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Sample records for abundant naturally occurring

  1. Interactions between natural-occurring landscape conditions and land use influencing the abundance of riverine smallmouth bass, micropterus dolomieu

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brewer, S.K.; Rabeni, C.F.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined how interactions between natural landscape features and land use influenced the abundance of smallmouth bass, Micropterus dolomieu, in Missouri, USA, streams. Stream segments were placed into one of four groups based on natural-occurring watershed characteristics (soil texture and soil permeability) predicted to relate to smallmouth bass abundance. Within each group, stream segments were assigned forest (n = 3), pasture (n = 3), or urban (n = 3) designations based on the percentages of land use within each watershed. Analyses of variance indicated smallmouth bass densities differed between land use and natural conditions. Decision tree models indicated abundance was highest in forested stream segments and lowest in urban stream segments, regardless of group designation. Land use explained the most variation in decision tree models, but in-channel features of temperature, flow, and sediment also contributed significantly. These results are unique and indicate the importance of natural-occurring watershed conditions in defining the potential of populations and how finer-scale filters interact with land use to further alter population potential. Smallmouth bass has differing vulnerabilities to land-use attributes, and the better the natural watershed conditions are for population success, the more resilient these populations will be when land conversion occurs.

  2. Naturally occurring insecticides.

    PubMed Central

    Soloway, S B

    1976-01-01

    Naturally occurring insecticides are abundant and varied in their effects, though but a few are articles of commerce. Even for these, pyrethrum, nicotine, rotenone, hellebore, ryania, and sabadilla, there is a paucity of information on mammalian toxicology and environmental effects. In general, these materials are characterized favorably by low acute toxicity and ready dissipation in nature. Unfavorable aspects of natural insecticides are the contained mixture of active and inactive components and the low active ingredient content on a crop yield basis pointing to a high unit cost. Natural insecticides can serve additionally as leads to unnatural mimics, of which the commercially successful synthetic pyrethroids are prime examples. The chemical nature, relationship of insecticidal activity to chemical structure, occurrence, production, and utilization, registered uses, metabolism, and insect and mammalian toxicity are reviewed. PMID:789058

  3. "Naturally occurring asbestos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagnard, F.; Lahondère, D.; Blein, O.; Lahfid, A.; Wille, G.

    2012-04-01

    The term asbestos refers to six silicate minerals from amphibole and serpentine groups. By definition, it consists in bundles of thin and flexible long fibers, with high-tensile strength, and chemical and heat resistance. In contrast to asbestos found within commercial products and mining, the specific term ''naturally occurring asbestos'' (NOA) refers to asbestiform minerals occurring within rocks or soils that can be released by human activities or weathering processes. The fact that the exposure to asbestos is related to lung pathologies is now widely demonstrated (e.g. asbestosis, mesothelioma and lung cancer). However, if health risks associated with exposure to NOA exist, they are not yet well documented. The crystallization of natural asbestos occurs in specific Mg-rich lithologies associated with peculiar structural and metamorphic conditions. By recognizing and combining such specific geologic criteria, the presence or the absence of asbestos in bedrock terrains can be reasonably predicted and maps of NOA hazard can be drawn. We present here new results of geological mapping and petrological study concerning the evaluation of the NOA hazard in the Alps and Corsica, in France. The three folds approach consists in (1) a determination of lithologies with potential NOA from a bibliographic compilation and extraction of target zones from a geological geodatabase (2) a geological mapping of the target zones followed by a petrological characterization of sampled asbestiform minerals in the laboratory (optical microscopy, TEM, SEM, and Raman spectroscopy technics), and (3) the drawing of the final map of NOA hazard, at regional-scale. Occurrence criteria can be retained as follows: 1. NOA are abundant in the internal zones of the Alps and Corsica, especially within ophiolitic complexes. Natural asbestos are mostly concentrated within ultramafic rocks but can also occur within basic lithologies such as Mg-metagabbros, metabasalts and meta-pillow-lavas, 2. Asbestos

  4. Naturally Occurring Food Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Laurie C.; Matulka, Ray A.; Burdock, George A.

    2010-01-01

    Although many foods contain toxins as a naturally-occurring constituent or, are formed as the result of handling or processing, the incidence of adverse reactions to food is relatively low. The low incidence of adverse effects is the result of some pragmatic solutions by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other regulatory agencies through the creative use of specifications, action levels, tolerances, warning labels and prohibitions. Manufacturers have also played a role by setting limits on certain substances and developing mitigation procedures for process-induced toxins. Regardless of measures taken by regulators and food producers to protect consumers from natural food toxins, consumption of small levels of these materials is unavoidable. Although the risk for toxicity due to consumption of food toxins is fairly low, there is always the possibility of toxicity due to contamination, overconsumption, allergy or an unpredictable idiosyncratic response. The purpose of this review is to provide a toxicological and regulatory overview of some of the toxins present in some commonly consumed foods, and where possible, discuss the steps that have been taken to reduce consumer exposure, many of which are possible because of the unique process of food regulation in the United States. PMID:22069686

  5. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM)

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, P.

    1997-02-01

    This paper discusses the broad problems presented by Naturally Occuring Radioactive Materials (NORM). Technologically Enhanced naturally occuring radioactive material includes any radionuclides whose physical, chemical, radiological properties or radionuclide concentration have been altered from their natural state. With regard to NORM in particular, radioactive contamination is radioactive material in an undesired location. This is a concern in a range of industries: petroleum; uranium mining; phosphorus and phosphates; fertilizers; fossil fuels; forestry products; water treatment; metal mining and processing; geothermal energy. The author discusses in more detail the problem in the petroleum industry, including the isotopes of concern, the hazards they present, the contamination which they cause, ways to dispose of contaminated materials, and regulatory issues. He points out there are three key programs to reduce legal exposure and problems due to these contaminants: waste minimization; NORM assesment (surveys); NORM compliance (training).

  6. Caffeine, a naturally occurring acaricide.

    PubMed

    Russell, D W; Fernández-Caldas, E; Swanson, M C; Seleznick, M J; Trudeau, W L; Lockey, R F

    1991-01-01

    Since caffeine is a plant alkaloid that has been described as a naturally occurring insecticide, its acaricidal effect on Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dp) was investigated. Twelve cultures were established by adding 30 Dp to 200 mg of Tetramin fish food and brewer's yeast (8:2 ratio); six cultures were treated with 20 mg of finely ground caffeine. All 12 cultures were incubated at 75% relative humidity, 25 degrees C, and observed during 8 weeks. Live mites were then counted under a stereoscope, cultures were extracted, and supernatants were analyzed for Der p I and Der f I allergen content with a two-site monoclonal RIA. Live mite counts in untreated cultures varied from 146 to 274 (215 +/- 47.1), and in caffeine-treated cultures from 0 to 3 (1 +/- 1.2; p less than or equal to 0.0001). Der p I concentrations in untreated cultures varied from 588 to 9000 ng/gm (3138.3 +/- 2990.8 ng/gm), and in caffeine-treated cultures from 52 to 117 ng/gm (78 +/- 23.8 ng/gm; p less than or equal to 0.01). Der p I was not detected in the food media or caffeine; Der f I was not detected in any of the cultures. Results demonstrate that caffeine inhibits mite growth and allergen production.

  7. Naturally occurring iridoids. A review, part 1.

    PubMed

    Dinda, Biswanath; Debnath, Sudhan; Harigaya, Yoshihiro

    2007-02-01

    A compilation of new naturally occurring iridoid glycosides, iridoid aglycones, iridoid derivatives and bis-iridoids reported during 1994-2005 is provided with available physical and spectral data: mp, [alpha]D, UV, IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR as well as natural source with family and references. 418 compounds with 202 references are cited.

  8. Naturally occurring fatty acids: source, chemistry and uses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural occurring fatty acids are a large and complex class of compounds found in plants and animals. Fatty acids are abundant and of interest because of their renewability, biodegradability, biocompatibility, low cost, and fascinating chemistry. Of the many fatty acids, only 20-25 of them are widel...

  9. Synthesis of Naturally Occurring Tropones and Tropolones

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Na; Song, Wangze; Schienebeck, Casi M.; Zhang, Min; Tang, Weiping

    2014-01-01

    Tropones and tropolones are an important class of seven-membered non-benzenoid aromatic compounds. They can be prepared directly by oxidation of seven-membered rings. They can also be derived from cyclization or cycloaddition of appropriate precursors followed by elimination or rearrangement. This review discusses the types of naturally occurring tropones and tropolones and outlines important methods developed for the synthesis of tropone and tropolone natural products. PMID:25400298

  10. Naturally occurring antimicrobials for minimally processed foods.

    PubMed

    Davidson, P Michael; Critzer, Faith J; Taylor, T Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Natural antimicrobials are gaining increased interest from researchers and food manufacturers alike seeking to discover label-friendly alternatives to the widely implemented synthetic compounds. Naturally occurring antimicrobials can be applied directly to food to protect food quality, extend food shelf life by inhibiting or inactivating spoilage microorganisms, and improve food safety by inhibiting or inactivating food-borne pathogens. There are a great number of natural antimicrobials derived from animal, plant, and microbial sources. This manuscript reviews their efficacy against spoilage and pathogenic organisms, their methods of evaluation, and their application in various foods as well as the development of novel delivery systems and incorporation with other hurdles.

  11. Naturally occurring products in cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, E.; Sankari, Leena S.; Malathi, L.; Krupaa, Jayasri R.

    2015-01-01

    Natural products have been used for the treatment of various diseases and are becoming an important research area for drug discovery. These products, especially phytochemicals have been extensively studies and have exhibited anti-carcinogenic activities by interfering with the initiation, development and progression of cancer through the modulation of various mechanisms including cellular proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and metastasis. This concept is gaining attention because it is a cost-effective alternative to cancer treatment. In this article, we have discussed some of the naturally occurring products used in cancer treatment. PMID:26015704

  12. Naturally occurring secoiridoids and bioactivity of naturally occurring iridoids and secoiridoids. A review, part 2.

    PubMed

    Dinda, Biswanath; Debnath, Sudhan; Harigaya, Yoshihiro

    2007-05-01

    Naturally occurring new secoiridoids published during 1994-2005 are reviewed with available physical and spectral data: mp, [alpha](D), UV, IR, (1)H- and (13)C-NMR and plant source. The works on biological and pharmacological activity of naturally occurring iridoids and secoiridoids reported during 1998-2005 are also reviewed. Bioactivities like antiallergic, antiarthritis, antibacterial, anticancer, anticoagulant, anticomplement, antifungal, antiinflammatory, antioxidative, antiprotozoal, antispasmodic, antiviral, immunomodulatory, neuroprotective, nerve growth factor potentiating and wound healing activities are highlighted.

  13. Introduction to naturally occurring radioactive material

    SciTech Connect

    Egidi, P.

    1997-08-01

    Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is everywhere; we are exposed to it every day. It is found in our bodies, the food we eat, the places where we live and work, and in products we use. We are also bathed in a sea of natural radiation coming from the sun and deep space. Living systems have adapted to these levels of radiation and radioactivity. But some industrial practices involving natural resources concentrate these radionuclides to a degree that they may pose risk to humans and the environment if they are not controlled. Other activities, such as flying at high altitudes, expose us to elevated levels of NORM. This session will concentrate on diffuse sources of technologically-enhanced (TE) NORM, which are generally large-volume, low-activity waste streams produced by industries such as mineral mining, ore benefication, production of phosphate Fertilizers, water treatment and purification, and oil and gas production. The majority of radionuclides in TENORM are found in the uranium and thorium decay chains. Radium and its subsequent decay products (radon) are the principal radionuclides used in characterizing the redistribution of TENORM in the environment by human activity. We will briefly review other radionuclides occurring in nature (potassium and rubidium) that contribute primarily to background doses. TENORM is found in many waste streams; for example, scrap metal, sludges, slags, fluids, and is being discovered in industries traditionally not thought of as affected by radionuclide contamination. Not only the forms and volumes, but the levels of radioactivity in TENORM vary. Current discussions about the validity of the linear no dose threshold theory are central to the TENORM issue. TENORM is not regulated by the Atomic Energy Act or other Federal regulations. Control and regulation of TENORM is not consistent from industry to industry nor from state to state. Proposed regulations are moving from concentration-based standards to dose

  14. Sundew adhesive: a naturally occurring hydrogel

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yujian; Wang, Yongzhong; Sun, Leming; Agrawal, Richa; Zhang, Mingjun

    2015-01-01

    Bioadhesives have drawn increasing interest in recent years, owing to their eco-friendly, biocompatible and biodegradable nature. As a typical bioadhesive, sticky exudate observed on the stalked glands of sundew plants aids in the capture of insects and this viscoelastic adhesive has triggered extensive interests in revealing the implied adhesion mechanisms. Despite the significant progress that has been made, the structural traits of the sundew adhesive, especially the morphological characteristics in nanoscale, which may give rise to the viscous and elastic properties of this mucilage, remain unclear. Here, we show that the sundew adhesive is a naturally occurring hydrogel, consisting of nano-network architectures assembled with polysaccharides. The assembly process of the polysaccharides in this hydrogel is proposed to be driven by electrostatic interactions mediated with divalent cations. Negatively charged nanoparticles, with an average diameter of 231.9 ± 14.8 nm, are also obtained from this hydrogel and these nanoparticles are presumed to exert vital roles in the assembly of the nano-networks. Further characterization via atomic force microscopy indicates that the stretching deformation of the sundew adhesive is associated with the flexibility of its fibrous architectures. It is also observed that the adhesion strength of the sundew adhesive is susceptible to low temperatures. Both elasticity and adhesion strength of the sundew adhesive reduce in response to lowering the ambient temperature. The feasibility of applying sundew adhesive for tissue engineering is subsequently explored in this study. Results show that the fibrous scaffolds obtained from sundew adhesive are capable of increasing the adhesion of multiple types of cells, including fibroblast cells and smooth muscle cells, a property that results from the enhanced adsorption of serum proteins. In addition, in light of the weak cytotoxic activity exhibited by these scaffolds towards a variety of

  15. Naturally occurring contamination in the Mancos Shale.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Stan J; Goodknight, Craig S; Tigar, Aaron D; Bush, Richard P; Gil, April

    2012-02-01

    Some uranium mill tailings disposal cells were constructed on dark-gray shale of the Upper Cretaceous Mancos Shale. Shale of this formation contains contaminants similar to those in mill tailings. To establish the contributions derived from the Mancos, we sampled 51 locations in Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah. Many of the groundwater samples were saline with nitrate, selenium, and uranium concentrations commonly exceeding 250, 000, 1000, and 200 μg/L, respectively. Higher concentrations were limited to groundwater associated with shale beds, but were not correlated with geographic area, stratigraphic position, or source of water. The elevated concentrations suggest that naturally occurring contamination should be considered when evaluating groundwater cleanup levels. At several locations, seep water was yellow or red, caused in part by dissolved organic carbon concentrations up to 280 mg/L. Most seeps had (234)U to (238)U activity ratios greater than 2, indicating preferential leaching of (234)U. Seeps were slightly enriched in (18)O relative to the meteoric water line, indicating limited evaporation. Conceptually, major ion chemical reactions are dominated by calcite dissolution following proton release from pyrite oxidation and subsequent exchange by calcium for sodium residing on clay mineral exchange sites. Contaminants are likely released from organic matter and mineral surfaces during weathering.

  16. Naturally Occurring Fish Poisons from Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Jonathan G.; Burton, Robert A.; Wood, Steven G.; Owen, Noel L.

    2004-01-01

    The fish poisons derived from plants used throughout the world, not only as piscicides but also for a range of other uses, including insecticident and in folk medicines, is presented. The aim of this review is to provide a useful background for students interested in natural products.

  17. Tetrahedral boron in naturally occurring tourmaline

    SciTech Connect

    Tagg, S.L.; Cho, H.; Dyar, M.D.; Grew, E.S.

    1999-09-01

    Evidence for boron in both trigonal and tetrahedral coordination has been found in {sup 11}B magic-angle-spinning (MAS) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of natural, inclusion-free specimens of aluminum-rich lithian tourmaline from granitic pregmatites.

  18. Superconductivity and magnetism in naturally occurring minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Renxiong; Saha, S. R.; Wang, Xiangfeng; Greene, R. L.; Paglione, J.; Santelli, C.; Post, J.

    2014-03-01

    In a new and unique venture in collaboration with the Smithsonian Museum of Natural History's Department of Mineral Sciences, we present preliminary results from a project focusing on the search for superconductivity in mineral specimens provided by Geologists/Curators of the Smithsonian Institution. Including magnetization and transport studies of Wittichenite, Pyrrhotite, Nagyagite, Pyrargyrite and other related compounds, we report preliminary findings of the physical properties of mineral specimens at low temperatures, including several unreported magnetic phases and unconvetional behaviors.

  19. Helium isotopic abundance variation in nature

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    1993-08-01

    The isotopic abundance of helium in nature has been reviewed. This atomic weight value is based on the value of helium in the atmosphere, which is invariant around the world and up to a distance of 100,000 feet. Helium does vary in natural gas, volcanic rocks and gases, ocean floor sediments, waters of various types and in radioactive minerals and ores due to {alpha} particle decay of radioactive nuclides.

  20. Dog Models of Naturally Occurring Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rowell, Jennie L.; McCarthy, Donna O.; Alvarez, Carlos E.

    2011-01-01

    Studies using dogs provide an ideal solution to the gap in animal models of natural disease and translational medicine. This is evidenced by approximately 400 inherited disorders being characterized in domesticated dogs, most of which are relevant to humans. There are several hundred isolated populations of dogs (breeds) and each has vastly reduced genetic variation compared to humans; this simplifies disease mapping and pharmacogenomics. Dogs age five to eight-fold faster than humans, share environments with their owners, are usually kept until old age, and receive a high level of health care. Farseeing investigators recognized this potential and, over the last decade, developed the necessary tools and infrastructure to utilize this powerful model of human disease, including the sequencing of the dog genome in 2005. Here we review the nascent convergence of genetic and translational canine models of spontaneous disease, focusing on cancer. PMID:21439907

  1. Naturally occurring toxic substances in foods.

    PubMed

    Gross, R L; Newberne, P M

    1977-11-01

    Numerous chemical toxins, including normal components of natural foods, e.g., mycotoxins, and toxic chemicals as contaminants such as pesticides, fertilizers, food additives, and preservatives, which are potentially toxic to humans, are discussed. Potential toxicity, the hazard to man represented by most of these chemicals, may be low because the concentration in food may be low. The gap in our knowledge of long-term effects makes rational decisions as to allowable levels of these substances a major problem. On the other hand, nitrosamines and aflatoxins are toxins for which there exists a voluminous literature documentaing extreme biologic activity in experimental animals and indirect evidence for activity in man. Epidemiologic evidence has linked them to human cancers, and because of increasing evidence of long-term human exposure to these toxins either as inadvertent contaminants during food preparation or as the metabolites of mycotic infestation this possible hazard demands intensive investigation. An exhaustive review of data from epidemiologic surveys in various parts of the world, as well as from long-term laboratory studies, represents an impressive start in this direction.

  2. Estrogenic activity of naturally occurring anthocyanidins.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, E; Stopper, H

    2001-01-01

    Anthocyanins, which are natural plant pigments from the flavonoid family, represent substantial constituents of the human diet. Because some other bioflavonoids are known to have estrogenic activity, the aim of this study was to determine the estrogenic activity of the anthocyanine aglycones. Binding affinity to the estrogen receptor-alpha was 10,000- to 20,000-fold lower than that of the endogenous estrogen estradiol. In the estrogen receptor-positive cell line MCF-7, the anthocyanidins induced expression of a reporter gene. The tested anthocyanidins showed estrogen-inducible cell proliferation in two cell lines (MCF-7 and BG-1), but not in the receptor-negative human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231. The phytoestrogen-induced cell proliferation could be blocked by addition of the receptor antagonist 4-hydroxytamoxifen. Combination treatments with the endogenous estrogen estradiol resulted in a reduction of estradiol-induced cell proliferation. Overall, the tested anthocyanidins exert estrogenic activity, which might play a role in altering the development of hormone-dependent adverse effects.

  3. Will Abundant Natural Gas Solve Climate Change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McJeon, H. C.; Edmonds, J.; Bauer, N.; Leon, C.; Fisher, B.; Flannery, B.; Hilaire, J.; Krey, V.; Marangoni, G.; Mi, R.; Riahi, K.; Rogner, H.; Tavoni, M.

    2015-12-01

    The rapid deployment of hydraulic fracturing and horizontal drilling technologies enabled the production of previously uneconomic shale gas resources in North America. Global deployment of these advanced gas production technologies could bring large influx of economically competitive unconventional gas resources to the energy system. It has been hoped that abundant natural gas substituting for coal could reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, which in turn could reduce climate forcing. Other researchers countered that the non-CO2 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with shale gas production make its lifecycle emissions higher than those of coal. In this study, we employ five state-of-the-art integrated assessment models (IAMs) of energy-economy-climate systems to assess the full impact of abundant gas on climate change. The models show large additional natural gas consumption up to +170% by 2050. The impact on CO2 emissions, however, is found to be much smaller (from -2% to +11%), and a majority of the models reported a small increase in climate forcing (from -0.3% to +7%) associated with the increased use of abundant gas. Our results show that while globally abundant gas may substantially change the future energy market equilibrium, it will not significantly mitigate climate change on its own in the absence of climate policies.

  4. Comparative Toxicology of Libby Amphibole and Naturally Occurring Asbestos

    EPA Science Inventory

    Summary sentence: Comparative toxicology of Libby amphibole (LA) and site-specific naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) provides new insights on physical properties influencing health effects and mechanisms of asbestos-induced inflammation, fibrosis, and tumorigenesis.Introduction/...

  5. Chlorine-36 abundance in natural and synthetic perchlorate

    SciTech Connect

    Heikoop, Jeffrey M; Dale, M; Sturchio, Neil C; Caffee, M; Belosa, A D; Heraty, Jr., L J; Bohike, J K; Hatzinger, P B; Jackson, W A; Gu, B

    2009-01-01

    Perchlorate (ClO{sub 4}{sup -}) is ubiquitous in the environment. It occurs naturally as a product of atmospheric photochemical reactions, and is synthesized for military, aerospace, and industrial applications. Nitrate-enriched soils of the Atacama Desert (Chile) contain high concentrations of natural ClO{sub 4}{sup -}; nitrate produced from these soils has been exported worldwide since the mid-1800's for use in agriculture. The widespread introduction of synthetic and agricultural ClO{sub 4}{sup -} into the environment has complicated attempts to understand the geochemical cycle of ClO{sub 4}{sup -}. Natural ClO{sub 4}{sup -} samples from the southwestern United States have relatively high {sup 36}Cl abundances ({sup 36}Cl/Cl = 3,100 x 10{sup -15} to 28,800 x 10{sup -15}), compared with samples of synthetic ({sup 36}Cl/Cl = 0.0 x 10{sup -15} to 40 x 10{sup -15}) and Atacama Desert ({sup 36}Cl/Cl = 0.9 x 10{sup -15} to 590 x 10{sup -15}) ClO{sub 4}{sup -}. These data give a lower limit for the initial {sup 36}Cl abundance of natural ClO{sub 4}{sup -} and provide temporal and other constraints on its geochemical cycle.

  6. Naturally occurring iridoids and secoiridoids. An updated review, part 4.

    PubMed

    Dinda, Biswanath; Debnath, Sudhan; Banik, Rajarshi

    2011-01-01

    A compilation of new naturally occurring iridoids and secoiridoids including their glycosides, esters, aglycones, derivatives and dimers reported during mid 2008-2010 is provided with available physical and spectral data: mp, [α](D), UV, IR, circular dichroism (CD), (1)H- and (13)C-NMR as well as natural source with family and references. The important bioactivity of new and known iridoids and secoiridoids reported during this period is also highlighted.

  7. URBAN STORMWATER TRACING WITH THE NATURALLY OCCURRING DEUTERIUM ISOTOPE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements of the naturally-occurring deuterium isotope assist the tracing of water components during wet-weather flows in an urban watershed. A transect of installations in the vadose and saturated zones was completed in the vicinity of a small stream and storm sewer. High-r...

  8. Interactions between plasma proteins and naturally occurring polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Li, Min; Hagerman, Ann E

    2013-05-01

    The plant natural products known as polyphenols are found at micronutrient levels in fruits, vegetables, and plant-based beverages such as wine, tea, coffee and cocoa. Consumption of a fruit- and vegetable-rich diet, the "Mediterranean diet", has been epidemiologically related to health benefits especially for chronic diseases including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and Alzheimer's disease. The abundance of polyphenols in plant-rich diets, and the potent bioactivities of polyphenols, provide indirect evidence for a role for polyphenols in maintaining good health. However, molecular mechanisms for therapeutic or preventative activity have not been demonstrated in vivo. We summarize the chemical classes of natural polyphenols, their bioactivities and bioavailability and metabolism. Because many polyphenols bind protein, we focus on the potential of protein binding to mediate the health-related effects of polyphenols. We discuss interactions with plasma proteins as the first target organ past the digestive tract for these orally-ingested compounds.

  9. Arsenic poisoning in dairy cattle from naturally occurring arsenic pyrites.

    PubMed

    Hopkirk, R G

    1987-10-01

    An outbreak of arsenic poisoning occurred in which most of a 200 cow dairy herd were affected and six died. The source of the arsenic was naturally occurring arsenic pyrites from the Waiotapu Stream, near Rotorua. Arsenic levels in the nearby soil were as high as 6618 ppm. There was little evidence to suggest that treatment affected the course of the disease. Haematology was of little use in diagnosis, post-mortem signs were not always consistent and persistence of the element in the liver appeared short. Control of further outbreaks have been based on practical measures to minimise the intake of contaminated soil and free laying water by the stock. PMID:16031332

  10. Arsenic poisoning in dairy cattle from naturally occurring arsenic pyrites.

    PubMed

    Hopkirk, R G

    1987-10-01

    An outbreak of arsenic poisoning occurred in which most of a 200 cow dairy herd were affected and six died. The source of the arsenic was naturally occurring arsenic pyrites from the Waiotapu Stream, near Rotorua. Arsenic levels in the nearby soil were as high as 6618 ppm. There was little evidence to suggest that treatment affected the course of the disease. Haematology was of little use in diagnosis, post-mortem signs were not always consistent and persistence of the element in the liver appeared short. Control of further outbreaks have been based on practical measures to minimise the intake of contaminated soil and free laying water by the stock.

  11. An Update on Antitumor Activity of Naturally Occurring Chalcones

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, En-Hui; Wang, Ru-Feng; Guo, Shu-Zhen; Liu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Chalcones, which have characteristic 1,3-diaryl-2-propen-1-one skeleton, are mainly produced in roots, rhizomes, heartwood, leaves, and seeds of genera Angelica, Sophora, Glycyrrhiza, Humulus, Scutellaria, Parartocarpus, Ficus, Dorstenia, Morus, Artocarpus, and so forth. They have become of interest in the research and development of natural antitumor agents over the past decades due to their broad range of mechanisms including anti-initiation, induction of apoptosis, antiproliferation, antimetastasis, antiangiogenesis, and so forth. This review summarizes the studies on the antitumor activity of naturally occurring chalcones and their underlying mechanisms in detail during the past decades. PMID:23690855

  12. Synthetic muscle promoters: activities exceeding naturally occurring regulatory sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, X.; Eastman, E. M.; Schwartz, R. J.; Draghia-Akli, R.

    1999-01-01

    Relatively low levels of expression from naturally occurring promoters have limited the use of muscle as a gene therapy target. Myogenic restricted gene promoters display complex organization usually involving combinations of several myogenic regulatory elements. By random assembly of E-box, MEF-2, TEF-1, and SRE sites into synthetic promoter recombinant libraries, and screening of hundreds of individual clones for transcriptional activity in vitro and in vivo, several artificial promoters were isolated whose transcriptional potencies greatly exceed those of natural myogenic and viral gene promoters.

  13. Naturally occurring crystalline phases: analogues for radioactive waste forms

    SciTech Connect

    Haaker, R.F.; Ewing, R.C.

    1981-01-01

    Naturally occurring mineral analogues to crystalline phases that are constituents of crystalline radioactive waste forms provide a basis for comparison by which the long-term stability of these phases may be estimated. The crystal structures and the crystal chemistry of the following natural analogues are presented: baddeleyite, hematite, nepheline; pollucite, scheelite;sodalite, spinel, apatite, monazite, uraninite, hollandite-priderite, perovskite, and zirconolite. For each phase in geochemistry, occurrence, alteration and radiation effects are described. A selected bibliography for each phase is included.

  14. An update on antitumor activity of naturally occurring chalcones.

    PubMed

    Zhang, En-Hui; Wang, Ru-Feng; Guo, Shu-Zhen; Liu, Bin

    2013-01-01

    Chalcones, which have characteristic 1,3-diaryl-2-propen-1-one skeleton, are mainly produced in roots, rhizomes, heartwood, leaves, and seeds of genera Angelica, Sophora, Glycyrrhiza, Humulus, Scutellaria, Parartocarpus, Ficus, Dorstenia, Morus, Artocarpus, and so forth. They have become of interest in the research and development of natural antitumor agents over the past decades due to their broad range of mechanisms including anti-initiation, induction of apoptosis, antiproliferation, antimetastasis, antiangiogenesis, and so forth. This review summarizes the studies on the antitumor activity of naturally occurring chalcones and their underlying mechanisms in detail during the past decades.

  15. The Natural Occurring Compounds Targeting Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hai; Yang, Jianqiong; Li, Linfu; Shi, Weimei; Yuan, Xiaoliang; Wu, Longhuo

    2016-01-01

    ER stress has been implicated in pathophysiological development of many diseases. Persistent overwhelming stimuli trigger ER stress to initiate apoptosis, autophagy, and cell death. IRE1-JNK and eIF2α-CHOP signaling pathways are the two important players of ER stress, which is also modulated by ROS production, calcium disturbance, and inflammatory factors. ER stress has been developed as a novel strategy for diseases management. Recently, a vast of research focuses on the natural occurring compounds targeting ER stress, which results in medical benefits to human diseases. These small reported molecules mainly include polyphenols, alkaloids, and saponins. Many of them have been developed for use in clinical applications. To better understand the pharmacological mechanism of these molecules in ER stress in diseases, efforts have been made to discover and deliver medical merits. In this paper, we will summarize the natural occurring compounds targeting ER stress. PMID:27563337

  16. The Natural Occurring Compounds Targeting Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hai; Yang, Jianqiong; Li, Linfu; Shi, Weimei

    2016-01-01

    ER stress has been implicated in pathophysiological development of many diseases. Persistent overwhelming stimuli trigger ER stress to initiate apoptosis, autophagy, and cell death. IRE1-JNK and eIF2α-CHOP signaling pathways are the two important players of ER stress, which is also modulated by ROS production, calcium disturbance, and inflammatory factors. ER stress has been developed as a novel strategy for diseases management. Recently, a vast of research focuses on the natural occurring compounds targeting ER stress, which results in medical benefits to human diseases. These small reported molecules mainly include polyphenols, alkaloids, and saponins. Many of them have been developed for use in clinical applications. To better understand the pharmacological mechanism of these molecules in ER stress in diseases, efforts have been made to discover and deliver medical merits. In this paper, we will summarize the natural occurring compounds targeting ER stress. PMID:27563337

  17. Mineralogical Characteristics of Carbonate Rock-Hosted Naturally Occurring Asbestos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, E.; Roh, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) occurs in rocks and soils as a result of natural weathering and human activities. The parent rocks of asbestos have been associated with ultramafic and mafic rocks, and carbonate rock. The previous studies on naturally occurring asbestos were mainly limited to ultramafic and mafic rock-hosted asbestos and studies on carbonate rock-hosted asbestos are relatively rare in South Korea. Therefore, this study was aimed to characterize mineralogy of carbonate rock-hosted NOA at Muju and Jangsu, Jeonbuk province and Seosan and Asan, Chungnam province. The rock types at the four sites are consisting mainly of Precambrian metasedimentary rock. XRD and PLM analyses showed fibrous minerals in the sites were tremolite and actinolite of acicular and columnar forms. SEM-EDS analyses showed that asbestiform tremolite and actinolite had various ratios of length and diameters over 12:1, and needle and columnar forms. A columnar forms of tremolite and actinolite were showed small acicular at the edge of the particle. Its main chemical compositions are mainly Si, O, Mg, Ca, which were identical to tremolite. Actinolite contains Fe in addition to Si, O, Mg, Ca. EPMA analyses of asbestos occurred at Muju indicated that chemical composition are 55% SiO2, 23.2% MgO, 13.1 % CaO, and 0.61 % FeO and the chemical formula calculated as (K0.01Na0.01)Ca2.01(Mg4.94Fe0.05) (Al0.004Si7.98)O22(OH)2, which is close to ideal tremolite. In addition to tremolite, actinolite was also occurred at Seosan, Chungnam. XRD analyses showed that antigorite was existed at Muju, but PLM and SEM analyses showed the antigorite was platy structure, not asbestiform. These results indicate that asbestiform tremolite and actinolite with acicular forms contains in carbonate rocks at Muju and Jangsu, Jeonbuk and Seosan and Asan, Chungnam province South Korea.

  18. Leaching Properties of Naturally Occurring Heavy Metals from Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, M.; Hoshino, M.; Yoshikawa, M.; Hara, J.; Sugita, H.

    2014-12-01

    The major threats to human health from heavy metals are associated with exposure to arsenic, lead, cadmium, chromium, mercury, as well as some other elements. The effects of such heavy metals on human health have been extensively studied and reviewed by international organizations such as WHO. Due to their toxicity, heavy metal contaminations have been regulated by national environmental standards in many countries, and/or laws such as the Soil Contamination Countermeasures Act in Japan. Leaching of naturally occurring heavy metals from the soils, especially those around abandoned metal mines into surrounding water systems, either groundwater or surface water systems, is one of the major pathways of exposure. Therefore, understanding the leaching properties of toxic heavy metals from naturally polluted soils is of fundamentally importance for effectively managing abandoned metal mines, excavated rocks discharged from infrastructure constructions such as tunneling, and/or selecting a pertinent countermeasure against pollution when it is necessary. In this study, soil samples taken from the surroundings of abandoned metal mines in different regions in Japan were collected and analyzed. The samples contained multiple heavy metals such as lead, arsenic and chromium. Standard leaching test and sequential leaching test considering different forms of contaminants, such as trivalent and pentavalent arsenics, and trivalent and hexavalent chromiums, together with standard test for evaluating total concentration, X-ray Fluorescence Analysis (XRF), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) tests were performed. In addition, sequential leaching tests were performed to evaluate long-term leaching properties of lead from representative samples. This presentation introduces the details of the above experimental study, discusses the relationships among leaching properties and chemical and mineral compositions, indicates the difficulties associated with

  19. Radiological protection in North American naturally occurring radioactive material industries.

    PubMed

    Chambers, D B

    2015-06-01

    All soils and rocks contain naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). Many ores and raw materials contain relatively high levels of natural radionuclides, and processing such materials can further increase the concentrations of natural radionuclides, sometimes referred to as 'technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material' (TENORM). Examples of NORM minerals include uranium ores, monazite (a source of rare earth minerals), and phosphate rock used to produce phosphate fertiliser. Such activities have the potential to result in above background radiation exposure to workers and the public. The objective of this paper is to review the sources and exposure from NORM in North American industries, and provide a perspective on the potential radiological hazards to workers and the environment. Proper consideration of NORM issues is important and needs to be integrated in the assessment of these projects. Concerns over radioactivity and radiation amongst non-governmental organisations and the local public have resulted in the cancellation of NORM mining and mineral extraction projects, as well as inhibition of the safe use of by-product materials from various NORM industries. This paper also briefly comments on the current regulatory framework for NORM (TENORM) in Canada and the USA, as well as the potential implications of the recent activities of the International Commission on Radiological Protection for NORM industries. PMID:25816274

  20. Active experiments, magnetospheric modification, and a naturally occurring analogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kivelson, M. G.; Russell, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    Recently, a scheme has been proposed which would modify the magnetosphere by injecting plasma near the equator beyond the plasmapause and initiating wave-particle instabilities. The expected effects have been examined theoretically. Injection of plasma into this region is also a naturally occurring phenomenon produced by the cross-tail electric fields which are associated with geomagnetic activity. For further investigation of magnetospheric instabilities, the advantages of examining artificially injected plasma (control of time and location of injection and of the volume of plasma injected) contrast with the advantages of studying natural enhancements (no extra payload, frequent occurrence). Thus, the two types of experiments are complementary. In preliminary studies of natural plasma enhancements both ULF and ELF emissions have been observed. The ELF noise is consistent with generation by the electron cyclotron instability.

  1. Overview of naturally occurring Earth materials and human health concerns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, W. G.

    2012-10-01

    The biosphere and the Earth's critical zone have maintained a dynamic equilibrium for more than 3.5 billion years. Except for solar energy, almost all terrestrial substances necessary for life have been derived from near-surface portions of the land, hydrosphere, and atmosphere. If aggregate biological activities are less than the rate of nutrient supply and/or resource renewal, sustained population growth is possible. Where the replenishment rate of a life-sustaining Earth material is finite, usage may reach a condition of dynamic equilibrium in which biological consumption equals but on average cannot exceed the overall supply. Although large, most natural resources are present in finite abundances; for such commodities, excessive present-day human utilization reduces future availability, and thus the ultimate planetary carrying capacity for civilization. Intensive use of Earth materials has enhanced the quality of life, especially in the developed nations. Still, natural background levels, and Earth processes such as volcanic eruptions, as well as human activities involving agriculture, construction, and the extraction, refining, and transformation of mineral resources have led to harmful side effects involving environmental degradation and public health hazards. Among naturally and anthropogenically induced risks are bioaccessible airborne dusts and gases, soluble pollutants in agricultural, industrial, and residential waters, and toxic chemical species in foods and manufactured products. At appropriate levels of ingestion, many Earth materials are necessary for existence, but underdoses and overdoses have mild to serious consequences for human health and longevity. This overview briefly sketches several natural resource health hazards. Included are volcanic ash + aerosols + gases, mineral dusts, non-volcanic aerosols + nanoparticles, asbestos + fibrous zeolites, arsenic, fluorine, iodine, uranium + thorium + radium + radon + polonium, selenium, mercury, copper

  2. Pathologic features of naturally occurring juvenile polyarteritis in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Snyder, P W; Kazacos, E A; Scott-Moncrieff, J C; HogenEsch, H; Carlton, W W; Glickman, L T; Felsburg, P J

    1995-07-01

    Eighteen young Beagle dogs (eight males and 10 females), ages 6-40 months, with canine juvenile polyarteritis syndrome (CJPS), a naturally occurring vasculitis and perivasculitis of unknown etiology, were necropsied, and their tissues were examined by histopathologic and histochemical methods. The condition is characterized by recurring episodes of an acute onset of fever (> 40 C) and neck pain that persist for 3-7 days. The major histopathologic alterations were a systemic vasculitis and perivasculitis. During the febrile, painful period of CJPS, the vascular lesions ranged from a histiocytic-lymphocytic periarterial infiltration to transmural arterial inflammation with concomitant fibrinoid necrosis and vascular thrombosis. Massive periarterial accumulations of inflammatory cells were common and often extended into adjacent tissues. The small- to medium-sized muscular arteries of the heart, cranial mediastinum, and cervical spinal meninges were consistently involved. Vasculitis occasionally occurred in other organ systems. The vascular lesions in dogs examined during clinically normal periods consisted of intimal and medial fibrosis, ruptured elastic laminae, and mild perivasculitis; these lesions were probably related to previous episodes of vasculitis. Eight dogs that had experienced repeated acute episodes also developed splenic, hepatic, and renal amyloidosis. The clinical signs, laboratory abnormalities, and the vascular lesions suggest that the condition may be immune-system mediated. CJPS may serve as a naturally occurring animal model of human immune-system-mediated vasculitides such as polyarteritis nodosa, infantile polyarteritis, and Kawasaki disease.

  3. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Cargo at US Borders

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Evans, John C.; Hensley, Walter K.; Lepel, Elwood A.; McDonald, Joseph C.; Schweppe, John E.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Strom, Daniel J.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2006-01-01

    In the U.S. and other countries, large numbers of vehicles pass through border crossings each day. The illicit movement of radioactive sources is a concern that has resulted in the installation of radiation detection and identification instruments at border crossing points. This activity is judged to be necessary because of the possibility of an act of terrorism involving a radioactive source that may include any number of dangerous radionuclides. The problem of detecting, identifying, and interdicting illicit radioactive sources is complicated by the fact that many materials present in cargo are somewhat radioactive. Some cargo contains naturally occurring radioactive material or technologically-enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material that may trigger radiation portal monitor alarms. Man-made radioactive sources, especially medical isotopes, are also frequently observed and produce alarms. Such nuisance alarms can be an operational limiting factor for screening of cargo at border crossings. Information about the nature of the radioactive materials in cargo that can interfere with the detection of radionuclides of concern is necessary. This paper provides such information for North American cargo, but the information may also be of use to border control officials in other countries. (PIET-43741-TM-361)

  4. Issues related to regulatory control of naturally occurring radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.Y.

    1997-04-01

    Nearly 80% of human radiation exposure is from naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM). While exposure from man-made sources of radiation has been well regulated, no consistent regulatory controls exist for NORM. Because elevated radiation levels have resulted from NORM enhancement activities such as occur in the petroleum, fertilizer, mining, and processing industries, some form of regulatory control is in order. In the US, regulation of NORM by federal agencies such as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or the Environmental Protection Agency is not anticipated in the near future because there are no authorizing federal statutes. Important issues for addressing the control of NORM include source characterization and generation, radiation protection concerns, waste management and disposition, and the regulatory framework.

  5. Transmission of Naturally Occurring Lymphoma in Macaque Monkeys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, Ronald D.; Blake, Beverly J.; Chalifoux, Laura V.; Sehgal, Prabhat K.; King, Norval W.; Letvin, Norman L.

    1983-08-01

    Spontaneously occurring rhesus monkey lymphomas were transmitted into healthy rhesus monkeys by using tumor cell suspensions. The naturally arising tumors included an immunoblastic sarcoma and an undifferentiated lymphoma. Recipient animals developed undifferentiated lymphomas, poorly differentiated lymphomas, or parenchymal lymphoproliferative abnormalities suggestive of early lesions of lymphoma. Some of these animals developed such opportunistic infections as cytomegalovirus hepatitis and cryptosporidiosis. They also showed evidence of an abnormal circulating peripheral blood mononuclear cell. These findings, all characteristic of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) of macaques, suggest a link between these transmissible lymphomas and AIDS in macaque monkeys.

  6. Naturally occurring dominant drug resistance mutations occur infrequently in the setting of recently acquired hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Applegate, Tanya L; Gaudieri, Silvana; Plauzolles, Anne; Chopra, Abha; Grebely, Jason; Lucas, Michaela; Hellard, Margaret; Luciani, Fabio; Dore, Gregory J; Matthews, Gail V

    2014-01-01

    Background Directly Acting Antivirals (DAAs) are predicted to transform hepatitis C (HCV) therapy, yet little is known about the prevalence of naturally occurring resistance mutations in recently acquired HCV. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and frequency of drug resistance mutations in the viral quasispecies among HIV positive and negative individuals with recent HCV. Methods The NS3 protease, NS5A and NS5B polymerase genes were amplified from fifty genotype 1a participants of the Australian Trial in Acute Hepatitis C. Amino acid variations at sites known to be associated with possible drug resistance were analysed by ultra-deep pyrosequencing. Results Twelve percent of individuals harboured dominant resistance mutations, while 36% demonstrated non dominant resistant variants below that detectable by bulk sequencing (ie < 20%) but above a threshold of 1%. Resistance variants (< 1%) were observed at most sites associated with DAA resistance from all classes, with the exception of sofosbuvir. Conclusions Dominant resistant mutations were uncommonly observed in the setting of recent HCV. However, low level mutations to all DAA classes were observed by deep sequencing at the majority of sites, and in most individuals. The significance of these variants and impact on future treatment options remains to be determined. PMID:25105742

  7. Naturally occurring organic osmolytes: from cell physiology to disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Khan, Shagufta H; Ahmad, Nihal; Ahmad, Faizan; Kumar, Raj

    2010-12-01

    Osmolytes are naturally occurring organic compounds, which represent different chemical classes including amino acids, methylamines, and polyols. By accumulating high concentrations of osmolytes, organisms adapt to perturbations that can cause structural changes in their cellular proteins. Osmolytes shift equilibrium toward natively-folded conformations by raising the free energy of the unfolded state. As osmolytes predominantly affect the protein backbone, the balance between osmolyte-backbone interactions and amino acid side chain-solvent interactions determines protein folding. Abnormal cell volume regulation significantly contributes to the pathophysiology of several disorders, and cells respond to these changes by importing, exporting, or synthesizing osmolytes to maintain volume homeostasis. In recent years, it has become quite evident that cells regulate many biological processes such as protein folding, protein disaggregation, and protein-protein interactions via accumulation of specific osmolytes. Many genetic diseases are attributed to the problems associated with protein misfolding/aggregation, and it has been shown that certain osmolytes can protect these proteins from misfolding. Thus, osmolytes can be utilized as therapeutic targets for such diseases. In this review article, we discuss the role of naturally occurring osmolytes in protein stability, underlying mechanisms, and their potential use as therapeutic molecules. PMID:21190292

  8. Daily intakes of naturally occurring radioisotopes in typical Korean foods.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min-Seok; Lin, Xiu-Jing; Lee, Sun Ah; Kim, Wan; Kang, Hee-Dong; Doh, Sih-Hong; Kim, Do-Sung; Lee, Dong-Myung

    2008-08-01

    The concentrations of naturally occurring radioisotopes ((232)Th, (228)Th, (230)Th, (228)Ra, (226)Ra, and (40)K) in typical Korean foods were evaluated. The daily intakes of these radioisotopes were calculated by comparing concentrations in typical Korean foods and the daily consumption rates of these foods. Daily intakes were as follows: (232)Th, 0.00-0.23; (228)Th, 0.00-2.04; (230)Th, 0.00-0.26; (228)Ra, 0.02-2.73; (226)Ra, 0.01-4.37 mBq/day; and (40)K, 0.01-5.71 Bq/day. The total daily intake of the naturally occurring radioisotopes measured in this study from food was 39.46 Bq/day. The total annual internal dose resulting from ingestion of radioisotopes in food was 109.83 muSv/y, and the radioisotope with the highest daily intake was (40)K. These values were same level compiled in other countries.

  9. Macaques Exhibit a Naturally-Occurring Depression Similar to Humans

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fan; Wu, Qingyuan; Xie, Liang; Gong, Wei; Zhang, Jianguo; Zheng, Peng; Zhou, Qinmin; Ji, Yongjia; Wang, Tao; Li, Xin; Fang, Liang; Li, Qi; Yang, Deyu; Li, Juan; Melgiri, Narayan D.; Shively, Carol; Xie, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Rodent models have dominated preclinical investigations into the mechanisms of depression. However, these models-which rely on subjecting individual rodents to physical stressors - do not realistically resemble the etiopathological development of depression, which occurs naturally in a social context. A non-human primate model that better reflects the social ethological aspects of depression would be more advantageous to investigating pathophysiological mechanisms and developing antidepressant therapeutics. Here, we describe and model a naturally-occurring depressive state in a non-human primate species, the cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis), in a realistic social ethological context and associate the depressed behavioral phenotype with significant serum metabolic perturbations. One to two subjects per stable social colony (17–22 subjects) manifested a depressive phenotype that may be attributed to psychosocial stress. In accordance with rodent and human studies, the serum metabolic phenotype of depressed and healthy subjects significantly differed, supporting the model's face validity. However, application of the fast-acting antidepressant ketamine failed to demonstrate predictive validity. This study proposes a non-human primate depression model in a realistic social ethological context that can better approximate the psychosocial stressors underlying depression. PMID:25783476

  10. Beauveria caledonica is a naturally occurring pathogen of forest beetles.

    PubMed

    Glare, Travis R; Reay, Stephen D; Nelson, Tracey L; Moore, Roger

    2008-03-01

    In New Zealand, two introduced scolytid beetles, Hylastes ater and Hylurgus ligniperda (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) are pests in pine plantations. Investigation of the naturally occurring pathogens of these exotic pests revealed that both are attacked by Beauveria caledonica, a species originally isolated and described from soil in Scotland. The isolates in New Zealand were identical in morphology and conserved DNA region (rDNA, elongation factor alpha) sequence to isolates held in the USDA-ARS insect pathogens culture collection. In bioassay, the B. caledonica isolates were highly pathogenic to adults of H. ligniperda and larvae of Tenebrio molitor. Sporulation was observed on cadavers, confirming the species can utilise the cadavers. As both species were likely to have been introduced to New Zealand from Europe, a search was made for B. caledonica in the northern UK and Ireland. The fungus was found as a naturally-occurring pathogen of the weevil pest, Hylobius abietis (Curculionidae: Scolytinae), developing in spruce and other beetles in forests in both regions. PMID:18308525

  11. Naturally occurring animal models of human hepatitis E virus infection.

    PubMed

    Yugo, Danielle M; Cossaboom, Caitlin M; Meng, Xiang-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA virus in the family Hepeviridae. Hepatitis E caused by HEV is a clinically important global disease. There are currently four well-characterized genotypes of HEV in mammalian species, although numerous novel strains of HEV likely belonging to either new genotypes or species have recently been identified from several other animal species. HEV genotypes 1 and 2 are limited to infection in humans, whereas genotypes 3 and 4 infect an expanding host range of animal species and are zoonotic to humans. Historical animal models include various species of nonhuman primates, which have been indispensable for the discovery of human HEV and for understanding its pathogenesis and course of infection. With the genetic identification and characterization of animal strains of HEV, a number of naturally occurring animal models such as swine, chicken, and rabbit have recently been developed for various aspects of HEV research, including vaccine trials, pathogenicity, cross-species infection, mechanism of virus replication, and molecular biology studies. Unfortunately, the current available animal models for HEV are still inadequate for certain aspects of HEV research. For instance, an animal model is still lacking to study the underlying mechanism of severe and fulminant hepatitis E during pregnancy. Also, an animal model that can mimic chronic HEV infection is critically needed to study the mechanism leading to chronicity in immunocompromised individuals. Genetic identification of additional novel animal strains of HEV may lead to the development of better naturally occurring animal models for HEV. This article reviews the current understanding of animal models of HEV infection in both natural and experimental infection settings and identifies key research needs and limitations.

  12. Vampire bat reproductive control by a naturally occurring phytooestrogen.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Hector; Pérez-Rivero, Juan-José; Aguilar-Setién, Alvaro; de-Paz, Octavio; Villa-Godoy, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    Rabies transmission by wild animals has not being controlled satisfactorily. One major rabies vector to humans and cattle is the hematophagous vampire bat Desmodus rotundus whose distribution is still increasing in the Americas. Of all of the strategies currently in place to control this vector, none of them are really specific and some have ecological impacts. In the present study we used a naturally occurring phytoestrogen on a small vampire bat colony. After collection, bats were fed bovine blood containing 200 microg coumestrol for a 30-day period. After treatment, gonads were excised and processed for histological evaluation. Data indicate that coumestrol adversely affects gonad histology and has a possible impact on the fertility of both male and female vampire bats.

  13. Additive CHARMM force field for naturally occurring modified ribonucleotides

    PubMed Central

    Xu, You; Vanommeslaeghe, Kenno; Aleksandrov, Alexey; MacKerell, Alexander D.

    2016-01-01

    More than 100 naturally occurring modified nucleotides have been found in RNA molecules, in particular in tRNAs. We have determined molecular mechanics force field parameters compatible with the CHARMM36 all‐atom additive force field for all these modifications using the CHARMM force field parametrization strategy. Emphasis was placed on fine tuning of the partial atomic charges and torsion angle parameters. Quantum mechanics calculations on model compounds provided the initial set of target data, and extensive molecular dynamics simulations of nucleotides and oligonucleotides in aqueous solutions were used for further refinement against experimental data. The presented parameters will allow for computational studies of a wide range of RNAs containing modified nucleotides, including the ribosome and transfer RNAs. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Computational Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26841080

  14. Vampire bat reproductive control by a naturally occurring phytooestrogen.

    PubMed

    Serrano, Hector; Pérez-Rivero, Juan-José; Aguilar-Setién, Alvaro; de-Paz, Octavio; Villa-Godoy, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    Rabies transmission by wild animals has not being controlled satisfactorily. One major rabies vector to humans and cattle is the hematophagous vampire bat Desmodus rotundus whose distribution is still increasing in the Americas. Of all of the strategies currently in place to control this vector, none of them are really specific and some have ecological impacts. In the present study we used a naturally occurring phytoestrogen on a small vampire bat colony. After collection, bats were fed bovine blood containing 200 microg coumestrol for a 30-day period. After treatment, gonads were excised and processed for histological evaluation. Data indicate that coumestrol adversely affects gonad histology and has a possible impact on the fertility of both male and female vampire bats. PMID:17394795

  15. Additive CHARMM force field for naturally occurring modified ribonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Xu, You; Vanommeslaeghe, Kenno; Aleksandrov, Alexey; MacKerell, Alexander D; Nilsson, Lennart

    2016-04-15

    More than 100 naturally occurring modified nucleotides have been found in RNA molecules, in particular in tRNAs. We have determined molecular mechanics force field parameters compatible with the CHARMM36 all-atom additive force field for all these modifications using the CHARMM force field parametrization strategy. Emphasis was placed on fine tuning of the partial atomic charges and torsion angle parameters. Quantum mechanics calculations on model compounds provided the initial set of target data, and extensive molecular dynamics simulations of nucleotides and oligonucleotides in aqueous solutions were used for further refinement against experimental data. The presented parameters will allow for computational studies of a wide range of RNAs containing modified nucleotides, including the ribosome and transfer RNAs. PMID:26841080

  16. Is anyone regulating naturally occurring radioactive material? A state survey

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, E.M.; Barisas, S.G.

    1993-08-01

    As far as we know, naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) has surrounded humankind since the beginning of time. However, recent data demonstrating that certain activities concentrate NORM have increased concern regarding its proper handling and disposal and precipitated the development of new NORM-related regulations. The regulation of NORM affects the management of government facilities as well as a broad range of industrial processes. Recognizing that NORM regulation at the federal level is extremely limited, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a 50-state survey to determine the extent to which states have assumed the responsibility for regulating NORM as well as the NORM standards that are currently being applied at the state level. Though the survey indicates that NORM regulation comprises a broad spectrum of controls from full licensing requirements to virtually no regulation at afl, a trend is emerging toward recognition of the need for increased regulation of potential NORM hazards, particularly in the absence of federal standards.

  17. Additive CHARMM force field for naturally occurring modified ribonucleotides.

    PubMed

    Xu, You; Vanommeslaeghe, Kenno; Aleksandrov, Alexey; MacKerell, Alexander D; Nilsson, Lennart

    2016-04-15

    More than 100 naturally occurring modified nucleotides have been found in RNA molecules, in particular in tRNAs. We have determined molecular mechanics force field parameters compatible with the CHARMM36 all-atom additive force field for all these modifications using the CHARMM force field parametrization strategy. Emphasis was placed on fine tuning of the partial atomic charges and torsion angle parameters. Quantum mechanics calculations on model compounds provided the initial set of target data, and extensive molecular dynamics simulations of nucleotides and oligonucleotides in aqueous solutions were used for further refinement against experimental data. The presented parameters will allow for computational studies of a wide range of RNAs containing modified nucleotides, including the ribosome and transfer RNAs.

  18. Leaching of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials.

    PubMed

    Chau, Nguyen Dinh; Chruściel, Edward

    2007-08-01

    A form of waste associated with mining activities is related to the type of deposit being mined and to the procedure of exploitation and enrichment adopted. The wastes usually contain relatively large amounts of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM). The TENORM are often stored on the surface. Consequently, they can be leached as a result of interaction with aqueous solutions of different chemical composition. This further leads to pollution of water and soil in the vicinity of the stored wastes. The paper presents the results of laboratory investigation aimed at quantifying the leaching process of samples originating from uranium dumps and storage reservoirs associated with brine pumped from coal mines. The leaching process was investigated with respect to selected elements: uranium isotopes, radium isotopes, iron, barium and sodium. The samples were exposed to aqueous solutions of different chemical composition. The experiments revealed that TENORM in form of sulphate compounds are the most resistant against leaching. The leaching coefficient for radium isotopes varies from a few thousandth percent to a few hundredth percent. On the other hand, for TENORM occurring in sand or sludge, the leaching coefficient for uranium and radium isotopes ranged from a few hundredth percent to a few percent. PMID:17482828

  19. Discovering Psychological Principles by Mining Naturally Occurring Data Sets.

    PubMed

    Goldstone, Robert L; Lupyan, Gary

    2016-07-01

    The very expertise with which psychologists wield their tools for achieving laboratory control may have had the unwelcome effect of blinding psychologists to the possibilities of discovering principles of behavior without conducting experiments. When creatively interrogated, a diverse range of large, real-world data sets provides powerful diagnostic tools for revealing principles of human judgment, perception, categorization, decision-making, language use, inference, problem solving, and representation. Examples of these data sets include patterns of website links, dictionaries, logs of group interactions, collections of images and image tags, text corpora, history of financial transactions, trends in twitter tag usage and propagation, patents, consumer product sales, performance in high-stakes sporting events, dialect maps, and scientific citations. The goal of this issue is to present some exemplary case studies of mining naturally existing data sets to reveal important principles and phenomena in cognitive science, and to discuss some of the underlying issues involved with conducting traditional experiments, analyses of naturally occurring data, computational modeling, and the synthesis of all three methods. PMID:27404718

  20. Discovering Psychological Principles by Mining Naturally Occurring Data Sets.

    PubMed

    Goldstone, Robert L; Lupyan, Gary

    2016-07-01

    The very expertise with which psychologists wield their tools for achieving laboratory control may have had the unwelcome effect of blinding psychologists to the possibilities of discovering principles of behavior without conducting experiments. When creatively interrogated, a diverse range of large, real-world data sets provides powerful diagnostic tools for revealing principles of human judgment, perception, categorization, decision-making, language use, inference, problem solving, and representation. Examples of these data sets include patterns of website links, dictionaries, logs of group interactions, collections of images and image tags, text corpora, history of financial transactions, trends in twitter tag usage and propagation, patents, consumer product sales, performance in high-stakes sporting events, dialect maps, and scientific citations. The goal of this issue is to present some exemplary case studies of mining naturally existing data sets to reveal important principles and phenomena in cognitive science, and to discuss some of the underlying issues involved with conducting traditional experiments, analyses of naturally occurring data, computational modeling, and the synthesis of all three methods.

  1. Analysis of coal slag for naturally occurring radioactive material.

    PubMed

    Spitz, H B; Rajaretnam, G

    1998-07-01

    Samples of aerosolized coal slag were collected during an abrasive blasting operation to determine the concentration of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the respirable and nonrespirable fractions. Each slag fraction was analyzed using alpha and gamma spectrometry. Since the slag is insoluble, it was necessary to dissolve samples completely by fusion with potassium fluoride and, after additional transposing and separation, mount the precipitate containing radium (Ra), the main radioactive component in NORM, on a membrane filter for alpha counting. The concentration of 226Ra in coal slag was independent of the particle size fraction and equal to 2.28 picocuries/gram (pCi/g) +/- 0.43 pCi/g, which is approximately twice the typical concentration of NORM in uncontaminated soil. Analysis of NORM by gamma spectrometry identified low concentrations of uranium, thorium, and potassium, all primordial radioactive materials that are commonly encountered in normal background soil. Integral exposure to workers from inhalation of NORM during abrasive blasting with coal slag is extremely low and could be essentially eliminated by use of appropriate respiratory protection. External radiation exposure to workers handling large quantities of NORM-contaminated coal slag during shipping or storage is also low, but would vary depending on the concentration of NORM in the slag.

  2. Naturally occurring and forced azimuthal modes in a turbulent jet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raman, Ganesh; Rice, Edward J.; Reshotko, Eli

    1991-01-01

    Naturally occurring instability modes in an axisymmetric jet were studied using the modal frequency technique. The evolution of the modal spectrum was obtained for a jet with a Reynolds number based on a diameter of 400,000 for both laminar and turbulent nozzle boundary layers. In the early evolution of the jet the axisymmetric mode was predominant, with the azimuthal modes growing rapidly but dominating only the end of the potential core. The growth of the azimuthal was observed closer to the nozzle exit for the jet in the laminar boundary layer case than for the turbulent. Target modes for efficient excitation of the jet were determined and two cases of excitation were studied. First, a jet was excited simultaneously by two helical modes, m equals plus 1 and m equals minus 1 at a Strouhal number based on jet diameter of 0.15 and the axisymmetric mode, m equals 0 at a jet diameter of 0.6. Second, m equals plus one and m equals minus 1 at jet diameter equals 0.3 and m equals 0 at jet diameter equals 0.6 were excited simultaneously. The downstream evolution of the hydrodynamic modes and the spreading rate of the jet were documented for each case. Higher jet spreading rates, accompanied by distorted jet cross sections were observed for the cases where combinations of axisymmetric and helical forcings were applied.

  3. Solution of naturally-occurring glasses in the geological environment

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, B.P.

    1982-12-01

    As part of a study to investigate the feasibility of putting nuclear wastes in glass containers and burying them on land or dumping them in the ocean, we have made a study of the amount of solution experienced by naturally occurring glasses from two land sites and thirty-four deep-sea sites. The glasses used in this study are microtektites from three strewn fields (Australasian, Ivory Coast, and North American) and from the Zhamanshin impact crater in southern Siberia. The microtektites range in age from 0.7 to 35 m.y. and they have a wide range in composition. Although several criteria for determining the amount of solution were considered, most of the conclusions are based on two criteria: (1) width of cracks, and (2) elevation of silica-rich inclusions above the adjacent microtektite surface. The amount of solution was determined for about 170 microtektites; and measured amounts of solution range from 0.2 to at least 28 {mu}m, but most are less than 5 {mu}m. There appears to be no systematic relationship between age and amount of solution. 21 refs., 7 tabs.

  4. Identifying Naturally Occurring Retirement Communities: A Spatial Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rivera-Hernandez, Maricruz; Yamashita, Takashi; Kinney, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Guided by the concept of “aging in place” and potential policy implications, the study analyzed naturally occurring retirement communities (NORCs; 40% or greater house owners and renters aged 65 years and older) and whether there were spatiotemporal patterns in Ohio between 2000 and 2010. Method Data were derived from the 2000 and 2010 census tracts. Geovisualization was used to visually examine the distribution of NORCs in 2000 and 2010. Global Moran’s I was used to quantify the spatial distribution of NORCs in Ohio and Local Moran’s I was used to identify clusters of NORCs (i.e., hot spots). Results The number of NORCs slightly decreased despite the overall increase of the older population from 2000 to 2010. NORCs were identified in one of the 3 most populous counties (i.e., Cuyahoga) and its neighboring counties. A number of hot spots were identified in Cuyahoga County (among Ohio’s most populous and NORC-rich counties), both in 2000 and 2010. There were different patterns including emerging, disappearing, and enduring NORCs and disproportionate distributions of NORCs across the state between 2000 and 2010. Discussion Locating NORCs could aid governments to create “aging in place” sensitive policies to address issues of independence, social care, health care, volunteerism, and community participation. PMID:24958694

  5. Characteristics of Cherenkov radiation in naturally occurring ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikkelsen, R. E.; Poulsen, T.; Uggerhøj, U. I.; Klein, S. R.

    2016-03-01

    We revisit the theory of Cherenkov radiation in uniaxial crystals. Historically, a number of flawed attempts have been made at explaining this radiation phenomenon, and a consistent error-free description is nowhere available. We apply our calculation to a large modern day telescope—IceCube. Located in Antarctica, this detector makes use of the naturally occurring ice as a medium to generate Cherenkov radiation. However, due to the high pressure at the depth of the detector site, large volumes of hexagonal ice crystals are formed. We calculate how this affects the Cherenkov radiation yield and angular dependence. We conclude that the effect is small, at most about a percent, and would only be relevant in future high-precision instruments like e.g. Precision IceCube Next Generation Upgrade (PINGU). For radio-Cherenkov experiments which use the presence of a clear Cherenkov cone to determine the arrival direction, any variation in emission angle will directly and linearly translate into a change in apparent neutrino direction. In closing, we also describe a simple experiment to test this formalism and calculate the impact of anisotropy on light yields from lead tungstate crystals as used, for example, in the CMS calorimeter at the CERN LHC.

  6. Antimicrobial evaluation of selected naturally occurring oxyprenylated secondary metabolites.

    PubMed

    Di Giulio, Mara; Genovese, Salvatore; Fiorito, Serena; Epifano, Francesco; Nostro, Antonia; Cellini, Luigina

    2016-08-01

    This study tested the antimicrobial activity of eight selected naturally occurring oxyprenylated secondary metabolites against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, S. epidermidis ATCC 35984, Escherichia coli ATCC 8739, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. Results showed a moderate antimicrobial activity. The most active compounds were 3-(4-geranyloxyphenyl)-1-ethanol (4) and 3-(4-isopentenyloxyphenyl)-1-propanol (5) that were tested on mature and in-formation biofilms of all micro-organisms, moreover the cytotoxic activity was evaluated. Except for S. epidermidis, both compounds reduced significantly (p < 0.05) the microbial biofilm formation at 1/2 MIC and 1/4 MIC, in particular, compounds 4 and 5 at each concentration, inhibited E. coli biofilm formation to a greater extent, the biofilm formation was never more than 44% in respect to the control, moreover both compounds showed a low cytotoxic effect. Oxyprenylated derivatives may be of great interest for the development of novel antimicrobial therapeutic strategies and the synthesis of semi-synthetic analogues with anti-biofilm efficacy. PMID:27498831

  7. Naturally-occurring anti-Jka in infant twins.

    PubMed

    Rumsey, D H; Nance, S J; Rubino, M; Sandler, S G

    1999-01-01

    Anti-Jka was detected by solid-phase red cell adherence (SPRCA) antibody detection and identification tests in the plasma of a 9-month-old female infant during a routine presurgical evaluation. The patient and her nonidentical twin sister, who also had anti-Jka in her plasma, were products of an uncomplicated in vitro fertilization, full-term pregnancy, and vaginal delivery. Neither twin had been transfused, recently infected, or treated with medication. Their mother had no prior pregnancies or transfusions. Red blood cells (RBCs) from the patient and her sister typed as Jk(a-b+) by direct hemagglutination, and this phenotype was confirmed by negative adsorption and elution studies. Both infants' plasma samples were strongly reactive with 20 examples of Jk(a+) RBCs and nonreactive with 20 examples of Jk(a-) RBCs by SPRCA assays. Anti-Jka was not detected in either twins' plasma by indirect antiglobulin tests by tube method in low-ionic- strength saline solution or polyethylene glycol, or with ficin- or papain-treated RBCs. Monocyte monolayer assays using Jk(a+) RBCs sensitized by either twins' serum were nonreactive (0%). RBCs from both parents typed as Jk(a+b+). Both parents' antibody detection test results by SPRCA assay were negative. The absence of a history of exposure to allogeneic RBCs or possible passive transfer of maternal or other alloantibody classifies these antibodies as naturally-occurring anti-Jka.

  8. Identification of Telomerase-activating Blends From Naturally Occurring Compounds.

    PubMed

    Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Hassan, Samira; Tweed, Miles; Paris, Daniel; Crynen, Gogce; Zakirova, Zuchra; Crynen, Stefan; Crawford, Fiona

    2016-06-01

    telomerase activity, and combinations of the top-ranking compounds were able to increase telomerase activity significantly, from 51% to 290%, relative to controls. Conclusions • The results have confirmed that many naturally occurring compounds hold the potential to activate telomerase and that certain of those compounds have demonstrated synergistic effects to produce more potent blends. Given the relationship between telomere shortening, aging, and the decline of tissue function, it is reasonable to hypothesize that such telomerase-activating blends may have health-promoting benefits, particularly in relation to aging-associated conditions. Further investigation of such blends in human studies that are designed to evaluate safety and the effects on telomere length are thus warranted.

  9. Identification of Telomerase-activating Blends From Naturally Occurring Compounds.

    PubMed

    Ait-Ghezala, Ghania; Hassan, Samira; Tweed, Miles; Paris, Daniel; Crynen, Gogce; Zakirova, Zuchra; Crynen, Stefan; Crawford, Fiona

    2016-06-01

    telomerase activity, and combinations of the top-ranking compounds were able to increase telomerase activity significantly, from 51% to 290%, relative to controls. Conclusions • The results have confirmed that many naturally occurring compounds hold the potential to activate telomerase and that certain of those compounds have demonstrated synergistic effects to produce more potent blends. Given the relationship between telomere shortening, aging, and the decline of tissue function, it is reasonable to hypothesize that such telomerase-activating blends may have health-promoting benefits, particularly in relation to aging-associated conditions. Further investigation of such blends in human studies that are designed to evaluate safety and the effects on telomere length are thus warranted. PMID:27433836

  10. Nortestosterone is not a naturally occurring compound in male cattle.

    PubMed

    McEvoy, J D; McCaughey, W J; Cooper, J; Kennedy, D G; McCartan, B M

    1999-01-01

    Nortestosterone (beta-NT) is a hormonal growth promoter banned from livestock production in the EU. Following injection, the major metabolite in cattle is the 17 alpha-epimer (alpha-NT). However, this also occurs naturally in pregnant cattle. It is not known whether alpha-NT is also endogenous to intact or castrated male cattle. Three surveys were undertaken to assess whether alpha-NT is naturally produced in this subset of the population. Bile samples from a total of 1,281 cattle (73 bulls and 1,208 steers) from 366 herds were collected at slaughter and initially screened by using a semi-automated EIA with multi-analyte immunoaffinity chromatography (IAC) clean-up. Bile samples from a further 38 male cattle (10 bulls and 28 steers) were analysed by high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with IAC pretreatment. Only samples containing more than 2 ng/ml alpha-NT were subjected to GC-MS. With 2 ng/ml alpha-NT as a threshold for confirmatory testing, the false positive rate of the screening EIA was 1.8%. Bulls (n = 16) and steers (n = 179) from government farms (n = 2) and which were not treated with exogenous beta-NT, did not have measurable concentrations of alpha-NT in their bile. Bulls (n = 35) and steers (n = 606) taken from herds (n = 204) which had no previous history of illegal growth promoter abuse also did not have alpha-NT in their bile. Of 32 bulls and 451 steers of unknown treatment history sampled from herds (n = 160), 56 steers from 19 herds contained GC-MS confirmed concentrations of alpha-NT higher than the limit of quantification of the assay LOQ (0.7 ng/ml). Of these animals, two had beta-NT-containing injection sites and five had residues of the beta-agonists clenbuterol and mabuterol. Examination of the animal movement and ownership histories of the 56 confirmed positive animals strongly suggested that exogenous beta-NT had been administered at the presenting farm. It is concluded that alpha-NT is not endogenous to this subset

  11. Role of naturally occurring gas hydrates in sediment transport

    SciTech Connect

    McIver, R.D.

    1982-06-01

    Naturally occurring gas hydrates have the potential to store enormous volumes of both gas and water in semi-solid form in ocean-bottom sediments and then to release that gas and water when the hydrate's equilibrium condition are disturbed. Therefore, hydrates provide a potential mechanism for transporting large volumes of sediments. Under the combined low bottom-water temperatures and moderate hydrostatic pressures that exist over most of the continental slopes and all of the continental rises and abyssal plains, hydrocarbon gases at or near saturation in the interstitial waters of the near-bottom sediments will form hydrates. The gas can either be autochthonous, microbially produced gas, or allochthonous, catagenic gas from deeper sediments. Equilibrium conditions that stabilize hydrated sediments may be disturbed, for example, by continued sedimentation or by lowering of sea level. In either case, some of the solid gas-water matrix decomposes. Released gas and water volume exceeds the volume occupied by the hydrate, so the internal pressure rises - drastically if large volumes of hydrate are decomposed. Part of the once rigid sediment is converted to a gas- and water-rich, relatively low density mud. When the internal pressure, due to the presence of the compressed gas or to buoyancy, is sufficiently high, the overlying sediment may be lifted and/or breached, and the less dense, gas-cut mud may break through. Such hydrate-related phenomena can cause mud diapirs, mud volcanos, mud slides, or turbidite flows, depending on sediment configuration and bottom topography. 4 figures.

