26). These results suggest that MCI may be associated with nutritional risk. Screening for nutritional risk should be included in multidimensional geriatric evaluation. PMID:18524396

  8. Spatial Abundance and Distribution of Potential Microbes and Functional Genes Associated with Anaerobic Mineralization of Pentachlorophenol in a Cylindrical Reactor.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Ling; Nan, Jun; Huang, Cong; Liang, Bin; Liu, Wen-Zong; Cheng, Hao-Yi; Zhang, Chunfang; Zhang, Dongdong; Kong, Deyong; Kanamaru, Kyoko; Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Wang, Ai-Jie; Katayama, Arata

    2016-01-01

    Functional interplays of microbial activity, genetic diversity and contaminant transformation are poorly understood in reactors for mineralizing halogenated aromatics anaerobically. Here, we investigated abundance and distribution of potential microbes and functional genes associated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) anaerobic mineralization in a continuous-flow cylindrical reactor (15 cm in length). PCP dechlorination and the metabolite (phenol) were observed at segments 0-8 cm from inlet, where key microbes, including potential reductive dechlorinators (Dehalobacter, Sulfurospirillum, Desulfitobacterium and Desulfovibrio spp.) and phenol degraders (Cryptanaerobacter and Syntrophus spp.), as well as putative functional genes, including putative chlorophenol reductive dehalogenase (cprA) and benzoyl-CoA reductase (bamB), were highly enriched simultaneously. Five types of putative cprAs, three types of putative bamBs and seven types of putative nitrogenase reductase (nifHs) were determined, with their copy numbers decreased gradually from inlet to outlet. Distribution of chemicals, bacteria and putative genes confirmed PCP dechlorination and phenol degradation accomplished in segments 0-5 cm and 0-8 cm, respectively, contributing to a high PCP mineralization rate of 3.86 μM d(-1). Through long-term incubation, dechlorination, phenol degradation and nitrogen fixation bacteria coexisted and functioned simultaneously near inlet (0-8 cm), verified the feasibility of anaerobic mineralization of halogenated aromatics in the compact reactor containing multiple functional microbes. PMID:26750760

  9. Spatial Abundance and Distribution of Potential Microbes and Functional Genes Associated with Anaerobic Mineralization of Pentachlorophenol in a Cylindrical Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhi-Ling; Nan, Jun; Huang, Cong; Liang, Bin; Liu, Wen-Zong; Cheng, Hao-Yi; Zhang, Chunfang; Zhang, Dongdong; Kong, Deyong; Kanamaru, Kyoko; Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Wang, Ai-Jie; Katayama, Arata

    2016-01-01

    Functional interplays of microbial activity, genetic diversity and contaminant transformation are poorly understood in reactors for mineralizing halogenated aromatics anaerobically. Here, we investigated abundance and distribution of potential microbes and functional genes associated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) anaerobic mineralization in a continuous-flow cylindrical reactor (15 cm in length). PCP dechlorination and the metabolite (phenol) were observed at segments 0-8 cm from inlet, where key microbes, including potential reductive dechlorinators (Dehalobacter, Sulfurospirillum, Desulfitobacterium and Desulfovibrio spp.) and phenol degraders (Cryptanaerobacter and Syntrophus spp.), as well as putative functional genes, including putative chlorophenol reductive dehalogenase (cprA) and benzoyl-CoA reductase (bamB), were highly enriched simultaneously. Five types of putative cprAs, three types of putative bamBs and seven types of putative nitrogenase reductase (nifHs) were determined, with their copy numbers decreased gradually from inlet to outlet. Distribution of chemicals, bacteria and putative genes confirmed PCP dechlorination and phenol degradation accomplished in segments 0-5 cm and 0-8 cm, respectively, contributing to a high PCP mineralization rate of 3.86 μM d-1. Through long-term incubation, dechlorination, phenol degradation and nitrogen fixation bacteria coexisted and functioned simultaneously near inlet (0-8 cm), verified the feasibility of anaerobic mineralization of halogenated aromatics in the compact reactor containing multiple functional microbes.

  10. Spatial Abundance and Distribution of Potential Microbes and Functional Genes Associated with Anaerobic Mineralization of Pentachlorophenol in a Cylindrical Reactor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi-Ling; Nan, Jun; Huang, Cong; Liang, Bin; Liu, Wen-Zong; Cheng, Hao-Yi; Zhang, Chunfang; Zhang, Dongdong; Kong, Deyong; Kanamaru, Kyoko; Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Wang, Ai-Jie; Katayama, Arata

    2016-01-01

    Functional interplays of microbial activity, genetic diversity and contaminant transformation are poorly understood in reactors for mineralizing halogenated aromatics anaerobically. Here, we investigated abundance and distribution of potential microbes and functional genes associated with pentachlorophenol (PCP) anaerobic mineralization in a continuous-flow cylindrical reactor (15 cm in length). PCP dechlorination and the metabolite (phenol) were observed at segments 0–8 cm from inlet, where key microbes, including potential reductive dechlorinators (Dehalobacter, Sulfurospirillum, Desulfitobacterium and Desulfovibrio spp.) and phenol degraders (Cryptanaerobacter and Syntrophus spp.), as well as putative functional genes, including putative chlorophenol reductive dehalogenase (cprA) and benzoyl-CoA reductase (bamB), were highly enriched simultaneously. Five types of putative cprAs, three types of putative bamBs and seven types of putative nitrogenase reductase (nifHs) were determined, with their copy numbers decreased gradually from inlet to outlet. Distribution of chemicals, bacteria and putative genes confirmed PCP dechlorination and phenol degradation accomplished in segments 0–5 cm and 0–8 cm, respectively, contributing to a high PCP mineralization rate of 3.86 μM d−1. Through long-term incubation, dechlorination, phenol degradation and nitrogen fixation bacteria coexisted and functioned simultaneously near inlet (0–8 cm), verified the feasibility of anaerobic mineralization of halogenated aromatics in the compact reactor containing multiple functional microbes. PMID:26750760

  11. Insyght: navigating amongst abundant homologues, syntenies and gene functional annotations in bacteria, it's that symbol!

    PubMed Central

    Lacroix, Thomas; Loux, Valentin; Gendrault, Annie; Hoebeke, Mark; Gibrat, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    High-throughput techniques have considerably increased the potential of comparative genomics whilst simultaneously posing many new challenges. One of those challenges involves efficiently mining the large amount of data produced and exploring the landscape of both conserved and idiosyncratic genomic regions across multiple genomes. Domains of application of these analyses are diverse: identification of evolutionary events, inference of gene functions, detection of niche-specific genes or phylogenetic profiling. Insyght is a comparative genomic visualization tool that combines three complementary displays: (i) a table for thoroughly browsing amongst homologues, (ii) a comparator of orthologue functional annotations and (iii) a genomic organization view designed to improve the legibility of rearrangements and distinctive loci. The latter display combines symbolic and proportional graphical paradigms. Synchronized navigation across multiple species and interoperability between the views are core features of Insyght. A gene filter mechanism is provided that helps the user to build a biologically relevant gene set according to multiple criteria such as presence/absence of homologues and/or various annotations. We illustrate the use of Insyght with scenarios. Currently, only Bacteria and Archaea are supported. A public instance is available at http://genome.jouy.inra.fr/Insyght. The tool is freely downloadable for private data set analysis. PMID:25249626

  12. Variation in Plant Traits Explains Global Biogeographic Variation in the Abundance of Major Forest Functional Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Contrasting leaf types (needle vs. broadleaf) with different lifespans (annual vs. perennial) represent different adaptive strategies of plants under different environmental conditions. Previous studies explained adaptive advantages of different strategies using empirical models but cannot adequately explain the co-dominance of multiple plant functional types (PFTs) as observed in many parts of the world. Here we used a process-based model to explore whether observed inter- and intra-PFT variation in key plant traits can explain global biogeographic variation in co-dominance of major forest functional types. Using a parameter screening method, we identified the four most important plant traits for simulating annual net primary production (NPP) using the Australian Community Atmosphere-Biosphere-Land Exchange model (CABLE). Using ensemble CABLE simulations, we estimated the fraction of global land cover attributed to each PFT by comparing the simulated NPP for all three PFTs at each land point, globally. Our results were consistent with land area cover fractions of major forest types estimated from remote sensing data products; i.e., evergreen needle-leaf forests dominate in boreal regions, evergreen broadleaf forests dominate in tropical regions, and deciduous broadleaf forests are distributed widely across a broad range of environmental conditions. More importantly our approach successfully explained a paradox that has puzzled ecologists for over a century: why evergreen leaf types dominate in both boreal and tropical regions. We conclude that variation in and co-variation between key plant traits can explain significant fractions of global biogeographic variation of three major forest types, and should be taken into account when simulating global vegetation dynamics.

  13. Highlighting functional groups in self-assembled overlayers with specific functionalized scanning tunnelling microscopy tips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volcke, Cedric; Simonis, Priscilla; Thiry, Paul A.; Lambin, Philippe; Culot, Christine; Humbert, Christophe

    2005-11-01

    Overlayers of a fatty acid (palmitic and lauric acid) formed at the interface between a solution of this molecule in phenyloctane and the basal plane of graphite are studied by in situ scanning tunnelling microscopy. The layers organize into lamellae, which are formed by a close packing arrangement of molecules parallel to the graphite surface. Chemical modification of the STM tips used allowed identification of the functional group. Indeed, the gold tips used are functionalized with 4-mercaptobenzoic acid (4-MBA) and 4-mercaptotoluene (4-MT). The same functional group on a sample is then 'seen' as a dark and a bright spot when imaged with 4-MBA and 4-MT modified tips, respectively. This contrast distinction is related to interactions (or a lack of them) between the carboxyl group on the sample and molecules on the tip, which can facilitate (or hinder) the electron tunnelling.

  14. Correlation functions from a unified variational principle: Trial Lie groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balian, R.; Vénéroni, M.

    2015-11-01

    Time-dependent expectation values and correlation functions for many-body quantum systems are evaluated by means of a unified variational principle. It optimizes a generating functional depending on sources associated with the observables of interest. It is built by imposing through Lagrange multipliers constraints that account for the initial state (at equilibrium or off equilibrium) and for the backward Heisenberg evolution of the observables. The trial objects are respectively akin to a density operator and to an operator involving the observables of interest and the sources. We work out here the case where trial spaces constitute Lie groups. This choice reduces the original degrees of freedom to those of the underlying Lie algebra, consisting of simple observables; the resulting objects are labeled by the indices of a basis of this algebra. Explicit results are obtained by expanding in powers of the sources. Zeroth and first orders provide thermodynamic quantities and expectation values in the form of mean-field approximations, with dynamical equations having a classical Lie-Poisson structure. At second order, the variational expression for two-time correlation functions separates-as does its exact counterpart-the approximate dynamics of the observables from the approximate correlations in the initial state. Two building blocks are involved: (i) a commutation matrix which stems from the structure constants of the Lie algebra; and (ii) the second-derivative matrix of a free-energy function. The diagonalization of both matrices, required for practical calculations, is worked out, in a way analogous to the standard RPA. The ensuing structure of the variational formulae is the same as for a system of non-interacting bosons (or of harmonic oscillators) plus, at non-zero temperature, classical Gaussian variables. This property is explained by mapping the original Lie algebra onto a simpler Lie algebra. The results, valid for any trial Lie group, fulfill consistency

  15. Tying Down Loose Ends in the Chlamydomonas Genome: Functional Significance of Abundant Upstream Open Reading Frames

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Frederick R.

    2015-01-01

    The Chlamydomonas genome has been sequenced, assembled, and annotated to produce a rich resource for genetics and molecular biology in this well-studied model organism. The annotated genome is very rich in open reading frames upstream of the annotated coding sequence (‘uORFs’): almost three quarters of the assigned transcripts have at least one uORF, and frequently more than one. This is problematic with respect to the standard ‘scanning’ model for eukaryotic translation initiation. These uORFs can be grouped into three classes: class 1, initiating in-frame with the coding sequence (CDS) (thus providing a potential in-frame N-terminal extension); class 2, initiating in the 5′ untranslated sequences (5UT) and terminating out-of-frame in the CDS; and class 3, initiating and terminating within the 5UT. Multiple bioinformatics criteria (including analysis of Kozak consensus sequence agreement and BLASTP comparisons to the closely related Volvox genome, and statistical comparison to cds and to random sequence controls) indicate that of ∼4000 class 1 uORFs, approximately half are likely in vivo translation initiation sites. The proposed resulting N-terminal extensions in many cases will sharply alter the predicted biochemical properties of the encoded proteins. These results suggest significant modifications in ∼2000 of the ∼20,000 transcript models with respect to translation initiation and encoded peptides. In contrast, class 2 uORFs may be subject to purifying selection, and the existent ones (surviving selection) are likely inefficiently translated. Class 3 uORFs are found in more than half of transcripts, frequently multiple times per transcript; however, they are remarkably similar to random sequence expectations with respect to size, number, and composition, and therefore may in most cases be selectively neutral. PMID:26701783

  16. Tying Down Loose Ends in the Chlamydomonas Genome: Functional Significance of Abundant Upstream Open Reading Frames.

    PubMed

    Cross, Frederick R

    2016-02-01

    The Chlamydomonas genome has been sequenced, assembled, and annotated to produce a rich resource for genetics and molecular biology in this well-studied model organism. The annotated genome is very rich in open reading frames upstream of the annotated coding sequence ('uORFs'): almost three quarters of the assigned transcripts have at least one uORF, and frequently more than one. This is problematic with respect to the standard 'scanning' model for eukaryotic translation initiation. These uORFs can be grouped into three classes: class 1, initiating in-frame with the coding sequence (CDS) (thus providing a potential in-frame N-terminal extension); class 2, initiating in the 5' untranslated sequences (5UT) and terminating out-of-frame in the CDS; and class 3, initiating and terminating within the 5UT. Multiple bioinformatics criteria (including analysis of Kozak consensus sequence agreement and BLASTP comparisons to the closely related Volvox genome, and statistical comparison to cds and to random sequence controls) indicate that of ∼4000 class 1 uORFs, approximately half are likely in vivo translation initiation sites. The proposed resulting N-terminal extensions in many cases will sharply alter the predicted biochemical properties of the encoded proteins. These results suggest significant modifications in ∼2000 of the ∼20,000 transcript models with respect to translation initiation and encoded peptides. In contrast, class 2 uORFs may be subject to purifying selection, and the existent ones (surviving selection) are likely inefficiently translated. Class 3 uORFs are found in more than half of transcripts, frequently multiple times per transcript; however, they are remarkably similar to random sequence expectations with respect to size, number, and composition, and therefore may in most cases be selectively neutral. PMID:26701783

  17. Radical additions to chiral hydrazones: stereoselectivity and functional group compatibility.

    PubMed

    Friestad, Gregory K

    2012-01-01

    Free radical additions to imino compounds offer increased synthetic accessibility of chiral amines, but lack of general methods for stereocontrol has hindered their development. This review focuses on two asymmetric amine synthesis strategies designed to address this problem, with emphasis on addition of functionalized radicals which may facilitate applications to synthesis of complex targets. First, chiral N-acylhydrazones are acceptors for intermolecular radical additions of a wide range of primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl halides to the C=N bond, with radicals generated under manganese-, tin-, or boron-mediated conditions. A variety of aldehydes and ketones serve as viable precursors for the chiral hydrazones, and the highly stereoselective reactions tolerate electrophilic functionality in both coupling components. Second, radical precursors may be linked to chiral α-hydroxyhydrazones via a silicon tether to the hydroxyl group; conformational constraints impart stereocontrol during 5-exo radical cyclization under stannyl- or thiyl-mediated conditions. The silicon tether may later be removed to reveal the formal adducts of hydroxymethyl, vinyl, acetyl, and 2-oxoethyl radicals to the C=N bond. Methodology development and applications to biologically important targets are discussed. PMID:21842359

  18. Nucleotide substitutions revealing specific functions of Polycomb group genes.

    PubMed

    Bajusz, Izabella; Sipos, László; Pirity, Melinda K

    2015-04-01

    POLYCOMB group (PCG) proteins belong to the family of epigenetic regulators of genes playing important roles in differentiation and development. Mutants of PcG genes were isolated first in the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster, resulting in spectacular segmental transformations due to the ectopic expression of homeotic genes. Homologs of Drosophila PcG genes were also identified in plants and in vertebrates and subsequent experiments revealed the general role of PCG proteins in the maintenance of the repressed state of chromatin through cell divisions. The past decades of gene targeting experiments have allowed us to make significant strides towards understanding how the network of PCG proteins influences multiple aspects of cellular fate determination during development. Being involved in the transmission of specific expression profiles of different cell lineages, PCG proteins were found to control wide spectra of unrelated epigenetic processes in vertebrates, such as stem cell plasticity and renewal, genomic imprinting and inactivation of X-chromosome. PCG proteins also affect regulation of metabolic genes being important for switching programs between pluripotency and differentiation. Insight into the precise roles of PCG proteins in normal physiological processes has emerged from studies employing cell culture-based systems and genetically modified animals. Here we summarize the findings obtained from PcG mutant fruit flies and mice generated to date with a focus on PRC1 and PRC2 members altered by nucleotide substitutions resulting in specific alleles. We also include a compilation of lessons learned from these models about the in vivo functions of this complex protein family. With multiple knockout lines, sophisticated approaches to study the consequences of peculiar missense point mutations, and insights from complementary gain-of-function systems in hand, we are now in a unique position to significantly advance our understanding of the molecular basis of

  19. Ozone production rates as a function of NOx abundances and HOx production rates in the Nashville urban plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thornton, J. A.; Wooldridge, P. J.; Cohen, R. C.; Martinez, M.; Harder, H.; Brune, W. H.; Williams, E. J.; Roberts, J. M.; Fehsenfeld, F. C.; Hall, S. R.; Shetter, R. E.; Wert, B. P.; Fried, A.

    2002-06-01

    Tropospheric O3 concentrations are functions of the chain lengths of NOx (NOx ≡ NO + NO2) and HOx (HOx ≡ OH + HO2 + RO2) radical catalytic cycles. For a fixed HOx source at low NOx concentrations, kinetic models indicate the rate of O3 production increases linearly with increases in NOx concentrations (NOx limited). At higher NOx concentrations, kinetic models predict ozone production rates decrease with increasing NOx (NOx saturated). We present observations of NO, NO2, O3, OH, HO2, H2CO, actinic flux, and temperature obtained during the 1999 Southern Oxidant Study from June 15 to July 15, 1999, at Cornelia Fort Airpark, Nashville, Tennessee. The observations are used to evaluate the instantaneous ozone production rate (PO3) as a function of NO abundances and the primary HOx production rate (PHOx). These observations provide quantitative evidence for the response of PO3 to NOx. For high PHOx (0.5 < PHOx < 0.7 ppt/s), O3 production at this site increases linearly with NO to ~500 ppt. PO3 levels out in the range 500-1000 ppt NO and decreases for NO above 1000 ppt. An analysis along chemical coordinates indicates that models of chemistry controlling peroxy radical abundances, and consequently PO3, have a large error in the rate or product yield of the RO2 + HO2 reaction for the classes of RO2 that predominate in Nashville. Photochemical models and our measurements can be forced into agreement if the product of the branching ratio and rate constant for organic peroxide formation, via RO2 + HO2 -> ROOH + O2, is reduced by a factor of 3-12. Alternatively, these peroxides could be rapidly photolyzed under atmospheric conditions making them at best a temporary HOx reservoir. This result implies that O3 production in or near urban areas with similar hydrocarbon reactivity and HOx production rates may be NOx saturated more often than current models suggest.

  20. Woody plant encroachment into grasslands: spatial patterns of functional group distribution and community development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Archer, Steven R; Gelwick, Frances; Bai, Edith; Boutton, Thomas W; Wu, Xinyuan Ben

    2013-01-01

    Woody plant encroachment into grasslands has been globally widespread. The woody species invading grasslands represent a variety of contrasting plant functional groups and growth forms. Are some woody plant functional types (PFTs) better suited to invade grasslands than others? To what extent do local patterns of distribution and abundance of woody PFTs invading grasslands reflect intrinsic topoedaphic properties versus plant-induced changes in soil properties? We addressed these questions in the Southern Great Plains, United States at a subtropical grassland known to have been encroached upon by woody species over the past 50-100 years. A total of 20 woody species (9 tree-statured; 11 shrub-statured) were encountered along a transect extending from an upland into a playa basin. About half of the encroaching woody plants were potential N2-fixers (55% of species), but they contributed only 7% to 16 % of the total basal area. Most species and the PFTs they represent were ubiquitously distributed along the topoedaphic gradient, but with varying abundances. Overstory-understory comparisons suggest that while future species composition of these woody communities is likely to change, PFT composition is not. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) ordination and variance partitioning (Partial CCA) indicated that woody species and PFT composition in developing woody communities was primarily influenced by intrinsic landscape location variables (e.g., soil texture) and secondarily by plant-induced changes in soil organic carbon and total nitrogen content. The ubiquitous distribution of species and PFTs suggests that woody plants are generally well-suited to a broad range of grassland topoedaphic settings. However, here we only examined categorical and non-quantitative functional traits. Although intrinsic soil properties exerted more control over the floristics of grassland-to-woodland succession did plant modifications of soil carbon and nitrogen concentrations, the latter

  1. Woody Plant Encroachment into Grasslands: Spatial Patterns of Functional Group Distribution and Community Development

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feng; Archer, Steven R.; Gelwick, Frances; Bai, Edith; Boutton, Thomas W.; Wu, Xinyuan Ben

    2013-01-01

    Woody plant encroachment into grasslands has been globally widespread. The woody species invading grasslands represent a variety of contrasting plant functional groups and growth forms. Are some woody plant functional types (PFTs) better suited to invade grasslands than others? To what extent do local patterns of distribution and abundance of woody PFTs invading grasslands reflect intrinsic topoedaphic properties versus plant-induced changes in soil properties? We addressed these questions in the Southern Great Plains, United States at a subtropical grassland known to have been encroached upon by woody species over the past 50-100 years. A total of 20 woody species (9 tree-statured; 11 shrub-statured) were encountered along a transect extending from an upland into a playa basin. About half of the encroaching woody plants were potential N2-fixers (55% of species), but they contributed only 7% to 16 % of the total basal area. Most species and the PFTs they represent were ubiquitously distributed along the topoedaphic gradient, but with varying abundances. Overstory-understory comparisons suggest that while future species composition of these woody communities is likely to change, PFT composition is not. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) ordination and variance partitioning (Partial CCA) indicated that woody species and PFT composition in developing woody communities was primarily influenced by intrinsic landscape location variables (e.g., soil texture) and secondarily by plant-induced changes in soil organic carbon and total nitrogen content. The ubiquitous distribution of species and PFTs suggests that woody plants are generally well-suited to a broad range of grassland topoedaphic settings. However, here we only examined categorical and non-quantitative functional traits. Although intrinsic soil properties exerted more control over the floristics of grassland-to-woodland succession did plant modifications of soil carbon and nitrogen concentrations, the latter

  2. Highly adaptive tests for group differences in brain functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junghi; Pan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and other technologies have been offering evidence and insights showing that altered brain functional networks are associated with neurological illnesses such as Alzheimer's disease. Exploring brain networks of clinical populations compared to those of controls would be a key inquiry to reveal underlying neurological processes related to such illnesses. For such a purpose, group-level inference is a necessary first step in order to establish whether there are any genuinely disrupted brain subnetworks. Such an analysis is also challenging due to the high dimensionality of the parameters in a network model and high noise levels in neuroimaging data. We are still in the early stage of method development as highlighted by Varoquaux and Craddock (2013) that "there is currently no unique solution, but a spectrum of related methods and analytical strategies" to learn and compare brain connectivity. In practice the important issue of how to choose several critical parameters in estimating a network, such as what association measure to use and what is the sparsity of the estimated network, has not been carefully addressed, largely because the answers are unknown yet. For example, even though the choice of tuning parameters in model estimation has been extensively discussed in the literature, as to be shown here, an optimal choice of a parameter for network estimation may not be optimal in the current context of hypothesis testing. Arbitrarily choosing or mis-specifying such parameters may lead to extremely low-powered tests. Here we develop highly adaptive tests to detect group differences in brain connectivity while accounting for unknown optimal choices of some tuning parameters. The proposed tests combine statistical evidence against a null hypothesis from multiple sources across a range of plausible tuning parameter values reflecting uncertainty with the unknown truth. These highly adaptive tests are not only

  3. Highly adaptive tests for group differences in brain functional connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junghi; Pan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and other technologies have been offering evidence and insights showing that altered brain functional networks are associated with neurological illnesses such as Alzheimer's disease. Exploring brain networks of clinical populations compared to those of controls would be a key inquiry to reveal underlying neurological processes related to such illnesses. For such a purpose, group-level inference is a necessary first step in order to establish whether there are any genuinely disrupted brain subnetworks. Such an analysis is also challenging due to the high dimensionality of the parameters in a network model and high noise levels in neuroimaging data. We are still in the early stage of method development as highlighted by Varoquaux and Craddock (2013) that “there is currently no unique solution, but a spectrum of related methods and analytical strategies” to learn and compare brain connectivity. In practice the important issue of how to choose several critical parameters in estimating a network, such as what association measure to use and what is the sparsity of the estimated network, has not been carefully addressed, largely because the answers are unknown yet. For example, even though the choice of tuning parameters in model estimation has been extensively discussed in the literature, as to be shown here, an optimal choice of a parameter for network estimation may not be optimal in the current context of hypothesis testing. Arbitrarily choosing or mis-specifying such parameters may lead to extremely low-powered tests. Here we develop highly adaptive tests to detect group differences in brain connectivity while accounting for unknown optimal choices of some tuning parameters. The proposed tests combine statistical evidence against a null hypothesis from multiple sources across a range of plausible tuning parameter values reflecting uncertainty with the unknown truth. These highly adaptive tests are not

  4. Functional renormalization group - a new approach to frustrated quantum magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuther, Johannes

    The experimental and theoretical investigation of quantum spin systems has become one of the central disciplines of contemporary condensed matter physics. From an experimental viewpoint, the field has been significantly fueled by the recent synthesis of novel strongly correlated materials with exotic magnetic or quantum paramagnetic ground states. From a theoretical perspective, however, the numerical treatment of realistic models for quantum magnetism in two and three spatial dimensions still constitutes a serious challenge. This particularly applies to frustrated systems, which complicate the employment of established methods. This talk intends to propagate the pseudofermion functional renormalization group (PFFRG) as a novel approach to determine large size ground state correlations of a wide class of spin Hamiltonians. Using a diagrammatic pseudofermion representation for quantum spin models, the PFFRG performs systematic summations in all two-particle fermionic interaction channels, capturing the correct balance between classical magnetic ordering and quantum fluctuations. Numerical results for various frustrated spin models on different 2D and 3D lattices are reviewed, and benchmarked against other methods if available.

  5. The Mechanism and Function of Group II Chaperonins.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Tom; Dalton, Kevin; Frydman, Judith

    2015-09-11

    Protein folding in the cell requires the assistance of enzymes collectively called chaperones. Among these, the chaperonins are 1-MDa ring-shaped oligomeric complexes that bind unfolded polypeptides and promote their folding within an isolated chamber in an ATP-dependent manner. Group II chaperonins, found in archaea and eukaryotes, contain a built-in lid that opens and closes over the central chamber. In eukaryotes, the chaperonin TRiC/CCT is hetero-oligomeric, consisting of two stacked rings of eight paralogous subunits each. TRiC facilitates folding of approximately 10% of the eukaryotic proteome, including many cytoskeletal components and cell cycle regulators. Folding of many cellular substrates of TRiC cannot be assisted by any other chaperone. A complete structural and mechanistic understanding of this highly conserved and essential chaperonin remains elusive. However, recent work is beginning to shed light on key aspects of chaperonin function and how their unique properties underlie their contribution to maintaining cellular proteostasis. PMID:25936650

  6. Uses of Phage Display in Agriculture: Sequence Analysis and Comparative Modeling of Late Embryogenesis Abundant Client Proteins Suggest Protein-Nucleic Acid Binding Functionality

    PubMed Central

    Kushwaha, Rekha; Downie, A. Bruce; Payne, Christina M.

    2013-01-01

    A group of intrinsically disordered, hydrophilic proteins—Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins—has been linked to survival in plants and animals in periods of stress, putatively through safeguarding enzymatic function and prevention of aggregation in times of dehydration/heat. Yet despite decades of effort, the molecular-level mechanisms defining this protective function remain unknown. A recent effort to understand LEA functionality began with the unique application of phage display, wherein phage display and biopanning over recombinant Seed Maturation Protein homologs from Arabidopsis thaliana and Glycine max were used to retrieve client proteins at two different temperatures, with one intended to represent heat stress. From this previous study, we identified 21 client proteins for which clones were recovered, sometimes repeatedly. Here, we use sequence analysis and homology modeling of the client proteins to ascertain common sequence and structural properties that may contribute to binding affinity with the protective LEA protein. Our methods uncover what appears to be a predilection for protein-nucleic acid interactions among LEA client proteins, which is suggestive of subcellular residence. The results from this initial computational study will guide future efforts to uncover the protein protective mechanisms during heat stress, potentially leading to phage-display-directed evolution of synthetic LEA molecules. PMID:23956788

  7. 14 CFR Section 11 - Functional Classification-Operating Expenses of Group II and Group III Air Carriers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Functional Classification-Operating... ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Profit and Loss Classification Section 11 Functional Classification—Operating Expenses of Group II and Group III Air Carriers 5100Flying Operations....

  8. Plant Species and Functional Group Combinations Affect Green Roof Ecosystem Functions

    PubMed Central

    Lundholm, Jeremy; MacIvor, J. Scott; MacDougall, Zachary; Ranalli, Melissa

    2010-01-01

    Background Green roofs perform ecosystem services such as summer roof temperature reduction and stormwater capture that directly contribute to lower building energy use and potential economic savings. These services are in turn related to ecosystem functions performed by the vegetation layer such as radiation reflection and transpiration, but little work has examined the role of plant species composition and diversity in improving these functions. Methodology/Principal Findings We used a replicated modular extensive (shallow growing- medium) green roof system planted with monocultures or mixtures containing one, three or five life-forms, to quantify two ecosystem services: summer roof cooling and water capture. We also measured the related ecosystem properties/processes of albedo, evapotranspiration, and the mean and temporal variability of aboveground biomass over four months. Mixtures containing three or five life-form groups, simultaneously optimized several green roof ecosystem functions, outperforming monocultures and single life-form groups, but there was much variation in performance depending on which life-forms were present in the three life-form mixtures. Some mixtures outperformed the best monocultures for water capture, evapotranspiration, and an index combining both water capture and temperature reductions. Combinations of tall forbs, grasses and succulents simultaneously optimized a range of ecosystem performance measures, thus the main benefit of including all three groups was not to maximize any single process but to perform a variety of functions well. Conclusions/Significance Ecosystem services from green roofs can be improved by planting certain life-form groups in combination, directly contributing to climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies. The strong performance by certain mixtures of life-forms, especially tall forbs, grasses and succulents, warrants further investigation into niche complementarity or facilitation as mechanisms

  9. Protein covalent immobilization via its scarce thiol versus abundant amine groups: Effect on orientation, cell binding domain exposure and conformational lability.

    PubMed

    Ba, O M; Hindie, M; Marmey, P; Gallet, O; Anselme, K; Ponche, A; Duncan, A C

    2015-10-01

    Quantity, orientation, conformation and covalent linkage of naturally cell adhesive proteins adsorbed or covalently linked to a surface, are known to influence the preservation of their subsequent long term cell adhesion properties and bioactivity. In the present work, we explore two different strategies for the covalent linking of plasma fibronectin (pFN) - used as a cell adhesive model protein, onto a polystyrene (PS) surface. One is aimed at tethering the protein to the surface in a semi-oriented fashion (via one of the 4 free thiol reactive groups on the protein) with a heterofunctional coupling agent (SSMPB method). The other aims to immobilize the protein in a more random fashion by reaction between the abundant pendant primary amine bearing amino acids of the pFN and activated carboxylic surface functions obtained after glutaric anhydride surface treatment (GA method). The overall goal will be to verify the hypothesis of a correlation between covalent immobilization of a model cell adhesive protein to a PS surface in a semi-oriented configuration (versus randomly oriented) with promotion of enhanced exposure of the protein's cell binding domain. This in turn would lead to enhanced cell adhesion. Ideally the goal is to elaborate substrates exhibiting a long term stable protein monolayer with preserved cell adhesive properties and bioactivity for biomaterial and/or cell adhesion commercial plate applications. However, the initial restrictive objective of this paper is to first quantitatively and qualitatively investigate the reversibly (merely adsorbed) versus covalently irreversibly bound protein to the surface after the immobilization procedure. Although immobilized surface amounts were similar (close to the monolayer range) for all immobilization approaches, covalent grafting showed improved retention and stronger "tethering" of the pFN protein to the surface (roughly 40%) after SDS rinsing compared to that for mere adsorption (0%) suggesting an added value

  10. Amino and Acetamide Functional Group Effects on the Ionization and Fragmentation of Sugar Chains in Positive-Ion Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamagaki, Tohru; Sugahara, Kohtaro; Watanabe, Takehiro

    2014-01-01

    To elucidate the influence of amino (-NH2) and acetamide (-NHCOCH3, -NAc) groups in sugar chains on their ionization and fragmentation, cycloamyloses (cyclodextrins, CyDs) and lacto-oligosaccharide are analyzed by MALDI TOF/TOF and ESI Q-TOF mass spectrometry. CyD derivatives substituted by amino or acetamide groups are ideal analytes to extract the function group effects, which are amino-CyD with one hexosamine (HexNH2) and acetamide-CyD with one N-acetyl hexosamine (HexNAc). Interestingly, the relative ion intensities and isotope-like patterns in their product ion spectra depend on the functional groups and ion forms of sugar chains. Consequently, the results indicate that a proton (H+) localizes on the amino group of the amino sugar, and that the proton (H+) induces their fragmentation. Sodium cation (Na+) attachment is independent from amino group and exerts no influence on their fragmentation patterns in amino group except for mono- and disaccharide fragment ions because there is the possibility of the reducing end effect. In contrast, a sodium cation localizes much more frequently on the acetamide group in acetamide-CyDs because the chemical species with HexNAc are stable. Thus, their ions with HexNAc are abundant. These results are consistent with the fragmentation of lacto-neo- N-tetraose and maltotetraose, suggesting that a sodium cation generally localizes much more frequently on the acetamide group in sugar chains.

  11. Contribution of different functional groups to the diet of major predatory fishes at a seagrass meadow in northeastern Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Katsumasa; Hori, Masakazu; Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Hasegawa, Natsuki; Nakaoka, Masahiro

    2010-01-01

    We examined the variation in habitat use and diet of three dominant fish species ( Myoxocephalus brandti, Pholidapus dybowskii, and Pholis crassispina) in a seagrass meadow in the Akkeshi-ko estuary in northeastern Japan, where broad and dense Zostera marina beds exist, using a semi-quantitative census of the fishes and analyses of their stomach contents. Differences among the three fish species in the temporal variation in abundance of each age class (mainly 1- and 2-year age classes) indicated that the temporal pattern of utilization of the seagrass meadow were different among them. In the semi-quantitative dietary analysis, two prey categories, i.e., taxonomic group (order and suborder) and functional group, were used to explain the variation in prey composition with size-dependent changes. The six prey functional groups were classified based on the ecological traits of the prey, i.e., trophic level, size, and life type (habitat and behavior). Ontogenetic shifts in prey of the three fish species could be fully explained by a combination of the two prey categories, and not by the use of only one category (taxonomic or functional group). The pattern of ontogenetic shifts in prey differed among the fish species and size (age) classes. These results indicate that segregation of habitat (seagrass meadow) and prey group (taxonomic and functional group) is performed among the three species, which may contribute to their coexistence in this estuary.

  12. Impact of Functional Group Modifications on Designer Phenethylamine Induced Hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Grecco, Gregory G; Sprague, Jon E

    2016-05-16

    The popularity of designer phenethylamines such as synthetic cathinones ("bath salts") has led to increased reports of life-threatening hyperthermia. The diversity of chemical modifications has resulted in the toxicological profile of most synthetic cathinones being mostly uncharacterized. Here, we investigated the thermogenic effects of six recently identified designer phenethylamines (4-methylmethamphetamine, methylone, mephedrone, butylone, pentylone, and MDPV) and compared these effects to the established thermogenic agent 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Specifically, we determined the impact of a β-ketone, α-alkyl, or pyrrolidine functional group on core-body temperature changes. Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 5-6) were administered a dose (30 mg/kg, sc) of a designer phenethylamine or MDMA, and core body temperature measurements were recorded at 30 min intervals for 150 min post treatment. MDMA elicited the greatest maximum temperature change (ΔTmax), and this effect was significantly greater than that of its β-ketone analogue, methylone. Temperature-area under the curves (TAUCs) and ΔTmax were also significantly different between 4-methylmethamphetamine (4-MMA) and its β-ketone analogue mephedrone. Lengthening the α-alkyl chain of methylone to produce butylone and pentylone significantly attenuated the thermogenic response on both TAUCs and ΔTmax compared to those of methylone; however, butylone and pentylone were not different from each other. Pyrrolidine substitution on the N-terminus of pentylone produces 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), which did not significantly alter core body temperature. Thermogenic comparisons of MDMA vs methylone and 4-MMA vs mephedrone indicate that oxidation at the benzylic position significantly attenuates the hyperthermic response. Furthermore, either extending the α-alkyl chain to ethyl and propyl (butylone and pentylone, respectively) or extending the α-alkyl chain and adding a pyrrolidine on the N

  13. Students' Perceptions of Classroom Group Work as a Function of Group Member Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Scott A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this assessment was to examine whether differences exist between students who self-select their classroom work group members and students who are randomly assigned to their classroom work groups in terms of their use of organizational citizenship behaviors with their work group members; their commitment to, trust in, and relational…

  14. Prediction of functional sites in proteins using conserved functional group analysis.

    PubMed

    Innis, C Axel; Anand, A Prem; Sowdhamini, R

    2004-04-01

    A detailed knowledge of a protein's functional site is an absolute prerequisite for understanding its mode of action at the molecular level. However, the rapid pace at which sequence and structural information is being accumulated for proteins greatly exceeds our ability to determine their biochemical roles experimentally. As a result, computational methods are required which allow for the efficient processing of the evolutionary information contained in this wealth of data, in particular that related to the nature and location of functionally important sites and residues. The method presented here, referred to as conserved functional group (CFG) analysis, relies on a simplified representation of the chemical groups found in amino acid side-chains to identify functional sites from a single protein structure and a number of its sequence homologues. We show that CFG analysis can fully or partially predict the location of functional sites in approximately 96% of the 470 cases tested and that, unlike other methods available, it is able to tolerate wide variations in sequence identity. In addition, we discuss its potential in a structural genomics context, where automation, scalability and efficiency are critical, and an increasing number of protein structures are determined with no prior knowledge of function. This is exemplified by our analysis of the hypothetical protein Ydde_Ecoli, whose structure was recently solved by members of the North East Structural Genomics consortium. Although the proposed active site for this protein needs to be validated experimentally, this example illustrates the scope of CFG analysis as a general tool for the identification of residues likely to play an important role in a protein's biochemical function. Thus, our method offers a convenient solution to rapidly and automatically process the vast amounts of data that are beginning to emerge from structural genomics projects. PMID:15033369

  15. Millimeter-scale variations of stable isotope abundances in carbonates from banded iron-formations in the Hamersley Group of Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Baur, M E; Hayes, J M; Studley, S A; Walter, M R

    1985-01-01

    Several diamond drill cores from formations within the Hamersley Group of Western Australia have been studied for evidence of short-range variations in the isotopic compositions of the carbonates. For a set of 32 adjacent microbands analyzed in a specimen from the Marra Mamba Iron Formation, carbon isotope compositions of individual microbands ranged from -2.8 to -19.8 per mil compared to PDB and oxygen isotope compositions ranged from 10.2 to 20.8 per mil compared to SMOW. A pattern of alternating abundances was present, with the average isotopic contrasts between adjacent microbands being 3.0 per mil for carbon and 3.1 per mil for oxygen. Similar results were obtained for a suite of 34 microbands (in four groups) from the Bruno's Band unit of the Mount Sylvia Formation. Difficulties were experienced in preparing samples of single microbands from the Dales Gorge Member of the Brockman Iron Formation, but overall isotopic compositions were in good agreement with values reported by previous authors. Chemical analyses showed that isotopically light carbon and oxygen were correlated with increased concentrations of iron. The preservation of these millimeter-scale variations in isotopic abundances is interpreted as inconsistent with a metamorphic origin for the isotopically light carbon in the BIF carbonates. A biological origin is favored for the correlated variations in 13C and Fe, and it is suggested that the 13C-depleted carbonates may derive either from fermentative metabolism or from anaerobic respiration. A model is presented in which these processes occur near the sediment-water interface and are coupled with an initial oxidative precipitation of the iron. PMID:11539027

  16. Millimeter-scale variations of stable isotope abundances in carbonates from banded iron-formations in the Hamersley Group of Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baur, M. E.; Hayes, J. M.; Studley, S. A.; Walter, M. R.

    1985-01-01

    Several diamond drill cores from formations within the Hamersley Group of Western Australia have been studied for evidence of short-range variations in the isotopic compositions of the carbonates. For a set of 32 adjacent microbands analyzed in a specimen from the Marra Mamba Iron Formation, carbon isotope compositions of individual microbands ranged from -2.8 to -19.8 per mil compared to PDB and oxygen isotope compositions ranged from 10.2 to 20.8 per mil compared to SMOW. A pattern of alternating abundances was present, with the average isotopic contrasts between adjacent microbands being 3.0 per mil for carbon and 3.1 per mil for oxygen. Similar results were obtained for a suite of 34 microbands (in four groups) from the Bruno's Band unit of the Mount Sylvia Formation. Difficulties were experienced in preparing samples of single microbands from the Dales Gorge Member of the Brockman Iron Formation, but overall isotopic compositions were in good agreement with values reported by previous authors. Chemical analyses showed that isotopically light carbon and oxygen were correlated with increased concentrations of iron. The preservation of these millimeter-scale variations in isotopic abundances is interpreted as inconsistent with a metamorphic origin for the isotopically light carbon in the BIF carbonates. A biological origin is favored for the correlated variations in 13C and Fe, and it is suggested that the 13C-depleted carbonates may derive either from fermentative metabolism or from anaerobic respiration. A model is presented in which these processes occur near the sediment-water interface and are coupled with an initial oxidative precipitation of the iron.

  17. Expression and Function of Group IIE Phospholipase A2 in Mouse Skin.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kei; Miki, Yoshimi; Sato, Hiroyasu; Nishito, Yasumasa; Gelb, Michael H; Taketomi, Yoshitaka; Murakami, Makoto

    2016-07-22

    Recent studies using knock-out mice for various secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2) isoforms have revealed their non-redundant roles in diverse biological events. In the skin, group IIF sPLA2 (sPLA2-IIF), an "epidermal sPLA2" expressed in the suprabasal keratinocytes, plays a fundamental role in epidermal-hyperplasic diseases such as psoriasis and skin cancer. In this study, we found that group IIE sPLA2 (sPLA2-IIE) was expressed abundantly in hair follicles and to a lesser extent in basal epidermal keratinocytes in mouse skin. Mice lacking sPLA2-IIE exhibited skin abnormalities distinct from those in mice lacking sPLA2-IIF, with perturbation of hair follicle ultrastructure, modest changes in the steady-state expression of a subset of skin genes, and no changes in the features of psoriasis or contact dermatitis. Lipidomics analysis revealed that sPLA2-IIE and -IIF were coupled with distinct lipid pathways in the skin. Overall, two skin sPLA2s, hair follicular sPLA2-IIE and epidermal sPLA2-IIF, play non-redundant roles in distinct compartments of mouse skin, underscoring the functional diversity of multiple sPLA2s in the coordinated regulation of skin homeostasis and diseases. PMID:27226633

  18. Regulation of metabolic health and adipose tissue function by group 2 innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Cautivo, Kelly M; Molofsky, Ari B

    2016-06-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) is home to an abundance of immune cells. With chronic obesity, inflammatory immune cells accumulate and promote insulin resistance and the progression to type 2 diabetes mellitus. In contrast, recent studies have highlighted the regulation and function of immune cells in lean, healthy AT, including those associated with type 2 or "allergic" immunity. Although traditionally activated by infection with multicellular helminthes, AT type 2 immunity is active independently of infection, and promotes tissue homeostasis, AT "browning," and systemic insulin sensitivity, protecting against obesity-induced metabolic dysfunction and type 2 diabetes mellitus. In particular, group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are integral regulators of AT type 2 immunity, producing the cytokines interleukin-5 and IL-13, promoting eosinophils and alternatively activated macrophages, and cooperating with and promoting AT regulatory T (Treg) cells. In this review, we focus on the recent developments in our understanding of group 2 innate lymphoid cell cells and type 2 immunity in AT metabolism and homeostasis. PMID:27120716

  19. Perceptual Visual Grouping under Inattention: Electrophysiological Functional Imaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Razpurker-Apfeld, Irene; Pratt, Hillel

    2008-01-01

    Two types of perceptual visual grouping, differing in complexity of shape formation, were examined under inattention. Fourteen participants performed a similarity judgment task concerning two successive briefly presented central targets surrounded by task-irrelevant simple and complex grouping patterns. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were…

  20. Moral Judgment as a Function of Peer Group Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maitland, Karen A.; Goldman, Jacquelin R.

    1974-01-01

    This article presents an investigation into the effects of peer group interaction on moral judgment among 36 male and female eleventh and twelfth graders. The results indicate greater social conflict and pressure in a group discussion induces greater change in the level of moral judgment. (DE)

  1. Solar Wind Helium Abundance as a Function of Speed and Heliographic Latitude: Variation through a Solar Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasper, J. C.; Stenens, M. L.; Stevens, M. L.; Lazarus, A. J.; Steinberg, J. T.; Ogilvie, Keith W.

    2006-01-01

    We present a study of the variation of the relative abundance of helium to hydrogen in the solar wind as a function of solar wind speed and heliographic latitude over the previous solar cycle. The average values of A(sub He), the ratio of helium to hydrogen number densities, are calculated in 25 speed intervals over 27-day Carrington rotations using Faraday Cup observations from the Wind spacecraft between 1995 and 2005. The higher speed and time resolution of this study compared to an earlier work with the Wind observations has led to the discovery of three new aspects of A(sub He), modulation during solar minimum from mid-1995 to mid-1997. First, we find that for solar wind speeds between 350 and 415 km/s, A(sub He), varies with a clear six-month periodicity, with a minimum value at the heliographic equatorial plane and a typical gradient of 0.01 per degree in latitude. For the slow wind this is a 30% effect. We suggest that the latitudinal gradient may be due to an additional dependence of coronal proton flux on coronal field strength or the stability of coronal loops. Second, once the gradient is subtracted, we find that A(sub He), is a remarkably linear function of solar wind speed. Finally, we identify a vanishing speed, at which A(sub He), is zero, is 259 km/s and note that this speed corresponds to the minimum solar wind speed observed at one AU. The vanishing speed may be related to previous theoretical work in which enhancements of coronal helium lead to stagnation of the escaping proton flux. During solar maximum the A(sub He), dependences on speed and latitude disappear, and we interpret this as evidence of two source regions for slow solar wind in the ecliptic plane, one being the solar minimum streamer belt and the other likely being active regions.

  2. Hydrolysis of organonitrate functional groups in aerosol particles

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Shang; Shilling, John E.; Song, Chen; Hiranuma, Naruki; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Russell, Lynn M.

    2012-10-19

    Organonitrate (ON) groups are important substituents in secondary organic aerosols. Model simulations and laboratory studies indicate a large fraction of ON groups in aerosol particles, but much lower quantities are observed in the atmosphere. Hydrolysis of ON groups in aerosol particles has been proposed recently. To test this hypothesis, we simulated formation of ON molecules in a reaction chamber under a wide range of relative humidity (0% to 90%). The mass fraction of ON groups (5% to 20% for high-NOx experiments) consistently decreased with increasing relative humidity, which was best explained by hydrolysis of ON groups at a rate of 4 day-1 (lifetime of 6 hours) for reactions under relative humidity greater than 20%. In addition, we found that secondary nitrogen-containing molecules absorb light, with greater absorption under dry and high-NOx conditions. This work provides the first evidence for particle-phase hydrolysis of ON groups, a process that could substantially reduce ON group concentration in the atmosphere.

