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Sample records for abundant granular eosinophilic

  1. Leukemia -- Eosinophilic

    MedlinePlus

    ... Leukemia - Eosinophilic: Overview Request Permissions Print to PDF Leukemia - Eosinophilic: Overview Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... Platelets that help the blood to clot About leukemia Types of leukemia are named after the specific ...

  2. Eosinophilic Pneumonias

    PubMed Central

    Akuthota, Praveen

    2012-01-01

    Summary: This review starts with discussions of several infectious causes of eosinophilic pneumonia, which are almost exclusively parasitic in nature. Pulmonary infections due specifically to Ascaris, hookworms, Strongyloides, Paragonimus, filariasis, and Toxocara are considered in detail. The discussion then moves to noninfectious causes of eosinophilic pulmonary infiltration, including allergic sensitization to Aspergillus, acute and chronic eosinophilic pneumonias, Churg-Strauss syndrome, hypereosinophilic syndromes, and pulmonary eosinophilia due to exposure to specific medications or toxins. PMID:23034324

  3. Eosinophilic meningitis.

    PubMed

    Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak; Chotmongkol, Verajit

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis is defined by the presence of at least 10% eosinophils in the total cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leukocyte count. Although there are several possible causes of eosinophils in the CSF, parasitic infection is the main cause. The three common parasites causing eosinophilic meningitis include Angiostrongylus cantonensis, Gnathostoma spinigerum, and Taenia solium. Even though these parasites are endemic in tropical countries, they are now spreading globally due to extensive traveling, and physicians worldwide should pay more attention to this condition. This chapter will review risk factors, clinical manifestations, and treatment of these three parasites.

  4. Eosinophilic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... parasites , particularly ones that invade tissue, cause eosinophilia. Cancers that cause eosinophilia include Hodgkin lymphoma , leukemia , and myeloproliferative disorders . If the number of eosinophils is only ...

  5. Eosinophilic annular erythema in childhood - Case report*

    PubMed Central

    Abarzúa, Alvaro; Giesen, Laura; Silva, Sergio; González, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic annular erythema is a rare, benign, recurrent disease, clinically characterized by persistent, annular, erythematous lesions, revealing histopathologically perivascular infiltrates with abundant eosinophils. This report describes an unusual case of eosinophilic annular erythema in a 3-year-old female, requiring sustained doses of hydroxychloroquine to be adequately controlled. PMID:27579748

  6. Eosinophilic annular erythema in childhood - Case report.

    PubMed

    Abarzúa, Alvaro; Giesen, Laura; Silva, Sergio; González, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic annular erythema is a rare, benign, recurrent disease, clinically characterized by persistent, annular, erythematous lesions, revealing histopathologically perivascular infiltrates with abundant eosinophils. This report describes an unusual case of eosinophilic annular erythema in a 3-year-old female, requiring sustained doses of hydroxychloroquine to be adequately controlled. PMID:27579748

  7. EoE (Eosinophilic Esophagitis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... EGIDs Eosinophilic Fasciitis Eosinophilic Pneumonia Eosinophilic Cystitis Eosinophilic Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis Hypereosinophilic Syndrome Eosinophilia-Myalgia Syndrome Resources For Patients ...

  8. Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis with Eosinophilic Dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joung Il; Joo, Kwang Ro; Shin, Hyun Phil

    2010-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG) is characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the bowel wall and variable gastrointestinal manifestations. Clinicians should have a high index of suspicion for EG when faced with gastrointestinal symptoms and peripheral eosinophilia to avoid incorrect diagnosis and inappropriate treatments. A 24-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital complaining of acute right lower quadrant abdominal pain and a laparoscopic appendectomy performed for a presumed diagnosis of an acute appendicitis. However, the procedure revealed bowel edema and a moderate amount of ascites without evidence of a suppurative appendicitis. Postoperatively, she showed persistent and progressive eosinophilia, exudative eosinophilic ascites, eosinophilic infiltration of the resected appendix wall, and eosinophilic infiltration of gastroduodenal mucosa. A punch biopsy of the abdominal skin also revealed inflammation with marked eosinophilic infiltration of the skin. She recovered after the treatment with a low dose of steroid for the EG with eosinophilic dermatitis. EG with eosinophilic dermatitis has not been reported yet and is considered fortuitous in this case. PMID:20046530

  9. Ultrasound features of orbital granular cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Ayres, Bernadete; Miller, Neil R; Eberhart, Charles G; Dibernardo, Cathy W

    2009-01-01

    The authors report the echographic characteristics of a rare orbital granular cell tumor and correlate these findings with histopathology. A 56-year-old woman presented with proptosis. Complete ophthalmic and ultrasound examinations were performed. Ultrasound revealed an oval, well-outlined orbital mass in the intraconal space with low-medium reflectivity and regular internal structure. An orbitotomy with complete excision of the tumor was performed. Histopathologic evaluation showed sheets and nests of cells with abundant eosinophilic and granular cytoplasm in a uniform distribution throughout the lesion. The echographic characteristics correlated well with the morphologic surgical findings and the histologic architecture. This is the first report describing the echographic characteristics of orbital granular cell tumor.

  10. Eosinophilic Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... produce more of them in response to Allergic disorders Skin conditions Parasitic and fungal infections Autoimmune diseases Some cancers Bone marrow disorders In some conditions, the eosinophils can move outside ...

  11. Cystatin F Ensures Eosinophil Survival by Regulating Granule Biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Stephen P; McMillan, Sarah J; Colbert, Jeff D; Lawrence, Rachel A; Watts, Colin

    2016-04-19

    Eosinophils are now recognized as multifunctional leukocytes that provide critical homeostatic signals to maintain other immune cells and aid tissue repair. Paradoxically, eosinophils also express an armory of granule-localized toxins and hydrolases believed to contribute to pathology in inflammatory disease. How eosinophils deliver their supporting functions while avoiding self-inflicted injury is poorly understood. We have demonstrated that cystatin F (CF) is a critical survival factor for eosinophils. Eosinophils from CF null mice had reduced lifespan, reduced granularity, and disturbed granule morphology. In vitro, cysteine protease inhibitors restored granularity, demonstrating that control of cysteine protease activity by CF is critical for normal eosinophil development. CF null mice showed reduced pulmonary pathology in a model of allergic lung inflammation but also reduced ability to combat infection by the nematode Brugia malayi. These data identify CF as a "cytoprotectant" that promotes eosinophil survival and function by ensuring granule integrity. VIDEO ABSTRACT. PMID:27067058

  12. Cystatin F Ensures Eosinophil Survival by Regulating Granule Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Stephen P.; McMillan, Sarah J.; Colbert, Jeff D.; Lawrence, Rachel A.; Watts, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Eosinophils are now recognized as multifunctional leukocytes that provide critical homeostatic signals to maintain other immune cells and aid tissue repair. Paradoxically, eosinophils also express an armory of granule-localized toxins and hydrolases believed to contribute to pathology in inflammatory disease. How eosinophils deliver their supporting functions while avoiding self-inflicted injury is poorly understood. We have demonstrated that cystatin F (CF) is a critical survival factor for eosinophils. Eosinophils from CF null mice had reduced lifespan, reduced granularity, and disturbed granule morphology. In vitro, cysteine protease inhibitors restored granularity, demonstrating that control of cysteine protease activity by CF is critical for normal eosinophil development. CF null mice showed reduced pulmonary pathology in a model of allergic lung inflammation but also reduced ability to combat infection by the nematode Brugia malayi. These data identify CF as a “cytoprotectant” that promotes eosinophil survival and function by ensuring granule integrity. Video Abstract PMID:27067058

  13. Cystatin F Ensures Eosinophil Survival by Regulating Granule Biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Stephen P; McMillan, Sarah J; Colbert, Jeff D; Lawrence, Rachel A; Watts, Colin

    2016-04-19

    Eosinophils are now recognized as multifunctional leukocytes that provide critical homeostatic signals to maintain other immune cells and aid tissue repair. Paradoxically, eosinophils also express an armory of granule-localized toxins and hydrolases believed to contribute to pathology in inflammatory disease. How eosinophils deliver their supporting functions while avoiding self-inflicted injury is poorly understood. We have demonstrated that cystatin F (CF) is a critical survival factor for eosinophils. Eosinophils from CF null mice had reduced lifespan, reduced granularity, and disturbed granule morphology. In vitro, cysteine protease inhibitors restored granularity, demonstrating that control of cysteine protease activity by CF is critical for normal eosinophil development. CF null mice showed reduced pulmonary pathology in a model of allergic lung inflammation but also reduced ability to combat infection by the nematode Brugia malayi. These data identify CF as a "cytoprotectant" that promotes eosinophil survival and function by ensuring granule integrity. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

  14. Eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Gupte, Anand R; Draganov, Peter V

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is increasingly recognized in adults. The diagnosis is based on the presence of both typical symptoms and pathologic findings on esophageal biopsy. Patients usually present with dysphagia, food impaction and/or reflux-like symptoms, and biopsy of the esophagus shows more than 15 eosinophils per high-power field. In addition, it is essential to exclude the presence of known causes of tissue eosinophilia such as gastroesophageal reflux disease, infections, malignancy, collagen vascular diseases, hypersensitivity, and inflammatory bowel disease. There are no standardized protocols for the therapy of eosinophilic esophagitis. A variety of therapeutic approaches including acid suppression, dietary modifications, topical corticosteroids and endoscopic dilation can be used alone or in combination. PMID:19115464

  15. Eosinophilic oesophagitis.

    PubMed

    Bancil, Aaron S; Hewett, Rhys; Hayat, Jamal O; Poullis, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    Eosinophilic oesophagitis is a chronic immune-mediated inflammatory disorder of the oesophagus, characterized by symptoms of dysphagia or food bolus obstruction. Diagnosis is supported by typical histological findings. This article covers pertinent aspects of the disease, pathogenic explanations and treatment options. PMID:27388380

  16. Eosinophil ETosis and DNA Traps: a New Look at Eosinophilic Inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ueki, Shigeharu; Tokunaga, Takahiro; Fujieda, Shigeharu; Honda, Kohei; Hirokawa, Makoto; Spencer, Lisa A; Weller, Peter F

    2016-07-01

    The traditional paradigm of eosinophils as end-stage damaging cells has mainly relied on their release of cytotoxic proteins. Cytokine-induced cell survival and secretion of granular contents from tissue-dwelling eosinophil are thought to be important mechanisms for eosinophilic inflammatory disorders, although the occurrence of cytolysis and its products (i.e., free extracellular granules) has been observed in affected lesions. Recent evidence indicates that activated eosinophils can exhibit a non-apoptotic cell death pathway, namely extracellular trap cell death (ETosis) that mediates the eosinophil cytolytic degranulation. Here, we discuss the current concept of eosinophil ETosis which provides a new look at eosinophilic inflammation. Lessons from eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis revealed that ETosis-derived DNA traps, composed of stable web-like chromatin, contribute to the properties of highly viscous eosinophilic mucin and impairments in its clearance. Intact granules entrapped in DNA traps are causing long-lasting inflammation but also might have immunoregulatory roles. Eosinophils possess a way to have post-postmortem impacts on innate immunity, local immune response, sterile inflammation, and tissue damage. PMID:27393701

  17. Eosinophil count - absolute

    MedlinePlus

    Eosinophils; Absolute eosinophil count ... the white blood cell count to give the absolute eosinophil count. ... than 500 cells per microliter (cells/mcL). Normal value ranges may vary slightly among different laboratories. Talk ...

  18. Eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Kedia, Saurabh; Baruah, Bhaskar Jyoti; Makharia, Govind; Ahuja, Vineet

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinico-pathological entity characterised by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and eosinophilia on esophageal mucosal biopsies in the absence of other causes of esophageal eosinophilia. It is a chronic inflammatory condition of esophagus often characterized by refractory reflux symptoms in children and dysphagia in adults. It occurs as a result of Th2 inflammatory response to environmental triggers (food antigens) in genetically predisposed individuals. The diagnostic criteria include symptoms of esophageal dysfunction, esophageal eosinophilia (> 15/hpf), and a PPI trial (persistent eosinophilia after 8 weeks of PPI). Mainstay of treatment at present is topical steroids and dietary therapy. Maintenance treatment should be considered to prevent long term complications. PMID:27522734

  19. Primary ductal adenocarcinoma of the lacrimal gland, associated with abundant intracytoplasmic lumens containing some eosinophilic hyaline globules: cytological, histological and ultrastructural findings.

    PubMed

    Min, Kyueng-Whan; Park, Hyung Kyu; Kim, Wook Youn; Kim, Wan-Seop; Lim, So Dug; Han, Hye Seung; Hwang, Tae Sook

    2014-10-01

    A primary ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) of the lacrimal gland is a rare distinct subtype of an epithelial tumor arising in the lacrimal gland. PDA is the counterpart of salivary duct carcinoma (SDC) resembling an invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) of the breast. In our case, PDA revealed histopathological and immunohistochemical results corresponding to SDC. Interestingly, the tumor cells showed intracytoplasmic vacuoles containing dense eosinophilic hyaline globules at light microscopy. Ultrastructurally, the tumor cells exhibited microvilli-lined intracytoplasmic lumen containing homogenous electron-dense secretory products. A previous study demonstrated that numerous intracytoplasmic lumens of tumor cells are favored breast malignant tumor, similar to the histopathology of PDA, rather than benign lesion. This characteristic finding may be meaningful to diagnose high grade epithelial tumors including PDA.

  20. A Collision Tumor Consisting of Granular Cell Tumor and Adenocarcinoma in the Uterus of an Aged Djungarian Hamster

    PubMed Central

    Golbar, Hossain M.; Izawa, Takeshi; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Okamura, Kensaku; Fujita, Daisuke; Tagami, Yukari; Sasai, Hiroshi; Yamate, Jyoji

    2011-01-01

    A neoplastic nodular lesion consisting of an admixture of granular cell tumor and adenocarcinoma was found in the uterus of a 26-month-old Djungarian hamster. Neoplastic cells of the uterine adenocarcinoma showed an epithelial nature in their growth patterns and by cytokeratin-immunopositive reaction, exhibiting nuclear pleomorphism. The granular cells had an abundant amount of fine granular eosinophilic cytoplasm and eccentric or central nuclei with no nuclear atypia; the granular structures were positive for periodic acid-Schiff with diastase resistance and were confirmed as lysosomes/autophagosomes by electron microscopy; immunohistochemically, the cells reacted to desmin, vimentin and α-smooth muscle actin and negatively for neurogenic, histiocyte/macrophage or epithelial markers, indicating smooth muscle origin. Because these tumors were generated from different cell origins, a diagnosis of collision tumor was made. PMID:22319236

  1. Eosinophilic Endotype of Asthma.

    PubMed

    Aleman, Fernando; Lim, Hui Fang; Nair, Parameswaran

    2016-08-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease that can be classified into different clinical endotypes, depending on the type of airway inflammation, clinical severity, and response to treatment. This article focuses on the eosinophilic endotype of asthma, which is defined by the central role that eosinophils play in the pathophysiology of the condition. It is characterized by elevated sputum and/or blood eosinophils on at least 2 occasions and by a significant response to treatments that suppress eosinophilia. Histopathologic demonstration of eosinophils in the airways provides the most direct diagnosis of eosinophilic asthma; but it is invasive, thus, impractical in clinical practice. PMID:27401626

  2. Eosinophilic Gastroenteritis : Brief Review.

    PubMed

    Shih, H-M; Bair, M-J; Chen, H-L; Lin, I-T

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is a rare disease which belongs to primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (primary EGIDs), characterized by an accumulation of eosinophils in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and is strongly associated with atopy and allergy. The clinical presentations vary depending on the site and depth of eosinophilic intestinal infiltration. Radiology pictures may show irregular thickening of the folds, but these findings can also be present in other conditions like inflammatory bowel disease and lymphoma. The endoscopic appearance is also nonspecific. The definite diagnosis requires biopsy for histological evidence of GI eosinophilic infiltration and clinicians make the diagnosis in correlation with and by exclusion of other possible causes of eosinophilic infiltration. Because EGE is a rare disease, the treatment is based on limited case reports and clinicians' experience. Corticosteroids are the mainstay of therapy. The prognosis of EGE is relatively good when patients receive timely and proper treatment. PMID:27382945

  3. The early history of the eosinophil.

    PubMed

    Kay, A B

    2015-03-01

    In 1879 Paul Ehrlich published his technique for staining blood films and his method for differential blood cell counting using coal tar dyes and mentions the eosinophil for the first time. Eosin is a bright red synthetic dye produced by the action of bromine on fluorescein and stains basic proteins due to its acidic nature. It was discovered in 1874 by Heinrich Caro, Director of the German chemical company Badische Anilin- und Soda-Fabrik. Ehrlich introduced the term 'eosinophil' to describe cells with granules (which he called alpha-granules) having an affinity for eosin and other acid dyes. He also observed black-staining, indulinophilic, beta-granules in bone marrow-derived eosinophils, which were probably immature crystalloid granules in eosinophil myelocytes. Ehrlich described the features of the alpha-granule and the cell's distribution in various species and tissues. He speculated correctly that the alpha-granule contents were secretory products and described several causes of eosinophilia including asthma, various skin diseases, helminths and reactions to medications. However, the cell was almost certainly observed by others before Ehrlich. In 1846 Thomas Wharton Jones (1808-1891) described 'granule blood cells' in the lamprey, frog, fowl, horse, elephant and man. He 'borrowed' the term granule cell from Julius Vogel (1814-1880) who had observed similar cells in inflammatory exudates. Vogel in turn was aware of the work of the Gottlieb (Théophile) Gluge (1812-1898) who used the term 'compound inflammatory globules' to describe cells in pus and serum. Almost 20 years before Ehrlich developed his staining methods, Max Johann Sigismund Schultze (1825-1874) performed functional experiments on coarse granular cells using a warm stage microscopic technique and showed they had amoeboid movement and phagocytic abilities. Although these early investigators recognised distinct granular cells Ehrlich's use of stains was a landmark contribution, which heralded

  4. [Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Vivero, F; Ciocchini, C; Gandini, M J; Wehbe, L

    2012-03-01

    Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. The chronic eosinophilic pneumonia is part of Pulmonary Eosinophilic Syndroms. It is presented a 33-years old man, Asmathic, with dry cough, fever, night sweats and fatigue of several weeks. The chest X-ray showed opacity in the right hemithorax. He was treated with antibiotics without response. A chest TC showed multifocal involvement. The patient refused bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) so treatment antituberculostatic was started. Despite treatment the symptoms worsened. The Chest X-ray showed migration of the infiltrates and the blood smear marked eosinophilia. Finally, bronchoalveolar lavage was carried out and it showed a high percentage of eosinophils (over 50%). The patient was treated with inmmunosuppresive doses of corticosteroids with excellent response. The blood smear in Nonresolving pneumonia is key to consider eosinophilic pneumonia, an uncommon pathology but amenable to treatment.

  5. Abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria on granular activated carbon and their fates during drinking water purification process.

    PubMed

    Niu, Jia; Kasuga, Ikuro; Kurisu, Futoshi; Furumai, Hiroaki; Shigeeda, Takaaki; Takahashi, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Ammonia is a precursor to trichloramine, which causes an undesirable chlorinous odor. Granular activated carbon (GAC) filtration is used to biologically oxidize ammonia during drinking water purification; however, little information is available regarding the abundance and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) associated with GAC. In addition, their sources and fates in water purification process remain unknown. In this study, six GAC samples were collected from five full-scale drinking water purification plants in Tokyo during summer and winter, and the abundance and community structure of AOA and AOB associated with GAC were studied in these two seasons. In summer, archaeal and bacterial amoA genes on GACs were present at 3.7 × 10(5)-3.9 × 10(8) gene copies/g-dry and 4.5 × 10(6)-4.2 × 10(8) gene copies/g-dry, respectively. In winter, archaeal amoA genes remained at the same level, while bacterial amoA genes decreased significantly for all GACs. No differences were observed in the community diversity of AOA and AOB from summer to winter. Phylogenetic analysis revealed high AOA diversity in group I.1a and group I.1b in raw water. Terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of processed water samples revealed that AOA diversity decreased dramatically to only two OTUs in group I.1a after ozonation, which were identical to those detected on GAC. It suggests that ozonation plays an important role in determining AOA diversity on GAC. Further study on the cell-specific activity of AOA and AOB is necessary to understand their contributions to in situ nitrification performance.

  6. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis: an update.

    PubMed

    Lucendo, Alfredo J; Arias, Angel

    2012-09-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is characterized by dense eosinophilic inflammation of one or several digestive tract sections. The symptoms include abdominal pain, weight loss, vomiting and diarrhea. Biopsy samples taken during endoscopic examination allows the diagnosis of the disease. An infiltration of >30 eosinophils per high-power field in at least five high-power fields, exhibiting signs of eosinophilic degranulation and extending to the muscularis mucosa or submucosa are all histological indications of EGE. EGE is traditionally classified into three forms depending on the depth of inflammation in the wall (mucosal, muscular or serosal). This, together with the digestive tract segments involved, determines the clinical presentation. The natural history of EGE includes three different evolutionary patterns, since patients may suffer a single outbreak, a recurrent course or even chronic disease. Corticosteroids are the most frequently used therapy for EGE; dietary treatments should be also considered. Surgery has been limited to solving obstruction and small bowel perforation.

  7. Eosinophilic coronary monoarteritis.

    PubMed

    Carreon, Chrystalle Katte; Esposito, Michael J

    2014-07-01

    Eosinophilic coronary monoarteritis is an unfamiliar cause of acute myocardial ischemia. Most commonly, it presents as a left-sided chest pain or sudden death in middle-aged women with no traditional risk factors for coronary artery disease. Because the abrupt onset leaves almost no time for intervention, the symptoms readily lead to death, and most cases are diagnosed at necropsy. Dissection of the coronary artery wall with resultant occlusion of the lumen, which commonly affects the left anterior descending artery, is a consistent gross finding. An inflammatory infiltrate, which is predominantly composed of eosinophils in the tunica adventitia and tunica media and is often accompanied by a hematoma in between these 2 layers, is observed histologically. The etiology remains unclear, but an increase in the activity of eosinophils because of hormonal interactions during pregnancy has been suggested. Interplay of hormones is thought to culminate in the release of histolytic agents by the eosinophils, which initiate the dissection process. Currently, there is no specific treatment for eosinophilic coronary monoarteritis, but cyclophosphamide and prednisone have shown positive results in the treatment of spontaneous coronary artery dissection with unspecified periadventitial inflammation. Percutaneous coronary procedures have also resulted in favorable outcomes in a subset of patients. Because of the high, sudden death rate in eosinophilic coronary monoarteritis, deciphering the underlying pathophysiology of this almost invariably fatal disease remains both a challenge and a key to developing screening methods that will allow timely detection and thus treatment.

  8. Does bee pollen cause to eosinophilic gastroenteropathy?

    PubMed

    Güç, Belgin Usta; Asilsoy, Suna; Canan, Oğuz; Kayaselçuk, Fazilet

    2015-09-01

    Bee pollen is given to children by mothers in order to strengthen their immune systems. There are no studies related with the side effects of bee polen in the literature. In this article, the literature was reviewed by presenting a case of allergic eosinophilic gastropathy related with bee polen. A 5-year old child was admitted due to abdominal pain. Edema was detected on the eyelids and pretibial region. In laboratory investigations, pathology was not detected in terms of hepatic and renal causes that would explain the protein loss of the patient diagnosed with hypoproteinemia and hypoalbuminemia. Urticaria was detected during the follow-up visit. When the history of the patient was deepened, it was learned that bee pollen was given to the patient every day. The total eosinophil count was found to be 1 800/mm(3). Allergic gastroenteropathy was considered because of hypereosinophilia and severe abdominal pain and endoscopy was performed. Biopsy revealed abundant eosinophils in the whole gastric mucosa. A diagnosis of allergic eosinophilic gastropathy was made. Bee polen was discontinued. Abdominal pain and edema disappeared in five days. Four weeks later, the levels of serum albumin and total eosinophil returned to normal. PMID:26568697

  9. Intranuclear crystalloids associated with abnormal granules in eosinophilic leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Parmley, R T; Crist, W M; Roper, M; Takagi, M; Austin, R L

    1981-12-01

    Ultrastructural evaluation of eosinophilic leukocytes from a 2-yr-old asymptomatic girl with chronic benign neutropenia (CBN) revealed a variety of morphological abnormalities. All eosinophils obtained from blood and marrow specimens contained multipole microcrystalloids in most of the mature cytoplasmic granules. An increase in crystalloid-free, immature granules in late (bilobed nuclei) eosinophils suggested a delay in granule maturation. The eosinophil granules appeared to be of normal size and demonstrated normal acid phosphatase reactivity. Eosinophilic myelocytes contained abnormal cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and lacked abundant elongated RER cisternae seen in normal cells. A few eosinophilic myelocytes in specimens of bone marrow from the child contained large intranuclear crystalloids measuring up to 3 mu in length. The intranuclear crystalloid contained as cubic lattice of dense material with a periodicity similar to that described for cytoplasmic crystalloids. The ultrastructural morphology of marrow neutrophils was normal, as described in other cases of CBN. Ultrastructural examination of blood eosinophils from the father demonstrated microcrystalloids in cytoplasmic granules identical to those seen in the child. The father was asymptomatic and had normal leukocyte counts. Thus, anomalous crystalloid granule genesis occurred in the father and daughter and was not necessarily associated with neutropenia or clinical symptomatology. This anomaly is associated with the accumulation of intranuclear crystalloid material in eosinophilic myelocytes, which do not appear to be released from the marrow compartment. PMID:7306702

  10. Intranuclear crystalloids associated with abnormal granules in eosinophilic leukocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Parmley, R.T.; Crist, W.M.; Roper, M.; Takagi, M.; Austin, R.L.

    1981-12-01

    Ultrastructural evaluation of eosinophilic leukocytes from a 2-yr-old asymptomatic girl with chronic benign neutropenia (CBN) revealed a variety of morphological abnormalities. All eosinophils obtained from blood and marrow specimens contained multiple microcrystalloids in most of the mature cytoplasmic granules. An increase in crystalloid-free, immature granules in late (bilobed nuclei) eosinophils suggested a delay in granule maturation. The eosinophil granules appeared to be of normal size and demonstrated normal acid phosphatase reactivity. Eosinophilic myelocytes contained abnormal cisternae of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) and lacked abundant elongated RER cisternae seen in normal cells. A few eosinophilic myelocytes in specimens of bone marrow from the child contained large intranuclear crystalloids measuring up to 3 mu in length. The intranuclear crystalloid contained as cubic lattice of dense material with a periodicity similar to that described for cytoplasmic crystalloids. The ultrastructural morphology of marrow neutrophils was normal, as described in other cases of CBN. Ultrastructural examination of blood eosinophils from the father demonstrated microcrystalloids in cytoplasmic granules identical to those seen in the child. The father was asymptomatic and had normal leukocyte counts. Thus, anomalous crystalloid granule genesis occurred in the father and daughter and was not necessarily associated with neutropenia or clinical symptomatology. This anomaly is associated with the accumulation of intranuclear crystalloid material in eosinophilic myelocytes, which do not appear to be released from the marrow compartment.

  11. Eosinophilic pancreatitis and increased eosinophils in the pancreas.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Susan C; Leach, Steven; Yeo, Charles J; Cameron, John L; Murakata, Linda A; Boitnott, John K; Albores-Saavedra, Jorge; Hruban, Ralph H

    2003-03-01

    Prominent eosinophilic infiltrates are an unusual finding in the pancreas. Eosinophilic pancreatitis is one rare etiology of pancreatic eosinophilia, but other described causes of eosinophilic infiltrates have also included pancreatic allograft rejection, pancreatic pseudocyst, lymphoplasmacytic sclerosing pancreatitis (LPSP), inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor, and histiocytosis X. In this study we describe the clinicopathologic features of three new cases of eosinophilic pancreatitis and conduct a retrospective 18-year institutional review of the myriad disease processes associated with pancreatic eosinophilia. In the files of the Johns Hopkins Hospital, <1% of all pancreatic specimens had been noted to show increased numbers of eosinophils. Eosinophilic pancreatitis itself was a rare etiology for pancreatic eosinophilia, with only one in-house case over the 18-year study period and two additional referral cases. Other disease processes associated with prominent eosinophilic infiltrates were more common and included pancreatic allograft rejection (14 cases), LPSP (5 of 24 total LPSP cases evaluated), inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (4 cases), and systemic mastocytosis (1 case). Patients with eosinophilic pancreatitis showed two distinct histologic patterns: 1) a diffuse periductal, acinar, and septal eosinophilic infiltrate with eosinophilic phlebitis and arteritis; and 2) localized intense eosinophilic infiltrates associated with pseudocyst formation. All three patients with eosinophilic pancreatitis had peripheral eosinophilia, and all had multiorgan involvement. One patient with LPSP also had marked peripheral eosinophilia, and 5 of 24 LPSP cases demonstrated prominent eosinophilic infiltrates in the gallbladder, biliary tree, and/or duodenum. Notably, not all of these patients with LPSP with prominent eosinophils in other organs had increased eosinophils in the pancreas itself. These results emphasize the infrequent nature of pancreatic eosinophilia and

  12. Eosinophilic Liver Infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa Rivera, Ivonne; Toro, Doris H.; Gutierrez, Jose; Acosta, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic liver infiltration is a commonly encountered focal eosinophil-related inflammation with or without necrosis, which can be seen on computed tomography (CT) in the presence of peripheral eosinophilia. Although this entity has a relatively benign course, it is related to numerable conditions for which diagnosis may be challenging and requires substantial diagnostic work-up for proper management and care of the underlying disease. We report a case of a 60-year-old man who presented with a 1-week history of right upper quadrant abdominal pain with multiple ill-defined liver hypodensities associated with significant eosinophilia. PMID:26504883

  13. Classification of eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Susanna

    2008-01-01

    Diagnosis of eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases is based on morphological evaluation with regard to localization and density of eosinophil infiltration of the mucosa and/or deeper parts of the oesophagus, stomach, and bowel in biopsy or resection specimens. As with eosinophils in any tissue, in the majority of diseases they are probably a sequel of acute inflammation and do not indicate any specific disease. Eosinophil morphology includes intact cells with bilobated nuclei and eosinophil granules in the cytoplasm and extracellular tissue following activation/degranulation. There is no fixed number of eosinophils that can be used as a cut-off criterion to define disease. Associated histopathological features observed in eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease depend on the site of manifestation and primary disease. Eosinophils are typically increased in allergy-associated colitis in adults and allergic proctocolitis in infants, eosinophilic gastroenteritis and eosinophilic oesophagitis. Their presence can also suggest a drug-induced eosinophilia or the presence of a parasitic infection. In general, eosinophils are increased in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). They are seen in reflux oesophagitis, coeliac disease, and microscopic and infectious colitis. Eosinophils may be a feature of polyarteriitis nodosa and Churg-Strauss syndrome, and can accompany connective-tissue disease as well as malignant lymphomas and adenocarcinomas of gastrointestinal mucosa. PMID:18492564

  14. Eosinophilic Drug Allergy.

    PubMed

    Kuruvilla, Merin; Khan, David A

    2016-04-01

    While peripheral or tissue eosinophilia may certainly characterize drug eruptions, this feature is hardly pathognomonic for a medication-induced etiology. While delayed drug hypersensitivity reactions with prominent eosinophilic recruitment have been typically classified as type IVb reactions, their pathophysiology is now known to be more complex. Eosinophilic drug reactions have a diversity of presentations and may be benign and self-limited to severe and life-threatening. The extent of clinical involvement is also heterogeneous, ranging from isolated peripheral eosinophilia or single organ involvement (most often the skin and lung) to systemic disease affecting multiple organs, classically exemplified by drug-reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS). The spectrum of implicated medications in the causation of DRESS is ever expanding, and multiple factors including drug metabolites, specific HLA alleles, herpes viruses, and immune system activation have been implicated in pathogenesis. Due to this complex interplay of various factors, diagnostic workup in terms of skin and laboratory testing has not been validated. Similarly, the lack of controlled trials limits treatment options. This review also describes other localized as well as systemic manifestations of eosinophilic disease induced by various medication classes, including their individual pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management. Given the multitude of clinical patterns associated with eosinophilic drug allergy, the diagnosis can be challenging. Considerable deficits in our knowledge of these presentations remain, but the potential for severe reactions should be borne in mind in order to facilitate diagnosis and institute appropriate management. PMID:26006718

  15. Eosinophilic fasciitis (Shulman syndrome).

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Sueli; Brotas, Arles; Lamy, Fabrício; Lisboa, Flávia; Lago, Eduardo; Azulay, David; Cuzzi, Tulia; Ramos-e-Silva, Marcia

    2005-04-01

    We present a case of eosinophilic fasciitis, or Shulman syndrome, in a 35-year-old man and discuss its clinical and histopathologic aspects, as well as its relationship to scleroderma. Although controversial, the tendency is to set Shulman syndrome apart from all other sclerodermiform states. PMID:15916220

  16. Comparison of histochemical methods for murine eosinophil detection in a RSV vaccine-enhanced inflammation model

    PubMed Central

    Meyerholz, David K.; Griffin, Michelle A.; Castilow, Elaine M.; Varga, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    A comparative study of histochemical detection of eosinophils in fixed murine tissue is lacking. Five histochemical methods previously reported for eosinophil detection were quantitatively and qualitatively compared in an established murine RSV vaccine-enhanced inflammation model. Nonspecific neutrophil staining was evaluated in tissue sections of neutrophilic soft tissue lesions and bone marrow from respective animals. Eosinophils had granular red to orange-red cytoplasmic staining, depending on the method, whereas neutrophils had, when stained, a more homogenous cytoplasmic pattern. Nonspecific background staining of similar coloration was variably seen in arterial walls and erythrocytes. Astra Blue/Vital New Red, Congo Red, Luna, Modified Hematoxylin & Eosin, and Sirius Red techniques were all effective in detecting increased eosinophil recruitment compared to controls; however, differences in eosinophil quantification significantly varied between techniques. Astra Blue/Vital New Red had the best specificity for differentiating eosinophils and neutrophils, but had a reduced ability to enumerate eosinophils and was the most time intensive. The Luna stain had excessive non specific staining of tissues and a reduced enumeration of infiltrating eosinophils making it suboptimal. For multiple parameters such as eosinophil detection, specificity, and contrast with background tissues, the Sirius Red followed by Congo Red and Modified Hematoxylin & Eosin methods were useful, each with their own staining qualities. PMID:19181630

  17. Eosinophilic granuloma: MRI manifestations.

    PubMed

    Beltran, J; Aparisi, F; Bonmati, L M; Rosenberg, Z S; Present, D; Steiner, G C

    1993-01-01

    The appearance on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of 16 cases of pathologically proven eosinophilic granuloma were reviewed retrospectively and correlated with the radiographic appearance of the lesion. The most common MR appearance (ten cases) was a focal lesion, surrounded by an extensive, ill-defined bone marrow and soft tissue reaction with low signal intensity on T1-weighted images and high signal intensity on T2-weighted images, considered to represent bone marrow and soft tissue edema (the flare phenomenon). The MRI manifestations of eosinophilic granuloma, especially during the early stages, are nonspecific, and may stimulate an aggressive lesion such as osteomyelitis or Ewings sarcoma, or other benign bone tumors such as osteoid osteoma or chondroblastoma. PMID:8480200

  18. [Eosinophilic esophagitis: update 2012].

    PubMed

    Jo, Yunju

    2012-07-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) with adults, as a new disease emerging during the last decade, is a clinicopathologic disorder of the esophagus characterized by a dense esophageal eosinophilic infiltration and typical esophageal symptoms. As numerous studies about EoE had been reported during last several years, updated consensus of EoE was reported in July 2011. The conceptual definition of EoE is coming. EoE is defined as a chronic, immune/antigen-mediated esophageal disease characterized clinically by symptoms related to esophageal dysfunction and histologically by eosinophil-predominat inflammation. Other important addition is genotyping feature that implicates thymic stromal lymphopoietin genes or filagrrin as EoE susceptibility genes. The majority of patients has the concurrent allergic disease, especially food or aeroallergen sensitization. Main therapeutic options include topical steroids and dietary modification. Recent issues of EoE include a new concept for proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia that it should be excluded to diagnose EoE.

  19. CD34 is required for infiltration of eosinophils into the colon and pathology associated with DSS-induced ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Maltby, Steven; Wohlfarth, Carolin; Gold, Matthew; Zbytnuik, Lori; Hughes, Michael R; McNagny, Kelly M

    2010-09-01

    Eosinophil migration into the gut and the release of granular mediators plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases, including ulcerative colitis. We recently demonstrated that eosinophil migration into the lung requires cell surface expression of the sialomucin CD34 on mast cells and eosinophils in an asthma model. Based on these findings, we investigated a similar role for CD34 in the migration of eosinophils and other inflammatory cells into the colon as well as explored the effects of CD34 ablation on disease development in a dextran sulfate sodium-induced model of ulcerative colitis. Our findings demonstrate decreased disease severity in dextran sulfate sodium-treated Cd34(-/-) mice, as assessed by weight loss, diarrhea, bleeding, colon shortening and tissue pathology, compared with wild-type controls. CD34 was predominantly expressed on eosinophils within inflamed colon tissues, and Cd34(-/-) animals exhibited drastically reduced colon eosinophil infiltration. Using chimeric animals, we demonstrated that decreased disease pathology resulted from loss of CD34 from bone marrow-derived cells and that eosinophilia in Cd34(-/-)IL5(Tg) animals was sufficient to overcome protection from disease. In addition, we demonstrated a decrease in peripheral blood eosinophil numbers following dextran sulfate sodium treatment. These findings demonstrate that CD34 was expressed on colon-infiltrating eosinophils and played a role in eosinophil migration. Further, our findings suggest CD34 is required for efficient eosinophil migration, but not proliferation or expansion, in the development of ulcerative colitis.

  20. Chloride Channel 3 Channels in the Activation and Migration of Human Blood Eosinophils in Allergic Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Gaurav, Rohit; Bewtra, Againdra K.

    2015-01-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase is responsible for respiratory burst in immune cells. Chloride channel 3 (CLC3) has been linked to the respiratory burst in eosinophils and neutrophils. The effect of cytokines and the involvement of CLC3 in the regulation of NADPH-dependent oxidative stress and on cytokine-mediated migration of eosinophils are not known. Human peripheral blood eosinophils were isolated from healthy individuals and from individuals with asthma by negative selection. Real-time PCR was used to detect the expression of NADPH oxidases in eosinophils. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) measurement was done with flow cytometry. Superoxide generation was measured with transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, eotaxin, and CLC3 blockers. CLC3 dependence of eosinophils in TGF-β– and eotaxin-induced migration was also examined. The messenger RNA (mRNA) transcripts of NADPH oxidase (NOX) 2, dual oxidase (DUOX) 1, and DUOX2 were detected in blood eosinophils, with very low expression of NOX1, NOX3, and NOX5 and no NOX4 mRNA. The level of NOX2 mRNA transcripts increased with disease severity in the eosinophils of subjects with asthma compared with healthy nonatopic volunteers. Change in granularity and size in eosinophils, but no change in intracellular ROS, was observed with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). PMA, TGF-β, and eotaxin used the CLC3-dependent pathway to increase superoxide radicals. TGF-β and eotaxin induced CLC3-dependent chemotaxis of eosinophils. These findings support the requirement of CLC3 in the activation and migration of human blood eosinophils and may provide a potential novel therapeutic target to regulate eosinophil hyperactivity in allergic airway inflammation in asthma. PMID:25514499

  1. Granular cell tumour of the brain and its cellular identity.

    PubMed

    Sakurama, N; Matsukado, Y; Marubayashi, T; Kodama, T

    1981-01-01

    Two cases of cerebral granular cell tumour are reported. In Case 1 the tumour arose from the genu of the corpus callosum, and in Case 2 it was found in the frontotemporoparietal lobes. Biopsy and autopsy specimens were examined with light and electron microscopy, and histochemical characteristics of the granule were analysed. Tumour cells from these two cases showed pleomorphism, but abundant granules in the cytoplasm were the most characteristic feature in these tumours. The granules were not stained by Sudan III and Sudan black, but were eosinophilic. They were PAS positive and not digested by diastase. Okamoto's reaction for glycolipid was positive after treatment by pyridine. They were also positive in Hotchkiss' method for glycolipid modified by Morrison and Hack, following immersion in chloroform and methanol solution. Histochemically, it was thought that granules consisted of glycoprotein. In the electron microscopic study dense bodies, multivesicular bodies, and vacoules were seen in tumour cells, especially in the neoplastic granular cells. It was assumed that the tumour cells originated from astrocytes, because of the cytoplasmic processes of the tumour cells were stained blue with PTAH, and contained microfibres of 80 A width. Gemistocytic astrocytes seen in the periphery of the tumour were also evidence indicating the neoplastic cell origin.

  2. An improved method to visualize eosinophils in eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Rubio, C A; Glaessgen, A

    2006-01-01

    We previously found in Giemsa-stained colorectal sections from IBD patients that eosinophilic granulocytes turned fluorescent when excited with indirect fluorescent light, while other inflammatory cells were non-fluorescent. We now studied with that method, the frequency of eosinophilic granulocytes in sections from patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EE). Cell counting was done in consecutive sections stained with Giemsa stain using indirect fluorescence light (G-IFL setting) and with hematoxylin-eosin using transmitted light (HE-TL setting) in 5 cases of EE and in 10 consecutive cases of reflux esophagitis (RE) grade 2. In EE 45.0 eosinophils/case (range 39-51) were recorded with the G-IFL setting but only 33.4 eosinophils/case (range 28-39) with the HE-TL setting (p < 0.05). In RE cases, 3 eosinophils/case (range 2-4) were found with the G-IFL setting and 2 eosinophil/case (range 1-3) with the HE-TL setting. The G-IFL method is not only more sensitive in detecting eosinophils than the conventional HE-TL method but also quicker, since a differential cell counting is not necessary. PMID:17091778

  3. Small intestinal eosinophils regulate Th17 cells by producing IL-1 receptor antagonist

    PubMed Central

    Sugawara, Reiko; Lee, Eun-Jung; Jang, Min Seong; Jeun, Eun-Ji; Hong, Chun-Pyo; Kim, Jung-Hwan; Park, Areum; Yun, Chang Ho; Hong, Sung-Wook; Kim, You-Me; Seoh, Ju-Young; Jung, YunJae; Surh, Charles D.; Miyasaka, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophils play proinflammatory roles in helminth infections and allergic diseases. Under steady-state conditions, eosinophils are abundantly found in the small intestinal lamina propria, but their physiological function is largely unexplored. In this study, we found that small intestinal eosinophils down-regulate Th17 cells. Th17 cells in the small intestine were markedly increased in the ΔdblGATA-1 mice lacking eosinophils, and an inverse correlation was observed between the number of eosinophils and that of Th17 cells in the small intestine of wild-type mice. In addition, small intestinal eosinophils suppressed the in vitro differentiation of Th17 cells, as well as IL-17 production by small intestinal CD4+ T cells. Unlike other small intestinal immune cells or circulating eosinophils, we found that small intestinal eosinophils have a unique ability to constitutively secrete high levels of IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), a natural inhibitor of IL-1β. Moreover, small intestinal eosinophils isolated from IL-1Ra−deficient mice failed to suppress Th17 cells. Collectively, our results demonstrate that small intestinal eosinophils play a pivotal role in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis by regulating Th17 cells via production of IL-1Ra. PMID:26951334

  4. Eosinophilic esophagitis: current treatment.

    PubMed

    Redd, Matthew; Schey, Ron

    2013-03-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a relatively new entity with a significant amount of increased recognition over the last decade. The mainstay treatments of EoE are designed to eliminate the causative allergens or to reduce their effects on the esophageal mucosa. Common treatments include dietary modification, proton pump inhibitors, systemic and topical corticosteroids, and endoscopic treatments. As the pathogenesis of EoE is explored, new and novel treatments are being studied that target specific pathways and chemokines identified in as precipitating agents of EoE. This is a rapidly evolving field with significant ongoing research and clinical studies. Our review will therefore focus on current and novel treatment approaches to the disease.

  5. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis with esophageal involvement.

    PubMed

    Dobbins, J W; Sheahan, D G; Behar, J

    1977-06-01

    A patient with a lifelong history of asthma and hay fever was investigated because of symptoms of esophageal spasm. Esophageal biopsies revealed elongated papillae and basal zone hyperplasia of the epithelial layer with eosinophilic infiltration of the lamina propria and muscularis mucosae. There was no evidence of reflux. Small bowel biopsies revealed a flat mucosal pattern with absent or blunted villi, tall columar surface epithelium, and eosinophilic infiltration of the lamina propria. He did not respond to a gluten-free diet. This patient is thought to have eosinophilic gatroenteritis with esophageal involvement, the first such case reported.

  6. Granular physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valance, Alexandre; Louge, Michel

    2015-01-01

    Granular media play a major role in geophysics and industrial processes. Their interactions are complicated by relatively small-scale separation between individual particles and system size, by the presence of other interpenetrating phases such as water or air, by the large number of grains involved in realistic applications, and by the importance of microscopic contact forces, such as solid friction, which are challenging to measure or control. Yet significant progress has been made in the last two decades toward the understanding of granular media, thanks to the curiosity of physicists and engineers. This thematic issue gathers contributions from researchers dealing with diverse aspects of granular mechanics, from static assemblies to flowing suspensions, and from theory to natural phenomena. These review articles illustrate rather different approaches to these complicated systems.

  7. Eosinophilic ascites: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Khalil, Hesham; Joseph, Moby

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic ascites is a rare feature of eosinophilic gastroenteritis. We would like to highlight this increasingly recognised diagnosis in a case of unexplained ascites. We present a challenging case of a woman aged 25 years who presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, generalised abdominal pain and swelling 8-week following delivery of her first baby. Her symptoms were primarily aggravated by eating, and she had also noticed postprandial itching and self-limiting generalised rash. She had a strong history of atopy. Physical examination revealed abdominal tenderness and distension with shifting dullness. Urticarial skin rash was noted on the face, neck, chest and abdomen. Routine biochemistry was normal apart from peripheral eosinophilia. Imaging confirmed moderate ascites. Diagnostic paracentesis showed exudative ascites with numerous eosinophils. Histology of the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract showed infiltration of the oesophageogastroduodenal and rectosigmoid mucosa with eosinophils. The patient significantly improved following a course of steroids and six-food elimination diet. PMID:27600059

  8. Olanzapine-induced eosinophilic pleuritis.

    PubMed

    Evison, Matthew; Holme, Jayne; Alaloul, Mohamed; Doran, Helen; Bishop, Paul; Booton, Richard; Chaudhry, Nauman

    2015-01-01

    An elderly patient, with a history of depression with psychosis, presented with breathlessness, a right exudative pleural effusion and a peripheral eosinophilia. The pleural fluid was eosinophil-rich (10% of leucocytes). Olanzapine therapy had been commenced 12 months previously. There was a family history of TB and the patient was of African origin. A full diagnostic work-up ensued including computed tomography of the thorax and local anaesthetic thoracoscopy. The pleura was unremarkable on CT and displayed bland smooth thickening at visual inspection during thoracoscopy. Pleural biopsies demonstrated chronic inflammation with eosinophils but no evidence of granulomatous inflammation or malignancy. Pleural tissue culture did not yield mycobacteria. A diagnosis of olanzapine-induced eosinophilic pleuritis was suspected and the pleural disease resolved with withdrawal of olanzapine. Eosinophilic pleural fluid is not a marker of non-malignant aetiology and eosinophilic pleural effusions require a careful and systematic diagnostic work-up. This is the second case report to identify olanzapine as a causative agent in eosinophilic pleural effusion. PMID:26029571

  9. FNA of thyroid granular cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Harp, Eric; Caraway, Nancy P

    2013-09-01

    Granular cell tumor rarely occurs in the thyroid. This case report describes the cytologic features of a granular cell tumor seen in a fine needle aspirate obtained from a 27-year-old woman with a gradually enlarging thyroid nodule. The aspirate showed single as well as syncytial clusters of cells with abundant granular cytoplasm. The differential diagnosis in this case included granular cell tumor, Hurthle cell lesion/neoplasm, and a histiocytic reparative process. Immunohistochemical studies, including S-100 protein and CD68, performed on a cell block preparation were helpful in supporting the diagnosis.

  10. Histopathologic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features of a granular cell tumour in an Australian parakeet (Melopsittacus undulatus).

    PubMed

    Hernández, V; Carrera, E; Méndez, A; Morales, J C; Morales, E; Sánchez, F D

    2012-10-01

    An adult male Australian parakeet (Melopsittacus undulatus) presented a firm nodular lesion in the lateral metacarpal region of the right wing. Microscopically, there were neoplastic cells, round and polyhedral in shape, with abundant, slightly eosinophilic granular cytoplasm; they were strongly periodic-acid Schiff-positive and resistant to diastase digestion. Some groups of neoplastic cells were immunopositive for smooth muscle actin and desmin. There was no immunopositivity for S-100 protein, CD68 and cytokeratin. Ultrastructurally, the neoplastic cells were round and polygonal in shape, and they were characterized by abundant cytoplasm with numerous homogeneous osmophilic bodies covered by an electron-dense membrane (lysosomes). The histopathologic, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural features of the neoplastic tissue are consistent with a granular cell tumour, which has been described in different animal species and anatomic locations; however, this seems to be an infrequent neoplasm in Australian parakeets. The immunopositivity of the neoplastic cells for smooth muscle actin and desmin, as well as slight positivity for muscle with Masson's trichrome, suggest that this is a tumour of myogenic origin. PMID:22913601

  11. Lung-resident eosinophils represent a distinct regulatory eosinophil subset.

    PubMed

    Mesnil, Claire; Raulier, Stéfanie; Paulissen, Geneviève; Xiao, Xue; Birrell, Mark A; Pirottin, Dimitri; Janss, Thibaut; Starkl, Philipp; Ramery, Eve; Henket, Monique; Schleich, Florence N; Radermecker, Marc; Thielemans, Kris; Gillet, Laurent; Thiry, Marc; Belvisi, Maria G; Louis, Renaud; Desmet, Christophe; Marichal, Thomas; Bureau, Fabrice

    2016-09-01

    Increases in eosinophil numbers are associated with infection and allergic diseases, including asthma, but there is also evidence that eosinophils contribute to homeostatic immune processes. In mice, the normal lung contains resident eosinophils (rEos), but their function has not been characterized. Here, we have reported that steady-state pulmonary rEos are IL-5-independent parenchymal Siglec-FintCD62L+CD101lo cells with a ring-shaped nucleus. During house dust mite-induced airway allergy, rEos features remained unchanged, and rEos were accompanied by recruited inflammatory eosinophils (iEos), which were defined as IL-5-dependent peribronchial Siglec-FhiCD62L-CD101hi cells with a segmented nucleus. Gene expression analyses revealed a more regulatory profile for rEos than for iEos, and correspondingly, mice lacking lung rEos showed an increase in Th2 cell responses to inhaled allergens. Such elevation of Th2 responses was linked to the ability of rEos, but not iEos, to inhibit the maturation, and therefore the pro-Th2 function, of allergen-loaded DCs. Finally, we determined that the parenchymal rEos found in nonasthmatic human lungs (Siglec-8+CD62L+IL-3Rlo cells) were phenotypically distinct from the iEos isolated from the sputa of eosinophilic asthmatic patients (Siglec-8+CD62LloIL-3Rhi cells), suggesting that our findings in mice are relevant to humans. In conclusion, our data define lung rEos as a distinct eosinophil subset with key homeostatic functions. PMID:27548519

  12. Pathogenesis of eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis.

    PubMed

    Shah, Said Ahmad; Ishinaga, Hajime; Takeuchi, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic chronic rhinosinusitis (ECRS) is considered a refractory and intractable disease. Patients with ECRS present with thick mucus production, long-term nasal congestion, loss of sense of smell, and intermittent acute exacerbations secondary to bacterial infections. Despite medical and surgical interventions, there is a high rate of recurrence with significant impairment to quality of life. The recent increasing prevalence of ECRS in south Asian countries and the strong tendency of ECRS to reoccur after surgery should be considered. The majority of cases need repeat surgery, and histological examinations of these cases show eosinophilic-dominant inflammation. The degradation and accumulation of eosinophils, release of cytokines, and mucus secretion have important roles in the pathogenesis of ECRS. ECRS differs from non-ECRS, in which eosinophils are not involved in the pathogenesis of the disease, and also in terms of many clinical characteristics, blood examination and nasal polyp histological findings, clinical features of the disease after surgery, efficacy of medications, and computed tomography findings. This review describes the clinical course, diagnosis, and treatment of ECRS as well as its pathophysiology and the role of eosinophils, mucus, cytokines, and other mediators in the pathogenesis of ECRS. PMID:27053925

  13. Allergic Mechanisms in Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Wechsler, Joshua B; Bryce, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Paralleling the overall trend in allergic diseases, Eosinophilic Esophagitis is rapidly increasing in incidence. It is associated with food antigen-triggered, eosinophil-predominant inflammation and the pathogenic mechanisms have many similarities to other chronic atopic diseases, such as eczema and allergic asthma. Studies in animal models and from patients over the last 15 years have suggested that allergic sensitization leads to food-specific IgE and T-helper lymphocyte type 2 cells, both of which appear to contribute to the pathogenesis along with basophils, mast cells, and antigen-presenting cells. This review will outline our current understandings of the allergic mechanisms that drive eosinophilic esophagitis, drawing from clinical and translational studies in humans as well as experimental animal models. PMID:24813516

  14. Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Pediatric and Adolescent Patients

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Adolescent Patients Eosinophilic Esophagitis in Pediatric and Adolescent Patients Basics Overview Eosinophilic esophagitis also known as ( ... children may have vomiting and abdominal pain, and adolescents may complain of the feeling of food getting ...

  15. Novel CLC3 transcript variants in blood eosinophils and increased CLC3 expression in nasal lavage and blood eosinophils of asthmatics

    PubMed Central

    Gaurav, Rohit; Bewtra, Againdra K; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilia is a characteristic feature of allergic airway inflammation and remodeling. Chloride channel-3 (CLC3) in eosinophils has been associated with superoxide generation and respiratory burst. The CLC3 gene may produce multiple transcript variants through alternative splicing. However, the presence of CLC3 variants in human eosinophils is unknown. We examined the expression of CLC3 transcript variants in peripheral blood eosinophils of allergic asthmatics and healthy individuals. Potential of these obligatory dimers to form homo- or hetero-dimers was examined in HEK293 cells co-transfected with CLC3b-GFP and CLC3e-RFP. Eosinophils were isolated from peripheral blood by negative selection. Expression of CLC3 and CLC3 transcript variants was examined by qPCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence. Confocal micrographs were analyzed with Image J software. Higher levels of novel transcript variants of CLC3 (CLC3b and CLC3e) were found in peripheral blood eosinophils of asthmatics compared to healthy non-atopic subjects. We also found higher CLC3 protein expression in the blood and nasal lavage eosinophils of asthmatics than healthy subjects. Both membranous and intracellular CLC3 expression were observed. Also, we found the presence of both homodimers and heterodimers of CLC3b-GFP and CLC3e-RFP in HEK293 cells. Higher and differential expression of novel CLC3 transcript variants in mild-to-moderate and moderate-to-severe asthmatic eosinophils suggest their critical role in allergic asthma. Membranous and intracellular (granular) expression of CLC3 in nasal lavage and peripheral blood eosinophils suggest their involvement in the activation and migration of eosinophils in allergic asthma. Moreover, homo- and hetero-dimerization of these transcript variants may change the channel properties to exhibit these states. Presence of CLC3 variants may serve as a biomarker in allergic asthma and additional knowledge of interaction between CLC3 transcript variants and their

  16. CD34 Is Required for Infiltration of Eosinophils into the Colon and Pathology Associated with DSS-Induced Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Maltby, Steven; Wohlfarth, Carolin; Gold, Matthew; Zbytnuik, Lori; Hughes, Michael R.; McNagny, Kelly M.

    2010-01-01

    Eosinophil migration into the gut and the release of granular mediators plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases, including ulcerative colitis. We recently demonstrated that eosinophil migration into the lung requires cell surface expression of the sialomucin CD34 on mast cells and eosinophils in an asthma model. Based on these findings, we investigated a similar role for CD34 in the migration of eosinophils and other inflammatory cells into the colon as well as explored the effects of CD34 ablation on disease development in a dextran sulfate sodium-induced model of ulcerative colitis. Our findings demonstrate decreased disease severity in dextran sulfate sodium-treated Cd34−/− mice, as assessed by weight loss, diarrhea, bleeding, colon shortening and tissue pathology, compared with wild-type controls. CD34 was predominantly expressed on eosinophils within inflamed colon tissues, and Cd34−/− animals exhibited drastically reduced colon eosinophil infiltration. Using chimeric animals, we demonstrated that decreased disease pathology resulted from loss of CD34 from bone marrow-derived cells and that eosinophilia in Cd34−/−IL5Tg animals was sufficient to overcome protection from disease. In addition, we demonstrated a decrease in peripheral blood eosinophil numbers following dextran sulfate sodium treatment. These findings demonstrate that CD34 was expressed on colon-infiltrating eosinophils and played a role in eosinophil migration. Further, our findings suggest CD34 is required for efficient eosinophil migration, but not proliferation or expansion, in the development of ulcerative colitis. PMID:20696776

  17. Eosinophilic pneumonia induced by daptomycin.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Don; Anstead, Michael I; Kuhn, Robert J

    2007-04-01

    We present a case of drug-induced eosinophilic pneumonia resulting from intravenous daptomycin being used as therapy for recurrent methicillin-sensitive Staphlococcus aureus endocarditis. The patient developed hypoxic respiratory failure requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation. Daptomycin therapy was discontinued immediately, and the patient improved significantly after the administration of intravenous corticosteroids allowing for extubation 3 days later.

  18. Simvastatin Inhibits IL-5-Induced Chemotaxis and CCR3 Expression of HL-60-Derived and Human Primary Eosinophils

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Chia-Hsiang; Tsai, Wan-Chun; Lee, Ta-Jen; Huang, Chi-Che; Chang, Po-Hung; Su Pang, Jong-Hwei

    2016-01-01

    IL-5-induced chemotaxis of eosinophils is an important feature of allergic airway inflammatory diseases. Simvastatin, a lipid lowering agent, has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects. Our aim was to investigate the effect of simvastatin on IL-5-induced eosinophil chemotaxis and its regulatory mechanisms. Eosinophils were derived by treating HL-60 clone 15 (HC15) cells with butyric acid (BA) in an alkaline condition or through direct isolation from human peripheral blood. The expressions of CC chemokine receptor 3 (CCR3) and interleukin (IL)-5 receptors (IL5Rα and β) were analyzed using RT/real-time PCR. The granular proteins were stained using fast green. Eotaxin-induced chemotaxis was measured using a transwell migration assay. CCR3 protein expression was revealed by immunocytochemistry. An animal model of allergic rhinitis was established by challenging Sprague–Dawley® rats repeatedly with ovalbumin. Butyric acid significantly increased the expression of IL5Rα and IL5Rβ, CCR3 and granular proteins in HC15 cells, indicating the maturation of eosinophils (BA-E cells). IL-5 further enhanced the CCR3 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels and the eotaxin-induced chemotaxis of BA-E cells. Simvastatin inhibited the effects of IL-5 on BA-E cells, but not in the presence of mevalonate. Similar results were also exhibited in human primary eosinophils. In vivo animal studies further confirmed that oral simvastatin could significantly suppress the infiltration of eosinophils into turbinate tissues of allergic rats. Therefore, simvastatin was demonstrated to inhibit IL-5-induced CCR3 expression and chemotaxis of eosinophils mediated via the mevalonate pathway. We confirmed that simvastatin also reduced eosinophilic infiltration in allergic rhinitis. PMID:27275740

  19. Clinical measurement of eosinophil numbers in eosinophilic conjunctivitis.

    PubMed

    Kari, Osmo; Saari, K Matti

    2014-01-01

    Cytological examination of conjunctival scrapings is a valuable technique in differentiating various types of conjunctivitis. Brush conjunctival cytology is easy to use, and it may show a rich cell sample also from the deeper conjunctival layers. It is atraumatic and suitable for tarsal conjunctival cytology. The Papanicolaou staining can be used for examination of epithelial cells and inflammatory cells. The semiquantitative counting method is rapid to use and gives some information about the severity and nature of the inflammation. Our modified method identifies the presence of eosinophils which are the hallmark both in allergic conjunctivitis and in non-allergic eosinophilic conjunctivitis (NAEC). NAEC is quite common affecting in most cases middle-aged or older people with the majority being women. NAEC is often connected with dry eye which in many cases can be seen in conjunctival cytology.

  20. Eosinophilic leukaemia in a cat.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Hassan; Nassiri, Seyed Mahdi; Esmaelli, Hossein; Khoshnegah, Javad

    2007-12-01

    A 14-year-old female domestic shorthair cat was presented to Tehran University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for a persistent fever, anorexia, intermittent vomiting, weight loss and weakness. The main clinical signs were pale mucous membranes, dehydration and splenomegaly. The complete blood count and serum biochemistry tests revealed non-regenerative anaemia, thrombocytopenia and increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test for feline leukaemia virus was negative. Blood film and bone marrow examination revealed a large number of immature eosinophils with variable sizes and numbers of faintly azurophilic granules. Cytochemical staining of blood film demonstrated 70% positive cells for ALP activity. Four percent CD34 positive cells were detected by flow cytometry. As eosinophilic leukaemia is difficult to identify by light microscopy, well-defined diagnostic criteria and the use of flow cytometry and cytochemical staining can improve the ability to correctly diagnose this type of leukaemia in cats. PMID:17669677

  1. [Eosinophilic oesophagitis in bronchial asthma].

    PubMed

    Mikhaleva, L M; Barkhina, T G; Golovanova, V E; Shchegoleva, N N; Gracheva, N A

    2012-01-01

    Combination of bronchial asthma and gastrointestinal pathology is frequently encountered in clinical practice. Clinical symptoms of this condition are highly diversified and gastrointestinal diseases play an important role in exacerbation of bronchial asthma. The prevalence of allergic diseases has recently become rampant. Eosinophilic oesophagitis is worth of special attention because its histological criteria, unlike clinical ones, are well defined. They include chronic immune antigen-mediated inflammatory oesophageal disease with pronounced intraepithelial eosinophilic infiltration and clinical symptoms resulting from oesophageal dysfunction that resemble manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease but fail to respond to antireflux and antacid therapy. Many specific and practical aspects of the problem remain to be elucidated. The poor awareness of clinicians of this disease hampers its adequate diagnostics and treatment. In order to revise and optimize the former diagnostic and therapeutic algorithm., an interdisciplinary expert group was set up in 2010 constituted by specialists of the American College of Gastroenterology, American Academy of Asthma, Allergy and Immunology, and Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition. Results of the work of this group together with the literature data on eosinophilic esopahgitis are discussed in the present review. PMID:23516863

  2. Eosinophilic fasciitis after parasite infection

    PubMed Central

    Patinha, Fabia; Marinho, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by symmetrical swelling and skin induration of the distal portions of the arms and/or legs, evolving into a scleroderma-like appearance, accompanied by peripheral blood eosinophilia. It is a rare disease with a poorly understood etiology. Corticosteroid treatment remains the standard therapy, either taken alone or in association with an immunosuppressive drug. This paper presents a case of a male patient with palpebral edema and marked eosinophilia, diagnosed with intestinal parasitic infection in October 2006. He was treated with an antiparasitic drug, but both the swelling and the analytical changes remained. This was followed by a skin and muscle biopsy, which turned out to be compatible with eosinophilic fasciitis. There was progressive worsening of the clinical state, with stiffness of the abdominal wall and elevated inflammatory parameters, and the patient was referred to the Immunology Department, medicated with corticosteroids and methotrexate. Over the years there were therapeutic adjustments and other causes were excluded. Currently the patient continues to be monitored, and there is no evidence of active disease. The case described in this article is interesting because of the diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis probably associated/coexisting with a parasite infection. This case report differs from others in that there is an uncommon cause associated with the onset of the disease, instead of the common causes such as trauma, medication, non-parasitic infections or cancer. PMID:27407276

  3. Eosinophilic esophagitis in an octogenarian

    PubMed Central

    Trifan, Anca; Stoica, Oana; Chihaia, Catalin-Alexandru; Danciu, Mihai; Stanciu, Carol; Singeap, Ana-Maria

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic, immune/antigen-mediated disease characterized clinically by symptoms related to esophageal dysfunction and histologically by a marked eosinophilic infiltrate in the esophageal mucosa. What was once considered a rare disease has nowadays become one of the most frequent esophageal diseases in the Western countries, occupying a place just next to the gastroesophageal reflux disease. EoE etiology and pathogenesis remain largely unknown, although most studies consider that allergic and genetic factors play the most important role. Methods: We report the case of EoE in an elderly male (octogenarian), giving a brief review of the current data related to epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of the disease. Results: Dysphagia to solid foods was the leading symptom, and endoscopic findings included white exudates, longitudinal furrows, and concentric mucosal rings, all suggestive for EoE. Diagnosis relied on histological findings in esophageal mucosal biopsies (>30 eosinophils per high power field). He was treated with topical steroids for 8 weeks, symptoms improved gradually and the patient remained in remission at the 8-month follow-up. Conclusion: This case emphasizes that EoE may occur in very old patients and gastroenterologists should have a high index of suspicion of this disorder in any elderly with dysphagia and endoscopic relevant features. PMID:27741150

  4. Survey on granularity clustering.

    PubMed

    Ding, Shifei; Du, Mingjing; Zhu, Hong

    2015-12-01

    With the rapid development of uncertain artificial intelligent and the arrival of big data era, conventional clustering analysis and granular computing fail to satisfy the requirements of intelligent information processing in this new case. There is the essential relationship between granular computing and clustering analysis, so some researchers try to combine granular computing with clustering analysis. In the idea of granularity, the researchers expand the researches in clustering analysis and look for the best clustering results with the help of the basic theories and methods of granular computing. Granularity clustering method which is proposed and studied has attracted more and more attention. This paper firstly summarizes the background of granularity clustering and the intrinsic connection between granular computing and clustering analysis, and then mainly reviews the research status and various methods of granularity clustering. Finally, we analyze existing problem and propose further research.

  5. Eosinophilic Fasciitis: A Rare Skin Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Servy, Amandine; Clérici, Thierry; Malines, Caroline; Le Parc, Jean-Marie; Côté, Jean-François

    2011-01-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis (Schulman's syndrome) is a rare disease with specific clinical symptoms such as the groove sign which facilitate diagnosis. We report a typical case of eosinophilic fasciitis in an otherwise healthy 49-year-old man who presented with “prayer and groove signs”. Histological analysis showed sclerosis and eosinophilic infiltration of the fascia. The patient was successfully treated with systemic corticotherapy and Cyclosporine. A short review of the clinicopathological features of the lesions is presented. PMID:21151540

  6. Eosinophils: changing perspectives in health and disease

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Helene F.; Dyer, Kimberly D.; Foster, Paul S.

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils have been traditionally perceived as largely end-stage, cytotoxic effector cells. Recent studies have profoundly altered this simplistic view of eosinophils and their function. New insights into the molecular basis of development, trafficking and degranulation of eosinophils have provided a better understanding of the role of these cells in promoting homeostasis through their immunomodulatory functions. Likewise, recent developments have generated a more sophisticated view of how eosinophils contribute to the pathogenesis of disease, including asthma and primary hypereosinophilic syndromes, and also a more complete appreciation of their activities in parasitic infection. PMID:23154224

  7. Eosinophilic granuloma of the capital femoral epiphysis.

    PubMed

    Goto, Takahiro; Nemoto, Tetsuo; Ogura, Koichi; Imanishi, Jungo; Hozumi, Takahiro; Funata, Nobuaki

    2011-05-01

    Eosinophilic granuloma occurs almost exclusively in the diaphysis or metaphysis, when tubular bones are affected. The investigators present an extremely rare case of eosinophilic granuloma arising at the epiphysis of the femoral head in an 8-year-old boy. Plain radiographs and computed tomography showed a well-circumscribed radiolucent lesion, suggesting chondroblastoma or Brodie's abscess. However, the findings on magnetic resonance images were different from typical features of chondroblastoma or Brodie's abscess. The lesion was curetted. Histological diagnosis was eosinophilic granuloma. Differential diagnoses of a radiolucent lesion at the epiphysis in a child should include, though quite rare, eosinophilic granuloma.

  8. Roles of integrin activation in eosinophil function and the eosinophilic inflammation of asthma

    PubMed Central

    Barthel, Steven R.; Johansson, Mats W.; McNamee, Dawn M.; Mosher, Deane F.