  12. Antituberculosis Activity of a Naturally Occurring Flavonoid, Isorhamnetin.

    PubMed

    Jnawali, Hum Nath; Jeon, Dasom; Jeong, Min-Cheol; Lee, Eunjung; Jin, Bongwhan; Ryoo, Sungweon; Yoo, Jungheon; Jung, In Duk; Lee, Seung Jun; Park, Yeong-Min; Kim, Yangmee

    2016-04-22

    Isorhamnetin (1) is a naturally occurring flavonoid having anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study demonstrated that 1 had antimycobacterial effects on Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, multi-drug- and extensively drug-resistant clinical isolates with minimum inhibitory concentrations of 158 and 316 μM, respectively. Mycobacteria mainly affect the lungs, causing an intense local inflammatory response that is critical to the pathogenesis of tuberculosis. We investigated the effects of 1 on interferon (IFN)-γ-stimulated human lung fibroblast MRC-5 cells. Isorhamnetin suppressed the release of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-12. A nontoxic dose of 1 reduced mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, and matrix metalloproteinase-1 in IFN-γ-stimulated cells. Isorhamnetin inhibited IFN-γ-mediated stimulation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and showed high-affinity binding to these kinases (binding constants: 4.46 × 10(6) M(-1) and 7.6 × 10(6) M(-1), respectively). The 4'-hydroxy group and the 3'-methoxy group of the B-ring and the 5-hydroxy group of the A-ring of 1 play key roles in these binding interactions. A mouse in vivo study of lipopolysaccharide-induced lung inflammation revealed that a nontoxic dose of 1 reduced the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, and INF-γ in lung tissue. These data provide the first evidence that 1 could be developed as a potent antituberculosis drug. PMID:26974691

  13. Naturally occurring asbestos: a recurring public policy challenge.

    PubMed

    Lee, R J; Strohmeier, B R; Bunker, K L; Van Orden, D R

    2008-05-01

    The potential environmental hazards and associated public health issues related to exposure to respirable dusts from the vicinity of natural in-place asbestos deposits (commonly referred to as naturally occurring asbestos, NOA) have gained the regulatory and media spotlight in many areas around the United States, such as Libby, MT, Fairfax County, VA, and El Dorado Hills, CA, among others. NOA deposits may be present in a variety of geologic formations. It has been suggested that airborne asbestos may be released from NOA deposits, and absent appropriate engineering controls, may pose a potential health hazard if these rocks are crushed or exposed to natural weathering and erosion or to human activities that create dust. The issue that needs to be addressed at a policy level is the method of assessing exposures to elongated rock fragments ubiquitous in dust clouds in these same environments and the associated risk. Elongated rock fragments and single crystal minerals present in NOA have been construed by some as having attributes, including the health effects, of asbestos fibers. However, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), and the Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC) found that the scientific evidence did not support this assumption. As in many environmental fields of study, the evidence is often disputed. Regulatory policy is not uniform on the subject of rock fragments, even within single agencies. The core of the issue is whether the risk parameters associated with exposures to commercial asbestos can or should be applied to rock fragments meeting an arbitrary set of particle dimensions used for counting asbestos fibers. Inappropriate inclusion of particles or fragments results in dilution of risk and needless expenditure of resources. On the other hand, inappropriate exclusion of particles or fragments may result in increased and unnecessary risk. Some of the fastest growing counties in

  14. Naturally occurring asbestos: a recurring public policy challenge.

    PubMed

    Lee, R J; Strohmeier, B R; Bunker, K L; Van Orden, D R

    2008-05-01

    The potential environmental hazards and associated public health issues related to exposure to respirable dusts from the vicinity of natural in-place asbestos deposits (commonly referred to as naturally occurring asbestos, NOA) have gained the regulatory and media spotlight in many areas around the United States, such as Libby, MT, Fairfax County, VA, and El Dorado Hills, CA, among others. NOA deposits may be present in a variety of geologic formations. It has been suggested that airborne asbestos may be released from NOA deposits, and absent appropriate engineering controls, may pose a potential health hazard if these rocks are crushed or exposed to natural weathering and erosion or to human activities that create dust. The issue that needs to be addressed at a policy level is the method of assessing exposures to elongated rock fragments ubiquitous in dust clouds in these same environments and the associated risk. Elongated rock fragments and single crystal minerals present in NOA have been construed by some as having attributes, including the health effects, of asbestos fibers. However, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA), and the Consumer Products Safety Commission (CPSC) found that the scientific evidence did not support this assumption. As in many environmental fields of study, the evidence is often disputed. Regulatory policy is not uniform on the subject of rock fragments, even within single agencies. The core of the issue is whether the risk parameters associated with exposures to commercial asbestos can or should be applied to rock fragments meeting an arbitrary set of particle dimensions used for counting asbestos fibers. Inappropriate inclusion of particles or fragments results in dilution of risk and needless expenditure of resources. On the other hand, inappropriate exclusion of particles or fragments may result in increased and unnecessary risk. Some of the fastest growing counties in

  15. Probabilities of Natural Events Occurring at Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J.C.

    2001-07-17

    This report documents the comprehensive evaluation of probability models of natural events which are applicable to Savannah River Plant. The probability curves selected for these natural events are recommended to be used by all SRP/SRL safety analysts. This will ensure a consistency in analysis methodology for postulated SAR incidents involving natural phenomena.

  16. Existence of long-lived isomeric states in naturally-occurring neutron-deficient Th isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Marinov, A.; Kashiv, Y.; Rodushkin, I.; Halicz, L.; Segal, I.; Pape, A.; Miller, H. W.; Kolb, D.; Brandt, R.

    2007-08-15

    Four long-lived neutron-deficient Th isotopes with atomic mass numbers 211 to 218 and abundances of (1-10)x10{sup -11} relative to {sup 232}Th have been found in a study of naturally-occurring Th using inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry. It is deduced that long-lived isomeric states exist in these isotopes. The hypothesis that they might belong to a new class of long-lived high spin super- and hyperdeformed isomeric states is discussed.

  17. Committed effective dose from naturally occuring radionuclides in shellfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khandaker, Mayeen Uddin; Wahib, Norfadira Binti; Amin, Yusoff Mohd.; Bradley, D. A.

    2013-07-01

    Recognizing their importance in the average Malaysian daily diet, the radioactivity concentrations in mollusc- and crustacean-based food have been determined for key naturally occuring radionuclides. Fresh samples collected from various maritime locations around peninsular Malaysia have been processed using standard procedures; the radionuclide concentrations being determined using an HPGe γ-ray spectrometer. For molluscs, assuming secular equilibrium, the range of activities of 238U (226Ra), 232Th (228Ra) and 40K were found to be 3.28±0.35 to 5.34±0.52, 1.20±0.21 to 2.44±0.21 and 118±6 to 281±14 Bq kg-1 dry weight, respectively. The respective values for crustaceans were 3.02±0.57 to 4.70±0.52, 1.38±0.21 to 2.40±0.35 and 216±11 to 316±15 Bq kg-1. The estimated average daily intake of radioactivity from consumption of molluscs are 0.37 Bq kg-1 for 238U (226Ra), 0.16 Bq kg-1 for 232Th (228Ra) and 18 Bq kg-1 for 40K; the respective daily intake values from crustaceans are 0.36 Bq kg-1, 0.16 Bq kg-1 and 23 Bq kg-1. Associated annual committed effective doses from molluscs are estimated to be in the range 21.3 to 34.7 μSv for 226Ra, 19.3 to 39.1 μSv for 228Ra and 17.0 to 40.4 μSv for 40K. For crustaceans, the respective dose ranges are 19.6 to 30.5 μSv, 22.0 to 38.4 μSv and 31.1 to 45.5 μSv, being some several times world average values.

  18. Manufactured Home Testing in Simulated and Naturally Occurring High Winds

    SciTech Connect

    W. D. Richins; T. K. Larson

    2006-08-01

    A typical double-wide manufactured home was tested in simulated and naturally occurring high winds to understand structural behavior and improve performance during severe windstorms. Seven (7) lateral load tests were conducted on a double-wide manufactured home at a remote field test site in Wyoming. An extensive instrumentation package monitored the overall behavior of the home and collected data vital to validating computational software for the manufactured housing industry. The tests were designed to approach the design load of the home without causing structural damage, thus allowing the behavior of the home to be accessed when the home was later exposed to high winds (to 80-mph). The data generally show near-linear initial system response with significant non-linear behavior as the applied loads increase. Load transfer across the marriage line is primarily compression. Racking, while present, is very small. Interface slip and shear displacement along the marriage line are nearly insignificant. Horizontal global displacements reached 0.6 inch. These tests were designed primarily to collect data necessary to calibrate a desktop analysis and design software tool, MHTool, under development at the Idaho National Laboratory specifically for manufactured housing. Currently available analysis tools are, for the most part, based on methods developed for “stick built” structures and are inappropriate for manufactured homes. The special materials utilized in manufactured homes, such as rigid adhesives used in the connection of the sheathing materials to the studs, significantly alter the behavior of manufactured homes under lateral loads. Previous full scale tests of laterally loaded manufactured homes confirm the contention that conventional analysis methods are not applicable. System behavior dominates the structural action of manufactured homes and its prediction requires a three dimensional analysis of the complete unit, including tiedowns. This project was

  19. Shear wave filtering in naturally-occurring Bouligand structures.

    PubMed

    Guarín-Zapata, Nicolás; Gomez, Juan; Yaraghi, Nick; Kisailus, David; Zavattieri, Pablo D

    2015-09-01

    Wave propagation was investigated in the Bouligand-like structure from within the dactyl club of the stomatopod, a crustacean that is known to smash their heavily shelled preys with high accelerations. We incorporate the layered nature in a unitary material cell through the propagator matrix formalism while the periodic nature of the material is considered via Bloch boundary conditions as applied in the theory of solid state physics. Our results show that these materials exhibit bandgaps at frequencies related to the stress pulse generated by the impact of the dactyl club to its prey, and therefore exhibiting wave filtering in addition to the already known mechanisms of macroscopic isotropic behavior and toughness. PMID:25983314

  20. Going Wild: Lessons from Naturally Occurring T-Lymphotropic Lentiviruses

    PubMed Central

    VandeWoude, Sue; Apetrei, Cristian

    2006-01-01

    Over 40 nonhuman primate (NHP) species harbor species-specific simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIVs). Similarly, more than 20 species of nondomestic felids and African hyenids demonstrate seroreactivity against feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) antigens. While it has been challenging to study the biological implications of nonfatal infections in natural populations, epidemiologic and clinical studies performed thus far have only rarely detected increased morbidity or impaired fecundity/survival of naturally infected SIV- or FIV-seropositive versus -seronegative animals. Cross-species transmissions of these agents are rare in nature but have been used to develop experimental systems to evaluate mechanisms of pathogenicity and to develop animal models of HIV/AIDS. Given that felids and primates are substantially evolutionarily removed yet demonstrate the same pattern of apparently nonpathogenic lentiviral infections, comparison of the biological behaviors of these viruses can yield important implications for host-lentiviral adaptation which are relevant to human HIV/AIDS infection. This review therefore evaluates similarities in epidemiology, lentiviral genotyping, pathogenicity, host immune responses, and cross-species transmission of FIVs and factors associated with the establishment of lentiviral infections in new species. This comparison of consistent patterns in lentivirus biology will expose new directions for scientific inquiry for understanding the basis for virulence versus avirulence. PMID:17041142

  1. Differential susceptibility to colorectal cancer due to naturally occurring gut microbiota

    PubMed Central

    Ericsson, Aaron C.; Akter, Sadia; Hanson, Marina M.; Busi, Susheel B.; Parker, Taybor W.; Schehr, Rebecca J.; Hankins, Miriam A.; Ahner, Carin E.; Davis, Justin W.; Franklin, Craig L.; Amos-Landgraf, James M.; Bryda, Elizabeth C.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies investigating the human microbiome have identified particular bacterial species that correlate with the presence of colorectal cancer. To evaluate the role of qualitatively different but naturally occurring gut microbiota and the relationship with colorectal cancer development, genetically identical embryos from the Polyposis in Rat Colon (Pirc) rat model of colorectal cancer were transferred into recipients of three different genetic backgrounds (F344/NHsd, LEW/SsNHsd, and Crl:SD). Tumor development in the pups was tracked longitudinally via colonoscopy, and end-stage tumor burden was determined. To confirm vertical transmission and identify associations between the gut microbiota and disease phenotype, the fecal microbiota was characterized in recipient dams 24 hours pre-partum, and in Pirc rat offspring prior to and during disease progression. Our data show that the gut microbiota varies between rat strains, with LEW/SsNHsd having a greater relative abundance of the bacteria Prevotella copri. The mature gut microbiota of pups resembled the profile of their dams, indicating that the dam is the primary determinant of the developing microbiota. Both male and female F344-Pirc rats harboring the Lewis microbiota had decreased tumor burden relative to genetically identical rats harboring F344 or SD microbiota. Significant negative correlations were detected between tumor burden and the relative abundance of specific taxa from samples taken at weaning and shortly thereafter, prior to observable adenoma development. Notably, this naturally occurring variation in the gut microbiota is associated with a significant difference in severity of colorectal cancer, and the abundance of certain taxa is associated with decreased tumor burden. PMID:26378041

  2. Polyomavirus and Naturally Occuring Neuroglial Tumors in Raccoons (Procyon Lotor).

    PubMed

    Pesavento, Patricia A; Brostoff, Terza; Church, Molly E; Dela Cruz, Florante N; Woolard, Kevin D

    2016-01-01

    Polyomavirus (PyV) infections are widespread in human populations and, although generally associated with silent persistence, rarely cause severe disease. Among diseases convincingly associated with natural PyV infections of humans, there are remarkably different tissue tropisms and outcomes, including progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, transient or progressive nephropathy, and cancer. The variable character and unpredictable outcomes of infection attest to large gaps in our basic understanding of PyV biology. In particular, the rich history of research demonstrating the oncogenic potential of PyVs in laboratory animals begs the question of why cancer is not more often associated with infection. Raccoon polyomavirus (RacPyV), discovered in 2010, is consistently identified in neuroglial tumors in free-ranging raccoons in the western United States. Exposure to RacPyV is widespread, and RacPyV is detected in tissues of raccoons without tumors. Studying the relationship of RacPyV with its natural host is a unique opportunity to uncover cogent cellular targets and protein interactions between the virus and its host. Our hypothesis is that RacPyV, as an intact episome, alters cellular pathways within neural progenitor cells and drives oncogenesis. PMID:26912716

  3. Polyomavirus and Naturally Occuring Neuroglial Tumors in Raccoons (Procyon Lotor).

    PubMed

    Pesavento, Patricia A; Brostoff, Terza; Church, Molly E; Dela Cruz, Florante N; Woolard, Kevin D

    2016-01-01

    Polyomavirus (PyV) infections are widespread in human populations and, although generally associated with silent persistence, rarely cause severe disease. Among diseases convincingly associated with natural PyV infections of humans, there are remarkably different tissue tropisms and outcomes, including progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, transient or progressive nephropathy, and cancer. The variable character and unpredictable outcomes of infection attest to large gaps in our basic understanding of PyV biology. In particular, the rich history of research demonstrating the oncogenic potential of PyVs in laboratory animals begs the question of why cancer is not more often associated with infection. Raccoon polyomavirus (RacPyV), discovered in 2010, is consistently identified in neuroglial tumors in free-ranging raccoons in the western United States. Exposure to RacPyV is widespread, and RacPyV is detected in tissues of raccoons without tumors. Studying the relationship of RacPyV with its natural host is a unique opportunity to uncover cogent cellular targets and protein interactions between the virus and its host. Our hypothesis is that RacPyV, as an intact episome, alters cellular pathways within neural progenitor cells and drives oncogenesis.

  4. Inactivation of phospholipase A2 by naturally occurring biflavonoid, ochnaflavone.

    PubMed

    Chang, H W; Baek, S H; Chung, K W; Son, K H; Kim, H P; Kang, S S

    1994-11-30

    Ochnaflavone, a medicinal herb product isolated from Lonicera japonica, strongly inhibited rat platelet phospholipase A2 (IC50, about 3 microM). Inactivation was concentration and pH dependent (maximum inactivation occurred between pH 9.0 and 10.0). Ochnaflavone inhibited the enzyme by a noncompetitive manner, with the apparent Ki value of 3 x 10(-5) M. Reversibility was studied directly by dialysis method; the inhibition was irreversible. In addition, the inhibitory activity of ochnaflavone is rather specific against group II phospholipase A2 than group I phospholipase A2 (IC50, about 20 microM). Addition of excess Ca2+ concentration up to 8 mM did not antagonize the inhibitory activity of ochnaflavone. These results indicate that the inhibition of phospholipase A2 by ochnaflavone may result from direct interaction with the enzyme.

  5. Serum concentration of sialic acids in naturally occurring ovine babesiosis.

    PubMed

    Esmaeilnejad, Bijan; Tavassoli, Mousa; Asri-Rezaei, Siamak; Dalir-Naghadeh, Bahram; Abtahi Froushani, Seyyed Meysam; Arjmand, Jafar; Golabi, Mostafa

    2014-10-01

    This study is designated to assess the effect of the severity of Babesia ovis infection on sialic acid concentration in blood sera in naturally infected sheep. Infected animals (diseased group) comprised 38 Iranian fat-tailed sheep, about 1-3 years old, naturally infected with B. ovis, divided into four subgroups with respect to parasitemia rates (low 0.1-0.3 %, moderate 0.4-0.9 %, high 1-2.5 %, and very high >2.5 %). The parasitological diagnosis was confirmed using PCR analysis. As a control group, ten clinically healthy sheep reared under the same management and environmental conditions were also sampled. Hematological parameters and the concentrations of total sialic acid (TSA), lipid-bound sialic acid (LBSA), and protein-bound sialic acid (PBSA) were measured in both groups. Compared to controls, sialic acid concentrations showed significant increase (p < 0.05) in infected sheep. Parasitemia rate was positively correlated with sialic acid concentrations. This study demonstrated that B. ovis infection induced marked and persistent elevations of serum sialic acid concentrations. It seems that increase of serum sialic acid concentrations during parasitemia alter receptor-ligand interactions, which are known to play important role in immune response. Furthermore, sialic acid would indirectly inhibit the action of leukocytes and consequently promote the evasion of the immune response and persistence of the parasite in the host. This factor could influence the parasite-host cell adhesion, but further detailed biochemical investigations are needed to precisely explain the exact role of sialic acid in invasion process of the parasite to the host cells.

  6. Sexual conflict and cooperation under naturally occurring male enforced monogamy.

    PubMed

    Montrose, V T; Harris, W E; Moore, P J

    2004-03-01

    An evolutionary conflict often exists between the sexes in regard to female mating patterns. Females can benefit from polyandry, whereas males mating with polyandrous females lose reproductive opportunities because of sperm competition. Where this conflict occurs, the evolution of mechanisms whereby males can control female remating, often at a fitness cost to the female, are expected to evolve. The fitness cost to the female will be increased in systems where a few high status males monopolise mating opportunities and thus have limited sperm supplies. Here we show that in the cockroach Nauphoeta cinerea, a species where males enforce female monogamy in the first reproductive cycle, males that have become sperm depleted continue to be able to manipulate female remating behaviour. Although the manipulation severely decreases fecundity in females mated to sperm-depleted males, males benefit, increasing their relative fitness by preventing other males from reproducing. Our results suggest that there is selection on maintaining the mechanism of manipulation rather than maintaining sperm numbers. Taken with previous research on sexual conflict in N. cinerea, this study suggests that the causes and consequences of sexual conflict are complex and can change across the life history of an individual.

  7. Evidence of sublaminar drag naturally occurring in a curved pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noorani, A.; Schlatter, P.

    2015-03-01

    Steady and unsteady flows in a mildly curved pipe for a wide range of Reynolds numbers are examined with direct numerical simulation. It is shown that in a range of Reynolds numbers in the vicinity of Reb ≈ 3400, based on bulk velocity and pipe diameter, a marginally turbulent flow is established in which the friction drag naturally reduces below the laminar solution at the same Reynolds number. The obtained values for friction drag for the laminar and turbulent (sublaminar) flows turn out to be in excellent agreement with experimental measurements in the literature. Our results are also in agreement with Fukagata et al. ["On the lower bound of net driving power in controlled duct flows," Phys. D 238, 1082 (2009)], as the lower bound of net power required to drive the flow, i.e., the pressure drop of the Stokes solution, is still lower than our marginally turbulent flow. A large-scale traveling structure that is thought to be responsible for that behaviour is identified in the instantaneous field. This mode could also be extracted using proper orthogonal decomposition. The effect of this mode is to redistribute the mean flow in the circular cross section which leads to lower gradients at the wall compared to the laminar flow.

  8. Evidence of sublaminar drag naturally occurring in a curved pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Noorani, A.; Schlatter, P.

    2015-03-15

    Steady and unsteady flows in a mildly curved pipe for a wide range of Reynolds numbers are examined with direct numerical simulation. It is shown that in a range of Reynolds numbers in the vicinity of Re{sub b} ≈ 3400, based on bulk velocity and pipe diameter, a marginally turbulent flow is established in which the friction drag naturally reduces below the laminar solution at the same Reynolds number. The obtained values for friction drag for the laminar and turbulent (sublaminar) flows turn out to be in excellent agreement with experimental measurements in the literature. Our results are also in agreement with Fukagata et al. [“On the lower bound of net driving power in controlled duct flows,” Phys. D 238, 1082 (2009)], as the lower bound of net power required to drive the flow, i.e., the pressure drop of the Stokes solution, is still lower than our marginally turbulent flow. A large-scale traveling structure that is thought to be responsible for that behaviour is identified in the instantaneous field. This mode could also be extracted using proper orthogonal decomposition. The effect of this mode is to redistribute the mean flow in the circular cross section which leads to lower gradients at the wall compared to the laminar flow.

  9. Naturally Occurring Variants of the Dysglycemic Peptide Pancreastatin

    PubMed Central

    Allu, Prasanna K. R.; Chirasani, Venkat R.; Ghosh, Dhiman; Mani, Anitha; Bera, Amal K.; Maji, Samir K.; Senapati, Sanjib; Mullasari, Ajit S.; Mahapatra, Nitish R.

    2014-01-01

    Pancreastatin (PST), a chromogranin A-derived peptide, is a potent physiological inhibitor of glucose-induced insulin secretion. PST also triggers glycogenolysis in liver and reduces glucose uptake in adipocytes and hepatocytes. Here, we probed for genetic variations in PST sequence and identified two variants within its functionally important carboxyl terminus domain: E287K and G297S. To understand functional implications of these amino acid substitutions, we tested the effects of wild-type (PST-WT), PST-287K, and PST-297S peptides on various cellular processes/events. The rank order of efficacy to inhibit insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was: PST-297S > PST-287K > PST-WT. The PST peptides also displayed the same order of efficacy for enhancing intracellular nitric oxide and Ca2+ levels in various cell types. In addition, PST peptides activated gluconeogenic genes in the following order: PST-297S ≈ PST-287K > PST-WT. Consistent with these in vitro results, the common PST variant allele Ser-297 was associated with significantly higher (by ∼17 mg/dl, as compared with the wild-type Gly-297 allele) plasma glucose level in our study population (n = 410). Molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations predicted the following rank order of α-helical content: PST-297S > PST-287K > PST-WT. Corroboratively, circular dichroism analysis of PST peptides revealed significant differences in global structures (e.g. the order of propensity to form α-helix was: PST-297S ≈ PST-287K > PST-WT). This study provides a molecular basis for enhanced potencies/efficacies of human PST variants (likely to occur in ∼300 million people worldwide) and has quantitative implications for inter-individual variations in glucose/insulin homeostasis. PMID:24338022

  10. Accurate assessment and identification of naturally occurring cellular cobalamins

    PubMed Central

    Hannibal, Luciana; Axhemi, Armend; Glushchenko, Alla V.; Moreira, Edward S.; Brasch, Nicola E.; Jacobsen, Donald W.

    2009-01-01

    Background Accurate assessment of cobalamin profiles in human serum, cells, and tissues may have clinical diagnostic value. However, non-alkyl forms of cobalamin undergo β-axial ligand exchange reactions during extraction, which leads to inaccurate profiles having little or no diagnostic value. Methods Experiments were designed to: 1) assess β-axial ligand exchange chemistry during the extraction and isolation of cobalamins from cultured bovine aortic endothelial cells, human foreskin fibroblasts, and human hepatoma HepG2 cells, and 2) to establish extraction conditions that would provide a more accurate assessment of endogenous forms containing both exchangeable and non-exchangeable β-axial ligands. Results The cobalamin profile of cells grown in the presence of [57Co]-cyanocobalamin as a source of vitamin B12 shows that the following derivatives are present: [57Co]-aquacobalamin, [57Co]-glutathionylcobalamin, [57Co]-sulfitocobalamin, [57Co]-cyanocobalamin, [57Co]-adenosylcobalamin, [57Co]-methylcobalamin, as well as other yet unidentified corrinoids. When the extraction is performed in the presence of excess cold aquacobalamin acting as a scavenger cobalamin (i.e., “cold trapping”), the recovery of both [57Co]-glutathionylcobalamin and [57Co]-sulfitocobalamin decreases to low but consistent levels. In contrast, the [57Co]-nitrocobalamin observed in extracts prepared without excess aquacobalamin is undetectable in extracts prepared with cold trapping. Conclusions This demonstrates that β-ligand exchange occurs with non-covalently bound β-ligands. The exception to this observation is cyanocobalamin with a non-covalent but non-exchangeable− CNT group. It is now possible to obtain accurate profiles of cellular cobalamins. PMID:18973458

  11. Naturally occurring muscle pain during exercise: assessment and experimental evidence.

    PubMed

    Cook, D B; O'Connor, P J; Eubanks, S A; Smith, J C; Lee, M

    1997-08-01

    The objectives were: (i) to present a method for assessing muscle pain during exercise, (ii) to provide reliability and validity data in support of the measurement tool, (iii) to test whether leg muscle pain threshold during exercise was related to a commonly used measure of pain threshold pain during test, (iv) to examine the relationship between pain and exertion ratings, (v) to test whether leg muscle pain is related to performance, and (vi) to test whether a large dose of aspirin would delay leg muscle pain threshold and/or reduce pain ratings during exercise. In study 1, seven females and seven males completed three 1-min cycling bouts at three different randomly ordered power outputs. Pain was assessed using a 10-point pain scale. High intraclass correlations (R from 0.88 to 0.98) indicated that pain intensity could be rated reliably using the scale. In study 2, 11 college-aged males (age 21.3 +/- 1.3 yr) performed a ramped (24 W.min-1) maximal cycle ergometry test. A button was depressed when leg muscle pain threshold was reached. Pain threshold occurred near 50% of maximal capacity: 50.3 (+/- 12.9% Wmax), 48.6 (+/- 14.8% VO2max), and 55.8 (+/- 12.9% RPEmax). Pain intensity ratings obtained following pain threshold were positively accelerating function of the relative exercise intensity. Volitional exhaustion was associated with pain ratings of 8.2 (+/- 2.5), a value most closely associated with the verbal anchor "very strong pain." In study 3, participants completed the same maximal exercise test as in study 2 as well as leg cycling at 60 rpm for 8 s at four randomly ordered power outputs (100, 150, 200, and 250 W) on a separate day. Pain and RPE ratings were significantly lower during the 8-s bouts compared to those obtained at the same power outputs during the maximal cycle test. The results suggest that noxious metabolites of muscle contraction play a role in leg muscle pain during exercise. In study 4, moderately active male subjects (N = 19) completed

  12. Paper Thermoelectrics: Merging Nanotechnology with Naturally Abundant Fibrous Material.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chengjun; Goharpey, Amir Hossein; Rai, Ayush; Zhang, Teng; Ko, Dong-Kyun

    2016-08-31

    The development of paper-based sensors, antennas, and energy-harvesting devices can transform the way electronic devices are manufactured and used. Herein we describe an approach to fabricate paper thermoelectric generators for the first time by directly impregnating naturally abundant cellulose materials with p- or n-type colloidal semiconductor quantum dots. We investigate Seebeck coefficients and electrical conductivities as a function of temperature between 300 and 400 K as well as in-plane thermal conductivities using Angstrom's method. We further demonstrate equipment-free fabrication of flexible thermoelectric modules using p- and n-type paper strips. Leveraged by paper's inherently low thermal conductivity and high flexibility, these paper modules have the potential to efficiently utilize heat available in natural and man-made environments by maximizing the thermal contact to heat sources of arbitrary geometry. PMID:27505304

  13. Paper Thermoelectrics: Merging Nanotechnology with Naturally Abundant Fibrous Material.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chengjun; Goharpey, Amir Hossein; Rai, Ayush; Zhang, Teng; Ko, Dong-Kyun

    2016-08-31

    The development of paper-based sensors, antennas, and energy-harvesting devices can transform the way electronic devices are manufactured and used. Herein we describe an approach to fabricate paper thermoelectric generators for the first time by directly impregnating naturally abundant cellulose materials with p- or n-type colloidal semiconductor quantum dots. We investigate Seebeck coefficients and electrical conductivities as a function of temperature between 300 and 400 K as well as in-plane thermal conductivities using Angstrom's method. We further demonstrate equipment-free fabrication of flexible thermoelectric modules using p- and n-type paper strips. Leveraged by paper's inherently low thermal conductivity and high flexibility, these paper modules have the potential to efficiently utilize heat available in natural and man-made environments by maximizing the thermal contact to heat sources of arbitrary geometry.

  14. Relationships of phytomacrofauna to surface area in naturally occurring macrophyte stands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, Charles L.; Poe, Thomas P.; French, John R. P.; Schloesser, Donald W.

    1988-01-01

    Most studies of the relationships between freshwater macrophytes and phytomacrofauna, or the macroinvertebrates associated with the macrophytes, have been based on individual plant collections or samples from monotypic plant stands. We describe the phytomacrofauna assemblages within naturally occurring, taxonomically mixed stands, and consider how macrophyte surface area and plant morphology influenced phytomacrofauna diversity and abundance. Samples of submersed macrophytes and phytomacrofauna were collected April-November 1979 in Anchor Bay of Lake St. Clair. Only the portions of macrophytes within the water column and invertebrates from above the sediment were considered. Densities of phytomacrofauna were not consistently related to fluctuations in macrophyte surface area, indicating that the use of macrophyte structure by the invertebrates changed during the year. Both the abundance and species richness of the phytomacrofauna were strongly related to macrophyte species richness reflecting the response of the invertebrates to the structural heterogeneity in taxonomically mixed stands. Vertically heterogeneous stands with an understory of Chara and an overstory of vascular macrophytes, for example, were likely to contain more invertebrates than stands with only one macrophyte taxon.

  15. Abundance and Size Distribution of the Sacoglossan Elysia viridis on Co-Occurring Algal Hosts on the Swedish West Coast

    PubMed Central

    Baumgartner, Finn A.; Toth, Gunilla B.

    2014-01-01

    Sacoglossans are specialized marine herbivores that tend to have a close evolutionary relationship with their macroalgal hosts, but the widely distributed species Elysia viridis can associate with several algal species. However, most previous investigations on the field abundance and size distribution of E. viridis have focussed on Codium spp. in the British Isles, and algae from this genus are considered superior hosts for E. viridis. In the present study, we investigated the abundance and size distribution of E. viridis on 6 potential host algae with differing morphologies (the septate species Cladophora sericea, Cladophora rupestris, Chaetomorpha melagonium, and Ceramium virgatum, as well as the siphonaceous species Codium fragile and Bryopsis sp.) at 2 sites on the Swedish west coast over the course of a year. In spring, slugs were almost absent from all algal hosts. In summer and autumn, E. viridis consistently occurred on several of the algal species at both sites. The highest number of small E. viridis were found on C. sericea, intermediate numbers of significantly larger E. viridis were found on C. rupestris, while fewer, intermediate sized animals were found on C. fragile. Throughout the study period, only a few E. viridis individuals were found on C. melagonium, Bryopsis sp., and C. virgatum. Our results indicate that E. viridis is an annual species in Sweden, capable of exploiting co-occurring congeneric and intergeneric algal hosts with differing morphologies. These results corroborate previous findings that E. viridis can exploit several different algal species, but does not indicate that C. fragile is a superior host. PMID:24647524

  16. Measuring and Modeling Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material: Interpreting the Relationship Between the Natural Radionuclides Present

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardo, A.J.; Mucha, A.F.

    2008-07-01

    The regulatory release of sites and facilities (property) for restricted or unrestricted use has evolved beyond prescribed levels to model-derived dose and risk based limits. Dose models for deriving corresponding soil and structure radionuclide concentration guidelines are necessarily simplified representations of complex processes. A conceptual site model is often developed to present a reasonable and somewhat conservative representation of the physical and chemical properties of the impacted material. Dose modeling software is then used to estimate resulting dose and/or radionuclide specific acceptance criteria (activity concentrations). When the source term includes any or all of the uranium, thorium or actinium natural decay series radionuclides the interpretation of the relationship between the individual radionuclides of the series is critical to a technically correct and complete assessment of risk and/or derivation of radionuclide specific acceptance criteria. Unlike man-made radionuclides, modeling and measuring naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) and technologically enhanced NORM (TENORM) source terms involves the interpretation of the relationship between the radionuclide present, e.g., secular equilibrium, enrichment, depletion or transient equilibrium. Isotopes of uranium, radium, and thorium occur in all three natural decay series. Each of the three series also produces a radon gas isotope as one of its progeny. In nature, the radionuclides in the three natural decay series are in a state that is approaching or has achieved secular equilibrium, in which the activities of all radionuclides within each series are nearly equal. However, ores containing the three natural decay series may begin in approximate secular equilibrium, but after processing, equilibrium may be broken and certain elements (and the radioactive isotopes of that element) may be concentrated or removed. Where the original ore may have contained one long chain of natural

  17. The first naturally occurring aromatic isothiocyanates, rapalexins A and B, are cruciferous phytoalexins.

    PubMed

    Pedras, M Soledade C; Zheng, Qing-An; Gadagi, Ravi S

    2007-01-28

    The discovery of the first naturally occurring aromatic isothiocyanates, indole-3-isothiocyanates, their first synthesis, antimicrobial activity and proposed biogenetic origin in canola plants are reported.

  18. Long-Term Toxicity of Naturally Occurring Asbestos in Male Fischer 344 Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) fibers are found in geologic deposits that may be disturbed by mining, earthworks, or natural processes, resulting in adverse health risks to exposed individuals. The toxicities of Libby amphibole and NOA samples including Sumas Mountain chrysot...

  19. CHARACTERIZATION OF CASEINS CROSSLINKED BY A NATURALLY OCCURRING CROSSLINKING AGENT-GENIPIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing economic and environmental pressures demand more effective utilization of natural resources. Genipin, a naturally occurring crosslinking agent obtained from the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides, has recently attracted much attention due to its low cytotoxicity compared to traditional crossli...

  20. Natural-abundance 17O NMR of monosaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerothanassis, Ioannis P.; Lauterwein, Jürgen; Sheppard, Norman

    Natural-abundance "high-resolution" 17O NMR spectra of D-glucose, D-mannose, D-galactose, and some methoxy derivatives of D-glucose were recorded in aqueous solution. The sensitivity and spectral resolution was improved by optimizing the accumulation and manipulation of data. The water solvent peak was suppressed through use of 17O-depleted water or displaced by addition of paramagnetic shift reagents. With Dy 3+ the 17O NMR spectrum of D-glucose remained unaltered; however, the water peak was shifted outside the carbohydrate spectral region. The 17O NMR resonances were assigned from earlier data for some specifically 17O-enriched monosaccharide derivatives. The anomeric hydroxyl resonances could also be located because of their exchange with the 17O-depleted water. Although the chemical shifts of the monosacharides generally parallel the sequence of chemical shifts for simple primary and secondary alcohols and substituted ethers, several exceptions were found and discussed in terms of steric and electrostatic repulsive forces between oxygens.

  1. Species richness and relative abundance of birds in natural and anthropogenic fragments of Brazilian Atlantic forest.

    PubMed

    dos Anjos, Luiz

    2004-06-01

    Bird communities were studied in two types of fragmented habitat of Atlantic forest in the State of Paraná, southern Brazil; one consisted of forest fragments that were created as a result of human activities (forest remnants), the other consisted of a set of naturally occurring forest fragments (forest patches). Using quantitative data obtained by the point counts method in 3 forest patches and 3 forest remnants during one year, species richness and relative abundance were compared in those habitats, considering species groups according to their general feeding habits. Insectivores, omnivores, and frugivores presented similar general tendencies in both habitats (decrease of species number with decreasing size and increasing isolation of forest fragment). However, these tendencies were different, when considering the relative abundance data: the trunk insectivores presented the highest value in the smallest patch while the lowest relative abundance was in the smallest remnant. In the naturally fragmented landscape, time permitted that the loss of some species of trunk insectivores be compensated for the increase in abundance of other species. In contrast, the remnants essentially represented newly formed islands that are not yet at equilibrium and where future species losses would make them similar to the patches.

  2. Natural variability in abundance of prevalent soybean proteins.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Savithiry S

    2010-12-01

    Soybean is an inexpensive source of protein for humans and animals. Genetic modifications (GMO) to soybean have become inevitable on two fronts, both quality and yield will need to improve to meet increasing global demand. To ensure the safety of the crop for consumers it is important to determine the natural variation in seed protein constituents as well as any unintended changes that may occur in the GMO as a result of genetic modification. Understanding the natural variation of seed proteins in wild and cultivated soybeans that have been used in conventional soybean breeding programs is critical for determining unintended protein expression in GMO soybeans. In recent years, proteomic technologies have been used as an effective analytical tool for examining modifications of protein profiles. We have standardized and applied these technologies to determine and quantify the spectrum of proteins present in soybean seed. We used two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for the separation, quantification, and identification of different classes of soybean seed proteins. We have observed significant variations in different classes of proteins, including storage, allergen and anti-nutritional protein profiles, between non-GMO cultivated and wild soybean varieties. This information is useful for scientists and regulatory agencies to determine whether the unintended expression of proteins found in transgenic soybean is within the range of natural variation. PMID:20709130

  3. Natural variability in abundance of prevalent soybean proteins.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, Savithiry S

    2010-12-01

    Soybean is an inexpensive source of protein for humans and animals. Genetic modifications (GMO) to soybean have become inevitable on two fronts, both quality and yield will need to improve to meet increasing global demand. To ensure the safety of the crop for consumers it is important to determine the natural variation in seed protein constituents as well as any unintended changes that may occur in the GMO as a result of genetic modification. Understanding the natural variation of seed proteins in wild and cultivated soybeans that have been used in conventional soybean breeding programs is critical for determining unintended protein expression in GMO soybeans. In recent years, proteomic technologies have been used as an effective analytical tool for examining modifications of protein profiles. We have standardized and applied these technologies to determine and quantify the spectrum of proteins present in soybean seed. We used two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D-PAGE), matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) for the separation, quantification, and identification of different classes of soybean seed proteins. We have observed significant variations in different classes of proteins, including storage, allergen and anti-nutritional protein profiles, between non-GMO cultivated and wild soybean varieties. This information is useful for scientists and regulatory agencies to determine whether the unintended expression of proteins found in transgenic soybean is within the range of natural variation.

  4. Segregation of naturally occurring mitochondrial DNA variants in a mini-pig model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Within cells and tissues, the maternally inherited mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) is present in multimeric form and can harbour naturally occurring variants. Whilst high variant load can cause mitochondrial disease, naturally occurring mtDNA variants likely persist at low levels across generations of ...

  5. Naturally occurring structural isomers in serum IgA1 o-glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kazuo; Smith, Archer D; Poulsen, Knud; Kilian, Mogens; Julian, Bruce A; Mestecky, Jiri; Novak, Jan; Renfrow, Matthew B

    2012-02-01

    IgA is the most abundantly produced antibody and plays an important role in the mucosal immune system. Human IgA is represented by two isotypes, IgA1 and IgA2. The major structural difference between these two subclasses is the presence of nine potential sites of O-glycosylation in the hinge region between the first and second constant region domains of the heavy chain. Thr(225), Thr(228), Ser(230), Ser(232) and Thr(236) have been identified as the predominant sites of O-glycan attachment. The range and distribution of O-glycan chains at each site within the context of adjacent sites in this clustered region create a complex heterogeneity of surface epitopes that is incompletely defined. We previously described the analysis of IgA1 O-glycan heterogeneity by use of high resolution LC-MS and electron capture dissociation tandem MS to unambiguously localize all amino acid attachment sites in IgA1 (Ale) myeloma protein. Here, we report the identification and elucidation of IgA1 O-glycopeptide structural isomers that occur based on amino acid position of the attached glycans (positional isomers) and the structure of the O-glycan chains at individual sites (glycan isomers). These isomers are present in a model IgA1 (Mce1) myeloma protein and occur naturally in normal human serum IgA1. Variable O-glycan chains attached to Ser(230), Thr(233) or Thr(236) produce the predominant positional isomers, including O-glycans composed of a single GalNAc residue. These findings represent the first definitive identification of structural isomeric IgA1 O-glycoforms, define the single-site heterogeneity for all O-glycan sites in a single sample, and have implications for defining epitopes based on clustered O-glycan variability.

  6. Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) in the Oil and Gas Industry: A Review.

    PubMed

    Doyi, Israel; Essumang, David Kofi; Dampare, Samuel; Glover, Eric Tetteh

    2016-01-01

    Radiation is part of the natural environment: it is estimated that approximately 80 % of all human exposure comes from naturally occurring or background radiation. Certain extractive industries such as mining and oil logging have the potential to increase the risk of radiation exposure to the environment and humans by concentrating the quantities of naturally occurring radiation beyond normal background levels (Azeri-Chirag-Gunashli 2004). PMID:26670035

  7. Persistence of naturally occurring antibiotic resistance genes in the bacteria and bacteriophage fractions of wastewater.

    PubMed

    Calero-Cáceres, William; Muniesa, Maite

    2016-05-15

    The emergence and prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the environment is a serious global health concern. ARGs from bacteria can be mobilized by mobile genetic elements, and recent studies indicate that phages and phage-derived particles, among others, could play a role in the spread of ARGs through the environment. ARGs are abundant in the bacterial and bacteriophage fractions of water bodies and for successful transfer of the ARGs, their persistence in these environments is crucial. In this study, three ARGs (blaTEM, blaCTX-M and sul1) that naturally occur in the bacterial and phage fractions of raw wastewater were used to evaluate the persistence of ARGs at different temperatures (4 °C, 22 °C and 37 °C) and pH values (3, 7 and 9), as well as after various disinfection treatments (thermal treatment, chlorination and UV) and natural inactivation in a mesocosm. Gene copies (GC) were quantified by qPCR; then the logarithmic reduction and significance of the differences between their numbers were evaluated. The ARGs persisted for a long time with minimal reductions after all the treatments. In general, they showed greater persistence in the bacteriophage fraction than in the bacterial fraction. Comparisons showed that the ARGs persisted under conditions that reduced culturable Escherichia coli and infectious coliphages below the limit of detection. The prevalence of ARGs, particularly in the bacteriophage fraction, poses the threat of the spread of ARGs and their incorporation into a new bacterial background that could lead to the emergence of new resistant clones.

  8. DECIPHERING NATURALLY-OCCURRING PB CONTAMINATION IMPACTING DRINKING WATER WELLS: SHAKER VILLAGE CATCHMENT, MAINE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trace Pb concentrations in groundwater within glacial deposits across Maine fluctuate considerably. Deciphering the distribution and sources of naturally occurring Pb in groundwater with only the use of conventional anomaly identification techniques presents a challenge. In a rep...

  9. Naturally occurring iridoids, secoiridoids and their bioactivity. An updated review, part 3.

    PubMed

    Dinda, Biswanath; Chowdhury, Debashis Roy; Mohanta, Bikas Chandra

    2009-08-01

    Naturally occurring new iridoids and secoiridoids published during 2005-2008 are reviewed with available physical and spectral data: mp, [alpha](D), UV, IR, (1)H- and (13)C-NMR and plant source. The works on biological and pharmacological activity of naturally occurring iridoids and secoiridoids reported during 2005-2008 are also reviewed. Bioactivities like antibacterial, anticancer, anticoagulant, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antiprotozoal, hepatoprotective and neuroprotective activities are highlighted.

  10. Concentrations of the naturally occurring radionucleides Pb-210, Po-210, and Ra-226 in aquatic fauna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holtzman, R. B.

    1969-01-01

    Study reveals naturally occurring radionuclides are ubiquitous and contribute a substantial fraction of the natural radiation dose to humans and various biota. Measurements may be useful in ecological and other biological problems such as tracing food chains of animals and study of the metabolism of these elements.

  11. Survival of naturally occurring Campylobacter in refrigerated and frozen rinsate from a broiler carcass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine if naturally occurring Campylobacter in a broiler rinsate could survive in cold storage. Ten commercial broiler carcasses were each rinsed with 500 ml of Butterfield’s buffer and all carcasses tested positive for the presence of 104-105/ml naturally occu...

  12. Natural abundances of carbon isotopes in acetate from a coastal marine sediment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blair, N. E.; Martens, C. S.; Des Marais, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements of the natural abundances of carbon isotopes were made in acetate samples isolated from the anoxic marine sediment of Cape Lookout Bight, North Carolina. The typical value of the total acetate carbon isotope ratio (delta 13C) was -16.1 +/- 0.2 per mil. The methyl and carboxyl groups were determined to be -26.4 +/- 0.3 and -6.0 +/- 0.3 per mil, respectively, for one sample. The isotopic composition of the acetate is thought to have resulted from isotopic discriminations that occurred during the cycling of that molecule. Measurements of this type, which have not been made previously in the natural environment, may provide information about the dominant microbial pathways in anoxic sediments as well as the processes that influence the carbon isotopic composition of biogenic methane from many sources.

  13. A quantitative analysis of microbially-induced calcite precipitation employing artificial and naturally-occurring sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lokier, Stephen; Krieg Dosier, Ginger

    2013-04-01

    sample to establish the abundance and natures of precipitated cements. Samples were also examined via SEM to monitor cement distribution and quantify the thickness of cements on grain surfaces and at grain-on-grain contacts. Analysis established that precipitation of calcite continues until 400 hours (50 treatments) after which time there is only an insignificant precipitation of new calcite cement. This is inferred to result from the occlusion of porosity (from 40% to 10%) and observed calcite precipitation at grain-on-grain contacts, both factors reduce the permeability of the samples and, thus, inhibit the flow of solution through the medium. The precipitated calcite cement was found to be dominantly grain-rimming with a consistent thickness averaging 11 microns. A range of naturally-occurring sediments were collected from surface locations throughout the United Arab Emirates. Samples were submitted to a range of petrographic and geochemical analysis in order to quantify grain-size distribution, grain composition and bulk total carbonate content (7.5-94 wt%). Sub-samples of these sediments were established by sieving and the cementation potential of different size fractions was established. Following treatment, these samples were submitted to the same analysis as those employed for the control sediment. A relationship between both sediment grain-size characteristics and sediment grain composition to cement precipitation was established and is discussed.

  14. Encapsulation of piceatannol, a naturally occurring hydroxylated analogue of resveratrol, by natural and modified cyclodextrins.

    PubMed

    Matencio, Adrián; García-Carmona, Francisco; López-Nicolás, José Manuel

    2016-05-18

    In this work, an in-depth study of the interaction between piceatannol (a type of stilbene with high biological activity) and different natural and modified cyclodextrins (CDs) is made, using steady state fluorescence. This bioactive molecule forms a 1 : 1 complex with all the natural (α-CD, β-CD and γ-CD) and modified (HP-β-CD, HE-β-CD and M-β-CD) CDs tested. Among natural CDs, the interaction of piceatannol with β-CD was the most efficient. However, the modified CDs showed higher encapsulation constants (KF) than β-CD, except M-β-CD; the highest KF being found for HP-β-CD (14 048 ± 702 M(-1)). The encapsulation of piceatannol in the internal cavity of CDs showed a strong dependence on pH and temperature. The interaction between HP-β-CD and piceatannol was less effective in the pH region where the stilbene begins to suffer the deprotonation of its hydroxyl group. Moreover, the values of KF decreased as the system temperature increased. To obtain information on the mechanism involved in the piceatannol affinity for CD, the thermodynamic parameters of the complexation (ΔH°, ΔS° and ΔG°) were studied, the results showed a negative entropy (-3.7 ± 0.2 J mol(-1) K(-1)), enthalpy (-24.6 ± 1.2 kJ mol(-1)) and Gibbs free energy change at 25 °C (-23.5 ± 1.2 J mol(-1)). Finally, molecular docking calculations provided further insights into how the different interactions influence the complexation constant. A high degree of correlation was observed between the computed scores and experimental values. PMID:27142512

  15. Elemental and Microscopic Analysis of Naturally Occurring C-O-Si Hetero-Fullerene-Like Structures.

    PubMed

    Hullavarad, Nilima V; Hullavarad, Shiva S; Fochesatto, Javier

    2015-03-01

    Carbon exhibits an ability to form a wide range of structures in nature. Under favorable conditions, carbon condenses to form hollow, spheroid fullerenes in an inert atmosphere. Using high resolution FESEM, we have concealed the existence of giant hetero-fullerene like structures in the natural form. Clear, distinct features of connected hexagons and pentagons were observed. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis depth-profile of natural fullerene structures indicates that Russian-doll-like configurations composed of C, 0, and Si rings exist in nature. The analysis is based on an outstanding molecular feature found in the size fraction of aerosols having diameters 150 nm to 1.0 µm. The fullerene like structures, which are ~ 150 nm in diameter, are observed in large numbers. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first direct detailed observation of natural fullerene-like structures. This article reports inadvertent observation of naturally occurring hetero-fullerene-like structures in the Arctic.

  16. A naturally occurring, noncanonical GTP aptamer made of simple tandem repeats.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Edward A; Liu, David R

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we used in vitro selection to identify a new class of naturally occurring GTP aptamer called the G motif. Here we report the discovery and characterization of a second class of naturally occurring GTP aptamer, the "CA motif." The primary sequence of this aptamer is unusual in that it consists entirely of tandem repeats of CA-rich motifs as short as three nucleotides. Several active variants of the CA motif aptamer lack the ability to form consecutive Watson-Crick base pairs in any register, while others consist of repeats containing only cytidine and adenosine residues, indicating that noncanonical interactions play important roles in its structure. The circular dichroism spectrum of the CA motif aptamer is distinct from that of A-form RNA and other major classes of nucleic acid structures. Bioinformatic searches indicate that the CA motif is absent from most archaeal and bacterial genomes, but occurs in at least 70 percent of approximately 400 eukaryotic genomes examined. These searches also uncovered several phylogenetically conserved examples of the CA motif in rodent (mouse and rat) genomes. Together, these results reveal the existence of a second class of naturally occurring GTP aptamer whose sequence requirements, like that of the G motif, are not consistent with those of a canonical secondary structure. They also indicate a new and unexpected potential biochemical activity of certain naturally occurring tandem repeats.

  17. Genotoxic activity in vivo of the naturally occurring glucoside, cycasin, in the Drosophila wing spot test.

    PubMed

    Kawai, K; Furukawa, H; Hirono, I

    1995-03-01

    Cycasin, methylazoxymethanol-beta-glucoside, is a naturally occurring carcinogenic compound. The genotoxicity of cycasin was assayed in the Drosophila wing spot test. Cycasin induced small single and large single spots on feeding at 10 mumol/g medium. The presence of these spots indicates that cycasin is genotoxic in Drosophila melanogaster. Microorganisms which showed beta-glucosidase activity for cleaving cycasin to toxic aglycon were isolated from gut flora of the Drosophila larvae. Consequently, the Drosophila wing spot test would be useful for mutagenicity screening of other naturally occurring glucosides.

  18. Apoptosis and autophagy induction as mechanism of cancer prevention by naturally occurring dietary agents

    PubMed Central

    Mukhtar, Eiman; Adhami, Vaqar Mustafa; Khan, Naghma; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Nontoxic naturally occurring compounds, especially those from dietary sources, are receiving increasing consideration for prevention and treatment of diseases including cancer. There is a growing need for innovative anticancer therapies and therefore search for natural compounds with novel biological activities or antineoplastic potential is currently an important area in drug discovery. Support for this interest also comes from increasing concern over the efficacy and safety of many conventional therapies, especially those that run over a long course of time. Laboratory studies in different in vitro and in vivo systems have shown that many natural compounds possess the capacity to regulate response to oxidative stress and DNA damage, suppress angiogenesis, inhibit cell proliferation and induce autophagy and apoptosis. This review discusses the induction of apoptosis and autophagy as a mechanism of cancer prevention by some of the most studied naturally occurring dietary compounds. PMID:23140293

  19. Crossing over does occur in males of Drosophila ananassae from natural populations.

    PubMed

    Goñi, Beatriz; Matsuda, Muneo; Yamamoto, Masa-Toshi; Vilela, Carlos R; Tobari, Yoshiko N

    2012-07-01

    Spontaneous crossing over in males of Drosophila ananassae has been well demonstrated using F(1) individuals from crosses between marker stocks and wild type strains. However, the question of its occurrence in males from natural populations remained open. Here we present the cytological evidence that crossing over does occur in males of D. ananassae from two Brazilian populations, sampled nearly 21 years apart, and in two recently sampled populations, one from Indonesia and one from Okinawa, Japan. Cytological analysis of meiosis in males collected from nature and in sons of females from the same population inseminated in nature revealed the presence of chiasmata, inversion chiasmata, and isosite chromosome breakages in the diplotene cells in all sampled populations. These data demonstrate that reciprocal and nonreciprocal exchanges and chromosome breakages, previously reported as related events of male crossing over, do occur at variable frequencies among males from natural populations.

  20. Natural Abundance 14C Content of Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP) from Three Marine Algae

    PubMed Central

    Namikoshi, Michio; Fujiwara, Takeshi; Nishikawa, Teruaki; Ukai, Kazuyo

    2006-01-01

    Analysis of the natural abundance 14C content of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) from two edible brown algae, Undaria pinnatifida and Laminaria japonica, and a green alga, Ulva sp., revealed that the DBP was naturally produced. The natural abundance 14C content of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) obtained from the same algae was about 50–80% of the standard sample and the 14C content of the petrochemical (industrial) products of DBP and DEHP were below the detection limit.

  1. A study of the dry heat resistance of naturally occurring organisms widely dispersed on a surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garst, D. M.; Lindell, K. F.

    1971-01-01

    Although Bacillus subtilis var. niger is the standard test organism for NASA planetary quarantine sterilization studies, it was found that some naturally occurring soil organisms are more heat resistant. The separation of these organisms from soil particles is described. Experiments are discussed which were designed to show that the heat resistance is a natural characteristic of the organisms, rather than a condition induced by the clumping effect of agglomerated particles and organisms.

  2. Characterization of Contaminant Transport Using Naturally-Occurring U-Series Disequilibria

    SciTech Connect

    TEH-LUNG KU

    2001-06-01

    Study the migration of nuclear waste contaminants in subsurface fractured systems using naturally occurring uranium and thorium-series radionuclides as tracers under in-situ physico-chemical and hydrogeologic conditions. Radioactive disequilibria among members of these decay-series nuclides can provide information on the rates of adsorption-desorption and transport of contaminants as well as on fluid transport and rock dissolution in a natural setting.

  3. Recent progress regarding the bioactivities, biosynthesis and synthesis of naturally occurring resorcinolic macrolides

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jing; Jiang, Cheng-shi; Zhang, Zai-long; Ma, Wen-quan; Guo, Yue-wei

    2014-01-01

    Macrolides, which comprise a family of lactones with different ring sizes, belong to the polyketide class of natural products. Resorcinolic macrolides, an important subgroup, possess interesting structures and exhibit a wide variety of bioactivities, such as anti-tumor, anti-bacteria, and anti-malaria activities, etc. This review summarizes progress in isolation, bioactivity studies, biosynthesis, and representative chemical syntheses of this group of macrolides in recent decades, encompassing 63 naturally occurring macrolides published in 120 articles. PMID:24464049

  4. The Role of Naturally Occurring Stable Isotopes in Mass Spectrometry, Part II: The Instrumentation

    PubMed Central

    Bluck, Les; Volmer, Dietrich A.

    2013-01-01

    In the second instalment of this tutorial, the authors explain the instrumentation for measuring naturally occurring stable isotopes, specifically the magnetic sector mass spectrometer. This type of instrument remains unrivalled in its performance for isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) and the reader is reminded of its operation and its technical advantages for isotope measurements. PMID:23772101

  5. Studying Compliment Responses; A Comparison of DCTs and Recordings of Naturally Occurring talk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golato, Andrea

    2003-01-01

    Examined the differences between compliment responses collected with two different data collection procedures: naturally occurring data analyzed through conversation analytic methodology, and elicited data collected via a discourse completion task (DCT). The DCT was designed to evoke the same discourse context and preceding context observed in the…

  6. The Role of Naturally Occurring Stable Isotopes in Mass Spectrometry, Part I: The Theory

    PubMed Central

    Bluck, Les; Volmer, Dietrich A.

    2013-01-01

    In this tutorial, the authors explain how naturally occurring stable isotopes are contributing to experimentally determined mass spectra and how this information can be exploited in quantitative experiments, structural elucidation studies and tracer methodologies. The first instalment of this two part series focuses on the theoretical aspects of stable isotopes and the calculation of their distribution patterns. PMID:23772100

  7. Naturally occurring vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) Whisker growth of germanium sulfide

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelman, R.B.; Larson, R.R.; Dwornik, E.J.

    1974-01-01

    The first naturally occurring terrestrial example of vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth has been observed in condensates from gases released by burning coal in culm banks. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy dispersive analysis indicate that the crystals consist of elongated rods (??? 100 ??m) of germanium sulfide capped by bulbs depleted in germanium. ?? 1974.

  8. BIODEGRADATION - MONITORED NATURAL ATTENUATION (MNA) FOR OXYGENATES: HOW IT EVOLVED, WHY IT OCCURS AND STABLE ISOTOPES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The organisms that degrade MtBE under anaerobic conditions are evolved to acquire energy for growth by using molecular hydrogen and carbonate ion to cleave methyl ether bonds. Methyl ether bonds are common in nature and the bond also occurs in MTBE. MTBE in contaminated ground...

  9. Survival of naturally occurring Campylobacter in refrigerated and frozen rinsate from a broiler carcass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to determine if naturally occurring Campylobacter in a broiler carcass rinsate could survive in cold or frozen storage. Ten commercial broiler carcasses were each rinsed with 500 ml of Butterfield’s buffer and all carcasses tested positive for the presence of 104-105...

  10. Tasks, Teacher Feedback, and Learner Modified Output in Naturally Occurring Classroom Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gurzynski-Weiss, Laura; Revesz, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Tasks and interactional feedback have received much attention in instructed second language acquisition research in recent years. However, little research exists that has investigated feedback and task factors together during naturally occurring teacher-student interaction in classroom settings. To bridge this gap, the current study explored the…

  11. Subject Reaction to Human-Caused and Naturally-Occurring Radioactive Threat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belford, Susan; Gibbs, Margaret

    While research has shown that people are adversely psychologically affected by knowledge that their communities have been toxically contaminated, it has been suggested that those who see a disaster as naturally occurring tend to be less adversely affected than those who see a disaster as caused by human acts. To examine this issue, questionnaires…

  12. Sensitivity, child regulatory processes, and naturally occurring declines in antisocial behavior across childhood.

    PubMed

    Buck, Katharine Ann

    2014-12-01

    Despite considerable research on why antisocial behavior develops and interventions that reduce it, aspects of everyday family processes that may promote naturally occurring declines in antisocial behavior or that may result from such declines in most children without intervention are poorly understood. The current study explored family processes that may enable children to replace antisocial tendencies and the effects that declines in antisocial behavior may have on parenting and child regulatory processes. Longitudinal data from 1,022 children (54 months-6th grade) from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development were examined. Findings demonstrated that naturally occurring declines in antisocial behavior both predicted and were predicted by maternal sensitivity, emotion regulation, and social skills. These declines predicted but were not predicted by declines in hostile attributions. The data revealed multiple indirect paths, which highlight the complex nature of these variables across development.

  13. Recent Advances in the Chemistry and Biology of Naturally Occurring Antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jason S.; Edmonds, David J.; Estrada, Anthony A.

    2009-01-01

    Lead-in Ever since the world-shaping discovery of penicillin, nature’s molecular diversity has been extensively screened for new medications and lead compounds in drug discovery. The search for anti-infective agents intended to combat infectious diseases has been of particular interest and has enjoyed a high degree of success. Indeed, the history of antibiotics is marked with impressive discoveries and drug development stories, the overwhelming majority of which have their origins in nature. Chemistry, and in particular chemical synthesis, has played a major role in bringing naturally occurring antibiotics and their derivatives to the clinic, and no doubt these disciplines will continue to be key enabling technologies for future developments in the field. In this review article, we highlight a number of recent discoveries and advances in the chemistry, biology, and medicine of naturally occurring antibiotics, with particular emphasis on the total synthesis, analog design, and biological evaluation of molecules with novel mechanisms of action. PMID:19130444

  14. Is it necessary to raise awareness about technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials?

    PubMed

    Michalik, Bogusław

    2009-10-01

    Since radiation risks are usually considered to be related to nuclear energy, the majority of research on radiation protection has focused on artificial radionuclides in radioactive wastes, spent nuclear fuel or global fallout caused by A-bomb tests and nuclear power plant failures. Far less attention has been paid to the radiation risk caused by exposure to ionizing radiation originating from natural radioactivity enhanced due to human activity, despite the fact that technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials are common in many branches of the non-nuclear industry. They differ significantly from "classical" nuclear materials and usually look like other industrial waste. The derived radiation risk is usually associated with risk caused by other pollutants and can not be controlled by applying rules designed for pure radioactive waste. Existing data have pointed out a strong need to take into account the non-nuclear industry where materials containing enhanced natural radioactivity occur as a special case of radiation risk and enclose them in the frame of the formal control. But up to now there are no reasonable and clear regulations in this matter. As a result, the non-nuclear industries of concern are not aware of problems connected with natural radioactivity or they would expect negative consequences in the case of implementing radiation protection measures. The modification of widely comprehended environmental legislation with requirements taken from radiation protection seems to be the first step to solve this problem and raise awareness about enhanced natural radioactivity for all stakeholders of concern.

  15. Determination of naturally occurring radionuclides in soil samples of Ayranci, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agar, Osman; Eke, Canel; Boztosun, Ismail; Emin Korkmaz, M.

    2015-04-01

    The specific activity, radiation hazard index and the annual effective dose of the naturally occurring radioactive elements (238U, 232Th and 40K) were determined in soil samples collected from 12 different locations in Ayranci region by using a NaI(Tl) gamma-ray spectrometer. The measured activity concentrations of the natural radionuclides in studied soil samples were compared with the corresponding results of different countries and the internationally reported values. From the analysis, it is found that these materials may be safely used as construction materials and do not pose significant radiation hazards.

  16. Abundance and phenology patterns of two pond-breeding salamanders determine species interactions in natural populations.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Thomas L; Hocking, Daniel J; Conner, Christopher A; Earl, Julia E; Harper, Elizabeth B; Osbourn, Michael S; Peterman, William E; Rittenhouse, Tracy A G; Semlitsch, Raymond D

    2015-03-01

    Phenology often determines the outcome of interspecific interactions, where early-arriving species often dominate interactions over those arriving later. The effects of phenology on species interactions are especially pronounced in aquatic systems, but the evidence is largely derived from experimental studies. We examined whether differences in breeding phenology between two pond-breeding salamanders (Ambystoma annulatum and A. maculatum) affected metamorph recruitment and demographic traits within natural populations, with the expectation that the fall-breeding A. annulatum would negatively affect the spring-breeding A. maculatum. We monitored populations of each species at five ponds over 4 years using drift fences. Metamorph abundance and survival of A. annulatum were affected by intra- and interspecific processes, whereas metamorph size and date of emigration were primarily influenced by intraspecific effects. Metamorph abundance, snout-vent length, date of emigration and survival for A. maculatum were all predicted by combinations of intra- and interspecific effects, but often showed negative relationships with A. annulatum metamorph traits and abundance. Size and date of metamorphosis were strongly correlated within each species, but in opposite patterns (negative for A. annulatum and positive for A. maculatum), suggesting that the two species use alternative strategies to enhance terrestrial survival and that these factors may influence their interactions. Our results match predictions from experimental studies that suggest recruitment is influenced by intra- and interspecific processes which are determined by phenological differences between species. Incorporating spatiotemporal variability when modeling population dynamics is necessary to understand the importance of phenology in species interactions, especially as shifts in phenology occur under climate change.

  17. Abundance and phenology patterns of two pond-breeding salamanders determine species interactions in natural populations.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Thomas L; Hocking, Daniel J; Conner, Christopher A; Earl, Julia E; Harper, Elizabeth B; Osbourn, Michael S; Peterman, William E; Rittenhouse, Tracy A G; Semlitsch, Raymond D

    2015-03-01

    Phenology often determines the outcome of interspecific interactions, where early-arriving species often dominate interactions over those arriving later. The effects of phenology on species interactions are especially pronounced in aquatic systems, but the evidence is largely derived from experimental studies. We examined whether differences in breeding phenology between two pond-breeding salamanders (Ambystoma annulatum and A. maculatum) affected metamorph recruitment and demographic traits within natural populations, with the expectation that the fall-breeding A. annulatum would negatively affect the spring-breeding A. maculatum. We monitored populations of each species at five ponds over 4 years using drift fences. Metamorph abundance and survival of A. annulatum were affected by intra- and interspecific processes, whereas metamorph size and date of emigration were primarily influenced by intraspecific effects. Metamorph abundance, snout-vent length, date of emigration and survival for A. maculatum were all predicted by combinations of intra- and interspecific effects, but often showed negative relationships with A. annulatum metamorph traits and abundance. Size and date of metamorphosis were strongly correlated within each species, but in opposite patterns (negative for A. annulatum and positive for A. maculatum), suggesting that the two species use alternative strategies to enhance terrestrial survival and that these factors may influence their interactions. Our results match predictions from experimental studies that suggest recruitment is influenced by intra- and interspecific processes which are determined by phenological differences between species. Incorporating spatiotemporal variability when modeling population dynamics is necessary to understand the importance of phenology in species interactions, especially as shifts in phenology occur under climate change. PMID:25413866

  18. Pyrethroid insecticides: A naturally occurring toxin. (Latest citations from Pollution Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the effects of pyrethrum and pyrethroid insecticides. Topics examine toxicity to fish, worms, flies, mosquitoes, and moths. Chemical residue on crops, the transportation of pyrethrum from soils to crops, and pyrethrum accumulation in ponds and lakes are among the topics discussed. Naturally occurring and synthetic pyrethroid insecticides are included. (Contains a minimum of 173 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Contribution of synthetic and naturally occurring organobromine compounds to bromine mass in marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Wan, Yi; Jones, Paul D; Wiseman, Steve; Chang, Hong; Chorney, Dave; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Zhang, Kun; Hu, Jian-Ying; Khim, Jong Seong; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Lam, Michael H W; Giesy, John P

    2010-08-15

    An extraction, separation, and purification method was developed for the identification and quantification of total bromine (TBr), extractable organobromine (EOBr), and five classes of identified EOBrs. Instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was utilized to quantify EOBr and TBr. The method was then applied to liver samples of tuna, albatross, and polar bear collected from remote marine locations. Polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), bromophenols (BRPs), hydroxylated (OH-) and methoxylated (MeO-) PBDEs were analyzed as identified EOBr. The majority of the bromine in these marine organisms was nonextractable or inorganic, with EOBr accounting for 10-28% of the TBr. Of the identified EOBr, in tuna and albatross, naturally occurring compounds, including MeO-PBDEs, OH-PBDEs, and BPRs, were prevalent. However, the identifiable EOBr in polar bears consisted primarily of synthetic compounds, including PBDEs and PBBs. Overall, 0.08-0.11% and 0.008-0.012% of EOBr and TBr, respectively, were identified. The proportion of EOBr that was identified in marine organisms was relatively small compared to the proportions for organofluorine and organochlorine compounds. This could be related to the great diversity of naturally occurring organobromine compounds in the environment. Naturally occurring brominated fatty acids were estimated to be the predominant compounds in the EOBr fraction. PMID:20704201

  20. Segregation of Naturally Occurring Mitochondrial DNA Variants in a Mini-Pig Model.

    PubMed

    Cagnone, Gael; Tsai, Te-Sha; Srirattana, Kanokwan; Rossello, Fernando; Powell, David R; Rohrer, Gary; Cree, Lynsey; Trounce, Ian A; St John, Justin C

    2016-03-01

    The maternally inherited mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) is present in multimeric form within cells and harbors sequence variants (heteroplasmy). While a single mtDNA variant at high load can cause disease, naturally occurring variants likely persist at low levels across generations of healthy populations. To determine how naturally occurring variants are segregated and transmitted, we generated a mini-pig model, which originates from the same maternal ancestor. Following next-generation sequencing, we identified a series of low-level mtDNA variants in blood samples from the female founder and her daughters. Four variants, ranging from 3% to 20%, were selected for validation by high-resolution melting analysis in 12 tissues from 31 animals across three generations. All four variants were maintained in the offspring, but variant load fluctuated significantly across the generations in several tissues, with sex-specific differences in heart and liver. Moreover, variant load was persistently reduced in high-respiratory organs (heart, brain, diaphragm, and muscle), which correlated significantly with higher mtDNA copy number. However, oocytes showed increased heterogeneity in variant load, which correlated with increased mtDNA copy number during in vitro maturation. Altogether, these outcomes show that naturally occurring mtDNA variants segregate and are maintained in a tissue-specific manner across generations. This segregation likely involves the maintenance of selective mtDNA variants during organogenesis, which can be differentially regulated in oocytes and preimplantation embryos during maturation. PMID:26819245

  1. Compilation of minimum and maximum isotope ratios of selected elements in naturally occurring terrestrial materials and reagents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coplen, T.B.; Hopple, J.A.; Böhlke, J.K.; Peiser, H.S.; Rieder, S.E.; Krouse, H.R.; Rosman, K.J.R.; Ding, T.; Vocke, R.D.; Revesz, K.M.; Lamberty, A.; Taylor, P.; De Bievre, P.

    2002-01-01

    laboratories comparable. The minimum and maximum concentrations of a selected isotope in naturally occurring terrestrial materials for selected chemical elements reviewed in this report are given below: Isotope Minimum mole fraction Maximum mole fraction -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 2H 0 .000 0255 0 .000 1838 7Li 0 .9227 0 .9278 11B 0 .7961 0 .8107 13C 0 .009 629 0 .011 466 15N 0 .003 462 0 .004 210 18O 0 .001 875 0 .002 218 26Mg 0 .1099 0 .1103 30Si 0 .030 816 0 .031 023 34S 0 .0398 0 .0473 37Cl 0 .240 77 0 .243 56 44Ca 0 .020 82 0 .020 92 53Cr 0 .095 01 0 .095 53 56Fe 0 .917 42 0 .917 60 65Cu 0 .3066 0 .3102 205Tl 0 .704 72 0 .705 06 The numerical values above have uncertainties that depend upon the uncertainties of the determinations of the absolute isotope-abundance variations of reference materials of the elements. Because reference materials used for absolute isotope-abundance measurements have not been included in relative isotope abundance investigations of zinc, selenium, molybdenum, palladium, and tellurium, ranges in isotopic composition are not listed for these elements, although such ranges may be measurable with state-of-the-art mass spectrometry. This report is available at the url: http://pubs.water.usgs.gov/wri014222.

  2. Correction of MS data for naturally occurring isotopes in isotope labelling experiments.

    PubMed

    Millard, Pierre; Letisse, Fabien; Sokol, Serguei; Portais, Jean-Charles

    2014-01-01

    Mass spectrometry (MS) in combination with isotope labelling experiments is widely used for investigations of metabolism and other biological processes. Quantitative applications-e.g., (13)C metabolic flux analysis-require correction of raw MS data (isotopic clusters) for the contribution of all naturally abundant isotopes. This chapter describes how to perform such correction using the software IsoCor. This flexible, user-friendly software can be used to exploit any isotopic tracer, from well-known ((13)C, (15)N, (18)O, etc.) to unusual ((57)Fe, (77)Se, etc.) isotopes. It also provides options-e.g., correction for the isotopic purity of the tracer-to improve the accuracy of quantitative isotopic studies, and allows automated correction of large datasets that can be collected with modern MS methods.

  3. Factors Affecting Comparative Resistance of Naturally Occurring and Subcultured Pseudomonas aeruginosa to Disinfectants

    PubMed Central

    Carson, L. A.; Favero, M. S.; Bond, W. W.; Petersen, N. J.

    1972-01-01

    A strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was isolated in pure culture from the reservoir of a hospital mist therapy unit by an extinction-dilution technique; its natural distilled water environment was used as a growth and maintenance medium. After a single subculture on Trypticase soy agar, the strain showed a marked decrease in resistance to inactivation by acetic acid, glutaraldehyde, chlorine dioxide, and a quaternary ammonium compound when compared with naturally occurring cells grown in mist therapy unit water. The following factors were observed to affect the relative resistances of naturally occurring and subcultured cells of the P. aeruginosa strain: (i) temperature at which the cultures were incubated prior to exposure to disinfectants, (ii) growth phase of the cultures at the time of exposure to disinfectants, (iii) nature of the suspending menstruum for disinfectants, and (iv) exposure to fluorescent light during incubation of inocula prior to testing. The applied significance of these findings may alter the present concepts of disinfectant testing as well as routine control procedures in the hospital environment. PMID:4624209

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Arsenolipids: Naturally Occurring Arsenic Compounds in Fish and Algae

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic-containing lipids (arsenolipids) are natural products present in fish and algae. Because these compounds occur in foods, there is considerable interest in their human toxicology. We report the synthesis and characterization of seven arsenic-containing lipids, including six natural products. The compounds comprise dimethylarsinyl groups attached to saturated long-chain hydrocarbons (three compounds), saturated long-chain fatty acids (two compounds), and monounsaturated long chain fatty acids (two compounds). The arsenic group was introduced through sodium dimethylarsenide or bis(dimethylarsenic) oxide. The latter route provided higher and more reproducible yields, and consequently, this pathway was followed to synthesize six of the seven compounds. Mass spectral properties are described to assist in the identification of these compounds in natural samples. The pure synthesized arsenolipids will be used for in vitro experiments with human cells to test their uptake, biotransformation, and possible toxic effects. PMID:24683287

  5. IMAGE Observations of Sounder Stimulated and Naturally Occurring Fast Z mode Cavity Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonwalkar, V. S.; Taylor, C.; Reddy, A.