  3. Effects of stocking rates on functional group diversity and forage quality in rangeland of Qilian Mountain, China.

    PubMed

    Zhanq, Yan; Chen, Xianjiang; Cheng, Yunxiang; Chang, Shenghua; Hou, Fujiang

    2015-07-01

    The present study aimed at investigating a balance between environment and livestock grazing, through identifying appropriate stocking rate in rangeland with highest biodiversity and forage quality. The experiment was carried out to determine the effects of six stocking rates on Shannon Weiner index of functional group diversity and nutritive value and relationship between them in the edge of the Tibetan plateau of China. The results showed that abundance of functional group diversity indices were significantly influenced by stocking rates (p < 0.05) and the highest appeared in 2.5 and 2.6 animal month unit (AMU) ha(-1)'. There were significant differences in forage content of nitrogen (N), water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) under stocking rates (p<0.05). There were higher N and WSC content but lower NDF and ADF content under 2.5 and 2.6 AMU ha(-1) than other stocking rates. Positive relationship was found between all functional group diversity indices and N and WSC content of community but negative relationship between all functional group diversity indices and NDF and ADF content of community. All the results represented that moderate control of stocking rates was an effective management measure to protect functional diversity, improve forage quality and sustain rangeland health. PMID:26387344

  4. Water Content Differences Have Stronger Effects than Plant Functional Groups on Soil Bacteria in a Steppe Ecosystem

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ximei; Barberán, Albert; Zhu, Xunzhi; Zhang, Guangming; Han, Xingguo

    2014-01-01

    Many investigations across natural and artificial plant diversity gradients have reported that both soil physicochemical factors and plant community composition affect soil microbial communities. To test the effect of plant diversity loss on soil bacterial communities, we conducted a five-year plant functional group removal experiment in a steppe ecosystem in Inner Mongolia (China). We found that the number and composition type of plant functional groups had no effect on bacterial diversity and community composition, or on the relative abundance of major taxa. In contrast, bacterial community patterns were significantly structured by soil water content differences among plots. Our results support researches that suggest that water availability is the key factor structuring soil bacterial communities in this semi-arid ecosystem. PMID:25546333

  5. Variations of the relative abundances of He, (C,N,O) and Fe-group nuclei in solar cosmic rays and their relationship to solar particle acceleration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertsch, D. L.; Biswas, S.; Fichtel, C. E.; Pellerin, C. J.; Reames, D. V.

    1973-01-01

    Measurements of the flux of helium nuclei in the 24 January 1971 event and of helium and (C,N,O) nuclei in the 1 September 1971 event are combined with previous measurements to obtain the relative abundances of helium, (C,N,O), and Fe-group nuclei in these events. These data are then summarized together with previously reported results to show that, even when the same detector system using a dE/dx plus range technique is used, differences in the He/(C,N,O) value in the same energy/nucleon interval are observed in solar cosmic ray events. Further, when the He/(C,N,O) value is lower the He/(Fe-group nuclei) value is also systematically lower in these large events. When solar particle acceleration theory is analyzed, it is seen that the results suggest that, for large events, Coulomb energy loss probably does not play a major role in determining solar particle composition at higher energies (10 MeV). The variations in multicharged nuclei composition are more likely due to partial ionization during the acceleration phase.

  6. Assessing physiological responses of dune forest functional groups to changing water availability: from Tropics to Mediterranean.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antunes, Cristina; Lo Cascio, Mauro; Correia, Otília; Vieira, Simone; Cruz Diaz Barradas, Maria; Zunzunegui, Maria; Ramos, Margarida; João Pereira, Maria; Máguas, Cristina

    2014-05-01

    Alterations in water availability are important to vegetation as can produce dramatic changes in plant communities, on physiological performance or survival of plant species. Particularly, groundwater lowering and surface water diversions will affect vulnerable coastal dune forests, ecosystems particularly sensitive to groundwater limitation. Reduction of water tables can prevent the plants from having access to one of their key water sources and inevitably affect groundwater-dependent species. The additional impact of drought due to climatic change on groundwater-dependent ecosystems has become of increasing concern since it aggravates groundwater reduction impacts with consequent uncertainties about how vegetation will respond over the short and long term. Sand dune plant communities encompass a diverse number of species that differ widely in root depth, tolerance to drought and capacity to shift between seasonal varying water sources. Plant functional groups may be affected by water distribution and availability differently. The high ecological diversity of sand dune forests, characterized by sandy soils, well or poorly drained, poor in nutrients and with different levels of salinity, can occur in different climatic regions of the globe. Such is the case of Tropical, Meso-mediterranean and Mediterranean areas, where future climate change is predicted to change water availability. Analyses of the relative natural abundances of stable isotopes of carbon (13C/12C) and oxygen (18O/16O) have been used across a wide range of scales, contributing to our understanding of plant ecology and interactions. This approach can show important temporal and spatial changes in utilization of different water sources by vegetation. Accordingly, the core idea of this work is to evaluate, along a climatic gradient, the responses and capacity of different coastal plant communities to adapt to changing water availability. This large-climatic-scale study, covering Brazil, Portugal and

  7. Estimation of the thermodynamic properties of functional groups and biomolecules using quantum chemical/statistical thermodynamic calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Weisin

    The scarcity and sustainability of energy sources have always been a concern while seeking for alternative fuels. Biofuels have drawn the attention of various researchers due to their abundancy and renewability. Understanding the physical and chemical properties of these molecules is essential to determining their potential as alternative fuels or fuel additives. In this work, the properties of these molecules are predicted through methods developed from quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics theories. The heats of formations are calculated with the Gaussian program and combined with the Benson group contribution method to predict the Benson parameters of unknown functional groups in a molecule. The methods developed are used to expand the Benson database and improve the practicability of the group contribution method. The heats of formations are also used to predict and correlate heat capacities across a range of temperatures and energy densities in this study.

  8. Disentangling direct and indirect effects of experimental grassland management and plant functional-group manipulation on plant and leafhopper diversity

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Plant biodiversity can affect trophic interactions in many ways, including direct bottom-up effects on insects, but is negatively affected by agricultural intensification. Grassland intensification promotes plant productivity, resulting in changes in plant community composition, and impacts on higher trophic levels. Here, we use a novel grassland management experiment combining manipulations of cutting and fertilization with experimental changes in plant functional group composition (independent of management effects) to disentangle the direct and indirect effects of agricultural management on insect herbivore diversity and abundance. We used leafhoppers as model organisms as they are a key insect taxon in grasslands and react rapidly to management changes. Leafhoppers were sampled between May and September 2010 using standardized sweep netting and pan traps. Results Plant diversity, functional group composition and management regime in grasslands affected leafhopper species richness and abundance. Higher cutting frequencies directly led to decreasing leafhopper species richness, presumably due to the higher disturbance frequency and the reduction in food-resource heterogeneity. In contrast, fertilizer application had only a small indirect negative effect via enhanced aboveground plant biomass, reduced plant diversity and changes in functional group composition. The manipulated increase in grass cover had contrasting direct and indirect effects on leafhopper species richness: grass cover directly increased leafhopper species richness, but negatively affected plant diversity, which in turn was positively related to leafhopper species richness. In conclusion, insect diversity is driven in complex direct and indirect ways by grassland management, including changes in functional group composition. Conclusions The availability of preferred food sources and the frequency of disturbance are important direct and indirect drivers of leafhopper species richness

  9. Olive Ridley Sea Turtle Hatching Success as a Function of the Microbial Abundance in Nest Sand at Ostional, Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Bézy, Vanessa S.; Valverde, Roldán A.; Plante, Craig J.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that significant embryo mortality is caused by microbes, while high microbial loads are generated by the decomposition of eggs broken by later nesting turtles. This occurs commonly when nesting density is high, especially during mass nesting events (arribadas). However, no previous research has directly quantified microbial abundance and the associated effects on sea turtle hatching success at a nesting beach. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the microbial abundance in olive ridley sea turtle nest sand affects the hatching success at Ostional, Costa Rica. We applied experimental treatments to alter the microbial abundance within the sand into which nests were relocated. We monitored temperature, oxygen, and organic matter content throughout the incubation period and quantified the microbial abundance within the nest sand using a quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) molecular analysis. The most successful treatment in increasing hatching success was the removal and replacement of nest sand. We found a negative correlation between hatching success and fungal abundance (fungal 18S rRNA gene copies g-1 nest sand). Of secondary importance in determining hatching success was the abundance of bacteria (bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies g-1 g-1 nest sand). Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that high microbial activity is responsible for the lower hatching success observed at Ostional beach. Furthermore, the underlying mechanism appears to be the deprivation of oxygen and exposure to higher temperatures resulting from microbial decomposition in the nest. PMID:25714355

  10. Ecological effects of cell-level processes: genome size, functional traits and regional abundance of herbaceous plant species

    PubMed Central

    Herben, Tomáš; Suda, Jan; Klimešová, Jitka; Mihulka, Stanislav; Říha, Pavel; Šímová, Irena

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Genome size is known to be correlated with a number of phenotypic traits associated with cell sizes and cell-division rates. Genome size was therefore used as a proxy for them in order to assess how common plant traits such as height, specific leaf area and seed size/number predict species regional abundance. In this study it is hypothesized that if there is residual correlation between genome size and abundance after these traits are partialled out, there must be additional ecological effects of cell size and/or cell-division rate. Methods Variation in genome size, plant traits and regional abundance were examined in 436 herbaceous species of central European flora, and relationships were sought for among these variables by correlation and path analysis. Key Results Species regional abundance was weakly but significantly correlated with genome size; the relationship was stronger for annuals (R2 = 0·145) than for perennials (R2 = 0·027). In annuals, genome size was linked to abundance via its effect on seed size, which constrains seed number and hence population growth rate. In perennials, it weakly affected (via height and specific leaf area) competitive ability. These relationships did not change qualitatively after phylogenetic correction. In both annuals and perennials there was an unresolved effect of genome size on abundance. Conclusions The findings indicate that additional predictors of regional abundance should be sought among variables that are linked to cell size and cell-division rate. Signals of these cell-level processes remain identifiable even at the landscape scale, and show deep differences between perennials and annuals. Plant population biology could thus possibly benefit from more systematic use of indicators of cell-level processes. PMID:22628380

  11. Effects of Oxygen-Containing Functional Groups on Supercapacitor Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Schwenzer, Birgit; Vijayakumar, M.

    2014-07-03

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the interface between graphene and the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium trifluoromethanesulfonate (BMIM OTf) were carried out to gain molecular-level insights into the performance of graphene-based supercapacitors and, in particular, determine the effects of the presence of oxygen-containing defects at the graphene surface on their integral capacitance. The MD simulations predict that increasing the surface coverage of hydroxyl groups negatively affects the integral capacitance, whereas the effect of the presence of epoxy groups is much less significant. The calculated variations in capacitance are found to be directly correlated to the interfacial structure. Indeed, hydrogen bonding between hydroxyl groups and SO3 anion moieties prevents BMIM+ and OTf- molecules from interacting favorably in the dense interfacial layer and restrains the orientation and mobility of OTf- ions, thereby reducing the permittivity of the ionic liquid at the interface. The results of the molecular simulations can facilitate the rational design of electrode materials for supercapacitors.

  12. Post-Functionalized Polymer Brushes for Bio-Separation: Tuning GFP Adsorption via Functional Group Display

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diamanti, Steve; Arifuzzaman, Shafi; Genzer, Jan; Naik, Rajesh; Vaia, Richard

    2007-03-01

    An inexpensive and robust biosensor platform that can be tuned to separate and/or detect complex mixtures of biomolecules while minimizing reagents would be of great use for military, homeland security, and medical diagnostic applications. Gradient surfaces of poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) brushes have been previously shown to spatially localize biomolecule binding, while minimizing non-specific adsorption of the same biomolecule on other regions of the gradient specimen. In order to further improve the specificity and to provide latent functionality for detection of the binding events, post-polymerization modification of PHEMA with various functional groups has been investigated. Using standard succinimide-based coupling, hydroxyl pendants of PHEMA brushes were conjugated to oligo-peptides, alkanes and oligo(ethylene glycol) (OEG) through an alpha-terminus primary amine. Ellipsometry, contact angle, XPS and ER-FTIR spectroscopy indicated that coupling occurred with efficiencies ranging from 10-40%. Post-functionalization of PHEMA with OEG and hexadecane allows manipulation of the hydrophilicity of the surface and thus tuning of Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) binding.

  13. Hydrated goethite (alpha-FeOOH) (100) interface structure: Ordered water and surface functional groups.

    SciTech Connect

    Ghose, S.K.; Waychunas, G.A.; Trainor, T.P.; Eng, P.J.

    2009-12-15

    Goethite({alpha}-FeOOH), an abundant and highly reactive iron oxyhydroxide mineral, has been the subject of numerous stud-ies of environmental interface reactivity. However, such studies have been hampered by the lack of experimental constraints on aqueous interface structure, and especially of the surface water molecular arrangements. Structural information of this type is crucial because reactivity is dictated by the nature of the surface functional groups and the structure or distribution of water and electrolyte at the solid-solution interface. In this study we have investigated the goethite(100) surface using surface diffraction techniques, and have determined the relaxed surface structure, the surface functional groups, and the three dimensional nature of two distinct sorbed water layers. The crystal truncation rod (CTR) results show that the interface structure consists of a double hydroxyl, double water terminated interface with significant atom relaxations. Further, the double hydroxyl terminated surface dominates with an 89% contribution having a chiral subdomain structure on the(100) cleavage faces. The proposed interface stoichiometry is ((H{sub 2}O)-(H{sub 2}O)-OH{sub 2}-OH-Fe-O-O-Fe-R) with two types of terminal hydroxyls; a bidentate (B-type) hydroxo group and a monodentate (A-type) aquo group. Using the bond-valence approach the protonation states of the terminal hydroxyls are predicted to be OH type (bidentate hydroxyl with oxygen coupled to two Fe{sup 3+} ions) and OH{sub 2} type (monodentate hydroxyl with oxygen tied to only one Fe{sup 3+}). A double layer three dimensional ordered water structure at the interface was determined from refinement of fits to the experimental data. Application of bond-valence constraints to the terminal hydroxyls with appropriate rotation of the water dipole moments allowed a plausible dipole orientation model as predicted. The structural results are discussed in terms of protonation and H-bonding at the interface

  14. Rectifying and negative differential resistance behaviors of a functionalized Tour wire: The position effects of functional groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwong, Gordon; Zhang, Zhenhua; Pan, Jinbo

    2011-09-01

    Based on Tour wire, we construct four D-π-A molecular devices with different positional functional groups, in an attempt to explore the position effects of functional groups on their electronic transport properties and to show that some interesting physical phenomena can emerge by only varying the position of functional groups. The first-principles calculations demonstrate that the position of functional groups can affect the rectifying behaviors (rectification direction and ratio) significantly and determines whether or not the negative differential resistance (NDR) can be observed as well as the physical origin of the NDR phenomenon.

  15. Quantitative evaluation of interaction force between functional groups in protein and polymer brush surfaces.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Sho; Inoue, Yuuki; Ishihara, Kazuhiko

    2014-03-18

    To understand interactions between polymer surfaces and different functional groups in proteins, interaction forces were quantitatively evaluated by force-versus-distance curve measurements using atomic force microscopy with a functional-group-functionalized cantilever. Various polymer brush surfaces were systematically prepared by surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization as well-defined model surfaces to understand protein adsorption behavior. The polymer brush layers consisted of phosphorylcholine groups (zwitterionic/hydrophilic), trimethylammonium groups (cationic/hydrophilic), sulfonate groups (anionic/hydrophilic), hydroxyl groups (nonionic/hydrophilic), and n-butyl groups (nonionic/hydrophobic) in their side chains. The interaction forces between these polymer brush surfaces and different functional groups (carboxyl groups, amino groups, and methyl groups, which are typical functional groups existing in proteins) were quantitatively evaluated by force-versus-distance curve measurements using atomic force microscopy with a functional-group-functionalized cantilever. Furthermore, the amount of adsorbed protein on the polymer brush surfaces was quantified by surface plasmon resonance using albumin with a negative net charge and lysozyme with a positive net charge under physiological conditions. The amount of proteins adsorbed on the polymer brush surfaces corresponded to the interaction forces generated between the functional groups on the cantilever and the polymer brush surfaces. The weakest interaction force and least amount of protein adsorbed were observed in the case of the polymer brush surface with phosphorylcholine groups in the side chain. On the other hand, positive and negative surfaces generated strong forces against the oppositely charged functional groups. In addition, they showed significant adsorption with albumin and lysozyme, respectively. These results indicated that the interaction force at the functional group level might be

  16. Realizing load reduction functions by aperiodic switching of load groups

    SciTech Connect

    Navid-Azarbaijani, N.; Banakar, M.H.

    1996-05-01

    This paper investigates the problem of scheduling ON/OFF switching of residential appliances under the control of a Load Management System (LMS). The scheduling process is intended to reduce the controlled appliances` power demand in accordance with a predefined load reduction profile. To solve this problem, a solution approach, based on the methodology of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM), is introduced. This approach provides a flexible mathematical basis for studying different aspects of the scheduling problem. The conventional practices in this area are shown to be special cases of the PWM technique. By applying the PWM-based technique to the scheduling problem, important classes of scheduling errors are identified and analytical expressions describing them are derived. These expressions are shown to provide sufficient information to compensate for the errors. Detailed simulations of load groups` response to switching actions are use to support conclusions of this study.

  17. Visualization of group inference data in functional neuroimaging.

    PubMed

    Gläscher, Jan

    2009-01-01

    While thresholded statistical parametric maps can convey an accurate account for the location and spatial extent of an effect in functional neuroimaging studies, their use is somewhat limited for characterizing more complex experimental effects, such as interactions in a factorial design. The resulting necessity for plotting the underlying data has long been recognized. Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) is a widely used software package for analyzing functional neuroimaging data that offers a variety of options for visualizing data from first level analyses. However, nowadays, the thrust of the statistical inference lies at the second level thus allowing for population inference. Unfortunately, the options for visualizing data from second level analyses are quite sparse. rfxplot is a new toolbox designed to alleviate this problem by providing a comprehensive array of options for plotting data from within second level analyses in SPM. These include graphs of average effect sizes (across subjects), averaged fitted responses and event-related blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) time courses. All data are retrieved from the underlying first level analyses and voxel selection can be tailored to the maximum effect in each subject within a defined search volume. All plot configurations can be easily configured via a graphical user-interface as well as non-interactively via a script. The large variety of plot options renders rfxplot suitable both for data exploration as well as producing high-quality figures for publications. PMID:19140033

  18. A Generalized Logistic Regression Procedure to Detect Differential Item Functioning among Multiple Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magis, David; Raiche, Gilles; Beland, Sebastien; Gerard, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We present an extension of the logistic regression procedure to identify dichotomous differential item functioning (DIF) in the presence of more than two groups of respondents. Starting from the usual framework of a single focal group, we propose a general approach to estimate the item response functions in each group and to test for the presence…

  19. Water electrolyte promoted oxidation of functional thiol groups.

    PubMed

    Lauwers, K; Breynaert, E; Rombouts, I; Delcour, J A; Kirschhock, C E A

    2016-04-15

    The formation of disulfide bonds is of the utmost importance for a wide range of food products with gluten or globular proteins as functional agents. Here, the impact of mineral electrolyte composition of aqueous solutions on thiol oxidation kinetics was studied, using glutathione (GSH) and cysteine (CYS) as model systems. Interestingly, the oxidation rate of both compounds into their corresponding disulfides was significantly higher in common tap water than in ultrapure water. The systematic study of different electrolyte components showed that especially CaCl2 improved the oxidation rate of GSH. However, this effect was not observed for CYS, which indicated a strong impact of the local chemical environment on thiol oxidation kinetics. PMID:26675862

  20. Red electroluminescence of ruthenium sensitizer functionalized by sulfonate anchoring groups.

    PubMed

    Shahroosvand, Hashem; Abbasi, Parisa; Mohajerani, Ezeddin; Janghouri, Mohammad

    2014-06-28

    We have synthesized five novel Ru(ii) phenanthroline complexes with an additional aryl sulfonate ligating substituent at the 5-position [Ru(L)(bpy)2](BF4)2 (1), [Ru(L)(bpy)(SCN)2] (2), [Ru(L)3](BF4)2 (3), [Ru(L)2(bpy)](BF4)2 (4) and [Ru(L)(BPhen)(SCN)2] (5) (where L = 6-one-[1,10]phenanthroline-5-ylamino)-3-hydroxynaphthalene 1-sulfonic, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine, BPhen = 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline), as both photosensitizers for oxide semiconductor solar cells (DSSCs) and light emitting diodes (LEDs). The absorption and emission maxima of these complexes red shifted upon extending the conjugation of the phenanthroline ligand. Ru phenanthroline complexes exhibit broad metal to ligand charge transfer-centered electroluminescence (EL) with a maximum near 580 nm. Our results indicated that a particular structure (2) can be considered as both DSSC and OLED devices. The efficiency of the LED performance can be tuned by using a range of ligands. Device (2) has a luminance of 550 cd m(-2) and maximum efficiency of 0.9 cd A(-1) at 18 V, which are the highest values among the five devices. The turn-on voltage of this device is approximately 5 V. The role of auxiliary ligands in the photophysical properties of Ru complexes was investigated by DFT calculation. We have also studied photovoltaic properties of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline semiconductor solar cells based on Ru phenanthroline complexes and an iodine redox electrolyte. A solar energy to electricity conversion efficiency (η) of 0.67% was obtained for Ru complex (2) under standard AM 1.5 irradiation with a short-circuit photocurrent density (Jsc) of 2.46 mA cm(-2), an open-circuit photovoltage (Voc) of 0.6 V, and a fill factor (ff) of 40%, which are all among the highest values for ruthenium sulfonated anchoring groups reported so far. Monochromatic incident photon to current conversion efficiency was 23% at 475 nm. Photovoltaic studies clearly indicated dyes with two SCN substituents yielded a higher Jsc for the

  1. Positive-type functions on groups and new inequalities in classical and quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Man'ko, V. I.; Marmo, G.; Simoni, A.; Ventriglia, F.

    2010-09-01

    Out of any unitary representation of a group, positive-type functions on the group can be obtained. These functions allow one to construct positive semi-definite matrices that may be used to define new inequalities for higher moments of observables associated with classical probability distribution functions and density states of quantum systems. The inequalities stemming from the Heisenberg-Weyl group representations are considered in connection with Gaussian distributions. We obtain new inequalities for multi-variable Hermite polynomials.

  2. Synthesis of Highly Functionalized Triarylbismuthines by Functional Group Manipulation and Use in Palladium- and Copper-Catalyzed Arylation Reactions.

    PubMed

    Hébert, Martin; Petiot, Pauline; Benoit, Emeline; Dansereau, Julien; Ahmad, Tabinda; Le Roch, Adrien; Ottenwaelder, Xavier; Gagnon, Alexandre

    2016-07-01

    Organobismuthines are an attractive class of organometallic reagents that can be accessed from inexpensive and nontoxic bismuth salts. Triarylbismuthines are particularly interesting due to their air and moisture stability and high functional group tolerance. We report herein a detailed study on the preparation of highly functionalized triarylbismuth reagents by triple functional group manipulation and their use in palladium- and copper-catalyzed C-, N-, and O-arylation reactions. PMID:27231755

  3. Metallicity Distribution Functions of Four Local Group Dwarf Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Teresa L.; Holtzman, Jon; Saha, Abhijit; Anthony-Twarog, Barbara J.

    2015-06-01

    We present stellar metallicities in Leo I, Leo II, IC 1613, and Phoenix dwarf galaxies derived from medium (F390M) and broad (F555W, F814W) band photometry using the Wide Field Camera 3 instrument on board the Hubble Space Telescope. We measured metallicity distribution functions (MDFs) in two ways, (1) matching stars to isochrones in color-color diagrams and (2) solving for the best linear combination of synthetic populations to match the observed color-color diagram. The synthetic technique reduces the effect of photometric scatter and produces MDFs 30%-50% narrower than the MDFs produced from individually matched stars. We fit the synthetic and individual MDFs to analytical chemical evolution models (CEMs) to quantify the enrichment and the effect of gas flows within the galaxies. Additionally, we measure stellar metallicity gradients in Leo I and II. For IC 1613 and Phoenix our data do not have the radial extent to confirm a metallicity gradient for either galaxy. We find the MDF of Leo I (dwarf spheroidal) to be very peaked with a steep metal-rich cutoff and an extended metal-poor tail, while Leo II (dwarf spheroidal), Phoenix (dwarf transition), and IC 1613 (dwarf irregular) have wider, less peaked MDFs than Leo I. A simple CEM is not the best fit for any of our galaxies; therefore we also fit the “Best Accretion Model” of Lynden-Bell. For Leo II, IC 1613, and Phoenix we find similar accretion parameters for the CEM even though they all have different effective yields, masses, star formation histories, and morphologies. We suggest that the dynamical history of a galaxy is reflected in the MDF, where broad MDFs are seen in galaxies that have chemically evolved in relative isolation and narrowly peaked MDFs are seen in galaxies that have experienced more complicated dynamical interactions concurrent with their chemical evolution. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is

  4. Mapping functional groups on oxidised multi-walled carbon nanotubes at the nanometre scale.

    PubMed

    Goode, A E; Hine, N D M; Chen, S; Bergin, S D; Shaffer, M S P; Ryan, M P; Haynes, P D; Porter, A E; McComb, D W

    2014-06-28

    Despite voluminous research on the acid oxidation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), there is a distinct lack of experimental results showing distributions of functional groups at the nanometre length scale. Here, functional peaks have been mapped across individual multi-walled CNTs with low-dose, monochromated electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) in the scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). Density functional theory simulations show that the EELS features are consistent with oxygenated functional groups, most likely carboxyl moieties. PMID:24827593

  5. Functional Groups Based on Leaf Physiology: Are they Spatially and Temporally Robust?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, Tammy E.; Brooks, J. Renee; Quincy, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The functional grouping hypothesis, which suggests that complexity in function can be simplified by grouping species with similar responses, was tested in the Florida scrub habitat. Functional groups were identified based on how species in fire maintained FL scrub function in terms of carbon, water and nitrogen dynamics. The suite of physiologic parameters measured to determine function included both instantaneous gas exchange measurements obtained from photosynthetic light response curves and integrated measures of function. Using cluster analysis, five distinct physiologically-based functional groups were identified. Using non-parametric multivariate analyses, it was determined that these five groupings were not altered by plot differences or by the three different management regimes; prescribed burn, mechanically treated and burn, and fire-suppressed. The physiological groupings also remained robust between the two years 1999 and 2000. In order for these groupings to be of use for scaling ecosystem processes, there needs to be an easy-to-measure morphological indicator of function. Life form classifications were able to depict the physiological groupings more adequately than either specific leaf area or leaf thickness. THe ability of life forms to depict the groupings was improved by separating the parasitic Ximenia americana from the shrub category.

  6. Use of morphological characteristics to define functional groups of predatory fishes in the Celtic Sea.

    PubMed

    Reecht, Y; Rochet, M-J; Trenkel, V M; Jennings, S; Pinnegar, J K

    2013-08-01

    An ecomorphological method was developed, with a focus on predation functions, to define functional groups in the Celtic Sea fish community. Eleven functional traits, measured for 930 individuals from 33 species, led to 11 functional groups. Membership of functional groups was linked to body size and taxonomy. For seven species, there were ontogenetic changes in group membership. When diet composition, expressed as the proportions of different prey types recorded in stomachs, was compared among functional groups, morphology-based predictions accounted for 28-56% of the interindividual variance in prey type. This was larger than the 12-24% of variance that could be explained solely on the basis of body size. PMID:23902311

  7. Development of acid functional groups during the thermal degradation of wood and wood components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study provides data on acid functional groups in charcoals and how the acid functional group content varies with the formation conditions. Chars were created from purified cellulose, purified lignin, pine wood, and pine bark. The charring temperatures and charring duration were controlled in a ...

  8. Functional group and species responses to spring precipitation in three semi-arid rangeland ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Determining if precipitation-induced changes to forage production and basal and foliar cover in semi-arid rangelands are species-specific, functional group-specific or ubiquitous across species and functional groups will enhance decision making among producers and increase precision of forage produc...

  9. The galaxy luminosity function in groups and clusters: the faint-end upturn and the connection to the field luminosity function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Ting-Wen; Ménard, Brice; Mo, Houjun

    2016-07-01

    We characterize the luminosity functions of galaxies residing in z ˜ 0 groups and clusters over the broadest ranges of luminosity and mass reachable by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Our measurements cover four orders of magnitude in luminosity, down to about Mr = -12 mag or L = 107 L⊙, and three orders of magnitude in halo mass, from 1012 to 1015 M⊙. We find a characteristic scale, Mr ˜ -18 mag or L ˜ 109 L⊙, below which the slope of the luminosity function becomes systematically steeper. This trend is present for all halo masses and originates mostly from red satellites. This ubiquitous faint-end upturn suggests that it is formation, rather than halo-specific environmental effect, that plays a major role in regulating the stellar masses of faint satellites. We show that the satellite luminosity functions can be described in a simple manner by a double Schechter function with amplitudes scaling with halo mass over the entire range of observables. Combining these conditional luminosity functions with the dark matter halo mass function, we accurately recover the entire field luminosity function over 10 visual magnitudes and reveal that satellite galaxies dominate the field luminosity function at magnitudes fainter than -17. We find that the luminosity functions of blue and red satellite galaxies show distinct shapes and we present estimates of the stellar mass fraction as a function of halo mass and galaxy type. Finally, using a simple model, we demonstrate that the abundances and the faint-end slopes of blue and red satellite galaxies can be interpreted in terms of their formation history, with two distinct modes separated by some characteristic time.

  10. Characterization of Oxygen Containing Functional Groups on Carbon Materials with Oxygen K-edge X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    K Kim; P Zhu; L Na; X Ma; Y Chen

    2011-12-31

    Surface functional groups on carbon materials are critical to their surface properties and related applications. Many characterization techniques have been used to identify and quantify the surface functional groups, but none is completely satisfactory especially for quantification. In this work, we used oxygen K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy to identify and quantify the oxygen containing surface functional groups on carbon materials. XANES spectra were collected in fluorescence yield mode to minimize charging effect due to poor sample conductivity which can potentially distort XANES spectra. The surface functional groups are grouped into three types, namely carboxyl-type, carbonyl-type, and hydroxyl-type. XANES spectra of the same type are very similar while spectra of different types are significantly different. Two activated carbon samples were analyzed by XANES. The total oxygen contents of the samples were estimated from the edge step of their XANES spectra, and the identity and abundance of different functional groups were determined by fitting of the sample XANES spectrum to a linear combination of spectra of the reference compounds. It is concluded that oxygen K-edge XANES spectroscopy is a reliable characterization technique for the identification and quantification of surface functional groups on carbon materials.

  11. Does the source of carbon influence the abundance of nirK, nirS and nosZ functional genes in laboratory denitrification bioreactors?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Maria; Fenton, Owen; Ibrahim, Tristan G.; O'Flaherty, Vincent; Healey, Mark G.

    2014-05-01

    Biological denitrification in soil is the main producer of nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. Denitrifying soil microbes are capable of reducing nitrate (NO3-) to nitrite (NO2-) to N2O and di-nitrogen gas (N2). One third of these denitrifers possess a truncated functional gene pathway, which may lack the nosZ gene and emit N2O as a final emission product instead of the more benign N2. A carbon rich environment, specific to certain types of carbon sources, has been shown to foster an anaerobic environment, which positively impacts microbial denitrification rates. The present study examined the effect of varying carbon sources in laboratory-scale denitrification bioreactors on NO3- removal and also correlated performance with the abundance of the denitrifying microbial consortia possessing the denitrifying functional genes nirK, nirS and nosZ in each bioreactor. The bioreactors comprised either lodgepole pine woodchips (LPW), lodgepole pine needles (LPN), barley straw (BBS), or cardboard (CCB), each mixed with soil in a 1:1 ratio (by volume) and subject to sequentially increasing hydraulic loading rates of 3, 5 and 10 cm d-1 for a total operation period of up to 744 days. A reactor containing soil only (CSO) was used as the study control. The abundance of denitrifers was determined by targeting nirK, nirS, nosZ functional genes and the overall microbial population was determined by targeting bacterial and archaeal 16sRNA genes. Nitrate removal from all bioreactors was > 99.7%, but when pollution swapping was considered, this ranged from 67% for LPW to 95% for the CCB ; this was also mirrored in the average nirk/nirS/nosZ gene abundance (CCB, c. 94% (c. 108); LPN, 75% (c. 107); BBS, c. 74% (c. 106/107); LPW, 70% (c. 105). Bacterial 16sRNA gene abundance was similar in all reactors including the control (P=0.0362). The abundance of nosZ genes and the genetic potential for N2 emissions varied in all reactors in comparison to the control CSO, BBS (P=0.0051); CCB (P=0

  12. Can functional gene abundance predict N-fluxes? Examples from a well-studied hydrological flow path in a forested watershed in SW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Binbin; Muzammil, Bushra; Dörsch, Peter; Zhu, Jing; Mulder, Jan; Frostegård, Åsa

    2014-05-01

    Edaphic, climatic and management factors shape soil microbial communities taxonomically and functionally, resulting in spatial separation of nitrogen (N) oxidation and reduction processes along hydrological flowpaths. In a recent study, we investigated N-cycling processes and N2O emissions along a mesic hillslope (HS) and a hydrologically connected groundwater discharge zone (GDZ) in a forested headwater catchment dominated by acid soils (pH 4.0 - 4.5) in subtropical China (Chongqing). The watershed receives 50 kg N ha-1 a-1 through atmogenic deposition (2/3 as ammonium), most of which is removed before discharge. Surprisingly, N2O emissions were found to be greatest on the well-drained HS, whereas a drop of NO3- concentrations along the flow path indicated that N removal was highest in the moist GDZ. Nitrification was assumed to be none-limiting as the total flux of NO3- leaving the hill slope soils roughly equalled the input of NH4+. To understand watershed N-cycling and removal in more detail, we studied the abundance of functional genes involved in ammonium oxidation (amoA of AOB and AOA), nitrite oxidation (nxrB) and denitrification (nirK, nirS, nosZ) in top soils from 8 locations along the flow path spanning from the hilltop to the outlet of the GDZ. 16S rRNA gene abundance was assessed as a general marker for bacterial abundance. All genes showed highest abundance per gram soil in the heavily disturbed GDZ (formerly cultivated terraces), despite lower soil organic carbon content (1-4% w/w as opposed to 10-20% w/w in HS topsoil) and periodically stagnant conditions due to high water tables after monsoonal rainfalls. Ratios of nosZ/nirS+nirK, commonly used to predict denitrification product stoichiometry (N2O/N2), yielded counterintuitive results with higher values for HS than for GDZ. However, comparing nir gene with 16S rRNA gene abundance revealed that denitrifiers accounted for up to 10% of the bacterial community in the GDZ soils whereas this value was

  13. 14 CFR Section 10 - Functional Classification-Operating Expenses of Group I Air Carriers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Functional Classification-Operating... REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Profit and Loss Classification Section 10 Functional Classification—Operating Expenses of Group I Air Carriers 5100Flying Operations. (a) This function shall...

  14. Use of the Sequence Rule for Indexing Functional Groups in Organic Compounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudrlik, Paul F.

    1973-01-01

    A new method of indexing functional groups in organic compounds is described, utilizing the Cahn-Ingold-Prelog sequence rule. Functional carbon atoms are first classified by functionality, a measure of the oxidation state, then ordered by means of a modified sequence rule. Substructure searching and other applications are discussed. (30…

  15. Functional analysis of a highly conserved abundant larval transcript-2 (alt-2) intron 2 repeat region of lymphatic filarial parasites.

    PubMed

    Sakthidevi, Moorthy; Hoti, Sugeerappa Laxmanappa; Kaliraj, Perumal

    2014-06-01

    The filarial-specific protein abundant larval transcript-2 (ALT-2) is expressed exclusively in the infective larval stage (L3) and is a crucial protein for establishing immunopathogenesis in human hosts. The alt-2 gene has a conserved minisatellite repeat (29 or 27bp) in intron 2 (IR2) whose significance within lymphatic filarial species is unknown. Here, we report the role of IR2 in the regulation of alt-2 gene expression using an in vitro model. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we identified the presence of a putative nuclear protein binding region within IR2. Subsequent transient expression experiments in eukaryotic cell lines demonstrated that the IR2 downregulated the expression of a downstream luciferase reporter gene, which was further validated with RT-PCR. We therefore identify IR2 as a suppressor element that regulates L3 stage-specific expression of alt-2. PMID:24681262

  16. Abundance and Diversity of Bacterial Nitrifiers and Denitrifiers and Their Functional Genes in Tannery Wastewater Treatment Plants Revealed by High-Throughput Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhu; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Lu, Xin; Liu, Bo; Li, Yan; Long, Chao; Li, Aimin

    2014-01-01

    Biological nitrification/denitrification is frequently used to remove nitrogen from tannery wastewater containing high concentrations of ammonia. However, information is limited about the bacterial nitrifiers and denitrifiers and their functional genes in tannery wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) due to the low-throughput of the previously used methods. In this study, 454 pyrosequencing and Illumina high-throughput sequencing, combined with molecular methods, were used to comprehensively characterize structures and functions of nitrification and denitrification bacterial communities in aerobic and anaerobic sludge of two full-scale tannery WWTPs. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes showed that Proteobacteria and Synergistetes dominated in the aerobic and anaerobic sludge, respectively. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) amoA gene cloning revealed that Nitrosomonas europaea dominated the ammonia-oxidizing community in the WWTPs. Metagenomic analysis showed that the denitrifiers mainly included the genera of Thauera, Paracoccus, Hyphomicrobium, Comamonas and Azoarcus, which may greatly contribute to the nitrogen removal in the two WWTPs. It is interesting that AOB and ammonia-oxidizing archaea had low abundance although both WWTPs demonstrated high ammonium removal efficiency. Good correlation between the qPCR and metagenomic analysis is observed for the quantification of functional genes amoA, nirK, nirS and nosZ, indicating that the metagenomic approach may be a promising method used to comprehensively investigate the abundance of functional genes of nitrifiers and denitrifiers in the environment. PMID:25420093

  17. Abundance and diversity of bacterial nitrifiers and denitrifiers and their functional genes in tannery wastewater treatment plants revealed by high-throughput sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhu; Zhang, Xu-Xiang; Lu, Xin; Liu, Bo; Li, Yan; Long, Chao; Li, Aimin

    2014-01-01

    Biological nitrification/denitrification is frequently used to remove nitrogen from tannery wastewater containing high concentrations of ammonia. However, information is limited about the bacterial nitrifiers and denitrifiers and their functional genes in tannery wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) due to the low-throughput of the previously used methods. In this study, 454 pyrosequencing and Illumina high-throughput sequencing, combined with molecular methods, were used to comprehensively characterize structures and functions of nitrification and denitrification bacterial communities in aerobic and anaerobic sludge of two full-scale tannery WWTPs. Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes showed that Proteobacteria and Synergistetes dominated in the aerobic and anaerobic sludge, respectively. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) amoA gene cloning revealed that Nitrosomonas europaea dominated the ammonia-oxidizing community in the WWTPs. Metagenomic analysis showed that the denitrifiers mainly included the genera of Thauera, Paracoccus, Hyphomicrobium, Comamonas and Azoarcus, which may greatly contribute to the nitrogen removal in the two WWTPs. It is interesting that AOB and ammonia-oxidizing archaea had low abundance although both WWTPs demonstrated high ammonium removal efficiency. Good correlation between the qPCR and metagenomic analysis is observed for the quantification of functional genes amoA, nirK, nirS and nosZ, indicating that the metagenomic approach may be a promising method used to comprehensively investigate the abundance of functional genes of nitrifiers and denitrifiers in the environment. PMID:25420093

  18. Acting-out: its functions within analytic group psychotherapy and its transformation into dreams.

    PubMed

    Richarz, Bernhard; Römisch, Sylvelin

    2002-07-01

    In group processes, acting-out has diverse functions, all of them equally important. It has an intrapsychic, interpersonal, and group dynamic function. Not only may it be understood as a form of resistance, but also in its communicative and reparative potential. The authors investigate the thesis that acting-out also contains the seed for change, thus helping patients divest themselves of pathological behavior. Using a group process as an example, this article shows how boundaries can be drawn between past and present experiences while using the communicative and reparative functions of acting-out. Unconscious psychodynamics can then be transformed from acting-out into dreams. PMID:12082675

  19. Abundances of platinum group elements in native sulfur condensates from the Niuatahi-Motutahi submarine volcano, Tonga rear arc: Implications for PGE mineralization in porphyry deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jung-Woo; Campbell, Ian H.; Kim, Jonguk

    2016-02-01

    Some porphyry Cu-Au deposits, which are enriched in Pd, are potentially an economic source of Pd. Magmatic volatile phases are thought to transport the platinum group elements (PGEs) from the porphyry source magma to the point of deposition. However, the compatibilities of the PGEs in magmatic volatile phases are poorly constrained. We report PGE and Re contents in native sulfur condensates and associated altered dacites from the Niuatahi-Motutahi submarine volcano, Tonga rear arc, in order to determine the compatibility of PGEs and Re in magmatic volatile phases, and their mobility during secondary hydrothermal alteration. The native sulfur we analyzed is the condensate of a magmatic volatile phase exsolved from the Niuatahi-Motutahi magma. The PGEs are moderately enriched in the sulfur condensates in comparison to the associated fresh dacite, with enrichment factors of 11-285, whereas Au, Cu and Re are strongly enriched with enrichment factors of ∼20,000, ∼5000 and ∼800 respectively. Although the PGEs are moderately compatible into magmatic volatile phases, their compatibility is significantly lower than that of Au, Cu and Re. Furthermore, the compatibility of PGEs decrease in the order: Ru > Pt > Ir > Pd. This trend is also observed in condensates and sublimates from other localities. PGE mineralization in porphyry Cu-Au deposits is characterized by substantially higher Pd/Pt (∼7-60) and Pd/Ir (∼100-10,500) than typical orthomagmatic sulfide deposits (e.g. Pd/Pt ∼0.6 and Pd/Ir ∼20 for the Bushveld). It has previously been suggested that the high mobility of Pd, relative to the other PGEs, may account for the preferential enrichment of Pd in porphyry Cu-Au deposits. However, the low compatibility of Pd in the volatile phase relative to the other PGEs, shown in this study, invalidates this explanation. We suggest that the PGE geochemistry of Pd-rich Cu-Au deposits is principally derived from the PGE characteristics of the magma from which the ore

  20. Effects of Functional Group Position on Spatial Representations of Aliphatic Odorants in the Rat Olfactory Bulb

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Brett A.; Farahbod, Haleh; Saber, Sepideh; Leon, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Principles of olfactory coding can be clarified by studying the olfactory bulb activity patterns that are evoked by odorants differing systematically in chemical structure. In the present study, we used series of aliphatic esters, ketones, and alcohols (27 odorants total) to determine the effects of functional group position on glomerular-layer activity patterns. These patterns were measured as uptake of [14C]2-deoxyglucose and were mapped into standardized data matrices for statistical comparison across different rats. The magnitude of the effect of position differed greatly for the different functional groups. For ketones, there was little or no effect of position on evoked patterns. For esters, uptake in individual glomerular modules increased, while uptake in others decreased with changing group position, and yet the overall patterns remained similar. For alcohols, group position had a profound effect on evoked activity patterns. For example, moving the hydroxyl group in either heptanol or nonanol from the first to the fourth carbon changed the activity patterns so greatly that the major areas of response did not overlap. Within every functional group series, however, responses were globally chemotopic, such that pairs of odorants with the smallest difference in functional group position evoked the most similar patterns. These results help to define further the specificities of glomeruli within previously described glomerular modules, and they show that functional group position can be an important feature in encoding an odorant molecule. PMID:15678475

  1. Hydrologic controls on nitrogen cycling processes and functional gene abundance in sediments of a groundwater flow-through lake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoliker, Deborah L.; Repert, Deborah A.; Smith, Richard L.; Song, Bongkeun; LeBlanc, Denis R.; McCobb, Timothy D.; Conaway, Christopher; Hyun, Sung Pil; Koh, Dong-Chan; Moon, Hee Sun; Kent, Douglas B.

    2016-01-01

    The fate and transport of inorganic nitrogen (N) is a critically important issue for human and aquatic ecosystem health because discharging N-contaminated groundwater can foul drinking water and cause algal blooms. Factors controlling N-processing were examined in sediments at three sites with contrasting hydrologic regimes at a lake on Cape Cod, MA. These factors included water chemistry, seepage rates and direction of groundwater flow, and the abundance and potential rates of activity of N-cycling microbial communities. Genes coding for denitrification, anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), and nitrification were identified at all sites regardless of flow direction or groundwater dissolved oxygen concentrations. Flow direction was, however, a controlling factor in the potential for N-attenuation via denitrification in the sediments. Potential rates of denitrification varied from 6 to 4500 pmol N/g/h from the inflow to the outflow side of the lake, owing to fundamental differences in the supply of labile organic matter. The results of laboratory incubations suggested that when anoxia and limiting labile organic matter prevailed, the potential existed for concomitant anammox and denitrification. Where oxic lake water was downwelling, potential rates of nitrification at shallow depths were substantial (1640 pmol N/g/h). Rates of anammox, denitrification, and nitrification may be linked to rates of organic N-mineralization, serving to increase N-mobility and transport downgradient.

  2. Hydrologic Controls on Nitrogen Cycling Processes and Functional Gene Abundance in Sediments of a Groundwater Flow-Through Lake.

    PubMed

    Stoliker, Deborah L; Repert, Deborah A; Smith, Richard L; Song, Bongkeun; LeBlanc, Denis R; McCobb, Timothy D; Conaway, Christopher H; Hyun, Sung Pil; Koh, Dong-Chan; Moon, Hee Sun; Kent, Douglas B

    2016-04-01

    The fate and transport of inorganic nitrogen (N) is a critically important issue for human and aquatic ecosystem health because discharging N-contaminated groundwater can foul drinking water and cause algal blooms. Factors controlling N-processing were examined in sediments at three sites with contrasting hydrologic regimes at a lake on Cape Cod, MA. These factors included water chemistry, seepage rates and direction of groundwater flow, and the abundance and potential rates of activity of N-cycling microbial communities. Genes coding for denitrification, anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), and nitrification were identified at all sites regardless of flow direction or groundwater dissolved oxygen concentrations. Flow direction was, however, a controlling factor in the potential for N-attenuation via denitrification in the sediments. Potential rates of denitrification varied from 6 to 4500 pmol N/g/h from the inflow to the outflow side of the lake, owing to fundamental differences in the supply of labile organic matter. The results of laboratory incubations suggested that when anoxia and limiting labile organic matter prevailed, the potential existed for concomitant anammox and denitrification. Where oxic lake water was downwelling, potential rates of nitrification at shallow depths were substantial (1640 pmol N/g/h). Rates of anammox, denitrification, and nitrification may be linked to rates of organic N-mineralization, serving to increase N-mobility and transport downgradient. PMID:26967929

  3. a Renormalization Group Calculation of the Velocity - and Density-Density Correlation Functions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowan, Mark Timothy

    The velocity-velocity correlation function of a free field theory is obtained. The renormalization group, along with a 4-varepsilon expansion, is then used to find the leading order behavior of the velocity-velocity correlation function for an interacting field theory in the high temperature phase near the critical point. The details of the calculation of the density-density correlation function for Hedgehogs, in the context of a free field theory, is presented next. Finally the renormalization group, along with a 4-varepsilon expansion, is used to find the leading order behavior of the density-density correlation function for Hedgehogs in an interacting field theory near the critical point.

  4. Annexin A5 is the Most Abundant Membrane-Associated Protein in Stereocilia but is Dispensable for Hair-Bundle Development and Function.