    2010-01-01

    Eosinophilic inflammation is a characteristic feature of asthma. Integrins are highly versatile cellular receptors that regulate extravasation of eosinophils from the postcapillary segment of the bronchial circulation to the airway wall and airspace. Such movement into the asthmatic lung is described as a sequential, multistep paradigm, whereby integrins on circulating eosinophils become activated, eosinophils tether in flow and roll on bronchial endothelial cells, integrins on rolling eosinophils become further activated as a result of exposure to cytokines, eosinophils arrest firmly to adhesive ligands on activated endothelium, and eosinophils transmigrate to the airway in response to chemoattractants. Eosinophils express seven integrin heterodimeric adhesion molecules: alpha4beta1 (CD49d/29), alpha6beta1 (CD49f/29), alphaMbeta2 (CD11b/18), alphaLbeta2 (CD11a/18), alphaXbeta2 (CD11c/18), alphaDbeta2 (CD11d/18), and alpha4beta7 (CD49d/beta7). The role of these integrins in eosinophil recruitment has been elucidated by major advances in the understanding of integrin structure, integrin function, and modulators of integrins. Such findings have been facilitated by cellular experiments of eosinophils in vitro, studies of allergic asthma in humans and animal models in vivo, and crystal structures of integrins. Here, we elaborate on how integrins cooperate to mediate eosinophil movement to the asthmatic airway. Antagonists that target integrins or the effectors that regulate integrins of eosinophils represent potentially promising therapies in the treatment of asthma. PMID:17906117

  9. Granular IgM Deposition at Basement Membrane Zone in an Infant with Diffuse Cutaneous Mastocytosis.

    PubMed

    Kumudhini, Subramanian; Rao, Raghavendra; Salgaonkar, Gauri; Shetty, Sricharith; Pai, Sathish

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse Cutaneous mastocytosis (DCM) occurs due to abnormal accumulation of mast cells in the skin. We report an 8-month-old infant presented papulovesicular lesions, predominantly on the trunk. Skin biopsy revealed subepidermal bulla, interspersed with mast cells, eosinophils and neutrophils. Direct immunofluorescence microscopy of perilesional skin revealed nonspecific deposition of IgM in granular pattern along the dermoepidermal junction. PMID:27688466

  10. Granular IgM Deposition at Basement Membrane Zone in an Infant with Diffuse Cutaneous Mastocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Kumudhini, Subramanian; Rao, Raghavendra; Salgaonkar, Gauri; Shetty, Sricharith; Pai, Sathish

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse Cutaneous mastocytosis (DCM) occurs due to abnormal accumulation of mast cells in the skin. We report an 8-month-old infant presented papulovesicular lesions, predominantly on the trunk. Skin biopsy revealed subepidermal bulla, interspersed with mast cells, eosinophils and neutrophils. Direct immunofluorescence microscopy of perilesional skin revealed nonspecific deposition of IgM in granular pattern along the dermoepidermal junction. PMID:27688466

  11. Granular IgM Deposition at Basement Membrane Zone in an Infant with Diffuse Cutaneous Mastocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Kumudhini, Subramanian; Rao, Raghavendra; Salgaonkar, Gauri; Shetty, Sricharith; Pai, Sathish

    2016-01-01

    Diffuse Cutaneous mastocytosis (DCM) occurs due to abnormal accumulation of mast cells in the skin. We report an 8-month-old infant presented papulovesicular lesions, predominantly on the trunk. Skin biopsy revealed subepidermal bulla, interspersed with mast cells, eosinophils and neutrophils. Direct immunofluorescence microscopy of perilesional skin revealed nonspecific deposition of IgM in granular pattern along the dermoepidermal junction.

  12. Eosinophilic myocarditis: characteristics, diagnostics and outcomes of a rare condition.

    PubMed

    Wang, T K M; Watson, T; Pemberton, J; Pemberton, L; Lowe, B; Ellis, C; Kingston, N; Ruygrok, P

    2016-09-01

    Eosinophilic myocarditis is a rare and potentially fatal condition characterised by eosinophilic inflammatory infiltration of myocardium. We report seven consecutive cases of eosinophilic myocarditis at our centre and discuss the important characteristics, investigation and management of this disease. PMID:27633471

  13. Genetics Home Reference: PDGFRB-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia

    MedlinePlus

    ... associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia PDGFRB-associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. ... All Close All Description PDGFRB -associated chronic eosinophilic leukemia is a type of cancer of blood-forming ...

  14. Granular temperature field of monodisperse granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gollin, Devis; Bowman, Elisabeth; Shepley, Paul

    2015-04-01

    For dry granular flows as well as solid-fluid mixtures such as debris avalanches, the momentum transfer is carried by frictional and collisional stresses. The latter may be described by the granular temperature, which provides a measure of the energy contained within the fluctuating nature of the granular motion. Thus, granular temperature can be used as a valuable means to infer the ability of a granular system to flow. Granular materials are known for the difficulties they pose in obtaining accurate microscale laboratory measurements. This is why many theories, such as the kinetic theory of granular gases, are primarily compared to numerical simulations. However, thanks to recent advancements in optical techniques along with high-speed recording systems, experimentalists are now able to obtain robust measurements of granular temperature. At present, the role of granular temperature in granular flows still entails conjecture. As a consequence, it is extremely important to provide experimental data against which theories and simulations can be judged. This investigation focuses on dry granular flows of sand and spherical beads performed on a simple inclined chute geometry. Fluctuation velocity, granular temperature and velocity patterns are obtained by means of particle image velocimetry (PIV). Flow behaviour is probed for different spatial (interrogation sizes) and temporal (frame rates) resolutions. Through the variation of these parameters an attempt to demonstrate the consistency of the degree of unsteadiness within the flow is made. In many studies a uniform stationary flow state is usually sought or preferably assumed for the simplicity it provides in the calculations. If one tries to measure microscale fields such as granular temperature, this assumption may be inappropriate. Thus, a proper definition of the flow regime should be made in order to estimate the correct flow properties. In addition, PIV analysis is compared against particle tracking velocimetry

  15. Dietary treatment of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Gonsalves, Nirmala; Kagalwalla, Amir F

    2014-06-01

    Emerging evidence supports impaired epithelial barrier function as the key initial event in the development of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and other allergic diseases. Symptom resolution, histologic remission, and prevention of both disease and treatment-related complications are the goals of treatment. Successful dietary treatments include elemental, empirical elimination and allergy test directed diets. Dietary therapy with exclusive elemental diet offers the best response. Cow's milk, wheat, egg, soy, peanut/tree nut, and fish/shellfish are the 6 food antigens most likely to induce esophageal inflammation.

  16. Eosinophils in Gastrointestinal Disorders: Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Diseases, Celiac Disease, Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, and Parasitic Infections.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Pooja; Furuta, Glenn T

    2015-08-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) tract provides an intriguing organ for considering the eosinophil's role in health and disease. The normal GI tract, except for the esophagus, is populated by eosinophils that are present throughout the mucosa, raising the possibility that eosinophils participate in innate mechanisms of defense. However, data from clinical studies associates increased numbers of eosinophils with inflammatory GI diseases, prompting concerns that eosinophils may have a deleterious effect on the gut. We present clinical features of 4 disease processes that have been associated with eosinophilia and suggest areas requiring investigation as to their clinical significance and scientific relevance.

  17. Pattern-recognition receptors in human eosinophils

    PubMed Central

    Kvarnhammar, Anne Månsson; Cardell, Lars Olaf

    2012-01-01

    The pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) family includes Toll-like receptors (TLRs), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) -like receptors (NLRs), RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) and the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). They recognize various microbial signatures or host-derived danger signals and trigger an immune response. Eosinophils are multifunctional leucocytes involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory processes, including parasitic helminth infection, allergic diseases, tissue injury and tumour immunity. Human eosinophils express several PRRs, including TLR1–5, TLR7, TLR9, NOD1, NOD2, Dectin-1 and RAGE. Receptor stimulation induces survival, oxidative burst, activation of the adhesion system and release of cytokines (interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-α and granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor), chemokines (interleukin-8 and growth-related oncogene-α) and cytotoxic granule proteins (eosinophil cationic protein, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, eosinophil peroxidase and major basic protein). It is also evident that eosinophils play an immunomodulatory role by interacting with surrounding cells. The presence of a broad range of PRRs in eosinophils indicates that they are not only involved in defence against parasitic helminths, but also against bacteria, viruses and fungi. From a clinical perspective, eosinophilic PRRs seem to be involved in both allergic and malignant diseases by causing exacerbations and affecting tumour growth, respectively. PMID:22242941

  18. Eosinophilic alveolitis in immunologic interstitial lung disorders.

    PubMed

    Olivieri, D; Pesci, A; Bertorelli, G

    1990-01-01

    To analyze the role of eosinophils in alveolitis due to immunological interstitial lung disorders, 568 bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) from 537 patients affected by 13 types of interstitial lung disease involving immunologic mechanisms were considered. An arbitrary cut-off of 4% of eosinophils in BAL was assumed. In five (idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA), amiodarone-induced pneumonitis (AIP), chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP), Churg-Strauss syndrome (CSS)) out of the thirteen groups we took into consideration, the level of eosinophils was greater than 4%. In CEP and CSS in particular, the arbitrary cut-off of 4% was greatly exceeded (28.9% +/- 27.4, p less than 0.01 and 33.6% +/- 14.5, p less than 0.01, respectively). In the same two groups the increase of eosinophils in BAL was isolated with a direct correlation to the number of eosinophils in blood. By contrast, the increase of eosinophils in BAL of IPF, AIP and ABPA was of lesser extent (4.7% +/- 5.7 p less than 0.01, 5.0% +/- 3.0 p less than 0.01 and 6.1% +/- 10.4 p less than 0.01, respectively) and was accompanied by an increase of neutrophils in IPF, of lymphocytes in AIP and both in ABPA. These patterns are generally defined as "mixed alveolitis." On the basis of these data we conclude that the term "eosinophilic alveolitis" should be reserved for CEP and CSS.

  19. Pattern-recognition receptors in human eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Kvarnhammar, Anne Månsson; Cardell, Lars Olaf

    2012-05-01

    The pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) family includes Toll-like receptors (TLRs), nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) -like receptors (NLRs), RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) and the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). They recognize various microbial signatures or host-derived danger signals and trigger an immune response. Eosinophils are multifunctional leucocytes involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory processes, including parasitic helminth infection, allergic diseases, tissue injury and tumour immunity. Human eosinophils express several PRRs, including TLR1-5, TLR7, TLR9, NOD1, NOD2, Dectin-1 and RAGE. Receptor stimulation induces survival, oxidative burst, activation of the adhesion system and release of cytokines (interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumour necrosis factor-α and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor), chemokines (interleukin-8 and growth-related oncogene-α) and cytotoxic granule proteins (eosinophil cationic protein, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, eosinophil peroxidase and major basic protein). It is also evident that eosinophils play an immunomodulatory role by interacting with surrounding cells. The presence of a broad range of PRRs in eosinophils indicates that they are not only involved in defence against parasitic helminths, but also against bacteria, viruses and fungi. From a clinical perspective, eosinophilic PRRs seem to be involved in both allergic and malignant diseases by causing exacerbations and affecting tumour growth, respectively.

  20. Gallium-67 pulmonary uptake in eosinophilic pneumonia

    SciTech Connect

    Morais, J.; Carrier, L.; Gariepy, G.; Le Bel, L.; Chartrand, R.; Picard, D.

    1988-01-01

    Eosinophilic pneumonia is usually diagnosed based on the findings on chest x-ray, white blood count, and transbronchial biopsy. After reporting a case of Ga-67 lung uptake in eosinophilic pneumonia, its histopathology is discussed and the mechanisms of Ga-67 uptake by inflammatory lesions are reviewed.

  1. The Pathophysiology of Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Raheem, Mayumi; Leach, Steven T.; Day, Andrew S.; Lemberg, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an emerging disease characterized by esophageal eosinophilia (>15eos/hpf), lack of responsiveness to acid-suppressive medication and is managed by allergen elimination and anti-allergy therapy. Although the pathophysiology of EoE is currently unsubstantiated, evidence implicates food and aeroallergen hypersensitivity in genetically predisposed individuals as contributory factors. Genome-wide expression analyses have isolated a remarkably conserved gene-expression profile irrespective of age and gender, suggesting a genetic contribution. EoE has characteristics of mainly TH2 type immune responses but also some TH1 cytokines, which appear to strongly contribute to tissue fibrosis, with esophageal epithelial cells providing a hospitable environment for this inflammatory process. Eosinophil-degranulation products appear to play a central role in tissue remodeling in EoE. This remodeling and dysregulation predisposes to fibrosis. Mast-cell-derived molecules such as histamine may have an effect on enteric nerves and may also act in concert with transforming growth factor-β to interfere with esophageal musculature. Additionally, the esophageal epithelium may facilitate the inflammatory process under pathogenic contexts such as in EoE. This article aims to discuss the contributory factors in the pathophysiology of EoE. PMID:24910846

  2. Eosinophilic ascites: A diagnostic and therapeutic challenge

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Shefali; Vohra, Sandeep; Rawat, Sangeeta; Kashyap, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) is a rare condition characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of the gastrointestinal tract. Depending on the dominant layer of infiltration it is classified into three types namely, mucosal, muscularis and subserosal. The most uncommon variant is the subserosal type characterized by primarily subserosal disease, eosinophilic ascites and peripheral hypereosinophilia. The clinical features are non-specific with history of atopic predisposition and allergy. Endoscopic biopsy is frequently non-diagnostic due to an uninvolved gastrointestinal mucosa rendering its diagnosis a challenge. The mainstay of diagnosis is peripheral hypereosinophilia and eosinophil-rich ascitic fluid on diagnostic paracentesis. Oral steroid therapy is usually the first line of treatment with dramatic response. Due to a propensity for relapse, steroid-sparing therapy should be considered for relapses of EGE. We report a case of subserosal EGE with diagnostic clinical features and treatment response and review the current strategy in the management of eosinophilic ascites. PMID:27721930

  3. β-lactam-associated eosinophilic colitis.

    PubMed

    Mogilevski, Tamara; Nickless, David; Hume, Sam

    2015-01-01

    A 42-year-old man with a history of childhood asthma presented with a 2-week history of watery diarrhoea and marked peripheral eosinophilia in the setting of recent use of cephalexin. His colonoscopy revealed patchy colitis. Biopsies were consistent with eosinophilic colitis. Two months later he received a course of amoxicillin resulting in recurrence of peripheral eosinophilia. Given the time-frame of β-lactam administration to symptom onset and elimination of all other precipitating causes, he was diagnosed with β-lactam-associated eosinophilic colitis. The patient's symptoms resolved and peripheral eosinophil count decreased with no specific treatment. Eosinophilic colitis is a rare heterogeneous condition, the pathogenesis of which is likely to be an interplay between environmental and genetic factors. It can be secondary to a helminthic infection or a drug reaction and has been associated with ulcerative colitis. If secondary causes of eosinophilic colitis have been excluded, the mainstay of treatment is with corticosteroids. PMID:26106168

  4. Acute mucocutaneous methotrexate toxicity associated with interface dermatitis and numerous eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Nkanyezi N; Asarch, Adam; VanBeek, Marta; Swick, Brian L

    2013-06-01

    Acute mucocutaneous methotrexate toxicity is not classically associated with prominent tissue eosinophilia. We present a case of acute methotrexate toxicity associated with pancytopenia and mucocutaneous erosion with interface dermatitis and numerous eosinophils. A 79-year-old male, with a history of psoriasis vulgaris on methotrexate therapy, presented with blisters of the oral mucosa, groin, sacrum, and extremities after daily consumption of methotrexate. Examination revealed blisters and erosions localized to psoriatic plaques, the perineum, and the oral mucosa. Laboratory evaluation demonstrated pancytopenia, megaloblastic anemia, and elevated liver function tests. A skin biopsy of an eroded plaque revealed psoriasiform epidermal hyperplasia with epidermal erosion, parakeratosis, and loss of the granular cell layer. There was an underlying band-like lymphoid infiltrate with interface dermatitis, dyskeratotic keratinocytes, and numerous eosinophils. Direct immunofluorescence studies were negative for the deposition of immunoreactants. Methotrexate was held, and the patient received leucovorin resulting in improvement of blood counts and cutaneous lesions. The histopathologic changes associated with acute mucocutaneous toxicity have been described as pauci-inflammatory erosions associated with dyskeratotic keratinocytes to interface dermatitis with necrotic keratinocytes and occasionally associated eosinophils. Although these changes are most often superimposed on psoriatic plaques, they have been reported to occur on normal skin. Therefore, the differential diagnosis may include lichen planus, a lichenoid drug eruption, or a fixed drug eruption, and given the presence of mucosal ulceration, incipient pemphigus vulgaris or paraneoplastic pemphigus vulgaris. This case illustrates that acute mucocutaneous methotrexate toxicity may be associated with both interface dermatitis and numerous eosinophils. PMID:23221488

  5. Eosinophil crystalloid granules: structure, function, and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Muniz, Valdirene S.; Weller, Peter F.; Neves, Josiane S.

    2012-01-01

    Eosinophils are granulocytes associated with host defense against parasitic helminths with allergic conditions and more recently, with immunoregulatory responses. Eosinophils are distinguished from leukocytes by their dominant population of cytoplasmic crystalloid (also termed secretory, specific, or secondary) granules that contain robust stores of diverse, preformed cationic proteins. Here, we provide an update on our knowledge about the unique and complex structure of human eosinophil crystalloid granules. We discuss their significance as rich sites of a variety of receptors and review our own recent research findings and those of others that highlight discoveries concerning the function of intracellular receptors and their potential implications in cell signaling. Special focus is provided on how eosinophils might use these intracellular receptors as mechanisms to secrete, selectively and rapidly, cytokines or chemokines and enable cell-free extracellular eosinophil granules to function as independent secretory structures. Potential roles of cell-free eosinophil granules as immune players in the absence of intact eosinophils will also be discussed. PMID:22672875

  6. Esophageal Microbiome in Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Harris, J. Kirk; Fang, Rui; Wagner, Brandie D.; Choe, Ha Na; Kelly, Caleb J.; Schroeder, Shauna; Moore, Wendy; Stevens, Mark J.; Yeckes, Alyson; Amsden, Katie; Kagalwalla, Amir F.; Zalewski, Angelika; Hirano, Ikuo; Gonsalves, Nirmala; Henry, Lauren N.; Masterson, Joanne C.; Robertson, Charles E.; Leung, Donald Y.; Pace, Norman R.; Ackerman, Steven J.; Furuta, Glenn T.; Fillon, Sophie A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The microbiome has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of allergic and inflammatory diseases. The mucosa affected by eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is composed of a stratified squamous epithelia and contains intraepithelial eosinophils. To date, no studies have identified the esophageal microbiome in patients with EoE or the impact of treatment on these organisms. The aim of this study was to identify the esophageal microbiome in EoE and determine whether treatments change this profile. We hypothesized that clinically relevant alterations in bacterial populations are present in different forms of esophagitis. Design In this prospective study, secretions from the esophageal mucosa were collected from children and adults with EoE, Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) and normal mucosa using the Esophageal String Test (EST). Bacterial load was determined using quantitative PCR. Bacterial communities, determined by 16S rRNA gene amplification and 454 pyrosequencing, were compared between health and disease. Results Samples from a total of 70 children and adult subjects were examined. Bacterial load was increased in both EoE and GERD relative to normal subjects. In subjects with EoE, load was increased regardless of treatment status or degree of mucosal eosinophilia compared with normal. Haemophilus was significantly increased in untreated EoE subjects as compared with normal subjects. Streptococcus was decreased in GERD subjects on proton pump inhibition as compared with normal subjects. Conclusions Diseases associated with mucosal eosinophilia are characterized by a different microbiome from that found in the normal mucosa. Microbiota may contribute to esophageal inflammation in EoE and GERD. PMID:26020633

  7. Use of AN Eosinophil Specific Monoclonal Antibody in Assessing Eosinophil Function.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minkoff, Marjorie Sue

    A monoclonal antibody to an eosinophil specific determinant is very important in assessing eosinophil function during helminthic infection. Eosinophils induced by Schistosoma mansoni infection in BALB/c mice were used to induce C57B1/6 immunocytes for production of hybridomas secreting eosinophil monoclonal antibodies. These antibodies were shown to react with an eosinophil surface epitope but not with neutrophils or macrophages as determined by ELISA, immunodiffusion, immunofluorescence, and immunoblot assay. Affinity chromatography with eosinophil chemotactic factor-sepharose consistently selected out a { rm M_ R} 67,000 protein from solubilized eosinophil membrane antigens but not from neutrophil and macrophage antigens. In vitro studies showed that the eosinophil-specific monoclonal antibodies abrogated antibody-dependent eosinophil -mediated killing of S. mansoni schistosomula using mouse, rat or human eosinophils. Neutrophil and macrophage killing activities were unaffected. The monoclonal antibodies effected complement-dependent lysis of mouse and rat eosinophils but not of human eosinophils. ECF-treated eosinophils showed enhanced killing of schistosomula which was blocked by the monoclonal antibody. Murine and human eosinophils preincubated with monoclonal antibody exhibited decreased chemotaxis to ECF at optimal chemotactic concentrations. The monoclonal antibody also blocked eosinophil binding to ECF- sepharose beads. In vivo induction of peripheral blood eosinophilia by injection of S. mansoni eggs was suppressed by injections of monoclonal antibodies 2CD13 and 2QD45 in mouse and rat experimental models. Eosinophilia induced by keyhole limpet hemocyanin- cyclophosphamide treatment was also suppressed by monoclonal antibody in both murine and rat systems. Pulmonary granulomas in mice given egg injection and monoclonal antibody were smaller and contained fewer eosinophils than those granulomas from mice given eggs only. In immuno-biochemical studies, the

  8. A Curious Case of Proximal Muscle Weakness with Eosinophilic Polymyositis

    PubMed Central

    DeLima, Marianne; Shah, Jaimin; Aung, Win

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic polymyositis (EPM) is part of a rare disorder, eosinophilic myopathies (EM), which is a form of polymyositis characterized by the presence of eosinophils in muscle biopsy sections and occasionally blood eosinophilia. Herein, we are presenting an interesting case of eosinophilic polymyositis presenting with muscle pain with no other organ systems involved. PMID:27703830

  9. Eosinophilic follicular reaction induced by Demodex folliculorum mite: a different disease from eosinophilic folliculitis.

    PubMed

    Sabater-Marco, V; Escutia-Muñoz, B; Botella-Estrada, R

    2015-06-01

    Eosinophilic folliculitis (EF) is an idiopathic dermatitis included in the spectrum of eosinophilic pustular follicular reactions. Demodex folliculorum has been implicated as contributing to the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus-associated EF, but it has not been described outside this context. We present an immunocompetent 65-year-old white man with a 5-year history of recurrent pruritic erythematous and oedematous lesions on his face, neck and scalp. Histopathologically, an eosinophilic microabcess with Demodex folliculorum mite within a pilosebaceous follicle was seen, and considered the causal agent. There were also accumulations of eosinophil granules on collagen bundles, and flame figure formations in the dermis. We believe that 'eosinophilic follicular reaction' is an appropriate term to describe this case of EF induced by D. folliculorum and thus distinguish it from the idiopathic form of EF. Moreover, this case suggests that D. folliculorum can sometimes induce an eosinophilic immune reaction. PMID:25623943

  10. Platelet-activating factor induces eosinophil peroxidase release from purified human eosinophils.

    PubMed Central

    Kroegel, C; Yukawa, T; Dent, G; Chanez, P; Chung, K F; Barnes, P J

    1988-01-01

    The degranulation response of purified human eosinophils to platelet-activating factor (PAF) has been studied. PAF induced release of eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) and beta-glucuronidase from highly purified human eosinophils with an EC50 of 0.9 nM. The order of release was comparable with that induced by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). The new specific PAF antagonist 3-[4-(2-chlorophenyl)-9-methyl-H-thieno[3,2-f] [1,2,4]triazolo-[4,3a][1,4]-diazepin-2-yl](4-morpholinyl)- 1-propane-one (WEB 2086) inhibited the PAF-induced enzyme release by human eosinophils in a dose-dependent manner. The viability of eosinophils were unaffected both by PAF and WEB 2086. The results suggest that PAF may amplify allergic and inflammatory reactions by release of preformed proteins from eosinophil granules. PMID:3410498

  11. [A case of eosinophilic pneumonia due to Nicolase (serrapeptase) after recovery from acute eosinophilic pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Kai, Naoko; Shirai, Ryo; Hirata, Norio; Iwata, Atsuko; Umeki, Kenji; Ishii, Hiroshi; Kishi, Kenji; Tokimatsu, Issei; Hiramatsu, Kazufumi; Kadota, Jun-ichi

    2009-03-01

    A case of eosinophilic pneumonia due to Nicolase (serrapeptase) after recovery from acute eosinophilic pneumonia is described. A 32-year-old woman was previously admitted to another hospital because of acute onset of dyspnea accompanied by cough and fever. Chest X-ray films revealed diffuse infiltration in both lungs two days after her symptoms occurred. Her bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed 13% eosinophils and transbronchial lung biopsy specimen also showed many eosinophils infiltrating in the lesions of the bronchial submucosa and alveolar septa. No infectious causes or related drugs were found. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia was diagnosed, and her condition improved gradually without steroid treatment. Because she recovered clinically and radiologically, she was discharged from hospital. Half a month later she was treated with Nicolase because of pharyngitis. She was admitted to the hospital again because of dyspnea, cough and fever three days after commencing to take Nicolase. Chest X-ray films also revealed diffuse infiltration in both lungs with pleural effusion, and her bronchoalveolar lavage fluid showed 37% eosinophils. When the drug lymphocyte stimulation test was performed, it was positive for Nicolase. Therefore drug-induced eosinophilic pneumonia was diagnosed. This is a very rare case of Nicolase (serrapeptase)-induced eosinophilic pneumonia after recovering from acute eosinophilic pneumonia.

  12. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis associated with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Barbie, David A; Mangi, Abeel A; Lauwers, Gregory Y

    2004-01-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis is an uncommon disease with an obscure etiology, although associations with allergy, the idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome, and connective tissue disease have been reported. We present the case of a 37-year-old woman with a history of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura who presented with refractory nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. Imaging studies were significant for bowel wall thickening and ascites, while laboratory studies revealed a positive antinuclear antibody (ANA), a positive anti-double stranded (DS) DNA antibody, low complement, and proteinuria. Exploratory laparotomy with gastric and small bowel biopsies established the diagnosis of eosinophilic gastroenteritis. In addition, the patient met clinical criteria for the diagnosis of systemic lupus erythematosus. Previous studies have described eosinophilic gastroenteritis in patients with scleroderma, polymyositis, or dermatomyositis. This is the first report to our knowledge of an individual with eosinophilic gastroenteritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:15492606

  13. Preparation and surface labeling of murine eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Burgess, A W; Cruise, K M; Mitchell, G F; Watt, S M

    1980-01-01

    Eosinophilic polymorphonuclear leukocytes were isolated from the peritoneal cavity of BALB/c mice infected with the parasite Mesocestoides corti. Approximately 4 X 10(7) eosinophils (purity, 50%) could be harvested from each mouse. A high yield and purity of eosinophils was obtained from the peritoneal cells of infected male BALB/c mice using density centrifugation on a gradient of slightly hypotonic colloidal silica sol (Percoll). After initial irradiation of the mice to lower the lymphocyte contamination, subsequent density gradient (and where necessary sedimentation velocity) centrifugation yielded 10(8) eosinophils (purity > 95%) from six to eight mice. It was also possible to isolate small numbers of eosinophils (2 X 10(4) cells/minute, purity > 99%) without irradiating the mice. This could be achieved by separating the density gradient purified peritoneal cells by light-scatter on a Becton-Dickinson cell sorter (FACS II). Analysis of proteins extracted from eosinophils using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate revealed a group of high molecular weight proteins (bwtween 250K and 160K) which were not as distinctive in the neutrophil profile. Surface labeling was performed, before the cell separation by using 125I and 1,3,4,6-tetrachloro-3 alpha, 6 alpha-diphenylglycoluril. Only five 125I-labeled proteins were detected initially (all with apparent molecular weights > 50,000). No 125I appeared to be associated with actin under the conditions used for surface labeling. Four of the eosinophil surface labeled proteins corresponded to surface labeled proteins on neutrophils, but the major surface component of the eosinophils (MW 79,000) appeared to be smaller than the major neutrophil protein (MW 90,000). PMID:7409032

  14. Wet granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitarai, Namiko; Nori, Franco

    2006-04-01

    Most studies on granular physics have focused on dry granular media, with no liquids between the grains. However, in geology and many real world applications (e.g. food processing, pharmaceuticals, ceramics, civil engineering, construction, and many industrial applications), liquid is present between the grains. This produces inter-grain cohesion and drastically modifies the mechanical properties of the granular media (e.g. the surface angle can be larger than 90 degrees). Here we present a review of the mechanical properties of wet granular media, with particular emphasis on the effect of cohesion. We also list several open problems that might motivate future studies in this exciting but mostly unexplored field.

  15. Post-translational Tyrosine Nitration of Eosinophil Granule Toxins Mediated by Eosinophil Peroxidase*

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, Martina; Petre, Alina; Youhnovski, Nikolay; Prömm, Franziska; Schirle, Markus; Schumm, Michael; Pero, Ralph S.; Doyle, Alfred; Checkel, James; Kita, Hirohito; Thiyagarajan, Nethaji; Acharya, K. Ravi; Schmid-Grendelmeier, Peter; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Schwarz, Heinz; Tsutsui, Masato; Shimokawa, Hiroaki; Bellon, Gabriel; Lee, James J.; Przybylski, Michael; Döring, Gerd

    2008-01-01

    Nitration of tyrosine residues has been observed during various acute and chronic inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanism of tyrosine nitration and the nature of the proteins that become tyrosine nitrated during inflammation remain unclear. Here we show that eosinophils but not other cell types including neutrophils contain nitrotyrosine-positive proteins in specific granules. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the human eosinophil toxins, eosinophil peroxidase (EPO), major basic protein, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) and eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), and the respective murine toxins, are post-translationally modified by nitration at tyrosine residues during cell maturation. High resolution affinity-mass spectrometry identified specific single nitration sites at Tyr349 in EPO and Tyr33 in both ECP and EDN. ECP and EDN crystal structures revealed and EPO structure modeling suggested that the nitrated tyrosine residues in the toxins are surface exposed. Studies in EPO-/-, gp91phox-/-, and NOS-/- mice revealed that tyrosine nitration of these toxins is mediated by EPO in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and minute amounts of NOx. Tyrosine nitration of eosinophil granule toxins occurs during maturation of eosinophils, independent of inflammation. These results provide evidence that post-translational tyrosine nitration is unique to eosinophils. PMID:18694936

  16. Granular cell tumor of the appendix: a new case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Roncati, Luca; Manco, Gianrocco; Italia, Sebastiano; Barbolini, Giuseppe; Maiorana, Antonio; Rossi, Aldo

    2013-01-01

    Granular cell tumor (GCT) is a rare and usually benign lesion of neural / schwannian origin, most frequently found in middle-age women. The appendicular involvement is extremely rare: in over half a century only twelve cases have been reported in the literature, the patients living in America and Europe. Hitherto, no cases are documented from Africa, Asia and Oceania and no cases of malignant GCTs of the appendix have been reported. Most patients were diagnosed preoperatively as having acute appendicitis, whereas in three patients the tumor was incidentally detected during major abdominal surgery. The GCTs were equally distributed between mid-appendix and tip, where lymphoid tissue is more abundant and the anatomical nerve supply is progressively reduced. Moreover, the appendix surrounding the GCTs is characterized by the presence of chronic inflammatory cells (histiocytes, plasmocytes, eosinophils, mastocytes) and, therefore, a chronic inflammation of the appendix may be an antecedent condition favouring the appearance of GCTs. The GCT of the appendix appears so to be a lesion that reflects local reactive changes in the neural / schwannian cells, rather than being a genuine neoplasm. We describe the smallest GCT of the appendix ever reported, with a detailed literature review supporting its reactive origin in the lymphatic tissue-rich sites, such as ileo cecal appendix.

  17. Diagnostic Approach to Eosinophilic Renal Neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Kryvenko, Oleksandr N.; Jorda, Merce; Argani, Pedram; Epstein, Jonathan I.

    2015-01-01

    Context Eosinophilic renal neoplasms include a spectrum of solid and papillary tumors ranging from indolent benign oncocytoma to highly aggressive malignancies. Recognition of the correct nature of the tumor, especially in biopsy specimens, is paramount for patient management. Objective To review the diagnostic approach to eosinophilic renal neoplasms with light microscopy and ancillary techniques. Data Sources Review of the published literature and personal experience. Conclusions The following tumors are in the differential diagnosis of oncocytic renal cell neoplasm: oncocytoma, chromophobe renal cell carcinoma (RCC), hybrid tumor, tubulocystic carcinoma, papillary RCC, clear cell RCC with predominant eosinophilic cell morphology, follicular thyroid-like RCC, hereditary leiomyomatosis–associated RCC, acquired cystic disease–associated RCC, rhabdoid RCC, microphthalmia transcription factor translocation RCC, epithelioid angiomyolipoma, and unclassified RCC. In low-grade nonpapillary eosinophilic neoplasms, distinction between oncocytoma and low-grade RCC mostly rests on histomorphology; however, cytokeratin 7 immunostain may be helpful. In high-grade nonpapillary lesions, there is more of a role for ancillary techniques, including immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin 7, CA9, CD10, racemase, HMB45, and Melan-A. In papillary eosinophilic neoplasms, it is important to distinguish sporadic type 2 papillary RCC from microphthalmia transcription factor translocation and hereditary leiomyomatosis–associated RCC. Histologic and cytologic features along with immunohistochemistry and fluorescence in situ hybridization tests for TFE3 (Xp11.2) and TFEB [t(6;11)] are reliable confirmatory tests. Eosinophilic epithelial neoplasms with architecture, cytology, and/or immunoprofile not qualifying for either of the established types of RCC should be classified as unclassified eosinophilic RCC and arbitrarily assigned a grade (low or high). PMID:25357116

  18. Granular transport in driven granular gas.

    PubMed

    Noirhomme, M; Opsomer, E; Vandewalle, N; Ludewig, F

    2015-02-01

    We numerically and theoretically investigate the behavior of a granular gas driven by asymmetric plates. The injection of energy in the dissipative system differs from one side to the opposite one. We prove that the dynamical clustering which is expected for such a system is affected by the asymmetry. As a consequence, the cluster position can be fully controlled. This property could lead to various applications in the handling of granular materials in low-gravity environment. Moreover, the dynamical cluster is characterized by natural oscillations which are also captured by a model. These oscillations are mainly related to the cluster size, thus providing an original way to probe the clustering behavior.

  19. Eosinophil-Mediated Tissue Inflammatory Responses in Helminth Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Ah; Min, Duk-Young

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophilic leukocytes function in host protection against parasitic worms. In turn, helminthic parasites harbor specific molecules to evade or paralyze eosinophil-associated host immune responses; these molecules facilitate the migration and survival of parasitic helminths in vivo. This competition between eosinophil and worm leads to stable equilibria between them. An understanding of such dynamic host-eosinophil interactions will help us to uncover mechanisms of cross talk between host and parasite in helminth infection. In this review, we examine recent findings regarding the innate immune responses of eosinophils to helminthic parasites, and discuss the implications of these findings in terms of eosinophil-mediated tissue inflammation in helminth infection. PMID:19885328

  20. Eosinophilic oesophagitis: a novel treatment using Montelukast

    PubMed Central

    Attwood, S E A; Lewis, C J; Bronder, C S; Morris, C D; Armstrong, G R; Whittam, J

    2003-01-01

    Background: Eosinophilic oesophagitis is a rarely diagnosed condition involving eosinophil infiltration of the oesophageal mucosa and creating significant symptoms of dysphagia. Failure to diagnose this disorder relates to reluctance to biopsy an apparently normal oesophagus. This is essential for histological diagnosis. To date, treatment success has been achieved only with corticosteroids. We describe here the use of an eosinophil stabilising agent Montelukast for the symptomatic relief of these patients. Patients and methods: Twelve patients have been identified with this condition in our unit since 1995, after thorough investigation of their dysphagia. We commenced eight of these patients on the leukotriene receptor antagonist Montelukast to symptomatically improve their swallowing while avoiding the use of long term corticosteroids. Results: Many of these patients had been previously misdiagnosed, and therefore inappropriately and unsuccessfully treated for an extensive period prior to referral to our unit. All patients were unresponsive to acid suppression therapy alone but showed improvement in their swallowing on Montelukast. Six of eight reported complete subjective improvement, five patients remaining completely asymptomatic on a maintenance regimen. Conclusions: Eosinophilic oesophagitis is a disease that is often misdiagnosed due to lack of awareness and reluctance of clinicians to biopsy an apparently normal oesophagus in dysphagic patients, and therefore obtain a histological diagnosis. Investigation of these patients adds further evidence to this condition being a separate pathological state from gastro-oesophageal reflux and eosinophilic enteritis. Montelukast has been found to be of significant help in the symptomatic control of these patients while avoiding long term corticosteroids use. PMID:12524397

  1. Respiratory Viruses and Eosinophils: exploring the connections

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Helene F.; Dyer, Kimberly D.; Domachowske, Joseph B.

    2009-01-01

    In this review, we consider the role played by eosinophilic leukocytes in the pathogenesis and pathophysiology of respiratory virus infection. The vast majority of the available information on this topic focuses on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV; Family Paramyxoviridae, genus Pneumovirus), an important pediatric pathogen that infects infants worldwide. There is no vaccine currently available for RSV. A formalininactivated RSV vaccine used in a trial in the 1960s elicited immunopathology in response to natural RSV infection; this has been modeled experimentally, primarily in inbred mice and cotton rats. Eosinophils are recruited to the lung tissue in response to formalin-inactivated RSV vaccine antigens in humans and in experimental models, but they may or may not be involved in promoting the severe clinical sequelae observed. Pulmonary eosinophilia elicited in response to primary RSV infection has also been explored; this response is particularly evident in the youngest human infants and in neonatal mouse models. Although pulmonary eosinophilia is nearly always perceived in a negative light, the specific role played by virus-elicited eosinophils - negative, positive or neutral bystander - remain unclear. Lastly, we consider the data that focus on the role of eosinophils in promoting virus clearance and antiviral host defense, and conclude with a recent study that explores the role of eosinophils themselves as targets of virus infection. (215 words) PMID:19375458

  2. On granular elasticity

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Qicheng; Jin, Feng; Wang, Guangqian; Song, Shixiong; Zhang, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    Mesoscopic structures form in dense granular materials due to the self-organisation of the constituent particles. These structures have internal structural degrees of freedom in addition to the translational degree of freedom. The resultant granular elasticity, which exhibits intrinsic variations and inevitable relaxation, is a key quantity that accounts for macroscopic solid- or fluid-like properties and the transitions between them. In this work, we propose a potential energy landscape (PEL) with local stable basins and low elastic energy barriers to analyse the nature of granular elasticity. A function for the elastic energy density is proposed for stable states and is further calibrated with ultrasonic measurements. Fluctuations in the elastic energy due to the evolution of internal structures are proposed to describe a so-called configuration temperature Tc as a counterpart of the classical kinetic granular temperature Tk that is attributed to the translational degrees of freedom. The two granular temperatures are chosen as the state variables, and a fundamental equation is established to develop non-equilibrium thermodynamics for granular materials. Due to the relatively low elastic energy barrier in the PEL, granular elasticity relaxes more under common mechanical loadings, and a simple model based on mean-field theory is developed to account for this behaviour. PMID:25951049

  3. Particle Deposition in Granular Media

    SciTech Connect

    Tien, C.

    1992-01-01

    Objective is to understand aerosol deposition from gas streams flowing through granular media; this is important to the design of granular filtration systems. The following investigations were carried out: transient behavior of granular filtration of aerosols, and stochastic simulation of aerosol deposition in granular media.

  4. Managing eosinophilic esophagitis: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Nisha A; Albert, Dustin M; Hall, Noah M; Moawad, Fouad J

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic and progressive immune-mediated condition defined by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and dense eosinophilic infiltration of the esophageal mucosa. Therapies consist of anti-eosinophilic medications and specialized diets aimed to decrease the progression of EoE and alleviate its symptoms, namely, dysphagia and food impaction. Assessing response to therapy remains challenging, as treatment end points are not well defined and currently consist of clinical, histologic, and endoscopic features. Newer validated measures may help standardize treatment end points. Emerging data support the use of maintenance therapy, which may reduce disease progression. Optimal dosages, delivery techniques, and duration of treatment need to be determined. When features of fibrostenosis develop, esophageal dilation is a safe and effective adjunctive strategy for improving symptoms. In EoE cases refractory to conventional treatments, newer therapies targeting inflammatory mediators and cytokines are on the horizon. PMID:27695356

  5. Managing eosinophilic esophagitis: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Nisha A; Albert, Dustin M; Hall, Noah M; Moawad, Fouad J

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic and progressive immune-mediated condition defined by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and dense eosinophilic infiltration of the esophageal mucosa. Therapies consist of anti-eosinophilic medications and specialized diets aimed to decrease the progression of EoE and alleviate its symptoms, namely, dysphagia and food impaction. Assessing response to therapy remains challenging, as treatment end points are not well defined and currently consist of clinical, histologic, and endoscopic features. Newer validated measures may help standardize treatment end points. Emerging data support the use of maintenance therapy, which may reduce disease progression. Optimal dosages, delivery techniques, and duration of treatment need to be determined. When features of fibrostenosis develop, esophageal dilation is a safe and effective adjunctive strategy for improving symptoms. In EoE cases refractory to conventional treatments, newer therapies targeting inflammatory mediators and cytokines are on the horizon.

  6. Congenital granular cell epulis.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Rachel; Perez, Mia C N

    2014-01-01

    Congenital granular cell epulis is a rarely reported lesion of unknown histogenesis with a strong predilection for the maxillary alveolar ridge of newborn girls. Microscopically, it demonstrates nests of polygonal cells with granular cytoplasm, a prominent capillary network, and attenuated overlying squamous epithelium. The lesion lacks immunoreactivity for S-100, laminin, chromogranin, and most other markers except neuron-specific enolase and vimentin. Through careful observation of its unique clinical, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical features, this lesion can be distinguished from the more common adult granular cell tumor as well as other differential diagnoses.

  7. Gravity and Granular Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behringer, R. P.; Hovell, Daniel; Kondic, Lou; Tennakoon, Sarath; Veje, Christian

    1999-01-01

    We describe experiments that probe a number of different types of granular flow where either gravity is effectively eliminated or it is modulated in time. These experiments include the shaking of granular materials both vertically and horizontally, and the shearing of a 2D granular material. For the shaken system, we identify interesting dynamical phenomena and relate them to standard simple friction models. An interesting application of this set of experiments is to the mixing of dissimilar materials. For the sheared system we identify a new kind of dynamical phase transition.

  8. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis associated with multiple gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Otowa, Yasunori; Mitsutsuji, Masaaki; Urade, Takeshi; Chono, Teruhiro; Morimoto, Haruki; Yokoyama, Kunio; Hirata, Kenro; Kawamura, Shiro; Shimada, Etsuji; Fujita, Masayuki

    2012-06-01

    Eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EG) is an inflammation of the digestive tract that is characterized by eosinophilic infiltration. There are no specific symptoms, and are related to the layer in which eosinophilic infiltration is observed. A 69-year-old Japanese man presented to our hospital with a history of general malaise, diarrhea, and dysgeusia. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy showed reddish elevated lesions that were edematous all over the gastric mucosa. In addition, three tumors were also observed. The biopsies of the reddish elevated mucosa revealed eosinophilic infiltration and tubular adenocarcinoma from the tumors. Colonoscopy showed abnormal reddish elevated mucosa. The biopsies from the reddish elevated mucosa showed eosinophilic infiltration. From the abdominal contrast computed tomography scan, tumor stain was seen in the anterior wall of the gastric body. No ascites, intestinal wall thickening, or lymph node swelling were found. A slight elevation in the serum immunoglobulin E (IgE), 480 IU/ml, was found from the laboratory test results; other laboratory results were within normal limits including the number of peripheral eosinophils. No specific allergen was found from the multiple antigen simultaneous test and from the skin patch test. The parasitic immunodiagnosis was negative. He was diagnosed with EG associated with gastric cancer and underwent total gastrectomy, regional lymph node dissection with reconstruction by a Roux-en-Y method. He was prescribed prednisolone after the operation and showed a good clinical response. There are many case reports on EG, but none of them were associated with cancer. We encountered a case of EG associated with multiple gastric cancer; the patient underwent total gastrectomy.

  9. [FEATURES OF TREATMENT OF EOSINOPHILIC ESOPHAGITIS IN SCHOOLCHILDREN].

    PubMed

    Horodylovska, M I

    2015-01-01

    The inclusion of probiotic L. reuteri into the complex therapy of eosinophilic esophagitis significantly affect the outcomes of children--there was significant decrease in the number of eosinophils in the esophageal mucosa of children. PMID:26118052

  10. Mepolizumab in the treatment of severe eosinophilic asthma.

    PubMed

    Fainardi, Valentina; Pisi, Giovanna; Chetta, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    IL-5 is crucial in the pathogenesis and evolution of eosinophilic asthma. Mepolizumab is a high-affinity humanized monoclonal antibody of the IgG1/k subtype that inhibits the binding of IL-5 to its receptor expressed on eosinophils, thereby inducing significant reduction in eosinophil circulation, as well as asthma exacerbations and corticosteroid treatment. This review deals with the currently available studies of mepolizumab in the treatment of patients with severe eosinophilic asthma.

  11. Dynamics of Granular Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behringer, Robert P.

    1996-01-01

    Granular materials exhibit a rich variety of dynamical behavior, much of which is poorly understood. Fractal-like stress chains, convection, a variety of wave dynamics, including waves which resemble capillary waves, l/f noise, and fractional Brownian motion provide examples. Work beginning at Duke will focus on gravity driven convection, mixing and gravitational collapse. Although granular materials consist of collections of interacting particles, there are important differences between the dynamics of a collections of grains and the dynamics of a collections of molecules. In particular, the ergodic hypothesis is generally invalid for granular materials, so that ordinary statistical physics does not apply. In the absence of a steady energy input, granular materials undergo a rapid collapse which is strongly influenced by the presence of gravity. Fluctuations on laboratory scales in such quantities as the stress can be very large-as much as an order of magnitude greater than the mean.

  12. Natural killer cells regulate eosinophilic inflammation in chronic rhinosinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji Heui; Choi, Go Eun; Lee, Bong-Jae; Kwon, Seog Woon; Lee, Seung-Hyo; Kim, Hun Sik; Jang, Yong Ju

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophils play a major pathologic role in the pathogenesis of diverse inflammatory diseases including chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Dysregulated production of prostaglandin (PG), particularly PGD2, is considered to be an important contributing factor to eosinophilic inflammation in CRS primarily through proinflammatory and chemotactic effects on eosinophils. Here, we provide evidence that PGD2 can promote eosinophilic inflammation through a suppression of Natural killer (NK) cell effector function and NK cell-mediated eosinophil regulation. Eosinophil apoptosis mediated by NK cells was significantly decreased in CRS patients compared with healthy controls. This decrease was associated with NK cell dysfunction and eosinophilic inflammation. Tissue eosinophils were positively correlated with blood eosinophils in CRS patients. In a murine model of CRS, NK cell depletion caused an exacerbation of blood eosinophilia and eosinophilic inflammation in the sinonasal tissue. PGD2 and its metabolite, but not PGE2 and a panel of cytokines including TGF-β, were increased in CRS patients compared with controls. Effector functions of NK cells were potently suppressed by PGD2-dependent, rather than PGE2-dependent, pathway in controls and CRS patients. Thus, our results suggest decreased NK cell-mediated eosinophil regulation, possibly through an increased level of PGD2, as a previously unrecognized link between PG dysregulation and eosinophilic inflammation in CRS. PMID:27271931

  13. Eosinophils in Gastrointestinal disorders- eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel diseases and parasitic infections

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Pooja; Furuta, Glenn T.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis The gastrointestinal tract provides an intriguing organ for considering the eosinophil’s role in health and disease. The normal gastrointestinal (GI) tract, except for the esophagus, is populated by eosinophils that are present throughout the mucosa in varying numbers. This latter fact raises the possibility that eosinophils participate in innate mechanisms of defense. In contrast, a number of clinical studies provide a wealth of data that associates increased numbers of eosinophils with inflammatory GI diseases; these findings prompt concerns that eosinophils may have a deleterious effect on the gut. In this article we present clinical features of 4 disease processes that have been associated with eosinophilia and suggest areas requiring investigation as to their clinical significance and scientific relevance. PMID:26209893

  14. Pulmonary eosinophilic gramuloma in a child.

    PubMed Central

    Hambleton, G; Gad, A; Godfrey, S

    1976-01-01

    The occurrence of pulmonary eosinophilic granuloma in a 3-year-old child is described. She presented with a pneumothorax and typical radiological changes and the diagnosis was confirmed by lung biopsy. There was no objective evidence of improvement after radiotherapy when lung function was assessed by gamma scans. She died suddenly while abroad. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:1008587

  15. Oral eosinophilic granuloma in Siberian husky dogs.

    PubMed

    Madewell, B R; Stannard, A A; Pulley, L T; Nelson, V G

    1980-10-15

    Oral eosinophilic granuloma in 6 young Siberian Husky dogs was characterized by involvement of lateral and ventral surfaces of the tongue. Histologically, the major change was degenerated (necrobiotic) collagen. Although the cause of the disease is unknown, hereditary and immunologic factors are implicated in the pathogenesis.

  16. Eosinophil-rich syphilis: a report of four cases.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Gabriela; Bennett, Dan; Piliang, Melissa P

    2015-08-01

    The differential diagnosis for eosinophil-rich skin lesions often includes a drug reaction, allergic contact dermatitis and rarely, response to a helminth infection. However, many unrelated entities, such as infections, neoplasms and inflammatory dermatoses, can have a prominent eosinophilic infiltrate. Syphilis is classically associated with plasma cells, but other patterns of inflammation have been reported, including ulcerative, granulomatous and eosinophil-rich. Classic teaching might indicate that the presence of eosinophils argues against a diagnosis of syphilis. We present four cases of secondary syphilis with increased eosinophils, ranging from 8 to >200 eosinophils per 10 high-power fields (×400 magnification). Patient 1 had lesions on the penis and scrotum, with greater than 200 eosinophils per 10 high-power fields. Patient 2 had lesions on the back, with 150 eosinophils per 10 high-power fields. Patient 3 had lesions on the bilateral arms, with 8 eosinophils per 10 high-power fields. Patient 4 had lesions involving the anus, with 17 eosinophils per 10 high-power fields. These cases highlight that the presence of an eosinophil-rich infiltrate on skin biopsy should not exclude syphilis from the differential diagnosis.

  17. Multiple granular cell tumor.

    PubMed

    Jones, J K; Kuo, T T; Griffiths, C M; Itharat, S

    1980-10-01

    Eleven cases of granular cell tumor were reviewed. In two of the cases multiple sites of involvement were seen. The tumor occurred in the oral cavity in both of these cases and each was initially wrongly diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma. The most common site was the subcutaneous tissue (nine patients) and the tongue was involved in three cases. In one patient the parotid gland was involved. Eight of the patients were females and three were males; seven were black and four were white. The importance of differentiating between squamous cell carcinoma and granular cell tumor is stressed, as is the need for a simple wide surgical excision. PMID:7421377

  18. Successful treatment of eosinophilic cellulitis with dapsone.

    PubMed

    Coelho de Sousa, Virgínia; Laureano Oliveira, André; Cardoso, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    A 55-year-old woman presented with a 3-year history of recurrent episodes of pruritic cellulitis-like erythematous plaques, mostly located on the limbs. Simultaneously, fever, malaise and peripheral eosinophilia were noted. The clinical diagnosis of eosinophilic cellulitis (also known as Well's syndrome) was supported by the histopathological finding of typical "flame figures". Treatment with dapsone was initiated at a dose of 50 mg per day. After one year of follow-up the patient was relapse-free. Eosinophilic cellulitis is an uncommon, recurrent inflammatory skin disease. The management is often a challenge, due to the frequent need for long-term therapy. Dapsone is an effective and safe treatment option. PMID:27617724

  19. GWAS identifies four novel eosinophilic esophagitis loci.

    PubMed

    Sleiman, Patrick M A; Wang, Mei-Lun; Cianferoni, Antonella; Aceves, Seema; Gonsalves, Nirmala; Nadeau, Kari; Bredenoord, Albert J; Furuta, Glenn T; Spergel, Jonathan M; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2014-11-19

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an allergic disorder characterized by infiltration of the oesophagus with eosinophils. We had previously reported association of the TSLP/WDR36 locus with EoE. Here we report genome-wide significant associations at four additional loci; c11orf30 and STAT6, which have been previously associated with both atopic and autoimmune diseases, and two EoE-specific loci, ANKRD27 that regulates the trafficking of melanogenic enzymes to epidermal melanocytes and CAPN14, that encodes a calpain whose expression is highly enriched in the oesophagus. The identification of five EoE loci, not only expands our aetiological understanding of the disease but may also represent new therapeutic targets to treat the most debilitating aspect of EoE, oesophageal inflammation and remodelling.

  20. Eosinophilic prostatitis and prostatic specific antigen.

    PubMed

    Liu, S; Miller, P D; Holmes, S A; Christmas, T J; Kirby, R S

    1992-01-01

    Eosinophilic prostatitis is a rare form of abacterial prostatitis with uncertain aetiology. Its clinical presentation, like other types of abacterial prostatitis, commonly mimics carcinoma of the prostate. Transrectal ultrasound may be helpful in the diagnosis of prostatitis but histological confirmation is necessary. Prostatic specific antigen has been widely used in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with prostatic carcinoma. High levels of this antigen (greater than 30 micrograms/l) have been claimed to be highly specific for prostate cancer, although lesser elevations may also occur in patients with large benign prostate glands and in bacterial prostatitis. We report 3 patients with histologically proven eosinophilic prostatitis and high levels of prostatic specific antigen. This diagnosis may closely mimic carcinoma of the prostate and must be excluded by histological examination of biopsy material before treatment for presumed prostate carcinoma is initiated.

  1. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia following recent cigarette smoking.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Lokendra K; Jha, Kunal Kishor

    2016-01-01

    In this report we describe the case of an 18 year old female who presented with fever, shortness of breath, and chest pain. Chest X-ray revealed diffuse bilateral infiltrates and eosinophilia was reported from her broncholaveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. She started smoking 3 weeks prior to the onset of symptoms and based on her clinical presentation, BAL findings and dramatic improvement, acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) was diagnosed. PMID:27642564

  2. Eyelid eosinophilic granuloma in a Siberian husky.

    PubMed

    Vercelli, A; Cornegliani, L; Portigliotti, L

    2005-01-01

    Canine eosinophilic granuloma (CEG) is a rare skin disease of unknown origin. It has been reported in Siberian huskies, Cavalier King Charles spaniels and occasionally in other breeds. The lesions comprise nodules or plaques, mostly localised in the oral cavity. A case of a single cutaneous nodular lesion of CEG on the eyelid of a Siberian husky is described. Complete remission was achieved with oral glucocorticoid treatment.

  3. A spectrum of hypereosinophilic syndromes exemplified by six cats with eosinophilic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Hendrick, M

    1981-03-01

    Of six cats with eosinophilic enteritis, two had lesions confined to the intestinal tract, and four had varied disseminated eosinophilic infiltration of other organs. The lesions in these cats are similar to those of the hypereosinophilic syndrome in man. A feline hypereosinophilic syndrome is proposed, consisting of eosinophilic enteritis, disseminated eosinophilic disease, and eosinophilic leukemia. PMID:7467078

  4. The Physics of Granular Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinrichsen, Haye; Wolf, Dietrich E.

    2005-01-01

    This new reference provides quick access to the current level of knowledge, containing high-level review articles covering recent developments in the field of granular media from the viewpoints of applied, experimental, and theoretical physics. The authors represent different directions of research in the field, with their contributions covering: static properties of granular materials sand piles and avalanches vibration-induced patterns segregation flowing granular matter cohesive granular matter pastes charged granular matter friction and traffic flow. A concluding chapter discusses computational aspects. In short, a must-have for advanced researchers and specialists as well as a useful starting point for anyone entering this rapidly expanding field.

  5. Case report of unilateral eosinophilic fasciitis in a Vietnamese woman.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Rodney S; Brown, Alan N

    2009-02-01

    Symmetric skin thickening of the limbs with deep fascial inflammation is the hallmark of eosinophilic fasciitis. We describe a woman who presented with unilateral progressive skin thickening. Examination of a full-thickness skin biopsy revealed an inflammatory process and fascial changes consistent with eosinophilic fasciitis. In contrast to other scleroderma mimics, eosinophilic fasciitis generally responds rapidly to glucocorticoid therapy. It is possible that unilateral eosinophilic fasciitis is under-recognized and can easily be misdiagnosed as another scleroderma variant if a full-thickness biopsy is not reviewed by a dermatopathologist. Recognition of this subtype of eosinophilic fasciitis is important given the profound differences in prognosis of eosinophilic fasciitis and other scleroderma variants.

  6. Th2 and eosinophil responses suppress inflammatory arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhu; Andreev, Darja; Oeser, Katharina; Krljanac, Branislav; Hueber, Axel; Kleyer, Arnd; Voehringer, David; Schett, Georg; Bozec, Aline

    2016-01-01

    Th2–eosinophil immune responses are well known for mediating host defence against helminths. Herein we describe a function of Th2–eosinophil responses in counteracting the development of arthritis. In two independent models of arthritis, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection leads to Th2 and eosinophil accumulation in the joints associated with robust inhibition of arthritis and protection from bone loss. Mechanistically, this protective effect is dependent on IL-4/IL-13-induced STAT6 pathway. Furthermore, we show that eosinophils play a central role in the modulation of arthritis probably through the increase of anti-inflammatory macrophages into arthritic joints. The presence of these pathways in human disease is confirmed by detection of GATA3-positive cells and eosinophils in the joints of rheumatoid arthritis patients. Taken together, these results demonstrate that eosinophils and helminth-induced activation of the Th2 pathway axis effectively mitigate the course of inflammatory arthritis. PMID:27273006

  7. [Chronic eosinophilic pneumopathy in a black African patient].

    PubMed

    Brancaleone, P; Roy, T; Fally, P; Dorzée, J; Fastrez, J; Castelain, T; d'Odemont, J P

    1998-02-01

    The authors report a case of a black African patient who suffers from a chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. In view of the lack of precise reporting in the literature of such a case in black Africans, the initial difficulty of strictly excluding a parasitologic etiology is discussed. From the comparison of paraclinical and clinical data with those of the literature, the authors emphasize the close relationship between asthma and chronic eosinophilic pneumonia and the role of alveolar eosinophils in the physiopathology of that illness.

  8. Nonpathogenic, environmental fungi induce activation and degranulation of human eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yoshinari; Matsuwaki, Yoshinori; Shin, Seung-Heon; Ponikau, Jens U; Kita, Hirohito

    2005-10-15

    Eosinophils and their products are probably important in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases, such as bronchial asthma, and in host immunity to certain organisms. An association between environmental fungal exposure and asthma has been long recognized clinically. Although products of microorganisms (e.g., lipopolysaccharides) directly activate certain inflammatory cells (e.g., macrophages), the mechanism(s) that triggers eosinophil degranulation is unknown. In this study we investigated whether human eosinophils have an innate immune response to certain fungal organisms. We incubated human eosinophils with extracts from seven environmental airborne fungi (Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus versicolor, Bipolaris sorokiniana, Candida albicans, Cladosporium herbarum, Curvularia spicifera, and Penicillium notatum). Alternaria and Penicillium induced calcium-dependent exocytosis (e.g., eosinophil-derived neurotoxin release) in eosinophils from normal individuals. Alternaria also strongly induced other activation events in eosinophils, including increases in intracellular calcium concentration, cell surface expression of CD63 and CD11b, and production of IL-8. Other fungi did not induce eosinophil degranulation, and Alternaria did not induce neutrophil activation, suggesting specificity for fungal species and cell type. The Alternaria-induced eosinophil degranulation was pertussis toxin sensitive and desensitized by preincubating cells with G protein-coupled receptor agonists, platelet-activating factor, or FMLP. The eosinophil-stimulating activity in Alternaria extract was highly heat labile and had an M(r) of approximately 60 kDa. Thus, eosinophils, but not neutrophils, possess G protein-dependent cellular activation machinery that directly responds to an Alternaria protein product(s). This innate response by eosinophils to certain environmental fungi may be important in host defense and in the exacerbation of inflammation in asthma and allergic diseases.

  9. Histopathologic diagnosis of eosinophilic conditions in the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Hurrell, Jennifer M; Genta, Robert M; Melton, Shelby D

    2011-09-01

    Eosinophils, a constitutive component of the columnar-lined gastrointestinal tract, play an essential role in allergic responses and parasitic infections. The tissue density of these cells also increases in a variety of conditions of uncertain etiology. With the exception of the esophageal squamous epithelium, in which no eosinophils are normally present, the population of normal eosinophils in the remainder of the luminal gut is poorly defined. Therefore, histopathologists must rely on their subjective judgment to determine when a diagnosis of eosinophilic gastritis, enteritis, or colitis should be rendered. Eosinophilic esophagitis is currently the best defined and most studied eosinophilic condition of the digestive tract; therefore, the confidence in accurate diagnosis is increasing. In contrast, the characteristic clinicopathologic features of eosinophilic conditions affecting other parts of the digestive tract remain somewhat elusive. This review was designed to present pathologists with simple and practical information for the biopsy-based histopathologic diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis, gastritis, enteritis, and colitis. It was prepared by critically reviewing more than 200 articles on the topic, along with incorporating evidence accumulated through our own collective experience. We anticipate that by increasing pathologists' confidence in reporting these abnormal but often nameless eosinophilic infiltrates, we can help better define and characterize their significance. PMID:21841404

  10. Eosinophils generate brominating oxidants in allergen-induced asthma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Weijia; Samoszuk, Michael K.; Comhair, Suzy A.A.; Thomassen, Mary Jane; Farver, Carol F.; Dweik, Raed A.; Kavuru, Mani S.; Erzurum, Serpil C.; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2000-01-01

    Eosinophils promote tissue injury and contribute to the pathogenesis of allergen-triggered diseases like asthma, but the chemical basis of damage to eosinophil targets is unknown. We now demonstrate that eosinophil activation in vivo results in oxidative damage of proteins through bromination of tyrosine residues, a heretofore unrecognized pathway for covalent modification of biologic targets in human tissues. Mass spectrometric studies demonstrated that 3-bromotyrosine serves as a specific “molecular fingerprint” for proteins modified through the eosinophil peroxidase-H2O2 system in the presence of plasma levels of halides. We applied a localized allergen challenge to model the effects of eosinophils and brominating oxidants in human lung injury. Endobronchial biopsy specimens from allergen-challenged lung segments of asthmatic, but not healthy control, subjects demonstrated significant enrichments in eosinophils and eosinophil peroxidase. Baseline levels of 3-bromotyrosine in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) proteins from mildly allergic asthmatic individuals were modestly but not statistically significantly elevated over those in control subjects. After exposure to segmental allergen challenge, lung segments of asthmatics, but not healthy control subjects, exhibited a >10-fold increase in BAL 3-bromotyrosine content, but only two- to threefold increases in 3-chlorotyrosine, a specific oxidation product formed by neutrophil- and monocyte-derived myeloperoxidase. These results identify reactive brominating species produced by eosinophils as a distinct class of oxidants formed in vivo. They also reveal eosinophil peroxidase as a potential therapeutic target for allergen-triggered inflammatory tissue injury in humans. PMID:10811853

  11. Diagnosing Eosinophilic Colitis: Histopathological Pattern or Nosological Entity?

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Alan W. H.