    2015-12-01

    We report first observations of sounder stimulated and naturally occurring fast Z mode (ZM) cavity noise detected by the Radio Plasma Imager (RPI) on the IMAGE satellite. The fast Z mode cavity noise is a banded, structure-less radio emission trapped inside fast Z mode cavities, which are characterized by a minimum (fz,min) in fast Z mode cut-off frequency (fz) along a geomagnetic field line [Gurnett et al., JGR, 1983]. Fast Z mode waves reflect at fz ~ f, where f is the wave frequency. Waves in the frequency range fz,min < f < fz,max, where fz,max is the maximum fz above fz,min altitude, are trapped within the cavity as they bounce back and forth between reflection altitudes (fz ~ f) above and below the fz,min altitude. These trapped waves will be observed by a satellite passing through the cavity. The observed cavity noise lower cutoff is at the local Z mode cut-off frequency (fz,Sat) and the upper cut-off is presumably close to fz,max. The cavity noise is observed typically inside the plasmasphere. Comparison of cavity noise as observed on the plasmagram obtained during active sounding with that observed on the dynamic spectra obtained from the interspersed passive wave measurements indicate that the cavity noise is either stimulated by transmissions from the sounder (RPI) or is of natural origin. The sounder stimulated noise is often accompanied by fast Z mode echoes. The naturally occurring cavity noise is observed on both the plasmagram and the dynamic spectra. We believe the stimulated cavity noise is generated due to scattering from small-scale irregularities of waves transmitted by RPI. One potential candidate for the source of naturally occurring Z mode cavity noise is the ring current electrons that can generate fast ZM waves via higher order cyclotron resonance [Nishimura et al., Earth Planets Space, 2007].

  6. Alaska, Naturally Occurring Asbestos: Experiences, Policy and 2012 Limitation of Liability Legislation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargesheimer, J.; Perkins, R.

    2012-12-01

    Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) occurs in mineral deposits in Alaska. There are many regions in Alaska that have minerals in surface rocks that may contain asbestos and asbestos has been discovered in many locations in Alaska. Gravel is constantly in demand for heavy construction projects, but some remote localities in Alaska do not have gravel sources that are NOA-free. Determining if NOA can be safely used in heavy construction materials and what can or should be done with NOA materials that are already in place are complex questions. Answers will depend on the amount and type of asbestos mineral, how it is handled in processing, and how it is maintained - all subject to regulation and control of operations. The State of Alaska recently enacted legislation (HB 258) providing, among other things, "… immunity for the state and for landowners, extractors, suppliers, transporters, and contractors for certain actions or claims arising in connection with the use of gravel or aggregate material containing naturally occurring asbestos in certain areas." Implementation of the law and interim regulations and guidance should enable use of NOA for heavy construction materials in Alaska, but as with any new law, it will take some time to understand its full scope and effect.

  7. Biological activity of some naturally occurring resins, gums and pigments against in vitro LDL oxidation.

    PubMed

    Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K; Kaliora, Andriana C; Assimopoulou, Andreana N; Papapeorgiou, Vassilios P

    2003-05-01

    Naturally occurring gums and resins with beneficial pharmaceutical and nutraceutical properties were tested for their possible protective effect against copper-induced LDL oxidation in vitro. Chiosmastic gum (CMG) (Pistacia lentiscus var. Chia resin) was the most effective in protecting human LDL from oxidation. The minimum and maximum doses for the saturation phenomena of inhibition of LDL oxidation were 2.5 mg and 50 mg CMG (75.3% and 99.9%, respectively). The methanol/water extract of CMG was the most effective compared with other solvent combinations. CMG when fractionated in order to determine a structure-activity relationship showed that the total mastic essential oil, collofonium-like residue and acidic fractions of CMG exhibited a high protective activity ranging from 65.0% to 77.8%. The other natural gums and resins (CMG resin 'liquid collection', P. terebinthus var. Chia resin, dammar resin, acacia gum, tragacanth gum, storax gum) also tested as above, showed 27.0%-78.8% of the maximum LDL protection. The other naturally occurring substances, i.e. triterpenes (amyrin, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, lupeol, 18-a-glycyrrhetinic acid) and hydroxynaphthoquinones (naphthazarin, shikonin and alkannin) showed 53.5%-78.8% and 27.0%-64.1% LDL protective activity, respectively. The combination effects (68.7%-76.2% LDL protection) of ursolic-, oleanolic- and ursodeoxycholic- acids were almost equal to the effect (75.3%) of the CMG extract in comparable doses. PMID:12748987

  8. Naturally occurring arsenic in the groundwater at the Kansas City Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Korte, N.E.

    1990-12-01

    This report describes an investigation concerning the presence of arsenic in concentrations exceeding 0.4 mg/L in the groundwater under the Department of Energy's Kansas City Plant (KCP). The study consisted of four distinct phases: a thorough review of the technical literature, a historical survey of arsenic use at the facility, a laboratory study of existing techniques for determining arsenic speciation, and a field program including water, soil, and sediment sampling. The historical survey and literature review demonstrated that plant activities had not released significant quantities of arsenic to the environment but that similar occurrences of arsenic in alluvial groundwater are widespread in the midwestern United States. Laboratory studies showed that a chromatographic separation technique was necessary to accurately determine arsenic speciation for the KCP groundwater samples. Field studies revealed that naturally occurring reducing conditions prevalent in the subsurface are responsible for dissolving arsenic previously sorbed by iron oxides. Indeed, the data demonstrated that the bulk arsenic concentration of site subsoils and sediments is {approximately}7 mg/kg, whereas the arsenic content of iron oxide subsamples is as high as 84 mg/kg. Literature showed that similar concentrations of arsenic in sediments occur naturally and are capable of producing the levels of arsenic found in groundwater monitoring wells at the KCP. The study concludes, therefore, that the arsenic present in the KCP groundwater is the result of natural phenomena. 44 refs., 8 figs., 14 tabs.

  9. The nature and position of processing determines why forgetting occurs in working memory tasks.

    PubMed

    Jarrold, Christopher; Tam, Helen; Baddeley, Alan D; Harvey, Caroline E

    2010-12-01

    The effect of potentially distracting processing within working memory was examined by varying the nature and position of processing across conditions of a Brown-Peterson-like task. Separate groups of participants carried out verbal or visuospatial processing operations on identical stimuli, while retaining lists of to-be-remembered words. The number of words presented either before or after the processing interval was varied systematically. Results showed that although verbal processing was no more demanding than visuospatial processing, it led to greater forgetting. However, forgetting was confined to items presented prior to processing, and the difference in degree of forgetting shown by the two groups was maximal when four items occurred before processing. Temporal isolation effects were more marked in the verbal processing group. These findings indicate that individuals can keep active a limited number of items in primary memory during processing, unless processing blocks rehearsal, in which case retrieval occurs from secondary memory.

  10. Naturally-occurring expressive suppression in daily life depletes executive functioning.

    PubMed

    Franchow, Emilie I; Suchy, Yana

    2015-02-01

    The depleting impact of experimentally manipulated expressive suppression (ES) on cognition (especially executive functioning and related processes) has been well established (Baumeister, 2002a). However, the impact of ES that occurs naturally in the course of daily life has not been examined. Sixty two adults (M = 22.89 years old) completed questions about recent ES burden (over the past 2 weeks and on the test day) and completed cognitive measures assessing executive functioning, working memory, and speed of information processing. Individuals with higher-than-usual burden of ES on the test day exhibited poorer executive performance and those with high ES over the past 2 weeks exhibited poorer processing speed above and beyond depression, suggesting that ES burden as it occurs in the course of daily life is associated with compromised cognitive performance. PMID:25111882

  11. Articular Osteochondrosis: A Comparison of Naturally-Occurring Human and Animal Disease

    PubMed Central

    McCoy, Annette M; Toth, Ferenc; Dolvik, Nils I; Ekman, Stina; Ellermann, Jutta; Olstad, Kristin; Ytrehus, Bjornar; Carlson, Cathy S

    2013-01-01

    Background Osteochondrosis (OC) is a common developmental orthopedic disease affecting both humans and animals. Despite increasing recognition of this disease among children and adolescents, its pathogenesis is incompletely understood because clinical signs are often not apparent until lesions have progressed to end-stage, and examination of cadaveric early lesions is not feasible. In contrast, both naturally-occurring and surgically-induced animal models of disease have been extensively studied, most notably in horses and swine, species in which OC is recognized to have profound health and economic implications. The potential for a translational model of human OC has not been recognized in the existing human literature. Objective The purpose of this review is to highlight the similarities in signalment, predilection sites and clinical presentation of naturally-occurring OC in humans and animals and to propose a common pathogenesis for this condition across species. Study Design Review Methods The published human and veterinary literature for the various manifestations of OC was reviewed. Peer-reviewed original scientific articles and species-specific review articles accessible in PubMed (US National Library of Medicine) were eligible for inclusion. Results A broad range of similarities exists between OC affecting humans and animals, including predilection sites, clinical presentation, radiographic/MRI changes, and histological appearance of the end stage lesion, suggesting a shared pathogenesis across species. Conclusion This proposed shared pathogenesis for OC between species implies that naturally-occurring and surgically-induced models of OC in animals may be useful in determining risk factors and for testing new diagnostic and therapeutic interventions that can be used in humans. PMID:23954774

  12. The new IAEA reference material: IAEA-434 technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive materials (TENORM) in phosphogypsum.

    PubMed

    Shakhashiro, A; Sansone, U; Wershofen, H; Bollhöfer, A; Kim, C K; Kim, C S; Kis-Benedek, G; Korun, M; Moune, M; Lee, S H; Tarjan, S; Al-Masri, M S

    2011-01-01

    A reliable determination of Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in phosphogypsum is necessary to comply with radiation protection and environmental regulations. In this respect, a new phosphogypsum reference material was produced and certified to assist in the validation of analytical methods and the quality assurance of produced analytical results. This paper presents the sample preparation methodology, material homogeneity assessment, characterization campaign results and assignment of property values, and associated uncertainties. The reference values and associated uncertainties for Pb-210, Ra-226, Th-230, U-234 and U-238 were established based on consensus values calculated from analytical results reported by three National Metrology Institutes and five expert laboratories.

  13. Ectomycorrhizal symbiosis in vitro between Tricholoma matsutake and Pinus densiflora seedlings that resembles naturally occurring 'shiro'.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Akiyoshi; Maeda, Ken; Kobayashi, Hisayasu; Murata, Hitoshi

    2006-03-01

    We established an in vitro ectomycorrhizal symbiosis between Tricholoma matsutake and Pinus densiflora. Mycorrhiza formed in a substrate of Modified Norkrans' C medium and granite-based soil had features similar to those observed previously only in naturally occurring mycorrhizal system called 'shiro,' and promoted the growth of plants with smaller root/shoot ratios. The in vitro formation of 'shiro' is essential for the development of T. matsutake system to produce mushrooms and is useful for the propagation and plantation of the mycorrhizal seedlings.

  14. Naturally occurring bioactive Cyclobutane-containing (CBC) alkaloids in fungi, fungal endophytes, and plants.

    PubMed

    Dembitsky, Valery M

    2014-10-15

    This article focuses on the occurrence and biological activities of cyclobutane-containing (CBC) alkaloids obtained from fungi, fungal endophytes, and plants. Naturally occurring CBC alkaloids are of particular interest because many of these compounds display important biological activities and possess antitumour, antibacterial, antimicrobial, antifungal, and immunosuppressive properties. Therefore, these compounds are of great interest in the fields of medicine, pharmacology, medicinal chemistry, and the pharmaceutical industry. Fermentation and production of CBC alkaloids by fungi and/or fungal endophytes is also discussed. This review presents the structures and describes the activities of 98 CBC alkaloids.

  15. Naturally occurring phenanthrene degrading bacteria associated with seeds of various plant species.

    PubMed

    Fernet, Jennifer L; Lawrence, John R; Germida, James J

    2016-01-01

    Seeds of 11 of 19 plant species tested yielded naturally occurring phenanthrene degrading bacteria when placed on phenanthrene impression plates. Seed associated phenanthrene degrading bacteria were mostly detected on caragana, Canada thistle, creeping red fescue, western wheatgrass, and tall wheat grass. Based on 16S rRNA analysis the most common bacteria isolated from these seeds were strains belonging to the genera Enterobacteria, Erwinia, Burkholderia, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, and Sphingomonas. These plants may provide an excellent source of pre-adapted bacterial-plant associations highly suitable for use in remediation of contaminated soil environments.

  16. Occupational exposure due to naturally occurring radionuclide material in granite quarry industry.

    PubMed

    Ademola, J A

    2012-02-01

    The potential occupational exposure in granite quarry industry due to the presence of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) has been investigated. The activity concentrations of (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th were determined using gamma-ray spectroscopy method. The annual effective dose of workers through different exposure pathways was determined by model calculations. The total annual effective dose varied from 21.48 to 33.69 μSv y(-1). Inhalation dose contributes the highest to the total effective dose. The results obtained were much lower than the intervention exemption levels (1.0 mSv y(-1)) given in the International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 82.

  17. Bibliography of reports, papers, and presentations on naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in petroleum industry wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.P.; Wilkey, M.L.; Hames, R.D.

    1997-07-01

    This bibliography was created to support projects conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) addressing issues related to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) in petroleum industry wastes. The bibliography provides citations for many of the available published reports, papers, articles, and presentations on petroleum industry NORM. In the past few years, the rapid expansion of NORM treatment and disposal technologies, the efforts to characterize NORM wastes and their associated potential risks, and the promulgation of state-level NORM regulatory programs have been well-documented in project reports and in papers presented at technical conferences and symposia. There are 221 citations.

  18. Naturally occurring phenanthrene degrading bacteria associated with seeds of various plant species.

    PubMed

    Fernet, Jennifer L; Lawrence, John R; Germida, James J

    2016-01-01

    Seeds of 11 of 19 plant species tested yielded naturally occurring phenanthrene degrading bacteria when placed on phenanthrene impression plates. Seed associated phenanthrene degrading bacteria were mostly detected on caragana, Canada thistle, creeping red fescue, western wheatgrass, and tall wheat grass. Based on 16S rRNA analysis the most common bacteria isolated from these seeds were strains belonging to the genera Enterobacteria, Erwinia, Burkholderia, Pantoea, Pseudomonas, and Sphingomonas. These plants may provide an excellent source of pre-adapted bacterial-plant associations highly suitable for use in remediation of contaminated soil environments. PMID:26515514

  19. Synthesis and anti-cancer activity of naturally occurring 2,5-diketopiperazines.

    PubMed

    Mollica, Adriano; Costante, Roberto; Fiorito, Serena; Genovese, Salvatore; Stefanucci, Azzurra; Mathieu, Veronique; Kiss, Robert; Epifano, Francesco

    2014-10-01

    Three naturally occurring oxyprenylated diketopiperazines were synthesized and preliminarily tested as growth inhibitory agents in vitro against various cancer cell lines. The compounds were tested on six human cancer cell lines with different sensitivity to proapoptotic stimuli using the MTT colorimetric assay. The data revealed that of the chemicals under study only deoxymicelianamide (11) displayed the highest activity, recording mean IC50 growth inhibitory values ranging from 2 to 23 μM. A comparative study with the non-geranylated saturated derivative of (11) revealed the importance of the presence of the geranyloxy side chain and the exocyclic 2,5-DPK double bond moiety for the observed activity.

  20. Molecular- and nm-scale Investigation of the Structure and Compositional Heterogeneity of Naturally Occurring Ferrihydrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cismasu, C.; Michel, F. M.; Stebbins, J. F.; Tcaciuc, A. P.; Brown, G. E.

    2008-12-01

    Ferrihydrite is a hydrated Fe(III) nano-oxide that forms in vast quantities in contaminated acid mine drainage environments. As a result of its high surface area, ferrihydrite is an important environmental sorbent, and plays an essential role in the geochemical cycling of pollutant metal(loid)s in these settings. Despite its environmental relevance, this nanomineral remains one of the least understood environmental solids in terms of its structure (bulk and surface), compositional variations, and the factors affecting its reactivity. Under natural aqueous conditions, ferrihydrite often precipitates in the presence of several inorganic compounds such as aluminum, silica, arsenic, etc., or in the presence of organic matter. These impurities can affect the molecular-level structure of naturally occurring ferrihydrite, thus modifying fundamental properties that are directly correlated with solid-phase stability and surface reactivity. Currently there exists a significant gap in our understanding of the structure of synthetic vs. natural ferrihydrites, due to the inherent difficulties associated to the investigation of these poorly crystalline nanophases. In this study, we combined synchrotron- and laboratory-based techniques to characterize naturally occurring ferrihydrite from an acid mine drainage system situated at the New Idria mercury mine in California. We used high-energy X-ray total scattering and pair distribution function analysis to elucidate quantitative structural details of these samples. We have additionally used scanning transmission X-ray microscopy high resolution imaging (30 nm) to evaluate the spatial relationship of major elements Si, Al, and C within ferrihydrite. Al, Si and C K-edge near- edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and 27Al nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy were used to obtain short-range structural information. By combining these techniques we attain the highest level of resolution permitted by current analytical

  1. Computational Assessment of Naturally Occurring Neutron and Photon Background Radiation Produced by Extraterrestrial Sources

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Thomas Martin; de Wet, Wouter C.; Patton, Bruce W.

    2015-10-28

    In this study, a computational assessment of the variation in terrestrial neutron and photon background from extraterrestrial sources is presented. The motivation of this assessment is to evaluate the practicality of developing a tool or database to estimate background in real time (or near–real time) during an experimental measurement or to even predict the background for future measurements. The extraterrestrial source focused on during this assessment is naturally occurring galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). The MCNP6 transport code was used to perform the computational assessment. However, the GCR source available in MCNP6 was not used. Rather, models developed and maintained by NASA were used to generate the GCR sources. The largest variation in both neutron and photon background spectra was found to be caused by changes in elevation on Earth's surface, which can be as large as an order of magnitude. All other perturbations produced background variations on the order of a factor of 3 or less. The most interesting finding was that ~80% and 50% of terrestrial background neutrons and photons, respectively, are generated by interactions in Earth's surface and other naturally occurring and man-made objects near a detector of particles from extraterrestrial sources and their progeny created in Earth's atmosphere. In conclusion, this assessment shows that it will be difficult to estimate the terrestrial background from extraterrestrial sources without a good understanding of a detector's surroundings. Therefore, estimating or predicting background during a measurement environment like a mobile random search will be difficult.

  2. AAV-Mediated Cone Rescue in a Naturally Occurring Mouse Model of CNGA3-Achromatopsia

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xufeng; Lei, Bo; Everhart, Drew; Umino, Yumiko; Li, Jie; Zhang, Keqing; Mao, Song; Boye, Sanford L.; Liu, Li; Chiodo, Vince A.; Liu, Xuan; Shi, Wei; Tao, Ye; Chang, Bo; Hauswirth, William W.

    2012-01-01

    Achromatopsia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder which shows color blindness, severely impaired visual acuity, and extreme sensitivity to bright light. Mutations in the alpha subunits of the cone cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGA3) are responsible for about 1/4 of achromatopsia in the U.S. and Europe. Here, we test whether gene replacement therapy using an AAV5 vector could restore cone-mediated function and arrest cone degeneration in the cpfl5 mouse, a naturally occurring mouse model of achromatopsia with a CNGA3 mutation. We show that gene therapy leads to significant rescue of cone-mediated ERGs, normal visual acuities and contrast sensitivities. Normal expression and outer segment localization of both M- and S-opsins were maintained in treated retinas. The therapeutic effect of treatment lasted for at least 5 months post-injection. This study is the first demonstration of substantial, relatively long-term restoration of cone-mediated light responsiveness and visual behavior in a naturally occurring mouse model of CNGA3 achromatopsia. The results provide the foundation for development of an AAV5-based gene therapy trial for human CNGA3 achromatopsia. PMID:22509403

  3. Thermal resistance of naturally occurring airborne bacterial spores. [Viking spacecraft dry heat decontamination simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puleo, J. R.; Bergstrom, S. L.; Peeler, J. T.; Oxborrow, G. S.

    1978-01-01

    Simulation of a heat process used in the terminal dry-heat decontamination of the Viking spacecraft is reported. Naturally occurring airborne bacterial spores were collected on Teflon ribbons in selected spacecraft assembly areas and subsequently subjected to dry heat. Thermal inactivation experiments were conducted at 105, 111.7, 120, 125, 130, and 135 C with a moisture level of 1.2 mg of water per liter. Heat survivors were recovered at temperatures of 135 C when a 30-h heating cycle was employed. Survivors were recovered from all cycles studied and randomly selected for identification. The naturally occurring spore population was reduced an average of 2.2 to 4.4 log cycles from 105 to 135 C. Heating cycles of 5 and 15 h at temperature were compared with the standard 30-h cycle at 111.7, 120, and 125 C. No significant differences in inactivation (alpha = 0.05) were observed between 111.7 and 120 C. The 30-h cycle differs from the 5- and 15-h cycles at 125 C. Thus, the heating cycle can be reduced if a small fraction (about 0.001 to 0.0001) of very resistant spores can be tolerated.

  4. The role of mesoscale kinetic energy in natural occurring phytoplankton blooms and export in Drake Passage.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, A. R.; Veron, F.; Oliver, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Southern Ocean is an iron limited, high nitrate, low chlorophyll region that draws considerable attention as a potential site for carbon drawdown through iron fertilization. However, there are no prolonged in-situ observations of the mechanisms driving naturally occurring blooms in this region. Here we present results from an APEX biofloat that continuously profiled the Drake Passage from ~ 2,000 m to the surface every two days. The biofloat measured the development and export of a naturally occurring phytoplankton bloom in the Drake Passage. Our analysis indicates that low levels of mesoscale kinetic energy coincided with the observed phytoplankton bloom. We postulate that low KE level are a precondition for bloom onset in the Drake Passage, which is confirmed by satellite observations. High levels of mesoscale kinetic energy immediately followed the phytoplankton bloom and appear to have facilitated organic carbon export to the deep ocean by changing the neutral density depths of aggregated cells. Furthermore, satellite observations in Drake Passage suggest that high levels of mesoscale kinetic energy limit bloom formation. We suggest that low mesoscale kinetic energy is a precondition for bloom formation in the Drake Passage before other potentially limiting factors become significant (e.g. grazing relation, macronutrients, micronutrients). If mesoscale kinetic energy were to impose a limitation on phytoplankton concentrations across the entire Southern Ocean, there may be regions unsuitable for geoengineered draw down of atmospheric carbon dioxide through large scale iron additions.

  5. AAV-mediated cone rescue in a naturally occurring mouse model of CNGA3-achromatopsia.

    PubMed

    Pang, Ji-jing; Deng, Wen-Tao; Dai, Xufeng; Lei, Bo; Everhart, Drew; Umino, Yumiko; Li, Jie; Zhang, Keqing; Mao, Song; Boye, Sanford L; Liu, Li; Chiodo, Vince A; Liu, Xuan; Shi, Wei; Tao, Ye; Chang, Bo; Hauswirth, William W

    2012-01-01

    Achromatopsia is a rare autosomal recessive disorder which shows color blindness, severely impaired visual acuity, and extreme sensitivity to bright light. Mutations in the alpha subunits of the cone cyclic nucleotide-gated channels (CNGA3) are responsible for about 1/4 of achromatopsia in the U.S. and Europe. Here, we test whether gene replacement therapy using an AAV5 vector could restore cone-mediated function and arrest cone degeneration in the cpfl5 mouse, a naturally occurring mouse model of achromatopsia with a CNGA3 mutation. We show that gene therapy leads to significant rescue of cone-mediated ERGs, normal visual acuities and contrast sensitivities. Normal expression and outer segment localization of both M- and S-opsins were maintained in treated retinas. The therapeutic effect of treatment lasted for at least 5 months post-injection. This study is the first demonstration of substantial, relatively long-term restoration of cone-mediated light responsiveness and visual behavior in a naturally occurring mouse model of CNGA3 achromatopsia. The results provide the foundation for development of an AAV5-based gene therapy trial for human CNGA3 achromatopsia. PMID:22509403

  6. Identification of manganese as a toxicant in a groundwater treatment system: Addressing naturally occurring toxicants

    SciTech Connect

    Goodfellow, W. Jr.; Sohn, V.; Richey, M.; Yost, J.

    1995-12-31

    Effluent from a groundwater remediation system at a bulk oil storage and distribution terminal has been chronically toxic to Ceriodaphnia dubia. The remediation system was designed in response to a hydrocarbon plume in the area of the terminal. The remediation system consists of a series of groundwater recovery wells and groundwater intercept trench systems with groundwater treatment and phased-separated hydrocarbon recovery systems. The groundwater treatment and petroleum recovery systems consist of oil/water separators, product recovery tanks, air strippers, filters, and carbon adsorption units. The characteristics of this effluent are low total suspended solids, total dissolved solids, and hardness concentrations as well as meeting stringent NPDES permit requirements for lead, copper, zinc, mercury, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and BTEX. Additional priority pollutant evaluations revealed no compounds of concern. Performance of a Toxicity identification Evaluation (TIE) indicated that manganese was the principle toxicant in the effluent. Manganese is a naturally occurring constituent in this groundwater source and is not added to the treatment system. This paper will present the results of the TIE with a discussion of treatability/control options for manganese control at this facility. Recommendations for addressing naturally occurring toxicants that are not a result of the facility`s operations will also be presented.

  7. Drosophila TRPA1 channel is required to avoid the naturally occurring insect repellent citronellal

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Young; Kim, Sang Hoon; Ronderos, David S.; Lee, Youngseok; Akitake, Bradley; Woodward, Owen M.; Guggino, William B.; Smith, Dean P.; Montell, Craig

    2010-01-01

    Summary Plants produce naturally occurring insect repellents, such as citronellal, which is the main component of citronellal oil and is among the most widely-used-naturally-occurring insect repellents. However, the molecular pathways through which insects sense botanical repellents are unknown. Here, we showed that Drosophila used two pathways for direct avoidance of citronellal. The olfactory co-receptor, Or83b, which is required for the response to the synthetic repellent DEET, contributed to citronellal repulsion, and was essential for citronellal-evoked action potentials. Mutations affecting the Ca2+-permeable cation channel, TRPA1 resulted in a comparable defect in avoiding citronellal vapor. The TRPA1-dependent aversion to citronellal relied on a G protein/phospholipase C (PLC) signaling cascade, rather than direct detection of citronellal by TRPA1. Loss of TRPA1, Gq or PLC caused an increase in the frequency of citronellal-evoked action potentials in olfactory receptor neurons. Absence of the Ca2+-activated K+ channel, Slowpoke, resulted in a similar impairment in citronellal avoidance, and an increase in the frequency of action potentials. These results suggest that TRPA1 is required for activation of a BK channel to modulate citronellal-evoked action potentials, and for aversion to citronellal. In contrast to Drosophila TRPA1, Anopheles gambiae TRPA1 was directly and potently activated by citronellal, thereby raising the possibility that mosquito TRPA1 may be a target for developing improved repellents to reduce insect-borne diseases such as malaria. PMID:20797863

  8. Plantation vs. natural forest: Matrix quality determines pollinator abundance in crop fields

    PubMed Central

    Taki, Hisatomo; Yamaura, Yuichi; Okabe, Kimiko; Maeto, Kaoru

    2011-01-01

    In terrestrial ecosystems, ecological processes and patterns within focal patches frequently depend on their matrix. Crop fields (focal patches) are often surrounded by a mosaic of other land-use types (matrix), which may act as habitats for organisms and differ in terms of the immigration activities of organisms to the fields. We examined whether matrix quality affects wild pollinator abundance in crop fields, given that the species (Apis cerana) generally nest in the cavities of natural trees. We examined fields of a pollination-dependent crop surrounded by plantations and natural forests, which comprised the matrix. Our analysis revealed a clear positive effect of the natural forest on the pollinator abundance, but the plantation forest had little effects. These indicate that agricultural patches are influenced by their matrix quality and the resulting crop pollinator abundance, suggesting the importance of matrix management initiatives such as forest restoration surrounding agricultural fields to improve crop production. PMID:22355649

  9. Plantation vs. natural forest: matrix quality determines pollinator abundance in crop fields.

    PubMed

    Taki, Hisatomo; Yamaura, Yuichi; Okabe, Kimiko; Maeto, Kaoru

    2011-01-01

    In terrestrial ecosystems, ecological processes and patterns within focal patches frequently depend on their matrix. Crop fields (focal patches) are often surrounded by a mosaic of other land-use types (matrix), which may act as habitats for organisms and differ in terms of the immigration activities of organisms to the fields. We examined whether matrix quality affects wild pollinator abundance in crop fields, given that the species (Apis cerana) generally nest in the cavities of natural trees. We examined fields of a pollination-dependent crop surrounded by plantations and natural forests, which comprised the matrix. Our analysis revealed a clear positive effect of the natural forest on the pollinator abundance, but the plantation forest had little effects. These indicate that agricultural patches are influenced by their matrix quality and the resulting crop pollinator abundance, suggesting the importance of matrix management initiatives such as forest restoration surrounding agricultural fields to improve crop production.

  10. Monitoring Natural Occurring Asbestos in ophiolite sequences and derived soils: implication with human activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punturo, Rosalda; Bloise, Andrea; Cirrincione, Rosolino

    2016-04-01

    The present contribution focuses on soils that developed on serpentinite-metabasite bedrocks, which could potentially be rich in asbestos minerals and, as a consequence, have a negative impact on agricultural activity and on environmental quality. In order to investigate the natural occurrences of asbestos (NOA) on the surface of the soil formed from serpentinites and metabasite, we selected a study area located in Sila Piccola (Calabrian Peloritani Orogen, southern Italy), where previous studies highlighted the presence of asbestiform minerals within the large ophiolitic sequences that crop out (Punturo et al., 2015; Bloise et al., 2015). Agricultural soil samples have been collected mainly close to urban centres and characterized by using different analytical techniques such as X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), transmission electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive spectrometry (TEM-EDS), thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) Results pointed out as all the collected soil samples contain serpentine minerals (e.g., chrysotile), asbestos amphiboles, clays, chlorite, muscovite, plagioclase and iron oxides in various amounts. Electron microscope images of the soils show that their contain a variety of aggregating agents such as organic matter and clay in which individual fibres of chrysotile and tremolite-actinolite are trapped. The investigation showed that both serpentinite and metabasite rocks act as a perennial source of contamination for the agriculture lands because of the high amount of tremolite-actinolite found in the studied soil samples developed on such lithotypes. Even if asbestiform minerals usually occur in aggregates which cannot be suspended in the air, agricultural activities such as plowing can destroy these soil aggregates with the creation of dust containing inhalable asbestos fibres that evolve into airborne increasing the exposure of population to them. Since the dispersion of fibres could be associated with

  11. A naturally occurring deletion mutant of figwort mosaic virus (caulimovirus) is generated by RNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Scholthof, H B; Wu, F C; Richins, R D; Shepherd, R J

    1991-09-01

    A naturally occurring deletion mutant is observed in plants infected with figwort mosaic virus (FMV), a caulimovirus. The encapsidated mutant genome is formed spontaneously in association with two different strains of FMV in four host plant species. The mutant also appears when cloned wild-type viral DNA is used as the inoculum. The deletion mutant alone is not infectious and it appears unable to replicate after its formation, even in the presence of wild-type virus. The gene for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase was inserted at different positions in the deletion mutant genome, and subsequent transient assays showed that gene expression of the mutant occurs despite the deletion. Sequence analyses of the mutant genome revealed a deletion of 1237-bp segment encompassing a major portion of the coat protein gene and the 5' end of the downstream reverse transcriptase gene. This deletion is associated with consensus signals for RNA splicing including the conserved 5' and 3' splice sites plus surrounding sequences, putative branch point(s) for lariat formation, and an extremely high adenosine content (41%) of the removed fragment. This suggests that splicing of the FMV full-length transcript has occurred prior to reverse transcription and this accounts for the presence and accumulation of encapsidated DNAs with the same deletion.

  12. Naturally occurring radionuclides in drinking water: An exercise in risk benefit analysis.

    PubMed

    Milvy, P; Cothern, C R

    1989-06-01

    The scientific background information describing the occurrence, measurement, health effects, treatment technology, risk assessment and economic consequences of the presence of naturally occurring radionuclides in drinking water are described for 60,000 public drinking water supplies. The relevant data for the occurrence of radium, uranium and radon in drinking water supplies are discussed and analysed. Radon is of importance because it is released in the process of taking showers and baths and in washing dishes and clothes. Its progeny is then inhaled, leading to the risk of lung cancer. Radium and uranium can both cause bone cancer. The range of average occurrence of natural radioactivity in drinking water is as follows:(226)Ra, 0.3 to 0.8 pCi L(-1);(228)Ra, 0.4 to 1.0 pCi L(-1); uranium, 0.3 to 2.0 pCi L(-1) and(222)Rn, 500 to 600 pCi L(-1). The estimated lifetime risks due to the mean groundwater concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides are:(226)Ra and(228Ra), 1.0 10(-5); uranium, 2.0 × 10(-6) and radon, 4.0 × 10(-4). The cost to reduce total radium levels to 5.0 pCi L(-1) is about $9 million. An equivalent expenditure would be required to reduce radon levels to about 4,000 pCi L(-1), or uranium levels to about 100 pCi L(-1). The problem of maximizing the total mortality and the reduction per unit dollar outlay per unit dollar cost for the uranium/radon case is examined.

  13. Unravelling a 'miner's myth' that environmental contamination in mining towns is naturally occurring.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Louise Jane; Taylor, Mark Patrick

    2016-08-01

    Australia has a long history of metal mining and smelting. Extraction and processing have resulted in elevated levels of toxic metals surrounding mining operations, which have adverse health effects, particularly to children. Resource companies, government agencies and employees often construct 'myths' to down play potential exposure risks and responsibility arising from operating emissions. Typical statements include: contaminants are naturally occurring, the wind blows emissions away from residential areas, contaminants are not bioavailable, or the problem is a legacy issue and not related to current operations. Evidence from mining and smelting towns shows that such 'myths' are exactly that. In mining towns, the default and primary defence against contamination is that elevated metals in adjacent urban environments are from the erosion and weathering of the ore bodies over millennia-hence 'naturally occurring'. Not only is this a difficult argument to unravel from an evidence-based perspective, but also it causes confusion and delays remediation work, hindering efforts to reduce harmful exposures to children. An example of this situation is from Broken Hill, New South Wales, home to one of the world's largest lead-zinc-silver ore body, which has been mined continuously for over 130 years. Environmental metal concentration and lead isotopic data from soil samples collected from across Broken Hill are used to establish the nature and timing of lead contamination. We use multiple lines of evidence to unravel a 'miner's myth' by evaluating current soil metal concentrations and lead isotopic compositions, geological data, historical environmental assessments and old photographic evidence to assess the impacts from early smelting along with mining to the surface soils in the city. PMID:26919836

  14. Unravelling a 'miner's myth' that environmental contamination in mining towns is naturally occurring.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Louise Jane; Taylor, Mark Patrick

    2016-08-01

    Australia has a long history of metal mining and smelting. Extraction and processing have resulted in elevated levels of toxic metals surrounding mining operations, which have adverse health effects, particularly to children. Resource companies, government agencies and employees often construct 'myths' to down play potential exposure risks and responsibility arising from operating emissions. Typical statements include: contaminants are naturally occurring, the wind blows emissions away from residential areas, contaminants are not bioavailable, or the problem is a legacy issue and not related to current operations. Evidence from mining and smelting towns shows that such 'myths' are exactly that. In mining towns, the default and primary defence against contamination is that elevated metals in adjacent urban environments are from the erosion and weathering of the ore bodies over millennia-hence 'naturally occurring'. Not only is this a difficult argument to unravel from an evidence-based perspective, but also it causes confusion and delays remediation work, hindering efforts to reduce harmful exposures to children. An example of this situation is from Broken Hill, New South Wales, home to one of the world's largest lead-zinc-silver ore body, which has been mined continuously for over 130 years. Environmental metal concentration and lead isotopic data from soil samples collected from across Broken Hill are used to establish the nature and timing of lead contamination. We use multiple lines of evidence to unravel a 'miner's myth' by evaluating current soil metal concentrations and lead isotopic compositions, geological data, historical environmental assessments and old photographic evidence to assess the impacts from early smelting along with mining to the surface soils in the city.

  15. Increased seawater temperature increases the abundance and alters the structure of natural Vibrio populations associated with the coral Pocillopora damicornis

    PubMed Central

    Tout, Jessica; Siboni, Nachshon; Messer, Lauren F.; Garren, Melissa; Stocker, Roman; Webster, Nicole S.; Ralph, Peter J.; Seymour, Justin R.

    2015-01-01

    Rising seawater temperature associated with global climate change is a significant threat to coral health and is linked to increasing coral disease and pathogen-related bleaching events. We performed heat stress experiments with the coral Pocillopora damicornis, where temperature was increased to 31°C, consistent with the 2–3°C predicted increase in summer sea surface maxima. 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing revealed a large shift in the composition of the bacterial community at 31°C, with a notable increase in Vibrio, including known coral pathogens. To investigate the dynamics of the naturally occurring Vibrio community, we performed quantitative PCR targeting (i) the whole Vibrio community and (ii) the coral pathogen Vibrio coralliilyticus. At 31°C, Vibrio abundance increased by 2–3 orders of magnitude and V. coralliilyticus abundance increased by four orders of magnitude. Using a Vibrio-specific amplicon sequencing assay, we further demonstrated that the community composition shifted dramatically as a consequence of heat stress, with significant increases in the relative abundance of known coral pathogens. Our findings provide quantitative evidence that the abundance of potential coral pathogens increases within natural communities of coral-associated microbes as a consequence of rising seawater temperature and highlight the potential negative impacts of anthropogenic climate change on coral reef ecosystems. PMID:26042096

  16. Potential health risk in areas with high naturally-occurring cadmium background in southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yizhang; Xiao, Tangfu; Baveye, Philippe C; Zhu, Jianming; Ning, Zengping; Li, Huajun

    2015-02-01

    In various parts of the world, high cadmium (Cd) concentrations in environment are not related to anthropogenic contamination but have natural origins. Less is known about health risks that arise under these conditions. This study aimed to discuss the pollution of Cd with natural sources, and to investigate the concentration of Cd in food crops and the urine of inhabitants in an area of southwestern China. The results showed that the arable soils are moderately contaminated by Cd (I(geo)=1.51) relative to the local background, with a high ecological risk (Er=218). The chemical fractions of Cd in soils with natural sources are probably controlled by parent materials and mostly in residual phase. The average Cd concentrations were 0.68 mg kg(-1) (fresh weight) in local vegetables, 0.04 mg kg(-1) in rice, and 0.14 μg L(-1) in water. Leafy vegetable tends to accumulate more Cd than the other crops. The calculated Target Hazard Quotient (THQ) had a much higher value (4.33) for Cd, suggesting that Cd represents a significant potential risk to the local population. The urinary Cd concentrations (mean at 3.92 μg L(-1) for male and 4.85 μg L(-1) for female) of inhabitants in the study area were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those from the control area (mean at 0.8 μg L(-1) for male and 0.42 μg L(-1) for female). Male and female test subjects had similar urinary Cd levels (p>0.05), but age seemed to lead to an increase in Cd in the urine. These findings show that naturally-occurring Cd in local soils is taken up appreciably by local food crops, and that dietary exposure of Cd through vegetable ingestion is a major exposure pathway for local populations, and a potential risk to public health in the study area.

  17. Some Nutritional Characteristics of a Naturally Occurring Alga (Microcystis sp.) in a Guatemalan Lake

    PubMed Central

    de la Fuente, Gabriel; Flores, Antonio; Molina, Mario R.; Almengor, Leticia; Bressani, Ricardo

    1977-01-01

    The nutritional characteristics of an alga (Microcystis sp.) that occurs naturally in a Guatemalan lake were determined. The sun-dried material proved to have a high protein content (55.6%) and to be a possible good source of calcium and phosphorus (1, 169.1 and 633.4 mg/100 mg, respectively). Amino acid analysis showed that total sulfur amino acids were the most deficient ones, giving a protein score of 42 to the material. The in vitro protein digestibility of the material was 69.5%. Biological trials demonstrated that when the material was offered as the only protein source, very low consumption and a high mortality rate were obtained whether or not the diet was supplemented with 0.4% dl-methionine. However, when the material supplied 25% of the total protein of a corn-algae diet, the protein quality of the cereal was significantly improved (P < 0.05). PMID:16345191

  18. General and Stereocontrolled Approach to the Chemical Synthesis of Naturally Occurring Cyanogenic Glucosides.

    PubMed

    Møller, Birger L; Olsen, Carl E; Motawia, Mohammed S

    2016-04-22

    An effective method for the chemical synthesis of cyanogenic glucosides has been developed as demonstrated by the synthesis of dhurrin, taxiphyllin, prunasin, sambunigrin, heterodendrin, and epiheterodendrin. O-Trimethylsilylated cyanohydrins were prepared and subjected directly to glucosylation using a fully acetylated glucopyranosyl fluoride donor with boron trifluoride-diethyl etherate as promoter to afford a chromatographically separable epimeric mixture of the corresponding acetylated cyanogenic glucosides. The isolated epimers were deprotected using a triflic acid/MeOH/ion-exchange resin system without any epimerization of the cyanohydrin function. The method is stereocontrolled and provides an efficient approach to chemical synthesis of other naturally occurring cyanogenic glucosides including those with a more complex aglycone structure.

  19. Poly(anhydride-esters) Comprised Exclusively of Naturally Occurring Antimicrobials and EDTA: Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Carvacrol, thymol, and eugenol are naturally occurring phenolic compounds known to possess antimicrobial activity against a range of bacteria, as well as antioxidant activity. Biodegradable poly(anhydride-esters) composed of an ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) backbone and antimicrobial pendant groups (i.e., carvacrol, thymol, or eugenol) were synthesized via solution polymerization. The resulting polymers were characterized to confirm their chemical composition and understand their thermal properties and molecular weight. In vitro release studies demonstrated that polymer hydrolytic degradation was complete after 16 days, resulting in the release of free antimicrobials and EDTA. Antioxidant and antibacterial assays determined that polymer release media exhibited bioactivity similar to that of free compound, demonstrating that polymer incorporation and subsequent release had no effect on activity. These polymers completely degrade into components that are biologically relevant and have the capability to promote preservation of consumer products in the food and personal care industries via antimicrobial and antioxidant pathways. PMID:24702678

  20. Naturally occurring Parelaphostrongylus tenuis-associated choriomeningitis in a guinea pig with neurologic signs.

    PubMed

    Southard, T; Bender, H; Wade, S E; Grunenwald, C; Gerhold, R W

    2013-05-01

    An adult male guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) with a 1-month history of hind limb paresis, torticollis, and seizures was euthanized and submitted for necropsy. Gross examination was unremarkable, but histologic examination revealed multifocal eosinophilic and lymphoplasmacytic choriomeningitis and cross sections of nematode parasites within the leptomeninges of the midbrain and diencephalon. Morphologic features of the nematode were consistent with a metastrongyle, and the parasite was identified as Parelaphostrongylus tenuis by polymerase chain reaction testing and nucleotide sequencing. Further questioning of the owner revealed that the guinea pig was fed grass from a yard often grazed by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a naturally occurring P. tenuis infection in a guinea pig.

  1. Systems and methods for facilitating hydrogen storage using naturally occurring nanostructure assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Fliermans; , Carl B.

    2012-08-07

    Some or all of the needs above can be addressed by embodiments of the invention. According to embodiments of the invention, systems and methods for facilitating hydrogen storage using naturally occurring nanostructure assemblies can be implemented. In one embodiment, a method for storing hydrogen can be provided. The method can include providing diatoms comprising diatomaceous earth or diatoms from a predefined culture. In addition, the method can include heating the diatoms in a sealed environment in the presence of at least one of titanium, a transition metal, or a noble metal to provide a porous hydrogen storage medium. Furthermore, the method can include exposing the porous hydrogen storage medium to hydrogen. In addition, the method can include storing at least a portion of the hydrogen in the porous hydrogen storage medium.

  2. Partitioning of naturally-occurring radionuclides (NORM) in Marcellus Shale produced fluids influenced by chemical matrix.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Andrew W; Johns, Adam J; Eitrheim, Eric S; Knight, Andrew W; Basile, Madeline; Bettis, E Arthur; Schultz, Michael K; Forbes, Tori Z

    2016-04-01

    Naturally-occurring radioactive materials (NORM) associated with unconventional drilling produced fluids from the Marcellus Shale have raised environmental concerns. However, few investigations into the fundamental chemistry of NORM in Marcellus Shale produced fluids have been performed. Thus, we performed radiochemical experiments with Marcellus Shale produced fluids to understand the partitioning behavior of major radioelements of environmental health concern (uranium (U), thorium (Th), radium (Ra), lead (Pb), and polonium (Po)). We applied a novel radiotracer, (203)Pb, to understand the behavior of trace-levels of (210)Pb in these fluids. Ultrafiltration experiments indicated U, Th, and Po are particle reactive in Marcellus Shale produced fluids and Ra and Pb are soluble. Sediment partitioning experiments revealed that >99% of Ra does not adsorb to sediments in the presence of Marcellus Shale produced fluids. Further experiments indicated that although Ra adsorption is related to ionic strength, the concentrations of heavier alkaline earth metals (Ba, Sr) are stronger predictors of Ra solubility.

  3. Partitioning of naturally-occurring radionuclides (NORM) in Marcellus Shale produced fluids influenced by chemical matrix.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Andrew W; Johns, Adam J; Eitrheim, Eric S; Knight, Andrew W; Basile, Madeline; Bettis, E Arthur; Schultz, Michael K; Forbes, Tori Z

    2016-04-01

    Naturally-occurring radioactive materials (NORM) associated with unconventional drilling produced fluids from the Marcellus Shale have raised environmental concerns. However, few investigations into the fundamental chemistry of NORM in Marcellus Shale produced fluids have been performed. Thus, we performed radiochemical experiments with Marcellus Shale produced fluids to understand the partitioning behavior of major radioelements of environmental health concern (uranium (U), thorium (Th), radium (Ra), lead (Pb), and polonium (Po)). We applied a novel radiotracer, (203)Pb, to understand the behavior of trace-levels of (210)Pb in these fluids. Ultrafiltration experiments indicated U, Th, and Po are particle reactive in Marcellus Shale produced fluids and Ra and Pb are soluble. Sediment partitioning experiments revealed that >99% of Ra does not adsorb to sediments in the presence of Marcellus Shale produced fluids. Further experiments indicated that although Ra adsorption is related to ionic strength, the concentrations of heavier alkaline earth metals (Ba, Sr) are stronger predictors of Ra solubility. PMID:26952871

  4. Naturally occurring spore particles at planar fluid interfaces and in emulsions.

    PubMed

    Binks, B P; Clint, J H; Mackenzie, G; Simcock, C; Whitby, C P

    2005-08-30

    We have investigated the potential of utilizing naturally occurring spore particles of Lycopodium clavatum as sole emulsifiers of oil and water mixtures. The preferred emulsions, prepared from either oil-borne or aqueous-borne dispersions of the monodispersed particles of diameter 30 microm, are oil-in-water. The particles act as efficient stabilizers for oils of different polarity. Droplets as large as several millimeters are stable to coalescence indefinitely, despite the low coverage of interfaces by particles observed microscopically. Consistent with the emulsion findings, we discover that particles spontaneously adsorb to bare oil-water interfaces of single drops from oil dispersions, whereas adsorption is less spontaneous and extensive from aqueous dispersions. Monolayers of the spore particles at both air-water and oil-water planar interfaces contain particles in an aggregated state forming clusters and chains. The influence of particle concentration, oil/water ratio, and additives in the aqueous phase is studied.

  5. Suppression of mouse lymphocyte proliferation in vitro by naturally-occurring biflavonoids.

    PubMed

    Lee, S J; Choi, J H; Son, K H; Chang, H W; Kang, S S; Kim, H P

    1995-01-01

    In a continuing effort to investigate biological activities of flavonoids, nine biflavonoids, isolated from three plant sources were evaluated for their suppressive effects on mouse lymphocyte proliferation. The biflavonoids tested were amentoflavone, bilobetin, ginkgetin, isoginkgetin, sciadopitysin, ochnaflavone, 4'-O-methylochnaflavone, cryptomerin B and isocryptomerin. At 10 uM, several biflavonoids such as ginkgetin, isoginkgetin, ochnaflavone, cryptomerin B and isocryptomerin showed the suppressive activity against lymphocyte proliferation induced by Con A or LPS. Apigenin (flavone) and quercetin (flavonol) were suppressive against Con A-induced lymphocyte proliferation, but not against LPS-induced lymphocyte proliferation at the same concentration range. Biflavonoids were found to be irreversible inhibitors of lymphocyte proliferation. This is the first report describing the suppressive effects of naturally-occurring biflavonoids against lymphocyte proliferation.

  6. Radon as a naturally occurring tracer for the assessment of residual NAPL contamination of aquifers.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Michael; Paschke, Albrecht; Lau, Steffen; Geyer, Wolfgang; Knöller, Kay

    2007-02-01

    The noble gas radon has a strong affinity to non-aqueous phase-liquids (NAPLs). That property makes it applicable as naturally occurring partitioning tracer for assessing residual NAPL contamination of aquifers. In a NAPL contaminated aquifer, radon dissolved in the groundwater partitions preferably into the NAPL. The magnitude of the resulting radon deficit in the groundwater depends on the NAPL-specific radon partition coefficient and on the NAPL saturation of the pore space. Hence, if the partition coefficient is known, the NAPL saturation is attainable by determination of the radon deficit. After a concise discussion of theoretical aspects regarding radon partitioning into NAPL, related experimental data and results of a field investigation are presented. Aim of the laboratory experiments was the determination of radon partition coefficients of multi-component NAPLs of environmental concern. The on-site activities were carried out in order to confirm the applicability of the "radon method" under field conditions.

  7. A Naturally Occurring Antibody Fragment Neutralizes Infectivity of Diverse Infectious Agents

    PubMed Central

    Polonelli, Luciano; Ciociola, Tecla; Elviri, Lisa; Zanello, Pier Paolo; Giovati, Laura; Arruda, Denise C.; Muñoz, Julián E.; Mortara, Renato A.; Morace, Giulia; Borghi, Elisa; Galati, Serena; Marin, Oriano; Casoli, Claudio; Pilotti, Elisabetta; Ronzi, Paola; Travassos, Luiz R.; Magliani, Walter; Conti, Stefania

    2016-01-01

    A phosphorylated peptide, named K40H, derived from the constant region of IgMs was detected in human serum by liquid chromatography coupled to high-resolution mass spectrometry. Synthetic K40H proved to exert a potent in vitro activity against fungal pathogens, and to inhibit HIV-1 replication in vitro and ex vivo. It also showed a therapeutic effect against an experimental infection by Candida albicans in the invertebrate model Galleria mellonella. K40H represents the proof of concept of the innate role that naturally occurring antibody fragments may exert against infectious agents, shedding a new light upon the posthumous role of antibodies and opening a new scenario on the multifaceted functionality of humoral immunity. PMID:27725769

  8. What should a radiation regulator do about naturally occurring radioactive material?

    PubMed

    Loy, J

    2015-06-01

    The standard regulatory framework of authorisation, review and assessment, inspection and enforcement, and regulation making is directed principally towards ensuring the regulatory control of planned exposure situations. Some mining and industrial activities involving exposures to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), such as uranium mining or the treatment and conditioning of NORM residues, may fit readily within this standard framework. In other cases, such as oil and gas exploration and production, the standard regulatory framework needs to be adjusted. For example, it is not sensible to require that an oil company seek a licence from the radiation regulator before drilling a well. The paper discusses other approaches that a regulator might take to assure protection and safety in such activities involving exposures to NORM, including the use of conditional exemptions from regulatory controls. It also suggests some areas where further guidance from the International Commission on Radiological Protection on application of the system of radiological protection to NORM would assist both regulators and operators.

  9. Alertness and clear thinking as characteristics of high naturally occurring autonomic nervous system arousal.

    PubMed

    Schubert, D S

    1977-10-01

    Studies of the effect of induced mood on the autonomic nervous system (ANS) suggested that naturally occurring mood might also covary with the ANS. Ss were 13 men and women aged 20 to 70. Fatigue, confusion, and depression were measured on the Profile of Mood States, while barometric pressure and the ANS indices of heart rate and body temperature were also recorded. Fatigue and confusion each showed negative relationships to both heart rate and body temperature. Barometric pressure showed a suggestively positive relationship to the mood of depression. Hypothalamic serotonin concentration was suggested as a central factor producing the covariations between the mood indices (alertness and clear thinking) and the ANS measures. PMID:21943

  10. Optimal conditions for the fruit body production of natural occurring strains of Lentinus tigrinus.

    PubMed

    Lechner, Bernardo E; Albertó, Edgardo

    2007-07-01

    Lentinus tigrinus is a species with a fleshy pileus, strong odor and agreeable taste. In order to determine the optimal conditions for the production of this species, three substrates based on Salix sp. sawdust, wheat straw and supplements were tested in 500g dry weight bags at two different fruiting temperatures. Naturally occurring strains of this species were incubated at 30 degrees C. Primordium initiation could be observed 11-16 days after induction conditions began. This species produced highest yields with biological efficiency (BE) of 62% with supplemented sawdust at 25 degrees C. When bags were reduced to 100g dry weight, spawning run time was reduced from 28 to 30 to 10 to 14 days and BE increased more than 100%. L. tigrinus is a promising species with possibilities for commercial production. PMID:17239586

  11. El Dorado Air Quality Management District's Approach to Dealing With Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, C.

    2012-12-01

    In 2005, Naturally Occurring Asbestos (NOA) in El Dorado County made headlines with the discovery significant amounts of tremolite/actinolite asbestos in areas where residents had built, or were in the process of building, homes and residences. The El Dorado Air Quality Management District has been involved in all aspects of dealing with NOA from the very beginning of its discovery, from overseeing the rehabilitation of school sites to expanding and rewriting fugitive dust rules at construction sites. A discussion of best management practices which have been developed will be given, as well as how the El Dorado Air Quality Management District has worked to educate members of the public, as well as workers in the field, about NOA to aid in maintaining the health and safety of the public.

  12. Leishmanicidal and cytotoxic activities of extracts and naturally-occurring compounds from two Lauraceae species.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Suárez, Jeysson; Coy-Barrera, Ericsson; Cuca, Luis Enrique; Delgado, Gabriela

    2011-02-01

    The in vitro leishmanicidal effects of ethanolic extracts and fifteen naturally-occurring compounds (five lignans, eight neolignans, a diterpene and a dihydrochalcone), obtained from Pleurothyrium cinereum and Ocotea macrophylla, were evaluated on promastigotes of Leishmania panamensis and L. braziliensis. In addition, in order to determine the selective action on Leishmania species as a safety principle, in vitro cytotoxicity on J774 cells was also evaluated for test compounds and extracts. One extract and seven compounds showed activity against Leishmania parasites at different levels. Dihydroflavokawin B (8) was found to be the most potent antileishmanial compound on both parasites, whilst (+)-otobaphenol (14), was found to be the most selective compound on L. panamensis. PMID:21425681

  13. Computational Assessment of Naturally Occurring Neutron and Photon Background Radiation Produced by Extraterrestrial Sources

    DOE PAGES

    Miller, Thomas Martin; de Wet, Wouter C.; Patton, Bruce W.

    2015-10-28

    In this study, a computational assessment of the variation in terrestrial neutron and photon background from extraterrestrial sources is presented. The motivation of this assessment is to evaluate the practicality of developing a tool or database to estimate background in real time (or near–real time) during an experimental measurement or to even predict the background for future measurements. The extraterrestrial source focused on during this assessment is naturally occurring galactic cosmic rays (GCRs). The MCNP6 transport code was used to perform the computational assessment. However, the GCR source available in MCNP6 was not used. Rather, models developed and maintained bymore » NASA were used to generate the GCR sources. The largest variation in both neutron and photon background spectra was found to be caused by changes in elevation on Earth's surface, which can be as large as an order of magnitude. All other perturbations produced background variations on the order of a factor of 3 or less. The most interesting finding was that ~80% and 50% of terrestrial background neutrons and photons, respectively, are generated by interactions in Earth's surface and other naturally occurring and man-made objects near a detector of particles from extraterrestrial sources and their progeny created in Earth's atmosphere. In conclusion, this assessment shows that it will be difficult to estimate the terrestrial background from extraterrestrial sources without a good understanding of a detector's surroundings. Therefore, estimating or predicting background during a measurement environment like a mobile random search will be difficult.« less

  14. Urinary bladder cancer in dogs, a naturally occurring model for cancer biology and drug development.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Deborah W; Ramos-Vara, José A; Moore, George E; Dhawan, Deepika; Bonney, Patty L; Young, Kirsten E

    2014-01-01

    Each year more than 65,000 people are diagnosed with urinary bladder cancer, and more than 14,000 people die from the disease in the United States. Studies in relevant animal models are essential to improve the management of bladder cancer. Naturally occurring bladder cancer in dogs very closely mimics human invasive bladder cancer, specifically high-grade invasive transitional cell carcinoma (TCC; also referred to as invasive urothelial carcinoma) in cellular and molecular features; biological behavior, including sites and frequency of metastasis; and response to therapy. Canine bladder cancer complements experimentally induced rodent tumors in regard to animal models of bladder cancer. Results of cellular and molecular studies and -omics analyses in dogs are expected to lead to improved detection of TCC and preneoplastic lesions, earlier intervention, better prediction of patient outcome, and more effective TCC management overall. Studies in dogs are being used to help define heritable risks (through very strong breed-associated risk) and environment risks and to evaluate prevention and treatment approaches that benefit humans as well as dogs. Clinical treatment trials in pet dogs with TCC are considered a win-win scenario by clinician scientists and pet owners. The individual dog benefits from effective treatment, the results are expected to help other dogs, and the findings are expected to ultimately help humans with TCC. This article provides an overview of canine TCC, a summary of the similarities and differences between canine and human invasive TCC, and examples of the types of valuable translational research that can be done using dogs with naturally occurring TCC.

  15. Naturally Occurring Asbestos in the Southern Nevada Region: Potential for Human Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, B. J.; Metcalf, R. V.; Berry, D.; McLaurin, B.; Kent, D.; Januch, J.; Goossens, D.

    2015-12-01

    Naturally occurring fibrous actinolite, winchite, magnesioriebeckite, richterite, magnesiohornblende, and erionite have been found in rock, soil, and dust in southern Nevada and northwestern Arizona. The areas containing naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) include urban areas (e.g. Boulder City) and rural areas where people routinely enjoy outdoor activities including horseback riding, running, hiking, bicycling, and off-road-vehicle (ORV) recreation. A recent study showing mesothelioma in young people and women suggests some form of environmental exposure. Rock, soil, dust and clothing were analyzed using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS); additional rock samples were analyzed using wavelength dispersive electron probe microanalysis (EPMA); additional soil samples were analyzed using PLM (polarizing light microscopy) and TEM (transmission electron microscopy) using the Fluidized Bed Asbestos Segregator preparation method. Winds have transported and mixed the Ca-amphiboles, which are primarily from Nevada, with the Na-amphiboles that are primarily from northwestern Arizona. Erionite, which has not previously been reported in this area, was a common soil component found in 5 of 6 samples. The erionite source has not yet been determined. Winds have transported the amphibole and erionite particles into the Nellis Dunes Recreation Area - an ORV recreation area located 35 km north of Boulder City that otherwise would not be geologically predicted to contain fibrous amphiboles. In Boulder City, wind directions are primarily bimodal N-NE and S-SW with the strongest winds in the spring coming from the S-SW. The arid climate in this part of the Mojave Desert greatly increases the potential for wind erosion and human exposures. These results suggest that the entire Las Vegas Basin has, at times, received these particles through wind transport. Because the most likely human exposure pathway is through inhalation of dust, the Las Vegas

  16. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) from a former phosphoric acid processing plant.

    PubMed

    Beddow, H; Black, S; Read, D

    2006-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing awareness of the radiological impact of non-nuclear industries that extract and/or process ores and minerals containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). These industrial activities may result in significant radioactive contamination of (by-) products, wastes and plant installations. In this study, scale samples were collected from a decommissioned phosphoric acid processing plant. To determine the nature and concentration of NORM retained in pipe-work and associated process plant, four main areas of the site were investigated: (1) the 'Green Acid Plant', where crude acid was concentrated; (2) the green acid storage tanks; (3) the Purified White Acid (PWA) plant, where inorganic impurities were removed; and (4) the solid waste, disposed of on-site as landfill. The scale samples predominantly comprise the following: fluorides (e.g. ralstonite); calcium sulphate (e.g. gypsum); and an assemblage of mixed fluorides and phosphates (e.g. iron fluoride hydrate, calcium phosphate), respectively. The radioactive inventory is dominated by 238U and its decay chain products, and significant fractionation along the series occurs. Compared to the feedstock ore, elevated concentrations (< or =8.8 Bq/g) of 238U were found to be retained in installations where the process stream was rich in fluorides and phosphates. In addition, enriched levels (< or =11 Bq/g) of 226Ra were found in association with precipitates of calcium sulphate. Water extraction tests indicate that many of the scales and waste contain significantly soluble materials and readily release radioactivity into solution.

  17. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) from a former phosphoric acid processing plant.

    PubMed

    Beddow, H; Black, S; Read, D

    2006-01-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing awareness of the radiological impact of non-nuclear industries that extract and/or process ores and minerals containing naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM). These industrial activities may result in significant radioactive contamination of (by-) products, wastes and plant installations. In this study, scale samples were collected from a decommissioned phosphoric acid processing plant. To determine the nature and concentration of NORM retained in pipe-work and associated process plant, four main areas of the site were investigated: (1) the 'Green Acid Plant', where crude acid was concentrated; (2) the green acid storage tanks; (3) the Purified White Acid (PWA) plant, where inorganic impurities were removed; and (4) the solid waste, disposed of on-site as landfill. The scale samples predominantly comprise the following: fluorides (e.g. ralstonite); calcium sulphate (e.g. gypsum); and an assemblage of mixed fluorides and phosphates (e.g. iron fluoride hydrate, calcium phosphate), respectively. The radioactive inventory is dominated by 238U and its decay chain products, and significant fractionation along the series occurs. Compared to the feedstock ore, elevated concentrations (< or =8.8 Bq/g) of 238U were found to be retained in installations where the process stream was rich in fluorides and phosphates. In addition, enriched levels (< or =11 Bq/g) of 226Ra were found in association with precipitates of calcium sulphate. Water extraction tests indicate that many of the scales and waste contain significantly soluble materials and readily release radioactivity into solution. PMID:16303218

  18. Naturally-Occurring Marine Brominated Indoles are Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Ligands/Agonists

    PubMed Central

    DeGroot, Danica E.; Franks, Diana G.; Higa, Tatsuo; Tanaka, Junichi; Hahn, Mark E.; Denison, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that mediates the toxic and biological effects of structurally diverse chemicals, including the environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). As part of a larger effort to identify the full spectrum of chemicals that can bind to and activate the AhR, we have examined the ability of several naturally-occurring marine-derived brominated indoles and brominated (methylthio)indoles (collectively referred to as “brominated indoles”) to bind to the AhR and stimulate AhR-dependent gene expression. Incubation of mouse, rat and guinea pig recombinant cell lines containing a stably transfected AhR-responsive luciferase reporter gene with eight brominated indoles revealed that all compounds stimulated luciferase reporter gene activity, although some species-specific differences were observed. All compounds induced significantly more luciferase activity when incubated with cells for 4 h as compared to 24 h, demonstrating that these compounds are transient activators of the AhR signaling pathway. Three of the brominated indoles induced CYP1A1 mRNA in human HepG2 cells in vitro and Cyp1a mRNA in zebrafish embryos in vivo. The identification of the brominated indoles as direct ligands and activators/agonists of the AhR was confirmed by their ability to compete with [3H]TCDD for binding to the AhR and to stimulate AhR transformation and DNA binding in vitro. Taken together, these marine-derived brominated indoles are members of a new class of naturally-occurring AhR agonists. PMID:26001051

  19. Naturally occurring neoplasms in pigeons in a research colony: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Shimonohara, Nozomi; Holland, Christine H; Lin, Tsang-Long; Wigle, William L

    2013-03-01

    This study reports the gross and microscopic pathology of naturally occurring neoplasms in adult pigeons that were presented for necropsy at the Indiana Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory from 2001 to 2011. The study population consisted of white carneau and mixed-breed pigeons used in behavioral studies in the Department of Psychological Sciences at Purdue University. Twelve types of neoplasms or proliferative disorders were identified in 28 of 83 pigeons (33.7%). Five pigeons had two or three types of neoplasms-proliferative disorders. Of the 83 pigeons, 11 (13.3%) had seminoma, five (6.0%) had thyroid adenoma, four (4.8%) had lymphoma, four (4.8%) had adenocarcinoma of female reproductive tract origin, two (2.4%) had pulmonary carcinoma, and two (2.4%) had cutaneous vascular hamartomas. Also identified were single incidences of dysgerminoma, mesothelioma, liposarcoma, cloacal papilloma, cloacal adenocarcinoma, and gizzard carcinoma. The most frequently occurring tumor was seminoma; 7/11 cases effaced both testicles and 3/11 cases had metastasis to the liver or kidney. The relatively high prevalence of neoplasms in pigeons in the present study is most likely related to the advanced ages of pigeons kept in the research colony.

  20. The MTAP-CDKN2A Locus Confers Susceptibility to a Naturally Occurring Canine Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shearin, Abigail L.; Hedan, Benoit; Cadieu, Edouard; Erich, Suzanne A.; Schmidt, Emmett V.; Faden, Daniel L.; Cullen, John; Abadie, Jerome; Kwon, Erika M.; Gröne, Andrea; Devauchelle, Patrick; Rimbault, Maud; Karyadi, Danielle M.; Lynch, Mary; Galibert, Francis; Breen, Matthew; Rutteman, Gerard R.; André, Catherine; Parker, Heidi G.; Ostrander, Elaine A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Advantages offered by canine population substructure, combined with clinical presentations similar to human disorders, makes the dog an attractive system for studies of cancer genetics. Cancers that have been difficult to study in human families or populations are of particular interest. Histiocytic sarcoma is a rare and poorly understood neoplasm in humans that occurs in 15–25% of Bernese Mountain Dogs (BMD). Methods Genomic DNA was collected from affected and unaffected BMD in North America (NA) and Europe. Both independent and combined genome wide association studies (GWAS) were used to identify cancer-associated loci. Fine mapping and sequencing narrowed the primary locus to a single gene region. Results Both populations shared the same primary locus, which features a single haplotype spanning MTAP and part of CDKN2A and is present in 96% of affected BMD. The haplotype is within the region homologous to human chromosome 9p21, which has been implicated in several types of cancer. Conclusions We present the first GWAS for HS in any species. The data identify an associated haplotype in the highly cited tumor suppressor locus near CDKN2A. These data demonstrate the power of studying distinctive malignancies in highly predisposed dog breeds. Impact Here, we establish a naturally-occurring model of cancer susceptibility due to CDKN2 dysregulation, thus providing insight regarding this cancer-associated, complex, and poorly understood genomic region. PMID:22623710

  1. Nineteenth century research on naturally occurring cell death and related phenomena.

    PubMed

    Clarke, P G; Clarke, S

    1996-02-01

    Research on naturally occurring cell death is older than current opinion gives credit. More than 100 nineteenth century publications deal with it, and we review most of these. Soon after the establishment of the cell theory by Schleiden and Schwann, Carl Vogt (1842) reported cell death in the notochord and adjacent cartilage of metamorphic toads. Subsequent landmark discoveries included the massive cell death that occurs in pupating diptera (Weismann 1864), chondrocyte death during endochondral ossification (Stieda 1872), phagocytosis associated with cell death in the muscles of metamorphic toads (Metschnikoff 1883), chromatolytic (apoptotic) cell death in ovarian follicles (Flemming 1885), the reinterpretation of "Sarkoplasten" as "Sarkolyten" in metamorphic amphibia (Mayer 1886), the programmed loss of an entire population of neurons in fish embryos (Beard 1889), the death of scattered myocytes and myofibres in mammalian muscle (Felix 1889), and the death of many motor and sensory neurons in chick embryos (Collin 1906). Other lines of nineteenth century research established concepts important for understanding cell death, notably trophic interactions between neurons and their targets, and intercellular competition. PMID:8742050

  2. A Naturally Occurring Bovine Tauopathy Is Geographically Widespread in the UK.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, Martin; Piccardo, Pedro; Ritchie, Diane L; Ironside, James W; Green, Alison J E; McGovern, Gillian

    2015-01-01

    Many human neurodegenerative diseases are associated with hyperphosphorylation and widespread intra-neuronal and glial associated aggregation of the microtubule associated protein tau. In contrast, animal tauopathies are not reported with only senescent animals showing inconspicuous tau labelling of fine processes albeit significant tau aggregation may occur in some experimental animal disease. Since 1986, an idiopathic neurological condition of adult cattle has been recognised in the UK as a sub-set of cattle slaughtered as suspect bovine spongiform encephalopathy cases. This disorder is characterised by brainstem neuronal chromatolysis and degeneration with variable hippocampal sclerosis and spongiform change. Selected cases of idiopathic brainstem neuronal chromatolysis (IBNC) were identified from archive material and characterised using antibodies specific to several tau hyperphosphorylation sites or different isoforms of the tau microtubule binding region. Labelling was also carried out for alpha synuclein, ubiquitin, TDP43, Aβ 1-42, Aβ 1-40. Widespread tau labelling was identified in all IBNC brains examined and with each of seven tau antibodies recognising different hyperphosphorylated sites. Labelling with each antibody was associated with dendrites, neuronal perikarya and glia. Thus IBNC is a sporadic, progressive neurological disease predominantly affecting aged cattle that occurs throughout the UK and is associated with hyperphosphorylation of tau, a rare example of a naturally-occurring tauopathy in a non-primate species. Secondary accumulation of alpha synuclein and ubiquitin was also present. The neuropathology does not precisely correspond with any human tauopathy. The cause of IBNC remains undetermined but environmental factors and exposure to agrochemicals needs to be considered in future aetiological investigations. PMID:26091261

  3. Identification of naturally occurring hybrids between two overexploited sciaenid species along the South African coast.

    PubMed

    Mirimin, L; Kerwath, S E; Macey, B M; Bester-van der Merwe, A E; Lamberth, S J; Bloomer, P; Roodt-Wilding, R

    2014-07-01

    Hybridisation between fish species can play a significant role in evolutionary processes and can influence management and conservation planning, however, this phenomenon has been widely understudied, especially in marine organisms. The distribution limits of two sciaenid species (silver kob, Argyrosomus inodorus, and dusky kob, A. japonicus) partly overlap along the South African coast, where both species have undergone severe depletion due to overfishing. Following the identification of a number of possible cases of species misidentification or hybridisation (21 out of 422 individuals), nuclear and mitochondrial DNA data (12microsatellite loci and 562bp of the COI gene) were analysed to investigate the genetic composition of these individuals. Results indicated a field-based species misidentification rate of approximately 2.8% and a rate of natural hybridisation of 0.7%. Interestingly, all hybrid fish resulted from first-generation (F1) hybridisation events, which occurred exclusively between silver kob females and dusky kob males. Whether hybridisation is the result of natural events (such as secondary contact following a shift in distribution range), or anthropogenic activities (size-selective pressure due to overfishing), these findings have important implications for critical recovery and future management of these species in the wild. PMID:24582737

  4. Acoustic surface perception from naturally occurring step sounds of a dexterous hexapod robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuneyitoglu Ozkul, Mine; Saranli, Afsar; Yazicioglu, Yigit

    2013-10-01

    Legged robots that exhibit dynamic dexterity naturally interact with the surface to generate complex acoustic signals carrying rich information on the surface as well as the robot platform itself. However, the nature of a legged robot, which is a complex, hybrid dynamic system, renders the more common approach of model-based system identification impractical. The present paper focuses on acoustic surface identification and proposes a non-model-based analysis and classification approach adopted from the speech processing literature. A novel feature set composed of spectral band energies augmented by their vector time derivatives and time-domain averaged zero crossing rate is proposed. Using a multi-dimensional vector classifier, these features carry enough information to accurately classify a range of commonly occurring indoor and outdoor surfaces without using of any mechanical system model. A comparative experimental study is carried out and classification performance and computational complexity are characterized. Different feature combinations, classifiers and changes in critical design parameters are investigated. A realistic and representative acoustic data set is collected with the robot moving at different speeds on a number of surfaces. The study demonstrates promising performance of this non-model-based approach, even in an acoustically uncontrolled environment. The approach also has good chance of performing in real-time.