    PubMed

    Krey, Jocelyn F; Drummond, Meghan; Foster, Sarah; Porsov, Edward; Vijayakumar, Sarath; Choi, Dongseok; Friderici, Karen; Jones, Sherri M; Nuttall, Alfred L; Barr-Gillespie, Peter G

    2016-01-01

    The phospholipid- and Ca(2+)-binding protein annexin A5 (ANXA5) is the most abundant membrane-associated protein of ~P23 mouse vestibular hair bundles, the inner ear's sensory organelle. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we estimated that ANXA5 accounts for ~15,000 copies per stereocilium, or ~2% of the total protein there. Although seven other annexin genes are expressed in mouse utricles, mass spectrometry showed that none were present at levels near ANXA5 in bundles and none were upregulated in stereocilia of Anxa5(-/-) mice. Annexins have been proposed to mediate Ca(2+)-dependent repair of membrane lesions, which could be part of the repair mechanism in hair cells after noise damage. Nevertheless, mature Anxa5(-/-) mice not only have normal hearing and balance function, but following noise exposure, they are identical to wild-type mice in their temporary or permanent changes in hearing sensitivity. We suggest that despite the unusually high levels of ANXA5 in bundles, it does not play a role in the bundle's key function, mechanotransduction, at least until after two months of age in the cochlea and six months of age in the vestibular system. These results reinforce the lack of correlation between abundance of a protein in a specific compartment or cellular structure and its functional significance. PMID:27251877

  5. Annexin A5 is the Most Abundant Membrane-Associated Protein in Stereocilia but is Dispensable for Hair-Bundle Development and Function

    PubMed Central

    Krey, Jocelyn F.; Drummond, Meghan; Foster, Sarah; Porsov, Edward; Vijayakumar, Sarath; Choi, Dongseok; Friderici, Karen; Jones, Sherri M.; Nuttall, Alfred L.; Barr-Gillespie, Peter G.

    2016-01-01

    The phospholipid- and Ca2+-binding protein annexin A5 (ANXA5) is the most abundant membrane-associated protein of ~P23 mouse vestibular hair bundles, the inner ear’s sensory organelle. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we estimated that ANXA5 accounts for ~15,000 copies per stereocilium, or ~2% of the total protein there. Although seven other annexin genes are expressed in mouse utricles, mass spectrometry showed that none were present at levels near ANXA5 in bundles and none were upregulated in stereocilia of Anxa5−/− mice. Annexins have been proposed to mediate Ca2+-dependent repair of membrane lesions, which could be part of the repair mechanism in hair cells after noise damage. Nevertheless, mature Anxa5−/− mice not only have normal hearing and balance function, but following noise exposure, they are identical to wild-type mice in their temporary or permanent changes in hearing sensitivity. We suggest that despite the unusually high levels of ANXA5 in bundles, it does not play a role in the bundle’s key function, mechanotransduction, at least until after two months of age in the cochlea and six months of age in the vestibular system. These results reinforce the lack of correlation between abundance of a protein in a specific compartment or cellular structure and its functional significance. PMID:27251877

  6. Planting increases the abundance and structure complexity of soil core functional genes relevant to carbon and nitrogen cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Liang, Yuting; Jiang, Yuji; Yang, Yunfeng; Xue, Kai; Xiong, Jinbo; Zhou, Jizhong; Sun, Bo

    2015-09-01

    Plants have an important impact on soil microbial communities and their functions. However, how plants determine the microbial composition and network interactions is still poorly understood. During a four-year field experiment, we investigated the functional gene composition of three types of soils (Phaeozem, Cambisols and Acrisol) under maize planting and bare fallow regimes located in cold temperate, warm temperate and subtropical regions, respectively. The core genes were identified using high-throughput functional gene microarray (GeoChip 3.0), and functional molecular ecological networks (fMENs) were subsequently developed with the random matrix theory (RMT)-based conceptual framework. Our results demonstrated that planting significantly (P < 0.05) increased the gene alpha-diversity in terms of richness and Shannon - Simpson’s indexes for all three types of soils and 83.5% of microbial alpha-diversity can be explained by the plant factor. Moreover, planting had significant impacts on the microbial community structure and the network interactions of the microbial communities. The calculated network complexity was higher under maize planting than under bare fallow regimes. The increase of the functional genes led to an increase in both soil respiration and nitrification potential with maize planting, indicating that changes in the soil microbial communities and network interactions influenced ecological functioning.

  7. Planting increases the abundance and structure complexity of soil core functional genes relevant to carbon and nitrogen cycling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Feng; Liang, Yuting; Jiang, Yuji; Yang, Yunfeng; Xue, Kai; Xiong, Jinbo; Zhou, Jizhong; Sun, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Plants have an important impact on soil microbial communities and their functions. However, how plants determine the microbial composition and network interactions is still poorly understood. During a four-year field experiment, we investigated the functional gene composition of three types of soils (Phaeozem, Cambisols and Acrisol) under maize planting and bare fallow regimes located in cold temperate, warm temperate and subtropical regions, respectively. The core genes were identified using high-throughput functional gene microarray (GeoChip 3.0), and functional molecular ecological networks (fMENs) were subsequently developed with the random matrix theory (RMT)-based conceptual framework. Our results demonstrated that planting significantly (P < 0.05) increased the gene alpha-diversity in terms of richness and Shannon – Simpson’s indexes for all three types of soils and 83.5% of microbial alpha-diversity can be explained by the plant factor. Moreover, planting had significant impacts on the microbial community structure and the network interactions of the microbial communities. The calculated network complexity was higher under maize planting than under bare fallow regimes. The increase of the functional genes led to an increase in both soil respiration and nitrification potential with maize planting, indicating that changes in the soil microbial communities and network interactions influenced ecological functioning. PMID:26396042

  8. Production of Printed Indexes of Chemical Reactions. I. Analysis of Functional Group Interconversions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinging, R.; Lynch, M. F.

    1973-01-01

    A program is described which identifies functional group interconversion reactions, hydrogenations, and dehydrogenations in a data base containing structures encoded as Wiswesser Line Notations. Production of the data base is briefly described. (17 references) (Authors)

  9. Controlling surface functionality through generation of thiol groups in a self-assembled monolayer.

    SciTech Connect

    Lud, S. Q.; Neppl, S.; Richter, G.; Bruno, P.; Gruen, D. M.; Jordan, R.; Feulner, P.; Stutzmann, M.; Garrido, J. A.; Materials Science Division; Technische Univ. Munchen

    2010-01-01

    A lithographic method to generate reactive thiol groups on functionalized synthetic diamond for biosensor and molecular electronic applications is developed. We demonstrate that ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) thin films covalently functionalized with surface-generated thiol groups allow controlled thiol-disulfide exchange surface hybridization processes. The generation of the thiol functional head groups was obtained by irradiating phenylsulfonic acid (PSA) monolayers on UNCD surfaces. The conversion of the functional headgroup of the self-assembled monolayer was verified by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), and fluorescence microscopy. Our findings indicate the selective generation of reactive thiol surface groups. Furthermore, we demonstrate the grafting of yeast cytochrome c to the thiol-modified diamond surface and the electron transfer between protein and electrode.

  10. Functional group composition of ambient and source organic aerosols determined by tandem mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dron, J.; El Haddad, I.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Jaffrezo, J.-L.; Wortham, H.; Marchand, N.

    2010-04-01

    The functional group composition of various organic aerosols (OA) is being investigated using a recently developed analytical approach based on atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS). The determinations of the three functional groups' contents are performed quantitatively by neutral loss (carboxylic and carbonyl groups) and precursor ion (nitro groups) scanning modes of a tandem mass spectrometer. Major organic aerosol sources are studied: vehicular emission and wood combustion for primary aerosol sources; and a secondary organic aerosol (SOA) produced through photo-oxidation of o-xylene. The results reveal significant differences in the functional group contents of these source aerosols. The laboratory generated SOA is dominated by carbonyls while carboxylics are preponderate in the wood combustion particles. On the other hand, vehicular emissions are characterised by a strong nitro content. The total amount of the three functional groups accounted for 1.7% (vehicular) to 13.5% (o-xylene photo-oxidation) of the organic carbon. The diagnostic functional group ratios are then used to tentatively differentiate sources of particles collected in an urban background environment located in an Alpine valley (Chamonix, France) during a strong winter pollution event. The three functional groups under study account for a total functionalisation rate of 2.2 to 3.8% of the organic carbon in this ambient aerosol, which is also dominated by carboxylic moieties. In this particular case study of a deep alpine valley during winter, we show that the nitro- and carbonyl-to-carboxylic diagnostic ratios can be a useful tool to distinguish the sources. In these conditions, the total OA concentrations are highly dominated by wood combustion OA. This result is confirmed by an organic markers source apportionment approach which assesses a wood burning organic carbon contribution of about 60%. Finally, examples of functional group mass spectra of all

  11. Evaluation of group A1B erythrocytes converted to type as group O: studies of markers of function and compatibility

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Hong-Wei; Zhuo, Hai-Long; Zhang, Xue; Ji, Shou-Ping; Tan, Ying-Xia; Li, Su-Bo; Jia, Yan-Jun; Xu, Hua; Wu, Qing-Fa; Yun, Zhi-Min; Luo, Qun; Gong, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background Enzymatic conversion of blood group A1B red blood cells (RBC) to group O RBC (ECO) was achieved by combined treatment with α-galactosidase and α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase. The aim of this study was to evaluate the function and safety of these A1B-ECO RBC in vitro. Materials and methods A 20% packed volume of A1B RBC was treated with enzymes in 250 mM glycine buffer, pH 6.8. The efficiency of the conversion of A and B antigen was evaluated by traditional typing in test tubes, gel column agglutination technology and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis. The physiological and metabolic parameters of native and ECO RBC were compared, including osmotic fragility, erythrocyte deformation index, levels of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, ATP, methaemoglobin, free Na+, and free K+. The morphology of native and ECO RBC was observed by scanning electron microscopy. Residual α-galactosidase or α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase in A1B-ECO RBC was detected by double-antibody sandwich ELISA method. Manual cross-matching was applied to ensure blood compatibility. Results The RBC agglutination tests and FACS results showed that A1B RBC were efficiently converted to O RBC. Functional analysis suggested that the conversion process had little impact on the physiological and metabolic parameters of the RBC. The residual amounts of either α-galactosidase or α-N-acetylgalactosaminidase in the A1B-ECO RBC were less than 10 ng/mL of packed RBC. About 18% of group B and 55% of group O sera reacted with the A1B-ECO RBC in a sensitive gel column cross-matching test. Discussion The conversion process does not appear to affect the morphological, physiological or metabolic parameters of A1B-ECO RBC. However, the A1B-ECO RBC still reacted with some antigens. More research on group O and B sera, which may partly reflect the complexity of group A1 the safety of A1B-ECO RBC is necessary before the application of these RBC in clinical transfusion. PMID:26509826

  12. Identification of Differential Item Functioning in Multiple-Group Settings: A Multivariate Outlier Detection Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magis, David; De Boeck, Paul

    2011-01-01

    We focus on the identification of differential item functioning (DIF) when more than two groups of examinees are considered. We propose to consider items as elements of a multivariate space, where DIF items are outlying elements. Following this approach, the situation of multiple groups is a quite natural case. A robust statistics technique is…

  13. The Use of Language Functions in Mathematical Group Games. Teacher Insights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Carolyn; Huerta, Maria G.

    1994-01-01

    Six group games were introduced into a second-grade bilingual classroom. Children's talk during each game was classified using a modification of Dyson's five language functions (representational, directive, heuristic, personal, and interactional). Group games provided many communication opportunities. Some children tried new communication styles.…

  14. Characteristics of Interactional Management Functions in Group Oral by Japanese Learners of English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negishi, Junko

    2010-01-01

    This study attempted to investigate the characteristics of interaction dynamics in a group oral interaction carried out by Japanese learners of English. The relationship between the participants' language development and interactional management functions (IMFs) was also explored. Oral performance tests in a paired or a small group have recently…

  15. Functional Groups Based on Leaf Physiology: Are they Spatially and Temporally Robust?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, Tammy E.; Brooks, J. Renee

    2004-01-01

    The functional grouping hypothesis, which suggests that complexity in ecosystem function can be simplified by grouping species with similar responses, was tested in the Florida scrub habitat. Functional groups were identified based on how species in fire maintained Florida scrub regulate exchange of carbon and water with the atmosphere as indicated by both instantaneous gas exchange measurements and integrated measures of function (%N, delta C-13, delta N-15, C-N ratio). Using cluster analysis, five distinct physiologically-based functional groups were identified in the fire maintained scrub. These functional groups were tested to determine if they were robust spatially, temporally, and with management regime. Analysis of Similarities (ANOSIM), a non-parametric multivariate analysis, indicated that these five physiologically-based groupings were not altered by plot differences (R = -0.115, p = 0.893) or by the three different management regimes; prescribed burn, mechanically treated and burn, and fire-suppressed (R = 0.018, p = 0.349). The physiological groupings also remained robust between the two climatically different years 1999 and 2000 (R = -0.027, p = 0.725). Easy-to-measure morphological characteristics indicating functional groups would be more practical for scaling and modeling ecosystem processes than detailed gas-exchange measurements, therefore we tested a variety of morphological characteristics as functional indicators. A combination of non-parametric multivariate techniques (Hierarchical cluster analysis, non-metric Multi-Dimensional Scaling, and ANOSIM) were used to compare the ability of life form, leaf thickness, and specific leaf area classifications to identify the physiologically-based functional groups. Life form classifications (ANOSIM; R = 0.629, p 0.001) were able to depict the physiological groupings more adequately than either specific leaf area (ANOSIM; R = 0.426, p = 0.001) or leaf thickness (ANOSIM; R 0.344, p 0.001). The ability of

  16. CNO abundances in H II regions of the Magellanic clouds and the galaxy with implications regarding the nucleosynthesis of the CNO element group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufour, R. J.; Shields, G. A.

    1982-01-01

    Final abundance results of IUE observations of the UV spectra of three H II regions in the Small Magellanic Cloud and four H II regions in the Large Magellanic Cloud are presented. Calculated yields of carbon and oxygen derived are y(C)=.00063 and y(O)=.0016. The nucleosynthetic origin of nitrogen was evaluated as being predominantly a secondary element produced from carbon as its seed. Plotting log N/C versus log C/H yielded the rather unexpected result that log N/C decreases with lo C/H over the SMC-LMC-Orion range. The cause of this relationship is discussed.

  17. Multiple-Group Noncompensatory Differential Item Functioning in Raju's Differential Functioning of Items and Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshima, T. C.; Wright, Keith; White, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Raju, van der Linden, and Fleer (1995) introduced a framework for differential functioning of items and tests (DFIT) for unidimensional dichotomous models. Since then, DFIT has been shown to be a quite versatile framework as it can handle polytomous as well as multidimensional models both at the item and test levels. However, DFIT is still limited…

  18. Sub-grouping and sub-functionalization of the RIFIN multi-copy protein family

    PubMed Central

    Joannin, Nicolas; Abhiman, Saraswathi; Sonnhammer, Erik L; Wahlgren, Mats

    2008-01-01

    Background Parasitic protozoans possess many multicopy gene families which have central roles in parasite survival and virulence. The number and variability of members of these gene families often make it difficult to predict possible functions of the encoded proteins. The families of extra-cellular proteins that are exposed to a host immune response have been driven via immune selection to become antigenically variant, and thereby avoid immune recognition while maintaining protein function to establish a chronic infection. Results We have combined phylogenetic and function shift analyses to study the evolution of the RIFIN proteins, which are antigenically variant and are encoded by the largest multicopy gene family in Plasmodium falciparum. We show that this family can be subdivided into two major groups that we named A- and B-RIFIN proteins. This suggested sub-grouping is supported by a recently published study that showed that, despite the presence of the Plasmodium export (PEXEL) motif in all RIFIN variants, proteins from each group have different cellular localizations during the intraerythrocytic life cycle of the parasite. In the present study we show that function shift analysis, a novel technique to predict functional divergence between sub-groups of a protein family, indicates that RIFINs have undergone neo- or sub-functionalization. Conclusion These results question the general trend of clustering large antigenically variant protein groups into homogenous families. Assigning functions to protein families requires their subdivision into meaningful groups such as we have shown for the RIFIN protein family. Using phylogenetic and function shift analysis methods, we identify new directions for the investigation of this broad and complex group of proteins. PMID:18197962

  19. Plant parameters for plant functional groups of western rangelands to enable process-based simulation modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Regional environmental assessments with process-based models require realistic estimates of plant parameters for the primary plant functional groups in the region. “Functional group” in this context is an operational term, based on similarities in plant type and in plant parameter values. Likewise...

  20. Heterologous expression and functional analysis of the wheat group 1 pathogenesis-related (PR-1) proteins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The group 1 pathogenesis-related (PR-1) proteins have been widely used as hallmarks of plant defense pathways, but their biological functions are still unknown. We report here the functional analysis of two basic PR-1 proteins following the identification of the wheat PR-1 gene family (Lu et al., 20...

  1. Abundances in dwarf irregular galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufour, Reginald J.

    1986-01-01

    The results of abundance studies of dwarf irregular galaxies and similar objects are reviewed with special attention to variations in the CNO element group. Observations of the forbidden N II and semiforbidden C III lines in the most metal-poor galaxy known, IZw 18, are presented for the first time and CNO abundances are derived via a photoionization model and discussed in the context of the abundances found in other metal-poor H II regions and galaxies.

  2. The dual roles of functional groups in the photoluminescence of graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shujun; Cole, Ivan S.; Zhao, Dongyuan; Li, Qin

    2016-03-01

    The photoluminescent properties of graphene nanoparticle (named graphene quantum dots) have attracted significant research attention in recent years owing to their profound application potential. However, the photoluminescence (PL) origin of this class of nanocarbons is still unclear. In this paper, combining direct experimental evidence enabled by a facile size-tunable oxygenated graphene quantum dots (GQDs) synthesis method and theoretical calculations, the roles of the aromatic core, functional groups and disordered structures (i.e. defects and sp3 carbon) in the PL of oxygenated GQDs are elucidated in detail. In particular, we found that the functional groups on GQDs play dual roles in the overall emission: (1) they enable π* --> n and σ* --> n transitions, resulting in a molecular type of PL, spectrally invariable with change of particle size or excitation energy; (2) similar to defects and sp3 carbon, functional groups also induce structural deformation to the aromatic core, leading to mid-gap states or, in other words, energy traps, causing π* --> mid-gap states --> π transitions. Therefore, functional groups contribute to both the blue edge and the red shoulder of GQDs' PL spectra. The new insights on the role of functional groups in PL of fluorescent nanocarbons will enable better designs of this new class of materials.The photoluminescent properties of graphene nanoparticle (named graphene quantum dots) have attracted significant research attention in recent years owing to their profound application potential. However, the photoluminescence (PL) origin of this class of nanocarbons is still unclear. In this paper, combining direct experimental evidence enabled by a facile size-tunable oxygenated graphene quantum dots (GQDs) synthesis method and theoretical calculations, the roles of the aromatic core, functional groups and disordered structures (i.e. defects and sp3 carbon) in the PL of oxygenated GQDs are elucidated in detail. In particular, we found

  3. The impact of functional group on the electronic structure of coordination center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooshmand Gharehbagh, Zahra; L, Duy; Rahman, Talat S.

    While 9, 10 dicyano-anthracene (DCA) forms a coordination network on Cu(111) surface with Cu adatom coordinated by three DCA molecules, its isomers, 9,10-diisocyano-anthracene forms, surprisingly, molecular rows on the same surface. To understand the impact of functional groups on the electronic structure of the coordination center, we have carried out density functional theory based calculations of the electronic structure of a set of naphthalene molecules with different functional groups (N, CN, NC, NH2, COH, COOH) adsorbed on Cu(111), with and without a Cu adatom. Our results show that while the interaction between the naphthalene backbone and the Cu(111) surface is dominated by van der Waals (vdW) forces, in all cases considered the functional group forms a covalent bond with the Cu (ad)atom (on) of the surface. The calculated differential charge redistribution shows that the strongest covalent bond is formed by the NC group, which differs remarkably from that formed by the CN group, while the vdW interaction is very similar in both cases. These results provide insights into the different surface coordination behavior of molecules with above-mentioned functional groups. Work support in part by NSF Grant CHE-1310327.

  4. Classifying proteins into functional groups based on all-versus-all BLAST of 10 million proteins.

    PubMed

    Kolker, Natali; Higdon, Roger; Broomall, William; Stanberry, Larissa; Welch, Dean; Lu, Wei; Haynes, Winston; Barga, Roger; Kolker, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    To address the monumental challenge of assigning function to millions of sequenced proteins, we completed the first of a kind all-versus-all sequence alignments using BLAST for 9.9 million proteins in the UniRef100 database. Microsoft Windows Azure produced over 3 billion filtered records in 6 days using 475 eight-core virtual machines. Protein classification into functional groups was then performed using Hive and custom jars implemented on top of Apache Hadoop utilizing the MapReduce paradigm. First, using the Clusters of Orthologous Genes (COG) database, a length normalized bit score (LNBS) was determined to be the best similarity measure for classification of proteins. LNBS achieved sensitivity and specificity of 98% each. Second, out of 5.1 million bacterial proteins, about two-thirds were assigned to significantly extended COG groups, encompassing 30 times more assigned proteins. Third, the remaining proteins were classified into protein functional groups using an innovative implementation of a single-linkage algorithm on an in-house Hadoop compute cluster. This implementation significantly reduces the run time for nonindexed queries and optimizes efficient clustering on a large scale. The performance was also verified on Amazon Elastic MapReduce. This clustering assigned nearly 2 million proteins to approximately half a million different functional groups. A similar approach was applied to classify 2.8 million eukaryotic sequences resulting in over 1 million proteins being assign to existing KOG groups and the remainder clustered into 100,000 functional groups. PMID:21809957

  5. Identifying organic aerosol sources by comparing functional group composition in chamber and atmospheric particles

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Lynn M.; Bahadur, Ranjit; Ziemann, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of submicron particles by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in 14 campaigns in North America, Asia, South America, and Europe were used to identify characteristic organic functional group compositions of fuel combustion, terrestrial vegetation, and ocean bubble bursting sources, each of which often accounts for more than a third of organic mass (OM), and some of which is secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from gas-phase precursors. The majority of the OM consists of alkane, carboxylic acid, hydroxyl, and carbonyl groups. The organic functional groups formed from combustion and vegetation emissions are similar to the secondary products identified in chamber studies. The near absence of carbonyl groups in the observed SOA associated with combustion is consistent with alkane rather than aromatic precursors, and the absence of organonitrate groups can be explained by their hydrolysis in humid ambient conditions. The remote forest observations have ratios of carboxylic acid, organic hydroxyl, and nonacid carbonyl groups similar to those observed for isoprene and monoterpene chamber studies, but in biogenic aerosols transported downwind of urban areas the formation of esters replaces the acid and hydroxyl groups and leaves only nonacid carbonyl groups. The carbonyl groups in SOA associated with vegetation emissions provides striking evidence for the mechanism of esterification as the pathway for possible oligomerization reactions in the atmosphere. Forest fires include biogenic emissions that produce SOA with organic components similar to isoprene and monoterpene chamber studies, also resulting in nonacid carbonyl groups in SOA. PMID:21317360

  6. On the psychological function of flags and logos: Group identity symbols increase perceived entitativity.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Shannon P; Ledgerwood, Alison

    2016-04-01

    Group identity symbols such as flags and logos have been widely used across time and cultures, yet researchers know very little about the psychological functions that such symbols can serve. The present research tested the hypotheses that (a) simply having a symbol leads collections of individuals to seem more like real, unified groups, (b) this increased psychological realness leads groups to seem more threatening and effective to others, and (c) group members therefore strategically emphasize symbols when they want their group to appear unified and intimidating. In Studies 1a-1c, participants perceived various task groups as more entitative when they happened to have a symbol. In Study 2, symbols not only helped groups make up for lacking a physical characteristic associated with entitativity (physical similarity), but also led groups to seem more threatening. Study 3 examined the processes underlying this effect and found that group symbols increase entitativity by increasing perceived cohesiveness. Study 4 extended our results to show that symbols not only shape the impressions people form of novel groups, but also change people's existing impressions of more familiar and real-world social groups, making them seem more entitative and competent but also less warm. Finally, Studies 5a and 5b further expand our understanding of the psychological function of symbols by showing that group members strategically display symbols when they are motivated to convey an impression of their group as unified and threatening (vs. inclusive and cooperative). We discuss implications for understanding how group members navigate their social identities. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27078507

  7. The dual roles of functional groups in the photoluminescence of graphene quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shujun; Cole, Ivan S; Zhao, Dongyuan; Li, Qin

    2016-04-14

    The photoluminescent properties of graphene nanoparticle (named graphene quantum dots) have attracted significant research attention in recent years owing to their profound application potential. However, the photoluminescence (PL) origin of this class of nanocarbons is still unclear. In this paper, combining direct experimental evidence enabled by a facile size-tunable oxygenated graphene quantum dots (GQDs) synthesis method and theoretical calculations, the roles of the aromatic core, functional groups and disordered structures (i.e. defects and sp(3) carbon) in the PL of oxygenated GQDs are elucidated in detail. In particular, we found that the functional groups on GQDs play dual roles in the overall emission: (1) they enable π* → n and σ* → n transitions, resulting in a molecular type of PL, spectrally invariable with change of particle size or excitation energy; (2) similar to defects and sp(3) carbon, functional groups also induce structural deformation to the aromatic core, leading to mid-gap states or, in other words, energy traps, causing π* → mid-gap states → π transitions. Therefore, functional groups contribute to both the blue edge and the red shoulder of GQDs' PL spectra. The new insights on the role of functional groups in PL of fluorescent nanocarbons will enable better designs of this new class of materials. PMID:26731007

  8. Modeling phytoplankton community in reservoirs. A comparison between taxonomic and functional groups-based models.

    PubMed

    Di Maggio, Jimena; Fernández, Carolina; Parodi, Elisa R; Diaz, M Soledad; Estrada, Vanina

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we address the formulation of two mechanistic water quality models that differ in the way the phytoplankton community is described. We carry out parameter estimation subject to differential-algebraic constraints and validation for each model and comparison between models performance. The first approach aggregates phytoplankton species based on their phylogenetic characteristics (Taxonomic group model) and the second one, on their morpho-functional properties following Reynolds' classification (Functional group model). The latter approach takes into account tolerance and sensitivity to environmental conditions. The constrained parameter estimation problems are formulated within an equation oriented framework, with a maximum likelihood objective function. The study site is Paso de las Piedras Reservoir (Argentina), which supplies water for consumption for 450,000 population. Numerical results show that phytoplankton morpho-functional groups more closely represent each species growth requirements within the group. Each model performance is quantitatively assessed by three diagnostic measures. Parameter estimation results for seasonal dynamics of the phytoplankton community and main biogeochemical variables for a one-year time horizon are presented and compared for both models, showing the functional group model enhanced performance. Finally, we explore increasing nutrient loading scenarios and predict their effect on phytoplankton dynamics throughout a one-year time horizon. PMID:26406877

  9. Local and Regional Determinants of an Uncommon Functional Group in Freshwater Lakes and Ponds

    PubMed Central

    McCann, Michael James

    2015-01-01

    A combination of local and regional factors and stochastic forces is expected to determine the occurrence of species and the structure of communities. However, in most cases, our understanding is incomplete, with large amounts of unexplained variation. Using functional groups rather than individual species may help explain the relationship between community composition and conditions. In this study, I used survey data from freshwater lakes and ponds to understand factors that determine the presence of the floating plant functional group in the northeast United States. Of the 176 water bodies surveyed, 104 (59.1%) did not contain any floating plant species. The occurrence of this functional group was largely determined by local abiotic conditions, which were spatially autocorrelated across the region. A model predicting the presence of the floating plant functional group performed similarly to the best species-specific models. Using a permutation test, I also found that the observed prevalence of floating plants is no different than expected by random assembly from a species pool of its size. These results suggest that the size of the species pool interacts with local conditions in determining the presence of a functional group. Nevertheless, a large amount of unexplained variation remains, attributable to either stochastic species occurrence or incomplete predictive models. The simple permutation approach in this study can be extended to test alternative models of community assembly. PMID:26121636

  10. [Functional groups of high trophic level communities in adjacent waters of Changjiang estuary].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Jin, Xian-Shi; Tang, Qi-Sheng

    2009-02-01

    Based on the three bottom trawl surveys in adjacent waters of Changjiang estuary in June, August and October 2006, the composition and variation of the functional groups of high trophic level communities in the waters were studied. According to diet analysis, the high trophic level communities in the waters included six functional groups, i.e., piscivore, shrimp predator, crab predator, benthivore, planktivore, and generalist predator. Due to the variation of marine environment and fish migration behavior, the composition and trophic level of the high trophic level communities had greater monthly change. In June, fishes, acetes, and crabs dominated the communities, and planktivore was the major functional group, with its trophic level being the lowest (3.06); in August, fishes were dominant, and shrimp predator was the major functional group, with its trophic level being the highest (3.78); and in October, fishes also dominated the communities, the proportion of shrimp and crab increased, and planktivore and benthivore were the major functional groups, with a trophic level of 3.58. PMID:19459374

  11. Inverse transfer method using polymers with various functional groups for controllable graphene doping.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seong Kyu; Yang, Jae Won; Kim, Hyun Ho; Jo, Sae Byeok; Kang, Boseok; Bong, Hyojin; Lee, Hyo Chan; Lee, Geunsik; Kim, Kwang S; Cho, Kilwon

    2014-08-26

    The polymer-supported transfer of chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphene provides large-area and high-quality graphene on a target substrate; however, the polymer and organic solvent residues left by the transfer process hinder the application of CVD-grown graphene in electronic and photonic devices. Here, we describe an inverse transfer method (ITM) that permits the simultaneous transfer and doping of graphene without generating undesirable residues by using polymers with different functional groups. Unlike conventional wet transfer methods, the polymer supporting layer used in the ITM serves as a graphene doping layer placed at the interface between the graphene and the substrate. Polymers bearing functional groups can induce n-doping or p-doping into the graphene depending on the electron-donating or -withdrawing characteristics of functional groups. Theoretical models of dipole layer-induced graphene doping offered insights into the experimentally measured change in the work function and the Dirac point of the graphene. Finally, the electrical properties of pentacene field effect transistors prepared using graphene electrodes could be enhanced by employing the ITM to introduce a polymer layer that tuned the work function of graphene. The versatility of polymer functional groups suggests that the method developed here will provide valuable routes to the development of applications of CVD-grown graphene in organic electronic devices. PMID:25050634

  12. Linking of sensor molecules with amino groups to amino-functionalized AFM tips.

    PubMed

    Wildling, Linda; Unterauer, Barbara; Zhu, Rong; Rupprecht, Anne; Haselgrübler, Thomas; Rankl, Christian; Ebner, Andreas; Vater, Doris; Pollheimer, Philipp; Pohl, Elena E; Hinterdorfer, Peter; Gruber, Hermann J

    2011-06-15

    The measuring tip of an atomic force microscope (AFM) can be upgraded to a specific biosensor by attaching one or a few biomolecules to the apex of the tip. The biofunctionalized tip is then used to map cognate target molecules on a sample surface or to study biophysical parameters of interaction with the target molecules. The functionality of tip-bound sensor molecules is greatly enhanced if they are linked via a thin, flexible polymer chain. In a typical scheme of tip functionalization, reactive groups are first generated on the tip surface, a bifunctional cross-linker is then attached with one of its two reactive ends, and finally the probe molecule of interest is coupled to the free end of the cross-linker. Unfortunately, the most popular functional group generated on the tip surface is the amino group, while at the same time, the only useful coupling functions of many biomolecules (such as antibodies) are also NH(2) groups. In the past, various tricks or detours were applied to minimize the undesired bivalent reaction of bifunctional linkers with adjacent NH(2) groups on the tip surface. In the present study, an uncompromising solution to this problem was found with the help of a new cross-linker ("acetal-PEG-NHS") which possesses one activated carboxyl group and one acetal-protected benzaldehyde function. The activated carboxyl ensures rapid unilateral attachment to the amino-functionalized tip, and only then is the terminal acetal group converted into the amino-reactive benzaldehyde function by mild treatment (1% citric acid, 1-10 min) which does not harm the AFM tip. As an exception, AFM tips with magnetic coating become demagnetized in 1% citric acid. This problem was solved by deprotecting the acetal group before coupling the PEG linker to the AFM tip. Bivalent binding of the corresponding linker ("aldehyde-PEG-NHS") to adjacent NH(2) groups on the tip was largely suppressed by high linker concentrations. In this way, magnetic AFM tips could be

  13. Robust and Porous β-Diketiminate-Functionalized Metal-Organic Frameworks for Earth-Abundant-Metal-Catalyzed C-H Amination and Hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Nathan C; Lin, Zekai; Zhang, Teng; Gilhula, James C; Abney, Carter W; Lin, Wenbin

    2016-03-16

    We have designed a strategy for postsynthesis installation of the β-diketiminate (NacNac) functionality in a metal-organic framework (MOF) of UiO-topology. Metalation of the NacNac-MOF (I) with earth-abundant metal salts afforded the desired MOF-supported NacNac-M complexes (M = Fe, Cu, and Co) with coordination environments established by detailed EXAFS studies. The NacNac-Fe-MOF catalyst, I•Fe(Me), efficiently catalyzed the challenging intramolecular sp(3) C-H amination of a series of alkyl azides to afford α-substituted pyrrolidines. The NacNac-Cu-MOF catalyst, I•Cu(THF), was effective in promoting the intermolecular sp(3) C-H amination of cyclohexene using unprotected anilines to provide access to secondary amines in excellent selectivity. Finally, the NacNac-Co-MOF catalyst, I•Co(H), was used to catalyze alkene hydrogenation with turnover numbers (TONs) as high as 700 000. All of the NacNac-M-MOF catalysts were more effective than their analogous homogeneous catalysts and could be recycled and reused without a noticeable decrease in yield. The NacNac-MOFs thus provide a novel platform for engineering recyclable earth-abundant-element-based single-site solid catalysts for many important organic transformations. PMID:26885768

  14. Experimental Manipulation of Soil Moisture Regime Impacts Soil Microbial Community Abundance, Diversity, and Function in a Semi-Arid Sagebrush Steppe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, P. O.; Feris, K. P.; Germino, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    Rising global temperatures are predicted to alter regional climate regimes, including the spatial and temporal distribution of precipitation. In water-limited (e.g. arid and semi-arid) ecosystems annual precipitation is low and shows a high degree of variability. In these environments, soil microbes occupy a pivotal seat coupling the effects of water availability and plant productivity to biogeochemical cycling and ecosystem function. Using a long running ecological field experiment (>15 years) sited in Idaho’s sagebrush steppe, effects of experimentally manipulated precipitation regime on microbial diversity, abundance, and terrestrial carbon cycling are being explored. Soils were sampled in January (winter) of 2009. Replicate cores collected at 15-20cm and 95-100cm, were taken from field plots planted with native vegetation under three different precipitation amendments; Ambient, Summer (+200mm in June), or Fall/Spring (+200mm in April or October). Bacterial and Fungal community structure was analyzed by high-resolution 454 pyrosequencing. Edaphic properties (soil moisture, pH, total C, total N, organic C, inorganic N, ortho P) were measured and used as factors for general linear modeling of Bacterial and Fungal community structure against field treatments. Labile soil carbon pools were measured as C mineralization rates by gas chromatography using long term soil incubations. Pyrosequencing analysis of soil Bacterial communities has revealed greater Bacterial community abundance and diversity across all treatments relative to Archaeal and Fungal communities. General linear modeling of sequences obtained from 454 pyrosequencing showed significant interactions of phyla-level Bacterial and Fungal abundance with experimental precipitation regime and depth of sampling. Edaphic properties such as soil moisture and pH also showed significant interactions with phyla-level Bacterial and Fungal abundance. Long-term soil incubation studies revealed treatment effects on

  15. Assessment of female sexual function in a group of uncircumcised obese Egyptian women.

    PubMed

    Elnashar, A R M; Ibrahim, N H; Ahmed, H-Eh; Hassanin, A M; Elgawady, M A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess female sexual function in an obese group (250 women) and to compare it with a control group (100 women), among 25-35-year-old uncircumcised Egyptian women, using female sexual function index (FSFI) score. FSFI total score of ⩽ 26.55 was considered diagnostic of Female Sexual Dysfunction (FSD). The percentage of FSD in the obese group was 73.6% while it was 71% in the control group, which was statistically insignificant (P > 0.05). The difference between both groups regarding the total (FSFI) score was insignificant (P > 0.05), but arousal and satisfaction domains scores were significantly lower in the obese group. In the obese group, a strong negative correlation between body mass index and arousal, orgasm and the total FSFI score was found. Women with excessive obesity had the lowest total FSFI score. In the obese group, college graduates had the highest total scores and all domain scores of FSFI followed by high school graduates while the least educated women had the lowest scores and when these subgroups were compared, significant differences were found among them. We conclude that in uncircumcised 25-35-year-old Egyptian women, obesity is not a major detrimental factor for FSD, but it may affect some sexual domains such as arousal and satisfaction, although excessive obesity is associated with FSD. Also, educational and cultural factors may have an impact on perception of sex and pleasure. PMID:26155831

  16. Synthesis of neamine-derived pseudodisaccharides by stereo- and regio-selective functional group transformations.

    PubMed

    Pang, Li-Juan; Wang, Dan; Zhou, Jian; Zhang, Li-He; Ye, Xin-Shan

    2009-10-21

    Neamine is normally found as a core structure of aminoglycoside antibiotics. In order to understand the relationship between the antibiotic activity and the configurations of the functional groups of neamine, a series of novel neamine analogues with functional group manipulations on the 2-deoxystreptamine (2-DOS) ring or the sugar ring were designed and synthesized. The synthetic approach involved the construction of 2-DOS derivatives by catalytic Ferrier II rearrangement, stereo- and regio-selective functional group transformations, glycosyl coupling reaction, and global deprotection. Of the synthetic neamine analogues, four compounds showed comparable 16S rRNA binding affinities with neamine, whereas they displayed lower binding affinities towards 18S rRNA than neamine, implying a lower toxicity to mammals. This strategy might have applications in the chemical synthesis of other neamine derivatives and new aminoglycoside antibiotics with improved biological activities. PMID:19795065

  17. Wigner functions for noncommutative quantum mechanics: A group representation based construction

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, S. Hasibul Hassan; Ali, S. Twareque

    2015-12-15

    This paper is devoted to the construction and analysis of the Wigner functions for noncommutative quantum mechanics, their marginal distributions, and star-products, following a technique developed earlier, viz, using the unitary irreducible representations of the group G{sub NC}, which is the three fold central extension of the Abelian group of ℝ{sup 4}. These representations have been exhaustively studied in earlier papers. The group G{sub NC} is identified with the kinematical symmetry group of noncommutative quantum mechanics of a system with two degrees of freedom. The Wigner functions studied here reflect different levels of non-commutativity—both the operators of position and those of momentum not commuting, the position operators not commuting and finally, the case of standard quantum mechanics, obeying the canonical commutation relations only.

  18. Evaluation of various carbon substrates for the biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates bearing functional groups by Pseudomonas putida.

    PubMed

    Kim, D Y; Kim, Y B; Rhee, Y H

    2000-10-10

    The ability of Pseudomonas putida to synthesize polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) from 36 different carboxylic acids containing various functional groups was examined. This bacterium did not utilize short carboxylic acids (C(4)-C(6)) containing bromine, methoxy, ethoxy, cyclohexyl, phenoxy, and olefin groups as the sole carbon substrate. No polymer was isolated from the cells grown with carboxylic acids bearing hydroxyl, amino, para-methoxyphenoxy, and para-ethoxyphenoxy groups regardless of the carbon substrate chain lengths used even when they were cofed with nonanoic acid. Of all the carbon substrates evaluated, only 6-para-methylphenoxyhexanoic acid, 8-para-methylphenoxyoctanoic acid, 8-meta-methylphenoxyoctanoic acid, 10-undecenoic acid, and 10-undecynoic acid supported both growth and the production of PHA containing the corresponding functional groups by P. putida. The present results indicate that the carbon availability of P. putida for growth and PHA production is significantly different from that of P. oleovorans. PMID:11033174

  19. Contributions of functional groups and extracellular polymeric substances on the biosorption of dyes by aerobic granules.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jing-Feng; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Jin-Hui; Wu, Xue-Lei; Wang, Shu-Ying; Peng, Yong-Zhen

    2011-01-01

    The contributions of loosely bound extracellular polymeric substances (LB-EPS), tightly bound EPS (TB-EPS), residual sludge (the sludge left after EPS extraction) and functional groups such as amine, carboxyl, phosphate and lipid on aerobic granules on biosorption of four different dyes (Reactive Brilliant Blue KN-R (KN-R), Congo Red (CR), Reactive Brilliant Red K-2G (RBR) and Malachite Green (MG)) were investigated. EPS may be responsible for biosorption of cationic dyes. However, residual sludge always made greater contribution than that of EPS. The biosorption mechanisms were dependent on the functional groups on aerobic granules and dyes' chemical structures. The lipid and phosphate groups might be the main binding sites for KN-R biosorption. Amine, carboxyl, phosphate and lipid were all responsible for the binding of CR. The lipid fractions played an important role for RBR biosorption. For MG, the phosphate groups gave the largest contribution. PMID:20869236

  20. Porous polymer monoliths with large surface area and functional groups prepared via copolymerization of protected functional monomers and hypercrosslinking.

    PubMed

    Maya, Fernando; Svec, Frantisek

    2013-11-22

    A new approach to the preparation of porous polymer monoliths possessing both large surface area and functional groups has been developed. The chloromethyl groups of poly(styrene-co-4-acetoxystyrene-co-vinylbenzyl chloride-co-divinylbenzene) monolith enable post-polymerization hypercrosslinking catalyzed by ferric chloride in dichloroethane leading to a multitude of small pores thus enhancing the surface area. The acetoxy functionalities are easily deprotected using hydrazine to produce polar phenolic hydroxyl groups, which would be difficult to obtain by direct copolymerization of hydroxyl-containing monomers. The hypercrosslinking and deprotection reactions as well as their sequence were studied in detail with bulk polymer monoliths containing up to 50% 4-acetoxystyrene and its progress monitored by infrared spectrometry and nitrogen adsorption/desorption measurements. No significant difference was found for both possible successions. All monoliths were also prepared in a capillary column format, then deprotected and hypercrosslinked. Capillary columns were tested for the separation of small molecules using reversed phase and normal phase chromatographic modes. For polymer monoliths containing 50% deprotected 4-acetoxystyrene, column efficiencies of 40,000 plates/m for benzene in reversed phase mode and 31,800 plates/m for nitrobenzene in normal phase mode, were obtained. The percentage of hydroxyl groups in the monoliths enables modulation of polarity of the stationary phase. They also represent functionalities that are potentially suitable for further modifications and formation of new types of stationary phases for liquid chromatography. PMID:23910448

  1. A Simple and Versatile Amide Directing Group for C-H Functionalizations.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ru-Yi; Farmer, Marcus E; Chen, Yan-Qiao; Yu, Jin-Quan

    2016-08-26

    Achieving selective C-H activation at a single and strategic site in the presence of multiple C-H bonds can provide a powerful and generally useful retrosynthetic disconnection. In this context, a directing group serves as a compass to guide the transition metal to C-H bonds by using distance and geometry as powerful recognition parameters to distinguish between proximal and distal C-H bonds. However, the installation and removal of directing groups is a practical drawback. To improve the utility of this approach, one can seek solutions in three directions: 1) Simplifying the directing group, 2) using common functional groups or protecting groups as directing groups, and 3) attaching the directing group to substrates via a transient covalent bond to render the directing group catalytic. This Review describes the rational development of an extremely simple and yet broadly applicable directing group for Pd(II) , Rh(III) , and Ru(II) catalysts, namely the N-methoxy amide (CONHOMe) moiety. Through collective efforts in the community, a wide range of C-H activation transformations using this type of simple directing group have been developed. PMID:27479708

  2. Effect of carbon nanofiber surface functional groups on oxygen reduction in alkaline solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Ren-Sheng; Qin, Yuan-Hang; Niu, Dong-Fang; Tian, Jing-Wei; Zhang, Xin-Sheng; Zhou, Xin-Gui; Sun, Shi-Gang; Yuan, Wei-Kang

    2013-03-01

    Carbon nanofibers (CNFs) with different content of surface functional groups which are carboxyl groups (CNF-OX), carbonyl groups (CNF-CO) and hydroxyl groups (CNF-OH) and nitrogen-containing groups (CNF-ON) are synthesized, and their electrocatalytic activities toward oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in alkaline solution are investigated. The result of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) characterization indicates that a higher concentration of carboxyl groups, carbonyl groups and hydroxyl groups are imported onto the CNF-OX, CNF-CO and CNF-OH, respectively. Cyclic voltammetry shows that both the oxygen- and nitrogen-containing groups can improve the electrocatalytic activity of CNFs for ORR. The CNF-ON/GC electrode, which has nitrogen-containing groups, exhibits the highest current density of ORR. Rotating disk electrode (RDE) characterization shows that the oxygen reduction on CNF-ON/GC electrode proceeds almost entirely through the four-electron reduction pathway, the CNF-OX/GC, CNF-CO/GC and CNF-OH/GC electrodes proceed a two-electron reduction pathway at low potentials (-0.2 V to -0.6 V) followed by a gradual four-electron reduction pathway at more negative potentials, while the untreated carbon nanofiber (CNF-P/GC) electrode proceeds predominantly by a two-electron reduction pathway within the whole range of potential studied.

  3. Functional grouping and cortical–subcortical interactions in emotion: A meta-analysis of neuroimaging studies

    PubMed Central

    Kober, Hedy; Barrett, Lisa Feldman; Joseph, Josh; Bliss-Moreau, Eliza; Lindquist, Kristen; Wager, Tor D.

    2009-01-01

    We performed an updated quantitative meta-analysis of 162 neuroimaging studies of emotion using a novel multi-level kernel-based approach, focusing on locating brain regions consistently activated in emotional tasks and their functional organization into distributed functional groups, independent of semantically defined emotion category labels (e.g., “anger,” “fear”). Such brain-based analyses are critical if our ways of labeling emotions are to be evaluated and revised based on consistency with brain data. Consistent activations were limited to specific cortical sub-regions, including multiple functional areas within medial, orbital, and inferior lateral frontal cortices. Consistent with a wealth of animal literature, multiple subcortical activations were identified, including amygdala, ventral striatum, thalamus, hypothalamus, and periaqueductal gray. We used multivariate parcellation and clustering techniques to identify groups of co-activated brain regions across studies. These analyses identified six distributed functional groups, including medial and lateral frontal groups, two posterior cortical groups, and paralimbic and core limbic/brainstem groups. These functional groups provide information on potential organization of brain regions into large-scale networks. Specific follow-up analyses focused on amygdala, periaqueductal gray (PAG), and hypothalamic (Hy) activations, and identified frontal cortical areas co-activated with these core limbic structures. While multiple areas of frontal cortex co-activated with amygdala sub-regions, a specific region of dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC, Brodmann’s Area 9/32) was the only area co-activated with both PAG and Hy. Subsequent mediation analyses were consistent with a pathway from dmPFC through PAG to Hy. These results suggest that medial frontal areas are more closely associated with core limbic activation than their lateral counterparts, and that dmPFC may play a particularly important role in the

  4. Plant diversity and functional groups affect Si and Ca pools in aboveground biomass of grassland systems.

    PubMed

    Schaller, Jörg; Roscher, Christiane; Hillebrand, Helmut; Weigelt, Alexandra; Oelmann, Yvonne; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Ebeling, Anne; Weisser, Wolfgang W

    2016-09-01

    Plant diversity is an important driver of nitrogen and phosphorus stocks in aboveground plant biomass of grassland ecosystems, but plant diversity effects on other elements also important for plant growth are less understood. We tested whether plant species richness, functional group richness or the presence/absence of particular plant functional groups influences the Si and Ca concentrations (mmol g(-1)) and stocks (mmol m(-2)) in aboveground plant biomass in a large grassland biodiversity experiment (Jena Experiment). In the experiment including 60 temperate grassland species, plant diversity was manipulated as sown species richness (1, 2, 4, 8, 16) and richness and identity of plant functional groups (1-4; grasses, small herbs, tall herbs, legumes). We found positive species richness effects on Si as well as Ca stocks that were attributable to increased biomass production. The presence of particular functional groups was the most important factor explaining variation in aboveground Si and Ca stocks (mmol m(-2)). Grass presence increased the Si stocks by 140 % and legume presence increased the Ca stock by 230 %. Both the presence of specific plant functional groups and species diversity altered Si and Ca stocks, whereas Si and Ca concentration were affected mostly by the presence of specific plant functional groups. However, we found a negative effect of species diversity on Si and Ca accumulation, by calculating the deviation between mixtures and mixture biomass proportions, but in monoculture concentrations. These changes may in turn affect ecosystem processes such as plant litter decomposition and nutrient cycling in grasslands. PMID:27164912

  5. Functional group composition of ambient and source organic aerosols determined by tandem mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dron, J.; El Haddad, I.; Temime-Roussel, B.; Jaffrezo, J.-L.; Wortham, H.; Marchand, N.