    2012-01-01

    Reports of  “eosinophilic colitis”—raised colonic mucosal eosinophil density in patients with lower gastrointestinal symptoms—have increased markedly over the last fifteen years, though it remains a rarity. There is no consensus over its diagnosis and management, and uncertainty is compounded by the use of the same term to describe an idiopathic increase in colonic eosinophils and an eosinophilic inflammatory reaction to known aetiological agents such as parasites or drugs. In patients with histologically proven colonic eosinophilia, it is important to seek out underlying causes and careful clinicopathological correlation is advised. Because of the variability of eosinophil density in the normal colon, it is recommended that histological reports of colonic eosinophilia include a quantitative morphometric assessment of eosinophil density, preferably across several sites. Few reported cases of “eosinophilic colitis” meet these criteria. As no correlation has been shown between colonic eosinophil density and symptoms in older children or adults, it is suggested that treatment should be directed towards alleviation of symptoms and response to treatment assessed clinically rather than by histological estimates of intramucosal eosinophils. PMID:24278727

  12. Targeting AMCase reduces esophageal eosinophilic inflammation and remodeling in a mouse model of egg induced eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jae Youn; Rosenthal, Peter; Miller, Marina; Pham, Alexa; Aceves, Seema; Sakuda, Shohei; Broide, David H

    2014-01-01

    Studies of AMCase inhibition in mouse models of lung eosinophilic inflammation have produced conflicting results with some studies demonstrating inhibition of eosinophilic inflammation and others not. No studies have investigated the role of AMCase inhibition in eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). We have used a mouse model of egg (OVA) induced EoE to determine whether pharmacologic inhibition of AMCase with allosamidin reduced eosinophilic inflammation and remodeling in the esophagus in EoE. Administration of intra-esophageal OVA for 6 weeks to BALB/c mice induced increased levels of esophageal eosinophils, mast cells, and features of esophageal remodeling (fibrosis, basal zone hyperplasia, deposition of the extracellular matrix protein fibronectin). Administration of intraperitoneal (ip) allosamidin to BALB/c mice significantly inhibited AMCase enzymatic activity in the esophagus. Pharmacologic inhibition of AMCase with ip allosamidin inhibited both OVA induced increases in esophageal eosinophilic inflammation and OVA induced esophageal remodeling (fibrosis, epithelial basal zone hyperplasia, extracellular matrix deposition of fibronectin). This inhibition of eosinophilic inflammation in the esophagus by ip allosamidin was associated with reduced eotaxin-1 expression in the esophagus. Oral allosamidin inhibited eosinophilic inflammation in the epithelium but did not inhibit esophageal remodeling. These studies suggest that pharmacologic inhibition of AMCase results in inhibition of eosinophilic inflammation and remodeling in the esophagus in a mouse model of egg induced EoE partially through effects in the esophagus on reducing chemokines (i.e. eotaxin-1) implicated in the pathogenesis of EoE. PMID:24239745

  13. Pathergy in atypical eosinophilic pustular folliculitis.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Pai-Jui; Huang, Chien-Jen; Wu, Meng-Tse

    2005-03-01

    A 15-year-old, unmarried female presented to our dermatology department for an intensely pruritic skin rash that had appeared abruptly 3 days earlier. She had a remarkable medical history for a case of allergic rhinitis and several attacks of asthma in her early childhood. The condition waxed and waned initially but had improved in recent years. Physical examination revealed several erythematous plaques, papules studded with scattered pustules having diameters less than 0.3 mm. Conspicuous scratch marks had caused erythematous wheal-like indurations also studded with pustules in a linear distribution across the waist, forearms (Fig. 1), and back (Fig. 2). Discrete papulopustules were present on the face, nape and neck. The patient was otherwise healthy. There were no other symptoms such as fever, malaise, weakness, or lymphadenopathy Laboratory results were normal for hepatic and renal functions, serum electrolytes, glucose, protein, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (8 mm/h), and C-reactive protein (0.355 mg/l). A human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody screen test was negative. Serum was positive for herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 and HSV-2 IgG (in low titers), but negative for HSV-1 and HSV-2 IgM. White blood cell count revealed leukocytosis (11.2 x 10(3)/l), with a differential count of 68% neutrophils, 27% lymphocytes, and 8% eosinophils. Serum IgA, IgG, and IgM were within normal limits, but the IgE level was elevated (677 mg/dl). Cultures from peripheral blood and pustules were negative. A Tzank smear performed on the pustules showed no multinucleated giant cells. Fungal testing of skin scrapings from the initial lesion site gave negative results. Routine stool tests, including common pathogen and parasite screens, were negative, and urinalysis results were unremarkable. A biopsy specimen obtained from a skin pustule showed subcorneal eosinophilic and neutrophilic pustules in the follicular infundibulum with marked spongiosis of the follicular epithelium

  14. Role of advanced diagnostics for eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Ikuo

    2014-01-01

    In eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), diagnostic tests aid in the identification of pathophysiologic consequences and accurate detection of the disease. The EoE Endoscopic Reference Score (EREFS) classifies and grades the severity of the five major endoscopically identified esophageal features of EoE (edema, rings, exudates, furrows and strictures). The EREFS may be useful in the evaluation of disease severity and as an objective outcome of response to therapy. pH monitoring identifies the presence of abnormal degrees of acid exposure in the esophagus that characterizes gastroesophageal reflux disease. The presence of acid reflux, however, does not indicate that the reflux is responsible for esophageal eosinophilia. Esophageal manometry has not demonstrated a characteristic abnormality with sufficient sensitivity to make the test of diagnostic value in clinical practice. On the other hand, manometric characteristics of esophageal pressurization and longitudinal muscle dysfunction may help identify important pathophysiologic consequences of EoE. Esophageal impedance testing has demonstrated increased baseline mucosal impedance that correlates with increased epithelial permeability in EoE. Reduced mucosal integrity may provide intraluminal allergens access to antigen-presenting cells, serving as an early event in the pathogenesis of EoE. The functional luminal impedance probe (FLIP) provides quantitative assessment of esophageal mural compliance, a physiologic correlate of remodeling in EoE. Studies using FLIP have associated reductions in esophageal distensibility in EoE with the important outcome of food impaction risk. Finally, confocal endomicroscopy, multiphoton fluorescence microscopy and novel eosinophil-enhancing contrast agents are emerging methods that may allow for in vivo visualization of esophageal eosinophilic inflammation, thereby improving the detection and understanding of this emerging disease. PMID:24603385

  15. Eosinophils versus Neutrophils in Host Defense

    PubMed Central

    Bass, David A.; Szejda, Pamela

    1979-01-01

    Eosinophil leukocytes have been reported to have a major role in host defense against invasive, migratory phases of helminth infestations, yet the relative larvicidal abilities of eosinophils and neutrophils have not been thoroughly examined. This study examined the killing of newborn (migratory phase) larvae of Trichinella spiralis during incubation by human granulocytes in vitro. The assay employed cultue of larvae with cells, sera, and reagents in microtiter wells with direct counting of surviving larvae after incubation. Killed larvae appeared to be lysed. Verification of the microplate assay was obtained by demonstrating complete loss of infectivity of larvae incubated with leukocytes and immune serum. In the presence of optimal immune serum concentrations, purified neutrophils or eosinophils achieved ≥95% killing of larvae at cell:larva ratios of 2,000:1 or greater. Fresh normal serum prompted slight (19%) killing by leukocytes at a cell:larva ratio of 9,000:1. Cells plus heat-inactivated normal serum and all sera preparations in the absence of leukocytes killed <8% of the larvae. The activity of immune serum was opsonic. Cells adhered to larvae that had been preincubated in immune serum, and immunofluorescent studies indicated that such preopsonized larvae were coated with immunoglobulin (Ig)G. However, preopsonized larvae lost opsonic activity and surface IgG during incubation for 3 h in medium lacking immune serum. The rate of killing was dependent on the cell:larva ratio; at high leukocyte concentrations (4,200:1), 99% were killed within 7 h; at lower cell:larva ratios, killing increased steadily during a 20-h incubation period. Killing was inhibited by 20 μg catalase, 5 μg/ml cytochalasin B, or 5μM colchicine, but was unchanged by superoxide dismutase and was enhanced by azide or cyanide. Leukocytes from a patient with chronic granulomatous disease, lacking ability to mount a normal oxidative response, demonstrated a markedly suppressed larvicidal

  16. Eosinophilic esophagitis in adults: An update

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Monjur

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is a worldwide chronic allergic disease of the esophagus. In the last decade, there is an epidemic of this entity in the western world. Mostly seen in children and young adults, patients present with dysphagia or food impaction in the emergency room. Characteristic endoscopic findings, esophageal eosinophilia and non-responsiveness to proton pump inhibitors help make the diagnosis. Avoidance of food allergens, administration of steroidal anti-inflammatory medications and dilation of the esophagus are the mainstays of treatment. Investigations are ongoing for mucosal healing and optimum maintenance treatment. PMID:27158535

  17. Reversible Severe Eosinophilic Endomyocardial Fibrosis During Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Pineton de Chambrun, Marc; Charron, Philippe; Vauthier-Brouzes, Danièle; Cluzel, Philippe; Haroche, Julien; Kahn, Jean-Emmanuel; Amoura, Zahir; Aubart, Fleur Cohen

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is a condition of unknown origin characterized by clinical manifestations attributable to eosinophilia and eosinophilic infiltration of tissues. Cardiac involvement is rare and threatening accounting for 33% to 43% of death in HES. Management of pregnant patients with HES is challenging and have rarely been reported, particularly in the setting of heart failure. We here report on the case of a 29-year-old woman with HES who developed severe endomyocardial fibrosis with heart failure during pregnancy. Outcome was favorable under treatment with prednisone and azathioprine. This case illustrates a favorable outcome of endomyocardial fibrosis during pregnancy. PMID:26266372

  18. Jamming in Granular Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utter, Brian

    2008-10-01

    Granular materials exist all around us, from the formation of sand dunes and collapse of seemingly stable grain silos, to the mixing of pharmaceuticals and other industrial materials. The behavior of these ``fluids'' though poorly understood. Their flow can be characterized by the continuous forming and breaking of a strong force network resisting flow. This jamming/unjamming behavior is typical of a variety of systems, including granular flows, and is influenced by factors such as grain packing fraction, applied shear stress, and the random kinetic energy of the particles. We present experiments on quasi-static shear and free-surface granular flows under the influence of external vibrations. By using photoelastic grains, we are able to measure particle trajectories and the local force network in these 2D flows. We find that during shear, sufficient shaking weakens the strong force network and reduces the amount of flow driven by sidewalls. We vibrate either the driving wall (sidewall forcing) or the entire shearing zone (bulk forcing). For sidewall forcing, flow behavior is controlled by vibration amplitude in particular and slipping of force chains at the boundary. In a rotating drum geometry, we find that small vibration leads to strengthening of the pile while larger vibrations induce failure as might be expected. This behavior is strongly history dependent and sufficient vibration erases the memory of the pile.

  19. Dermal eosinophilic infiltrate in junctional epidermolysis bullosa.

    PubMed

    Saraiya, Ami; Yang, Catherine S; Kim, Jinah; Bercovitch, Lionel; Robinson-Bostom, Leslie; Telang, Gladys

    2015-08-01

    Junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) is a rare genodermatosis characterized by a split in the lamina lucida usually because of mutations in LAMA3, LAMB3 and LAMC2 resulting in absence or reduction of laminin-332. Rare subtypes of JEB have mutations in COL17A1, ITGB4, ITGA6 and ITGA3 leading to reduction or dysfunction of collagen XVII, integrin α6β4 and integrin α3. The classic finding under light microscopy is a paucicellular, subepidermal split. We describe the unusual presence of an eosinophilic infiltrate in the bullae and subjacent dermis in a neonate with JEB, generalized intermediate (formerly known as non-Herlitz-type JEB), discuss the histologic differential diagnosis for a subepidermal blister in a neonate, review the literature regarding cases of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) presenting with inflammatory infiltrates, and discuss mechanisms to explain these findings. This case highlights that eosinophils can rarely be seen in EB and should not mislead the dermatopathologist into diagnosing an autoimmune blistering disorder. PMID:25950805

  20. Current Management of Eosinophilic Esophagitis 2015.

    PubMed

    Richter, Joel E

    2016-02-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory condition characterized by esophageal dysfunction and eosinophilic infiltrate (≥15/hpf) in the esophageal epithelium and the absence of other potential causes of eosinophilia. The prevalence is increasing and is the most common cause of solid food dysphagia in children and young adults. This article will review the diagnosis and management of EoE based on consensus conferences, systematic reviews, and meta-analysis and highlights seminal studies in our evolving treatment of this disease. However, all answers are not available and I will remark about the lessons learned in my clinical practice seeing EoE patients over the last 25 years. The complicated etiology of the complaint of dysphagia in EoE patients will be reviewed. The importance of utilizing endoscopy, biopsies, and barium esophagram to help define the 2 phenotypes (inflammatory, fibrostenosis) of EoE will be highlighted. The controversy about PPI-responsive esophageal eosinophilia will be discussed and contrasted with idiopathic EoE. Finally, the 3 treatment options for EoE (drugs, diet, dilation) will be reviewed in detail and a useful clinical management algorithm presented.

  1. Eosinophilic esophagitis: From pathophysiology to treatment

    PubMed Central

    D’Alessandro, Alessandra; Esposito, Dario; Pesce, Marcella; Cuomo, Rosario; De Palma, Giovanni Domenico; Sarnelli, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic immune disease, characterized by a dense eosinophilic infiltrate in the esophagus, leading to bolus impaction and reflux-like symptoms. Traditionally considered a pediatric disease, the number of adult patients with EoE is continuously increasing, with a relatively higher incidence in western countries. Dysphagia and food impaction represent the main symptoms complained by patients, but gastroesophageal reflux-like symptoms may also be present. Esophageal biopsies are mandatory for the diagnosis of EoE, though clinical manifestations and proton pump inhibitors responsiveness must be taken into consideration. The higher prevalence of EoE in patients suffering from atopic diseases suggests a common background with allergy, however both the etiology and pathophysiology are not completely understood. Elimination diets are considered the first-line therapy in children, but this approach appears less effective in adults patients, who often require steroids; despite medical treatments, EoE is complicated in some cases by esophageal stricture and stenosis, that require additional endoscopic treatments. This review summarizes the evidence on EoE pathophysiology and illustrates the safety and efficacy of the most recent medical and endoscopic treatments. PMID:26600973

  2. Pulmonary cavity due to chronic eosinophilic pneumonia associated with arsenicosis.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, A; Saha, K; Jash, D; Bandyopadhyay, A

    2012-01-01

    In developing country like India arsenic poisoning is a major public health problem. Association of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia and chronic diarrhea with arsenicosis is rare. Also pulmonary cavity formation in chronic eosinophilic pneumonia is very uncommon. A 44-year-old male patient, resident of an arsenic affected area was admitted for evaluation of chronic diarrhoea, persistent peripheral eosinophilia along with radiologically visible cavity in right upper zone. There were dermatological manifestations of arsenicosis along with presence of noncirrhotic portal fibrosis and peripheral eosinophilia. On bronchoalveolar lavage study, eosinophil comprised 40% of total cellularity making the diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. After ruling out all possible causes of diarrhoea and chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, we came to conclusion that arsenic could be implicated as causative agent.

  3. Pulmonary cavity due to chronic eosinophilic pneumonia associated with arsenicosis.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, A; Saha, K; Jash, D; Bandyopadhyay, A

    2012-01-01

    In developing country like India arsenic poisoning is a major public health problem. Association of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia and chronic diarrhea with arsenicosis is rare. Also pulmonary cavity formation in chronic eosinophilic pneumonia is very uncommon. A 44-year-old male patient, resident of an arsenic affected area was admitted for evaluation of chronic diarrhoea, persistent peripheral eosinophilia along with radiologically visible cavity in right upper zone. There were dermatological manifestations of arsenicosis along with presence of noncirrhotic portal fibrosis and peripheral eosinophilia. On bronchoalveolar lavage study, eosinophil comprised 40% of total cellularity making the diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. After ruling out all possible causes of diarrhoea and chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, we came to conclusion that arsenic could be implicated as causative agent. PMID:23279770

  4. Killing of Plasmodium falciparum by eosinophil secretory products.

    PubMed Central

    Waters, L S; Taverne, J; Tai, P C; Spry, C J; Targett, G A; Playfair, J H

    1987-01-01

    The multiplication of two strains of Plasmodium falciparum in culture, as measured by [3H]hypoxanthine incorporation, was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by granule proteins secreted by purified eosinophils obtained from patients with the hypereosinophilic syndrome. Morphological examination revealed the presence of abnormal parasites inside erythrocytes, indicating that they were killed in situ, and the later stages of the developmental cycle were found to be most susceptible to these toxic effects. A monoclonal antibody against eosinophil cationic protein partially blocked the inhibitory effect, suggesting that it was caused by more than one of the eosinophil granule proteins. Thus some of the antimalarial effects of molecules such as the tumor necrosis factor, which activates eosinophils, may be mediated through the enhanced production of eosinophil secretion products. PMID:3549562

  5. Differences in leukocyte differentiation molecule abundances on domestic sheep (Ovis aries) and bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) neutrophils identified by flow cytometry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abundance was assessed by utilizing a panel of cross-reactive monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) tested in this study. Characterization of multichannel autofluorescence of eosinophils permitted cell-type specific gating of granulocytes for quantification of LDMs on neutrophils and eosinophils by indirect,...

  6. Solitary cutaneous histiocytosis with granular cell changes: a morphological variant of reticulohistiocytoma?

    PubMed

    Caltabiano, Rosario; Magro, Gaetano; Vecchio, Giada Maria; Lanzafame, Salvatore

    2010-02-01

    We first report a case of granular cell histiocytosis occurring as a solitary polypoid lesion of the nipple in a 15-year-old girl. Histologically, the lesion was composed of a dermal population of medium- to large-sized, short spindle- to round- to epithelioid-shaped cells with eosinophilic cytoplasm containing numerous and small diastase-resistant periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) positive granules. No associated inflammatory cells were observed. Immunohistochemical studies, revealing immunoreactivity exclusively to vimentin and CD68, were consistent with their histiocytic profile. Based on clinical, morphological and immunohistochemical features, the diagnosis of 'solitary cutaneous histiocytosis with granular cell changes' was proposed. The absence of an inflammatory cell component, such as lymphocytes and leucocytes, along with no history of a previous trauma or medical treatment, suggest that the present lesion could fit into the morphological spectrum of the so-called solitary epithelioid histiocytoma, also known as reticulohistiocytoma. Alternatively, the possibility of a histiocytic reaction to unknown stimuli cannot be completely ruled out. Nevertheless, awareness of solitary cutaneous histiocytosis with granular cell changes is useful to avoid confusion with other dermal tumors, especially 'granular cell tumor' and 'dermal non-neural granular cell tumor'.

  7. Entangled granular media.

    PubMed

    Gravish, Nick; Franklin, Scott V; Hu, David L; Goldman, Daniel I

    2012-05-18

    We study the geometrically induced cohesion of ensembles of granular "u particles" that mechanically entangle through particle interpenetration. We vary the length-to-width ratio l/w of the u particles and form them into freestanding vertical columns. In a laboratory experiment, we monitor the response of the columns to sinusoidal vibration (with peak acceleration Γ). Column collapse occurs in a characteristic time τ which follows the relation τ∝exp(Γ/Δ). Δ resembles an activation energy and is maximal at intermediate l/w. A simulation reveals that optimal strength results from competition between packing and entanglement.

  8. Labyrinthine granular landscapes.

    PubMed

    Caps, H; Vandewalle, N

    2001-11-01

    We have numerically studied a model of granular landscape eroded by wind. We show the appearance of labyrinthic patterns when the wind orientation turns by 90 degrees. The occurrence of such structures is discussed. Moreover, we introduce the density n(k) of "defects" as the dynamic parameter governing the landscape evolution. A power-law behavior of n(k) is found as a function of time. In the case of wind variations, the exponent (drastically) shifts from two to one. The presence of two asymptotic values of n(k) implies the irreversibility of the labyrinthic formation process.

  9. Subsurface Explosions in Granular Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Shuyue; Houim, Ryan; Oran, Elaine

    2015-11-01

    Numerical simulations of coupled gas-granular flows are used to study properties of shock formation and propagation in media, such as sand or regolith on the moon, asteroids, or comets. The simulations were performed with a multidimensional fully compressible model, GRAF, which solves two sets of coupled Navier-Stokes equations, one for the gas and one for the granular medium. The specific case discussed here is for a subsurface explosion in a granular medium initiated by an equivalent of 200g of TNT in depths ranging from 0.1m to 3m. The background conditions of 100K, 10 Pa and loose initial particle volume fraction of 25% are consistent with an event on a comet. The initial blast creates a cavity as a granular shock expands outwards. Since the gas-phase shock propagates faster than the granular shock in loose, granular material, some gas and particles are ejected before the granular shock arrives. When the granular shock reaches the surface, a cap-like structure forms. This cap breaks and may fall back on the surface and in this process, relatively dense particle clusters form. At lower temperatures, the explosion timescales are increased and entrained particles are more densely packed.

  10. Eosinophilic myocarditis associated with eosinophilic pneumonia and eosinophilia following antibiotic and narcotic analgesic treatment.

    PubMed

    Çelik, Aziz İnan; Deniz, Ali; Tangalay, Mustafa; Karaaslan, Muhammet Buğra; Bağır Kılıç, Emine

    2016-09-01

    Eosinophilic myocarditis (EM) is a rare form of myocarditis that usually presents with heart failure due to eosinophilic infiltration. EM is often a component of hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES). HES is a rare disorder characterized by persistent, marked eosinophilia combined with organ system dysfunction. A 38-year-old man was admitted to emergency services with left inguinal pain and fever, and was hospitalized with diagnosis of nephrolithiasis and urinary tract infection. Intravenous antibiotic therapy of 3 grams meropenem per day and analgesic of 50 mg pethidine per day were administered. Typical angina pectoris and dyspnea developed approximately 24 hours after treatment. Rash on the chest, and diminished bilateral lung sounds and rales were observed. Nonspecific changes were present on electrocardiogram. Laboratory analysis showed progressively increasing levels of cardiac biomarkers and eosinophilia. Peripheral blood smear, bone marrow aspiration, and biopsy demonstrated eosinophilia. Chest x-ray revealed diffuse, bilateral interstitial and reticulonodular infiltrates. Transthoracic echocardiography showed thickened left ventricle. Coronary angiography revealed normal coronary arteries. EM was suspected, endomyocardial biopsy was performed, and pathologic specimen confirmed the diagnosis. Corticosteroid treatment was initiated, and within 1 day, angina pectoris and dyspnea had dramatically reduced, and cardiac biomarkers and eosinophil count had decreased. Normal chest x-ray was observed after 72 hours. The patient was discharged with steroid treatment. PMID:27665334

  11. Development of Eosinophilic Fasciitis during Infliximab Therapy for Psoriatic Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Hariman, Richard; Patel, Payal; Strouse, Jennifer; Collins, Michael P.; Rosenthal, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis (EF) is a rare disorder involving chronic inflammation of the fascia and connective tissue surrounding muscles, nerves, and blood vessels. While its pathogenesis is not entirely understood, this disorder is thought to be autoimmune or allergic in nature. We present here a case of a 59-year-old male who developed peripheral eosinophilia and subsequent eosinophilic fasciitis during treatment with infliximab. To our knowledge, eosinophilic fasciitis has not been previously described in patients during treatment with an inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor α. PMID:27293946

  12. A case of feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Manabu; Onchi, Miyako; Ozaki, Masakazu

    2013-03-01

    Feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia was diagnosed in an 8-month-old Scottish fold that had a primary gastrointestinal mass involving the stomach, duodenum and mesenteric lymph nodes. Histopathologically, the most characteristic feature of this mass was granulation tissue with eosinophil infiltration and hyperplasia of sclerosing collagen fiber. Immunohistochemically, large spindle-shaped cells were positive for smooth muscle actin and vimentin. This case emphasizes the importance of feline gastrointestinal eosinophilic sclerosing fibroplasia as a differential diagnosis of gastrointestinal neoplastic lesions such as osteosarcoma and mast cell tumor in cats. PMID:23723568

  13. Eosinophil granule cationic proteins regulate the classical pathway of complement.

    PubMed Central

    Weiler, J M; Edens, R E; Bell, C S; Gleich, G J

    1995-01-01

    Major basic protein, the primary constituent of eosinophil granules, regulates the alternative and classical pathways of complement. Major basic protein and other eosinophil granule cationic proteins, which are important in mediating tissue damage in allergic disease, regulate the alternative pathway by interfering with C3b interaction with factor B to assemble an alternative pathway C3 convertase. In the present study, eosinophil peroxidase, eosinophil cationic protein and eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, as well as major basic protein, were examined for capacity to regulate the classical pathway. Eosinophil peroxidase, eosinophil cationic protein and major basic protein inhibited formation of cell-bound classical pathway C3 convertase (EAC1,4b,2a), causing 50% inhibition of complement-mediated lysis at about 0.19, 0.75 and 0.5 micrograms/10(7) cellular intermediates, respectively. Eosinophil-derived neurotoxin had no activity on this pathway of complement. The eosinophil granule proteins were examined for activity on the formation of the membrane attack complex. Major basic protein and eosinophil cationic protein had no activity on terminal lysis. In contrast, eosinophil peroxidase inhibited lysis of EAC1,4b,2a,3b,5b, but had only minimal activity on later events in complement lysis. These polycations were then examined to determine the site(s) at which they regulated the early classical pathway. Eosinophil granule polycationic proteins: (1) reduced the Zmax at all time points but had only minimal effect on the Tmax during the formation of the classical pathway C3 convertase (EAC1,4b,2a); (2) inhibited formation of EAC1,4b,2a proportional to C4 but independent of C2 concentration; (3) inhibited fluid phase formation of C1,4b,2a, as reflected by a decrease in C1-induced consumption of C2 over time; and (4) inhibited C1 activity over time without a direct effect on either C4 or C2. These observations suggest that polycations regulate the early classical pathway by

  14. Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia Presenting Predominantly with Cutaneous Manifestations.

    PubMed

    Vidyadharan, Suja; Joseph, Bebisha; Nair, Sukumaran Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    A 37-year-old male presented with severe oral and genital mucosal ulcers, lichenoid eruption and twenty-nail dystrophy. Systemic examination was normal, except for anemia. On investigations, he was found to have persistently elevated peripheral eosinophilia, absolute eosinophil count >5000/mm(3), bone marrow showing increased eosinophilic precursors, and infiltration by atypical cells. The serum vitamin B12 levels were grossly elevated, and Philadelphia chromosome study was negative. Thus, a diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic leukemia was made. The patient showed excellent response to imatinib mesylate. We are reporting a rare type of leukemia presenting with predominantly cutaneous manifestations. PMID:27512192

  15. An Overview of the Diagnosis and Management of Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Manish B; Moawad, Fouad J

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a chronic inflammatory condition characterized by symptoms of esophageal dysfunction and eosinophilic infiltration of the esophageal mucosa. The diagnosis requires esophageal biopsies demonstrating at least 15 eosinophils per high-powered field following a course of high-dose proton pump inhibitors. Management of EoE consists of the three Ds: drugs, dietary therapy, and esophageal dilation. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatment of EoE to include the role of emerging therapies. PMID:26986655

  16. Disseminated eosinophilic disease resembling idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome in a dog.

    PubMed

    Aroch, I; Perl, S; Markovics, A

    2001-09-29

    True idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome has been described in human beings and cats, but not in dogs. The syndrome is characterised by prolonged unexplained peripheral mature eosinophilia, the infiltration of many organs by eosinophils, organ dysfunction and a fatal outcome. This paper describes an idiopathic disseminated eosinophilic disease in a dog involving various organs, manly the heart and the lungs, accompanied by a leukemoid eosinophilic response, and a fatal outcome. The histopathological findings included the infiltration of the myocardium, lung parenchyma, liver, spleen, lymph nodes and skeletal muscles with eosiniphils. PMID:11601516

  17. Eosinophilic myenteric ganglionitis is associated with functional intestinal obstruction.

    PubMed

    Schäppi, M G; Smith, V V; Milla, P J; Lindley, K J

    2003-05-01

    The diagnostic features and clinical course of three children (aged 1 month to 15 years) with severe functional intestinal obstruction and inflammation of the colonic lamina propria and myenteric plexus are described. The myenteric inflammatory infiltrate was eosinophil predominant with none of the immunological characteristics of lymphocytic ganglionitis. Neurones in the myenteric ganglia expressed the potent eosinophil chemoattractant interleukin 5. None responded to dietary exclusion but all three responded symptomatically to immunosuppression/anti-inflammatory treatments. Eosinophilic ganglionitis is associated with a pseudo-obstructive syndrome which is amenable to anti-inflammatory treatment.

  18. Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia Presenting Predominantly with Cutaneous Manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Vidyadharan, Suja; Joseph, Bebisha; Nair, Sukumaran Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    A 37-year-old male presented with severe oral and genital mucosal ulcers, lichenoid eruption and twenty-nail dystrophy. Systemic examination was normal, except for anemia. On investigations, he was found to have persistently elevated peripheral eosinophilia, absolute eosinophil count >5000/mm3, bone marrow showing increased eosinophilic precursors, and infiltration by atypical cells. The serum vitamin B12 levels were grossly elevated, and Philadelphia chromosome study was negative. Thus, a diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic leukemia was made. The patient showed excellent response to imatinib mesylate. We are reporting a rare type of leukemia presenting with predominantly cutaneous manifestations. PMID:27512192

  19. Eosinophil infiltration, gastric juice and serum eosinophil cationic protein levels in Helicobacter pylori-associated chronic gastritis and gastric ulcer.

    PubMed Central

    Aydemir, Selim A; Tekin, Isak Ozel; Numanoglu, Gamze; Borazan, Ali; Ustundag, Yucel

    2004-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Helicobacter pylori is one of the main causes of gastroduodenal diseases, such as chronic gastritis and peptic ulcer. It has been shown that eosinophils increase in the stomach in H. pylori infection. Eosinophilic cationic protein (ECP) is a cytotoxic molecule secreted by the activated eosinophils. However, there are no sufficient data about the role of ECP in H. pylori infection and its effect on ulcer development. In this study we investigated the gastric eosinophilic infiltration, gastric juice and serum ECP levels in patients with chronic gastritis and gastric ulcer associated with H. pylori. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-four H. pylori-positive and 20 H. pylori-negative patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal system endoscopy after admitting with dyspeptic complaints were enrolled in the study. Twenty-one of the H. pylori-positive patients had gastric ulcer while 23 patients had none. During endoscopy, multiple gastric biopsies and juices were taken. In gastric biopsies, H. pylori and eosinophilic infiltration were assessed. Additionally, gastric juice and serum ECP levels were measured. RESULTS: Eosinophil infiltration, gastric juice ECP levels, and gastric juice/serum ECP ratios in the H. pylori-positive group were greater than in the H. pylori-negative group (p < 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference regarding serum ECP levels between the two groups (p > 0.05). When H. pylori-positive patients were compared with regard to gastric ulcer presence, however, there was no significant difference in gastric eosinophil infiltration, gastric juice ECP levels, serum ECP levels, and gastric juice/serum ECP ratios (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that eosinophils and eosinophil-released ECP may contribute to inflammatory changes seen in chronic gastritis, whereas there is no proof that they play a role in ulcer development. PMID:15770055

  20. Eosinophilic meningitis: a case series and review of literature of Angiostrongylus cantonensis and Gnathostoma spinigerum.

    PubMed

    Shah, I; Barot, S; Madvariya, M

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis is defined as the presence of >10 eosinophils/μL in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or at least 10% eosinophils in the total CSF leukocyte count. Eosinophilic meningitis has been reported in two case series and two case reports in India till date and has not been reported in children below 15 years of age. We present two children with eosinophilic meningitis with peripheral eosinophilia and the proposed etiologic agents based on the clinical setting and their response to antihelminthic agents.

  1. Helminthotoxic capacity of eosinophils in case of eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, N H; Makhlouf, S A; Fahmy, I A; Maklad, K M; Makhlouf, M A; el-Hosieny, L M

    1992-04-01

    Helminthotoxic effect of eosinophils on schistosomula of S. mansoni was studied in thirty patients with peripheral eosinophilia of different causes. Ten cases presented with parasitic infections and twenty cases were parasite free. Twenty healthy persons with normal blood picture were tested as a control group. The adherence assay test of eosinophils and the assay of cell mediated damage of eosinophils to schistosomula were used. The percentages of the adherence and the toxic effect of eosinophils were the same for each group. They were 85.1% in the parasitic group, 85.45% in the non parasitic with other causes group and 13.9% in the control group. The difference was statistically highly significant (P less than 0.001). PMID:1578172

  2. Eosinophilic gastroenteritis: a challenge to diagnose and treat.

    PubMed

    Phaw, Naw April; Tsai, Her Hsin

    2016-01-01

    The patient presented with bloody diarrhoea, and crampy abdominal pains. She was diagnosed with eosinophilic gastroenteritis (EGE) after the finding of persistently high peripheral eosinophil counts and histology of endoscopic biopsies. She responded to steroids but became dependent on it and her symptoms recurred on steroid tapering. There was little improvement with alternative treatment such as budesonides, azathioprine and montelukast. Surprisingly her symptoms improved significantly after she was treated with clarithromycin for chest infection and she was continued on clarithromycin. Her eosinophil counts fell dramatically and follow-up CT (thorax, abdomen and pelvic) scan showed the mucosal thickening had improved. She became completely free of the symptoms since she was on clarithromycin and her eosinophils counts fell within the normal range during the follow-up. PMID:27613263

  3. Sudden death due to eosinophilic endomyocardial diseases: three case reports.

    PubMed

    Turan, Arzu Akcay; Karayel, Ferah; Akyildiz, Elif U; Ozdes, Taskin; Yilmaz, Eyyup; Pakis, Isil

    2008-12-01

    Eosinophils are associated with various disorders, such as allergic or hypersensitivity reactions, parasitic diseases, connective tissue diseases, certain neoplastic diseases (Hodgkin's disease, lymphomas, and carcinomas), and various immune deficiency states. Eosinophils can infiltrate any tissue and can cause tissue damage. Heart, has been demonstrated to be the most extensively involved and toxicity of eosinophils is well-established on cardiac tissue. We describe 3 cases with extensive eosinophilic infiltration without endomyocardial fibrosis. All patients died after a short clinical course with rapidly progressive heart failure. Bronchial asthma, hydatid disease and drug reaction were considered as possible etiologies of eosinophilia in case 1 and case 2. Case 3 was considered to fall into the "idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome" in which no underlying causes for eosinophilia could be identified.

  4. Diagnosis and management of eosinophilic asthma: a US perspective

    PubMed Central

    Walford, Hannah H; Doherty, Taylor A

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic asthma is now recognized as an important subphenotype of asthma based on the pattern of inflammatory cellular infiltrate in the airway. Eosinophilic asthma can be associated with increased asthma severity, atopy, late-onset disease, and steroid refractoriness. Induced sputum cell count is the gold standard for identifying eosinophilic inflammation in asthma although several noninvasive biomarkers, including fractional exhaled nitric oxide and periostin, are emerging as potential surrogates. As novel therapies and biologic agents become increasingly available, there is an increased need for specific phenotype-directed treatment strategies. Greater recognition and understanding of the unique immunopathology of this asthma phenotype has important implications for management of the disease and the potential to improve patient outcomes. The present review provides a summary of the clinical features, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and management of eosinophilic asthma. PMID:24748808

  5. Eosinophilic venulitis of colon presenting as ileocecal mass.

    PubMed

    Forouhar, Faripour; Rustagi, Tarun; Lamea, Leela

    2011-01-01

    Reports of eosinophilic infiltration of the colon causing obstruction are few. It is even less common to find associated extensive intestinal venulitis, which is similar to and lumped together with so called Mesenteric Inflammatory Veno-Occlusive Disease (MIVOD) or Self-Limited Intestinal Venulitis. Eosinophilic necrotizing lymphadenitis, such as what we report here, has never been reported in association with this disease. A 41-year-old female presented with cramping lower abdominal pain, hematochezia, nausea, and vomiting. Computed tomography revealed the presence of the mass and thickening of the illeocecal wall. Endoscopy confirmed a cecal mass with surface ulceration suggestive of cecal adenocarcinoma. Patient underwent right hemicolectomy with the clinical and radiologic diagnosis of adenocarcinoma. Microscopic examination of the resected bowel showed an ulcerated mass in the cecum composed of markedly edematous tissue showing transmural eosinophilic infiltration and extensive eosinophilic and lymphocytic venulitis with and without thrombosis. This was associated with a necrotizing lymphadenitis.

  6. Particle Deposition in Granular Media. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tien, C.

    1992-12-31

    Objective is to understand aerosol deposition from gas streams flowing through granular media; this is important to the design of granular filtration systems. The following investigations were carried out: transient behavior of granular filtration of aerosols, and stochastic simulation of aerosol deposition in granular media.

  7. Granular Materials Research at NASA-Glenn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agui, Juan H.; Daidzic, Nihad; Green, Robert D.; Nakagawa, Masami; Nayagam, Vedha; Rame, Enrique; Wilkinson, Allen

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs of granular materials research at NASA-Glenn. The topics include: 1) Impulse dispersion of a tapered granular chain; 2) High Speed Digital Images of Tapered Chain Dynamics; 3) Impulse Dispersion; 4) Three Dimensional Granular Bed Experimental Setup; 5) Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Fluid Flow in Porous Media; and 6) Net Charge on Granular Materials (NCharG).

  8. Clinical experience using the tethered capsule-based spectrally encoded confocal microendoscopy for diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Do, Dukho; Alali, Sanaz; Kang, DongKyun; Tabatabaie, Nima; Lu, Weina; Grant, Catriona N.; Soomro, Amna R.; Nishioka, Norman S.; Rosenberg, Mireille; Hesterberg, Paul E.; Yuan, Qian; Garber, John J.; Katz, Aubrey J.; Shreffler, Wayne G.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2016-03-01

    Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EoE) is caused by food allergies, and defined by histological presence of eosinophil cells in the esophagus. The current gold standard for EoE diagnosis is endoscopy with pinch biopsy to detect more than 15 eosinophils/ High power field (HPF). Biopsy examinations are expensive, time consuming and are difficult to tolerate for patients. Spectrally encoded confocal microscopy (SECM) is a high-speed reflectance confocal microscopy technology capable of imaging individual eosinophils as highly scattering cells (diameter between 8 µm to 15 µm) in the epithelium. Our lab has developed a tethered SECM capsule that can be swallowed by unsedated patients. The capsule acquires large area confocal images, equivalent to more than 30,000 HPFs, as it traverses through the esophagus. In this paper, we present the outcome of a clinical study using the tethered SECM capsule for diagnosing EoE. To date, 32 subjects have been enrolled in this study. 88% of the subjects swallowed the capsules without difficulty and of those who swallowed the capsule, 95% preferred the tethered capsule imaging procedure to sedated endoscopic biopsy. Each imaging session took about 12 ± 2.4 minutes during which 8 images each spanning of 24 ± 5 cm2 of the esophagus were acquired. SECM images acquired from EoE patients showed abundant eosinophils as highly scattering cells in squamous epithelium. Results from this study suggest that the SECM capsule has the potential to become a less-invasive, cost-effective tool for diagnosing EoE and monitoring the response of this disease to therapy.

  9. Granular temperature profiles in three-dimensional vibrofluidized granular beds

    SciTech Connect

    Wildman, R. D.; Huntley, J. M.; Parker, D. J.

    2001-06-01

    The motion of grains in a three-dimensional vibrofluidized granular bed has been measured using the technique of positron emission particle tracking, to provide three-dimensional packing fraction and granular temperature distributions. The mean square fluctuation velocity about the mean was calculated through analysis of the short time mean squared displacement behavior, allowing measurement of the granular temperature at packing fractions of up to {eta}{similar_to}0.15. The scaling relationship between the granular temperature, the number of layers of grains, and the base velocity was determined. Deviations between the observed scaling exponents and those predicted by recent theories are attributed to the influence of dissipative grain-sidewall collisions.

  10. Eosinophilic bodies in pyloric and Brunner's gland cells.

    PubMed Central

    Rubio, C A; Hirota, T; Itabashi, M; Jacobsson, B; Lignelid, H

    1992-01-01

    A previously unreported cell phenotype occurred in the pyloric and Brunner glands in two gastrectomy specimens. The cells were characterised by homogeneous, eosinophilic material in the cytoplasm. The eosinophilic material had an abnormally strong reactivity for Cystatin C, a protein found recently in the normal secretion of pyloric and Brunner's gland cells. The reason for the apparent cytoplasmic accumulation of cystatin C in the two patients described remains unclear. Images PMID:1479043

  11. [MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NEUTROPHILS AND EOSINOPHILS GRANULES IN SAPPHIRE MINKS].

    PubMed

    Uzenbaeva, L B; Kizhina, A G; Ilyukha, V A

    2015-01-01

    It has been established that sapphire minks have abnormality of subcellular structure of blood and bone marrow neutrophils and eosinophils. The abnormality consists in forming of abnormal "giant" granules. The si- ze and the number of abnormal granules significantly change during maturation of leucocytes in bone marrow. We have found differences between abnormal granules forming in neutrophils and eosinophils that depend on the maturing stage and the cells life cycle duration as well as morphofunctional features of these granulocytes. PMID:26863773

  12. Prominent Vascular and Perivascular Eosinophilic Infiltrates Heralding CNS Mycosis Fungoides.

    PubMed

    Schowinsky, Jeffrey; Leppert, Michelle; Ney, Douglas; Kleinschmidt-DeMasters, B K

    2015-10-01

    Brain parenchymal involvement of mycosis fungoides (MF) is very rare. This study reports a patient with known cutaneous MF (under treatment) who presented with a CNS syndrome and multiple brain lesions. Brain biopsy demonstrated massive eosinophilic infiltrates but no MF cells. Despite treatment, new lesions developed and the patient died. At autopsy, there was massive involvement MF cells, suggesting that the eosinophilic infiltrates presaged the severe involvement of the CNS by MF. PMID:26352990

  13. Concomitant herpetic and eosinophilic esophagitis--a causality dilemma.

    PubMed

    Monsanto, P; Almeida, N; Cipriano, M A; Gouveia, H; Sofia, C

    2012-09-01

    Eosinophilic and herpetic esophagitis are listed as independent causes of dysphagia, especially in young adult males. However, herpetic esophagitis rarely affects immunocompetent individuals. We report the case of a young, not immunocompromised patient, admitted because of severe dysphagia secondary to herpes simplex virus esophagitis. After complete resolution, an endoscopic and histologic reevaluation established the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis. The potential association between the two conditions is discussed.

  14. Longitudinal perspective on managing refractory eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Leung, John; Mehrzad, Raman; Hundal, Navneet Virk; Alejos, Alexandra; Hesterberg, Paul E; Katz, Aubrey J; Yuan, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Background One third of patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) do not achieve histological remission with standard medical or dietary treatment. The outcome of these patients undergoing various rescue treatments is not known and whether these patients constitute a distinct subset remains unclear. Objective To analyze EoE treatment outcomes in a predominantly pediatric population, including after initial treatment failure (rescue treatment) for differences in outcomes and clinical presentation. Methods We identified 100 serial cases of confirmed EoE from our REDCap® database established at Massachusetts General Hospital starting from January 2007. Demographic data, clinical symptoms, treatment regimens, endoscopic findings, skin testing results, food triggers and clinical outcome of various rescue treatment strategies were presented. We defined clinical response as histological remission with peak eosinophil count of at least 6 biopsies less than 10 per high power field. RESULTS Ninety-seven EoE patients underwent initial treatments. Eighty-one elected dietary treatment (7 elemental diet, 54 multiple food elimination diet, and 20 milk-free diet and 16 elected medical treatment (15 swallowed fluticasone and 1 budesonide). Initial response rate to dietary and medical treatment was 67% (54/81) and 56% (9/16) respectively. Of the 34 who failed initial treatment, 24 of them elected various second treatment regimens (3 medical therapy, 2 milk-free diet, 14 multiple food elimination diet and 5 elemental diet) and 54% (13/24) achieved histological remission. Eight of the remaining 11 who failed second treatment underwent additional treatments and 2 ultimately achieved histological remission. The overall response rate by intention-to-treat analysis increased from 65% (63/97) with initial treatment to 78% (76/97) with rescue treatment, and further to 80% (78/97) with multiple rescue treatments. On a per-protocol basis, the overall response rate was 93% (78/84); however

  15. Clinical application of autologous technetium-99m-labelled eosinophils to detect focal eosinophilic inflammation in the lung.

    PubMed

    Loutsios, Chrystalla; Farahi, Neda; Simmonds, Rosalind; Cullum, Ian; Gillett, Daniel; Solanki, Chandra; Solanki, Kishor; Buscombe, John; Condliffe, Alison M; Peters, A Mike; Chilvers, Edwin R

    2015-11-01

    The detection of focal eosinophilic inflammation by non-invasive means may aid the diagnosis and follow-up of a variety of pulmonary pathologies. All current methods of detection involve invasive sampling, which may be contraindicated or too high-risk to be performed safely. The use of injected autologous technetium-99m (Tc-99m)-labelled eosinophils coupled to single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) has been demonstrated to localise eosinophilic inflammation in the lungs of a patient with antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-positive vasculitis. Here, we report on the utility of this technique to detect active eosinophilic inflammation in a patient with focal lung inflammation where a biopsy was contraindicated.

  16. Localization and quantitation of macrophages, mast cells, and eosinophils in the developing bovine mammary gland.

    PubMed

    Beaudry, K L; Parsons, C L M; Ellis, S E; Akers, R M

    2016-01-01

    Prepubertal mammary development involves elongation and branching of ducts and stromal tissue remodeling. This process is highly regulated and in mice is known to be affected by the presence of innate immune cells. Whether or not such immune cells are present or involved in bovine mammary development is unknown. For the first time, we determined the presence, location (relative to mammary ductal structures), and changes in numbers of eosinophils, mast cells, and macrophages in prepubertal bovine mammary tissue, and evaluated the effects of age, ovariectomy, and exogenous estrogen on numbers of each cell type. Chemical stains and immunofluorescence were used to identify the 3 cell types in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded mammary tissue from prepubertal female calves from 3 archived tissue sets. The ontogeny tissue set included samples of mammary tissue from female calves (n=4/wk) from birth to 6 wk of age. The ovary tissue set contained samples from ovary intact and ovariectomized heifers allowing us to investigate the influence of the ovaries on immune cells in the developing mammary gland in prepubertal heifers. Nineteen animals were intact or ovariectomized 30 d before sampling; they were 90, 120, or 150 d old at the time of sampling. A third tissue set, the estrogen set, allowed us to determine the effect of exogenous estrogen on innate immune cells in the gland. Eosinophils were identified via Luna staining, mast cells by May-Grunwald Giemsa staining, and macrophages with immunofluorescence. Key findings were that more eosinophils and mast cells were observed in near versus far stroma in the ontogeny and ovary tissue sets but not estrogen. More macrophages were observed in near versus far stroma in ontogeny animals. Eosinophils were more abundant in the younger animals, and fewer macrophages tended to be observed in ovariectomized heifers as compared with intact heifers and estrogen treatment resulted in a reduction in cell numbers. In summary, we show for

  17. Granularity analysis for mathematical proofs.

    PubMed

    Schiller, Marvin R G

    2013-04-01

    Mathematical proofs generally allow for various levels of detail and conciseness, such that they can be adapted for a particular audience or purpose. Using automated reasoning approaches for teaching proof construction in mathematics presupposes that the step size of proofs in such a system is appropriate within the teaching context. This work proposes a framework that supports the granularity analysis of mathematical proofs, to be used in the automated assessment of students' proof attempts and for the presentation of hints and solutions at a suitable pace. Models for granularity are represented by classifiers, which can be generated by hand or inferred from a corpus of sample judgments via machine-learning techniques. This latter procedure is studied by modeling granularity judgments from four experts. The results provide support for the granularity of assertion-level proofs but also illustrate a degree of subjectivity in assessing step size.

  18. Intermittency in dilute granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wenxuan; Zhang, Qiang; Wylie, Jonathan J.

    2016-07-01

    In this letter, we show that dilute granular systems can exhibit a type of intermittency that has no analogue in gas dynamics. We consider a simple system in which a very dilute set of granular particles falls under gravity through a nozzle. This setting is analogous to the classical problem of high-speed nozzle flow in the study of compressible gases. It is well known that very dilute granular systems exhibit behavior qualitatively similar to gases, and that gas flowing through a nozzle does not exhibit intermittency. Nevertheless, we show that the intermittency in dilute granular nozzle flows can occur and corresponds to complicated transitions between supersonic and subsonic regimes. We also provide detailed explanations of the mechanism underlying this phenomenon.

  19. Process for producing granular diammonium phosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Fairchild, W.D.

    1988-05-17

    A process for the production of solid granular diammonium phosphate is described comprising: reacting anhydrous ammonia with phosphoric acid in a reactor to form a partially reacted slurry of monoammonium phosphate and diammonium phosphate; pumping the slurry to a granulator-reactor and further reacting the slurry with anhydrous ammonia to form a solid granular diammonium phosphate mixture having a particle range size consisting of undersize, oversize and product; drying the solid granular diammonium phosphate mixture in a dryer; dividing the dried solid granular diammonium phosphate mixture being discharged from the dryer into a first portion and a second portion; diverting and feeding the first portion of the dried granular diammonium phosphate mixture back to the granulator-reactor; feeding the second portion of dried granular diammonium phosphate mixture to a classifying means consisting of a set of screens including an oversize screen and a product screen set to a narrow size separation to separate the mixture of the solid granular diammonium phosphate into undersize, oversize and product solid granular diammonium phosphate; milling the oversize granular diammonium phosphate; recycling to the granular-reactor the milled oversized granular diammonium phosphate and the undersized granular particles obtained during the classifying of the solid granular diammonium phosphate mixture; and collecting the desired product granular particle thereby enhancing the production of a narrow range of granular diammonium phosphate particle size distribution within a broad range of particle size distribution.

  20. The genetic basis of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Sleiman, Patrick M A; March, Michael; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2015-10-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis is characterized by destructive responses of the immune system to environmental allergens, including food, on the human esophagus. EoE is now reported as a major cause of upper gastrointestinal morbidity in children and adults and the incidence is reported to be on the increase. It is known that EoE has a high degree of heritability, with a majority of the phenotypic variation believed to be genetic in origin as shown by genetic epidemiology studies of twins and families. Prior to 2010, there were no known genetic risk factors for the disease. Three GWAS have since been published identifying 5 loci which influence risk for EoE in both children and adults. The information gained from GWAS has been of value in elucidating the pathways involved, such as IL4/STAT6, and more unexpected pathways such as epithelial apical transport and wound healing. We will review the results of the EoE GWAS and the known associated genes, concluding with a discussion of some future directions for genetic studies in EoE. PMID:26552769

  1. Eosinophilic Fasciitis Associated with Mycoplasma arginini Infection

    PubMed Central

    Silló, Pálma; Pintér, Dóra; Ostorházi, Eszter; Mazán, Mercedes; Wikonkál, Norbert; Pónyai, Katinka; Volokhov, Dmitriy V.; Chizhikov, Vladimir E.; Szathmary, Susan; Stipkovits, Laszlo

    2012-01-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis (EF) with generalized sclerodermiform skin lesions developed over a 19-month period in a previously healthy 23-year-old man. Although we confirmed EF by skin histology and laboratory tests, the recurrent fevers and the clinical observation of sclerotic prepuce with urethritis indicated further bacteriological analysis by conventional microbiological and DNA-based tests. Urethra cultures were positive for an arginine-hydrolyzing mycoplasma and Ureaplasma urealyticum. The patient also had serum IgM antibodies to Mycoplasma pneumoniae using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based qualitative detection. Mycoplasma arginini was isolated from two independent venous blood serum samples and was identified by conventional microbiological tests and sequencing of the 16S rRNA and rpoB genes (GenBank sequence accession numbers HM179555 and HM179556, respectively). M. arginini genomic DNA also was detected by species-specific PCR in the skin lesion biopsy sample. Treatment with corticosteroids and long-term courses of selected antibiotics led to remission of skin symptoms and normalization of laboratory values. This report provides the first evidence of EF associated with mycoplasma infection and the second report of human infection with M. arginini and therefore suggests that this mycoplasma infection might have contributed to the pathogenesis of the disease. PMID:22189109

  2. Redox thermodynamics of lactoperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Bellei, Marzia; Vlasits, Jutta; Banerjee, Srijib; Furtmüller, Paul G; Sola, Marco; Obinger, Christian

    2010-02-01

    Eosinophil peroxidase (EPO) and lactoperoxidase (LPO) are important constituents of the innate immune system of mammals. These heme enzymes belong to the peroxidase-cyclooxygenase superfamily and catalyze the oxidation of thiocyanate, bromide and nitrite to hypothiocyanate, hypobromous acid and nitrogen dioxide that are toxic for invading pathogens. In order to gain a better understanding of the observed differences in substrate specificity and oxidation capacity in relation to heme and protein structure, a comprehensive spectro-electrochemical investigation was performed. The reduction potential (E degrees ') of the Fe(III)/Fe(II) couple of EPO and LPO was determined to be -126mV and -176mV, respectively (25 degrees C, pH 7.0). Variable temperature experiments show that EPO and LPO feature different reduction thermodynamics. In particular, reduction of ferric EPO is enthalpically and entropically disfavored, whereas in LPO the entropic term, which selectively stabilizes the oxidized form, prevails on the enthalpic term that favors reduction of Fe(III). The data are discussed with respect to the architecture of the heme cavity and the substrate channel. Comparison with published data for myeloperoxidase demonstrates the effect of heme to protein linkages and heme distortion on the redox chemistry of mammalian peroxidases and in consequence on the enzymatic properties of these physiologically important oxidoreductases.

  3. Lyapunov spectrum of granular gases

    SciTech Connect

    McNamara, Sean; Mareschal, Michel

    2001-06-01

    We calculate and study the Lyapunov spectrum of a granular gas maintained in a steady state by an isokinetic thermostat. Considering restitution coefficients greater than unity allows us to show that the spectra change smoothly and continuously at equilibrium. The shearing instability of the granular gas, however, provokes an abrupt change in the structure of the spectrum. The relationship between various physically relevant quantities and the energy dissipation rate differs from previously studied nonequilibrium steady states.

  4. Continuum modelling of granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staron, L.; Lagrée, P.-Y.

    2011-10-01

    The continuum modelling of transient granular flows is of primary importance in the context of predicting the behaviour of many natural systems involving granular matter. In this perspective, the granular column collapse experiment provides an interesting benchmark due to its challenging complexity (Lajeunesse et al 2004, Lube et al 2004), and form a trying test for candidate rheological models. In this contribution, we present 2D continuum simulations of granular column collapse using Navier-Stokes solver Gerris (Popinet 2003). The rheology implemented to model the granular media is the so-called μ(I)-rheology, relating the frictional properties and the viscosity of the material to the pressure and shear rate. In addition, discrete simulations using the Contact Dynamics method are performed for systematic comparison between the granular flow dynamics and its continuum counterpart (Staron & Hinch 2005). We find a good agreement, recovering the shape of the flow in the course of time as well as experimental scaling laws for the run-out. A systematic underestimation of the latter is nevertheless observed, and discussed in terms of physical and numerical modeling.

  5. An essential role for Rab27a GTPase in eosinophil exocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, John Dongil; Willetts, Lian; Ochkur, Sergei; Srivastava, Nutan; Hamburg, Rudolf; Shayeganpour, Anooshirvan; Seabra, Miguel C.; Lee, James J.; Moqbel, Redwan; Lacy, Paige

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophil degranulation has been implicated in inflammatory processes associated with allergic asthma. Rab27a, a Rab-related GTPase, is a regulatory intracellular signaling molecule expressed in human eosinophils. We postulated that Rab27a regulates eosinophil degranulation. We investigated the role of Rab27a in eosinophil degranulation within the context of airway inflammation. Rab27a expression and localization in eosinophils were investigated by using subcellular fractionation combined with Western blot analysis, and the results were confirmed by immunofluorescence analysis of Rab27a and the granule membrane marker CD63. To determine the function of eosinophil Rab27a, we used Ashen mice, a strain of Rab27a-deficient animals. Ashen eosinophils were tested for degranulation in response to PAF and calcium ionophore by measuring released EPX activity. Airway EPX release was also determined by intratracheal injection of eosinophils into mice lacking EPX. Rab27a immunoreactivity colocalized with eosinophil crystalloid granules, as determined by subcellular fractionation and immunofluorescence analysis. PAF induced eosinophil degranulation in correlation with redistribution of Rab27a+ structures, some of which colocalized with CD63+ crystalloid granules at the cell membrane. Eosinophils from mice had significantly reduced EPX release compared with normal WT eosinophils, both in vitro and in vivo. In mouse models, Ashen mice demonstrated reduced EPX release in BAL fluid. These findings suggest that Rab27a has a key role in eosinophil degranulation. Furthermore, these findings have implications for Rab27a-dependent eosinophil degranulation in airway inflammation. PMID:23986549

  6. Granular Superconductors and Gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noever, David; Koczor, Ron

    1999-01-01

    As a Bose condensate, superconductors provide novel conditions for revisiting previously proposed couplings between electromagnetism and gravity. Strong variations in Cooper pair density, large conductivity and low magnetic permeability define superconductive and degenerate condensates without the traditional density limits imposed by the Fermi energy (approx. 10(exp -6) g cu cm). Recent experiments have reported anomalous weight loss for a test mass suspended above a rotating Type II, YBCO superconductor, with a relatively high percentage change (0.05-2.1%) independent of the test mass' chemical composition and diamagnetic properties. A variation of 5 parts per 104 was reported above a stationary (non-rotating) superconductor. In experiments using a sensitive gravimeter, bulk YBCO superconductors were stably levitated in a DC magnetic field and exposed without levitation to low-field strength AC magnetic fields. Changes in observed gravity signals were measured to be less than 2 parts in 108 of the normal gravitational acceleration. Given the high sensitivity of the test, future work will examine variants on the basic magnetic behavior of granular superconductors, with particular focus on quantifying their proposed importance to gravity.

  7. Eosinophilic, Solid, and Cystic Renal Cell Carcinoma: Clinicopathologic Study of 16 Unique, Sporadic Neoplasms Occurring in Women.

    PubMed

    Trpkov, Kiril; Hes, Ondrej; Bonert, Michael; Lopez, Jose I; Bonsib, Stephen M; Nesi, Gabriella; Comperat, Eva; Sibony, Mathilde; Berney, Daniel M; Martinek, Petr; Bulimbasic, Stela; Suster, Saul; Sangoi, Ankur; Yilmaz, Asli; Higgins, John P; Zhou, Ming; Gill, Anthony J; Przybycin, Christopher G; Magi-Galluzzi, Cristina; McKenney, Jesse K

    2016-01-01

    A unique renal neoplasm characterized by eosinophilic cytoplasm and solid and cystic growth was recently reported in patients with tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). We searched multiple institutional archives and consult files in an attempt to identify a sporadic counterpart. We identified 16 morphologically identical cases, all in women, without clinical features of TSC. The median age was 57 years (range, 31 to 75 y). Macroscopically, tumors were tan and had a solid and macrocystic (12) or only solid appearance (4). Average tumor size was 50 mm (median, 38.5 mm; range, 15 to 135 mm). Microscopically, the tumors showed solid areas admixed with variably sized macrocysts and microcysts that were lined by cells with a pronounced hobnail arrangement. The cells had voluminous eosinophilic cytoplasm with prominent granular cytoplasmic stippling and round to oval nuclei with prominent nucleoli. Scattered histiocytes and lymphocytes were invariably present. Thirteen of 16 patients were stage pT1; 2 were pT2, and 1 was pT3a. The cells demonstrated a distinct immunoprofile: nuclear PAX8 expression, predominant CK20-positive/CK7-negative phenotype, patchy AMACR staining, but no CD117 reactivity. Thirteen of 14 patients with follow-up were alive and without disease progression after 2 to 138 months (mean: 53 mo; median: 37.5 mo); 1 patient died of other causes. Although similar to a subset of renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) seen in TSC, we propose that sporadic "eosinophilic, solid, and cystic RCC," which occurs predominantly in female individuals and is characterized by distinct morphologic features, predominant CK20-positive/CK7-negative immunophenotype, and indolent behavior, represents a novel subtype of RCC. PMID:26414221

  8. Shear strength of vibrated granular/granular-fluid mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utter, Brian; Herman, Ralph; Foltz, Ben

    2011-03-01

    The behavior of dense granular materials can be characterized by the continuous forming and breaking of a strong force network resisting flow. This jamming/unjamming behavior is typical of a variety of systems and is influenced by factors such as grain packing fraction, applied shear stress, and the random kinetic energy of the particles. We present experiments on shear strength of granular and granular-water mixtures under the influence of external vibrations, one parameter that leads to unjamming. We use low vibration (< 1g) and slow shear and measure avalanching statistics in a rotating drum and the torque required to move a stirrer through a sand/water mixture. We find that external vibration (i) increases granular strength at small vibrations in the dry system, (ii) removes history dependence (memory), and (iii) decreases shear strength at all accessible saturation levels in the sand-fluid system. Additionally, shear strength is found to be smallest for both dry and completely saturated mixtures. Additional ongoing experiments probe beyond a dimensionless acceleration of 1 and explore jamming and surface chemistry effects in the avalanching flow of granular/fluid mixtures.

  9. Advances in Clinical Management of Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Dellon, Evan S.; Liacouras, Chris A.

    2014-01-01

    EoE is a chronic immune/antigen-mediated clinicopathologic condition that has become an increasingly important cause of upper gastrointestinal morbidity in adults and children over the past 2 decades. It is diagnosed based on symptoms of esophageal dysfunction, the presence of at least 15 eosinophils/high-power field in esophageal biopsies, and exclusion of competing causes of esophageal eosinophilia, including proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia (PPI-REE). We review what we have recently learned about the clinical aspects of EoE, discussing the clinical, endoscopic, and histologic features of EoE in adults and children. We explain the current diagnostic criteria and challenges to diagnosis, including the role of gastroesophageal reflux disease and PPI-REE. It is also important to consider the epidemiology of EoE (current incidence of 1/10,000 new cases per year and prevalence of 0.5-1/1,000 cases per year) and disease progression. We review the main treatment approaches and new treatment options; EoE can be treated with topical corticosteroids such as fluticasone and budesonide, or dietary strategies, such as amino acid-based formulas, allergy test-directed elimination diets, and non-directed empiric elimination diets. Endoscopic dilation has also become an important tool for treatment of fibrostenostic complications of EoE. There are number of unresolved issues in EoE, including phenotypes, optimal treatment endpoints, the role of maintenance therapy, and treatment of refractory EoE. The care of patients with EoE and the study of the disease span many disciplines—EoE is ideally managed by a multidisciplinary team of gastroenterologists, allergists, pathologists, and dieticians. PMID:25109885

  10. Does eosinophilic COPD exacerbation have a better patient outcome than non-eosinophilic in the intensive care unit?

    PubMed Central

    Saltürk, Cüneyt; Karakurt, Zuhal; Adiguzel, Nalan; Kargin, Feyza; Sari, Rabia; Celik, M Emin; Takir, Huriye Berk; Tuncay, Eylem; Sogukpinar, Ozlem; Ciftaslan, Nezihe; Mocin, Ozlem; Gungor, Gokay; Oztas, Selahattin

    2015-01-01

    Background COPD exacerbations requiring intensive care unit (ICU) admission have a major impact on morbidity and mortality. Only 10%–25% of COPD exacerbations are eosinophilic. Aim To assess whether eosinophilic COPD exacerbations have better outcomes than non-eosinophilic COPD exacerbations in the ICU. Methods This retrospective observational cohort study was conducted in a thoracic, surgery-level III respiratory ICU of a tertiary teaching hospital for chest diseases from 2013 to 2014. Subjects previously diagnosed with COPD and who were admitted to the ICU with acute respiratory failure were included. Data were collected electronically from the hospital database. Subjects’ characteristics, complete blood count parameters, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), delta NLR (admission minus discharge), C-reactive protein (CRP) on admission to and discharge from ICU, length of ICU stay, and mortality were recorded. COPD subjects were grouped according to eosinophil levels (>2% or ≤2%) (group 1, eosinophilic; group 2, non-eosinophilic). These groups were compared with the recorded data. Results Over the study period, 647 eligible COPD subjects were enrolled (62 [40.3% female] in group 1 and 585 [33.5% female] in group 2). Group 2 had significantly higher C-reactive protein, neutrophils, NLR, delta NLR, and hemoglobin, but a lower lymphocyte, monocyte, and platelet count than group 1, on admission to and discharge from the ICU. Median (interquartile range) length of ICU stay and mortality in the ICU in groups 1 and 2 were 4 days (2–7 days) vs 6 days (3–9 days) (P<0.002), and 12.9% vs 24.9% (P<0.034), respectively. Conclusion COPD exacerbations with acute respiratory failure requiring ICU admission had a better outcome with a peripheral eosinophil level >2%. NLR and peripheral eosinophilia may be helpful indicators for steroid and antibiotic management. PMID:26392758

  11. EP4 receptor stimulation down-regulates human eosinophil function.

    PubMed

    Luschnig-Schratl, Petra; Sturm, Eva M; Konya, Viktoria; Philipose, Sonia; Marsche, Gunther; Fröhlich, Eleonore; Samberger, Claudia; Lang-Loidolt, Doris; Gattenlöhner, Stefan; Lippe, Irmgard Th; Peskar, Bernhard A; Schuligoi, Rufina; Heinemann, Akos

    2011-11-01

    Accumulation of eosinophils in tissue is a hallmark of allergic inflammation. Here we observed that a selective agonist of the PGE(2) receptor EP4, ONO AE1-329, potently attenuated the chemotaxis of human peripheral blood eosinophils, upregulation of the adhesion molecule CD11b and the production of reactive oxygen species. These effects were accompanied by the inhibition of cytoskeletal rearrangement and Ca(2+) mobilization. The involvement of the EP4 receptor was substantiated by a selective EP4 antagonist, which reversed the inhibitory effects of PGE(2) and the EP4 agonist. Selective kinase inhibitors revealed that the inhibitory effect of EP4 stimulation on eosinophil migration depended upon activation of PI 3-kinase and PKC, but not cAMP. Finally, we found that EP4 receptors are expressed by human eosinophils, and are also present on infiltrating leukocytes in inflamed human nasal mucosa. These data indicate that EP4 agonists might be a novel therapeutic option in eosinophilic diseases.

  12. Eosinophilic Colitis: University of Minnesota Experience and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Gaertner, Wolfgang B.; MacDonald, Jennifer E.; Kwaan, Mary R.; Shepela, Christopher; Madoff, Robert; Jessurun, Jose; Melton, Genevieve B.

    2011-01-01

    Eosinophilic colitis is a rare form of primary eosinophilic gastrointestinal disease that is poorly understood. Neonates and young adults are more frequently affected. Clinical presentation is highly variable depending on the depth of inflammatory response (mucosal, transmural, or serosal). The pathophysiology of eosinophilic colitis is unclear but is suspected to be related to a hypersensitivity reaction given its correlation with other atopic disorders and clinical response to corticosteroid therapy. Diagnosis is that of exclusion and differential diagnoses are many because colonic tissue eosinophilia may occur with other colitides (parasitic, drug-induced, inflammatory bowel disease, and various connective tissue disorders). Similar to other eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders, steroid-based therapy and diet modification achieve very good and durable responses. In this paper, we present our experience with this rare pathology. Five patients (3 pediatric and 2 adults) presented with diarrhea and hematochezia. Mean age at presentation was 26 years. Mean duration of symptoms before pathologic diagnosis was 8 months. Mean eosinophil count per patient was 31 per high-power field. The pediatric patients responded very well to dietary modifications, with no recurrences. The adult patients were treated with steroids and did not respond. Overall mean followup was 22 (range, 2–48) months. PMID:21837236

  13. Eosinophilic Myocarditis due to Toxocariasis: Not a Rare Cause

    PubMed Central

    Shibazaki, Shunichi; Eguchi, Shunsuke; Endo, Takashi; Wakabayashi, Tadamasa; Araki, Makoto; Gu, Yoshiaki; Imai, Taku; Asano, Kouji; Taniuchi, Norihide

    2016-01-01

    Myocarditis is a clinically important disease because of the high mortality. From the perspective of treatment strategy, eosinophilic myocarditis should be distinguished from other types of myocarditis. Toxocariasis, caused by Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati, is known as a cause of eosinophilic myocarditis but is considered rare. As it is an unpopular disease, eosinophilic myocarditis due to toxocariasis may be underdiagnosed. We experienced two cases of eosinophilic myocarditis due to toxocariasis from different geographical areas in quick succession between 2013 and 2014. Case 1 is 32-year-old man. Case 2 is 66-year-old woman. In both cases, diagnosis was done by endomyocardial biopsy and IgG-ELISA against Toxocara excretory-secretory antigen. Only a corticosteroid was used in Case  1, whereas a corticosteroid and albendazole were used in Case  2 as induction therapy. Both patients recovered. Albendazole was also used in Case  1 to prevent recurrence after induction therapy. Eosinophilic myocarditis by toxocariasis may in actuality not be a rare disease, and corticosteroid is an effective drug as induction therapy even before use of albendazole. PMID:27123346

  14. Eosinophilic esophagitis: New insights in pathogenesis and therapy.

    PubMed

    Guarino, Michele Pier Luca; Cicala, Michele; Behar, Jose

    2016-02-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinico-pathological entity with esophageal symptoms and dense esophageal eosinophilic infiltration throughout the esophagus that may persist despite treatment with proton pump inhibitors. This eosinophilic infiltration is usually absent in the stomach, small intestine and colon, although there are a number of reports of patients with a multi-organ involvement. EoE is associated with abnormalities involving TH2-dependent immunity, with multiple environmental factors strongly contributing to disease expression. The layer of the esophagus affected by the eosinophilic infiltration causes the specific symptoms. Esophageal involvement results mostly in dysphagia for solids that can be severe enough to cause recurrent esophageal obstruction with typical endoscopic features suggesting esophageal remodeling and pathological changes of eosinophilic infiltration of the mucosa, sub-epithelial fibrosis and muscle hypertrophy. This disease is frequently associated with other allergic conditions such as allergic asthma, allergic dermatitis and eosinophilia. The treatment of patients with EoE depends on the severity of the symptoms and of the inflammatory process as well as to their response to a gradual step-up treatment. The first line of treatment consists of steroid containing local inhalers. If unresponsive they are then treated with oral steroids. Intravenous interleukin blockers seem to have a consistent positive therapeutic effect. PMID:26855813

  15. Eosinophilic esophagitis: New insights in pathogenesis and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Guarino, Michele Pier Luca; Cicala, Michele; Behar, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinico-pathological entity with esophageal symptoms and dense esophageal eosinophilic infiltration throughout the esophagus that may persist despite treatment with proton pump inhibitors. This eosinophilic infiltration is usually absent in the stomach, small intestine and colon, although there are a number of reports of patients with a multi-organ involvement. EoE is associated with abnormalities involving TH2-dependent immunity, with multiple environmental factors strongly contributing to disease expression. The layer of the esophagus affected by the eosinophilic infiltration causes the specific symptoms. Esophageal involvement results mostly in dysphagia for solids that can be severe enough to cause recurrent esophageal obstruction with typical endoscopic features suggesting esophageal remodeling and pathological changes of eosinophilic infiltration of the mucosa, sub-epithelial fibrosis and muscle hypertrophy. This disease is frequently associated with other allergic conditions such as allergic asthma, allergic dermatitis and eosinophilia. The treatment of patients with EoE depends on the severity of the symptoms and of the inflammatory process as well as to their response to a gradual step-up treatment. The first line of treatment consists of steroid containing local inhalers. If unresponsive they are then treated with oral steroids. Intravenous interleukin blockers seem to have a consistent positive therapeutic effect. PMID:26855813

  16. Disruption of Fas Receptor Signaling by Nitric Oxide in Eosinophils

    PubMed Central

    Hebestreit, Holger; Dibbert, Birgit; Balatti, Ivo; Braun, Doris; Schapowal, Andreas; Blaser, Kurt; Simon, Hans-Uwe

    1998-01-01

    It has been suggested that Fas ligand–Fas receptor interactions are involved in the regulation of eosinophil apoptosis and that dysfunctions in this system could contribute to the accumulation of these cells in allergic and asthmatic diseases. Here, we demonstrate that nitric oxide (NO) specifically prevents Fas receptor–mediated apoptosis in freshly isolated human eosinophils. In contrast, rapid acceleration of eosinophil apoptosis by activation of the Fas receptor occurs in the presence of eosinophil hematopoietins. Analysis of the intracellular mechanisms revealed that NO disrupts Fas receptor–mediated signaling events at the level of, or proximal to, Jun kinase (JNK), but distal to sphingomyelinase (SMase) activation and ceramide generation. In addition, activation of SMase occurs downstream of an interleukin 1 converting enzyme–like (ICE-like) protease(s) that is not blocked by NO. However, NO prevents activation of a protease that targets lamin B1. These findings suggest a role for an additional NO-sensitive apoptotic signaling pathway that amplifies the proteolytic cascade initialized by activation of the Fas receptor. Therefore, NO concentrations within allergic inflammatory sites may be important in determining whether an eosinophil survives or undergoes apoptosis upon Fas ligand stimulation. PMID:9449721

  17. Eosinophilic Myocarditis due to Toxocariasis: Not a Rare Cause.

    PubMed

    Shibazaki, Shunichi; Eguchi, Shunsuke; Endo, Takashi; Wakabayashi, Tadamasa; Araki, Makoto; Gu, Yoshiaki; Imai, Taku; Asano, Kouji; Taniuchi, Norihide

    2016-01-01

    Myocarditis is a clinically important disease because of the high mortality. From the perspective of treatment strategy, eosinophilic myocarditis should be distinguished from other types of myocarditis. Toxocariasis, caused by Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati, is known as a cause of eosinophilic myocarditis but is considered rare. As it is an unpopular disease, eosinophilic myocarditis due to toxocariasis may be underdiagnosed. We experienced two cases of eosinophilic myocarditis due to toxocariasis from different geographical areas in quick succession between 2013 and 2014. Case 1 is 32-year-old man. Case 2 is 66-year-old woman. In both cases, diagnosis was done by endomyocardial biopsy and IgG-ELISA against Toxocara excretory-secretory antigen. Only a corticosteroid was used in Case  1, whereas a corticosteroid and albendazole were used in Case  2 as induction therapy. Both patients recovered. Albendazole was also used in Case  1 to prevent recurrence after induction therapy. Eosinophilic myocarditis by toxocariasis may in actuality not be a rare disease, and corticosteroid is an effective drug as induction therapy even before use of albendazole. PMID:27123346

  18. Activated mouse eosinophils protect against lethal respiratory virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Percopo, Caroline M.; Dyer, Kimberly D.; Ochkur, Sergei I.; Luo, Janice L.; Fischer, Elizabeth R.; Lee, James J.; Lee, Nancy A.; Domachowske, Joseph B.