  5. Identification of naturally occurring hybrids between two overexploited sciaenid species along the South African coast.

    PubMed

    Mirimin, L; Kerwath, S E; Macey, B M; Bester-van der Merwe, A E; Lamberth, S J; Bloomer, P; Roodt-Wilding, R

    2014-07-01

    Hybridisation between fish species can play a significant role in evolutionary processes and can influence management and conservation planning, however, this phenomenon has been widely understudied, especially in marine organisms. The distribution limits of two sciaenid species (silver kob, Argyrosomus inodorus, and dusky kob, A. japonicus) partly overlap along the South African coast, where both species have undergone severe depletion due to overfishing. Following the identification of a number of possible cases of species misidentification or hybridisation (21 out of 422 individuals), nuclear and mitochondrial DNA data (12microsatellite loci and 562bp of the COI gene) were analysed to investigate the genetic composition of these individuals. Results indicated a field-based species misidentification rate of approximately 2.8% and a rate of natural hybridisation of 0.7%. Interestingly, all hybrid fish resulted from first-generation (F1) hybridisation events, which occurred exclusively between silver kob females and dusky kob males. Whether hybridisation is the result of natural events (such as secondary contact following a shift in distribution range), or anthropogenic activities (size-selective pressure due to overfishing), these findings have important implications for critical recovery and future management of these species in the wild.

  6. Hyperpolarized NMR of plant and cancer cell extracts at natural abundance.

    PubMed

    Dumez, Jean-Nicolas; Milani, Jonas; Vuichoud, Basile; Bornet, Aurélien; Lalande-Martin, Julie; Tea, Illa; Yon, Maxime; Maucourt, Mickaël; Deborde, Catherine; Moing, Annick; Frydman, Lucio; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey; Jannin, Sami; Giraudeau, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    Natural abundance (13)C NMR spectra of biological extracts are recorded in a single scan provided that the samples are hyperpolarized by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization combined with cross polarization. Heteronuclear 2D correlation spectra of hyperpolarized breast cancer cell extracts can also be obtained in a single scan. Hyperpolarized NMR of extracts opens many perspectives for metabolomics. PMID:26215673

  7. Levels of naturally occurring gamma radiation measured in British homes and their prediction in particular residences.

    PubMed

    Kendall, G M; Wakeford, R; Athanson, M; Vincent, T J; Carter, E J; McColl, N P; Little, M P

    2016-03-01

    Gamma radiation from natural sources (including directly ionising cosmic rays) is an important component of background radiation. In the present paper, indoor measurements of naturally occurring gamma rays that were undertaken as part of the UK Childhood Cancer Study are summarised, and it is shown that these are broadly compatible with an earlier UK National Survey. The distribution of indoor gamma-ray dose rates in Great Britain is approximately normal with mean 96 nGy/h and standard deviation 23 nGy/h. Directly ionising cosmic rays contribute about one-third of the total. The expanded dataset allows a more detailed description than previously of indoor gamma-ray exposures and in particular their geographical variation. Various strategies for predicting indoor natural background gamma-ray dose rates were explored. In the first of these, a geostatistical model was fitted, which assumes an underlying geologically determined spatial variation, superimposed on which is a Gaussian stochastic process with Matérn correlation structure that models the observed tendency of dose rates in neighbouring houses to correlate. In the second approach, a number of dose-rate interpolation measures were first derived, based on averages over geologically or administratively defined areas or using distance-weighted averages of measurements at nearest-neighbour points. Linear regression was then used to derive an optimal linear combination of these interpolation measures. The predictive performances of the two models were compared via cross-validation, using a randomly selected 70 % of the data to fit the models and the remaining 30 % to test them. The mean square error (MSE) of the linear-regression model was lower than that of the Gaussian-Matérn model (MSE 378 and 411, respectively). The predictive performance of the two candidate models was also evaluated via simulation; the OLS model performs significantly better than the Gaussian-Matérn model.

  8. Enrichment and particle size dependence of polonium and other naturally occurring radionuclides in coal ash.

    PubMed

    Sahu, S K; Tiwari, M; Bhangare, R C; Pandit, G G

    2014-12-01

    Coal fired thermal power contributes 70% of power in India. Coal fired power generation results in huge amounts of fly ash and bottom ash of varying properties. Coal, which contains the naturally occurring radionuclides, on burning results in enrichment of these radionuclides in the ashes. In the present study, coal, bottom ash and fly ash samples collected from six coal-fired power plants in India were measured for (210)Po using alpha spectrometry and for natural U, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K by an HPGe γ-ray spectrometer. (210)Po in fly ash ranged from 25.7 to 70 Bq/kg with a mean value of 40.5 Bq/kg. The range and mean activities of (238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K in fly ash were 38.5-101 (78.1), 60-105.7 (79), 20-125 (61.7) and 43.6-200 (100) Bq/kg respectively. Fly ash and bottom ash contains two to five times more natural radionuclides than feed coal. The results were compared with the available data from earlier studies in other countries. The effect of particle size on enrichment factor of the nuclides in fly ash was studied. (210)Po showed the largest size dependence with its concentration favoring the smaller particle size while (232)Th showed least size dependence. (238)U and (226)Ra showed behavior intermediate to that of (210)Po and (232)Th. Also the correlation between sulfur content of the feed coal and activity of (210)Po was investigated. Increased sulfur content in feed coal enhanced enrichment of (210)Po in ash.

  9. Enrichment and particle size dependence of polonium and other naturally occurring radionuclides in coal ash.

    PubMed

    Sahu, S K; Tiwari, M; Bhangare, R C; Pandit, G G

    2014-12-01

    Coal fired thermal power contributes 70% of power in India. Coal fired power generation results in huge amounts of fly ash and bottom ash of varying properties. Coal, which contains the naturally occurring radionuclides, on burning results in enrichment of these radionuclides in the ashes. In the present study, coal, bottom ash and fly ash samples collected from six coal-fired power plants in India were measured for (210)Po using alpha spectrometry and for natural U, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K by an HPGe γ-ray spectrometer. (210)Po in fly ash ranged from 25.7 to 70 Bq/kg with a mean value of 40.5 Bq/kg. The range and mean activities of (238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K in fly ash were 38.5-101 (78.1), 60-105.7 (79), 20-125 (61.7) and 43.6-200 (100) Bq/kg respectively. Fly ash and bottom ash contains two to five times more natural radionuclides than feed coal. The results were compared with the available data from earlier studies in other countries. The effect of particle size on enrichment factor of the nuclides in fly ash was studied. (210)Po showed the largest size dependence with its concentration favoring the smaller particle size while (232)Th showed least size dependence. (238)U and (226)Ra showed behavior intermediate to that of (210)Po and (232)Th. Also the correlation between sulfur content of the feed coal and activity of (210)Po was investigated. Increased sulfur content in feed coal enhanced enrichment of (210)Po in ash. PMID:24813148

  10. Cox-2 inhibitory effects of naturally occurring and modified fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Ringbom, T; Huss, U; Stenholm, A; Flock, S; Skattebøl, L; Perera, P; Bohlin, L

    2001-06-01

    In the search for new cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) selective inhibitors, the inhibitory effects of naturally occurring fatty acids and some of their structural derivatives on COX-2-catalyzed prostaglandin biosynthesis were investigated. Among these fatty acids, linoleic acid (LA), alpha-linolenic acid (alpha-LNA), myristic acid, and palmitic acid were isolated from a CH(2)Cl(2) extract of the plant Plantago major by bioassay-guided fractionation. Inhibitory effects of other natural, structurally related fatty acids were also investigated: stearic acid, oleic acid, pentadecanoic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Further, the inhibitory effects of these compounds on COX-2- and COX-1-catalyzed prostaglandin biosynthesis was compared with the inhibition of some synthesized analogues of EPA and DHA with ether or thioether functions. The most potent COX-2-catalyzed prostaglandin biosynthesis inhibitor was all-(Z)-5-thia-8,11,14,17-eicosatetraenoic acid (2), followed by EPA, DHA, alpha-LNA, LA, (7E,11Z,14Z,17Z)-5-thiaeicosa-7,11,14,17-tetraenoic acid, all-(Z)-3-thia-6,9,12,15-octadecatetraenoic acid, and (5E,9Z,12Z,15Z,18Z)-3-oxaheneicosa-5,9,12,15,18-pentaenoic acid, with IC(50) values ranging from 3.9 to180 microM. The modified compound 2 and alpha-LNA were most selective toward COX-2, with COX-2/COX-1 ratios of 0.2 and 0.1, respectively. This study shows that several of the natural fatty acids as well as all of the semisynthetic thioether-containing fatty acids inhibited COX-2-catalyzed prostaglandin biosynthesis, where alpha-LNA and compound 2 showed selectivity toward COX-2. PMID:11421736

  11. Levels of naturally occurring gamma radiation measured in British homes and their prediction in particular residences.

    PubMed

    Kendall, G M; Wakeford, R; Athanson, M; Vincent, T J; Carter, E J; McColl, N P; Little, M P

    2016-03-01

    Gamma radiation from natural sources (including directly ionising cosmic rays) is an important component of background radiation. In the present paper, indoor measurements of naturally occurring gamma rays that were undertaken as part of the UK Childhood Cancer Study are summarised, and it is shown that these are broadly compatible with an earlier UK National Survey. The distribution of indoor gamma-ray dose rates in Great Britain is approximately normal with mean 96 nGy/h and standard deviation 23 nGy/h. Directly ionising cosmic rays contribute about one-third of the total. The expanded dataset allows a more detailed description than previously of indoor gamma-ray exposures and in particular their geographical variation. Various strategies for predicting indoor natural background gamma-ray dose rates were explored. In the first of these, a geostatistical model was fitted, which assumes an underlying geologically determined spatial variation, superimposed on which is a Gaussian stochastic process with Matérn correlation structure that models the observed tendency of dose rates in neighbouring houses to correlate. In the second approach, a number of dose-rate interpolation measures were first derived, based on averages over geologically or administratively defined areas or using distance-weighted averages of measurements at nearest-neighbour points. Linear regression was then used to derive an optimal linear combination of these interpolation measures. The predictive performances of the two models were compared via cross-validation, using a randomly selected 70 % of the data to fit the models and the remaining 30 % to test them. The mean square error (MSE) of the linear-regression model was lower than that of the Gaussian-Matérn model (MSE 378 and 411, respectively). The predictive performance of the two candidate models was also evaluated via simulation; the OLS model performs significantly better than the Gaussian-Matérn model. PMID:26880257

  12. Naturally occurring clay nanoparticles in Latosols of Brazil central region: detection and characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominika Dybowska, Agnieszka; Luciene Maltoni, Katia; Piella, Jordi; Najorka, Jens; Puntes, Victor; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2015-04-01

    Stability and reactivity of minerals change as a particle size function, which makes mineral nanoparticles (defined here as <100 nm) fundamentally distinct from the larger size materials. Naturally occurring mineral nanoparticles contribute to many biogeochemical processes, however much remains to be learnt about these materials, their size dependent behavior and environmental significance. Advances in analytical, imaging and spectroscopic techniques made it now possible to study such particles; however we still have limited knowledge of their chemical, structural and morphological identity and reactivity, in particular in soils. The aim of this research was to characterize the naturally occurring nanoparticles in three soils from Brazil central region. The samples were collected in the A horizon, treated with H2O2 to remove organic material, dispersed in ultrasonic bath and wet sieved (53 µm) to remove the sand fraction. The clay fraction was collected by siphoning the supernatant, conditioned in 1000 ml cylinder, according to the Stock's law. This fraction was further processed by re-suspension in water, sonication and repeated centrifugation, to separate the fraction smaller than 100nm. This material, called here the soil "nanofraction", was analyzed using a range of techniques: 1) nanoparticle size/morphology and crystallinity with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM operateing in scanning (HAADF-STEM) and High Resolution (HRTEM) mode), 2) size distribution in water with Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and surface charge estimated from electrophoretic mobility measurements 3) crystal phase and crystallite size with X-ray Diffraction (XRD) 4) Chemical composition by quantitative analysis of elements (e.g., Si, Fe, Al, Ti) and their spatial distribution with HRTEM/EDS elemental mappings. The nanofraction had an average hydrodynamic particle diameter ranging from 83 to 92nm with a low polydispersity index of 0.13-0.17 and was found highly stable in aqueous

  13. Mobilization of arsenic and other naturally occurring contaminants in groundwater of the Main Ethiopian Rift aquifers.

    PubMed

    Rango, Tewodros; Vengosh, Avner; Dwyer, Gary; Bianchini, Gianluca

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates the mechanisms of arsenic (As) and other naturally occurring contaminants (F(-), U, V, B, and Mo) mobilization from Quaternary sedimentary aquifers of the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and their enrichment in the local groundwater. The study is based on systematic measurements of major and trace elements as well as stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in groundwater, coupled with geochemical and mineralogical analyses of the aquifer rocks. The Rift Valley aquifer is composed of rhyolitic volcanics and Quaternary lacustrine sediments. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) results revealed that MER rhyolites (ash, tuff, pumice and ignimbrite) and sediments contain on average 72 wt. % and 65 wt. % SiO2, respectively. Petrographic studies of the rhyolites indicate predominance of volcanic glass, sanidine, pyroxene, Fe-oxides and plagioclase. The As content in the lacustrine sediments (mean = 6.6 mg/kg) was higher than that of the rhyolites (mean: 2.5 mg/kg). The lacustrine aquifers of the Ziway-Shala basin in the northern part of MER were identified as high As risk zones, where mean As concentration in groundwater was 22.4 ± 33.5 (range of 0.60-190 μg/L) and 54% of samples had As above the WHO drinking water guideline value of 10 μg/L. Field As speciation measurements showed that most of the groundwater samples contain predominantly (~80%) arsenate-As(V) over arsenite-As(III) species. The As speciation together with field data of redox potential (mean Eh = +73 ± 65 mV) and dissolved-O2 (6.6 ± 2.2 mg/L) suggest that the aquifer is predominantly oxidative. Water-rock interactions, including the dissolution of volcanic glass produces groundwater with near-neutral to alkaline pH (range 6.9-8.9), predominance of Na-HCO3 ions, and high concentration of SiO2 (mean: 85.8 ± 11.3 mg/L). The groundwater data show high positive correlation of As with Na, HCO3, U, B, V, and Mo (R(2) > 0.5; p < 0.001). Chemical modeling of the groundwater indicates that Fe-oxides and

  14. Mobilization of arsenic and other naturally occurring contaminants in groundwater of the Main Ethiopian Rift aquifers.

    PubMed

    Rango, Tewodros; Vengosh, Avner; Dwyer, Gary; Bianchini, Gianluca

    2013-10-01

    This study investigates the mechanisms of arsenic (As) and other naturally occurring contaminants (F(-), U, V, B, and Mo) mobilization from Quaternary sedimentary aquifers of the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER) and their enrichment in the local groundwater. The study is based on systematic measurements of major and trace elements as well as stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in groundwater, coupled with geochemical and mineralogical analyses of the aquifer rocks. The Rift Valley aquifer is composed of rhyolitic volcanics and Quaternary lacustrine sediments. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) results revealed that MER rhyolites (ash, tuff, pumice and ignimbrite) and sediments contain on average 72 wt. % and 65 wt. % SiO2, respectively. Petrographic studies of the rhyolites indicate predominance of volcanic glass, sanidine, pyroxene, Fe-oxides and plagioclase. The As content in the lacustrine sediments (mean = 6.6 mg/kg) was higher than that of the rhyolites (mean: 2.5 mg/kg). The lacustrine aquifers of the Ziway-Shala basin in the northern part of MER were identified as high As risk zones, where mean As concentration in groundwater was 22.4 ± 33.5 (range of 0.60-190 μg/L) and 54% of samples had As above the WHO drinking water guideline value of 10 μg/L. Field As speciation measurements showed that most of the groundwater samples contain predominantly (~80%) arsenate-As(V) over arsenite-As(III) species. The As speciation together with field data of redox potential (mean Eh = +73 ± 65 mV) and dissolved-O2 (6.6 ± 2.2 mg/L) suggest that the aquifer is predominantly oxidative. Water-rock interactions, including the dissolution of volcanic glass produces groundwater with near-neutral to alkaline pH (range 6.9-8.9), predominance of Na-HCO3 ions, and high concentration of SiO2 (mean: 85.8 ± 11.3 mg/L). The groundwater data show high positive correlation of As with Na, HCO3, U, B, V, and Mo (R(2) > 0.5; p < 0.001). Chemical modeling of the groundwater indicates that Fe-oxides and

  15. Bordetella pertussis naturally occurring isolates with altered lipooligosaccharide structure fail to fully mature human dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Brummelman, Jolanda; Veerman, Rosanne E; Hamstra, Hendrik Jan; Deuss, Anna J M; Schuijt, Tim J; Sloots, Arjen; Kuipers, Betsy; van Els, Cécile A C M; van der Ley, Peter; Mooi, Frits R; Han, Wanda G H; Pinelli, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Bordetella pertussis is a Gram-negative bacterium and the causative agent of whooping cough. Despite high vaccination coverage, outbreaks are being increasingly reported worldwide. Possible explanations include adaptation of this pathogen, which may interfere with recognition by the innate immune system. Here, we describe innate immune recognition and responses to different B. pertussis clinical isolates. By using HEK-Blue cells transfected with different pattern recognition receptors, we found that 3 out of 19 clinical isolates failed to activate Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). These findings were confirmed by using the monocytic MM6 cell line. Although incubation with high concentrations of these 3 strains resulted in significant activation of the MM6 cells, it was found to occur mainly through interaction with TLR2 and not through TLR4. When using live bacteria, these 3 strains also failed to activate TLR4 on HEK-Blue cells, and activation of MM6 cells or human monocyte-derived dendritic cells was significantly lower than activation induced by the other 16 strains. Mass spectrum analysis of the lipid A moieties from these 3 strains indicated an altered structure of this molecule. Gene sequence analysis revealed mutations in genes involved in lipid A synthesis. Findings from this study indicate that B. pertussis isolates that do not activate TLR4 occur naturally and that this phenotype may give this bacterium an advantage in tempering the innate immune response and establishing infection. Knowledge on the strategies used by this pathogen in evading the host immune response is essential for the improvement of current vaccines or for the development of new ones.

  16. Early and delayed effects of naturally occurring asbestos on serum biomarkers of inflammation and metabolism.

    PubMed

    Kodavanti, Urmila P; Andrews, Debora; Schladweiler, Mette C; Gavett, Stephen H; Dodd, Darol E; Cyphert, Jaime M

    2014-01-01

    Studies recently showed that intratracheal (IT) instillation of Libby amphibole (LA) increases circulating acute-phase proteins (APP; α-2 macroglobulin, A2M; and α-1 acid glycoprotein, AGP) and inflammatory biomarkers (osteopontin and lipocalin) in rats. In this study, objectives were to (1) compare changes in biomarkers of rats after instillation of different naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) minerals including LA, Sumas Mountain chrysotile (SM), El Dorado Hills tremolite (ED), and Ontario ferroactinolite cleavage fragments (ON), and (2) examine biomarkers after subchronic LA or amosite inhalation exposure. Rat-respirable fractions (aerodynamic diameter approximately 2.5 μm) prepared by water elutriation were delivered via a single IT instillation at doses of 0, 0.5, and 1.5 mg/rat in male F344 rats. Nose-only inhalation exposures were performed at 0, 1, 3.3, and 10 mg/m(3) for LA and at 3.3 mg /m(3) for amosite, 6h/d, 5 d/wk for 13 wk. Inflammation, metabolic syndrome, and cancer biomarkers were analyzed in the serum for up to 18 mo. IT instillation of some asbestos materials significantly increased serum AGP and A2M but to a varying degree (SM = LA > ON = ED). Numerical increases in interleukin (IL)-6 and osteopontin occurred in rats instilled with SM. SM and ED also elevated leptin and insulin at 15 mo, suggesting potential metabolic effects. LA inhalation tended to raise A2M at d 1 but not cytokines. Serum mesothelin appeared to elevate after 18 mo of LA inhalation. These results suggest that the lung injury induced by high levels of asbestos materials may be associated with systemic inflammatory changes and predisposition to insulin resistance.

  17. Molecular characterization of a naturally occurring intraspecific recombinant begomovirus with close relatives widespread in southern Arabia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tomato leaf curl Sudan virus (ToLCSDV) is a single-stranded DNA begomovirus of tomato that causes downward leaf curl, yellowing, and stunting. Leaf curl disease results in significant yield reduction in tomato crops in the Nile Basin. ToLCSDV symptoms resemble those caused by Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, a distinct and widespread begomovirus originating in the Middle East. In this study, tomato samples exhibiting leaf curl symptoms were collected from Gezira, Sudan. The associated viral genome was molecularly characterized, analyzed phylogenetically, and an infectious clone for one isolate was constructed. Findings The complete genomes for five newly discovered variants of ToLCSDV, ranging in size from 2765 to 2767-bp, were cloned and sequenced, and subjected to pairwise and phylogenetic analyses. Pairwise analysis indicated that the five Gezira isolates shared 97-100% nucleotide identity with each other. Further, these variants of ToLCSDV shared their highest nucleotide identity at 96-98%, 91-95%, 91-92%, and 91-92% with the Shambat, Gezira, Oman and Yemen strains of ToLCSDV, respectively. Based on the high maximum nucleotide identities shared between these ToLCSDV variants from Gezira and other previously recognized members of this taxonomic group, they are considered isolates of the Shambat strain of ToLCSDV. Analysis of the complete genome sequence for these new variants revealed that they were naturally occurring recombinants between two previously reported strains of ToLCSDV. Finally, a dimeric clone constructed from one representative ToLCSV genome from Gezira was shown to be infectious following inoculation to tomato and N. benthamiana plants. Conclusion Five new, naturally occurring recombinant begomovirus variants (>96% shared nt identity) were identified in tomato plants from Gezira in Sudan, and shown to be isolates of the Shambat strain of ToLCSDV. The cloned viral genome was infectious in N. benthamiana and tomato plants, and symptoms in

  18. Pulmonary ultrasonographic abnormalities associated with naturally occurring equine influenza virus infection in standardbred racehorses.

    PubMed

    Gross, Diane K; Morley, Paul S; Hinchcliff, Kenneth W; Reichle, Jean K; Slemons, Richard D

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine if naturally occurring acute infectious upper respiratory disease (IRD) caused by equine influenza virus is associated with ultrasonographically detectable pleural and pulmonary abnormalities in horses. Standardbred racehorses were evaluated for signs of IRD, defined as acute coughing or mucopurulent nasal discharge. For every horse with IRD (n = 16), 1 or 2 horses with no signs of IRD and the same owner or trainer (n = 30) were included. Thoracic ultrasonography was performed within 5-10 days of the onset of clinical disease in horses with IRD. Horses without IRD were examined at the same time as the horses with IRD with which they were enrolled. The rank of the ultrasound scores of horses with IRD was compared to that of horses without IRD. Equine influenza virus was identified as the primary etiologic agent associated with IRD in this study. Mild lung consolidation and peripheral pulmonary irregularities were found in 11 (69%) of 16 of the horses with IRD and 11 (37%) of 30 of control horses. Lung consolidation (median score = 1) and peripheral irregularities scores (median score = 1) were greater in horses with IRD compared to horses without IRD (median score = 0; P < .05). Pleural effusion was not observed. Equine influenza virus infection can result in abnormalities of the equine lower respiratory tract. Despite the mild nature of IRD observed in this study, lung consolidation and peripheral pulmonary irregularities were more commonly observed in horses with clinical signs of IRD. Further work is needed to determine the clinical significance of these ultrasonographic abnormalities. PMID:15515590

  19. Infrared spectroscopic examination of the interaction of urea with the naturally occurring zeolite clinoptilolite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Byler, D.M.; Gerasimowicz, W.V.; Stockette, V.M.; Eberl, D.D.

    1991-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopy has shown for the first time that the naturally occurring zeolite clinoptilolite can absorb urea, (NH2)2CO, under ambient conditions from either aqueous or ethanolic solutions. The two strongest NH stretching bands at 3441 and 3344 cm-1 in pure, solid urea shift to higher frequency (about 3504 and 3401 cm-1) after absorption. Two of the four urea bands in the 1800-1300 cm-1 range (at 1683 and 1467 cm-1) undergo marked downward shifts to about 1670 and 1445 cm-1. The other two bands show little change in frequency. The strong band at 1602 cm-1, however, diminishes in intensity to little more than an ill-defined shoulder on the 1626-cm-1 peak. When clinoptilolite is heated to 450 ??C and then treated with molten urea (ca. 140 ??C) for several minutes, and finally washed twice with ethanol to remove excess unreacted urea, further changes become apparent in the spectrum of the urea-treated clinoptilolite. The two NH stretching bands broaden without significant change in frequency. Two new bands appear in the midfrequency range at 1777 (weak) and 1719 (medium strong) cm-1. Of the four original midfrequency peaks, the one at 1602 cm-1 is now absent. Two others (1627 and 1440 cm-1) exhibit little change, while the fourth has broadened and shifted down to 1663 cm-1, where it appears as a shoulder on the band at 1627 cm-1. Both treatments clearly induce interaction between urea and the zeolite which seems to result in significant modifications in the nature of the hydrogen bonding of the substrate. ?? 1991.

  20. Long-term toxicity of naturally occurring asbestos in male Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Cyphert, Jaime M; McGee, Marie A; Nyska, Abraham; Schladweiler, Mette C; Kodavanti, Urmila P; Gavett, Stephen H

    2016-01-01

    Naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) fibers are found in geologic deposits that may be disturbed by mining, earthworks, or natural processes, resulting in adverse health risks to exposed individuals. The toxicities of Libby amphibole and NOA samples including Sumas Mountain chrysotile (SM), El Dorado tremolite (ED), and Ontario ferroactinolite cleavage fragments (ON) were compared in male Fischer 344 (F344) rats 15 mo after exposure. Rat-respirable fractions of LA and SM displayed greater mean lengths and aspect ratios than ED and ON. After a single intratracheal (IT) instillation (0.5 or 1.5 mg/rat), persistent changes in ventilatory parameters and a significant increase in lung resistance at baseline and after methacholine aerosol dosing were found only in rats exposed to 1.5 mg SM. High-dose ED significantly elevated bronchoalveolar lavage lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and protein levels, while high-dose SM increased γ-glutamyl transferase and LDH activities. A moderate degree of lung interstitial fibrosis after exposure to 1.5 mg SM persisted 15 mo after exposure, unchanged from previous findings at 3 mo. LA induced mild fibrosis, while ED and ON produced minimal and no apparent fibrosis, respectively. Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma was observed 15 mo after exposure to LA or ED. Data demonstrated that SM, given by bolus IT dosing on an equivalent mass basis, induced greater pulmonary function deficits, airway hyperresponsiveness, and interstitial fibrosis than other NOA, although unlike LA and ED, no apparent evidence for carcinogenicity was found. All NOA samples except ON cleavage fragments produced some degree of long-term toxicity.

  1. Long-term toxicity of naturally occurring asbestos in male Fischer 344 rats.

    PubMed

    Cyphert, Jaime M; McGee, Marie A; Nyska, Abraham; Schladweiler, Mette C; Kodavanti, Urmila P; Gavett, Stephen H

    2016-01-01

    Naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) fibers are found in geologic deposits that may be disturbed by mining, earthworks, or natural processes, resulting in adverse health risks to exposed individuals. The toxicities of Libby amphibole and NOA samples including Sumas Mountain chrysotile (SM), El Dorado tremolite (ED), and Ontario ferroactinolite cleavage fragments (ON) were compared in male Fischer 344 (F344) rats 15 mo after exposure. Rat-respirable fractions of LA and SM displayed greater mean lengths and aspect ratios than ED and ON. After a single intratracheal (IT) instillation (0.5 or 1.5 mg/rat), persistent changes in ventilatory parameters and a significant increase in lung resistance at baseline and after methacholine aerosol dosing were found only in rats exposed to 1.5 mg SM. High-dose ED significantly elevated bronchoalveolar lavage lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and protein levels, while high-dose SM increased γ-glutamyl transferase and LDH activities. A moderate degree of lung interstitial fibrosis after exposure to 1.5 mg SM persisted 15 mo after exposure, unchanged from previous findings at 3 mo. LA induced mild fibrosis, while ED and ON produced minimal and no apparent fibrosis, respectively. Bronchioloalveolar carcinoma was observed 15 mo after exposure to LA or ED. Data demonstrated that SM, given by bolus IT dosing on an equivalent mass basis, induced greater pulmonary function deficits, airway hyperresponsiveness, and interstitial fibrosis than other NOA, although unlike LA and ED, no apparent evidence for carcinogenicity was found. All NOA samples except ON cleavage fragments produced some degree of long-term toxicity. PMID:26818398

  2. Evaluation of occupational exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials in the Iranian ceramics industry.

    PubMed

    Fathabadi, N; Farahani, M V; Amani, S; Moradi, M; Haddadi, B

    2011-06-01

    Zircon contains small amounts of uranium, thorium and radium in its crystalline structure. The ceramic industry is one of the major consumers of zirconium compounds that are used as an ingredient at ∼10-20 % by weight in glaze. In this study, seven different ceramic factories have been investigated regarding the presence of radioactive elements with focus on natural radioactivity. The overall objective of this investigation is to provide information regarding the radiation exposure to workers in the ceramic industry due to naturally occurring radioactive materials. This objective is met by collecting existing radiological data specific to glaze production and generating new data from sampling activities. The sampling effort involves the whole process of glaze production. External exposures are monitored using a portable gamma-ray spectrometer and environmental thermoluminescence dosimeters, by placing them for 6 months in some workplaces. Internal routes of exposure (mainly inhalation) are studied using air sampling, and gross alpha and beta counting. Measurement of radon gas and its progeny is performed by continuous radon gas monitors that use pulse ionisation chambers. Natural radioactivity due to the presence of ²³⁸U, ²³²Th and ⁴⁰K in zirconium compounds, glazes and other samples is measured by a gamma-ray spectrometry system with a high-purity germanium detector. The average concentrations of ²³⁸U and ²³²Th observed in the zirconium compounds are >3300 and >550 Bq kg⁻¹, respectively. The specific activities of other samples are much lower than in zirconium compounds. The annual effective dose from external radiation had a mean value of ∼0.13 mSv y⁻¹. Dust sampling revealed the greatest values in the process at the powdering site and hand weighing places. In these plants, the annual average effective dose from inhalation of long-lived airborne radionuclides was 0.226 mSv. ²²²Rn gas concentrations in the glaze production plant and

  3. Pennsylvania's technologically enhanced, naturally occurring radioactive material experiences and studies of the oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Allard, David J

    2015-02-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania's experiences and ongoing studies related to technologically enhanced, naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) in the oil and gas industry. It has been known for many years that Pennsylvania's geology is unique, with several areas having relatively high levels of natural uranium and thorium. In the 1950s, a few areas of the state were evaluated for commercial uranium production. In the late 1970s, scoping studies of radon in homes prompted the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) Bureau of Radiation Protection (BRP) to begin planning for a larger state-wide radon study. The BRP and Oil and Gas Bureau also performed a TENORM study of produced water in the early 1990s for a number of conventional oil and gas wells. More recently, BRP and the Bureau of Solid Waste developed radiation monitoring regulations for all Pennsylvania solid waste disposal facilities. These were implemented in 2001, prompting another evaluation of oil and gas operations and sludge generated from the treatment of conventionally produced water and brine but mainly focused on the disposal of TENORM solid waste in the state's Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle D landfills. However, since 2008, the increase in volumes of gas well wastewater and levels of Ra observed in the unconventional shale gas well flow-back fracking water has compelled DEP to fully re-examine these oil and gas operations. Specifically, with BRP in the lead, a new TENORM study of oil and gas operations and related wastewater treatment operations has been initiated (), supported by an American National Standards Institute standard on TENORM () and a U.S. Government Accountability Office report on shale resource development and risks (). This study began in early 2013 and will examine the potential public and worker radiation exposure and environmental impact as well as re-evaluate TENORM waste disposal. This

  4. Evaluation of occupational exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials in the Iranian ceramics industry.

    PubMed

    Fathabadi, N; Farahani, M V; Amani, S; Moradi, M; Haddadi, B

    2011-06-01

    Zircon contains small amounts of uranium, thorium and radium in its crystalline structure. The ceramic industry is one of the major consumers of zirconium compounds that are used as an ingredient at ∼10-20 % by weight in glaze. In this study, seven different ceramic factories have been investigated regarding the presence of radioactive elements with focus on natural radioactivity. The overall objective of this investigation is to provide information regarding the radiation exposure to workers in the ceramic industry due to naturally occurring radioactive materials. This objective is met by collecting existing radiological data specific to glaze production and generating new data from sampling activities. The sampling effort involves the whole process of glaze production. External exposures are monitored using a portable gamma-ray spectrometer and environmental thermoluminescence dosimeters, by placing them for 6 months in some workplaces. Internal routes of exposure (mainly inhalation) are studied using air sampling, and gross alpha and beta counting. Measurement of radon gas and its progeny is performed by continuous radon gas monitors that use pulse ionisation chambers. Natural radioactivity due to the presence of ²³⁸U, ²³²Th and ⁴⁰K in zirconium compounds, glazes and other samples is measured by a gamma-ray spectrometry system with a high-purity germanium detector. The average concentrations of ²³⁸U and ²³²Th observed in the zirconium compounds are >3300 and >550 Bq kg⁻¹, respectively. The specific activities of other samples are much lower than in zirconium compounds. The annual effective dose from external radiation had a mean value of ∼0.13 mSv y⁻¹. Dust sampling revealed the greatest values in the process at the powdering site and hand weighing places. In these plants, the annual average effective dose from inhalation of long-lived airborne radionuclides was 0.226 mSv. ²²²Rn gas concentrations in the glaze production plant and

  5. Pennsylvania's technologically enhanced, naturally occurring radioactive material experiences and studies of the oil and gas industry.

    PubMed

    Allard, David J

    2015-02-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania's experiences and ongoing studies related to technologically enhanced, naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM) in the oil and gas industry. It has been known for many years that Pennsylvania's geology is unique, with several areas having relatively high levels of natural uranium and thorium. In the 1950s, a few areas of the state were evaluated for commercial uranium production. In the late 1970s, scoping studies of radon in homes prompted the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) Bureau of Radiation Protection (BRP) to begin planning for a larger state-wide radon study. The BRP and Oil and Gas Bureau also performed a TENORM study of produced water in the early 1990s for a number of conventional oil and gas wells. More recently, BRP and the Bureau of Solid Waste developed radiation monitoring regulations for all Pennsylvania solid waste disposal facilities. These were implemented in 2001, prompting another evaluation of oil and gas operations and sludge generated from the treatment of conventionally produced water and brine but mainly focused on the disposal of TENORM solid waste in the state's Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle D landfills. However, since 2008, the increase in volumes of gas well wastewater and levels of Ra observed in the unconventional shale gas well flow-back fracking water has compelled DEP to fully re-examine these oil and gas operations. Specifically, with BRP in the lead, a new TENORM study of oil and gas operations and related wastewater treatment operations has been initiated (), supported by an American National Standards Institute standard on TENORM () and a U.S. Government Accountability Office report on shale resource development and risks (). This study began in early 2013 and will examine the potential public and worker radiation exposure and environmental impact as well as re-evaluate TENORM waste disposal. This

  6. SUPPLEMENTARY COMPARISON Technically enhanced naturally occurring radionuclides (TENORM) in phosphogypsum: Comparison CCRI(II)-S5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakhashiro, A.; Sansone, U.; Wershofen, H.; Bollhöfer, A.; Kim, C. K.; Kim, C. S.; Korun, M.; Moune, M.; Lee, S. H.; Tarjan, S.

    2010-01-01

    Within the frame of mutual cooperation between the IAEA and the BIPM, the Consultative Committee for Ionizing Radiation Section II—Measurement of Radionuclides accepted an IAEA-organized interlaboratory comparison in 2008 on the determination of technically enhanced naturally occurring radionuclides in phosphogypsum. The study was piloted by the Chemistry Unit at the IAEA's Laboratories in Seibersdorf (Austria). This report presents the methodology applied in conducting this comparison and the results. Activity results for Pb-210, Ra-226, Th-230, U-234, U-235 and U-238 were reported by three national metrology institutes (NMI) and five other expert laboratories or designated institutes. Four different approaches were used to calculate the nominal value of the reported results and associated uncertainties, and the results from each individual participant were evaluated and compared with this nominal reference value. The reported evaluation of the measurement results demonstrated agreement amongst the participating laboratories. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCRI Section II, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (MRA).

  7. Use of naturally occurring mercury to determine the importance of cutthroat trout to Yellowstone grizzly bears

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Felicetti, L.A.; Schwartz, C.C.; Rye, R.O.; Gunther, K.A.; Crock, J.G.; Haroldson, M.A.; Waits, L.; Robbins, C.T.

    2004-01-01

    Spawning cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki (Richardson, 1836)) are a potentially important food resource for grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis Ord, 1815) in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. We developed a method to estimate the amount of cutthroat trout ingested by grizzly bears living in the Yellowstone Lake area. The method utilized (i) the relatively high, naturally occurring concentration of mercury in Yellowstone Lake cutthroat trout (508 ± 93 ppb) and its virtual absence in all other bear foods (6 ppb), (ii) hair snares to remotely collect hair from bears visiting spawning cutthroat trout streams between 1997 and 2000, (iii) DNA analyses to identify the individual and sex of grizzly bears leaving a hair sample, (iv) feeding trials with captive bears to develop relationships between fish and mercury intake and hair mercury concentrations, and (v) mercury analyses of hair collected from wild bears to estimate the amount of trout consumed by each bear. Male grizzly bears consumed an average of 5 times more trout/kg bear than did female grizzly bears. Estimated cutthroat trout intake per year by the grizzly bear population was only a small fraction of that estimated by previous investigators, and males consumed 92% of all trout ingested by grizzly bears.

  8. Effect of naturally occurring ozone air pollution episodes on pulmonary oxidative stress and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Pirozzi, Cheryl; Sturrock, Anne; Weng, Hsin-Yi; Greene, Tom; Scholand, Mary Beth; Kanner, Richard; Paine, Robert

    2015-05-12

    This study aimed to determine if naturally occurring episodes of ozone air pollution in the Salt Lake Valley in Utah, USA, during the summer are associated with increased pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress, increased respiratory symptoms, and decreased lung function in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) compared to controls. We measured biomarkers (nitrite/nitrate (NOx), 8-isoprostane) in exhaled breath condensate (EBC), spirometry, and respiratory symptoms in 11 former smokers with moderate-to-severe COPD and nine former smokers without airflow obstruction during periods of low and high ozone air pollution. High ozone levels were associated with increased NOx in EBC in both COPD (8.7 (±8.5) vs. 28.6 (±17.6) μmol/L on clean air vs. pollution days, respectively, p < 0.01) and control participants (7.6 (±16.5) vs. 28.5 (±15.6) μmol/L on clean air vs. pollution days, respectively, p = 0.02). There was no difference in pollution effect between COPD and control groups, and no difference in EBC 8-isoprostane, pulmonary function, or respiratory symptoms between clean air and pollution days in either group. Former smokers both with and without airflow obstruction developed airway oxidative stress and inflammation in association with ozone air pollution episodes.

  9. Naturally occurring, nonregressing canine oral papillomavirus infection: host immunity, virus characterization, and experimental infection.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, P K; Klaunberg, B A; Moore, R A; Santos, E B; Parry, N R; Gough, G W; Stanley, M A

    1999-12-20

    Papillomaviruses occasionally cause severe, nonregressing or recurrent infections in their human and animal hosts. The mechanisms underlying these atypical infections are not known. Canine oral papillomavirus (COPV) typically regresses spontaneously and is an important model of mucosal human papillomavirus infections. A severe, naturally occurring, nonregressing COPV infection provided an opportunity to investigate some aspects of viral pathogenicity and host immunity. In this case, the papillomas proved refractory to surgical and medical treatments, including autogenous vaccination and vaccination with capsid (L1) virus-like particles. High levels of induced anti-L1 antibodies appeared to have no effect on the infection. The papillomas spread to oesophageal mucosa, perioral haired skin, and remote cutaneous sites. Isolation of COPV from the animal and sequencing of several regions of the viral genome showed no differences to the COPV prototype. Experimental infection of beagle dogs with this viral isolate resulted in the uncomplicated development and regression of oral warts within the usual period, indicating that the virus was not an unusual pathogenic variant. These findings support the hypothesis that the recurrent lesions seen in some human papillomavirus infections, such as recurrent laryngeal papillomatosis, are associated with specific defects in host immunity rather than variations in viral pathogenicity. PMID:10600607

  10. Repair of naturally occurring mismatches can induce mutations in flanking DNA

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jia; Miller, Brendan F; Furano, Anthony V

    2014-01-01

    ‘Normal’ genomic DNA contains hundreds of mismatches that are generated daily by the spontaneous deamination of C (U/G) and methyl-C (T/G). Thus, a mutagenic effect of their repair could constitute a serious genetic burden. We show here that while mismatches introduced into human cells on an SV40-based episome were invariably repaired, this process induced mutations in flanking DNA at a significantly higher rate than no mismatch controls. Most mutations involved the C of TpC, the substrate of some single strand-specific APOBEC cytidine deaminases, similar to the mutations that can typify the ‘mutator phenotype’ of numerous tumors. siRNA knockdowns and chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that TpC preferring APOBECs mediate the mutagenesis, and siRNA knockdowns showed that both the base excision and mismatch repair pathways are involved. That naturally occurring mispairs can be converted to mutators, represents an heretofore unsuspected source of genetic changes that could underlie disease, aging, and evolutionary change. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02001.001 PMID:24843013

  11. Repair of naturally occurring mismatches can induce mutations in flanking DNA.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jia; Miller, Brendan F; Furano, Anthony V

    2014-01-01

    'Normal' genomic DNA contains hundreds of mismatches that are generated daily by the spontaneous deamination of C (U/G) and methyl-C (T/G). Thus, a mutagenic effect of their repair could constitute a serious genetic burden. We show here that while mismatches introduced into human cells on an SV40-based episome were invariably repaired, this process induced mutations in flanking DNA at a significantly higher rate than no mismatch controls. Most mutations involved the C of TpC, the substrate of some single strand-specific APOBEC cytidine deaminases, similar to the mutations that can typify the 'mutator phenotype' of numerous tumors. siRNA knockdowns and chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that TpC preferring APOBECs mediate the mutagenesis, and siRNA knockdowns showed that both the base excision and mismatch repair pathways are involved. That naturally occurring mispairs can be converted to mutators, represents an heretofore unsuspected source of genetic changes that could underlie disease, aging, and evolutionary change.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02001.001. PMID:24843013

  12. Effect of naturally occurring apatites on growth and morphology of algae.

    PubMed

    Smith, E A; Mayfield, C I; Wong, P T; Silverberg, B A

    1977-09-01

    Crystals (30--100 micrometer) of selected naturally occurring apatite (Ca10 (PO4)6(OH, F)2) samples were added to P-free (less than 0.001 microgram/ml total P) Bristol's medium (1-1000 microgram/ml of apatite) as the sole source of ortho-PO43-. The media were inoculated with washed, non-axenic cells of three chlorophycean algal species cultivated under PO43--deficient conditions. Phase-contrast and scanning electron microscopy revealed that at low slurry densities (1-10 microgram/ml of apatite), Ankistrodesmus braunii (ATCC 2744) cells were morphologically distorted. At concentrations of 100 and 1000 microgram/ml of apatite, more than 85% of the cells had undergone autospore formation within 7--10 days of incubation at 20 degrees C. Most autospores formed failed to germinate under high nutrient conditions. Scenedesmus longus (No. 1236) formed colonies when cultivated in Bristol's medium but daughter cells displayed a Chodatella-like unicellular morphology when grown in apatite media. Test algal species (Chlamydomonas dysosmos, S. longus, A. braunii) showed a marked preference for growth on apatite crystals over non-nutritive surfaces. Unialgal and mixed-algal cultures produced an extensive matrix of extracellular fibrous material in response to growth on crystals at concentrations greater than 10 microgram/ml of apatite. PMID:907915

  13. Naturally occurring p16Ink4a-positive cells shorten healthy lifespan

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Darren J.; Childs, Bennett G.; Durik, Matej; Wijers, Melinde E.; Sieben, Cynthia J.; Zhong, Jian; Saltness, Rachel; Jeganathan, Karthik B.; Versoza, Grace C.; Pezeshki, Abdul-Mohammad; Khazaie, Khashayarsha; Miller, Jordan D.; van Deursen, Jan M.

    2016-01-01

    Cellular senescence, a stress-induced irreversible growth arrest often characterized by p16Ink4a expression and a distinctive secretory phenotype, prevents the proliferation of preneoplastic cells and has beneficial roles in tissue remodelling during embryogenesis and wound healing. Senescent cells accumulate in various tissues and organs over time and have been speculated to play a role in aging. To explore the physiological relevance and consequences of naturally occurring senescent cells, we used a previously established transgene, INK-ATTAC, to induce apoptosis in p16Ink4a-expressing cells of wild-type mice by injection of AP20187 twice a week starting at one year of age. Here we show that compared to vehicle alone, AP20187 treatment extended median lifespan in both male and female mice of two distinct genetic backgrounds. Clearance of p16Ink4a-positive cells delayed tumorigenesis and attenuated age-related deterioration of several organs without apparent side effects, including kidney, heart and fat, where clearance preserved the functionality of glomeruli, cardio-protective KATP channels, and adipocytes, respectively. Thus, p16Ink4a-positive cells that accumulate during adulthood negatively influence lifespan and promote age-dependent changes in multiple organs, and their therapeutic removal may be an attractive approach to extend healthy lifespan. PMID:26840489

  14. Naturally-occurring TGR5 agonists modulating glucagon-like peptide-1 biosynthesis and secretion.

    PubMed

    Jafri, Laila; Saleem, Samreen; Calderwood, Danielle; Gillespie, Anna; Mirza, Bushra; Green, Brian D

    2016-04-01

    Selective GLP-1 secretagogues represent a novel potential therapy for type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study examined the GLP-1 secretory activity of the ethnomedicinal plant, Fagonia cretica, which is postulated to possess anti-diabetic activity. After extraction and fractionation extracts and purified compounds were tested for GLP-1 and GIP secretory activity in pGIP/neo STC-1 cells. Intracellular levels of incretin hormones and their gene expression were also determined. Crude F. cretica extracts stimulated both GLP-1 and GIP secretion, increased cellular hormone content, and upregulated gene expression of proglucagon, GIP and prohormone convertase. However, ethyl acetate partitioning significantly enriched GLP-1 secretory activity and this fraction underwent bioactivity-guided fractionation. Three isolated compounds were potent and selective GLP-1 secretagogues: quinovic acid (QA) and two QA derivatives, QA-3β-O-β-D-glycopyranoside and QA-3β-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(28→1)-β-D-glucopyranosyl ester. All QA compounds activated the TGR5 receptor and increased intracellular incretin levels and gene expression. QA derivatives were more potent GLP-1 secretagogues than QA. This is the first time that QA and its naturally-occurring derivatives have been shown to activate TGR5 and stimulate GLP-1 secretion. These data provide a plausible mechanism for the ethnomedicinal use of F. cretica and may assist in the ongoing development of selective GLP-1 agonists. PMID:26820940

  15. Transporters in Arabidopsis roots mediating uptake of amino acids at naturally occurring concentrations.

    PubMed

    Svennerstam, Henrik; Jämtgård, Sandra; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Huss-Danell, Kerstin; Näsholm, Torgny; Ganeteg, Ulrika

    2011-07-01

    Recent studies of Arabidopsis have identified several transporters as being important for amino acid uptake. We used Arabidopsis plants with altered expression of lysine histidine transporter 1 (LHT1), amino acid permease 1 (AAP1) and amino acid permease 5 (AAP5) with the aim of disentangling the roles of each transporter in the uptake of different amino acids at naturally occurring concentrations (2-50 μM). LHT1 mutants displayed reduced uptake rates of L-Gln, L-Ala, L-Glu and L-Asp but not of L-Arg or L-Lys, while AAP5 mutants were affected in the uptake of L-Arg and L-Lys only. Double mutants (lht1aap5) exhibited reduced uptake of all tested amino acids. In the concentration range tested, AAP1 mutants did not display altered uptake rates for any of the studied amino acids. Expression analysis of amino acid transporter genes with important root functions revealed no major differences in the individual mutants other than for genes targeted for mutation. We conclude that LHT1 and AAP5, but not AAP1, are crucial for amino acid uptake at concentrations typically found in soils. LHT1 and AAP5 displayed complementary affinity spectra, and no redundancy with respect to gene expression was found between the two transporters, suggesting these two transporters have separate roles in amino acid uptake.

  16. Contact Mechanics of Naturally Occurring Grains: Experiments and Discrete Element Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, David M.; Hopkins, Mark A.

    2009-06-01

    Application of the discrete element method to engineering problems involving naturally occurring granular materials requires knowledge of the contact mechanics of the particles and a realistic treatment of particle shapes. This paper presents results from on-going work that addresses these two fundamental issues of granular media mechanics. Grain-scale laboratory experiments are being conducted to provide the needed contact relationships. A concurrent discrete element modeling effort is under way to implement the experimentally determined contact relationships and employ realistic particle shapes. The experiments determine the stiffness and frictional behavior of normal and sliding contacts of observed for spherical specimens of gneiss. Stiffness in the normal mode is seen to range from 0.1 to 15 MN m-1 depending on force level. Shear stiffness is on the order of the normal stiffness, but only for relatively low shear force levels (or shear deformations). Frictional energy losses are observed to varying degrees under virtually all experimental conditions. The discrete element modeling effort simulates the triaxial response of the spherical grains enclosed in a membrane and implements the experimentally determined contact relationships for normal and sliding contact behavior. Inclusion of the full frictional behavior prior to macroscopic sliding is under development. Some aspects of the simulations of the triaxial deformation of spherical grains of gneiss are presented and compared with the grain-scale experimental data. The simulations are seen to capture the key features of the experimental observations.

  17. Rubemamine and Rubescenamine, Two Naturally Occurring N-Cinnamoyl Phenethylamines with Umami-Taste-Modulating Properties.

    PubMed

    Backes, Michael; Obst, Katja; Bojahr, Juliane; Thorhauer, Anika; Roudnitzky, Natacha; Paetz, Susanne; Reichelt, Katharina V; Krammer, Gerhard E; Meyerhof, Wolfgang; Ley, Jakob P

    2015-10-01

    Sensory screening of a series of naturally occurring N-cinnamoyl derivatives of substituted phenethylamines revealed that rubemamine (9, from Chenopodium album) and rubescenamine (10, from Zanthoxylum rubsecens) elicit strong intrinsic umami taste in water at 50 and 10 ppm, respectively. Sensory tests in glutamate- and nucleotide-containing bases showed that the compounds influence the whole flavor profile of savory formulations. Both rubemamine (9) and rubescenamine (10) at 10-100 ppm dose-dependently positively modulated the umami taste of MSG (0.17-0.22%) up to threefold. Among the investigated amides, only rubemamine (9) and rubescenamine (10) are able to directly activate the TAS1R1-TAS1R3 umami taste receptor. Moreover, both compounds also synergistically modulated the activation of TAS1R1-TAS1R3 by MSG. Most remarkably, rubemamine (9) was able to further positively modulate the IMP-enhanced TAS1R1-TAS1R3 response to MSG ∼ 1.8-fold. Finally, armatamide (11), zanthosinamide (13), and dioxamine (14), which lack intrinsic umami taste in vivo and direct receptor response in vitro, also positively modulated receptor activation by MSG about twofold and the IMP-enhanced MSG-induced TAS1R1-TAS1R3 responses approximately by 50%. In sensory experiments, dioxamine (14) at 25 ppm in combination with 0.17% MSG exhibited a sensory equivalent to 0.37% MSG. PMID:26375852

  18. Genetic basis of hindlimb loss in a naturally occurring vertebrate model

    PubMed Central

    Don, Emily K.; de Jong-Curtain, Tanya A.; Doggett, Karen; Hall, Thomas E.; Heng, Benjamin; Badrock, Andrew P.; Winnick, Claire; Nicholson, Garth A.; Guillemin, Gilles J.; Currie, Peter D.; Hesselson, Daniel; Heath, Joan K.; Cole, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Here we genetically characterise pelvic finless, a naturally occurring model of hindlimb loss in zebrafish that lacks pelvic fin structures, which are homologous to tetrapod hindlimbs, but displays no other abnormalities. Using a hybrid positional cloning and next generation sequencing approach, we identified mutations in the nuclear localisation signal (NLS) of T-box transcription factor 4 (Tbx4) that impair nuclear localisation of the protein, resulting in altered gene expression patterns during pelvic fin development and the failure of pelvic fin development. Using a TALEN-induced tbx4 knockout allele we confirm that mutations within the Tbx4 NLS (A78V; G79A) are sufficient to disrupt pelvic fin development. By combining histological, genetic, and cellular approaches we show that the hindlimb initiation gene tbx4 has an evolutionarily conserved, essential role in pelvic fin development. In addition, our novel viable model of hindlimb deficiency is likely to facilitate the elucidation of the detailed molecular mechanisms through which Tbx4 functions during pelvic fin and hindlimb development. PMID:26892237

  19. Anabolic and Antiresorptive Modulation of Bone Homeostasis by the Epigenetic Modulator Sulforaphane, a Naturally Occurring Isothiocyanate.

    PubMed

    Thaler, Roman; Maurizi, Antonio; Roschger, Paul; Sturmlechner, Ines; Khani, Farzaneh; Spitzer, Silvia; Rumpler, Monika; Zwerina, Jochen; Karlic, Heidrun; Dudakovic, Amel; Klaushofer, Klaus; Teti, Anna; Rucci, Nadia; Varga, Franz; van Wijnen, Andre J

    2016-03-25

    Bone degenerative pathologies like osteoporosis may be initiated by age-related shifts in anabolic and catabolic responses that control bone homeostasis. Here we show that sulforaphane (SFN), a naturally occurring isothiocyanate, promotes osteoblast differentiation by epigenetic mechanisms. SFN enhances active DNA demethylation viaTet1andTet2and promotes preosteoblast differentiation by enhancing extracellular matrix mineralization and the expression of osteoblastic markers (Runx2,Col1a1,Bglap2,Sp7,Atf4, andAlpl). SFN decreases the expression of the osteoclast activator receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) in osteocytes and mouse calvarial explants and preferentially induces apoptosis in preosteoclastic cells via up-regulation of theTet1/Fas/Caspase 8 and Caspase 3/7 pathway. These mechanistic effects correlate with higher bone volume (∼20%) in both normal and ovariectomized mice treated with SFN for 5 weeks compared with untreated mice as determined by microcomputed tomography. This effect is due to a higher trabecular number in these mice. Importantly, no shifts in mineral density distribution are observed upon SFN treatment as measured by quantitative backscattered electron imaging. Our data indicate that the food-derived compound SFN epigenetically stimulates osteoblast activity and diminishes osteoclast bone resorption, shifting the balance of bone homeostasis and favoring bone acquisition and/or mitigation of bone resorptionin vivo Thus, SFN is a member of a new class of epigenetic compounds that could be considered for novel strategies to counteract osteoporosis. PMID:26757819

  20. Genetic mapping of a naturally occurring hereditary renal cancer syndrome in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Jónasdóttir, Thora J.; Mellersh, Cathryn S.; Moe, Lars; Heggebø, Ragna; Gamlem, Hans; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Lingaas, Frode

    2000-01-01

    Canine hereditary multifocal renal cystadenocarcinoma and nodular dermatofibrosis (RCND) is a rare, naturally occurring inherited cancer syndrome observed in dogs. Genetic linkage analysis of an RCND-informative pedigree has identified a linkage group flanking RCND (CHP14-C05.377-C05.414-FH2383-C05.771-[RCND-CPH18]-C02608-GLUT4-TP53-ZuBeCa6-AHT141-FH2140-FH2594) thus localizing the disease to a small region of canine chromosome 5. The closest marker, C02608, is linked to RCND with a recombination fraction (θ) of 0.016, supported by a logarithm of odds score of 16.7. C02608 and the adjacent linked markers map to a region of the canine genome corresponding to portions of human chromosomes 1p and 17p. A combination of linkage analysis and direct sequencing eliminate several likely candidate genes, including tuberous sclerosis 1 and 2 genes (TSC1 and TSC2) and the tumor suppressor gene TP53. These data suggest that RCND may be caused by a previously unidentified tumor suppressor gene and highlight the potential for canine genetics in the study of human disease predisposition. PMID:10759551

  1. A naturally occurring contrast agent for OCT imaging of smokers' lung

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ying; Bagnaninchi, Pierre O.; Whiteman, Suzanne C.; Gey van Pittius, Daniel; El Haj, Alicia J.; Spiteri, Monica A.; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2005-08-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) offers great potential for clinical applications in terms of its cost, safety and real-time imaging capability. Improvement of its resolution for revealing sub-layers or sub-cellular components within a tissue will further widen its application. In this study we report that carbon pigment, which is frequently present in the lungs of smokers, could be used as a contrast agent to improve the OCT imaging of lung tissue. Carbon produced an intense bright OCT image at a relatively deep location. The parallel histopathological section analysis confirmed the presence of carbon pigment in such tissues. The underlying mechanism of the OCT image formation has been discussed based on a model system in which carbon particles were dispersed in agar gel. Calculations and in-depth intensity profiles of OCT revealed that higher refractive index particles with a size close to or smaller than the wavelength would greatly increase backscattering and generate a sharp contrast, while a particle size several times larger than the wavelength would absorb or obstruct the light path. The naturally occurring contrast agent could provide a diagnostic biomarker of lung tissue in smokers. Furthermore, carbon under such circumstances, can be used as an effective exogenous contrast agent, with which specific components or tissues exhibiting early tumour formation can be optically labelled to delineate the location and boundary, providing potential for early cancer detection and its treatment.

  2. Masculinised Behaviour of XY Females in a Mammal with Naturally Occuring Sex Reversal

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Paul A.; Franco, Thomas; Sottas, Camille; Maurice, Tangui; Ganem, Guila; Veyrunes, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Most sex differences in phenotype are controlled by gonadal hormones, but recent work on laboratory strain mice that present discordant chromosomal and gonadal sex showed that sex chromosome complement can have a direct influence on the establishment of sex-specific behaviours, independently from gonads. In this study, we analyse the behaviour of a rodent with naturally occurring sex reversal: the African pygmy mouse Mus minutoides, in which all males are XY, while females are of three types: XX, XX* or X*Y (the asterisk represents an unknown X-linked mutation preventing masculinisation of X*Y embryos). X*Y females show typical female anatomy and, interestingly, have greater breeding performances. We investigate the link between sex chromosome complement, behaviour and reproductive success in females by analysing several behavioural features that could potentially influence their fitness: female attractiveness, aggressiveness and anxiety. Despite sex chromosome complement was not found to impact male mate preferences, it does influence some aspects of both aggressiveness and anxiety: X*Y females are more aggressive than the XX and XX*, and show lower anxiogenic response to novelty, like males. We discuss how these behavioural differences might impact the breeding performances of females, and how the sex chromosome complement could shape the differences observed. PMID:26964761

  3. Naturally occurring cancers in dogs: insights for translational genetics and medicine.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Carlos E

    2014-01-01

    Here, we briefly review the state of knowledge of human cancer genetics to elaborate on the need for different types of mammalian models, highlighting the strengths of the dog. Mouse models are unparalleled for their experimental tractability and rapid genetic manipulation but have some key limitations in the area of human relevance. Companion dog models are attractive, because they are genetically more similar to humans, share environmental exposures with their owners, suffer from the same diseases as humans, and receive a high level of health care. They are ideal for the study of chronic diseases, because they age five to eight times faster than humans and generally live to old age. In addition, each dog breed is on the order of 100-fold genetically simpler than the whole human or dog population. These traits make the dog ideal for the study of complex genetics of naturally occurring cancers. Here, we contrast the relative strengths of cancer genetics in humans and dogs. We propose that humans are most ideal for the study of somatic cancer genetics, whereas dogs are most ideal for germline genetics. That proposition is supported by comparison of genome-wide association studies (GWASs) in human and canine cancer. One of the advantages of dog cancer GWASs is the ability to rapidly map complex traits, conduct fine mapping and identification of causative variation, and thus be in a position to move on to functional studies. We mention how these strengths of dog models will lead to rapid advances in translational medicine.

  4. Chlorination of 4-hydroxycinnamic acid and its toxic risk as a natural occurring water contaminant

    SciTech Connect

    Borlakoglu, J.T.; Kickuth, R.

    1986-12-01

    During the decay process of plant material a number of phenolic compounds are released into the environment. Previous studies on water courses have shown that five phenolic acids derived from plants predominate with 4-hydroxycinnamic acid as the major compound. Many of these compounds can travel through the soil matrix and enter a water stream. However, water supplies are routinely chlorinated which leads to the chemical chlorination of phenolic water contaminants. These naturally occurring phenolics may therefore change their chemical and biological behavior and probably become, after chlorination, increasingly toxic. Although the occurrence of water compounds in tap water have been increasingly investigated with focus on industrial water pollutants, it is not fully understood to what extent the decay of plant material contributes to phenolic water contamination. Great concern about routine water chlorination has been expressed, because of the chlorination of aliphatic and aromatic water contaminants possibly accompanied by a change in their chemical and biological behavior and the synthesis of organochlorine derivatives. The present situation does not allow any prediction of the chemical and biological behavior of the parent compound nor is it possible to anticipate the amount and potential risk of its organochlorine derivatives. The objective of the present work was to study the chemical behavior of plant-derived phenolic acids under conditions similar to the routine water chlorination. The toxicity of the chlorophenoic mixtures was assessed on a Escherichia coli strain similar to that found in the human intestine.

  5. High naturally occurring radioactivity in fossil groundwater from the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Vengosh, Avner; Hirschfeld, Daniella; Vinson, David; Dwyer, Gary; Raanan, Hadas; Rimawi, Omar; Al-Zoubi, Abdallah; Akkawi, Emad; Marie, Amer; Haquin, Gustavo; Zaarur, Shikma; Ganor, Jiwchar

    2009-03-15

    High levels of naturally occurring and carcinogenic radium isotopes have been measured in low-saline and oxic groundwater from the Rum Group of the Disi sandstone aquifer in Jordan. The combined 228Ra and 226Ra activities are up to 2000% higher than international drinking water standards. Analyses of the host sandstone aquifer rocks show 228Ra and 226Ra activities and ratios that are consistent with previous reports of sandstone rocks from different parts of the world. A compilation of previous data in groundwater from worldwide sandstone aquifers shows large variations in Ra activities regardless of the groundwater salinity. On the basis of the distribution of the four Ra isotopes and the ratios of the short- to long-lived Ra isotopes, we postulate that Ra activity in groundwater is controlled by the balance of radioactive decay of parent Th isotopes on aquifer solids, decay of the dissolved radium isotopes, and adsorption of dissolved Ra on solid surfaces. The availability of surface adsorption sites, which depends on the clay content in the aquifer rocks, is therefore an important constraint for Ra activity in sandstone aquifers. These findings raise concerns about the safety of this and similar nonrenewable groundwater reservoirs, exacerbating the already severe water crisis in the Middle East.

  6. Formation of naturally occurring pigments during the production of nitrite-free dry fermented sausages.

    PubMed

    De Maere, Hannelore; Fraeye, Ilse; De Mey, Eveline; Dewulf, Lore; Michiels, Chris; Paelinck, Hubert; Chollet, Sylvie

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the potential of producing red coloured dry fermented sausages without the addition of nitrite and/or nitrate. Therefore, the formation of zinc protoporphyrin IX (Zn(II)PPIX) as naturally occurring pigment, and the interrelated protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) and heme content were evaluated during nitrite-free dry fermented sausage production at different pH conditions. Zn(II)PPIX was only able to form in dry fermented sausages at pH conditions higher than approximately 4.9. Additionally, the presence of Zn(II)PPIX increased drastically at the later phase of the production process (up to day 177), confirming that in addition to pH, time is also a crucial factor for its formation. Similarly, PPIX also accumulated in the meat products at increased pH conditions and production times. In contrast, a breakdown of heme was observed. This breakdown was more gradual and independent of pH and showed no clear relationship with the formed amounts of Zn(II)PPIX and PPIX. A statistically significant relationship between Zn(II)PPIX formation and product redness was established.

  7. What should a radiation regulator do about naturally occurring radioactive material?

    PubMed

    Loy, J

    2015-06-01

    The standard regulatory framework of authorisation, review and assessment, inspection and enforcement, and regulation making is directed principally towards ensuring the regulatory control of planned exposure situations. Some mining and industrial activities involving exposures to naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), such as uranium mining or the treatment and conditioning of NORM residues, may fit readily within this standard framework. In other cases, such as oil and gas exploration and production, the standard regulatory framework needs to be adjusted. For example, it is not sensible to require that an oil company seek a licence from the radiation regulator before drilling a well. The paper discusses other approaches that a regulator might take to assure protection and safety in such activities involving exposures to NORM, including the use of conditional exemptions from regulatory controls. It also suggests some areas where further guidance from the International Commission on Radiological Protection on application of the system of radiological protection to NORM would assist both regulators and operators. PMID:25816273

  8. Evaluation of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the South Western oil wells of Iran.

    PubMed

    Khodashenas, Alireza; Roayaei, Emad; Abtahi, Seyed Mojtaba; Ardalani, Elham

    2012-07-01

    An investigation was carried out to find out the concentration of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs) in an oil production unit, an evaporation pond, and a drilling site in the Khuzestan province, in south west Iran the 4th largest oil producing country in the world. The nuclides (232)Th and (40)K were determined in soil samples and (226)Ra was analyzed in both soil and water. The (232)Th ranged between 8.7 and 403 Bq kg(-1), while the minimum concentration for (40)K was much larger, i.e. 82 Bq kg(-1) and its maximum concentration was 815 Bq kg(-1). Soil samples indicated very low concentrations of (226)Ra, typically between 10.6 and 42.1 Bq kg(-1) with some exceptions of 282, 602, and even 1480 Bq kg(-1). Also, the range for (226)Ra in water was less from 0.1 to a maximum 30.3 Bq L(-1). Results show that on average, NORM concentrations in these areas are lower in comparison with the usual concentration levels in typical oil and gas fields, but despite this fact, necessary measures have to be taken in order to minimize the environmental impact of radioactive materials. PMID:22321893

  9. Construction of a naturally occurring radioactive material project in the BeAAT hazardous waste facilities.

    PubMed

    Abuahmad, H

    2015-06-01

    This paper does not necessarily reflect the views of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is produced during exploration and production operations of subsidiaries of the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC) in the United Arab Emirates, and accumulates in drilling tubulars, plant equipment, and components. These NORM hazardous wastes need to be managed in such a way that they do not damage human health and the environment. The primary radionuclides of concern in the oil and gas industries are radium-226 and radium-228. These radioisotopes are the decay products of uranium and thorium isotopes that are present in subsurface formations from which hydrocarbons are produced. While uranium and thorium are largely immobile, radium is slightly more soluble and may become mobilised in the fluid phases of the formation (International Association of Oil & Gas Producers, 2008). In order to treat and dispose of NORM waste products safely, ADNOC's subsidiary 'TAKREER' is developing a new facility, on behalf of all ADNOC subsidiaries, within the existing Central Environmental Protection Facilities (BeAAT) in Ruwais city. The NORM plant is envisaged to treat, handle, and dispose of NORM waste in the forms of scale, sludge, and contaminated equipment. The NORM treatment facility will cover activities such as decontamination, volume reduction, NORM handling, and concrete immobilisation of NORM waste into packages for designated landfilling.

  10. SOS induction of selected naturally occurring substances in Escherichia coli (SOS chromotest).

    PubMed

    Kevekordes, S; Mersch-Sundermann, V; Burghaus, C M; Spielberger, J; Schmeiser, H H; Arlt, V M; Dunkelberg, H

    1999-09-15

    Naturally occurring substances were tested for genotoxicity using a modified laboratory protocol of the Escherichia coli PQ37 genotoxicity assay (SOS chromotest) in the presence and in the absence of an exogenous metabolizing system from rat liver S9-mix. Aristolochic acid I, II, the plant extract aristolochic acid and psoralene were genotoxic; cycasine, emodine, monocrotaline and retrorsine were classified as marginal genotoxic in the SOS chromotest in the absence of S9-mix. In the presence of an exogenous metabolizing system from rat liver S9-mix aristolochic acid I, the plant extract, beta-asarone, cycasin, monocrotaline, psoralen and retrorsine showed genotoxic effects; aristolochic acid II marginal genotoxic effects. Arecoline, benzyl acetate, coumarin, isatidine dihydrate, reserpine, safrole, sanguinarine chloride, senecionine, senkirkine, tannin and thiourea revealed no genotoxicity in the SOS chromotest either in the presence or in the absence of an exogenous metabolizing system from rat liver S9-mix. For 17 of 20 compounds, the results obtained in the SOS chromotest could be compared to those obtained in the Ames test. It was found that 12 (70.6%) of these compounds give similar responses in both tests (6 positive and 6 negative responses). The present investigation and those reported earlier, the SOS chromotest, using E. coli PQ37, was able to detect correctly most of the Salmonella mutagens and non-mutagens.

  11. Radiological dose assessment related to management of naturally occurring radioactive materials generated by the petroleum industry

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.P.; Blunt, D.L.; Williams, G.P.; Tebes, C.L.

    1996-09-01

    A preliminary radiological dose assessment of equipment decontamination, subsurface disposal, landspreading, equipment smelting, and equipment burial was conducted to address concerns regarding the presence of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in production waste streams. The assessment estimated maximum individual dose equivalents for workers and the general public. Sensitivity analyses of certain input parameters also were conducted. On the basis of this assessment, it is concluded that (1) regulations requiring workers to wear respiratory protection during equipment cleaning operations are likely to result in lower worker doses, (2) underground injection and downhole encapsulation of NORM wastes present a negligible risk to the general public, and (3) potential doses to workers and the general public related to smelting NORM-contaminated equipment can be controlled by limiting the contamination level of the initial feed. It is recommended that (1) NORM wastes be further characterized to improve studies of potential radiological doses; (2) states be encouraged to permit subsurface disposal of NORM more readily, provided further assessments support this study; results; (3) further assessment of landspreading NORM wastes be conducted; and (4) the political, economic, sociological, and nonradiological issues related to smelting NORM-contaminated equipment be studied to fully examine the feasibility of this disposal option.

  12. Construction of a naturally occurring radioactive material project in the BeAAT hazardous waste facilities.

    PubMed

    Abuahmad, H

    2015-06-01

    This paper does not necessarily reflect the views of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) is produced during exploration and production operations of subsidiaries of the Abu Dhabi National Oil Company (ADNOC) in the United Arab Emirates, and accumulates in drilling tubulars, plant equipment, and components. These NORM hazardous wastes need to be managed in such a way that they do not damage human health and the environment. The primary radionuclides of concern in the oil and gas industries are radium-226 and radium-228. These radioisotopes are the decay products of uranium and thorium isotopes that are present in subsurface formations from which hydrocarbons are produced. While uranium and thorium are largely immobile, radium is slightly more soluble and may become mobilised in the fluid phases of the formation (International Association of Oil & Gas Producers, 2008). In order to treat and dispose of NORM waste products safely, ADNOC's subsidiary 'TAKREER' is developing a new facility, on behalf of all ADNOC subsidiaries, within the existing Central Environmental Protection Facilities (BeAAT) in Ruwais city. The NORM plant is envisaged to treat, handle, and dispose of NORM waste in the forms of scale, sludge, and contaminated equipment. The NORM treatment facility will cover activities such as decontamination, volume reduction, NORM handling, and concrete immobilisation of NORM waste into packages for designated landfilling. PMID:25816275

  13. Iron chelators and free radical scavengers in naturally occurring polyhydroxylated 1,4-naphthoquinones.

    PubMed

    Lebedev, Alexander V; Ivanova, Marina V; Levitsky, Dmitri O

    2008-01-01

    The cardioprotective effect of polyhydroxylated 1,4-naphthoquinones on the experimental model of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion has been demonstrated previously. In this study, using different models, such as bulk organic phase, liposomes and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) vesicles, we have shown the ability of naturally occurring polyhydroxynaphthoquinones, echinochrome (Ech), spinochromes C, D and E (SpC, SpD and SpE) to inhibit free-radical oxidation induced by heme iron (hemin) or by free iron ions (in ferrous/ascorbate system). The polyhydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinones (PHNQs) were more effective in inhibiting the phosphatidyl choline liposome peroxidation induced by ferrous/ascorbate than that induced by hemin. The iron chelating ability of PHNQs was determined spectrophotometrically. Prevention of the ferrous/ascorbate-induced leakage of calcium by Ech was demonstrated in isolated SR vesicles from rabbit skeletal muscle. The PHNQs displayed high scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals. We concluded that iron chelation predominates in the overall antioxidant potential of the polyhydroxynaphthoquinones. PMID:18274994

  14. Naturally occurring HCA1 missense mutations result in loss of function: potential impact on lipid deposition

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Jamie R.; Lane, Jacqueline M.; Beinborn, Martin; Kopin, Alan S.