    2010-08-01

    The functional group composition of various organic aerosols (OA) is investigated using a recently developed analytical approach based on atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry (APCI-MS/MS). The determinations of three functional groups contents are performed quantitatively by neutral loss (carboxylic and carbonyl groups, R-COOH and R-CO-Ŕ respectively) and precursor ion (nitro groups, R-NO2) scanning modes of a tandem mass spectrometer. Major organic aerosol sources are studied: vehicular emission and wood combustion for primary aerosol sources; and a secondary organic aerosol (SOA) produced through photooxidation of o-xylene. The results reveal significant differences in the functional group contents of these source aerosols. The laboratory generated SOA is dominated by carbonyls while carboxylics are preponderate in the wood combustion particles. On the other hand, vehicular emissions are characterised by a strong nitro content. The total amount of the three functional groups accounts for 1.7% (vehicular) to 13.5% (o-xylene photooxidation) of the organic carbon. Diagnostic functional group ratios are then used to tentatively discriminate sources of particles collected in an urban background environment located in an Alpine valley (Chamonix, France) during a strong winter pollution event. The three functional groups under study account for a total functionalisation rate of 2.2 to 3.8% of the organic carbon in this ambient aerosol, which is also dominated by carboxylic moieties. In this particular case study of a deep alpine valley during winter, we show that the nitro- and carbonyl-to-carboxylic diagnostic ratios can be a useful tool to discriminate sources. In these conditions, the total OA concentrations are highly dominated by wood combustion OA. This result is confirmed by an organic markers source apportionment approach which assess a wood burning organic carbon contribution of about 60%. Finally, examples of functional group mass

  6. Water Contact Angle Dependence with Hydroxyl Functional Groups on Silica Surfaces under CO2 Sequestration Conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Cong; Zhang, Ning; Li, Weizhong; Song, Yongchen

    2015-12-15

    Functional groups on silica surfaces under CO2 sequestration conditions are complex due to reactions among supercritical CO2, brine and silica. Molecular dynamics simulations have been performed to investigate the effects of hydroxyl functional groups on wettability. It has been found that wettability shows a strong dependence on functional groups on silica surfaces: silanol number density, space distribution, and deprotonation/protonation degree. For neutral silica surfaces with crystalline structure (Q(3), Q(3)/Q(4), Q(4)), as silanol number density decreases, contact angle increases from 33.5° to 146.7° at 10.5 MPa and 318 K. When Q(3) surface changes to an amorphous structure, water contact angle increases 20°. Water contact angle decreases about 12° when 9% of silanol groups on Q(3) surface are deprotonated. When the deprotonation degree increases to 50%, water contact angle decreases to 0. The dependence of wettability on silica surface functional groups was used to analyze contact angle measurement ambiguity in literature. The composition of silica surfaces is complicated under CO2 sequestration conditions, the results found in this study may help to better understand wettability of CO2/brine/silica system. PMID:26509282

  7. Cellular distribution and cytotoxicity of graphene quantum dots with different functional groups

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Graphene quantum dots (GQDs) have been developed as promising optical probes for bioimaging due to their excellent photoluminescent properties. Additionally, the fluorescence spectrum and quantum yield of GQDs are highly dependent on the surface functional groups on the carbon sheets. However, the distribution and cytotoxicity of GQDs functionalized with different chemical groups have not been specifically investigated. Herein, the cytotoxicity of three kinds of GQDs with different modified groups (NH2, COOH, and CO-N (CH3)2, respectively) in human A549 lung carcinoma cells and human neural glioma C6 cells was investigated using thiazoyl blue colorimetric (MTT) assay and trypan blue assay. The cellular apoptosis or necrosis was then evaluated by flow cytometry analysis. It was demonstrated that the three modified GQDs showed good biocompatibility even when the concentration reached 200 μg/mL. The Raman spectra of cells treated with GQDs with different functional groups also showed no distinct changes, affording molecular level evidence for the biocompatibility of the three kinds of GQDs. The cellular distribution of the three modified GQDs was observed using a fluorescence microscope. The data revealed that GQDs randomly dispersed in the cytoplasm but not diffused into nucleus. Therefore, GQDs with different functional groups have low cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility regardless of chemical modification, offering good prospects for bioimaging and other biomedical applications. PMID:24597852

  8. A novel joint sparse partial correlation method for estimating group functional networks.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiaoyun; Connelly, Alan; Calamante, Fernando

    2016-03-01

    Advances in graph theory have provided a powerful tool to characterize brain networks. In particular, functional networks at group-level have great appeal to gain further insight into complex brain function, and to assess changes across disease conditions. These group networks, however, often have two main limitations. First, they are popularly estimated by directly averaging individual networks that are compromised by confounding variations. Secondly, functional networks have been estimated mainly through Pearson cross-correlation, without taking into account the influence of other regions. In this study, we propose a sparse group partial correlation method for robust estimation of functional networks based on a joint graphical models approach. To circumvent the issue of choosing the optimal regularization parameters, a stability selection method is employed to extract networks. The proposed method is, therefore, denoted as JGMSS. By applying JGMSS across simulated datasets, the resulting networks show consistently higher accuracy and sensitivity than those estimated using an alternative approach (the elastic-net regularization with stability selection, ENSS). The robustness of the JGMSS is evidenced by the independence of the estimated networks to choices of the initial set of regularization parameters. The performance of JGMSS in estimating group networks is further demonstrated with in vivo fMRI data (ASL and BOLD), which show that JGMSS can more robustly estimate brain hub regions at group-level and can better control intersubject variability than it is achieved using ENSS. PMID:26859311

  9. Testing Group Differences in Brain Functional Connectivity: Using Correlations or Partial Correlations?

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junghi; Wozniak, Jeffrey R.; Mueller, Bryon A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging allows one to study brain functional connectivity, partly motivated by evidence that patients with complex disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, may have altered functional brain connectivity patterns as compared with healthy subjects. A functional connectivity network describes statistical associations of the neural activities among distinct and distant brain regions. Recently, there is a major interest in group-level functional network analysis; however, there is a relative lack of studies on statistical inference, such as significance testing for group comparisons. In particular, it is still debatable which statistic should be used to measure pairwise associations as the connectivity weights. Many functional connectivity studies have used either (full or marginal) correlations or partial correlations for pairwise associations. This article investigates the performance of using either correlations or partial correlations for testing group differences in brain connectivity, and how sparsity levels and topological structures of the connectivity would influence statistical power to detect group differences. Our results suggest that, in general, testing group differences in networks deviates from estimating networks. For example, high regularization in both covariance matrices and precision matrices may lead to higher statistical power; in particular, optimally selected regularization (e.g., by cross-validation or even at the true sparsity level) on the precision matrices with small estimation errors may have low power. Most importantly, and perhaps surprisingly, using either correlations or partial correlations may give very different testing results, depending on which of the covariance matrices and the precision matrices are sparse. Specifically, if the precision matrices are sparse, presumably and arguably a reasonable assumption, then using correlations often yields much higher powered and more

  10. Effects of surface functional groups on the formation of nanoparticle-protein corona

    PubMed Central

    Podila, R.; Chen, R.; Ke, P. C.; Brown, J. M.; Rao, A. M.

    2012-01-01

    Herein, we examined the dependence of protein adsorption on the nanoparticle surface in the presence of functional groups. Our UV-visible spectrophotometry, transmission electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering measurements evidently suggested that the functional groups play an important role in the formation of nanoparticle-protein corona. We found that uncoated and surfactant-free silver nanoparticles derived from a laser ablation process promoted a maximum protein (bovine serum albumin) coating due to increased changes in entropy. On the other hand, bovine serum albumin displayed a relatively lower affinity for electrostatically stabilized nanoparticles due to the constrained entropy changes. PMID:23341687

  11. The Effect of Functional Groups in Bio-Derived Fuel Candidates.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Rhodri W; Moore, Cameron M; Semelsberger, Troy A; Chuck, Christopher J; Gordon, John C; Sutton, Andrew D

    2016-05-10

    Interest in developing renewable fuels is continuing to grow and biomass represents a viable source of renewable carbon with which to replace fossil-based components in transportation fuels. During our own work, we noticed that chemists think in terms of functional groups whereas fuel engineers think in terms of physical fuel properties. In this Concept article, we discuss the effect of carbon and oxygen functional groups on potential fuel properties. This serves as a way of informing our own thinking and provides us with a basis with which to design and synthesize molecules from biomass that could provide useful transportation fuels. PMID:27099975

  12. Will anticipated future climatic conditions affect belowground C utilization? - Insights into the role of microbial functional groups in a temperate heath/grassland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinsch, Sabine; Michelsen, Anders; Sárossy, Zsuzsa; Egsgaard, Helge; Kappel Schmidt, Inger; Jakobsen, Iver; Ambus, Per

    2013-04-01

    The global terrestrial soil organic matter stock is the biggest terrestrial carbon pool (1500 Pg C) of which about 4 % is turned over annually. Thus, terrestrial ecosystems have the potential to accelerate or diminish atmospheric climate change effects via belowground carbon processes. We investigated the effect of elevated CO2 (510 ppm), prolonged spring/summer droughts and increased temperature (1 ˚C) on belowground carbon allocation and on the recovery of carbon by the soil microbial community. An in-situ 13C-carbon pulse-labeling experiment was carried out in a temperate heath/grassland (Denmark) in May 2011. Recently assimilated 13C-carbon was traced into roots, soil and microbial biomass 1, 2 and 8 days after pulse-labeling. The importance of the microbial community in C utilization was investigated using 13C enrichment patterns in microbial functional groups on the basis of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) in roots. Gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria were distinguished from the decomposer groups of actinomycetes (belonging to the group of gram-positive bacteria) and saprophytic fungi. Mycorrhizal fungi specific PLFAs were not detected probably due to limited sample size in combination with restricted sensitivity of the used GC-c-IRMS setup. Climate treatments did not affect 13C allocation into roots, soil and microbial biomass carbon and also the total microbial biomass size stayed unchanged as frequently observed. However, climate treatments changed the composition of the microbial community: elevated CO2 significantly reduced the abundance of gram-negative bacteria (17:0cy) but did not affect the abundance of decomposers. Drought favored the bacterial community whereas increased temperatures showed reduced abundance of gram-negative bacteria (19:0cy) and changed the actinomycetes community (10Me16:0, 10Me18:0). However, not only the microbial community composition was affected by the applied climatic conditions, but also the activity of microbial

  13. Changes of Nitrogen Transformation Rates and Related Functional Genes Abundance under Different Dissolved Oxygen Levels in sediments form an Urban River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    In the nitrogen rich urban river sediments, we investigated the nitrogen transformation rates and nitrogen-cycling genes in response to different dissolved oxygen (DO) supply levels (saturation, DO > 8.00 mg L-1; aerobic, 2.50 mg L-1 abundance by an order, but its influence on anammox (hzsB) was insignificant. Four quantitative response relationships between nitrogen transformation rates, nitrogen functional genes abundances, and nitrogen concentrations were established by stepwise linear regression analysis. These relationships confirmed that different nitrogen transformation processes were coupled at the molecular level (functional genes), especially for the coupling of ammonium oxidation and anammox.

  14. Multiconfiguration pair-density functional theory: barrier heights and main group and transition metal energetics.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Rebecca K; Li Manni, Giovanni; Sonnenberger, Andrew L; Truhlar, Donald G; Gagliardi, Laura

    2015-01-13

    Kohn-Sham density functional theory, resting on the representation of the electronic density and kinetic energy by a single Slater determinant, has revolutionized chemistry, but for open-shell systems, the Kohn-Sham Slater determinant has the wrong symmetry properties as compared to an accurate wave function. We have recently proposed a theory, called multiconfiguration pair-density functional theory (MC-PDFT), in which the electronic kinetic energy and classical Coulomb energy are calculated from a multiconfiguration wave function with the correct symmetry properties, and the rest of the energy is calculated from a density functional, called the on-top density functional, that depends on the density and the on-top pair density calculated from this wave function. We also proposed a simple way to approximate the on-top density functional by translation of Kohn-Sham exchange-correlation functionals. The method is much less expensive than other post-SCF methods for calculating the dynamical correlation energy starting with a multiconfiguration self-consistent-field wave function as the reference wave function, and initial tests of the theory were quite encouraging. Here, we provide a broader test of the theory by applying it to bond energies of main-group molecules and transition metal complexes, barrier heights and reaction energies for diverse chemical reactions, proton affinities, and the water dimerization energy. Averaged over 56 data points, the mean unsigned error is 3.2 kcal/mol for MC-PDFT, as compared to 6.9 kcal/mol for Kohn-Sham theory with a comparable density functional. MC-PDFT is more accurate on average than complete active space second-order perturbation theory (CASPT2) for main-group small-molecule bond energies, alkyl bond dissociation energies, transition-metal-ligand bond energies, proton affinities, and the water dimerization energy. PMID:26574206

  15. Importance of Having Low-Density Functional Groups for Generating High-Performance Semiconducting Polymer Dots

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuanjun; Yu, Jiangbo; Wu, Changfeng; Jin, Yuhui; Rong, Yu; Ye, Fangmao

    2012-01-01

    Semiconducting polymers with low-density side-chain carboxylic acid groups were synthesized to form stable, functionalized, and highly fluorescent polymer dots (Pdots). The influence of the molar fraction of hydrophilic side-chains on Pdot properties and performance was systematically investigated. Our results show that the density of side-chain carboxylic acid groups significantly affects Pdot stability, internal structure, fluorescence brightness, and nonspecific binding in cellular labeling. Fluorescence spectroscopy, single-particle imaging, and a dye-doping method were employed to investigate the fluorescence brightness and the internal structure of the Pdots. The results of these experiments indicate that semiconducting polymers with low density of side-chain functional groups can form stable, compact, and highly bright Pdots as compared to those with high density of hydrophilic side-chains. The functionalized polymer dots were conjugated to streptavidin (SA) by carbodiimide-catalyzed coupling and the Pdot-SA probes effectively and specifically labeled the cancer cell-surface marker Her2 in human breast cancer cells. The carboxylate-functionalized polymer could also be covalently modified with small functional molecules to generate Pdot probes for click chemistry-based bioorthogonal labeling. This study presents a promising approach for further developing functional Pdot probes for biological applications. PMID:22607220

  16. Effect of Duration of Disease on Ventilatory Function in an Ethnic Saudi Group of Diabetic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Meo, Sultan A.; Al Drees, Abdul Majeed; Ahmed, Jehangeer; Ahmed Shah, Sayed Fayaz; Al-Regaiey, Khalid; Husain, Ashraf; Al-Rubean, Khalid

    2007-01-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a leading cause of illness and death across the world and is responsible for a growing proportion of global health care expenditures. The present study was designed to observe the effect of diabetes mellitus on lung function in patients with diabetes belonging to a specific ethnic group, namely Saudis. Method In this study, a group of 47 apparently healthy volunteer male Saudi patients with diabetes was randomly selected. Their ages ranged from 20 to 70 years. The patients were matched with another group of 50 healthy male control subjects in terms of age, height, weight, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. Both groups met exclusion criteria as per standard. Spirometry was performed with an electronic spirometer (Schiller AT-2 Plus, Switzerland), and results were compared by a Student's t test. Results Subjects with diabetes showed a significant reduction in forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) relative to their matched controls. However, there were no significant differences in the forced expiratory ratio (FEV1/FVC%) and the middle half of the FVC (FEF25–75%) between the groups. We observed a significantly negative correlation between duration of disease and pulmonary function, as measured by FEV1 (r = 0.258, p = 0.04), FVC (r = 0.282, p = 0.28), and the middle half of the FVC (FEF25–75%) (r = 0.321, p = 0.014). Conclusions Pulmonary function in a specific ethnic group of patients with diabetes was impaired as evidenced by a decrease in FVC and FEV1 compared to pulmonary function in matched controls. Stratification of results by years of disease revealed a significant correlation between duration of disease and a decline in pulmonary function. PMID:19885139

  17. Pattern classification and recognition of invertebrate functional groups using self-organizing neural networks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, WenJun

    2007-07-01

    Self-organizing neural networks can be used to mimic non-linear systems. The main objective of this study is to make pattern classification and recognition on sampling information using two self-organizing neural network models. Invertebrate functional groups sampled in the irrigated rice field were classified and recognized using one-dimensional self-organizing map and self-organizing competitive learning neural networks. Comparisons between neural network models, distance (similarity) measures, and number of neurons were conducted. The results showed that self-organizing map and self-organizing competitive learning neural network models were effective in pattern classification and recognition of sampling information. Overall the performance of one-dimensional self-organizing map neural network was better than self-organizing competitive learning neural network. The number of neurons could determine the number of classes in the classification. Different neural network models with various distance (similarity) measures yielded similar classifications. Some differences, dependent upon the specific network structure, would be found. The pattern of an unrecognized functional group was recognized with the self-organizing neural network. A relative consistent classification indicated that the following invertebrate functional groups, terrestrial blood sucker; terrestrial flyer; tourist (nonpredatory species with no known functional role other than as prey in ecosystem); gall former; collector (gather, deposit feeder); predator and parasitoid; leaf miner; idiobiont (acarine ectoparasitoid), were classified into the same group, and the following invertebrate functional groups, external plant feeder; terrestrial crawler, walker, jumper or hunter; neustonic (water surface) swimmer (semi-aquatic), were classified into another group. It was concluded that reliable conclusions could be drawn from comparisons of different neural network models that use different distance

  18. Mechanisms of Innovation Diffusion under Information Abundance and Information Scarcity--On the Contribution of Social Networks in Group vs. Individual Extension Approaches in Semi-Arid Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darr, Dietrich; Pretzsch, Jurgen

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this paper is to assess the effectiveness of innovation diffusion under group-oriented and individual-oriented extension. Current theoretical notions of innovation diffusion in social networks shall be briefly reviewed, and the concepts of "search" and "innovation" vis-a-vis "transfer" and "imitation" mechanisms (Hansen,…

  19. Momentum subtraction scheme renormalization group functions in the maximal Abelian gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, J. M.; Gracey, J. A.

    2013-10-01

    The one-loop 3-point vertex functions of QCD in the maximal Abelian gauge are evaluated at the fully symmetric point at one loop. As a consequence the theory is renormalized in the various momentum subtraction schemes, which are defined by the trivalent vertices, as well as in the MS¯ scheme. From these the two-loop renormalization group functions in the momentum schemes are derived using the one-loop conversion functions. In parallel we repeat the analysis for the Curci-Ferrari gauge, which corresponds to the maximal Abelian gauge in a specific limit. The relation between the Λ parameters in different schemes is also provided.

  20. Organic functional group transformations in water at elevated temperature and pressure: Reversibility, reactivity, and mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipp, Jessie; Gould, Ian R.; Herckes, Pierre; Shock, Everett L.; Williams, Lynda B.; Hartnett, Hilairy E.

    2013-03-01

    Many transformation reactions involving hydrocarbons occur in the presence of H2O in hydrothermal systems and deep sedimentary systems. We investigate these reactions using laboratory-based organic chemistry experiments at high temperature and pressure (300 °C and 100 MPa). Organic functional group transformation reactions using model organic compounds based on cyclohexane with one or two methyl groups provided regio- and stereochemical markers that yield information about reversibility and reaction mechanisms. We found rapidly reversible interconversion between alkanes, alkenes, dienes, alcohols, ketones, and enones. The alkane-to-ketone reactions were not only completely reversible, but also exhibited such extensive reversibility that any of the functional groups along the reaction path (alcohol, ketone, and even the diene) could be used as the reactant and form all the other groups as products. There was also a propensity for these ring-based structures to dehydrogenate; presumably from the alkene, through a diene, to an aromatic ring. The product suites provide strong evidence that water behaved as a reactant and the various functional groups showed differing degrees of reactivity. Mechanistically-revealing products indicated reaction mechanisms that involve carbon-centered cation intermediates. This work therefore demonstrates that a wide range of organic compound types can be generated by abiotic reactions at hydrothermal conditions.

  1. Increased acetyl group availability enhances contractile function of canine skeletal muscle during ischemia.

    PubMed

    Timmons, J A; Poucher, S M; Constantin-Teodosiu, D; Worrall, V; Macdonald, I A; Greenhaff, P L

    1996-02-01

    Skeletal muscle contractile function is impaired during acute ischemia such as that experienced by peripheral vascular disease patients. We therefore, examined the effects of dichloroacetate, which can alter resting metabolism, on canine gracilis muscle contractile function during constant flow ischemia. Pretreatment with dichloroacetate increased resting pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity and resting acetylcarnitine concentration by approximately 4- and approximately 10-fold, respectively. After 20-min contraction the control group had demonstrated an approximately 40% reduction in isomeric tension whereas the dichloroacetate group had fatigued by approximately 25% (P < 0.05). Dichloroacetate resulted in less lactate accumulation (10.3 +/- 3.0 vs 58.9 +/- 10.5 mmol.kg-1 dry muscle [dm], P < 0.05) and phosphocreatine hydrolysis (15.6 +/- 6.3 vs 33.8 +/- 9.0 mmol.kg-1 dm, P < 0.05) during contraction. Acetylcarnitine concentration fell during contraction by 5.4 +/- 1.8 mmol.kg-1 dm in the dichloroacetate group but increased by 10.0 +/- 1.9 mmol.kg-1 dm in the control group. In conclusion, dichloroacetate enhanced contractile function during ischemia, independently of blood flow, such that it appears oxidative ATP regeneration is limited by pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity and acetyl group availability. PMID:8609248

  2. Evaluation of functional groups on amino acids in cyclic tetrapeptides in histone deacetylase inhibition.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Shahidul; Bhuiyan, Mohammed P I; Islam, Md Nurul; Nsiama, Tienabe Kipassa; Oishi, Naoto; Kato, Tamaki; Nishino, Norikazu; Ito, Akihiro; Yoshida, Minoru

    2012-06-01

    The naturally occurring cyclic tetrapeptide, chlamydocin, originally isolated from fungus Diheterospora chlamydosphoria, consists of α-aminoisobutyric acid, L-phenylalanine, D-proline and an unusual amino acid (S)-2-amino-8-((S)-oxiran-2-yl)-8-oxooctanoic acid (Aoe) and inhibits the histone deacetylases (HDACs), a class of regulatory enzymes. The epoxyketone moiety of Aoe is the key functional group for inhibition. The cyclic tetrapeptide scaffold is supposed to play important role for effective binding to the surface of enzymes. In place of the epoxyketone group, hydroxamic acid and sulfhydryl group have been applied to design inhibitor ligands to zinc atom in catalytic site of HDACs. In the research for more potent HDAC inhibitors, we replaced the epoxyketone moiety of Aoe with different functional groups and synthesized a series of chlamydocin analogs as HDAC inhibitors. Among the functional groups, methoxymethylketone moiety showed as potent inhibition as the hydroxamic acid. On the contrary, we confirmed that borate, trifruoromethylketone, and 2-aminoanilide are almost inactive in HDAC inhibition. PMID:21638021

  3. 14 CFR 10 - Functional Classification-Operating Expenses of Group I Air Carriers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Functional Classification-Operating Expenses of Group I Air Carriers Section 10 Section Section 10 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR...

  4. Group Social Skills Instruction for Adolescents with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Susan W.; Koenig, Kathleen; Scahill, Lawrence

    2010-01-01

    Given the increased recognition of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and the chronic and pervasive nature of associated deficits, there is a pressing need for effective treatments. The feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a structured, group social skills training program for high-functioning youth with ASD was examined in this study. Fifteen…

  5. A FUNCTIONAL GROUP CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC PM 2.5 EXPOSURE: RESULTS FROM THE RIOPA STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The functional group (FG) composition of urban residential outdoor, indoor, and personal fine particle (PM2.5) samples is presented and used to provide insights relevant to organic PM2.5 exposure. PM2.5 samples (48 h) were collected during the Rel...

  6. Detecting Native Language Group Differences at the Subskills Level of Reading: A Differential Skill Functioning Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Hongli; Suen, Hoi K.

    2013-01-01

    Differential skill functioning (DSF) exists when examinees from different groups have different probabilities of successful performance in a certain subskill underlying the measured construct, given that they have the same ability on the overall construct. Using a DSF approach, this study examined the differences between two native language…

  7. Youth in group home care: youth characteristics and predictors of later functioning.

    PubMed

    Chow, Wai-Ying; Mettrick, Jennifer E; Stephan, Sharon H; Von Waldner, Christina A

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents the findings of an exploratory research study of foster care youth residing in group homes in a mid-Atlantic state in the USA. The aims of the present study were to (1) describe youth characteristics, (2) explore whether baseline functioning differed by gender or ethnicity, (3) explore predictors of cross-time differences in psychosocial functioning, and (4) explore predictors of later functioning, specifically age, gender, and length of stay. Psychosocial functioning at two time points (i.e., T1 = admission into group home; T2 = current or discharge) in 180 charts from 29 randomly selected group homes were reviewed. Youth were on average 14.86 years of age, predominantly male (71%; n = 128), and predominantly African American (79%). Findings suggest that group home placement may benefit some youth but not others, particularly girls and younger children with lower initial level of need. Findings underscore the potential complexity of intervention impact in the context of unique youth, family, and environment factors. PMID:22529035

  8. Screening biochars for heavy metal retention in soil: role of oxygen functional groups

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oxygen-containing carboxyl, hydroxyl, and phenolic surface functional groups of soil organic and mineral components play central roles in binding metal ions, and biochar amendment can provide means of increasing these surface ligands in soil. In this study, positive matrix factorization (PMF) was f...

  9. 14 CFR Section 10 - Functional Classification-Operating Expenses of Group I Air Carriers

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Functional Classification-Operating Expenses of Group I Air Carriers Section 10 Section 10 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS...

  10. Simple plant traits explain functional group diversity decline in novel grassland communities of Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent work on novel ecosystems suggests that exotic species contribute to functional group diversity decline as exotic systems replace native ones. We experimentally compared 18 exotic and 18 native prairie species paired for phylogeny, growth form, and mode of photosynthesis grown both in monocul...

  11. Urinary Cortisol Circadian Rhythm in a Group of High-Functioning Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richdale, Amanda L.; Prior, Margot R.

    1992-01-01

    This study found no evidence for abnormal temporal placement of the basal urinary cortisol circadian rhythm in a group of 18 high-functioning children (ages 4-14) with autism. There was a tendency toward cortisol hypersecretion during the day, predominantly in autistic children who were integrated into the normal school system. (Author/JDD)

  12. Group-Specific Effects of Matching Subtest Contamination on the Identification of Differential Item Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keiffer, Elizabeth Ann

    2011-01-01

    A differential item functioning (DIF) simulation study was conducted to explore the type and level of impact that contamination had on type I error and power rates in DIF analyses when the suspect item favored the same or opposite group as the DIF items in the matching subtest. Type I error and power rates were displayed separately for the…

  13. Neuropsychological Functioning in Specific Learning Disorders--Reading, Writing and Mixed Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohli, Adarsh; Kaur, Manreet; Mohanty, Manju; Malhotra, Savita

    2006-01-01

    Aim: The study compared the pattern of deficits, intelligence and neuropsychological functioning in subcategories of learning disorders. Methods: Forty-six children (16 with reading disorders, 11 with writing disorders and 19 with both reading and writing disorders--mixed group) in the age range of 7-14 years were assessed using the NIMHANS Index…

  14. Class-Wide Function-Related Intervention Teams: Effects of Group Contingency Programs in Urban Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamps, Debra; Wills, Howard P.; Heitzman-Powell, Linda; Laylin, Jeff; Szoke, Carolyn; Petrillo, Tai; Culey, Amy

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effectiveness of the Class-Wide Function-related Intervention Teams (CW-FIT) program, a group contingency intervention for whole classes, and for students with disruptive behaviors who are at risk for emotional/behavioral disorders (EBD). The CW-FIT program includes four elements designed from…

  15. Differential Tendencies To Guess as a Function of Gender and Lingual-Cultural Reference Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gafni, Naomi; Estela, Melamed

    The objective of this study was to investigate differential tendencies to avoid guessing as a function of three variables: (1) lingual-cultural-group; (2) gender; and (3) examination year. The Psychometric Entrance Test (PET) for universities in Israel was used, which is administered in Hebrew, Arabic, English, French, Spanish, and Russian. The…

  16. An Epistemological Inquiry into Organic Chemistry Education: Exploration of Undergraduate Students' Conceptual Understanding of Functional Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkuzu, Nalan; Uyulgan, Melis Arzu

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to determine the levels of conceptual understanding of undergraduate students regarding organic compounds within different functional groups. A total of 60 students who were enrolled in the Department of Secondary Science and Mathematics Education of a Faculty of Education at a state university in Turkey and who had followed an…

  17. IMPORTANCE OF ACTIVATED CARBON'S OXYGEN SURFACE FUNCTIONAL GROUPS ON ELEMENTAL MERCURY ADSORPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of varying physical and chemical properties of activated carbons on adsorption of elemental mercury [Hg(0)] was studied by treating two activated carbons to modify their surface functional groups and pore structures. Heat treatment (1200 K) in nitrogen (N2), air oxidat...

  18. Social Resources and Change in Functional Health: Comparing Three Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, G. Kevin; Martin, Peter; Bishop, Alex J.; Johnson, Mary Ann; Poon, Leonard W.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the mediating and moderating role of social resources on the association between age and change in functional health for three age groups of older adults. Data were provided by those in their 60s, 80s, and 100s who participated in the first two phases of the Georgia Centenarian study. Analyses confirmed the study's hypothesis…

  19. In situ and ex situ spectroscopic monitoring of biochar's surface functional groups

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of studies described the higher heating temperature (HHT) as the primary pyrolysis parameter dictating the biochar property: surface functional group and fixed carbon contents, O/C, H/C ratios, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area. In order to produce desirable biochar properties ...

  20. Detection of Differential Item Functioning for More than Two Groups: A Monte Carlo Comparison of Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, W. Holmes

    2016-01-01

    Differential item functioning (DIF) assessment is a crucial component in test construction, serving as the primary way in which instrument developers ensure that measures perform in the same way for multiple groups within the population. When such is not the case, scores may not accurately reflect the trait of interest for all individuals in the…

  1. Chemkarta: A Card Game for Teaching Functional Groups in Undergraduate Organic Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knudtson, Christopher A.

    2015-01-01

    Students in undergraduate organic chemistry courses are frequently overwhelmed by the volume and complexity of information they are expected to learn. To aid in students' learning of organic functional groups, a novel card game "ChemKarta" is reported that can serve as a useful alternative to flashcards. This pedagogy is a simple…

  2. Human promoter genomic composition demonstrates non-random groupings that reflect general cellular function

    PubMed Central

    McNutt, Markey C; Tongbai, Ron; Cui, Wenwu; Collins, Irene; Freebern, Wendy J; Montano, Idalia; Haggerty, Cynthia M; Chandramouli, GVR; Gardner, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to determine whether or not there exists nonrandom grouping of cis-regulatory elements within gene promoters that can be perceived independent of gene expression data and whether or not there is any correlation between this grouping and the biological function of the gene. Results Using ProSpector, a web-based promoter search and annotation tool, we have applied an unbiased approach to analyze the transcription factor binding site frequencies of 1400 base pair genomic segments positioned at 1200 base pairs upstream and 200 base pairs downstream of the transcriptional start site of 7298 commonly studied human genes. Partitional clustering of the transcription factor binding site composition within these promoter segments reveals a small number of gene groups that are selectively enriched for gene ontology terms consistent with distinct aspects of cellular function. Significance ranking of the class-determining transcription factor binding sites within these clusters show substantial overlap between the gene ontology terms of the transcriptions factors associated with the binding sites and the gene ontology terms of the regulated genes within each group. Conclusion Thus, gene sorting by promoter composition alone produces partitions in which the "regulated" and the "regulators" cosegregate into similar functional classes. These findings demonstrate that the transcription factor binding site composition is non-randomly distributed between gene promoters in a manner that reflects and partially defines general gene class function. PMID:16232321

  3. 43 CFR 1784.6 - Membership and functions of resource advisory councils and sub-groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Membership and functions of resource advisory councils and sub-groups. 1784.6 Section 1784.6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT...

  4. 43 CFR 1784.6 - Membership and functions of resource advisory councils and sub-groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Membership and functions of resource advisory councils and sub-groups. 1784.6 Section 1784.6 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL MANAGEMENT (1000) COOPERATIVE RELATIONS Advisory Committees...

  5. Functional group analysis in coal by sup 31 P NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Verkade, J.G.

    1989-05-01

    The purpose of this research is to determine the labile-hydrogen functional group composition of coal and coal-derived materials by the nmr spectroscopy of their derivatives made with reagents containing the nmr-active nuclei {sup 31}P, {sup 119}Sn, or {sup 205}Tl. 7 refs.

  6. Functional group analysis in coal and on coal surfaces by NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Verkade, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    An accurate knowledge of the oxygen-bearing labile hydrogen functional groups (e.g., carboxylic acids, phenols and alcohols) in coal is required for today's increasingly sophisticated coal cleaning and beneficiation processes. Phospholanes (compounds having the general structure -POCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}O (1)) are being investigated as reagents for the tagging of liable hydrogen functional groups in coal materials with the NMR-active {sup 31}P nucleus. Of twelve such reagents investigated so far, 2 (2-chloro-1,3-dioxaphospholane, ClPOCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}O) and 8 (2-chloro-1,3-dithiaphospholane, ClPSCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}S) have been found to be useful in identifying and quantitating, by {sup 31}P NMR spectroscopy, labile hydrogen functional groups in an Illinois No. 6 coal condensate. Reagent 2 has also been used to quantitate moisture in pyridine extracts of Argonne Premium Coal Samples. Preliminary {sup 119}Sn NMR spectroscopic results on model compounds with the new reagent CF{sub 3}C(O)NHSnMe{sub 3} (N-trimethylstannyltrifluoroacetamide, 14) suggest that labile hydrogen functional groups in coal materials may be more precisely identified with 14 than with phospholanes. 14 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Retention of heavy metals by carboxyl functional groups of biochars in small arms range soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term effectiveness of biochar for heavy metal stabilization depends upon biochar’s sorptive property and recalcitrance in soil. To understand the role of carboxyl functional groups on heavy metal stabilization, cottonseed hull biochar and flax shive steam activated biochar having low O/C ratio...

  8. Review of Social Skills Training Groups for Youth with Asperger Syndrome and High Functioning Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappadocia, M. Catherine; Weiss, Jonathan A.

    2011-01-01

    Although social skills deficits represent core symptoms of Asperger Syndrome and High Functioning Autism, there is limited research investigating the empirical validity of social skills interventions currently being used with these populations. This literature review compares three types of social skills training groups: traditional, cognitive…

  9. Attraction to a Group as a Function of Attitude Similarity and Geographic Distance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, John M.

    1984-01-01

    Investigated attraction toward a group as a function of attitude similarity and perceived geographic distance in students (N=60). Results showed that effects of attitude similarity were strongly significant and that distance had no signficant effect on attraction and limited effect on evaluations. (LLL)

  10. Abundance of Jackfruit ( Artocarpus heterophyllus) Affects Group Characteristics and Use of Space by Golden-Headed Lion Tamarins ( Leontopithecus chrysomelas) in Cabruca Agroforest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, Leonardo C.; Neves, Leonardo G.; Raboy, Becky E.; Dietz, James M.

    2011-08-01

    Cabruca is an agroforest of cacao trees shaded by native forest trees. It is the predominant vegetation type throughout eastern part of the range of the golden-headed lion tamarins, Leontopithecus chrysomelas, an endangered primate endemic to Atlantic Forest. Understanding how lion tamarins use this agroforest is a conservation priority. To address this question, we documented the diet, home range size, group sizes and composition, density, number of litters and body condition of lion tamarins living in cabruca, and other habitats. Jackfruit, Artocarpus heterophyllus, was the most used species used by lion tamarins in cabruca and was widely available and used throughout the year. In cabruca, home range size was the smallest (22-28 ha) and density of lion tamarins was the highest (1.7 ind/ha) reported for the species. Group size averaged 7.4 individuals and was not significantly different among the vegetation types. In cabruca, groups produced one or two litters a year, and all litters were twins. Adult males in cabruca were significantly heavier than males in primary forest. Our study is the first to demonstrate that breeding groups of golden-headed lion tamarins can survive and reproduce entirely within cabruca agroforest. Jackfruit proved to be a keystone resource for lion tamarins in cabruca, and bromeliads were important as an animal prey foraging microhabitat. In cases where cabruca contains concentrated resources, such as jackfruit and bromeliads, lion tamarins may not only survive and reproduce but may fare better than in other forest types, at least for body condition and reproduction.

  11. Polypeptides of Treponema pallidum: progress toward understanding their structural, functional, and immunologic roles. Treponema Pallidum Polypeptide Research Group.

    PubMed Central

    Norris, S J

    1993-01-01

    Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum, the spirochete that causes syphilis, is unusual in a number of respects, including its small genome size, inability to grow under standard in vitro culture conditions, microaerophilism, apparent paucity of outer membrane proteins, structurally complex periplasmic flagella, and ability to evade the host immune responses and cause disease over a period of years to decades. Many of these attributes are related ultimately to its protein content. Our knowledge of the activities, structure, and immunogenicity of its proteins has been expanded by the application of recombinant DNA, hybridoma, and structural fractionation techniques. The purpose of this monograph is to summarize and correlate this new information by using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, monoclonal antibody reactivity, sequence data, and other properties as the bases of polypeptide identification. The protein profiles of the T. pallidum subspecies causing syphilis, yaws, and endemic syphilis are virtually indistinguishable but differ considerably from those of other treponemal species. Among the most abundant polypeptides are a group of lipoproteins of unknown function that appear to be important in the immune response during syphilitic infection. The periplasmic flagella of T. pallidum and other spirochetes are unique with regard to their protein content and ultrastructure, as well as their periplasmic location. They are composed of three core proteins (homologous to the other members of the eubacterial flagellin family) and a single, unrelated sheath protein; the functional significance of this arrangement is not understood at present. Although the bacterium contains the chaperonins GroEL and DnaK, these proteins are not under the control of the heat shock regulon as they are in most organisms. Studies of the immunogenicity of T. pallidum proteins indicate that many may be useful for immunodiagnosis and immunoprotection. Future goals in T. pallidum polypeptide

  12. Structural and functional evolution of the P2Y12-like receptor group

    PubMed Central

    Hermsdorf, Thomas; Engemaier, Eva; Engel, Kathrin; Liebscher, Ines; Thor, Doreen; Zierau, Klaas; Römpler, Holger; Schulz, Angela

    2007-01-01

    Metabotropic pyrimidine and purine nucleotide receptors (P2Y receptors) belong to the superfamily of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). They are distinguishable from adenosine receptors (P1) as they bind adenine and/or uracil nucleotide triphosphates or diphosphates depending on the subtype. Over the past decade, P2Y receptors have been cloned from a variety of tissues and species, and as many as eight functional subtypes have been characterized. Most recently, several members of the P2Y12-like receptor group, which includes the clopidogrel-sensitive ADP receptor P2Y12, have been deorphanized. The P2Y12-like receptor group comprises several structurally related GPCR which, however, display heterogeneous agonist specificity including nucleotides, their derivatives, and lipids. Besides the established function of P2Y12 in platelet activation, expression in macrophages, neuronal and glial cells as well as recent results from functional studies implicate that several members of this group may have specific functions in neurotransmission, inflammation, chemotaxis, and response to tissue injury. This review focuses specifically on the structure-function relation and shortly summarizes some aspects of the physiological relevance of P2Y12-like receptor members. PMID:18404440

  13. Health and role functioning: the use of focus groups in the development of an item bank

    PubMed Central

    Bjorner, Jakob B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Role functioning is an important part of health-related quality of life. However, assessment of role functioning is complicated by the wide definition of roles and by fluctuations in role participation across the life-span. The aim of this study is to explore variations in role functioning across the lifespan using qualitative approaches, to inform the development of a role functioning item bank and to pilot test sample items from the bank. Methods Eight focus groups were conducted with a convenience sample of 38 English-speaking adults recruited in Rhode Island. Participants were stratified by gender and four age groups. Focus groups were taped, transcribed, and analyzed for thematic content. Results Participants of all ages identified family roles as the most important. There was age variation in the importance of social life roles, with younger and older adults rating them as more important. Occupational roles were identified as important by younger and middle-aged participants. The potential of health problems to affect role participation was recognized. Participants found the sample items easy to understand, response options identical in meaning and preferred five response choices. Conclusions Participants identified key aspects of role functioning and provided insights on their perception of the impact of health on their role participation. These results will inform item bank generation. PMID:20047086

  14. A meta-analysis of functional group responses to forest recovery outside of the tropics.

    PubMed

    Spake, Rebecca; Ezard, Thomas H G; Martin, Philip A; Newton, Adrian C; Doncaster, C Patrick

    2015-12-01

    Both active and passive forest restoration schemes are used in degraded landscapes across the world to enhance biodiversity and ecosystem service provision. Restoration is increasingly also being implemented in biodiversity offset schemes as compensation for loss of natural habitat to anthropogenic development. This has raised concerns about the value of replacing old-growth forest with plantations, motivating research on biodiversity recovery as forest stands age. Functional diversity is now advocated as a key metric for restoration success, yet it has received little analytical attention to date. We conducted a meta-analysis of 90 studies that measured differences in species richness for functional groups of fungi, lichens, and beetles between old-growth control and planted or secondary treatment forests in temperate, boreal, and Mediterranean regions. We identified functional-group-specific relationships in the response of species richness to stand age after forest disturbance. Ectomycorrhizal fungi averaged 90 years for recovery to old-growth values (between 45 years and unrecoverable at 95% prediction limits), and epiphytic lichens took 180 years to reach 90% of old-growth values (between 140 years and never for recovery to old-growth values at 95% prediction limits). Non-saproxylic beetle richness, in contrast, decreased as stand age of broadleaved forests increased. The slow recovery by some functional groups essential to ecosystem functioning makes old-growth forest an effectively irreplaceable biodiversity resource that should be exempt from biodiversity offsetting initiatives. PMID:26040756

  15. Development of Acid Functional Groups and Lactones During the Thermal Degradation of Wood and Wood Components

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rutherford, David W.; Wershaw, Robert L.; Reeves, James B., III

    2008-01-01

    Black carbon (pyrogenic materials including chars) in soils has been recognized as a substantial portion of soil organic matter, and has been shown to play a vital role in nutrient cycling; however, little is known concerning the properties of this material. Previous studies have largely been concerned with the creation of high-surface-area materials for use as sorbents. These materials have been manufactured at high temperature and have often been activated. Chars occurring in the environment can be formed over a wide range of temperature. Because it is extremely difficult to isolate black carbon once it has been incorporated in soils, chars produced in the laboratory under controlled conditions can be used to investigate the range of properties possible for natural chars. This report shows that charring conditions (temperature and time) have substantial impact on the acid functional group and lactone content of chars. Low temperatures (250?C) and long charring times (greater than 72 hours) produce chars with the highest acid functional group and lactone content. The charring of cellulose appears to be responsible for the creation of the acid functional group and lactones. The significance of this study is that low-temperature chars can have acid functional group contents comparable to humic materials (as high as 8.8 milliequivalents per gram). Acid functional group and lactone content decreases as charring temperature increases. The variation in formation conditions expected under natural fire conditions will result in a wide range of sorption properties for natural chars which are an important component of soil organic matter. By controlling the temperature and duration of charring, it is possible to tailor the sorption properties of chars, which may be used as soil amendments.

  16. Easy route to functionalize iron oxide nanoparticles via long-term stable thiol groups.

    PubMed

    Maurizi, L; Bisht, H; Bouyer, F; Millot, N

    2009-08-18

    The functionalization of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) by meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) was investigated. Under ambient conditions, the thiol groups from DMSA are not stable and do not allow a direct functionalization without storage in stringent conditions or a chemical regeneration of free thiols. In this study, we have developed a protocol based on poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) grafting of SPIO prior to DMSA anchoring. We have observed that PEG helps to increase the stability of thiol groups under ambient conditions. The thiol functionalized SPIOs were stable under physiological pH and ionic strength as determined by Ellman's essay and allowed us to graft a thiol reactive fluorescent dye: tetramethylrhodamine-5-maleimide (TMRM). PMID:19572525

  17. Quantification of protein group coherence and pathway assignment using functional association

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Genomics and proteomics experiments produce a large amount of data that are awaiting functional elucidation. An important step in analyzing such data is to identify functional units, which consist of proteins that play coherent roles to carry out the function. Importantly, functional coherence is not identical with functional similarity. For example, proteins in the same pathway may not share the same Gene Ontology (GO) terms, but they work in a coordinated fashion so that the aimed function can be performed. Thus, simply applying existing functional similarity measures might not be the best solution to identify functional units in omics data. Results We have designed two scores for quantifying the functional coherence by considering association of GO terms observed in two biological contexts, co-occurrences in protein annotations and co-mentions in literature in the PubMed database. The counted co-occurrences of GO terms were normalized in a similar fashion as the statistical amino acid contact potential is computed in the protein structure prediction field. We demonstrate that the developed scores can identify functionally coherent protein sets, i.e. proteins in the same pathways, co-localized proteins, and protein complexes, with statistically significant score values showing a better accuracy than existing functional similarity scores. The scores are also capable of detecting protein pairs that interact with each other. It is further shown that the functional coherence scores can accurately assign proteins to their respective pathways. Conclusion We have developed two scores which quantify the functional coherence of sets of proteins. The scores reflect the actual associations of GO terms observed either in protein annotations or in literature. It has been shown that they have the ability to accurately distinguish biologically relevant groups of proteins from random ones as well as a good discriminative power for detecting interacting pairs of

  18. Modelling community dynamics based on species-level abundance models from detection/nondetection data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yamaura, Yuichi; Royle, J. Andrew; Kuboi, Kouji; Tada, Tsuneo; Ikeno, Susumu; Makino, Shun'ichi

    2011-01-01

    1. In large-scale field surveys, a binary recording of each species' detection or nondetection has been increasingly adopted for its simplicity and low cost. Because of the importance of abundance in many studies, it is desirable to obtain inferences about abundance at species-, functional group-, and community-levels from such binary data. 2. We developed a novel hierarchical multi-species abundance model based on species-level detection/nondetection data. The model accounts for the existence of undetected species, and variability in abundance and detectability among species. Species-level detection/nondetection is linked to species- level abundance via a detection model that accommodates the expectation that probability of detection (at least one individuals is detected) increases with local abundance of the species. We applied this model to a 9-year dataset composed of the detection/nondetection of forest birds, at a single post-fire site (from 7 to 15 years after fire) in a montane area of central Japan. The model allocated undetected species into one of the predefined functional groups by assuming a prior distribution on individual group membership. 3. The results suggest that 15–20 species were missed in each year, and that species richness of communities and functional groups did not change with post-fire forest succession. Overall abundance of birds and abundance of functional groups tended to increase over time, although only in the winter, while decreases in detectabilities were observed in several species. 4. Synthesis and applications. Understanding and prediction of large-scale biodiversity dynamics partly hinge on how we can use data effectively. Our hierarchical model for detection/nondetection data estimates abundance in space/time at species-, functional group-, and community-levels while accounting for undetected individuals and species. It also permits comparison of multiple communities by many types of abundance-based diversity and similarity

  19. The abundance of functional genes, cbbL, nifH, amoA and apsA, and bacterial community structure of intertidal soil from Arabian Sea.