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophils are recruited to the airways as a prominent feature of the asthmatic inflammatory response where they are broadly perceived as promoting pathophysiology. Respiratory virus infections exacerbate established asthma; however, the role of eosinophils and the nature of their interactions with respiratory viruses remain uncertain. To explore these questions, we established acute infection with the rodent pneumovirus, pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), in 3 distinct mouse models of Th2 cytokine–driven asthmatic inflammation. We found that eosinophils recruited to the airways of otherwise naïve mice in response to Aspergillus fumigatus, but not ovalbumin sensitization and challenge, are activated by and degranulate specifically in response to PVM infection. Furthermore, we demonstrate that activated eosinophils from both Aspergillus antigen and cytokine-driven asthma models are profoundly antiviral and promote survival in response to an otherwise lethal PVM infection. Thus, although activated eosinophils within a Th2-polarized inflammatory response may have pathophysiologic features, they are also efficient and effective mediators of antiviral host defense. PMID:24297871

  19. Jamming in Vibrated Granular Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utter, Brian

    2009-03-01

    Granular materials exist all around us, from avalanches in nature to the mixing of pharmaceuticals, yet the behavior of these``fluids'' is poorly understood. Their flow can be characterized by the continuous forming and breaking of a strong force network resisting flow. This jamming/unjamming behavior is typical of a variety of systems, including granular flows, and is influenced by factors such as grain packing fraction, applied shear stress, and the random kinetic energy of the particles. I'll present experiments on quasi-static shear and free-surface granular flows under the influence of external vibrations. By using photoelastic grains, we are able to measure both particle trajectories and the local force network in these 2D flows. We find through particle tracking that dense granular flow is composed of comparable contributions from the mean flow, affine, and non-affine deformations. During shear, sufficient external vibration weakens the strong force network and reduces the amount of flow driven by sidewalls. In a rotating drum geometry, large vibrations induce failure as might be expected, while small vibration leads to strengthening of the pile. The avalanching behavior is also strongly history dependent, as evident when the rotating drum is driven in an oscillatory motion, and we find that sufficient vibration erases the memory of the pile. These results point to the central role of the mobilization of friction in quasi-static granular flow.

  20. Eosinophilic pancreatitis: Three case reports and literature review

    PubMed Central

    TIAN, LIN; FU, PENG; DONG, XIANGHUI; QI, JIPING; ZHU, HONG

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic pancreatitis (EP) is a rare form of chronic pancreatitis characterized by localized or diffuse eosinophilic infiltration of the pancreas and elevated serum immunoglobulin E levels. EP is difficult to distinguish from pancreatic cancer on the basis of clinical symptoms and the results of auxiliary examination alone. A retrospective analysis of the clinicopathological characteristics and laboratory, imaging, and pathology results of 3 patients with EP, who were initially diagnosed with pancreatic malignancy, was performed. EP is an allergic disease with non-specific clinical manifestations that is difficult to distinguish from pancreatic cancer based exclusively on clinical symptoms and auxiliary examination, resulting in the need for invasive procedures to confirm the diagnosis. An increase in the eosinophil count in the peripheral blood and pathological examination are essential for the diagnosis of EP. PMID:27073662

  1. Disease associations in eosinophilic oesophagitis and oesophageal eosinophilia.

    PubMed

    Lucendo, Alfredo J

    2015-10-01

    Eosinophilic infiltration into oesophageal tissue, typical of eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE), has been described in several other conditions, including infections, hypersensitivity, and other autoimmune disorders. Since its description, EoE has been associated with an increasing number of diseases also characterized by tissue infiltration, including eosinophilic gastroenteritis and Crohn's disease. While an association between EoE and coeliac disease was previously reported, it is not supported by recent research. In contrast, EoE seems to be common in patients with a history of congenital oesophageal atresia, leading to hypotheses linking both disorders. The prevalence of EoE has also been shown to be eight times higher in patients with connective tissue disorders (CTDs), which has led to the proposal of an EoE-CTD phenotype, although this requires further assessment. This paper reviews the evidence of EoE's associations with several disorders, defining the common bases from an epidemiological, clinical, molecular and genetic perspective whenever possible.

  2. A chronic eosinophilic pneumonia case with long exposure to isocyanates.

    PubMed

    Yalcin, Funda; Sak, Zafer Hasan Ali; Boyaci, Nurefsan; Gencer, Mehmet

    2014-10-01

    Chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) is a disease with unknown etiology, characterized by peripheral blood eosinophilia and abnormal eosinophil accumulation in the lungs. A 43-year-old male with 30 years history of exposure to isocyanates was admitted with the complaint of sputum, cough, progressive dyspnoea, and weight loss. Physical examination revealed bilaterally decreased breath sounds and extensive rales. On laboratory analysis; leukocytosis (12.3 10(3)/proportional variant L), hypereosinophilia (30%), elevated CRP and RF (1000 IU/ml), and IgE levels (1160 IU/ml) in the serum were observed. Chest radiograph and computed tomography on admission showed reticulonodular pattern at both lung fields. Pulmonary function tests assumed a restrictive pattern and a low diffusing capacity. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed a marked eosinophilia (50%). Transbronchial lung biopsy indicated eosinophilic pneumonia. In this case we aimed to describe a rare case of CEP probably caused by exposure to isocyanate.

  3. Eosinophil alveolitis in two patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Brix, Ninna; Rasmussen, Finn; Poletti, Venerino; Bendstrup, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is typically characterized by a neutrophil inflammatory pattern and to a lesser extent (<25%) a mild eosinophil alveolitis. We here present two patients with a definite usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern on high-resolution computed tomography of the thorax (HRCT) which demonstrated unusually high eosinophil counts in the BALF (40% and 51%). Based on HRCT, lack of response to steroids and the disease course they were both diagnosed as IPF after a multidisciplinary team discussion. This report discusses the diagnostic and etiological considerations of a coexisting UIP pattern and an eosinophil alveolitis. We conclude that these cases illustrate that high level BALF eosinophilia (40-50%) may occur among patients with IPF. PMID:27625983

  4. Recent Progress in the Research of Eosinophilic Esophagitis and Gastroenteritis.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Yoshikazu; Ishimura, Norihisa; Oshima, Naoki; Mikami, Hironobu; Okimoto, Eiko; Jiao, Di Jin; Ishihara, Shunji

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) and gastroenteritis are allergic gastrointestinal diseases mainly caused by food allergens. The number of patients with EoE is rapidly increasing in both Western and Asian countries. Basic knowledge of these diseases has mainly come from studies of EoE and Th2 type allergic reactions, including IL-5, IL-13, and IL-15, thymic stromal protein, and eotaxin 3, which are considered to have important roles. For a diagnosis of EoE, endoscopic abnormalities and histological confirmation of dense eosinophile infiltration in the esophageal epithelial layer are important, in addition to identifying dysphagia symptoms. As for eosinophilic gastroenteritis, blood test findings are more useful and the role of an endoscopic examination is reduced. For both diseases, the infection rate of Helicobacter pylori is lower than in healthy controls. Glucocorticoid administration is standard treatment for these diseases, while proton pump inhibitors are frequently effective for EoE. PMID:26789117

  5. Eosinophilic ulcer of the tongue--Case report.

    PubMed

    Didona, Dario; Paolino, Giovanni; Donati, Michele; Didona, Biagio; Calvieri, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic ulcer of the oral mucosa is a rare, self-limiting, chronic and benign lesion of unknown pathogenesis that affects the oral mucosa. We present the case of a 65 year-old Caucasian female with a five month history of a painful ulcer on the lateral side of her tongue. The ulcer was not adhered to the underlying structures and there was no evidence of regional lymph node involvement. Laboratory examinations and X-rays revealed no abnormalities. Topical treatments had been performed without any improvement. Histopathological examination showed an ulcerated surface and mixed inflammatory infiltrate with several eosinophils extending into the mucosa and submucosa. No cellular atypia was observed. Based on the patient-s history and mucosal biopsy, a final diagnosis of eosinophilic ulcer of the oral mucosa was made. PMID:26312683

  6. Interfacial Instability during Granular Erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefebvre, Gautier; Merceron, Aymeric; Jop, Pierre

    2016-02-01

    The complex interplay between the topography and the erosion and deposition phenomena is a key feature to model granular flows such as landslides. Here, we investigated the instability that develops during the erosion of a wet granular pile by a dry dense granular flow. The morphology and the propagation of the generated steps are analyzed in relation to the specific erosion mechanism. The selected flowing angle of the confined flow on a dry heap appears to play an important role both in the final state of the experiment, and for the shape of the structures. We show that the development of the instability is governed by the inertia of the flow through the Froude number. We model this instability and predict growth rates that are in agreement with the experiment results.

  7. Hierarchical Structures in Granular Matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Gutiérrez, J.; Carrillo-Estrada, J. L.; Ruiz-Suárez, J. C.

    2013-12-01

    Granular matter, under the proper conditions of vibration, exhibits a behavior that closely resembles that of gases, liquids or solids. In a vibrated mix of glass particles and magnetic steel particles, it is also possible to observe aggregation phenomena, as well as, processes of reconstruction of the generated clusters. In this work we discuss the effects of the so called granular temperature on the evolution of the agglomerates generated by the magnetic interactions. On the basis of a fractal analysis and the measured mass distribution, we analyze experimental results on the static structural aspects of the aggregates originated by two methods we call: granular diffusion limited aggregation (GDLA) and growth limited by concentration (GLC).

  8. Granular Rayleigh-Taylor instability

    SciTech Connect

    Vinningland, Jan Ludvig; Johnsen, Oistein; Flekkoey, Eirik G.; Maaloey, Knut Joergen; Toussaint, Renaud

    2009-06-18

    A granular instability driven by gravity is studied experimentally and numerically. The instability arises as grains fall in a closed Hele-Shaw cell where a layer of dense granular material is positioned above a layer of air. The initially flat front defined by the grains subsequently develops into a pattern of falling granular fingers separated by rising bubbles of air. A transient coarsening of the front is observed right from the start by a finger merging process. The coarsening is later stabilized by new fingers growing from the center of the rising bubbles. The structures are quantified by means of Fourier analysis and quantitative agreement between experiment and computation is shown. This analysis also reveals scale invariance of the flow structures under overall change of spatial scale.

  9. Interfacial Instability during Granular Erosion.

    PubMed

    Lefebvre, Gautier; Merceron, Aymeric; Jop, Pierre

    2016-02-12

    The complex interplay between the topography and the erosion and deposition phenomena is a key feature to model granular flows such as landslides. Here, we investigated the instability that develops during the erosion of a wet granular pile by a dry dense granular flow. The morphology and the propagation of the generated steps are analyzed in relation to the specific erosion mechanism. The selected flowing angle of the confined flow on a dry heap appears to play an important role both in the final state of the experiment, and for the shape of the structures. We show that the development of the instability is governed by the inertia of the flow through the Froude number. We model this instability and predict growth rates that are in agreement with the experiment results. PMID:26919014

  10. Eosinophilic esophagitis in children with esophageal atresia.

    PubMed

    Dhaliwal, J; Tobias, V; Sugo, E; Varjavandi, V; Lemberg, D; Day, A; Bohane, T; Ledder, O; Jiwane, A; Adams, S; Henry, G; Dilley, A; Shi, E; Krishnan, U

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) has only rarely been reported in esophageal atresia (EA) patients. A retrospective case analysis of all EA patients born at our center between January 1999 and April 2012 was performed. A total of 113 of patients were identified; 10 patients were excluded as a result of inadequate data. Eighteen patients (17%) were diagnosed with EoE. The average number of eosinophilis was 30/high-power field (HPF) (19/HPF-80/HPF). The median age for diagnosis of EoE was 1 year and 6 months (8 months-8 years and 7 months). Children with EoE had a significantly greater incidence of reflux symptoms, dysphagia, tracheomalacia, and 'hypoxic spells' (P < 0.05). EoE patients also underwent significantly more surgery including fundoplication and aortopexy when compared with those without EoE (P < 0.0001). Although the incidence of gastrostomy was greater in the EoE group (33% vs. 13%), this was not statistically significant. Half of the EoE patients had a coexisting atopic condition at time of diagnosis. The commonest condition was asthma 7/18 (38%) followed by specific food allergy 6/18 (33%). EoE was treated in 11 patients with either swallowed fluticasone or budesonide slurry. All improved clinically. Histologically, five had complete resolution and six had partial improvement. Six children with EoE were treated with acid suppression alone. All improved clinically, and 5/6 had subsequent histological resolution. One child who received acid suppression and an exclusion diet also improved. Seven patients (38%) had an esophageal stricture at time of EoE diagnosis. Five were dilated at time of the initial endoscopy, prior to the diagnosis of EoE being available. Two patients had resolution of their strictures on medical treatment of their EoE alone and did not require further dilatation. EoE was seen in 17% of children with EA in this study. EoE should be considered in EA patients with persistent symptoms on standard reflux treatment, increasing

  11. Clinical profile of patients with adult-onset eosinophilic asthma

    PubMed Central

    Storm, Huib; Amelink, Marijke; de Nijs, Selma B.; Eichhorn, Edwin; Reitsma, Bennie H.; Bel, Elisabeth H.D.; ten Brinke, Anneke

    2016-01-01

    Adult-onset eosinophilic asthma is increasingly recognised as a severe and difficult-to-treat subtype of asthma. In clinical practice, early recognition of patients with this asthma subtype is important because it may have treatment implications. Therefore, physicians need to know the distinct characteristics of this asthma phenotype. The objective of the present study was to determine the characteristic profile of patients with adult-onset eosinophilic asthma. 130 patients with adult-onset (>18 years of age) asthma and high blood eosinophil counts (≥0.3×109 L−1) were compared with 361 adult-onset asthma patients with low (<0.3×109 L−1) blood eosinophils. Measurements included a series of clinical, functional and imaging parameters. Patients with high blood eosinophils were more often male, had less well controlled asthma and higher exacerbation rates, despite the use of higher doses of inhaled corticosteroids. They had higher levels of total IgE without more sensitisation to common inhaled allergens. In addition, these patients had worse lung function, and more often showed fixed airflow limitation, air trapping, nasal polyposis and abnormalities on sinus computed tomography scanning. Chronic rhinosinusitis, air trapping and male sex were three independent factors associated with blood eosinophilia (adjusted OR 3.8 (95% CI 1.7–8.1), 3.0 (95% CI 1.1–8.1) and 2.4 (95% CI 1.3–4.4), respectively). Patients with adult-onset asthma with elevated blood eosinophils exhibit a distinct profile, which can readily be recognised in clinical practice. PMID:27730197

  12. Clinicopathological and ultrasonographic features of cats with eosinophilic enteritis.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Samuel; Penninck, Dominique G; Keating, John H; Webster, Cynthia R L

    2014-12-01

    Eosinophilic enteritis (EE) in cats is poorly characterized. The aim of the current study was to retrospectively evaluate the clinical and ultrasonographic findings in cats with histologic evidence of eosinophilic inflammation on gastrointestinal biopsy. Twenty-five cats with tissue eosinophilia on surgical (10) or endoscopic (15) biopsy of the gastrointestinal tract, having an abdominal ultrasound performed within 48 h of biopsy acquisition, were enrolled. History, clinical presentation, clinical pathology and abdominal ultrasound findings were reviewed. Intestinal biopsies were evaluated by a single pathologist and separated into two groups based on the degree of eosinophilic infiltrate: mild (<10 eosinophils/high-power field [HPF], 11/25 cats), or moderate/marked (>10 eosinophils/HPF, 14/25 cats). The former were considered primary lymphoplasmacytic or lymphocytic inflammatory bowel disease (LPE) with subtle eosinophilic infiltrates, and the latter to have EE. Signalment, history and clinical signs were similar in all cats. Only cats with EE (6/14) had palpably thickened intestines. The only distinguishing clinicopathological feature of cats with EE was the presence of peripheral eosinophilia (6/14). On ultrasound, when compared with cats with LPE, cats with EE had a greater mean jejunal wall thickness (3.34 mm ± 0.72 mm vs 4.07 mm ± 0.58 mm, respectively) and an increased incidence of thickening of the muscularis layer (1/11 and 11/14, respectively). In conclusion, ultrasonographic evidence of a prominent intestinal muscularis layer, palpably thickened intestines and peripheral eosinophilia can serve as biomarkers for the presence of EE in cats with chronic intestinal signs.

  13. Role of Eosinophil Granulocytes in Allergic Airway Inflammation Endotypes.

    PubMed

    Amin, K; Janson, C; Bystrom, J

    2016-08-01

    Eosinophil granulocytes are intriguing members of the innate immunity system that have been considered important defenders during parasitic diseases as well as culprits during allergy-associated inflammatory diseases. Novel studies have, however, found new homoeostasis-maintaining roles for the cell. Recent clinical trials blocking different Th2 cytokines have uncovered that asthma is heterogeneous entity and forms different characteristic endotypes. Although eosinophils are present in allergic asthma with early onset, the cells may not be essential for the pathology. The cells are, however, likely disease causing in asthma with a late onset, which is often associated with chronic rhinosinusitis. Assessment of eosinophilia, fraction exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and periostin are markers that have emerged useful in assessing and monitoring asthma severity and endotype. Current scientific knowledge suggests that eosinophils are recruited by the inflammatory environment, activated by the innate interleukin (IL)-33 and prevented from apoptosis by both lymphocytes and innate immune cells such as type two innate immune cells. Eosinophils contain four specific granule proteins that exhibit an array of toxic and immune-modulatory activates. The granule proteins can be released by different mechanisms. Additionally, eosinophils contain a number of inflammatory cytokines and lipid mediators as well as radical oxygen species that might contribute to the disease both by the recruitment of other cells and the direct damage to supporting cells, leading to exacerbations and tissue fibrosis. This review aimed to outline current knowledge how eosinophils are recruited, activated and mediate damage to tissues and therapies used to control the cells. PMID:27167590

  14. Chronic eosinophilic leukemia in a cat: cytochemical and immunophenotypical features.

    PubMed

    Gelain, Maria Elena; Antoniazzi, Elisa; Bertazzolo, Walter; Zaccolo, Maurizia; Comazzi, Stefano

    2006-12-01

    A 3-year-old, male, domestic shorthaired cat was presented with a 3-day history of anorexia and depression. The cat was moderately dehydrated, had pale, slightly icteric, mucous membranes, oral ulcerations, and mild hepatosplenomegaly. A feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen test was positive. CBC results obtained at initial presentation included severe normocytic, normochromic, nonregenerative anemia, severe thrombocytopenia, and marked leukocytosis (>100,000/microL) with 77% eosinophils. After 15 days of treatment with prednisone and doxycycline, the cat had persistent severe nonregenerative anemia (HCT 3.4%), thrombocytopenia (28,000/microL), and extreme eosinophilia (total eosinophils, 123.1 x 10(3)/microL; segmented 103.0 x 10(3)/microL; immature 20.1 X 10(3)/microL). Cytologic examination of aspirates from bone marrow, liver, lymph nodes, and spleen revealed a predominance of mature and immature eosinophils, many with dysplastic changes. The M:E ratio was 96.4. On histopathologic examination, multiple organs were infiltrated by eosinophilic granulocytes. Neoplastic cells in blood and bone marrow stained positive for alkaline phosphatase and were negative for myeloperoxidase, chloroacetate esterase, and alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase. On flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood, the neoplastic cells were positive for CD11b and CD14. These findings were consistent with chronic eosinophilic leukemia. To our knowledge, this is the first report of chronic eosinophilic leukemia in a cat associated with naturally acquired FeLV infection, in which flow cytometry was used to characterize the neoplastic cells. PMID:17123254

  15. Beta 2-adrenergic receptors on eosinophils. Binding and functional studies

    SciTech Connect

    Yukawa, T.; Ukena, D.; Kroegel, C.; Chanez, P.; Dent, G.; Chung, K.F.; Barnes, P.J. )

    1990-06-01

    We have studied the binding characteristics and functional effects of beta-adrenoceptors on human and guinea pig eosinophils. We determined the binding of the beta-antagonist radioligand (125I)pindolol (IPIN) to intact eosinophils obtained from the peritoneal cavity of guinea pigs and from blood of patients with eosinophilia. Specific binding was saturable, and Scatchard analysis showed a single binding site with a dissociation constant (Kd) of 24.6 pM and maximal number of binding sites (Bmax) of 7,166 per cell. ICI 118,551, a beta 2-selective antagonist, inhibited IPIN binding with a Ki value of 0.28 nM and was approximately 5,000-fold more effective than the beta 1-selective antagonist, atenolol. Isoproterenol increased cAMP levels about 5.5-fold above basal levels (EC50 = 25 microM); albuterol, a beta 2-agonist, behaved as a partial agonist with a maximal stimulation of 80%. Binding to human eosinophils gave similar results with a Kd of 25.3 pM and a Bmax corresponding to 4,333 sites per cell. Incubation of both human and guinea pig eosinophils with opsonized zymosan (2 mg/ml) or with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) (10(-8) and 10(-6) M) resulted in superoxide anion generation and the release of eosinophil peroxidase; albuterol (10(-7) to 10(-5) M) had no inhibitory effect on the release of these products. Thus, eosinophils from patients with eosinophilia and from the peritoneal cavity of guinea pigs possess beta-receptors of the beta 2-subtype that are coupled to adenylate cyclase; however, these receptors do not modulate oxidative metabolism or degranulation. The possible therapeutic consequences of these observations to asthma are discussed.

  16. Altered Eosinophil Proteome in a Patient with Hypereosinophilia from Acute Fascioliasis ▿

    PubMed Central

    Straub, Christof; Burnham, Jason P.; White, A. Clinton; Pazdrak, Konrad; Sanchez, Cesar; Watanabe, Luis Carlos; Kurosky, Alexander; Montes, Martín

    2011-01-01

    We used comparative proteomics to analyze eosinophils from a patient with hypereosinophilia due to fascioliasis. Using 2-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, we demonstrated that the eosinophil proteome was significantly altered compared to those of healthy controls. PMID:21955624

  17. Initiation of immersed granular avalanches.

    PubMed

    Mutabaruka, Patrick; Delenne, Jean-Yves; Soga, Kenichi; Radjai, Farhang

    2014-05-01

    By means of coupled molecular dynamics-computational fluid dynamics simulations, we analyze the initiation of avalanches in a granular bed of spherical particles immersed in a viscous fluid and inclined above its angle of repose. In quantitative agreement with experiments, we find that the bed is unstable for a packing fraction below 0.59 but is stabilized above this packing fraction by negative excess pore pressure induced by the effect of dilatancy. From detailed numerical data, we explore the time evolution of shear strain, packing fraction, excess pore pressures, and granular microstructure in this creeplike pressure redistribution regime, and we show that they scale excellently with a characteristic time extracted from a model based on the balance of granular stresses in the presence of a negative excess pressure and its interplay with dilatancy. The cumulative shear strain at failure is found to be ≃ 0.2, in close agreement with the experiments, irrespective of the initial packing fraction and inclination angle. Remarkably, the avalanche is triggered when dilatancy vanishes instantly as a result of fluctuations while the average dilatancy is still positive (expanding bed) with a packing fraction that declines with the initial packing fraction. Another nontrivial feature of this creeplike regime is that, in contrast to dry granular materials, the internal friction angle of the bed at failure is independent of dilatancy but depends on the inclination angle, leading therefore to a nonlinear dependence of the excess pore pressure on the inclination angle. We show that this behavior may be described in terms of the contact network anisotropy, which increases with a nearly constant connectivity and levels off at a value (critical state) that increases with the inclination angle. These features suggest that the behavior of immersed granular materials is controlled not only directly by hydrodynamic forces acting on the particles but also by the influence of the

  18. Leukotriene B4 receptors on guinea pig alveolar eosinophils

    SciTech Connect

    Maghni, K.; de Brum-Fernandes, A.J.; Foeldes-Filep, E.G.; Gaudry, M.; Borgeat, P.; Sirois, P. )

    1991-09-01

    The existence of receptors for LTB4 on highly purified guinea pig alveolar eosinophils was investigated. Massive infiltration of eosinophils in alveolar spaces was induced in guinea pigs by i.v. injections of Sephadex beads G50 (16 mg/kg). Alveolar eosinophils (50 {times} 10(6) cells) were purified to approximately 98% by Percoll continuous density gradient centrifugation. The binding studies indicated that alveolar eosinophils bind LTB4 in a saturable, reversible and specific manner. Scatchard analysis indicated the existence of high-affinity binding sites (Kd1 = 1.00 {plus minus} 0.22 nM; Bmax1 = 966 {plus minus} 266 sites/cell) and low-affinity binding sites (Kd2 = 62.5 {plus minus} 8.9 nM; Bmax2 = 5557 {plus minus} 757 sites/cell). The metabolism of LTB4 by alveolar eosinophils in binding conditions was assessed by RP-HPLC and no significant degradation of (3H)LTB4 was observed. LTB4 dose-dependently stimulated eosinophil migration in both chemokinesis and chemotaxis assays with an EC50 value of 1.30 {plus minus} 0.14 and 18.14 {plus minus} 1.57 nM, respectively. LTB4 caused a dose-dependent increase in the production of superoxide anion with an apparent EC50 value of 50 {times} 10(-9) M in the authors experimental conditions. LTB4 also induced a dose-dependent increase in the generation of TxA2 with an EC50 value of 46.2 {times} 10(-9) M. Taken together, their results demonstrated that guinea pig alveolar eosinophils express two classes of specific receptors for LTB4. The high-affinity binding sites seem associated to chemokinesis and chemotaxis whereas the low-affinity binding sites seem associated to superoxide anion production and generation of TxA2. The existence of LTB4 receptors in eosinophils could explain the presence of these cells in hypersensitivity reactions.

  19. Case of invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma mimicking chronic eosinophilic pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Beom, Jong Wook; Lee, Jong Hoo

    2014-01-01

    Invasive mucinous carcinoma is difficult to distinguish from other lung diseases; therefore, confirmation of the diagnosis may be delayed. A 64-year-old woman was admitted with a six-month history of cough, febrile sensation, and shortness of breath, with worsening symptoms. A computed tomography scan of the chest revealed bilateral homogenous ground-glass opacities and consolidation with subpleural predominance. The percentage of eosinophils in the serum and induced sputum was elevated and a diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic pneumonia was established. Despite administration of a systemic steroid, she did not rapidly respond. We performed a percutaneous needle biopsy and finally confirmed invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma. PMID:26766997

  20. Toxocara canis-Associated Myelitis with Eosinophilic Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kee Hong; Kim, Young-Soo; Kim, Soo-Kyung; Choi, Nack-Cheon; Kwon, Oh-Young; Lim, ByeongHoon

    2016-01-01

    The existence of Toxocara canis-specific antibodies has recently been reported in patients with atopic myelitis. Here, we report the case of a 35-year-old male patient admitted with a chief complaint of right lower limb hypoesthesia lasting for a month. The patient was diagnosed with eosinophilic pneumonia 3 months ago, and a spine MRI revealed the presence of myelitis in the cervicothoracic cord. After confirming the presence of hyper-IgE-emia and Toxocara canis antibodies, the patient was treated with steroids and albendazole treatment, which improved his symptoms. To our knowledge, this is the first case of Toxocara canis-associated myelitis with eosinophilic pneumonia. PMID:27358582

  1. Toxocara canis-Associated Myelitis with Eosinophilic Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Park, Kee Hong; Kim, Young-Soo; Kim, Soo-Kyung; Choi, Nack-Cheon; Kwon, Oh-Young; Lim, ByeongHoon; Park, Ki-Jong

    2016-06-01

    The existence of Toxocara canis-specific antibodies has recently been reported in patients with atopic myelitis. Here, we report the case of a 35-year-old male patient admitted with a chief complaint of right lower limb hypoesthesia lasting for a month. The patient was diagnosed with eosinophilic pneumonia 3 months ago, and a spine MRI revealed the presence of myelitis in the cervicothoracic cord. After confirming the presence of hyper-IgE-emia and Toxocara canis antibodies, the patient was treated with steroids and albendazole treatment, which improved his symptoms. To our knowledge, this is the first case of Toxocara canis-associated myelitis with eosinophilic pneumonia. PMID:27358582

  2. Eosinophilic esophagitis as paraneoplastic syndrome in a patient with ganglioneuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Prader, S; Spalinger, J; Caduff, J; Hürlimann, S; Rischewski, J

    2015-05-01

    A 16-month-old boy presented with failure to thrive despite sufficient caloric intake, hypersalivation, abdominal pain, chronic diarrhea and blepharitis. An eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) was diagnosed by esophageal biopsy. Dietary restrictions and topical steroid treatment lead to no improvement. Further diagnostic work-up revealed an intrathoracal, paraspinal ganglioneuroblastoma. After operative extirpation of the tumour, all initial symptoms resolved. An esophageal control biopsy 4 weeks after tumour resection was normal. This is the first report of eosinophilic esophagitis as part of a paraneoplastic syndrome in a patient with a malignant disease other than a carcinoma. PMID:25985452

  3. Recent advances in the recognition and management of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Eustace, Gregory; Gui, Xianyong; Iacucci, Marietta

    2015-01-01

    The incidence and recognition of eosinophilic esophagitis is increasing. Pathophysiological understanding of eosinophilic esophagitis is improving and an immunological reaction to ingested food is likely to play a significant role. Patients present with dysphagia and food bolus obstruction. Both histological and endoscopic criteria have been developed and validated. Dietary therapy, topical steroid therapy, proton pump inhibitors and endoscopic dilation are the main approaches to therapy; however, novel targeted therapies are being developed. Among the food items commonly implicated are wheat, dairy, nuts, soy, shellfish and eggs. A multidisciplinary approach to management in dedicated clinics may yield the best results.

  4. Density waves in granular flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, H. J.; Flekkøy, E.; Nagel, K.; Peng, G.; Ristow, G.

    Ample experimental evidence has shown the existence of spontaneous density waves in granular material flowing through pipes or hoppers. Using Molecular Dynamics Simulations we show that several types of waves exist and find that these density fluctuations follow a 1/f spectrum. We compare this behaviour to deterministic one-dimensional traffic models. If positions and velocities are continuous variables the model shows self-organized criticality driven by the slowest car. We also present Lattice Gas and Boltzmann Lattice Models which reproduce the experimentally observed effects. Density waves are spontaneously generated when the viscosity has a nonlinear dependence on density which characterizes granular flow.

  5. DUNE - a granular flow code

    SciTech Connect

    Slone, D M; Cottom, T L; Bateson, W B

    2004-11-23

    DUNE was designed to accurately model the spectrum of granular. Granular flow encompasses the motions of discrete particles. The particles are macroscopic in that there is no Brownian motion. The flow can be thought of as a dispersed phase (the particles) interacting with a fluid phase (air or water). Validation of the physical models proceeds in tandem with simple experimental confirmation. The current development team is working toward the goal of building a flexible architecture where existing technologies can easily be integrated to further the capability of the simulation. We describe the DUNE architecture in some detail using physics models appropriate for an imploding liner experiment.

  6. Eosinophilic Granuloma with Splendore-Hoeppli Material Caused by Toxigenic Corynebacterium ulcerans in a Heifer

    PubMed Central

    MURAKAMI, Kenji; HATA, Eiji; HATAMA, Shinichi; WADA, Yoshihiro; ITO, Mitsuru; ISHIKAWA, Yoshiharu; KADOTA, Koichi

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Raised lesions were present on the left nasal vestibule of a 20-month-old Japanese Brown heifer. The largest mass which caused partial nasal obstruction was removed surgically. Corynebacterium ulcerans was identified in the mass. 16S ribosomal RNA and RNA polymerase beta subunit genes were 100% and 98% identical to other C. ulcerans strains. Histologically, multiple foci of eosinophilic granuloma with Splendore-Hoeppli material were seen. Rod-shaped Gram-positive organisms were detected with metachromatic granules, producing diphtheria toxin with 5, 30 and 48 amino acid differences to another C. ulcerans strain, C. diphtheriae or C. pseudotuberculosis, respectively. The toxin is highly cytotoxic and may be responsible for the formation of abundant Splendore-Hoeppli material. The lesion was therefore judged to be an allergic reaction to bacterial antigens or diphtheria toxin. PMID:24632861

  7. Microscopic evidence of grain boundary moisture during granular salt reconsolidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, M. M.; Hansen, F.; Bauer, S. J.; Stormont, J.

    2015-12-01

    Very low permeability is a principal reason salt formations are considered viable hosts for disposal of nuclear waste and spent nuclear fuel. Granular salt is likely to be used as back-fill material and a seal system component. Salt formation pressures will promote reconsolidation of granular salt, eventually resulting in low permeabilities, comparable to native salt. Understanding the consolidation processes, dependent on the stress state, moisture availability and temperature, is important for demonstrating sealing functions and long-term repository performance. As granular salt consolidates, initial void reduction is achieved by brittle processes of grain rearrangement and cataclastic flow. At porosities less than 10%, grain boundary processes and crystal-plastic mechanisms govern further porosity reduction. When present, fluid assists in grain boundary processes and recrystallization. Fluid inclusions are typically found in abundance within bedded salt crystal structure and along grain boundaries, but are rarely observed internal to domal salt grains. We have observed fluid canals and evidence of moisture along grain boundaries in domal salt. In this research, we investigate grain boundary moisture in granular salt that has been reconsolidated under high temperatures to relatively low porosity. Mine-run salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and Avery Island was used to create cylindrical samples, vented and unvented, which were reconsolidated at 250°C and stresses to 20 MPa. Unvented reconsolidation retains essentially all the grain boundary moisture as found ubiquitously on scanning electron photomicrographs of consolidated samples which revealed an inhomogeneous distribution of canals from residual moisture. This contrasts significantly with the vented samples, which had virtually no grain boundary moisture after consolidation. Microstructural techniques include scanning electron, stereo-dynascopic, and optical microscopy. The observations will be used

  8. Fluctuations in granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Daniel W.; Behringer, R. P.; Veje, C. T.

    1999-09-01

    Dense slowly evolving or static granular materials exhibit strong force fluctuations even though the spatial disorder of the grains is relatively weak. Typically, forces are carried preferentially along a network of "force chains." These consist of linearly aligned grains with larger-than-average force. A growing body of work has explored the nature of these fluctuations. We first briefly review recent work concerning stress fluctuations. We then focus on a series of experiments in both two- and three-dimension [(2D) and (3D)] to characterize force fluctuations in slowly sheared systems. Both sets of experiments show strong temporal fluctuations in the local stress/force; the length scales of these fluctuations extend up to 102 grains. In 2D, we use photoelastic disks that permit visualization of the internal force structure. From this we can make comparisons to recent models and calculations that predict the distributions of forces. Typically, these models indicate that the distributions should fall off exponentially at large force. We find in the experiments that the force distributions change systematically as we change the mean packing fraction, γ. For γ's typical of dense packings of nondeformable grains, we see distributions that are consistent with an exponential decrease at large forces. For both lower and higher γ, the observed force distributions appear to differ from this prediction, with a more Gaussian distribution at larger γ and perhaps a power law at lower γ. For high γ, the distributions differ from this prediction because the grains begin to deform, allowing more grains to carry the applied force, and causing the distributions to have a local maximum at nonzero force. It is less clear why the distributions differ from the models at lower γ. An exploration in γ has led to the discovery of an interesting continuous or "critical" transition (the strengthening/softening transition) in which the mean stress is the order parameter, and the mean

  9. Dynamic granularity of imaging systems

    DOE PAGES

    Geissel, Matthias; Smith, Ian C.; Shores, Jonathon E.; Porter, John L.

    2015-11-04

    Imaging systems that include a specific source, imaging concept, geometry, and detector have unique properties such as signal-to-noise ratio, dynamic range, spatial resolution, distortions, and contrast. Some of these properties are inherently connected, particularly dynamic range and spatial resolution. It must be emphasized that spatial resolution is not a single number but must be seen in the context of dynamic range and consequently is better described by a function or distribution. We introduce the “dynamic granularity” Gdyn as a standardized, objective relation between a detector’s spatial resolution (granularity) and dynamic range for complex imaging systems in a given environment rathermore » than the widely found characterization of detectors such as cameras or films by themselves. We found that this relation can partly be explained through consideration of the signal’s photon statistics, background noise, and detector sensitivity, but a comprehensive description including some unpredictable data such as dust, damages, or an unknown spectral distribution will ultimately have to be based on measurements. Measured dynamic granularities can be objectively used to assess the limits of an imaging system’s performance including all contributing noise sources and to qualify the influence of alternative components within an imaging system. Our article explains the construction criteria to formulate a dynamic granularity and compares measured dynamic granularities for different detectors used in the X-ray backlighting scheme employed at Sandia’s Z-Backlighter facility.« less

  10. Micromechanical aspects of granular ratcheting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alonso-Marroquín, Fernando; Galindo-Torres, Sergio-Andres; Wang, Yucang

    2009-06-01

    The existence of granular ratcheting as a long-time behavior in granular materials is still under discussion in the scientific and engineering community. This behavior refers to the constant accumulation of permanent deformation per cycle, when the granular sample is subjected to loading-unloading stress cycles with amplitudes well bellow the yield limit. Ratcheting regimes are observed in both numerical and physical experiments. There is no controversy about the existence of ratcheting when the stress amplitudes reach the yield criterion. However, it is not clear whether this effect persists for loading amplitudes well bellow the yield limit, or whether there is a certain regime where no accumulation of deformation occurs. Early numerical simulations suggested that ratcheting may persist for extremely small loading amplitudes (Alonso-Marroquin and H. J. Herrmann, Rev. Lett. 92 5 (2004) 054301). More recent investigations drive to the conclusion that ratcheting at low stress amplitudes may be strongly influenced by the selection of the contact force (McNamara et al.. Phys. Rev. E 77 (3) (2008) 31304). Here we present a numerical investigation of the dependence of granular ratcheting on contact force in a packing of spheres using the Cundall-Strack model and the McNamara correction to the contact force. We conclude that ratcheting for spherical particles is strongly influenced by the McNamara correction. The question of the existence of genuine ratcheting for small cycles for non-spherical particles is still unsolved.

  11. Dynamic granularity of imaging systems

    SciTech Connect

    Geissel, Matthias; Smith, Ian C.; Shores, Jonathon E.; Porter, John L.

    2015-11-04

    Imaging systems that include a specific source, imaging concept, geometry, and detector have unique properties such as signal-to-noise ratio, dynamic range, spatial resolution, distortions, and contrast. Some of these properties are inherently connected, particularly dynamic range and spatial resolution. It must be emphasized that spatial resolution is not a single number but must be seen in the context of dynamic range and consequently is better described by a function or distribution. We introduce the “dynamic granularity” Gdyn as a standardized, objective relation between a detector’s spatial resolution (granularity) and dynamic range for complex imaging systems in a given environment rather than the widely found characterization of detectors such as cameras or films by themselves. We found that this relation can partly be explained through consideration of the signal’s photon statistics, background noise, and detector sensitivity, but a comprehensive description including some unpredictable data such as dust, damages, or an unknown spectral distribution will ultimately have to be based on measurements. Measured dynamic granularities can be objectively used to assess the limits of an imaging system’s performance including all contributing noise sources and to qualify the influence of alternative components within an imaging system. Our article explains the construction criteria to formulate a dynamic granularity and compares measured dynamic granularities for different detectors used in the X-ray backlighting scheme employed at Sandia’s Z-Backlighter facility.

  12. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alshibli, Khalid A.; Costes, Nicholas C.; Porter, Ronald F.

    1996-01-01

    The constitutive behavior of uncemented granular materials such as strength, stiffness, and localization of deformations are to a large extend derived from interparticle friction transmitted between solid particles and particle groups. Interparticle forces are highly dependent on gravitational body forces. At very low effective confining pressures, the true nature of the Mohr envelope, which defines the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion for soils, as well as the relative contribution of each of non-frictional components to soil's shear strength cannot be evaluated in terrestrial laboratories. Because of the impossibility of eliminating gravitational body forces on earth, the weight of soil grains develops interparticle compressive stresses which mask true soil constitutive behavior even in the smallest samples of models. Therefore the microgravity environment induced by near-earth orbits of spacecraft provides unique experimental opportunities for testing theories related to the mechanical behavior of terrestrial granular materials. Such materials may include cohesionless soils, industrial powders, crushed coal, etc. This paper will describe the microgravity experiment, 'Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM)', scheduled to be flown on Space Shuttle-MIR missions. The paper will describe the experiment's hardware, instrumentation, specimen preparation procedures, testing procedures in flight, as well as a brief summary of the post-mission analysis. It is expected that the experimental results will significantly improve the understanding of the behavior of granular materials under very low effective stress levels.

  13. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Astronauts Jim Reilly and Bornie Dunbar are going through the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment procedures as they are expected to run in flight; to gain experience with the experiment equipment and to test the clarity and language of the procedures as written.

  14. Mechanics of granular materials (MGM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alshibli, Khalid A.; Costes, Nicholas C.; Porter, Ronald F.

    1996-07-01

    The constitutive behavior of uncemented granular materials such as strength, stiffness, and localization of deformations are to a large extent derived from interparticle friction transmitted between solid particles and particle groups. Interparticle forces are highly dependent on gravitational body forces. At very low effective confining pressures, the true nature of the Mohr envelope, which defines the Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion for soils, as well as the relative contribution of each of non-frictional components to soil's shear strength cannot be evaluated in terrestrial laboratories. Because of the impossibility of eliminating gravitational body forces on earth, the weight of soil grains develops interparticle compressive stresses which mask true soil constitutive behavior even in the smallest samples of models. Therefore the microgravity environment induced by near-earth orbits of spacecraft provides unique experimental opportunities for testing theories related to the mechanical behavior of terrestrial granular materials. Such materials may include cohesionless soils, industrial powders, crushed coal, etc. This paper will describe the microgravity experiment, 'Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM)', scheduled to be flown on Space Shuttle-MIR missions. The paper will describe the experiment's hardware, instrumentation, specimen preparation procedures, testing procedures in flight, as well as a brief summary of the post-mission analysis. It is expected that the experimental results will significantly improve the understanding of the behavior of granular materials under very low effective stress levels.

  15. Granular flows in volcanic environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capra, Lucia

    2006-11-01

    Volcaniclastic flows, which include from sediment-water to dry granular flow, are multiphase-system flows that involve some combination of solid, liquid and air. Their behavior in response to applied shear stress is a function of the proportion of these components, grain-size distribution and finally the physical and chemical properties of the solid components. They are generically classified as non-newtonian fluid, from pseudoplasic to dilatant with yield value (generically defined as Bingham fluid). Rheologic threshold can be defined on the base of grain-size distribution. Granular flows (i.e. debris avalanches originated from volcanic collapses) generally contain less than 10 percent in vol. of interstitial fluids which do not constitute a continuous phase in transporting solid fragments. Different mechanisms of granular fluidization have been achieved for such type of flows and particles collision/friction are dominant mechanisms acting during transport. For granular flows less than 1 km3 in volume, the mobility is not directly related with the mass volume and their runout depends on grain-size distribution, clast composition, and type of sliding surface. Textural and morphological characteristics of particles at different flow depths and their variation down-flow are important indicator of the mechanism of emplacement, which can vary from friction to collision-dominated regime. Several examples from Mexican active volcanoes will be here presented.

  16. Eosinophilic vasculitis in an isolated central nervous system distribution

    PubMed Central

    Sommerville, R Brian; Noble, James M; Vonsattel, Jean Paul; Delapaz, Robert; Wright, Clinton B

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophilic vasculitis has been described as part of the Churg–Strauss syndrome, but affects the central nervous system (CNS) in <10% of cases. A 39-year-old woman with a history of migraine without aura presented to an institution in an acute confusional state with concurrent headache and left-sided weakness. Laboratory evaluation showed an increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein level, but otherwise unremarkable serologies. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bifrontal polar gyral-enhancing brain lesions. Her symptoms resolved over two weeks without residual deficits. Eighteen months later the patient presented with similar symptoms and neuroradiological findings showed involvement of territories different from those in her first episode. Brain biopsy showed transmural, predominantly eosinophilic, inflammatory infiltrates and fibrinoid necrosis without granulomas. She improved when treated with corticosteroids. To our knowledge, this is the first case of non-granulomatous eosinophilic vasculitis isolated to the CNS. No aetiology for this patient’s primary CNS eosinophilic vasculitis has yet been identified. PMID:21686608

  17. Eosinophilic meningitis: cause of a chronic pain syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Clouston, P D; Corbett, A J; Pryor, D S; Garrick, R

    1990-01-01

    Three tourists developed eosinophilic meningitis after visiting the Fijian Islands. Two had a severe and long lasting illness with chronic intractable pain. In one patient electrophysiological studies and MRI scan of the brain were abnormal and provided evidence of both radicular and cerebral parenchymal involvement by the most likely causative agent, Angiostrongylus cantonensis. Images PMID:2246659

  18. Unraveling the complexity of lipid body organelles in human eosinophils.

    PubMed

    Melo, Rossana C N; Weller, Peter F

    2014-11-01

    Lipid-rich organelles are common in many cell types. In cells, such as adipocytes, these organelles are termed LDs, whereas in other cells, such as leukocytes, they are called LBs. The study of leukocyte LBs has attracted attention as a result of their association with human diseases. In leukocytes, such as eosinophils, LB accumulation has been documented extensively during inflammatory conditions. In these cells, LBs are linked to the regulation of immune responses by compartmentalization of several proteins and lipids involved in the control and biosynthesis of inflammatory mediators (eicosanoids). However, it has been unclear how diverse proteins, including membrane-associated enzymes involved in eicosanoid formation, incorporate into LBs, especially if the internal content of LBs is assumed to consist solely of stores of neutral lipids, as present within adipocyte LDs. Studies of the formation, function, and ultrastructure of LBs in eosinophils have been providing insights pertinent to LBs in other leukocytes. Here, we review current knowledge of the composition and function of leukocyte LBs as provided by studies of human eosinophil LBs, including recognitions of the internal architecture of eosinophil LBs based on 3D electron tomographic analyses.

  19. Particle deposition in granular media: Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Tien, Chi

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses topics on particle deposition in granular media. The six topics discussed are: experimental determination of initial collection efficiency in granular beds - an assessment of the effect of instrument sensitivity and the extent of particle bounce-off; deposition of polydispersed aerosols in granular media; in situ observation of aerosol deposition in a two-dimensional model filter; solid velocity in cross-flow granular moving bed; aerosol deposition in granular moving bed; and aerosol deposition in a magnetically stabilized fluidized bed. (LSP)

  20. The oesophageal string test: a novel, minimally invasive method measures mucosal inflammation in eosinophilic oesophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Kagalwalla, Amir F; Lee, James J; Alumkal, Preeth; Maybruck, Brian T; Fillon, Sophie; Masterson, Joanne C; Ochkur, Sergei; Protheroe, Cheryl; Moore, Wendy; Pan, Zhaoxing; Amsden, Katie; Robinson, Zachary; Capocelli, Kelley; Mukkada, Vince; Atkins, Dan; Fleischer, David; Hosford, Lindsay; Kwatia, Mark A; Schroeder, Shauna; Kelly, Caleb; Lovell, Mark; Melin-Aldana, Hector; Ackerman, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Objective Eosinophil predominant inflammation characterises histological features of eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE). Endoscopy with biopsy is currently the only method to assess oesophageal mucosal inflammation in EoE. We hypothesised that measurements of luminal eosinophil-derived proteins would correlate with oesophageal mucosal inflammation in children with EoE. Design The Enterotest diagnostic device was used to develop an oesophageal string test (EST) as a minimally invasive clinical device. EST samples and oesophageal mucosal biopsies were obtained from children undergoing upper endoscopy for clinically defined indications. Eosinophil-derived proteins including eosinophil secondary granule proteins (major basic protein-1, eosinophil-derived neurotoxin, eosinophil cationic protein, eosinophil peroxidase) and Charcot–Leyden crystal protein/galectin-10 were measured by ELISA in luminal effluents eluted from ESTs and extracts of mucosal biopsies. Results ESTs were performed in 41 children with active EoE (n=14), EoE in remission (n=8), gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (n=4) and controls with normal oesophagus (n=15). EST measurement of eosinophil-derived protein biomarkers significantly distinguished between children with active EoE, treated EoE in remission, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and normal oesophagus. Levels of luminal eosinophil-derived proteins in EST samples significantly correlated with peak and mean oesophageal eosinophils/high power field (HPF), eosinophil peroxidase indices and levels of the same eosinophil-derived proteins in extracts of oesophageal biopsies. Conclusions The presence of eosinophil-derived proteins in luminal secretions is reflective of mucosal inflammation in children with EoE. The EST is a novel, minimally invasive device for measuring oesophageal eosinophilic inflammation in children with EoE. PMID:22895393

  1. Eosinophilic vasculitis in an isolated central nervous system distribution

    PubMed Central

    Sommerville, R B; Noble, J M; Vonsattel, J P; Delapaz, R; Wright, C B

    2007-01-01

    Background Eosinophilic vasculitis has been described as part of the Churg–Strauss syndrome, but affects the central nervous system (CNS) in <10% of cases; presentation in an isolated CNS distribution is rare. We present a case of eosinophilic vasculitis isolated to the CNS. Case report A 39‐year‐old woman with a history of migraine without aura presented to an institution (located in the borough of Queens, New York, USA; no academic affiliation) in an acute confusional state with concurrent headache and left‐sided weakness and numbness. Laboratory evaluation showed increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein level, but an otherwise unremarkable serological investigation. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bifrontal polar gyral‐enhancing brain lesions. Her symptoms resolved over 2 weeks without residual deficit. After 18 months, later the patient presented with similar symptoms and neuroradiological findings involving territories different from those in her first episode. Again, the CSF protein level was high. She had a raised C reactive protein level and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Brain biopsy showed transmural, predominantly eosinophilic, inflammatory infiltrates of medium‐sized leptomeningeal arteries without granulomas. She improved, without recurrence, when treated with a prolonged course of corticosteroids. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first case of non‐granulomatous eosinophilic vasculitis isolated to the CNS. No aetiology for this patient's primary CNS eosinophilic vasculitis has yet been identified. Spontaneous resolution and recurrence of her syndrome is an unusual feature of the typical CNS vasculitis and may suggest an environmental epitope with immune reaction as the cause. PMID:16926236

  2. Cardiopulmonary and Gastrointestinal Manifestations of Eosinophil- associated Diseases and Idiopathic Hypereosinophilic Syndromes: Multimodality Imaging Approach.

    PubMed

    Katre, Rashmi S; Sunnapwar, Abhijit; Restrepo, Carlos S; Katabathina, Venkata S; Mumbower, Amy; Baxi, Ameya; Sonavane, Sushilkumar

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophil-associated diseases (EADs) are a diverse group of disorders characterized by an increase in circulating or tissue eosinophils. Cardiopulmonary and gastrointestinal system involvement can be due to primary EAD with no known cause or can be secondary to known systemic disease. The cardiopulmonary spectrum of EADs comprises simple pulmonary eosinophilia, acute eosinophilic pneumonia, chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, Churg-Strauss syndrome, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, bronchocentric granulomatosis, parasitic infections, and idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome. Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders include eosinophilic esophagitis, eosinophilic gastroenteritis, and eosinophilic colitis. Diagnosis is often challenging and requires a combination of clinical and imaging features along with laboratory findings. The absolute eosinophil count in peripheral blood and the percentage of eosinophils in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid are crucial in evaluation of various eosinophilic lung diseases. Although chest radiography is the initial imaging modality used in suspected cases of pulmonary EAD, multidetector computed tomography may demonstrate more characteristic pulmonary patterns, nodules, and subtle parenchymal abnormalities. Barium esophagography is used to assess mucosal abnormalities and the length and diameter of esophageal strictures. Magnetic resonance imaging is superior in providing valuable information in select patients, especially in evaluation of cardiac and gastrointestinal system involvement. Many patients require a multimodality imaging approach to enable diagnosis, guide treatment, and assess treatment response. Knowledge of the clinical features and imaging findings of the spectrum of EADs involving the lungs, heart, and gastrointestinal tract permits optimal patient care. PMID:26963455

  3. First-generation antihistamines diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine reverse cytokine-afforded eosinophil survival by enhancing apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Hasala, Hannele; Moilanen, Eeva; Janka-Junttila, Mirkka; Giembycz, Mark A; Kankaanranta, Hannu

    2007-01-01

    Antihistamines or histamine H1-receptor antagonists are commonly used to treat a variety of allergic symptoms. Eosinophils are considered to play an essential role in the pathogenesis of allergy. Reduced eosinophil apoptosis is thought to be an important element in the formation of eosinophilia in allergic conditions such as allergic rhinitis, atopic eczema, and asthma. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two first-generation antihistamines diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine on constitutive eosinophil apoptosis and on interleukin (IL)-5-afforded eosinophil survival. The role of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in mediating the effects of antihistamines on eosinophil apoptosis was evaluated also. Apoptosis of isolated human eosinophils was assessed by measuring the relative DNA content of propidium iodide-stained cells and confirmed by morphological analysis. The activity of JNK was measured by Western blotting. Antihistamines were found to reverse the survival-prolonging effect of IL-5 in eosinophils by enhancing apoptosis. JNK was found to be activated slowly during diphenhydramine-induced eosinophil apoptosis. An inhibitor peptide specific for JNK, L-JNKI1 (JNK peptide inhibitor 1, L-stereoisomer), inhibited diphenhydramine-mediated eosinophil apoptosis. Our results suggest that first-generation antihistamines diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine reverse IL-5-afforded eosinophil survival and that the enhanced apoptosis by antihistamines is mediated through activation of JNK. Thus, reversal of IL-5-afforded eosinophil survival may contribute to the antiallergic actions of diphenhydramine and chlorpheniramine.

  4. Specific pollen allergen activates eosinophils of the patient with chronic allergic contact urticaria.

    PubMed

    Panaszek, B; Małolepszy, J; Kuryszko, J; Litwa, M

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the activation of eosinophils in an unique case of a young man with atopy manifested as chronic pollen contact urticaria. In order to reveal the role of eosinophils in that case, the study was performed by means of monoclonal antibodies EG2 and chemiluminescence. In addition, comparative electron microscopic study of peripheral blood and skin infiltrating eosinophils were performed for which the name ultrastructural morphometric analysis of intracytoplasmic eosinophil granules has been proposed. The results indicated, that 40% of peripheral blood eosinophils were activated spontaneously and they were more active than those in skin infiltrates. Specific pollen allergen caused activation of 100% of peripheral blood eosinophils. The study suggests presence of a systemic pattern of eosinophil activation in atopy. PMID:7487362

  5. HYPERELASTIC MODELS FOR GRANULAR MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect

    Humrickhouse, Paul W; Corradini, Michael L

    2009-01-29

    A continuum framework for modeling of dust mobilization and transport, and the behavior of granular systems in general, has been reviewed, developed and evaluated for reactor design applications. The large quantities of micron-sized particles expected in the international fusion reactor design, ITER, will accumulate into piles and layers on surfaces, which are large relative to the individual particle size; thus, particle-particle, rather than particle-surface, interactions will determine the behavior of the material in bulk, and a continuum approach is necessary and justified in treating the phenomena of interest; e.g., particle resuspension and transport. The various constitutive relations that characterize these solid particle interactions in dense granular flows have been discussed previously, but prior to mobilization their behavior is not even fluid. Even in the absence of adhesive forces between particles, dust or sand piles can exist in static equilibrium under gravity and other forces, e.g., fluid shear. Their behavior is understood to be elastic, though not linear. The recent “granular elasticity” theory proposes a non-linear elastic model based on “Hertz contacts” between particles; the theory identifies the Coulomb yield condition as a requirement for thermodynamic stability, and has successfully reproduced experimental results for stress distributions in sand piles. The granular elasticity theory is developed and implemented in a stand- alone model and then implemented as part of a finite element model, ABAQUS, to determine the stress distributions in dust piles subjected to shear by a fluid flow. We identify yield with the onset of mobilization, and establish, for a given dust pile and flow geometry, the threshold pressure (force) conditions on the surface due to flow required to initiate it. While the granular elasticity theory applies strictly to cohesionless granular materials, attractive forces are clearly important in the interaction of

  6. Efficacy of granular deltamethrin against Ixodes scapularis and Amblyomma americanum (Acari: Ixodidade) nymphs.

    PubMed

    Schulze, T L; Jordan, R A; Hung, R W; Taylor, R C; Markowski, D; Chomsky, M S

    2001-03-01

    A single barrier application of granular deltamethrin to the woodland edges of a forested residential community in late spring significantly reduced the abundance of Ixodes scapularis Say nymphs. The application also suppressed the population of Amblyomma americanum (L.) nymphs, which recently became established in the study area. The efficacy of deltamethrin is compared with other commonly used acaricides.

  7. The Development of a Sensitive and Specific ELISA for Mouse Eosinophil Peroxidase: Assessment of Eosinophil Degranulation Ex Vivo and in Models of Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ochkur, Sergei I.; Kim, John Dongil; Protheroe, Cheryl A.; Colbert, Dana; Moqbel, Redwan; Lacy, Paige; Lee, James J.; Lee, Nancy A.

    2011-01-01

    Mouse models of eosinophilic disorders are often part of preclinical studies investigating the underlying biological mechanisms of disease pathology. The presence of extracellular eosinophil granule proteins in affected tissues is a well established and specific marker of eosinophil activation in both patients and mouse models of human disease. Unfortunately, assessments of granule proteins in the mouse have been limited by the availability of specific antibodies and a reliance on assays of released enzymatic activities that are often neither sensitive nor eosinophil specific. The ability to immunologically detect and quantify the presence of a mouse eosinophil granule protein in biological fluids and/or tissue extracts was achieved by the generation of monoclonal antibodies specific for eosinophil peroxidase (EPX). This strategy identified unique pairs of antibodies with high avidity to the target protein and led to the development of a unique sandwich ELISA for the detection of EPX. Full factorial design was used to develop this ELISA, generating an assay that is eosinophil-specific and nearly 10 times more sensitive than traditional OPD-based detection methods of peroxidase activity. The added sensitivity afforded by this novel assay was used to detect and quantify eosinophil degranulation in several setting, including bronchoalveolar fluid from OVA sensitized/challenged mice (an animal model of asthma), serum samples derived from peripheral blood recovered from the tail vasculature, and from purified mouse eosinophils stimulated ex vivo with platelet activating factor (PAF) and PAF + ionomycin. This ability to assess mouse eosinophil degranulation represents a specific, sensitive, and reproducible assay that fulfills a critical need in studies of eosinophil-associated pathologies in mice. PMID:22019643

  8. Shear deformation in granular materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bardenhagen, S.G.; Brackbill, J.U.; Sulsky, D.L.

    1998-12-31

    An investigation into the properties of granular materials is undertaken via numerical simulation. These simulations highlight that frictional contact, a defining characteristic of dry granular materials, and interfacial debonding, an expected deformation mode in plastic bonded explosives, must be properly modeled. Frictional contact and debonding algorithms have been implemented into FLIP, a particle in cell code, and are described. Frictionless and frictional contact are simulated, with attention paid to energy and momentum conservation. Debonding is simulated, with attention paid to the interfacial debonding speed. A first step toward calculations of shear deformation in plastic bonded explosives is made. Simulations are performed on the scale of the grains where experimental data is difficult to obtain. Two characteristics of deformation are found, namely the intermittent binding of grains when rotation and translation are insufficient to accommodate deformation, and the role of the binder as a lubricant in force chains.

  9. Dilatancy in slow granular flows.

    PubMed

    Kabla, Alexandre J; Senden, Tim J

    2009-06-01

    When walking on wet sand, each footstep leaves behind a temporarily dry impression. This counterintuitive observation is the most common illustration of the Reynolds principle of dilatancy: that is, a granular packing tends to expand as it is deformed, therefore increasing the amount of porous space. Although widely called upon in areas such as soil mechanics and geotechnics, a deeper understanding of this principle is constrained by the lack of analytical tools to study this behavior. Using x-ray radiography, we track a broad variety of granular flow profiles and quantify their intrinsic dilatancy behavior. These measurements frame Reynolds dilatancy as a kinematic process. Closer inspection demonstrates, however, the practical importance of flow induced compaction which competes with dilatancy, leading more complex flow properties than expected. PMID:19658906

  10. Dilatancy in Slow Granular Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kabla, Alexandre J.; Senden, Tim J.

    2009-06-01

    When walking on wet sand, each footstep leaves behind a temporarily dry impression. This counterintuitive observation is the most common illustration of the Reynolds principle of dilatancy: that is, a granular packing tends to expand as it is deformed, therefore increasing the amount of porous space. Although widely called upon in areas such as soil mechanics and geotechnics, a deeper understanding of this principle is constrained by the lack of analytical tools to study this behavior. Using x-ray radiography, we track a broad variety of granular flow profiles and quantify their intrinsic dilatancy behavior. These measurements frame Reynolds dilatancy as a kinematic process. Closer inspection demonstrates, however, the practical importance of flow induced compaction which competes with dilatancy, leading more complex flow properties than expected.

  11. Electrification of Shaken Granular Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kara, Onur; Nordsiek, Freja; Lathrop, Daniel

    2015-11-01

    Granular charging of particle laden flows are widespread and has long been observed. Volcanic ash clouds, desert sandstorms, dust devils, thunderstorms and snowstorms all undergo electrification at large scale. However the mechanism by which such processes occur, is not yet well understood. We confine granular particles to an oscillating cylindrical chamber which is enclosed and sealed by two conducting plates. The primary measurement obtained is the voltage between the two plates. We find that collective effects occurring in the bulk of the material play a significant role in the electrification process. We extend the previous results by the addition of photodectection capabilities to the experimental chamber. We present simultaneous measurements of voltage and light emission.

  12. Electron transport in granular metals.

    PubMed

    Altland, Alexander; Glazman, Leonid I; Kamenev, Alex

    2004-01-16

    We consider thermodynamic and transport properties of a long granular array with strongly connected grains (intergrain conductance g>1). We find that the system's conductance and differential capacitance exhibits activated behavior, approximately exp([-T(*)/T]. The gap T(*) represents the energy needed to create a long single-electron charge soliton propagating through the array. This scale is parametrically larger than the energy at which conventional perturbation theory breaks down.

  13. Dynamic compaction of granular materials

    PubMed Central

    Favrie, N.; Gavrilyuk, S.

    2013-01-01

    An Eulerian hyperbolic multiphase flow model for dynamic and irreversible compaction of granular materials is constructed. The reversible model is first constructed on the basis of the classical Hertz theory. The irreversible model is then derived in accordance with the following two basic principles. First, the entropy inequality is satisfied by the model. Second, the corresponding ‘intergranular stress’ coming from elastic energy owing to contact between grains decreases in time (the granular media behave as Maxwell-type materials). The irreversible model admits an equilibrium state corresponding to von Mises-type yield limit. The yield limit depends on the volume fraction of the solid. The sound velocity at the yield surface is smaller than that in the reversible model. The last one is smaller than the sound velocity in the irreversible model. Such an embedded model structure assures a thermodynamically correct formulation of the model of granular materials. The model is validated on quasi-static experiments on loading–unloading cycles. The experimentally observed hysteresis phenomena were numerically confirmed with a good accuracy by the proposed model. PMID:24353466

  14. Bipedal locomotion in granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingsbury, Mark; Zhang, Tingnan; Goldman, Daniel

    Bipedal walking, locomotion characterized by alternating swing and double support phase, is well studied on ground where feet do not penetrate the substrate. On granular media like sand however, intrusion and extrusion phases also occur. In these phases, relative motion of the two feet requires that one or both feet slip through the material, degrading performance. To study walking in these phases, we designed and studied a planarized bipedal robot (1.6 kg, 42 cm) that walked in a fluidized bed of poppy seeds. We also simulated the robot in a multibody software environment (Chrono) using granular resistive force theory (RFT) to calculate foot forces. In experiment and simulation, the robot experienced slip during the intrusion phase, with the experiment presenting additional slip due to motor control error during the double support phase. This exaggerated slip gave insight (through analysis of ground reaction forces in simulation) into how slip occurs when relative motion exists between the two feet in the granular media, where the foot with higher relative drag forces (from its instantaneous orientation, rotation, relative direction of motion, and depth) remains stationary. With this relationship, we generated walking gaits for the robot to walk with minimal slip.

  15. Trans-basement membrane migration of eosinophils induced by LPS-stimulated neutrophils from human peripheral blood in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Nishihara, Fuyumi; Kobayashi, Takehito; Noguchi, Toru; Araki, Ryuichiro; Uchida, Yoshitaka; Soma, Tomoyuki; Nagata, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    In the airways of severe asthmatics, an increase of neutrophils and eosinophils is often observed despite high-dose corticosteroid therapy. We previously reported that interleukin-8-stimulated neutrophils induced trans-basement membrane migration (TBM) of eosinophils, suggesting the link between neutrophils and eosinophils. Concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the airway increase in severe asthma. As neutrophils express Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 and can release chemoattractants for eosinophils, we investigated whether LPS-stimulated neutrophils modify eosinophil TBM. Neutrophils and eosinophils were isolated from peripheral blood of healthy volunteers and severe asthmatics. Eosinophil TBM was examined using a modified Boyden's chamber technique. Eosinophils were added to the upper compartment, and neutrophils and LPS were added to the lower compartment. Migrated eosinophils were measured by eosinophil peroxidase assays. LPS-stimulated neutrophils induced eosinophil TBM (about 10-fold increase), although LPS or neutrophils alone did not. A leukotriene B4 receptor antagonist, a platelet-activating factor receptor antagonist or an anti-TLR4 antibody decreased eosinophil TBM enhanced by LPS-stimulated neutrophils by almost half. Neutrophils from severe asthmatics induced eosinophil TBM and lower concentrations of LPS augmented neutrophil-induced eosinophil TBM. These results suggest that the combination of neutrophils and LPS leads eosinophils to accumulate in the airways, possibly involved the pathogenesis of severe asthma. PMID:27730145

  16. A sensitive high throughput ELISA for human eosinophil peroxidase: a specific assay to quantify eosinophil degranulation from patient-derived sources.

    PubMed

    Ochkur, Sergei I; Kim, John Dongil; Protheroe, Cheryl A; Colbert, Dana; Condjella, Rachel M; Bersoux, Sophie; Helmers, Richard A; Moqbel, Redwan; Lacy, Paige; Kelly, Elizabeth A; Jarjour, Nizar N; Kern, Robert; Peters, Anju; Schleimer, Robert P; Furuta, Glenn T; Nair, Parameswaran; Lee, James J; Lee, Nancy A

    2012-10-31

    Quantitative high throughput assays of eosinophil-mediated activities in fluid samples from patients in a clinical setting have been limited to ELISA assessments for the presence of the prominent granule ribonucleases, ECP and EDN. However, the demonstration that these ribonucleases are expressed by leukocytes other than eosinophils, as well as cells of non-hematopoietic origin, limits the usefulness of these assays. Two novel monoclonal antibodies recognizing eosinophil peroxidase (EPX) were used to develop an eosinophil-specific and sensitive sandwich ELISA. The sensitivity of this EPX-based ELISA was shown to be similar to that of the commercially available ELISA kits for ECP and EDN. More importantly, evidence is also presented confirming that among these granule protein detection options, EPX-based ELISA is the only eosinophil-specific assay. The utility of this high throughput assay to detect released EPX was shown in ex vivo degranulation studies with isolated human eosinophils. In addition, EPX-based ELISA was used to detect and quantify eosinophil degranulation in several in vivo patient settings, including bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained following segmental allergen challenge of subjects with allergic asthma, induced sputum derived from respiratory subjects following hypotonic saline inhalation, and nasal lavage of chronic rhinosinusitis patients. This unique EPX-based ELISA thus provides an eosinophil-specific assay that is sensitive, reproducible, and quantitative. In addition, this assay is adaptable to high throughput formats (e.g., automated assays utilizing microtiter plates) using the diverse patient fluid samples typically available in research and clinical settings.