    2013-01-01

    The hydroxy-carboxylic acid receptor (HCA1) is a G protein-coupled receptor that is highly expressed on adipocytes and considered a potential target for the treatment of dyslipidemia. In the current study, we investigated the pharmacological properties of naturally occurring variants in this receptor (H43Q, A110V, S172L, and D253H). After transient expression of these receptors into human embryonic kidney 293 cells, basal and ligand-induced signaling were assessed using luciferase reporter gene assays. The A110V, S172L, and D253 variants showed reduced basal activity; the S172L mutant displayed a decrease in potency to the endogenous ligand l-lactate. Both the S172L and D253H variants also showed impaired cell surface expression, which may in part explain the reduced activity of these receptors. The impact of a loss in HCA1 function on lipid accumulation was investigated in the adipocyte cell line, OP9. In these cells, endogenous HCA1 transcript levels rapidly increased and reached maximal levels 3 days after the addition of differentiation media. Knockdown of HCA1 using siRNA resulted in an increase in lipid accumulation as assessed by quantification of Nile Red staining and TLC analysis. Our data suggest that lipid homeostasis may be altered in carriers of selected HCA1 missense variants. PMID:23268337

  15. Theoretical simulations on the antioxidant mechanism of naturally occurring flavonoid: A DFT approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Praveena, R.; Sadasivam, K.

    2016-05-01

    Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) are found to be toxic, hence non-carcinogenic naturally occurring radical scavengers especially flavonoids have gained considerable importance in the past two decades. In the present investigation, the radical scavenging activity of C-glycosyl flavonoids is evaluated using theoretical approach which could broaden its scope in therapeutic applications. Gas and solvent phase studies of structural and molecular characteristics of C-glycosyl flavonoid, isovitexin is investigated through hydrogen atom transfer mechanism (HAT), Electron transfer-proton transfer (ET-PT) and Sequential proton loss electron transfer (SPLET) by Density functional theory (DFT) using hybrid parameters. The computed values of the adiabatic ionization potential, electron affinity, hardness, softness, electronegativity and electrophilic index indicate that isovitexin possess good radical scavenging activity. The behavior of different -OH groups in polyphenolic compounds is assessed by considering electronic effects of the neighbouring groups and the overall geometry of molecule which in turn helps in analyzing the antioxidant capacity of the polyphenolic molecule. The studies indicate that the H-atom abstraction from 4'-OH site is preferred during the radical scavenging process. From Mulliken spin density analysis and FMOs, B-ring is found to be more delocalized center and capable of electron donation. Comparison of antioxidant activity of vitexin and isovitexin leads to the conclusion that isovitexin acts as a better radical scavenger. This is an evidence for the importance of position of glucose unit in the flavonoid.

  16. Using naturally occurring polysaccharides to align molecules with nonlinear optical activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasthofer, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    The Biophysics and Advanced Materials Branch of the Microgravity Science and Applications Division at Marshall Space Flight Center has been investigating polymers with the potential for nonlinear optical (NLO) applications for a number of years. Some of the potential applications for NLO materials include optical communications, computing, and switching. To this point the branch's research has involved polydiacetylenes, phthalocyanins, and other synthetic polymers which have inherent NLO properties. The aim of the present research is to investigate the possibility of using naturally occurring polymers such as polysaccharides or proteins to trap and align small organic molecules with useful NLO properties. Ordering molecules with NLO properties enhances 3rd order nonlinear effects and is required for 2nd order nonlinear effects. Potential advantages of such a system are the flexibility to use different small molecules with varying chemical and optical properties, the stability and cost of the polymers, and the ability to form thin, optically transparent films. Since the quality of any polymer films depends on optimizing ordering and minimizing defects, this work is particularly well suited for microgravity experiments. Polysaccharide and protein polymers form microscopic crystallites which must align to form ordered arrays. The ordered association of crystallites is disrupted by gravity effects and NASA research on protein crystal growth has demonstrated that low gravity conditions can improve crystal quality.

  17. Studies of two naturally occurring compounds which effect release of acetylcholine from synaptosomes. [Leptinotarsa decemlineata

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    Two naturally occurring compounds which effect the release of neurotransmitter from synaptosomes have been purified to apparent homogeneity. Iotrochotin (IOT) isolated from wound exudate of the Caribbean purple bleeder sponge promotes release in a manner that is independent of the extracellular Ca/sup 2 +/ ion concentration. Leptinotarsin (LPT-d), a protein taken from hemolymph of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata, stimulates Ca/sup 2 +/-dependent release. IOT is slightly acidic and has a molecular weight of approximately 18 kD. (/sup 3/H)acetylcholine which has been introduced into synaptosomes as (/sup 3/H)choline can be released by IOT. The toxin releasable pool of labelled neurotransmitter is not depleted by depolarization of the synaptosomes with high potassium, and therefore seems to be primarily extravesicular. LPT-d is a larger protein (molecular weight = 45 kD) than IOT, and seems to effect primarily vesicular release by opening at least one type of presynaptic Ca/sup 2 +/ channel. The facilitatory effects of the toxin on synaptosomal release can be inhibited by inorganic Ca/sup 2 +/ channel antagonists, but are not generally affected by organic antagonists.

  18. Polyhydroxyester films obtained by non-catalyzed melt-polycondensation of natural occurring fatty polyhydroxyacids.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benitez, Jose; Heredia-Guerrero, José; Guzman-Puyol, Susana; Barthel, Markus; Dominguez, Eva; Heredia, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    Free-standing polyesters films from mono and polyhydroxylated fatty acids (C16 and C18) have been obtained by non-catalyzed melt-condensation polymerization in air at 150°C. Chemical characterization by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and 13C Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (13C MAS-NMR) has confirmed the formation of the corresponding esters and the occurrence of hydroxyl partial oxidation which extent depends on the type of hydroxylation of the monomer (primary or secondary). Generally, polyester films obtained are hydrophobic, insoluble in common solvents, amorphous and infusible as revealed by X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). In ?-polyhydroxy acids, esterification reaction with primary hydroxyls is preferential and, therefore, the structure can be defined as linear with variable branching depending on the amount of esterified secondary hydroxyls. The occurrence side oxidative reactions like the diol cleavage are responsible for chain cross-linking. Films are thermally stable up to 200-250°C though this limit can be extended up to 300°C in the absence of ester bonds involving secondary hydroxyls. By analogy with natural occurring fatty polyesters (i.e. cutin in higher plants) these polymers are proposed as biodegradable and non-toxic barrier films or coatings to be used, for instance, in food packing

  19. An overview of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in the petroleum industry

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, K.P.

    1992-12-01

    Oil and gas extraction and processing operations sometimes accumulate naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) at concentrations above normal in by-product waste streams. Results from NORM surveys indicate that radionuclide concentrations can be quite variable, ranging from undetectable to extremely high levels. To date, efforts to characterize the geographic distribution of NORM have been limited by poor statistical representation. In addition, the fate of NORM in the environment has not been fully defined, and few human health risk assessment have been conducted. Both the petroleum industry and regulators are becoming increasingly concerned about the presence of NORM. At present, most existing federal environmental regulations do not address oil and gas NORM, and only a few states have developed regulatory programs. Available data suggest that the occurrence of NORM (and associated health risks) is significant enough to warrant increased regulatory control. However, before these regulations can be developed, additional research is needed to (1) better characterize the occurrence and distribution of NORM throughout the industry, (2) quantify hazards posed by NORM to industry workers and the general public, and (3) develop effective waste treatment and minimization technologies that will lower the risk associated with NORM and reduce disposal costs.

  20. The effects of naturally occurring acids on the surface properties of chrysotile asbestos.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Emma P; Lavkulich, L M Les

    2014-01-01

    Chrysotile asbestos is considered an environmental health hazard. It is postulated that the surface of chrysotile, with its inherent positive charge and chemical content of trace transition metals within the mineral is a causative factor of the concern. Weathering may reduce the negative health effects of chrysotile asbestos, by alteration of the outer brucite layer of the chrysotile. To assess the changes in the surface properties of chrysotile asbestos by simulated weathering, chrysotile was treated with oxalic, hydrochloric, and carbonic acids. Naturally occurring chrysotile, from a mine site and serpentinitic stream sediments from the Sumas River were analyzed and compared. Oxalic acid, a chelating acid, was the most effective at extracting the majority of the trace elements present in the chrysotile, reducing their positive surface charge and producing visible changes at the surface of the fibers as shown by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microsopy (FESEM). Carbonic acid had little effect on the surface properties. Stream environments had minor detectable effects on the surface properties on the chrysotile stream sediments. PMID:25072777

  1. The effects of naturally occurring acids on the surface properties of chrysotile asbestos.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Emma P; Lavkulich, L M Les

    2014-01-01

    Chrysotile asbestos is considered an environmental health hazard. It is postulated that the surface of chrysotile, with its inherent positive charge and chemical content of trace transition metals within the mineral is a causative factor of the concern. Weathering may reduce the negative health effects of chrysotile asbestos, by alteration of the outer brucite layer of the chrysotile. To assess the changes in the surface properties of chrysotile asbestos by simulated weathering, chrysotile was treated with oxalic, hydrochloric, and carbonic acids. Naturally occurring chrysotile, from a mine site and serpentinitic stream sediments from the Sumas River were analyzed and compared. Oxalic acid, a chelating acid, was the most effective at extracting the majority of the trace elements present in the chrysotile, reducing their positive surface charge and producing visible changes at the surface of the fibers as shown by Field Emission Scanning Electron Microsopy (FESEM). Carbonic acid had little effect on the surface properties. Stream environments had minor detectable effects on the surface properties on the chrysotile stream sediments.

  2. Cytotype Regulation Facilitates Repression of Hybrid Dysgenesis by Naturally Occurring KP Elements in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, Michael J.; Grimes, Craig D.; Czora, Cody S.

    2016-01-01

    P elements inserted in the Telomere Associated Sequences (TAS) at the left end of the X chromosome are determiners of cytotype regulation of the entire P family of transposons. This regulation is mediated by Piwi-interacting (pi) RNAs derived from the telomeric P elements (TPs). Because these piRNAs are transmitted maternally, cytotype regulation is manifested as a maternal effect of the TPs. When a TP is combined with a transgenic P element inserted at another locus, this maternal effect is strengthened. However, when certain TPs are combined with transgenes that contain the small P element known as KP, stronger regulation arises from a zygotic effect of the KP element. This zygotic effect is observed with transgenic KP elements that are structurally intact, as well as with KP elements that are fused to an ancillary promoter from the hsp70 gene. Zygotic regulation by a KP element occurs only when a TP was present in the maternal germ line, and it is more pronounced when the TP was also present in the grand-maternal germ line. However, this regulation does not require zygotic expression of the TP. These observations can be explained if maternally transmitted piRNAs from TPs enable a polypeptide encoded by KP elements to repress P element transposition in zygotes that contain a KP element. In nature, repression by the KP polypeptide may therefore be facilitated by cytotype-mediating piRNAs. PMID:27172198

  3. Detection of cultured and uncultured Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria naturally occurring in the maize rhizosphere.

    PubMed

    Pirone, Luisa; Chiarini, Luigi; Dalmastri, Claudia; Bevivino, Annamaria; Tabacchioni, Silvia

    2005-11-01

    The species composition of a Burkholderia cepacia complex population naturally occurring in the maize rhizosphere was investigated by using both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. B. cepacia complex isolates were recovered from maize root slurry on the two selective media Pseudomonas cepacia azelaic acid tryptamine (PCAT) and trypan blue tetracycline (TB-T) and subjected to identification by a combination of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and species-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests of the recA gene. DNA extracted directly from root slurry was examined by means of nested PCR to amplify recA gene with species-specific B. cepacia complex primers and to obtain a library of PCR amplified recA genes. Using the culture-dependent method the species Burkholderia cepacia, Burkholderia cenocepacia, Burkholderia ambifaria and Burkholderia pyrrocinia were identified, whereas using the culture-independent method also the species Burkholderia vietnamiensis was detected. The latter method also allowed us to highlight a higher diversity within the B. cenocepacia species. In fact, by using the culture-independent method the species B. cenocepacia recA lineages IIIA and IIID besides B. cenocepacia recA lineage IIIB were detected. Moreover, higher heterogeneity of recA RFLP patterns was observed among clones assigned to the species B. cenocepacia than among B. cenocepacia isolates from selective media. PMID:16232288

  4. Natural abundance 17O DNP two-dimensional and surface-enhanced NMR spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Perras, Frédéric A.; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Pruski, Marek

    2015-06-22

    Due to its extremely low natural abundance and quadrupolar nature, the 17O nuclide is very rarely used for spectroscopic investigation of solids by NMR without isotope enrichment. Additionally, the applicability of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), which leads to sensitivity enhancements of 2 orders of magnitude, to 17O is wrought with challenges due to the lack of spin diffusion and low polarization transfer efficiency from 1H. Here, we demonstrate new DNP-based measurements that extend 17O solid-state NMR beyond its current capabilities. The use of the PRESTO technique instead of conventional 1H–17O cross-polarization greatly improves the sensitivity and enables the facile measurementmore » of undistorted line shapes and two-dimensional 1H–17O HETCOR NMR spectra as well as accurate internuclear distance measurements at natural abundance. This was applied for distinguishing hydrogen-bonded and lone 17O sites on the surface of silica gel; the one-dimensional spectrum of which could not be used to extract such detail. As a result, this greatly enhanced sensitivity has enabled, for the first time, the detection of surface hydroxyl sites on mesoporous silica at natural abundance, thereby extending the concept of DNP surface-enhanced NMR spectroscopy to the 17O nuclide.« less

  5. Natural abundance deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy: Study of the biosynthesis of monoterpenes

    SciTech Connect

    Leopold, M.F.

    1990-01-01

    Deuterium NMR spectroscopy at natural abundance (D NMR-na) is a new technique for exploring the biosynthesis of small molecules such as monoterpenes. The analysis of relative site-specific deuterium integration values is an effective means of measuring isotope effects, and examining the regio- and stereochemistry of biosynthetic reactions. The deuterium integration values of linalyl acetate and limonene isolated from the same source were consistent and showed that proton abstraction from the postulated {alpha}-terpinyl cation intermediate to form limonene is regioselective from the methyl derived from the Cs methyl of the precursor, geranyl diphosphate. This regiochemistry was observed in limonene samples from different sources and the measured primary kinetic isotope effect ranged from 0.25 to in excess of 100 (no deuterium was removed within experimental error). Various {alpha}- and {beta}-pinene samples were isolated and D NMR-na analysis showed evidence of isotopically sensitive partitioning of the pinylcation in the formation of these products. This spectral analysis supported published radiolabeling studies but did not require synthesis of substrates or enzyme purification. The formation of 3-carene occurs without isomerization of the double bond which was previously postulated. The olefinic deuterium of the bicyclic compound was traced to the depleted deuterium at C{sub 2} of isopentyl diphosphate by D NMR-na data and this supported unpublished radiolabeling studies. Study of irregular monoterpenes, chrysanthemyl acetate and lyratyl acetate, showed partitioning of dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP) by chrysanthemyl cyclase. The {alpha}-secondary kinetic isotope effect of 1.06-1.12, obtained from relative deuterium integration values, suggested that S{sub N}1 ionization of one molecule of DMAPP is the first step in the condensation reaction.

  6. Managing for Successful Control of Naturally Occurring Asbestos During Large Scale Grading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saur, R.; Harnish, D.; Cavanaugh, J.; Kendall, K.; Virdee, A.; Ludlam, D.

    2012-12-01

    Pacific Gas and Electric Company recently completed environmental remediation and civil grading of a 35-acre site in San Francisco Bay Area, and the project became recognized with local agencies as having excellent controls systems for naturally-occurring asbestos (NOA). The project began in 2010 and was completed in 2012, and involved excavating and grading over 100,000 tons of soil containing NOA. The work was subject to requirements by state, local and regional agencies, including an asbestos dust mitigation plan for the Bay Area Air Quality Management District. Effective control of NOA is attributed to management approaches combined with effective monitoring and state-of-the-art controls. Management Planning. The contract for construction specified NOA compliance management and controls, including having a NOA-control "czar" ultimately responsible for effective mitigation. An important element was daily pre-planning for excavation/grading that involved both the NOA mitigation experts and construction staff. Personnel Planning and Training. All construction personnel were trained before work regarding NOA hazards and mitigations. Daily tailboards with all construction personnel included discussions of the NOA controls integral to the daily work. Supervision. A NOA mitigation compliance leader was assigned to each excavation operation, responsible for continuously monitoring wind direction and work to ensure mitigation met requirements, and that disturbed areas were hydrosealed or covered. Adaptive Management - Daily and weekly debriefs occurred with those responsible for NOA controls to evaluate effectiveness, and identify improvements needed. If a monitoring result exceeded the project trigger level, work shut down and a root-cause analysis was performed to determine appropriate corrective actions. Deviations of results from background were researched as to cause, and any adjustments identified. Nearby non-project activities were monitored, as they occasionally

  7. Natural Genetic Variation Influences Protein Abundances in C. elegans Developmental Signalling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Singh, Kapil Dev; Roschitzki, Bernd; Snoek, L Basten; Grossmann, Jonas; Zheng, Xue; Elvin, Mark; Kamkina, Polina; Schrimpf, Sabine P; Poulin, Gino B; Kammenga, Jan E; Hengartner, Michael O

    2016-01-01

    Complex traits, including common disease-related traits, are affected by many different genes that function in multiple pathways and networks. The apoptosis, MAPK, Notch, and Wnt signalling pathways play important roles in development and disease progression. At the moment we have a poor understanding of how allelic variation affects gene expression in these pathways at the level of translation. Here we report the effect of natural genetic variation on transcript and protein abundance involved in developmental signalling pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans. We used selected reaction monitoring to analyse proteins from the abovementioned four pathways in a set of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) generated from the wild-type strains N2 (Bristol) and CB4856 (Hawaii) to enable quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. About half of the cases from the 44 genes tested showed a statistically significant change in protein abundance between various strains, most of these were however very weak (below 1.3-fold change). We detected a distant QTL on the left arm of chromosome II that affected protein abundance of the phosphatidylserine receptor protein PSR-1, and two separate QTLs that influenced embryonic and ionizing radiation-induced apoptosis on chromosome IV. Our results demonstrate that natural variation in C. elegans is sufficient to cause significant changes in signalling pathways both at the gene expression (transcript and protein abundance) and phenotypic levels. PMID:26985669

  8. Naturally occurring alpha-synuclein autoantibodies in Parkinson's disease: sources of (error) variance in biomarker assays.

    PubMed

    Heinzel, Sebastian; Gold, Maike; Deuschle, Christian; Bernhard, Felix; Maetzler, Walter; Berg, Daniela; Dodel, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Alpha-synuclein (α-Syn) plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD), which can partly be modulated by innate and adaptive immune functions, and vice versa. Here, naturally occurring α-Syn autoantibodies (α-Syn-nAbs) may be effective against α-Syn pathoetiology and may serve as a PD biomarker. However, serum and cerebrospinal fluid α-Syn-nAbs levels still lack consistent evidence as required for a reliable PD biomarker. Serum and cerebrospinal fluid α-Syn-nAbs levels of 66 PD patients and 69 healthy controls were assessed using a validated ELISA assay. Moreover, potential sources of error variance including unspecific ELISA background signals, free serum hemoglobin concentrations, α-Syn plate coating procedures, and differences in α-Syn-nAbs standards, were investigated. PD patients and controls did not differ in serum (p = .49) nor cerebrospinal fluid (p = .29) α-Syn-nAbs levels. Interestingly, free serum hemoglobin concentrations were negatively correlated with α-Syn-nAbs levels in controls (Spearman ρ = -.41, p<.001), but not in PD patients (ρ = .16, p = .21). ELISA α-Syn plate coating procedures impacted inter-assay variability (same day coating: 8-16%; coating on different days: 16-58%). α-Syn-nAbs standards from different purification batches differed regarding optical density measured in ELISAs suggesting differences in α-Syn affinity. While α-Syn-nAbs levels may represent a potential PD biomarker, several methodological issues have to be considered to increase reproducibility of α-Syn-nAbs findings. Further studies using standardized protocols minimizing sources of error variance may be necessary to establish a reliable PD α-Syn-nAbs biomarker.

  9. Naturally occurring secondary nutritional hyperparathyroidism in cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) from Central Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phalen, D.N.; Drew, M.L.; Contreras, C.; Roset, K.; Mora, M.

    2005-01-01

    Naturally occurring secondary nutritional hyperparathyroidism is described in the nestlings of two colonies of cattle egrets (Bubulcus ibis) from Central Texas (Bryan and San Antonio, Texas, USA). Nestlings from a third colony (Waco, Texas, USA) were collected in a subsequent year for comparison. Birds from the first two colonies consistently had severe osteopenia and associated curving deformities and folding fractures of their long bones. These birds also had reduced bone ash, increased osteoclasia, a marked decrease in osteoblast activity, variable lengthening and shortening of the hypertrophic zone of the epiphyseal cartilage, decreased and disorganized formation of new bone, and a marked hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the parathyroid glands as compared to birds collected from the third colony. Fibrous osteodystrophy was found in all of the birds from San Antonio and Bryan. Evidence of moderate to severe calcium deficiency was also identified in 33% of the cattle egrets collected from Waco. Gut contents of affected chicks contained predominately grasshoppers and crickets; vertebrate prey items were absent from the Bryan birds. Grasshoppers and crickets collected from fields frequented by the adult egrets in 1994 had 0.12-0.28% calcium and 0.76-0.81% phosphorus. Pooled grasshoppers and crickets collected during a subsequent wet early spring averaged 0.24% calcium and 0.65% phosphorus. Although the phosphorus content of the insect prey was adequate for growth, calcium was approximately one-third the minimum calcium requirement needed for growth for other species of birds. It was postulated that cattle egrets breeding in Central Texas have expanded their range into habitat that contains less vertebrate prey, and as a result, many nestling egrets are being fed diets that contain suboptimal calcium. Therefore, in years where vertebrate prey is scarce and forage for insect prey is reduced in calcium, nestling egrets are at risk for developing secondary nutritional

  10. Studying human respiratory disease in animals--role of induced and naturally occurring models.

    PubMed

    Williams, Kurt; Roman, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory disorders like asthma, emphysema, and pulmonary fibrosis affect millions of Americans and many more worldwide. Despite advancements in medical research that have led to improved understanding of the pathophysiology of these conditions and sometimes to new therapeutic interventions, these disorders are for the most part chronic and progressive; current interventions are not curative and do not halt disease progression. A major obstacle to further advancements relates to the absence of animal models that exactly resemble the human condition, which delays the elucidation of relevant mechanisms of action, the unveiling of biomarkers of disease progression, and identification of new targets for intervention in patients. There are currently many induced animal models of human respiratory disease available for study, and even though they mimic features of human disease, discoveries in these models have not always translated into safe and effective treatments in humans. A major obstacle relates to the genetic, anatomical, and functional variations amongst species, which represents the major challenge to overcome when searching for appropriate models of respiratory disease. Nevertheless, rodents, in particular mice, have become the most common species used for experimentation, due to their relatively low cost, size, and adequate understanding of murine genetics, among other advantages. Less well known is the fact that domestic animals also suffer from respiratory illnesses similar to those found in humans. Asthma, bronchitis, pneumonia, and pulmonary fibrosis are among the many disorders occurring naturally in dogs, cats, and horses, among other species. These models might better resemble the human condition and are emphasized here, but further investigations are needed to determine their relevance.

  11. Molecular analysis of Porcine Circovirus Type 2 strains from Uruguay: evidence for natural occurring recombination.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Natalia; Mirazo, Santiago; Castro, Gustavo; Arbiza, Juan

    2013-10-01

    Porcine Circovirus Type 2 (PCV2) is a worldwide distributed virus and is considered an important emerging pathogen related to several distinct disease syndromes in pigs. Genomic structure consists of three major open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 (rep gene) encodes replication-related proteins, ORF2 (cap gene) encodes the capsid protein and ORF3 encodes a protein putatively involved in virus-induced apoptosis. Based on cap gene sequences, PCV2 strains are classified into two main genotypes, PCV2a with five clusters (2A-2E) and PCV2b with three clusters (1A-1C). According to previous theoretical studies, PCV2 strains can eventually undergo intra and inter-genotype recombination, mainly within the rep gene. Ever since, several evidences of recombination in the field have been reported and confirmed this hypothesis. In South America, data regarding molecular characterization of PCV2 strains is still scant. Genotyping studies in the region have concluded that PCV2b is the predominant circulating genotype in the region and till now, no recombinant strains have ever been reported. In this work we thoroughly characterized at the molecular level Uruguayan PCV2 strains by extensive sequence data analysis. Moreover, recombination software tools were applied to explore and characterize eventual occurrence of natural recombination events. Two recombinant PCV2 strains were detected in this study, as a consequence of an inter-genotype recombination event between PCV2b-1A and PCV2a-2D, as the major and minor parent, respectively. According to recombination software analysis, in both cases the event occurred within the ORF1. Herein, extensive viral sequence dataset is provided, including the characterization of the first PCV2 recombinant strains ever reported in South America. Additionally, our results suggested a multi-centered source of PCV2 infection in Uruguay, which probably involved Brazilian and European origins.

  12. Naturally occurring variability in the envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1 and development of cell entry inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Brower, Evan T; Schön, Arne; Freire, Ernesto

    2010-03-23

    Naturally occurring genetic variability across HIV-1 subtypes causes amino acid polymorphisms in encoded HIV-1 proteins including the envelope glycoproteins associated with viral entry. The effects of amino acid polymorphisms on the mechanism of HIV-1 entry into cells, a process initiated by the binding of the viral envelope glycoprotein gp120 to the cellular CD4 receptor, are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that amino acid polymorphisms affect the structural stability and domain cooperativity of gp120 and that those differences are reflected in the binding mechanism of the viral envelope glycoprotein to the cell surface receptor and coreceptor. Moreover, subtype differences also affect the binding behavior of experimental HIV cell entry inhibitors. While gp120-A has a slightly lower denaturation temperature than gp120-B, the most notable stability difference is that for gp120-B the van't Hoff to calorimetric enthalpy ratio (DeltaH(vH)/DeltaH) is 0.95 whereas for gp120-A is 0.6, indicative of more cooperative domain/domain interactions in gp120-B, as this protein more closely approaches a two-state transition. Isothermal titration calorimetry demonstrates that CD4 and 17b (a surrogate antibody for the chemokine coreceptor) exhibit 7- and 3-fold weaker binding affinities for gp120-A. The binding of these proteins as well as that of the experimental entry inhibitor NBD-556 induces smaller conformational changes in gp120-A as evidenced by significantly smaller binding enthalpies and binding entropies. Together, these results describe the effects of gp120 polymorphisms on binding to host cell receptors and emphasize that guidelines for developing future entry inhibitors must recognize and deal with genomic differences between HIV strains.

  13. Antioxidant effect of naturally occurring xanthines on the oxidative damage of DNA bases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, A. J. S. C.; Telo, J. P.; Pereira, H. F.; Patrocínio, P. F.; Dias, R. M. B.

    1999-01-01

    The repair of the oxidised radicals of adenine and guanosine by several naturally occurring xanthines was studied. Each pair of DNA purine/xanthine was made to react with the sulphate radical and the decrease of the concentration of both compounds was measured by HPLC as a function of irradiation time. The results show that xanthine efficiently prevents the oxidation of the two DNA purines. Theophyline and paraxanthine repair the oxidised radical of adenine but not the one from guanosine. Theobromine and caffeine do not show any protecting effect. An order of the oxidation potentials of all the purines studied is proposed. La réparation des radicaux oxydés de l'adénine et de la guanosine par des xanthines naturelles a été étudiée en soumettant chaque paire base de l'ADN/xanthine à l'oxydation par le radical sulfate et en mesurant par HPLC la disparition des deux composés en fonction du temps d'irradiation. Les résultats montrent que la xanthine joue un rôle protecteur efficace contre l'oxydation des deux purines de l'ADN. La théophyline et la paraxanthine réparent le radical oxydé de l'adénine mais pas celui de la guanosine. La théobromine et la cafeíne n'ont pas d'effet protecteur. Un ordre de potentiels d'oxydation des purines étudiées est proposé.

  14. Determination of naturally occurring MTBE biodegradation by analysing metabolites and biodegradation by-products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martienssen, Marion; Fabritius, Holger; Kukla, Stefan; Balcke, Gerd U.; Hasselwander, Eyk; Schirmer, Mario

    2006-09-01

    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) is one of the main additives in gasoline. Its degradation is known to be difficult in natural environments. In this study, significant MTBE degradation is demonstrated at a contaminated site in Leuna (eastern Germany). Since the extent of the plume appeared to be constant over the last 5 years, an extended study was performed to elucidate the degradation processes. Special attention was paid to the production, accumulation and degradation of metabolites and by-products. Groundwater samples from 105 monitoring wells were used to measure 20 different substances. During the degradation process, several intermediates such as tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), tert-butyl formate, formate and lactate were produced. However, the potentially carcinogenic by-product methacrylate was not detected in several hundred samples. At the Leuna site, MTBE degradation occurred under microaerobic conditions. In contrast to hydrocarbons and BTEX, there was no evidence for anaerobic MTBE degradation. Among the degradation products, TBA was found to be a useful intermediate to identify MTBE degradation, at least under microaerobic conditions. TBA accumulation was strongly correlated to MTBE degradation according to the kinetic properties of both degradation processes. Since maximum degradation rates ( vmax) and km values were higher for MTBE ( vmax = 2.3 mg/l/d and km = 3.2 mg/l) than for TBA ( vmax = 1.35 mg/l/d and km = 0.05 mg/l), TBA significantly accumulated as an intermediate by-product. The field results were supported by bench scale model aquifer experiments.

  15. Estimated trichloroethene transformation rates due to naturally occurring biodegradation in a fractured-rock aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, Francis H.; Lacombe, Pierre J.; Bradley, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    Rates of trichloroethene (TCE) mass transformed by naturally occurring biodegradation processes in a fractured rock aquifer underlying a former Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC) site in West Trenton, New Jersey, were estimated. The methodology included (1) dividing the site into eight elements of equal size and vertically integrating observed concentrations of two daughter products of TCE biodegradation–cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) and chloride–using water chemistry data from a network of 88 observation wells; (2) summing the molar mass of cis-DCE, the first biodegradation product of TCE, to provide a probable underestimate of reductive biodegradation of TCE, (3) summing the molar mass of chloride, the final product of chlorinated ethene degradation, to provide a probable overestimate of overall biodegradation. Finally, lower and higher estimates of aquifer porosities and groundwater residence times were used to estimate a range of overall transformation rates. The highest TCE transformation rates estimated using this procedure for the combined overburden and bedrock aquifers was 945 kg/yr, and the lowest was 37 kg/yr. However, hydrologic considerations suggest that approximately 100 to 500 kg/yr is the probable range for overall TCE transformation rates in this system. Estimated rates of TCE transformation were much higher in shallow overburden sediments (approximately 100 to 500 kg/yr) than in the deeper bedrock aquifer (approximately 20 to 0.15 kg/yr), which reflects the higher porosity and higher contaminant mass present in the overburden. By way of comparison, pump-and-treat operations at the NAWC site are estimated to have removed between 1,073 and 1,565 kg/yr of TCE between 1996 and 2009.

  16. Modeling the pulsed light inactivation of microorganisms naturally occurring on vegetable substrates.

    PubMed

    Izquier, Adriana; Gómez-López, Vicente M

    2011-09-01

    Pulsed light (PL) is a fast non-thermal method for microbial inactivation. This research studied the kinetics of PL inactivation of microorganisms naturally occurring in some vegetables. Iceberg lettuce, white cabbage and Julienne-style cut carrots were subjected to increasing PL fluences up to 12J/cm(2) in order to study its effect on aerobic mesophilic bacteria determined by plate count. Also, sample temperature increase was determined by infrared thermometry. Survivors' curves were adjusted to several models. No shoulder but tail was observed. The Weibull model showed good fitting performance of data. Results for lettuce were: goodness-of-fit parameter RMSE=0.2289, fluence for the first decimal reduction δ=0.98±0.80J/cm(2) and concavity parameter p=0.33±0.08. Results for cabbage were: RMSE=0.0725, δ=0.81±0.23J/cm(2) and p=0.30±0.02; and for carrot: RMSE=0.1235, δ=0.39±0.24J/cm(2) and p=0.23±0.03. For lettuce, a log-linear and tail model was also suitable. Validation of the Weibull model produced determination coefficients of 0.88-0.96 and slopes of 0.78-0.99. Heating was too low to contribute to inactivation. A single low-energy pulse was enough to achieve one log reduction, with an ultrafast treatment time of 0.5ms. While PL efficacy was found to be limited to high residual counts, the achievable inactivation level may be considered useful for shelf-life extension.

  17. Effects of Naturally Occuring Arginine 14 Deletion on Phospholamban Conformational Dynamics and Membrane Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Vostrikov, Vitaly V.; Soller, Kailey J.; Ha, Kim N.; Gopinath, T.; Veglia, Gianluigi

    2014-01-01

    Phospholamban (PLN) is a single-pass membrane protein that regulates the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA). Phosphorylation of PLN at Ser16 reverses its inhibitory function under β-adrenergic stimulation, augmenting Ca2+ uptake in the sarcoplasmic reticulum and muscle contractility. PLN exists in two conformations; a T state, where the cytoplasmic domain is helical and absorbed on the membrane surface, and an R state, where the cytoplasmic domain is unfolded and membrane detached. Previous studies from our group have shown that the PLN conformational equilibrium is crucial to SERCA regulation. Here, we used a combination of solution and solid-state NMR techniques to compare the structural topology and conformational dynamics of monomeric PLN (PLNAFA) with that of the PLNR14del, a naturally occurring deletion mutant that is linked to the progression of dilated cardiomyopathy. We found that the behavior of the inhibitory transmembrane domain of PLNR14del is similar to that of the native sequence. In contrast, the conformational dynamics of R14del both in micelles and lipid membranes are enhanced. We conclude that the deletion of Arg14 in the cytoplasmic region weakens the interactions with the membrane and shifts the conformational equilibrium of PLN toward the disordered R state. This conformational transition is correlated with the loss-of-function character of this mutant and is corroborated by SERCA’s activity assays. These findings further support our hypothesis that SERCA function is fine-tuned by PLN conformational dynamics and begin to explain the aberrant regulation of SERCA by the R14del mutant. PMID:25251363

  18. Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials in Coals and Coal Combustion Residuals in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lauer, Nancy E; Hower, James C; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Taggart, Ross K; Vengosh, Avner

    2015-09-15

    The distribution and enrichment of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in coal combustion residuals (CCRs) from different coal source basins have not been fully characterized in the United States. Here we provide a systematic analysis of the occurrence of NORM ((232)Th, (228)Ra, (238)U, (226)Ra, and (210)Pb) in coals and associated CCRs from the Illinois, Appalachian, and Powder River Basins. Illinois CCRs had the highest total Ra ((228)Ra + (226)Ra = 297 ± 46 Bq/kg) and the lowest (228)Ra/(226)Ra activity ratio (0.31 ± 0.09), followed by Appalachian CCRs (283 ± 34 Bq/kg; 0.67 ± 0.09), and Powder River CCRs (213 ± 21 Bq/kg; 0.79 ± 0.10). Total Ra and (228)Ra/(226)Ra variations in CCRs correspond to the U and Th concentrations and ash contents of their feed coals, and we show that these relationships can be used to predict total NORM concentrations in CCRs. We observed differential NORM volatility during combustion that results in (210)Pb enrichment and (210)Pb/(226)Ra ratios greater than 1 in most fly-ash samples. Overall, total NORM activities in CCRs are 7-10- and 3-5-fold higher than NORM activities in parent coals and average U.S. soil, respectively. This study lays the groundwork for future research related to the environmental and human health implications of CCR disposal and accidental release to the environment in the context of this elevated radioactivity.

  19. Effect of leachability on environmental risk assessment for naturally occurring radioactive materials in petroleum oil fields.

    PubMed

    Rajaretnam, G; Spitz, H B

    2000-02-01

    Elevated concentrations of naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), including 238U, 232Th, and their progeny found in underground geologic deposits, are often encountered during crude oil recovery. Radium, the predominant radionuclide brought to the surface with the crude oil and produced water, co-precipitates with barium in the form of complex compounds of sulfates, carbonates, and silicates found in sludge and scale. These NORM deposits are highly stable and very insoluble under ambient conditions at the earth's surface. However, the co-precipitated radium matrix is not thermodynamically stable at reducing conditions which may enable a fraction of the radium to eventually be released to the environment. Although the fate of radium in uranium mill tailings has been studied extensively, the leachability of radium from crude oil NORM deposits exposed to acid-rain and other aging processes is generally unknown. The leachability of radium from NORM contaminated soil collected at a contaminated oil field in eastern Kentucky was determined using extraction fluids having wide range of pH reflecting different extreme environmental conditions. The average 226Ra concentration in the samples of soil subjected to leachability testing was 32.56 Bq g(-1) +/- 0.34 Bq g(-1). The average leaching potential of 226Ra observed in these NORM contaminated soil samples was 1.3% +/- 0.46% and was independent of the extraction fluid. Risk assessment calculations using the family farm scenario show that the annual dose to a person living and working on this NORM contaminated soil is mainly due to external gamma exposure and radon inhalation. However, waterborne pathways make a non-negligible contribution to the dose for the actual resident families living on farmland with the type of residual NORM contamination due to crude oil recovery operations.

  20. A century of oil and gas exploration in Albania: assessment of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs).

    PubMed

    Xhixha, G; Baldoncini, M; Callegari, I; Colonna, T; Hasani, F; Mantovani, F; Shala, F; Strati, V; Xhixha Kaçeli, M

    2015-11-01

    The Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs) that are potentially generated from oil and gas extractions in Albania have been disposed of without regulations for many decades, and therefore, an extensive survey in one of the most productive regions (Vlora-Elbasan) was performed. A total of 52 gamma ray spectrometry measurements of soil, oil-sand, sludge, produced water and crude oil samples were performed. We discovered that relatively low activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th and (40)K, with concentrations of 23±2Bq/kg, 23±2Bq/kg, 24±3Bq/kg and 549±12Bq/kg, respectively, came from the oil-sands produced by the hydrocarbon extraction of the molasses formations. The mineralogical characterizations and the (228)Ra/(40)K and (226)Ra/(40)K ratios of these Neogene deposits confirmed the predictions of the geological and geodynamic models of a dismantling of the Mesozoic source rocks. The average activity concentrations (±standard deviations) of the radium isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) and of the (228)Th and (40)K radionuclides in soil samples were 20±5Bq/kg, 25±10Bq/kg, 25±9Bq/kg and 326±83Bq/kg, respectively. Based on the measurements in this study, the future radiological assessments of other fields in the region should be strategically planned to focus on the oil-sands from the molasses sediments. Disequilibrium in the (228)Ra decay segment was not observed in the soil, sludge or oil-sand samples within the standard uncertainties. After a detailed radiological characterization of the four primary oil fields, we concluded that the outdoor absorbed dose rate never exceeded the worldwide population weighted average absorbed dose rate in outdoor air from terrestrial gamma radiation. PMID:26037957

  1. Cerebrospinal Fluid Inflammatory Cytokines and Chemokines in Naturally Occurring Canine Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Amanda R.; Welsh, C. Jane; Young, Colin; Spoor, Erich; Kerwin, Sharon C.; Griffin, John F.; Levine, Gwendolyn J.; Cohen, Noah D.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Canine intervertebral disk herniation (IVDH) is a common, naturally occurring form of spinal cord injury (SCI) that is increasingly being used in pre-clinical evaluation of therapies. Although IVDH bears critical similarities to human SCI with respect to lesion morphology, imaging features, and post-SCI treatment, limited data are available concerning secondary injury mechanisms. Here, we characterized cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytokines, and chemokines in dogs with acute, surgically treated, thoracolumbar IVDH (n=39) and healthy control dogs (n=21) to investigate early inflammatory events after SCI. A bioplex system was used to measure interleukin (IL)-2, -6, -7, -8, -10, -15, and -18, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), interferon gamma (IFN-γ), keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC)-like protein, IFN-γ-inducible protein-10, monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Cytokine and chemokine concentrations in the CSF of healthy and SCI dogs were compared and, in SCI dogs, were correlated to the duration of SCI, behavioral measures of injury severity at the time of sampling, and neurological outcome 42 days post-SCI as determined by a validated ordinal score. IL-8 concentration was significantly higher in SCI cases than healthy controls (p=0.0013) and was negatively correlated with the duration of SCI (p=0.042). CSF MCP-1 and KC-like protein were positively correlated with CSF microprotein concentration in dogs with SCI (p<0.0001 and p=0.004). CSF MCP-1 concentration was negatively associated with 42-day postinjury outcome (p<0.0001). Taken together, these data indicate that cytokines and chemokines present after SCI in humans and rodent models are associated with SCI pathogenesis in canine IVDH. PMID:24786364

  2. Wetland defense: naturally occurring pesticide resistance in zooplankton populations protects the stability of aquatic communities.

    PubMed

    Bendis, Randall J; Relyea, Rick A

    2016-06-01

    Anthropogenic stressors are ubiquitous and have been implicated in worldwide declines of terrestrial and aquatic species. Pesticides are one such stressor that can have profound effects on aquatic communities by directly affecting sensitive species and indirectly affecting other species via trophic cascades, which can alter ecosystem function. However, there is growing evidence that non-target species can evolve increased resistance. When such species are important drivers of the food web, then evolved resistance should help buffer communities from the effects of pesticides. To examine this possibility, we cultured four populations of the common zooplankton Daphnia pulex that we previously demonstrated were either sensitive or resistant to a common insecticide (i.e., chlorpyrifos) due to their proximity to agriculture. Using outdoor mesocosms that contained identical aquatic communities of phytoplankton, periphyton, and leopard frog tadpoles (Lithobates pipiens), we manipulated four D. pulex populations and four insecticide concentrations. As we monitored the communities for nearly 3 months, we found that the insecticide caused direct mortality of D. pulex in communities containing sensitive populations, and this led to a bloom of phytoplankton. In contrast, the insecticide caused much less direct mortality in communities containing resistant D. pulex populations, and the trophic cascade was prevented under low to moderate insecticide concentrations. Across all insecticide treatments, survivorship of leopard frogs was approximately 72 % in communities with resistant D. pulex but only 35 % in communities with sensitive D. pulex. To our knowledge, this is one of the first studies to use naturally occurring population variation in insecticide resistance to show that the evolution of pesticide resistance in zooplankton can mitigate the effects of insecticide-induced trophic cascades, and that this outcome can have far-reaching community effects.

  3. Role of rat strain in the differential sensitivity to pharmaceutical agents and naturally occurring substances.

    PubMed

    Kacew, S; Festing, M F

    1996-01-01

    The development of drugs to combat diseases, chemicals to improve food production, or compounds to enhance the quality of life necessitates, by law, the use of laboratory animals to test their safety. In order to simulate the human condition it is necessary to choose a species in which pharmacokinetic and toxicokinetic mechanisms are established and resemble those of humans. The advantages of the use of the rat in drug and chemical toxicity testing include (a) metabolic pathway similarities to humans; (b) numerous similar anatomical and physiological characteristics; (c) a large database, which is extremely important for comparative purposes; and (d) the ease of breeding and maintenance of animals at relatively low cost. However, the choice of rat can be complicated, especially when over 200 different strains of rat are known to exist. The aim of this review is to summarize genetically determined differences in the responsiveness of rat strains to drugs and naturally occurring chemicals and to show that susceptibility is dependent on the target organ sensitivities, which may also be strain dependent. It is suggested that detailed studies of strain differences may help to clarify toxic mechanisms. Such studies are usually best conducted using inbred strains in which the genetic characteristics have been fixed, rather than in outbred stocks in which individual samples of animals may differ, the phenotype is variable, and the stocks are subject to substantial genetic drift. The fact that strains may differ also needs to be taken into account in assessing the potential hazard of the chemical, particularly when a study involves only a single strain and therefore provides no assessment of likely strain variation.

  4. A century of oil and gas exploration in Albania: assessment of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs).

    PubMed

    Xhixha, G; Baldoncini, M; Callegari, I; Colonna, T; Hasani, F; Mantovani, F; Shala, F; Strati, V; Xhixha Kaçeli, M

    2015-11-01

    The Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORMs) that are potentially generated from oil and gas extractions in Albania have been disposed of without regulations for many decades, and therefore, an extensive survey in one of the most productive regions (Vlora-Elbasan) was performed. A total of 52 gamma ray spectrometry measurements of soil, oil-sand, sludge, produced water and crude oil samples were performed. We discovered that relatively low activity concentrations of (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (228)Th and (40)K, with concentrations of 23±2Bq/kg, 23±2Bq/kg, 24±3Bq/kg and 549±12Bq/kg, respectively, came from the oil-sands produced by the hydrocarbon extraction of the molasses formations. The mineralogical characterizations and the (228)Ra/(40)K and (226)Ra/(40)K ratios of these Neogene deposits confirmed the predictions of the geological and geodynamic models of a dismantling of the Mesozoic source rocks. The average activity concentrations (±standard deviations) of the radium isotopes ((226)Ra and (228)Ra) and of the (228)Th and (40)K radionuclides in soil samples were 20±5Bq/kg, 25±10Bq/kg, 25±9Bq/kg and 326±83Bq/kg, respectively. Based on the measurements in this study, the future radiological assessments of other fields in the region should be strategically planned to focus on the oil-sands from the molasses sediments. Disequilibrium in the (228)Ra decay segment was not observed in the soil, sludge or oil-sand samples within the standard uncertainties. After a detailed radiological characterization of the four primary oil fields, we concluded that the outdoor absorbed dose rate never exceeded the worldwide population weighted average absorbed dose rate in outdoor air from terrestrial gamma radiation.

  5. Increased natural mortality at low abundance can generate an Allee effect in a marine fish.

    PubMed

    Kuparinen, Anna; Hutchings, Jeffrey A

    2014-10-01

    Negative density-dependent regulation of population dynamics promotes population growth at low abundance and is therefore vital for recovery following depletion. Inversely, any process that reduces the compensatory density-dependence of population growth can negatively affect recovery. Here, we show that increased adult mortality at low abundance can reverse compensatory population dynamics into its opposite-a demographic Allee effect. Northwest Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) stocks collapsed dramatically in the early 1990s and have since shown little sign of recovery. Many experienced dramatic increases in natural mortality, ostensibly attributable in some populations to increased predation by seals. Our findings show that increased natural mortality of a magnitude observed for overfished cod stocks has been more than sufficient to fundamentally alter the dynamics of density-dependent population regulation. The demographic Allee effect generated by these changes can slow down or even impede the recovery of depleted populations even in the absence of fishing. PMID:26064531

  6. High-resolution NMR of hydrogen in organic solids by DNP enhanced natural abundance deuterium spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rossini, Aaron J; Schlagnitweit, Judith; Lesage, Anne; Emsley, Lyndon

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate that high field (9.4 T) dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) at cryogenic (∼100 K) sample temperatures enables the rapid acquisition of natural abundance (1)H-(2)H cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) solid-state NMR spectra of organic solids. Spectra were obtained by impregnating substrates with a solution of the stable DNP polarizing agent TEKPol in tetrachloroethane. Tetrachloroethane is a non-solvent for the solids, and the unmodified substrates are then polarized through spin diffusion. High quality natural abundance (2)H CPMAS spectra of histidine hydrochloride monohydrate, glycylglycine and theophylline were acquired in less than 2h, providing direct access to hydrogen chemical shifts and quadrupolar couplings. The spectral resolution of the (2)H solid-state NMR spectra is comparable to that of (1)H spectra obtained with state of the art homonuclear decoupling techniques.

  7. Increased natural mortality at low abundance can generate an Allee effect in a marine fish.

    PubMed

    Kuparinen, Anna; Hutchings, Jeffrey A

    2014-10-01

    Negative density-dependent regulation of population dynamics promotes population growth at low abundance and is therefore vital for recovery following depletion. Inversely, any process that reduces the compensatory density-dependence of population growth can negatively affect recovery. Here, we show that increased adult mortality at low abundance can reverse compensatory population dynamics into its opposite-a demographic Allee effect. Northwest Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) stocks collapsed dramatically in the early 1990s and have since shown little sign of recovery. Many experienced dramatic increases in natural mortality, ostensibly attributable in some populations to increased predation by seals. Our findings show that increased natural mortality of a magnitude observed for overfished cod stocks has been more than sufficient to fundamentally alter the dynamics of density-dependent population regulation. The demographic Allee effect generated by these changes can slow down or even impede the recovery of depleted populations even in the absence of fishing.

  8. High-resolution NMR of hydrogen in organic solids by DNP enhanced natural abundance deuterium spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossini, Aaron J.; Schlagnitweit, Judith; Lesage, Anne; Emsley, Lyndon

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate that high field (9.4 T) dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) at cryogenic (∼100 K) sample temperatures enables the rapid acquisition of natural abundance 1H-2H cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) solid-state NMR spectra of organic solids. Spectra were obtained by impregnating substrates with a solution of the stable DNP polarizing agent TEKPol in tetrachloroethane. Tetrachloroethane is a non-solvent for the solids, and the unmodified substrates are then polarized through spin diffusion. High quality natural abundance 2H CPMAS spectra of histidine hydrochloride monohydrate, glycylglycine and theophylline were acquired in less than 2 h, providing direct access to hydrogen chemical shifts and quadrupolar couplings. The spectral resolution of the 2H solid-state NMR spectra is comparable to that of 1H spectra obtained with state of the art homonuclear decoupling techniques.

  9. Determination of lithium isotopes at natural abundance levels by atomic absorption spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meier, A.L.

    1982-01-01

    The relationships of the absorption of 6Li and 7Li hollow cathode lamp emissions are used to determine lithium isotopic composition in the natural abundance range of geologic materials. Absorption was found to have a nonlinear dependence upon total lithium concentration and isotopic composition. A method using nonlinear equations to describe the relationship of the absorption of 6Li and 7Li lamp radiation is proposed as a means of calculating isotopic composition that is independent of total lithium concentration.

  10. Is the multicolored Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis, the most abundant natural enemy to aphids in agroecosystems?

    PubMed

    Vandereycken, Axel; Durieux, Delphine; Joie, Emilie; Sloggett, John J; Haubruge, Eric; Verheggen, François J

    2013-01-01

    The multicolored Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), was introduced into Western Europe in the late 1990s. Since the late 2000s, this species has been commonly considered one of the most abundant aphid predators in most Western European countries. In spite of the large amount of research on H. axyridis, information concerning its relative abundance in agroecosystems is lacking. This study aims to evaluate the abundance of H. axyridis within the aphidophage community in four crops situated in southern Belgium: wheat, Triticum aestivum L. (Poales: Poaceae), corn, Zea mays, potato, Solanum tuberosum (Solanales: Solanaceae), and broad bean Vicia faba (Fabales: Fabaceae). In order to assess the species diversity, the collected data were analyzed by considering (1) the species richness and (2) the evenness according to the Shannon diversity index. Eleven aphidophages were observed in every inventoried agroecosystem, including five abundant species: three coccinellids, the seven-spotted ladybug, Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), the 14-spotted Ladybird, Propylea quatuordecimpunctata, and H. axyridis; one hoverfly, the marmalade hoverfly, Episyrphus balteatus De Geer (Diptera: Syrphidae); and one lacewing, the common green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens sensu lato (= s.l.) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). Harmonia axyridis has been observed to thrive, breed, and reproduce on the four studied crops. Harmonia axyridis is the most abundant predator of aphids in corn followed by C. septempunctata, which is the main aphid predator observed in the three other inventoried crops. In wheat and potato fields, H. axyridis occurs in low numbers compared to other aphidophage. These observations suggest that H. axyridis could be considered an invasive species of agrosystems, and that potato and wheat may intermittently act as refuges for other aphidophages vulnerable to intraguild predation by this invader. Harmonia axyridis

  11. Is the Multicolored Asian Ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis, the Most Abundant Natural Enemy to Aphids in Agroecosystems?

    PubMed Central

    Vandereycken, Axel; Durieux, Delphine; Joie, Emilie; Sloggett, John J.; Haubruge, Eric; Verheggen, François J.

    2013-01-01

    The multicolored Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), was introduced into Western Europe in the late 1990s. Since the late 2000s, this species has been commonly considered one of the most abundant aphid predators in most Western European countries. In spite of the large amount of research on H. axyridis, information concerning its relative abundance in agroecosystems is lacking. This study aims to evaluate the abundance of H. axyridis within the aphidophage community in four crops situated in southern Belgium: wheat, Triticum aestivum L. (Poales: Poaceae), corn, Zea mays, potato, Solanum tuberosum (Solanales: Solanaceae), and broad bean Vicia faba (Fabales: Fabaceae). In order to assess the species diversity, the collected data were analyzed by considering (1) the species richness and (2) the evenness according to the Shannon diversity index. Eleven aphidophages were observed in every inventoried agroecosystem, including five abundant species: three coccinellids, the seven-spotted ladybug, Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), the 14-spotted Ladybird, Propylea quatuordecimpunctata, and H. axyridis; one hoverfly, the marmalade hoverfly, Episyrphus balteatus De Geer (Diptera: Syrphidae); and one lacewing, the common green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens sensu lato (= s.l.) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). Harmonia axyridis has been observed to thrive, breed, and reproduce on the four studied crops. Harmonia axyridis is the most abundant predator of aphids in corn followed by C. septempunctata, which is the main aphid predator observed in the three other inventoried crops. In wheat and potato fields, H. axyridis occurs in low numbers compared to other aphidophage. These observations suggest that H. axyridis could be considered an invasive species of agrosystems, and that potato and wheat may intermittently act as refuges for other aphidophages vulnerable to intraguild predation by this invader. Harmonia axyridis

  12. Is the multicolored Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis, the most abundant natural enemy to aphids in agroecosystems?

    PubMed

    Vandereycken, Axel; Durieux, Delphine; Joie, Emilie; Sloggett, John J; Haubruge, Eric; Verheggen, François J

    2013-01-01

    The multicolored Asian ladybeetle, Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), was introduced into Western Europe in the late 1990s. Since the late 2000s, this species has been commonly considered one of the most abundant aphid predators in most Western European countries. In spite of the large amount of research on H. axyridis, information concerning its relative abundance in agroecosystems is lacking. This study aims to evaluate the abundance of H. axyridis within the aphidophage community in four crops situated in southern Belgium: wheat, Triticum aestivum L. (Poales: Poaceae), corn, Zea mays, potato, Solanum tuberosum (Solanales: Solanaceae), and broad bean Vicia faba (Fabales: Fabaceae). In order to assess the species diversity, the collected data were analyzed by considering (1) the species richness and (2) the evenness according to the Shannon diversity index. Eleven aphidophages were observed in every inventoried agroecosystem, including five abundant species: three coccinellids, the seven-spotted ladybug, Coccinella septempunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), the 14-spotted Ladybird, Propylea quatuordecimpunctata, and H. axyridis; one hoverfly, the marmalade hoverfly, Episyrphus balteatus De Geer (Diptera: Syrphidae); and one lacewing, the common green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Stephens sensu lato (= s.l.) (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae). Harmonia axyridis has been observed to thrive, breed, and reproduce on the four studied crops. Harmonia axyridis is the most abundant predator of aphids in corn followed by C. septempunctata, which is the main aphid predator observed in the three other inventoried crops. In wheat and potato fields, H. axyridis occurs in low numbers compared to other aphidophage. These observations suggest that H. axyridis could be considered an invasive species of agrosystems, and that potato and wheat may intermittently act as refuges for other aphidophages vulnerable to intraguild predation by this invader. Harmonia axyridis

  13. Stratigraphic and geochemical controls on naturally occurring arsenic in groundwater, eastern Wisconsin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, M. E.; Simo, J. A.; Freiberg, P. G.

    High arsenic concentrations (up to 12,000μg/L) have been measured in groundwater from a confined sandstone aquifer in eastern Wisconsin. The main arsenic source is a sulfide-bearing secondary cement horizon (SCH) that has variable thickness, morphology, and arsenic concentrations. Arsenic occurs in pyrite and marcasite as well as in iron oxyhydroxides but not as a separate arsenopyrite phase. Nearly identical sulfur isotopic signatures in pyrite and dissolved sulfate and the correlation between dissolved sulfate, iron, and arsenic concentrations suggest that sulfide oxidation is the dominant process controlling arsenic release to groundwater. However, arsenic-bearing oxyhydroxides can potentially provide another arsenic source if reducing conditions develop or if they are transported as colloids in the aquifer. Analysis of well data indicates that the intersection of the SCH with static water levels measured in residential wells is strongly correlated with high concentrations of arsenic in groundwater. Field and laboratory data suggest that the most severe arsenic contamination is caused by localized borehole interactions of air, water, and sulfides. Although arsenic contamination is caused by oxidation of naturally occurring sulfides, it is influenced by water-level fluctuations caused by municipal well pumping or climate changes, which can shift geographic areas in which contamination occurs. Résumé De fortes concentrations en arsenic, jusqu'à 12000μg/L, ont été mesurées dans l'eau souterraine d'un aquifère gréseux captif, dans l'est du Wisconsin. La principale source d'arsenic est un horizon à cimentation secondaire (SCH) comportant des sulfures, dont l'épaisseur, la morphologie et les concentrations en arsenic sont variables. L'arsenic est présent dans la pyrite et dans la marcassite, de même que dans des oxy-hydroxydes de fer, mais non pas dans une phase séparée d'arsénopyrite. Les signatures isotopiques du soufre presque identiques dans la

  14. Natural abundance 2H-ERETIC-NMR authentication of the origin of methyl salicylate.

    PubMed

    Le Grand, Flore; George, Gerard; Akoka, Serge

    2005-06-29

    Methyl salicylate is a compound currently used in the creation of many flavors. It can be obtained by synthesis or from two natural sources: essential oil of wintergreen and essential oil of sweet birch bark. Deuterium site-specific natural isotope abundance (A(i)) determination by NMR spectroscopy with the method of reference ERETIC ((2)H-ERETIC-NMR) has been applied to this compound. A(i) measurements have been performed on 19 samples of methyl salicylate from different origins, natural/synthetic and commercial/extracted. This study demonstrates that appropriate treatment performed on the data allows discrimination between synthetic and natural samples. Moreover, the representation of intramolecular ratios R(6/5) as a function of R(3/2) distinguishes between synthetics, wintergreen oils, and sweet birch bark oils.

  15. Flow and habitat effects on juvenile fish abundance in natural and altered flow regimes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Freeman, Mary C.; Bowen, Z.H.; Bovee, K.D.; Irwin, E.R.

    2001-01-01

    summer, which resulted in median availability of shallow-water habitats comparable to the unregulated site. However, habitat persistence was severely reduced by flow fluctuations resulting from pulsed water releases for peak-load power generation. Habitat persistence, comparable to levels in the unregulated site, only occurred during summer when low rainfall or other factors occasionally curtailed power generation. As a consequence, summer-spawning species numerically dominated the fish assemblage at the flow-regulated site; five of six spring-spawning species occurring at both study sites were significantly less abundant at the flow-regulated site. Persistence of native fishes in flow-regulated systems depends, in part, on the seasonal occurrence of stable habitat conditions that facilitate reproduction and YOY survival.

  16. Acute Toxicological Responses of Fischer Rats to Naturally Occurring Asbestos from theUnited States and Canada

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was designed to provide understanding of the toxicity of naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) including Libby amphibole (LA), Sumas Mountain chrysotile (SM), EI Dorado Hills tremolite (ED) and Ontario actinolite/ferroactinolite cleavage fragments (ON). Ratrespirable fra...

  17. Naturally occurring heavy radioactive elements in the geothermal microcosm of the Los Azufres (Mexico) volcanic complex.

    PubMed

    Abuhani, W A; Dasgupta-Schubert, N; Villaseñor, L M; García Avila, D; Suárez, L; Johnston, C; Borjas, S E; Alexander, S A; Landsberger, S; Suárez, M C

    2015-01-01

    The Los Azufres geothermal complex of central Mexico is characterized by fumaroles and boiling hot-springs. The fumaroles form habitats for extremophilic mosses and ferns. Physico-chemical measurements of two relatively pristine fumarolic microcosms point to their resemblance with the paleo-environment of earth during the Ordovician and Devonian periods. These geothermal habitats were analysed for the distribution of elemental mass fractions in the rhizospheric soil (RS), the native volcanic substrate (VS) and the sediments (S), using the new high-sensitivity technique of polarized x-ray energy dispersive fluorescence spectrometry (PEDXRF) as well as instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for selected elements. This work presents the results for the naturally occurring heavy radioactive elements (NOHRE) Bi, Th and U but principally the latter two. For the RS, the density was found to be the least and the total organic matter content the most. Bi was found to be negligibly present in all substrate types. The average Th and U mass fractions in the RS were higher than in the VS and about equal to their average mass fractions in the S. The VS mass fraction of Th was higher, and of U lower, than the mass fractions in the earth's crust. In fact for the fumaroles of one site, the average RS mass fractions of these elements were higher than the averaged values for S (without considering the statistical dispersion). The immobilization of the NOHRE in the RS is brought about by the bio-geochemical processes specific to these extremophiles. Its effectiveness is such that despite the small masses of these plants, it compares with, or may sometimes exceed, the immobilization of the NOHRE in the S by the abiotic and aggressive chemical action of the hot-springs. These results indicate that the fumarolic plants are able to transform the volcanic substrate to soil and to affect the NOHRE mass fractions even though these elements are not plant nutrients. Mirrored back to

  18. Contribution of Schwann Cells to Remyelination in a Naturally Occurring Canine Model of CNS Neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Kegler, Kristel; Spitzbarth, Ingo; Imbschweiler, Ilka; Wewetzer, Konstantin; Baumgärtner, Wolfgang; Seehusen, Frauke

    2015-01-01

    -positive cells. This study provides novel insights into the involvement of Schwann cells in CNS remyelination under natural occurring CNS inflammation. Targeting p75NTR/Sox2-expressing Schwann cells to enhance their differentiation into competent remyelinating cells appears to be a promising therapeutic approach for inflammatory/demyelinating CNS diseases. PMID:26196511

  19. Naturally Occurring Differences in CENH3 Affect Chromosome Segregation in Zygotic Mitosis of Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Maheshwari, Shamoni; Tan, Ek Han; West, Allan; Franklin, F. Chris H.; Comai, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The point of attachment of spindle microtubules to metaphase chromosomes is known as the centromere. Plant and animal centromeres are epigenetically specified by a centromere-specific variant of Histone H3, CENH3 (a.k.a. CENP-A). Unlike canonical histones that are invariant, CENH3 proteins are accumulating substitutions at an accelerated rate. This diversification of CENH3 is a conundrum since its role as the key determinant of centromere identity remains a constant across species. Here, we ask whether naturally occurring divergence in CENH3 has functional consequences. We performed functional complementation assays on cenh3-1, a null mutation in Arabidopsis thaliana, using untagged CENH3s from increasingly distant relatives. Contrary to previous results using GFP-tagged CENH3, we find that the essential functions of CENH3 are conserved across a broad evolutionary landscape. CENH3 from a species as distant as the monocot Zea mays can functionally replace A. thaliana CENH3. Plants expressing variant CENH3s that are fertile when selfed show dramatic segregation errors when crossed to a wild-type individual. The progeny of this cross include hybrid diploids, aneuploids with novel genetic rearrangements and haploids that inherit only the genome of the wild-type parent. Importantly, it is always chromosomes from the plant expressing the divergent CENH3 that missegregate. Using chimeras, we show that it is divergence in the fast-evolving N-terminal tail of CENH3 that is causing segregation errors and genome elimination. Furthermore, we analyzed N-terminal tail sequences from plant CENH3s and discovered a modular pattern of sequence conservation. From this we hypothesize that while the essential functions of CENH3 are largely conserved, the N-terminal tail is evolving to adapt to lineage-specific centromeric constraints. Our results demonstrate that this lineage-specific evolution of CENH3 causes inviability and sterility of progeny in crosses, at the same time producing

  20. A Naturally Occurring Canine Model of Autosomal Recessive Congenital Stationary Night Blindness.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Mineo; Das, Gautami; Imai, Ryoetsu; Santana, Evelyn; Nakashita, Tomio; Imawaka, Miho; Ueda, Kosuke; Ohtsuka, Hirohiko; Sakai, Kazuhiko; Aihara, Takehiro; Kato, Kumiko; Sugimoto, Masahiko; Ueno, Shinji; Nishizawa, Yuji; Aguirre, Gustavo D; Miyadera, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    Congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) is a non-progressive, clinically and genetically heterogeneous disease of impaired night vision. We report a naturally-occurring, stationary, autosomal recessive phenotype in beagle dogs with normal daylight vision but absent night vision. Affected dogs had normal retinas on clinical examination, but showed no detectable rod responses. They had "negative-type" mixed rod and cone responses in full-field ERGs. Their photopic long-flash ERGs had normal OFF-responses associated with severely reduced ON-responses. The phenotype is similar to the Schubert-Bornschein form of complete CSNB in humans. Homozygosity mapping ruled out most known CSNB candidates as well as CACNA2D4 and GNB3. Three remaining genes were excluded based on sequencing the open reading frame and intron-exon boundaries (RHO, NYX), causal to a different form of CSNB (RHO) or X-chromosome (NYX, CACNA1F) location. Among the genes expressed in the photoreceptors and their synaptic terminals, and mGluR6 cascade and modulators, reduced expression of GNAT1, CACNA2D4 and NYX was observed by qRT-PCR in both carrier (n = 2) and affected (n = 2) retinas whereas CACNA1F was down-regulated only in the affecteds. Retinal morphology revealed normal cellular layers and structure, and electron microscopy showed normal rod spherules and synaptic ribbons. No difference from normal was observed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for antibodies labeling rods, cones and their presynaptic terminals. None of the retinas showed any sign of stress. Selected proteins of mGluR6 cascade and its modulators were examined by IHC and showed that PKCα weakly labeled the rod bipolar somata in the affected, but intensely labeled axonal terminals that appeared thickened and irregular. Dendritic terminals of ON-bipolar cells showed increased Goα labeling. Both PKCα and Goα labeled the more prominent bipolar dendrites that extended into the OPL in affected but not normal retinas. Interestingly

  1. A Naturally Occurring Canine Model of Autosomal Recessive Congenital Stationary Night Blindness.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Mineo; Das, Gautami; Imai, Ryoetsu; Santana, Evelyn; Nakashita, Tomio; Imawaka, Miho; Ueda, Kosuke; Ohtsuka, Hirohiko; Sakai, Kazuhiko; Aihara, Takehiro; Kato, Kumiko; Sugimoto, Masahiko; Ueno, Shinji; Nishizawa, Yuji; Aguirre, Gustavo D; Miyadera, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    Congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) is a non-progressive, clinically and genetically heterogeneous disease of impaired night vision. We report a naturally-occurring, stationary, autosomal recessive phenotype in beagle dogs with normal daylight vision but absent night vision. Affected dogs had normal retinas on clinical examination, but showed no detectable rod responses. They had "negative-type" mixed rod and cone responses in full-field ERGs. Their photopic long-flash ERGs had normal OFF-responses associated with severely reduced ON-responses. The phenotype is similar to the Schubert-Bornschein form of complete CSNB in humans. Homozygosity mapping ruled out most known CSNB candidates as well as CACNA2D4 and GNB3. Three remaining genes were excluded based on sequencing the open reading frame and intron-exon boundaries (RHO, NYX), causal to a different form of CSNB (RHO) or X-chromosome (NYX, CACNA1F) location. Among the genes expressed in the photoreceptors and their synaptic terminals, and mGluR6 cascade and modulators, reduced expression of GNAT1, CACNA2D4 and NYX was observed by qRT-PCR in both carrier (n = 2) and affected (n = 2) retinas whereas CACNA1F was down-regulated only in the affecteds. Retinal morphology revealed normal cellular layers and structure, and electron microscopy showed normal rod spherules and synaptic ribbons. No difference from normal was observed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for antibodies labeling rods, cones and their presynaptic terminals. None of the retinas showed any sign of stress. Selected proteins of mGluR6 cascade and its modulators were examined by IHC and showed that PKCα weakly labeled the rod bipolar somata in the affected, but intensely labeled axonal terminals that appeared thickened and irregular. Dendritic terminals of ON-bipolar cells showed increased Goα labeling. Both PKCα and Goα labeled the more prominent bipolar dendrites that extended into the OPL in affected but not normal retinas. Interestingly

  2. Manufactured Home Testing in Simulated and Naturally Occurring High Winds for WCTE Conference

    SciTech Connect

    William D. Richins; Thomas K. Larson; Jeffrey M. Lacy; Ryan G. Kobbe

    2006-08-01

    A typical double-wide manufactured home was tested in simulated and naturally occurring high winds to understand structural behavior and improve performance during severe windstorms. Seven (7) lateral load tests were conducted on a double-wide manufactured home at a remote field test site in Wyoming. An extensive instrumentation package monitored the overall behavior of the home and collected data vital to validating computational software for the manufactured housing industry. The tests were designed to approach the design load of the home without causing structural damage, thus allowing the behavior of the home to be accessed when the home was later exposed to high winds (to 80-mph). The data generally show near-linear initial system response with significant non-linear behavior as the applied loads increase. Load transfer across the marriage line is primarily compression. Racking, while present, is very small. Interface slip and shear displacement along the marriage line are nearly insignificant. Horizontal global displacements reached 0.6 inch. These tests were designed primarily to collect data necessary to calibrate a desktop analysis and design software tool, MHTool, under development at the Idaho National Laboratory specifically for manufactured housing. Currently available analysis tools are, for the most part, based on methods developed for "stick built" structures and are inappropriate for manufactured homes. The special materials utilized in manufactured homes, such as rigid adhesives used in the connection of the sheathing materials to the studs, significantly alter the behavior of manufactured homes under lateral loads. Previous full scale tests of laterally loaded manufactured homes confirm the contention that conventional analysis methods are not applicable. System behavior dominates the structural action of manufactured homes and its prediction requires a three dimensional analysis of the complete unit, including tie-downs. This project was

  3. A Naturally Occurring Canine Model of Autosomal Recessive Congenital Stationary Night Blindness

    PubMed Central

    Kondo, Mineo; Das, Gautami; Imai, Ryoetsu; Santana, Evelyn; Nakashita, Tomio; Imawaka, Miho; Ueda, Kosuke; Ohtsuka, Hirohiko; Sakai, Kazuhiko; Aihara, Takehiro; Kato, Kumiko; Sugimoto, Masahiko; Ueno, Shinji; Nishizawa, Yuji; Aguirre, Gustavo D.; Miyadera, Keiko

    2015-01-01

    Congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB) is a non-progressive, clinically and genetically heterogeneous disease of impaired night vision. We report a naturally-occurring, stationary, autosomal recessive phenotype in beagle dogs with normal daylight vision but absent night vision. Affected dogs had normal retinas on clinical examination, but showed no detectable rod responses. They had “negative-type” mixed rod and cone responses in full-field ERGs. Their photopic long-flash ERGs had normal OFF-responses associated with severely reduced ON-responses. The phenotype is similar to the Schubert-Bornschein form of complete CSNB in humans. Homozygosity mapping ruled out most known CSNB candidates as well as CACNA2D4 and GNB3. Three remaining genes were excluded based on sequencing the open reading frame and intron-exon boundaries (RHO, NYX), causal to a different form of CSNB (RHO) or X-chromosome (NYX, CACNA1F) location. Among the genes expressed in the photoreceptors and their synaptic terminals, and mGluR6 cascade and modulators, reduced expression of GNAT1, CACNA2D4 and NYX was observed by qRT-PCR in both carrier (n = 2) and affected (n = 2) retinas whereas CACNA1F was down-regulated only in the affecteds. Retinal morphology revealed normal cellular layers and structure, and electron microscopy showed normal rod spherules and synaptic ribbons. No difference from normal was observed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) for antibodies labeling rods, cones and their presynaptic terminals. None of the retinas showed any sign of stress. Selected proteins of mGluR6 cascade and its modulators were examined by IHC and showed that PKCα weakly labeled the rod bipolar somata in the affected, but intensely labeled axonal terminals that appeared thickened and irregular. Dendritic terminals of ON-bipolar cells showed increased Goα labeling. Both PKCα and Goα labeled the more prominent bipolar dendrites that extended into the OPL in affected but not normal retinas

  4. Naturally occurring heavy radioactive elements in the geothermal microcosm of the Los Azufres (Mexico) volcanic complex.