    PubMed

    Keshri, Jitendra; Yousuf, Basit; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2015-06-01

    The Gulf of Cambay is a trumpet-shaped inlet of the Arabian Sea, located along the west coast of India and confronts a high tidal range with strong water currents. The region belongs to a semi-arid zone and saline alkaline intertidal soils are considered biologically extreme. The selected four soil types (S1-S4) were affected by salinity, alkalinity and sodicity. Soil salinity ranged from 20 to 126 dS/m, soil pH 8.6-10.0 with high sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) and exchangeable sodium percentage (ESP). Abundance of the key functional genes like cbbL, nifH, amoA and apsA involved in biogeochemical cycling were targeted using qPCR, which varied from (2.36 ± 0.03) × 10(4) to (2.87 ± 0.26) × 10(8), (1.18 ± 0.28) × 10(6) to (1.01 ± 0.26) × 10(9), (1.41 ± 0.21) × 10(6) to (1.29 ± 0.05) × 10(8) and (8.47 ± 0.23) × 10(4) to (1.73 ± 0.01) × 10(6) per gram dry weight, respectively. The microbial community structure revealed that soils S1 and S3 were dominated by phylum Firmicutes whereas S4 and S2 showed an abundance of Proteobacterial clones. These soils also represented Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, Planctomycetes and Acidobacteria clones. Molecular phylogeny showed a significant variation in the bacterial community distribution among the intertidal soil types. A high number of novel taxonomic units were observed which makes the intertidal zone a unique reservoir of unidentified bacterial taxa that may be explored further. PMID:25862282

  20. Kelvin-probe force microscopy of the pH-dependent charge of functional groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Alexander D. D.; Mesquida, Patrick

    2016-06-01

    Kelvin-probe Force Microscopy (KFM) is an established method to map surface potentials or surface charges at high, spatial resolution. However, KFM does not work in water, which restricts its applicability considerably, especially when considering common, functional chemical groups in biophysics such as amine or carboxy groups, whose charge depends on pH. Here, we demonstrate that the KFM signal of such groups taken in air after exposure to water correlates qualitatively with their expected charge in water for a wide range of pH values. The correlation was tested with microcontact-printed thiols exposing amine and carboxy groups. Furthermore, it was shown that collagen fibrils, as an example of a biological material, exhibit a particular, pH-sensitive surface charge pattern, which could be caused by the particular arrangement of ionizable residues on the collagen fibril surface.

  1. Tumor-suppressor effects of chemical functional groups in an in vitro co-culture system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Su-Ju; Cui, Fu-Zhai; Kong, Xiang-Dong

    2014-06-01

    Liver normal cells and cancer cells co-cultured on surfaces modified by different chemical functional groups, including mercapto (-SH), hydroxyl (-OH) and methyl (-CH3) groups. The results showed that different cells exhibited changes in response to different surfaces. Normal cells on -SH surface exhibited the smallest contact area with mostly rounded morphology, which led to the death of cancer cells, while cancer cells could not grow on -CH3 groups, which also died. In the co-culture system, the -CH3 group exhibited its unique effect that could trigger the death of cancer cells and had no effects on normal cells. Our findings provide useful information on strategies for the design of efficient and safe regenerative medicine materials.

  2. Hydrogen-bond acidic functionalized carbon nanotubes (CNTs) with covalently-bound hexafluoroisopropanol groups

    SciTech Connect

    Fifield, Leonard S.; Grate, Jay W.

    2010-06-01

    Fluorinated hydrogen-bond acidic groups are directly attached to the backbone of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) without the introduction of intermediate electron donating surface groups. Hexafluoroalcohol functional groups are exceptionally strong hydrogen bond acids, and are added to the nanotube surface using the aryl diazonium approach to create hydrogen-bond acidic carbon nanotube (CNT) surfaces. These groups can promote strong hydrogen-bonding interactions with matrix materials in composites or with molecular species to be concentrated and sensed. In the latter case, this newly developed material is expected to find useful application in chemical sensors and in CNT-based preconcentrator devices for the detection of pesticides, chemical warfare agents and explosives.

  3. Effects of trehalose polycation end-group functionalization on plasmid DNA uptake and transfection.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kevin; Sizovs, Antons; Cortez, Mallory; Waldron, Chris; Haddleton, D M; Reineke, Theresa M

    2012-08-13

    In this study, we have synthesized six analogs of a trehalose-pentaethylenehexamine glycopolymer (Tr4) that contain (1A) adamantane, (1B) carboxy, (1C) alkynyl-oligoethyleneamine, (1D) azido trehalose, (1E) octyl, or (1F) oligoethyleneamine end groups and evaluated the effects of polymer end group chemistry on the ability of these systems to bind, compact, and deliver pDNA to cultured HeLa cells. The polymers were synthesized in one-pot azide-alkyne cycloaddition reactions with an adaptation of the Carothers equation for step-growth polymerization to produce a series of polymers with similar degrees of polymerization. An excess of end-capping monomer was added at the end of the polymerizations to maximize functionalization efficiency, which was evaluated with GPC, NMR, and MALDI-TOF. The polymers were all found to bind and compact pDNA at similarly low N/P ratios and form polyplexes with plasmid DNA. The effects of the different end group structures were most evident in the polyplex internalization and transfection assays in the presence of serum as determined by flow cytometry and luciferase gene expression, respectively. The Tr4 polymers end-capped with carboxyl groups (1B) (N/P = 7), octyne (1E) (N/P = 7), and oligoethyleneamine (1F) (N/P = 7), were taken into cells as polyplex and exhibited the highest levels of fluorescence, resulting from labeled plasmid. Similarly, the polymers end-functionalized with carboxyl groups (1E at N/P = 7), octyl groups (1E at N/P = 15), and in particular oligoethyleneamine groups (1F at N/P = 15) yielded dramatically higher reporter gene expression in the presence of serum. This study yields insight into how very subtle structural changes in polymer chemistry, such as end groups can yield very significant differences in the biological delivery efficiency and transgene expression of polymers used for pDNA delivery. PMID:22616977

  4. Refinements to the structure of graphite oxide: absolute quantification of functional groups via selective labelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eng, Alex Yong Sheng; Chua, Chun Kiang; Pumera, Martin

    2015-11-01

    Chemical modification and functionalization of inherent functional groups within graphite oxide (GO) are essential aspects of graphene-based nano-materials used in wide-ranging applications. Despite extensive research, there remains some discrepancy in its structure, with current knowledge limited primarily to spectroscopic data from XPS, NMR and vibrational spectroscopies. We report herein an innovative electrochemistry-based approach. Four electroactive labels are chosen to selectively functionalize groups in GO, and quantification of each group is achieved by voltammetric analysis. This allows for the first time quantification of absolute amounts of each group, with a further advantage of distinguishing various carbonyl species: namely ortho- and para-quinones from aliphatic ketones. Intrinsic variations in the compositions of permanganate versus chlorate-oxidized GOs were thus observed. Principal differences include permanganate-GO exhibiting substantial quinonyl content, in comparison to chlorate-GO with the vast majority of its carbonyls as isolated ketones. The results confirm that carboxylic groups are rare in actuality, and are in fact entirely absent from chlorate-GO. These observations refine and advance our understanding of GO structure by addressing certain disparities in past models resulting from employment of different oxidation routes, with the vital implication that GO production methods cannot be used interchangeably in the manufacture of graphene-based devices.Chemical modification and functionalization of inherent functional groups within graphite oxide (GO) are essential aspects of graphene-based nano-materials used in wide-ranging applications. Despite extensive research, there remains some discrepancy in its structure, with current knowledge limited primarily to spectroscopic data from XPS, NMR and vibrational spectroscopies. We report herein an innovative electrochemistry-based approach. Four electroactive labels are chosen to selectively

  5. Adsorption of volatile sulphur compounds onto modified activated carbons: effect of oxygen functional groups.

    PubMed

    Vega, Esther; Lemus, Jesús; Anfruns, Alba; Gonzalez-Olmos, Rafael; Palomar, José; Martin, María J

    2013-08-15

    The effect of physical and chemical properties of activated carbon (AC) on the adsorption of ethyl mercaptan, dimethyl sulphide and dimethyl disulphide was investigated by treating a commercial AC with nitric acid and ozone. The chemical properties of ACs were characterised by temperature programme desorption and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. AC treated with nitric acid presented a larger amount of oxygen functional groups than materials oxidised with ozone. This enrichment allowed a significant improvement on adsorption capacities for ethyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulphide but not for dimethyl disulphide. In order to gain a deeper knowledge on the effect of the surface chemistry of AC on the adsorption of volatile sulphur compounds, the quantum-chemical COSMO-RS method was used to simulate the interactions between AC surface groups and the studied volatile sulphur compounds. In agreement with experimental data, this model predicted a greater affinity of dimethyl disulphide towards AC, unaffected by the incorporation of oxygen functional groups in the surface. Moreover, the model pointed out to an increase of the adsorption capacity of AC by the incorporation of hydroxyl functional groups in the case of ethyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulphide due to the hydrogen bond interactions. PMID:23708449

  6. Tunable Oxygen Functional Groups as Electrocatalysts on Graphite Felt Surfaces for All-Vanadium Flow Batteries.

    PubMed

    Estevez, Luis; Reed, David; Nie, Zimin; Schwarz, Ashleigh M; Nandasiri, Manjula I; Kizewski, James P; Wang, Wei; Thomsen, Edwin; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Sprenkle, Vincent; Li, Bin

    2016-06-22

    A dual oxidative approach using O2 plasma followed by treatment with H2 O2 to impart oxygen functional groups onto the surface of a graphite felt electrode. When used as electrodes for an all-vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) system, the energy efficiency of the cell is enhanced by 8.2 % at a current density of 150 mA cm(-2) compared with one oxidized by thermal treatment in air. More importantly, by varying the oxidative techniques, the amount and type of oxygen groups was tailored and their effects were elucidated. It was found that O-C=O groups improve the cells performance whereas the C-O and C=O groups degrade it. The reason for the increased performance was found to be a reduction in the cell overpotential after functionalization of the graphite felt electrode. This work reveals a route for functionalizing carbon electrodes to improve the performance of VRB cells. This approach can lower the cost of VRB cells and pave the way for more commercially viable stationary energy storage systems that can be used for intermittent renewable energy storage. PMID:27184225

  7. Quantity of Hydrophobic Functional CH-Groups - Decisive for Soil Water Repellency Caused by Digestate Amendment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelkner, Amrei; Holthusen, Dörthe; Ellerbrock, Ruth H.; Horn, Rainer

    2015-04-01

    Anaerobic digestates are used as organic fertilizers; however, they are suspected to interfere negatively with soils. To investigate the relevance of the anaerobic digestates composition on potential wettability and contact angle of the soil, we mixed in a laboratory experiment 30 m³ ha-1 of anaerobic digestates derived from mechanically pre-treated substrates from maize and sugar beet with a homogenized Cambic Luvisol. Fourier transform infrared-spectra and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform-spectra of particle intact and finely ground soilanaerobic digestates-mixtures were analyzed to determine the quantities of hydrophobic functional groups in the soil-anaerobic digestates-mixtures that are used here as an indicator for the potential hydrophobicity. The anaerobic digestates application increased the amount of hydrophobic functional groups of the mixtures and reduced the wettability of the soil. However, for intact particle samples an up to threefold higher amount of hydrophobic groups was found as compared to the finely ground ones, indicating a dilution effect of mechanical grinding on the effectivity of the organic matter that is presumably located as a coating on mineral soil particles. For the particle intact samples, the intensity of hydrophobic functional groups bands denoting hydrophobic brickstones in organic matter is indicative for the actual wettability of the soil-anaerobic digestates-mixtures.

  8. The central role of ketones in reversible and irreversible hydrothermal organic functional group transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ziming; Gould, Ian R.; Williams, Lynda B.; Hartnett, Hilairy E.; Shock, Everett L.

    2012-12-01

    Studies of hydrothermal reactions involving organic compounds suggest complex, possibly reversible, reaction pathways that link functional groups from reduced alkanes all the way to oxidized carboxylic acids. Ketones represent a critical functional group because they occupy a central position in the reaction pathway, at the point where Csbnd C bond cleavage is required for the formation of the more oxidized carboxylic acids. The mechanisms for the critical bond cleavage reactions in ketones, and how they compete with other reactions are the focus of this experimental study. We studied a model ketone, dibenzylketone (DBK), in H2O at 300 °C and 70 MPa for up to 528 h. Product analysis was performed as a function of time at low DBK conversions to reveal the primary reaction pathways. Reversible interconversion between ketone, alcohol, alkene and alkane functional groups is observed in addition to formation of radical coupling products derived from irreversible Csbnd C and Csbnd H homolytic bond cleavage. The product distributions are time-dependent but the bond cleavage products dominate. The major products that accumulate at longer reaction times are toluene and larger, dehydrogenated structures that are initially formed by radical coupling. The hydrogen atoms generated by dehydrogenation of the coupling products are predominantly consumed in the formation of toluene. Even though bond cleavage products dominate, no carboxylic acids were observed on the timescale of the reactions under the chosen experimental conditions.

  9. First-principles study of the effect of functional groups on polyaniline backbone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X. P.; Jiang, J. K.; Liang, Q. H.; Yang, N.; Ye, H. Y.; Cai, M.; Shen, L.; Yang, D. G.; Ren, T. L.

    2015-11-01

    We present a first-principles density functional theory study focused on how the chemical and electronic properties of polyaniline are adjusted by introducing suitable substituents on a polymer backbone. Analyses of the obtained energy barriers, reaction energies and minimum energy paths indicate that the chemical reactivity of the polyaniline derivatives is significantly enhanced by protonic acid doping of the substituted materials. Further study of the density of states at the Fermi level, band gap, HOMO and LUMO shows that both the unprotonated and protonated states of these polyanilines are altered to different degrees depending on the functional group. We also note that changes in both the chemical and electronic properties are very sensitive to the polarity and size of the functional group. It is worth noting that these changes do not substantially alter the inherent chemical and electronic properties of polyaniline. Our results demonstrate that introducing different functional groups on a polymer backbone is an effective approach to obtain tailored conductive polymers with desirable properties while retaining their intrinsic properties, such as conductivity.

  10. Linking avian communities and avian influenza ecology in southern Africa using epidemiological functional groups

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The ecology of pathogens, and particularly their emergence in multi-host systems, is complex. New approaches are needed to reduce superficial complexities to a level that still allows scientists to analyse underlying and more fundamental processes. One promising approach for simplification is to use an epidemiological-function classification to describe ecological diversity in a way that relates directly to pathogen dynamics. In this article, we develop and apply the epidemiological functional group (EFG) concept to explore the relationships between wild bird communities and avian influenza virus (AIV) in three ecosystems in southern Africa. Using a two year dataset that combined bird counts and bimonthly sampling for AIV, we allocated each bird species to a set of EFGs that captured two overarching epidemiological functions: the capacity of species to maintain AIV in the system, and their potential to introduce the virus. Comparing AIV prevalence between EFGs suggested that the hypothesis that anseriforms (ducks) and charadriiforms (waders) drive AIV epidemiology cannot entirely explain the high prevalence observed in some EFGs. If anseriforms do play an important role in AIV dynamics in each of the three ecosystems, the role of other species in the local maintenance of AIV cannot be ruled out. The EFG concept thus helped us to identify gaps in knowledge and to highlight understudied bird groups that might play a role in AIV epidemiology. In general, the use of EFGs has potential for generating a range of valuable insights in epidemiology, just as functional group approaches have done in ecology. PMID:23101696

  11. Synergistic effect between defect sites and functional groups on the hydrolysis of cellulose over activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Foo, Guo Shiou; Sievers, Carsten

    2015-02-01

    The chemical oxidation of activated carbon by H2 O2 and H2 SO4 is investigated, structural and chemical modifications are characterized, and the materials are used as catalysts for the hydrolysis of cellulose. Treatment with H2 O2 enlarges the pore size and imparts functional groups such as phenols, lactones, and carboxylic acids. H2 SO4 treatment targets the edges of carbon sheets primarily, and this effect is more pronounced with a higher temperature. Adsorption isotherms demonstrate that the adsorption of oligomers on functionalized carbon is dominated by van der Waals forces. The materials treated chemically are active for the hydrolysis of cellulose despite the relative weakness of most of their acid sites. It is proposed that a synergistic effect between defect sites and functional groups enhances the activity by inducing a conformational change in the glucan chains if they are adsorbed at defect sites. This activates the glycosidic bonds for hydrolysis by in-plane functional groups. PMID:25504913

  12. First-principles study of the effect of functional groups on polyaniline backbone

    PubMed Central

    Chen, X. P.; Jiang, J. K.; Liang, Q. H.; Yang, N.; Ye, H. Y.; Cai, M.; Shen, L.; Yang, D. G.; Ren, T. L.

    2015-01-01

    We present a first-principles density functional theory study focused on how the chemical and electronic properties of polyaniline are adjusted by introducing suitable substituents on a polymer backbone. Analyses of the obtained energy barriers, reaction energies and minimum energy paths indicate that the chemical reactivity of the polyaniline derivatives is significantly enhanced by protonic acid doping of the substituted materials. Further study of the density of states at the Fermi level, band gap, HOMO and LUMO shows that both the unprotonated and protonated states of these polyanilines are altered to different degrees depending on the functional group. We also note that changes in both the chemical and electronic properties are very sensitive to the polarity and size of the functional group. It is worth noting that these changes do not substantially alter the inherent chemical and electronic properties of polyaniline. Our results demonstrate that introducing different functional groups on a polymer backbone is an effective approach to obtain tailored conductive polymers with desirable properties while retaining their intrinsic properties, such as conductivity. PMID:26584671

  13. First-principles study of the effect of functional groups on polyaniline backbone.

    PubMed

    Chen, X P; Jiang, J K; Liang, Q H; Yang, N; Ye, H Y; Cai, M; Shen, L; Yang, D G; Ren, T L

    2015-01-01

    We present a first-principles density functional theory study focused on how the chemical and electronic properties of polyaniline are adjusted by introducing suitable substituents on a polymer backbone. Analyses of the obtained energy barriers, reaction energies and minimum energy paths indicate that the chemical reactivity of the polyaniline derivatives is significantly enhanced by protonic acid doping of the substituted materials. Further study of the density of states at the Fermi level, band gap, HOMO and LUMO shows that both the unprotonated and protonated states of these polyanilines are altered to different degrees depending on the functional group. We also note that changes in both the chemical and electronic properties are very sensitive to the polarity and size of the functional group. It is worth noting that these changes do not substantially alter the inherent chemical and electronic properties of polyaniline. Our results demonstrate that introducing different functional groups on a polymer backbone is an effective approach to obtain tailored conductive polymers with desirable properties while retaining their intrinsic properties, such as conductivity. PMID:26584671

  14. Nanomechanical characterization of chemical interaction between gold nanoparticles and chemical functional groups

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    We report on how to quantify the binding affinity between a nanoparticle and chemical functional group using various experimental methods such as cantilever assay, PeakForce quantitative nanomechanical property mapping, and lateral force microscopy. For the immobilization of Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) onto a microscale silicon substrate, we have considered two different chemical functional molecules of amine and catecholamine (here, dopamine was used). It is found that catecholamine-modified surface is more effective for the functionalization of AuNPs onto the surface than the amine-modified surface, which has been shown from our various experiments. The dimensionless parameter (i.e., ratio of binding affinity) introduced in this work from such experiments is useful in quantitatively depicting such binding affinity, indicating that the binding affinity and stability between AuNPs and catecholamine is approximately 1.5 times stronger than that between amine and AuNPs. Our study sheds light on the experiment-based quantitative characterization of the binding affinity between nanomaterial and chemical groups, which will eventually provide an insight into how to effectively design the functional material using chemical groups. PMID:23113991

  15. Configuration-dependent electronic and magnetic properties of graphene monolayers and nanoribbons functionalized with aryl groups

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Xiaoqing Gu, Juan; Xu, Jian-bin

    2014-01-28

    Graphene monolayers functionalized with aryl groups exhibit configuration-dependent electronic and magnetic properties. The aryl groups were adsorbed in pairs of neighboring atoms in the same sublattice A (different sublattices) of graphene monolayers, denoted as the M{sub 2}{sup AA} (M{sub 2}{sup AB}) configuration. The M{sub 2}{sup AA} configuration behaved as a ferromagnetic semiconductor. The band gaps for the majority and minority bands were 1.1 eV and 1.2 eV, respectively. The M{sub 2}{sup AB} configuration behaved as a nonmagnetic semiconductor with a band gap of 0.8 eV. Each aryl group could induce 1 Bohr magneton (μ{sub B}) into the molecule-graphene system. Armchair graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) exhibited the same configuration-dependent magnetic properties as the graphene monolayers. The net spin of the functionalized zigzag GNRs was mainly localized on the edges demonstrating an adsorption site-dependent magnetism. For the zigzag GNRs, both the M{sub 2}{sup AA} and M{sub 2}{sup AB} configurations possibly had a magnetic moment. Each aryl group could induce 1.5–3.5 μ{sub B} into the molecule-graphene system. There was a metal-to-insulator transition after adsorption of the aryl groups for the zigzag GNRs.

  16. Effects of surface functional groups on proliferation and biofunction of Schwann cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaling; Ji, Yawei; Zhao, Yahong; Kong, Yan; Gao, Ming; Feng, Qilin; Wu, Yue; Yang, Yumin

    2016-05-01

    Scaffolds in tissue engineering should be rationally designed to become an adhesion substrate friendly to cells. Schwann cells play an important role in nerve regeneration and repair. Previous studies have suggested that surface chemical groups have effect on many types of cells. However, there have hitherto been few reports on Schwann cells. In this study, we investigated cell adhesion, survival, proliferation, and neurotrophic actions of Schwann cells cultured on glass coverslips modified with different chemical groups, including methyl, carboxyl, amino, hydroxyl, mercapto, and sulfonic groups. Schwann cells on amino and carboxyl surfaces had higher attachment rate, presenting good morphology, high proliferation, and strong neurotrophic functions, while on methyl surfaces, few cells can survive, cells shrunk into round shape, exhibiting poor proliferation and weak neurotrophic functions. Growth of cells on other groups was between methyl and amino, carboxyl, and had little difference among them. Our data indicated that chemical groups can regulate behavior of Schwann cells, indicating a way to design new scaffolds for peripheral nerve regeneration. PMID:26911577

  17. Control of oxo-group functionalization and reduction of the uranyl ion.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Polly L; Pécharman, Anne-Frédérique; Lord, Rianne M; Jones, Guy M; Hollis, Emmalina; Nichol, Gary S; Maron, Laurent; Fang, Jian; Davin, Thomas; Love, Jason B

    2015-04-01

    Uranyl complexes of a large, compartmental N8-macrocycle adopt a rigid, "Pacman" geometry that stabilizes the U(V) oxidation state and promotes chemistry at a single uranyl oxo-group. We present here new and straightforward routes to singly reduced and oxo-silylated uranyl Pacman complexes and propose mechanisms that account for the product formation, and the byproduct distributions that are formed using alternative reagents. Uranyl(VI) Pacman complexes in which one oxo-group is functionalized by a single metal cation are activated toward single-electron reduction. As such, the addition of a second equivalent of a Lewis acidic metal complex such as MgN″2 (N″ = N(SiMe3)2) forms a uranyl(V) complex in which both oxo-groups are Mg functionalized as a result of Mg-N bond homolysis. In contrast, reactions with the less Lewis acidic complex [Zn(N″)Cl] favor the formation of weaker U-O-Zn dative interactions, leading to reductive silylation of the uranyl oxo-group in preference to metalation. Spectroscopic, crystallographic, and computational analysis of these reactions and of oxo-metalated products isolated by other routes have allowed us to propose mechanisms that account for pathways to metalation or silylation of the exo-oxo-group. PMID:25799215

  18. Effects of functional groups and soluble matrices in fish otolith on calcium carbonate mineralization.

    PubMed

    Ren, Dongni; Li, Zhuo; Gao, Yonghua; Feng, Qingling

    2010-10-01

    Calcium carbonate mineralization is significantly influenced by organic matrices in vivo. The effect mainly relies on functional groups in proteins. In order to study the influence of functional groups on calcium carbonate mineralization, -OH, -NH2 and -COOH groups were grafted onto single crystal silicon chips, and such modified chips were used as substrates in in vitro mineralization experiments. An x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) test was conducted to examine the grafting efficiency, and the three groups were successfully grafted. Calcium carbonate mineralization on a modified silicon substrate was examined by a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and x-ray diffraction (XRD), and the results showed that the effects of -OH, -NH2 and -COOH groups were quite different. Furthermore, a water-soluble protein matrix (WSM) and an acid-soluble protein matrix (ASM) extracted from fish otolith were adsorbed onto the -COOH-modified silicon substrate, and the effects of the protein matrices on calcium carbonate mineralization were studied. The results showed that both WSM and ASM of lapillus could mediate aragonite crystallization, but the size and morphology of the formed crystals were different. The WSM and ASM of asteriscus adsorbed on the silicon substrate had little effect on calcium carbonate mineralization; almost all the crystals were calcite, while both asteriscus WSM and ASM in solution could mediate vaterite crystals, and the morphologies of vaterite crystal aggregates were different. PMID:20844320

  19. Unification of [FeFe]-hydrogenases into three structural and functional groups

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Poudel, Saroj; Tokmina-Lukaszewska, Monika; Colman, Daniel R.; Refai, Mohammed; Schut, Gerrit J.; King, Paul W.; Maness, Pin-Ching; Adams, Michael W. W.; Peters, John W.; Bothner, Brian; et al

    2016-05-27

    [FeFe]-hydrogenases (Hyd) are structurally diverse enzymes that catalyze the reversible oxidation of hydrogen (H2). Recent biochemical data demonstrate new functional roles for these enzymes, including those that function in electron bifurcation where an exergonic reaction is coupled with an endergonic reaction to drive the reversible oxidation/production of H2. To identify the structural determinants that underpin differences in enzyme functionality, a total of 714 homologous sequences of the catalytic subunit, HydA, were compiled. Bioinformatics approaches informed by biochemical data were then used to characterize differences in inferred quaternary structure, HydA active site protein environment, accessory iron-sulfur clusters in HydA, and regulatorymore » proteins encoded in HydA gene neighborhoods. HydA homologs were clustered into one of three classification groups, Group 1 (G1), Group 2 (G2), and Group 3 (G3). G1 enzymes were predicted to be monomeric while those in G2 and G3 were predicted to be multimeric and include HydB, HydC (G2/G3) and HydD (G3) subunits. Variation in the HydA active site and accessory iron-sulfur clusters did not vary by group type. Group-specific regulatory genes were identified in the gene neighborhoods of both G2 and G3 Hyd. Analyses of purified G2 and G3 enzymes by mass spectrometry strongly suggests that they are post-translationally modified by phosphorylation. In conclusion, these results suggest that bifurcation capability is dictated primarily by the presence of both HydB and HydC in Hyd complexes, rather than by variation in HydA.« less

  20. Wetland macroinvertebrates of Prentiss Bay, Lake Huron, Michigan: diversity and functional group composition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Merritt, R.W.; Benbow, M.E.; Hudson, P.L.

    2002-01-01

    The Great Lakes support many fish and waterbirds that depend directly or indirectly on coastal wetlands during some portion of their life cycle. It is known that macroinvertebrates make up an important part of wetland food webs and ecosystem function; however, our understanding of species distribution within and among wetlands has only recently received attention. We investigated the macroinvertebrates of a freshwater marsh (Prentiss Bay) in the Les Chenaux Island Area of Northern Lake Huron, Michigan. Macroinvertebrate taxa diversity and functional feeding group composition were compared between two habitats. A shallow depositional habitat with higher vegetation diversity and little wave action was compared to a deeper erosional habitat with fewer plant species and more wave action. A total of 83 taxa were collected over the summer of 1996, representing two phyla (Arthropoda and Mollusca) and five classes (Arachnida, Bivalvia, Malacostraca, Gastropoda and Insecta). A total of 79 genera were identified, with 92% being insects (39 families composed of at least 73 genera). Of the total, 42 insect genera were common to both habitats,while relatively fewer were collected exclusively from the erosional compared the depositional habitat. When habitats were pooled, predators comprised about 50% of the functional group taxa, while gathering collectors and shredders each were about 20%. Filtering collectors and scrapers each represented < 10%. When comparing habitats, there was a relatively higher percentage of predators and shredders in the depositional habitat, while all other functional groups were lower. These data suggest that vegetation diversity, depth and wave action affect taxa composition and functional group organization of the Prentiss Bay marsh.

  1. Synthesis and phase transitions of mesogenic compounds with functional groups in the tail

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mossety-Leszczak, B.; Galina, H.; Włodarska, M.

    2011-01-01

    The properties of two pairs of recently synthesised compounds with mesogenic unit were compared. The four compounds consist of a central segment (based on biphenyl or phenylbenzoate) with symmetric carbon chains ended with vinyl or epoxy groups. Typical measurement techniques (including microscopic observations, differential scanning calorimetry and wide-angle X-ray scattering and dielectric studies) were used to examine phase transitions in the studied materials. The phase transition sequences were determined for all materials. A liquid crystalline phase appeared in some cases. It was observed that replacing the functional group in the tails visibly changes the temperatures and sequences of phase transitions.

  2. The Properties of Poor Groups of Galaxies. III. The Galaxy Luminosity Function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zabludoff, Ann I.; Mulchaey, John S.

    2000-08-01

    The form of the galaxy luminosity function (GLF) in poor groups-regions of intermediate galaxy density that are common environments for galaxies-is not well understood. Multiobject spectroscopy and wide-field CCD imaging now allow us to measure the GLF of bound group members directly (i.e., without statistical background subtraction) and to compare the group GLF with the GLFs of the field and of rich clusters. We use R-band images in 1.5×1.5 degree2 mosaics to obtain photometry for galaxies in the fields of six nearby (2800groups for which we have extensive spectroscopic data, including 328 new galaxy velocities. For the five groups with luminous X-ray halos, the composite group GLF for group members with -23+5loghgroup center is fit adequately by a Schechter function with M*R=-21.6+/-0.4+5log h and α=-1.3+/-0.1. We also find that (1) the ratio of dwarfs (-17+5logh>=MR>-19+5logh) to giants (MR<=-19+5logh) is significantly larger for the five groups with luminous X-ray halos than for the one marginally X-ray-detected group; (2) the composite GLF for the luminous X-ray groups is consistent in shape with two measures of the composite R-band GLF for rich clusters (Trentham; Driver et al.) and flatter at the faint end than another (α~-1.5 Smith et al.); (3) the composite group GLF rises more steeply at the faint end than the R-band GLF of the Las Campanas Redshift Survey (LCRS; α=-0.7 from Lin et al.), a large volume survey dominated by galaxies in environments more rarefied than luminous X-ray groups; (4) the shape difference between the LCRS field and composite group GLFs results mostly from the population of non-emission line galaxies (EW [O II]<5 Å), whose dwarf-to-giant ratio is larger in the denser group environment than in the field (cf. Ferguson & Sandage; Bromley et al.); and (5) the non-emission line dwarfs are more concentrated about the group center than the non

  3. Stellar Oxygen Abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Jeremy

    1994-04-01

    . [1989, ARAA, 27, 279], persists despite the addition of more O data and may betray the occurrence of a hiatus in star formation between the end of halo formation and the beginning of star formation in the disk. It is noted that the slope of the [O/Fe] versus [Fe/H] relation for [Fe/H] >/= -1 depends on the statistical regression utilized. Hence, alleged "observed" [O/H] - age relations, which do not use truly observed O abundances (but, rather, adopt O abundances based on Fe abundances), should be regarded with caution. Systematic effects on O abundances derived from the 6300A [O I] and 7774A O I lines are considered next. While our Solar observations confirm the disagreement between the observed 7774A O I equivalent widths and LTE model calculations at low microns, we stress that Solar O abundance determinations made from flux spectra are in very good agreement with the meteoritic value. We find the 6300A [O I] equivalent width value appears to be uncertain for the Sun. Given this uncertainty, the inability of authors to reproduce each others' 6300A O abundances, and the results of recent quasi-two-stream calculations, we do not believe it can be readily claimed (as is usually done) that these abundances are more reliable than those derived from the 7774A O I triplet. In a sample of relatively metal-rich F and G dwarfs, we find no systematic difference between the 6300 and 7774A O abundances for Teff abundances are also determined for 8 open clusters or moving groups. A very clear relation between cluster age and O abundance is seen; this is in stark contrast to the lack of any relation between age and Fe abundance in the same clusters. Hence, despite possible a priori objections, O abundances may prove to be a superior chronometer (as others have suggested) in the study of Galactic chemical evolution. Somewhat surprisingly, our our [O/Fe] ratios appear to be larger for the

  4. Impact of Nanotopography and/or Functional Groups on Periodontal Ligament Cell Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şaşmazel, Hilal Türkoğlu; Manolache, S.; Gümüşderelİoğlu, M.

    The main purpose of this contribution was to obtain COOH functionalities and/or nanotopographic changes on the surface of 3D, non-woven polyester fabric (NWPF) discs (12.5 mm in diameter) by using low pressure water/O2 plasma assisted treatments. The prepared discs were characterized by various methods after the plasma treatment. Periodontal ligament (PDL) fibroblasts were used in cell culture studies. The cell culture results showed that plasma treated 3D NWPF discs are favorable for PDL cell spreading, growth and viability due to the presence of functional groups and/or the nanotopography of their surfaces.

  5. Ecology of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (Insecta) in Rivers of the Gunung Jerai Forest Reserve: Diversity and Distribution of Functional Feeding Groups

    PubMed Central

    Hamid, Suhaila Ab; Md Rawi, Che Salmah

    2014-01-01

    A field study was performed to describe the functional feeding groups (FFGs) of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera (EPT) in the Tupah, Batu Hampar and Teroi Rivers in the Gunung Jerai Forest Reserve (GJFR), Kedah, Malaysia. Twenty-nine genera belonging to 19 families were identified. The EPTs were classified into five FFGs: collector-gatherers (CG), collector-filterers (CF), shredders (SH), scrapers (SC) and predators (P). In this study, CG and CF were the dominant groups inhabiting all three rivers. Ephemeroptera dominated these rivers due to their high abundance, and they were also the CG (90.6%). SC were the lowest in abundance among all groups. Based on the FFGs, the Teroi River was suitable for CG, whereas the Tupah and Batu Hampar Rivers were suitable for CG and CF. The distribution of FFGs differed among the rivers (CG, χ2 = 23.6, p = 0.00; SH, χ2 = 10.02, p = 0.007; P, χ2 = 25.54, p = 0.00; CF, χ2 = 21.95, p = 0.00; SC, χ2 = 9.31, p = 0.01). These findings indicated that the FFGs found in rivers of the GJFR represent high river quality. PMID:25210588

  6. Preconversion catalytic deoxygenation of phenolic functional groups. Quarterly report, January 1--March 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Kubiak, C.P.

    1996-12-31

    Over the course of the studies on catalytic deoxygenation of phenolic residues in coal by carbon monoxide, the author performed preliminary investigations into the removal of other heteroatom groups. This report describes the attempted carbonylation of phenyl amido complexes. These studies resulted in the surprisingly facile formation of amidines. The amidine group is the nitrogen analog of carboxylic acids and esters. This functional group combines the properties of an azomethane-like C=N double bond with an amide-like C-N single bond. This group, like the related allyl (C-C-C), aza-allyl (C-N-C), and carboxylato (O-C-O) groups, form a number of transition metal derivatives, with both early and late transition metals. Various bonding modes of the amidino group have been reported. However, most isolated complexes have the amidino ligand as a chelating ligand or bridging two metals. This is due to the preference of amidines to bond via the nitrogen lone pairs, in contrast to the {eta}3 bonding observed in metal-allyl complexes. The experimental section of the paper describes the synthesis of platinum complexes, X-ray diffraction data for one Pt complex, and its reaction with carbon monoxide. Results are presented on the crystal and molecular structure of a platinum complex.

  7. The two-point correlation function for groups of galaxies in the Center for Astrophysics redshift survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramella, Massimo; Geller, Margaret J.; Huchra, John P.

    1990-01-01

    The large-scale distribution of groups of galaxies selected from complete slices of the CfA redshift survey extension is examined. The survey is used to reexamine the contribution of group members to the galaxy correlation function. The relationship between the correlation function for groups and those calculated for rich clusters is discussed, and the results for groups are examined as an extension of the relation between correlation function amplitude and richness. The group correlation function indicates that groups and individual galaxies are equivalent tracers of the large-scale matter distribution. The distribution of group centers is equivalent to random sampling of the galaxy distribution. The amplitude of the correlation function for groups is consistent with an extrapolation of the amplitude-richness relation for clusters. The amplitude scaled by the mean intersystem separation is also consistent with results for richer clusters.

  8. Synthesis and structure of high-valent organouranium complexes containing terminal monooxo functional groups

    SciTech Connect

    Arney, D.S.J.; Burns, C.J. )

    1993-10-20

    We describe the synthesis by oxidative atom-transfer chemistry and structure of organouranium(V) and -(VI)complexes containing terminal oxo functional groups of the general formula (C[sub 5]Me[sub 5])[sub 2]U-(EAr)(O) (E = O (3) and N (4); Ar=2,6-diisopropylphenyl). In effect, we have extended the synthetic utility of oxidative atom-transfer chemistry to the preparation of the first complexes of uranium(V) and-(VI)containing terminal nonooxo functional groups. The structural characterization of these compounds reveals uranium oxo bond lengths longer than those typical for the uranyl ion (UO[sub 2])[sup 2+], which may reflect a reduced relative bond order. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Synthesis and physicochemical properties of polysiloxane functionalized with aminoacetic acid groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakiza, N. V.; Neudachina, L. K.

    2016-07-01

    Polysiloxane functionalized with aminoacetic acid groups was synthesized using sol-gel technology. Elemental analysis and FTIR spectroscopy were used to determine the composition of the polysiloxane show that it is a mesoporous material with a developed surface (109.4 m2/g). It was found that the selective properties of carboxymethylated polysiloxane towards transition metal ions simultaneously present in an ammonium acetate solution change in the order Zn < Cu > Ni > Co > Pb > Cd. It was shown that the sorption of copper(II) ions by carboxymethylated aminopropylpolysiloxane with particle sizes of 50-71 μm reaches its maximum level within 2 h; the rate-limiting step of the process is the chemical reaction between the ions and the polysiloxane functional groups; and the pseudo-second-order model is the best way of describing sorption.

  10. Approaching many-body localization from disordered Luttinger liquids via the functional renormalization group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karrasch, C.; Moore, J. E.

    2015-09-01

    We study the interplay of interactions and disorder in a one-dimensional fermion lattice coupled adiabatically to infinite reservoirs. We employ both the functional renormalization group (FRG) as well as matrix product state techniques, which serve as an accurate benchmark for small systems. Using the FRG, we compute the length- and temperature-dependence of the conductance averaged over 104 samples for lattices as large as 105 sites. We identify regimes in which non-Ohmic power law behavior can be observed and demonstrate that the corresponding exponents can be understood by adapting earlier predictions obtained perturbatively for disordered Luttinger liquids. In the presence of both disorder and isolated impurities, the conductance has a universal single-parameter scaling form. This lays the groundwork for an application of the functional renormalization group to the realm of many-body localization.

  11. Correlation of Chemical Bond Directions and Functional Group Orientations in Solids by Two-Dimensional NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weliky, D. P.; Dabbagh, G.; Tycko, R.

    We describe a new two-dimensional NMR technique for structural studies of polycrystalline and noncrystalline solids. The technique is a variant of 2D exchange spectroscopy applicable to organic molecules, macromolecules, or molecular complexes that are doubly 13C-labeled at a specific carboncarbon bond and singly 13C labeled at a specific functional group. A Carr-Purcell sequence is used to obtain dipolar spectra in the t1 dimension. Spectra in the t2 dimension are determined primarily by the chemical-shift anisotropy. With spin diffusion among the labeled sites between the t1 and t2 periods, the resulting 2D spectra reveal correlations between the direction of the labeled bond and the orientation of the labeled functional group. Experimental spectra of two polycrystalline model compounds, dimethyl succinate and diammonium succinate, are presented and compared with simulations to illustrate the structural information contained in the 2D spectra.

  12. Click chemistry: a new facile and efficient strategy for the preparation of Fe3O4 nanoparticles covalently functionalized with IDA-Cu and their application in the depletion of abundant protein in blood samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Guiqin; Liu, Yuxing; He, Xiwen; Chen, Langxing; Zhang, Yukui

    2012-09-01

    In this study, we report a novel method to synthesize core-shell structured Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) covalently functionalized with iminodiacetic acid (IDA) via click chemistry between the azide and alkyne groups and charged with Cu2+. Firstly, the Fe3O4@SiO2 NPs were obtained using tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) to form a silica shell on the surface of the Fe3O4 core. The azide group-modified Fe3O4@SiO2 NPs were obtained by a sol-gel process using 3-azidopropyltriethoxysilane (AzPTES) as the silane agent. Fe3O4@SiO2-N3 was directly reacted with N-propargyl iminodiacetic via click chemistry, in the presence of a Cu(I) catalyst, to acquire the IDA-modified Fe3O4 NPs. Finally, through the addition of Cu2+, the Fe3O4@SiO2-IDA-Cu NP product was obtained. The morphology, structure and composition of the NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The resulting NPs showed a strong magnetic response to an externally applied magnetic field, a high adsorption capacity and excellent specificity towards hemoglobin (Hb). In addition, the Fe3O4@SiO2-IDA-Cu NPs can be used for the selective removal of abundant Hb protein in bovine and human blood samples.

  13. On the Group of Translations and Inversions of Phase Space and the Wigner Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl, Jens Peder

    1982-04-01

    Grossmann and Royer have recently shown that the Wigner functions are closely related to the set of all translations and inversions of phase space. This allows the phase space representation of quantum mechanics to be constructed directly on the group of phase space translations and inversions. Starting from this observation, we have derived analytical expressions for the matrix elements of the translation and inversion operators, in the harmonic oscillator representation, without introducing coordinate or momentum wavefunctions.

  14. β-Diversity of Functional Groups of Woody Plants in a Tropical Dry Forest in Yucatan

    PubMed Central

    López-Martínez, Jorge Omar; Sanaphre-Villanueva, Lucía; Dupuy, Juan Manuel; Hernández-Stefanoni, José Luis; Meave, Jorge Arturo; Gallardo-Cruz, José Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Two main theories have attempted to explain variation in plant species composition (β-diversity). Niche theory proposes that most of the variation is related to environment (environmental filtering), whereas neutral theory posits that dispersal limitation is the main driver of β-diversity. In this study, we first explored how α- and β-diversity of plant functional groups defined by growth form (trees, shrubs and lianas, which represent different strategies of resource partitioning), and dispersal syndrome (autochory, anemochory and zoochory, which represent differences in dispersal limitation) vary with successional age and topographic position in a tropical dry forest. Second, we examined the effects of environmental, spatial, and spatially-structured environmental factors on β-diversity of functional groups; we used the spatial structure of sampling sites as a proxy for dispersal limitation, and elevation, soil properties and forest stand age as indicators of environmental filtering. We recorded 200 species and 22,245 individuals in 276 plots; 120 species were trees, 41 shrubs and 39 lianas. We found that β-diversity was highest for shrubs, intermediate for lianas and lowest for trees, and was slightly higher for zoochorous than for autochorous and anemochorous species. All three dispersal syndromes, trees and shrubs varied in composition among vegetation classes (successional age and topographic position), whilst lianas did not. β-diversity was influenced mostly by proxies of environmental filtering, except for shrubs, for which the influence of dispersal limitation was more important. Stand age and topography significantly influenced α-diversity across functional groups, but showed a low influence on β-diversity –possibly due to the counterbalancing effect of resprouting on plant distribution and composition. Our results show that considering different plant functional groups reveals important differences in both α- and β-diversity patterns and

  15. Flow equation of functional renormalization group for three-body scattering problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanizaki, Yuya

    2013-11-01

    Functional renormalization group (FRG) is applied to the three-body scattering problem in the two-component fermionic system with an attractive contact interaction. We establish an exact flow equation on the basis of FRG and show that our flow equation is consistent with integral equations obtained from the Dyson-Schwinger equation. In particular, the relation of our flow equation and the Skornyakov and Ter-Martirosyan equation for the atom-dimer scattering is made clear.

  16. Lie group symmetries and Riemann function of Klein-Gordon-Fock equation with central symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochetov, Bogdan A.

    2014-06-01

    In the present paper Lie symmetry group method is applied to find new exact invariant solutions for Klein-Gordon-Fock equation with central symmetry. The found invariant solutions are important for testing finite-difference computational schemes of various boundary value problems of Klein-Gordon-Fock equation with central symmetry. The classical admitted symmetries of the equation are found. The infinitesimal symmetries of the equation are used to find the Riemann function constructively.

  17. Retention of heavy metals by carboxyl functional groups of biochars in small arms range soil.

    PubMed

    Uchimiya, Minori; Bannon, Desmond I; Wartelle, Lynda H

    2012-02-22

    Long-term effectiveness of biochar for heavy metal stabilization depends upon biochar's sorptive property and recalcitrance in soil. To understand the role of carboxyl functional groups on heavy metal stabilization, cottonseed hull biochar and flax shive steam-activated biochar having a low O/C ratio (0.04-0.06) and high fixed carbon content (~80% dry weight basis) were oxidized using concentrated H(2)SO(4)/HNO(3) and 30% HNO(3). Oxidized and unoxidized biochars were characterized for O/C ratio, total acidity, pH, moisture, ash, volatile matter, and fixed carbon contents, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectral features. Characterized biochars were amended (2%, 5%, 10%, and 20% in grams of biochar per gram of soil) on a sandy, slightly acidic (pH 6.27) heavy metal contaminated small arms range soil fraction (<250 μm) having low total organic carbon (0.518%) and low cation exchange capacity (0.95 cmol(c) kg(-1)). Oxidized biochars rich in carboxyl functional groups exhibited significantly greater Pb, Cu, and Zn stabilization ability compared to unoxidized biochars, especially in pH 4.9 acetate buffer (standard solution for the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure). Oppositely, only oxidized biochars caused desorption of Sb, indicating a counteracting impact of carboxyl functional groups on the solubility of anions and cations. The results suggested that appropriate selection of biochar oxidant will produce recalcitrant biochars rich in carboxyl functional groups for a long-term heavy metal stabilization strategy in contaminated soils. PMID:22280497

  18. Analysis of functional groups in atmospheric aerosols by infrared spectroscopy: sparse methods for statistical selection of relevant absorption bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahama, Satoshi; Ruggeri, Giulia; Dillner, Ann M.

    2016-07-01

    Various vibrational modes present in molecular mixtures of laboratory and atmospheric aerosols give rise to complex Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorption spectra. Such spectra can be chemically informative, but they often require sophisticated algorithms for quantitative characterization of aerosol composition. Naïve statistical calibration models developed for quantification employ the full suite of wavenumbers available from a set of spectra, leading to loss of mechanistic interpretation between chemical composition and the resulting changes in absorption patterns that underpin their predictive capability. Using sparse representations of the same set of spectra, alternative calibration models can be built in which only a select group of absorption bands are used to make quantitative prediction of various aerosol properties. Such models are desirable as they allow us to relate predicted properties to their underlying molecular structure. In this work, we present an evaluation of four algorithms for achieving sparsity in FT-IR spectroscopy calibration models. Sparse calibration models exclude unnecessary wavenumbers from infrared spectra during the model building process, permitting identification and evaluation of the most relevant vibrational modes of molecules in complex aerosol mixtures required to make quantitative predictions of various measures of aerosol composition. We study two types of models: one which predicts alcohol COH, carboxylic COH, alkane CH, and carbonyl CO functional group (FG) abundances in ambient samples based on laboratory calibration standards and another which predicts thermal optical reflectance (TOR) organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) mass in new ambient samples by direct calibration of infrared spectra to a set of ambient samples reserved for calibration. We describe the development and selection of each calibration model and evaluate the effect of sparsity on prediction performance. Finally, we ascribe

  19. Isgur-Wise functions and unitary representations of the Lorentz group: The baryon case j=0

    SciTech Connect

    Le Yaouanc, A.; Oliver, L.; Raynal, J.-C.

    2009-09-01

    We propose a group theoretical method to study Isgur-Wise (IW) functions. A current matrix element splits into a heavy quark matrix element and an overlap of the initial and final clouds, related to the IW functions, that contain the long distance physics. The light cloud belongs to the Hilbert space of a unitary representation of the Lorentz group. Decomposing into irreducible representations one obtains the IW function as an integral formula, superposition of irreducible IW functions with positive measures, providing positivity bounds on its derivatives. Our method is equivalent to the sum rule approach, but sheds another light on the physics and summarizes and gives all its possible constraints. We expose the general formalism, thoroughly applying it to the case j=0 for the light cloud, relevant to the semileptonic decay {lambda}{sub b}{yields}{lambda}{sub c}l{nu}{sub l}. In this case, the principal series of the representations contribute, and also the supplementary series. We recover the bound for the curvature of the j=0 IW function {xi}{sub {lambda}}(w) that we did obtain from the sum rule method, and we get new bounds for higher derivatives. We demonstrate also that if the lower bound for the curvature is saturated, then {xi}{sub {lambda}}(w) is completely determined, given by an explicit elementary function. We give criteria to decide if any Ansatz for the Isgur-Wise function is compatible or not with the sum rules. We apply the method to some simple model forms proposed in the literature. Dealing with a Hilbert space, the sum rules are convergent, but this feature does not survive hard gluon radiative corrections.