  17. Interaction of eosinophils with endothelial cells is modulated by prostaglandin EP4 receptors.

    PubMed

    Konya, Viktoria; Philipose, Sonia; Bálint, Zoltán; Olschewski, Andrea; Marsche, Gunther; Sturm, Eva M; Schicho, Rudolf; Peskar, Bernhard A; Schuligoi, Rufina; Heinemann, Akos

    2011-08-01

    Eosinophil extravasation across the endothelium is a key feature of allergic inflammation. Here, we investigated the role of PGE(2) and its receptor, E-type prostanoid receptor (EP)-4, in the regulation of eosinophil interaction with human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells. PGE(2) and the EP4 receptor agonist ONO AE1-329 significantly reduced eotaxin-induced eosinophil adhesion to fibronectin, and formation of filamentous actin and gelsolin-rich adhesive structures. These inhibitory effects were reversed by a selective EP4 receptor antagonist, ONO AE3-208. PGE(2) and the EP4 agonist prevented the activation and cell-surface clustering of β2 integrins, and L-selectin shedding of eosinophils. Under physiological flow conditions, eosinophils that were treated with the EP4 agonist showed reduced adhesion to endothelial monolayers upon stimulation with eotaxin, as well as after TNF-α-induced activation of the endothelial cells. Selective activation of EP1, EP2, and EP3 receptors did not alter eosinophil adhesion to endothelial cells, whereas the EP4 antagonist prevented PGE(2) from decreasing eosinophil adhesion. Finally, eosinophil transmigration across thrombin- and TNF-α-activated endothelial cells was effectively reduced by the EP4 agonist. These data suggest that PGE(2) -EP4 signaling might be protective against allergic responses by inhibiting the interaction of eosinophils with the endothelium and might hence be a useful therapeutic option for controlling inappropriate eosinophil infiltration.

  18. Cooperation between interleukin-5 and the chemokine eotaxin to induce eosinophil accumulation in vivo

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    Experiments were designed to study the effect of systemically administered IL-5 on local eosinophil accumulation induced by the intradermal injection of the chemokine eotaxin in the guinea pig. Intravenous interleukin-5 (IL-5) stimulated a rapid and dramatic increase in the numbers of accumulating eosinophils induced by i.d.- injected eotaxin and, for comparison, leukotriene B4. The numbers of locally accumulating eosinophils correlated directly with a rapid increase in circulating eosinophils: circulating eosinophil numbers were 13-fold higher 1 h after intravenous IL-5 (18.3 pmol/kg). This increase in circulating cells corresponded with a reduction in the number of displaceable eosinophils recovered after flushing out the femur bone marrow cavity. Intradermal IL-5, at the doses tested, did not induce significant eosinophil accumulation. We propose that these experiments simulate important early features of the tissue response to local allergen exposure in a sensitized individual, with eosinophil chemoattractant chemokines having an important local role in eosinophil recruitment from blood microvessels, and IL-5 facilitating this process by acting remotely as a hormone to stimulate the release into the circulation of a rapidly mobilizable pool of bone marrow eosinophils. This action of IL-5 would be complementary to the other established activities of IL-5 that operate over a longer time course. PMID:7561691

  19. [Differencial diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease -- eosinophilic esophagitis: case report].

    PubMed

    Franzius, M; Stolte, M; Porschen, R

    2005-04-01

    We report on a 22-year-old man with dysphagia and repeated bolus impaction in the esophagus for 10 years. Bolus impactions were frequently mobilised using an endoscope. At endoscopy, esophagitis IV degrees was described. After treatment with omeprazol there was no improvement. The patient was submitted to our hospital for fundoplication. pH-metry demonstrated an increased reflux. At endoscopy of the esophagus, we found red stripes which did not show the typical appearance of erosions. Manometry and X-ray films of the esophagus did not reveal any pathological findings. In combination with anamnesis, symptoms, and endoscopy, the diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis was documented by histology. After administration of oral corticosteroids a rapid improvement of the clinical symptoms was observed. The diagnosis of eosinophilic esophagitis should be kept in mind in patients with chronic symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux persisting despite medical therapy, pathological pH-metry and repeated bolus impactions.

  20. Eosinophilic fasciitis in South Africa. A report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Forman, M B; Lewin, J R; Gear, A J; Solomon, L

    1981-04-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis was first described by Shulman in 1974 and is characterized by oedema of the extremities, peripheral eosinophilia, hypergammaglobulinaemia and inflammation of the deep fascia. The condition has not been previously reported in South Africa. We describe 2 cases seen at the Rheumatology Clinic of the Johannesburg Hospital recently. The most striking clinical features were the marked palmar fascial thickening and oedema of the hands and feet. The latter is said to be uncommon in this syndrome and mimicked the early changes of scleroderma. Furthermore, blood eosinophilia may also occur in scleroderma. Our patients illustrated the extremely variable laboratory features in this disorder. In accordance with previous findings in the literature, visceral involvement was absent in our cases. We suggest that in patients without Raynaud's phenomenon who present with scleroderma-like changes of the distal extremities, a diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis should be excluded by a full-thickness biopsy.

  1. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: The "Not-So-Rare" Disease.

    PubMed

    Goh, Vi Lier

    2016-02-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a relatively newly described disorder with increasing incidence. Patients with EoE may present at all ages from childhood through adulthood. Presenting symptoms may vary from feeding refusal, gagging, and/or vomiting in the younger population, dysphagia, chest pain, and abdominal pain in adolescents, as well as emergent food impactions. However, there are strict diagnostic criteria that must be met to make the diagnosis. Specifically, the diagnosis of EoE requires at least 15 eosinophils per high-powered field in the esophageal biopsies and symptoms of esophageal dysfunction after other causes, such as gastroesophageal reflux disease and proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia, have been ruled out. Common treatments include diet modifications and/or topical corticosteroids. PMID:26878186

  2. Eosinophilic pleuritis due to sparganum: a case report.

    PubMed

    Oh, Youngmin; Kim, Jeong-Tae; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Chang, You-Jin; Eom, Keeseon; Park, Jung-Gi; Lee, Ki-Man; Choe, Kang-Hyeon; An, Jin-Young

    2014-10-01

    Sparganosis is a rare parasitic disease caused by migrating plerocercoid tapeworm larva of the genus Spirometra. Infection in humans is mainly caused by the ingestion of raw or inadequately cooked flesh of infected frogs, snakes, and chickens. Here, we report a rare case of a 45-year-old man who was admitted to our hospital with left lower chest pain. The chest radiograph and computed tomography (CT) scan revealed localized pleural effusion in the left lower lobe; further, peripheral blood eosinophilia and eosinophilic pleural effusion were present. Percutaneous catheter drainage was performed, which revealed long worm-shaped material that was identified as a sparganum by DNA sequencing. The patient showed clinical improvement after drainage of the sparganum. This study demonstrates the importance of considering parasitic diseases in the differential diagnosis of eosinophilic pleural effusion.

  3. Emphysematous Eosinophilic Lymphangitis in the Ruminal Submucosa of Cattle.

    PubMed

    Ohfuji, S

    2015-11-01

    Twenty cattle (14 Holstein-Friesian, 3 Japanese Black, 3 Aberdeen Angus) ranging in age from 3 months to 8 years exhibited, at slaughter, emphysematous thickening of the ruminal submucosa owing to the appearance of numerous, contiguous, small gas bubbles. Microscopic changes in the ruminal submucosa consisted of (1) multiple cystic (emphysematous) lymphangiectasis that was frequently lined or occluded by granulomatous inflammatory infiltrates including macrophages, multinucleate giant cells, and eosinophils; (2) intralymphatic phagocytosis by macrophages and giant cells of eosinophils that showed positive labeling with the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate nick end-labeling assay; and (3) an inflammatory infiltrate extending from the area of lymphangitis into surrounding tissue, as well as edema, hemorrhage, fibrin exudation, fibroplasia, or capillary proliferation throughout the lesional submucosa. In addition, 15 (75%) of the cattle had globular leukocyte infiltrates in the mucosal epithelia of the rumen.

  4. Familial eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis in a mother and daughter

    PubMed Central

    Harmanci, Koray; Anil, Hulya; Kocak, Abdulkadir; Dinleyici, Ener Cagri

    2014-01-01

    A 17-year-old girl was admitted to our unit with weight loss, dyspnoea, arthralgia and sinusitis. Her medical history was noteworthy for bronchial asthma and she required systemic steroid therapy. Her mother had a history of eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA). Laboratory tests revealed excessive eosinophilia and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation. The assay for peripheral antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies was negative. Histopathological examination of lung biopsy revealed EGPA. The patient was treated with methylpredinosolone; her eosinophil count normalised and she began to improve clinically and radiographically. There is no genetic factor to influence susceptibility to this disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second report of familial EGPA disease in the literature, with a mother and daughter both being affected. EGPA disease should be kept in mind in a patient with uncontrolled asthma and eosinophilia with a positive family history for EGPA. PMID:25368130

  5. Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia: Pyrethroid Exposure & Change In Smoking Habit!

    PubMed

    Kuriakose, Kevin; Klair, Jagpal Singh; Johnsrud, Andrew; Meena, Nikhil K

    2016-06-01

    We report a case of Acute Eosinophilic Pneumonia (AEP) in a 29-year-old white woman with recent use of a'flea bomb' (containing pyrethroids) at home while remaining indoors, about 48 hours prior to presentation, and recent change in smoking habit (restarted 2 weeks prior after quitting for 10 years). She presented with two days of worsening fever, shortness of breath, productive cough, developed hypoxemic respiratory failure and ARDS. She required a PEEP of 20 and 100% FiO2 to maintain oxygenation. Bronchoalveolar lavage showed 36% Eosinophils. She was given IV steroids with dramatic clinical and radiological improvement. To the best of our knowledge, this is the second report associating AEP with pyrethroid exposure. PMID:27434983

  6. Eosinophilic Pneumonia in a Patient with Bronchial Myiasis

    PubMed Central

    Aich, Arindom; Al-Ismaili, Suad; Ramadhan, Fatma A.; Al-Wardi, Talal H. M.; Al-Salmi, Quasem; Al-Hashami, Hilal

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary myiasis is an unusual form of myiasis in humans and has been recently identified as a cause of eosinophilic pneumonia. We report the case of a 13-year-old Omani boy who presented to the Royal Hospital, Muscat, Oman, in October 2014 with respiratory distress. Bronchial aspirates revealed features of eosinophilic pneumonia. Possible larvae identified in the cytology report, a high immunoglobulin E level and the patient history all indicated bronchial myiasis. The patient was treated with steroids and ventilation and has since been disease-free with no long-term side-effects. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first case of bronchial myiasis in Oman. PMID:26629385

  7. Eosinophilic pleuritis due to sparganum: a case report.

    PubMed

    Oh, Youngmin; Kim, Jeong-Tae; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Chang, You-Jin; Eom, Keeseon; Park, Jung-Gi; Lee, Ki-Man; Choe, Kang-Hyeon; An, Jin-Young

    2014-10-01

    Sparganosis is a rare parasitic disease caused by migrating plerocercoid tapeworm larva of the genus Spirometra. Infection in humans is mainly caused by the ingestion of raw or inadequately cooked flesh of infected frogs, snakes, and chickens. Here, we report a rare case of a 45-year-old man who was admitted to our hospital with left lower chest pain. The chest radiograph and computed tomography (CT) scan revealed localized pleural effusion in the left lower lobe; further, peripheral blood eosinophilia and eosinophilic pleural effusion were present. Percutaneous catheter drainage was performed, which revealed long worm-shaped material that was identified as a sparganum by DNA sequencing. The patient showed clinical improvement after drainage of the sparganum. This study demonstrates the importance of considering parasitic diseases in the differential diagnosis of eosinophilic pleural effusion. PMID:25352705

  8. A rare cause of chronic dysphagia: eosinophilic esophagitis†

    PubMed Central

    Destek, Sebahattin; Gul, Vahit Onur; Ahioglu, Serkan; Tatar, Zeynep; Erbil, Yesim

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is attributable to environmental factors, allergens and several immunological causes. The most typical symptoms include dysphagia and sensation of food impingement in the retrosternal area. Although its clinical features resemble those of gastroesophageal reflux, proton pump inhibitors are not effective for its treatment. The diagnosis of EE is dependent on the pathological detection of eosinophilic infiltration in esophageal mucosa. In this study, we evaluated a patient who applied to our clinic with complaints of long-term difficulty in swallowing, sensation of food sticking while eating and weight loss; the patient was diagnosed with EE, following biochemical, radiological, endoscopic and pathological assessments and was treated with steroids. The results show that EE should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with dysphagia and food impingement in the retrosternal area, and the diagnosis should be confirmed through multiple esophageal biopsies. PMID:25249002

  9. A rare cause of chronic dysphagia: eosinophilic esophagitis†.

    PubMed

    Destek, Sebahattin; Gul, Vahit Onur; Ahioglu, Serkan; Tatar, Zeynep; Erbil, Yesim

    2014-09-23

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is attributable to environmental factors, allergens and several immunological causes. The most typical symptoms include dysphagia and sensation of food impingement in the retrosternal area. Although its clinical features resemble those of gastroesophageal reflux, proton pump inhibitors are not effective for its treatment. The diagnosis of EE is dependent on the pathological detection of eosinophilic infiltration in esophageal mucosa. In this study, we evaluated a patient who applied to our clinic with complaints of long-term difficulty in swallowing, sensation of food sticking while eating and weight loss; the patient was diagnosed with EE, following biochemical, radiological, endoscopic and pathological assessments and was treated with steroids. The results show that EE should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients with dysphagia and food impingement in the retrosternal area, and the diagnosis should be confirmed through multiple esophageal biopsies.

  10. Eosinophilic Otitis Media: CT and MRI Findings and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Won Jung; Lim, Hyun Kyung; Yoon, Tae Hyun; Cho, Kyung Ja; Baek, Jung Hwan

    2012-01-01

    Eosinophilic otitis media (EOM) is a relatively rare, intractable, middle ear disease with extremely viscous mucoid effusion containing eosinophils. EOM is associated with adult bronchial asthma and nasal allergies. Conventional treatments for otitis media with effusion (OME) or for chronic otitis media (COM), like tympanoplasty or mastoidectomy, when performed for the treatment of EOM, can induce severe complications such as deafness. Therefore, it should be differentiated from the usual type of OME or COM. To our knowledge, the clinical and imaging findings of EOM of temporal bone are not well-known to radiologists. We report here the CT and MRI findings of two EOM cases and review the clinical and histopathologic findings of this recently described disease entity. PMID:22563277

  11. T-helper 2 Cytokines, Transforming Growth Factor β1, and Eosinophil Products Induce Fibrogenesis and Alter Muscle Motility in Patients with Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Rieder, Florian; Nonevski, Ilche; Ma, Jie; Ouyang, Zhufeng; West, Gail; Protheroe, Cheryl; DePetris, Giovanni; Schirbel, Anja; Lapinski, James; Goldblum, John; Bonfield, Tracey; Lopez, Rocio; Harnett, Karen; Lee, James; Hirano, Ikuo; Falk, Gary; Biancani, Piero; Fiocchi, Claudio

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS Patients with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) often become dysphagic from the combination of organ fibrosis and motor abnormalities. We investigated mechanisms of dysphagia, assessing the response of human esophageal fibroblasts (HEF), muscle cells (HEMC), and esophageal muscle strips to eosinophil-derived products. METHODS Biopsies were collected via endoscopy from the upper, middle and lower thirds of the esophagus of 18 patients with EoE and 21 individuals undergoing endoscopy for other reasons (controls). Primary cultures of esophageal fibroblasts and muscle cells were derived from 12 freshly resected human esophagectomy specimens. Eosinophil distribution was investigated by histologic analyses of full-thickness esophageal tissue. Active secretion of EoE-related mediators was assessed from medium underlying mucosal biopsy cultures. We quantified production of fibronectin and collagen I by HEF and HEMC in response to eosinophil products. We also measured expression of ICAM1 and VCAM1 by, and adhesion of human eosinophils to, HEF and HEMC. Eosinophil products were tested in an esophageal muscle contraction assay. RESULTS Activated eosinophils were present in all esophageal layers. Significantly higher concentrations of eosinophil-related mediators were spontaneously secreted in mucosal biopsies from patients with EoE than controls. Exposure of HEF and HEMC to increasing concentrations of eosinophil products or co-culture with eosinophils caused HEF and HEMC to increase secretion of fibronectin and collagen I; this was inhibited by blocking transforming growth factor (TGF)β1 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAKP) signaling. Eosinophil binding to HEF and HEMC increased following incubation of mesenchymal cells with eosinophil-derived products, and decreased following blockade of TGFβ1 and p38MAPK blockade. Eosinophil products reduced electrical field-induced contraction of esophageal muscle strips, but not acetylcholine

  12. Esophageal Intramural Pseudodiverticulosis and Concomitant Eosinophilic Esophagitis: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Scaffidi, Michael A; Garg, Ankit; Ro, Brandon; Wang, Christopher; Yang, Tony T C; Plener, Ian S; Grin, Andrea; Colak, Errol; Grover, Samir C

    2016-01-01

    Background. Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis (EIPD) is an idiopathic benign chronic disease characterized by flask-like outpouchings of the esophageal wall. It is unknown whether there is a genuine association between EIPD and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Aims. To investigate a possible relationship between EIPD and EoE. Methods. Patients with radiographic or endoscopic evidence of pseudodiverticulosis were identified from the database at a single academic center. Cases were analyzed in three areas: clinical information, endoscopic findings, and course. Results. Sixteen cases of esophageal pseudodiverticulosis were identified. Five patients had histologic evidence of eosinophilic esophagitis. Patients with EoE had pseudodiverticula in the mid-to-distal esophagus while those with EIPD had pseudodiverticula predominantly in the proximal esophagus (p < 0.001). EoE with pseudodiverticulosis occurred in younger patients (p < 0.019). Food bolus obstructions were more common in patients with EoE and pseudodiverticulosis than in EIPD (p < 0.034). Conclusions. This is the first case series supporting a potential association between EoE and pseudodiverticulosis. We also identify characteristic features of pseudodiverticulosis that may raise clinical suspicion of underlying eosinophilic esophagitis. PMID:27648438

  13. Eosinophilic Cystitis: A Rare Cause of Nocturnal Enuresis in Children

    PubMed Central

    Kilic, Ozcan; Akand, Murat; Gul, Murat; Karabagli, Pinar; Goktas, Serdar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Eosinophilic cystitis (EC) is a rare and poorly understood inflammatory condition, characterized by eosinophilic infiltration of all layers of the bladder wall, which mimics bladder tumors. EC may present with symptoms such as increased urination frequency, dysuria, gross/microscopic hematuria, suprapubic pain and urinary retention. Case Presentation We present a 17-year-old male patient, who was continent night and day in his childhood, and was admitted to our clinic for complaints of hematuria and nocturnal enuresis for the past six months. His history and physical examination were unremarkable, and routine hematological and biochemical tests were normal. Cystoscopy revealed a 4 × 3 cm erythematous, polypoidal, solid lesion on the bladder dome. Histopathological examination of the lesion revealed transitional epithelium with stromal edema, where diffuse, dense infiltration of lamina propria by eosinophils and lymphocytes was also seen. According to these findings, a histopathological diagnosis of EC was made, and the patient was treated with corticosteroids, antimicrobial agents and antihistamines. His symptoms dramatically improved and nocturnal enuresis also recovered after treatment. Conclusions Although it is a rare entity, EC should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of patients presenting with dysuria, hematuria and any kind of acquired voiding dysfunction, including frequency, pollakiuria and incontinence.

  14. Role of biologics in severe eosinophilic asthma - focus on reslizumab.

    PubMed

    Pelaia, Girolamo; Vatrella, Alessandro; Busceti, Maria Teresa; Gallelli, Luca; Preianò, Mariaimmacolata; Lombardo, Nicola; Terracciano, Rosa; Maselli, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    Within the context of the heterogeneous phenotypic stratification of asthmatic population, many patients are characterized by moderate-to-severe eosinophilic asthma, not adequately controlled by relatively high dosages of inhaled and even oral corticosteroids. Therefore, these subjects can obtain significant therapeutic benefits by additional biologic treatments targeting interleukin-5 (IL-5), given the key pathogenic role played by this cytokine in maturation, activation, proliferation, and survival of eosinophils. In particular, reslizumab is a humanized anti-IL-5 monoclonal antibody that has been found to be an effective and safe add-on therapy, capable of decreasing asthma exacerbations and significantly improving disease control and lung function in patients experiencing persistent allergic or nonallergic eosinophilic asthma, despite the regular use of moderate-to-high doses of inhaled corticosteroids. These important therapeutic effects of reslizumab, demonstrated by several controlled clinical trials, have led to the recent approval by US Food and Drug Administration of its use, together with other antiasthma medications, for the maintenance treatment of patients suffering from severe uncontrolled asthma. PMID:27445482

  15. Eosinophilic Endomyocarditis: A Rare Case of Neonatal Mortality.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Allison J; Hitt, Stacy L; Stier, Michael A; Houser, Laura M

    2015-10-01

    Background Eosinophilic endomyocarditis (EEM) is a rare diagnosis that is extremely uncommon in newborns. This case report aimed to present a case of neonatal mortality from acute cardiac failure due to EEM. Case Our report presents a term male neonate with minor complications in the immediate postnatal course, who was discharged at 48 hours of life, but who developed unexpected respiratory distress, followed by cardiac arrest and death at 3 days of life. One day after discharge, the infant developed respiratory distress and cool skin, and then developed cardiac arrest at the pediatrician's office, undergoing resuscitation with intravenous fluid, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, epinephrine, atropine, and failed intubation. Autopsy revealed EEM, an inflammatory infiltrative process involving the endomyocardium. Pathology Pathogenesis involves three stages: (1) myocarditis with an acute eosinophilic inflammatory infiltrate followed by (2) myocyte necrosis and eventually (3) fibrosis in the final stage of the disease. Discussion The cause of death was acute cardiac failure due to intense eosinophilic infiltration and degranulation with early subendocardial myocyte necrosis but before development of extensive myocyte necrosis. This case appears to be the youngest patient reported with EEM. PMID:26495174

  16. Esophageal Intramural Pseudodiverticulosis and Concomitant Eosinophilic Esophagitis: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Scaffidi, Michael A.; Garg, Ankit; Ro, Brandon; Wang, Christopher; Yang, Tony T. C.; Plener, Ian S.; Grin, Andrea; Colak, Errol

    2016-01-01

    Background. Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis (EIPD) is an idiopathic benign chronic disease characterized by flask-like outpouchings of the esophageal wall. It is unknown whether there is a genuine association between EIPD and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Aims. To investigate a possible relationship between EIPD and EoE. Methods. Patients with radiographic or endoscopic evidence of pseudodiverticulosis were identified from the database at a single academic center. Cases were analyzed in three areas: clinical information, endoscopic findings, and course. Results. Sixteen cases of esophageal pseudodiverticulosis were identified. Five patients had histologic evidence of eosinophilic esophagitis. Patients with EoE had pseudodiverticula in the mid-to-distal esophagus while those with EIPD had pseudodiverticula predominantly in the proximal esophagus (p < 0.001). EoE with pseudodiverticulosis occurred in younger patients (p < 0.019). Food bolus obstructions were more common in patients with EoE and pseudodiverticulosis than in EIPD (p < 0.034). Conclusions. This is the first case series supporting a potential association between EoE and pseudodiverticulosis. We also identify characteristic features of pseudodiverticulosis that may raise clinical suspicion of underlying eosinophilic esophagitis. PMID:27648438

  17. Clinical Implications and Pathogenesis of Esophageal Remodeling in Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Hirano, Ikuo; Aceves, Seema S.

    2014-01-01

    In eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), remodeling changes are manifest histologically in both the epithelium as well as in the subepithelium where lamina propria (LP) fibrosis, expansion of the muscularis propria and increased vascularity occur. The major clinical symptoms and complications of EoE are largely consequences of esophageal remodeling. Important mediators of the process include IL-5, IL-13, TGFβ1, mast cells, fibroblasts and eosinophils. Methods to detect remodeling effects include upper endoscopy, histopathology, barium esophagram, endoscopic ultrasonography, esophageal manometry, and functional luminal imaging. These modalities provide evidence of organ dysfunction that include focal and diffuse esophageal strictures, expansion of the mucosa and subepithelium, esophageal motor abnormalities and reduced esophageal distensibility. Complications of food impaction and perforations of the esophageal wall have been associated with reduction in esophageal caliber and increased esophageal mural stiffness. The therapeutic benefits of topical corticosteroids and elimination diet therapy in resolving mucosal eosinophilic inflammation of the esophagus are evident. Available therapies, however, have demonstrated variable ability to reverse existing remodeling changes of the esophagus. Systemic therapies that include novel, targeted biologic agents have the potential of addressing subepithelial remodeling. Esophageal dilation remains a useful, adjunctive therapeutic maneuver in symptomatic adults with esophageal stricture. As novel treatments emerge, it is essential that therapeutic endpoints account for the fundamental contributions of esophageal remodeling to overall disease activity. PMID:24813517

  18. Esophageal Intramural Pseudodiverticulosis and Concomitant Eosinophilic Esophagitis: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Scaffidi, Michael A.; Garg, Ankit; Ro, Brandon; Wang, Christopher; Yang, Tony T. C.; Plener, Ian S.; Grin, Andrea; Colak, Errol

    2016-01-01

    Background. Esophageal intramural pseudodiverticulosis (EIPD) is an idiopathic benign chronic disease characterized by flask-like outpouchings of the esophageal wall. It is unknown whether there is a genuine association between EIPD and eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Aims. To investigate a possible relationship between EIPD and EoE. Methods. Patients with radiographic or endoscopic evidence of pseudodiverticulosis were identified from the database at a single academic center. Cases were analyzed in three areas: clinical information, endoscopic findings, and course. Results. Sixteen cases of esophageal pseudodiverticulosis were identified. Five patients had histologic evidence of eosinophilic esophagitis. Patients with EoE had pseudodiverticula in the mid-to-distal esophagus while those with EIPD had pseudodiverticula predominantly in the proximal esophagus (p < 0.001). EoE with pseudodiverticulosis occurred in younger patients (p < 0.019). Food bolus obstructions were more common in patients with EoE and pseudodiverticulosis than in EIPD (p < 0.034). Conclusions. This is the first case series supporting a potential association between EoE and pseudodiverticulosis. We also identify characteristic features of pseudodiverticulosis that may raise clinical suspicion of underlying eosinophilic esophagitis.

  19. Endoscopic Removal of Granular Cell Tumors of Stomach: Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Arunkumar; Ramakrishnan, Ravi; Menon, Maya

    2013-01-01

    Gastrointestinal granular cell tumors (GCTs), usually benign, soft-tissue tumors, are thought to arise from Schwann cells that may occur at many sites. Only 5-7% of these lesions are detected in the gastrointestinal tract. Histologically, it is composed of sheets or nests of plump round or polygonal cells having abundant slightly amphophilic granular cytoplasm with centrally located uniform pyknotic nuclei and immunohistochemical staining for S-100 protein supports the proposed derivation from Schwann cells. In this study, we reported a case of a solitary GCT of the stomach that was completely removed after endoscopic submuscosal resection.

  20. Dynamics of Sheared Granular Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondic, Lou; Utter, Brian; Behringer, Robert P.

    2002-01-01

    This work focuses on the properties of sheared granular materials near the jamming transition. The project currently involves two aspects. The first of these is an experiment that is a prototype for a planned ISS (International Space Station) flight. The second is discrete element simulations (DES) that can give insight into the behavior one might expect in a reduced-g environment. The experimental arrangement consists of an annular channel that contains the granular material. One surface, say the upper surface, rotates so as to shear the material contained in the annulus. The lower surface controls the mean density/mean stress on the sample through an actuator or other control system. A novel feature under development is the ability to 'thermalize' the layer, i.e. create a larger amount of random motion in the material, by using the actuating system to provide vibrations as well control the mean volume of the annulus. The stress states of the system are determined by transducers on the non-rotating wall. These measure both shear and normal components of the stress on different size scales. Here, the idea is to characterize the system as the density varies through values spanning dense almost solid to relatively mobile granular states. This transition regime encompasses the regime usually thought of as the glass transition, and/or the jamming transition. Motivation for this experiment springs from ideas of a granular glass transition, a related jamming transition, and from recent experiments. In particular, we note recent experiments carried out by our group to characterize this type of transition and also to demonstrate/ characterize fluctuations in slowly sheared systems. These experiments give key insights into what one might expect in near-zero g. In particular, they show that the compressibility of granular systems diverges at a transition or critical point. It is this divergence, coupled to gravity, that makes it extremely difficult if not impossible to

  1. [Acute myocardial infarction as Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly Churg Strauss syndrome) initial presentation].

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Wahinuddin; Seung, Ong Ping; Noor, Sabariah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis is a rare primary vasculitic disease characterized by hypereosinophilia, late onset asthma and extravascular eosinophil granulomas. We report a case presented initially with acute myocardial infarction which later only proceed with asthma, skin manifestations and peripheral neuropathy. Laboratory parameters showed hypereosinohpilia with negative perinuclear pattern of antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (p-ANCA). Skin biopsy showed leucocytoclastic vasculitis with eosinophilic infiltration while coronary angiography was normal. The patient's symptoms improved with IV methylprednisolone, pulse cyclophosphamide and azathioprine.

  2. [Acute myocardial infarction as Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (formerly Churg Strauss syndrome) initial presentation].

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Wahinuddin; Seung, Ong Ping; Noor, Sabariah Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis is a rare primary vasculitic disease characterized by hypereosinophilia, late onset asthma and extravascular eosinophil granulomas. We report a case presented initially with acute myocardial infarction which later only proceed with asthma, skin manifestations and peripheral neuropathy. Laboratory parameters showed hypereosinohpilia with negative perinuclear pattern of antineutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (p-ANCA). Skin biopsy showed leucocytoclastic vasculitis with eosinophilic infiltration while coronary angiography was normal. The patient's symptoms improved with IV methylprednisolone, pulse cyclophosphamide and azathioprine. PMID:25627304

  3. [A case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis accompanied with fasciitis of the extremities].

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Tomoharu; Yamade, Mihoko; Matsushita, Naoya; Kawasaki, Shinsuke; Terai, Tomohiro; Uotani, Takahiro; Takayanagi, Yasuhiro; Yamada, Takahiro; Kodaira, Chise; Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Furuta, Takahisa; Sugimoto, Ken; Osawa, Satoshi; Ikuma, Mutsuhiro

    2011-03-01

    We encountered a very rare case of eosinophilic gastroenteritis accompanied with fasciitis of the extremities. The patient was a 28-year-old woman with epigastralgia, eosinophilia plus leukocytosis, massive pleural effusion and ascites, and thickening of the walls of the intestine. Increase of the eosinophilic fraction in her ascites led to a diagnosis of eosinophilic gastroenteritis. She soon developed resting pain in all limbs and MRI revealed fasciitis. Prednisolone was effective in treating both gastroenteritis and fasciitis. PMID:21389666

  4. Eosinophils in the 1990s: new perspectives on their role in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Wardlaw, A J

    1994-08-01

    Eosinophils are characterized by their unique crystalloid granules that contain four basic proteins--MBP, ECP, EDN and EPO. The cell has many common features with neutrophils but, unlike that cell type, eosinophils utilize VLA-4/VCAM-1 as an adherence pathway and have a number of other receptors not shared by neutrophils. These include recognition units for IgE (distinct from CD23), and receptors for IL-5, IL-3 and RANTES. Following stimulation with a variety of agents, eosinophils preferentially elaborate LTC4 as the major 5-lipoxygenase product of arachidonic acid and produce substantial amounts of PAF. Of particular interest is the ability of eosinophils to synthesize a number of cytokines. Thus eosinophils have marked pro-inflammatory potential. There is now convincing evidence that eosinophilia is T-cell dependent. The Th2-type cell, which selectively secretes IL-5 and IL-4, seems particularly involved. IL-5, IL-3 and GM-CSF are required for eosinophil maturation, and cause activation and prolonged survival of the mature cell. IL-5 is unique in that it promotes terminal differentiation of the committed eosinophil precursor and in vivo in mice appears to be sufficient on its own for eosinophil growth from uncommited stem cells. IL-4 selectively upregulates VCAM-1 expression on endothelial cells thus augmenting VLA-4-dependent eosinophil adhesion. The role of eosinophils in disease is complex but in general their numbers are increased in helminthic parasitic disease and atopic allergy and asthma. Eosinophil products can produce many of the pathological features of asthma, and helminthic larvae coated with immunoglobulin or complement are particularly susceptible to eosinophil-mediated cytotoxicity. Eosinopenia is often related to acute inflammation or stress. PMID:7937446

  5. Forearm compartment syndrome as a result of eosinophilic fasciitis: case report.

    PubMed

    Alolabi, Bashar; Lesieur, Martin; Smilovici, Brian; Koo, Kevin; El Bahtimi, Reem; Jenkinson, Richard J

    2015-04-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis is an uncommon scleroderma-like connective tissue disease, usually characterized by symmetrical and painful swelling and induration of the skin and thickened fascia infiltrated with lymphocytes and eosinophils. A middle-aged woman with follicular lymphoma being treated with chemotherapy presented with acute onset atraumatic forearm swelling and severe pain. The history, physical examination, and pressure measurements were consistent with compartment syndrome. Intraoperative biopsy of the forearm fascia confirmed eosinophilic fasciitis.

  6. Mesalazine-induced eosinophilic pneumonia with bone marrow infiltration: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yunjian; Luo, Ling; Wang, Xiaofang; Liu, Xiaoyang; Wang, Xiaoyan; Ding, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Mesalazine-induced eosinophilic pneumonia has been rarely reported. We reported a case of mesalazine-induced eosinophilic pneumonia in a 56-year-old female who took mesalazine without a prescription for suspected ulcerative colitis. She had an elevated eosinophil count in peripheral blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Eosinophil infiltration was also noted in bone marrow aspirates. Chest radiograph and computed tomography demonstrated bilateral upper lung predominant infiltrates and spirometry showed a restrictive ventilatory defect with a reduced diffusion capacity. The patient recovered after cessation of mesalazine therapy. Mesalazine-induced lung damage should be considered in patients who develop unexplained respiratory symptoms while taking this agent. PMID:27366075

  7. Sputum eosinophils from asthmatics express ICAM-1 and HLA-DR.

    PubMed Central

    Hansel, T T; Braunstein, J B; Walker, C; Blaser, K; Bruijnzeel, P L; Virchow, J C; Virchow, C

    1991-01-01

    Sputum from symptomatic asthmatics is a rich source of eosinophils from the respiratory tract. Following liquefaction of sputum with dithioerythritol (DTE), a cell suspension for indirect double immunofluorescence with flow cytometry was obtained. Eosinophils were identified using anti-CD9 fluorescein conjugate, and particular surface markers measured with the relevant mouse MoAb followed by goat anti-mouse immunoglobulin phycoerythrin conjugate. Blood and sputum eosinophil surface markers were determined in parallel from asthmatics not receiving steroid therapy. Sputum eosinophils were found to have considerably elevated levels of CD11b, a reflection of eosinophil activation. Sputum but not blood eosinophils were found to express ICAM-1 (nine out of 11 cases) and HLA-DR (eight out of 11 cases). Furthermore, following culture of normal blood eosinophils with pooled T cell supernatants, ICAM-1 and HLA-DR could be induced in vitro. The induction of eosinophil adhesion molecules such as ICAM-1 and HLA-DR may influence eosinophil localization and function in asthma. PMID:1682072

  8. Circulating Human Eosinophils Share a Similar Transcriptional Profile in Asthma and Other Hypereosinophilic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Barnig, Cindy; Dembélé, Doulaye; Paul, Nicodème; Poirot, Anh; Uring-Lambert, Béatrice; Georgel, Philippe; de Blay, Fréderic; Bahram, Seiamak

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophils are leukocytes that are released into the peripheral blood in a phenotypically mature state and are capable of being recruited into tissues in response to appropriate stimuli. Eosinophils, traditionally considered cytotoxic effector cells, are leukocytes recruited into the airways of asthma patients where they are believed to contribute to the development of many features of the disease. This perception, however, has been challenged by recent findings suggesting that eosinophils have also immunomodulatory functions and may be involved in tissue homeostasis and wound healing. Here we describe a transcriptome-based approach–in a limited number of patients and controls—to investigate the activation state of circulating human eosinophils isolated by flow cytometry. We provide an overview of the global expression pattern in eosinophils in various relevant conditions, e.g., eosinophilic asthma, hypereosinophilic dermatological diseases, parasitosis and pulmonary aspergillosis. Compared to healthy subjects, circulating eosinophils isolated from asthma patients differed in their gene expression profile which is marked by downregulation of transcripts involved in antigen presentation, pathogen recognition and mucosal innate immunity, whereas up-regulated genes were involved in response to non-specific stimulation, wounding and maintenance of homeostasis. Eosinophils from other hypereosinophilic disorders displayed a very similar transcriptional profile. Taken together, these observations seem to indicate that eosinophils exhibit non-specific immunomodulatory functions important for tissue repair and homeostasis and suggest new roles for these cells in asthma immunobiology. PMID:26524763

  9. Work in progress: radionuclide imaging of indium-111-labeled eosinophils in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Runge, V.M.; Rand, T.H.; Clanton, J.A.; Jones, J.P.; Colley, D.G.; Partain, C.L.; James, A.E. Jr.

    1983-05-01

    Eosinophils isolated from peritoneal exudates were labeled with indium-111-oxine and injected intravenously into sensitized mice. They became localized at sites of inflammation produced by intradermal injections of schistosomal antigen or Toxocara canis larvae, whereas labeled neutrophils did not. Intense uptake of eosinophils by normal spleen, liver, and bone marrow was noted, with tracer distribution effectively complete by 5 hours after injection. Indium-111-eosinophil studies appear to be quite sensitive to parasitic inflammatory reactions; in contrast, nonspecific inflammation such as that induced by turpentine causes localization of eosinophils, but to a lesser extent. This technique may be useful in the study of parasitic and allergic disease.

  10. A Player and Coordinator: The Versatile Roles of Eosinophils in the Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Long, Hai; Liao, Wei; Wang, Ling; Lu, Qianjin

    2016-01-01

    Summary Eosinophils have traditionally been associated with allergic diseases and parasite infection. Research advances in the recent decades have brought evolutionary changes in our understanding of eosinophil biology and its roles in immunity. It is currently recognized that eosinophils play multiple roles in both innate and adaptive immunity. As effector cells in innate immunity, eosinophils exert a pro-inflammatory and destructive role in the Th2 immune response associated with allergic inflammation or parasite infection. Eosinophils can also be recruited by danger signals released by pathogen infections or tissue injury, inducing host defense against parasitic, fungal, bacterial or viral infection or promoting tissue repair and remodeling. Eosinophils also serve as nonprofessional antigen-presenting cells in response to allergen challenge or helminth infection, and, meanwhile, are known to function as a versatile coordinator that actively regulates or interacts with various immune cells including T lymphocytes and dendritic cells. More roles of eosinophils implicated in immunity have been proposed including in immune homeostasis, allograft rejection, and anti-tumor immunity. Eosinophil interactions with structural cells are also implicated in the mechanisms in allergic inflammation and in Helicobacter pylori gastritis. These multifaceted roles of eosinophils as both players and coordinators in immune system are discussed in this review. PMID:27226792

  11. Bronchoalveolar lavage and technetium-99m glucoheptonate imaging in chronic eosinophilic pneumonia

    SciTech Connect

    Lieske, T.R.; Sunderrajan, E.V.; Passamonte, P.M.

    1984-02-01

    A patient with chronic eosinophilic pneumonia was evaluated using bronchoalveolar lavage, technetium-99m glucoheptonate, and transbronchial lung biopsy. Bronchoalveolar lavage revealed 43 percent eosinophils and correlated well with results of transbronchial lung biopsy. Technetium-99m glucoheptonate lung imaging demonstrated intense parenchymal uptake. After eight weeks of corticosteroid therapy, the bronchoalveolar lavage eosinophil population and the technetium-99m glucoheptonate uptake had returned to normal. We suggest that bronchoalveolar lavage, with transbronchial lung biopsy, is a less invasive way than open lung biopsy to diagnose chronic eosinophilic pneumonia. The mechanism of uptake of technetium-99m glucoheptonate in this disorder remains to be defined.

  12. [A mechanism for the anti-inflammatory effect of nedocromil; inhibition of both adhesion molecule expression on eosinophils and endothelial cells, and eosinophil chemotactic activities].

    PubMed

    Okada, T; Sagara, H; Nakano, Y; Hiyama, T; Fukuda, T

    1999-12-01

    The accumulation of eosinophils in the airway is one of the characteristics seen in patients with bronchial asthma. One of the newly developed anti-asthma drugs (controller), nedocromil sodium (nedocromil) is known to suppress the influx of eosinophils into allergic lesions. However, little is known about this mechanism. Therefore, in this report we investigated the effects of nedocromil on Mac-1 expression on PAF-stimulated eosinophils, and adhesion molecule expression on endothelial cells stimulated by either IL-1 beta or IL-4. We also investigated the eosinophil chemotaxis. A significant suppression of the Mac-1 expression on PAF-induced eosinophils was observed at both concentrations of 10(-5) and 10(-7) M of nedocromil. The expression of adhesion molecules, particularly ICAM-1 and E-selectin, on IL-1 beta-stimulated human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC) was significantly suppressed at these concentrations, whereas the VCAM-1 expression was not changed. No significant suppression of VCAM-1 expression on IL-4-stimulated HUVEC was observed, although there was a tendency of suppression at these concentrations. On the other hand, the expression of the E-selectin molecule was significantly suppressed by nedocromil even under resting (non-stimulated) condition. PAF-induced eosinophil chemotactic activities were also suppressed at these concentrations in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggested that nedocromil suppressed the influx of eosinophils to inflammatory lesions by inhibiting not only the expression of the Mac-1 on eosinophils and of E-selectin and ICAM-1 molecules on HUVEC, but also the eosinophil chemotactic activities.

  13. Centrifuge modelling of granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, Miguel Angel; Wu, Wei

    2015-04-01

    A common characteristic of mass flows like debris flows, rock avalanches and mudflows is that gravity is their main driving force. Gravity defines the intensity and duration of the main interactions between particles and their surrounding media (particle-particle, particle-fluid, fluid-fluid). At the same time, gravity delimits the occurrence of phase separation, inverse segregation, and mass consolidation, among other phenomena. Therefore, in the understanding of the flow physics it is important to account for the scaling of gravity in scaled models. In this research, a centrifuge model is developed to model free surface granular flows down an incline at controlled gravity conditions. Gravity is controlled by the action of an induced inertial acceleration field resulting from the rotation of the model in a geotechnical centrifuge. The characteristics of the induced inertial acceleration field during flow are discussed and validated via experimental data. Flow heights, velocity fields, basal pressure and impact forces are measured for a range of channel inclinations and gravity conditions. Preliminary results enlighten the flow characteristics at variable gravity conditions and open a discussion on the simulation of large scale processes at a laboratory scale. Further analysis on the flow physics brings valuable information for the validation of granular flows rheology.

  14. Compaction Waves in Granular HMX

    SciTech Connect

    E. Kober; R. Menikoff

    1999-01-01

    Piston driven compaction waves in granular HMX are simulated with a two-dimensional continuum mechanics code in which individual grains are resolved. The constitutive properties of the grains are modeled with a hydrostatic pressure and a simple elastic-plastic model for the shear stress. Parameters are chosen to correspond to inert HMX. For a tightly packed random grain distribution (with initial porosity of 19%) we varied the piston velocity to obtain weak partly compacted waves and stronger fully compacted waves. The average stress and wave speed are compatible with the porous Hugoniot locus for uni- axial strain. However, the heterogeneities give rise to stress concentrations, which lead to localized plastic flow. For weak waves, plastic deformation is the dominant dissipative mechanism and leads to dispersed waves that spread out in time. In addition to dispersion, the granular heterogeneities give rise to subgrain spatial variation in the thermodynamic variables. The peaks in the temperature fluctuations, known as hot spots, are in the range such that they are the critical factor for initiation sensitivity.

  15. Extensional Rheology of Granular Staples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franklin, Scott

    2013-03-01

    Collections of U-shaped granular materials (e.g. staples) show a surprising resistance to being pulled apart. We conduct extensional stress-strain experiments on staple piles with vary arm/spine (barb) ratio. The elongation is not smooth, with the pile growing in bursts, reminiscent of intruder motion through ordinary and rod-like granular materials. The force-distance curve shows a power-law scaling, consistent with previous intruder experiments. Surprisingly, there is significant plastic creep of the pile as particles rearrange slightly in response to the increasing force. There is a broad distribution of yield forces that does not seem to evolve as the pile lengthens, suggesting that each yield event is independent of the pile's history. The distribution of yield forces can be interpreted in the context of a Weibullian weakest-link theory that predicts the maximum pile strength to decrease sharply with increasing pile length. From this interpretation arise length and force scales that may be used to characterize the sample. This research supported in part by the NSF (CBET-#1133722) and ACS-PRF (#51438-UR10).

  16. Granular media in transformation: dynamics and structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merceron, Aymeric; Jop, Pierre; Sauret, Alban; SVI, CNRS/Saint-Gobain Team

    2015-11-01

    Sintering, glass melting and other industrially relevant processes turn batches of grains into continuous end products. Such processes involve complex and mostly misunderstood chemical and physical transformations of the granular packing. Affecting the contact network, physicochemical reactions entail mechanical rearrangements. But such reorganizations may also trigger new potential reactions. Granular reactive systems are strongly coupled and need investigations for achieving industrial optimizations. This study is focused on how transformations appearing on its components affect the response of the granular packing. Inert brass disks and grains undergoing well-known transformations like volume decrease are mixed and then confined in a vertical 2D cell. While the system reacts, the granular packing is regularly photographed with a high-resolution camera. Events largely distributed both spatially and temporally occur around reactive grains. Thanks to image processing, this reorganization process is then analyzed. Spatial and temporal amplitudes of events are quantified as well as their local and global impacts on the granular structure.

  17. Filamentous bacteria existence in aerobic granular reactors.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, M; Val del Río, A; Campos, J L; Méndez, R; Mosquera-Corral, A

    2015-05-01

    Filamentous bacteria are associated to biomass settling problems in wastewater treatment plants. In systems based on aerobic granular biomass they have been proposed to contribute to the initial biomass aggregation process. However, their development on mature aerobic granular systems has not been sufficiently studied. In the present research work, filamentous bacteria were studied for the first time after long-term operation (up to 300 days) of aerobic granular systems. Chloroflexi and Sphaerotilus natans have been observed in a reactor fed with synthetic wastewater. These filamentous bacteria could only come from the inoculated sludge. Thiothrix and Chloroflexi bacteria were observed in aerobic granular biomass treating wastewater from a fish canning industry. Meganema perideroedes was detected in a reactor treating wastewater from a plant processing marine products. As a conclusion, the source of filamentous bacteria in these mature aerobic granular systems fed with industrial effluents was the incoming wastewater.

  18. Successful early diagnosis and treatment in a case of Toxocara canis-induced eosinophilic myocarditis with eosinophil-rich pericardial effusion.

    PubMed

    Sangen, Hideto; Tanabe, Jun; Takano, Hitoshi; Shimizu, Wataru

    2015-01-01

    Fulminant myocarditis can become fatal if left untreated. Treatments for most types of myocarditis, including mechanical support, are limited. However, immediate systemic corticosteroids are known to be effective against eosinophilic myocarditis; therefore, prompt diagnosis of this disease is crucial. Unfortunately, the standard diagnostic tool for myocarditis, endomyocardial biopsy, does not provide immediate histopathological findings. Thus, a rapid diagnostic tool for identifying types of myocarditis is urgently required. We report here the first case of Toxocara canis-induced eosinophilic fulminant myocarditis which was diagnosed based on eosinophil-rich pericardial effusion where the patient recovered with early corticosteroid therapy. PMID:26338242

  19. Evaluation of Histologic Cutpoints for Treatment Response in Eosinophilic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, W. Asher; Cotton, Cary C.; Green, Daniel J.; Hughes, Julia T.; Woosley, John T.; Shaheen, Nicholas J.; Dellon, Evan S.

    2016-01-01

    Aim No consensus exists on the definition of successful treatment in eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). The aim of this study was to identify the optimal histologic cutpoint to define successful treatment of EoE by assessing rates of symptomatic and endoscopic improvement. Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study utilizing the University of North Carolina EoE Clinicopathologic Database between 2006 and 2013. Rates of symptomatic and endoscopic improvement were determined, as were post-treatment eosinophil counts. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) was calculated for symptomatic and endoscopic response at several possible eosinophil count cutpoints (eos/hpf). Predictors of response were also assessed. Results Of 224 treatments in 199 patients, 76% were associated with symptomatic improvement, 68% with endoscopic improvement, and 60% with both. Of treatments that resulted in a post-treatment count of <15 eos/hpf, 90% were associated with an endoscopic response, 88% with a symptomatic response, and 81% with both symptomatic and endoscopic responses. Using a <15 eos/hpf threshold, the area under the curves (AUCs) were 0.70, 0.78, and 0.75 for symptomatic, endoscopic, and symptomatic/endoscopic responses, respectively. Lower histologic cut-points did not result in a substantial gain in response, but decreased the AUC. Conclusion In this large cohort of EoE patients, rates of symptomatic and endoscopic improvement were generally associated with histologic improvement. A histologic cutoff for treatment response of <15 eos/hpf may balance clinical outcomes and test performance. PMID:27110513

  20. Staphylococcus aureus enterotoxins A and B inhibit human and mice eosinophil chemotaxis and adhesion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Squebola-Cola, Dalize M; De Mello, Glaucia C; Anhê, Gabriel F; Condino-Neto, Antonio; DeSouza, Ivani A; Antunes, Edson

    2014-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus aggravates the allergic eosinophilic inflammation. We hypothesized that Staphylococcus aureus-derived enterotoxins directly affect eosinophil functions. Therefore, this study investigated the effects of Staphylococcal enterotoxins A and B (SEA and SEB) on human and mice eosinophil chemotaxis and adhesion in vitro, focusing on p38 MAPK phosphorylation and intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization. Eosinophil chemotaxis was evaluated using a microchemotaxis chamber, whereas adhesion was performed in VCAM-1 and ICAM-1-coated plates. Measurement of p38 MAPK phosphorylation and intracellular Ca(2+) levels were monitored by flow cytometry and fluorogenic calcium-binding dye, respectively. Prior incubation (30 to 240 min) of human blood eosinophils with SEA (0.5 to 3 ng/ml) significantly reduced eotaxin-, PAF- and RANTES-induced chemotaxis (P<0.05). Likewise, SEB (1 ng/ml, 30 min) significantly reduced eotaxin-induced human eosinophil chemotaxis (P<0.05). The reduction of eotaxin-induced human eosinophil chemotaxis by SEA and SEB was prevented by anti-MHC monoclonal antibody (1 μg/ml). In addition, SEA and SEB nearly suppressed the eotaxin-induced human eosinophil adhesion in ICAM-1- and VCAM-1-coated plates. SEA and SEB prevented the increases of p38 MAPK phosphorylation and Ca(2+) levels in eotaxin-activated human eosinophils. In separate protocols, we evaluated the effects of SEA on chemotaxis and adhesion of eosinophils obtained from mice bone marrow. SEA (10 ng/ml) significantly reduced the eotaxin-induced chemotaxis along with cell adhesion to both ICAM-1 and VCAM-1-coated plates (P<0.05). In conclusion, the inhibition by SEA and SEB of eosinophil functions (chemotaxis and adhesion) are associated with reductions of p38 MAPK phosphorylation and intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization.

  1. Myeloprolipherative disorder type chronic myeloid leukemia--eosinophilic form.

    PubMed

    Arnautovic-Custovic, Aida; Hasic, Samira; Kopic, Emina; Jahic, Azra; Jovic, Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL) is a very rare form of leucemia in the western world. Adequate response is seldomly achieved after treatment with corticosteroids, interferon-alfa (INF-alfa) and medications containing hydroxi-urea (Litalir). The study presents a patient with CEL with no initial therapeutic response to the use of corticosteroids, INF-alfa and hydroxy-urea, and with neither clinical nor hematological response. After setting a diagnosis of CEL, patient was ordinated Imatinib (Glivec tabbletes) in a daily dose of 200 mg. Two days afterwards there was an evident withdrawal of subjective and clinical symptoms of disease, and the complete blood count showed significant amendment.

  2. Chronic Cough and Eosinophilic Esophagitis: An Uncommon Association

    PubMed Central

    Orizio, Paolo; Cinquini, Massimo; Minetti, Stefano; Alberti, Daniele; Paolo, Camilla Di; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Torri, Fabio; Crispino, Paola; Facchetti, Susanna; Rizzini, Fabio Lodi; Bassotti, Gabrio; Tosoni, Cinzia

    2011-01-01

    An increasing number of children, usually with gastrointestinal symptoms, is diagnosed with eosinophilic esophagitis (EE), and a particular subset of these patients complains of airway manifestations. We present the case of a 2-year-old child with chronic dry cough in whom EE was found after a first diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) due to pathological 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring. Traditional allergologic tests were negative, while patch tests were diagnostic for cow's milk allergy. We discuss the intriguing relationship between GERD and EE and the use of patch test for the allergologic screening of patients. PMID:21960955

  3. Extrapulmonary thoracic restriction (hidebound chest) complicating eosinophilic fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Chalker, R B; Dickey, B F; Rosenthal, N C; Simms, R W

    1991-11-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis (EF) is an unusual disorder characterized by diffuse skin thickening and induration due to inflammation within the deep fascia; visceral involvement is generally mild or absent. A patient with biopsy-proved EF developed progressive respiratory limitation. Physical examination revealed marked induration of the thoracic integument with a severely limited chest wall excursion. Total lung capacity was 62 percent of predicted with a normal corrected Dco and maximal inspiratory force; a chest computed tomogram with thin sections showed no evidence of parenchymal lung disease. Extrapulmonary thoracic restriction ("hidebound chest") has not been previously reported to complicate EF.

  4. Evaluation of the child who has eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Putnam, Philip E

    2009-02-01

    Children who have eosinophilic esophagitis require comprehensive evaluation before treatment and ongoing assessment during treatment. When completed at the appropriate times and under well-controlled circumstances, investigation yields the correct diagnosis, assures recognition of sequelae or recurrence of the inflammation, or confirms whether therapy has been effective. Proper management of each child depends on compulsive follow-up until all of the therapeutic goals have been achieved and the child is on a stable regimen without esophageal inflammation. This article summarizes the issues facing the patient and the physician during this process.

  5. Reversible Severe Eosinophilic Endomyocardial Fibrosis During Pregnancy: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Pineton de Chambrun, Marc; Charron, Philippe; Vauthier-Brouzes, Danièle; Cluzel, Philippe; Haroche, Julien; Kahn, Jean-Emmanuel; Amoura, Zahir; Aubart, Fleur Cohen

    2015-08-01

    Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is a condition of unknown origin characterized by clinical manifestations attributable to eosinophilia and eosinophilic infiltration of tissues. Cardiac involvement is rare and threatening accounting for 33% to 43% of death in HES. Management of pregnant patients with HES is challenging and have rarely been reported, particularly in the setting of heart failure.We here report on the case of a 29-year-old woman with HES who developed severe endomyocardial fibrosis with heart failure during pregnancy. Outcome was favorable under treatment with prednisone and azathioprine.This case illustrates a favorable outcome of endomyocardial fibrosis during pregnancy. PMID:26266372

  6. Myopathy and eosinophilic pneumonia coincidentally induced by treatment with daptomycin.

    PubMed

    Hagiya, Hideharu; Hasegawa, Kou; Asano, Kikuko; Terasaka, Tomohiro; Kimura, Kosuke; Nada, Takahiro; Nakamura, Eri; Waseda, Koichi; Hanayama, Yoshihisa; Otsuka, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    A 34-year-old man with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DiGeorge syndrome) concurrently suffered from myopathy and eosinophilic pneumonia shortly after receiving daptomycin (DAP) for right-sided infective endocarditis. The simultaneous occurrence of these phenomena in relation to DAP therapy has not been previously well described. An allergic reaction was suspected as a possible etiology of these DAP-related complications. This case highlights the need for close observation in order to detect both musculoskeletal and respiratory disorders from the start of DAP therapy. Physicians should pay more attention to this new drug, which is expected to be frequently used in various clinical settings. PMID:25758082

  7. Myeloprolipherative disorder type chronic myeloid leukemia--eosinophilic form.

    PubMed

    Arnautovic-Custovic, Aida; Hasic, Samira; Kopic, Emina; Jahic, Azra; Jovic, Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    Chronic eosinophilic leukemia (CEL) is a very rare form of leucemia in the western world. Adequate response is seldomly achieved after treatment with corticosteroids, interferon-alfa (INF-alfa) and medications containing hydroxi-urea (Litalir). The study presents a patient with CEL with no initial therapeutic response to the use of corticosteroids, INF-alfa and hydroxy-urea, and with neither clinical nor hematological response. After setting a diagnosis of CEL, patient was ordinated Imatinib (Glivec tabbletes) in a daily dose of 200 mg. Two days afterwards there was an evident withdrawal of subjective and clinical symptoms of disease, and the complete blood count showed significant amendment. PMID:21776882

  8. Numerical Simulations of Granular Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, Derek C.; Michel, Patrick; Schwartz, Stephen R.; Ballouz, Ronald-Louis; Yu, Yang; Matsumura, Soko

    2014-11-01

    Spacecraft images and indirect observations including thermal inertia measurements indicate most small bodies have surface regolith. Evidence of granular flow is also apparent in the images. This material motion occurs in very low gravity, therefore in a completely different gravitational environment than on the Earth. Understanding and modeling these motions can aid in the interpretation of imaged surface features that may exhibit signatures of constituent material properties. Also, upcoming sample-return missions to small bodies, and possible future manned missions, will involve interaction with the surface regolith, so it is important to develop tools to predict the surface response. We have added new capabilities to the parallelized N-body gravity tree code pkdgrav [1,2] that permit the simulation of granular dynamics, including multi-contact physics and friction forces, using the soft-sphere discrete-element method [3]. The numerical approach has been validated through comparison with laboratory experiments (e.g., [3,4]). Ongoing and recently completed projects include: impacts into granular materials using different projectile shapes [5]; possible tidal resurfacing of asteroid Apophis during its 2029 encounter [6]; the Brazil-nut effect in low gravity [7]; and avalanche modeling.Acknowledgements: DCR acknowledges NASA (grants NNX08AM39G, NNX10AQ01G, NNX12AG29G) and NSF (AST1009579). PM acknowledges the French agency CNES. SRS works on the NEOShield Project funded under the European Commission’s FP7 program agreement No. 282703. SM acknowledges support from the Center for Theory and Computation at U Maryland and the Dundee Fellowship at U Dundee. Most simulations were performed using the YORP cluster in the Dept. of Astronomy at U Maryland and on the Deepthought High-Performance Computing Cluster at U Maryland.References: [1] Richardson, D.C. et al. 2000, Icarus 143, 45; [2] Stadel, J. 2001, Ph.D. Thesis, U Washington; [3] Schwartz, S.R. et al. 2012, Gran

  9. Aerofractures in Confined Granular Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksen, Fredrik K.; Turkaya, Semih; Toussaint, Renaud; Måløy, Knut J.; Flekkøy, Eirik G.

    2015-04-01

    We will present the optical analysis of experimental aerofractures in confined granular media. The study of this generic process may have applications in industries involving hydraulic fracturing of tight rocks, safe construction of dams, tunnels and mines, and in earth science where phenomena such as mud volcanoes and sand injectites are results of subsurface sediment displacements driven by fluid overpressure. It is also interesting to increase the understanding the flow instability itself, and how the fluid flow impacts the solid surrounding fractures and in the rest of the sample. Such processes where previously studied numerically [Niebling 2012a, Niebling 2012b] or in circular geometries. We will here explore experimentally linear geometries. We study the fracturing patterns that form when air flows into a dense, non-cohesive porous medium confined in a Hele-Shaw cell - i.e. into a packing of dry 80 micron beads placed between two glass plates separated by ~1mm. The cell is rectangular and fitted with a semi-permeable boundary to the atmosphere - blocking beads but not air - on one short edge, while the other three edges are impermeable. The porous medium is packed inside the cell between the semi-permeable boundary and an empty volume at the sealed side where the air pressure can be set and kept at a constant overpressure (1-2bar). Thus, for the air trapped inside the cell to release the overpressure it has to move through the solid. At high enough overpressures the air flow deforms the solid and increase permeability in some regions along the air-solid interface, which results in unstable flow and aerofracturing. Aerofractures are thought to be an analogue to hydrofractures, and an advantage of performing aerofracturing experiments in a Hele-Shaw cell is that the fracturing process can easily be observed in the lab. Our experiments are recorded with a high speed camera with a framerate of 1000 frames per second. In the analysis, by using various image

  10. Granular metamaterials for vibration mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gantzounis, G.; Serra-Garcia, M.; Homma, K.; Mendoza, J. M.; Daraio, C.

    2013-09-01

    Acoustic metamaterials that allow low-frequency band gaps are interesting for many practical engineering applications, where vibration control and sound insulation are necessary. In most prior studies, the mechanical response of these structures has been described using linear continuum approximations. In this work, we experimentally and theoretically address the formation of low-frequency band gaps in locally resonant granular crystals, where the dynamics of the system is governed by discrete equations. We investigate the quasi-linear behavior of such structures. The analysis shows that a stopband can be introduced at about one octave lower frequency than in materials without local resonances. Broadband and multi-frequency stopband characteristics can also be achieved by strategically tailoring the non-uniform local resonance parameters.

  11. Granular gases under extreme driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, W.; Machta, J.; Ben-Naim, E.

    2010-08-01

    We study inelastic gases in two dimensions using event-driven molecular-dynamics simulations. Our focus is the nature of the stationary state attained by rare injection of large amounts of energy to balance the dissipation due to collisions. We find that under such extreme driving, with the injection rate much smaller than the collision rate, the velocity distribution has a power-law high-energy tail. The numerically measured exponent characterizing this tail is in excellent agreement with predictions of kinetic theory over a wide range of system parameters. We conclude that driving by rare but powerful energy injection leads to a well-mixed gas and constitutes an alternative mechanism for agitating granular matter. In this distinct nonequilibrium steady state, energy cascades from large to small scales. Our simulations also show that when the injection rate is comparable with the collision rate, the velocity distribution has a stretched exponential tail.

  12. Granular filtration in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, J.S.; Yue, P.C.; Halow, J.S.

    1995-12-01

    Successful development of advanced coal-fired power conversion systems often require reliable and efficient cleanup devices which can remove particulate and gaseous pollutants from high-temperature high-pressure gas streams. A novel filtration concept for particulate cleanup has been developed at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the U.S. Department of Energy. The filtration system consists of a fine metal screen filter immersed in a fluidized bed of granular material. As the gas stream passes through the fluidized bed, a layer of the bed granular material is entrained and deposited at the screen surface. This material provides a natural granular filter to separate fine particles from the gas stream passing through the bed. Since the filtering media is the granular material supplied by the fluidized bed, the filter is not subjected to blinding like candle filters. Because only the inflowing gas, not fine particle cohesive forces, maintains the granular layer at the screen surface, once the thickness and permeability of the granular layer is stabilized, it remains unchanged as long as the in-flowing gas flow rate remains constant. The weight of the particles and the turbulent nature of the fluidized bed limits the thickness of the granular layer on the filter leading to a self-cleaning attribute of the filter. This paper presents work since then on a continuous filtration system. The continuous filtration testing system consisted of a filter, a two-dimensional fluidized-bed, a continuous powder feeder, a laser-based in-line particle counting, sizing, and velocimeter (PCSV), and a continuous solids feeding/bed material withdrawal system. The two-dimensional, transparent fluidized-bed allowed clear observation of the general fluidized state of the granular material and the conditions under which fines are captured by the granular layer.

  13. Functional Analysis of Free Fatty Acid Receptor GPR120 in Human Eosinophils: Implications in Metabolic Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Konno, Yasunori; Ueki, Shigeharu; Takeda, Masahide; Kobayashi, Yoshiki; Tamaki, Mami; Moritoki, Yuki; Oyamada, Hajime; Itoga, Masamichi; Kayaba, Hiroyuki; Omokawa, Ayumi; Hirokawa, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    Recent evidence has shown that eosinophils play an important role in metabolic homeostasis through Th2 cytokine production. GPR120 (FFA4) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for long-chain fatty acids that functions as a regulator of physiological energy metabolism. In the present study, we aimed to investigate whether human eosinophils express GPR120 and, if present, whether it possesses a functional capacity on eosinophils. Eosinophils isolated from peripheral venous blood expressed GPR120 at both the mRNA and protein levels. Stimulation with a synthetic GPR120 agonist, GW9508, induced rapid down-regulation of cell surface expression of GPR120, suggesting ligand-dependent receptor internalization. Although GPR120 activation did not induce eosinophil chemotactic response and degranulation, we found that GW9508 inhibited eosinophil spontaneous apoptosis and Fas receptor expression. The anti-apoptotic effect was attenuated by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors and was associated with inhibition of caspase-3 activity. Eosinophil response investigated using ELISpot assay indicated that stimulation with a GPR120 agonist induced IL-4 secretion. These findings demonstrate the novel functional properties of fatty acid sensor GPR120 on human eosinophils and indicate the previously unrecognized link between nutrient metabolism and the immune system. PMID:25790291

  14. IL-1β in eosinophil-mediated small intestinal homeostasis and IgA production

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Y; Wen, T; Mingler, MK; Caldwell, JM; Wang, YH; Chaplin, DD; Lee, EH; Jang, MH; Woo, SY; Seoh, JY; Miyasaka, M; Rothenberg, ME

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophils are multifunctional leukocytes that reside in the gastrointestinal (GI) lamina propria, where their basal function remains largely unexplored. In this study, by examining mice with a selective deficiency of systemic eosinophils (by lineage ablation) or GI eosinophils (eotaxin-1/2 double–deficient or CC chemokine receptor 3–deficient), we show that eosinophils support immunoglobulin A (IgA) class switching, maintain intestinal mucus secretions, affect intestinal microbial composition, and promote the development of Peyer’s patches. Eosinophil-deficient mice showed reduced expression of mediators of secretory IgA production, including intestinal interleukin 1β (IL-1β), inducible nitric oxide synthase, lymphotoxin (LT) α, and LT-β, and reduced levels of retinoic acid-related orphan receptor gamma t–positive (ROR-γt+) innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) while maintaining normal levels of APRIL (a proliferation-inducing ligand), BAFF (B cell–activating factor of the tumor necrosis factor family), and TGF-β (transforming growth factor β). GI eosinophils expressed a relatively high level of IL-1β, and IL-1β–deficient mice manifested the altered gene expression profiles observed in eosinophil-deficient mice and decreased levels of IgA+ cells and ROR-γt+ ILCs. On the basis of these collective data, we propose that eosinophils are required for homeostatic intestinal immune responses including IgA production and that their affect is mediated via IL-1β in the small intestine. PMID:25563499

  15. Eosinophilic pleural effusion due to Spirometra mansoni spargana: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lin, Quan; Ouyang, Jin-Sheng; Li, Jian-Min; Yang, Li; Li, Yu-Ping; Chen, Cheng-Shui

    2015-05-01

    A 36-year-old female presented with an eosinophilic pleural effusion. The eosinophilic pleural effusion was considered to have been caused by a parasitic infection. Spirometra mansoni spargana was confirmed by semi-rigid thoracoscopy. About 2 months after treatment with praziquantel for 3 days, the pleural effusion had disappeared on the chest roentgenogram.