    PubMed

    Abuhani, W A; Dasgupta-Schubert, N; Villaseñor, L M; García Avila, D; Suárez, L; Johnston, C; Borjas, S E; Alexander, S A; Landsberger, S; Suárez, M C

    2015-01-01

    The Los Azufres geothermal complex of central Mexico is characterized by fumaroles and boiling hot-springs. The fumaroles form habitats for extremophilic mosses and ferns. Physico-chemical measurements of two relatively pristine fumarolic microcosms point to their resemblance with the paleo-environment of earth during the Ordovician and Devonian periods. These geothermal habitats were analysed for the distribution of elemental mass fractions in the rhizospheric soil (RS), the native volcanic substrate (VS) and the sediments (S), using the new high-sensitivity technique of polarized x-ray energy dispersive fluorescence spectrometry (PEDXRF) as well as instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) for selected elements. This work presents the results for the naturally occurring heavy radioactive elements (NOHRE) Bi, Th and U but principally the latter two. For the RS, the density was found to be the least and the total organic matter content the most. Bi was found to be negligibly present in all substrate types. The average Th and U mass fractions in the RS were higher than in the VS and about equal to their average mass fractions in the S. The VS mass fraction of Th was higher, and of U lower, than the mass fractions in the earth's crust. In fact for the fumaroles of one site, the average RS mass fractions of these elements were higher than the averaged values for S (without considering the statistical dispersion). The immobilization of the NOHRE in the RS is brought about by the bio-geochemical processes specific to these extremophiles. Its effectiveness is such that despite the small masses of these plants, it compares with, or may sometimes exceed, the immobilization of the NOHRE in the S by the abiotic and aggressive chemical action of the hot-springs. These results indicate that the fumarolic plants are able to transform the volcanic substrate to soil and to affect the NOHRE mass fractions even though these elements are not plant nutrients. Mirrored back to

  5. A Naturally Occurring Domestic Cat APOBEC3 Variant Confers Resistance to Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikawa, Rokusuke; Izumi, Taisuke; Yamada, Eri; Nakano, Yusuke; Misawa, Naoko; Ren, Fengrong; Carpenter, Michael A.; Ikeda, Terumasa; Münk, Carsten; Harris, Reuben S.; Miyazawa, Takayuki; Koyanagi, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    [HIV-1] and simian immunodeficiency virus [SIV]) if its activity is not counteracted by the viral Vif protein. Here we investigate the ability of 7 naturally occurring variants of feline APOBEC3, APOBEC3Z3 (A3Z3), to inhibit FIV replication. Interestingly, one feline A3Z3 variant is dominant, restrictive, and naturally resistant to FIV Vif-mediated degradation. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that the ancestral change that generated this variant could have been caused by positive Darwinian selection, presumably due to an ancestral FIV infection. The experimental-phylogenetic investigation sheds light on the evolutionary history of the domestic cat, which was likely influenced by lentiviral infection. PMID:26491161

  6. Investigation of Naturally Occurring Radio Nuclides in Shir-kuh Granites

    SciTech Connect

    Mazarei, Mohammad Mehdi; Zarei, Mojtaba

    2011-12-26

    One of the principle natural radiation resources is Granite which can be dangerous for human because of its radiations. Based on this fact, in this research we attempt to specify the activity amount of these natural radio nuclides, existing in Shir-kuh Granite of Yazd state. To specify the activity amount of this natural radio nuclides, it has been applied the measurement method of Gamma spectroscopy using high purity Germanium (HPGe) detector.

  7. Genome-wide Determinants of Proviral Targeting, Clonal Abundance and Expression in Natural HTLV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Melamed, Anat; Laydon, Daniel J.; Gillet, Nicolas A.; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Taylor, Graham P.; Bangham, Charles R. M.

    2013-01-01

    The regulation of proviral latency is a central problem in retrovirology. We postulate that the genomic integration site of human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) determines the pattern of expression of the provirus, which in turn determines the abundance and pathogenic potential of infected T cell clones in vivo. We recently developed a high-throughput method for the genome-wide amplification, identification and quantification of proviral integration sites. Here, we used this protocol to test two hypotheses. First, that binding sites for transcription factors and chromatin remodelling factors in the genome flanking the proviral integration site of HTLV-1 are associated with integration targeting, spontaneous proviral expression, and in vivo clonal abundance. Second, that the transcriptional orientation of the HTLV-1 provirus relative to that of the nearest host gene determines spontaneous proviral expression and in vivo clonal abundance. Integration targeting was strongly associated with the presence of a binding site for specific host transcription factors, especially STAT1 and p53. The presence of the chromatin remodelling factors BRG1 and INI1 and certain host transcription factors either upstream or downstream of the provirus was associated respectively with silencing or spontaneous expression of the provirus. Cells expressing HTLV-1 Tax protein were significantly more frequent in clones of low abundance in vivo. We conclude that transcriptional interference and chromatin remodelling are critical determinants of proviral latency in natural HTLV-1 infection. PMID:23555266

  8. L-tryptophan reacts with naturally occurring and food-occurring phenolic aldehydes to give phenolic tetrahydro-beta-carboline alkaloids: activity as antioxidants and free radical scavengers.

    PubMed

    Herraiz, Tomas; Galisteo, Juan; Chamorro, Cristina

    2003-04-01

    The reaction between the essential amino acid l-tryptophan and flavoring or naturally occurring phenyl and phenolic aldehydes was studied, and the alkaloidal reaction products were characterized by NMR and HPLC-MS. Benzaldehyde, vanillin, syringaldehyde, salicylaldehyde, and anisaldehyde condensed with l-tryptophan in aqueous-acidic media affording the corresponding phenolic tetrahydro-beta-carboline-3-carboxylic acid as two diastereoisomers, 1S,3S-cis and 1R,3S-trans. With the exception of benzaldehyde, the rest of the aldehydes needed heating conditions (70 degrees C) to significantly form tetrahydro-beta-carbolines over time with the cyclization highly favored at low pH. This suggests a likely formation of these compounds under conditions that may occur in foods, food processing, or cooking. The new phenolic tetrahydro-beta-carboline alkaloids were assayed, for the first time, for their activity as free radical scavengers and antioxidants and showed good antioxidant properties with Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) values much higher than those of ascorbic acid and the water soluble vitamin E analogue, Trolox, in the 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) assay.

  9. Effect of Environmental Factors on Cyanobacterial Abundance and Cyanotoxins Production in Natural and Drinking Water, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Affan, Abu; Khomavis, Hisham S; Al-Harbi, Salim Marzoog; Haque, Mahfuzul; Khan, Saleha

    2015-02-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms commonly appear during the summer months in ponds, lakes and reservoirs in Bangladesh. In these areas, fish mortality, odorous water and fish and human skin irritation and eye inflammation have been reported. The influence of physicochemical factors on the occurrence of cyanobacteria and its toxin levels were evaluated in natural and drinking water in Bangladesh. A highly sensitive immunosorbent assay was used to detect microcystins (MCs). Cyanobacteria were found in 22 of 23 samples and the dominant species were Microcystis aeruginosa, followed by Microcystisflosaquae, Anabeana crassa and Aphanizomenon flosaquae. Cyanobacterial abundance varied from 39 to 1315 x 10(3) cells mL(-1) in natural water and 31 to 49 x 10(3) cells mL(-1) in tap water. MC concentrations were 25-82300 pg mL(-1) with the highest value measured in the fish research pond, followed by Ishakha Lake. In tap water, MC concentrations ranged from 30-32 pg mL(-1). The correlation between nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) concentration and cyanobacterial cell abundance was R2 = 0.62 while that between cyanobacterial abundance and MC concentration was R2 = 0.98. The increased NO3-N from fish feed, organic manure, poultry and dairy farm waste and fertilizer from agricultural land eutrophicated the water bodies and triggered cyanobacterial bloom formation. The increased amount of cyanobacteria produced MCs, subsequently reducing the water quality. PMID:26364354

  10. Effect of Environmental Factors on Cyanobacterial Abundance and Cyanotoxins Production in Natural and Drinking Water, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Affan, Abu; Khomavis, Hisham S; Al-Harbi, Salim Marzoog; Haque, Mahfuzul; Khan, Saleha

    2015-02-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms commonly appear during the summer months in ponds, lakes and reservoirs in Bangladesh. In these areas, fish mortality, odorous water and fish and human skin irritation and eye inflammation have been reported. The influence of physicochemical factors on the occurrence of cyanobacteria and its toxin levels were evaluated in natural and drinking water in Bangladesh. A highly sensitive immunosorbent assay was used to detect microcystins (MCs). Cyanobacteria were found in 22 of 23 samples and the dominant species were Microcystis aeruginosa, followed by Microcystisflosaquae, Anabeana crassa and Aphanizomenon flosaquae. Cyanobacterial abundance varied from 39 to 1315 x 10(3) cells mL(-1) in natural water and 31 to 49 x 10(3) cells mL(-1) in tap water. MC concentrations were 25-82300 pg mL(-1) with the highest value measured in the fish research pond, followed by Ishakha Lake. In tap water, MC concentrations ranged from 30-32 pg mL(-1). The correlation between nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) concentration and cyanobacterial cell abundance was R2 = 0.62 while that between cyanobacterial abundance and MC concentration was R2 = 0.98. The increased NO3-N from fish feed, organic manure, poultry and dairy farm waste and fertilizer from agricultural land eutrophicated the water bodies and triggered cyanobacterial bloom formation. The increased amount of cyanobacteria produced MCs, subsequently reducing the water quality.

  11. AcuteToxicological Responses of Fischer Rats to Naturally Occurring Asbestos Samples from the United States and Canada

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential public health issues related to exposure to natural asbestos deposits (commonly termed naturally occurring asbestos, NO A) has gained the regulatory and media spotlight in recent years. Arguably the most well known example is Libby, Montana, the site of the largest ...

  12. Naturally Occurring Arsenic in Ground Water, Norman, Oklahoma, 2004, and Remediation Options for Produced Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, S. Jerrod; Christenson, Scott

    2005-01-01

    can be used to bring some of Norman?s high-arsenic wells into compliance with the new arsenic standard, the EPA Office of Research and Development (ORD) initiated a three-year research project in 2003 with participation from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Oklahoma State University, and the City of Norman. The primary objectives of the project are to: (1) determine where naturally occurring arsenic is entering wells by collecting water samples at different depths, (2) investigate the utility of new methods for collecting water-quality data in a pumping well, (3) better understand the stratigraphy and composition of aquifer rocks, (4) assess 10 wells for the possibility of arsenic remediation by well modification, and (5) evaluate the effectiveness of well modification in bringing marginal wells into compliance with the new arsenic MCL. The purpose of this report is to describe the occurrence of arsenic in ground water near Norman, Oklahoma, and available options for reducing arsenic concentrations in produced ground water.

  13. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation in an arid ecosystem measured by sup 15 N natural abundance

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, G.V. )

    1990-05-01

    Plants dependent on nitrogen fixation have an {sup 15}N abundance similar to the atmosphere, while non-nitrogen fixing plants usually are enriched in {sup 15}N and are similar to soil nitrogen values. The natural abundance of {sup 15}N in leaf tissues and soils was determined to evaluate symbiotic nitrogen fixation by several legumes and actinorhizal species in the Sevilleta Long-term Ecological Research area in central New Mexico. Comparison of {delta}{sup 15}N values for the legume Prosopis glandulosa (mesquite) to adjacent Atriplex canascens (fourwing saltbush) indicated that P. glandulosa obtained 66% of its nitrogen by fixation. The legume Hoffmanseggia jamesii was found to be utilizing soil nitrogen. The {delta}{sup 15}N values for the actinorhizal plants, Elaeagnus angustifolia and Cercocarpus montanus, while below values for soil nitrogen, did not differ from associated non-fixing plants.

  14. Bioaccessibility and degradation of naturally occurring arsenic species from food in the human gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Capilla, Teresa; Beshai, Mona; Maher, William; Kelly, Tamsin; Foster, Simon

    2016-12-01

    Humans are exposed to organic arsenic species through their diet and therefore, are susceptible to arsenic toxicity. Investigating the transformations occurring in the gastrointestinal tract will influence which arsenic species to focus on when studying metabolism in cells. Using a physiologically based extraction test, the bioaccessibility of arsenic species was determined after the simulated gastrointestinal digestion of rice, seaweed and fish. Pure standards of the major arsenic species present in these foodstuffs (arsenic glutathione complexes, arsenosugars and short chain fatty acids) were also evaluated to assess the effect of the food matrix on bioaccessibility and transformation. Approximately 80% of arsenic is released from these foodstuffs, potentially becoming available. Hydrolysis and demethylation of arsenic glutathione complexes and arsenosugars standards was observed, but no transformations occurred to arsenosugars present in seaweed. Demethylation of MA and DMA from rice occurs increasing the amount of inorganic arsenic species available for metabolism. PMID:27374523

  15. Understanding the Nature of Stellar Chemical Abundance Distributions in Nearby Stellar Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Duane Morris

    Since stars retain signatures of their galactic origins in their chemical compositions, we can exploit the chemical abundance distributions that we observe in stellar systems to put constraints on the nature of their progenitors. In this thesis, I present results from three projects aimed at understanding how high resolution spectroscopic observations of nearby stellar systems might be interpreted. The first project presents one possible explanation for the origin of peculiar abundance distributions observed in ultra-faint dwarf satellites of the Milky Way. The second project explores to what extent the distribution of chemical elements in the stellar halo can be used to trace Galactic accretion history from the birth of the Galaxy to the present day. Finally, a third project focuses on developing an input optimization algorithm for the second project to produce better estimates of halo accretion histories. In conclusion, I propose some other new ways to use statistical models and techniques along with chemical abundance distribution data to uncover galactic histories.

  16. Single-born marmosets without hemopoietic chimerism: naturally occurring and induced.

    PubMed

    Gengozian, N; Batson, J S

    1975-01-01

    Marmosets have a high frequency of fraternal twinning, and placental vascular anastomoses between the twin fetuses invariably lead to hemopoietic chimerism. The occasional finding of chimerism in single-born marmosets suggested that in a twin pregnancy one fetus had undergone resorption after contributing hemopoietic stem cells to its twin. In this study non-chimeric single-born marmosets were produced by fallopian tube ligation or surgical relocation of one ovary in breeding females. Further, in an examination of hemopoietic cells from over 50 single-born young from nonoperated females, chimerism occurred less frequently than what one would expect if resorption of a co-twin had occurred after a functional anastomosis had been established. PMID:808628

  17. Intertidal epilithic bacteria diversity changes along a naturally occurring carbon dioxide and pH gradient.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Joe D; Ellis, Rebecca; Milazzo, Marco; Hall-Spencer, Jason M; Cunliffe, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Intertidal epilithic bacteria communities are important components of coastal ecosystems, yet few studies have assessed their diversity and how it may be affected by changing environmental parameters. Submarine CO2 seeps produce localised areas of CO2-enriched seawater with reduced pH levels. We utilised the seawater pH/CO2 gradient at Levante Bay (Italy) to test the hypothesis that epilithic bacteria communities are modified by exposure to seawater with the varying chemical parameters. Biofilms were sampled from three sites exposed to seawater with different pH/CO2 levels and diversity determined using high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. Seawater pCO2 concentrations were increased from ambient at site 1 to 621 μatm at site 2 and 1654 μatm site 3, similar to the predicated future oceans beyond 2050 and 2150, respectively. Alpha diversity of total bacteria communities and Cyanobacteria communities was significantly different between sites (anova P < 0.05). Comparison between sites showed that bacteria communities and Cyanobacteria communities were significantly different (anosim P < 0.01; permanova P < 0.01). Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Cyanobacteria dominated all communities; however, there were differences between sites in the relative abundance of specific orders. This study provides the most detailed assessment of intertidal epilithic bacteria diversity and shows that diversity is significantly different along a seawater pH/CO2 gradient. This information supports the evaluation of the impacts of future ocean acidification on coastal marine ecosystems.

  18. Effects on Liver Lipid Metabolism of the Naturally Occurring Dietary Flavone Luteolin-7-glucoside.

    PubMed

    Sá, Carla; Oliveira, Ana Rita; Machado, Cátia; Azevedo, Marisa; Pereira-Wilson, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Disruptions in whole-body lipid metabolism can lead to the onset of several pathologies such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The present study aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms behind the lipid-lowering effects of the flavone luteolin-7-glucoside (L7G) which we previously showed to improve plasma lipid profile in rats. L7G is abundant in plant foods of Mediterranean diet such as aromatic plants used as herbs. Results show that dietary supplementation with L7G for one week induced the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α) and of its target gene carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT-1) in rat liver. L7G showed a tendency to decrease the hepatic expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), without affecting fatty acid synthase (FAS) protein levels. Although SREBP-2 and LDLr mRNA levels did not change, the expression of HMG CoA reductase (HMGCR) was significantly repressed by L7G. L7G also inhibited this enzyme's in vitro activity in a dose dependent manner, but only at high and not physiologically relevant concentrations. These results add new evidence that the flavone luteolin-7-glucoside may help in preventing metabolic diseases and clarify the mechanisms underlying the beneficial health effects of diets rich in fruits and vegetables.

  19. Effects on Liver Lipid Metabolism of the Naturally Occurring Dietary Flavone Luteolin-7-glucoside

    PubMed Central

    Sá, Carla; Oliveira, Ana Rita; Machado, Cátia; Azevedo, Marisa; Pereira-Wilson, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Disruptions in whole-body lipid metabolism can lead to the onset of several pathologies such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The present study aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms behind the lipid-lowering effects of the flavone luteolin-7-glucoside (L7G) which we previously showed to improve plasma lipid profile in rats. L7G is abundant in plant foods of Mediterranean diet such as aromatic plants used as herbs. Results show that dietary supplementation with L7G for one week induced the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α) and of its target gene carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT-1) in rat liver. L7G showed a tendency to decrease the hepatic expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), without affecting fatty acid synthase (FAS) protein levels. Although SREBP-2 and LDLr mRNA levels did not change, the expression of HMG CoA reductase (HMGCR) was significantly repressed by L7G. L7G also inhibited this enzyme's in vitro activity in a dose dependent manner, but only at high and not physiologically relevant concentrations. These results add new evidence that the flavone luteolin-7-glucoside may help in preventing metabolic diseases and clarify the mechanisms underlying the beneficial health effects of diets rich in fruits and vegetables. PMID:26113868

  20. Effects on Liver Lipid Metabolism of the Naturally Occurring Dietary Flavone Luteolin-7-glucoside.

    PubMed

    Sá, Carla; Oliveira, Ana Rita; Machado, Cátia; Azevedo, Marisa; Pereira-Wilson, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Disruptions in whole-body lipid metabolism can lead to the onset of several pathologies such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). The present study aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms behind the lipid-lowering effects of the flavone luteolin-7-glucoside (L7G) which we previously showed to improve plasma lipid profile in rats. L7G is abundant in plant foods of Mediterranean diet such as aromatic plants used as herbs. Results show that dietary supplementation with L7G for one week induced the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR-α) and of its target gene carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1 (CPT-1) in rat liver. L7G showed a tendency to decrease the hepatic expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1 (SREBP-1), without affecting fatty acid synthase (FAS) protein levels. Although SREBP-2 and LDLr mRNA levels did not change, the expression of HMG CoA reductase (HMGCR) was significantly repressed by L7G. L7G also inhibited this enzyme's in vitro activity in a dose dependent manner, but only at high and not physiologically relevant concentrations. These results add new evidence that the flavone luteolin-7-glucoside may help in preventing metabolic diseases and clarify the mechanisms underlying the beneficial health effects of diets rich in fruits and vegetables. PMID:26113868

  1. Synthesis of novel antimicrobial aryl himachalene derivatives from naturally occurring himachalenes

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Abha; Sood, Swati; Das, Pralay; Kaur, Pushpinder; Mahajan, Isha; Gulati, Arvind; Singh, Bikram

    2014-01-01

    Five new 2,9,9-trimethyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydro-benzocyclohepten-5-ylidene-amine derivatives (16a-16e) were synthesized from α-dehydro-ar-himachalene (11) that was originally prepared from an isomeric mixture of α, β and γ himachalenes (10), the abundant sesquiterpenes of Cedrus deodara essential oil. In addition, different aryl himachalenes derivatives (9, 12, 14 and 15) were also formed from 11. The structures of the synthesized compounds were confirmed on the basis of their NMR, IR and mass spectral data. The prepared compounds were tested against a group of sixteen organisms including gram positive and gram negative bacterial and fungal strains. The introduction of a series of substituted imine groups into aryl himachalenes at 5th position (16a-16e) enhanced antimicrobial activity as compared to the aromatized derivatives (9, 12, 14 and 15) against gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus and Staphylococcus aureus, and mycotoxigenic fungi Aspergillus parasiticus, A. ochraceous and A. sydowii. graphical Abstract, Figure 1(Fig. 1) PMID:26417335

  2. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) generated from lignite-fired power plants in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Hasani, F; Shala, F; Xhixha, G; Xhixha, M K; Hodolli, G; Kadiri, S; Bylyku, E; Cfarku, F

    2014-12-01

    The energy production in Kosovo depends primarily on lignite-fired power plants. During coal combustion, huge amounts of fly ash and bottom ash are generated, which may result in enriched natural radionuclides; therefore, these radionuclides need to be investigated to identify the possible processes that may lead to the radiological exposure of workers and the local population. Lignite samples and NORMs of fly ash and bottom ash generated in lignite-fired power plants in Kosovo are analyzed using a gamma-ray spectrometry method for the activity concentration of natural radionuclides. The average activity concentrations of (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th in lignite are found to be 36 ± 8 Bq kg(-1), 9 ± 1 Bq kg(-1) and 9 ± 3 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Indications on the occurrence and geochemical behavior of uranium in the lignite matrix are suggested. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in fly ash and bottom ash samples are found to be concentrated from 3 to 5 times that of the feeding lignite. The external gamma-ray absorbed dose rate and the activity concentration index are calculated to assess the radiological hazard arising from ash disposal and recycling in the cement industry.

  3. Naturally occurring variation in tadpole morphology and performance linked to predator regime

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, James B; Saenz, Daniel; Adams, Cory K; Hibbitts, Toby J

    2015-01-01

    Divergent natural selection drives a considerable amount of the phenotypic and genetic variation observed in natural populations. For example, variation in the predator community can generate conflicting selection on behavioral, life-history, morphological, and performance traits. Differences in predator regime can subsequently increase phenotypic and genetic variations in the population and result in the evolution of reproductive barriers (ecological speciation) or phenotypic plasticity. We evaluated morphology and swimming performance in field collected Bronze Frog larvae (Lithobates clamitans) in ponds dominated by predatory fish and those dominated by invertebrate predators. Based on previous experimental findings, we hypothesized that tadpoles from fish-dominated ponds would have small bodies, long tails, and large tail muscles and that these features would facilitate fast-start speed. We also expected to see increased tail fin depth (i.e., the tail-lure morphology) in tadpoles from invertebrate-dominated ponds. Our results support our expectations with respect to morphology in affecting swimming performance of tadpoles in fish-dominated ponds. Furthermore, it is likely that divergent natural selection is playing a role in the diversification on morphology and locomotor performance in this system. PMID:26357533

  4. Adjuvant Activity of Naturally Occurring Monophosphoryl Lipopolysaccharide Preparations from Mucosa-Associated Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Chilton, Paula M.; Hadel, Diana M.; To, Thao T.

    2013-01-01

    Natural heterogeneity in the structure of the lipid A portion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produces differential effects on the innate immune response. Gram-negative bacterial species produce LPS structures that differ from the classic endotoxic LPS structures. These differences include hypoacylation and hypophosphorylation of the diglucosamine backbone, both differences known to decrease LPS toxicity. The effect of decreased toxicity on the adjuvant properties of many of these LPS structures has not been fully explored. Here we demonstrate that two naturally produced forms of monophosphorylated LPS, from the mucosa-associated bacteria Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and Prevotella intermedia, function as immunological adjuvants for antigen-specific immune responses. Each form of mucosal LPS increased vaccination-initiated antigen-specific antibody titers in both quantity and quality when given simultaneously with vaccine antigen preparations. Interestingly, adjuvant effects on initial T cell clonal expansion were selective for CD4 T cells. No significant increase in CD8 T cell expansion was detected. MyD88/Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and TRIF/TLR4 signaling pathways showed equally decreased signaling with the LPS forms studied here as with endotoxic LPS or detoxified monophosphorylated lipid A (MPLA). Natural monophosphorylated LPS from mucosa-associated bacteria functions as a weak but effective adjuvant for specific immune responses, with preferential effects on antibody and CD4 T cell responses over CD8 T cell responses. PMID:23798540

  5. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) generated from lignite-fired power plants in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Hasani, F; Shala, F; Xhixha, G; Xhixha, M K; Hodolli, G; Kadiri, S; Bylyku, E; Cfarku, F

    2014-12-01

    The energy production in Kosovo depends primarily on lignite-fired power plants. During coal combustion, huge amounts of fly ash and bottom ash are generated, which may result in enriched natural radionuclides; therefore, these radionuclides need to be investigated to identify the possible processes that may lead to the radiological exposure of workers and the local population. Lignite samples and NORMs of fly ash and bottom ash generated in lignite-fired power plants in Kosovo are analyzed using a gamma-ray spectrometry method for the activity concentration of natural radionuclides. The average activity concentrations of (40)K, (226)Ra and (232)Th in lignite are found to be 36 ± 8 Bq kg(-1), 9 ± 1 Bq kg(-1) and 9 ± 3 Bq kg(-1), respectively. Indications on the occurrence and geochemical behavior of uranium in the lignite matrix are suggested. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides in fly ash and bottom ash samples are found to be concentrated from 3 to 5 times that of the feeding lignite. The external gamma-ray absorbed dose rate and the activity concentration index are calculated to assess the radiological hazard arising from ash disposal and recycling in the cement industry. PMID:25233215

  6. Changes in protein abundance are observed in bacterial isolates from a natural host

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Megan A.; Stinear, Timothy P.; Goode, Robert J. A.; Coppel, Ross L.; Smith, Alexander I.; Kleifeld, Oded

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial proteomic studies frequently use strains cultured in synthetic liquid media over many generations. It is uncertain whether bacterial proteins expressed under these conditions will be the same as the repertoire found in natural environments, or when bacteria are infecting a host organism. Thus, genomic and proteomic characterization of bacteria derived from the host environment in comparison to reference strains grown in the lab, should aid understanding of pathogenesis. Isolates of Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis were obtained from the lymph nodes of three naturally infected sheep and compared to a laboratory reference strain using bottom-up proteomics, after whole genome sequencing of each of the field isolates. These comparisons were performed following growth in liquid media that allowed us to reach the required protein amount for proteomic analysis. Over 1350 proteins were identified in the isolated strains, from which unique proteome features were revealed. Several of the identified proteins demonstrated a significant abundance difference in the field isolates compared to the reference strain even though there were no obvious differences in the DNA sequence of the corresponding gene or in nearby non-coding DNA. Higher abundance in the field isolates was observed for proteins related to hypoxia and nutrient deficiency responses as well as to thiopeptide biosynthesis. PMID:26528441

  7. Food safety and risk assessment: naturally occurring potential toxicants and anti-nutritive compounds in plant foods.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Thomas A B

    2003-01-01

    The centralisation and globalisation of the world food supply presents opportunities for massive epidemics of food borne illness. Food processing generally decreases exposure to naturally occurring toxicants. A significant number of deaths are caused in both developed and developing countries from the consumption of naturally occurring toxicants and this exceeds the numbers attributable to artificial food contaminants and pollutants. The risk posed by naturally occurring toxicants is greater in developing countries where food choice and facilities for food processing are limited. The main risk in developed countries is from food important from areas where food safety controls are inadequate. Toxins derived from marine algae present a specific threat to health especially as seafood is being traded from areas where poisoning by algal toxins is known to occur. A systematic approach to food safety using HACCP methodology and identity preservation of the food are crucial in the prevention of food related illness. There is also a need for international agreed standards for tolerable levels of naturally occurring toxicants in foodstuffs but these should derived not be set unreasonably low as this would threaten food security in developing countries. The occurrence of a number of fatalities in developing countries among people consuming herbal teas and dietary supplements underscores the need to assess the safety of these products before they are placed on the market. PMID:15806954

  8. Food safety and risk assessment: naturally occurring potential toxicants and anti-nutritive compounds in plant foods.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Thomas A B

    2003-01-01

    The centralisation and globalisation of the world food supply presents opportunities for massive epidemics of food borne illness. Food processing generally decreases exposure to naturally occurring toxicants. A significant number of deaths are caused in both developed and developing countries from the consumption of naturally occurring toxicants and this exceeds the numbers attributable to artificial food contaminants and pollutants. The risk posed by naturally occurring toxicants is greater in developing countries where food choice and facilities for food processing are limited. The main risk in developed countries is from food important from areas where food safety controls are inadequate. Toxins derived from marine algae present a specific threat to health especially as seafood is being traded from areas where poisoning by algal toxins is known to occur. A systematic approach to food safety using HACCP methodology and identity preservation of the food are crucial in the prevention of food related illness. There is also a need for international agreed standards for tolerable levels of naturally occurring toxicants in foodstuffs but these should derived not be set unreasonably low as this would threaten food security in developing countries. The occurrence of a number of fatalities in developing countries among people consuming herbal teas and dietary supplements underscores the need to assess the safety of these products before they are placed on the market.

  9. A naturally-occurring ‘cold earth’ spot in Northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Fujun; Cheng, Guodong; Niu, Yonghong; Zhang, Mingyi; Luo, Jing; Lin, Zhanju

    2016-09-01

    Permafrost is determined to a large extent by the Earth’s surface temperature, therefore it distributes mainly in high altitude and latitude regions. However, stable, warm (about ‑1 °C) permafrost occurs within a scree slope in northern China that is more than 600 km south of the southernmost limit of latitudinal permafrost on the Eurasian Continent. It is at an elevation of only 900 m above sea level (ASL). The area has a mean annual air temperature (MAAT) of 6 to 8 °C. Thermal processes of the scree slope, investigated through field monitoring and numerical simulation, showed that the permafrost is caused by winter air convection within the porous rock deposits and is stable as air convection does not occur in summer time. The deposit is covered by a 30-cm-thick peaty soil layer dated (carbon C-14) to between 1,000 to 1,600 years ago. The layer also contributes to the permafrost’s existence due to the peat’s thermal conductivity offset when frozen and thawed. The existence of permafrost under such warm climatic conditions confirms the effectiveness of using crushed rock layer as basement or slope cover to protect the warm permafrost subgrade of the recently-constructed Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR), even under the predicted climate warming conditions.

  10. Naturally occurring and melengestrol acetate-associated reproductive tract lesions in zoo canids.

    PubMed

    Moresco, A; Munson, L; Gardner, I A

    2009-11-01

    As husbandry practices have improved, safe and effective contraception for captive wildlife management has become a necessity. Melengestrol acetate (MGA), a synthetic progestin, is highly effective and has been used in many zoo species. Long-term use of MGA has been associated with uterine lesions in zoo felids, but effects in zoo canids have not been evaluated. This retrospective study documented spontaneously occurring lesions and investigated the impact of MGA on the reproductive health of zoo canids. Reproductive tracts from adult females were submitted by US zoos to the Association of Zoos & Aquariums' Wildlife Contraception Center Health Surveillance Program. Reproductive tracts were sampled and processed for histopathologic examination following standard protocols. Microscopic evaluations were performed without prior knowledge of MGA treatment status. Prevalence of uterine lesions was evaluated and compared between MGA-treated animals (n = 20) and control (untreated) animals (n = 61). Common lesions within the study population as a whole included endometrial hyperplasia (predominantly cystic) (53%), hydrometra (33%), and adenomyosis (25%). Treatment with MGA was a risk factor for endometrial hyperplasia, hydrometra, fibrosis, and adenomyosis. Uterine mineralization occurred exclusively in MGA-treated animals. Results indicate that MGA contraception can lead to lesions that may permanently impair the fertility of females. Therefore, if long-term contraception of zoo canids is necessary, the use of alternate methods of reproductive control such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogs or GnRH vaccines that reduce gonadal hormone exposure should be pursued.

  11. A naturally-occurring ‘cold earth’ spot in Northern China

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Fujun; Cheng, Guodong; Niu, Yonghong; Zhang, Mingyi; Luo, Jing; Lin, Zhanju

    2016-01-01

    Permafrost is determined to a large extent by the Earth’s surface temperature, therefore it distributes mainly in high altitude and latitude regions. However, stable, warm (about −1 °C) permafrost occurs within a scree slope in northern China that is more than 600 km south of the southernmost limit of latitudinal permafrost on the Eurasian Continent. It is at an elevation of only 900 m above sea level (ASL). The area has a mean annual air temperature (MAAT) of 6 to 8 °C. Thermal processes of the scree slope, investigated through field monitoring and numerical simulation, showed that the permafrost is caused by winter air convection within the porous rock deposits and is stable as air convection does not occur in summer time. The deposit is covered by a 30-cm-thick peaty soil layer dated (carbon C-14) to between 1,000 to 1,600 years ago. The layer also contributes to the permafrost’s existence due to the peat’s thermal conductivity offset when frozen and thawed. The existence of permafrost under such warm climatic conditions confirms the effectiveness of using crushed rock layer as basement or slope cover to protect the warm permafrost subgrade of the recently-constructed Qinghai-Tibet Railway (QTR), even under the predicted climate warming conditions. PMID:27685441

  12. When a natural disaster occurs: lessons learned in meeting students' needs.

    PubMed

    Watson, Pamela G; Loffredo, Vincent J; McKee, John C

    2011-01-01

    Across the nation, weather-related natural disasters-tropical storms, floods, tornadoes, and earthquakes-struck even areas where weather concerns are not paramount on the minds of most people. These natural disasters heightened awareness that all geographic areas are susceptible to aberrant weather conditions. The purpose of this article was to relate the lessons learned by one academic health center in meeting students' emergency preparedness and disaster recovery needs following a major hurricane in fall 2008. To gauge students' storm-related needs, a Hurricane Needs Survey (HNS) was conducted in spring 2009, 7 months after the hurricane. Students responded to 26 structured response items and 3 open-ended questions. Five hundred fifteen surveys were completed, constituting a response rate of 37.2%. Data were analyzed by creating frequencies to profile students' hurricane experiences. Results indicated that all students left the island under mandatory evacuation orders; most stayed with their families, and most experienced moderate material losses. For some students, the evacuation process and life after the storm contributed to ongoing problems, worries, and academic performance issues. Qualitative content analysis was used to derive themes from the students' narrative responses to the HNS open-ended questions about their perceptions of the extent to which the University of Texas Medical Branch met their needs. When students' hurricane response comments were analyzed, three major themes emerged: being prepared, needing to be connected, and returning to normalcy. The major lessons learned are that the emergency preparation of students requires greater specificity and that discussion about poststorm recovery expectations is essential. Following a natural disaster, students experience more distress than may be readily apparent. PMID:22142912

  13. The 'dying back' process. A common denominator in many naturally occurring and toxic neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, J B

    1979-12-01

    The "dying back" process can be defined as a pathological changes affecting certain neurons in a number of systematized degenerative conditions. Examples exist to illustrate the nature of this process, which is unique to nervous tissue, and there is an association of this process with certain chronic vitamin-deficiency syndromes and some important neurotoxic chemicals. Albeit largely speculative, one can attempt to group the conditions showing the dying back process in terms of putative metabolic lesions. Although this attempt is admittedly only a first approximation, it enables us to look ahead to a future understanding of the metabolic problems of long neurons and how their selective degeneration comes about.

  14. Naturally occurring plant isoquinoline N-oxide alkaloids: their pharmacological and SAR activities.

    PubMed

    Dembitsky, Valery M; Gloriozova, Tatyana A; Poroikov, Vladimir V

    2015-01-15

    The present review describes research on novel natural isoquinoline alkaloids and their N-oxides isolated from different plant species. More than 200 biological active compounds have shown confirmed antimicrobial, antibacterial, antitumor, and other activities. The structures, origins, and reported biological activities of a selection of isoquinoline N-oxides alkaloids are reviewed. With the computer program PASS some additional SAR (structure-activity relationship) activities are also predicted, which point toward new possible applications of these compounds. This review emphasizes the role of isoquinoline N-oxides alkaloids as an important source of leads for drug discovery.

  15. Naturally occurring tetracycline-like fluorescence in sections of femur from jackals in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Bingham, J; Matema, R; Kappeler, A; Hill, F W

    1994-08-20

    In assessing the potential of the tetracycline compounds as biomarkers in oral rabies vaccination campaigns in jackals in Zimbabwe, the natural prevalence of fluorescent compounds in bone tissue from jackals was investigated. Femur samples were taken from unbaited jackals received for routine rabies diagnosis, and thin undecalcified sections were cut and viewed under an ultraviolet microscope. Of 131 femur samples examined, 49 (37 per cent) had fluorescent markings indistinguishable from those of tetracycline. The result implies that the tetracycline compounds, which are commonly used in rabies baiting campaigns in Europe and North America, cannot be used as biomarkers in jackals in Zimbabwe.

  16. Phenylpropanoids as naturally occurring antioxidants: from plant defense to human health.

    PubMed

    Korkina, L G

    2007-04-15

    Phenylpropanoids (PPs) belong to the largest group of secondary metabolites produced by plants, mainly, in response to biotic or abiotic stresses such as infections, wounding, UV irradiation, exposure to ozone, pollutants, and other hostile environmental conditions. It is thought that the molecular basis for the protective action of phenylpropanoids in plants is their antioxidant and free radical scavenging properties. These numerous phenolic compounds are major biologically active components of human diet, spices, aromas, wines, beer, essential oils, propolis, and traditional medicine. Last few years, much interest has been attracted to natural and synthetic phenylpropanoids for medicinal use as antioxidant, UV screens, anticancer, anti-virus, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, and antibacterial agents. They are of great interest for cosmetic and perfume industries as active natural ingredients. In the present review, the metabolic pathways of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in plants and the mechanism of phenylpropanoid-mediated plant defense are described. Learning from plants, free radical-driven, molecular and cellular processes modulated by phenylpropanoids in human cell cultures in vitro and in the in vivo animal models of tumors, inflammation, and cellular damage are also reviewed.

  17. Climate change enhances the mobilisation of naturally occurring metals in high altitude environments.

    PubMed

    Zaharescu, Dragos G; Hooda, Peter S; Burghelea, Carmen I; Polyakov, Viktor; Palanca-Soler, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Manmade climate change has expressed a plethora of complex effects on Earth's biogeochemical compartments. Climate change may also affect the mobilisation of natural metal sources, with potential ecological consequences beyond mountains' geographical limits; however, this question has remained largely unexplored. We investigated this by analysing a number of key climatic factors in relationship with trace metal accumulation in the sediment core of a Pyrenean lake. The sediment metal contents showed increasing accumulation trend over time, and their levels varied in step with recent climate change. The findings further revealed that a rise in the elevation of freezing level, a general increase in the frequency of drier periods, changes in the frequency of winter freezing days and a reducing snow cover since the early 1980s, together are responsible for the observed variability and augmented accumulation of trace metals. Our results provide clear evidence of increased mobilisation of natural metal sources - an overlooked effect of climate change on the environment. With further alterations in climate equilibrium predicted over the ensuing decades, it is likely that mountain catchments in metamorphic areas may become significant sources of trace metals, with potentially harmful consequences for the wider environment.

  18. Naturally occurring diversity helps to reveal genes of adaptive importance in legumes

    PubMed Central

    Gentzbittel, Laurent; Andersen, Stig U.; Ben, Cécile; Rickauer, Martina; Stougaard, Jens; Young, Nevin D.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental changes challenge plants and drive adaptation to new conditions, suggesting that natural biodiversity may be a source of adaptive alleles acting through phenotypic plasticity and/or micro-evolution. Crosses between accessions differing for a given trait have been the most common way to disentangle genetic and environmental components. Interestingly, such man-made crosses may combine alleles that never meet in nature. Another way to discover adaptive alleles, inspired by evolution, is to survey large ecotype collections and to use association genetics to identify loci of interest. Both of these two genetic approaches are based on the use of biodiversity and may eventually help us in identifying the genes that plants use to respond to challenges such as short-term stresses or those due to global climate change. In legumes, two wild species, Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus, plus the cultivated soybean (Glycine max) have been adopted as models for genomic studies. In this review, we will discuss the resources, limitations and future plans for a systematic use of biodiversity resources in model legumes to pinpoint genes of adaptive importance in legumes, and their application in breeding. PMID:25954294

  19. The source of naturally occurring arsenic in a coastal sand aquifer of eastern Australia.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Bethany; Jankowski, Jerzy; Sammut, Jesmond

    2007-07-01

    The discovery of dissolved arsenic in a coastal aquifer used extensively for human consumption has led to widespread concern for its potential occurrence in other sandy coastal environments in eastern Australia. The development of an aquifer specific geomorphic model (herein) suggests that arsenic is regionally derived from erosion of arsenic-rich stibnite (Sb(2)S(3)) mineralisation present in the hinterland. Fluvial processes have transported the eroded material over time to deposit an aquifer lithology elevated in arsenic. Minor arsenic contribution to groundwater is derived from mineralised bedrock below the unconsolidated aquifer. An association with arsenic and pyrite has been observed in the aquifer in small discrete arsenian pyrite clusters rather than actual acid sulfate soil horizons. This association is likely to influence arsenic distribution in the aquifer, but is not the dominant control on arsenic occurrence. Arsenic association with marine clays is considered a function of their increased adsorptive capacity for arsenic and not solely on the influence of sea level inundation of the aquifer sediments during the Quaternary Period. These findings have implications for, but are not limited to, coastal aquifers. Rather, any aquifer containing sediments derived from mineralised provenances may be at risk of natural arsenic contamination. Groundwater resource surveys should thus incorporate a review of the aquifer source provenance when assessing the likely risk of natural arsenic occurrence in an aquifer.

  20. Climate change enhances the mobilisation of naturally occurring metals in high altitude environments.

    PubMed

    Zaharescu, Dragos G; Hooda, Peter S; Burghelea, Carmen I; Polyakov, Viktor; Palanca-Soler, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Manmade climate change has expressed a plethora of complex effects on Earth's biogeochemical compartments. Climate change may also affect the mobilisation of natural metal sources, with potential ecological consequences beyond mountains' geographical limits; however, this question has remained largely unexplored. We investigated this by analysing a number of key climatic factors in relationship with trace metal accumulation in the sediment core of a Pyrenean lake. The sediment metal contents showed increasing accumulation trend over time, and their levels varied in step with recent climate change. The findings further revealed that a rise in the elevation of freezing level, a general increase in the frequency of drier periods, changes in the frequency of winter freezing days and a reducing snow cover since the early 1980s, together are responsible for the observed variability and augmented accumulation of trace metals. Our results provide clear evidence of increased mobilisation of natural metal sources - an overlooked effect of climate change on the environment. With further alterations in climate equilibrium predicted over the ensuing decades, it is likely that mountain catchments in metamorphic areas may become significant sources of trace metals, with potentially harmful consequences for the wider environment. PMID:27093125

  1. Some aspects of humoral and cellular immunity in naturally occuring feline infectious peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Paltrinieri, S; Cammarata, M P; Cammarata, G; Comazzi, S

    1998-10-23

    their activated state; a small number of lymphocytes, with an increasing percentage of CD8+ cells was present. Lymphocytes were more abundant when cellular foci and FIP-infected macrophages were centered around neoformed vessels. IgM and IgG exposing B-cells were always few and scattered. In conclusion the simultaneous analysis of body fluids and of the cellular composition of the lesions showed a complex immune status, on which type III and type IV hypersensitivity could coexist.

  2. Naturally occurring tyrosinase inhibitors: mechanism and applications in skin health, cosmetics and agriculture industries.

    PubMed

    Parvez, Shoukat; Kang, Moonkyu; Chung, Hwan-Suck; Bae, Hyunsu

    2007-09-01

    Tyrosinase is a copper-containing enzyme, which is widely distributed in microorganisms, animals and plants and is a key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis, involved in determining the color of mammalian skin and hair. In addition, unfavorable enzymatic browning of plant-derived foods by tyrosinase causes a decrease in nutritional quality and economic loss of food products. The inadequacy of current conventional methods to prevent tyrosinase action encourages researchers to seek new potent tyrosinase inhibitors for food and cosmetics. This article presents a study on the importance of tyrosinase, biochemical characteristics, type of inhibitions, activators from various natural sources with its clinical and industrial importance in recent prospects is discussed in this paper. PMID:17605157

  3. Effect of silver nanoparticles on fluorescence and nonlinear properties of naturally occurring betacyanin dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkar, Arindam; Thankappan, Aparna; Nampoori, V. P. N.

    2015-01-01

    We present the linear and nonlinear optical studies of a natural dye betacyanin extracted from red beet root in the presence of silver nano particles in colloidal solution. We synthesized silver nano particles and characterized by XRD and HRTEM. We show how appropriate concentration of silver nanoparticles can enable tuning of dye fluorescence efficiency. Nonlinear properties are studied using open aperture Z scan technique with Nd:YAG laser (532 nm, 7 ns, 10 Hz). We show modification of nonlinear properties for the dye to the desired level can be achieved in the presence of silver nanoparticles. High nonlinearity we also demonstrated in PVA/Ag nano/Betacyanin composite films. Theoretical analysis is performed using model based on nonlinear absorption of materials and scattering of metal nanoparticles.

  4. Naturally occurring radionuclides and rare earth elements in weathered Japanese soil samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Sarata; Hosoda, Masahiro; Prasad, Ganesh; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Ishikawa, Tetsuo; Tokonami, Shinji; Uchida, Shigeo

    2013-08-01

    The activity concentrations of 226Ra and 228Ac in weathered Japanese soils from two selected prefectures have been measured using a γ-ray spectroscopy system with high purity germanium detector. The uranium, thorium, and rare earth elements (REEs) concentrations were determined from the same soil samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). For example, granitic rocks contain higher amounts of U, Th, and light REEs compared to other igneous rocks such as basalt and andesites. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the interaction between REEs and nature of soils since soils are complex heterogeneous mixture of organic and inorganic solids, water, and gases. In this paper, we will discuss about distribution pattern of 238U and 232Th along with REEs in soil samples of weathered acid rock (granite) collected from two prefectures of Japan: Hiroshima and Miyagi.

  5. Naturally occurring plant polyphenols as potential therapies for inherited neuromuscular diseases.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Heidi R; Humphrey, Emma L; Morris, Glenn E

    2013-11-01

    There are several lines of laboratory-based evidence emerging to suggest that purified polyphenol compounds such as resveratrol, found naturally in red grapes, epigallocatechin galate from green tea and curcumin from turmeric, might be useful for the treatment of various inherited neuromuscular diseases, including spinal muscular atrophy, Duchenne muscular dystrophy and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Here, we critically examine the scientific evidence related to the known molecular effects that these polyphenols have on different models of inherited neuromuscular disease, with particular attention to problems with the validity of in vitro evidence. We also present proteomic evidence that polyphenols have in vitro effects on cells related to metal ion chelation in cell-culture media. Although their precise mechanisms of action remain somewhat elusive, polyphenols could be an attractive approach to therapy for inherited neuromuscular disease, especially since they may be safer to use on young children, compared with some of the other drug candidates.

  6. Baseline data of naturally occurring radionuclides in some native vegetables and fruits in Southern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kranrod, C; Chanyotha, S; Pornnumpa, C; Kritsananuwat, R; Sriploy, P

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to provide the baseline data information on natural radioactivities in vegetables and fruits produced and consumed locally in the areas of potential nuclear power plant sites in Thailand. Four provinces (Prajuab-Kirikhan, Chumphon, Surat-Thani and Nakhon-Si-thammarat) were selected for collection of native vegetables and fruits samples, together with their corresponding soils. The activities of (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (40)K and (210)Po were determined in all these samples. The obtained results for (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (40)K and (210)Po for all vegetable and fruit samples were in the range of 1-34, 1-108, 32-4392 and 0.2-47 Bq kg(-1), respectively, which were much lower than those obtained for their corresponding soils. PMID:25944964

  7. Naturally occurring plant polyphenols as potential therapies for inherited neuromuscular diseases.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Heidi R; Humphrey, Emma L; Morris, Glenn E

    2013-11-01

    There are several lines of laboratory-based evidence emerging to suggest that purified polyphenol compounds such as resveratrol, found naturally in red grapes, epigallocatechin galate from green tea and curcumin from turmeric, might be useful for the treatment of various inherited neuromuscular diseases, including spinal muscular atrophy, Duchenne muscular dystrophy and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Here, we critically examine the scientific evidence related to the known molecular effects that these polyphenols have on different models of inherited neuromuscular disease, with particular attention to problems with the validity of in vitro evidence. We also present proteomic evidence that polyphenols have in vitro effects on cells related to metal ion chelation in cell-culture media. Although their precise mechanisms of action remain somewhat elusive, polyphenols could be an attractive approach to therapy for inherited neuromuscular disease, especially since they may be safer to use on young children, compared with some of the other drug candidates. PMID:24215348

  8. Fluoride: A naturally-occurring health hazard in drinking-water resources of Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chuah, C Joon; Lye, Han Rui; Ziegler, Alan D; Wood, Spencer H; Kongpun, Chatpat; Rajchagool, Sunsanee

    2016-03-01

    In Northern Thailand, incidences of fluorosis resulting from the consumption of high-fluoride drinking-water have been documented. In this study, we mapped the high-fluoride endemic areas and described the relevant transport processes of fluoride in enriched waters in the provinces of Chiang Mai and Lamphun. Over one thousand surface and sub-surface water samples including a total of 995 collected from shallow (depth: ≤ 30 m) and deep (> 30 m) wells were analysed from two unconnected high-fluoride endemic areas. At the Chiang Mai site, 31% of the shallow wells contained hazardous levels (≥ 1.5 mg/L) of fluoride, compared with the 18% observed in the deep wells. However, at the Lamphun site, more deep wells (35%) contained water with at least 1.5mg/L fluoride compared with the shallow wells (7%). At the Chiang Mai site, the high-fluoride waters originate from a nearby geothermal field. Fluoride-rich geothermal waters are distributed across the area following natural hydrological pathways of surface and sub-surface water flow. At the Lamphun site, a well-defined, curvilinear high-fluoride anomalous zone, resembling that of the nearby conspicuous Mae Tha Fault, was identified. This similarity provides evidence of the existence of an unmapped, blind fault as well as its likely association to a geogenic source (biotite-granite) of fluoride related to the faulted zone. Excessive abstraction of ground water resources may also have affected the distribution and concentration of fluoride at both sites. The distribution of these high-fluoride waters is influenced by a myriad of complex natural and anthropogenic processes which thus created a challenge for the management of water resources for safe consumption in affected areas. The notion of clean and safe drinking water can be found in deeper aquifers is not necessarily true. Groundwater at any depth should always be tested before the construction of wells. PMID:26747991

  9. Fluoride: A naturally-occurring health hazard in drinking-water resources of Northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Chuah, C Joon; Lye, Han Rui; Ziegler, Alan D; Wood, Spencer H; Kongpun, Chatpat; Rajchagool, Sunsanee

    2016-03-01

    In Northern Thailand, incidences of fluorosis resulting from the consumption of high-fluoride drinking-water have been documented. In this study, we mapped the high-fluoride endemic areas and described the relevant transport processes of fluoride in enriched waters in the provinces of Chiang Mai and Lamphun. Over one thousand surface and sub-surface water samples including a total of 995 collected from shallow (depth: ≤ 30 m) and deep (> 30 m) wells were analysed from two unconnected high-fluoride endemic areas. At the Chiang Mai site, 31% of the shallow wells contained hazardous levels (≥ 1.5 mg/L) of fluoride, compared with the 18% observed in the deep wells. However, at the Lamphun site, more deep wells (35%) contained water with at least 1.5mg/L fluoride compared with the shallow wells (7%). At the Chiang Mai site, the high-fluoride waters originate from a nearby geothermal field. Fluoride-rich geothermal waters are distributed across the area following natural hydrological pathways of surface and sub-surface water flow. At the Lamphun site, a well-defined, curvilinear high-fluoride anomalous zone, resembling that of the nearby conspicuous Mae Tha Fault, was identified. This similarity provides evidence of the existence of an unmapped, blind fault as well as its likely association to a geogenic source (biotite-granite) of fluoride related to the faulted zone. Excessive abstraction of ground water resources may also have affected the distribution and concentration of fluoride at both sites. The distribution of these high-fluoride waters is influenced by a myriad of complex natural and anthropogenic processes which thus created a challenge for the management of water resources for safe consumption in affected areas. The notion of clean and safe drinking water can be found in deeper aquifers is not necessarily true. Groundwater at any depth should always be tested before the construction of wells.

  10. Relative Resistance of HLA-B to Downregulation by Naturally Occurring HIV-1 Nef Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Mahiti, Macdonald; Toyoda, Mako; Jia, Xiaofei; Kuang, Xiaomei T.; Mwimanzi, Francis; Mwimanzi, Philip; Walker, Bruce D.; Xiong, Yong; Brumme, Zabrina L.; Brockman, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT HIV-1 Nef binds to the cytoplasmic region of HLA-A and HLA-B and downregulates these molecules from the surface of virus-infected cells, thus evading immune detection by CD8+ T cells. Polymorphic residues within the HLA cytoplasmic region may affect Nef’s downregulation activity. However, the effects of HLA polymorphisms on recognition by primary Nef isolates remain elusive, as do the specific Nef regions responsible for downregulation of HLA-A versus HLA-B. Here, we examined 46 Nef clones isolated from chronically HIV-1 subtype B-infected subjects for their ability to downregulate various HLA-A, HLA-B, and HLA-C molecules on the surface of virus-infected cells. Overall, HLA-B exhibited greater resistance to Nef-mediated downregulation than HLA-A, regardless of the cell type examined. As expected, no Nef clone downregulated HLA-C. Importantly, the differential abilities of patient-derived Nef clones to downregulate HLA-A and HLA-B correlated inversely with the sensitivities of HIV-infected target cells to recognition by effector cells expressing an HIV-1 Gag-specific T cell receptor. Nef codon function analysis implicated amino acid variation at position 202 (Nef-202) in differentially affecting the ability to downregulate HLA-A and HLA-B, an observation that was subsequently confirmed by experiments using Nef mutants constructed by site-directed mutagenesis. The in silico and mutagenesis analyses further suggested that Nef-202 may interact with the C-terminal Cys-Lys-Val residues of HLA-A, which are absent in HLA-B. Taken together, the results show that natural polymorphisms within Nef modulate its interaction with natural polymorphisms in the HLA cytoplasmic tails, thereby affecting the efficiency of HLA downregulation and consequent recognition by HIV-specific T cells. These results thus extend our understanding of this complex pathway of retroviral immune evasion. PMID:26787826

  11. Ascomycetous yeasts associated with naturally occurring fruits in a tropical rain forest.

    PubMed

    Prada, G M; Pagnocca, F C

    1997-01-01

    Fruits from twenty different species of angiosperms were collected during the period from November, 1991 to January, 1992. Two hundred and two strains of yeasts and yeast-like fungi were isolated, of which 74% showed ascomycetic affinity. Candida was the predominant genus, followed by (in descending order of occurrence): Cryptococcus, Kloeckera, Sporobolomyces, Pichia, Hanseniaspora and Bullera. Black yeasts and other strains showing basidiomycetic affinity were also isolated. The genus Candida represented the highest number of identified species and the greatest variety of associated substrates. Among the ascomycetes and their anamorphs, 38 species were identified, with Kloeckera apiculata being the most frequent among the isolates and the one which occurred in the largest variety of substrates. Some of the biotypes designated as Candida sp. A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, and Pichia sp. did not correspond to the standard species description found in the literature, and may represent new species. The strains of yeasts isolated in this study were characterized and incorporated into the Tropical Culture Collection of the Fundaao Tropical de Pesquisas e Tecnologia Andŕe Tosello, Campinas, São Paulo.

  12. Naturally occurring and experimentally induced beta-amyloid deposits in the brains of marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Maclean, C J; Baker, H F; Ridley, R M; Mori, H

    2000-01-01

    Cerebral beta-amyloid occurs in elderly animals of some species and in Alzheimer's disease. Previously, we injected 3 young marmosets intracerebrally with brain tissue from a patient with Alzheimer's disease. Six years later, when the monkeys were middle aged, we found moderate numbers of intracerebral plaques and cerebrovascular deposits containing beta-amyloid. We have re-examined these brains and those of 10 other marmosets injected with brain homogenate containing beta-amyloid, and have found some beta-amyloid in animals injected more than 4 years previously. We have found beta-amyloid in 4 of 26 elderly control marmosets, but not in 9 young to middle-aged control marmosets. The beta-amyloid found in middle aged marmosets injected with Alzheimer brain tissue was, therefore, not a consequence of their age. Deposits in large cerebral vessels in elderly marmosets, and in marmosets previously injected with brain tissue containing beta-amyloid, reacted with antibodies to Abeta and Abeta1-40; plaques and microvessel deposits reacted with antibodies to Abeta and Abeta1-42.

  13. Diagnostic features in 10 naturally occurring cases of acute fatal canine leptospirosis.

    PubMed

    Rissi, Daniel R; Brown, Cathy A

    2014-11-01

    The current report describes the diagnostic features in 10 cases of acute fatal canine leptospirosis with minimal renal and hepatic changes that may present a diagnostic challenge for the pathologist. Most affected dogs were less than 6 months of age and had a biochemical profile consistent with hepatorenal dysfunction. Clinical signs consisted of vomiting, depression, icterus, dehydration, diarrhea, and anorexia. All dogs died or were humanely euthanized within 3-7 days after the onset of clinical disease. Necropsy findings included pulmonary edema with hemorrhages, icterus, renal and hepatic pallor and swelling, and gastric edema with hemorrhage. Despite severe azotemia, histological changes in the kidneys were subtle in all dogs, and included mild renal tubular simplification, with single-cell necrosis and attenuation, along with minimal interstitial lymphoplasmacytic inflammation, edema, and hemorrhage. Hepatic lesions included scattered hepatocellular single-cell necrosis and hepatocellular dissociation. Prominent extrarenal lesions typically associated with uremia including vascular fibrinoid necrosis in multiple organs, pulmonary mineralization with occasional fibrinosuppurative exudation, and gastric mineralization were also present. Postmortem diagnostic confirmation was based on the detection of leptospiral antigen on fresh renal samples by fluorescent antibody test and on the demonstration of intact spirochetes in sections of kidneys using immunohistochemical staining. Acute fatal canine leptospirosis occurred as a fulminant hepatorenal disease affecting mainly young dogs, and the diagnosis was dependent on the recognition of the subtle renal changes with confirmation via fluorescent antibody testing or immunohistochemical staining. PMID:25274745

  14. Naturally occurring infections of cattle with Theileria lestoquardi and sheep with Theileria annulata in the Sudan.

    PubMed

    Taha, K M; Salih, D A; Ali, A M; Omer, R A; El Hussein, A M

    2013-01-16

    Theileria annulata is endemic in northern Sudan, hindering all efforts at upgrading cattle for milk production. T. lestoquardi clinical cases occur throughout the year and causes annual outbreaks that result in substantial losses in sheep. In the northern Sudan both cattle and small ruminants are frequently raised together and/or share common grazing grounds at river banks. In an attempt to evaluate field cross infectivity of Theileria lestoquardi and T. annulata in cattle and sheep respectively, a PCR analysis was carried out on samples collected from closely reared sheep and cattle using both T. annulata and T. lestoquardi specific primers. A total of 19 sheep out of 51 (37.3%) were positive for T. lestoquardi while four sheep (7.8%) showed T. annulata specific amplicons. A total of 38 out of 52 (73.1%) surveyed cattle were PCR positive for T. annulata and only two (3.8%) showed T. lestoquardi specific bands. These findings indicate complex epidemiology of both infections in areas where both parasites are transmitted by the same vector and call for further investigations of this phenomenon.

  15. Catalpol and methylcatalpol: naturally occurring glycosides in Plantago and Buddleia species

    PubMed Central

    Duff, R. B.; Bacon, J. S. D.; Mundie, C. M.; Farmer, V. C.; Russell, J. D.; Forrester, A. R.

    1965-01-01

    1. A glycoside of the aucubin type has been isolated in crystalline form from Plantago and Buddleia species, and has been shown to be identical with catalpol (Lunn, Edward & Edward, 1962). Catalpol has not been found in the free state before, but occurs as its p-hydroxybenzoyl ester, catalposide, in the genus Catalpa. 2. A second glycoside of this type has been obtained in crystalline form from Buddleia, and has been shown to be a mono-O-methyl derivative of catalpol, for which the name `methylcatalpol' is proposed. 3. Both Plantago and Buddleia species are known to contain aucubin. The concentrations of this glycoside and catalpol are comparable in Plantago. In Buddleia methylcatalpol predominates somewhat over catalpol. Yields of the individual glycosides were about 0·1% of the fresh weight of the leaves. 4. Bobbitt, Spiggle, Mahboob, Philipsborn & Schmid (1962) have suggested structures for catalposide and catalpol based on chemical and physical evidence, in particular on n.m.r. spectra. Reappraisal of this evidence and additional measurements have now confirmed these structures and show that the Buddleia glycoside is the 6-O-methyl derivative of catalpol. PMID:14343132

  16. Naturally occurring tubulin-containing paracrystals in Allogromia: immunocytochemical identification and functional significance.

    PubMed

    Rupp, G; Bowser, S S; Mannella, C A; Rieder, C L

    1986-01-01

    Bundles of microtubules (MTs) are readily visualized in vivo by videomicroscopy in highly flattened reticulopodia of the foraminiferan protozoan Allogromia sp. strain NF. In this report we use videomicroscopy, immunocytochemistry, and high-voltage electron microscopy to characterize the dynamic changes that occur in this extensive MT cytoskeleton, and in the associated cytoplasmic transport, during induced withdrawal and subsequent reextension of reticulopodia. Within seconds after application of the withdrawal stimulus (seawater substitute made hypertonic with MgCl2) intracellular bidirectional transport along linear MT-containing fibrils ceases and is replaced by an inward, constant-velocity flow of cytoplasm along the fibrils. As withdrawal continues, most fibrils become wavy and coalesce to form phase-dense pools. These wavy fibrils and phase-dense pools contain a paracrystalline material and few if any MTs. Same-section correlative immunofluorescence and high-voltage electron microscopy reveal that the paracrystalline material contains tubulin. During recovery linear fibrils (MTs) rapidly extend from the phase-dense pools (paracrystals), which concurrently shrink in size, thus reestablishing normal network morphology and motility. We conclude that the MT cytoskeleton in Allogromia reticulopodia is transformed during withdrawal into a tubulin-containing paracrystal, which serves as a temporary reservoir of MT protein and an initiation site for MT regrowth.

  17. Aldosterone induced changes in colonic sodium transport occurring naturally during development in the neonatal pig.

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, D R; James, P S; Paterson, J Y; Saunders, J C; Smith, M W

    1979-01-01

    1. Serum concentrations of aldosterone in later fetal, 3-6 week old and adult pigs are of the order of 300 pg ml.-1. This increases to about 2000 pg ml.-1 in the period immediately after birth. 2. Canrenoate injected into pigs from birth onwards stops the increase in colonic short-circuit current, seen to take place normally during early postnatal development. Amiloride has little or no effect on the short-circuit current of colons taken from canrenoate injected pigs. 3. Canrenoate stops the post-natal increase in colonic Na influx (and therefore net transport) seen to occur under normal conditions. 4. There is in the neonatal pig distal colon a portion of Na transport which appears to be resistant to inhibition by amiloride or canrenoate. 5. There is a second portion of Na transport, increasing in importance as the piglets become older, which is electrogenic and which is electrogenic and which is inhibited by prior injection of canrenoate. It is assumed that this fraction of Na transport is influenced by aldosterone. 6. There is a third part of Na transport, maximal in colons taken from one day old animals, which appears to be non-electrogenic. This is also blocked by prior injection of canrenoate. 7. The physiological relevance of these findings is discussed. PMID:490382

  18. Sulphoraphane, a naturally occurring isothiocyanate induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells by targeting heat shock proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Sarkar, Ruma; Mukherjee, Sutapa; Biswas, Jaydip; Roy, Madhumita

    2012-10-12

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HSPs (27, 70 and 90) and HSF1 are overexpressed in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sulphoraphane, a natural isothiocyanate inhibited HSPs and HSF1 expressions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of HSPs and HSF1 lead to regulation of apoptotic proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alteration of apoptotic proteins activate of caspases particularly caspase 3 and 9 leading to induction of apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Alteration of apoptotic proteins induce caspases leading to induction of apoptosis. -- Abstract: Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are involved in protein folding, aggregation, transport and/or stabilization by acting as a molecular chaperone, leading to inhibition of apoptosis by both caspase dependent and/or independent pathways. HSPs are overexpressed in a wide range of human cancers and are implicated in tumor cell proliferation, differentiation, invasion and metastasis. HSPs particularly 27, 70, 90 and the transcription factor heat shock factor1 (HSF1) play key roles in the etiology of breast cancer and can be considered as potential therapeutic target. The present study was designed to investigate the role of sulphoraphane, a natural isothiocyanate on HSPs (27, 70, 90) and HSF1 in two different breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells expressing wild type and mutated p53 respectively, vis-a-vis in normal breast epithelial cell line MCF-12F. It was furthermore investigated whether modulation of HSPs and HSF1 could induce apoptosis in these cells by altering the expressions of p53, p21 and some apoptotic proteins like Bcl-2, Bax, Bid, Bad, Apaf-1 and AIF. Sulphoraphane was found to down-regulate the expressions of HSP70, 90 and HSF1, though the effect on HSP27 was not pronounced. Consequences of HSP inhibition was upregulation of p21 irrespective of p53 status. Bax, Bad, Apaf-1, AIF were upregulated followed by down-regulation of Bcl-2 and this effect was prominent

  19. Predation and Parasitism Rates on Sentinel and Naturally Occurring Egg Masses of the Squash Bug (Hemiptera: Coreidae) in Maryland

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seasonal changes in egg predation and parasitism rates on sentinel and naturally occurring (wild) egg masses of the squash bug, Anasa tristis (DeGeer), were evaluated in squash fields in Maryland from June through September in 2013 and 2014. Rates of egg predation and parasitism were significantly ...

  20. Elevated Appraisals of the Negative Impact of Naturally Occurring Life Events: A Risk Factor for Depressive and Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Espejo, Emmanuel Peter; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    The tendency to appraise naturally occurring life events (LEs) as having high negative impact may be a predisposing factor for the development of depression and anxiety disorders. In the current study, appraisals of the negative impact of recent LEs were examined in relationship to depressive and anxiety disorders in a sample of 653 adolescents…

  1. The Case of an In-Home Recreation Program for an Older Adult in a Naturally Occurring Retirement Community (NORC).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chow, Yvette

    2002-01-01

    Describes the implementation of an in-home therapeutic recreation (TR) program with an elderly woman living in a naturally occurring retirement community (NORC) by a fourth-year TR student. The program helped meet her physical, social, and cognitive needs and re-stimulate her interests. Results suggest that in-home TR can be beneficial, and TR…

  2. The Nature, Occurring Contexts, and Psychological Implications of Weight-Related Teasing in Urban Physical Education Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Weidong; Rukavina, Paul

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the nature, occurring contexts, and psychological implications of weight-related teasing in urban physical education programs. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 47 participants from a large urban school district. Data were analyzed using inductive analysis and constant comparisons. Most overweight adolescents…

  3. Recruiting Older Adults into a Physical Activity Promotion Program: "Active Living Every Day" Offered in a Naturally Occurring Retirement Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hildebrand, Mary; Neufeld, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This article explores recruitment strategies based on the transtheoretical model (TTM) with older adults living in a naturally occurring retirement community (NORC) to encourage enrollment in a physical activity promotion program, "Active Living Every Day" (ALED). Reasons for participation or nonparticipation are identified. Design and…

  4. A novel Arometic compound acts synergistically with a naturally occurring monoterpene to elicit strong behavioral responses in Asian citrus psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inscent, Inc. has developed methodologies for rapidly screening potential ligands of chemosensory proteins (CSPs) isolated from the antennae of target insects. These novel ligands, referred to as Arometics, mimic naturally-occurring odorants and may function as super-stimuli because of their strong ...

  5. Using naturally occurring radionuclides to determine drinking water age in a community water system

    DOE PAGES

    Waples, James T.; Bordewyk, Jason K.; Knesting, Kristina M.; Orlandini, Kent A.

    2015-07-22

    Drinking water quality in a community water system is closely linked to the age of water from initial treatment to time of delivery. However, water age is difficult to measure with conventional chemical tracers; particularly in stagnant water, where the relationship between disinfectant decay, microbial growth, and water age is poorly understood. Using radionuclides that were naturally present in source water, we found that measured activity ratios of 90Y/90Sr and 234Th/238U in discrete drinking water samples of known age accurately estimated water age up to 9 days old (σest: ± 3.8 h, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.998, n =more » 11) and 25 days old (σest: ± 13.3 h, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.996, n = 12), respectively. Moreover, 90Y-derived water ages in a community water system (6.8 × 104 m3 d–1 capacity) were generally consistent with water ages derived from an extended period simulation model. Radionuclides differ from conventional chemical tracers in that they are ubiquitous in distribution mains and connected premise plumbing. The ability to measure both water age and an analyte (e.g., chemical or microbe) in any water sample at any time allows for new insight into factors that control drinking water quality.« less

  6. Laboratory studies using naturally occurring "green rust" to aid metal mine water remediation.

    PubMed

    Bearcock, Jenny M; Perkins, William T; Pearce, Nicholas J G

    2011-06-15

    Green rust, an Fe (II) and (III) oxyhydroxy salt, can alter the aqueous oxidation state, mobility and toxicity, of inorganic contaminants and thus could have applications in water treatment. This paper discusses a series of stirred, open batch experiments designed to evaluate green rust, and its oxidised equivalent in this context comparing it to a ferrihydrite/goethite 'ochre'. Natural green rust was added to different mine waters as either a wet, reduced material or a dry, partially oxidised material. Experiments showed that the addition of either form accelerated the removal of potentially harmful elements from solution. Within one hour Fe, Al and Cu were completely removed from mine waters with initial concentrations of 80, 70 and 8.5mg/L, respectively, and Zn was reduced from 60 to <5mg/L. These experiments show the potential of green rust in mine water treatment, especially as it is able to remove problematic elements such as Al and Zn. The material is effective even after being dried and mostly oxidised. Changes to the pH and ORP of the mine waters and surface catalysis are the suggested mechanisms of accelerated removal of contaminants. PMID:21497995

  7. Laboratory studies using naturally occurring "green rust" to aid metal mine water remediation.

    PubMed

    Bearcock, Jenny M; Perkins, William T; Pearce, Nicholas J G

    2011-06-15

    Green rust, an Fe (II) and (III) oxyhydroxy salt, can alter the aqueous oxidation state, mobility and toxicity, of inorganic contaminants and thus could have applications in water treatment. This paper discusses a series of stirred, open batch experiments designed to evaluate green rust, and its oxidised equivalent in this context comparing it to a ferrihydrite/goethite 'ochre'. Natural green rust was added to different mine waters as either a wet, reduced material or a dry, partially oxidised material. Experiments showed that the addition of either form accelerated the removal of potentially harmful elements from solution. Within one hour Fe, Al and Cu were completely removed from mine waters with initial concentrations of 80, 70 and 8.5mg/L, respectively, and Zn was reduced from 60 to <5mg/L. These experiments show the potential of green rust in mine water treatment, especially as it is able to remove problematic elements such as Al and Zn. The material is effective even after being dried and mostly oxidised. Changes to the pH and ORP of the mine waters and surface catalysis are the suggested mechanisms of accelerated removal of contaminants.

  8. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of naturally occurring phenolic and related compounds: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Rao, Yerra Koteswara; Geethangili, Madamanchi; Fang, Shih-Hua; Tzeng, Yew-Min

    2007-09-01

    The antioxidant (DPPH radical and superoxide anion scavenging activities), and cytotoxic (in tumor, Jurkat, PC-3, Colon 205, HepG2, and normal PBMCs cells) activities of 16 plant phenolic or related compounds were evaluated in vitro. Different categories compounds corresponding to 10 flavonoids, three lignans, two phenolic acids, and a catechin showed significant mean differences in antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. Particularly, the flavonols, quercetin (3) and tiliroside (11) possess significant antioxidant activity, as well as cytotoxic activity against Jurkat; and Jurkat and HepG2 cells, respectively. In contrast, the flavanone, 5,7-dimethoxy-3',4'-methylenedioxyflavanone (7), and homoisoflavonoid, isobonducellin (10) shown to have no significant antioxidant activity, but exhibited potent cytotoxic activity in Jurkat and HepG2 cells, while moderate growth inhibition against Colon205 cells. Interestingly, none of these derivatives shown to have toxicity toward normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells, over the concentration range tested (5-200 microM). Cytotoxic activities of some natural flavonoids identified in the medicinal plants were evaluated for the first time.