  20. Magneto-Sensitive Adsorbents Modified by Functional Nitrogen-Containing Groups.

    PubMed

    Melnyk, Inna V; Gdula, Karolina; Dąbrowski, Andrzej; Zub, Yuriy L

    2016-12-01

    In order to obtain amino-functionalized silica materials with magnetic core, one-step synthesis was carried out. Several materials, differ in number and structure of amino groups, were synthesized on the basis of sol-gel method. The synthesized materials were examined by several analytical techniques. The presence and content of amino groups were measured by using Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy and acid-base titration, respectively. Specific surface areas were measured by nitrogen/adsorption desorption isotherms. It was proved that sol-gel approach leads to obtain materials with high content of amino groups built into their surfaces (in the range 1.6-2.7 mmol/g). As-obtained materials were tested as potential adsorbents for copper(II) ions. The received maximum adsorption capacities were in the range 0.4-0.7 mmol/g. PMID:26842794

  1. Magneto-Sensitive Adsorbents Modified by Functional Nitrogen-Containing Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnyk, Inna V.; Gdula, Karolina; Dąbrowski, Andrzej; Zub, Yuriy L.

    2016-02-01

    In order to obtain amino-functionalized silica materials with magnetic core, one-step synthesis was carried out. Several materials, differ in number and structure of amino groups, were synthesized on the basis of sol-gel method. The synthesized materials were examined by several analytical techniques. The presence and content of amino groups were measured by using Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy and acid-base titration, respectively. Specific surface areas were measured by nitrogen/adsorption desorption isotherms. It was proved that sol-gel approach leads to obtain materials with high content of amino groups built into their surfaces (in the range 1.6-2.7 mmol/g). As-obtained materials were tested as potential adsorbents for copper(II) ions. The received maximum adsorption capacities were in the range 0.4-0.7 mmol/g.

  2. Life span and structure of ephemeral root modules of different functional groups from a desert system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; He, Junxia; Zeng, Fanjiang; Lei, Jiaqiang; Arndt, Stefan K

    2016-07-01

    The terminal branch orders of plant root systems have been proposed as short-lived 'ephemeral' modules specialized for resource absorption. The occurrence of ephemeral root modules has so far only been reported for a temperate tree species and it is unclear if the concept also applies to other woody (shrub, tree) and herb species. Fine roots of 12 perennial dicotyledonous herb, shrub and tree species were monitored for two growing seasons using a branch-order classification, sequential sampling and rhizotrons in the Taklamakan desert. Two root modules existed in all three plant functional groups. Among the first five branch orders, the first two (perennial herbs, shrubs) or three (trees) root orders were ephemeral and had a primary anatomical structure, high nitrogen (N) concentrations, high respiration rates and very short life spans of 1-4 months, whereas the last two branch orders in all functional groups were perennial, with thicker diameters, no or collapsed cortex, distinct secondary growth, low N concentrations, low respiration rates, but much longer life spans. Ephemeral, short-lived root modules and long-lived, persistent root modules seem to be a general feature across many plant functional groups and could represent a basic root system design. PMID:26856386

  3. Prediction of cloud condensation nuclei activity for organic compounds using functional group contribution methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petters, M. D.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Ziemann, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of recent laboratory and field experiments demonstrate that organic aerosol composition evolves with time in the atmosphere, leading to changes in the influence of the organic fraction to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectra. There is a need for tools that can realistically represent the evolution of CCN activity to better predict indirect effects of organic aerosol on clouds and climate. This work describes a model to predict the CCN activity of organic compounds from functional group composition. Following previous methods in the literature, we test the ability of semi-empirical group contribution methods in Köhler theory to predict the effective hygroscopicity parameter, kappa. However, in our approach we also account for liquid-liquid phase boundaries to simulate phase-limited activation behavior. Model evaluation against a selected database of published laboratory measurements demonstrates that kappa can be predicted within a factor of 2. Simulation of homologous series is used to identify the relative effectiveness of different functional groups in increasing the CCN activity of weakly functionalized organic compounds. Hydroxyl, carboxyl, aldehyde, hydroperoxide, carbonyl, and ether moieties promote CCN activity while methylene and nitrate moieties inhibit CCN activity. The model can be incorporated into scale-bridging test beds such as the Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere (GECKO-A) to evaluate the evolution of kappa for a complex mix of organic compounds and to develop suitable parameterizations of CCN evolution for larger-scale models.

  4. Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells Express Functional NKp30 Receptor Inducing Type 2 Cytokine Production.

    PubMed

    Salimi, Maryam; Xue, Luzheng; Jolin, Helen; Hardman, Clare; Cousins, David J; McKenzie, Andrew N J; Ogg, Graham S

    2016-01-01

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) are important in effector functions for eliciting allergic inflammation, parasite defense, epithelial repair, and lipid homeostasis. ILC2 lack rearranged Ag-specific receptors, and although many soluble factors such as cytokines and lipid mediators can influence ILC2, direct interaction of these cells with the microenvironment and other cells has been less explored. Natural cytotoxicity receptors are expressed by subsets of group 1 ILC and group 3 ILC and thought to be important for their effector function, but they have not been shown to be expressed by ILC2. Therefore, we sought to investigate the expression and functional properties of the natural cytotoxicity receptor NKp30 on human ILC2. A subset of ex vivo and cultured ILC2 express NKp30 that upon interaction with its cognate activatory ligand B7-H6 induces rapid production of type 2 cytokines. This interaction can be blocked by NKp30 blocking Ab and an inhibitory ligand, galectin-3. Higher expression of B7-H6 was observed in lesional skin biopsies of patients with atopic dermatitis, and incubation of keratinocytes with proinflammatory and type 2 cytokines upregulated B7-H6, leading to increased ILC2 cytokine production. NKp30-B7-H6 interaction is a novel cell contact mechanism that mediates activation of ILC2 and identifies a potential target for the development of novel therapeutics for atopic dermatitis and other atopic diseases. PMID:26582946

  5. Prediction of cloud condensation nuclei activity for organic compounds using functional group contribution methods

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Petters, M. D.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Ziemann, P. J.

    2016-01-19

    A wealth of recent laboratory and field experiments demonstrate that organic aerosol composition evolves with time in the atmosphere, leading to changes in the influence of the organic fraction to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectra. There is a need for tools that can realistically represent the evolution of CCN activity to better predict indirect effects of organic aerosol on clouds and climate. This work describes a model to predict the CCN activity of organic compounds from functional group composition. Following previous methods in the literature, we test the ability of semi-empirical group contribution methods in Köhler theory to predict themore » effective hygroscopicity parameter, kappa. However, in our approach we also account for liquid–liquid phase boundaries to simulate phase-limited activation behavior. Model evaluation against a selected database of published laboratory measurements demonstrates that kappa can be predicted within a factor of 2. Simulation of homologous series is used to identify the relative effectiveness of different functional groups in increasing the CCN activity of weakly functionalized organic compounds. Hydroxyl, carboxyl, aldehyde, hydroperoxide, carbonyl, and ether moieties promote CCN activity while methylene and nitrate moieties inhibit CCN activity. The model can be incorporated into scale-bridging test beds such as the Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere (GECKO-A) to evaluate the evolution of kappa for a complex mix of organic compounds and to develop suitable parameterizations of CCN evolution for larger-scale models.« less

  6. Prediction of cloud condensation nuclei activity for organic compounds using functional group contribution methods

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Petters, M. D.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Ziemann, P. J.

    2016-01-19

    A wealth of recent laboratory and field experiments demonstrate that organic aerosol composition evolves with time in the atmosphere, leading to changes in the influence of the organic fraction to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectra. There is a need for tools that can realistically represent the evolution of CCN activity to better predict indirect effects of organic aerosol on clouds and climate. This work describes a model to predict the CCN activity of organic compounds from functional group composition. Following previous methods in the literature, we test the ability of semi-empirical group contribution methods in Kohler theory to predict themore » effective hygroscopicity parameter, kappa. However, in our approach we also account for liquid–liquid phase boundaries to simulate phase-limited activation behavior. Model evaluation against a selected database of published laboratory measurements demonstrates that kappa can be predicted within a factor of 2. Simulation of homologous series is used to identify the relative effectiveness of different functional groups in increasing the CCN activity of weakly functionalized organic compounds. Hydroxyl, carboxyl, aldehyde, hydroperoxide, carbonyl, and ether moieties promote CCN activity while methylene and nitrate moieties inhibit CCN activity. Furthermore, the model can be incorporated into scale-bridging test beds such as the Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere (GECKO-A) to evaluate the evolution of kappa for a complex mix of organic compounds and to develop suitable parameterizations of CCN evolution for larger-scale models.« less

  7. Microstructures and functional groups of Nannochloropsis sp. cells with arsenic adsorption and lipid accumulation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Cheng, Jun; Yang, Zongbo; Li, Ke; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2015-10-01

    The pore structures and surface morphological characteristics of Nannochloropsis sp. cells with arsenic adsorption were initially investigated by N2-adsorption analysis and scanning electronic microscopy. Functional groups of cells were analysed by Fourier-transform infrared spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Total surface area of microalgal cells increased from 0.54 m(2)/g to 1.80 m(2)/g upon arsenic adsorption. The external cell surface area increased. More wrinkles and measles-like granules formed on the surfaces as a result of arsenic toxicity. Arsenic ions blocked cell pores and decreased the average pore diameter and total pore volume. Ether cross-linked structures in the algaenan layer of cell walls were disrupted as the percentage of C-O functional groups decreased. These functional groups underwent complexation reactions with arsenic ions. Accumulation of polyunsaturated fatty acids decreased because of oxidative stresses induced by arsenic. The increase in generation of short-chain saturated fatty acids was favourable for the production of quality biodiesel. PMID:26210144

  8. Prediction of cloud condensation nuclei activity for organic compounds using functional group contribution methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petters, M. D.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Ziemann, P. J.

    2015-09-01

    A wealth of recent laboratory and field experiments demonstrate that organic aerosol composition evolves with time in the atmosphere, leading to changes in the influence of the organic fraction to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectra. There is a need for tools that can realistically represent the evolution of CCN activity to better predict indirect effects of organic aerosol on clouds and climate. This work describes a model to predict the CCN activity of organic compounds from functional group composition. The model combines Köhler theory with semi-empirical group contribution methods to estimate molar volumes, activity coefficients and liquid-liquid phase boundaries to predict the effective hygroscopicity parameter, kappa. Model evaluation against a selected database of published laboratory measurements demonstrates that kappa can be predicted within a factor of two. Simulation of homologous series is used to identify the relative effectiveness of different functional groups in increasing the CCN activity of weakly functionalized organic compounds. Hydroxyl, carboxyl, aldehyde, hydroperoxide, carbonyl, and ether moieties promote CCN activity while methylene and nitrate moieties inhibit CCN activity. The model can be incorporated into scale-bridging testbeds such as the Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere to evaluate the evolution of kappa for a complex mix of organic compounds and to develop suitable parameterizations of CCN evolution for larger scale models.

  9. Surface modification influencing adsorption of red wine constituents: The role of functional groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mierczynska-Vasilev, Agnieszka; Smith, Paul A.

    2016-11-01

    The adsorption of wine constituents at solid surfaces is important in applications such as filtration and membrane fouling, binding to tanks and fittings and interactions with processing aids such as bentonite. The interaction of wine constituents with surfaces is mediated through adsorbed wine components, where the type of constituents, amount, orientation, and conformation are of consequence for the surface response. This study examines the effect of surface chemical functionalities on the adsorption of red wine constituents. Plasma-polymerized films rich in amine, carboxyl, hydroxyl, formyl and methyl functional groups were generated on solid substrates whereas, glycidyltrimethylammonium chloride was covalently attached to allylamine plasma-polymer modified surface and poly(sodium styrenesulfonate) was electrostatically adsorbed to an amine plasma-polymerized surface. The surface chemical functionalities were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The ability of different substrates to adsorb red wine constituents was evaluated by quartz crystal microbalance and atomic force microscopy. The results showed that substrates modified with -SO3H and -COOH groups can adsorb more of the wine nitrogen-containing compounds whereas -NH2 and -NR3 groups encourage carbon-containing compounds adsorption. Red wine constituents after filtration were adsorbed in higher extend on -NR3 and -CHO surfaces. The -OH modified surfaces had the lowest ability to absorb wine components.

  10. Prediction of cloud condensation nuclei activity for organic compounds using functional group contribution methods

    SciTech Connect

    Petters, M. D.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Ziemann, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of recent laboratory and field experiments demonstrate that organic aerosol composition evolves with time in the atmosphere, leading to changes in the influence of the organic fraction to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectra. There is a need for tools that can realistically represent the evolution of CCN activity to better predict indirect effects of organic aerosol on clouds and climate. This work describes a model to predict the CCN activity of organic compounds from functional group composition. Following previous methods in the literature, we test the ability of semi-empirical group contribution methods in Köhler theory to predict the effective hygroscopicity parameter, kappa. However, in our approach we also account for liquid–liquid phase boundaries to simulate phase-limited activation behavior. Model evaluation against a selected database of published laboratory measurements demonstrates that kappa can be predicted within a factor of 2. Simulation of homologous series is used to identify the relative effectiveness of different functional groups in increasing the CCN activity of weakly functionalized organic compounds. Hydroxyl, carboxyl, aldehyde, hydroperoxide, carbonyl, and ether moieties promote CCN activity while methylene and nitrate moieties inhibit CCN activity. The model can be incorporated into scale-bridging test beds such as the Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere (GECKO-A) to evaluate the evolution of kappa for a complex mix of organic compounds and to develop suitable parameterizations of CCN evolution for larger-scale models.

  11. Two group I ribozymes with different functions in a nuclear rDNA intron.

    PubMed Central

    Decatur, W A; Einvik, C; Johansen, S; Vogt, V M

    1995-01-01

    DiSSU1, a mobile intron in the nuclear rRNA gene of Didymium iridis, was previously reported to contain two independent catalytic RNA elements. We have found that both catalytic elements, renamed GIR1 and GIR2, are group I ribozymes, but with differing functionality. GIR2 carries out the several reactions associated with self-splicing. GIR1 carries out a hydrolysis reaction at an internal processing site (IPS-1). These conclusions are based on the catalytic properties of RNAs transcribed in vitro. Mutation of the P7 pairing segment of GIR2 abrogated self-splicing, while mutation of P7 in GIR1 abrogated hydrolysis at the IPS-1. Much of the P2 stem and all of the associated loop could be deleted without effect on self-splicing. These results are accounted for by a secondary structure model, in which a long P2 pairing segment brings the 5' splice site to the GIR2 catalytic core. GIR1 is the smallest natural group I ribozyme yet reported and is the first example of a group I ribozyme whose presumptive biological function is hydrolysis. We hypothesize that GIR1-mediated cleavage of the excised intron RNA functions in the generation and expression of the mRNA for the intron-encoded endonuclease I-DirI. Images PMID:7556099

  12. Interpersonal distance regulates functional grouping tendencies of agents in team sports.

    PubMed

    Passos, Pedro; Milho, João; Fonseca, Sofia; Borges, João; Araújo, Duarte; Davids, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined whether, similar to collective agent behaviors in complex, biological systems (e.g., schools of fish and colonies of ants), performers in team sports displayed functional coordination tendencies, based on local interaction rules during performance. To investigate this issue, they used videogrammetry and digitizing procedures to observe interpersonal interactions in common 4 versus 2 + 2 subphases of the team sport of rugby union, involving 16 participants aged between 16 and 17 years of age. They observed pattern-forming dynamics in attacking subunits (n = 4 players) attempting to penetrate 2 defensive lines (n = 2 players in each). Data showed that within each attacking subunit, the 4 players displayed emergent functional grouping tendencies that differed between the 2 defensive lines. Results confirmed that grouping tendencies in attacking subunits of team games are sensitive to different task constraints, such as relative positioning to nearest defenders. It was concluded that running correlations were particularly useful for measuring the level of interpersonal coordination in functional grouping tendencies within attacking subunits. PMID:21400329

  13. Technical Note: Development of chemoinformatic tools to enumerate functional groups in molecules for organic aerosol characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggeri, Giulia; Takahama, Satoshi

    2016-04-01

    Functional groups (FGs) can be used as a reduced representation of organic aerosol composition in both ambient and controlled chamber studies, as they retain a certain chemical specificity. Furthermore, FG composition has been informative for source apportionment, and various models based on a group contribution framework have been developed to calculate physicochemical properties of organic compounds. In this work, we provide a set of validated chemoinformatic patterns that correspond to (1) a complete set of functional groups that can entirely describe the molecules comprised in the α-pinene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene MCMv3.2 oxidation schemes, (2) FGs that are measurable by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), (3) groups incorporated in the SIMPOL.1 vapor pressure estimation model, and (4) bonds necessary for the calculation of carbon oxidation state. We also provide example applications for this set of patterns. We compare available aerosol composition reported by chemical speciation measurements and FTIR for different emission sources, and calculate the FG contribution to the O : C ratio of simulated gas-phase composition generated from α-pinene photooxidation (using the MCMv3.2 oxidation scheme).

  14. Technical Note: Development of chemoinformatic tools to enumerate functional groups in molecules for organic aerosol characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggeri, G.; Takahama, S.

    2015-11-01

    Functional groups (FGs) can be used as a reduced representation of organic aerosol composition in both ambient and environmental controlled chamber studies, as they retain a certain chemical specificity. Furthermore, FG composition has been informative for source apportionment, and various models based on a group contribution framework have been developed to calculate physicochemical properties of organic compounds. In this work, we provide a set of validated chemoinformatic patterns that correspond to: (1) groups incorporated in the SIMPOL.1 vapor pressure estimation model, (2) FGs that are measurable by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), (3) a complete set of functional groups that can entirely describe the molecules comprised in the α-pinene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene MCMv3.2 oxidation schemes, and (4) bonds necessary for the calculation of carbon oxidation state. We also provide example applications for this set of patterns. We compare available aerosol composition reported by chemical speciation measurements and FTIR for different emission sources, and calculate the FG contribution to the O : C ratio of simulated gas phase composition generated from α-pinene photooxidation (using MCMv3.2 oxidation scheme).

  15. Synthesis and characterization of bifunctional surfaces with tunable functional group pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galloway, John M.; Kung, Mayfair; Kung, Harold H.

    2016-06-01

    Grafting of pairs of functional groups onto a silica surface was demonstrated by tethering both terminals of an organochlorosilane precursor molecule, Cl2(CH3)Si(CH2)4(CO)(OSi(i-Pr)2)(CH2)2Si(CH3)Cl2, that possess a cleavable silyl ester bond, onto a silica surface. Hydrolytic cleavage of the silyl ester bond of the grafted molecule resulted in the generation of organized pairs of carboxylic acid and organosilanol groups. This organosilanol moiety was easily transformed into other functional groups through condensation reactions to form, together with the neighboring acid group, pairs such as carboxylic acid/secondary amine, carboxylic acid/pyridine, and carboxylic acid/phosphine. In the case of carboxylic acid/amine pairing, there was evidence of the formation of amide. A sample grafted with amine-carboxylic acid pairs was three times more active (per free amine) than a sample without such pairs for the nitroaldol condensation of 4-nitrobenzaldehyde and nitromethane.

  16. Influence of functional groups on organic aerosol cloud condensation nucleus activity.

    PubMed

    Suda, Sarah R; Petters, Markus D; Yeh, Geoffrey K; Strollo, Christen; Matsunaga, Aiko; Faulhaber, Annelise; Ziemann, Paul J; Prenni, Anthony J; Carrico, Christian M; Sullivan, Ryan C; Kreidenweis, Sonia M

    2014-09-01

    Organic aerosols in the atmosphere are composed of a wide variety of species, reflecting the multitude of sources and growth processes of these particles. Especially challenging is predicting how these particles act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Previous studies have characterized the CCN efficiency for organic compounds in terms of a hygroscopicity parameter, κ. Here we extend these studies by systematically testing the influence of the number and location of molecular functional groups on the hygroscopicity of organic aerosols. Organic compounds synthesized via gas-phase and liquid-phase reactions were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with scanning flow CCN analysis and thermal desorption particle beam mass spectrometry. These experiments quantified changes in κ with the addition of one or more functional groups to otherwise similar molecules. The increase in κ per group decreased in the following order: hydroxyl ≫ carboxyl > hydroperoxide > nitrate ≫ methylene (where nitrate and methylene produced negative effects, and hydroperoxide and nitrate groups produced the smallest absolute effects). Our results contribute to a mechanistic understanding of chemical aging and will help guide input and parametrization choices in models relying on simplified treatments such as the atomic oxygen:carbon ratio to predict the evolution of organic aerosol hygroscopicity. PMID:25118824

  17. Functional group composition of organic aerosol from combustion emissions and secondary processes at two contrasted urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Haddad, Imad; Marchand, Nicolas; D'Anna, Barbara; Jaffrezo, Jean Luc; Wortham, Henri

    2013-08-01

    The quantification of major functional groups in atmospheric organic aerosol (OA) provides a constraint on the types of compounds emitted and formed in atmospheric conditions. This paper presents functional group composition of organic aerosol from two contrasted urban environments: Marseille during summer and Grenoble during winter. Functional groups were determined using a tandem mass spectrometry approach, enabling the quantification of carboxylic (RCOOH), carbonyl (RCOR‧), and nitro (RNO2) functional groups. Using a multiple regression analysis, absolute concentrations of functional groups were combined with those of organic carbon derived from different sources in order to infer the functional group contents of different organic aerosol fractions. These fractions include fossil fuel combustion emissions, biomass burning emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Results clearly highlight the differences between functional group fingerprints of primary and secondary OA fractions. OA emitted from primary sources is found to be moderately functionalized, as about 20 carbons per 1000 bear one of the functional groups determined here, whereas SOA is much more functionalized, as in average 94 carbons per 1000 bear a functional group under study. Aging processes appear to increase both RCOOH and RCOR‧ functional group contents by nearly one order of magnitude. Conversely, RNO2 content is found to decrease with photochemical processes. Finally, our results also suggest that other functional groups significantly contribute to biomass smoke and SOA. In particular, for SOA, the overall oxygen content, assessed using aerosol mass spectrometer measurements by an O:C ratio of 0.63, is significantly higher than the apparent O:C* ratio of 0.17 estimated based on functional groups measured here. A thorough examination of our data suggests that this remaining unexplained oxygen content can be most probably assigned to alcohol (ROH), organic peroxides (ROOH

  18. Identifying functional groups for response to disturbance in an abandoned pasture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavorel, Sandra; Touzard, Blaise; Lebreton, Jean-Dominique; Clément, Bernard

    1998-06-01

    In an abandoned pasture in Brittany, we compared artificial small-scale disturbances to natural disturbances by wild boar and undisturbed vegetation. We developed a multivariate statistical approach which analyses how species biological attributes explain the response of community composition to disturbances. This technique, which reconciles the inductive and deductive approaches for functional classifications, identifies groups of species with similar responses to disturbance and characterizes their biological profiles. After 5 months of recolonization, artificial disturbances had a greater species richness than undisturbed vegetation as a result of recruitment of new species without the exclusion of pre-existing matrix species. Species morphology, described by canopy structure, canopy height and lateral spread, explained a large part (16 %) of community response to disturbance. Regeneration strategies, described by life history, seed mass, dispersal agent, dormancy and the existence of vegetative multiplication, explained a smaller part of community response to disturbance (8 %). Artificial disturbances were characterized by therophyte and compact rosettes with moderately dormant seeds, including a number of Asteraceae and other early successional species. Natural disturbances were colonized by leafy guerrilla species without seed dormancy. Few species were tightly related to undisturbed vegetation and were essentially grasses with a phalanx rosette morphology. The functional classification obtained is consistent with the classification of the community into fugitives, regenerators and persistors. These groups are structured according to Grubb's model for temperate grasslands, with regenerators and persistors in the matrix and fugitives taking advantage of gaps open by small-scale disturbances. The conjunction of functional diversity and species diversity within functional groups is the key to resilience to disturbance, an important ecosystem function.

  19. Rates of N2 production and diversity and abundance of functional genes associated with denitrification and anaerobic ammonium oxidation in the sediment of the Amundsen Sea Polynya, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ayeon; Cho, Hyeyoun; Kim, Sung-Han; Thamdrup, Bo; Lee, SangHoon; Hyun, Jung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    A combination of molecular microbiological analyses and metabolic rate measurements was conducted to elucidate the diversity and abundance of denitrifying and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria and the nitrogen gas (N2) production rates in sediment underlying the highly productive polynya (Stns. 10 and 17) and the sea-ice zone on the outer shelf (Stn. 83) of the Amundsen Sea, Antarctica. Despite the high water column productivity, the N2 production rates by denitrification (0.04-0.31 nmol N cm-3sed. h-1) and anammox (0.13-0.26 nmol N cm-3 sed. h-1) were lower than those measured in other polar regions. In contrast, gene copy number (106-107 copies cm-3 of nirS and nosZ genes targeting denitirifiers and 105-107 copies cm-3 of 16S rRNA genes related to anammox bacteria) of the two bacterial groups at Stn. 17 was similar compared to those of other organic-rich environments. The majority of the nirS sequences were affiliated with Gammaproteobacteria (54% and 61% of the total nirS gene at Stns. 17 and 83, respectively), which were closely related to Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Most nosZ sequences (92% and 72% of the total nosZ genes at Stns. 17 and 83, respectively) were related to the Alphaproteobacteria, which were closely related to Ruegeria pomeroyi and Roseobacter denitrificans. Most (98%) of the sequences related to anammox bacteria were affiliated with Candidatus Scalindua at Stn. 17. Consequently, despite the low metabolic activity, the abundance and composition of most denitrifying and anammox bacteria detected from the ASP were similar to those reported from a variety of marine environments. Our results further imply that increased labile organic matter production resulting from a shift of the phytoplankton community from Phaeocystis to diatoms in response to rapid melting of sea ice stimulates metabolic activities of the denitrifying and anammox bacteria, thereby enhancing the N removal process in the ASP.

  20. A meta‐analysis of functional group responses to forest recovery outside of the tropics

    PubMed Central

    Ezard, Thomas H. G.; Martin, Philip A.; Newton, Adrian C.; Doncaster, C. Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Both active and passive forest restoration schemes are used in degraded landscapes across the world to enhance biodiversity and ecosystem service provision. Restoration is increasingly also being implemented in biodiversity offset schemes as compensation for loss of natural habitat to anthropogenic development. This has raised concerns about the value of replacing old‐growth forest with plantations, motivating research on biodiversity recovery as forest stands age. Functional diversity is now advocated as a key metric for restoration success, yet it has received little analytical attention to date. We conducted a meta‐analysis of 90 studies that measured differences in species richness for functional groups of fungi, lichens, and beetles between old‐growth control and planted or secondary treatment forests in temperate, boreal, and Mediterranean regions. We identified functional‐group–specific relationships in the response of species richness to stand age after forest disturbance. Ectomycorrhizal fungi averaged 90 years for recovery to old‐growth values (between 45 years and unrecoverable at 95% prediction limits), and epiphytic lichens took 180 years to reach 90% of old‐growth values (between 140 years and never for recovery to old‐growth values at 95% prediction limits). Non‐saproxylic beetle richness, in contrast, decreased as stand age of broadleaved forests increased. The slow recovery by some functional groups essential to ecosystem functioning makes old‐growth forest an effectively irreplaceable biodiversity resource that should be exempt from biodiversity offsetting initiatives. PMID:26040756

  1. Interplay between group function of kinesin based transport and lipid bilayer mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Joseph; Hirst, Linda; Xu, Jing

    2015-03-01

    Motor proteins, discovered in recent decades, are important building blocks to life. These molecular machines transport cargo and although indispensable to cell function, are not well understood at present. Single kinesin transport properties have been documented, but their group function remains unknown. In this project, the properties of kinesin-based transport by multiple motors are investigated in-vitro to establish a link between travel distance and lipid diffusion in the vesicle membrane. In the experiments, silica beads coated in a supported lipid membrane and giant lipid vesicles are transported along a microtubule by embedded kinesin motors. In an alternate geometry, this system can be inverted, whereby motors are bound to a surface of a lipid bilayer and microtubules are deposited. We have characterized motor function with respect to the fluidity of the membrane. To measure the diffusion properties of different membranes, planar lipid bilayers are prepared on silica slides and supported by bovine serum albumin protein. To establish a diffusion constant at room temperature for the lipid membrane we use the FRAP technique (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching). Using this method we can investigate if there is any interplay between group travel function and membrane fluidity.

  2. Evidence supporting the importance of microbial functional groups in decomposition models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd-Brown, K. E.; Lu, L.; Allison, S. D.

    2010-12-01

    Microbial communities mediate organic carbon decomposition in both soil and marine environments. Decomposition depends on microbes that produce extracellular enzymes to degrade complex organic matter, as well as microbes that mineralize simple organic matter to CO2. Therefore microbes could be represented in Earth system models as functional groups based on the extracellular enzymes they produce. However, the importance of including the functional diversity of microbes in decomposition models has been unclear. In this study we simulated microbial functional diversity with two strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens bacteria, one of which secretes extracellular protease and one that does not. These two strains were competed on several carbon resources including casein-glucose, casamino acids-glucose and glucose over several days. We then fit a series of models to the resulting data: 1) an explicit model representing both biomass and substrate pools, 2) a simplified substrate pool model with two biomass pools and one substrate pool, 3) a simplified biomass pool model with one biomass and two substrate pools, 4) a simplified biomass/substrate pool model with one biomass and one substrate pool, and 5) a single carbon pool model. We found that the explicit model (#1) fit the laboratory data significantly better than the other models, suggesting that functional groups and substrate pools should be represented in global decomposition models with time steps on the order of hours.

  3. Pollinators of the Rocky Mountain Columbine: Temporal Variation, Functional Groups and Association with Floral Traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pollinators together with other biotic and some abiotic factors can select for floral traits. However, variation in pollinator abundance over time and space can weaken such selection. In this study, we examined the variation in pollinator abundance over time and space in populations of the rocky mou...

  4. Sequential Linker Installation: Precise Placement of Functional Groups in Multivariate Metal-Organic Frameworks

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, S; Lu, WG; Chen, YP; Zhang, Q; Liu, TF; Feng, DW; Wang, X; Qin, JS; Zhou, HC

    2015-03-11

    A unique strategy, sequential linker installation (SLI), has been developed to construct multivariate MOFs with functional groups precisely positioned. PCN-700, a Zr-MOF with eight-connected Zr6O4(OH)(8)(H2O)(4) clusters, has been judiciously designed; the Zr-6 clusters in this MOF are arranged in such a fashion that, by replacement of terminal OH-/H2O ligands, subsequent insertion of linear dicarboxylate linkers is achieved. We demonstrate that linkers with distinct lengths and functionalities can be sequentially installed into PCN-700. Single-crystal to single-crystal transformation is realized so that the positions of the subsequently installed linkers are pinpointed via single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. This methodology provides a powerful tool to construct multivariate MOFs with precisely positioned functionalities in the desired proximity, which would otherwise be difficult to achieve.

  5. Renormalization group improved computation of correlation functions in theories with nontrivial phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codello, Alessandro; Tonero, Alberto

    2016-07-01

    We present a simple and consistent way to compute correlation functions in interacting theories with nontrivial phase diagram. As an example we show how to consistently compute the four-point function in three dimensional Z2 -scalar theories. The idea is to perform the path integral by weighting the momentum modes that contribute to it according to their renormalization group (RG) relevance, i.e. we weight each mode according to the value of the running couplings at that scale. In this way, we are able to encode in a loop computation the information regarding the RG trajectory along which we are integrating. We show that depending on the initial condition, or initial point in the phase diagram, we obtain different behaviors of the four-point function at the endpoint of the flow.

  6. C-H Coupling Reactions Directed by Sulfoxides: Teaching an Old Functional Group New Tricks.

    PubMed

    Pulis, Alexander P; Procter, David J

    2016-08-16

    Sulfoxides are classical functional groups for directing the stoichiometric metalation and functionalization of C-H bonds. In recent times, sulfoxides have been given a new lease on life owing to the development of modern synthetic methods that have arisen because of their unique reactivity. They have recently been used in catalytic C-H activation proceeding via coordination of an internal sulfoxide to a metal or through the action of an external sulfoxide ligand. Furthermore, sulfoxides are able to capture nucleophiles and electrophiles to give sulfonium salts, which subsequently enable the formation of C-C bonds at the expense of C-H bonds. This Review summarizes a renaissance period in the application of sulfoxides arising from their versatility in directing C-H functionalization. PMID:27409984

  7. Star Formation as a Function of Neutral Hydrogen Gas Density in Local Group Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Erika K.; Madore, Barry F.; Freedman, Wendy L.

    2016-06-01

    We present a study of the efficiency and timescales of star formation as a function of local neutral hydrogen gas density in four Local Group galaxies: M33, NGC 6822, the LMC, and the SMC. In this work, we conceptualize the process of star formation as a cycle of two major phases – (1) a gas dynamics phase in which neutral hydrogen gas coalesces into clouds, and (2) a stellar phase in which stars have formed and interrupt further gas coalescence during their active lifetimes. By examining the spatial distribution and number densities of stars on maps of neutral hydrogen, we estimate the timescale of the gas coalescence phase relative to the timescale of the stellar phase and infer an efficiency of star formation as a function of neutral hydrogen gas density. From these timescales and efficiencies, we will calculate star formation rates as a function of neutral hydrogen gas density in these galaxies.

  8. Nonperturbative renormalization group calculation of quasiparticle velocity and dielectric function of graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Carsten; Rückriegel, Andreas; Sharma, Anand; Kopietz, Peter

    2015-09-01

    Using a nonperturbative functional renormalization group approach, we calculate the renormalized quasiparticle velocity v (k ) and the static dielectric function ɛ (k ) of suspended graphene as functions of an external momentum k . Our numerical result for v (k ) can be fitted by v (k ) /vF=A +B ln(Λ0/k ) , where vF is the bare Fermi velocity, Λ0 is an ultraviolet cutoff, and A =1.37 , B =0.51 for the physically relevant value (e2/vF=2.2 ) of the coupling constant. In contrast to calculations based on the static random-phase approximation, we find that ɛ (k ) approaches unity for k →0 . Our result for v (k ) agrees very well with a recent measurement by Elias et al. [Nat. Phys. 7, 701 (2011), 10.1038/nphys2049].

  9. Functionalized quantum dots induce proinflammatory responses in vitro: the role of terminal functional group-associated endocytic pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yijuan; Pan, Hong; Zhang, Pengfei; Gao, Ningning; Lin, Yi; Luo, Zichao; Li, Ping; Wang, Ce; Liu, Lanlan; Pang, Daiwen; Cai, Lintao; Ma, Yifan

    2013-06-01

    PEGylation has been applied as an effective strategy of surface functionalization to improve the stability and reduce non-specific binding of quantum dots (QDs). However, its effects on the proinflammatory properties of QDs and the underlying mechanism have not been well elucidated yet. Herein, the proinflammatory effects of PEGylated CdSe/ZnS QDs with an amphiphilic polymer coating (PEG-pQDs) were investigated in human pulmonary epithelial cells and macrophages by evaluating the cytokine/chemokine production. The results showed that the proinflammatory effects of PEG-pQDs were strongly associated with the functional groups (-COOH, -NH2, -OH, and -OCH3) at the end of PEG chain. COOH-PEG-pQDs demonstrated the most proinflammatory effects followed by NH2-PEG-pQDs and HO-PEG-pQDs with CH3O-PEG-pQDs exhibiting the least proinflammatory effects. The proinflammatory effects of PEG-pQDs relied on lipid raft- and class A scavenger receptor (SRA)-dependent endocytic pathways as well as the downstream NF-κB and MAPK signaling cascades. COOH-PEG-pQDs were selectively internalized by lipid raft- and SRA-mediated endocytosis, which consequently activated NF-κB signaling pathway. On the other hand, NH2-PEG-pQDs and HO-PEG-pQDs were mostly internalized via lipid raft-mediated endocytosis, thereby activating p38 MAPK/AP-1 signaling cascades. These data revealed a critical role of terminal functional group-associated endocytic pathways in the proinflammatory responses induced by PEGylated QDs in human pulmonary epithelial cells and macrophages.PEGylation has been applied as an effective strategy of surface functionalization to improve the stability and reduce non-specific binding of quantum dots (QDs). However, its effects on the proinflammatory properties of QDs and the underlying mechanism have not been well elucidated yet. Herein, the proinflammatory effects of PEGylated CdSe/ZnS QDs with an amphiphilic polymer coating (PEG-pQDs) were investigated in human pulmonary epithelial

  10. Abundant local interactions in the 4p16.1 region suggest functional mechanisms underlying SLC2A9 associations with human serum uric acid.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wen-Hua; Guo, Yunfei; Kindt, Alida S D; Merriman, Tony R; Semple, Colin A; Wang, Kai; Haley, Chris S

    2014-10-01

    Human serum uric acid concentration (SUA) is a complex trait. A recent meta-analysis of multiple genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified 28 loci associated with SUA jointly explaining only 7.7% of the SUA variance, with 3.4% explained by two major loci (SLC2A9 and ABCG2). Here we examined whether gene-gene interactions had any roles in regulating SUA using two large GWAS cohorts included in the meta-analysis [the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study cohort (ARIC) and the Framingham Heart Study cohort (FHS)]. We found abundant genome-wide significant local interactions in ARIC in the 4p16.1 region located mostly in an intergenic area near SLC2A9 that were not driven by linkage disequilibrium and were replicated in FHS. Taking the forward selection approach, we constructed a model of five SNPs with marginal effects and three epistatic SNP pairs in ARIC-three marginal SNPs were located within SLC2A9 and the remaining SNPs were all located in the nearby intergenic area. The full model explained 1.5% more SUA variance than that explained by the lead SNP alone, but only 0.3% was contributed by the marginal and epistatic effects of the SNPs in the intergenic area. Functional analysis revealed strong evidence that the epistatically interacting SNPs in the intergenic area were unusually enriched at enhancers active in ENCODE hepatic (HepG2, P = 4.7E-05) and precursor red blood (K562, P = 5.0E-06) cells, putatively regulating transcription of WDR1 and SLC2A9. These results suggest that exploring epistatic interactions is valuable in uncovering the complex functional mechanisms underlying the 4p16.1 region. PMID:24821702

  11. Knock-down of transcript abundance of a family of Kunitz proteinase inhibitor genes in white clover (Trifolium repens) reveals a redundancy and diversity of gene function.

    PubMed

    Islam, Afsana; Leung, Susanna; Burgess, Elisabeth P J; Laing, William A; Richardson, Kim A; Hofmann, Rainer W; Dijkwel, Paul P; McManus, Michael T

    2015-12-01

    The transcriptional regulation of four phylogenetically distinct members of a family of Kunitz proteinase inhibitor (KPI) genes isolated from white clover (Trifolium repens; designated Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, Tr-KPI4 and Tr-KPI5) has been investigated to determine their wider functional role. The four genes displayed differential transcription during seed germination, and in different tissues of the mature plant, and transcription was also ontogenetically regulated. Heterologous over-expression of Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2, Tr-KPI4 and Tr-KPI5 in Nicotiana tabacum retarded larval growth of the herbivore Spodoptera litura, and an increase in the transcription of the pathogenesis-related genes PR1 and PR4 was observed in the Tr-KPI1 and Tr-KPI4 over-expressing lines. RNA interference (RNAi) knock-down lines in white clover displayed significantly altered vegetative growth phenotypes with inhibition of shoot growth and a stimulation of root growth, while knock-down of Tr-KPI1, Tr-KPI2 and Tr-KPI5 transcript abundance also retarded larval growth of S. litura. Examination of these RNAi lines revealed constitutive stress-associated phenotypes as well as altered transcription of cellular signalling genes. These results reveal a functional redundancy across members of the KPI gene family. Further, the regulation of transcription of at least one member of the family, Tr-KPI2, may occupy a central role in the maintenance of a cellular homeostasis. PMID:26377591

  12. Water Desalination through Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework Membranes: Significant Role of Functional Groups.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Krishna M; Zhang, Kang; Jiang, Jianwen

    2015-12-01

    A molecular simulation study is reported for water desalination through five zeolitic imidazolate framework (ZIF) membranes, namely ZIF-25, -71, -93, -96, and -97. The five ZIFs possess identical rho-topology but differ in functional groups. The rejection of salt (NaCl) is found to be around 97% in ZIF-25, and 100% in the other four ZIFs. The permeance ranges from 27 to 710 kg/(m(2)·h·bar), about one∼two orders of magnitude higher compared with commercial reverse osmosis membranes. Due to a larger aperture size da, ZIF-25, -71, and -96 exhibit a much higher water flux than ZIF-93 and -97; however, the flux in ZIF-25, -71, and -96 is governed by the polarity of functional group rather than da. With the hydrophobic CH3 group, ZIF-25 has the highest flux despite the smallest da among ZIF-25, -71, and -96. The lifetime of hydrogen bonding in ZIF-25 is shorter than that in ZIF-71 and -96. Furthermore, water molecules undergo a fast flushing motion in ZIF-25, but frequent jumping in ZIF-96 and particularly in ZIF-97. An Arrhenius-type relationship is found between water flux in ZIF-25 and temperature, and the activation energy is predicted to be 6.5 kJ/mol. This simulation study provides a microscopic insight into water desalination in a series of ZIFs, reveals the key factors (aperture size and polarity of functional group) governing water flux, and suggests that ZIF-25 might be an interesting reverse osmosis membrane for high-performance water desalination. PMID:26588699

  13. Late embryogenesis abundant proteins

    PubMed Central

    Olvera-Carrillo, Yadira; Reyes, José Luis

    2011-01-01

    Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins accumulate at the onset of seed desiccation and in response to water deficit in vegetative plant tissues. The typical LEA proteins are highly hydrophilic and intrinsically unstructured. They have been classified in different families, each one showing distinctive conserved motifs. In this manuscript we present and discuss some of the recent findings regarding their role in plant adaptation to water deficit, as well as those concerning to their possible function, and how it can be related to their intrinsic structural flexibility. PMID:21447997

  14. Improving plant functional groups for dynamic models of biodiversity: at the crossroads between functional and community ecology.

    PubMed

    Isabelle, Boulangeat; Pauline, Philippe; Sylvain, Abdulhak; Roland, Douzet; Luc, Garraud; Sébastien, Lavergne; Sandra, Lavorel; Jérémie, Van Es; Pascal, Vittoz; Wilfried, Thuiller

    2012-11-01

    The pace of on-going climate change calls for reliable plant biodiversity scenarios. Traditional dynamic vegetation models use plant functional types that are summarized to such an extent that they become meaningless for biodiversity scenarios. Hybrid dynamic vegetation models of intermediate complexity (hybrid-DVMs) have recently been developed to address this issue. These models, at the crossroads between phenomenological and process-based models, are able to involve an intermediate number of well-chosen plant functional groups (PFGs). The challenge is to build meaningful PFGs that are representative of plant biodiversity, and consistent with the parameters and processes of hybrid-DVMs. Here, we propose and test a framework based on few selected traits to define a limited number of PFGs, which are both representative of the diversity (functional and taxonomic) of the flora in the Ecrins National Park, and adapted to hybrid-DVMs. This new classification scheme, together with recent advances in vegetation modeling, constitutes a step forward for mechanistic biodiversity modeling. PMID:24403847

  15. Effects of Plant Diversity, Functional Group Composition, and Fertilization on Soil Microbial Properties in Experimental Grassland

    PubMed Central

    Strecker, Tanja; Barnard, Romain L.; Niklaus, Pascal A.; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael; Weigelt, Alexandra; Scheu, Stefan; Eisenhauer, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Background Loss of biodiversity and increased nutrient inputs are two of the most crucial anthropogenic factors driving ecosystem change. Although both received considerable attention in previous studies, information on their interactive effects on ecosystem functioning is scarce. In particular, little is known on how soil biota and their functions are affected by combined changes in plant diversity and fertilization. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the effects of plant diversity, functional community composition, and fertilization on the biomass and respiration of soil microbial communities in a long-term biodiversity experiment in semi-natural grassland (Jena Experiment). Plant species richness enhanced microbial basal respiration and microbial biomass, but did not significantly affect microbial specific respiration. In contrast, the presence of legumes and fertilization significantly decreased microbial specific respiration, without altering microbial biomass. The effect of legumes was superimposed by fertilization as indicated by a significant interaction between the presence of legumes and fertilization. Further, changes in microbial stoichiometry (C-to-N ratio) and specific respiration suggest the presence of legumes to reduce N limitation of soil microorganisms and to modify microbial C use efficiency. Conclusions/Significance Our study highlights the role of plant species and functional group diversity as well as interactions between plant community composition and fertilizer application for soil microbial functions. Our results suggest soil microbial stoichiometry to be a powerful indicator of microbial functioning under N limited conditions. Although our results support the notion that plant diversity and fertilizer application independently affect microbial functioning, legume effects on microbial N limitation were superimposed by fertilization, indicating significant interactions between the functional composition of plant communities and

  16. Tree Diametric Increment and Litterfall Production in an Eastern Amazonian Forest: the Role of Functional Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camargo, P. B. D.; Ferreira, M. L.; Oliveira Junior, R. C.; Saleska, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    Tree growth is a biotic variable of great importance in understanding the dynamics of tree communities and may be used as a tool in studies of biological or climate modeling. Some climate models predict more recurrent climate anomalies in this century, which may alter the functioning of tropical forests with serious structural and demographic implications. The present study aimed to evaluate the profile of tree growth and litterfall production in an eastern Amazon forest, which has suffered recent climatic disturbances. We contrasted different functional groups based on wood density (stem with 0.55; 0.56-0.7; >0.7 g cm-3), light availability (crown illumination index; high illuminated crown - IIC1 until shaded crown - IIC5), and, size class (trees 10-22.5; 22.6-35; 35.1-55; 55,1-90; >90 cm dbh). Tree diameter increment was monthly measured from November 2011 to September 2013 by using dendrometer bands installed on 850 individuals from different families. Litterfall was collected in 64 circular traps, oven dried and weighed, separated into leaves, twigs, reproductive parts and miscellaneous. During the rainy season the sampled trees had the highest rates of tree diametric increment. When analyzing the data by functional groups, large trees had faster growth, but when grouped by wood density, trees with wood density up to 0.55 and between 0.56 and 0.7 g cm-3 had the fastest rates of growth. When grouped by crown illumination index, trees exposed to higher levels of light grew more in comparison to partially shaded trees. Maximum daily air temperature and precipitation were the most important environmental variables in determining the diametric increment profile of the trees. Litterfall production was estimated to be 7.1 Mg ha-1.year-1 and showed a strong seasonal pattern, with dry season production being higher than in the rainy season. Leaves formed the largest fraction of the litterfall, followed by twigs, reproductive parts, and finally miscellaneous. These

  17. Stochastic Geometric Network Models for Groups of Functional and Structural Connectomes

    PubMed Central

    Friedman, Eric J.; Landsberg, Adam S.; Owen, Julia P.; Li, Yi-Ou; Mukherjee, Pratik

    2014-01-01

    Structural and functional connectomes are emerging as important instruments in the study of normal brain function and in the development of new biomarkers for a variety of brain disorders. In contrast to single-network studies that presently dominate the (non-connectome) network literature, connectome analyses typically examine groups of empirical networks and then compare these against standard (stochastic) network models. Current practice in connectome studies is to employ stochastic network models derived from social science and engineering contexts as the basis for the comparison. However, these are not necessarily best suited for the analysis of connectomes, which often contain groups of very closely related networks, such as occurs with a set of controls or a set of patients with a specific disorder. This paper studies important extensions of standard stochastic models that make them better adapted for analysis of connectomes, and develops new statistical fitting methodologies that account for inter-subject variations. The extensions explicitly incorporate geometric information about a network based on distances and inter/intra hemispherical asymmetries (to supplement ordinary degree-distribution information), and utilize a stochastic choice of networks' density levels (for fixed threshold networks) to better capture the variance in average connectivity among subjects. The new statistical tools introduced here allow one to compare groups of networks by matching both their average characteristics and the variations among them. A notable finding is that connectomes have high “smallworldness” beyond that arising from geometric and degree considerations alone. PMID:25067815

  18. Tuning the electron transport of molecular junctions by chemically functionalizing anchoring groups: First-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukamoto, Shigeru; Caciuc, Vasile; Atodiresei, Nicolae; Blügel, Stefan

    2012-06-01

    In this first-principles study, we present density-functional calculations of the electronic structures and electron transport properties of organic molecular junctions with several anchoring groups containing atoms with different electronegativities, i.e., benzenediboronate (BDB), benzenedicarboxylate (BDC), and dinitrobenzene (DNB) molecular junctions sandwiched between two Cu(110) electrodes. The electronic-structure calculations exhibit a significant difference in the density of states not only at the anchoring groups but also at the aromatic rings of the molecular junctions, suggesting that the electron transport is specific for each system. Our transport calculations show that the BDB and DNB molecular junctions have finite electron transmissions at the zero-bias limit while the BDC molecular junction has a negligible electron transmission. Moreover, for the BDB and DNB systems, the electron transmission channels around the Fermi energy reveal fingerprint features, which provide specific functionalities for the molecular junctions. Therefore, our theoretical results demonstrate the possibility to precisely tune the electron transport properties of molecular junctions by engineering the anchoring groups at the single-atom level.