  16. Eosinophils and IL-4 Support Nematode Growth Coincident with an Innate Response to Tissue Injury.

    PubMed

    Huang, Lu; Beiting, Daniel P; Gebreselassie, Nebiat G; Gagliardo, Lucille F; Ruyechan, Maura C; Lee, Nancy A; Lee, James J; Appleton, Judith A

    2015-12-01

    It has become increasingly clear that the functions of eosinophils extend beyond host defense and allergy to metabolism and tissue regeneration. These influences have strong potential to be relevant in worm infections in which eosinophils are prominent and parasites rely on the host for nutrients to support growth or reproduction. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism underlying the observation that eosinophils promote growth of Trichinella spiralis larvae in skeletal muscle. Our results indicate that IL-4 and eosinophils are necessary for normal larval growth and that eosinophils from IL-4 competent mice are sufficient to support growth. The eosinophil-mediated effect operates in the absence of adaptive immunity. Following invasion by newborn larvae, host gene expression in skeletal muscle was compatible with a regenerative response and a shift in the source of energy in infected tissue. The presence of eosinophils suppressed local inflammation while also influencing nutrient homeostasis in muscle. Redistribution of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) and phosphorylation of Akt were observed in nurse cells, consistent with enhancement of glucose uptake and glycogen storage by larvae that is known to occur. The data are consistent with a mechanism in which eosinophils promote larval growth by an IL-4 dependent mechanism that limits local interferon-driven responses that otherwise alter nutrient metabolism in infected muscle. Our findings document a novel interaction between parasite and host in which worms have evolved a strategy to co-opt an innate host cell response in a way that facilitates their growth. PMID:26720604

  17. Molecular cloning and characterization of a human eotaxin receptor expressed selectively on eosinophils

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    The chemokine eotaxin is unusual in that it appears to be a highly specific chemoattractant for eosinophils. Ligand-binding studies with radiolabeled eotaxin demonstrated a receptor on eosinophils distinct from the known chemokine receptors CKR-1 and -2. The distinct eotaxin binding site on human eosinophils also bound RANTES (regulated on activation T expressed and secreted) and monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)3. We have now isolated a cDNA from eosinophils, termed CKR-3, with significant sequence similarity to other well characterized chemokine receptors. Cells transfected with CKR-3 cDNA bound radiolabeled eotaxin specifically and with high affinity, comparable to the binding affinity observed with eosinophils. This receptor also bound RANTES and MCP-3 with high affinity, but not other CC or CXC chemokines. Furthermore, receptor transfectants generated in a murine B cell lymphoma cell line migrated in transwell chemotaxis assays to eotaxin, RANTES, and MCP-3, but not to any other chemokines. A monoclonal antibody recognizing CKR-3 was used to show that eosinophils, but not other leukocyte types, expressed this receptor. This pattern of expression was confirmed by Northern blot with RNA from highly purified leukocyte subsets. The restricted expression of CKR-3 on eosinophils and the fidelity of eotaxin binding to CKR-3, provides a potential mechanism for the selective recruitment and migration of eosinophils within tissues. PMID:8676064

  18. Angiostrongylus cantonensis: role of eosinophils in the neurotoxic syndrome (Gordon-like phenomenon).

    PubMed

    Perez, O; Capron, M; Lastre, M; Venge, P; Khalife, J; Capron, A

    1989-05-01

    The role of eosinophils in the pathophysiology of Angiostrongylus cantonensis infections was investigated in nonpermissive (guinea pig) and permissive (rat) hosts. Neurological symptoms similar to the Gordon phenomenon (ataxia, tremor, paralysis) together with a loss of Purkinje cells in the cerebellum were observed after intracraneal injection of human eosinophil extracts or after infection with A. cantonensis, only in guinea pigs and not in rats. Blood eosinophilia as well as eosinophil numbers present in the cerebellum and in the cerebrospinal fluid were higher in guinea pigs than in rats, at all times after infection with A. cantonensis. Increased levels of cytotoxicity toward L3 larvae in vitro were obtained in the presence of guinea pig eosinophils and IgE antibodies, rather than with the corresponding rat effector system. The detection of one eosinophil granule component, the eosinophil peroxidase, in the cerebrospinal fluid from infected guinea pigs but not from rats suggested that in nonpermissive hosts, neurological disorders, similar to the previously described Gordon phenomenon, might be due to eosinophil neurotoxins released after interaction of eosinophils with the parasites.

  19. Eosinophilic airway inflammation: role in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    George, Leena; Brightling, Christopher E.

    2016-01-01

    The chronic lung diseases, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are common affecting over 500 million people worldwide and causing substantial morbidity and mortality. Asthma is typically associated with Th2-mediated eosinophilic airway inflammation, in contrast to neutrophilic inflammation observed commonly in COPD. However, there is increasing evidence that the eosinophil might play an important role in 10–40% of patients with COPD. Consistently in both asthma and COPD a sputum eosinophilia is associated with a good response to corticosteroid therapy and tailored strategies aimed to normalize sputum eosinophils reduce exacerbation frequency and severity. Advances in our understanding of the multistep paradigm of eosinophil recruitment to the airway, and the consequence of eosinophilic inflammation, has led to the development of new therapies to target these molecular pathways. In this article we discuss the mechanisms of eosinophilic trafficking, the tools to assess eosinophilic airway inflammation in asthma and COPD during stable disease and exacerbations and review current and novel anti-eosinophilic treatments. PMID:26770668

  20. 21 CFR 133.145 - Granular cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Granular cheese for manufacturing. 133.145 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.145 Granular cheese for manufacturing. Granular cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for granular cheese by §...

  1. 21 CFR 133.145 - Granular cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Granular cheese for manufacturing. 133.145 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.145 Granular cheese for manufacturing. Granular cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for granular cheese by §...

  2. 21 CFR 133.145 - Granular cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Granular cheese for manufacturing. 133.145 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.145 Granular cheese for manufacturing. Granular cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for granular cheese by §...

  3. 21 CFR 133.145 - Granular cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Granular cheese for manufacturing. 133.145 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.145 Granular cheese for manufacturing. Granular cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for granular cheese by §...

  4. 21 CFR 133.145 - Granular cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Granular cheese for manufacturing. 133.145 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.145 Granular cheese for manufacturing. Granular cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for granular cheese by §...

  5. 76 FR 4936 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... on granular PTFE resin from Italy and Japan (75 FR 67082-67083 and 67105-67108, November 1, 2010... COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy AGENCY: United States International Trade... antidumping duty order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin (``granular PTFE resin'') from Italy....

  6. [Some modern views of the role of the eosinophils in allergic reactions and bronchial asthma and a new method of detecting eosinophils in the bronchial secretion].

    PubMed

    Denchev, K; Lipcheva, N; Kis'ova, K

    1976-01-01

    A review of certain contemporary opinions of eosinophil function in allergic reactions and bronchial asthma is presented in this report. Phagocytosis and processing of the complexes antigenantibody, histamine inhibition and a histamine elimination elimination by a specific inhibitor, isolated from eosinophilis (EDI), stimulation of prostaglandines E release, which also inhibit histamine and have a bronchial dilataion effect. The new method is recommended for eosinophil detection in sputa based on the fluorescent principle as faster and more efficient.

  7. A Sensitive High Throughput ELISA for Human Eosinophil Peroxidase: A Specific Assay to Quantify Eosinophil Degranulation from Patient-derived Sources

    PubMed Central

    Ochkur, Sergei I.; Kim, John Dongil; Protheroe, Cheryl A.; Colbert, Dana; Condjella, Rachel M.; Bersoux, Sophie; Helmers, Richard A.; Moqbel, Redwan; Lacy, Paige; Kelly, Elizabeth A.; Jarjour, Nizar N.; Kern, Robert; Peters, Anju; Schleimer, Robert P.; Furuta, Glenn T.; Nair, Parameswaran; Lee, James J.; Lee, Nancy A.

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative high throughput assays of eosinophil-mediated activities in fluid samples from patients in a clinical setting have been limited to ELISA assessments for the presence of the prominent granule ribonucleases, ECP and EDN. However, the demonstration that these ribonucleases are expressed by leukocytes other than eosinophils, as well as cells of non-hematopoietic origin, limits the usefulness of these assays. Two novel monoclonal antibodies recognizing eosinophil peroxidase (EPX) were used to develop an eosinophil-specific and sensitive sandwich ELISA. The sensitivity of this EPX-based ELISA was shown to be similar to that of the commercially available ELISA kits for ECP and EDN. More importantly, evidence is also presented confirming that among these granule protein detection options, EPX-based ELISA is the only eosinophil-specific assay. The utility of this high throughput assay to detect released EPX was shown in ex vivo degranulation studies with isolated human eosinophils. In addition, EPX-based ELISA was used to detect and quantify eosinophil degranulation in several in vivo patient settings, including bronchoalveolar lavage fluid obtained following segmental allergen challenge of subjects with allergic asthma, induced sputum derived from respiratory subjects following hypotonic saline inhalation, and nasal lavage of chronic rhinosinusitis patients. This unique EPX-based ELISA thus provides an eosinophil-specific assay that is sensitive, reproducible, and quantitative. In addition, this assay is adaptable to high throughput formats (e.g., automated assays utilizing microtiter plates) using the diverse patient fluid samples typically available in research and clinical settings. PMID:22750539

  8. Continuum description of avalanches in granular media.

    SciTech Connect

    Aranson, I. S.; Tsimring, L. S.

    2000-12-05

    A continuum theory of partially fluidized granular flows is proposed. The theory is based on a combination of the mass and momentum conservation equations with the order parameter equation which describes the transition between flowing and static components of the granular system. We apply this model to the dynamics of avalanches in chutes. The theory provides a quantitative description of recent observations of granular flows on rough inclined planes (Daerr and Douady 1999): layer bistability, and the transition from triangular avalanches propagating downhill at small inclination angles to balloon-shaped avalanches also propagating uphill for larger angles.

  9. Impact compaction of a granular material

    SciTech Connect

    Fenton, Gregg; Asay, Blaine; Dalton, Devon

    2015-05-19

    The dynamic behavior of granular materials has importance to a variety of engineering applications. Structural seismic coupling, planetary science, and earth penetration mechanics, are just a few of the application areas. Although the mechanical behavior of granular materials of various types have been studied extensively for several decades, the dynamic behavior of such materials remains poorly understood. High-quality experimental data are needed to improve our general understanding of granular material compaction physics. This study will describe how an instrumented plunger impact system can be used to measure pressure-density relationships for model materials at high and controlled strain rates and subsequently used for computational modeling.

  10. [Eosinophilic esophagitis--pathogenesis, clinical presentation and therapeutic management].

    PubMed

    von Arnim, U; Mönkemüller, K; Malfertheiner, P; Straumann, A

    2007-12-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is a relatively new, chronic, TH 2-type allergic inflammation of the esophagus. EE occurs more frequently in men. Allergic diseases such as asthma or atopic dermatitis are present in 50-70 % of patients or their relatives. In adults, the most common presenting symptom of EE is dysphagia, with or without food bolus impaction. Endoscopic findings of EE include mucosal furrows, corrugated or concentric rings or ridges in the esophagus ("feline esophagus"), with or without tiny whitish exudates. The diagnosis is confirmed by the observation of high counts of eosinophils in the esophageal epithelium (at least 24 /HPF). The cornerstones of medical therapy are either topical or systemic corticosteroids. Additional therapies included leukotriene receptor antagonists (montelukast) and IL-5 blockers (Mepolizumab). Complications of EE such as esophageal strictures should be carefully dilated using either bougies or a balloon. Currently it is still not known whether the late complications of EE can be prevented by the use of anti-inflammatory agents and this can only be demonstrated through further long-term follow-up studies.

  11. Update on Eosinophilic Meningoencephalitis and Its Clinical Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos; da Silva, Ana Cristina Arámburu; Yoshimura, Kentaro

    2009-01-01

    Summary: Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis is caused by a variety of helminthic infections. These worm-specific infections are named after the causative worm genera, the most common being angiostrongyliasis, gnathostomiasis, toxocariasis, cysticercosis, schistosomiasis, baylisascariasis, and paragonimiasis. Worm parasites enter an organism through ingestion of contaminated water or an intermediate host and can eventually affect the central nervous system (CNS). These infections are potentially serious events leading to sequelae or death, and diagnosis depends on currently limited molecular methods. Identification of parasites in fluids and tissues is rarely possible, while images and clinical examinations do not lead to a definitive diagnosis. Treatment usually requires the concomitant administration of corticoids and anthelminthic drugs, yet new compounds and their extensive and detailed clinical evaluation are much needed. Eosinophilia in fluids may be detected in other infectious and noninfectious conditions, such as neoplastic disease, drug use, and prosthesis reactions. Thus, distinctive identification of eosinophils in fluids is a necessary component in the etiologic diagnosis of CNS infections. PMID:19366917

  12. Elimination diets in the management of eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Wechsler, Joshua B; Schwartz, Sally; Amsden, Katie; Kagalwalla, Amir F

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis, an increasingly recognized chronic inflammatory disorder isolated to the esophagus, is triggered by an abnormal allergic response to dietary antigens. Current treatment includes swallowed topical steroids and dietary modification, which aim to resolve symptoms and prevent long-term complications such as formation of strictures. The dietary approach has become more widely accepted because long-term steroid therapy is associated with potential risks. Dietary treatment includes elemental and elimination diets. An exclusive elemental diet, which requires replacement of all intact protein with amino acid-based formula, offers the best response of all available therapies, with remission in up to 96% of subjects proving it to be superior to all other available therapies including topical steroids. However, compliance with this approach is challenging because of poor taste and monotony. The high cost of formula and the associated psychosocial problems are additional drawbacks of this approach. Empiric and allergy test-directed elimination diets have gained popularity given that elimination of a limited number of foods is much easier and as such is more readily acceptable. There is a growing body of literature supporting this type of therapy in both children and adults. This paper reviews the evidence for all types of dietary therapy in eosinophilic esophagitis. PMID:24920928

  13. Treatment of eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells syndrome) - a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Räßler, F; Lukács, J; Elsner, P

    2016-09-01

    Eosinophilic cellulitis (Wells syndrome) is a rare inflammatory skin disease defined by erythematous, tender, sometimes urticarial plaques, possibly with vesicles and bullae, and granulomatous eosinophilic infiltrates in the dermis. Usually the disease has a benign course with spontaneous remission within a few weeks. Nevertheless, recurrences are quite frequent and may occur for several years. The objective of this study was to review the so far reported treatment options for Wells syndrome in a systematic manner. This systematic review is based on a search on Medline, Embase and Cochrane Central Register for English and German articles from 1970 to 2015. Advices on the treatment of Wells syndrome are limited predominately to case reports or to small case series. There are no randomized controlled trials, and control groups are missing. A variety of treatment options for Wells syndrome were reported including topical and systemic corticosteroids, antihistamines, cyclosporine, dapsone, azathioprine, griseofulvin, doxycycline, minocycline, antimalarial medications, oral tacrolimus/topical tacrolimus, sulfasalazine, interferon alpha and gamma, TNF alpha inhibitors, colchicine and PUVA therapy. As well-designed, randomized controlled trials are missing, no guidelines for the treatment of this disease can be given. Due to the small number of patients and the frequent misdiagnosis of this clinical entity, the aim of this systematic overview is to call attention to this rare condition and to help clinicians to diagnose and treat Wells syndrome effectively. Due to the good prognosis and tendency to resolve, systemic treatment should be limited to cases resistant to local therapy or with widespread lesions. PMID:27357601

  14. Recent discoveries and emerging therapeutics in eosinophilic esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Aakash; Cheng, Edaire

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an allergy-mediated disease culminating in severe eosinophilic inflammation and dysfunction of the esophagus. This chronic disorder of the esophagus causes significant morbidity, poor quality of life, and complications involving fibrosis and esophageal remodeling. Overlapping features between EoE and gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) pose great challenges to differentiating the two conditions, although the two disorders are not mutually exclusive. Recent findings suggest that the confounding condition proton pump inhibitor - responsive esophageal eosinophilia (PPI-REE) is likely a subset of EoE. Since PPIs have therapeutic properties that can benefit EoE, PPIs should be considered as a therapeutic option for EoE rather than a diagnostic screen to differentiate GERD, PPI-REE, and EoE. Other current treatments include dietary therapy, corticosteroids, and dilation. Immunomodulators and biologic agents might have therapeutic value, and larger trials are needed to assess efficacy and safety. Understanding the pathophysiology of EoE is critical to the development of novel therapeutics. PMID:26855809

  15. Molecular, genetic, and cellular bases for treating eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Rothenberg, Marc E

    2015-05-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) was historically distinguished from gastroesophageal reflux disease on the basis of histology and lack of responsiveness to acid suppressive therapy, but it is now appreciated that esophageal eosinophilia can respond to proton pump inhibitors. Genetic and environmental factors contribute to risk for EoE, particularly early-life events. Disease pathogenesis involves activation of epithelial inflammatory pathways (production of eotaxin-3 [encoded by CCL26]), impaired barrier function (mediated by loss of desmoglein-1), increased production and/or activity of transforming growth factor-β, and induction of allergic inflammation by eosinophils and mast cells. Susceptibility has been associated with variants at 5q22 (TSLP) and 2p23 (CAPN14), indicating roles for allergic sensitization and esophageal specific protease pathways. We propose that EoE is a unique disease characterized by food hypersensitivity; strong hereditability influenced by early-life exposures and esophageal-specific genetic risk variants; and allergic inflammation and that the disease is remitted by disrupting inflammatory and T-helper type 2 cytokine-mediated responses and through dietary elimination therapy.

  16. Elimination diets in the management of eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Wechsler, Joshua B; Schwartz, Sally; Amsden, Katie; Kagalwalla, Amir F

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis, an increasingly recognized chronic inflammatory disorder isolated to the esophagus, is triggered by an abnormal allergic response to dietary antigens. Current treatment includes swallowed topical steroids and dietary modification, which aim to resolve symptoms and prevent long-term complications such as formation of strictures. The dietary approach has become more widely accepted because long-term steroid therapy is associated with potential risks. Dietary treatment includes elemental and elimination diets. An exclusive elemental diet, which requires replacement of all intact protein with amino acid-based formula, offers the best response of all available therapies, with remission in up to 96% of subjects proving it to be superior to all other available therapies including topical steroids. However, compliance with this approach is challenging because of poor taste and monotony. The high cost of formula and the associated psychosocial problems are additional drawbacks of this approach. Empiric and allergy test-directed elimination diets have gained popularity given that elimination of a limited number of foods is much easier and as such is more readily acceptable. There is a growing body of literature supporting this type of therapy in both children and adults. This paper reviews the evidence for all types of dietary therapy in eosinophilic esophagitis. PMID:24920928

  17. IL-5 in post-traumatic eosinophilic pleural effusion.

    PubMed Central

    Schandené, L; Namias, B; Crusiaux, A; Lybin, M; Devos, R; Velu, T; Capel, P; Bellens, R; Goldman, M

    1993-01-01

    Thoracic trauma or pneumothorax can result in pleural fluid eosinophilia. In this study we investigated the role of the eosinophilopoietic cytokine IL-5 in three cases of post-traumatic eosinophilic pleural effusions (EPE). Using a specific immunoenzymatic assay, significant levels of IL-5 were found in EPE (range 100-3000 pg/ml), while IL-5 was undetectable (< 25 pg/ml) in corresponding serum samples and in non-eosinophilic pleural fluids. IL-5 present in pleural fluids was found bioactive in a proliferative assay using a mouse CTLL-2 cell line transfected with the cDNA corresponding to the alpha chain of the human IL-5 receptor. Using a reverse polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method, we found IL-5 mRNA expression within pleural mononuclear cells from patients with EPE, but not in corresponding peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), confirming that IL-5 is synthesized locally in the pleural cavity. In the two cases in which pleural CD4+ cells were purified, these cells were identified as the major source of IL-5. Taken together, these data indicate that the development of post-traumatic EPE is related to a local secretion of IL-5 by CD4+ cells present in the pleural cavity. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8100745

  18. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia in a New York City firefighter exposed to World Trade Center dust.

    PubMed

    Rom, William N; Weiden, Michael; Garcia, Roberto; Yie, Ting An; Vathesatogkit, Pratan; Tse, Doris B; McGuinness, Georgeann; Roggli, Victor; Prezant, David

    2002-09-15

    We report a sentinel case of acute eosinophilic pneumonia in a firefighter exposed to high concentrations of World Trade Center dust during the rescue effort from September 11 to 24. The firefighter presented with a Pa(O2) of 53 mm Hg and responded to oxygen and corticosteroids. Computed tomography scan showed patchy ground glass density, thickened bronchial walls, and bilateral pleural effusions. Bronchoalveolar lavage recovered 70% eosinophils, with only 1% eosinophils in peripheral blood. Eosinophils were not degranulated and increased levels of interleukin-5 were measured in bronchoalveolar lavage and serum. Mineralogic analysis counted 305 commercial asbestos fibers/10(6) macrophages including those with high aspect ratios, and significant quantities of fly ash and degraded fibrous glass. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia is a rare consequence of acute high dust exposure. World Trade Center dust consists of large particle-size silicates, but fly ash and asbestos fibers may be found in bronchoalveolar lavage cells.

  19. Glucocorticosteroid-sensitive inflammatory eosinophilic pseudotumor of the bladder in an adolescent: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Inflammatory eosinophilic pseudotumor of the bladder is a rare inflammatory bladder disease. The etiology and pathophysiology of this condition are still unclear. Few case reports have described inflammatory eosinophilic pseudotumor of the bladder in adults or children. Although benign, this disease is occasionally clinically aggressive and locally invasive, thus open surgical removal or complete transurethral resection is recommended. Case presentation We present the case of a biopsy-proven inflammatory eosinophilic pseudotumor of the bladder in a previously healthy 16-year-old male adolescent with 2-month history of frequent micturition and dysuria with no significant apparent causative factors. The tumor regressed after a 6-week course of glucocorticosteroids. Conclusion To the best of our knowledge, our case is a rare case of inflammatory eosinophilic pseudotumor of the bladder treated with complete conservative management. Due to its glucocorticosteroid-sensitive nature, we postulate that this disease belongs to a subgroup of eosinophilic disorders. PMID:20062774

  20. The Role and Immunobiology of Eosinophils in the Respiratory System: a Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Eng, Stephanie S; DeFelice, Magee L

    2016-04-01

    The eosinophil is a fully delineated granulocyte that disseminates throughout the bloodstream to end-organs after complete maturation in the bone marrow. While the presence of eosinophils is not uncommon even in healthy individuals, these granulocytes play a central role in inflammation and allergic processes. Normally appearing in smaller numbers, higher levels of eosinophils in the peripheral blood or certain tissues typically signal a pathologic process. Eosinophils confer a beneficial effect on the host by enhancing immunity against molds and viruses. However, tissue-specific elevation of eosinophils, particularly in the respiratory system, can cause a variety of short-term symptoms and may lead to long-term sequelae. Eosinophils often play a role in more commonly encountered disease processes, such as asthma and allergic responses in the upper respiratory tract. They are also integral in the pathology of less common diseases including eosinophilic pneumonia, allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms. They can be seen in neoplastic disorders or occupational exposures as well. The involvement of eosinophils in pulmonary disease processes can affect the method of diagnosis and the selection of treatment modalities. By analyzing the complex interaction between the eosinophil and its environment, which includes signaling molecules and tissues, different therapies have been discovered and created in order to target disease processes at a cellular level. Innovative treatments such as mepolizumab and benralizumab will be discussed. The purpose of this article is to further explore the topic of eosinophilic presence, activity, and pathology in the respiratory tract, as well as discuss current and future treatment options through a detailed literature review.

  1. Selected cases from the Arkadi M. Rywlin international pathology slide series: granular cell nevus of congenital type: a melanocytic proliferation exhibiting distinct morphologic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural features.

    PubMed

    De Pellegrin, Alessandro; Luzar, Bostjan; Suster, Saul; Falconieri, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    A case of combined melanocytic nevus characterized by extensive granular cytoplasmic changes is described. Clinically, the lesion presented as an irregular, slightly asymmetric, and raised pigmented lesion of back with indistinct borders. Microscopically, a congenital pattern of distribution of melanocytes could be recognized growing along follicular and adnexal units. Melanocytes were arranged in sheets of epithelioid cells with abundant granular cytoplasm. A minor component featuring conventional dermal melanocytes was also present. Mitotic figures were not recognized. Immunohistochemistry was positive for Melan A and S100 protein in both conventional melanocytes and granular cells. In addition, the granular cells were also strongly positive for HMB45 and NKI-C3. The proliferative marker Ki67/MIB1 was nonreactive. Ultrastructural examination showed large cells with round to oval nuclei and numerous scattered cytoplasmic granules showing features consistent with lysosomes or autophagosomes. No premelanosomes, glycogen, lipid, or other distinctive organelles could be identified. Clinical follow-up at 2 years was uneventful. This unusual lesion may represent a peculiar dermal melanocytic proliferation in which the abundant granular cytoplasm is most likely due to degeneration of melanosomes induced by autophagocytic activity. The striking cytoplasmic granularity observed in this lesion may lead to confusion with other conditions, thus warranting adding granular cell nevus to the phenotypic spectrum of benign melanocytic proliferations.

  2. Molecular Evolution of the Non-Coding Eosinophil Granule Ontogeny Transcript

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Dominic; Stadler, Peter F.

    2011-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomes are pervasively transcribed. A large fraction of the transcriptional output consists of long, mRNA-like, non-protein-coding transcripts (mlncRNAs). The evolutionary history of mlncRNAs is still largely uncharted territory. In this contribution, we explore in detail the evolutionary traces of the eosinophil granule ontogeny transcript (EGOT), an experimentally confirmed representative of an abundant class of totally intronic non-coding transcripts (TINs). EGOT is located antisense to an intron of the ITPR1 gene. We computationally identify putative EGOT orthologs in the genomes of 32 different amniotes, including orthologs from primates, rodents, ungulates, carnivores, afrotherians, and xenarthrans, as well as putative candidates from basal amniotes, such as opossum or platypus. We investigate the EGOT gene phylogeny, analyze patterns of sequence conservation, and the evolutionary conservation of the EGOT gene structure. We show that EGO-B, the spliced isoform, may be present throughout the placental mammals, but most likely dates back even further. We demonstrate here for the first time that the whole EGOT locus is highly structured, containing several evolutionary conserved, and thermodynamic stable secondary structures. Our analyses allow us to postulate novel functional roles of a hitherto poorly understood region at the intron of EGO-B which is highly conserved at the sequence level. The region contains a novel ITPR1 exon and also conserved RNA secondary structures together with a conserved TATA-like element, which putatively acts as a promoter of an independent regulatory element. PMID:22303364

  3. NMR Measurements of Granular Flow and Compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukushima, Eiichi

    1998-03-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) can be used to measure statistical distributions of granular flow velocity and fluctuations of velocity, as well as spatial distributions of particulate concentration, flow velocity, its fluctuations, and other parameters that may be derived from these. All measurements have been of protons in liquid-containing particles such as mustard seeds or pharmaceutical pills. Our favorite geometry has been the slowly rotating partially filled rotating drum with granular flow taking place along the free surface of the particles. All the above-mentioned parameters have been studied as well as a spatial distribution of particulate diffusion coefficients, energy dissipation due to collisions, as well as segregation of non-uniform mixtures of granular material. Finally, we describe some motions of granular material under periodic vibrations.

  4. Granular crystals: Nonlinear dynamics meets materials engineering

    DOE PAGES

    Porter, Mason A.; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G.; Daraio, Chiara

    2015-11-01

    In this article, the freedom to choose the size, stiffness, and spatial distribution of macroscopic particles in a lattice makes granular crystals easily tailored building blocks for shock-absorbing materials, sound-focusing devices, acoustic switches, and other exotica.

  5. Uniform shock waves in disordered granular matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Leopoldo R.; Turner, Ari M.; Vitelli, Vincenzo

    2012-10-01

    The confining pressure P is perhaps the most important parameter controlling the properties of granular matter. Strongly compressed granular media are, in many respects, simple solids in which elastic perturbations travel as ordinary phonons. However, the speed of sound in granular aggregates continuously decreases as the confining pressure decreases, completely vanishing at the jamming-unjamming transition. This anomalous behavior suggests that the transport of energy at low pressures should not be dominated by phonons. In this work we use simulations and theory to show how the response of granular systems becomes increasingly nonlinear as pressure decreases. In the low-pressure regime the elastic energy is found to be mainly transported through nonlinear waves and shocks. We numerically characterize the propagation speed, shape, and stability of these shocks and model the dependence of the shock speed on pressure and impact intensity by a simple analytical approach.

  6. Noise induces rare events in granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khain, Evgeniy; Sander, Leonard M.

    2016-09-01

    The granular Leidenfrost effect [B. Meerson, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 024301 (2003), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.91.024301; P. Eshuis et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 258001 (2005), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.95.258001] is the levitation of a mass of granular matter when a wall below the grains is vibrated, giving rise to a hot granular gas below the cluster. We find by simulation that for a range of parameters the system is bistable: the levitated cluster can occasionally break and give rise to two clusters and a hot granular gas above and below. We use techniques from the theory of rare events to compute the mean transition time for breaking to occur. This requires the introduction of a two-component reaction coordinate.

  7. Two phase granular transport in cylindrical confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayaz, Monem; Toussaint, Renaud; Måløy, Knut-Jørgen

    2016-04-01

    We experimentally study the granular transport properties of a gas/liquid interface as it progresses trough a horizontal capillary tube, filled with a mixture of water and a sedimented granular layer.The displacement dynamics of such dense mixtures exhibit a rheology determined by the frictional interactions between the individual grains, capillary thresholds and the viscous interactions. By direct imaging and pressure measurements we observe different transport regimes as the pumping rate is varied. We classify these regimes according to the observed predominance of frictional or viscous interactions in a phase diagram. For the frictional regime the granular material is not transported out of the tube but structured in a pattern, characterized by its series of granular plugs and gaps. with the pressure signal displaying intermittent stick-slip behavior.

  8. Granular materials under vibration and thermal cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ke

    We report flow rate measurement of granular materials from a lab size silo with and without sinusoidal vibration, and the flows from a jammed container under mechanical shocks. We also report the investigation of fragility in granular materials using controlled cyclic temperature variation, or thermal cycling that induces microscopic changes in the size of the grains and the container. When placed under sinusoidal vibration, the flow rate or flux from an unjammed container decreases with the peak velocity of the vibration, and becomes a constant at the highest peak velocities. The flux under vibration follows a 5/2 power scaling rule to corrected orifice diameter, the same scaling rule that is also observed in the absence of vibration. Under vibration, granular flux is no greater than the flux without vibration. Density dilution of granular packs under vibration is likely the cause for such reduced flux, and can be described by a model based on energy balance at the vibrating boundary. The eventual saturation of flux at the highest peak velocities signifies a possible transition from granular fluid to granular gas, as the density decreases and inter-grain interaction changes. Brief flows can be initiated from a jammed container using mechanical impacts. The number of grains flowing out of the container as well as the duration of these flows follows an almost exponential decay distribution. The probability that a flow can be initiated by an impact increases with impact intensity and ratio the diameters of the orifice and the grain. The possible container size and filling depth dependence are also discussed. For the thermal cycling measurement, data show that the packing fraction of granular samples increases under thermal cycles regardless of the relative thermal expansions of the grains or the container. A heavy intruder, when passing a density threshold, sinks in a granular pile under thermal cycles. The results show that the bulk property of granular materials

  9. Aerobic granular processes: Current research trends.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quanguo; Hu, Jianjun; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-06-01

    Aerobic granules are large biological aggregates with compact interiors that can be used in efficient wastewater treatment. This mini-review presents new researches on the development of aerobic granular processes, extended treatments for complicated pollutants, granulation mechanisms and enhancements of granule stability in long-term operation or storage, and the reuse of waste biomass as renewable resources. A discussion on the challenges of, and prospects for, the commercialization of aerobic granular process is provided. PMID:26873285

  10. Shear dispersion in dense granular flows

    SciTech Connect

    Christov, Ivan C.; Stone, Howard A.

    2014-04-18

    We formulate and solve a model problem of dispersion of dense granular materials in rapid shear flow down an incline. The effective dispersivity of the depth-averaged concentration of the dispersing powder is shown to vary as the Péclet number squared, as in classical Taylor–Aris dispersion of molecular solutes. An extension to generic shear profiles is presented, and possible applications to industrial and geological granular flows are noted.

  11. Contact micromechanics in granular media with clay

    SciTech Connect

    Ita, S.L.

    1994-08-01

    Many granular materials, including sedimentary rocks and soils, contain clay particles in the pores, grain contacts, or matrix. The amount and location of the clays and fluids can influence the mechanical and hydraulic properties of the granular material. This research investigated the mechanical effects of clay at grain-to-grain contacts in the presence of different fluids. Laboratory seismic wave propagation tests were conducted at ultrasonic frequencies using spherical glass beads coated with Montmorillonite clay (SWy-1) onto which different fluids were adsorbed. For all bead samples, seismic velocity increased and attenuation decreased as the contact stiffnesses increased with increasing stress demonstrating that grain contacts control seismic transmission in poorly consolidated and unconsolidated granular material. Coating the beads with clay added stiffness and introduced viscosity to the mechanical contact properties that increased the velocity and attenuation of the propagating seismic wave. Clay-fluid interactions were studied by allowing the clay coating to absorb water, ethyl alcohol, and hexadecane. Increasing water amounts initially increased seismic attenuation due to clay swelling at the contacts. Attenuation decreased for higher water amounts where the clay exceeded the plastic limit and was forced from the contact areas into the surrounding open pore space during sample consolidation. This work investigates how clay located at grain contacts affects the micromechanical, particularly seismic, behavior of granular materials. The need for this work is shown by a review of the effects of clays on seismic wave propagation, laboratory measurements of attenuation in granular media, and proposed mechanisms for attenuation in granular media.

  12. A method for the detection of eosinophilic granulocytes in colonoscopic biopsies from IBD patients.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Carlos A

    2003-01-01

    Eosinophilic granulocytes were found to be autofluorescent when Giemsa-stained sections were stimulated with indirect light fluorescence (ILF). The frequency of autofluorescent eosinophils was assessed in areas with diffuse and focal inflammation in 76 consecutive colonoscopic biopsies from patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Crohn's disease (CD = 32), ulcerative colitis (UC = 30), and collagenous colitis (CC = 7). All IBD cases had moderate to severe pancolitis. In areas with diffuse inflammation, severe eosinophilia was recorded in 39.6% or in 38 of 96 high power fields investigated in patients affected by CD, and in 3.3% or in 3 of 90 high power fields examined in patients with UC. In areas with focal inflammation, the mean percentage of eosinophils in CD was 57% (range 44-70%), and 9% in UC (range 6-26%). No focal inflammation was present in CC. In the submucosa of some CD patients, a large number of autofluorescent eosinophils and many autofluorescent cell-free granules were seen. It was inferred that these autofluorescent granules had been released from eosinophils, and that the eosinophilic granulocytes from which these granules had originated were no longer discernible. Focal eosinophilic mucosal infiltration in CD is more common than epithelioid cell granulomas, and emerges as an important parameter in the histologic differential diagnosis between colonic CD and UC. PMID:12812315

  13. Severe Rhabdomyolysis without Systemic Involvement: A Rare Case of Idiopathic Eosinophilic Polymyositis.

    PubMed

    Farooq, Ayesha; Choksi, Vivek; Chu, Andrew; Mankodi, Dhruti; Shaharyar, Sameer; O'Brien, Keith; Shankar, Uday

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Eosinophilic polymyositis (EPM) is a rare cause of rhabdomyolysis characterized by eosinophilic infiltrates in the muscle. We describe the case of a young patient with eosinophilic polymyositis causing isolated severe rhabdomyolysis without systemic involvement. Case Presentation. A 22-year-old Haitian female with no past medical history presented with progressive generalized muscle aches without precipitating factors. Examination of the extremities revealed diffuse muscle tenderness. Laboratory findings demonstrated peripheral eosinophilia and high creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) and transaminase levels. Workup for the common causes of rhabdomyolysis were negative. Her CPK continued to rise to greater than 100,000 units/L so a muscle biopsy was performed which showed widespread eosinophilic infiltrate consistent with eosinophilic polymyositis. She was started on high dose systemic corticosteroids with improvement of her symptoms, eosinophilia, and CPK level. Discussion. This case illustrates a systematic workup of rhabdomyolysis in the presence of peripheral eosinophilia. Many differential diagnoses must be considered before establishing a diagnosis of idiopathic eosinophilic polymyositis. To our knowledge, our case of eosinophilic polymyositis is unique as it presented with severe rhabdomyolysis without another organ involvement. Clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for this physically debilitating disease to aid in prompt diagnosis. PMID:26229703

  14. Associations between peripheral blood eosinophil counts in patients with systemic sclerosis and disease severity.

    PubMed

    Ando, Katsutoshi; Nakashita, Tamao; Kaneko, Norihiro; Takahashi, Kazuhisa; Motojima, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    Increased levels of serum pro-fibrotic cytokines have been reported in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). Some of these cytokines also play an important role in the differentiation and migration of eosinophils. The aim of this study was to determine whether eosinophilic inflammation is caused in SSc. We retrospectively reviewed the peripheral blood eosinophil counts in 70 untreated patients with SSc and compared them with those in patients with other major collagen diseases. We additionally evaluated a possible association with disease severity. Eosinophil counts were significantly higher levels in patients with SSc than in those with other collagen diseases, whereas total leukocyte counts were not. Eosinophil counts correlated positively with both severe interstitial lung disease (ILD; r = 0.255, p = 0.033) and modified Rodnan total skin thickness score (m-Rodnan TSS) in SSc (r = 0.347, p = 0.003), but did not correlate with ILD severity in other collagen diseases. In conclusion, peripheral eosinophil counts were higher in patients with SSc than in those with other collagen diseases and were correlated with increased disease severity. Our data suggest that eosinophilic inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of SSc. PMID:27610320

  15. Blood Eosinophil Levels in Newborns with Severe Indirect Hyperbilirubinemia Treated with Phototherapy

    PubMed Central

    Aydın, Banu; Beken, Serdar; Zenciroğlu, Ayşegül; Dilli, Dilek; Okumuş, Nurullah

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Newborns who suffer from jaundice and/or receive phototherapy (PT) are at a higher risk of developing asthma. In this study we aimed to investigate the relationship between bilirubin and peripheral eosinophil counts in newborns with severe hyperbilirubinemia needing PT. Methods: In this study, a retrospective analysis was performed on 306 newborns with severe hyperbilirubinemia with gestational age ≥35 weeks (Group 1) and the control group consisted of 295 age and gender-matched newborns (Group 2). Total serum bilirubin, hemoglobin, albumin, leucocyte and eosinophil counts before and after PT were recorded from medical charts. Findings : All the patients in Group 1 received phototherapy and 77 (25.2%) of them needed exchange transfusion (ET). Before receiving PT, the patients in Group 1 had lower levels of Hb and higher levels of total serum bilirubin and lymphocytes than those in Group 2 although there was no statistically significant difference with regard to peripheral eosinophil counts. Eosinophils were detected to be numerically lower in Group 1. Higher bilirubin subgroups had also lower eosinophil counts. The patients in Group 1 had lower levels of Hb, leucocyte, albumin and higher levels of eosinophil following PT. Conclusion: Peripheral eosinophil count may be affected by bilirubin levels and/or phototherapy. There is a need for further clinical research based on different models. PMID:25562019

  16. Severe Rhabdomyolysis without Systemic Involvement: A Rare Case of Idiopathic Eosinophilic Polymyositis

    PubMed Central

    Farooq, Ayesha; Choksi, Vivek; Chu, Andrew; Mankodi, Dhruti; Shaharyar, Sameer; O'Brien, Keith; Shankar, Uday

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Eosinophilic polymyositis (EPM) is a rare cause of rhabdomyolysis characterized by eosinophilic infiltrates in the muscle. We describe the case of a young patient with eosinophilic polymyositis causing isolated severe rhabdomyolysis without systemic involvement. Case Presentation. A 22-year-old Haitian female with no past medical history presented with progressive generalized muscle aches without precipitating factors. Examination of the extremities revealed diffuse muscle tenderness. Laboratory findings demonstrated peripheral eosinophilia and high creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) and transaminase levels. Workup for the common causes of rhabdomyolysis were negative. Her CPK continued to rise to greater than 100,000 units/L so a muscle biopsy was performed which showed widespread eosinophilic infiltrate consistent with eosinophilic polymyositis. She was started on high dose systemic corticosteroids with improvement of her symptoms, eosinophilia, and CPK level. Discussion. This case illustrates a systematic workup of rhabdomyolysis in the presence of peripheral eosinophilia. Many differential diagnoses must be considered before establishing a diagnosis of idiopathic eosinophilic polymyositis. To our knowledge, our case of eosinophilic polymyositis is unique as it presented with severe rhabdomyolysis without another organ involvement. Clinicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for this physically debilitating disease to aid in prompt diagnosis. PMID:26229703

  17. Microscopic Colitis (Lymphocytic and Collagenous), Eosinophilic Colitis, and Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Villanueva, M. Sophia; Alimi, Yewande

    2015-01-01

    Multiple tests are needed to diagnose a patient with noninfectious diarrhea. Some patients will be mistakenly labeled as diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) because of nonspecific computed tomographic scans and grossly normal endoscopic findings. It is crucial to understand other less common pathologies to avoid these instances of misdiagnosis. This article focuses on microscopic colitis (MC), eosinophilic colitis (EC), and celiac disease. MC is an inflammatory condition of the colon that presents with two subtypes, only to be differentiated by histology. EC is a rare chronic inflammatory process. Depending on the extent of the disease, it can present with mild diarrhea, malabsorption, or at its worst, cause obstruction and perforation. Celiac disease affects the small bowel, but interestingly can present similarly to colitis. Both MC and EC respond to oral budesonide. Patients with celiac disease improve on gluten-free diets. These treatments are distinctly different from typical IBS-D care plans. PMID:26034409

  18. Acute eosinophilic pneumonia associated with glyphosate-surfactant exposure.

    PubMed

    De Raadt, Wanda M; Wijnen, Petal A; Bast, Aalt; Bekers, Otto; Drent, Marjolein

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a female patient who developed acute eosinophilic pneumonia (AEP) after recent onset of smoking and exposure to glyphosate-surfactant.The additional exposure associated with the recent start of smoking may have contributed to the development and/or severity of AEP.A clinical relapse after re-challenge four years later both with smoking and glyphosate-surfactant made the association highly likely.Respiratory distress is a factor of poor outcome and mortality after ingestion of glyphosate-surfactant.This case highlights the importance of a thorough exposure history e.g., possible occupational and environmental exposures together with drug-intake.Genotyping should be considered in cases of severe unexplained pulmonary damage. PMID:26278698

  19. Characterization of eosinophilic esophagitis murine models using optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Alex, Aneesh; Noti, Mario; Wojno, Elia D. Tait; Artis, David; Zhou, Chao

    2014-01-01

    Pre-clinical studies using murine models are critical for understanding the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying immune-mediated disorders such as Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). In this study, an optical coherence tomography (OCT) system capable of providing three-dimensional images with axial and transverse resolutions of 5 µm and 10 µm, respectively, was utilized to obtain esophageal images from a murine model of EoE-like disease ex vivo. Structural changes in the esophagus of wild-type (Tslpr+/+) and mutant (Tslpr−/−) mice with EoE-like disease were quantitatively evaluated and food impaction sites in the esophagus of diseased mice were monitored using OCT. Here, the capability of OCT as a label-free imaging tool devoid of tissue-processing artifacts to effectively characterize murine EoE-like disease models has been demonstrated. PMID:24575353

  20. Eosinophilic Esophagitis: Another Atopy-Related Alopecia Areata Trigger?

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Omer; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Piliang, Melissa

    2015-11-01

    Alopecia areata (AA) is associated with atopy in 10-22% of patients, twice the prevalence in the general population. Patients can present with concomitant atopic dermatitis, hay fever, asthma, and even allergies to dust mites. In many cases, severity and flares of these atopic diatheses correlate with severity of AA. Herein we present a patient with AA affected by contemporaneous eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). EoE is a recently recognized allergic disorder, mediated by eosiniphils and histamine. It is characterized by esophageal dysfunction and intraepithelial microabscesses. We propose that EoE be considered as a condition falling within the realm of atopic diseases, and a potential trigger of AA in affected patients.

  1. Chemotaxis of large granular lymphocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Pohajdak, B.; Gomez, J.; Orr, F.W.; Khalil, N.; Talgoy, M.; Greenberg, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    The hypothesis that large granular lymphocytes (LGL) are capable of directed locomotion (chemotaxis) was tested. A population of LGL isolated from discontinuous Percoll gradients migrated along concentration gradients of N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (f-MLP), casein, and C5a, well known chemoattractants for polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes, as well as interferon-..beta.. and colony-stimulating factor. Interleukin 2, tuftsin, platelet-derived growth factor, and fibronectin were inactive. Migratory responses were greater in Percoll fractions with the highest lytic activity and HNK-1/sup +/ cells. The chemotactic response to f-MLP, casein, and C5a was always greater when the chemoattractant was present in greater concentration in the lower compartment of the Boyden chamber. Optimum chemotaxis was observed after a 1 hr incubation that made use of 12 ..mu..m nitrocellulose filters. LGL exhibited a high degree of nondirected locomotion when allowed to migrate for longer periods (> 2 hr), and when cultured in vitro for 24 to 72 hr in the presence or absence of IL 2 containing phytohemagluttinin-conditioned medium. LGL chemotaxis to f-MLP could be inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by the inactive structural analog CBZ-phe-met, and the RNK tumor line specifically bound f-ML(/sup 3/H)P, suggesting that LGL bear receptors for the chemotactic peptide.

  2. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The packing of particles can change radically during cyclic loading such as in an earthquake or when shaking a container to compact a powder. A large hole (1) is maintained by the particles sticking to each other. A small, counterclockwise strain (2) collapses the hole, and another large strain (3) forms more new holes which collapse when the strain reverses (4). Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. MGM experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditions that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. (after T.L. Youd, Packing Changes and Liquefaction Susceptibility, Journal of the Geotechnical Engieering Division, 103: GT8,918-922, 1977)(Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center.)(Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder).

  3. Smarticles: smart, active granular matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savoie, Will; Pazouki, Arman; Negrut, Dan; Goldman, Daniel

    We investigate a granular medium composed of smart, active particles, or ``smarticles''. Previously, we discovered that ensembles of ``u''-shaped particles exhibited geometrically-induced cohesion by mechanically entangling via particle interpenetration [Gravish et al., PRL, 2012]; the strength and/or extent of entanglement could be varied by changing particle level entanglement by changes in arm-to-base length of the u-particle. Since changing this parameter on demand is inconvenient, we develop a power-autonomous programmable robot composed of two motors and three links with an on-board microcontroller. This smarticle can be activated to change its configuration (specified by its two joint angles) through audio communication. To complement these experiments, since study large ensembles of smarticles is cost and labor prohibitive, we also develop a simulated smarticle in the Chrono multibody simulation environment. We systematically study ensemble cohesiveness and compaction as a function of shape changes of the smarticles. We find that suitable activation of smarticles allows ensembles to become cohesive to ``grip'' rigid objects and lose cohesion to release on command. Work supported by ARO.

  4. Ultrastructural features of eosinophilic oesophagitis: impact of treatment on desmosomes

    PubMed Central

    Capocelli, Kelley E; Fernando, Shahan D; Menard-Katcher, Calies; Furuta, Glenn T; Masterson, Joanne C; Wartchow, Eric P

    2015-01-01

    Aims A growing body of evidence suggests a role for altered epithelial barrier function in the pathophysiology of eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE), but few have described the epithelial structure during inflammation. The purpose of this study was to define ultrastructural features of active, inactive EoE and control subject’s oesophageal epithelia. Methods We prospectively enrolled patients undergoing diagnostic upper endoscopy for evaluation of EoE. Mucosal pinch biopsies were obtained from the distal oesophagus and processed for routine histology and electron microscopic assessment. Clinical features of enrolled subjects were analysed and subjects were divided into four groups: normal, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), inactive EoE and active EoE. Representative photomicrographs of the basal and superficial epithelia were reviewed for abnormalities. Desmosomes were quantified on the surface of epithelia three to four prickle-cell layers above the basal layer. Results Twenty-nine paediatric cases (ages 2–18 years) were enrolled in the study. We observed a significant decrease in the number of desmosomes per cell (DPC) of subjects with active EoE compared with inactive EoE, GERD and normal epithelia. With respect to DPC, no significant differences were found between inactive EoE compared with GERD or normal subjects. Additional ultrastructural features observed included epithelial microplicae and evidence of eosinophil transmigration, degranulation, and sombrero formation. Conclusions Consistent with clinical and molecular findings, our ultrastructural data provide support for an altered oesophageal barrier in paediatric cases with active EoE, which may improve following treatment. PMID:25359789

  5. Increase of nitrosative stress in patients with eosinophilic pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Exhaled nitric oxide (NO) production is increased in asthma and reflects the degree of airway inflammation. The alveolar NO concentration (Calv) in interstitial pneumonia is reported to be increased. However, it remains unknown whether NO production is increased and nitrosative stress occurs in eosinophilic pneumonia (EP). We hypothesized that nitrosative stress markers including Calv, inducible type of NO synthase (iNOS), and 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), are upregulated in EP. Methods Exhaled NO including fractional exhaled NO (FENO) and Calv was measured in ten healthy subjects, 13 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), and 13 patients with EP. iNOS expression and 3-NT formation were assessed by immunocytochemistory in BALf cells. The exhaled NO, lung function, and systemic inflammatory markers of the EP patients were investigated after corticosteroid treatment for 4 weeks. Results The Calv levels in the EP group (14.4 ± 2.0 ppb) were significantly higher than those in the healthy subjects (5.1 ± 0.6 ppb, p < 0.01) and the IPF groups (6.3 ± 0.6 ppb, p < 0.01) as well as the FENO and the corrected Calv levels (all p < 0.01). More iNOS and 3-NT positive cells were observed in the EP group compared to the healthy subject and IPF patient. The Calv levels had significant positive correlations with both iNOS (r = 0.858, p < 0.05) and 3-NT positive cells (r = 0.924, p < 0.01). Corticosteroid treatment significantly reduced both the FENO (p < 0.05) and the Calv levels (p < 0.01). The magnitude of reduction in the Calv levels had a significant positive correlation with the peripheral blood eosinophil counts (r = 0.802, p < 0.05). Conclusions These results suggested that excessive nitrosative stress occurred in EP and that Calv could be a marker of the disease activity. PMID:21679473

  6. Eosinophilic esophagitis: updated consensus recommendations for children and adults.

    PubMed

    Liacouras, Chris A; Furuta, Glenn T; Hirano, Ikuo; Atkins, Dan; Attwood, Stephen E; Bonis, Peter A; Burks, A Wesley; Chehade, Mirna; Collins, Margaret H; Dellon, Evan S; Dohil, Ranjan; Falk, Gary W; Gonsalves, Nirmala; Gupta, Sandeep K; Katzka, David A; Lucendo, Alfredo J; Markowitz, Jonathan E; Noel, Richard J; Odze, Robert D; Putnam, Philip E; Richter, Joel E; Romero, Yvonne; Ruchelli, Eduardo; Sampson, Hugh A; Schoepfer, Alain; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Sicherer, Scott H; Spechler, Stuart; Spergel, Jonathan M; Straumann, Alex; Wershil, Barry K; Rothenberg, Marc E; Aceves, Seema S

    2011-07-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a clinicopathologic condition of increasing recognition and prevalence. In 2007, a consensus recommendation provided clinical and histopathologic guidance for the diagnosis and treatment of EoE; however, only a minority of physicians use the 2007 guidelines, which require fulfillment of both histologic and clinical features. Since 2007, the number of EoE publications has doubled, providing new disease insight. Accordingly, a panel of 33 physicians with expertise in pediatric and adult allergy/immunology, gastroenterology, and pathology conducted a systematic review of the EoE literature (since September 2006) using electronic databases. Based on the literature review and expertise of the panel, information and recommendations were provided in each of the following areas of EoE: diagnostics, genetics, allergy testing, therapeutics, and disease complications. Because accumulating animal and human data have provided evidence that EoE appears to be an antigen-driven immunologic process that involves multiple pathogenic pathways, a new conceptual definition is proposed highlighting that EoE represents a chronic, immune/antigen-mediated disease characterized clinically by symptoms related to esophageal dysfunction and histologically by eosinophil-predominant inflammation. The diagnostic guidelines continue to define EoE as an isolated chronic disorder of the esophagus diagnosed by the need of both clinical and pathologic features. Patients commonly have high rates of concurrent allergic diatheses, especially food sensitization, compared with the general population. Proved therapeutic options include chronic dietary elimination, topical corticosteroids, and esophageal dilation. Important additions since 2007 include genetic underpinnings that implicate EoE susceptibility caused by polymorphisms in the thymic stromal lymphopoietin protein gene and the description of a new potential disease phenotype, proton pump inhibitor

  7. Blood eosinophils and inhaled corticosteroid/long-acting β-2 agonist efficacy in COPD

    PubMed Central

    Pavord, Ian D; Lettis, Sally; Locantore, Nicholas; Pascoe, Steve; Jones, Paul W; Wedzicha, Jadwiga A; Barnes, Neil C

    2016-01-01

    Objective We performed a review of studies of fluticasone propionate (FP)/salmeterol (SAL) (combination inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)/long-acting β2-agonist (LABA)) in patients with COPD, which measured baseline (pretreatment) blood eosinophil levels, to test whether blood eosinophil levels ≥2% were associated with a greater reduction in exacerbation rates with ICS therapy. Methods Three studies of ≥1-year duration met the inclusion criteria. Moderate and severe exacerbation rates were analysed according to baseline blood eosinophil levels (<2% vs ≥2%). At baseline, 57–75% of patients had ≥2% blood eosinophils. Changes in FEV1 and St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) scores were compared by eosinophil level. Results For patients with ≥2% eosinophils, FP/SAL was associated with significant reductions in exacerbation rates versus tiotropium (INSPIRE: n=719, rate ratio (RR)=0.75, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.92, p=0.006) and versus placebo (TRISTAN: n=1049, RR=0.63, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.79, p<0.001). No significant difference was seen in the <2% eosinophil subgroup in either study (INSPIRE: n=550, RR=1.18, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.51, p=0.186; TRISTAN: n=354, RR=0.99, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.47, p=0.957, respectively). In SCO30002 (n=373), no significant effects were observed (FP or FP/SAL vs placebo). No relationship was observed in any study between eosinophil subgroup and treatment effect on FEV1 and SGRQ. Discussion Baseline blood eosinophil levels may represent an informative marker for exacerbation reduction with ICS/LABA in patients with COPD and a history of moderate/severe exacerbations. PMID:26585525

  8. Volatile organic compounds discriminate between eosinophilic and neutrophilic inflammation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Schleich, Florence N; Dallinga, Jan W; Henket, Monique; Wouters, Emiel F M; Louis, Renaud; Van Schooten, Frederik J

    2016-03-01

    Inflammation associated oxidative stress leads to peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids thereby generating volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The integrative analysis of the total amount of VOCs released by eosinophils and neutrophils in vitro enables the search for those compounds that discriminates between various inflammatory conditions. The approach comprises isolating eosinophils and neutrophils from 30 ml of blood of healthy non-smoking volunteers by gradient centrifugation, using lymphoprep. Eosinophils are separated from neutrophils by immunomagnetic cell separation using anti-CD16. Cells are activated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and VOCs from the headspace are collected at time 0', 30', 60' and 90' by introduction of ultra-pure nitrogen in the closed flasks at a flow rate of 200 ml min(-1) during 10 min. The gases are trapped onto a sorption tube and analyzed by gas chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectometry (GC-TOF-MS) in order to identify VOCs released in the headspace by activated neutrophils and eosinophils. Eosinophils and neutrophils were isolated from 26 healthy non-smoking volunteers. The average absolute number of eosinophils and neutrophils upon isolation was 3.5  ×  10(6) and 19.4  ×  10(6), respectively. The volatome in headspace consisted of 2116 compounds and those compounds present in at least 8% of the samples (1123 compounds) were used for further discriminant analysis. Discriminant analysis showed that two VOCs were able to distinguish between eosinophilic and neutrophilic cultures in the unactivated state with 100% correct classification of the entire data set and upon cross validation while five VOCs were able to discriminate between activated eosinophils and neutrophils with 96% correct classification in the original set and upon cross-validation. Analysis of VOCs seems to be a very promising approach in identifying eosinophilic and neutrophilic inflammation but it needs further development

  9. Histamine induces cytoskeletal changes in human eosinophils via the H(4) receptor.

    PubMed

    Buckland, Karen F; Williams, Timothy J; Conroy, Dolores M

    2003-11-01

    1. Histamine (0.004-2 microm) induced a concentration-dependent shape change of human eosinophils, but not of neutrophils or basophils, detected as an increase in forward scatter (FSC) in the gated autofluorescence/forward scatter (GAFS) assay. 2. The histamine-induced eosinophil shape change was completely abolished by thioperamide (10 microm), an H3/H4 receptor antagonist, but was not inhibited by pyrilamine or cimetidine (10 microm), H1 and H2 receptor antagonists, respectively. The H4 receptor agonists, clobenpropit and clozapine (0.004-2 microm), which are also H3 receptor antagonists, both induced eosinophil shape change, which was inhibited by thioperamide (10 microm). The H3/H4 receptor agonists, imetit, R-alpha-methyl histamine and N-alpha-methyl histamine (0.004-2 microm) also induced eosinophil shape change. 3. Histamine induced actin polymerisation (0.015-10 microm), intracellular calcium mobilisation (10-100 microm) and a significant upregulation of expression of the cell adhesion molecule CD11b (0.004-10 microm) in eosinophils, all of which were inhibited by thioperamide (10-100 microm). In addition, the H4 receptor agonist/H3 receptor antagonist clozapine (20 microm) stimulated a rise in intracellular calcium in eosinophils. 4. Activation of H4 receptors by histamine (1 microm) primed eosinophils for increased chemotactic responses to eotaxin, but histamine (0.1-10 microm) did not directly induce chemotaxis of eosinophils. 5. Pertussis toxin (1 microg ml-1) inhibited shape change and actin polymerisation responses induced by histamine showing that these effects are mediated by coupling to a Galphai/o G-protein. 6. This study demonstrates that human eosinophils express functional H4 receptors and may provide a novel target for allergic disease therapy.

  10. Fasciola hepatica induces eosinophil apoptosis in the migratory and biliary stages of infection in sheep.

    PubMed

    Escamilla, A; Bautista, M J; Zafra, R; Pacheco, I L; Ruiz, M T; Martínez-Cruz, S; Méndez, A; Martínez-Moreno, A; Molina-Hernández, V; Pérez, J

    2016-01-30

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the number of apoptotic eosinophils in the livers of sheep experimentally infected with Fasciola hepatica during the migratory and biliary stages of infection. Four groups (n=5) of sheep were used; groups 1-3 were orally infected with 200 metacercariae (mc) and sacrificed at 8 and 28 days post-infection (dpi), and 17 weeks post-infection (wpi), respectively. Group 4 was used as an uninfected control. Apoptosis was detected using immunohistochemistry with a polyclonal antibody against anti-active caspase-3, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Eosinophils were identified using the Hansel stain in serial sections for caspase-3, and by ultrastructural features using TEM. At 8 and 28 dpi, numerous caspase-3(+) eosinophils were mainly found at the periphery of acute hepatic necrotic foci. The percentage of caspase -3(+) apoptotic eosinophils in the periphery of necrotic foci was high (46.1-53.9) at 8 and 28 dpi, respectively, and decreased in granulomas found at 28 dpi (6%). Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the presence of apoptotic eosinophils in hepatic lesions at 8 and 28 dpi. At 17 wpi, apoptotic eosinophils were detected in the infiltrate surrounding some enlarged bile ducts containing adult flukes. This is the first report of apoptosis induced by F. hepatica in sheep and the first study reporting apoptosis in eosinophils in hepatic inflammatory infiltrates in vivo. The high number of apoptotic eosinophils in acute necrotic tracts during the migratory and biliary stages of infection suggests that eosinophil apoptosis may play a role in F. hepatica survival during different stages of infection.

  11. Volatile organic compounds discriminate between eosinophilic and neutrophilic inflammation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Schleich, Florence N; Dallinga, Jan W; Henket, Monique; Wouters, Emiel F M; Louis, Renaud; Van Schooten, Frederik J

    2016-02-01

    Inflammation associated oxidative stress leads to peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids thereby generating volatile organic compounds (VOCs). The integrative analysis of the total amount of VOCs released by eosinophils and neutrophils in vitro enables the search for those compounds that discriminates between various inflammatory conditions. The approach comprises isolating eosinophils and neutrophils from 30 ml of blood of healthy non-smoking volunteers by gradient centrifugation, using lymphoprep. Eosinophils are separated from neutrophils by immunomagnetic cell separation using anti-CD16. Cells are activated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and VOCs from the headspace are collected at time 0', 30', 60' and 90' by introduction of ultra-pure nitrogen in the closed flasks at a flow rate of 200 ml min(-1) during 10 min. The gases are trapped onto a sorption tube and analyzed by gas chromatography-time-of-flight-mass spectometry (GC-TOF-MS) in order to identify VOCs released in the headspace by activated neutrophils and eosinophils. Eosinophils and neutrophils were isolated from 26 healthy non-smoking volunteers. The average absolute number of eosinophils and neutrophils upon isolation was 3.5  ×  10(6) and 19.4  ×  10(6), respectively. The volatome in headspace consisted of 2116 compounds and those compounds present in at least 8% of the samples (1123 compounds) were used for further discriminant analysis. Discriminant analysis showed that two VOCs were able to distinguish between eosinophilic and neutrophilic cultures in the unactivated state with 100% correct classification of the entire data set and upon cross validation while five VOCs were able to discriminate between activated eosinophils and neutrophils with 96% correct classification in the original set and upon cross-validation. Analysis of VOCs seems to be a very promising approach in identifying eosinophilic and neutrophilic inflammation but it needs further development

  12. Physicochemical properties of granular and non-granular cationic starches prepared under ultra high pressure.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yoon-Je; Choi, Hyun-Wook; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Lee, Hyungjae; Kim, Wooki; Kim, Dae-Ok; Kim, Byung-Yong; Baik, Moo-Yeol

    2014-01-01

    Granular and non-granular cationic starches were prepared through the reaction of tapioca and corn starches with 2,3-epoxypropyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (ETMAC) using conventional and ultra high pressure (UHP)-assisted reactions. The cationic starches were characterized with respect to morphology, degree of substitution (DS), FT-IR, (13)C NMR, X-ray diffraction pattern, solubility and swelling power, pasting viscosity, and flocculating activity. Non-granular (relative to granular) cationic starches possessed higher DS values. While DS values of non-granular cationic starches were lower for UHP-assisted (relative to conventional) reaction, granular cationic starches did not differ for both reactions. For flocculation activity, granular cationic starches with lower solubility and higher swelling power were higher than non-granular counterparts with reversed patterns in solubility and swelling power, regardless of conventional and UHP-assisted reactions. Overall results suggested that flocculation activity of cationic starches may be directly associated with their swelling powers (relative to DS values).

  13. A Rare Case of Ibuprofen-Induced Eosinophilic Meningitis in a 13-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Sharad; Gupta, Mukesh; Sharma, Deepak; Bansal, Shweta

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic meningoencephalitis is based on clinical manifestations and microscopic identification of eosinophils present in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). It is caused by a variety of helminthic infections with most common being angiostrongyliasis, gnathostomiasis, toxocariasis, cysticercosis, schistosomiasis, baylisascariasis, and paragonimiasis. Many case reports are there in which parasites have been found responsible, but there are rare reports of CSF eosinophilia associated with the use of drugs. We report a case of drug-induced (ibuprofen) eosinophilic meningitis in a healthy female who presented to us with severe headache and improved dramatically after drug withdrawal. PMID:24596473

  14. Peripheral blood eosinophils: a surrogate marker for airway eosinophilia in stable COPD

    PubMed Central

    Negewo, Netsanet A; McDonald, Vanessa M; Baines, Katherine J; Wark, Peter AB; Simpson, Jodie L; Jones, Paul W; Gibson, Peter G

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sputum eosinophilia occurs in approximately one-third of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and can predict exacerbation risk and response to corticosteroid treatments. Sputum induction, however, requires expertise, may not always be successful, and does not provide point-of-care results. Easily applicable diagnostic markers that can predict sputum eosinophilia in stable COPD patients have the potential to progress COPD management. This study investigated the correlation and predictive relationship between peripheral blood and sputum eosinophils. It also examined the repeatability of blood eosinophil counts. Methods Stable COPD patients (n=141) were classified as eosinophilic or noneosinophilic based on their sputum cell counts (≥3%), and a cross-sectional analysis was conducted comparing their demographics, clinical characteristics, and blood cell counts. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was used to assess the predictive ability of blood eosinophils for sputum eosinophilia. Intraclass correlation coefficient was used to examine the repeatability of blood eosinophil counts. Results Blood eosinophil counts were significantly higher in patients with sputum eosinophilia (n=45) compared to those without (0.3×109/L vs 0.15×109/L; P<0.0001). Blood eosinophils correlated with both the percentage (ρ=0.535; P<0.0001) and number of sputum eosinophils (ρ=0.473; P<0.0001). Absolute blood eosinophil count was predictive of sputum eosinophilia (area under the curve =0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] =0.67–0.84; P<0.0001). At a threshold of ≥0.3×109/L (specificity =76%, sensitivity =60%, and positive likelihood ratio =2.5), peripheral blood eosinophil counts enabled identification of the presence or absence of sputum eosinophilia in 71% of the cases. A threshold of ≥0.4×109/L had similar classifying ability but better specificity (91.7%) and higher positive likelihood ratio (3.7). In contrast, ≥0.2×109/L

  15. CCR2 deficiency leads to increased eosinophils, alternative macrophage activation, and type 2 cytokine expression in adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Bolus, W. Reid; Gutierrez, Dario A.; Kennedy, Arion J.; Anderson-Baucum, Emily K.; Hasty, Alyssa H.

    2015-01-01

    Adipose tissue (AT) inflammation during obesity is mediated by immune cells and closely correlates with systemic insulin resistance. In lean AT, eosinophils are present in low but significant numbers and capable of promoting alternative macrophage activation in an IL-4/IL-13-dependent manner. In WT mice, obesity causes the proportion of AT eosinophils to decline, concomitant with inflammation and classical activation of AT macrophages. In this study, we show that CCR2 deficiency leads to increased eosinophil accumulation in AT. Furthermore, in contrast to WT mice, the increase in eosinophils in CCR2−/− AT is sustained and even amplified during obesity. Interestingly, a significant portion of eosinophils is found in CLSs in AT of obese CCR2−/− mice, which is the first time eosinophils have been shown to localize to these inflammatory hot spots. CCR2−/− bone marrow precursors displayed increased expression of various key eosinophil genes during in vitro differentiation to eosinophils, suggesting a potentially altered eosinophil phenotype in the absence of CCR2. In addition, the proportion of eosinophils in AT positively correlated with local expression of Il5, a potent eosinophil stimulator. The increase in eosinophils in CCR2−/− mice was detected in all white fat pads analyzed and in the peritoneal cavity but not in bone marrow, blood, spleen, or liver. In AT of CCR2−/− mice, an increased eosinophil number positively correlated with M2-like macrophages, expression of the Treg marker Foxp3, and type 2 cytokines, Il4, Il5, and Il13. This is the first study to link CCR2 function with regulation of AT eosinophil accumulation. PMID:25934927

  16. Agonist Activation of F-Actin-Mediated Eosinophil Shape Change and Mediator Release Is Dependent on Rac2

    PubMed Central

    Lacy, Paige; Willetts, Lian; Kim, John D.; Lo, Andrea N.; Lam, Bon; MacLean, Emily I.; Moqbel, Redwan; Rothenberg, Marc E.; Zimmermann, Nives

    2011-01-01

    Background Tissue recruitment and activation of eosinophils contribute to allergic symptoms by causing airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation. Shape changes and mediator release in eosinophils may be regulated by mammalian Rho-related guanosine triphosphatases. Of these, Rac2 is essential for F-actin formation as a central process underlying cell motility, exocytosis, and respiratory burst in neutrophils, while the role of Rac2 in eosinophils is unknown. We set out to determine the role of Rac2 in eosinophil mediator release and F-actin-dependent shape change in response to chemotactic stimuli. Methods Rac2-deficient eosinophils from CD2-IL-5 transgenic mice crossed with rac2 gene knockout animals were examined for their ability to release superoxide through respiratory burst or eosinophil peroxidase by degranulation. Eosinophil shape change and actin polymerization were also assessed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy following stimulation with eotaxin-2 or platelet-activating factor. Results Eosinophils from wild-type mice displayed inducible superoxide release, but at a small fraction (4–5%) of human eosinophils. Rac2-deficient eosinophils showed significantly less superoxide release (p < 0.05, 26% less than wild type). Eosinophils lacking Rac2 had diminished degranulation (p < 0.05, 62% less eosinophil peroxidase) and shape changes in response to eotaxin-2 or platelet-activating factor (with 68 and 49% less F-actin formation, respectively; p < 0.02) compared with wild-type cells. Conclusion These results demonstrate that Rac2 is an important regulator of eosinophil function by contributing to superoxide production, granule protein release, and eosinophil shape change. Our findings suggest that Rho guanosine triphosphatases are key regulators of cellular inflammation in allergy and asthma. PMID:21576984

  17. Granular Materials and Risks in ISRU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behringer, Robert P.; Wilki8nson, R. Allen

    2004-01-01

    Working with soil, sand, powders, ores, cement and sintered bricks, excavating, grading construction sites, driving off-road, transporting granules in chutes and pipes, sifting gravel, separating solids from gases, and using hoppers are so routine that it seems straightforward to execute these operations on the Moon and Mars as we do on Earth. We discuss how little these processes are understood and point out the nature of trial-and-error practices that are used in today s massive over-design. Nevertheless, such designs have a high failure rate. Implementation and extensive incremental scaling up of industrial processes are routine because of the inadequate predictive tools for design. We present a number of pragmatic scenarios where granular materials play a role, the risks involved, what some of the basic issues are, and what understanding is needed to greatly reduce the risks. This talk will focus on a particular class of granular flow issues, those that pertain to dense materials, their physics, and the failure problems associated with them. In particular, key issues where basic predictability is lacking include stability of soils for the support of vehicles and facilities, ability to control the flow of dense materials (jamming and flooding/unjamming at the wrong time), the ability to predict stress profiles (hence create reliable designs) for containers such as bunkers or silos. In particular, stress fluctuations, which are not accounted for in standard granular design models, can be very large as granular materials flows, and one result is frequent catastrophic failure of granular devices.