  9. A Naturally Occurring Outbreak of Tuberculosis in a Group of Imported Cynomolgus Monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    PubMed Central

    Panarella, Matthew L; Bimes, Randy S

    2010-01-01

    This case report describes the diagnosis of tuberculosis (caused primarily by Mycobacterium bovis) in a group of newly imported Chinese origin cynomolgus monkeys. We also describe the use of sedation to enhance the accuracy of evaluation of the intrapalpebral tuberculin skin test using the mammalian old tuberculin reagent and report the first known diagnosis of Mycobacterium paraffinicum in a nonhuman primate. By 48 h after injection during the second tuberculin skin test, 6 of the 80 macaques had developed eyelid reactions ranging from mild (grade 1) to severe (grade 4). Given the range and severity of reactions, we suspected an outbreak of tuberculosis in the group. Because of the nature of the reactions, we sedated the animals at the 72-h evaluation to more closely observe and then palpate the injected eyelid. Evaluation of unsedated animals revealed 22 with a reaction to mammalian old tuberculin. We confirmed these 22 cases and identified an additional 11 animals with reactions when the monkeys were sedated. Mycobacterial culture of tissue from 6 macaques with reactions confirmed M. bovis in 3 animals. In addition, 1 of these 3 animals was culture-positive for both M. bovis and M. paraffinicum, and another was culture-positive for M. avium complex only. The addition of sedation to facilitate visual inspection and then palpation of the injected eyelid of these macaques increased the accuracy of evaluation and understanding of the number and severity of reactions to tuberculin skin testing. PMID:20353699

  10. The origin of naturally occurring perchlorate: the role of atmospheric processes.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Purnendu K; Martinelango, P Kalyani; Jackson, W Andrew; Anderson, Todd A; Tian, Kang; Tock, Richard W; Rajagopalan, Srinath

    2005-03-15

    Perchlorate, an iodide uptake inhibitor, is increasingly being detected in new places and new matrices. Perchlorate contamination has been attributed largelyto the manufacture and use of ammonium perchlorate (the oxidizer in solid fuel rockets) and/or the earlier use of Chilean nitrate as fertilizer (approximately 0.1% perchlorate). However, there are regions such as the southern high plains (Texas Panhandle) where there is no clear historical or current evidence of the extensive presence of rocket fuel or Chilean fertilizer sources. The occurrence of easily measurable concentrations of perchlorate in such places is difficult to understand. In the southern high plains groundwater, perchlorate is better correlated with iodate, known to be of atmospheric origin, compared to any other species. We show that perchlorate is readily formed by a variety of simulated atmospheric processes. For example, it is formed from chloride aerosol by electrical discharge and by exposing aqueous chloride to high concentrations of ozone. We report that perchlorate is present in many rain and snow samples. This strongly suggests that some perchlorate is formed in the atmosphere and a natural perchlorate background of atmospheric origin should exist.

  11. Natural Occurring Silks and Their Analogues as Materials for Nerve Conduits

    PubMed Central

    Radtke, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Spider silk and its synthetic derivatives have a light weight in combination with good strength and elasticity. Their high cytocompatibility and low immunogenicity make them well suited for biomaterial products such as nerve conduits. Silk proteins slowly degrade enzymatically in vivo, thus allowing for an initial therapeutic effect such as in nerve scaffolding to facilitate endogenous repair processes, and then are removed. Silks are biopolymers naturally produced by many species of arthropods including spiders, caterpillars and mites. The silk fibers are secreted by the labial gland of the larvae of some orders of Holometabola (insects with pupa) or the spinnerets of spiders. The majority of studies using silks for biomedical applications use materials from silkworms or spiders, mostly of the genus Nephila clavipes. Silk is one of the most promising biomaterials with effects not only in nerve regeneration, but in a number of regenerative applications. The development of silks for human biomedical applications is of high scientific and clinical interest. Biomaterials in use for biomedical applications have to meet a number of requirements such as biocompatibility and elicitation of no more than a minor inflammatory response, biodegradability in a reasonable time and specific structural properties. Here we present the current status in the field of silk-based conduit development for nerve repair and discuss current advances with regard to potential clinical transfer of an implantable nerve conduit for enhancement of nerve regeneration. PMID:27775616

  12. Using Naturally Occurring Radionuclides To Determine Drinking Water Age in a Community Water System.

    PubMed

    Waples, James T; Bordewyk, Jason K; Knesting, Kristina M; Orlandini, Kent A

    2015-08-18

    Drinking water quality in a community water system is closely linked to the age of water from initial treatment to time of delivery. However, water age is difficult to measure with conventional chemical tracers; particularly in stagnant water, where the relationship between disinfectant decay, microbial growth, and water age is poorly understood. Using radionuclides that were naturally present in source water, we found that measured activity ratios of (90)Y/(90)Sr and (234)Th/(238)U in discrete drinking water samples of known age accurately estimated water age up to 9 days old (σest: ± 3.8 h, P < 0.0001, r(2) = 0.998, n = 11) and 25 days old (σest: ± 13.3 h, P < 0.0001, r(2) = 0.996, n = 12), respectively. Moreover, (90)Y-derived water ages in a community water system (6.8 × 10(4) m(3) d(-1) capacity) were generally consistent with water ages derived from an extended period simulation model. Radionuclides differ from conventional chemical tracers in that they are ubiquitous in distribution mains and connected premise plumbing. The ability to measure both water age and an analyte (e.g., chemical or microbe) in any water sample at any time allows for new insight into factors that control drinking water quality.

  13. Bone remodeling adjacent to total hip replacements: A naturally occurring material design problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrigan, Timothy P.; Hamilton, James J.

    1993-10-01

    The reaction of bone to orthopedic implants is an example of a self-adjusting material which changes from a ‘normal state’ to an altered state, based on the mechanical features of the implant and the loads applied to it. The changes in bone around cemented and uncemented femoral total hip components are well documented, and many numerical characterizations of the material reaction to stress have attempted to mimic the natural remodeling process. In this study we review the development of a simple material remodeling rule which yields a stable structure which is optimal and which allows a unique solution. We then use this algorithm to assess the effect of prosthesis stiffness and the presence of a compliant layer on bone remodeling around these implants. An axisymmetric model for axial loading is used to model changes in bone density through the thickness of the cancellous bone around the implants. With cortical remodeling left out of the simulation, the simulations showed density distributions that agreed in general with the results in the literature, and showed a marked difference in response if a compliant layer was added to the prosthesis.

  14. Mobilization and transport of naturally occurring enterococci in beach sands subject to transient infiltration of seawater.

    PubMed

    Russell, Todd L; Yamahara, Kevan M; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2012-06-01

    This study explores the transport of enterococci (ENT) from naturally contaminated beach sands to the groundwater table via infiltrating seawater using field, laboratory, and modeling experiments. ENT were readily mobilized and transported through the unsaturated zone during infiltration events in both the field and laboratory column experiments. Detachment mechanisms were investigated using a modified version of HYDRUS-1D. Three models for detachment kinetics were tested. Detachment kinetics that are first order with respect to the rate of change in the water content and attached surface bacterial concentrations were found to provide a best fit between predicted and observed data. From these experimental and model results we conclude that detachment mechanisms associated with the rapid increases in pore water content such as air-water interface scouring and thin film expansion are likely drivers of ENT mobilization in the investigated system. These findings suggest that through-beach transport of ENT may be an important pathway through which ENT from beach sands are transported to beach groundwater where they may be discharged to coastal waters via submarine groundwater discharge. PMID:22533299

  15. Mass fractionation of noble gases in synthetic methane hydrate: Implications for naturally occurring gas hydrate dissociation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Andrew G.; Stern, Laura; Pohlman, John W.; Ruppel, Carolyn; Moscati, Richard J.; Landis, Gary P.

    2013-01-01

    As a consequence of contemporary or longer term (since 15 ka) climate warming, gas hydrates in some settings may presently be dissociating and releasing methane and other gases to the ocean-atmosphere system. A key challenge in assessing the impact of dissociating gas hydrates on global atmospheric methane is the lack of a technique able to distinguish between methane recently released from gas hydrates and methane emitted from leaky thermogenic reservoirs, shallow sediments (some newly thawed), coal beds, and other sources. Carbon and deuterium stable isotopic fractionation during methane formation provides a first-order constraint on the processes (microbial or thermogenic) of methane generation. However, because gas hydrate formation and dissociation do not cause significant isotopic fractionation, a stable isotope-based hydrate-source determination is not possible. Here, we investigate patterns of mass-dependent noble gas fractionation within the gas hydrate lattice to fingerprint methane released from gas hydrates. Starting with synthetic gas hydrate formed under laboratory conditions, we document complex noble gas fractionation patterns in the gases liberated during dissociation and explore the effects of aging and storage (e.g., in liquid nitrogen), as well as sampling and preservation procedures. The laboratory results confirm a unique noble gas fractionation pattern for gas hydrates, one that shows promise in evaluating modern natural gas seeps for a signature associated with gas hydrate dissociation.

  16. Oxidation of uraninite: Does tetragonal U 3O 7 occur in nature?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janeczek, Janusz; Ewing, Rodney C.; Thomas, Larry E.

    1993-12-01

    Samples of uraninite and pitchblende annealed at 1200°C in H 2, and untreated pitchblende were sequentially oxidized in air at 180-190°C, 230°C, and 300°C. Uraninite and untreated pitchblende oxidized to the U 4O 9-type oxide, and their X-ray symmetry remained isometric up to 300°C. Reduced pitchblende after oxidation to UO2 + x and U 4O 9-type oxides transformed into α-U 3O 8 at 300°C. Two major mechanisms control uraninite and untreated pitchblende stability during oxidation: (1) Th and/or REE maintain charge balance and block oxygen interstitials near impurity cations; (2) the uraninite structure saturates with respect to excess oxygen and radiation-induced oxygen interstitials. Untreated pitchblende during oxidation behaved similarly to irradiated UO 2 in spent nuclear fuel; whereas, reduced pitchblende resembled nonirradiated UO 2. An analysis of the data in the literature, as well as our own efforts to identify U 3O 7 in samples from Cigar Lake, Canada, failed to provide conclusive evidence of the natural occurrence of tetragonal α-U 3O 7. Most probably, reported occurrences of U 3O 7 are mixtures of isometric uraninites of slightly different compositions.

  17. Amino acid substitutions in naturally occurring variants of ail result in altered invasion activity.

    PubMed Central

    Beer, K B; Miller, V L

    1992-01-01

    Yersinia enterocolitica is the causative agent of a variety of gastrointestinal syndromes ranging from acute enteritis to mesenteric lymphadenitis. In addition, systemic infections resulting in high mortality rates can occur in elderly and immunocompromised patients. More than 50 serotypes of Y. enterocolitica have been identified, but only a few of them commonly cause disease in otherwise healthy hosts. Those serotypes that cause disease have been divided into two groups, American and non-American, based on their geographical distributions, biotypes, and pathogenicity. We have been studying two genes, inv and ail, from Y. enterocolitica that confer in tissue culture assays an invasive phenotype that strongly correlates with virulence. Some differences between the American and non-American serotypes at the ail locus were noted previously and have been investigated further in this report. The ail locus was cloned from seven Y. enterocolitica strains (seven different serotypes). Although the different clones produced similar amounts of Ail, the product of the ail gene from non-American serotypes (AilNA) was less able to promote invasion by Escherichia coli than was the product of the ail gene from American serotypes (AilA). This difference is probably due to one or more of the eight amino acid changes found in the derived amino acid sequence for the mature form of AilNA compared with that of AilA. Seven of these changes are predicted to be in cell surface domains of the protein (a model for the proposed folding of Ail within the outer membrane is presented). These results are discussed in relation to the growing family of outer membrane proteins, which includes Lom from bacteriophage lambda, PagC from salmonella typhimurium, and OmpX from Enterobacter cloacae. Images PMID:1370953

  18. Anti-Cancer Properties of the Naturally Occurring Aphrodisiacs: Icariin and Its Derivatives.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hui-Li; Chan, Kok-Gan; Pusparajah, Priyia; Saokaew, Surasak; Duangjai, Acharaporn; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing

    2016-01-01

    Epimedium (family Berberidaceae), commonly known as Horny Goat Weed or Yin Yang Huo, is commonly used as a tonic, aphrodisiac, anti-rheumatic and anti-cancer agent in traditional herbal formulations in Asian countries such as China, Japan, and Korea. The major bioactive compounds present within this plant include icariin, icaritin and icariside II. Although it is best known for its aphrodisiac properties, scientific and pharmacological studies suggest it possesses broad therapeutic capabilities, especially for enhancing reproductive function and osteoprotective, neuroprotective, cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory and immunoprotective effects. In recent years, there has been great interest in scientific investigation of the purported anti-cancer properties of icariin and its derivatives. Data from in vitro and in vivo studies suggests these compounds demonstrate anti-cancer activity against a wide range of cancer cells which occurs through various mechanisms such as apoptosis, cell cycle modulation, anti-angiogenesis, anti-metastasis and immunomodulation. Of note, they are efficient at targeting cancer stem cells and drug-resistant cancer cells. These are highly desirable properties to be emulated in the development of novel anti-cancer drugs in combatting the emergence of drug resistance and overcoming the limited efficacy of current standard treatment. This review aims to summarize the anti-cancer mechanisms of icariin and its derivatives with reference to the published literature. The currently utilized applications of icariin and its derivatives in cancer treatment are explored with reference to existing patents. Based on the data compiled, icariin and its derivatives are shown to be compounds with tremendous potential for the development of new anti-cancer drugs. PMID:27445824

  19. Anti-Cancer Properties of the Naturally Occurring Aphrodisiacs: Icariin and Its Derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hui-Li; Chan, Kok-Gan; Pusparajah, Priyia; Saokaew, Surasak; Duangjai, Acharaporn; Lee, Learn-Han; Goh, Bey-Hing

    2016-01-01

    Epimedium (family Berberidaceae), commonly known as Horny Goat Weed or Yin Yang Huo, is commonly used as a tonic, aphrodisiac, anti-rheumatic and anti-cancer agent in traditional herbal formulations in Asian countries such as China, Japan, and Korea. The major bioactive compounds present within this plant include icariin, icaritin and icariside II. Although it is best known for its aphrodisiac properties, scientific and pharmacological studies suggest it possesses broad therapeutic capabilities, especially for enhancing reproductive function and osteoprotective, neuroprotective, cardioprotective, anti-inflammatory and immunoprotective effects. In recent years, there has been great interest in scientific investigation of the purported anti-cancer properties of icariin and its derivatives. Data from in vitro and in vivo studies suggests these compounds demonstrate anti-cancer activity against a wide range of cancer cells which occurs through various mechanisms such as apoptosis, cell cycle modulation, anti-angiogenesis, anti-metastasis and immunomodulation. Of note, they are efficient at targeting cancer stem cells and drug-resistant cancer cells. These are highly desirable properties to be emulated in the development of novel anti-cancer drugs in combatting the emergence of drug resistance and overcoming the limited efficacy of current standard treatment. This review aims to summarize the anti-cancer mechanisms of icariin and its derivatives with reference to the published literature. The currently utilized applications of icariin and its derivatives in cancer treatment are explored with reference to existing patents. Based on the data compiled, icariin and its derivatives are shown to be compounds with tremendous potential for the development of new anti-cancer drugs. PMID:27445824

  20. Inhibition of TRPV1 channels by a naturally occurring omega-9 fatty acid reduces pain and itch

    PubMed Central

    Morales-Lázaro, Sara L.; Llorente, Itzel; Sierra-Ramírez, Félix; López-Romero, Ana E.; Ortíz-Rentería, Miguel; Serrano-Flores, Barbara; Simon, Sidney A.; Islas, León D.; Rosenbaum, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) ion channel is mainly found in primary nociceptive afferents whose activity has been linked to pathophysiological conditions including pain, itch and inflammation. Consequently, it is important to identify naturally occurring antagonists of this channel. Here we show that a naturally occurring monounsaturated fatty acid, oleic acid, inhibits TRPV1 activity, and also pain and itch responses in mice by interacting with the vanilloid (capsaicin)-binding pocket and promoting the stabilization of a closed state conformation. Moreover, we report an itch-inducing molecule, cyclic phosphatidic acid, that activates TRPV1 and whose pruritic activity, as well as that of histamine, occurs through the activation of this ion channel. These findings provide insights into the molecular basis of oleic acid inhibition of TRPV1 and also into a way of reducing the pathophysiological effects resulting from its activation. PMID:27721373

  1. Natural landscape and stream segment attributes influencing the distribution and relative abundance of riverine smallmouth bass in Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brewer, S.K.; Rabeni, C.F.; Sowa, S.P.; Annis, G.

    2007-01-01

    Protecting and restoring fish populations on a regional basis are most effective if the multiscale factors responsible for the relative quality of a fishery are known. We spatially linked Missouri's statewide historical fish collections to environmental features in a geographic information system, which was used as a basis for modeling the importance of landscape and stream segment features in supporting a population of smallmouth bass Micropterus dolomieu. Decision tree analyses were used to develop probability-based models to predict statewide occurrence and within-range relative abundances. We were able to identify the range of smallmouth bass throughout Missouri and the probability of occurrence within that range by using a few broad landscape variables: the percentage of coarse-textured soils in the watershed, watershed relief, and the percentage of soils with low permeability in the watershed. The within-range relative abundance model included both landscape and stream segment variables. As with the statewide probability of occurrence model, soil permeability was particularly significant. The predicted relative abundance of smallmouth bass in stream segments containing low percentages of permeable soils was further influenced by channel gradient, stream size, spring-flow volume, and local slope. Assessment of model accuracy with an independent data set showed good concordance. A conceptual framework involving naturally occurring factors that affect smallmouth bass potential is presented as a comparative model for assessing transferability to other geographic areas and for studying potential land use and biotic effects. We also identify the benefits, caveats, and data requirements necessary to improve predictions and promote ecological understanding. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society 2007.

  2. Using naturally occurring radionuclides to determine drinking water age in a community water system

    SciTech Connect

    Waples, James T.; Bordewyk, Jason K.; Knesting, Kristina M.; Orlandini, Kent A.

    2015-07-22

    Drinking water quality in a community water system is closely linked to the age of water from initial treatment to time of delivery. However, water age is difficult to measure with conventional chemical tracers; particularly in stagnant water, where the relationship between disinfectant decay, microbial growth, and water age is poorly understood. Using radionuclides that were naturally present in source water, we found that measured activity ratios of 90Y/90Sr and 234Th/238U in discrete drinking water samples of known age accurately estimated water age up to 9 days old (σest: ± 3.8 h, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.998, n = 11) and 25 days old (σest: ± 13.3 h, P < 0.0001, r2 = 0.996, n = 12), respectively. Moreover, 90Y-derived water ages in a community water system (6.8 × 104 m3 d–1 capacity) were generally consistent with water ages derived from an extended period simulation model. Radionuclides differ from conventional chemical tracers in that they are ubiquitous in distribution mains and connected premise plumbing. The ability to measure both water age and an analyte (e.g., chemical or microbe) in any water sample at any time allows for new insight into factors that control drinking water quality.

  3. Original mechanism of failure initiation revealed through modelling of naturally occurring microstructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbatikh, Larissa; Lomov, Stepan V.; Verpoest, Ignaas

    2010-05-01

    Motivated to reveal original mechanisms of failure resistance, we developed a material model that encompasses most reoccurring microstructural features of natural composites. The interesting result of the work is a notion that material failure is governed by the quality of interactions between hierarchical levels in the material microstructure. With intelligent use of the structure, these interactions can be tuned to create a powerful synergetic effect on the material failure behaviour. For example, while exploring different mechanisms of failure initiation in composites with bimodal size reinforcements (an indirect way to model two levels of hierarchy simultaneously) we found that failure initiation could be shifted from stress concentration sites of the higher level to the lower level. One could say that the material behaviour became insensitive to the presence of reinforcements on the higher level—a phenomenon that is counterintuitive to what is commonly known. The new mechanism of failure initiation could only be activated in composites with a highly controlled structural organization—in the studied case, reinforcements of the lower level needed to establish lamellar pathways between reinforcements of the higher level. These pathways lead to formation of an intriguing network-like microstructure. Intelligent communication between reinforcements in such a network created the necessary synergy to change the failure initiation mechanism in a discontinuous fashion. Another finding was that by establishing such a network, tensile stresses near dangerous stress concentration sites were locally transformed into compressive stresses. Resemblance of the revealed mechanism to phenomena on the nano-scale was also discussed. In the course of this work a new method was developed to investigate interactions between reinforcements and their collective input into effective and local properties of a composite. The reinforcement phase was modelled with the use of rigid

  4. Allelic polymorphism of GIGANTEA is responsible for naturally occurring variation in circadian period in Brassica rapa

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qiguang; Lou, Ping; Hermand, Victor; Aman, Rashid; Park, Hee Jin; Yun, Dae-Jin; Kim, Woe Yeon; Salmela, Matti Juhani; Ewers, Brent E.; Weinig, Cynthia; Khan, Sarah L.; Schaible, D. Loring P.; McClung, C. Robertson

    2015-01-01

    GIGANTEA (GI) was originally identified by a late-flowering mutant in Arabidopsis, but subsequently has been shown to act in circadian period determination, light inhibition of hypocotyl elongation, and responses to multiple abiotic stresses, including tolerance to high salt and cold (freezing) temperature. Genetic mapping and analysis of families of heterogeneous inbred lines showed that natural variation in GI is responsible for a major quantitative trait locus in circadian period in Brassica rapa. We confirmed this conclusion by transgenic rescue of an Arabidopsis gi-201 loss of function mutant. The two B. rapa GI alleles each fully rescued the delayed flowering of Arabidopsis gi-201 but showed differential rescue of perturbations in red light inhibition of hypocotyl elongation and altered cold and salt tolerance. The B. rapa R500 GI allele, which failed to rescue the hypocotyl and abiotic stress phenotypes, disrupted circadian period determination in Arabidopsis. Analysis of chimeric B. rapa GI alleles identified the causal nucleotide polymorphism, which results in an amino acid substitution (S264A) between the two GI proteins. This polymorphism underlies variation in circadian period, cold and salt tolerance, and red light inhibition of hypocotyl elongation. Loss-of-function mutations of B. rapa GI confer delayed flowering, perturbed circadian rhythms in leaf movement, and increased freezing and increased salt tolerance, consistent with effects of similar mutations in Arabidopsis. Collectively, these data suggest that allelic variation of GI—and possibly of clock genes in general—offers an attractive target for molecular breeding for enhanced stress tolerance and potentially for improved crop yield. PMID:25775524

  5. Effectiveness of mineral soil to adsorb the natural occurring radioactive material (norm), uranium and thorium

    SciTech Connect

    Amir, Muhammad Nur Iman; Ismail, Nurul Izzatiafifi; Wood, Ab. Khalik Saat, Ahmad; Hamzah, Zaini

    2015-04-29

    A study has been performed on U-soil and Th-soil adsorption of three types of soil collected from Selangor State of Malaysia which are Saujana Putra, Bukit Changgang and Jenderam Hilir. In this study, natural radionuclide (U and Th) soil adsorption based on batch experiments with various initial concentrations of the radionuclide elements were carried out. Parameters that were set constant include pH at 5;amount of soil used was 5 g each, contact time was 24 hour and different initial concentration for each solution of U and Th which is 5 mg/L, 10 mg/L, 15 mg/L, 20 mg/L, 25 mg/L and 40 mg/L were used. The K{sub d} values for each type of soil were determined in this batch experiments which was based on US-EPA method, in order to estimate adsorption capacity of the soil.The K{sub d} values of Th found higher than Kd values of U for all of the soil samples, and the highest was found on the soil collected from Bukit Changgang. The soil clay content was one of factors to influence the adsorption of both U and Th from dilute initial solution. The U-soil and Th-soil adsorption process for all the soil samples studied are generally obeying unimolecular layer Langmuir isotherm model. From Langmuir isotherm, the maximum adsorption capacity for U was 0.393mg/g and for Th was 1.53 mg/g for the soil that was taken from Bukit Changgang. From the study, it suggested that the soil from Bukit Changgang applicable as potential enhanced barrier for site disposing waste containing U and Th.

  6. Microbial interactions with naturally occurring hydrophobic sediments: Influence on sediment and associated contaminant mobility.

    PubMed

    Droppo, I G; Krishnappan, B G; Lawrence, J R

    2016-04-01

    The erosion, transport and fate of sediments and associated contaminants are known to be influenced by both particle characteristics and the flow dynamics imparted onto the sediment. The influential role of bitumen containing hydrophobic sediments and the microbial community on sediment dynamics are however less understood. This study links an experimental evaluation of sediment erosion with measured sediment-associated contaminant concentrations and microbial community analysis to provide an estimate of the potential for sediment to control the erosion, transport and fate of contaminants. Specifically the paper addresses the unique behaviour of hydrophobic sediments and the role that the microbial community associated with hydrophobic sediment may play in the transport of contaminated sediment. Results demonstrate that the hydrophobic cohesive sediment demonstrates unique transport and particle characteristics (poor settling and small floc size). Biofilms were observed to increase with consolidation/biostabilization times and generated a unique microbial consortium relative to the eroded flocs. Natural oil associated with the flocs appeared to be preferentially associated with microbial derived extracellular polymeric substances. While PAHs and naphthenic acid increased with increasing shear (indicative of increasing loads), they tended to decrease with consolidation/biostabilization (CB) time at similar shears suggesting a chemical and/or biological degradation. PAH and napthenic acid degrading microbes decreased with time as well, which may suggest that there was a reduced pool of PAHs and naphthenic acids available resulting in their die off. This study emphasizes the importance that any management strategies and operational assessments for the protection of human and aquatic health incorporate the sediment (suspended and bed sediment) and biological (biofilm) compartments and the energy dynamics within the system in order to better predict contaminant

  7. Allelic polymorphism of GIGANTEA is responsible for naturally occurring variation in circadian period in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qiguang; Lou, Ping; Hermand, Victor; Aman, Rashid; Park, Hee Jin; Yun, Dae-Jin; Kim, Woe Yeon; Salmela, Matti Juhani; Ewers, Brent E; Weinig, Cynthia; Khan, Sarah L; Schaible, D Loring P; McClung, C Robertson

    2015-03-24

    GIGANTEA (GI) was originally identified by a late-flowering mutant in Arabidopsis, but subsequently has been shown to act in circadian period determination, light inhibition of hypocotyl elongation, and responses to multiple abiotic stresses, including tolerance to high salt and cold (freezing) temperature. Genetic mapping and analysis of families of heterogeneous inbred lines showed that natural variation in GI is responsible for a major quantitative trait locus in circadian period in Brassica rapa. We confirmed this conclusion by transgenic rescue of an Arabidopsis gi-201 loss of function mutant. The two B. rapa GI alleles each fully rescued the delayed flowering of Arabidopsis gi-201 but showed differential rescue of perturbations in red light inhibition of hypocotyl elongation and altered cold and salt tolerance. The B. rapa R500 GI allele, which failed to rescue the hypocotyl and abiotic stress phenotypes, disrupted circadian period determination in Arabidopsis. Analysis of chimeric B. rapa GI alleles identified the causal nucleotide polymorphism, which results in an amino acid substitution (S264A) between the two GI proteins. This polymorphism underlies variation in circadian period, cold and salt tolerance, and red light inhibition of hypocotyl elongation. Loss-of-function mutations of B. rapa GI confer delayed flowering, perturbed circadian rhythms in leaf movement, and increased freezing and increased salt tolerance, consistent with effects of similar mutations in Arabidopsis. Collectively, these data suggest that allelic variation of GI-and possibly of clock genes in general-offers an attractive target for molecular breeding for enhanced stress tolerance and potentially for improved crop yield.

  8. Effectiveness of mineral soil to adsorb the natural occurring radioactive material (norm), uranium and thorium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amir, Muhammad Nur Iman; Ismail, Nurul Izzatiafifi; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Saat, Ahmad; Hamzah, Zaini

    2015-04-01

    A study has been performed on U-soil and Th-soil adsorption of three types of soil collected from Selangor State of Malaysia which are Saujana Putra, Bukit Changgang and Jenderam Hilir. In this study, natural radionuclide (U and Th) soil adsorption based on batch experiments with various initial concentrations of the radionuclide elements were carried out. Parameters that were set constant include pH at 5;amount of soil used was 5 g each, contact time was 24 hour and different initial concentration for each solution of U and Th which is 5 mg/L, 10 mg/L, 15 mg/L, 20 mg/L, 25 mg/L and 40 mg/L were used. The Kd values for each type of soil were determined in this batch experiments which was based on US-EPA method, in order to estimate adsorption capacity of the soil.The Kd values of Th found higher than Kd values of U for all of the soil samples, and the highest was found on the soil collected from Bukit Changgang. The soil clay content was one of factors to influence the adsorption of both U and Th from dilute initial solution. The U-soil and Th-soil adsorption process for all the soil samples studied are generally obeying unimolecular layer Langmuir isotherm model. From Langmuir isotherm, the maximum adsorption capacity for U was 0.393mg/g and for Th was 1.53 mg/g for the soil that was taken from Bukit Changgang. From the study, it suggested that the soil from Bukit Changgang applicable as potential enhanced barrier for site disposing waste containing U and Th.

  9. Cloning and expression of pig kidney dopa decarboxylase: comparison of the naturally occurring and recombinant enzymes.

    PubMed Central

    Moore, P S; Dominici, P; Borri Voltattorni, C

    1996-01-01

    L-Aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (dopa decarboxylase; DDC) is a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP)-dependent homodimeric enzyme that catalyses the decarboxylation of L-dopa and other L-aromatic amino acids. To advance structure-function studies with the enzyme, a cDNA that codes for the protein from pig kidney has been cloned by joining a partial cDNA obtained by library screening with a synthetic portion constructed by the annealing and extension of long oligonucleotides. The hybrid cDNA was then expressed in Escherichia coli to produce recombinant protein. During characterization of the recombinant enzyme it was unexpectedly observed that it possesses certain differences from the enzyme purified from pig kidney. Whereas the later protein binds 1 molecule of PLP per dimer, the recombinant enzyme was found to bind two molecules of coenzyme per dimer. Moreover, the Vmax was twice that of the protein purified from tissue. On addition of substrate, the absorbance changes accompanying transaldimination were likewise 2-fold greater in the recombinant enzyme. Examination of the respective apoenzymes by absorbance, CD and fluorescence spectroscopy revealed distinct differences. The recombinant apoprotein has no significant absorbance at 335 nm, unlike the pig kidney apoenzyme; in the latter case this residual absorbance is associated with a positive dichroic signal. When excited at 335 nm the pig kidney apoenzyme has a pronounced emission maximum at 385 nm, in contrast with its recombinant counterpart, which shows a weak broad emission at about 400 nm. However, the holoenzyme-apoenzyme transition did not markedly alter the respective fluorescence properties of either recombinant or pig kidney DDC when excited at 335 nm. Taken together, these findings indicate that recombinant pig kidney DDC has two active-site PLP molecules and therefore displays structural characteristics typical of PLP-dependent homodimeric enzymes. The natural enzyme contains one active-site PLP molecule

  10. Natural abundant (17) O NMR in a 1.5-T Halbach magnet.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Morten K; Bakharev, Oleg N; Jensen, Ole; Nielsen, Niels Chr

    2016-06-01

    We present mobile, low-field (17) O NMR as a means for monitoring oxygen in liquids. Whereas oxygen is one of the most important elements, oxygen NMR is limited by a poor sensitivity related to low natural abundance and gyro-magnetic ratio of the NMR active (17) O isotope. Here, we demonstrate (17) O NMR detection at a Larmor frequency of 8.74 MHz in a 1.5-T Halbach neodymium magnet with a home-built digital NMR instrument suitable for large-scale production and in-line monitoring applications. The proposed (17) O NMR sensor may be applied for direct, noninvasive measurements of water content in, for example, oil, manure, or food in automated quality or process control. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:25641664

  11. Measuring long-lived 13C2 state lifetimes at natural abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claytor, Kevin; Theis, Thomas; Feng, Yesu; Warren, Warren

    2014-02-01

    Long-lived disconnected eigenstates (for example, the singlet state in a system with two nearly equivalent carbons, or the singlet-singlet state in a system with two chemically equivalent carbons and two chemically equivalent hydrogens) hold the potential to drastically extend the lifetime of hyperpolarization in molecular tracers for in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, a first-principles calculation of the expected lifetime (and thus selection of potential imaging agents) is made very difficult because of the large variety of relevant intra- and intermolecular relaxation mechanisms. As a result, all previous measurements relied on costly and time consuming syntheses of 13C labeled compounds. Here we show that it is possible to determine 13C singlet state lifetimes by detecting the naturally abundant doubly-labeled species. This approach allows for rapid and low cost screening of potential molecular biomarkers bearing long-lived states.

  12. Natural abundance 14N and 15N solid-state NMR of pharmaceuticals and their polymorphs

    DOE PAGES

    Veinberg, Stanislav L.; Johnston, Karen E.; Jaroszewicz, Michael J.; Kispal, Brianna M.; Mireault, Christopher R.; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Pruski, Marek; Schurko, Robert W.

    2016-06-08

    14N ultra-wideline (UW), 1H{15N} indirectly-detected HETCOR (idHETCOR) and 15N dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) solid-state NMR (SSNMR) experiments, in combination with plane-wave density functional theory (DFT) calculations of 14N EFG tensors, were utilized to characterize a series of nitrogen-containing active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), including HCl salts of scopolamine, alprenolol, isoprenaline, acebutolol, dibucaine, nicardipine, and ranitidine. Here, a case study applying these methods for the differentiation of polymorphs of bupivacaine HCl is also presented. All experiments were conducted upon samples with naturally-abundant nitrogen isotopes. For most of the APIs, it was possible to acquire frequency-stepped UW 14N SSNMR spectra of stationarymore » samples, which display powder patterns corresponding to pseudo-tetrahedral (i.e., RR'R"NH+ and RR'NH2+) or other (i.e., RNH2 and RNO2) nitrogen environments.« less

  13. Natural-abundance solid-state 2H NMR spectroscopy at high magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Aliev, Abil E; Mann, Sam E; Iuga, Dinu; Hughes, Colan E; Harris, Kenneth D M

    2011-06-01

    High-resolution solid-state (2)H NMR spectroscopy provides a method for measuring (1)H NMR chemical shifts in solids and is advantageous over the direct measurement of high-resolution solid-state (1)H NMR spectra, as it requires only the application of routine magic angle sample spinning (MAS) and routine (1)H decoupling methods, in contrast to the requirement for complex pulse sequences for homonuclear (1)H decoupling and ultrafast MAS in the case of high-resolution solid-state (1)H NMR. However, a significant obstacle to the routine application of high-resolution solid-state (2)H NMR is the very low natural abundance of (2)H, with the consequent problem of inherently low sensitivity. Here, we explore the feasibility of measuring (2)H MAS NMR spectra of various solids with natural isotopic abundances at high magnetic field (850 MHz), focusing on samples of amino acids, peptides, collagen, and various organic solids. The results show that high-resolution solid-state (2)H NMR can be used successfully to measure isotropic (1)H chemical shifts in favorable cases, particularly for mobile functional groups, such as methyl and -N(+)H(3) groups, and in some cases phenyl groups. Furthermore, we demonstrate that routine (2)H MAS NMR measurements can be exploited for assessing the relative dynamics of different functional groups in a molecule and for assessing whole-molecule motions in the solid state. The magnitude and field-dependence of second-order shifts due to the (2)H quadrupole interaction are also investigated, on the basis of analysis of simulated and experimental (1)H and (2)H MAS NMR spectra of fully deuterated and selectively deuterated samples of the α polymorph of glycine at two different magnetic field strengths.

  14. Changes in abundance of aquaporin-like proteins occurs concomitantly with seasonal acquisition of freeze tolerance in the goldenrod gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis.

    PubMed

    Philip, Benjamin N; Lee, Richard E

    2010-07-01

    The accumulation of cryoprotectants and the redistribution of water between body compartments play central roles in the capacity of insects to survive freezing. Aquaporins (AQPs) allow for rapid redistribution of water and small solutes (e.g. glycerol) across the cell membrane and were recently implicated in promoting freeze tolerance. Here, we examined whether aquaporin-like protein abundance correlated with the seasonal acquisition of freezing tolerance in the goldenrod gall fly, Eurosta solidaginis (Diptera: Tephritidae). Through the autumn, larvae became tolerant of freezing at progressively lower temperatures and accumulated the cryoprotectant glycerol. Furthermore, larvae significantly increased the abundance of membrane-bound aquaporin and aquaglyceroporin-like proteins from July through January. Acute exposure of larvae to cold and desiccation resulted in upregulation of the AQP3-like proteins in October, suggesting that their abundance is regulated by environmental cues. The seasonal increase in abundance of both putative aquaporins and aquaglyceroporins supports the hypothesis that these proteins are closely tied to the seasonal acquisition of freeze tolerance, functioning to permit cells to quickly lose water and take-up glycerol during extracellular ice formation, as well as reestablish water and glycerol concentrations upon thawing.

  15. Determination of naturally-occurring actinides and their progeny in fresh water using ICP-MS and batch separation

    SciTech Connect

    Crain, J.S.; Alvarado, J.A.; Kiely, J.T.

    1995-12-01

    The determination of naturally-occurring actinides (including progeny such as {sup 230}Th) in fresh water is of significance in limnology, hydrology, and environmental monitoring. In many instances, these determinations require multiple analyses and a combination of radiometric and elemental measurement techniques (e.g., alpha spectrometry and thermal ionization mass spectrometry). In this work, we will describe the use of a single technique, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), for these determinations. We will also describe the batch separation chemistry used to facilitate these determinations in ground and surface water, where natural analyte concentrations run between 1 {mu}g/L and 1 {mu}g/L.

  16. Removal of lipid soluble process chemicals from biological materials by extraction with naturally occurring oils or synthetic substitutes thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, K.R.; Orme, T.W.

    1988-12-06

    This patent describes a method of removing lipid soluble process chemicals from biological materials comprising blood plasma and fractions thereof containing the lipid soluble process chemicals. The lipid soluble process chemical is a virus attenuating solvent having a high flash point, a detergent, or a mixture thereof. It comprises bringing the biological materials containing the lipid soluble process chemicals into contact with an effective amount of a naturally occurring oil extracted from a plant or an animal or a synthetic compound of similar chemical structure. Also described is a method of removing lymphokine inducing phorbol esters from lympholkine-containing biological material. It comprises bringing the biological materials containing the phorbol esters into contact with an effective amount of a naturally occurring oil extracted from a plant or an animal or a synthetic compound of similar chemical structure so as to remove 80% or more of the phorbol esters.

  17. Measurement of isotope abundance variations in nature by gravimetric spiking isotope dilution analysis (GS-IDA).

    PubMed

    Chew, Gina; Walczyk, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    Subtle variations in the isotopic composition of elements carry unique information about physical and chemical processes in nature and are now exploited widely in diverse areas of research. Reliable measurement of natural isotope abundance variations is among the biggest challenges in inorganic mass spectrometry as they are highly sensitive to methodological bias. For decades, double spiking of the sample with a mix of two stable isotopes has been considered the reference technique for measuring such variations both by multicollector-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICPMS) and multicollector-thermal ionization mass spectrometry (MC-TIMS). However, this technique can only be applied to elements having at least four stable isotopes. Here we present a novel approach that requires measurement of three isotope signals only and which is more robust than the conventional double spiking technique. This became possible by gravimetric mixing of the sample with an isotopic spike in different proportions and by applying principles of isotope dilution for data analysis (GS-IDA). The potential and principle use of the technique is demonstrated for Mg in human urine using MC-TIMS for isotopic analysis. Mg is an element inaccessible to double spiking methods as it consists of three stable isotopes only and shows great potential for metabolically induced isotope effects waiting to be explored.

  18. Natural expansion and experimental manipulation of seagrass ( Zostera spp.) abundance and the response of infaunal invertebrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Paul G.

    1987-06-01

    A study of an expanding seagrass bed on the south-west coast of British Columbia, Canada involved documentation and explanation of the pattern of expansion of the vegetation as well as documentation and experimental investigation of the accompanying changes in the distribution of infaunal invertebrates. Expansion followed a major environmental change, improved water clarity initiated in 1969 when a causeway blocked access to the site for silty Fraser River water. The original eelgrass ( Zostera marina) bed expanded landward over 30 m year -1, probably causing more and more water to be retained in the bed at low tide and thus improving its own habitat. More rapid expansion occurred from 1979-1983 after Z.japonica colonized at the landward edge of the eelgrass bed and in a separate intertidal area. Expansion ceased around 1983 coincident with, but probably independent of, further construction. Burrowing shrimp ( Callianassa californiensis) decreased in abundance between 1977 and 1984 in areas where the two seagrasses colonized. Short-term experiment over one summer and fall showed that removal of all shoots allowed adult shrimp and tube worms to colonize the sediment while addition of shoots of Z. japonica by transplanting caused temporary decreases in shrimp abundance. After a few weeks an established shrimp population destroyed the transplants. Among reasonable alternate hypotheses for the decline in Callianassa, the effect of sediment texture can be eliminated, but either direct negative effects of seagrass, i.e. inhibition of the burrowing of adult shrimp or of settlement of juveniles, or indirect effects, i.e. the harboring of more predators of shrimp in seagrass beds, deserve further study.

  19. On the nature of sn stars. I. A detailed abundance study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saffe, C.; Levato, H.

    2014-02-01

    The sn stars were first discoved by Abt & Levato when studying the spectral types in different open clusters. These stars present sharp Balmer lines, sharp metallic lines (C II, Si II, Ca II, Ti II, Fe II), and broad coreless He I lines. Some of the sn stars seem to be related to CP stars. Initially Abt & Levato proposed a shell-like nature to explain the sn stars, although this scenario was subsequently questioned. There is no general agreement about their origin. We aim to derive abundances for a sample of 9 stars, including sn and non-sn stars, to determine the possible relation between sn and CP stars and compare their chemical abundances. That most sn stars belong to open clusters allows us to search for a possible relation with fundamental parameters, including the age and rotation. We also study the possible contribution of different effects to the broad He I lines observed in these stars, such as Stark broadening and the possible He-stratification. Effective temperature and gravity were estimated by Strömgren photometry and then refined by requiring ionization and excitation equilibrium of Fe lines. We derived the abundances by fitting the observed spectra with synthetic spectra using an iterative procedure with the SYNTHE and ATLAS9 codes. We derived metallic abundances of 23 different chemical elements for 9 stars and obtained low projected rotational velocities for the sn stars in our sample (vsini up to 69 km s-1). We also compared 5 stars that belong to the same cluster (NGC 6475) and show that the sn characteristics appear in the 3 stars with the lower rotational velocity. However, the apparent preference of sn stars for objects with the lower vsini values should be taken with caution due to the small number of objects studied here. We analysed the photospheric chemical composition of sn stars and show that approximately ~40% of them display chemical peculiarities (such as He-weak and HgMn stars) within a range of temperature of 10 300 K-14 500 K

  20. Laccase‐catalysed oxidations of naturally occurring phenols: from in vivo biosynthetic pathways to green synthetic applications

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Jong‐Rok; Baldrian, Petr; Murugesan, Kumarasamy; Chang, Yoon‐Seok

    2012-01-01

    Summary Laccases are oxidases that contain several copper atoms, and catalyse single‐electron oxidations of phenolic compounds with concomitant reduction of oxygen to water. The enzymes are particularly widespread in ligninolytic basidiomycetes, but also occur in certain prokaryotes, insects and plants. Depending on the species, laccases are involved in various biosynthetic processes contributing to carbon recycling in land ecosystems and the morphogenesis of biomatrices, wherein low‐molecular‐weight naturally occurring phenols serve as key enzyme substrates. Studies of these in vivo synthetic pathways have afforded new insights into fungal laccase applicability in green synthetic chemistry. Thus, we here review fungal laccase‐catalysed oxidations of naturally occurring phenols that are particularly relevant to the synthesis of fine organic chemicals, and we discuss how the discovered synthetic strategies mimic laccase‐involved in vivo pathways, thus enhancing the green nature of such reactions. Laccase‐catalysed in vivo processes yield several types of biopolymers, including those of cuticles, lignin, polyflavonoids, humus and the melanin pigments, using natural mono‐ or poly‐phenols as building blocks. The in vivo synthetic pathways involve either phenoxyl radical‐mediated coupling or cross‐linking reactions, and can be adapted to the design of in vitro oxidative processes involving fungal laccases in organic synthesis; the laccase substrates and the synthetic mechanisms reflect in vivo processes. Notably, such in vitro synthetic pathways can also reproduce physicochemical properties (e.g. those of chromophores, and radical‐scavenging, hydration and antimicrobial activities) found in natural biomaterials. Careful study of laccase‐associated in vivo metabolic pathways has been rewarded by the discovery of novel green applications for fungal laccases. This review comprehensively summarizes the available data on laccase

  1. Archaeal community diversity and abundance changes along a natural salinity gradient in estuarine sediments

    PubMed Central

    Webster, Gordon; O'Sullivan, Louise A.; Meng, Yiyu; Williams, Angharad S.; Sass, Andrea M.; Watkins, Andrew J.; Parkes, R. John; Weightman, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    Archaea are widespread in marine sediments, but their occurrence and relationship with natural salinity gradients in estuarine sediments is not well understood. This study investigated the abundance and diversity of Archaea in sediments at three sites [Brightlingsea (BR), Alresford (AR) and Hythe (HY)] along the Colne Estuary, using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) of 16S rRNA genes, DNA hybridization, Archaea 16S rRNA and mcrA gene phylogenetic analyses. Total archaeal 16S rRNA abundance in sediments were higher in the low-salinity brackish sediments from HY (2–8 × 107 16S rRNA gene copies cm−3) than the high-salinity marine sites from BR and AR (2 × 104–2 × 107 and 4 × 106–2 × 107 16S rRNA gene copies cm−3, respectively), although as a proportion of the total prokaryotes Archaea were higher at BR than at AR or HY. Phylogenetic analysis showed that members of the ‘Bathyarchaeota’ (MCG), Thaumarchaeota and methanogenic Euryarchaeota were the dominant groups of Archaea. The composition of Thaumarchaeota varied with salinity, as only ‘marine’ group I.1a was present in marine sediments (BR). Methanogen 16S rRNA genes from low-salinity sediments at HY were dominated by acetotrophic Methanosaeta and putatively hydrogentrophic Methanomicrobiales, whereas the marine site (BR) was dominated by mcrA genes belonging to methylotrophic Methanococcoides, versatile Methanosarcina and methanotrophic ANME-2a. Overall, the results indicate that salinity and associated factors play a role in controlling diversity and distribution of Archaea in estuarine sediments. PMID:25764553

  2. Archaeal community diversity and abundance changes along a natural salinity gradient in estuarine sediments.

    PubMed

    Webster, Gordon; O'Sullivan, Louise A; Meng, Yiyu; Williams, Angharad S; Sass, Andrea M; Watkins, Andrew J; Parkes, R John; Weightman, Andrew J

    2015-02-01

    Archaea are widespread in marine sediments, but their occurrence and relationship with natural salinity gradients in estuarine sediments is not well understood. This study investigated the abundance and diversity of Archaea in sediments at three sites [Brightlingsea (BR), Alresford (AR) and Hythe (HY)] along the Colne Estuary, using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) of 16S rRNA genes, DNA hybridization, Archaea 16S rRNA and mcrA gene phylogenetic analyses. Total archaeal 16S rRNA abundance in sediments were higher in the low-salinity brackish sediments from HY (2-8 × 10(7) 16S rRNA gene copies cm(-3)) than the high-salinity marine sites from BR and AR (2 × 10(4)-2 × 10(7) and 4 × 10(6)-2 × 10(7) 16S rRNA gene copies cm(-3), respectively), although as a proportion of the total prokaryotes Archaea were higher at BR than at AR or HY. Phylogenetic analysis showed that members of the 'Bathyarchaeota' (MCG), Thaumarchaeota and methanogenic Euryarchaeota were the dominant groups of Archaea. The composition of Thaumarchaeota varied with salinity, as only 'marine' group I.1a was present in marine sediments (BR). Methanogen 16S rRNA genes from low-salinity sediments at HY were dominated by acetotrophic Methanosaeta and putatively hydrogentrophic Methanomicrobiales, whereas the marine site (BR) was dominated by mcrA genes belonging to methylotrophic Methanococcoides, versatile Methanosarcina and methanotrophic ANME-2a. Overall, the results indicate that salinity and associated factors play a role in controlling diversity and distribution of Archaea in estuarine sediments.

  3. Prediction of rodent carcinogenic potential of naturally occurring chemicals in the human diet using high-throughput QSAR predictive modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Valerio, Luis G. . E-mail: luis.valerio@FDA.HHS.gov; Arvidson, Kirk B.; Chanderbhan, Ronald F.; Contrera, Joseph F.

    2007-07-01

    Consistent with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Critical Path Initiative, predictive toxicology software programs employing quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) models are currently under evaluation for regulatory risk assessment and scientific decision support for highly sensitive endpoints such as carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and reproductive toxicity. At the FDA's Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition's Office of Food Additive Safety and the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research's Informatics and Computational Safety Analysis Staff (ICSAS), the use of computational SAR tools for both qualitative and quantitative risk assessment applications are being developed and evaluated. One tool of current interest is MDL-QSAR predictive discriminant analysis modeling of rodent carcinogenicity, which has been previously evaluated for pharmaceutical applications by the FDA ICSAS. The study described in this paper aims to evaluate the utility of this software to estimate the carcinogenic potential of small, organic, naturally occurring chemicals found in the human diet. In addition, a group of 19 known synthetic dietary constituents that were positive in rodent carcinogenicity studies served as a control group. In the test group of naturally occurring chemicals, 101 were found to be suitable for predictive modeling using this software's discriminant analysis modeling approach. Predictions performed on these compounds were compared to published experimental evidence of each compound's carcinogenic potential. Experimental evidence included relevant toxicological studies such as rodent cancer bioassays, rodent anti-carcinogenicity studies, genotoxic studies, and the presence of chemical structural alerts. Statistical indices of predictive performance were calculated to assess the utility of the predictive modeling method. Results revealed good predictive performance using this software's rodent carcinogenicity module of over 1200 chemicals

  4. Abundance of non-native crabs in intertidal habitats of New England with natural and artificial structure.

    PubMed

    Lovely, Christina M; O'Connor, Nancy J; Judge, Michael L

    2015-01-01

    Marine habitats containing complex physical structure (e.g., crevices) can provide shelter from predation for benthic invertebrates. To examine effects of natural and artificial structure on the abundance of intertidal juvenile crabs, 2 experiments were conducted in Kingston Bay, Massachusetts, USA, from July to September, 2012. In the first experiment, structure was manipulated in a two-factor design that was placed in the high intertidal for 3 one-week periods to test for both substrate type (sand vs. rock) and the presence or absence of artificial structure (mesh grow-out bags used in aquaculture, ∼0.5 m(2) with 62 mm(2) mesh openings). The Asian shore crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, and small individuals of the green crab, Carcinus maenas, were observed only in the treatments of rocks and mesh bag plus rocks. Most green crabs were small (<6 mm in carapace width) whereas H. sanguineus occurred in a wide range of sizes. In the second experiment, 3 levels of oyster-shell treatments were established using grow-out bags placed on a muddy sand substrate in the low intertidal zone: mesh grow-out bags without shells, grow-out bags with oyster shells, and grow-out bags containing live oysters. Replicate bags were deployed weekly for 7 weeks in a randomized complete block design. All crabs collected in the bags were juvenile C. maenas (1-15 mm carapace width), and numbers of crabs differed 6-fold among treatments, with most crabs present in bags with live oysters (29.5 ± 10.6 m(-2) [mean ± S.D.]) and fewest in bags without shells (4.9 ± 3.7 m(-2)). Both C. maenas and H. sanguineus occurred in habitats with natural structure (cobble rocks). The attraction of juvenile C. maenas to artificial structure consisting of plastic mesh bags containing both oyster shells and living oysters could potentially impact oyster aquaculture operations.

  5. Abundance of non-native crabs in intertidal habitats of New England with natural and artificial structure.

    PubMed

    Lovely, Christina M; O'Connor, Nancy J; Judge, Michael L

    2015-01-01

    Marine habitats containing complex physical structure (e.g., crevices) can provide shelter from predation for benthic invertebrates. To examine effects of natural and artificial structure on the abundance of intertidal juvenile crabs, 2 experiments were conducted in Kingston Bay, Massachusetts, USA, from July to September, 2012. In the first experiment, structure was manipulated in a two-factor design that was placed in the high intertidal for 3 one-week periods to test for both substrate type (sand vs. rock) and the presence or absence of artificial structure (mesh grow-out bags used in aquaculture, ∼0.5 m(2) with 62 mm(2) mesh openings). The Asian shore crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, and small individuals of the green crab, Carcinus maenas, were observed only in the treatments of rocks and mesh bag plus rocks. Most green crabs were small (<6 mm in carapace width) whereas H. sanguineus occurred in a wide range of sizes. In the second experiment, 3 levels of oyster-shell treatments were established using grow-out bags placed on a muddy sand substrate in the low intertidal zone: mesh grow-out bags without shells, grow-out bags with oyster shells, and grow-out bags containing live oysters. Replicate bags were deployed weekly for 7 weeks in a randomized complete block design. All crabs collected in the bags were juvenile C. maenas (1-15 mm carapace width), and numbers of crabs differed 6-fold among treatments, with most crabs present in bags with live oysters (29.5 ± 10.6 m(-2) [mean ± S.D.]) and fewest in bags without shells (4.9 ± 3.7 m(-2)). Both C. maenas and H. sanguineus occurred in habitats with natural structure (cobble rocks). The attraction of juvenile C. maenas to artificial structure consisting of plastic mesh bags containing both oyster shells and living oysters could potentially impact oyster aquaculture operations. PMID:26401456

  6. Abundance of non-native crabs in intertidal habitats of New England with natural and artificial structure

    PubMed Central

    Lovely, Christina M.; Judge, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Marine habitats containing complex physical structure (e.g., crevices) can provide shelter from predation for benthic invertebrates. To examine effects of natural and artificial structure on the abundance of intertidal juvenile crabs, 2 experiments were conducted in Kingston Bay, Massachusetts, USA, from July to September, 2012. In the first experiment, structure was manipulated in a two-factor design that was placed in the high intertidal for 3 one-week periods to test for both substrate type (sand vs. rock) and the presence or absence of artificial structure (mesh grow-out bags used in aquaculture, ∼0.5 m2 with 62 mm2 mesh openings). The Asian shore crab, Hemigrapsus sanguineus, and small individuals of the green crab, Carcinus maenas, were observed only in the treatments of rocks and mesh bag plus rocks. Most green crabs were small (<6 mm in carapace width) whereas H. sanguineus occurred in a wide range of sizes. In the second experiment, 3 levels of oyster-shell treatments were established using grow-out bags placed on a muddy sand substrate in the low intertidal zone: mesh grow-out bags without shells, grow-out bags with oyster shells, and grow-out bags containing live oysters. Replicate bags were deployed weekly for 7 weeks in a randomized complete block design. All crabs collected in the bags were juvenile C. maenas (1–15 mm carapace width), and numbers of crabs differed 6-fold among treatments, with most crabs present in bags with live oysters (29.5 ± 10.6 m−2 [mean ± S.D.]) and fewest in bags without shells (4.9 ± 3.7 m−2). Both C. maenas and H. sanguineus occurred in habitats with natural structure (cobble rocks). The attraction of juvenile C. maenas to artificial structure consisting of plastic mesh bags containing both oyster shells and living oysters could potentially impact oyster aquaculture operations. PMID:26401456

  7. A naturally occurring single amino acid replacement in multiple gene regulator of group A Streptococcus significantly increases virulence.

    PubMed

    Sanson, Misu; O'Neill, Brian E; Kachroo, Priyanka; Anderson, Jeff R; Flores, Anthony R; Valson, Chandni; Cantu, Concepcion C; Makthal, Nishanth; Karmonik, Christof; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Kumaraswami, Muthiah; Musser, James M; Olsen, Randall J

    2015-02-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common source of genetic variation within a species; however, few investigations demonstrate how naturally occurring SNPs may increase strain virulence. We recently used group A Streptococcus as a model pathogen to study bacteria strain genotype-patient disease phenotype relationships. Whole-genome sequencing of approximately 800 serotype M59 group A Streptococcus strains, recovered during an outbreak of severe invasive infections across North America, identified a disproportionate number of SNPs in the gene encoding multiple gene regulator of group A Streptococcus (mga). Herein, we report results of studies designed to test the hypothesis that the most commonly occurring SNP, encoding a replacement of arginine for histidine at codon 201 of Mga (H201R), significantly increases virulence. Whole transcriptome analysis revealed that the H201R replacement significantly increased expression of mga and 54 other genes, including many proven virulence factors. Compared to the wild-type strain, a H201R isogenic mutant strain caused significantly larger skin lesions in mice. Serial quantitative bacterial culture and noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging also demonstrated that the isogenic H201R strain was significantly more virulent in a nonhuman primate model of joint infection. These findings show that the H201R replacement in Mga increases the virulence of M59 group A Streptococcus and provide new insight to how a naturally occurring SNP in bacteria contributes to human disease phenotypes.

  8. A naturally occurring single amino acid replacement in multiple gene regulator of group A Streptococcus significantly increases virulence.

    PubMed

    Sanson, Misu; O'Neill, Brian E; Kachroo, Priyanka; Anderson, Jeff R; Flores, Anthony R; Valson, Chandni; Cantu, Concepcion C; Makthal, Nishanth; Karmonik, Christof; Fittipaldi, Nahuel; Kumaraswami, Muthiah; Musser, James M; Olsen, Randall J

    2015-02-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most common source of genetic variation within a species; however, few investigations demonstrate how naturally occurring SNPs may increase strain virulence. We recently used group A Streptococcus as a model pathogen to study bacteria strain genotype-patient disease phenotype relationships. Whole-genome sequencing of approximately 800 serotype M59 group A Streptococcus strains, recovered during an outbreak of severe invasive infections across North America, identified a disproportionate number of SNPs in the gene encoding multiple gene regulator of group A Streptococcus (mga). Herein, we report results of studies designed to test the hypothesis that the most commonly occurring SNP, encoding a replacement of arginine for histidine at codon 201 of Mga (H201R), significantly increases virulence. Whole transcriptome analysis revealed that the H201R replacement significantly increased expression of mga and 54 other genes, including many proven virulence factors. Compared to the wild-type strain, a H201R isogenic mutant strain caused significantly larger skin lesions in mice. Serial quantitative bacterial culture and noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging also demonstrated that the isogenic H201R strain was significantly more virulent in a nonhuman primate model of joint infection. These findings show that the H201R replacement in Mga increases the virulence of M59 group A Streptococcus and provide new insight to how a naturally occurring SNP in bacteria contributes to human disease phenotypes. PMID:25476528

  9. 13C and 15N natural isotope abundance reflects breast cancer cell metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Tea, Illa; Martineau, Estelle; Antheaume, Ingrid; Lalande, Julie; Mauve, Caroline; Gilard, Francoise; Barillé-Nion, Sophie; Blackburn, Anneke C.; Tcherkez, Guillaume

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Despite the information provided by anatomopathological assessment and molecular markers (such as receptor expression ER, PR, HER2), breast cancer therapies and prognostics depend on the metabolic properties of tumor cells. However, metabolomics have not provided a robust and congruent biomarker yet, likely because individual metabolite contents are insufficient to encapsulate all of the alterations in metabolic fluxes. Here, we took advantage of natural 13C and 15N isotope abundance to show there are isotopic differences between healthy and cancer biopsy tissues or between healthy and malignant cultured cell lines. Isotope mass balance further suggests that these differences are mostly related to lipid metabolism, anaplerosis and urea cycle, three pathways known to be impacted in malignant cells. Our results demonstrate that the isotope signature is a good descriptor of metabolism since it integrates modifications in C partitioning and N excretion altogether. Our present study is thus a starting point to possible clinical applications such as patient screening and biopsy characterization in every cancer that is associated with metabolic changes. PMID:27678172

  10. Natural-abundance sup 13 C NMR study of glycogen repletion in human liver and muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Jue, T.; Rothman, D.L.; Tavitian, B.A.; Shulman, R.G. )

    1989-03-01

    Optimizing the surface-coil design and spectral-acquisition parameters has led to the observation of the {sup 13}C NMR natural abundance glycogen signal in man at 2.1 T. Both the human muscle and hepatic glycogen signals can be detected definitively with a time resolution of {approx}13 min. A {sup 1}H/{sup 13}C concentric surface coil was used. The {sup 1}H outer coil was 11 cm in diameter; the {sup 13}C inner coil was 8 cm in diameter. The coils were tuned to 89.3 MHz and 22.4 MHz, respectively. The {sup 1}H coil was used for optimizing field homogeneity (shimming) the magnet and for single-frequency decoupling of the C{sub 1} glycogen signal. Total power deposition from both the transmitter pulse and the continuous wave decoupling did not exceed the Food and Drug Administration guideline of 8 W/kg of tissue. Experiments were done for which healthy subjects returned to the magnets at different times for {sup 13}C NMR measurement. The spectral difference between experiments was within the noise in the C{sub 1} glycogen region. Because of the spectral reproducibility and the signal sensitivity, hepatic glycogen repletion can be followed. Four hours postprandial, hepatic glycogen increases by 3.8 times from the basal fasted state. The hepatic glycogen data correspond directly to previous biopsy results and support the use of {sup 13}C NMR as a noninvasive probe of human metabolism.

  11. Natural abundance deuterium and 18-oxygen effects on the precision of the doubly labeled water method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horvitz, M. A.; Schoeller, D. A.

    2001-01-01

    The doubly labeled water method for measuring total energy expenditure is subject to error from natural variations in the background 2H and 18O in body water. There is disagreement as to whether the variations in background abundances of the two stable isotopes covary and what relative doses of 2H and 18O minimize the impact of variation on the precision of the method. We have performed two studies to investigate the amount and covariance of the background variations. These were a study of urine collected weekly from eight subjects who remained in the Madison, WI locale for 6 wk and frequent urine samples from 14 subjects during round-trip travel to a locale > or = 500 miles from Madison, WI. Background variation in excess of analytical error was detected in six of the eight nontravelers, and covariance was demonstrated in four subjects. Background variation was detected in all 14 travelers, and covariance was demonstrated in 11 subjects. The median slopes of the regression lines of delta2H vs. delta18O were 6 and 7, respectively. Modeling indicated that 2H and 18O doses yielding a 6:1 ratio of final enrichments should minimize this error introduced to the doubly labeled water method.

  12. Natural Abundance 17O Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Computational Modeling Studies of Lithium Based Liquid Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, Xuchu; Hu, Mary Y.; Wei, Xiaoliang; Wang, Wei; Chen, Zhong; Liu, Jun; Hu, Jian Z.

    2015-07-01

    Natural abundance 17O NMR measurements were conducted on electrolyte solutions consisting of Li[CF3SO2NSO2CF3] (LiTFSI) dissolved in the solvents of ethylene carbonate (EC), propylene carbonate (PC), ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), and their mixtures at various concentrations. It was observed that 17O chemical shifts of solvent molecules change with the concentration of LiTFSI. The chemical shift displacements of carbonyl oxygen are evidently greater than those of ethereal oxygen, strongly indicating that Li+ ion is coordinated with carbonyl oxygen rather than ethereal oxygen. To understand the detailed molecular interaction, computational modeling of 17O chemical shifts was carried out on proposed solvation structures. By comparing the predicted chemical shifts with the experimental values, it is found that a Li+ ion is coordinated with four double bond oxygen atoms from EC, PC, EMC and TFSI- anion. In the case of excessive amount of solvents of EC, PC and EMC the Li+ coordinated solvent molecules are undergoing quick exchange with bulk solvent molecules, resulting in average 17O chemical shifts. Several kinds of solvation structures are identified, where the proportion of each structure in the liquid electrolytes investigated depends on the concentration of LiTFSI.

  13. Probing surface hydrogen bonding and dynamics by natural abundance, multidimensional, 17O DNP-NMR spectroscopy

    DOE PAGES

    Perras, Frederic A.; Chaudhary, Umesh; Slowing, Igor I.; Pruski, Marek

    2016-05-06

    Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP)-enhanced solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (SSNMR) spectroscopy is increasingly being used as a tool for the atomic-level characterization of surface sites. DNP surface-enhanced SSNMR spectroscopy of materials has, however, been limited to studying relatively receptive nuclei, and the particularly rare 17O nuclide, which is of great interest for materials science, has not been utilized. We demonstrate that advanced 17O SSNMR experiments can be performed on surface species at natural isotopic abundance using DNP. We use 17O DNP surface-enhanced 2D SSNMR to measure 17O{1H} HETCOR spectra as well as dipolar oscillations on a series of thermally treatedmore » mesoporous silica nanoparticle samples having different pore diameters. These experiments allow for a nonintrusive and unambiguous characterization of hydrogen bonding and dynamics at the surface of the material; no other single experiment can give such details about the interactions at the surface. Lastly, our data show that, upon drying, strongly hydrogen-bonded surface silanols, whose motions are greatly restricted by the interaction when compared to lone silanols, are selectively dehydroxylated.« less

  14. 13C and 15N natural isotope abundance reflects breast cancer cell metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tea, Illa; Martineau, Estelle; Antheaume, Ingrid; Lalande, Julie; Mauve, Caroline; Gilard, Francoise; Barillé-Nion, Sophie; Blackburn, Anneke C.; Tcherkez, Guillaume

    2016-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide. Despite the information provided by anatomopathological assessment and molecular markers (such as receptor expression ER, PR, HER2), breast cancer therapies and prognostics depend on the metabolic properties of tumor cells. However, metabolomics have not provided a robust and congruent biomarker yet, likely because individual metabolite contents are insufficient to encapsulate all of the alterations in metabolic fluxes. Here, we took advantage of natural 13C and 15N isotope abundance to show there are isotopic differences between healthy and cancer biopsy tissues or between healthy and malignant cultured cell lines. Isotope mass balance further suggests that these differences are mostly related to lipid metabolism, anaplerosis and urea cycle, three pathways known to be impacted in malignant cells. Our results demonstrate that the isotope signature is a good descriptor of metabolism since it integrates modifications in C partitioning and N excretion altogether. Our present study is thus a starting point to possible clinical applications such as patient screening and biopsy characterization in every cancer that is associated with metabolic changes.

  15. [Humus composition and stable carbon isotope natural abundance in paddy soil under long-term fertilization].

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Yang, Lin-Zhang; Ci, En; Wang, Yan; Yin, Shi-Xue; Shen, Ming-Xing

    2008-09-01

    Soil samples were collected from an experimental paddy field with long-term (26 years) fertilization in Taihu Lake region of Jiangsu Province to study the effects of different fertilization on the organic carbon distribution and stable carbon isotope natural abundance (delta 13C) in the soil profile, and on the humus composition. The results showed that long-term fertilization increased the organic carbon content in top soil significantly, and there was a significantly negative exponential correlation between soil organic carbon content and soil depth (P < 0.01). The organic carbon content in 10-30 cm soil layer under chemical fertilizations and in 20-40 cm soil layer under organic fertilizations was relatively stable. Soil delta 13C increased gradually with soil depth, its variation range being from -24% per thousand to -28 per thousand, and had a significantly negative linear correlation with soil organic carbon content (P < 0.05). In 0-20 cm soil layer, the delta 13C in treatments organic manure (M), M + NP, M + NPK, M + straw (R) + N, and R + N decreased significantly; while in 30-50 cm soil layer, the delta 13C in all organic fertilization treatments except R + N increased significantly. Tightly combined humus (humin) was the main humus composition in the soil, occupying 50% or more, and the rest were loosely and stably combined humus. Long-term fertilization increased the content of loosely combined humus and the ratio of humic acid (HA) to fulvic acid (FA).

  16. Naturally Occurring Culturable Aerobic Gut Flora of Adult Phlebotomus papatasi, Vector of Leishmania major in the Old World

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Jaba; Braig, Henk R.; Rowton, Edgar D.; Ghosh, Kashinath

    2012-01-01

    Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis is a neglected, vector-borne parasitic disease and is responsible for persistent, often disfiguring lesions and other associated complications. Leishmania, causing zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (ZCL) in the Old World are mainly transmitted by the predominant sand fly vector, Phlebotomus papatasi. To date, there is no efficient control measure or vaccine available for this widespread insect-borne infectious disease. Methodology/Principal Findings A survey was carried out to study the abundance of different natural gut flora in P. papatasi, with the long-term goal of generating a paratransgenic sand fly that can potentially block the development of Leishmania in the sand fly gut, thereby preventing transmission of leishmania in endemic disease foci. Sand flies, in particular, P. papatasi were captured from different habitats of various parts of the world. Gut microbes were cultured and identified using 16S ribosomal DNA analysis and a phylogenetic tree was constructed. We found variation in the species and abundance of gut flora in flies collected from different habitats. However, a few Gram-positive, nonpathogenic bacteria including Bacillus flexus and B. pumilus were common in most of the sites examined. Conclusion/Significance Our results indicate that there is a wide range of variation of aerobic gut flora inhabiting sand fly guts, which possibly reflect the ecological condition of the habitat where the fly breeds. Also, some species of bacteria (B. pumilus, and B. flexus) were found from most of the habitats. Important from an applied perspective of dissemination, our results support a link between oviposition induction and adult gut flora. PMID:22629302

  17. Distribution of the PBC-specific- (M2) and the naturally-occurring mitochondrial antigen- (NOMAg) systems in plants.

    PubMed Central

    Lang, P; Klein, R; Becker, E W; Berg, P A

    1992-01-01

    In previous studies it was demonstrated that antibodies in sera from patients with primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) and their relatives can recognize two different antigen systems in the ATPase fraction prepared from beef heart mitochondria, namely the PBC-related M2- and the naturally occurring mitochondrial antigen (NOMAg)-related epitopes. Since separation of these two antigen systems could not be achieved using mammalian mitochondria, mitochondria from a wide spectrum of plants were analysed with respect to the presence of mitochondrial antigens. Mitochondria from 29 species of plants were prepared and tested by ELISA and Western blot using marker sera from patients with PBC reacting in the Western blot with M2a,b,c,d (alpha-ketoacid-dehydrogenase complex) and NOMAg-specific sera recognizing the three major epitopes epsilon, zeta, and eta at 65, 61 and 58 kD. Naturally occurring mitochondrial antibody (NOMA)-positive marker sera reacted in the ELISA with mitochondria from all plants, and the zeta/eta positive sera gave also a positive reaction at 61/58 kD in the Western blot while the epsilon epitope could not be visualized by this method. In contrast, the M2 antigen was detected preferentially in lower plants such as algae, fungi, and ferns. Analysing these data with respect to the evolution of proteins one would have to assume that the M2 antigen was lost in most higher plants or underwent some structural alterations. Furthermore, considering the fact that the M2- and the NOMAg-related epitopes could be only partially separated, i.e. there were no plant mitochondria showing only M2 but no NOMAg, one could speculate that anti-M2 antibodies are derived from the pool of naturally occurring antibodies. Images Fig. 2 PMID:1281057

  18. Sugars and adiposity: the long‐term effects of consuming added and naturally occurring sugars in foods and in beverages

    PubMed Central

    Lee, A. K.; Chowdhury, R.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Objective The aim of this study was to determine if the association with adiposity varies by the type (added vs. naturally occurring) and form (liquid vs. solid) of dietary sugars consumed. Methods Data from the 10‐year National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Growth and Health Study (n = 2,021 girls aged 9–10 years at baseline; n = 5,156 paired observations) were used. Using mixed linear models, 1‐year changes in sugar intake, body mass index z‐score (BMIz) and waist circumference (WC) were assessed. Results The results showed mean daily added sugar (AS) intake: 10.3 tsp (41 g) liquid; 11.6 tsp (46 g) solid and naturally occurring sugar intake: 2.6 tsp (10 g) liquid; 2.2 tsp (9 g) solid. Before total energy adjustment, each additional teaspoon of liquid AS was associated with a 0.222‐mm increase in WC (p = 0.0003) and a 0.002 increase in BMIz (p = 0.003). Each teaspoon of solid AS was associated with a 0.126‐mm increase in WC (p = 0.03) and a 0.001 increase in BMIz (p = 0.03). Adjusting for total energy, this association was maintained only between liquid AS and WC among all and between solid AS and WC among those overweight/obese only. There was no significant association with naturally occurring sugar. Conclusions These findings demonstrate to suggest a positive association between AS intake (liquid and solid) and BMI that is mediated by total energy intake and an association with WC that is independent of it. PMID:27774248

  19. Computed Tomography Imaging of Solid Tumors Using a Liposomal-Iodine Contrast Agent in Companion Dogs with Naturally Occurring Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ghaghada, Ketan B.; Sato, Amy F.; Starosolski, Zbigniew A.; Berg, John; Vail, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Companion dogs with naturally occurring cancer serve as an important large animal model in translational research because they share strong similarities with human cancers. In this study, we investigated a long circulating liposomal-iodine contrast agent (Liposomal-I) for computed tomography (CT) imaging of solid tumors in companion dogs with naturally occurring cancer. Materials and Methods The institutional animal ethics committees approved the study and written informed consent was obtained from all owners. Thirteen dogs (mean age 10.1 years) with a variety of masses including primary and metastatic liver tumors, sarcomas, mammary carcinoma and lung tumors, were enrolled in the study. CT imaging was performed pre-contrast and at 15 minutes and 24 hours after intravenous administration of Liposomal-I (275 mg/kg iodine dose). Conventional contrast-enhanced CT imaging was performed in a subset of dogs, 90 minutes prior to administration of Liposomal-I. Histologic or cytologic diagnosis was obtained for each dog prior to admission into the study. Results Liposomal-I resulted in significant (p < 0.05) enhancement and uniform opacification of the vascular compartment. Non-renal, reticulo-endothelial systemic clearance of the contrast agent was demonstrated. Liposomal-I enabled visualization of primary and metastatic liver tumors. Sub-cm sized liver lesions grossly appeared as hypo-enhanced compared to the surrounding normal parenchyma with improved lesion conspicuity in the post-24 hour scan. Large liver tumors (> 1 cm) demonstrated a heterogeneous pattern of intra-tumoral signal with visibly higher signal enhancement at the post-24 hour time point. Extra-hepatic, extra-splenic tumors, including histiocytic sarcoma, anaplastic sarcoma, mammary carcinoma and lung tumors, were visualized with a heterogeneous enhancement pattern in the post-24 hour scan. Conclusions The long circulating liposomal-iodine contrast agent enabled prolonged visualization of small

  20. The nature, occurring contexts, and psychological implications of weight-related teasing in urban physical education programs.