  19. A combinatorial approach to determine functional group effects on lipidoid-mediated siRNA delivery

    PubMed Central

    Mahon, Kerry P.; Love, Kevin T.; Whitehead, Kathryn A.; Qin, June; Akinc, Akin; Leshchiner, Elizaveta; Leshchiner, Ignaty; Langer, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The application of RNA interference (RNAi), either in the clinic or laboratory, requires safe and effective delivery methods. Here we develop a combinatorial approach to synthesize a library of delivery vectors based on two lipid-like substrates with known siRNA delivery capabilities. Members of this library have a mixture of lipid-like tails and feature appendages containing hydroxyl, carbamate, ether or amine functional groups as well as variations in alkyl chain length and branching. Using a luciferase reporter system in HeLa cells, we study the relationship between lipid chemical modification and delivery performance in vitro. The impact of the functional group was shown to vary depending on the overall amine content and tail number of the delivery vector. Additionally, in vivo performance was evaluated using a Factor VII knockdown assay. Two library members, each containing ether groups, were found to knock down the target protein at levels comparable to the parent delivery vector. These results demonstrate that small chemical changes to the delivery vector impact knockdown efficiency and cell viability both in vitro and in vivo. The work described here identifies new materials for siRNA delivery, as well as provides new insight into the parameters for optimized chemical makeup of lipid-like siRNA delivery materials. PMID:20715849

  20. Polycomb Group (PcG) Proteins and Human Cancers: Multifaceted Functions and Therapeutic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei; Qin, Jiang-Jiang; Voruganti, Sukesh; Nag, Subhasree; Zhou, Jianwei; Zhang, Ruiwen

    2016-01-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are transcriptional repressors that regulate several crucial developmental and physiological processes in the cell. More recently, they have been found to play important roles in human carcinogenesis and cancer development and progression. The deregulation and dysfunction of PcG proteins often lead to blocking or inappropriate activation of developmental pathways, enhancing cellular proliferation, inhibiting apoptosis, and increasing the cancer stem cell population. Genetic and molecular investigations of PcG proteins have long been focused on their PcG functions. However, PcG proteins have recently been shown to exert non-polycomb functions, contributing to the regulation of diverse cellular functions. We and others have demonstrated that PcG proteins regulate the expression and function of several oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in a PcG-independent manner, and PcG proteins are associated with the survival of patients with cancer. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in the research on PcG proteins, including both the polycomb-repressive and non-polycomb functions. We specifically focus on the mechanisms by which PcG proteins play roles in cancer initiation, development, and progression. Finally, we discuss the potential value of PcG proteins as molecular biomarkers for the diagnosis and prognosis of cancer, and as molecular targets for cancer therapy. PMID:26227500

  1. The synthesis of desired functional groups on PEI microgel particles for biomedical and environmental applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahiner, Nurettin; Demirci, Sahin; Sahiner, Mehtap; Al-Lohedan, Hamad

    2015-11-01

    Polyethyleneimine (PEI) microgels were synthesized by micro emulsion polymerization technique and converted to positively charged forms by chemical treatments with various modifying agents with different functional groups, such as 2-bromoethanol (-OH), 4-bromobutyronitrile (-CN), 2-bromoethylamine hydrobromide (-NH2), and glycidol (-OH). The functionalization of PEI microgels was confirmed by FT-IR, TGA and zeta potential measurements. Furthermore, a second modification of the modified PEI microgels was induced on 4-bromo butyronitrile-modified PEI microgels (PEI-CN) by amidoximation, to generate new functional groups on the modified PEI microgels. The PEI and modified PEI microgels were also tested for their antimicrobial effects against various bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25323. Moreover, the PEI-based particles were used for removal of organic dyes such as methyl orange (MO) and congo red (CR). The absorption capacity of PEI-based microgels increased with modification from 101.8 mg/g to 218.8 mg/g with 2-bromoethylamine, 216.2 m/g with 1-bromoethanol, and 224.5 mg/g with 4-bromobutyronitrile for MO. The increase in absorption for CR dyes was from 347.3 mg/g to 390.4 mg/g with 1-bromoethanol, 399.6 mg/g with glycidol, and 349.9 mg/g with 4-bromobutyronitrile.

  2. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells express functional NKp30 receptor inducing type 2 cytokine production1

    PubMed Central

    Salimi, Maryam; Xue, Luzheng; Jolin, Helen; Hardman, Clare; Cousins, David J.; McKenzie, Andrew N.J.; Ogg, Graham S.

    2016-01-01

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) are important in effector functions for eliciting allergic inflammation, parasite defence, epithelial repair and lipid homeostasis. ILC2 lack rearranged antigen-specific receptors, and while many soluble factors such as cytokines and lipid mediators can influence ILC2, direct interaction of these cells with microenvironment and other cells has been less explored. Natural cytotoxicity receptors are expressed by subsets of ILC1 and ILC3 and thought to be important for their effector function, but have not been shown to be expressed by ILC2. Therefore, we sought to investigate the expression and functional properties of the natural cytotoxicity receptor NKp30 on human group 2 innate lymphoid cells. A subset of ex vivo and cultured ILC2 express NKp30 that upon interaction with its cognate activatory ligand B7-H6 induces rapid production of type 2 cytokines. This interaction can be blocked by NKp30 blocking antibody and an inhibitory ligand, galectin-3. Higher expression of B7-H6 was observed in lesional skin biopsies of patients with atopic dermatitis; and incubation of keratinocytes with pro-inflammatory and type 2 cytokines upregulated B7-H6 leading to increased ILC2 cytokine production. NKp30-B7-H6 interaction is a novel cell contact mechanism that mediates activation of ILC2 and identifies a potential target for the development of novel therapeutics for atopic dermatitis and other atopic diseases. PMID:26582946

  3. Role of functional groups in fiber in the binding of zinc

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, K.

    1986-03-01

    The binding of zinc by purified cellulose, xylan, methylated xylan, pectin and methylated pectin was measured in vitro. Methylated xylan and methylated pectin were prepared chemically from xylan and pectin, respectively, to block hydroxyl and carboxyl groups. Comparison of zinc binding capacities was made between xylan and methylated xylan, and between pectin and methylated pectin to assess the role of the two functional groups in binding minerals. The binding of zinc was conducted at pH 2.6, 4.0, 5.4 and 6.8 in various concentrations of ZnSO/sub 4/ solution containing /sup 65/Zn using a dialysis system for water-soluble pectin and an incubation-centrifugation model for the other four water-insoluble fibers. The results showed that zinc binding by each fiber was pH dependent and it increased from pH 2.6 to 6.8 (p < 0.001). At pH 6.8, % Zn bound to fiber decreased as concentration of ZnSO/sub 4/ increased from 1 ..mu..M to 96 ..mu..M (p less than or equal to 0.01). mean zinc binding ratio of pectin to methylated xylan was 5.1, whereas the ratio of pectin t methylated pectin was only 1.7. This suggests that the hydroxyl group in xylan plays a more important role than the carboxyl group in pectin in the binding of zinc.

  4. Lactic acid bacteria producing B-group vitamins: a great potential for functional cereals products.

    PubMed

    Capozzi, Vittorio; Russo, Pasquale; Dueñas, María Teresa; López, Paloma; Spano, Giuseppe

    2012-12-01

    Wheat contains various essential nutrients including the B group of vitamins. However, B group vitamins, normally present in cereals-derived products, are easily removed or destroyed during milling, food processing or cooking. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are widely used as starter cultures for the fermentation of a large variety of foods and can improve the safety, shelf life, nutritional value, flavor and overall quality of the fermented products. In this regard, the identification and application of strains delivering health-promoting compounds is a fascinating field. Besides their key role in food fermentations, several LAB found in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and animals are commercially used as probiotics and possess generally recognized as safe status. LAB are usually auxotrophic for several vitamins although certain strains of LAB have the capability to synthesize water-soluble vitamins such as those included in the B group. In recent years, a number of biotechnological processes have been explored to perform a more economical and sustainable vitamin production than that obtained via chemical synthesis. This review article will briefly report the current knowledge on lactic acid bacteria synthesis of vitamins B2, B11 and B12 and the potential strategies to increase B-group vitamin content in cereals-based products, where vitamins-producing LAB have been leading to the elaboration of novel fermented functional foods. In addition, the use of genetic strategies to increase vitamin production or to create novel vitamin-producing strains will be also discussed. PMID:23093174

  5. Submerged vegetation removal promotes shift of dominant phytoplankton functional groups in a eutrophic lake.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jing; Yang, Kai; Li, Shuangshuang; Li, Genbao; Song, Lirong

    2014-08-01

    Historical data indicate that the dominance of submerged plants in Dianchi Lake in the 1960s was characterized by low algal density with dominance of non-toxic group J (Scenedesmus, Pediastrum, etc.). The removal of submerged plants, which began in the 1970s, resulted in the expansion of bloom-forming Microcystis (group M). Laboratory experiments suggested that Microcystis aeruginosa was inclined to grow and develop at elevated temperatures. The growth of Scenedesmus obliquus was slower than that of co-cultivated M. aeruginosa in the absence of Ceratophyllum demersum, especially at higher temperatures. The existence of submerged plant C. demersum could inhibit the growth of the harmful algae M. aeruginosa and this inhibitory effect by C. demersum was enhanced with an increase in temperature. Instead, with C. demersum, the growth of S. obliquus was not inhibited, but the co-cultivated M. aeruginosa was eliminated in a short time. Combined with the historical data and laboratory experiments, it was indicated that the submerged plants might play important roles in the dominance of the non-toxic group J in the historical succession. Consequently, the introduction of the submerged plant such as C. demersum might alter the dominant phytoplankton functional groups from M to J and benefit the restoration of the eutrophic lake. PMID:25108726

  6. Biomass Vanillin-Derived Polymeric Microspheres Containing Functional Aldehyde Groups: Preparation, Characterization, and Application as Adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huanyu; Yong, Xueyong; Zhou, Jinyong; Deng, Jianping; Wu, Youping

    2016-02-01

    The contribution reports the first polymeric microspheres derived from a biomass, vanillin. It reacted with methacryloyl chloride, providing monomer vanillin methacrylate (VMA), which underwent suspension polymerization in aqueous media and yielded microspheres in high yield (>90 wt %). By controlling the N2 bubbling mode and by optimizing the cosolvent for dissolving the solid monomer, the microspheres were endowed with surface pores, demonstrated by SEM images and mercury intrusion porosimetry measurement. Taking advantage of the reactive aldehyde groups, the microspheres further reacted with glycine, thereby leading to a novel type of Schiff-base chelating material. The functionalized microspheres demonstrated remarkable adsorption toward Cu(2+) (maximum, 135 mg/g) which was taken as representative for metal ions. The present study provides an unprecedented class of biobased polymeric microspheres showing large potentials as adsorbents in wastewater treatment. Also importantly, the reactive aldehyde groups may enable the microspheres to be used as novel materials for immobilizing biomacromolecules, e.g. enzymes. PMID:26752344

  7. Detecting Functional Groups of Arabidopsis Mutants by Metabolic Profiling and Evaluation of Pleiotropic Responses

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Jörg; Börnke, Frederik; Schmiedl, Alfred; Kleine, Tatjana; Sonnewald, Uwe

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic profiles and fingerprints of Arabidopsis thaliana plants with various defects in plastidic sugar metabolism or photosynthesis were analyzed to elucidate if the genetic mutations can be traced by comparing their metabolic status. Using a platform of chromatographic and spectrometric tools data from untargeted full MS scans as well as from selected metabolites including major carbohydrates, phosphorylated intermediates, carboxylates, free amino acids, major antioxidants, and plastidic pigments were evaluated. Our key observations are that by multivariate statistical analysis each mutant can be separated by a unique metabolic signature. Closely related mutants come close. Thus metabolic profiles of sugar mutants are different but more similar than those of photosynthesis mutants. All mutants show pleiotropic responses mirrored in their metabolic status. These pleiotropic responses are typical and can be used for separating and grouping of the mutants. Our findings show that metabolite fingerprints can be taken to classify mutants and hence may be used to sort genes into functional groups. PMID:22639613

  8. Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotube Functionalization by Radical Addition Using Hydroxymethylene Groups.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Jiménez, Rubén; Alonso-Núñez, Gabriel; Paraguay-Delgado, Francisco; Espinoza-Gómez, Heriberto; Vélez-López, Ernesto; Rogel-Hernández, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic methodology and characterization of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) function- alized with hydroxymethylene groups are reported. The MWCNTs were synthesized by the spray pyrolysis technique using toluene as carbon source and ferrocene as catalyst. Hydroxymethylation of MWCNTs was carried out by methanol using benzoyl peroxide (BPO) at different quantities (300 to 900 mg); the optimum BPO quantity was 300 mg. The resulting materials were characterized by FT-IR, Raman Spectroscopy, Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). The presence of the hydroxymethylene group on the MWCNTs surface was demonstrated by FT-IR, Raman Spectroscopy, TGA, EDS, TEM and Mass Spectrometry. The func- tionalized MWCNTs were not damaged by this methodology. PMID:27398563

  9. Abundance of field galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klypin, Anatoly; Karachentsev, Igor; Makarov, Dmitry; Nasonova, Olga

    2015-12-01

    We present new measurements of the abundance of galaxies with a given circular velocity in the Local Volume: a region centred on the Milky Way Galaxy and extending to distance ˜10 Mpc. The sample of ˜750 mostly dwarf galaxies provides a unique opportunity to study the abundance and properties of galaxies down to absolute magnitudes MB ≈ -10 and virial masses M_vir= 109{ M_{⊙}}. We find that the standard Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model gives remarkably accurate estimates for the velocity function of galaxies with circular velocities V ≳ 70 kms-1 and corresponding virial masses M_vir≳ 5× 10^{10}{ M_{⊙}}, but it badly fails by overpredicting ˜5 times the abundance of large dwarfs with velocities V = 30-40 kms-1. The warm dark matter (WDM) models cannot explain the data either, regardless of mass of WDM particle. Just as in previous observational studies, we find a shallow asymptotic slope dN/dlog V ∝ Vα, α ≈ -1 of the velocity function, which is inconsistent with the standard ΛCDM model that predicts the slope α = -3. Though reminiscent to the known overabundance of satellite problem, the overabundance of field galaxies is a much more difficult problem. For the standard ΛCDM model to survive, in the 10 Mpc radius of the Milky Way there should be 1000 not yet detected galaxies with virial mass M_vir≈ 10^{10}{ M_{⊙}}, extremely low surface brightness and no detectable H I gas. So far none of this type of galaxies have been discovered.

  10. Algorithmic derivation of functional renormalization group equations and Dyson-Schwinger equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Markus Q.; Braun, Jens

    2012-06-01

    We present the Mathematica application DoFun which allows to derive Dyson-Schwinger equations and renormalization group flow equations for n-point functions in a simple manner. DoFun offers several tools which considerably simplify the derivation of these equations from a given physical action. We discuss the application of DoFun by means of two different types of quantum field theories, namely a bosonic O(N) theory and the Gross-Neveu model. Program summaryProgram title:DoFun Catalogue identifier: AELN_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AELN_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 35 506 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 571 837 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Mathematica 7 and higher Computer: PCs and workstations Operating system: All on which Mathematica is available (Windows, Unix, MacOS) Classification: 11.1, 11.4, 11.5, 11.6 Nature of problem: Derivation of functional renormalization group equations and Dyson-Schwinger equations from the action of a given theory. Solution method: Implementation of an algorithm to derive functional renormalization group and Dyson-Schwinger equations. Unusual features: The results can be plotted as Feynman diagrams in Mathematica. The output is compatible with the syntax of many other programs and is therefore suitable for further (algebraic) computations. Running time: Seconds to minutes

  11. Acidity of the amidoxime functional group in aqueous solution. A combined experimental and computational study

    SciTech Connect

    Mehio, Nada; Lashely, Mark A.; Nugent, Joseph W.; Tucker, Lyndsay; Correia, Bruna; Do-Thanh, Chi-Linh; Dai, Sheng; Hancock, Robert D.; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S.

    2015-01-26

    Poly(acrylamidoxime) adsorbents are often invoked in discussions of mining uranium from seawater. It has been demonstrated repeatedly in the literature that the success of these materials is due to the amidoxime functional group. While the amidoxime-uranyl chelation mode has been established, a number of essential binding constants remain unclear. This is largely due to the wide range of conflicting pKa values that have been reported for the amidoxime functional group in the literature. To resolve this existing controversy we investigated the pKa values of the amidoxime functional group using a combination of experimental and computational methods. Experimentally, we used spectroscopic titrations to measure the pKa values of representative amidoximes, acetamidoxime and benzamidoxime. Computationally, we report on the performance of several protocols for predicting the pKa values of aqueous oxoacids. Calculations carried out at the MP2 or M06-2X levels of theory combined with solvent effects calculated using the SMD model provide the best overall performance with a mean absolute error of 0.33 pKa units and 0.35 pKa units, respectively, and a root mean square deviation of 0.46 pKa units and 0.45 pKa units, respectively. Finally, we employ our two best methods to predict the pKa values of promising, uncharacterized amidoxime ligands. Hence, our study provides a convenient means for screening suitable amidoxime monomers for future generations of poly(acrylamidoxime) adsorbents used to mine uranium from seawater.

  12. Acidity of the amidoxime functional group in aqueous solution. A combined experimental and computational study

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mehio, Nada; Lashely, Mark A.; Nugent, Joseph W.; Tucker, Lyndsay; Correia, Bruna; Do-Thanh, Chi-Linh; Dai, Sheng; Hancock, Robert D.; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S.

    2015-01-26

    Poly(acrylamidoxime) adsorbents are often invoked in discussions of mining uranium from seawater. It has been demonstrated repeatedly in the literature that the success of these materials is due to the amidoxime functional group. While the amidoxime-uranyl chelation mode has been established, a number of essential binding constants remain unclear. This is largely due to the wide range of conflicting pKa values that have been reported for the amidoxime functional group in the literature. To resolve this existing controversy we investigated the pKa values of the amidoxime functional group using a combination of experimental and computational methods. Experimentally, we used spectroscopicmore » titrations to measure the pKa values of representative amidoximes, acetamidoxime and benzamidoxime. Computationally, we report on the performance of several protocols for predicting the pKa values of aqueous oxoacids. Calculations carried out at the MP2 or M06-2X levels of theory combined with solvent effects calculated using the SMD model provide the best overall performance with a mean absolute error of 0.33 pKa units and 0.35 pKa units, respectively, and a root mean square deviation of 0.46 pKa units and 0.45 pKa units, respectively. Finally, we employ our two best methods to predict the pKa values of promising, uncharacterized amidoxime ligands. Hence, our study provides a convenient means for screening suitable amidoxime monomers for future generations of poly(acrylamidoxime) adsorbents used to mine uranium from seawater.« less

  13. Ecological Significance of a Geomorphic Stream Classification: Species and Functional Group Composition of Riparian Plant Communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, J. R.; Cooper, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    We tested the ecological significance of a geomorphic classification of Sonoran Desert ephemeral stream channels based on channel plan-form, degree of lateral confinement, and boundary material composition. This typology has been shown to discriminate among channel geometry and hydraulic characteristics for bedrock, bedrock with alluvium, incised alluvium, braided, and piedmont headwater channels. We examined stream reach-scale relationships of geomorphic stream types to the relative cover and density of perennial plant species and functional groups, and identified the dominant fluvial drivers, within riparian communities at 101 ephemeral stream reaches on the U.S. Army Yuma Proving Ground and Barry M. Goldwater Air Force Range in southwestern Arizona, USA. Nonparametric multivariate analysis of variance showed that species and functional group composition differed significantly among geomorphic stream types, both in terms of relative cover and density. Partitioning of among-site multivariate dissimilarity revealed that species compositional differences between stream types were caused largely by variation in the cover and density of the most common members of the regional flora. Distinctive functional group composition among reach types resulted from differences in the cover and density of drought-deciduous shrubs and subshrubs, evergreen trees and shrubs, and photosynthetic-stemmed trees. Comparison of environmental and biotic dissimilarity matrices highlighted the role of channel gradient as the dominant abiotic driver of riparian plant community composition, with stream channel elevation and width:depth providing additional explanatory power. Distinctive riparian plant community composition among the geomorphic stream types demonstrates the ecological significance of this a priori channel classification, and indicates its potential utility in understanding spatial patterns of ecological dynamics, sample stratification for process-based studies, and reference

  14. Quantifying Functional Group Interactions that Determine Urea Effects on Nucleic Acid Helix Formation

    PubMed Central

    Guinn, Emily J.; Schwinefus, Jeffrey J.; Cha, Hyo Keun; McDevitt, Joseph L.; Merker, Wolf E.; Ritzer, Ryan; Muth, Gregory W.; Engelsgjerd, Samuel W.; Mangold, Kathryn E.; Thompson, Perry J.; Kerins, Michael J.; Record, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Urea destabilizes helical and folded conformations of nucleic acids and proteins, as well as protein-nucleic acid complexes. To understand these effects, extend previous characterizations of interactions of urea with protein functional groups, and thereby develop urea as a probe of conformational changes in protein and nucleic acid processes, we obtain chemical potential derivatives (μ23 = dμ2/dm3) quantifying interactions of urea (component 3) with nucleic acid bases, base analogs, nucleosides and nucleotide monophosphates (component 2) using osmometry and hexanol-water distribution assays. Dissection of these μ23 yields interaction potentials quantifying interactions of urea with unit surface areas of nucleic acid functional groups (heterocyclic aromatic ring, ring methyl, carbonyl and phosphate O, amino N, sugar (C,O)); urea interacts favorably with all these groups, relative to interactions with water. Interactions of urea with heterocyclic aromatic rings and attached methyl groups (as on thymine) are particularly favorable, as previously observed for urea-homocyclic aromatic ring interactions. Urea m-values determined for double helix formation by DNA dodecamers near 25°C are in the range 0.72 to 0.85 kcal mol−1 m−1 and exhibit little systematic dependence on nucleobase composition (17–42% GC). Interpretation of these results using the urea interaction potentials indicates that extensive (60–90%) stacking of nucleobases in the separated strands in the transition region is required to explain the m-value. Results for RNA and DNA dodecamers obtained at higher temperatures, and literature data, are consistent with this conclusion. This demonstrates the utility of urea as a quantitative probe of changes in surface area (ΔASA) in nucleic acid processes. PMID:23510511

  15. Functional gene group analysis indicates no role for heterotrimeric G proteins in cognitive ability.

    PubMed

    Hill, W David; de Leeuw, Christiaan; Davies, Gail; Liewald, David Cherry McLachlan; Payton, Anthony; Craig, Leone C A; Whalley, Lawrence J; Horan, Mike; Ollier, William; Starr, John M; Pendleton, Neil; Posthuma, Danielle; Bates, Timothy C; Deary, Ian J

    2014-01-01

    Previous functional gene group analyses implicated common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in heterotrimeric G protein coding genes as being associated with differences in human intelligence. Here, we sought to replicate this finding using five independent cohorts of older adults including current IQ and childhood IQ, and using both gene- and SNP-based analytic strategies. No significant associations were found between variation in heterotrimeric G protein genes and intelligence in any cohort at either of the two time points. These results indicate that, whereas G protein systems are important in cognition, common genetic variation in these genes is unlikely to be a substantial influence on human intelligence differences. PMID:24626473

  16. Effects of Functional Groups and Sugar Composition of Quercetin Derivatives on Their Radical Scavenging Properties.

    PubMed

    Kato, Komei; Ninomiya, Masayuki; Tanaka, Kaori; Koketsu, Mamoru

    2016-07-22

    Quercetin derivatives are widespread in the plant kingdom and exhibit various biological actions. The aim of this study was to investigate the structure-activity relationships of quercetin derivatives, with a focus on the influence of functional groups and sugar composition on their antioxidant capacity. A series of quercetin derivatives were therefore prepared and assessed for their DPPH radical scavenging properties. Isoquercetin O-gallates were more potent radical scavengers than quercetin. The systematic analysis highlights the importance of the distribution of hydroxy substituents in isoquercetin O-gallates to their potency. PMID:27314621

  17. Functional renormalization group study of an 8-band model for the iron arsenides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honerkamp, Carsten; Lichtenstein, Julian; Maier, Stefan A.; Platt, Christian; Thomale, Ronny; Andersen, Ole Krogh; Boeri, Lilia

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the superconducting pairing instabilities of eight-band models for 1111 iron arsenides. Using a functional renormalization group treatment, we determine how the critical energy scale for superconductivity depends on the electronic band structure. Most importantly, if we vary the parameters from values corresponding to LaFeAsO to SmFeAsO, the pairing scale is strongly enhanced, in accordance with the experimental observation. We analyze the reasons for this trend and compare the results of the eight-band approach to those found using five-band models.

  18. Functional groups in a single pteridosperm species: Variability and circumscription (Pennsylvanian, Nova Scotia, Canada)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zodrow, E.L.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2007-01-01

    Multiple foliar specimens of the Late Pennsylvanian fossil pteridosperm [gymnosperm] Alethopteris zeilleri (Ragot) Wagner were collected from one restricted stratigraphical horizon in the Canadian Sydney Coalfield. Variability of functional-group distribution using FTIR technique was studied in compressions, adaxial versus abaxial cuticles, and in unseparated cuticles as a function of maceration time from 48 to 168??h. The results obtained document spectral variability that could be expected within specimens of one species. For example, CH2/CH3 and Al/ox ratios can differ by as much as 20% of the values. Moreover, the experiments performed confirm that by using a previously established maceration protocol, long maceration periods do not bias FTIR spectra in terms of oxygenation overprinting. The inference that this cuticle is robust, under the given diagenetic level, probably reflects a reassuring degree of chemical fidelity of the Pennsylvanian plant to support Carboniferous chemotaxonomic observations. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Functional renormalization group approach to the Yang-Lee edge singularity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, X.; Mesterházy, D.; Stephanov, M. A.

    2016-07-01

    We determine the scaling properties of the Yang-Lee edge singularity as described by a one-component scalar field theory with imaginary cubic coupling, using the nonperturbative functional renormalization group in 3 ≤ d ≤ 6 Euclidean dimensions. We find very good agreement with high-temperature series data in d = 3 dimensions and compare our results to recent estimates of critical exponents obtained with the four-loop ɛ = 6 - d expansion and the conformal bootstrap. The relevance of operator insertions at the corresponding fixed point of the RG β functions is discussed and we estimate the error associated with O({partial}^4) truncations of the scale-dependent effective action.

  20. Block renormalization group in a formalism with lattice wavelets: Correlation function formulas for interacting fermions

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, E.; Procacci, A.

    1997-03-01

    Searching for a general and technically simple multiscale formalism to treat interacting fermions, we develop a (Wilson{endash}Kadanoff) block renormalization group mechanism, which, due to the property of {open_quotes}orthogonality between scales,{close_quotes} establishes a trivial link between the correlation functions and the effective potential flow, leading to simple expressions for the generating and correlation functions. Everything is based on the existence of {open_quotes}special configurations{close_quotes} (lattice wavelets) for multiscale problems: using a simple linear change of variables relating the initial fields to these configurations, we establish the formalism. The algebraic formulas show a perfect parallel with those obtained for bosonic problems, considered in previous works. {copyright} 1997 Academic Press, Inc.

  1. Nitrogen niches revealed through species and functional group removal in a boreal shrub community.

    PubMed

    Gundale, Michael J; Hyodo, Fujio; Nilsson, Marie-Charlotte; Wardle, David A

    2012-07-01

    Most theories attempting to explain the coexistence of species in local communities make fundamental assumptions regarding whether neighbors exhibit competitive, neutral, or positive resource-use interactions; however, few long-term data from naturally assembled plant communities exist to test these assumptions. We utilized a 13-year experiment consisting of factorial removal of three shrub species (Vaccinium myrtillus, V. vitis-idaea, and Empetrum hermaphroditum) and factorial removal of two functional groups (tree roots and feather mosses) to assess how neighbors affect N acquisition and growth of each of the three shrub species. The removal plots were established on each of 30 lake islands in northern Sweden that form a natural gradient of resource availability. We tested the hypotheses that: (1) the presence of functionally similar neighbors would reduce shrub N acquisition through competition for a shared N resource; (2) the removal of functional groups would affect shrub N acquisition by altering the breadth of their niches; and (3) soil fertility would influence the effects of neighbor removals. We found that the removal of functionally similar neighbors (i.e., other shrub species) usually resulted in higher biomass and biomass N, with the strength of these effects varying strongly with site fertility. Shrub species removals never resulted in altered stable N isotope ratios (delta(15)N), suggesting that the niche breadth of the three shrubs was unaffected by the presence of neighboring shrub species. In the functional group removal experiment, we found positive effects of feather moss removal on V. myrtillus biomass and biomass N, and negative effects on E. hermaphrotium N concentration and V. vitis-idaea biomass and biomass N. Tree root removal also caused a significant shift in foliar delta(15)N of V. myrtillus and altered the delta(15)N, biomass, and biomass N of E. hermaphroditum. Collectively, these results show that the resource acquisition and niche

  2. Effect of functional groups on the crystallization of ferric oxides/oxyhydroxides in suspension environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Qiong; Albert, Olga; Deng, Hua; Yu, Xiao-Long; Cao, Yang; Li, Jian-Bao; Huang, Xin

    2012-12-01

    This paper investigated the effects of five kinds of Au surfaces terminated with and without functional groups on the crystallization of ferric oxides/oxyhydroxides in the suspension condition. Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) were used to create hydroxyl (-OH), carboxyl (-COOH), amine (-NH2) and methyl (-CH3) functionalized surfaces, which proved to be of the same surface density. The immersion time of substrates in the Fe(OH)3 suspension was divided into two time portions. During the first period of 2 h, few ferric oxide/oxyhydroxide was deposited except that ɛ-Fe2O3 was detected on -NH2 surface. Crystallization for 10 h evidenced more kinds of iron compounds on the functional surfaces. Goethite and maghemite were noticed on four functional surfaces, and maghemite also grew on Au surface. Deposition of ɛ-Fe2O3 was found on -OH surface, while the growth of orthorhombic and hexagon FeOOH were indicated on -NH2 surface. Considering the wide existence of iron compounds in nature, our investigation is a precedent work to the study of iron biomineralization in the suspension area.

  3. THE DARK MATTER HALO CONCENTRATION AND STELLAR INITIAL MASS FUNCTION OF A CASSOWARY GROUP

    SciTech Connect

    Deason, A. J.; Auger, M. W.; Belokurov, V.; Evans, N. W.

    2013-08-10

    We exploit the group environment of the CAmbridge Sloan Survey Of Wide ARcs in the skY z = 0.3 lens J2158+0257 to measure the group dynamical mass as a complement to the central dynamical and lensing mass constraints. Follow-up spectroscopy of candidate group members is performed using VLT/FORS2. From the resulting N = 21 confirmed members, we measure the group dynamical mass by calibrating an analytic tracer mass estimator with cosmological simulations. The luminosity-weighted line-of-sight velocity dispersion and the Einstein radius of the lens are used as mass probes in the inner regions of the galaxy. Combining these three observational probes allows us to independently constrain the mass and concentration of the dark matter halo, in addition to the total stellar mass of the central galaxy. We find a dark matter halo in remarkably good agreement with simulations (log{sub 10} M{sub 200}/M{sub Sun} = 14.2 {+-} 0.2, c{sub 200}= 4.4{sup +1.6}{sub -1.4}) and a stellar mass-to-light ratio which favors a Salpeter initial mass function ((M/L)* = 5.7 {+-} 1.2). Our measurement of a normal halo concentration suggests that there is no discrepancy between simulations and observations at the group mass scale. This is in contrast to the cluster mass scale for which a number of studies have claimed over-concentrated halos. While the halo mass is robustly determined, and the halo concentration is not significantly affected by systematics, the resulting stellar mass-to-light ratio is sensitive to the choice of stellar parameters, such as density profile and velocity anisotropy.

  4. Control of Surface Functional Groups on Pertechntate Sorption on Activated Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Wang; H. Gao; R. Yeredla; H. Xu; M. Abrecht; G.D. Stasio

    2006-07-05

    {sup 99}Tc is highly soluble and poorly adsorbed by natural materials under oxidizing conditions, thus being of particular concern for radioactive waste disposal. Activated carbon can potentially be used as an adsorbent for removing Tc from aqueous solutions. We have tested six commercial activated carbon materials for their capabilities for sorption of pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}). The tested materials can be grouped into two distinct types: Type I materials have high sorption capabilities with the distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) varying from 9.5 x 10{sup 5} to 3.2 x 10{sup 3} mL/g as the pH changes from 4.5 to 9.5, whereas type II materials have relatively low sorption capabilities with K{sub d} remaining more or less constant (1.1 x 10{sup 3} - 1.8 x 10{sup 3} mL/g) over a similar pH range. The difference in sorption behavior between the two types of materials is attributed to the distribution of surface functional groups. The predominant surface groups are identified to be carboxylic and phenolic groups. The carboxylic group can be further divided into three subgroups A, B, and C in the order of increasing acidity. The high sorption capabilities of type I materials are found to be caused by the presence of a large fraction of carboxylic subgroups A and B, while the low sorption capabilities of type II materials are due to the exclusive presence of phenolic and carboxylic subgroup C. Therefore, the performance of activated carbon for removing TcO{sub 4}{sup -} can be improved by enhancing the formation of carboxylic subgroups A and B during material processing.

  5. Trophic links between functional groups of arable plants and beetles are stable at a national scale.

    PubMed

    Brooks, David R; Storkey, Jonathan; Clark, Suzanne J; Firbank, Les G; Petit, Sandrine; Woiwod, Ian P

    2012-01-01

    1. There is an urgent need to accurately model how environmental change affects the wide-scale functioning of ecosystems, but advances are hindered by a lack of knowledge of how trophic levels are linked across space. It is unclear which theoretical approach to take to improve modelling of such interactions, but evidence is gathering that linking species responses to their functional traits can increase understanding of ecosystem dynamics. Currently, there are no quantitative studies testing how this approach might improve models of multiple, trophically interacting species, at wide spatial scales. 2. Arable weeds play a foundational role in linking food webs, providing resources for many taxa, including carabid beetles that feed on their seeds and weed-associated invertebrate prey. Here, we model associations between weeds and carabids across farmland in Great Britain (GB), to test the hypothesis that wide-scale trophic links between these groups are structured by their species functional traits. 3. A network of c. 250 arable fields, covering four crops and most lowland areas of GB, was sampled for weed, carabid and invertebrate taxa over 3 years. Data sets of these groups were closely matched in time and space, and each contained numerous species with a range of eco-physiological traits. The consistency of trophic linkages between multiple taxa sharing functional traits was tested within multivariate and log-linear models. 4. Robust links were established between the functional traits of taxa and their trophic interactions. Autumn-germinating, small-seeded weeds were associated with smaller, spring-breeding carabids, more specialised in seed feeding, whereas spring-germinating, large-seeded weeds were associated with a range of larger, autumn-breeding omnivorous carabids. These relationships were strong and dynamic, being independent of changes in invertebrate food resources and consistent across sample dates, crops and regions of GB. 5. We conclude that, in at

  6. Existence of ultrafine crevices and functional groups along the edge surfaces of graphitized thermal carbon black.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yonghong; Do, D D; Nicholson, D

    2015-04-14

    Adsorption of different gases on graphitized thermal carbon black (GTCB) has been studied with a new molecular model to examine the consequences of micropore crevices and functional groups at the junctions between adjacent basal planes. Adsorption was simulated in the Grand Canonical Monte Carlo ensemble and the theoretical Henry constants were calculated by Monte Carlo volume integration over the Boltzmann factor of the solid-fluid potential. The simulation results are in good agreement with high-resolution experimental isotherms for argon on mineralogical graphite measured by Lopez-Gonzalez et al.1 From detailed inspection of the argon isotherms at extremely low coverages, we find two distinct Henry law regions, separated by a plateau (suggesting saturation of the stronger sites) that spans over a few decades of pressure. The first Henry law region is attributed to adsorption in the ultrafine crevices at the junctions between two adjacent basal planes, and the second region corresponds to adsorption on the basal plane, as confirmed by the theoretical Henry constant. The simulated isosteric heat and snapshots of molecular configurations show that argon adsorbs preferentially in the ultrafine crevices where there is a deep potential well due to overlap from the opposite pore walls. Similar behavior was found for other nonassociating fluids (Ar, N2, and CO2); however, for associating fluids (NH3 and H2O), the strong sites for adsorption and nucleation come from the combined effects of functional groups and ultrafine crevices, since the latter cannot alone account for the observed adsorption. PMID:25797845

  7. Acidity of the amidoxime functional group in aqueous solution: a combined experimental and computational study.

    PubMed

    Mehio, Nada; Lashely, Mark A; Nugent, Joseph W; Tucker, Lyndsay; Correia, Bruna; Do-Thanh, Chi-Linh; Dai, Sheng; Hancock, Robert D; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S

    2015-02-26

    Poly(acrylamidoxime) adsorbents are often invoked in discussions of mining uranium from seawater. While the amidoxime-uranyl chelation mode has been established, a number of essential binding constants remain unclear. This is largely due to the wide range of conflicting pK(a) values that have been reported for the amidoxime functional group. To resolve this existing controversy we investigated the pK(a) values of the amidoxime functional group using a combination of experimental and computational methods. Experimentally, we used spectroscopic titrations to measure the pK(a) values of representative amidoximes, acetamidoxime, and benzamidoxime. Computationally, we report on the performance of several protocols for predicting the pK(a) values of aqueous oxoacids. Calculations carried out at the MP2 or M06-2X levels of theory combined with solvent effects calculated using the SMD model provide the best overall performance, with a root-mean-square deviation of 0.46 pK(a) units and 0.45 pK(a) units, respectively. Finally, we employ our two best methods to predict the pK(a) values of promising, uncharacterized amidoxime ligands, which provides a convenient means for screening suitable amidoxime monomers for future generations of poly(acrylamidoxime) adsorbents. PMID:25621618

  8. Voluntary leadership roles in religious groups and rates of change in functional status during older adulthood.

    PubMed

    Hayward, R David; Krause, Neal

    2014-06-01

    Linear growth curve modeling was used to compare rates of change in functional status between three groups of older adults: Individuals holding voluntary lay leadership positions in a church, regular church attenders who were not leaders, and those not regularly attending church. Functional status was tracked longitudinally over a 4-year period in a national sample of 1,152 Black and White older adults whose religious backgrounds were either Christian or unaffiliated. Leaders had significantly slower trajectories of increase in both the number of physical impairments and the severity of those impairments. Although regular church attenders who were not leaders had lower mean levels of impairment on both measures, compared with those not regularly attending church, the two groups of non-leaders did not differ from one another in their rates of impairment increase. Leadership roles may contribute to longer maintenance of physical ability in late life, and opportunities for voluntary leadership may help account for some of the health benefits of religious participation. PMID:23606309

  9. Photoluminescence of oxygen vacancies and hydroxyl group surface functionalized SnO2 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Bonu, Venkataramana; Das, Arindam; Amirthapandian, S; Dhara, Sandip; Tyagi, Ashok Kumar

    2015-04-21

    We report, for the first time, the luminescence property of the hydroxyl group surface functionalized quantum dots (QDs) and nanoparticles (NPs) of SnO2 using low energy excitations of 2.54 eV (488 nm) and 2.42 eV (514.5 nm). This luminescence is in addition to generally observed luminescence from 'O' defects. The as-prepared SnO2 QDs are annealed at different temperatures under ambient conditions to create NPs with varying sizes. Subsequently, the average size of the NPs is calculated from the acoustic vibrations observed at low frequencies in the Raman spectra and by the transmission electron microscopy measurements. Detailed photoluminescence studies with 3.815 eV (325 nm) excitation reveal the nature of in-plane and bridging 'O' vacancies as well as adsorption and desorption occurring at different annealing temperatures. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies also support this observation. The defect level related to the surface -OH functional groups shows a broad luminescence peak at around 1.96 eV in SnO2 NPs which is elaborated using temperature dependent studies. PMID:25774472

  10. Adsorption of amino acids and glucose by sediments of Resurrection Bay, Alaska, USA: Functional group effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrichs, Susan M.; Sugai, Susan F.

    1993-02-01

    The adsorption of amino acids and glucose was investigated in sediments from Resurrection Bay, Alaska. Adsorption of the basic amino acid lysine was greater than adsorption of glutamic acid, alanine, leucine, or glucose. Formaldehyde and heat treatments were used to separate adsorption from biological uptake, but can alter adsorption significantly; formaldehyde treatment, followed by a seawater rinse, was the most satisfactory. Much of the rapid amino acid adsorption by these sediments was due to the formation of ionic bonds, since adsorbed amino acids could be extracted using concentrated solutions of amino acid, cesium chloride, sodium citrate, ammonium chloride, or sodium acetate. However, most amino acid adsorption was not reversible by ion exchange solutions, indicating that additional processes or chemical reactions occur which result in irreversible binding to sediment. Consistent with literature reports of the negative surface charge of marine particulate matter, lysine (with a net positive charge) was adsorbed to the greatest extent and had the largest cation-exchangeable adsorption. However, negatively charged amino acid functional groups also influenced adsorption. Chemical modification of sediments with reagents reactive with aldehydes decreased lysine adsorption. This suggests that reactive functional groups of sediment organic matter contribute to adsorption, consistent with a melanoidintype reaction. An estimate of the rate of amino acid adsorption indicates that adsorption could produce a significant amount of the total refractory sediment organic nitrogen.

  11. Solubility and crystallizability: facile access to functionalized π-conjugated compounds with chlorendylimide protecting groups.

    PubMed

    Gebers, Jan; Rolland, Damien; Marty, Roman; Suàrez, Stéphane; Cervini, Luca; Scopelliti, Rosario; Brauer, Jan Cornelius; Frauenrath, Holger

    2015-01-19

    Functional π-conjugated molecules are relevant for the preparation of new organic electronic materials with improved performance. However, their synthesis is often rendered difficult by their inherently low solubility, and the permanent attachment of solubilizing groups may change the properties of the material. Here, we introduced the chlorendylimidyl moiety as a new temporary protecting group for the straightforward large-scale synthesis of protected quarter-, sexi-, octathiophene, and perylene bisimide diamine and dicarboxylic acid derivatives. The obtained chlorendylimides and chlorendylimidyl active esters were highly soluble in organic solvents, and optical spectroscopy confirmed the low tendency of the compounds to aggregate in solution. At the same time, they could be conveniently purified by recrystallization or precipitation. Single-crystal X-ray structures obtained for most compounds showed supramolecular motifs highlighting the role of the rigid, polychlorinated chlorendyl moieties in their crystallization. The obtained protected diamine and dicarboxylic acid derivatives were easily deprotected and converted into various amide-substituted oligothiophenes and perylene bisimides that are of interest as new functional materials for organic electronic thin film or nanowire devices. PMID:25427947

  12. Tailoring the mass distribution and functional group density of dimethylsiloxane-based films by thermal evaporation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Töpper, Tino; Lörcher, Samuel; Weiss, Florian; Müller, Bert

    2016-05-01

    The tailoring of molecular weight distribution and the functional group density of vinyl-terminated polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) by molecular beam deposition is demonstrated herein. Thermally evaporated PDMS and its residue are characterized using gel permeation chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance. Thermal fragmentation of vinyl groups occurs for evaporation temperatures above 487 K (214 °C). At a background pressure of 10-6 mbar, the maximum molecular weight distribution is adjusted from (700 ± 100) g/mol to (6100 ± 100) g/mol with a polydispersity index of 1.06 ± 0.02. The content of vinyl-termination per repeating unit of PDMS is tailored from (2.8 ± 0.2)% to (5.6 ± 0.1)%. Molecular weights of vinyl-terminated PDMS evaporated at temperatures above 388 K (115 °C) correspond to those attributed to trimethyl-terminated PDMS. Side groups of linear PDMS dominate intermolecular interactions and vapor pressure.

  13. In situ synchrotron IR study relating temperature and heating rate to surface functional group changes in biomass.

    PubMed

    Kirtania, Kawnish; Tanner, Joanne; Kabir, Kazi Bayzid; Rajendran, Sharmen; Bhattacharya, Sankar

    2014-01-01

    Three types of woody biomass were investigated under pyrolysis condition to observe the change in the surface functional groups by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) technique with increasing temperature under two different (5 and 150°C/min) heating rates. The experiments were carried out in situ in the infrared microscopy beamline (IRM) of the Australian Synchrotron. The capability of the beamline made it possible to focus on single particles to obtain low noise measurements without mixing with KBr. At lower heating rate, the surface functional groups were completely removed by 550°C. In case of higher heating rate, a delay was observed in losing the functional groups. Even at a high temperature, significant number of functional groups was retained after the higher heating rate experiments. This implies that at considerably high heating rates typical of industrial reactors, more functional groups will remain on the surface. PMID:24189382

  14. Group social skills interventions for adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Spain, Debbie; Blainey, Sarah H

    2015-10-01

    Autism spectrum disorders are characterised by impairments in communication and social interaction. Social skills interventions have been found to ameliorate socio-communication deficits in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Little is known about the effectiveness of social skills interventions for adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders (hf-ASD) - a clinical population who can present with more subtle core deficits, but comparable levels of impairment and secondary difficulties. A systematic review was undertaken to investigate the effectiveness of social skills interventions for adults with high-functioning autism spectrum disorders. Five studies met the pre-specified review inclusion criteria: two quasi-experimental comparative trials and three single-arm interventions. There was a degree of variation in the structure, duration and content of the social skills interventions delivered, as well as several methodological limitations associated with included studies. Nevertheless, narrative analysis tentatively indicates that group social skills interventions may be effective for enhancing social knowledge and understanding, improving social functioning, reducing loneliness and potentially alleviating co-morbid psychiatric symptoms. PMID:26045543

  15. IL-12 drives functional plasticity of human group 2 innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Lim, Ai Ing; Menegatti, Silvia; Bustamante, Jacinta; Le Bourhis, Lionel; Allez, Matthieu; Rogge, Lars; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Yssel, Hans; Di Santo, James P

    2016-04-01

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) include IL-5- and IL-13-producing CRTh2(+)CD127(+)cells that are implicated in early protective immunity at mucosal surfaces. Whereas functional plasticity has been demonstrated for both human and mouse ILC3 subsets that can reversibly give rise to IFN-γ-producing ILC1, plasticity of human or mouse ILC2 has not been shown. Here, we analyze the phenotypic and functional heterogeneity of human peripheral blood ILC2. Although subsets of human CRTh2(+)ILC2 differentially express CD117 (c-kit receptor), some ILC2 surface phenotypes are unstable and can be modulated in vitro. Surprisingly, human IL-13(+)ILC2 can acquire the capacity to produce IFN-γ, thereby generating plastic ILC2. ILC2 cultures demonstrated that IFN-γ(+)ILC2 clones could be derived and were stably associated with increased T-BET expression. The inductive mechanism for ILC2 plasticity was mapped to the IL-12-IL-12R signaling pathway and was confirmed through analysis of patients with Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease due to IL-12Rβ1 deficiencies that failed to generate plastic ILC2. We also detected IL-13(+)IFN-γ(+)ILC2 ex vivo in intestinal samples from Crohn's disease patients. These results demonstrate cytokine production plasticity for human ILC2 and further suggest that environmental cues can dictate ILC phenotype and function for these tissue-resident innate effector cells. PMID:26976630

  16. Data-driven visualization and group analysis of multichannel EEG coherence with functional units.

    PubMed

    ten Caat, Michael; Maurits, Natasha M; Roerdink, Jos B T M

    2008-01-01

    A typical data-driven visualization of electroencephalography (EEG) coherence is a graph layout, with vertices representing electrodes and edges representing significant coherences between electrode signals. A drawback of this layout is its visual clutter for multichannel EEG. To reduce clutter, we define a functional unit (FU) as a data-driven region of interest (ROI). An FU is a spatially connected set of electrodes recording pairwise significantly coherent signals, represented in the coherence graph by a spatially connected clique. Earlier we presented two methods to detect FUs: a maximal clique based (MCB) method (time complexity O(3n/3), with n being the number of vertices) and a more efficient watershed based (WB) method (time complexity O (n2 log n)). To reduce the potential over-segmentation of the WB method, we introduce here an improved WB (IWB) method (time complexity O(n2 log n)). The IWB method merges basins representing FUs during the segmentation if they are spatially connected and if their union is a clique. The WB and IWB methods are both up to a factor of 100,000 faster than the MCB method for a typical multichannel setting with 128 EEG channels, thus making interactive visualization of multichannel EEG coherence possible. Results show that considering the MCB method as the gold standard, the difference between IWB and MCB FU maps is smaller than between WB and MCB FU maps. We also introduce two novel group maps for data-driven group analysis as extensions of the IWB method. First, the group mean coherence map preserves dominant features from a collection of individual FU maps. Second, the group FU size map visualizes the average FU size per electrode across a collection of individual FU maps. Finally, we employ an extensive case study to evaluate the IWB FU map and the two new group maps for data-driven group analysis. Results, in accordance with the conventional findings, indicate differences in EEG coherence between younger and older adults

  17. Click chemistry: a new facile and efficient strategy for the preparation of Fe3O4 nanoparticles covalently functionalized with IDA-Cu and their application in the depletion of abundant protein in blood samples.