  18. Granular Materials and Risks In ISRU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behringer, Robert P.; Wilkinson, R. Allen

    2004-01-01

    Working with soil, sand, powders, ores, cement and sintered bricks, excavating, grading construction sites, driving off-road, transporting granules in chutes and pipes, sifting gravel, separating solids from gases, and using hoppers are so routine that it seems straightforward to execute these operations on the Moon and Mars as we do on Earth. We discuss how little these processes are understood and point out the nature of trial-and-error practices that are used in today's massive over-design. Nevertheless, such designs have a high failure rate. Implementation and extensive incremental scaling up of industrial processes are routine because of the inadequate predictive tools for design. We present a number of pragmatic scenarios where granular materials play a role, the risks involved, what some of the basic issues are, and what understanding is needed to greatly reduce the risks. This talk will focus on a particular class of granular flow issues, those that pertain to dense materials, their physics, and the failure problems associated with them. In particular, key issues where basic predictability is lacking include stability of soils for the support of vehicles and facilities, ability to control the flow of dense materials (jamming and flooding/unjamming at the wrong time), the ability to predict stress profiles (hence create reliable designs) for containers such as bunkers or silos. In particular, stress fluctuations, which are not accounted for in standard granular design models, can be very large as granular materials flows, and one result is frequent catastrophic failure of granular devices.

  19. A Void Diffusion Model of Granular Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudra, Jayanta; Vieth, Paul

    2009-03-01

    In an earlier paper^1 we derived a nonlinear diffusion equation to describe the dynamics in granular flow based on a Diffusion Void Model (DVM). The equation was successfully used to describe the flow of a homogeneous granular material through the hole of a container under gravity. It also properly described similar flow in the presence of a flat horizontal barrier placed above the hole. Recently, however, we have found out that the above nonlinear equation does not lead to correct static equilibrium. For example, the stability of the free surface of a granular aggregate cannot be described by the equation. The equation also fails to describe, say, how an unstable vertical column of a granular material will change to a stable λ-shaped pile at the angle of repose. In this paper work we derive an equation using an appropriate current density of voids that can explain all the observed dynamical characteristics of a simple granular state. ^1Jayanta K. Rudra and D. C. Hong, Phys. Rev. E47, R1459(1993).

  20. Reversibility in locomotion in granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savoie, William; Goldman, Daniel

    2013-11-01

    A recent study of a self-deforming robot [Hatton et al., PRL, 2013] demonstrated that slow movement in dry granular media resembles locomotion in low Re fluids, in part because inertia is dominated by friction. The study indicated that granular swimming was kinematically reversible, a surprise because yielding in granular flow is irreversible. To investigate if reciprocal motions lead to net displacements in granular swimmers, in laboratory experiments, we study the locomotion of a robotic ``scallop'' consisting of a square body with two flipper-like limbs controlled to flap forward and backward symmetrically (a flap cycle). The body is constrained by linear bearings to allow motion in only one dimension. We vary the the flapping frequency f, the body/flipper burial depth d, and the number of flaps N in a deep bed of 6 mm diameter plastic spheres. Over a range of f and d, the N = 1 cycle produces net translation of the body; however for large N, a cycle produces no net translation. We conclude that symmetric strokes in granular swimming are irreversible at the onset of self-deformation, but become asymptotically reversible. work supported by NSF and ARL.

  1. Characteristics of undulatory locomotion in granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Zhiwei; Pak, On Shun; Elfring, Gwynn J.

    2016-03-01

    Undulatory locomotion is ubiquitous in nature and observed in different media, from the swimming of flagellated microorganisms in biological fluids, to the slithering of snakes on land, or the locomotion of sandfish lizards in sand. Despite the similarity in the undulating pattern, the swimming characteristics depend on the rheological properties of different media. Analysis of locomotion in granular materials is relatively less developed compared with fluids partially due to a lack of validated force models but recently a resistive force theory in granular media has been proposed and shown useful in studying the locomotion of a sand-swimming lizard. Here we employ the proposed model to investigate the swimming characteristics of a slender filament, of both finite and infinite length, undulating in a granular medium and compare the results with swimming in viscous fluids. In particular, we characterize the effects of drifting and pitching in terms of propulsion speed and efficiency for a finite sinusoidal swimmer. We also find that, similar to Lighthill's results using resistive force theory in viscous fluids, the sawtooth swimmer is the optimal waveform for propulsion speed at a given power consumption in granular media. The results complement our understanding of undulatory locomotion and provide insights into the effective design of locomotive systems in granular media.

  2. Reduced Leukocyte Infiltration in Absence of Eosinophils Correlates with Decreased Tissue Damage and Disease Susceptibility in ΔdblGATA Mice during Murine Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Pramod K.; Li, Qun; Munoz, Luis E.; Mares, Chris A.; Morris, Elizabeth G.; Teale, Judy M.; Cardona, Astrid E.

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is one of the most common helminth parasitic diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) and the leading cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. NCC is caused by the presence of the metacestode larvae of the tapeworm Taenia solium within brain tissues. NCC patients exhibit a long asymptomatic phase followed by a phase of symptoms including increased intra-cranial pressure and seizures. While the asymptomatic phase is attributed to the immunosuppressive capabilities of viable T. solium parasites, release of antigens by dying organisms induce strong immune responses and associated symptoms. Previous studies in T. solium-infected pigs have shown that the inflammatory response consists of various leukocyte populations including eosinophils, macrophages, and T cells among others. Because the role of eosinophils within the brain has not been investigated during NCC, we examined parasite burden, disease susceptibility and the composition of the inflammatory reaction in the brains of infected wild type (WT) and eosinophil-deficient mice (ΔdblGATA) using a murine model of NCC in which mice were infected intracranially with Mesocestoides corti, a cestode parasite related to T. solium. In WT mice, we observed a time-dependent induction of eosinophil recruitment in infected mice, contrasting with an overall reduced leukocyte infiltration in ΔdblGATA brains. Although, ΔdblGATA mice exhibited an increased parasite burden, reduced tissue damage and less disease susceptibility was observed when compared to infected WT mice. Cellular infiltrates in infected ΔdblGATA mice were comprised of more mast cells, and αβ T cells, which correlated with an abundant CD8+ T cell response and reduced CD4+ Th1 and Th2 responses. Thus, our data suggest that enhanced inflammatory response in WT mice appears detrimental and associates with increased disease susceptibility, despite the reduced parasite burden in the CNS. Overall reduced leukocyte infiltration due to

  3. Reduced Leukocyte Infiltration in Absence of Eosinophils Correlates with Decreased Tissue Damage and Disease Susceptibility in ΔdblGATA Mice during Murine Neurocysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Pramod K; Li, Qun; Munoz, Luis E; Mares, Chris A; Morris, Elizabeth G; Teale, Judy M; Cardona, Astrid E

    2016-06-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is one of the most common helminth parasitic diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) and the leading cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. NCC is caused by the presence of the metacestode larvae of the tapeworm Taenia solium within brain tissues. NCC patients exhibit a long asymptomatic phase followed by a phase of symptoms including increased intra-cranial pressure and seizures. While the asymptomatic phase is attributed to the immunosuppressive capabilities of viable T. solium parasites, release of antigens by dying organisms induce strong immune responses and associated symptoms. Previous studies in T. solium-infected pigs have shown that the inflammatory response consists of various leukocyte populations including eosinophils, macrophages, and T cells among others. Because the role of eosinophils within the brain has not been investigated during NCC, we examined parasite burden, disease susceptibility and the composition of the inflammatory reaction in the brains of infected wild type (WT) and eosinophil-deficient mice (ΔdblGATA) using a murine model of NCC in which mice were infected intracranially with Mesocestoides corti, a cestode parasite related to T. solium. In WT mice, we observed a time-dependent induction of eosinophil recruitment in infected mice, contrasting with an overall reduced leukocyte infiltration in ΔdblGATA brains. Although, ΔdblGATA mice exhibited an increased parasite burden, reduced tissue damage and less disease susceptibility was observed when compared to infected WT mice. Cellular infiltrates in infected ΔdblGATA mice were comprised of more mast cells, and αβ T cells, which correlated with an abundant CD8+ T cell response and reduced CD4+ Th1 and Th2 responses. Thus, our data suggest that enhanced inflammatory response in WT mice appears detrimental and associates with increased disease susceptibility, despite the reduced parasite burden in the CNS. Overall reduced leukocyte infiltration due to

  4. Metagenomic and metaproteomic analyses of Accumulibacter phosphatis-enriched floccular and granular biofilm.

    PubMed

    Barr, Jeremy J; Dutilh, Bas E; Skennerton, Connor T; Fukushima, Toshikazu; Hastie, Marcus L; Gorman, Jeffrey J; Tyson, Gene W; Bond, Philip L

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms are ubiquitous in nature, forming diverse adherent microbial communities that perform a plethora of functions. Here we operated two laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors enriched with Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis (Accumulibacter) performing enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Reactors formed two distinct biofilms, one floccular biofilm, consisting of small, loose, microbial aggregates, and one granular biofilm, forming larger, dense, spherical aggregates. Using metagenomic and metaproteomic methods, we investigated the proteomic differences between these two biofilm communities, identifying a total of 2022 unique proteins. To understand biofilm differences, we compared protein abundances that were statistically enriched in both biofilm states. Floccular biofilms were enriched with pathogenic secretion systems suggesting a highly competitive microbial community. Comparatively, granular biofilms revealed a high-stress environment with evidence of nutrient starvation, phage predation pressure, and increased extracellular polymeric substance and cell lysis. Granular biofilms were enriched in outer membrane transport proteins to scavenge the extracellular milieu for amino acids and other metabolites, likely released through cell lysis, to supplement metabolic pathways. This study provides the first detailed proteomic comparison between Accumulibacter-enriched floccular and granular biofilm communities, proposes a conceptual model for the granule biofilm, and offers novel insights into granule biofilm formation and stability.

  5. Metagenomic and metaproteomic analyses of Accumulibacter phosphatis-enriched floccular and granular biofilm.

    PubMed

    Barr, Jeremy J; Dutilh, Bas E; Skennerton, Connor T; Fukushima, Toshikazu; Hastie, Marcus L; Gorman, Jeffrey J; Tyson, Gene W; Bond, Philip L

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms are ubiquitous in nature, forming diverse adherent microbial communities that perform a plethora of functions. Here we operated two laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors enriched with Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis (Accumulibacter) performing enhanced biological phosphorus removal. Reactors formed two distinct biofilms, one floccular biofilm, consisting of small, loose, microbial aggregates, and one granular biofilm, forming larger, dense, spherical aggregates. Using metagenomic and metaproteomic methods, we investigated the proteomic differences between these two biofilm communities, identifying a total of 2022 unique proteins. To understand biofilm differences, we compared protein abundances that were statistically enriched in both biofilm states. Floccular biofilms were enriched with pathogenic secretion systems suggesting a highly competitive microbial community. Comparatively, granular biofilms revealed a high-stress environment with evidence of nutrient starvation, phage predation pressure, and increased extracellular polymeric substance and cell lysis. Granular biofilms were enriched in outer membrane transport proteins to scavenge the extracellular milieu for amino acids and other metabolites, likely released through cell lysis, to supplement metabolic pathways. This study provides the first detailed proteomic comparison between Accumulibacter-enriched floccular and granular biofilm communities, proposes a conceptual model for the granule biofilm, and offers novel insights into granule biofilm formation and stability. PMID:26279094

  6. Expect the Unexpected: A Case of Isolated Eosinophilic Meningitis in Toxocariasis

    PubMed Central

    Sick, Christian; Hennerici, Michael G.

    2014-01-01

    We present the case of a young police officer suffering from headache without other neurological symptoms caused by isolated eosinophilic meningitis, which resulted from an infection with Toxocara cati, along with a discussion of the differential diagnosis. PMID:25535488

  7. Macroscopic Hematuria and a Bladder Mass: Eosinophilic Cystitis in a 7-Year-Old Boy.

    PubMed

    Runge, Stine Bjerrum; Høyer, Søren; Winding, Louise

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of eosinophilic cystitis in a 7-year-old boy with a history of atopic symptoms, with focus on the radiological findings. He presented with hematuria and dysuria and ultrasonography (US) showed irregular bladder wall thickening resembling a bladder mass. CT urography did not characterize the lesion any further and showed no local or distant spread. Biopsies revealed eosinophilic cystitis, a benign inflammatory condition. We found that US characterized the lesion at least as well as CT and should be the first choice of imaging. When staging is considered before biopsy, MRI should be preferred to CT. There are no specific radiological signs of eosinophilic cystitis. On follow-up, US was a safe, cost-effective imaging modality, but findings should be interpreted in a clinical context. In a child with hematuria and a bladder mass, eosinophilic cystitis is a relevant but rare differential diagnosis, especially when there is a known atopic history. PMID:27340584

  8. EOSINOPHIL INFLUX TO THE NASAL AIRWAY FOLLOWING LOCAL, LOW-LEVEL LPS CHALLENGE IN HUMANS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Recent obervations show that atopic asthmatic subjects have increased sensitivity to respirable endotoxin (or LPS) compared with normal persons. In vitro studies demonstrate that LPS enchances eosinophil survival. These obervations suggest that the effects of inhal...

  9. [Determining asthma treatment in children by monitoring fractional exhaled nitric oxide, sputum eosinophils and leukotriene B₄].

    PubMed

    Vizmanos-Lamotte, G; Cruz, M J; Gómez-Ollés, S; Muñoz, X; de Mir Messa, I; Moreno-Galdó, A

    2015-01-01

    Sputum eosinophils and exhaled fractional nitric oxide (FENO) are markers of airway inflammation in asthma. Cytokines, cysteinyl-leukotrienes and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) are responsible for this inflammation. The aim of this study is to determine the usefulness of these markers in monitoring asthma treatment in children. FENO, sputum eosinophils, and LTB4 in induced sputum were performed in 10 children (9-15 years old). These determinations were repeated four months later, after the beginning or an increase in the treatment. FENO values tended to decrease (P=.15), pulmonary function tended to improve (P=.10), and sputum eosinophils decreased (P=.003) compared to the first determination. There were no differences in LTB4 concentrations (P=.88). Sputum eosinophils seem to be more precise than FENO in the monitoring of inflammation in asthmatic children.

  10. Macroscopic Hematuria and a Bladder Mass: Eosinophilic Cystitis in a 7-Year-Old Boy

    PubMed Central

    Runge, Stine Bjerrum; Høyer, Søren; Winding, Louise

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of eosinophilic cystitis in a 7-year-old boy with a history of atopic symptoms, with focus on the radiological findings. He presented with hematuria and dysuria and ultrasonography (US) showed irregular bladder wall thickening resembling a bladder mass. CT urography did not characterize the lesion any further and showed no local or distant spread. Biopsies revealed eosinophilic cystitis, a benign inflammatory condition. We found that US characterized the lesion at least as well as CT and should be the first choice of imaging. When staging is considered before biopsy, MRI should be preferred to CT. There are no specific radiological signs of eosinophilic cystitis. On follow-up, US was a safe, cost-effective imaging modality, but findings should be interpreted in a clinical context. In a child with hematuria and a bladder mass, eosinophilic cystitis is a relevant but rare differential diagnosis, especially when there is a known atopic history. PMID:27340584

  11. Eosinophilic annular erythema: a subset of Wells' syndrome or a distinct entity?

    PubMed

    Howes, Renae; Girgis, Laila; Kossard, Steven

    2008-08-01

    A 52-year-old woman with a 6-year history of a persistent non-pruritic cutaneous annular eruption, forming polycyclic and arcuate plaques that commenced as erythematous papules and nodules, is presented. Lethargy and arthralgia were associated symptoms. We have followed this patient for the last 3 years, and during this period she has continued to have a florid annular eruption of unknown cause. Laboratory tests, including an eosinophil count, examination of stool samples for parasites, and a computed tomography scan of the chest, abdomen and pelvis, failed to detect any abnormalities. Skin biopsies demonstrated a superficial to deep cellular infiltrate consisting of numerous eosinophils, with lymphocytes and isolated neutrophils. Eosinophilic dust, flame figures and granulomatous inflammation were not seen. In addition, strands of mucin were present through the dermis, and prominent basal vacuolar change was evident at the dermoepidermal junction; these features may represent new findings that help define a distinct form of eosinophilic annular erythema. PMID:18638225

  12. Solid adenoma —

    Cancer.gov

    Round to oval cells fill alveolar spaces. Fixation of the lung without inflation results in predominance of solid over alveolar pattern. Cells usually have abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm with fine granularity and/or vacuoles.

  13. Unsteady granular flows down an inclined plane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parez, Stanislav; Aharonov, Einat; Toussaint, Renaud

    2016-04-01

    The continuum description of granular flows is still a challenge despite their importance in many geophysical and industrial applications. We extend previous works, which have explored steady flow properties, by focusing on unsteady flows accelerating or decelerating down an inclined plane in the simple shear configuration. We solve the flow kinematics analytically, including predictions of evolving velocity and stress profiles and the duration of the transient stage. The solution shows why and how granular materials reach steady flow on slopes steeper than the angle of repose and how they decelerate on shallower slopes. The model might facilitate development of natural hazard assessment and may be modified in the future to explore unsteady granular flows in different configurations.

  14. Impact compaction of a granular material

    DOE PAGES

    Fenton, Gregg; Asay, Blaine; Dalton, Devon

    2015-05-19

    The dynamic behavior of granular materials has importance to a variety of engineering applications. Structural seismic coupling, planetary science, and earth penetration mechanics, are just a few of the application areas. Although the mechanical behavior of granular materials of various types have been studied extensively for several decades, the dynamic behavior of such materials remains poorly understood. High-quality experimental data are needed to improve our general understanding of granular material compaction physics. This study will describe how an instrumented plunger impact system can be used to measure pressure-density relationships for model materials at high and controlled strain rates and subsequentlymore » used for computational modeling.« less

  15. Shock waves in a dilute granular gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, M. H. Lakshminarayana; Ansumali, Santosh; Alam, Meheboob

    2014-12-01

    We study the evolution of shock waves in a dilute granular gas which is modelled using three variants of hydrodynamic equations: Euler, 10-moment and 14-moment models. The one-dimensional shock-wave problem is formulated and the resulting equations are solved numerically using a relaxation-type scheme. Focusing on the specific case of blast waves, the results on the density, the granular temperature, the skew temperature, the heat flux and the fourth moment are compared among three models. We find that the shock profiles are smoother for the 14-moment model compared to those predicted by the standard Euler equations. A shock-splitting phenomenon is observed in the skew granular temperature profiles for a blast wave.

  16. Convection in vibrated annular granular beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildman, R. D.; Martin, T. W.; Krouskop, P. E.; Talbot, J.; Huntley, J. M.; Parker, D. J.

    2005-06-01

    The response to vibration of a granular bed, consisting of a standard cylindrical geometry but with the addition of a dissipative cylindrical inner wall, has been investigated both experimentally (using positron emission particle tracking) and numerically (using hard sphere molecular dynamics simulation). The packing fraction profiles and granular temperature distributions (in both vertical and horizontal directions) were determined as a function of height and distance from the axis. The two sets of results were in reasonable agreement. The molecular dynamics simulations were used to explore the behavior of the granular bed in the inner wall-outer wall coefficient of restitution phase space. It was observed that one could control the direction of the toroidal convection rolls by manipulating the relative dissipation at the inner and outer walls via the coefficients of restitution, and with several layers of grains it was seen that double convection rolls could also be formed, a result that was subsequently confirmed experimentally.

  17. Granular statistical mechanics - a personal perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenfeld, R.; Edwards, S. F.

    2014-10-01

    The science of granular matter has expanded from an activity for specialised engineering applications to a fundamental field in its own right. This has been accompanied by an explosion of research and literature, which cannot be reviewed in one paper. A key to progress in this field is the formulation of a statistical mechanical formalism that could help develop equations of state and constitutive relations. This paper aims at reviewing some milestones in this direction. An essential basic step toward the development of any static and quasi-static theory of granular matter is a systematic and useful method to quantify the grain-scale structure and we start with a review of such a method. We then review and discuss the ongoing attempt to construct a statistical mechanical theory of granular systems. Along the way, we will clarify a number of misconceptions in the field, as well as highlight several outstanding problems.

  18. Unsteady granular flows down an inclined plane.

    PubMed

    Parez, Stanislav; Aharonov, Einat; Toussaint, Renaud

    2016-04-01

    The continuum description of granular flows is still a challenge despite their importance in many geophysical and industrial applications. We extend previous works, which have explored steady flow properties, by focusing on unsteady flows accelerating or decelerating down an inclined plane in the simple shear configuration. We solve the flow kinematics analytically, including predictions of evolving velocity and stress profiles and the duration of the transient stage. The solution shows why and how granular materials reach steady flow on slopes steeper than the angle of repose and how they decelerate on shallower slopes. The model might facilitate development of natural hazard assessment and may be modified in the future to explore unsteady granular flows in different configurations. PMID:27176375

  19. Unsteady granular flows down an inclined plane.

    PubMed

    Parez, Stanislav; Aharonov, Einat; Toussaint, Renaud

    2016-04-01

    The continuum description of granular flows is still a challenge despite their importance in many geophysical and industrial applications. We extend previous works, which have explored steady flow properties, by focusing on unsteady flows accelerating or decelerating down an inclined plane in the simple shear configuration. We solve the flow kinematics analytically, including predictions of evolving velocity and stress profiles and the duration of the transient stage. The solution shows why and how granular materials reach steady flow on slopes steeper than the angle of repose and how they decelerate on shallower slopes. The model might facilitate development of natural hazard assessment and may be modified in the future to explore unsteady granular flows in different configurations.

  20. Characterization of the relationship between dose and blood eosinophil response following subcutaneous administration of mepolizumab

    PubMed Central

    Pouliquen, Isabelle J.; Kornmann, Oliver; Barton, Sharon V.; Price, Jeffrey A.; Ortega, Hector G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Mepolizumab is a humanized IgG1 monoclonal antibody that blocks human IL-5 from binding to the IL-5 receptor, which is mainly expressed on eosinophils. Eosinophils are key cells in the inflammatory cascade of various diseases, including asthma. This study investigated the pharmacokinetic (PK)/pharmacodynamic (PD) relationship between exposure of mepolizumab subcutaneous (SC) administration and blood eosinophil reduction compared with intravenous (IV) administration in adult subjects with asthma. Methods: In this multi-center, randomized, open-label, parallel-group, repeat-dose study, 70 adult subjects received one of four possible treatment regimens: mepolizumab 12.5, 125, or 250 mg SC or 75 mg IV. In addition to analyzing the dose and PK/PD relationship, absolute bioavailability, safety, tolerability, and incidence of anti-mepolizumab antibodies were evaluated. Results: Blood eosinophil levels decreased in a dose-dependent manner with the lowest (12.5 mg) dose clearly differentiating from the other doses. A non-linear inhibition Imax model based on blood eosinophil levels at week 12 identified that the SC doses providing 50% and 90% of maximal blood eosinophil inhibition were 11 mg (95% confidence interval (CI): 5.19 – 16.85) and 99 mg (95% CI: 47 – 152), respectively. The route of administration did not affect the exposure-response relationship. The estimated mepolizumab SC absolute bioavailability (arm) was 74% (90% CI: 54 – 102%). The safety profile of mepolizumab was favorable. Conclusions: A dose-dependent reduction in blood eosinophils across all mepolizumab doses investigated was observed. The subcutaneous absolute bioavailability was 74%. The route of administration did not affect the mepolizumab exposure eosinophil response relationship. PMID:26445140

  1. Enzootic Angiostrongylus cantonensis in Rats and Snails after an Outbreak of Human Eosinophilic Meningitis, Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Lindo, John F.; Waugh, Cecilia; Hall, John; Cunningham-Myrie, Colette; Ashley, Deanna; Sullivan, James J.; Bishop, Henry S.; Robinson, David G.; Holtz, Timothy; Robinson, Ralph D.

    2002-01-01

    After an outbreak in 2000 of eosinophilic meningitis in tourists to Jamaica, we looked for Angiostrongylus cantonensis in rats and snails on the island. Overall, 22% (24/109) of rats harbored adult worms, and 8% (4/48) of snails harbored A. cantonensis larvae. This report is the first of enzootic A. cantonensis infection in Jamaica, providing evidence that this parasite is likely to cause human cases of eosinophilic meningitis. PMID:11927033

  2. An unusual cause of terminal hematuria in a child: Eosinophilic cystitis

    PubMed Central

    Özdoğan, Elif Bahat; Arslansoyu Çamlar, Seçil; Bilen, Sevcan; İmamoğlu, Mustafa; Tıraş, Şükran; Cansu, Ayşegül; Özoran, Yavuz

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophilic cystitis is a rare inflammatory disease of the bladder; it rarely occurs in children. Patients typically show irritative urination symptoms frequently, with a possible need for urgency, alongside dysuria, gross haematuria, suprapubic pain and painful urination. Sometimes bladder mass accumulation with the possibility of malignancy is also observed. We present an 8-year-old male patient who gained admission for terminal hematuria and discuss the management of eosinophilic cystitis. PMID:25485018

  3. Eosinophilic fasciitis associated with hypereosinophilia, abnormal bone-marrow karyotype and inversion of chromosome 5.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, J S; Bosworth, J; Min, T; Mercieca, J; Holden, C A

    2014-03-01

    We report the case of a male patient presenting with eosinophilia, pulmonary oedema and eosinophilic fasciitis (EF). He had the classic clinical appearance and magnetic resonance imaging of EF. Cytogenetic analysis of the bone marrow revealed a previously undescribed pericentric inversion of chromosome 5. Overall, the presentation was consistent with a diagnosis of chronic eosinophilic leukaemia, not otherwise specified (CEL-NOS). Dermatologists should consult a haematologist in cases of EF, in order to rule out possible haematological malignancies.

  4. Energy Conservation for Granular Coal Injection into a Blast Furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hongwei; Su, Buxin; Zhang, Jianliang; Shao, Jiugang; Zuo, Haibin; Ren, Shan

    2012-08-01

    Due to the lack of knowledge regarding the combustion of granular coal injected into a blast furnace, injection characteristics of granular coal were first studied through proximate analysis, element analysis, and research of explosivity, ignition point, meltability of ash, grindability, calorific value, etc. Using a sampling device in the raceway combined with petrographic analysis, during the combustion process of granular coal with high crystal water and volatile in raceway, cracks and bursts were found, leading to a reduction of particle size. Based on a model of mass control and dynamic theory of particle combustion, the transition dynamic model for cracking in combustion of granular coal was found, and the critical value of cracking ratio (ΩP) for granular coal combustion in the raceway was calculated. Finally, the utilization ratio and energy efficiency of granular coal used in the blast furnace were discussed, offering theoretical foundation and technical support for intensifying granular coal combustion and promoting granular coal injection.

  5. Human eosinophils express, relative to other circulating leukocytes, large amounts of secretory 14-kD phospholipase A2.

    PubMed

    Blom, M; Tool, A T; Wever, P C; Wolbink, G J; Brouwer, M C; Calafat, J; Egesten, A; Knol, E F; Hack, C E; Roos, D; Verhoeven, A J

    1998-04-15

    Human eosinophils perform several functions dependent on phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity, most notably the synthesis of platelet-activating factor (PAF) and leukotriene C4 (LTC4). Several forms of PLA2 have been identified in mammalian cells. In the present study, the 14-kD, secretory form of PLA2 was detected in human eosinophils by immunocytochemical staining with the specific monoclonal antibody (MoAb) 4A1. In contrast, preparations of neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, and basophils did not show detectable staining. With two MoAbs in a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), large amounts of sPLA2 were detected in lysates of eosinophils, that were 20-fold to 100-fold higher than in the other circulating leukocytes (ie, neutrophils, basophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes). In addition, with a commercially available sPLA2 activity assay kit, we were able to show high activity of sPLA2 in human eosinophils relative to neutrophils. Investigations at the ultrastructural level showed that sPLA2 in eosinophils is mainly located in specific granules. Immunoelectron microscopy also visualized sPLA2 within phagosomes after addition of opsonized particles to the eosinophils. However, sPLA2 was not detected in the cell-free supernatants of activated eosinophils, in contrast to eosinophil-cationic protein (ECP), which colocalizes with sPLA2 in resting eosinophils. These findings warrant further studies into the role of sPLA2 in eosinophil function.

  6. Eosinophilic esophagitis: perspectives of adult and pediatric gastroenterologists.

    PubMed

    King, Jeremy; Khan, Seema

    2010-04-01

    To survey pediatric (PGI) and adult gastroenterologists (AGI) regarding their perceptions about the etiology, diagnosis, and management of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), and to assess whether differences in the clinical approach to EoE exist between these subspecialists. A 21-item survey related to EoE was emailed to PGI who subscribe to the PEDSGI Bulletin Board, and to two AGI per Electoral College vote in the US, randomly selected from each state. The survey was voluntary, and consent was assumed based on survey submission. The responses were submitted anonymously and results compiled in a secure Web site. A total of 249 physicians from across the globe responded to the survey, 68% of whom were PGI. The majority of respondents worked primarily in an academic institution or teaching hospital. Respondents revealed diagnosing an average of six cases (median 8, range 0-30) of EoE in the past 6 months. Ninety-two percent of AGI who see a patient with dysphagia and suspected EoE proceed to endoscopy with biopsies, compared to only 54% of PGI (P < 0.05); 38% of PGI would first perform an upper GI study. Both subspecialties agreed that biopsies of the proximal and distal esophagus are needed to make a definitive diagnosis of EoE. Fifty-eight percent PGI and 44% AGI defined EoE as an eosinophilic density of > or =20 per high power field (hpf) in esophageal biopsies. Seventy-seven percent of PGI but only 16% of AGI reported routine referral of patients for food allergy evaluation (P < 0.05). While 77% PGI and 91% of AGI would rely on a symptom-based follow-up, 27% PGI versus 9% AGI follow patients with biopsies according to a pre-determined schedule and another 38% repeat biopsies as needed, versus 15% AGI. This survey exposes a few inconsistencies among gastroenterologists in the diagnosis, management, and follow-up of patients with EoE. The currently available practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of EoE are largely based on retrospective studies and

  7. Eosinophilic esophagitis: perspectives of adult and pediatric gastroenterologists.

    PubMed

    King, Jeremy; Khan, Seema

    2010-04-01

    To survey pediatric (PGI) and adult gastroenterologists (AGI) regarding their perceptions about the etiology, diagnosis, and management of eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), and to assess whether differences in the clinical approach to EoE exist between these subspecialists. A 21-item survey related to EoE was emailed to PGI who subscribe to the PEDSGI Bulletin Board, and to two AGI per Electoral College vote in the US, randomly selected from each state. The survey was voluntary, and consent was assumed based on survey submission. The responses were submitted anonymously and results compiled in a secure Web site. A total of 249 physicians from across the globe responded to the survey, 68% of whom were PGI. The majority of respondents worked primarily in an academic institution or teaching hospital. Respondents revealed diagnosing an average of six cases (median 8, range 0-30) of EoE in the past 6 months. Ninety-two percent of AGI who see a patient with dysphagia and suspected EoE proceed to endoscopy with biopsies, compared to only 54% of PGI (P < 0.05); 38% of PGI would first perform an upper GI study. Both subspecialties agreed that biopsies of the proximal and distal esophagus are needed to make a definitive diagnosis of EoE. Fifty-eight percent PGI and 44% AGI defined EoE as an eosinophilic density of > or =20 per high power field (hpf) in esophageal biopsies. Seventy-seven percent of PGI but only 16% of AGI reported routine referral of patients for food allergy evaluation (P < 0.05). While 77% PGI and 91% of AGI would rely on a symptom-based follow-up, 27% PGI versus 9% AGI follow patients with biopsies according to a pre-determined schedule and another 38% repeat biopsies as needed, versus 15% AGI. This survey exposes a few inconsistencies among gastroenterologists in the diagnosis, management, and follow-up of patients with EoE. The currently available practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of EoE are largely based on retrospective studies and

  8. Uterine type II estrogen-binding sites are not of eosinophil origin

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-05

    A recent report suggested that nuclear type II sites in the rat uterus are of eosinophil origin and may represent (/sup 3/H)estradiol binding to eosinophil peroxidase. To further evaluate this hypothesis the authors examined the response of nuclear type II sites to estrogen under conditions where eosinophils are not present. Results of the experiments show that physiological levels of estradiol-17..beta.. (10 nM for 72 h) will stimulate nuclear type II sites in highly purified cultures of rat uterine stromal and myometrial cells. The magnitude of the response of type II sites to estradiol in these stromal (4-fold) and myometrial (80-fold) cell cultures was essentially identical to that observed in the uterine cell types following in vivo estrogen treatment. Since these highly purified cultures of uterine cells were prepared from the uterus of a 21-day ovariectomized rat which is devoid of eosinophils, it was concluded that estradiol stimulation of nuclear type II sites is a direct intracellular response to estrogen which occurs independent of eosinophil accumulation. Furthermore, it was found that type II sites in the rat uterus are not peroxidase. Stimulation of cytosol and nuclear type II sites by estrogen in the rat uterus is a direct intracellular response to the hormone unrelated to eosinophil accumulation and/or peroxidase activity.

  9. Toxicity of Eosinophil MBP Is Repressed by Intracellular Crystallization and Promoted by Extracellular Aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Soragni, Alice; Yousefi, Shida; Stoeckle, Christina; Soriaga, Angela B.; Sawaya, Michael R.; Kozlowski, Evelyne; Schmid, Inès; Radonjic-Hoesli, Susanne; Boutet, Sebastien; Williams, Garth J.; Messerschmidt, Marc; Seibert, M. Marvin; Cascio, Duilio; Zatsepin, Nadia A.; Burghammer, Manfred; Riekel, Christian; Colletier, Jacques-Philippe; Riek, Roland; Eisenberg, David; Simon, Hans-Uwe

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Eosinophils are white blood cells that function in innate immunity and participate in the pathogenesis of various inflammatory and neoplastic disorders. Their secretory granules contain four cytotoxic proteins, including the eosinophil major basic protein (MBP-1). How MBP-1 toxicity is controlled within the eosinophil itself and activated upon extracellular release is unknown. Here we show how intragranular MBP-1 nanocrystals restrain toxicity, enabling its safe storage, and characterize them with an X-ray-free electron laser. Following eosinophil activation, MBP-1 toxicity is triggered by granule acidification, followed by extracellular aggregation, which mediates the damage to pathogens and host cells. Larger non-toxic amyloid plaques are also present in tissues of eosinophilic patients in a feedback mechanism that likely limits tissue damage under pathological conditions of MBP-1 oversecretion. Our results suggest that MBP-1 aggregation is important for innate immunity and immunopathology mediated by eosinophils and clarify how its polymorphic self-association pathways regulate toxicity intra- and extracellularly. PMID:25728769

  10. Catapult-like release of mitochondrial DNA by eosinophils contributes to antibacterial defense.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Shida; Gold, Jeffrey A; Andina, Nicola; Lee, James J; Kelly, Ann M; Kozlowski, Evelyne; Schmid, Inès; Straumann, Alex; Reichenbach, Janine; Gleich, Gerald J; Simon, Hans-Uwe

    2008-09-01

    Although eosinophils are considered useful in defense mechanisms against parasites, their exact function in innate immunity remains unclear. The aim of this study is to better understand the role of eosinophils within the gastrointestinal immune system. We show here that lipopolysaccharide from Gram-negative bacteria activates interleukin-5 (IL-5)- or interferon-gamma-primed eosinophils to release mitochondrial DNA in a reactive oxygen species-dependent manner, but independent of eosinophil death. Notably, the process of DNA release occurs rapidly in a catapult-like manner--in less than one second. In the extracellular space, the mitochondrial DNA and the granule proteins form extracellular structures able to bind and kill bacteria both in vitro and under inflammatory conditions in vivo. Moreover, after cecal ligation and puncture, Il5-transgenic but not wild-type mice show intestinal eosinophil infiltration and extracellular DNA deposition in association with protection against microbial sepsis. These data suggest a previously undescribed mechanism of eosinophil-mediated innate immune responses that might be crucial for maintaining the intestinal barrier function after inflammation-associated epithelial cell damage, preventing the host from uncontrolled invasion of bacteria.

  11. [Eosinophilic colitis. A report of two cases with non conventional treatment].

    PubMed

    Rosas Vargas, Miguel A; Moncayo Coello, Vivian; García Cárdenas, Eustorgio; Valencia Mayoral, Pedro; Sienra Monge, Juan José Luis; del Río Navarro, Blanca E

    2004-01-01

    Eosinophilic colitis is a rare entity of unknown etiology characterized by diarrhea, abdominal pain, and gastrointestinal bleeding. Diagnosis includes histopathological infiltration of more than 20 eosinophils in colon. It is frequently associated with milk hypersensitivity and, less usual, with other foods and increased IgE. Histopthological appearance of eosinophil mediators has been observed in the gut. It is sometimes related to the degree of infiltration of eosinophils in the gut as well as to the disease severity. There is not an established treatment for this entity, although systemic steroids have been used with certain efficacy. However, there is a recurrence of the symptoms when the therapy stops, besides the well known side effects of the long-term use of steroids. Cromolyn inhibits mast cell degranulation and prevents liberation of mediators. It is successful in certain cases, specially the severe ones. However, it is not available for its use in our country. Ketotifen, as last resource in our patients with bad response to habitual treatment and restriction diet, was used. Although its use is controversial, we consider that stabilizing mast cell membrane with subsequent inhibition of degranulation and recruitment of eosinophils to sites of inflammation, would also restrain histamine liberation and blockage of H1 receptors, which would diminish local damage induced by eosinophils. Nonetheless ketotifen mechanism of action is unknown, our patients improved after treatment with this drug.

  12. Eosinophilic myocarditis in CBA/J mice infected with Toxocara canis.

    PubMed Central

    Cookston, M.; Stober, M.; Kayes, S. G.

    1990-01-01

    In humans, chronic eosinophilia has been associated clinically with endomyocardial fibrosis and myocardial damage. Mice infected with Toxocara canis have a marked eosinophilia, and develop eosinophil-rich granulomatous lesions in the soft tissues of the body, especially the lungs, liver, brain, and skeletal muscle. Few reports have described myocardial lesions associated with T. canis infections in mice. We examined the hearts of CBA/J mice killed at weekly intervals over an 8-week period for evidence of myocardial damage that might be attributable to eosinophils. Total white blood cell counts and eosinophil counts were obtained during this period, and revealed a peak white blood cell count of approximately 28,000 cells/mm3 at day 7 after infection and a peak eosinophil count of approximately 4,000 cells/mm3 at day 14 after infection. Myocardial lesions in the ventricular wall began as focal infiltrates of eosinophils and histiocytes, then progressed into granulomata containing necrotic debris. Collagen deposition was noted by day 21 after infection. By day 42 after infection, the lesions had contracted greatly because of a loss of cellularity, and consisted mainly of fibroblasts and hemosiderin-laden macrophages. Myocyte damage, characterized by increased eosinophilia and necrosis, was observed. T. canis-infected CBA/J mice thus offer a useful model to study eosinophil-dependent myocardial damage. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:2349964

  13. Human eosinophils - potential pharmacological model applied in human histamine H4 receptor research.

    PubMed

    Grosicki, Marek; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Histamine and histamine receptors are well known for their immunomodulatory role in inflammation. In this review we describe the role of histamine and histamine H4 receptor on human eosinophils. In the first part of article we provide short summary of histamine and histamine receptors role in physiology and histamine related therapeutics used in clinics. We briefly describe the human histamine receptor H4 and its ligands, as well as human eosinophils. In the second part of the review we provide detailed description of known histamine effects on eosinophils including: intracellular calcium concentration flux, actin polymerization, cellular shape change, upregulation of adhesion proteins and cellular chemotaxis. We provide proofs that these effects are mainly connected with the activation of histamine H4 receptor. When examining experimental data we discuss the controversial results and limitations of the studies performed on isolated eosinophils. In conclusion we believe that studies on histamine H4 receptor on human eosinophils can provide interesting new biomarkers that can be used in clinical studies of histamine receptors, that in future might result in the development of new strategies in the treatment of chronic inflammatory conditions like asthma or allergy, in which eosinophils are involved.

  14. Characterizing the rheology of fluidized granular matter.

    PubMed

    Desmond, Kenneth W; Villa, Umberto; Newey, Mike; Losert, Wolfgang

    2013-09-01

    In this study we characterize the rheology of fluidized granular matter subject to secondary forcing. Our approach consists of first fluidizing granular matter in a drum half filled with grains via simple rotation and then superimposing oscillatory shear perpendicular to the downhill flow direction. The response of the system is mostly linear, with a phase lag between the grain motion and the oscillatory forcing. The rheology of the system can be well characterized by the GDR MiDi model if the system is forced with slow oscillations. The model breaks down when the forcing time scale becomes comparable to the characteristic time for energy dissipation in the flow. PMID:24125256

  15. Cluster Instability in Freely Evolving Granular Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brey, J. Javier

    A granular medium is formed by a large number of macroscopic particles or grains. Here large must be understood at a macroscopic level, i.e. a few thousands or even a few hundreds is already a large number in the present context, as compared with molecular systems which contain a number of atoms or molecules of the order of the Avogadro number. In this lecture, we will restrict ourselves to dry granular systems in which there is not any other fluid around the grains. Also, electrical effects are not considered. Under these circumstances, the grain-grain interaction can be taken as purely repulsive with no attractive part.

  16. Challenges in Predicting Planetary Granular Mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzger, Philip T.

    2005-01-01

    Through the course of human history, our needs in agriculture, habitat construction, and resource extraction have driven us to gain more experience working with the granular materials of planet Earth than with any other type of substance in nature, with the possible exception being water. Furthermore, throughout the past two centuries we have seen a dramatic and ever growing interest among scientists and engineers to understand and predict both its static and rheological properties. Ironically, however, despite this wealth of experience we still do not have a fundamental understanding of the complex physical phenomena that emerge even as just ordinary sand is shaken, squeezed or poured. As humanity is now reaching outward through the solar system, not only robotic ally but also with our immediate human presence, the need to understand and predict granular mechanics has taken on a new dimension. We must learn to farm, build and mine the regoliths of other planets where the environmental conditions are different than on Earth, and we are rapidly discovering that the effects of these environmental conditions are not trivial. Some of the relevant environmental features include the regolith formation processes throughout a planet's geologic and hydrologic history, the unknown mixtures of volatiles residing within the soil, the relative strength of gravitation, d the atm9spheric pressure and its seasonal variations. The need to work with soils outside our terrestrial experience base provides us with both a challenge and an opportunity. The challenge is to learn how to extrapolate our experience into these new planetary conditions, enabling the engineering decisions that are needed right now as we take the next few steps in solar system exploration. The opportunity is to use these new planetary environments as laboratories that will help us to see granular mechanics in new ways, to challenge our assumptions, and to help us finally unravel the elusive physics that lie

  17. Inelastic electron transport in granular arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Altland, A.; Glazman, L.I.; Kamenev, A.; Meyer, J.S. . E-mail: jmeyer@mps.ohio-state.edu

    2006-11-15

    Transport properties of granular systems are governed by Coulomb blockade effects caused by the discreteness of the electron charge. We show that, in the limit of vanishing mean level spacing on the grains, the low-temperature behavior of 1d and 2d arrays is insulating at any inter-grain coupling (characterized by a dimensionless conductance g). In 2d and g >> 1, there is a sharp Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless crossover to the conducting phase at a certain temperature, T {sub BKT}. These results are obtained by applying an instanton analysis to map the conventional 'phase' description of granular arrays onto the dual 'charge' representation.

  18. Inelastic electron transport in granular arrays.

    SciTech Connect

    Altland, A.; Glazman, L. I.; Kamenev, A.; Meyer, J. S.; Materials Science Division; Univ. zu Koln; Univ. Minnesota; Ohio State Univ.

    2006-01-01

    Transport properties of granular systems are governed by Coulomb blockade effects caused by the discreteness of the electron charge. We show that, in the limit of vanishing mean level spacing on the grains, the low-temperature behavior of 1d and 2d arrays is insulating at any inter-grain coupling (characterized by a dimensionless conductance g). In 2d and g 1, there is a sharp Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless crossover to the conducting phase at a certain temperature, T{sub BKT}. These results are obtained by applying an instanton analysis to map the conventional 'phase' description of granular arrays onto the dual 'charge' representation.

  19. Impulse absorption by horizontal magnetic granular chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Dingxin; Wang, Xiaojie; Liu, Guijie; Sun, Lingyu

    2016-02-01

    The granular medium is known as a protecting material for shock mitigation. We study the impulse absorption of an alignment of magnetic spheres placed horizontally under a non-uniform magnetic field. The phenomenon of the wave dispersion is presented. This system can absorb 85% ˜ 95% (88% ˜ 98%) of the incident peak force (energy) under the applied magnetic field strength in 0.1 T ˜ 1.0 T. The shock attenuation capacities are enhanced by the increment of field strength. With an intelligent control system, it is conceivable that the magnetic granular chain may offer possibilities in developing adaptive shock protectors.

  20. Characterizing the rheology of fluidized granular matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmond, Kenneth W.; Villa, Umberto; Newey, Mike; Losert, Wolfgang

    2013-09-01

    In this study we characterize the rheology of fluidized granular matter subject to secondary forcing. Our approach consists of first fluidizing granular matter in a drum half filled with grains via simple rotation and then superimposing oscillatory shear perpendicular to the downhill flow direction. The response of the system is mostly linear, with a phase lag between the grain motion and the oscillatory forcing. The rheology of the system can be well characterized by the GDR MiDi model if the system is forced with slow oscillations. The model breaks down when the forcing time scale becomes comparable to the characteristic time for energy dissipation in the flow.

  1. How granularity issues concern biomedical ontology integration.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Stefan; Boeker, Martin; Stenzhorn, Holger

    2008-01-01

    The application of upper ontologies has been repeatedly advocated for supporting interoperability between domain ontologies in order to facilitate shared data use both within and across disciplines. We have developed BioTop as a top-domain ontology to integrate more specialized ontologies in the biomolecular and biomedical domain. In this paper, we report on concrete integration problems of this ontology with the domain-independent Basic Formal Ontology (BFO) concerning the issue of fiat and aggregated objects in the context of different granularity levels. We conclude that the third BFO level must be ignored in order not to obviate cross-granularity integration.

  2. Two scenarios for avalanche dynamics in inclined granular layers.

    PubMed

    Börzsönyi, Tamás; Halsey, Thomas C; Ecke, Robert E

    2005-05-27

    We report experimental measurements of avalanche behavior of thin granular layers on an inclined plane for low volume flow rate. The dynamical properties of avalanches were quantitatively and qualitatively different for smooth glass beads compared to irregular granular materials such as sand. Two scenarios for granular avalanches on an incline are identified, and a theoretical explanation for these different scenarios is developed based on a depth-averaged approach that takes into account the differing rheologies of the granular materials.

  3. 75 FR 67105 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy and Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-01

    ... granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Japan (53 FR 32267). On August 30, 1988, Commerce issued an antidumping duty order on imports of granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy (53 FR 33163... orders on imports of granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy and Japan (70 FR 76026)....

  4. 76 FR 39896 - Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... COMMISSION Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin From Italy Determination On the basis of the record \\1... antidumping duty order on granular polytetrafluoroethylene resin from Italy would be likely to lead to... Granular Polytetrafluoroethylene Resin from Italy: Investigation No. 731-TA-385 (Third Review). By order...

  5. Draft genome of neurotropic nematode parasite Angiostrongylus cantonensis, causative agent of human eosinophilic meningitis.

    PubMed

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Razali, Rozaimi; Aziz, Farhanah Abdul; Rosli, Nurul Shielawati Mohamed; Poole-Johnson, Johan; Anwar, Arif

    2015-08-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a bursate nematode parasite that causes eosinophilic meningitis (or meningoencephalitis) in humans in many parts of the world. The genomic data from A. cantonensis will form a useful resource for comparative genomic and chemogenomic studies to aid the development of diagnostics and therapeutics. We have sequenced, assembled and annotated the genome of A. cantonensis. The genome size is estimated to be ∼260 Mb, with 17,280 genomic scaffolds, 91X coverage, 81.45% for complete and 93.95% for partial score based on CEGMA analysis of genome completeness. The number of predicted genes of ≥300 bp was 17,482. A total of 7737 predicted protein-coding genes of ≥50 amino acids were identified in the assembled genome. Among the proteins of known function, kinases are the most abundant followed by transferases. The draft genome contains 34 excretory-secretory proteins (ES), a minimum of 44 Nematode Astacin (NAS) metalloproteases, 12 Homeobox (HOX) genes, and 30 neurotransmitters. The assembled genome size (260 Mb) is larger than those of Pristionchus pacificus, Caenorhabditis elegans, Necator americanus, Caenorhabditis briggsae, Trichinella spiralis, Brugia malayi and Loa loa, but smaller than Haemonchus contortus and Ascaris suum. The repeat content (25%) is similar to H. contortus. The GC content (41.17%) is lower compared to P. pacificus (42.7%) and H. contortus (43.1%) but higher compared to C. briggsae (37.69%), A. suum (37.9%) and N. americanus (40.2%) while the scaffold N50 is 42,191. This draft genome will facilitate the understanding of many unresolved issues on the parasite and the disorder it causes. PMID:25910624

  6. Draft genome of neurotropic nematode parasite Angiostrongylus cantonensis, causative agent of human eosinophilic meningitis.

    PubMed

    Yong, Hoi-Sen; Eamsobhana, Praphathip; Lim, Phaik-Eem; Razali, Rozaimi; Aziz, Farhanah Abdul; Rosli, Nurul Shielawati Mohamed; Poole-Johnson, Johan; Anwar, Arif

    2015-08-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a bursate nematode parasite that causes eosinophilic meningitis (or meningoencephalitis) in humans in many parts of the world. The genomic data from A. cantonensis will form a useful resource for comparative genomic and chemogenomic studies to aid the development of diagnostics and therapeutics. We have sequenced, assembled and annotated the genome of A. cantonensis. The genome size is estimated to be ∼260 Mb, with 17,280 genomic scaffolds, 91X coverage, 81.45% for complete and 93.95% for partial score based on CEGMA analysis of genome completeness. The number of predicted genes of ≥300 bp was 17,482. A total of 7737 predicted protein-coding genes of ≥50 amino acids were identified in the assembled genome. Among the proteins of known function, kinases are the most abundant followed by transferases. The draft genome contains 34 excretory-secretory proteins (ES), a minimum of 44 Nematode Astacin (NAS) metalloproteases, 12 Homeobox (HOX) genes, and 30 neurotransmitters. The assembled genome size (260 Mb) is larger than those of Pristionchus pacificus, Caenorhabditis elegans, Necator americanus, Caenorhabditis briggsae, Trichinella spiralis, Brugia malayi and Loa loa, but smaller than Haemonchus contortus and Ascaris suum. The repeat content (25%) is similar to H. contortus. The GC content (41.17%) is lower compared to P. pacificus (42.7%) and H. contortus (43.1%) but higher compared to C. briggsae (37.69%), A. suum (37.9%) and N. americanus (40.2%) while the scaffold N50 is 42,191. This draft genome will facilitate the understanding of many unresolved issues on the parasite and the disorder it causes.

  7. Solar abundance of osmium

    PubMed Central

    Jacoby, George; Aller, Lawrence H.

    1976-01-01

    The abundance parameter, log gfA, where g is the statistical weight of the lower level, f is the oscillator strength, and A is the abundance (by numbers of atoms with respect to hydrogen), has been derived for three lines of osmium by a method of spectrum synthesis. An apparent discordance of the derived abundance with that found from the carbonaceous chondrites is probably to be attributed primarily to errors in the f-values, and blending with unknown contributors. PMID:16592314

  8. The Long-term Clinical Course of Chronic Eosinophilic Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Takashi; Takayanagi, Noboru; Uozumi, Ryuji; Tada, Mami; Kagiyama, Naho; Takaku, Yotaro; Shimizu, Yoshihiko; Sugita, Yutaka; Morita, Satoshi

    2016-01-01

    Objective The long-term clinical course and prognosis of patients with chronic eosinophilic pneumonia (CEP) including factors predictive of the relapse of CEP have not been fully investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate these issues. Methods We retrospectively investigated the rate of relapse and prognosis in 73 patients diagnosed as having CEP. Results Systemic corticosteroid therapy was administered at a prednisolone dose of 29.4±7.6 mg/day. During a median follow-up period of 1,939 days, 27 patients suffered from relapse of CEP. Two patients developed steroid-induced diabetes mellitus, and 1 patient developed pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteriosis. Five patients died; however, none died of CEP. A history of smoking was the only independent negative risk factor for relapse of CEP [hazard ratio, 0.37 (0.14-0.98)]. Conclusion Patients with CEP frequently relapse. During the follow-up, metabolic and infectious complications under prolonged corticosteroid therapy are problematic. A history of smoking was a negative factor for predicting the risk of CEP relapse. PMID:27580536

  9. Food allergy and eosinophilic esophagitis: what do we do?

    PubMed

    Chehade, Mirna; Aceves, Seema S; Furuta, Glenn T; Fleischer, David M

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is an inflammatory disease of the esophagus triggered by foods and possibly environmental allergens. Common conditions that mimic EoE include gastroesophageal reflux disease and proton pump inhibitor-responsive esophageal eosinophilia. These need to be excluded before confirming the diagnosis of EoE. Identification of food triggers for EoE using standard allergy tests remains challenging. Dietary therapy for EoE so far consists of test-directed elimination of foods, empiric elimination of common food allergens, or exclusive feeding of amino acid-based formulas, with variable success. No FDA-approved medications yet exist for EoE. Topical corticosteroids to the esophagus are being used. EoE is a chronic disease; therefore, long-term therapy seems to be necessary to avoid potential long-term complications such as esophageal remodeling and strictures. Optimal long-term therapies and follow-ups are still not established; therefore, discussion with patients and families regarding the choice of therapy is important to ensure the best possible outcomes from a medical and social standpoint. In this article, we discuss all the above issues in detail by using a hypothetical case; highlighting in a stepwise manner what is known with respect to diagnosis, work-up, and management of EoE; and discussing gaps in knowledge that need to be addressed in the future. PMID:25577614

  10. Clinical features of Eosinophilic esophagitis in children and adults.

    PubMed

    Miehlke, Stephan

    2015-10-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) may affect humans at any age with a predominance for Caucasian males. The clinical manifestation of EoE varies depending on the patient's age. Infants and young children may primarily present with unspecific symptoms such as feeding problems, vomiting and abdominal pain. In adolescents and adults, dysphagia and food impactation become the predominant symptoms. EoE should also be considered in cases of refractory heartburn in both children and adults. Concomitant allergic diseases such as asthma, rhinitis and eczema, as well as peripheral eosinophilia and elevated total serum IgE values are common in pediatric and adult EoE patients. EoE seems to be primarily a food antigen-driven disease, whereas in adults, aeroallergen sensitization may dominate. Endoscopic features of EoE include mucosal edema, furrows, exudates, corrugated rings, strictures, and the so-called crepe paper sign. There appears to be a shift from an inflammatory-predominant phenotype in young childhood towards a more fibrotic phenotype in adolescents and adults. Long-term follow studies suggest that EoE is a chronic and potentially progressive disease causing recurring dysphagia in the majority of cases. The prevalence of strictures significantly increases with the duration of untreated disease, stressing the importance of early diagnosis and consequent treatment of EoE. PMID:26552773

  11. Zinc oxide nanoparticles induce eosinophilic airway inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kuo-Liang; Lee, Yi-Hsin; Chen, Hau-Inh; Liao, Huang-Shen; Chiang, Bor-Luen; Cheng, Tsun-Jen

    2015-10-30

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) have been widely used in industry. The metal composition of PM2.5 might contribute to the higher prevalence of asthma. To investigate the effects of ZnO NPs on allergic airway inflammation, mice were first exposed to different concentrations of ZnO NPs (0.1 mg/kg, 0.5 mg/kg) or to a combination of ZnO NPs and chicken egg ovalbumin (OVA) by oropharyngeal aspiration on day 0 and day 7 and then were sacrificed 5 days later. The subsequent time course of airway inflammation in the mice after ZnO NPs exposure was evaluated on days 1, 7, and 14. To further determine the role of zinc ions, ZnCl2 was also administered. The inflammatory cell count, cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and lung histopathology were examined. We found significant neutrophilia after exposure to high-dose ZnO NPs on day 1 and significant eosinophilia in the BALF at 7 days. However, the expression levels of the T helper 2 (Th2) cytokines IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 increased significantly after 24h of exposure to only ZnO NPs and then decreased gradually. These results suggested that ZnO NPs could cause eosinophilic airway inflammation in the absence of allergens.

  12. Eosinophilic esophagitis: A relevant entity for the otolaryngologist.

    PubMed

    Górriz-Gil, Carmen; Villarreal, Ithzel M; Álvarez-Montero, Óscar; Rodríguez-Valiente, Antonio; Magaz, Marta; García-Berrocal, José R

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic esophagitis (EE) is a recently recognised pathologic entity whose prevalence has risen significantly since it was first described. Its diagnosis represents a challenge for different medical specialties, among which ENT specialists play an important role. Clinical suspicion in a patient with recurrent food impaction or a child with eating disorders and history of hypersensitivity constitutes the first warning sign of a possible EE. The purpose of this review is to highlight EE as a possible differential diagnosis in patients with deglutition disorders and describe the possible clinical symptoms that should alert the ENT specialist to perform appropriate diagnostic tests and procedures. The transnasal esophagoscopy, performed in-office by the ENT, is ideal for reducing possible underdiagnosed cases. Given the fact that an ENT specialist will evaluate a great many patients with deglutition disorders, it is paramount for possible EE cases to be suspected and recognised so that a correct multidisciplinary approach involving not only ENT specialists but also paediatricians, gastroenterologists, allergologists and pathologists can be established. Identifying the dietary component responsible for the esophageal inflammation and removing that food from the patient's diet is the key in the treatment of this immune-mediated disease.

  13. Clara cells drive eosinophil accumulation in allergic asthma.

    PubMed

    Sonar, S S; Ehmke, M; Marsh, L M; Dietze, J; Dudda, J C; Conrad, M L; Renz, H; Nockher, W A

    2012-02-01

    Development of allergic asthma is a complex process involving immune, neuronal and tissue cells. In the lung, Clara cells represent a major part of the "immunomodulatory barrier" of the airway epithelium. To understand the contribution of these cells to the inflammatory outcome of asthma, disease development was assessed using an adjuvant-free ovalbumin model. Mice were sensitised with subcutaneous injections of 10 μg endotoxin-free ovalbumin in conjunction with naphthalene-induced Clara cell depletion. Clara epithelial cell depletion in the lung strongly reduced eosinophil influx, which correlated with decreased eotaxin levels and, moreover, diminished the T-helper cell type 2 inflammatory response, including interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-13. In contrast, airway hyperresponsiveness was increased. Further investigation revealed Clara cells as the principal source of eotaxin in the lung. These findings are the first to show that Clara airway epithelial cells substantially contribute to the infiltration of eotaxin-responsive CCR3+ immune cells and augment the allergic immune response in the lung. The present study identifies Clara cells as a potential therapeutic target in inflammatory lung diseases such as allergic asthma.

  14. Finger stiffness or edema as presenting symptoms of eosinophilic fasciitis.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shingo; Noda, Kazutaka; Ohira, Yoshiyuki; Shikino, Kiyoshi; Ikusaka, Masatomi

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the clinical features and finger symptoms of eosinophilic fasciitis (EF), we reviewed five patients with EF. The chief complaint was pain, edema and/or stiffness of the extremities. The distal extremities were affected in all patients, and there was also proximal involvement in one patient. One patient had asymmetrical symptoms. All four patients with upper limb involvement had limited range of motion of the wrist joints, and three of them complained of finger symptoms. Two of these three patients showed slight non-pitting edema of the hands, and the other one had subcutaneous induration of the forearm. All four patients with lower limb symptoms had limited range of motion of the ankle joints, and two showed edema or induration of the legs. Inflammatory changes in the joints were not detected in any of the patients. Two patients displayed neither objective induration nor edema, and two patients had muscle tenderness. In conclusion, finger symptoms of patients with EF might be caused by fasciitis of the forearms, which leads to dysfunction of the long finger flexors and extensors as well as slight edema of hands. Limited range of motion of wrist and/or ankle joints indicates sensitively distal muscle dysfunction caused by fasciitis.

  15. Expression and subcellular localization of the Qa-SNARE syntaxin17 in human eosinophils

    SciTech Connect

    Carmo, Lívia A.S.; Dias, Felipe F.; Malta, Kássia K.; Amaral, Kátia B.; Shamri, Revital; Weller, Peter F.; Melo, Rossana C.N.

    2015-10-01

    Background: SNARE members mediate membrane fusion during intracellular trafficking underlying innate and adaptive immune responses by different cells. However, little is known about the expression and function of these proteins in human eosinophils, cells involved in allergic, inflammatory and immunoregulatory responses. Here, we investigate the expression and distribution of the Qa-SNARE syntaxin17 (STX17) within human eosinophils isolated from the peripheral blood. Methods: Flow cytometry and a pre-embedding immunonanogold electron microscopy (EM) technique that combines optimal epitope preservation and secondary Fab-fragments of antibodies linked to 1.4 nm gold particles for optimal access to microdomains, were used to investigate STX17. Results: STX17 was detected within unstimulated eosinophils. Immunogold EM revealed STX17 on secretory granules and on granule-derived vesiculotubular transport carriers (Eosinophil Sombrero Vesicles-EoSVs). Quantitative EM analyses showed that 77.7% of the granules were positive for STX17 with a mean±SEM of 3.9±0.2 gold particles/granule. Labeling was present on both granule outer membranes and matrices while EoSVs showed clear membrane-associated labeling. STX17 was also present in secretory granules in eosinophils stimulated with the cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) or the CC-chemokine ligand 11 CCL11 (eotaxin-1), stimuli that induce eosinophil degranulation. The number of secretory granules labeled for STX17 was significantly higher in CCL11 compared with the unstimulated group. The level of cell labeling did not change when unstimulated cells were compared with TNF-α-stimulated eosinophils. Conclusions: The present study clearly shows by immunanonogold EM that STX17 is localized in eosinophil secretory granules and transport vesicles and might be involved in the transport of granule-derived cargos. - Highlights: • First demonstration of the Qa-SNARE syntaxin-17 (STX17) in human eosinophils. • High

  16. Dimpling in loose granular sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Hernández, Jose Luis; Yepes, Jorge

    2010-05-01

    Dimpling is the name given to the centimetre-scale collapse of granular deposits covering the interior of alteration shelters in semi-arid badlands. The development of micro-collapses is favoured by the stable conditions found in these shelters, where they are safe from water flows, rain impact, and animal or human traffic. The floor of these shelters is usually covered by several centimetres of sandy sediment resulting from the alteration of the rocky substratum and characterised by apparently very low density and high porosity. We have observed that the dimpling phenomenon does not depend on the mineralogy of the sands and occurs in dry conditions. The dimples are the shapes resulting from this process and are fragile, conical depressions ranging from 1 to 12 cm in diameter. They are generally over 3 cm in depth, depending on the depth of the sandy layer. The dimples can be classified into three groups by diameter (Ø): Ø≤1cm, 1cm≤Ø≤10 cm and Ø≥10 cm. These three morphometrical ranges suggest three evolutionary stages of the shapes. The main mechanisms of evolution are the coalescence of neighbouring dimples and the accommodation of the lateral walls towards more open, stable shapes. In this process, the slope of the dimple walls decreases to the angle of equilibrium, or internal friction angle of the sediment, when they acquire a more stable, dense structure. This evolution occurs naturally over several months. The process begins when sufficient sediment with low apparent density accumulates. This takes place by vertical accretion of particles from the shelter walls, which pile up in a stack-of-cards type structure. The increase in weight of the sediment column causes punctual micro-collapses when the limit of the sediment's self-supporting capacity is reached. The process is gravitational. Thermal variations can also condition the structural instability of the sediment due to the dilation-retraction changes undergone by the sediment grains. We can

  17. Bipotential continuum models for granular mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, Joe

    2014-03-01

    Most currently popular continuum models for granular media are special cases of a generalized Maxwell fluid model, which describes the evolution of stress and internal variables such as granular particle fraction and fabric,in terms of imposed strain rate. It is shown how such models can be obtained from two scalar potentials, a standard elastic free energy and a ``dissipation potential'' given rigorously by the mathematical theory of Edelen. This allows for a relatively easy derivation of properly invariant continuum models for granular media and fluid-particle suspensions within a thermodynamically consistent framework. The resulting continuum models encompass all the prominent regimes of granular flow, ranging from the quasi-static to rapidly sheared, and are readily extended to include higher-gradient or Cosserat effects. Models involving stress diffusion, such as that proposed recently by Kamrin and Koval (PRL 108 178301), provide an alternative approach that is mentioned in passing. This paper provides a brief overview of a forthcoming review articles by the speaker (The Princeton Companion to Applied Mathematics, and Appl. Mech. Rev.,in the press, 2013).

  18. Drag on intruder in dense granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Hu; Bares, Jonathan; Wang, Dong; Behringer, Robert

    2015-11-01

    We perform an experimental study on an intruder dragged at a constant force in a quasi-statically cyclic-sheared granular medium. A Teflon disk is embedded in a layer of bidisperse photoelastic disks. The granular medium is contained in a horizontal square cell, which can be deformed into a parallelogram with the same area to produce simple shear. We find that the forward motion of the intruder happens at the fragile state during shear reversals, while only reversible affine motion could be found at the Jammed state. There is a burst of non-affine motion for the granular particles at each shear reversal. For a range of packing fractions, the cumulative intruder displacement shows a linear increase proportional to the number of cycles of shear. To explain the behavior of intruder motion, we analyze the coordination number, density, affine and non-affine motion of disk-granular system variations as the shear strain. We acknowledge support from NSF Grant No. DMR1206351, NASA Grant No. NNX15AD38G and the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  19. Urea phosphate as granular or fluid fertilizers

    SciTech Connect

    Blouin, G.M.

    1984-01-01

    Studies are being conducted of the production and agronomic characteristics of the phosphoric acid-urea adduct, urea phosphate, and of the various granular and fluid fertilizers that can be produced from it. Flowsheets are given for the production of urea phosphate. Characteristics of unpurified and purified urea phosphate are also given. (DLC)

  20. Granular avalanches down inclined and vibrated planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaudel, Naïma; Kiesgen de Richter, Sébastien; Louvet, Nicolas; Jenny, Mathieu; Skali-Lami, Salaheddine

    2016-09-01

    In this article, we study granular avalanches when external mechanical vibrations are applied. We identify conditions of flow arrest and compare with the ones classically observed for nonvibrating granular flows down inclines [Phys. Fluids 11, 542 (1999), 10.1063/1.869928]. We propose an empirical law to describe the thickness of the deposits with the inclination angle and the vibration intensity. The link between the surface velocity and the depth of the flow highlights a competition between gravity and vibrations induced flows. We identify two distinct regimes: (a) gravity-driven flows at large angles where vibrations do not modify dynamical properties but the deposits (scaling laws in this regime are in agreement with the literature for nonvibrating granular flows) and (b) vibrations-driven flows at small angles where no flow is possible without applied vibrations (in this last regime, the flow behavior can be properly described by a vibration induced activated process). We show, in this study, that granular flows down inclined planes can be finely tuned by external mechanical vibrations.

  1. Motile Fluids: Granular, Colloidal and Living

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaswamy, Sriram

    2014-03-01

    My talk will present our recent results from theory, simulation and experiment on flocking, swarming and instabilities in diverse realizations of active systems. The findings I will report include: flocking at a distance in vibrated granular monolayers; the active hydrodynamics of self-propelled solids; clusters, asters and oscillations in colloidal chemotaxis. Supported by a J C Bose Fellowship.

  2. Granular Gas in a Periodic Lattice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dorbolo, S.; Brandenbourger, M.; Damanet, F.; Dister, H.; Ludewig, F.; Terwagne, D.; Lumay, G.; Vandewalle, N.

    2011-01-01

    Glass beads are placed in the compartments of a horizontal square grid. This grid is then vertically shaken. According to the reduced acceleration [image omitted] of the system, the granular material exhibits various behaviours. By counting the number of beads in each compartment after shaking, it is possible to define three regimes. At low…

  3. IL-4 Engagement of the Type I IL-4 Receptor Complex Enhances Mouse Eosinophil Migration to Eotaxin-1 In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Heller, Nicola M.; Gwinn, William M.; Donnelly, Raymond P.; Constant, Stephanie L.; Keegan, Achsah D.

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous work from our laboratory demonstrated that IL-4Rα expression on a myeloid cell type was responsible for enhancement of Th2-driven eosinophilic inflammation in a mouse model of allergic lung inflammation. Subsequently, we have shown that IL-4 signaling through type I IL-4 receptors on monocytes/macrophages strongly induced activation of the IRS-2 pathway and a subset of genes characteristic of alternatively activated macrophages. The direct effect(s) of IL-4 and IL-13 on mouse eosinophils are not clear. The goal of this study was determine the effect of IL-4 and IL-13 on mouse eosinophil function. Methods Standard Transwell chemotaxis assay was used to assay migration of mouse eosinophils and signal transduction was assessed by Western blotting. Results Here we determined that (i) mouse eosinophils express both type I and type II IL-4 receptors, (ii) in contrast to human eosinophils, mouse eosinophils do not chemotax to IL-4 or IL-13 although (iii) pre-treatment with IL-4 but not IL-13 enhanced migration to eotaxin-1. This IL-4-mediated enhancement was dependent on type I IL-4 receptor expression: γC-deficient eosinophils did not show enhancement of migratory capacity when pre-treated with IL-4. In addition, mouse eosinophils responded to IL-4 with the robust tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT6 and IRS-2, while IL-13-induced responses were considerably weaker. Conclusions The presence of IL-4 in combination with eotaxin-1 in the allergic inflammatory milieu could potentiate infiltration of eosinophils into the lungs. Therapies that block IL-4 and chemokine receptors on eosinophils might be more effective clinically in reducing eosinophilic lung inflammation. PMID:22761864

  4. Granular flow over inclined channels with constrictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunuguntla, Deepak; Weinhart, Thomas; Thornton, Anthony; Bokhove, Onno

    2013-04-01

    Study of granular flows down inclined channels is essential in understanding the dynamics of natural grain flows like landslides and snow avalanches. As a stepping stone, dry granular flow over an inclined channel with a localised constriction is investigated using both continuum methods and particle simulations. Initially, depth-averaged equations of motion (Savage & Hutter 1989) containing an unknown friction law are considered. The shallow-layer model for granular flows is closed with a friction law obtained from particle simulations of steady flows (Weinhart et al. 2012) undertaken in the open source package Mercury DPM (Mercury 2010). The closed two-dimensional (2D) shallow-layer model is then width-averaged to obtain a novel one-dimensional (1D) model which is an extension of the one for water flows through contraction (Akers & Bokhove 2008). Different flow states are predicted by this novel one-dimensional theory. Flow regimes with distinct flow states are determined as a function of upstream channel Froude number, F, and channel width ratio, Bc. The latter being the ratio of the channel exit width and upstream channel width. Existence of multiple steady states is predicted in a certain regime of F - Bc parameter plane which is in agreement with experiments previously undertaken by (Akers & Bokhove 2008) and for granular flows (Vreman et al. 2007). Furthermore, the 1D model is verified by solving the 2D shallow granular equations using an open source discontinuous Galerkin finite element package hpGEM (Pesch et al. 2007). For supercritical flows i.e. F > 1 the 1D asymptotics holds although the two-dimensional oblique granular jumps largely vary across the converging channel. This computationally efficient closed 1D model is validated by comparing it to the computationally more expensiveaa three-dimensional particle simulations. Finally, we aim to present a quasi-steady particle simulation of inclined flow through two rectangular blocks separated by a gap

  5. Granular Mechanics in the Asteroid Regime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanchez, Paul; Swift, M. R.; Scheeres, D. J.

    2009-09-01

    We study the granular mechanics properties of asteroid regolith and of asteroids modeled as gravitational aggregates using soft-sphere molecular simulation codes. For definiteness we assume parameters similar to the asteroid Itokawa, for which we have detailed observational data. Essential questions that can be studied using the techniques of granular mechanics are why large blocks dominate 80% of the surface of Itokawa and why the remaining 20% is uniformly covered with smaller particles, indicating global segregation mechanisms at work on this body. The prime energy source proposed for the segregation of granular materials on asteroids has been seismic shaking due to hypervelocity impacts with asteroids much smaller than the target body. We analyze the detailed mechanics of segregation physics in the asteroid environment due to such interactions. First we analyze the so-called Brazil Nut Effect (BNE), which preferentially causes larger particles to rise to the highest potential energy in a granular material. We note that the regions of highest potential on Itokawa are dominated by larger blocks, while the potential lows are dominated by smaller blocks. We verify and characterise the BNE effect in an asteroid environment under a variety of boundary and shaking conditions. We also extend our analyses to a global-scale simulation of aggregates, modeling the response of self-gravitating granules of a mixture of sizes to impacts. Analysis of such global-scale systems show additional mechanics that may account for the exposure of large blocks on the surface. Specifically we find that hypervelocity impacts are more effective in removing and transporting smaller regolith, exposing sub-surface larger blocks that might otherwise be covered in finer grained material. We discuss the scaling of granular mechanics effects from local regolith to global aggregate scale.

  6. Workshop Report from the NIH Taskforce on the Research Needs of Eosinophil-Associated Diseases (TREAD)

    PubMed Central

    Bochner, Bruce S.; Book, Wendy; Busse, William W.; Butterfield, Joseph; Furuta, Glenn T.; Gleich, Gerald J.; Klion, Amy D.; Lee, James J.; Leiferman, Kristin M.; Minnicozzi, Michael; Moqbel, Redwan; Rothenberg, Marc E.; Schwartz, Lawrence B.; Simon, Hans-Uwe; Wechsler, Michael E.; Weller, Peter F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Eosinophils are blood cells that are often found in high numbers in the tissues of allergic conditions and helminthic parasite infections. The pathophysiological roles that eosinophils may serve in other human ‘eosinophil-associated’ diseases remain obscure. Objective NIH Institutes and the Office of Disease Prevention assembled an international taskforce of clinical and basic scientists with the charge to propose and prioritize unmet research needs in eosinophil-associated diseases. Methods The taskforce used an organ system approach to dissect out the different and common themes of eosinophil cell involvement in these diseases. In early 2012, a draft document was circulated for review. The document was amended and the prioritizations were set at a NIH-organized workshop in June 2012. Results The taskforce identified significant research needs. These needs cross disease entities but some are disease-specific. There are substantial shortcomings to the various preclinical animal models, as well as significant gaps in our epidemiologic, pathophysiologic, diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic knowledge. The taskforce recognized that recent efforts by patient advocacy groups have played instrumental roles in improving the identification and characterization of these disorders. However, communication amongst the eosinophil interested communities, e.g., governmental funding and regulatory agencies, and industry and clinician scientists need to be more comprehensive. Conclusions Significant efforts are required to address our knowledge gaps in order to improve the outcomes of eosinophil-associated diseases. NIH Institutes, other federal agencies, lay organizations and the pharmaceutical industry should consider the taskforce’s recommendations in their future research activities. PMID:22935587

  7. Quantitative analysis of eosinophils in acute graft-versus-host disease compared with drug hypersensitivity reactions.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Joshua; Bergfeld, Wilma F

    2010-02-01

    Acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD), if not detected and treated early, is a common cause of morbidity and mortality. Drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHRs), the most frequent clinical and histopathological mimickers of early aGVHD, are often still distinguished from aGVHD by the presence of eosinophils within the inflammatory infiltrate on skin biopsy. Distinguishing these entities is important because the delay of appropriate treatment of aGVHD may lead to advanced stages of the disease process with a poor prognosis. To determine whether the existence or amount of eosinophilic infiltrate could be used to differentiate these entities, we employed a quantitative method of analyzing eosinophils in skin biopsies of rashes from patients with aGVHD and DHR. Eosinophils were counted in 50 high-power fields (HPFs) in skin biopsies of patients with clinical grade >or=2 aGVHD (+aGVHD), with clinical grade <2 aGVHD (-aGVHD), and those with clinical DHR (+DHR). The average number of eosinophils per 10 HPFs (ave. eos/10 HPFs) increased throughout each group. The ave. eos/10 HPFs in +DHR was significantly different from both aGVHD groups (P < 0.001). The specificity to completely rule out aGVHD did not reach 100% until 16.0 ave. eos/10 HPFs was observed. There is a significant difference between the numbers of eosinophils found in differentiating DHR from aGVHD, but a very high number (>16.0 ave. eos/10 HPFs) is necessary to rule out aGVHD completely. Therefore, a quantitative analysis of eosinophils in all biopsies to rule out aGVHD would be of limited value and should only be considered in those biopsies with significant eosinophilia.

  8. Increased Duodenal Eosinophil Degranulation in Patients with Functional Dyspepsia: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lijun; Shen, Jinhua; Kim, John J.; Yu, Yunxian; Ma, Liqin; Dai, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder diagnosed by symptom-based criteria. It has been said that duodenal immune activation plays a role in the pathogenesis of FD. The primary aims of the study were to compare the total number of duodenal eosinophil and evaluate the eosinophil degranulation rate, number of duodenal degranulated eosinophil and mast cell between patients with FD and healthy subjects. We enrolled 96 patients with FD and 24 healthy controls at Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital. The total number of eosinophil was comparable in the second portion of duodenum (D2) and duodenal bulb (D1) between patients with FD and healthy controls (all P > 0.05). Significant higher eosinophil degranulation positive rate in D2 (P = 0.003) and a trend towards higher in D1 (P = 0.084) were observed in patients with FD compared with healthy controls. Moreover, the number of duodenal degranulated eosinophil in patients with FD were significantly increased than healthy controls in D1(9.8 ± 6.3 vs 2.9 ± 2.1 per HPF, P = 0.0002) and a trend towards increase in D2 (10.7 ± 7.7 vs 5.3 ± 0.9 per HPF, P = 0.077), respectively. However, degranulated mast cells in patients with FD were almost same with healthy controls. Increased eosinophils degranulation in duodenum play an important role in pathogenesis of FD. PMID:27708358

  9. Effects of prednisone on eosinophilic bronchitis in asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis*,**

    PubMed Central

    Sakae, Thiago Mamôru; Maurici, Rosemeri; Trevisol, Daisson José; Pizzichini, Marcia Margaret Menezes; Pizzichini, Emílio

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect size of oral corticosteroid treatment on eosinophilic bronchitis in asthma, through systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS: We systematically reviewed articles in the Medline, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, EMBASE, and LILACS databases. We selected studies meeting the following criteria: comparing at least two groups or time points (prednisone vs. control, prednisone vs. another drug, or pre- vs. post-treatment with prednisone); and evaluating parameters before and after prednisone use, including values for sputum eosinophils, sputum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), and sputum IL-5-with or without values for post-bronchodilator FEV1-with corresponding 95% CIs or with sufficient data for calculation. The independent variables were the use, dose, and duration of prednisone treatment. The outcomes evaluated were sputum eosinophils, IL-5, and ECP, as well as post-bronchodilator FEV1. RESULTS: The pooled analysis of the pre- vs. post-treatment data revealed a significant mean reduction in sputum eosinophils (↓8.18%; 95% CI: 7.69-8.67; p < 0.001), sputum IL-5 (↓83.64 pg/mL; 95% CI: 52.45-114.83; p < 0.001), and sputum ECP (↓267.60 µg/L; 95% CI: 244.57-290.63; p < 0.0001), as well as a significant mean increase in post-bronchodilator FEV1 (↑8.09%; 95% CI: 5.35-10.83; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with moderate-to-severe eosinophilic bronchitis, treatment with prednisone caused a significant reduction in sputum eosinophil counts, as well as in the sputum levels of IL-5 and ECP. This reduction in the inflammatory response was accompanied by a significant increase in post-bronchodilator FEV1. PMID:25410844

  10. Extremely varied phenotypes in granular corneal dystrophy type 2 heterozygotes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyung Eun; Choi, Seung-il; Chung, Woo Suk; Jung, Se Hwan; Katsanis, Nicholas; Kim, Tae-im

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the phenotypic variability of patients bearing the heterozygous R124H mutation in the TGFBI (transforming growth factor-beta-induced) gene that causes granular corneal dystrophy type 2 (GCD2). Methods We describe the phenotypic range of GCD2 heterozygotes for the common R124H mutation in TGFBI; seven with an extremely mild phenotype and six with an extremely severe phenotype. Detailed slit-lamp photographs of these patients were generated. All patients had no history of ocular surgery and were diagnosed as being heterozygous for GCD2 by DNA analysis from peripheral blood. Expression levels of transforming growth factor-beta-induced protein (TGFBIp) were compared among cultured corneal fibroblasts from ten normal donors. Results We report profound differences in the severity of the phenotype across our case series. Two patients with a mild phenotype were diagnosed as unaffected at presentation; however follow-up examinations revealed granular deposits. Importantly, we also observed familial clustering of phenotypic variance; five patients from two families with a mild phenotype showed a similarly mild phenotype within family members. Similarly, six patients from two families with severe phenotypes showed corneal deposits with similar patterns and severity within each distinct family, but distinct patterns between families. TGFBIp expressions from different donor derived cultured corneal fibroblasts were different between one another. Conclusions GCD2 heterozygotes have extremely varied phenotypes between individual patients. However phenotypes were broadly consistent within families, suggesting that the observed variable expressivity might be regulated by other genetic factors that could influence the abundance of TGFBIp or the function of the pathway. From a clinical perspective, our data also highlighted that genetic analysis and meticulous slit-lamp examination in both eyes at multiple time intervals is necessary. PMID:22815629

  11. IL-33-Induced Cytokine Secretion and Survival of Mouse Eosinophils Is Promoted by Autocrine GM-CSF

    PubMed Central

    Willebrand, Ralf; Voehringer, David

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophils are major effector cells during allergic responses and helminth infections. Recent studies further highlight eosinophils as important players in many other biological processes. Therefore it is important to understand how these cells can be modulated in terms of survival and effector function. In the present study we investigated how eosinophils respond to the alarmin IL-33. We show that IL-33 promotes eosinophil survival in a ST2- and MyD88-dependent manner. IL-33-mediated protection from apoptosis was dependent on autocrine GM-CSF release. In addition, GM-CSF increased the IL-33-induced secretion of IL-4 and IL-13 from eosinophils. Unexpectedly, this effect was further enhanced by cross-linking of Siglec-F, a proposed inhibitory and apopotosis-inducing receptor on eosinophils. Co-culture experiments with eosinophils and macrophages revealed that the IL-33-induced release of IL-4 and IL-13 from eosinophils was required for differentiation of alternatively activated macrophages (AAMs). The differentiation of AAMs could be further increased in the presence of GM-CSF. These results indicate that cross-talk between Siglec-F and the receptors for IL-33, LPS and GM-CSF plays an important role for efficient secretion of IL-4 and IL-13. Deciphering the molecular details of this cross-talk could lead to the development of new therapeutic option to treat eosinophil-associated diseases. PMID:27690378

  12. Major Basic Protein from Eosinophils and Myeloperoxidase from Neutrophils Are Required for Protective Immunity to Strongyloides stercoralis in Mice ▿

    PubMed Central

    O'Connell, Amy E.; Hess, Jessica A.; Santiago, Gilberto A.; Nolan, Thomas J.; Lok, James B.; Lee, James J.; Abraham, David

    2011-01-01

    Eosinophils and neutrophils contribute to larval killing during the primary immune response, and neutrophils are effector cells in the secondary response to Strongyloides stercoralis in mice. The objective of this study was to determine the molecular mechanisms used by eosinophils and neutrophils to control infections with S. stercoralis. Using mice deficient in the eosinophil granule products major basic protein (MBP) and eosinophil peroxidase (EPO), it was determined that eosinophils kill the larvae through an MBP-dependent mechanism in the primary immune response if other effector cells are absent. Infecting PHIL mice, which are eosinophil deficient, with S. stercoralis resulted in development of primary and secondary immune responses that were similar to those of wild-type mice, suggesting that eosinophils are not an absolute requirement for larval killing or development of secondary immunity. Treating PHIL mice with a neutrophil-depleting antibody resulted in a significant impairment in larval killing. Naïve and immunized mice with neutrophils deficient in myeloperoxidase (MPO) infected with S. stercoralis had significantly decreased larval killing. It was concluded that there is redundancy in the primary immune response, with eosinophils killing the larvae through an MBP-dependent mechanism and neutrophils killing the worms through an MPO-dependent mechanism. Eosinophils are not required for the development or function of secondary immunity, but MPO from neutrophils is required for protective secondary immunity. PMID:21482685

  13. Supporting user-defined granularities in a spatiotemporal conceptual model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Khatri, V.; Ram, S.; Snodgrass, R.T.; O'Brien, G. M.

    2002-01-01

    Granularities are integral to spatial and temporal data. A large number of applications require storage of facts along with their temporal and spatial context, which needs to be expressed in terms of appropriate granularities. For many real-world applications, a single granularity in the database is insufficient. In order to support any type of spatial or temporal reasoning, the semantics related to granularities needs to be embedded in the database. Specifying granularities related to facts is an important part of conceptual database design because under-specifying the granularity can restrict an application, affect the relative ordering of events and impact the topological relationships. Closely related to granularities is indeterminacy, i.e., an occurrence time or location associated with a fact that is not known exactly. In this paper, we present an ontology for spatial granularities that is a natural analog of temporal granularities. We propose an upward-compatible, annotation-based spatiotemporal conceptual model that can comprehensively capture the semantics related to spatial and temporal granularities, and indeterminacy without requiring new spatiotemporal constructs. We specify the formal semantics of this spatiotemporal conceptual model via translation to a conventional conceptual model. To underscore the practical focus of our approach, we describe an on-going case study. We apply our approach to a hydrogeologic application at the United States Geologic Survey and demonstrate that our proposed granularity-based spatiotemporal conceptual model is straightforward to use and is comprehensive.

  14. Safety of dilation in adults with eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Ally, M R; Dias, J; Veerappan, G R; Maydonovitch, C L; Wong, R K; Moawad, F J

    2013-04-01

    Esophageal dilation is an effective therapy for dysphagia in patients with stenosing eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Historically, there have been significant concerns of increased perforation rates when dilating EoE patients. More recent studies suggest that improved techniques and increased awareness have decreased complication rates. The aim of this study was to explore the safety of dilation in our population of EoE patients. A retrospective review of all adult EoE patients enrolled in a registry from 2006 to 2010 was performed. All patients who underwent esophageal dilation during this time period were identified and included in the analysis. Our hospital inpatient/outpatient medical records, radiology reports, and endoscopy reports were searched for evidence of any complication following dilation. Perforation, hemorrhage, and hospitalization were identified as a major complication, and chest pain was considered a minor complication. One hundred and ninety-six patients (41 years [12]; mean age [standard deviation], 80% white, 85% male) were identified. In this cohort, 54 patients (28%) underwent 66 total dilations (seven patients underwent two dilations, one patient underwent three dilations, and one patient underwent four dilations). Three dilation techniques were used (Maloney [24], Savary [29] and through-the-scope [13]). There were no major complications encountered. Chest pain was noted in two patients (4%). There were no endoscopic features (rings, furrows, plaques) associated with any complication. Type of dilator, size of dilator, number of prior dilations, and age of patient were also not associated with complications. Endoscopic dilation using a variety of dilators can be safely performed with minimal complications in patients with EoE.

  15. Molecular Diagnosis of Eosinophilic Esophagitis by Gene Expression Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Ting; Stucke, Emily M.; Grotjan, Tommie M.; Kemme, Katherine A.; Abonia, J. Pablo; Putnam, Philip E.; Franciosi, James P.; Garza, Jose M.; Kaul, Ajay; King, Eileen C.; Collins, Margaret H.; Kushner, Jonathan P.; Rothenberg, Marc E.

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Gene expression profiling provides an opportunity for definitive diagnosis but has not yet been well applied to inflammatory diseases. Herein, we describe an approach for diagnosis of an emerging form of esophagitis, eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE), currently diagnosed by histology and clinical symptoms. Methods We developed an EoE diagnostic panel (EDP), comprising a 96-gene quantitative PCR array and an associated dual-algorithm that uses cluster analysis and dimensionality reduction, using a cohort of randomly selected esophageal biopsy samples from pediatric patients with EoE (n = 15) or without EoE (non-EoE controls, n = 14), subsequently vetted using a separate cohort of 194 pediatric and adult patient samples derived from both fresh or formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissue: active EoE (n = 91), control (non-EoE and EoE remission, n = 57), histologically ambiguous (n = 34), and reflux (n = 12) samples. Results The EDP identified adult and pediatric patients with EoE with ~96% sensitivity and ~98% specificity, and distinguished patients with EoE in remission from controls, as well as identified patients exposed to swallowed glucorticoids. The EDP could be used with FFPE tissue RNA and distinguished patients with EoE from those with reflux esophagitis, identified by pH-impedance testing. Preliminary evidence showed that the EDP could identify patients likely to have disease relapse following treatment. Conclusions We developed a molecular diagnostic test (referred as the EDP) that identifies patients with esophagitis in a fast, objective, and mechanistic manner, offering an opportunity to improve diagnosis and treatment, and a platform approach for other inflammatory diseases. PMID:23978633

  16. Simulating Granular Materials Using a 3D Voronoi Subdivision Tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clothier, M.; Bailey, M.

    2015-12-01

    Our world is full of many different types of granular materials. This includes materials such as silt, sand, and gravel and have various sizes and properties. It is of interest to simulate and visualize granular media as it can provide additional analysis and insight into geologic events such as landslides or debris flows. Unfortunately, this can be a computationally complex problem due to the large amount of physical interaction between granular materials. To help alleviate this problem, we have developed a method to represent granular media using a technique called a 3D Voronoi Subdivision Tree. The idea behind our method is to take a convex terrain volume and use a subdivision tree to build smaller, granular subpieces contained within the volume. We use a 3D Voronoi subdivision technique to create smaller granular convex cells and then store them in the tree. The tree is dynamic and adaptive as it only represents individual granular media when they are needed. In addition, as each of the granular subpieces are created, we can also store attributes of that granular material in the tree node. This ensures a diversity of granular materials contained within the volume. In order to maintain performance during simulation, we can dynamically replace parts of the granular volume with smaller granular subpieces just by traversing the tree. In essence, this allows for many different granular materials to be represented within the volume while reducing computational complexity. As such, this helps with simulation performance so that focus can be placed on simulation analysis. We feel our method is helpful for simulating geologic events with granular materials and will assist geoscientists in understanding them.

  17. Constitutive relations for steady, dense granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vescovi, D.; Berzi, D.; di Prisco, C. G.

    2011-12-01

    In the recent past, the flow of dense granular materials has been the subject of many scientific works; this is due to the large number of natural phenomena involving solid particles flowing at high concentration (e.g., debris flows and landslides). In contrast with the flow of dilute granular media, where the energy is essentially dissipated in binary collisions, the flow of dense granular materials is characterized by multiple, long-lasting and frictional contacts among the particles. The work focuses on the mechanical response of dry granular materials under steady, simple shear conditions. In particular, the goal is to obtain a complete rheology able to describe the material behavior within the entire range of concentrations for which the flow can be considered dense. The total stress is assumed to be the linear sum of a frictional and a kinetic component. The frictional and the kinetic contribution are modeled in the context of the critical state theory [8, 10] and the kinetic theory of dense granular gases [1, 3, 7], respectively. In the critical state theory, the granular material approaches a certain attractor state, independent on the initial arrangement, characterized by the capability of developing unlimited shear strains without any change in the concentration. Given that a disordered granular packing exists only for a range of concentration between the random loose and close packing [11], a form for the concentration dependence of the frictional normal stress that makes the latter vanish at the random loose packing is defined. In the kinetic theory, the particles are assumed to interact through instantaneous, binary and uncorrelated collisions. A new state variable of the problem is introduced, the granular temperature, which accounts for the velocity fluctuations. The model has been extended to account for the decrease in the energy dissipation due to the existence of correlated motion among the particles [5, 6] and to deal with non

  18. Assessment of bacterial and structural dynamics in aerobic granular biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Weissbrodt, David G.; Neu, Thomas R.; Kuhlicke, Ute; Rappaz, Yoan; Holliger, Christof

    2013-01-01

    Aerobic granular sludge (AGS) is based on self-granulated flocs forming mobile biofilms with a gel-like consistence. Bacterial and structural dynamics from flocs to granules were followed in anaerobic-aerobic sequencing batch reactors (SBR) fed with synthetic wastewater, namely a bubble column (BC-SBR) operated under wash-out conditions for fast granulation, and two stirred-tank enrichments of Accumulibacter (PAO-SBR) and Competibacter (GAO-SBR) operated at steady-state. In the BC-SBR, granules formed within 2 weeks by swelling of Zoogloea colonies around flocs, developing subsequently smooth zoogloeal biofilms. However, Zoogloea predominance (37–79%) led to deteriorated nutrient removal during the first months of reactor operation. Upon maturation, improved nitrification (80–100%), nitrogen removal (43–83%), and high but unstable dephosphatation (75–100%) were obtained. Proliferation of dense clusters of nitrifiers, Accumulibacter, and Competibacter from granule cores outwards resulted in heterogeneous bioaggregates, inside which only low abundance Zoogloea (<5%) were detected in biofilm interstices. The presence of different extracellular glycoconjugates detected by fluorescence lectin-binding analysis showed the complex nature of the intracellular matrix of these granules. In the PAO-SBR, granulation occurred within two months with abundant and active Accumulibacter populations (56 ± 10%) that were selected under full anaerobic uptake of volatile fatty acids and that aggregated as dense clusters within heterogeneous granules. Flocs self-granulated in the GAO-SBR after 480 days during a period of over-aeration caused by biofilm growth on the oxygen sensor. Granules were dominated by heterogeneous clusters of Competibacter (37 ± 11%). Zoogloea were never abundant in biomass of both PAO- and GAO-SBRs. This study showed that Zoogloea, Accumulibacter, and Competibacter affiliates can form granules, and that the granulation mechanisms rely on the dominant

  19. Mechanisms for the proliferation of eosinophilic leukemia cells by FIP1L1-PDGFR{alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Ishihara, Kenji; Kitamura, Hajime; Hiraizumi, Kenji; Kaneko, Motoko; Takahashi, Aki; Zee, OkPyo; Seyama, Toshio; Hong, JangJa; Ohuchi, Kazuo; Hirasawa, Noriyasu

    2008-02-22

    The constitutively activated tyrosine kinase Fip1-like 1 (FIP1L1)-platelet-derived growth factor receptor {alpha} (PDGFR{alpha}) causes eosinophilic leukemia EoL-1 cells to proliferate. Recently, we demonstrated that histone deacetylase inhibitors suppressed this proliferation and induced the differentiation of EoL-1 cells into eosinophils in parallel with a decrease in the level of FIP1L1-PDGFR{alpha}. In this study, we analyzed the mechanism by which FIP1L1-PDGFR{alpha} induces the proliferation and whether the suppression of cell proliferation triggers the differentiation into eosinophils. The FIP1L1-PDGFR{alpha} inhibitor imatinib inhibited the proliferation of EoL-1 cells and decreased the level of the oncoprotein c-Myc as well as the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). The proliferation of EoL-1 cells and expression of c-Myc were also inhibited by the MEK inhibitor U0126 and JNK inhibitor SP600125. The expression of the eosinophilic differentiation marker CCR3 was not induced by imatinib. These findings suggest that FIP1L1-PDGFR{alpha} induces the proliferation of EoL-1 cells through the induction of c-Myc expression via ERK and JNK signaling pathways, but is not involved in the inhibition of differentiation toward mature eosinophils.

  20. TNF-induced IL-8 and MCP-1 production in the eosinophilic cell line, EOL-1

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, L. A.; Strieter, R. M.; Evanoff, H. L.; Kunkel, S. L.

    1996-01-01

    The role of eosinophils in inflammation and their mode of activation is not well understood. Eosinophil accumulation and subsequent expression of cytokines at the site of inflammation may play a role in exacerbation of inflammatory responses. In the present study, we have examined the role of TNF-α in eosinophil activation and chemokine production using a human leukaemic eosinophil cell line, EOL-1. Initial studies demonstrated that TNF-α induced the upregulation of IL-8 and MCP-1 mRNA and protein. Kinetic studies indicated production of chemokines, IL-8 and MCP-1, as early as 4 h post-activation, with peak levels of chemokine produced at 8 h, and decreasing by 24 h post-TNF-α activation. When IL-10, a suppressive cytokine, was incubated with TNF-α and EOL-1 cells, no effect was observed on IL-8 and MCP-1 production. However, dexamethasone, a glucocorticoid, demonstrated potent inhibitory effects on the EOL-1-derived chemokines. These studies indicate that eosinophils may be a significant source of chemokines capable of participating in, and maintaining, leukocyte recruitment during inflammatory responses, such as asthma. PMID:18475720

  1. Granular controls of hillslope deformation and creep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferdowsi, B.; Jerolmack, D. J.; Ortiz, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    Sediment transport on hillslopes has been described as "creep", and has been modeled as a "diffusive" process by invoking random disturbance of soil in the presence of a gradient. In this framework, physical and biological agents are envisioned to cause dilation of the soil that is greatest at the surface and decays with depth. Thus, there is a kind of internal energy of the sediment that allows flow, even below the angle of repose. This transport has not yet been connected, however, to the more general phenomenon of creep in disordered, particulate systems. Work in such "soft matter" materials has shown that disordered solids are fragile, and may deform slowly by localized particle rearrangement under static loads much smaller than the yield stress at which fluid-like flow occurs. The transition from creep to granular flow has not been thoroughly examined. Here we use particle dynamics simulations to examine creep and granular flow dynamics and the transition between them, and to test the ability of a granular physics model to describe observations of hillslope soil creep. We employ a well-developed discrete element model, with frictional and over-damped interactions among grains to approximate the conditions of earth hillslopes. Transient and equilibrium particle dynamics are described for a range of inclination angles that transit the angle of repose. We verify that sub-threshold creep occurs, even in the absence of internal energy, and describe its dynamic signature. Moreover, simulations show that the transition from creeping to a sustained granular flow is continuous as the angle of repose is crossed. We then perturb the granular system with acoustic vibrations, to directly compare the model with previously-reported laboratory experiments of acoustically-driven hillslope transport. We test the ability of the model to reproduce the heuristic nonlinear hillslope flux law. Results reveal that the bulk movement of hillslope sediment over long timescales may be

  2. Performance and microbial community composition dynamics of aerobic granular sludge from sequencing batch bubble column reactors operated at 20 degrees C, 30 degrees C, and 35 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi, Sirous; Gabus, Sébastien; Rohrbach-Brandt, Emmanuelle; Hosseini, Maryam; Rossi, Pierre; Maillard, Julien; Holliger, Christof

    2010-07-01

    Two bubble column sequencing batch reactors fed with an artificial wastewater were operated at 20 degrees C, 30 degrees C, and 35 degrees C. In a first stage, stable granules were obtained at 20 degrees C, whereas fluffy structures were observed at 30 degrees C. Molecular analysis revealed high abundance of the operational taxonomic unit 208 (OTU 208) affiliating with filamentous bacteria Leptothrix spp. at 30 degrees C, an OTU much less abundant at 20 degrees C. The granular sludge obtained at 20 degrees C was used for the second stage during which one reactor was maintained at 20 degrees C and the second operated at 30 degrees C and 35 degrees C after prior gradual increase of temperature. Aerobic granular sludge with similar physical properties developed in both reactors but it had different nutrient elimination performances and microbial communities. At 20 degrees C, acetate was consumed during anaerobic feeding, and biological phosphorous removal was observed when Rhodocyclaceae-affiliating OTU 214 was present. At 30 degrees C and 35 degrees C, acetate was mainly consumed during aeration and phosphorous removal was insignificant. OTU 214 was almost absent but the Gammaproteobacteria-affiliating OTU 239 was more abundant than at 20 degrees C. Aerobic granular sludge at all temperatures contained abundantly the OTUs 224 and 289 affiliating with Sphingomonadaceae indicating that this bacterial family played an important role in maintaining stable granular structures.

  3. OXYGEN ABUNDANCES IN CEPHEIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Luck, R. E.; Andrievsky, S. M.; Korotin, S. N.; Kovtyukh, V. V. E-mail: serkor@skyline.od.ua E-mail: scan@deneb1.odessa.ua

    2013-07-01

    Oxygen abundances in later-type stars, and intermediate-mass stars in particular, are usually determined from the [O I] line at 630.0 nm, and to a lesser extent, from the O I triplet at 615.7 nm. The near-IR triplets at 777.4 nm and 844.6 nm are strong in these stars and generally do not suffer from severe blending with other species. However, these latter two triplets suffer from strong non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects and thus see limited use in abundance analyses. In this paper, we derive oxygen abundances in a large sample of Cepheids using the near-IR triplets from an NLTE analysis, and compare those abundances to values derived from a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of the [O I] 630.0 nm line and the O I 615.7 nm triplet as well as LTE abundances for the 777.4 nm triplet. All of these lines suffer from line strength problems making them sensitive to either measurement complications (weak lines) or to line saturation difficulties (strong lines). Upon this realization, the LTE results for the [O I] lines and the O I 615.7 nm triplet are in adequate agreement with the abundance from the NLTE analysis of the near-IR triplets.

  4. Interstellar Abundance Standards Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofia, Ulysses J.; Meyer, David M.

    2001-06-01

    We evaluate the stellar abundances often used to represent the total (gas plus dust) composition of the interstellar medium. Published abundances for B stars, young later type (F and G) stars, and the Sun are compared to the modeled dust-phase and measured gas-phase compositions of the interstellar medium. This study uses abundances for the five most populous elements in dust grains-C, O, Mg, Si, and Fe-and the cosmically abundant element, N. We find that B stars have metal abundances that are too low to be considered valid representations of the interstellar medium. The commonly invoked interstellar standard that is two-thirds of the solar composition is also rejected by recent observations. Young (<=2 Gyr) F and G disk stars and the Sun, however, cannot be ruled out as reliable proxies for the total interstellar composition. If their abundances are valid representations of the interstellar medium, then the apparent underabundance of carbon with respect to that required by dust models, i.e., the carbon crisis, is substantially eased.

  5. Plant Root Growth In Granular Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendell, Dawn; Hosoi, Peko

    2010-03-01

    Roots grow in a variety of granular substrates. However, the substrates are often treated in ways which minimize or neglect the inhomogeneities arising from the influence of inter-particle forces. Experiments are often run using gels or average stress measurements. This presentation discusses the effect of the local structure of the particulate environment on the root's direction. Using photoelastic particles and particles with a variety of Young's Moduli, we investigate the influence of inter-particle forces and particle stiffness on a pinto bean root's ability to grow through a fully-saturated granular medium. The level of particle contact force through which the roots successfully grow is determined and the influence of particle stiffness on root direction is investigated.

  6. Writing in the granular gel medium.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Tapomoy; Zehnder, Steven M; Rowe, Kyle G; Jain, Suhani; Nixon, Ryan M; Sawyer, W Gregory; Angelini, Thomas E

    2015-09-01

    Gels made from soft microscale particles smoothly transition between the fluid and solid states, making them an ideal medium in which to create macroscopic structures with microscopic precision. While tracing out spatial paths with an injection tip, the granular gel fluidizes at the point of injection and then rapidly solidifies, trapping injected material in place. This physical approach to creating three-dimensional (3D) structures negates the effects of surface tension, gravity, and particle diffusion, allowing a limitless breadth of materials to be written. With this method, we used silicones, hydrogels, colloids, and living cells to create complex large aspect ratio 3D objects, thin closed shells, and hierarchically branched tubular networks. We crosslinked polymeric materials and removed them from the granular gel, whereas uncrosslinked particulate systems were left supported within the medium for long times. This approach can be immediately used in diverse areas, contributing to tissue engineering, flexible electronics, particle engineering, smart materials, and encapsulation technologies. PMID:26601274

  7. Movers and shakers: granular damping in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Bannerman, M N; Kollmer, J E; Sack, A; Heckel, M; Mueller, P; Pöschel, T

    2011-07-01

    The response of an oscillating granular damper to an initial perturbation is studied using experiments performed in microgravity and granular dynamics simulations. High-speed video and image processing techniques are used to extract experimental data. An inelastic hard sphere model is developed to perform simulations and the results are in excellent agreement with the experiments. In line with previous work, a linear decay of the amplitude is observed. Although this behavior is typical for a friction-damped oscillator, through simulation it is shown that this effect is still present even when friction forces are absent. A simple expression is developed which predicts the optimal damping conditions for a given amplitude and is independent of the oscillation frequency and particle inelasticities. PMID:21867158

  8. Erosion and flow of hydrophobic granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utter, Brian; Benns, Thomas; Foltz, Benjamin; Mahler, Joseph

    2015-03-01

    We experimentally investigate submerged granular flows of hydrophobic and hydrophilic grains both in a rotating drum geometry and under erosion by a surface water flow. While slurry and suspension flows are common in nature and industry, effects of surface chemistry on flow behavior have received relatively little attention. In the rotating drum, we use varying concentrations of hydrophobic and hydrophilic grains of sand submerged in water rotated at a constant angular velocity. Sequential images of the resulting avalanches are taken and analyzed. High concentrations of hydrophobic grains result in an effectively cohesive interaction between the grains forming aggregates, with aggregate size and repose angle increasing with hydrophobic concentration. However, the formation and nature of the aggregates depends significantly on the presence of air in the system. We present results from a related experiment on erosion by a surface water flow designed to characterize the effects of heterogeneous granular surfaces on channelization and erosion.

  9. Erosion and flow of hydrophobic granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utter, Brian; Benns, Thomas; Mahler, Joseph

    2013-11-01

    We experimentally investigate submerged granular flows of hydrophobic and hydrophilic grains both in a rotating drum geometry and under erosion by a surface water flow. While slurry and suspension flows are common in nature and industry, effects of surface chemistry on flow behavior have received relatively little attention. In the rotating drum , we use varying concentrations of hydrophobic and hydrophilic grains of sand submerged in water rotated at a constant angular velocity. Sequential images of the resulting avalanches are taken and analyzed. High concentrations of hydrophobic grains result in an effectively cohesive interaction between the grains forming aggregates, with aggregate size and repose angle increasing with hydrophobic concentration. However, the formation and nature of the aggregates depends significantly on the presence of air in the system. We present results from a related experiment on erosion by a surface water flow designed to characterize the effects of heterogeneous granular surfaces on channelization and erosion. Supported by NSF CBET Award 1067598.

  10. Spreading granular material with a blade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dressaire, Emilie; Singh, Vachitar; Grimaldi, Emma; Sauret, Alban

    2015-11-01

    The spreading of a complex fluid with a blade is encountered in applications that range from the bulldozing of granular material in construction projects to the coating of substrates with fluids in industrial applications. This spreading process is also present in everyday life, when we use a knife to turn a lump of peanut butter into a thin layer over our morning toast. In this study, we rely on granular media in a model experiment to describe the three-dimensional spreading of the material. Our experimental set-up allows tracking the spreading of a sandpile on a translating flat surface as the blade remains fixed. We characterize the spreading dynamics and the shape of the spread fluid layer when varying the tilt of the blade, its spacing with the surface and its speed. Our findings suggest that it is possible to tune the spreading parameters to optimize the coating.

  11. Writing in the granular gel medium

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharjee, Tapomoy; Zehnder, Steven M.; Rowe, Kyle G.; Jain, Suhani; Nixon, Ryan M.; Sawyer, W. Gregory; Angelini, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Gels made from soft microscale particles smoothly transition between the fluid and solid states, making them an ideal medium in which to create macroscopic structures with microscopic precision. While tracing out spatial paths with an injection tip, the granular gel fluidizes at the point of injection and then rapidly solidifies, trapping injected material in place. This physical approach to creating three-dimensional (3D) structures negates the effects of surface tension, gravity, and particle diffusion, allowing a limitless breadth of materials to be written. With this method, we used silicones, hydrogels, colloids, and living cells to create complex large aspect ratio 3D objects, thin closed shells, and hierarchically branched tubular networks. We crosslinked polymeric materials and removed them from the granular gel, whereas uncrosslinked particulate systems were left supported within the medium for long times. This approach can be immediately used in diverse areas, contributing to tissue engineering, flexible electronics, particle engineering, smart materials, and encapsulation technologies. PMID:26601274

  12. Heat flux in a granular gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brey, J. J.; Ruiz-Montero, M. J.

    2012-11-01

    A peculiarity of the hydrodynamic Navier-Stokes equations for a granular gas is the modification of the Fourier law, with the presence of an additional contribution to the heat flux that is proportional to the density gradient. Consequently, the constitutive relation involves, in the case of a one-component granular gas, two transport coefficients: the usual (thermal) heat conductivity and a diffusive heat conductivity. A very simple physical interpretation of this effect, in terms of the mean free path and the mean free time is provided. It leads to the modified Fourier law with an expression for the diffusive Fourier coefficient that differs in a factor of the order of unity from the expression obtained by means of the inelastic Boltzmann equation. Also, some aspects of the Chapman-Enskog computation of the new transport coefficients as well as of the comparison between simulation results and theory are discussed.

  13. Release of O2- and LTC4 by murine eosinophils: role of intra- and extracellular calcium.

    PubMed Central

    de Andres, B; del Pozo, V; Martin, E; Palomino, P; Lahoz, C

    1990-01-01

    Using an experimental model of mouse peritoneal eosinophilia, we investigated the role of Ca2+ in the in vitro activation of these cells challenged with specific Mesocestoides corti antigen. We have detected LTC4, a metabolite derived from arachidonic acid by way of 5'lipo-oxygenase and superoxide anion from the oxidative burst, as inflammatory mediators produced by activated eosinophils. Preincubation with hyperimmune mice serum increases the amount of LTC4 and superoxide anion in response to the antigenic extract. Release of O2- is inhibited by Verapamil (a voltage-gated calcium channel) and Quin 2 (an intracellular trapped chelator of calcium). Also, LTC4 produced by preincubated eosinophils challenged with M. corti is dramatically inhibited by Quin 2. Our results suggest an intact mechanism for calcium control for the release of these inflammatory mediators by eosinophils, after specific antigenic stimulation. PMID:1689695

  14. [Can eosinophilic bronchitis be considered as an occupational disease? Medical certification aspects].

    PubMed

    Kleniewska, Aneta; Wiszniewska, Marta; Walusiak-Skorupa, Jolanta

    2013-01-01

    Eosinophilic bronchitis (EB) is a condition which can be associated with occupational exposure to low, as well as to high molecular weight allergens. The prevalence of occupational eosinophilic bronchitis is unknown and the data concerning its work-related etiology are available only from the case reports. However, there is a need to establish the principles, especially in the context of medical certification among workers occupationally exposed to allergens. This paper reviews current knowledge on the etiology, clinical features, and diagnostic procedures in the eosinophilic bronchitis. The importance of EB, especially in view of the problems emerging in the prophylactic care taken by occupational health services and the principles of medical certification when occupational etiology is suspected are also presented.

  15. Eosinophilic cellulitis and panniculitis with generalized vesicular pustular id reaction after a molten aluminum burn.

    PubMed

    Chao, Sheau-Chiou; Lee, Yi-Pei; Lee, Julia Yu-Yun

    2010-01-01

    Hypersensitivity reactions to aluminum are rare. Sensitization has been reported during the continuous application of aluminum-containing antiperspirants or after the injection of aluminum-adsorbed vaccines and allergen extracts containing aluminum. We report a rare case of a nonhealing ulcer at the site of an accidental molten aluminum burn that showed changes of eosinophilic cellulitis and panniculitis histologically. This process was followed by a generalized vesicular and pustular id reaction. The reactions resolved after 1 month of systemic corticosteroid therapy. Two months later, there was a relapse with bullae over the burn scar, accompanied by a pruritic oozing rash on the ears and face; the lesions were controlled again with systemic corticosteroid treatment. The clinicopathologic features suggest that the eosinophilic cellulitis with panniculitis and id reaction in the present case represents an unusual allergic reaction to aluminum. Aluminum allergy may be considered as a possible underlying process in the setting of eosinophilic cellulitis with panniculitis and id reaction.

  16. Intracellular application of guanosine-5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) induces exocytotic granule fusion in guinea pig eosinophils

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    The mechanism of eosinophil secretion was studied in guinea pig eosinophils by measuring release of hexosaminidase from cell suspensions (greater than 98% pure) permeabilized with streptolysin-O and by whole-cell patch-clamp capacitance measurements. It is shown that release of eosinophil granule components occurs by an exocytotic mechanism in which individual granules fuse with the plasma membrane. Exocytosis can be induced by intracellular application of the nonhydrolyzable GTP analog guanosine-5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (GTP- gamma-S), suggesting the involvement of a GTP-binding protein. The activation is modulated by the intracellular calcium concentration, with activation by GTP-gamma-S inducing transient elevations in the concentration of Ca2+. Thus, the nature and regulation of the release mechanism appear to be very similar to that of the mast cell and neutrophil. PMID:2137856

  17. A rare case of unilateral eosinophilic fasciitis associated with ipsilateral extragenital lichen sclerosus

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Aseem; Ray, Rahul; Sridhar, Jandhyala; Trehan, Arti; Khandare, Manish

    2016-01-01

    Eosinophilic fasciitis, also known as Shulman's syndrome, is a fibrosing scleroderma-like syndrome, which is a distinct entity. A 55-year-old man, presented with progressive skin darkening, thickening, and tightening over the left lower limb since 6 months. Dermatological examination revealed a hyperpigmented indurated area on the left thigh, extending to the anterior aspect of the left leg. A well-defined hypopigmented indurated plaque was present over the left iliac region. Histopathology and imaging studies confirmed the diagnosis of eosinophilic fasciitis and lichen sclerosus. The indurated lesion on the left lower limb responded dramatically well to oral corticosteroids. This is a rare case of unilateral eosinophilic fasciitis associated with ipsilateral extragenital lichen sclerosus. PMID:27730034

  18. Clinical manifestations of Eosinophilic meningitis due to infection with Angiostrongylus cantonensis in children.

    PubMed

    Sawanyawisuth, Kittisak; Chindaprasirt, Jarin; Senthong, Vichai; Limpawattana, Panita; Auvichayapat, Narong; Tassniyom, Sompon; Chotmongkol, Verajit; Maleewong, Wanchai; Intapan, Pewpan M

    2013-12-01

    Eosinophilic meningitis, caused by the nematode Angiostrongylus cantonensis, is prevalent in northeastern Thailand, most commonly in adults. Data regarding clinical manifestations of this condition in children is limited and may be different those in adults. A chart review was done on 19 eosinophilic meningitis patients aged less than 15 years in Srinagarind Hospital, Faculty of Medicine, Khon Kaen University, Thailand. Clinical manifestations and outcomes were reported using descriptive statistics. All patients had presented with severe headache. Most patients were males, had fever, nausea or vomiting, stiffness of the neck, and a history of snail ingestion. Six patients had papilledema or cranial nerve palsies. It was shown that the clinical manifestations of eosinophilic meningitis due to A. cantonensis in children are different from those in adult patients. Fever, nausea, vomiting, hepatomegaly, neck stiffness, and cranial nerve palsies were all more common in children than in adults.

  19. Fibronectin changes in eosinophilic meningitis with blood-CSF barrier disruption.

    PubMed

    Shyu, Ling-Yuh; Hu, Ming-E; Chou, Chun-Hui; Chen, Ke-Min; Chiu, Ping-Sung; Lai, Shih-Chan

    2015-01-01

    Fibronectin, which is present at relatively low levels in healthy central nervous systems (CNS), shows increased levels in meningitis. In this study, fibronectin processing was correlated with the increased permeability of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier as well as with the formation of eosinophil infiltrates in angiostrongyliasis meningitis. The immunohistochemistry results show matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) is localized in the choroid plexus epithelium. Coimmunoprecipitation demonstrated fibronectin strongly binds MMP-9. Furthermore, treatment with the MMP-9 inhibitor GM6001 significantly inhibited fibronectin processing, reduced the blood-CSF barrier permeability, and decreased the eosinophil counts. The decreased fibronectin processing in CSF implies decreased cellular invasion of the subarachnoid space across the blood-CSF barrier. Therefore, increased fibronectin processing may be associated with barrier disruption and participate in the extravasation and migration of eosinophils into the CNS during experimental parasitic infection.

  20. Unsteady granular flows in a rotating tumbler.

    PubMed

    Pohlman, Nicholas A; Ottino, Julio M; Lueptow, Richard M

    2009-09-01

    The characteristics of steady granular flow in quasi-two-dimensional rotating tumblers have been thoroughly investigated and are fairly well understood. However, unsteady time-varying flow has not been studied in detail. The linear response of granular flow in quasi-two-dimensional rotating tumblers is presented for periodic forcing protocols via sinusoidal variation in the rotational speed of the tumbler and for step changes in rotational speed. Variations in the tumbler radius, particle size, and forcing frequency are explored. Similarities to steady flow include the fastest flow occurring at the free surface of the flowing layer and an instantaneous approximately linear velocity profile through the depth. The flowing layer depth varies by 2-5 particle diameters between minimum and maximum rotation rates. However, unsteady forcing also causes the flow to exhibit dynamic properties. For periodic rotational speeds, the phase lag of the flowing layer depth increases linearly with increasing input forcing frequency up to nearly 2.0 rad over 0-20 cycles per tumbler revolution. The amplitude responses of the velocity and shear rate show a resonance behavior unique to the system level parameters. The phase lag of all flow properties appears to be related to the number of particle contacts from the edge of the rotating tumbler. Characterization via step changes in rotational speed shows dynamic properties of overshoot (up to 35%) and rise times on the order of 0.2-0.7 s. The results suggest that the unsteady granular flow analysis may be beneficial for characterizing the "flowability" and "rheology" of granular materials based on particle size, moisture content, or other properties. PMID:19905105

  1. Freely evolving self gravitating granular gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Shikha; Ahmad, Syed Rashid

    2016-05-01

    Granular Materials are composed of large number of discrete solid particles. They can be considered solid, liquid or gas depending on movement of the constituting particles and are characterized by loss of energy whenever grains come in contact. We are studying the dynamics of such materials using computer simulations. In particular, we are studying systems that interact with long-range gravitational force in addition to dissipative contact forces. Our focus is on evolution morphology and clustering of particles in this system.

  2. Granular hemostat deposits mimicking disseminated malignancy.

    PubMed

    Wood, Sarah J; Kelsey, Anna; Brennan, Bernadette; Bruce, James; Craigie, Ross J

    2013-03-01

    Hemostatic matrices are a part of the surgeon's armamentarium against profuse intraoperative bleeding. Granular deposits may form after the use of a liquid hemostat which can be mistaken for tumor recurrence or metastatic disease in the setting of neoplasia. We present two cases that highlight the importance of full knowledge of product usage during previous operations and the need for histological examination of these lesions. PMID:23480944

  3. Seismic wave propagation in granular media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tancredi, Gonzalo; López, Francisco; Gallot, Thomas; Ginares, Alejandro; Ortega, Henry; Sanchís, Johnny; Agriela, Adrián; Weatherley, Dion

    2016-10-01

    Asteroids and small bodies of the Solar System are thought to be agglomerates of irregular boulders, therefore cataloged as granular media. It is a consensus that many asteroids might be considered as rubble or gravel piles.Impacts on their surface could produce seismic waves which propagate in the interior of these bodies, thus causing modifications in the internal distribution of rocks and ejections of particles and dust, resulting in a cometary-type comma.We present experimental and numerical results on the study of propagation of impact-induced seismic waves in granular media, with special focus on behavior changes by increasing compression.For the experiment, we use an acrylic box filled with granular materials such as sand, gravel and glass spheres. Pressure inside the box is controlled by a movable side wall and measured with sensors. Impacts are created on the upper face of the box through a hole, ranging from free-falling spheres to gunshots. We put high-speed cameras outside the box to record the impact as well as piezoelectic sensors and accelerometers placed at several depths in the granular material to detect the seismic wave.Numerical simulations are performed with ESyS-Particle, a software that implements the Discrete Element Method. The experimental setting is reproduced in the numerical simulations using both individual spherical particles and agglomerates of spherical particles shaped as irregular boulders, according to rock models obtained with a 3D scanner. The numerical experiments also reproduces the force loading on one of the wall to vary the pressure inside the box.We are interested in the velocity, attenuation and energy transmission of the waves. These quantities are measured in the experiments and in the simulations. We study the dependance of these three parameters with characteristics like: impact speed, properties of the target material and the pressure in the media.These results are relevant to understand the outcomes of impacts in

  4. Particle sorting in dense granular flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, K. M.; Fan, Y.; Yohannes, B.

    2008-12-01

    Mixtures of particles tend to unmix by particle property. One of the most dramatically destructive examples of this occurs in debris flow: boulders, rocks, and mud tumble down a hillside, and the largest rocks migrate toward the top and then the front of the flow where they do the most damage. Rotating drums and chute flows are two of the most common apparatuses used to systematically study segregation in dense, gravity driven granular flows. In these cases, smaller or, alternatively, denser particles segregate away from the free surface, phenomena that have been modeled using mechanisms such as kinetic sieving and buoyancy, respectively. Other segregation mechanisms have been identified in suspensions and in more energetic systems such as a gradient in granular temperature -- the kinetic energy of velocity fluctuations -- and curvature effects. However, with most experimental systems the dominant segregation mechanism is difficult to ascertain. In typical experimental systems designed to study segregation in dense granular flow (such as chutes and rotated drums), gravity, velocity gradients and porosity gradients coexist in the direction of segregation. We study the segregation of mixtures of particles numerically and experimentally in a split-bottom cell and in a rotating drum to isolate three possible driving mechanisms for segregation of densely-sheared granular mixtures: gravity, porosity, and velocity gradients and their associated dynamics. We find gravity alone does not drive segregation associated with particle size without a sufficiently large porosity or porosity gradient. A velocity gradient, however, appears capable of driving segregation associated both with particle size and material density in dense flows. We present our results and discuss the implications for some particle segregation behaviors observed in natural systems such as debris flows and sediment transport.

  5. Swimming in a granular frictional fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    X-ray imaging reveals that the sandfish lizard swims within granular media (sand) using axial body undulations to propel itself without the use of limbs. To model the locomotion of the sandfish, we previously developed an empirical resistive force theory (RFT), a numerical sandfish model coupled to an experimentally validated Discrete Element Method (DEM) model of the granular medium, and a physical robot model. The models reveal that only grains close to the swimmer are fluidized, and that the thrust and drag forces are dominated by frictional interactions among grains and the intruder. In this talk I will use these models to discuss principles of swimming within these granular ``frictional fluids". The empirical drag force laws are measured as the steady-state forces on a small cylinder oriented at different angles relative to the displacement direction. Unlike in Newtonian fluids, resistive forces are independent of speed. Drag forces resemble those in viscous fluids while the ratio of thrust to drag forces is always larger in the granular media than in viscous fluids. Using the force laws as inputs, the RFT overestimates swimming speed by approximately 20%. The simulation reveals that this is related to the non-instantaneous increase in force during reversals of body segments. Despite the inaccuracy of the steady-state assumption, we use the force laws and a recently developed geometric mechanics theory to predict optimal gaits for a model system that has been well-studied in Newtonian fluids, the three-link swimmer. The combination of the geometric theory and the force laws allows us to generate a kinematic relationship between the swimmer's shape and position velocities and to construct connection vector field and constraint curvature function visualizations of the system dynamics. From these we predict optimal gaits for forward, lateral and rotational motion. Experiment and simulation are in accord with the theoretical prediction, and demonstrate that

  6. Stochastic flow rule for granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamrin, Ken; Bazant, Martin Z.

    2007-04-01

    There have been many attempts to derive continuum models for dense granular flow, but a general theory is still lacking. Here, we start with Mohr-Coulomb plasticity for quasi-two-dimensional granular materials to calculate (average) stresses and slip planes, but we propose a “stochastic flow rule” (SFR) to replace the principle of coaxiality in classical plasticity. The SFR takes into account two crucial features of granular materials—discreteness and randomness—via diffusing “spots” of local fluidization, which act as carriers of plasticity. We postulate that spots perform random walks biased along slip lines with a drift direction determined by the stress imbalance upon a local switch from static to dynamic friction. In the continuum limit (based on a Fokker-Planck equation for the spot concentration), this simple model is able to predict a variety of granular flow profiles in flat-bottom silos, annular Couette cells, flowing heaps, and plate-dragging experiments—with essentially no fitting parameters—although it is only expected to function where material is at incipient failure and slip lines are inadmissible. For special cases of admissible slip lines, such as plate dragging under a heavy load or flow down an inclined plane, we postulate a transition to rate-dependent Bagnold rheology, where flow occurs by sliding shear planes. With different yield criteria, the SFR provides a general framework for multiscale modeling of plasticity in amorphous materials, cycling between continuum limit-state stress calculations, mesoscale spot random walks, and microscopic particle relaxation.

  7. Spontaneous Patterning of Confined Granular Rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galanis, Jennifer; Harries, Daniel; Sackett, Dan L.; Losert, Wolfgang; Nossal, Ralph

    2006-01-01

    Vertically vibrated rod-shaped granular materials confined to quasi-2D containers self-organize into distinct patterns. We find, consistent with theory and simulation, a density dependent isotropic-nematic transition. Along the walls, rods interact sterically to form a wetting layer. For high rod densities, complex patterns emerge as a result of competition between bulk and boundary alignment. A continuum elastic energy accounting for nematic distortion and local wall anchoring reproduces the structures seen experimentally.

  8. Structural characterization of submerged granular packings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakšić, Z. M.; Šćepanović, J. R.; Lončarević, I.; Budinski-Petković, Lj.; Vrhovac, S. B.; Belić, A.

    2014-12-01

    We consider the impact of the effective gravitational acceleration on microstructural properties of granular packings through experimental studies of spherical granular materials saturated within fluids of varying density. We characterize the local organization of spheres in terms of contact connectivity, distribution of the Delaunay free volumes, and the shape factor (parameter of nonsphericity) of the Voronoï polygons. The shape factor gives a clear physical picture of the competition between less and more ordered domains of particles in experimentally obtained packings. As the effective gravity increases, the probability distribution of the shape factor becomes narrower and more localized around the lowest values of the shape factor corresponding to regular hexagon. It is found that curves of the pore distributions are asymmetric with a long tail on the right-hand side, which progressively reduces while the effective gravity gets stronger for lower densities of interstitial fluid. We show that the distribution of local areas (Voronoï cells) broadens with decreasing value of the effective gravity due to the formation of lose structures such as large pores and chainlike structures (arches or bridges). Our results should be particularly helpful in testing the newly developed simulation techniques involving liquid-related forces associated with immersed granular particles.

  9. State variables in dense granular materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, Karen

    2009-11-01

    Granular materials are integral to many parts of our daily lives, from the coffee beans that fuel our mornings to the coal that fuels our power plants. Two related aspects of their dynamics are particularly striking: their ability to exhibit both solid-like and liquid-like behavior, and the presence of highly heterogeneous force chains in which the magnitude of the local stress varies widely over short distances. These distinctive behaviors are connected to the fact that granular materials are always out of equilibrium: first, because they are typically both driven and dissipative, but also because they remain in metastable states even when they aren't being driven. I will present recent results from several experiments ranging from the theoretically-motivated (the equilibration of state variables within a non-equilibrium system) to the practical (particle-segregation by size). The results of these experiments elucidate the complex behaviors which underlay granular dynamics, and provide a reason to hope that statistical physics might hold the keys to explaining the observed phenomena.

  10. Moving Granular Bed Filter Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, K.B.; Haas, J.C.; Eshelman, M.B.

    1992-11-01

    The granular bed filter was developed through low pressure, high temperature (1600{degrees}F) testing in the late 1970`s and early 1980`s`. Collection efficiencies over 99% were obtained. In 1988, high pressure, high temperature testing was completed at New York University, Westbury, N.Y., utilizing a coal-fired pressurized, fluidized bed combustor. High particulate removal efficiencies were confirmed as it was shown that both New Source Performance Standards and turbine tolerance limits could be met. The early scale-up work of the granular bed filter indicated potential limitations due to size, cost, and mechanical complexity. These limitations were addressed in the present program by utilizing the information gained from the filter development up through the NYU test program to reassess the commercial approach. Two studies were chosen for developing conceptual designs and cost estimates of the commercial sized filters. One is the economic study of the 250 MWe, second generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion plant defined by Foster Wheeler. This plant originally included cross-flow filters for hot gas cleanup. The other plant under study is a 100 MWe, airblown KRW gasifier. A cross-flow inter was utilized for gas stream cleanup in this study also. Granular bed and ceramic candle filters were substituted for the cross-flow filters in both these plants, and the resulting cost of electricity (COE) is compared.

  11. Moving Granular Bed Filter Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, K.B.; Haas, J.C.; Eshelman, M.B.

    1992-01-01

    The granular bed filter was developed through low pressure, high temperature (1600[degrees]F) testing in the late 1970's and early 1980's'. Collection efficiencies over 99% were obtained. In 1988, high pressure, high temperature testing was completed at New York University, Westbury, N.Y., utilizing a coal-fired pressurized, fluidized bed combustor. High particulate removal efficiencies were confirmed as it was shown that both New Source Performance Standards and turbine tolerance limits could be met. The early scale-up work of the granular bed filter indicated potential limitations due to size, cost, and mechanical complexity. These limitations were addressed in the present program by utilizing the information gained from the filter development up through the NYU test program to reassess the commercial approach. Two studies were chosen for developing conceptual designs and cost estimates of the commercial sized filters. One is the economic study of the 250 MWe, second generation pressurized fluidized bed combustion plant defined by Foster Wheeler. This plant originally included cross-flow filters for hot gas cleanup. The other plant under study is a 100 MWe, airblown KRW gasifier. A cross-flow inter was utilized for gas stream cleanup in this study also. Granular bed and ceramic candle filters were substituted for the cross-flow filters in both these plants, and the resulting cost of electricity (COE) is compared.

  12. Self-Organization in Granular Slurries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ottino, Julio M.; Jain, Nitin; Lueptow, Richard M.; Khakhar, Devang V.

    2000-11-01

    Mixtures of tumbled granular materials under flow exhibit various intriguing types of un-mixing or self-organization. Small differences in particles' density, size or shape may trigger the effect. Nearly all studies to date have addressed the case of dry granular media, where the interparticle fluid is typically air. Here we report the existence of self-organization in wet granular media or slurries, mixtures of particles of different sizes dispersed in a lower density liquid. Technological examples appear in cement, ceramics, fine chemicals, and in the food industry; examples in nature appear in evolution of landslides and transport in river sediments. In spite of significantly different physics at the particle level, both axial banding (alternating bands rich in small and large particles in a long rotating cylinder) and radial segregation (in quasi 2D containers) are observed in slurries. However, axial segregation is significantly faster and the spectrum of outcomes is richer. Moreover, experiments with suitable fluids, reveal, for the first time, the internal structure of axially segregated systems, something that up to now has been accessible only via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experimentation.

  13. Granular dampers: does particle shape matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourtavakoli, Hamzeh; Parteli, Eric J. R.; Pöschel, Thorsten

    2016-07-01

    By means of particle-based numerical simulations using the discrete element method, we address the question of how the performance of granular dampers is affected by the shape of the granular particles. In consistence with previous experiments performed with nearly spherical particles we find that independently of the particles’ shape, the granular system is characterized by a gas-like regime for small amplitudes of the container’s oscillation and by a collect-and-collide regime for large amplitude forcing. Both regimes are separated by an optimal operation mode—the critical amplitude of the damping oscillation for which the energy dissipation is maximal—which is independent of the particle shape for given conditions of particle mass, material properties and number of particles. However, in the gas-like regime, we find that spherical particles lead to more efficient energy dissipation compared to complex shaped particles of the same mass. In this regime, a dependence on the damper’s efficiency on the particle shape is found.

  14. Particle Characterization of Pressed Granular HMX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnside, N. J.; Son, S. F.; Skidmore, C. B.; Asay, B. W.

    1997-07-01

    Often, little material characterization is reported in studies that use granular explosives, such as deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) experiments. This lack of characterization makes modeling and interpretation of the experiments difficult. Further, very little is known about how particle size changes with compaction processes, even for quasi-static pressing. Changes in available surface area could significantly affect the initiation of such materials. In this work we report measurements of the particle size distribution of original granular HMX, as well as the size distribution of pressed (higher density) samples. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) pictures are presented and are found to be useful in interpreting the size distribution measurements of the granular HMX, as well as helping to more fully characterizing the state of the particles. We find that the particle size distribution changes significantly with pressing. That is, particles are observed to be highly fractured and damaged at higher pressed densities. Also, we have found that sample preparation can significantly affect size distribution measurements. In particular, even short duration sonication can have a significant effect on the measured size distributions of pressed HMX samples.

  15. Mechanics of Granular Materials-3 (MGM-3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sture, Stein; Alshibi, Khalid; Guynes, Buddy (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Scientists are going to space to understand how earthquakes and other forces disturb grains of soil and sand. They will examine how the particle arrangement and structure of soils, grains and powders are changed by external forces and gain knowledge about the strength, stiffness and volume changes properties of granular materials at low pressures. The Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment uses the microgravity of orbit to test sand columns under conditions that cannot be obtained in experiments on Earth. Research can only go so far on Earth because gravity-induced stresses complicate the analysis and change loads too quickly for detailed analysis. This new knowledge will be applied to improving foundations for buildings, managing undeveloped land, and handling powdered and granular materials in chemical, agricultural, and other industries. NASA wants to understand the way soil behaves under different gravity levels so that crews can safely build habitats on Mars and the Moon. Future MGM experiments will benefit from extended tests aboard the International Space Station, including experiments under simulated lunar and Martian gravity in the science centrifuge.

  16. Mechanics of Granular Materials Test Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A test cell for Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment is shown from all three sides by its video camera during STS-89. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  17. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    One of three Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) test cells after flight on STS-79 and before impregnation with resin. Note that the sand column has bulged in the middle, and that the top of the column is several inches lower than the top of the plastic enclosure. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder

  18. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) Test Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    A test cell for Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment is shown approximately 20 and 60 minutes after the start of an experiment on STS-89. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  19. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) Flight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A test cell for the Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment is shown in its on-orbit configuration in Spacehab during preparations for STS-89. The twin locker to the left contains the hydraulic system to operate the experiment. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that carnot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Note: Because the image on the screen was muted in the original image, its brightness and contrast are boosted in this rendering to make the test cell more visible. Credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  20. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) Test Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A test cell for Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiment is tested for long-term storage with water in the system as plarned for STS-107. This view shows the compressed sand column with the protective water jacket removed. Sand and soil grains have faces that can cause friction as they roll and slide against each other, or even cause sticking and form small voids between grains. This complex behavior can cause soil to behave like a liquid under certain conditions such as earthquakes or when powders are handled in industrial processes. Mechanics of Granular Materials (MGM) experiments aboard the Space Shuttle use the microgravity of space to simulate this behavior under conditons that cannot be achieved in laboratory tests on Earth. MGM is shedding light on the behavior of fine-grain materials under low effective stresses. Applications include earthquake engineering, granular flow technologies (such as powder feed systems for pharmaceuticals and fertilizers), and terrestrial and planetary geology. Nine MGM specimens have flown on two Space Shuttle flights. Another three are scheduled to fly on STS-107. The principal investigator is Stein Sture of the University of Colorado at Boulder. Credit: University of Colorado at Boulder