    PubMed

    Jian, Guiqin; Liu, Yuxing; He, Xiwen; Chen, Langxing; Zhang, Yukui

    2012-10-21

    In this study, we report a novel method to synthesize core-shell structured Fe(3)O(4) nanoparticles (NPs) covalently functionalized with iminodiacetic acid (IDA) via click chemistry between the azide and alkyne groups and charged with Cu(2+). Firstly, the Fe(3)O(4)@SiO(2) NPs were obtained using tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) to form a silica shell on the surface of the Fe(3)O(4) core. The azide group-modified Fe(3)O(4)@SiO(2) NPs were obtained by a sol-gel process using 3-azidopropyltriethoxysilane (AzPTES) as the silane agent. Fe(3)O(4)@SiO(2)-N(3) was directly reacted with N-propargyl iminodiacetic via click chemistry, in the presence of a Cu(I) catalyst, to acquire the IDA-modified Fe(3)O(4) NPs. Finally, through the addition of Cu(2+), the Fe(3)O(4)@SiO(2)-IDA-Cu NP product was obtained. The morphology, structure and composition of the NPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The resulting NPs showed a strong magnetic response to an externally applied magnetic field, a high adsorption capacity and excellent specificity towards hemoglobin (Hb). In addition, the Fe(3)O(4)@SiO(2)-IDA-Cu NPs can be used for the selective removal of abundant Hb protein in bovine and human blood samples. PMID:22941423

  18. Studies on cyanobacterial extracellular polymeric substances: functional groups, calcite biomineralization and formation of capsular polymeric substances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittrich, M.; Sibler, S.; Matsko, N.

    2006-12-01

    Extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of microbial origin are an important class of polymeric materials which have been involved in different processes such as biofilm development or mineral precipitation. Cyanobacteria have been known as potential EPS producers for a long time. Despite their ubiquitous distribution, there is still a great lack of knowledge concerning the diversity of EPS binding sites of different picocyanobacterial strains on the one hand and the specific components of EPS which are responsible for calcite precipitation and crystal morphology on the other hand. It is generally accepted that capsular extracellular polymeric substances are the main components of biofilm matrixes. In this context, it is important to understand under which conditions cyanobacteria produce surface polysaccharides. In a recent study, we characterized the binding sites of EPS of three unicellular autotrophic picocyanobacterial strains of the Synechococcus-type. Potentiometric titrations were conducted to determine different types of functional groups present at the various sites. Precipitation experiments with EPS of different strains allowed for estimating the potential of EPS to precipitate calcium carbonate and the impact of functional groups composition on crystal morphology. In order to clarify the conditions under which cyanobacteria formed capsular EPS, we performed growth experiments in nutrients medium with different phosphorus concentrations (0.4, 4.1, 8.2 and 41 mgP/l). Cyanobacterial cells produced capsular EPS under phosphorus concentrations of 0.4, 4.1 and 8.2 mgP/l, while no capsular EPS were observed for the highest P concentration (41 mgP/l). At this concentration, however, calcium rich storage products were detected in the cells. The results thus suggest that both extracellular and intracellular products are regulated through phosphorus concentrations in growth solutions. Titrations reveal five or six distinct sites on surfaces of picocyanobacterial

  19. Functional renormalization group analysis of the soft mode at the QCD critical point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokota, Takeru; Kunihiro, Teiji; Morita, Kenji

    2016-07-01

    We make an intensive investigation of the soft mode at the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) critical point on the basis of the functional renormalization group (FRG) method in the local potential approximation. We calculate the spectral functions ρ_{σ, π}(ω, p) in the scalar (σ) and pseudoscalar (π) channels beyond the random phase approximation in the quark-meson model. At finite baryon chemical potential μ with a finite quark mass, the baryon-number fluctuation is coupled to the scalar channel and the spectral function in the σ channel has a support not only in the time-like (ω > p) but also in the space-like (ω < p) regions, which correspond to the mesonic and the particle-hole phonon excitations, respectively. We find that the energy of the peak position of the latter becomes vanishingly small with the height being enhanced as the system approaches the QCD critical point, which is a manifestation of the fact that the phonon mode is the soft mode associated with the second-order transition at the QCD critical point, as has been suggested by some authors. Moreover, our extensive calculation of the spectral function in the (ω, p) plane enables us to see that the mesonic and phonon modes have the respective definite dispersion relations ω_{σ.ph}(p), and it turns out that ω_{σ}(p) crosses the light-cone line into the space-like region, and then eventually merges into the phonon mode as the system approaches the critical point more closely. This implies that the sigma-mesonic mode also becomes soft at the critical point. We also provide numerical stability conditions that are necessary for obtaining the accurate effective potential from the flow equation.

  20. Evolution of long-lived globular cluster stars. II. Sodium abundance variations on the asymptotic giant branch as a function of globular cluster age and metallicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charbonnel, Corinne; Chantereau, William

    2016-02-01

    Context. Long-lived stars in globular clusters exhibit chemical peculiarities with respect to their halo counterparts. In particular, sodium-enriched stars are identified as belonging to a second stellar population born from cluster material contaminated by the hydrogen-burning ashes of a first stellar population. Their presence and numbers in different locations of the colour-magnitude diagram provide important constraints on the self-enrichment scenarios. In particular, the ratio of Na-poor to Na-rich stars on the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) has recently been found to vary strongly from cluster to cluster (NGC 6752, 47 Tuc, and NGC 2808), while it is relatively constant on the red giant branch (RGB). Aims: We investigate the impact of both age and metallicity on the theoretical sodium spread along the AGB within the framework of the fast rotating massive star (FRMS) scenario for globular cluster self-enrichment. Methods: We computed evolution models of low-mass stars for four different metallicities ([Fe/H] = -2.2, -1.75, -1.15, -0.5) assuming the initial helium-sodium abundance correlation for second population stars derived from the FRMS models and using mass loss prescriptions on the RGB with two realistic values of the free parameter in the Reimers formula. Results: Based on this grid of models we derive the theoretical critical initial mass for a star born with a given helium, sodium, and metal content that determines whether that star will climb or not the AGB. This allows us to predict the maximum sodium content expected on the AGB for globular clusters as a function of both their metallicity and age. We find that (1) at a given metallicity, younger clusters are expected to host AGB stars exhibiting a larger sodium spread than older clusters and (2) at a given age, higher sodium dispersion along the AGB is predicted in the most metal-poor globular clusters than in the metal-rich ones. We also confirm the strong impact of the mass loss rate in the earlier

  1. Using multidimensional gas chromatography to group secondary organic aerosol species by functionality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Rosa M.; Doskey, Paul V.

    2014-10-01

    A carbon number-functionality grid (CNFG) for a complex mixture of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) precursors and oxidation products was developed from the theoretical retention index diagram of a multidimensional gas chromatographic (GC × 2GC) analysis of a mixture of SOA precursors and derivatized oxidation products. In the GC × 2GC analysis, comprehensive separation of the complex mixture was achieved by diverting the modulated effluent from a polar primary column into 2 polar secondary columns. Column stationary phases spanned the widest range of selectivity of commercially available GC analytic columns. In general, separation of the species by the polar primary column was by the number of carbon atoms in the molecule (when the homologous series of reference compounds was selected to have molecular volumes and functionalities similar to the target analytes) and the polar secondary columns provided additional separation according to functionality. An algebraic transformation of the Abraham solvation parameter model was used to estimate linear retention indices of solutes relative to elution of a homologous series of methyl diesters on the primary and secondary columns to develop the theoretical GC × 2GC retention diagram. Retention indices of many of the oxidation products of SOA precursors were estimated for derivatized forms of the solutes. The GC stationary phases selected for the primary column [(50%-Trifluoropropyl)-methylpolysiloxane] and secondary columns (90% Cyanopropyl Polysilphenylene-siloxane and Polyethylene Glycol in a Sol-Gel matrix) provided a theoretical separation of 33 SOA precursors and 98 derivatized oxidation products into 35 groups by molecular volume and functionality. Comprehensive analysis of extracts of vapor and aerosol samples containing semivolatile SOA precursors and oxidation products, respectively, is best accomplished by (1) separating the complex mixture of the vapor and underivatized aerosol extracts with a (50

  2. Functional group analysis in coal and on coal surfaces by NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Verkade, J.G.

    1989-10-01

    The reaction of Cl{ovr POCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}O} (2) with moisture in pyridine extracts of Argonne standard coal samples has been found to give results comparable with the ASTM D3302 moisture analyses of these samples. Differences in the two sets of results are discussed. Some exceptionally large solvent effects on {sup 31}P chemical shifts of model compounds derivatized with 2 and 8 have been discovered. Initial experiments aimed at labile hydrogen functional group analysis of solid coal samples with 2 and Me{sub 2}N{ovr POCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}O} (15) are described. 17 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  3. The nuts and bolts of pills and portions: the functions of a drug safety working group.

    PubMed

    Nath, Noleen S; Jones, Ellen H; Stride, Peter; Premaratne, Manuja; Thaker, Darshit; Lim, Ivan

    2011-11-01

    Hospitalised patients commonly experience adverse drug events (ADEs) and medication errors. Runciman reported that ADEs in hospitals account for 20% of reported adverse events and contribute to 27% of deaths where death followed an adverse event. Hughes recommends multidisciplinary hospital drug committees to assess performance and raise standards. The new Code of Conduct of the Medical Board of Australia recommends participation in systems for surveillance and monitoring of adverse events, and to improve patient safety. We describe the functions and role of a Drug Safety Working Group (DSWG) in a suburban hospital, which aims to audit and promote a culture of prescribing and medication administration that is prudent and cautious to minimise the risk of harm to patients. We believe that regular prescription monitoring and feedback to Resident Medical Officers (RMOs) improves medication management in our hospital. PMID:22126939

  4. Effect of weak impurities on electronic properties of graphene: Functional renormalization-group analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katanin, A.

    2013-12-01

    We consider an effect of weak impurities on the electronic properties of graphene within the functional renormalization-group approach. The energy dependences of the electronic self-energy and density of states near the neutrality point are discussed. Depending on the symmetry of the impurities, the electronic damping Γ and density of states ρ can deviate substantially from those given by the self-consistent Born approximation. We investigate the crossover from the results of the self-consistent Born approximation, which are valid far from the neutrality point to the strong-coupling (diffusive) regime near the neutrality point. For impurities, which are diagonal in both valley and sublattice indices, we obtain a finite density of states at the Fermi level with values which are much bigger than the result of the self-consistent Born approximation.

  5. Differentiation and function of group 3 innate lymphoid cells, from embryo to adult.

    PubMed

    van de Pavert, Serge A; Vivier, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) represent a heterogeneous population of cells that share the nuclear hormone receptor RORγt (retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor γt) as a master regulator for differentiation and function. ILC3 can be divided into two major subsets based on the cell surface expression of the natural cytotoxicity receptor (NCR), NKp46. A subset of NCR(-) ILC3 includes the previously known lymphoid-tissue inducer cells that are essential for the embryonic formation of peripheral lymph nodes and Peyer's patches. After birth, the NCR(-) and NCR(+) ILC3 contribute to the maintenance of health but also to inflammation in mucosal tissues. This review will describe the differentiation pathways of ILC3, their involvement in the development of the adaptive immune system and their role in the establishment and maintenance of gut immunity. PMID:26374472

  6. Role of functional groups in surface bonding of planar π-conjugated molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Oliver; Mercurio, Giuseppe; Willenbockel, Martin; Reckien, Werner; Heinrich Schmitz, Christoph; Fiedler, Benjamin; Soubatch, Serguei; Bredow, Thomas; Tautz, Frank Stefan; Sokolowski, Moritz

    2012-12-01

    The trends in the bonding mechanism of 3,4,9,10-perylenetetracarboxylic acid dianhydride (PTCDA) to the Ag(111), Ag(100), and Ag(110) surfaces were analyzed on the basis of data obtained from x-ray standing waves and dispersion-corrected density functional theory. Of importance are the attractive local O-Ag bonds on the anhydride groups. They are the shorter, the more open the surface is, and lead even to partly repulsive interactions between the perylene core and the surface. In parallel, there is an increasing charge donation from the Ag surface into the π system of the PTCDA. This synergism explains the out-of-plane distortion of the adsorbed PTCDA and the surface buckling.

  7. Evidence for Functional Groupings of Vibrissae across the Rodent Mystacial Pad.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Jennifer A; Towal, R Blythe; Hartmann, Mitra J Z

    2016-01-01

    During natural exploration, rats exhibit two particularly conspicuous vibrissal-mediated behaviors: they follow along walls, and "dab" their snouts on the ground at frequencies related to the whisking cycle. In general, the walls and ground may be located at any distance from, and at any orientation relative to, the rat's head, which raises the question of how the rat might determine the position and orientation of these surfaces. Previous studies have compellingly demonstrated that rats can accurately determine the horizontal angle at which a vibrissa first touches an object, and we therefore asked whether this parameter could provide the rat with information about the pitch, distance, and yaw of a surface relative to its head. We used a three-dimensional model of the whisker array to construct mappings between the horizontal angle of contact of each vibrissa and every possible (pitch, distance, and yaw) configuration of the head relative to a flat surface. The mappings revealed striking differences in the patterns of contact for vibrissae in different regions of the array. The exterior (A, D, E) rows provide information about the relative pitch of the surface regardless of distance. The interior (B, C) rows provide distance cues regardless of head pitch. Yaw is linearly correlated with the difference between the number of right and left whiskers touching the surface. Compared to the long reaches that whiskers can make to the side and below the rat, the reachable distance in front of the rat's nose is relatively small. We confirmed key predictions of these functional groupings in a behavioral experiment that monitored the contact patterns that the vibrissae made with a flat vertical surface. These results suggest that vibrissae in different regions of the array are not interchangeable sensors, but rather functionally grouped to acquire particular types of information about the environment. PMID:26745501

  8. The Utilization of Amide Groups To Expand and Functionalize Metal-Organic Frameworks Simultaneously.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhiyong; Bai, Junfeng; Hang, Cheng; Meng, Fei; Liu, Wenlong; Pan, Yi; You, Xiaozeng

    2016-04-25

    A new stepwise ligand-elongation strategy by amide spacers is utilized to prepare isoreticularly high-porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), namely, quasi-mesoporous [Cu2 (PDBAD)(H2 O)]n (H4 PDBAD=5,5'-((4,4'-((pyridine-3,5-dicarbonyl)bis(azanediyl))bis(benzoyl))bis(azanediyl))diisophthalic acid; NJU-Bai22: NJU-Bai for Nanjing University Bai's group), and mesoporous [Cu2 (PABAD)(H2 O)]n (H4 PABAD=5,5'-((4,4'-((4,4'-((pyridine-3,5-dicarbonyl)bis(azanediyl))bis(benzoyl))bis (azanediyl))bis(benzoyl))bis(azanediyl))diisophthalic acid; NJU-Bai23). Compared with the prototypical MOF of [Cu2 (PDAD)(H2 O)]n (H4 PDAD=5,5'-(pyridine-3,5-dicarbonyl)bis(azanediyl)diisophthalic acid; NJU-Bai21, also termed as PCN-124), both MOFs exhibit almost the same CO2 adsorption enthalpy and CO2 selectivity values, and better capacity for CO2 storage under high pressure; these results make them promising candidate materials for CO2 capture and sequestration. Interestingly, this new method, in comparison with traditional strategies of using phenyl or triple-bond spacers, is easier and cheaper, resulting in a better ability to retain high CO2 affinity and selectivity in MOFs with large pores and high CO2 storage capacity. Additionally, it may lead to the high thermal stability of the MOFs and also their tolerance to water, which is related to the balance between the density of functional groups and pore sizes. Therefore, this strategy could provide new opportunities to explore more functionalized mesoporous MOFs with high performance. PMID:27031809

  9. Evidence for Functional Groupings of Vibrissae across the Rodent Mystacial Pad

    PubMed Central

    Hobbs, Jennifer A.; Towal, R. Blythe; Hartmann, Mitra J. Z.

    2016-01-01

    During natural exploration, rats exhibit two particularly conspicuous vibrissal-mediated behaviors: they follow along walls, and “dab” their snouts on the ground at frequencies related to the whisking cycle. In general, the walls and ground may be located at any distance from, and at any orientation relative to, the rat’s head, which raises the question of how the rat might determine the position and orientation of these surfaces. Previous studies have compellingly demonstrated that rats can accurately determine the horizontal angle at which a vibrissa first touches an object, and we therefore asked whether this parameter could provide the rat with information about the pitch, distance, and yaw of a surface relative to its head. We used a three-dimensional model of the whisker array to construct mappings between the horizontal angle of contact of each vibrissa and every possible (pitch, distance, and yaw) configuration of the head relative to a flat surface. The mappings revealed striking differences in the patterns of contact for vibrissae in different regions of the array. The exterior (A, D, E) rows provide information about the relative pitch of the surface regardless of distance. The interior (B, C) rows provide distance cues regardless of head pitch. Yaw is linearly correlated with the difference between the number of right and left whiskers touching the surface. Compared to the long reaches that whiskers can make to the side and below the rat, the reachable distance in front of the rat’s nose is relatively small. We confirmed key predictions of these functional groupings in a behavioral experiment that monitored the contact patterns that the vibrissae made with a flat vertical surface. These results suggest that vibrissae in different regions of the array are not interchangeable sensors, but rather functionally grouped to acquire particular types of information about the environment. PMID:26745501

  10. Tree species from different functional groups respond differently to environmental changes during establishment.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Eduardo R M; van Langevelde, Frank; Tomlinson, Kyle W; Carvalheiro, Luísa G; Kirkman, Kevin; de Bie, Steven; Prins, Herbert H T

    2014-04-01

    Savanna plant communities change considerably across time and space. The processes driving savanna plant species diversity, coexistence and turnover along environmental gradients are still unclear. Understanding how species respond differently to varying environmental conditions during the seedling stage, a critical stage for plant population dynamics, is needed to explain the current composition of plant communities and to enable us to predict their responses to future environmental changes. Here we investigate whether seedling response to changes in resource availability, and to competition with grass, varied between two functional groups of African savanna trees: species with small leaves, spines and N-fixing associations (fine-leaved species), and species with broad leaves, no spines, and lacking N-fixing associations (broad-leaved species). We show that while tree species were strongly suppressed by grass, the effect of resource availability on seedling performance varied considerably between the two functional groups. Nutrient inputs increased stem length only of broad-leaved species and only under an even watering treatment. Low light conditions benefited mostly broad-leaved species' growth. Savannas are susceptible to ongoing global environment changes. Our results suggest that an increase in woody cover is only likely to occur in savannas if grass cover is strongly suppressed (e.g. by fire or overgrazing). However, if woody cover does increase, broad-leaved species will benefit most from the resulting shaded environments, potentially leading to an expansion of the distribution of these species. Eutrophication and changes in rainfall patterns may also affect the balance between fine- and broad-leaved species. PMID:24337711

  11. Two-Year Comparison of a Stream Macroinvertebrate Functional Group Bioassessment Protocol for the Republic of Palau Archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olesen, A. A.; Benbow, M. E.; Holm, T.; Burky, A. J.

    2005-05-01

    Macroinvertebrate functional feeding group data was collected in 2003 and 2004 to develop a rapid bioassessment protocol for Palauan streams. One reference stream, Ngardmau, was selected to test functional group ratios and associated ecosystem attributes against streams of variable impact. In both years qualitative samples were collected using 30s dip net samples in pool habitats and benthic scouring methods in cascades with additional quantitative cascade collections for sampling technique comparisons in 2004. In the reference stream riffle habitat, filtering-gatherers dominated the community (89.92% in 2003 and 47.37% in 2004) compared to all other functional groups. Among the impacted streams, riffle functional group composition was variable compared to the reference stream. In reference pool habitats, gathering-collectors and scrapers dominated in 2003 and 2004, respectively. Scrapers dominated pool habitats of impacted streams in 2004, with some functional groups missing. Changes in ecosystem attributes followed functional group variability depending on degree of impact. Functional group ratios indicated channel stability ratio ([filtering-collectors + scrapers]/[shredders + gathering-collectors]) was lowered with increasing impact, suggesting food and/or habitat quality for filtering-collectors was degraded in riffle habitats in 2003 with no trends in 2004. By this protocol streams were determined to be degraded in 2004 relative to 2003.

  12. Why species matter: an experimental assessment of assumptions and predictive ability of two functional-group models.

    PubMed

    Fong, Caitlin R; Fong, Peggy

    2014-08-01

    Community ecologists use functional groups based on the rarely tested assumption that within-group responses to ecological processes are similar and thus members are functionally equivalent. However, recent research suggests that functional equivalency may break down with human impacts. We tested the equivalency assumption and model predictions of responses to simulated human alterations in nutrients and large herbivores for two models of coral reef algae, the Relative Dominance Model (RDM) and the Functional Group Model (FGM). Results of both mesocosm and field experiments using assembled communities were compared to model predictions, and within- and between-group variability were assessed. Both models' predictions of group response to herbivory matched experimental outcomes, but only the RDM predicted response to nutrients. However, within-group variability was dramatic, because the RDM grouped species with opposite responses to herbivory and the FGM grouped species with unique responses to nutrients. These heterogeneous responses resulted in loss of information and masked strong interactions between herbivory and nutrients that were not included in the models. As humans continue to impact major ecological processes in ecosystems globally, we postulate that functional-group models may need to be reformulated to account for shifting baselines. PMID:25230457

  13. Delineating native and invasive plant functional groups in shrub-steppe vegetation using bidirectional reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naupari, Javier A.; Vierling, Lee A.; Eitel, Jan U. H.

    2013-01-01

    Delineating invasive and native plant types using remote sensing is important for managing rangelands. Remote characterization of rangeland vegetation often utilizes only the nadir view, which can be complicated by background soil reflectance. We therefore collected bidirectional radiometric measurements on a shrub-steppe vegetated landscape throughout the mid- to late-growing season to: (1) quantify the BRFs of four rangeland vegetation functional groups (native shrub, native grasses, invasive annual grasses, and forbs), and (2) examine ways in which bidirectional reflectance values may help delineate native and invasive vegetation types. We found that the invasive grass medusahead rye (Taeniatherum caput-medusae [L.] Nevski) could be discriminated from other vegetation types at nadir and across four forward-viewing zenith angles because this species exhibited structural changes when leaf orientation changed from erectophile to planophile during and after the filling of seedheads. We also confirmed that native shrubs exhibited the highest anisotropy in all wavebands, as the relatively complex structure of the shrub canopy and concomitant shadowing greatly affected values of normalized difference vegetation index across all view angles. In order to delineate rangeland vegetation types at coarser scales, further study is needed to quantify the spectral angular signatures of these plant groups using satellite-based images.

  14. Structure-function relationships of the PEA3 group of Ets-related transcription factors.

    PubMed

    de Launoit, Y; Baert, J L; Chotteau, A; Monte, D; Defossez, P A; Coutte, L; Pelczar, H; Leenders, F

    1997-08-01

    The PEA3 group of transcription factors belongs to the Ets family and is composed of PEA3, ERM, and ER81, which are more than 95% identical within the DNA-binding domain--the ETS domain--and which demonstrate 50% aa identity overall. We present here a review of the current knowledge of these transcription factors, which possess functional domains responsible for DNA-binding, DNA-binding inhibition, and transactivation. Recent data suggest that these factors are targets for signaling cascades, such as the Ras-dependent ones, and thus may contribute first to the nuclear response to cell stimulation and second to Ras-induced cell transformation. The expression of the PEA3 group members in numerous developing murine organs, and, especially, in epithelial-mesenchymal interaction events, suggests a key role in murine organogenesis. Moreover, their expression in certain breast cancer cells suggests a possible involvement of these genes in the appearance, progression, and invasion of malignant cells. PMID:9259977

  15. Inhibition of nitrobenzene adsorption by water cluster formation at acidic oxygen functional groups on activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yuichi; Machida, Motoi; Tatsumoto, Hideki

    2008-06-15

    The inhibition effect of nitrobenzene adsorption by water clusters formed at the acidic groups on activated carbon was examined in aqueous and n-hexane solution. The activated carbon was oxidized with nitric acid to introduce CO complexes and then outgassed in helium flow at 1273 K to remove them completely without changing the structural properties of the carbon as a reference adsorbent. The amounts of acidic functional groups were determined by applying Boehm titration. A relative humidity of 95% was used to adsorb water onto the carbon surface. Strong adsorption of water onto the oxidized carbon can be observed by thermogravimetric analysis. The adsorption kinetic rate was estimated to be controlled by diffusion from the kinetic analysis. Significant decline in both capacity and kinetic rate for nitrobenzene adsorption onto the oxidized carbon was also observed in n-hexane solution by preadsorption of water to the carbon surface, whereas it was not detected for the outgassed carbons. These results might reveal that water molecules forming clusters at the CO complexes inhibited the entrance of nitrobenzene into the interparticles of the carbon. PMID:18440013

  16. Relationship between thermal extraction yield and oxygen-containing functional groups

    SciTech Connect

    Nao Kashimura; Toshimasa Takanohashi; Kensuke Masaki; Takahiro Shishido; Sinya Sato; Akimitsu Matsumura; Ikuo Saito

    2006-10-15

    Generating power from HyperCoal is a high-efficiency process in which the organic portion of coal is extracted with industrial solvents at a temperature around 360{sup o}C and fed to a gas turbine directly. This study sought to establish a selection index for identifying subbituminous coals that give high extraction yields. Subbituminous coals were extracted at 360{sup o}C with flowing industrial solvents, and we investigated the relationship between the extraction yield and the quantity of oxygen-containing functional groups in the coal. The extraction yield with a polar solvent, crude methylnaphthalene oil (CMNO), increased with the quantity of carboxylate groups bridged by metal cations, such as Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+} (COOM). The correlation coefficient between the extraction yield and the quantity was 0.82. Acid treatment of coal before extraction released COOM cross-links, increasing the extraction yield. These results suggest that the thermal extraction of low-rank coals strongly depends on the cross-links rather than the hydrogen bonds. Therefore, the thermal extraction yields of low-rank coals can be estimated from the quantity of COOM in the original coals. The intercept of the regression line between the quantity of COOM and the extraction yield with CMNO was 57.8%. This value is the average extraction yield for low-rank coals with free COOM. 23 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Longitudinal Distribution of the Functional Feeding Groups of Aquatic Insects in Streams of the Brazilian Cerrado Savanna.

    PubMed

    Brasil, L S; Juen, L; Batista, J D; Pavan, M G; Cabette, H S R

    2014-10-01

    We demonstrate that the distribution of the functional feeding groups of aquatic insects is related to hierarchical patch dynamics. Patches are sites with unique environmental and functional characteristics that are discontinuously distributed in time and space within a lotic system. This distribution predicts that the occurrence of species will be based predominantly on their environmental requirements. We sampled three streams within the same drainage basin in the Brazilian Cerrado savanna, focusing on waterfalls and associated habitats (upstream, downstream), representing different functional zones. We collected 2,636 specimens representing six functional feeding groups (FFGs): brushers, collector-gatherers, collector-filterers, shredders, predators, and scrapers. The frequency of occurrence of these groups varied significantly among environments. This variation appeared to be related to the distinct characteristics of the different habitat patches, which led us to infer that the hierarchical patch dynamics model can best explain the distribution of functional feeding groups in minor lotic environments, such as waterfalls. PMID:27193952

  18. Neurophysiological marker of inhibition distinguishes language groups on a non-linguistic executive function test.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, M; Tartar, J L; Padron, D; Acosta, J

    2013-12-01

    Successful interaction with the environment depends on flexible behaviors which require shifting attention, inhibiting primed responses, ignoring distracting information, and withholding motor responses. These abilities, termed executive function (EF), are believed to be mediated by inhibitory processes in the frontal lobes. Superior performance on EF tests (i.e., faster reaction times (RT), and fewer errors) has been shown in bilinguals compared to monolingual speakers. However, findings are inconsistent, and no study has directly linked this bilingual advantage to frontal lobe inhibitory processes. To clarify this uncertainty, we concomitantly tested neural inhibitory processes and behavioral responses on an EF test in bilinguals and monolinguals. Specifically, we compared English monolinguals (N=15) to Spanish/English bilinguals (N=13) on event-related brain potentials (ERP) during a non-linguistic, auditory Go/NoGo task, a task linked to non-motor, cognitive inhibition in monolinguals. Participants responded with a button press on trials in which target tone-pairs (Go trials) were presented and withheld their responses on non-target trials (NoGo trials). Results revealed significantly greater inhibition (i.e., greater mean N2 amplitude) in bilinguals compared to monolinguals during NoGo trials even though both groups performed the task equally well (i.e., withheld a motor response). On Go trials where participants pressed a response button, neither ERPs nor RT distinguished the groups. Additionally, scores on a second language proficiency test (i.e., English in our bilingual group) were positively correlated with N2 amplitude. These findings are the first to directly link this bilingual advantage to a neural correlate of inhibition and to reveal that inhibition in bilinguals is moderated by second language proficiency. Results are discussed in the context of plasticity, and we propose that evaluating bilinguals at varying levels of second-language proficiency

  19. Determination of HDV ribozyme N(-1) nucleobase and functional group specificity using internal competition kinetics

    PubMed Central

    Kellerman, Daniel L; Simmons, Kandice S; Pedraza, Mayra; Piccirilli, Joseph A; York, Darrin M; Harris, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Biological catalysis involves interactions distant from the site of chemistry that can position the substrate for reaction. Catalysis of RNA 2′-O-transphosphorylation by the HDV ribozyme is sensitive to the identity of the N(-1) nucleotide flanking the reactive phosphoryl group. However, the interactions that affect the conformation of this position, and in turn the 2′O nucleophile, are unclear. Here, we describe the application of multiple substrate internal competition kinetic analyses to understand how the N(-1) nucleobase contributes to HDV catalysis, and to test the utility of this approach for RNA structure-function studies. Internal competition reactions containing all four substrate sequence variants at the N(-1) position in reactions using ribozyme active site mutations at A77 and A78 were used to test a proposed basepairing interaction. Mutants A78U, A78G and A79G retain significant catalytic activity, but do not alter the specificity for the N(-1) nucleobase. Effects of nucleobase analog substitutions at N(-1) indicate that U is preferred due to the ability to donate an H-bond in the Watson-Crick face and avoid minor groove steric clash. The results provide information essential for evaluating models of the HDV active site, and illustrate multiple-substrate kinetic analyses as a practical approach for characterizing structure-function relationships in RNA reactions. PMID:25937290

  20. Trunk muscles contribute as functional groups to directionality of reaching during stance.

    PubMed

    Stamenkovic, Alexander; Stapley, Paul J

    2016-04-01

    Muscle activity preceding the onset of voluntary movement has been shown to reduce centre of mass (CoM) displacement and stabilise the body during self-induced 'perturbations'. However, based on recent findings in the lower limb, where preparatory muscle activity creates the dynamics necessary for the initiation of movement, this study sought to investigate whether trunk musculature acted consistently to minimise the displacement of the CoM, or in contrast, contribute to the movement. While standing, nine healthy participants made single-step (point-to-point) reaching movements to 13 visual targets throughout a 180° range (target interval = 15°). Full-body kinematics and electromyographic activity from 'focal' arm and 'postural' trunk muscles were analysed for a preparatory phase of 250-ms preceding movement onset (termed pPA). Akin to lower limb findings, direction-specific patterns of anticipatory trunk muscle activity accompanied the onset of rotational kinematics and CoM acceleration in the direction of the desired target. When arranged in terms of peak activation, we found functionally relevant groupings aligned to either ipsi-, central or contra-lateral reaching directions. Contrary to traditional approaches, which focus on CoM stabilisation, this spatial recruitment was in favour of assisting initiation of movement. Such activity suggests that the central nervous system may rely on synergic patterns of muscle activation within an undistinguishable and shared focal/postural motor command for functional voluntary movements. PMID:26746311

  1. Homogeneous Ziegler-Natta polymerization of functionalized monomers catalyzed by cationic group IV metallocenes

    SciTech Connect

    Kesti, M.R.; Coates, G.W.; Waymouth, R.M.

    1992-11-18

    Ziegler-Natta catalysts are remarkable in their ability to polymerize {alpha}-olefins to high molecular weight, stereoregular polyolefins. One of the major limitations of conventional Ziegler-Natta catalysts is their intolerance to Lewis bases; catalysts based on titanium halides and alkylaluminum cocatalysts are poisoned by most types of monomers containing ethers, esters, amines, and carboxylic acids. The absence of functionality in hydrocarbon polymers seriously affects their adhesive properties, affinity for dyes, permeability, and compatibility with more polar polymers. Previous attempts to polymerize sterically hindered amines, esters and amides, alkyl halides, and carboxylic acids using catalysts derived from TiCl{sub 3} and AlR{sub 3-n}Cl{sub n} have achieved limited success due to the severe loss of catalytic activity in the presence of these monomers. This work reports that cationic, group four metallocenes are active catalysts for the homo-polymerization of {alpha}-olefins containing silyl-protected alcohols and tertiary amines. Employing different monomers and conditions, a table shows the starting monomer, reaction time and temperature, and spectroscopic analysis of the end products. A major advanatage of these metallocene-based catalysts is that the ligand system can be modified to proved the optimal combination of catalystic activity, stereospecificity, and tolerance to functionality. 32 refs., 1 tab.

  2. Ammonia capture in porous organic polymers densely functionalized with Brønsted acid groups.

    PubMed

    Van Humbeck, Jeffrey F; McDonald, Thomas M; Jing, Xiaofei; Wiers, Brian M; Zhu, Guangshan; Long, Jeffrey R

    2014-02-12

    The elimination of specific environmental and industrial contaminants, which are hazardous at only part per million to part per billion concentrations, poses a significant technological challenge. Adsorptive materials designed for such processes must be engendered with an exceptionally high enthalpy of adsorption for the analyte of interest. Rather than relying on a single strong interaction, the use of multiple chemical interactions is an emerging strategy for achieving this requisite physical parameter. Herein, we describe an efficient, catalytic synthesis of diamondoid porous organic polymers densely functionalized with carboxylic acids. Physical parameters such as pore size distribution, application of these materials to low-pressure ammonia adsorption, and comparison with analogous materials featuring functional groups of varying acidity are presented. In particular, BPP-5, which features a multiply interpenetrated structure dominated by <6 Å pores, is shown to exhibit an uptake of 17.7 mmol/g at 1 bar, the highest capacity yet demonstrated for a readily recyclable material. A complementary framework, BPP-7, features slightly larger pore sizes, and the resulting improvement in uptake kinetics allows for efficient adsorption at low pressure (3.15 mmol/g at 480 ppm). Overall, the data strongly suggest that the spatial arrangement of acidic sites allows for cooperative behavior, which leads to enhanced NH3 adsorption. PMID:24456083

  3. Aldehyde Recognition and Discrimination by Mammalian Odorant Receptors via Functional Group-Specific Hydration Chemistry

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian odorant receptors (ORs) form a chemical-detecting interface between the atmosphere and the nervous system. This large gene family is composed of hundreds of membrane proteins predicted to form as many unique small molecule binding niches within their G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) framework, but very little is known about the molecular recognition strategies they use to bind and discriminate between small molecule odorants. Using rationally designed synthetic analogs of a typical aliphatic aldehyde, we report evidence that among the ORs showing specificity for the aldehyde functional group, a significant percentage detect the aldehyde through its ability to react with water to form a 1,1-geminal (gem)-diol. Evidence is presented indicating that the rat OR-I7, an often-studied and modeled OR known to require the aldehyde function of octanal for activation, is likely one of the gem-diol activated receptors. A homology model based on an activated GPCR X-ray structure provides a structural hypothesis for activation of OR-I7 by the gem-diol of octanal. PMID:25181321

  4. Aza-macrocyclic complexes of the Group 1 cations - synthesis, structures and density functional theory study.

    PubMed

    Dyke, John; Levason, William; Light, Mark E; Pugh, David; Reid, Gillian; Bhakhoa, Hanusha; Ramasami, Ponnadurai; Rhyman, Lydia

    2015-08-21

    The Group 1 complexes, [M(Me6[18]aneN6)][BAr(F)] (M = Li-Cs; Me6[18]aneN6 = 1,4,7,10,13,16-hexamethyl-1,4,7,10,13,16-hexaazacyclooctadecane; BAr(F) = tetrakis{3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)-phenyl}borate), are obtained in high yield by reaction of the macrocycle with M[BAr(F)] in anhydrous CH2Cl2 solution, and characterised spectroscopically ((1)H, (13)C{(1)H}, (7)Li, (23)Na, and (133)Cs NMR), by microanalysis and, for M = Li, K, and Rb, by single crystal X-ray analysis. The structures show N6-coordination to the metal ion; the small ionic radius for Li(+) leads to a puckered conformation. In contrast, the K(+) ion fits well into the N6 plane, with the [BAr(F)](-) anions above and below, leading to two K(+) species in the asymmetric unit (a hexagonal planar [K(Me6[18]aneN6)](+) cation and a '[K(Me6[18]aneN6)(κ(1)-BAr(F))2](-) anion', with long axial KF interactions). The Rb(+) ion sits above the N6 plane, with two long axial RbF interactions in one cation and two long, mutually cis RbF interactions in the other. The unusual sandwich cations, [M(Me3tacn)2](+) (M = Na, K; distorted octahedral, N6 donor set) and half-sandwich cations [Li(Me3tacn)(thf)](+) (distorted tetrahedron, N3O donor set), [Li(Me4cyclen)(OH2)](+), and [Na(Me4cyclen)(thf)](+) (both distorted square pyramids with N4O donor sets) were also prepared (Me3tacn = 1,4,7-trimethyl-1,4,7-triazacyclononane, Me4cyclen = 1,4,7,10-tetramethyl-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane). Density functional theory (DFT) calculations, using the BP86 and B3LYP functionals, show that the accessibility of the [M(Me3tacn)2](+) sandwich cations depends strongly on the M(+) ionic radius, such that it is sufficiently large to avoid steric clashing between the Me groups of the two rings, and small enough to avoid very acute N-M-N chelate angles. The calculations also show that coordination to the Group 1 cation involves significant donation of electron density from the p-orbitals on the N atoms of the macrocycle, rather than purely

  5. Soil surface protection by Biocrusts: effects of functional groups on textural properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Concostrina-Zubiri, Laura; Huber-Sannwald, Elisabeth; Martínez, Isabel; Flores Flores, José Luis; Escudero, Adrián

    2015-04-01

    In drylands, where vegetation cover is commonly scarce, soil surface is prone to wind and water soil erosion, with the subsequent loss of topsoil structure and chemical properties. These processes are even more pronounced in ecosystems subjected to extra erosive forces, such as grasslands and rangelands that support livestock production. However, some of the physiological and functional traits of biocrusts (i.e., complex association of cyanobacteria, lichens, mosses, fungi and soil particles) make them ideal to resist in disturbed environments and at the same time to protect soil surface from mechanical perturbations. In particular, the filaments and exudates of soil cyanobacteria and the rhizines of lichen can bind together soil particles, forming soil aggregates at the soil surface and thus enhancing soil stability. Also, they act as "biological covers" that preserve the most vulnerable soil layer from wind and runoff erosion and raindrop impact, maintaining soil structure and composition. In this work, we evaluated soil textural properties and organic matter content under different functional groups of biocrusts (i.e., cyanobacteria crust, 3 lichen species, 1 moss species) and in bare soil. In order to assess the impact of livestock trampling on soil properties and on Biocrust function, we sampled three sites conforming a disturbance gradient (low, medium and high impact sites) and a long-term livestock exclusion as control site. We found that the presence of biocrusts had little effects on soil textural properties and organic matter content in the control site, while noticeable differences were found between bare soil and soil under biocrusts (e.g., up to 16-37% higher clay content, compared to bare soil and up to 10% higher organic matter content). In addition, we found that depending on morphological traits and grazing regime, the effects of biocrusts changed along the gradient. For example, soil under the lichen Diploschistes diacapsis, with thick thallus

  6. Functional group biodiversity in Eastern Boundary Upwelling Ecosystems questions the wasp-waist trophic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fréon, Pierre; Arístegui, Javier; Bertrand, Arnaud; Crawford, Robert J. M.; Field, John C.; Gibbons, Mark J.; Tam, Jorge; Hutchings, Larry; Masski, Hicham; Mullon, Christian; Ramdani, Mohamed; Seret, Bernard; Simier, Monique

    2009-12-01

    The species diversity of the four major Eastern Boundary Upwelling Ecosystems (EBUEs) is studied and compared with the aim of better understanding their functioning. Functional groups (FGs) of organisms were defined according to their taxonomy, body size and trophic level (TL), and span from plankton to top predators. Four large sub-divisions are defined in each system: two latitudinal sub-divisions (north and south) and two zonal sub-divisions (inshore and offshore), resulting in four sub-ecosystems per EBUE. A semi-quantitative approach is used in which only the dominant species (contributing 90% of overall biomass) are considered. EBUEs are compared in regard to their species composition, dominant species richness and evenness within FGs. The data are interpreted, focusing on latitudinal, zonal and depth gradients of diversity. Trophic flows (inflow and outflow) through the small pelagic fish FG are derived from different Ecopath models. This analysis of the four ecosystems and their sub-divisions does not provide support for the expected wasp-waist food web structure and functioning, with a single or several species of small pelagic fish primarily channelling the energy flow from lower to higher TL. Instead, similar low levels of richness were observed in many FGs of intermediate TL, allowing several energy transfer pathways. The gamma diversity is high due to the geographical distance between EBUEs and the presence or absence of rivers, but not to differences in their latitudinal position. The beta diversity is also high, due to the same factors plus the variation in shelf width and the contrast between inshore and offshore sub-divisions. The differences in richness and evenness among EBUEs are minor and do not explain the higher secondary and tertiary productivity of the Humboldt ecosystem.

  7. Anion Binding in Metal-Organic Frameworks Functionalized with Urea Hydrogen-Bonding Groups

    SciTech Connect

    Custelcean, Radu; Moyer, Bruce A; Bryantsev, Vyacheslav S.; Hay, Benjamin P.

    2006-01-01

    A series of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) functionalized with urea hydrogen-bonding groups has been synthesized and structurally analyzed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction to evaluate the efficacy of anion coordination by urea within the structural constraints of the MOFs. We found that urea-based functionalities may be used for anion binding within metal-organic frameworks when the tendency for urea{hor_ellipsis}urea self-association is decreased by strengthening the intramolecular CH{hor_ellipsis}O hydrogen bonding of N-phenyl substituents to the carbonyl oxygen atom. Theoretical calculations indicate that N,N'-bis(m-pyridyl)urea (BPU) and N,N'-bis(m-cyanophenyl)urea (BCPU) should have enhanced hydrogen-bonding donor abilities toward anions and decreased tendencies to self-associate into hydrogen-bonded tapes compared to other disubstituted ureas. Accordingly, BPU and BCPU were incorporated in MOFs as linkers through coordination of various Zn, Cu, and Ag transition metal salts, including Zn(ClO{sub 4}){sub 2}, ZnSO{sub 4}, Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, Cu(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}){sub 2}, AgNO{sub 3}, and AgSO{sub 3}CH{sub 3}. Structural analysis by single-crystal X-ray diffraction showed that these linkers are versatile anion binders, capable of chelate hydrogen bonding to all of the oxoanions explored. Anion coordination by the urea functionalities was found to successfully compete with urea self-association in all cases except for that of charge-diffuse perchlorate.

  8. A conditional Granger causality model approach for group analysis in functional MRI

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhenyu; Wang, Xunheng; Klahr, Nelson J.; Liu, Wei; Arias, Diana; Liu, Hongzhi; von Deneen, Karen M.; Wen, Ying; Lu, Zuhong; Xu, Dongrong; Liu, Yijun

    2011-01-01

    Granger causality model (GCM) derived from multivariate vector autoregressive models of data has been employed for identifying effective connectivity in the human brain with functional MR imaging (fMRI) and to reveal complex temporal and spatial dynamics underlying a variety of cognitive processes. In the most recent fMRI effective connectivity measures, pairwise GCM has commonly been applied based on single voxel values or average values from special brain areas at the group level. Although a few novel conditional GCM methods have been proposed to quantify the connections between brain areas, our study is the first to propose a viable standardized approach for group analysis of an fMRI data with GCM. To compare the effectiveness of our approach with traditional pairwise GCM models, we applied a well-established conditional GCM to pre-selected time series of brain regions resulting from general linear model (GLM) and group spatial kernel independent component analysis (ICA) of an fMRI dataset in the temporal domain. Datasets consisting of one task-related and one resting-state fMRI were used to investigate connections among brain areas with the conditional GCM method. With the GLM detected brain activation regions in the emotion related cortex during the block design paradigm, the conditional GCM method was proposed to study the causality of the habituation between the left amygdala and pregenual cingulate cortex during emotion processing. For the resting-state dataset, it is possible to calculate not only the effective connectivity between networks but also the heterogeneity within a single network. Our results have further shown a particular interacting pattern of default mode network (DMN) that can be characterized as both afferent and efferent influences on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). These results suggest that the conditional GCM approach based on a linear multivariate vector autoregressive (MVAR) model can achieve

  9. Abundance of introduced species at home predicts abundance away in herbaceous communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Firn, Jennifer; Moore, Joslin L.; MacDougall, Andrew S.; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Seabloom, Eric W.; HilleRisLambers, Janneke; Harpole, W. Stanley; Cleland, Elsa E.; Brown, Cynthia S.; Knops, Johannes M.H.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Pyke, David A.; Farrell, Kelly A.; Bakker, John D.; O'Halloran, Lydia R.; Adler, Peter B.; Collins, Scott L.; D'Antonio, Carla M.; Crawley, Michael J.; Wolkovich, Elizabeth M.; La Pierre, Kimberly J.; Melbourne, Brett A.; Hautier, Yann; Morgan, John W.; Leakey, Andrew D.B.; Kay, Adam; McCulley, Rebecca; Davies, Kendi F.; Stevens, Carly J.; Chu, Cheng-Jin; Holl, Karen D.; Klein, Julia A.; Fay, Phillip A.; Hagenah, Nicole; Kirkman, Kevin P.; Buckley, Yvonne M.

    2011-01-01

    Many ecosystems worldwide are dominated by introduced plant species, leading to loss of biodiversity and ecosystem function. A common but rarely tested assumption is that these plants are more abundant in introduced vs. native communities, because ecological or evolutionary-based shifts in populations underlie invasion success. Here, data for 26 herbaceous species at 39 sites, within eight countries, revealed that species abundances were similar at native (home) and introduced (away) sites - grass species were generally abundant home and away, while forbs were low in abundance, but more abundant at home. Sites with six or more of these species had similar community abundance hierarchies, suggesting that suites of introduced species are assembling similarly on different continents. Overall, we found that substantial changes to populations are not necessarily a pre-condition for invasion success and that increases in species abundance are unusual. Instead, abundance at home predicts abundance away, a potentially useful additional criterion for biosecurity programmes.

  10. Identification of the functional groups on the surface of nanoparticles formed in photonucleation of aldehydes generated during forest fire events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dultsev, Fedor N.; Mik, Ivan A.; Dubtsov, Sergei N.; Dultseva, Galina G.

    2014-11-01

    We describe the new proc