    PubMed

    Li, Weidong; Rukavina, Paul

    2012-06-01

    This study examined the nature, occurring contexts, and psychological implications of weight-related teasing in urban physical education programs. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 47 participants from a large urban school district. Data were analyzed using inductive analysis and constant comparisons. Most overweight adolescents experienced many different types of teasing in physical education. Victims of teasing felt hurt and experienced uncomfortable feelings due to social comparisons. Overweight students who were not teased reported a variety of reasons. Teachers lacked awareness of and strategies to handle teasing of overweight students. There is a need to implement preventive policies and rules to eliminate weight-related teasing and create inclusive physical education environments.

  1. Use of naturally occurring radon progeny for in-place testing of high-efficiency particulate air filters

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, G.J.; Hoover, M.D.; Yeh, Hsu-Chi

    1997-12-01

    High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters are routinely used to control emissions of radioactive particles from nuclear facilities. Because HEPA filters play a critical role in protecting members of the public and the environment, there are stringent requirements for verifying the efficiency of HEPA filters prior to their installation and during their use. Traditional methods for the performance tests involve introducing a challenge aerosol before the filter and comparing the concentration of particles before and after the filter. We describe a proof-of-principle test for evaluating use of naturally occurring radon progeny for testing HEPA filters.

  2. Uranium pollution in an estuary affected by pyrite acid mine drainage and releases of naturally occurring radioactive materials.

    PubMed

    Villa, M; Manjón, G; Hurtado, S; García-Tenorio, R

    2011-07-01

    After the termination of phosphogypsum discharges to the Huelva estuary (SW Spain), a unique opportunity was presented to study the response of a contaminated environmental compartment after the cessation of its main source of pollution. The evolution over time of uranium concentrations in the estuary is presented to supply new insights into the decontamination of a scenario affected by Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) discharges. The cleaning of uranium isotopes from the area has not taken place as rapidly as expected due to leaching from phosphogypsum stacks. An in-depth study using various techniques of analysis, including (234)U/(238)U and (230)Th/(232)Th ratios and the decreasing rates of the uranium concentration, enabled a second source of uranium contamination to be discovered. Increased uranium levels due to acid mine drainage from pyrite mines located in the Iberian Pyrite Belt (SW Spain) prevent complete uranium decontamination and, therefore, result in levels nearly twice those of natural background levels.

  3. Relation of desert pupfish abundance to selected environmental variables in natural and manmade habitats in the Salton Sea basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, B.A.; Saiki, M.K.

    2005-01-01

    We assessed the relation between abundance of desert pupfish, Cyprinodon macularius, and selected biological and physicochemical variables in natural and manmade habitats within the Salton Sea Basin. Field sampling in a natural tributary, Salt Creek, and three agricultural drains captured eight species including pupfish (1.1% of the total catch), the only native species encountered. According to Bray-Curtis resemblance functions, fish species assemblages differed mostly between Salt Creek and the drains (i.e., the three drains had relatively similar species assemblages). Pupfish numbers and environmental variables varied among sites and sample periods. Canonical correlation showed that pupfish abundance was positively correlated with abundance of western mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis, and negatively correlated with abundance of porthole livebearers, Poeciliopsis gracilis, tilapias (Sarotherodon mossambica and Tilapia zillii), longjaw mudsuckers, Gillichthys mirabilis, and mollies (Poecilia latipinnaandPoecilia mexicana). In addition, pupfish abundance was positively correlated with cover, pH, and salinity, and negatively correlated with sediment factor (a measure of sediment grain size) and dissolved oxygen. Pupfish abundance was generally highest in habitats where water quality extremes (especially high pH and salinity, and low dissolved oxygen) seemingly limited the occurrence of nonnative fishes. This study also documented evidence of predation by mudsuckers on pupfish. These findings support the contention of many resource managers that pupfish populations are adversely influenced by ecological interactions with nonnative fishes. ?? Springer 2005.

  4. Squalene: a naturally abundant mammalian skin secretion and long distance tick-attractant (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Yoder, J A; Stevens, B W; Crouch, K C

    1999-07-01

    Squalene is a naturally occurring lipid on mammalian skin and is an attractant to the lone star tick, Amblyomma americanum (L.). In this study, we compared squalene to the standard tick-attractants, benzaldehyde, isobutyric acid, methyl salicylate, nonanoic acid, and o-nitrophenol identified as active ingredients of tick aggregation-attachment pheromones and determined its effectiveness in field and laboratory settings at varying distances. Squalene was detected from 1/4 m greater than the standard tick attractants, attracted a greater percentage of ticks (75 compared with 0-43%) and featured a rapid response time (< 30 min). Thus, squalene contributes more to the tick's ability to locate hosts at greater distances than aggregation-attachment pheromones. These results have important implications for improving tick monitoring and control programs by adding squalene as a supplement to existing attractant baits. PMID:10467784

  5. Distribution of injected technetium(99m)-labeled mesenchymal stem cells in horses with naturally occurring tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Becerra, Patricia; Valdés Vázquez, Miguel A; Dudhia, Jayesh; Fiske-Jackson, Andrew R; Neves, Francisco; Hartman, Neil G; Smith, Roger K W

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate immediate cell survival and distribution following different administration routes of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into naturally occurring tendon injuries. Ten million MSCs, labeled with technetium-99m hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime, were implanted into 13 horses with naturally occurring tendon or ligament injuries intra-lesionally, intravenously and by regional perfusion, and traced for up to 48 h using planar gamma scintigraphy. Labeling efficiencies varied between 1.8% and 18.5% (mean 9.3%). Cells were retained in the damaged area after intra-lesional administration but only 24% of cells were still present within the tendon after 24 h. After intravenous injection, cells largely distributed to the lung fields, with no detectable cells in the tendon lesions. Significant labeling of the tendon lesions was observed in 11/12 horses following regional perfusion but at a lower level to intra-lesional injection. The highest cell numbers were retained after intra-lesional injection, although with considerable cell loss, while regional perfusion may be a viable alternative for MSC delivery. Cells did not "home" to damaged tendon in large numbers after intravenous administration. Cells were detected in the lungs most frequently after intravascular administration, although with no adverse effects. Low cell retention has important implications for designing effective clinical therapies for human clinical use.

  6. Naturally occurring antimicrobial peptide OH-CATH30 selectively regulates the innate immune response to protect against sepsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Sheng-An; Xiang, Yang; Wang, Yan-Jie; Liu, Jie; Lee, Wen-Hui; Zhang, Yun

    2013-11-27

    Sepsis, which is a systemic inflammatory response that follows a bacterial infection, has a high mortality rate and limited therapeutic options. Here we show that the antimicrobial peptide OH-CATH30, which naturally occurs in snake, selectively regulates the innate immune response to protect mice from lethal sepsis. The administration of OH-CATH30 significantly improves the survival rate of mice infected by antibiotic-susceptible and -resistant pathogens, including Escherichia coli , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , and Staphylococcus aureus . OH-CATH30 selectively up-regulates the production of chemokines and cytokines without harmful immune response. Recruitment of monocytes, macrophages, and neutrophils to the infection site is pivotal to the protective capacity of OH-CATH30. Furthermore, the alternative activation of the innate immune response by OH-CATH30 depends on p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling. Taken together, our study demonstrates that OH-CATH30, a naturally occurring antimicrobial peptide, selectively stimulates the innate immune response to protect against sepsis.

  7. Association of naturally occurring radionuclides in sludges from Drinking Water Treatment Plants previously optimized for their removal.

    PubMed

    Baeza, A; Salas, A; Guillén, J; Muñoz-Serrano, A

    2014-02-01

    The raw water used in Drinking Water Treatment Plants (DWTPs) can present high values of naturally occurring radionuclides. In order to reduce this content, the routine working conditions of DWTPs were successfully modified. This meant that those radionuclides were accumulated in the sludges generated, whose radioactive content was frequently above the exemption levels. It therefore becomes necessary to assess the association of naturally occurring radionuclides in the sludges for their potential use as agricultural fertilizers. Two approaches were studied: (a) the effect of different sequential extraction methods applied to a selected sludge; and (b) the effect of the different contents of inorganic complexes dissolved in the input water on the composition of the sludges generated by two DWTPs with different origins of their input water. Uranium and radium were mainly associated with the carbonated and reducible fractions, while (210)Po and (228)Th were associated with the residual fraction. There were differences between the two speciation methods, but the order of bioavailable radionuclides was roughly the same: (226)Ra≈(234,238)U>(228)Th>(210)Po. The major inorganic complexes content, mainly carbonate, in the raw water affected the radionuclide association. The greater the carbonate content in the raw water, the greater was the association of uranium and radium with the carbonated and easily reducible fractions.

  8. Naturally occurring NS3 resistance-associated variants in hepatitis C virus genotype 1: Their relevance for developing countries.

    PubMed

    Echeverría, Natalia; Betancour, Gabriela; Gámbaro, Fabiana; Hernández, Nelia; López, Pablo; Chiodi, Daniela; Sánchez, Adriana; Boschi, Susana; Fajardo, Alvaro; Sóñora, Martín; Moratorio, Gonzalo; Cristina, Juan; Moreno, Pilar

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major cause of global morbidity and mortality, with an estimated 130-150 million infected individuals worldwide. HCV is a leading cause of chronic liver diseases including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Current treatment options in developing countries involve pegylated interferon-α and ribavirin as dual therapy or in combination with one or more direct-acting antiviral agents (DAA). The emergence of resistance-associated variants (RAVs) after treatment reveals the great variability of this virus leading to a great difficulty in developing effective antiviral strategies. Baseline RAVs detected in DAA treatment-naïve HCV-infected patients could be of great importance for clinical management and outcome prediction. Although the frequency of naturally occurring HCV NS3 protease inhibitor mutations has been addressed in many countries, there are only a few reports on their prevalence in South America. In this study, we investigated the presence of RAVs in the HCV NS3 serine protease region by analysing a cohort of Uruguayan patients with chronic hepatitis C who had not been treated with any DAAs and compare them with the results found for other South American countries. The results of these studies revealed that naturally occurring mutations conferring resistance to NS3 inhibitors exist in a substantial proportion of Uruguayan treatment-naïve patients infected with HCV genotype 1 enrolled in these studies. The identification of these baseline RAVs could be of great importance for patients' management and outcome prediction in developing countries.

  9. Molecular Imprint of Exposure to Naturally Occurring Genetic Variants of Human Cytomegalovirus on the T cell Repertoire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Corey; Gras, Stephanie; Brennan, Rebekah M.; Bird, Nicola L.; Valkenburg, Sophie A.; Twist, Kelly-Anne; Burrows, Jacqueline M.; Miles, John J.; Chambers, Daniel; Bell, Scott; Campbell, Scott; Kedzierska, Katherine; Burrows, Scott R.; Rossjohn, Jamie; Khanna, Rajiv

    2014-02-01

    Exposure to naturally occurring variants of herpesviruses in clinical settings can have a dramatic impact on anti-viral immunity. Here we have evaluated the molecular imprint of variant peptide-MHC complexes on the T-cell repertoire during human cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and demonstrate that primary co-infection with genetic variants of CMV was coincident with development of strain-specific T-cell immunity followed by emergence of cross-reactive virus-specific T-cells. Cross-reactive CMV-specific T cells exhibited a highly conserved public T cell repertoire, while T cells directed towards specific genetic variants displayed oligoclonal repertoires, unique to each individual. T cell recognition foot-print and pMHC-I structural analyses revealed that the cross-reactive T cells accommodate alterations in the pMHC complex with a broader foot-print focussing on the core of the peptide epitope. These findings provide novel molecular insight into how infection with naturally occurring genetic variants of persistent human herpesviruses imprints on the evolution of the anti-viral T-cell repertoire.

  10. A Novel Naturally Occurring Class I 5-Enolpyruvylshikimate-3-Phosphate Synthase from Janibacter sp. Confers High Glyphosate Tolerance to Rice

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Shu-yuan; Cui, Ying; Zhao, Yan; Liu, Zi-duo; Lin, Yong-jun; Zhou, Fei

    2016-01-01

    As glyphosate is a broad spectrum herbicide extensively used in agriculture worldwide, identification of new aroA genes with high level of glyphosate tolerance is essential for the development and breeding of transgenic glyphosate-tolerant crops. In this study, an aroA gene was cloned from a Janibacter sp. strain isolated from marine sediment (designated as aroAJ. sp). The purified aroAJ. sp enzyme has a Km value of 30 μM for PEP and 83 μM for S3P, and a significantly higher Ki value for glyphosate (373 μM) than aroAE. coli. AroAJ. sp is characterized as a novel and naturally occurring class I aroA enzyme with glyphosate tolerance. Furthermore, we show that aroAJ. sp can be used as an effective selectable marker in both japonica and indica rice cultivar. Transgenic rice lines were tested by herbicide bioassay and it was confirmed that they could tolerate up to 3360 g/ha glyphosate, a dosage four-fold that of the recommended agricultural application level. To our knowledge, it is the first report of a naturally occurring novel class I aroA gene which can be efficiently utilized to study and develop transgenic glyphosate-tolerant crops, and can facilitate a more economical and simplified weed control system. PMID:26754957

  11. Effects of naturally-occurring acid fog on inflammatory mediators in airway and pulmonary functions in asthmatic patients.

    PubMed

    Honma, S; Tanaka, H; Teramoto, S; Igarashi, T; Abe, S

    2000-10-01

    Floating fog occurs every summer in Kushiro City in Japan, and the annual average of fog water pH in the past 4 years has been under 5.0. We previously reported that epidemiologically fog was the most important positive factor contributing to increased hospital visits of asthmatic patients compared with other meteorological values and air pollutants. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of the effects of naturally-occurring acid fog on asthmatic patients. We compared pulmonary functions and inflammatory mediators in induced sputum between the foggy (July 1995) and the non-foggy (May 1996) season, and assessed airway responsiveness to hypo-osmolar aerosol. Forty-four out of 118 asthmatic patients of Kushiro City residents participated, pulmonary function tests were completed in 36 patients, and sputum data were available in 26 patients in both seasons. Percent forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) was significantly (P< 0.05) decreased, and % peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) had a trend to decrease in the foggy season more than in the non-foggy, and sputum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) and interleukin (IL)-8 were higher in the foggy season but not significantly. A moderate inverse correlation was revealed between sputum ECP and %PEFR in the foggy season (r= -0.55, P<0.005). Subjects were divided into two groups according to the best PEFR; one had >10% lower PEFR levels in the foggy season than in the non-foggy season (Group A, n = 7), the remainder did not (Group B, n = 19). In group A, sputum ECP was significantly increased (P< 0.01) in the foggy season, but there were no changes in IL-8 and prostaglandin D2. Ultrasonic nebulized distilled water provocation test revealed no differences between group A and B. These results suggested that eosinophilic inflammation rather than hypo-osmolar effect of fog might contribute to respiratory deterioration by inhalation of naturally-occurring acid fog.

  12. The Determination of the Natural Abundance of the Isotopes of Chlorine: An Introductory Experiment in Mass Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Malley, Rebecca M.

    1982-01-01

    Describes a laboratory experiment which introduces basic principles and experimental techniques of mass spectrometry for fourth year undergraduate (B.Sc.) students. Laboratory procedures, background information, and discussion of results are provided for the experiment in which the natural isotopic abundance of chlorine is determined. (Author/JN)

  13. Seasonal variation in natural abundance of 2H and 18O in urine samples from rural Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Dugas, Lara R.; Brieger, William; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Alabi, Tunrayo; Schoeller, Dale A.; Luke, Amy

    2015-01-01

    The doubly labeled water (DLW) method is used to measure free-living energy expenditure in humans. Inherent to this technique is the assumption that natural abundances of stable isotopes 2H and 18O in body water remain constant over the course of the measurement period and after elimination of the loading dose of DLW will return to the same predose level. To determine variability in the natural abundances of 2H and 18O in humans living in a region with seasonal shifts in rain patterns and sources of drinking water, over the course of 12 mo we collected weekly urine samples from four individuals living in southwest Nigeria as well as samples of their drinking water. From ongoing regional studies of hypertension, obesity, and energy expenditure, we estimated average water turnover rate, urine volumes, and sodium and potassium excretion. Results suggest that 2H and 18O in urine, mean concentrations of urinary sodium and potassium, urine volume, and total body turnover differed significantly from dry to rainy season. Additionally, seasonal weather variables (mean monthly maximum temperatures, total monthly rainfall, and minimum relative humidity) were all significantly associated with natural abundances in urine. No seasonal difference was observed in drinking water samples. Findings suggest that natural abundances in urine may not remain constant as assumed, and studies incorporating DLW measurements across the transition of seasons should interpret results with caution unless appropriate doses of the tracers are used. PMID:25977450

  14. Seasonal variation in natural abundance of 2H and 18O in urine samples from rural Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Harbison, Justin E; Dugas, Lara R; Brieger, William; Tayo, Bamidele O; Alabi, Tunrayo; Schoeller, Dale A; Luke, Amy

    2015-07-01

    The doubly labeled water (DLW) method is used to measure free-living energy expenditure in humans. Inherent to this technique is the assumption that natural abundances of stable isotopes (2)H and (18)O in body water remain constant over the course of the measurement period and after elimination of the loading dose of DLW will return to the same predose level. To determine variability in the natural abundances of (2)H and (18)O in humans living in a region with seasonal shifts in rain patterns and sources of drinking water, over the course of 12 mo we collected weekly urine samples from four individuals living in southwest Nigeria as well as samples of their drinking water. From ongoing regional studies of hypertension, obesity, and energy expenditure, we estimated average water turnover rate, urine volumes, and sodium and potassium excretion. Results suggest that (2)H and (18)O in urine, mean concentrations of urinary sodium and potassium, urine volume, and total body turnover differed significantly from dry to rainy season. Additionally, seasonal weather variables (mean monthly maximum temperatures, total monthly rainfall, and minimum relative humidity) were all significantly associated with natural abundances in urine. No seasonal difference was observed in drinking water samples. Findings suggest that natural abundances in urine may not remain constant as assumed, and studies incorporating DLW measurements across the transition of seasons should interpret results with caution unless appropriate doses of the tracers are used.

  15. A Polymorphism in the Processing Body Component Ge-1 Controls Resistance to a Naturally Occurring Rhabdovirus in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chuan; Magwire, Michael M; Bayer, Florian; Jiggins, Francis M

    2016-01-01

    Hosts encounter an ever-changing array of pathogens, so there is continual selection for novel ways to resist infection. A powerful way to understand how hosts evolve resistance is to identify the genes that cause variation in susceptibility to infection. Using high-resolution genetic mapping we have identified a naturally occurring polymorphism in a gene called Ge-1 that makes Drosophila melanogaster highly resistant to its natural pathogen Drosophila melanogaster sigma virus (DMelSV). By modifying the sequence of the gene in transgenic flies, we identified a 26 amino acid deletion in the serine-rich linker region of Ge-1 that is causing the resistance. Knocking down the expression of the susceptible allele leads to a decrease in viral titre in infected flies, indicating that Ge-1 is an existing restriction factor whose antiviral effects have been increased by the deletion. Ge-1 plays a central role in RNA degradation and the formation of processing bodies (P bodies). A key effector in antiviral immunity, the RNAi induced silencing complex (RISC), localises to P bodies, but we found that Ge-1-based resistance is not dependent on the small interfering RNA (siRNA) pathway. However, we found that Decapping protein 1 (DCP1) protects flies against sigma virus. This protein interacts with Ge-1 and commits mRNA for degradation by removing the 5' cap, suggesting that resistance may rely on this RNA degradation pathway. The serine-rich linker domain of Ge-1 has experienced strong selection during the evolution of Drosophila, suggesting that this gene may be under long-term selection by viruses. These findings demonstrate that studying naturally occurring polymorphisms that increase resistance to infections enables us to identify novel forms of antiviral defence, and support a pattern of major effect polymorphisms controlling resistance to viruses in Drosophila. PMID:26799957

  16. A Polymorphism in the Processing Body Component Ge-1 Controls Resistance to a Naturally Occurring Rhabdovirus in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chuan; Magwire, Michael M; Bayer, Florian; Jiggins, Francis M

    2016-01-01

    Hosts encounter an ever-changing array of pathogens, so there is continual selection for novel ways to resist infection. A powerful way to understand how hosts evolve resistance is to identify the genes that cause variation in susceptibility to infection. Using high-resolution genetic mapping we have identified a naturally occurring polymorphism in a gene called Ge-1 that makes Drosophila melanogaster highly resistant to its natural pathogen Drosophila melanogaster sigma virus (DMelSV). By modifying the sequence of the gene in transgenic flies, we identified a 26 amino acid deletion in the serine-rich linker region of Ge-1 that is causing the resistance. Knocking down the expression of the susceptible allele leads to a decrease in viral titre in infected flies, indicating that Ge-1 is an existing restriction factor whose antiviral effects have been increased by the deletion. Ge-1 plays a central role in RNA degradation and the formation of processing bodies (P bodies). A key effector in antiviral immunity, the RNAi induced silencing complex (RISC), localises to P bodies, but we found that Ge-1-based resistance is not dependent on the small interfering RNA (siRNA) pathway. However, we found that Decapping protein 1 (DCP1) protects flies against sigma virus. This protein interacts with Ge-1 and commits mRNA for degradation by removing the 5' cap, suggesting that resistance may rely on this RNA degradation pathway. The serine-rich linker domain of Ge-1 has experienced strong selection during the evolution of Drosophila, suggesting that this gene may be under long-term selection by viruses. These findings demonstrate that studying naturally occurring polymorphisms that increase resistance to infections enables us to identify novel forms of antiviral defence, and support a pattern of major effect polymorphisms controlling resistance to viruses in Drosophila.

  17. A Polymorphism in the Processing Body Component Ge-1 Controls Resistance to a Naturally Occurring Rhabdovirus in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Bayer, Florian; Jiggins, Francis M.

    2016-01-01

    Hosts encounter an ever-changing array of pathogens, so there is continual selection for novel ways to resist infection. A powerful way to understand how hosts evolve resistance is to identify the genes that cause variation in susceptibility to infection. Using high-resolution genetic mapping we have identified a naturally occurring polymorphism in a gene called Ge-1 that makes Drosophila melanogaster highly resistant to its natural pathogen Drosophila melanogaster sigma virus (DMelSV). By modifying the sequence of the gene in transgenic flies, we identified a 26 amino acid deletion in the serine-rich linker region of Ge-1 that is causing the resistance. Knocking down the expression of the susceptible allele leads to a decrease in viral titre in infected flies, indicating that Ge-1 is an existing restriction factor whose antiviral effects have been increased by the deletion. Ge-1 plays a central role in RNA degradation and the formation of processing bodies (P bodies). A key effector in antiviral immunity, the RNAi induced silencing complex (RISC), localises to P bodies, but we found that Ge-1-based resistance is not dependent on the small interfering RNA (siRNA) pathway. However, we found that Decapping protein 1 (DCP1) protects flies against sigma virus. This protein interacts with Ge-1 and commits mRNA for degradation by removing the 5’ cap, suggesting that resistance may rely on this RNA degradation pathway. The serine-rich linker domain of Ge-1 has experienced strong selection during the evolution of Drosophila, suggesting that this gene may be under long-term selection by viruses. These findings demonstrate that studying naturally occurring polymorphisms that increase resistance to infections enables us to identify novel forms of antiviral defence, and support a pattern of major effect polymorphisms controlling resistance to viruses in Drosophila. PMID:26799957

  18. Naturally occurring proteinaceous nanoparticles in Coptidis Rhizoma extract act as concentration-dependent carriers that facilitate berberine absorption

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Bing-Liang; Yin, Chun; Zhang, Bo-Kai; Dai, Yan; Jia, Yi-Qun; Yang, Yan; Li, Qiao; Shi, Rong; Wang, Tian-Ming; Wu, Jia-Sheng; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Lin, Ge; Ma, Yue-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacological activities of some natural products diminish and even disappear after purification. In this study, we explored the mechanisms underlying the decrease of acute oral toxicity of Coptidis Rhizoma extract after purification. The water solubility, in vitro absorption, and plasma exposure of berberine (the major active compound) in the Coptidis Rhizoma extract were much better than those of pure berberine. Scanning electron microscopy, laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), and dynamic light scattering experiments confirmed that nanoparticles attached to very fine precipitates existed in the aqueous extract solution. The LSCM experiment showed that the precipitates were absorbed with the particles by the mouse intestine. High-speed centrifugation of the extract could not remove the nanoparticles and did not influence plasma exposure or acute oral toxicity. However, after extract dilution, the attached precipitates vanished, although the nanoparticles were preserved, and there were no differences in the acute oral toxicity and plasma exposure between the extract and pure berberine. The nanoparticles were then purified and identified as proteinaceous. Furthermore, they could absorb co-dissolved berberine. Our results indicate that naturally occurring proteinaceous nanoparticles in Coptidis Rhizoma extract act as concentration-dependent carriers that facilitate berberine absorption. These findings should inspire related studies in other natural products. PMID:26822920

  19. Analysis in natural time domain of geoelectric time series monitored prior two strong earthquakes occurred in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Rojas, A.; Flores-Marquez, L. E.

    2009-12-01

    The short-time prediction of seismic phenomena is currently an important problem in the scientific community. In particular, the electromagnetic processes associated with seismic events take in great interest since the VAN method was implemented. The most important features of this methodology are the seismic electrical signals (SES) observed prior to strong earthquakes. SES has been observed in the electromagnetic series linked to EQs in Greece, Japan and Mexico. By mean of the so-called natural time domain, introduced by Varotsos et al. (2001), they could characterize signals of dichotomic nature observed in different systems, like SES and ionic current fluctuations in membrane channels. In this work we analyze SES observed in geoelectric time series monitored in Guerrero, México. Our analysis concern with two strong earthquakes occurred, on October 24, 1993 (M=6.6) and September 14, 1995 (M=7.3). The time series of the first one displayed a seismic electric signal six days before the main shock and for the second case the time series displayed dichotomous-like fluctuations some months before the EQ. In this work we present the first results of the analysis in natural time domain for the two cases which seems to be agreeing with the results reported by Varotsos. P. Varotsos, N. Sarlis, and E. Skordas, Practica of the Athens Academy 76, 388 (2001).

  20. Molecular identification of naturally occurring bacteriocinogenic and bacteriocinogenic-like lactic acid bacteria in raw milk and soft cheese.

    PubMed

    Ortolani, M B T; Moraes, P M; Perin, L M; Viçosa, G N; Carvalho, K G; Silva Júnior, A; Nero, L A

    2010-07-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are currently used by food industries because of their ability to produce metabolites with antimicrobial activity against gram-positive pathogens and spoilage microorganisms. The objectives of this study were to identify naturally occurring bacteriocinogenic or bacteriocinogenic-like LAB in raw milk and soft cheese and to detect the presence of nisin-coding genes in cultures identified as Lactococcus lactis. Lactic acid bacteria cultures were isolated from 389 raw milk and soft cheese samples and were later characterized for the production of antimicrobial substances against Listeria monocytogenes. Of these, 58 (14.9%) LAB cultures were identified as antagonistic; the nature of this antagonistic activity was then characterized via enzymatic tests to confirm the proteinaceous nature of the antimicrobial substances. In addition, 20 of these antagonistic cultures were selected and submitted to genetic sequencing; they were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum (n=2) and Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis (n=18). Nisin genes were identified by polymerase chain reaction in 7 of these cultures. The identified bacteriocinogenic and bacteriocinogenic-like cultures were highly variable concerning the production and activity of antimicrobial substances, even when they were genetically similar. The obtained results indicated the need for molecular and phenotypic methodologies to properly characterize bacteriocinogenic LAB, as well as the potential use of these cultures as tools to provide food safety.

  1. Naturally occurring proteinaceous nanoparticles in Coptidis Rhizoma extract act as concentration-dependent carriers that facilitate berberine absorption.

    PubMed

    Ma, Bing-Liang; Yin, Chun; Zhang, Bo-Kai; Dai, Yan; Jia, Yi-Qun; Yang, Yan; Li, Qiao; Shi, Rong; Wang, Tian-Ming; Wu, Jia-Sheng; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Lin, Ge; Ma, Yue-Ming

    2016-01-29

    Pharmacological activities of some natural products diminish and even disappear after purification. In this study, we explored the mechanisms underlying the decrease of acute oral toxicity of Coptidis Rhizoma extract after purification. The water solubility, in vitro absorption, and plasma exposure of berberine (the major active compound) in the Coptidis Rhizoma extract were much better than those of pure berberine. Scanning electron microscopy, laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), and dynamic light scattering experiments confirmed that nanoparticles attached to very fine precipitates existed in the aqueous extract solution. The LSCM experiment showed that the precipitates were absorbed with the particles by the mouse intestine. High-speed centrifugation of the extract could not remove the nanoparticles and did not influence plasma exposure or acute oral toxicity. However, after extract dilution, the attached precipitates vanished, although the nanoparticles were preserved, and there were no differences in the acute oral toxicity and plasma exposure between the extract and pure berberine. The nanoparticles were then purified and identified as proteinaceous. Furthermore, they could absorb co-dissolved berberine. Our results indicate that naturally occurring proteinaceous nanoparticles in Coptidis Rhizoma extract act as concentration-dependent carriers that facilitate berberine absorption. These findings should inspire related studies in other natural products.

  2. Radiological Impact Associated to Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) from Coal-Fired Power Plants Emissions - 13436

    SciTech Connect

    Dinis, Maria de Lurdes; Fiuza, Antonio; Soeiro de Carvalho, Jose; Gois, Joaquim; Meira Castro, Ana Cristina

    2013-07-01

    Certain materials used and produced in a wide range of non-nuclear industries contain enhanced activity concentrations of natural radionuclides. In particular, electricity production from coal is one of the major sources of increased human exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials. A methodology was developed to assess the radiological impact due to natural radiation background. The developed research was applied to a specific case study, the Sines coal-fired power plant, located in the southwest coastline of Portugal. Gamma radiation measurements were carried out with two different instruments: a sodium iodide scintillation detector counter (SPP2 NF, Saphymo) and a gamma ray spectrometer with energy discrimination (Falcon 5000, Canberra). Two circular survey areas were defined within 20 km of the power plant. Forty relevant measurements points were established within the sampling area: 15 urban and 25 suburban locations. Additionally, ten more measurements points were defined, mostly at the 20-km area. The registered gamma radiation varies from 20 to 98.33 counts per seconds (c.p.s.) corresponding to an external gamma exposure rate variable between 87.70 and 431.19 nGy/h. The highest values were measured at locations near the power plant and those located in an area within the 6 and 20 km from the stacks. In situ gamma radiation measurements with energy discrimination identified natural emitting nuclides as well as their decay products (Pb-212, Pb-2142, Ra-226, Th-232, Ac-228, Th-234, Pa-234, U- 235, etc.). According to the results, an influence from the stacks emissions has been identified both qualitatively and quantitatively. The developed methodology accomplished the lack of data in what concerns to radiation rate in the vicinity of Sines coal-fired power plant and consequently the resulting exposure to the nearby population. (authors)

  3. A method for the determination of vanadium and iron oxidation states in naturally occurring oxides and silicates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wanty, R.B.; Goldhaber, M.B.

    1985-01-01

    A valence-specific analytical method for determining V3+ in ore minerals has been developed that involves two steps: dissolution of a mineral sample without disturbing the V3+/Vtot ratio, followed by determination of V3+ in the presence of V4+. The samples are dissolved in a mixture of hydrofluoric and sulphuric acids at 100?? in Teflon-lined reaction vessels. Tervalent vanadium is then determined colorimetrically by formation of a V3+-thiocyanate complex in aqueous-acetone medium. Fe3+ is measured semi-quantitatively in the same solution. The method has been tested with two naturally occurring samples containing vanadium and iron. The results obtained were supported by those obtained by other methods, including electron spin resonance spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, and Mo??ssbauer spectroscopy. ?? 1985.

  4. Polarization dependent two-photon absorption spectroscopy on a naturally occurring biomarker (curcumin) in solution: A theoretical-experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiburcio-Moreno, Jose A.; Alvarado-Gil, J. J.; Diaz, Carlos; Echevarria, Lorenzo; Hernández, Florencio E.

    2013-09-01

    We report on the theoretical-experimental analysis of the two-photon absorption (TPA) and two-photon circular-linear dichroism (TPCLD) spectra of (1E,6E)-1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione (curcumin) in Tetrahydrofuran (THF) solution. The measurement of the full TPA spectrum of this molecule reveals a maximum TPA cross-section at 740 nm, i.e. more than 10 times larger than the maximum reported in the literature at 800 nm for the application of curcumin in bioimaging. The TPCLD spectrum exposes the symmetry of the main excited-states involved in the two-photon excitation process. TD-DFT calculations support the experimental results. These outcomes are expected to expand the application of natural-occurring dyes in bioimaging.

  5. First detection of the presence of naturally occurring grapevine downy mildew in the field by a fluorescence-based method.

    PubMed

    Latouche, Gwendal; Debord, Christian; Raynal, Marc; Milhade, Charlotte; Cerovic, Zoran G

    2015-10-01

    Early detection of fungal pathogen presence in the field would help to better time or avoid some of the fungicide treatments used to prevent crop production losses. We recently introduced a new phytoalexin-based method for a non-invasive detection of crop diseases using their fluorescence. The causal agent of grapevine downy mildew, Plasmopara viticola, induces the synthesis of stilbenoid phytoalexins by the host, Vitis vinifera, early upon infection. These stilbenoids emit violet-blue fluorescence under UV light. A hand-held solid-state UV-LED-based field fluorimeter, named Multiplex 330, was used to measure stilbenoid phytoalexins in a vineyard. It allowed us to non-destructively detect and monitor the naturally occurring downy mildew infections on leaves in the field. PMID:26293623

  6. Using ²²²Rn as a naturally occurring tracer to estimate NAPL contamination in an aquifer.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Yoon Yeol; Koh, Dong Chan; Lee, Kil Yong; Cho, Soo Young; Yang, Jae Ha; Lee, Kang Kun

    2013-11-01

    The naturally occurring radioisotope (222)Rn was used as a partitioning tracer to evaluate the presence and amount of a non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) in an aquifer. The batch experiment results of a diesel contaminated soil showed that the emanation rate of (222)Rn decreased to 31%, relative to a background rate. Batch experiment results of water contaminated by gasoline, diesel, PCE and TCE were similar. A field study to examine TCE contamination was conducted using 54 groundwater samples in Wonju city, Republic of Korea. Estimates of TCE contamination ranged from <0.001 mg/L to 14.3mg/L, and (222)Rn concentrations ranged from 1.89 Bq/L to 444. Results of (222)Rn analysis showed that TCE contamination was mainly restricted to an asphalt laboratory area and that the (222)Rn values of a NAPL-contaminated aquifer were correlated with TCE analytical results.

  7. Vincristine modulates the expression of Ki67 and apoptosis in naturally occurring canine transmissible venereal tumor (TVT).

    PubMed

    Özalp, G R; Zik, B; Bastan, A; Peker, S; Özdemir-Salci, E S; Bastan, I; Darbaz, I; Salar, S; Karakas, K

    2012-07-01

    We investigated eight adult dogs that were brought to veterinary clinics with a history of transmissible venereal tumors (TVT). Our goal was to demonstrate the occurrence of apoptosis and the cessation of cell proliferation at every phase of scheduled chemotherapy for naturally occurring TVT. Tissue samples were collected immediately after weekly treatments with vincristine sulfate and processed for histological purposes. Sections 5 μm thick were stained by the TUNEL reaction for apoptosis and immunostained for Ki67 as a proliferation marker. We observed that after vincristine applications, tumor cell proliferation ceased and apoptosis increased. Ki67 HSCORE values were significantly lowered after the first and second treatments with the chemotherapeutic agent compared to controls, whereas TUNEL HSCORE values were significantly higher after two applications of vincristine compared to controls. Our results suggest that scheduled vincristine sulfate applications stabilize the induction of tumor regression by inducing apoptosis and preventing cell proliferation.

  8. Using ²²²Rn as a naturally occurring tracer to estimate NAPL contamination in an aquifer.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Yoon Yeol; Koh, Dong Chan; Lee, Kil Yong; Cho, Soo Young; Yang, Jae Ha; Lee, Kang Kun

    2013-11-01

    The naturally occurring radioisotope (222)Rn was used as a partitioning tracer to evaluate the presence and amount of a non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) in an aquifer. The batch experiment results of a diesel contaminated soil showed that the emanation rate of (222)Rn decreased to 31%, relative to a background rate. Batch experiment results of water contaminated by gasoline, diesel, PCE and TCE were similar. A field study to examine TCE contamination was conducted using 54 groundwater samples in Wonju city, Republic of Korea. Estimates of TCE contamination ranged from <0.001 mg/L to 14.3mg/L, and (222)Rn concentrations ranged from 1.89 Bq/L to 444. Results of (222)Rn analysis showed that TCE contamination was mainly restricted to an asphalt laboratory area and that the (222)Rn values of a NAPL-contaminated aquifer were correlated with TCE analytical results. PMID:23602707

  9. Geospatial analysis of naturally occurring boundaries in road-transport emissions and children's respiratory health across a demographically diverse cityscape.

    PubMed

    Jephcote, Calvin; Chen, Haibo

    2013-04-01

    The motor-vehicle is accountable for emitting a substantial concoction of air quality objective pollutants and carcinogenic hydrocarbons within close proximity to urbanised residential districts. The spatial extent of health impacts associated with road-transport pollutants have traditionally been explored through the examination of artificially created buffers, defined by subjective distances from specified major road links. Within this paper an alternative approach is presented using boundary statistics, which describe naturally occurring shifts of magnitude in socio-environmental and health outcomes across the wider urban area. In contrast, previous distance-threshold investigations have used arbitrarily sized buffers placed upon predetermined locations in response to environmental attributes, without considering the combined influence of additional social burdens. The demographically diverse City of Leicester, situated within the heart of the United Kingdom's major road-transport network, was selected to showcase such methods. Descriptive multilevel modelling strategies accommodating for generalised spatial structures across Leicester, globally associated issues of deprivation, road-transport emissions and ethnic minorities with increased respiratory risks. Getis-Ord Gi* spatial pattern recognition statistics identified the existence of localised variations, with inner city neighbourhoods tending to house children of ethnic minority groups whom experience disproportionately large environmental and respiratory health burdens. Crisp polygon wombling boundary detection across Leicester appeared to broadly complement the Gi* statistics, identifying naturally occurring boundaries in road-transport emissions to result in elevated children's respiratory admissions within a distance of 283 m (P < 0.05). The designated threshold was identified to reduce in relation to certain ethnic groups, thus suggesting environmental injustices likely prevail within the model

  10. Fate of the naturally occurring radioactive materials during treatment of acid mine drainage with coal fly ash and aluminium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Madzivire, Godfrey; Maleka, Peane P; Vadapalli, Viswanath R K; Gitari, Wilson M; Lindsay, Robert; Petrik, Leslie F

    2014-01-15

    Mining of coal is very extensive and coal is mainly used to produce electricity. Coal power stations generate huge amounts of coal fly ash of which a small amount is used in the construction industry. Mining exposes pyrite containing rocks to H2O and O2. This results in the oxidation of FeS2 to form H2SO4. The acidic water, often termed acid mine drainage (AMD), causes dissolution of potentially toxic elements such as, Fe, Al, Mn and naturally occurring radioactive materials such as U and Th from the associated bedrock. This results in an outflow of AMD with high concentrations of sulphate ions, Fe, Al, Mn and naturally occurring radioactive materials. Treatment of AMD with coal fly ash has shown that good quality water can be produced which is suitable for irrigation purposes. Most of the potentially toxic elements (Fe, Al, Mn, etc) and substantial amounts of sulphate ions are removed during treatment with coal fly ash. This research endeavours to establish the fate of the radioactive materials in mine water with coal fly ash containing radioactive materials. It was established that coal fly ash treatment method was capable of removing radioactive materials from mine water to within the target water quality range for drinking water standards. The alpha and beta radioactivity of the mine water was reduced by 88% and 75% respectively. The reduced radioactivity in the mine water was due to greater than 90% removal of U and Th radioactive materials from the mine water after treatment with coal fly ash as ThO2 and UO2. No radioisotopes were found to leach from the coal fly ash into the mine water. PMID:24355687

  11. Fate of the naturally occurring radioactive materials during treatment of acid mine drainage with coal fly ash and aluminium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Madzivire, Godfrey; Maleka, Peane P; Vadapalli, Viswanath R K; Gitari, Wilson M; Lindsay, Robert; Petrik, Leslie F

    2014-01-15

    Mining of coal is very extensive and coal is mainly used to produce electricity. Coal power stations generate huge amounts of coal fly ash of which a small amount is used in the construction industry. Mining exposes pyrite containing rocks to H2O and O2. This results in the oxidation of FeS2 to form H2SO4. The acidic water, often termed acid mine drainage (AMD), causes dissolution of potentially toxic elements such as, Fe, Al, Mn and naturally occurring radioactive materials such as U and Th from the associated bedrock. This results in an outflow of AMD with high concentrations of sulphate ions, Fe, Al, Mn and naturally occurring radioactive materials. Treatment of AMD with coal fly ash has shown that good quality water can be produced which is suitable for irrigation purposes. Most of the potentially toxic elements (Fe, Al, Mn, etc) and substantial amounts of sulphate ions are removed during treatment with coal fly ash. This research endeavours to establish the fate of the radioactive materials in mine water with coal fly ash containing radioactive materials. It was established that coal fly ash treatment method was capable of removing radioactive materials from mine water to within the target water quality range for drinking water standards. The alpha and beta radioactivity of the mine water was reduced by 88% and 75% respectively. The reduced radioactivity in the mine water was due to greater than 90% removal of U and Th radioactive materials from the mine water after treatment with coal fly ash as ThO2 and UO2. No radioisotopes were found to leach from the coal fly ash into the mine water.

  12. Natural abundance (14)N and (15)N solid-state NMR of pharmaceuticals and their polymorphs.

    PubMed

    Veinberg, Stanislav L; Johnston, Karen E; Jaroszewicz, Michael J; Kispal, Brianna M; Mireault, Christopher R; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Pruski, Marek; Schurko, Robert W

    2016-06-29

    (14)N ultra-wideline (UW), (1)H{(15)N} indirectly-detected HETCOR (idHETCOR) and (15)N dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) solid-state NMR (SSNMR) experiments, in combination with plane-wave density functional theory (DFT) calculations of (14)N EFG tensors, were utilized to characterize a series of nitrogen-containing active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), including HCl salts of scopolamine, alprenolol, isoprenaline, acebutolol, dibucaine, nicardipine, and ranitidine. A case study applying these methods for the differentiation of polymorphs of bupivacaine HCl is also presented. All experiments were conducted upon samples with naturally-abundant nitrogen isotopes. For most of the APIs, it was possible to acquire frequency-stepped UW (14)N SSNMR spectra of stationary samples, which display powder patterns corresponding to pseudo-tetrahedral (i.e., RR'R''NH(+) and RR'NH2(+)) or other (i.e., RNH2 and RNO2) nitrogen environments. Directly-excited (14)N NMR spectra were acquired using the WURST-CPMG pulse sequence, which incorporates WURST (wideband, uniform rate, and smooth truncation) pulses and a CPMG (Carr-Purcell Meiboom-Gill) refocusing protocol. In certain cases, spectra were acquired using (1)H → (14)N broadband cross-polarization, via the BRAIN-CP (broadband adiabatic inversion - cross polarization) pulse sequence. These spectra provide (14)N electric field gradient (EFG) tensor parameters and orientations that are particularly sensitive to variations in local structure and intermolecular hydrogen-bonding interactions. The (1)H{(15)N} idHETCOR spectra, acquired under conditions of fast magic-angle spinning (MAS), used CP transfers to provide (1)H-(15)N chemical shift correlations for all nitrogen environments, except for two sites in acebutolol and nicardipine. One of these two sites (RR'NH2(+) in acebutolol) was successfully detected using the DNP-enhanced (15)N{(1)H} CP/MAS measurement, and one (RNO2 in nicardipine) remained elusive due to the absence of

  13. Intraear Compensation of Field Corn, Zea mays, from Simulated and Naturally Occurring Injury by Ear-Feeding Larvae.

    PubMed

    Steckel, S; Stewart, S D

    2015-06-01

    Ear-feeding larvae, such as corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea Boddie (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), can be important insect pests of field corn, Zea mays L., by feeding on kernels. Recently introduced, stacked Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) traits provide improved protection from ear-feeding larvae. Thus, our objective was to evaluate how injury to kernels in the ear tip might affect yield when this injury was inflicted at the blister and milk stages. In 2010, simulated corn earworm injury reduced total kernel weight (i.e., yield) at both the blister and milk stage. In 2011, injury to ear tips at the milk stage affected total kernel weight. No differences in total kernel weight were found in 2013, regardless of when or how much injury was inflicted. Our data suggested that kernels within the same ear could compensate for injury to ear tips by increasing in size, but this increase was not always statistically significant or sufficient to overcome high levels of kernel injury. For naturally occurring injury observed on multiple corn hybrids during 2011 and 2012, our analyses showed either no or a minimal relationship between number of kernels injured by ear-feeding larvae and the total number of kernels per ear, total kernel weight, or the size of individual kernels. The results indicate that intraear compensation for kernel injury to ear tips can occur under at least some conditions.

  14. Transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers synthesize the full spectrum of inulin molecules naturally occurring in globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus) roots.

    PubMed

    Hellwege, E M; Czapla, S; Jahnke, A; Willmitzer, L; Heyer, A G

    2000-07-18

    The ability to synthesize high molecular weight inulin was transferred to potato plants via constitutive expression of the 1-SST (sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase) and the 1-FFT (fructan: fructan 1-fructosyltransferase) genes of globe artichoke (Cynara scolymus). The fructan pattern of tubers from transgenic potato plants represents the full spectrum of inulin molecules present in artichoke roots as shown by high-performance anion exchange chromatography, as well as size exclusion chromatography. These results demonstrate in planta that the enzymes sucrose:sucrose 1-fructosyltransferase and fructan:fructan 1-fructosyltransferase are sufficient to synthesize inulin molecules of all chain lengths naturally occurring in a given plant species. Inulin made up 5% of the dry weight of transgenic tubers, and a low level of fructan production also was observed in fully expanded leaves. Although inulin accumulation did not influence the sucrose concentration in leaves or tubers, a reduction in starch content occurred in transgenic tubers, indicating that inulin synthesis did not increase the storage capacity of the tubers.

  15. Elevated Appraisals of the Negative Impact of Naturally Occurring Life Events: A Risk Factor for Depressive and Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Espejo, Emmanuel P.; Hammen, Constance; Brennan, Patricia A.

    2012-01-01

    The tendency to appraise naturally occurring life events (LEs) as having high negative impact may be a predisposing factor for the development of depression and anxiety disorders. In the current study, appraisals of the negative impact of recent LEs were examined in relationship to depressive and anxiety disorders in a sample of 653 adolescents who were administered diagnostic and life stress interviews at ages 15 and 20. Participants’ appraisals of the negative impact of LEs reported at age 15 were statistically adjusted using investigator-based ratings to control for objective differences across LEs. Higher appraisals of the negative impact of LEs were associated with both past and current depressive and anxiety disorders at age 15 and predicted subsequent first onsets of depressive and anxiety disorders occurring between ages 15 and 20. In addition, appraisals of the negative impact of LEs were particularly elevated among those experiencing both a depressive and anxiety disorder over the course of the study. The findings suggest that systematically elevated appraisals of the negative impact of LEs is a predisposing factor for depression and anxiety disorders and may represent a specific risk factor for co-morbid depression and anxiety in mid-adolescence and early adulthood. Keywords: depression; anxiety; stress appraisals; prospective study; PMID:21845380

  16. Ecological physiology of Synechococcus sp. strain SH-94-5, a naturally occurring cyanobacterium deficient in nitrate assimilation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, S. R.; Castenholz, R. W.

    2001-01-01

    Synechococcus sp. strain SH-94-5 is a nitrate assimilation-deficient cyanobacterium which was isolated from an ammonium-replete hot spring in central Oregon. While this clone could grow on ammonium and some forms of organic nitrogen as sole nitrogen sources, it could not grow on either nitrate or nitrite, even under conditions favoring passive diffusion. It was determined that this clone does not express functional nitrate reductase or nitrite reductase and that the lack of activity of either enzyme is not due to inactivation of the cyanobacterial nitrogen control protein NtcA. A few other naturally occurring cyanobacterial strains are also nitrate assimilation deficient, and phylogenetic analyses indicated that the ability to utilize nitrate has been independently lost at least four times during the evolutionary history of the cyanobacteria. This phenotype is associated with the presence of environmental ammonium, a negative regulator of nitrate assimilation gene expression, which may indicate that natural selection to maintain functional copies of nitrate assimilation genes has been relaxed in these habitats. These results suggest how the evolutionary fates of conditionally expressed genes might differ between environments and thereby effect ecological divergence and biogeographical structure in the microbial world.

  17. Influence of naturally occurring dissolved organic matter, colloids, and cations on nanofiltration of pharmaceutically active and endocrine disrupting compounds.

    PubMed

    Sadmani, A H M Anwar; Andrews, Robert C; Bagley, David M

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the rejection of selected pharmaceutically active (PhAC) and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) when using nanofiltration as a function of naturally occurring dissolved organic matter (DOM), colloidal particles, cations and their interactions. Lake Ontario water served as a source of natural DOM and colloidal particles. PhAC/EDC rejection experiments were conducted using raw Lake Ontario water and Lake Ontario water that was pre-treated with either ultrafiltration to remove colloidal particles, or fluidized ion exchange resins to remove DOM. Additionally, the concentration of cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Na(+)) in the raw and pre-treated water matrices was varied. While ionic PhACs and EDCs exhibited high rejections from all the water matrices examined, neutral compounds were most effectively rejected in water containing DOM and no colloids, and least effectively rejected from colloid-containing water with increased cations but no DOM. The presence of DOM significantly improved compound rejection and the increase in cation concentration significantly decreased rejection. The presence of colloids had comparatively little effect except to mitigate the impact of increased cation concentration, apparently providing some cation-buffering capacity. The sequence in which constituents are removed from waters during treatment may significantly impact PhAC and EDC removal, especially of neutral compounds.

  18. Thermoluminescence (TL) Analysis and Fading Studies of Naturally Occurring Salt Irradiated by 500 mGy Gamma Rays

    SciTech Connect

    Tiwari, Ramesh Chandra; Pau, Kham Suan

    2011-10-20

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of the naturally occurring salt for the dosimetry purposes, using TL. The fine powder samples (20 mg) were irradiated by {gamma}- rays from 500 mGy to 2500 mGy by using Theratron-780C Cobalt-60 source, however, this paper discusses about 500 mGy only. The TL glow curve peak parameters were studied by using Chen's peak shape equation. TL glow curves were compared with fitted curves using glow curve deconvolution (GCD) method by using Kitis expression. The kinetic parameter values (E, b and s) so calculated, are in good agreement with those available in literature. The calculated energy values were also verified by using various heating rate (VHR) method. {chi}{sup 2} test and figure of merit (FOM) calculation was done to accept the goodness of fit between the curves. Fading studies of the sample showed a good fitting between the curves. The analysis suggests that natural salt should be considered for dosimetry purposes.

  19. Combining metagenomics with metaproteomics and stable isotope probing reveals metabolic pathways used by a naturally occurring marine methylotroph.

    PubMed

    Grob, Carolina; Taubert, Martin; Howat, Alexandra M; Burns, Oliver J; Dixon, Joanna L; Richnow, Hans H; Jehmlich, Nico; von Bergen, Martin; Chen, Yin; Murrell, J Colin

    2015-10-01

    A variety of culture-independent techniques have been developed that can be used in conjunction with culture-dependent physiological and metabolic studies of key microbial organisms in order to better understand how the activity of natural populations influences and regulates all major biogeochemical cycles. In this study, we combined deoxyribonucleic acid-stable isotope probing (DNA-SIP) with metagenomics and metaproteomics to characterize an uncultivated marine methylotroph that actively incorporated carbon from (13) C-labeled methanol into biomass. By metagenomic sequencing of the heavy DNA, we retrieved virtually the whole genome of this bacterium and determined its metabolic potential. Through protein-stable isotope probing, the RuMP cycle was established as the main carbon assimilation pathway, and the classical methanol dehydrogenase-encoding gene mxaF, as well as three out of four identified xoxF homologues were found to be expressed. This proof-of-concept study is the first in which the culture-independent techniques of DNA-SIP and protein-SIP have been used to characterize the metabolism of a naturally occurring Methylophaga-like bacterium in the marine environment (i.e. Methylophaga thiooxydans L4) and thus provides a powerful approach to access the genome and proteome of uncultivated microbes involved in key processes in the environment.

  20. Thermoluminescence (TL) Analysis and Fading Studies of Naturally Occurring Salt Irradiated by 500 mGy Gamma Rays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Ramesh Chandra; Pau, Kham Suan

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential of the naturally occurring salt for the dosimetry purposes, using TL. The fine powder samples (20 mg) were irradiated by γ- rays from 500 mGy to 2500 mGy by using Theratron-780C Cobalt-60 source, however, this paper discusses about 500 mGy only. The TL glow curve peak parameters were studied by using Chen's peak shape equation. TL glow curves were compared with fitted curves using glow curve deconvolution (GCD) method by using Kitis expression. The kinetic parameter values (E, b and s) so calculated, are in good agreement with those available in literature. The calculated energy values were also verified by using various heating rate (VHR) method. χ2 test and figure of merit (FOM) calculation was done to accept the goodness of fit between the curves. Fading studies of the sample showed a good fitting between the curves. The analysis suggests that natural salt should be considered for dosimetry purposes.

  1. Removal of methylene blue by two zeolites prepared from naturally occurring Egyptian kaolin as cost effective technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamil, Tarek S.; Abdel Ghafar, Hany H.; Ibrahim, Hanan S.; Abd El-Maksoud, Islam H.

    2011-10-01

    The optimum condition as well as adsorption behavior of two zeolite types prepared from Egyptian kaolin (namely, zeolite A and zeolite X) with methylene blue (MB) are demonstrated in this study. This will be a step to remove such dyes from textile as well as dying industries. MB removal was investigated using synthetic solutions at initial concentrations 15 mg/L of MB at constant temperature and pH (25 ± 0.1 °C and 7.5 ± 0.2) respectively. The removal efficiency was determined at different contact times and different zeolite doses. The optimum contact times for the removal of MB were 60 min and 75 min for zeolite X and zeolite A, respectively. 0.6 g was the optimum dose for removal of MB with both zeolite types. The batch method has been employed, using MB concentration in solution ranging from 2 to 25 mg /L. The percentage removal and distribution coefficients ( Kd) were determined for the adsorption system as a function of sorbate concentration. The isothermal models investigated in this study show that adsorption ratios of MB on both zeolites match to Langmuir and Freundlich equation adding to that every equation constant has been calculated. According to the equilibrium studies, adsorption of zeolite X in higher concentrations is much better than that of zeolite A. Dublin-Kaganer-Radushkevich (DKR) shows physisorption endothermic adsorption process for both zeolites and also linear correlation of Redlich-Peterson and Tekman isothermal models were proved. These results show that zeolites prepared from naturally abundant Egyptian kaolin hold great potential to remove dying materials such as MB from wastewater. This will encourage using such low cost technique in removal of dyes from industrial wastewater.

  2. Evaluation of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) in inorganic and organic oilfield scales from the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Bassioni, Ghada; Abdulla, Fareed; Morsy, Zeinab; El-Faramawy, Nabil

    2012-04-01

    The distribution of natural nuclide gamma-ray activities and their respective annual effective dose rates, produced by potassium-40 (⁴⁰K), uranium-238 (²³⁸U), thorium-232 (²³²Th), and radium-226 (²²⁶Ra), were determined for 14 oilfield scale samples from the Middle East. Accumulated radioactive materials concentrate in tubing and surface equipment, and workers at equipment-cleaning facilities and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) disposal facilities are the population most at risk for exposure to NORM radiation. Gamma-spectra analysis indicated that photo-gamma lines represent the parents of 10 radioactive nuclides: ²³⁴Th, plutonium-239, actinium-228, ²²⁶Ra, lead-212 (²¹²Pb), ²¹⁴Pb, thallium-238 (²⁰⁸Tl), bismuth-212 (²¹²Bi), ²¹⁴Bi, and ⁴⁰K. These nuclides represent the daughters of the natural radioactive series ²³⁸U and ²³²Th with ⁴⁰K as well. The mean activity concentration of ²³⁸U, ²³²Th, and ⁴⁰K were found to be 25.8 ± 11.6, 18.3 ± 8.1, and 4487.2 ± 2.5% Bq kg⁻¹ (average values for 14 samples), respectively. The annual effective dose rates and the absorbed doses in air, both indoor and outdoor, for the samples were obtained as well. The results can be used to assess the respective hazard on workers in the field and represent a basis for revisiting current engineering practices.

  3. The effect of weathering on ecopersistence, reactivity, and potential toxicity of naturally occurring asbestos and asbestiform minerals.

    PubMed

    Enrico Favero-Longo, Sergio; Turci, Francesco; Tomatis, Maura; Compagnoni, Roberto; Piervittori, Rosanna; Fubini, Bice

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying asbestos toxicity mainly rely on experiments performed on "laboratory" fibers, but little data is available on naturally occurring asbestos (NOA). Human exposure to NOA is subject to their ecopersistence and the modulation of their potential toxicity following weathering. The effect of weathering on three fibrous minerals from the Italian Western Alps, chrysotile, tremolite, and balangeroite-a Fe-rich asbestiform mineral-was investigated by mimicking more than 100 yr of physical (freezing-thawing/wetting-drying cycles in a climatic chamber) and biochemical forces (incubation with oxalic acid). Ion release, evaluated by means of inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), and variation in chemical composition, evaluated by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS), indicated that weathering modified the fibers in the series: chrysotile > balangeroite > tremolite. Kinetics of ion release from the fibers (Mg, Fe, and Si) revealed different ion removal pathways. Tremolite was poorly affected. Chrysotile preferentially released cations up to a plateau, with physical and biochemical forces acting competitively. Conversely, for balangeroite, upon which weathering forces acted synergistically, the initial loss of ions facilitated further dissolution and more Si than Mg was released, suggesting an ongoing collapse of the crystal structure. Depletion of redox-reactive ions produced a significant reduction in fiber-derived *OH radicals (EPR, spin-trapping technique), but the fibrous nature was always retained. Despite weathered fibers appearing less toxic than "stored/laboratory" ones, NOA is to be considered far from safe because of fibrous nature and residual surface reactivity. Risk assessment needs to consider the effect of weathering on exposures. Both tremolite and balangeroite may contaminate, in some areas, chrysotile asbestos. However, in contrast to tremolite, balangeroite

  4. Evaluation of naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) in inorganic and organic oilfield scales from the Middle East.

    PubMed

    Bassioni, Ghada; Abdulla, Fareed; Morsy, Zeinab; El-Faramawy, Nabil

    2012-04-01

    The distribution of natural nuclide gamma-ray activities and their respective annual effective dose rates, produced by potassium-40 (⁴⁰K), uranium-238 (²³⁸U), thorium-232 (²³²Th), and radium-226 (²²⁶Ra), were determined for 14 oilfield scale samples from the Middle East. Accumulated radioactive materials concentrate in tubing and surface equipment, and workers at equipment-cleaning facilities and naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) disposal facilities are the population most at risk for exposure to NORM radiation. Gamma-spectra analysis indicated that photo-gamma lines represent the parents of 10 radioactive nuclides: ²³⁴Th, plutonium-239, actinium-228, ²²⁶Ra, lead-212 (²¹²Pb), ²¹⁴Pb, thallium-238 (²⁰⁸Tl), bismuth-212 (²¹²Bi), ²¹⁴Bi, and ⁴⁰K. These nuclides represent the daughters of the natural radioactive series ²³⁸U and ²³²Th with ⁴⁰K as well. The mean activity concentration of ²³⁸U, ²³²Th, and ⁴⁰K were found to be 25.8 ± 11.6, 18.3 ± 8.1, and 4487.2 ± 2.5% Bq kg⁻¹ (average values for 14 samples), respectively. The annual effective dose rates and the absorbed doses in air, both indoor and outdoor, for the samples were obtained as well. The results can be used to assess the respective hazard on workers in the field and represent a basis for revisiting current engineering practices. PMID:21892762

  5. A systematic review of the efficacy of prophylactic control measures for naturally-occurring canine leishmaniosis, part I: vaccinations.

    PubMed

    Wylie, C E; Carbonell-Antoñanzas, M; Aiassa, E; Dhollander, S; Zagmutt, F J; Brodbelt, D C; Solano-Gallego, L

    2014-11-01

    Canine leishmaniosis (CanL) is an important zoonotic disease; however, the efficacy of available vaccines for the prevention of naturally-occurring Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) infection in dogs remains unclear. The objective of this review was to determine the efficacy of currently available vaccines to prevent naturally-occurring L. infantum infection in dogs. Four bibliographic databases (CAB Direct 2011, Web of Science 2011, U.S. National Library of Medicine 2011 and Literatura Latino Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde) were searched along with eight sets of conference proceedings and the International Veterinary Information Service (IVIS) database, from 1980 to November 2012. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomised clinical trials (NRCTs), cohort studies and case-control studies that investigated vaccine efficacy for natural L. infantum infection in dogs were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed each study against the inclusion criteria, independently extracted relevant data from all included studies and assessed the risk of methodological shortcomings in each individual study. The odds ratio (OR) and absolute risk reduction (ARR) for dichotomous outcomes and mean difference for continuous outcomes were calculated. Meta-analysis was not performed due to heterogeneity of the studies identified. The search was conducted for all mitigations for CanL and yielded the title and abstract of 937 articles, from which 84 articles were screened based on full text. Twelve studies on vaccinations (five RCTs, seven NRCTs) were identified. Ten studies were at a high risk of methodological shortcomings, whilst two were at an unclear risk. The use of 200 μg ALM protein, Leishmune(®), CaniLeish(®), LiESAp with MDP, and ALM with BCG tended to significantly reduce the proportion of dogs infected with L. infantum based on either parasitological or serological evidence. The use of lyophilized protein vaccine significantly

  6. Natural abundance 17O DNP two-dimensional and surface-enhanced NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Perras, Frédéric A.; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Pruski, Marek

    2015-06-22

    Due to its extremely low natural abundance and quadrupolar nature, the 17O nuclide is very rarely used for spectroscopic investigation of solids by NMR without isotope enrichment. Additionally, the applicability of dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP), which leads to sensitivity enhancements of 2 orders of magnitude, to 17O is wrought with challenges due to the lack of spin diffusion and low polarization transfer efficiency from 1H. Here, we demonstrate new DNP-based measurements that extend 17O solid-state NMR beyond its current capabilities. The use of the PRESTO technique instead of conventional 1H–17O cross-polarization greatly improves the sensitivity and enables the facile measurement of undistorted line shapes and two-dimensional 1H–17O HETCOR NMR spectra as well as accurate internuclear distance measurements at natural abundance. This was applied for distinguishing hydrogen-bonded and lone 17O sites on the surface of silica gel; the one-dimensional spectrum of which could not be used to extract such detail. As a result, this greatly enhanced sensitivity has enabled, for the first time, the detection of surface hydroxyl sites on mesoporous silica at natural abundance, thereby extending the concept of DNP surface-enhanced NMR spectroscopy to the 17O nuclide.

  7. The natural 13C abundance of plasma glucose is a useful biomarker of recent dietary caloric sweetener intake.

    PubMed

    Cook, Chad M; Alvig, Amy L; Liu, Yu Qiu David; Schoeller, Dale A

    2010-02-01

    There is a need for objective biomarkers of dietary intake, because self-reporting is often subject to bias. We tested the validity of a biomarker for the fraction of dietary carbohydrate (CHO) from cane sugar and high fructose corn syrup (C(4) sugars) using natural (13)C abundance of plasma glucose. In a randomized, single-blinded, crossover design, 5 participants consumed 3 weight-maintaining diets for 7 d, with a 2-wk washout between diet periods. Diets differed in the fraction of total CHO energy from C(4) sugars (5, 16, or 32%). During each diet period, blood samples were drawn at hours 0800 and 1600 on d 1, 3, and 5 and at 0800, 1000, 1200, 1400, and 1600 on d 7. The delta(13)C abundance of plasma glucose was analyzed via GC- isotope ratio MS. Within each diet period, delta(13)C abundance of the 0800 fasting glucose did not change from baseline with increasing time during a diet period; however, there was a strong positive correlation (R(2) = 0.89) between delta(13)C abundance of the glucose concentration at 1000 on d 7 and the percent of breakfast CHO from C(4) sugars. Also, delta(13)C abundance of the combined plasma glucose samples on d 7 demonstrated a strong positive correlation (R(2) = 0.90) with the percent of total daily CHO from C(4) sugars. The natural delta(13)C abundance of postprandial plasma glucose relative to dietary C(4) CHO content was a valid biomarker for contributions of C(4) caloric sweeteners from the previous meal. PMID:20018804

  8. The natural 13C abundance of plasma glucose is a useful biomarker of recent dietary caloric sweetener intake.

    PubMed

    Cook, Chad M; Alvig, Amy L; Liu, Yu Qiu David; Schoeller, Dale A

    2010-02-01

    There is a need for objective biomarkers of dietary intake, because self-reporting is often subject to bias. We tested the validity of a biomarker for the fraction of dietary carbohydrate (CHO) from cane sugar and high fructose corn syrup (C(4) sugars) using natural (13)C abundance of plasma glucose. In a randomized, single-blinded, crossover design, 5 participants consumed 3 weight-maintaining diets for 7 d, with a 2-wk washout between diet periods. Diets differed in the fraction of total CHO energy from C(4) sugars (5, 16, or 32%). During each diet period, blood samples were drawn at hours 0800 and 1600 on d 1, 3, and 5 and at 0800, 1000, 1200, 1400, and 1600 on d 7. The delta(13)C abundance of plasma glucose was analyzed via GC- isotope ratio MS. Within each diet period, delta(13)C abundance of the 0800 fasting glucose did not change from baseline with increasing time during a diet period; however, there was a strong positive correlation (R(2) = 0.89) between delta(13)C abundance of the glucose concentration at 1000 on d 7 and the percent of breakfast CHO from C(4) sugars. Also, delta(13)C abundance of the combined plasma glucose samples on d 7 demonstrated a strong positive correlation (R(2) = 0.90) with the percent of total daily CHO from C(4) sugars. The natural delta(13)C abundance of postprandial plasma glucose relative to dietary C(4) CHO content was a valid biomarker for contributions of C(4) caloric sweeteners from the previous meal.

  9. Analysis of reserve pit sludge from unconventional natural gas hydraulic fracturing and drilling operations for the presence of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM).

    PubMed

    Rich, Alisa L; Crosby, Ernest C

    2013-01-01

    Soil and water (sludge) obtained from reserve pits used in unconventional natural gas mining was analyzed for the presence of technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material (TENORM). Samples were analyzed for total gamma, alpha, and beta radiation, and specific radionuclides: beryllium, potassium, scandium, cobalt, cesium, thallium, lead-210 and -214, bismuth-212 and -214, radium-226 and -228, thorium, uranium, and strontium-89 and -90. Laboratory analysis confirmed elevated beta readings recorded at 1329 ± 311 pCi/g. Specific radionuclides present in an active reserve pit and the soil of a leveled, vacated reserve pit included 232Thorium decay series (228Ra, 228Th, 208Tl), and 226Radium decay series (214Pb, 214Bi, 210Pb) radionuclides. The potential for impact of TENORM to the environment, occupational workers, and the general public is presented with potential health effects of individual radionuclides. Current oversight, exemption of TENORM in federal and state regulations, and complexity in reporting are discussed.

  10. Distribution, enrichment and principal component analysis for possible sources of naturally occurring and anthropogenic radionuclides in the agricultural soil of Punjab state, India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Joshi, Vikram M; Mishra, Manish K; Karpe, Rupali; Rout, Sabyasachi; Narayanan, Usha; Tripathi, Raj M; Singh, Jaspal; Kumar, Sanjeev; Hegde, Ashok G; Kushwaha, Hari S

    2012-06-01

    Enrichment factor (EF) of elements including geo-accumulation indices for soil quality and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to identify the contributions of the origin of sources in the studied area. Results of (40)K, (137)Cs, (238)U and (232)Th including their decay series isotopes in the agricultural soil of Mansa and Bathinda districts in the state of Punjab were presented and discussed. The measured mean radioactivity concentrations for (238)U, (232)Th and (40)K in the agricultural soil of the studied area differed from nationwide average crustal abundances by 51, 17 and 43 %, respectively. The sequence of the EFs of radionuclides in soil from the greatest to the least was found to be (238)U > (40)K > (226)Ra > (137)Cs > (232)Th > (228)Ra. Even though the enrichment of naturally occurring radionuclides was found to be higher, they remained to be in I(geo) class of '0', indicating that the soil is uncontaminated with respect to these radionuclides. Among non-metals, N showed the highest EF and belonged to I(geo) class of '2', indicating that soil is moderately contaminated due to intrusion of fertiliser. The resulting data set of elemental contents in soil was also interpreted by PCA, which facilitates identification of the different groups of correlated elements. The levels of the (40)K, (238)U and (232)Th radionuclides showed a significant positive correlation with each other, suggesting a similar origin of their geochemical sources and identical behaviour during transport in the soil system.

  11. Assessment of the natural variation of low abundant metabolic proteins in soybean seeds using proteomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, we investigated the distribution of the low abundant proteins that are involved in soybean seed development in four wild and twelve cultivated soybean genotypes. We found proteomic variation of these proteins within and...

  12. Studies of Mg2+/Ca2+ complexes of naturally occurring dinucleotides: potentiometric titrations, NMR, and molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Stern, Noa; Major, Dan Thomas; Gottlieb, Hugo Emilio; Weizman, Daniel; Sayer, Alon Haim; Blum, Eliav; Fischer, Bilha

    2012-08-01

    Dinucleotides (Np(n)N'; N and N' are A, U, G, or C, n = 2-7) are naturally occurring physiologically active compounds. Despite the interest in dinucleotides, the composition of their complexes with metal ions as well as their conformations and species distribution in living systems are understudied. Therefore, we investigated a series of Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) complexes of Np(n)N's. Potentiometric titrations indicated that a longer dinucleotide polyphosphate (N is A or G, n = 3-5) linker yields more stable complexes (e.g., log K of 2.70, 3.27, and 3.73 for Ap(n)A-Mg(2+), n = 3, 4, 5, respectively). The base (A or G) or ion (Mg(2+) or Ca(2+)) has a minor effect on K(M)(ML) values. In a physiological medium, the longer Ap(n)As (n = 4, 5) are predicted to occur mostly as the Mg(2+)/Ca(2+) complexes. (31)P NMR monitored titrations of Np(n)N's with Mg(2+)/Ca(2+) ions showed that the middle phosphates of the dinucleotides coordinate with Mg(2+)/Ca(2+). Multidimensional potential of mean force (PMF) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations suggest that Ap(2)A and Ap(4)A coordinate Mg(2+) and Ca(2+) ions in both inner-sphere and outer-sphere modes. The PMF MD simulations additionally provide a detailed picture of the possible coordination sites, as well as the cation binding process. Moreover, both NMR and MD simulations showed that the conformation of the nucleoside moieties in Np(n)N'-Mg(2+)/Ca(2+) complexes remains the same as that of free mononucleotides.

  13. Influence of Asellus aquaticus on Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Campylobacter jejuni and naturally occurring heterotrophic bacteria in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Sarah C B; Nissen, Erling; Arvin, Erik; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2012-10-15

    Water lice, Asellus aquaticus (isopoda), frequently occur in drinking water distribution systems where they are a nuisance to consumers and water utilities. Whether they are solely an aesthetic problem or also affect the microbial water quality is a matter of interest. We studied the influence of A. aquaticus on microbial water quality in non-chlorinated drinking water in controlled laboratory experiments. Pure cultures of the indicator organisms Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae and the pathogen Campylobacter jejuni as well as naturally occurring heterotrophic drinking water bacteria (measured as heterotrophic plate counts, HPC) were investigated in microcosms at 7 °C, containing non-sterilised drinking water, drinking water sediment and A. aquaticus collected from a non-chlorinated ground water based drinking water supply system. Concentrations of E. coli, K. pneumoniae and C. jejuni decreased over time, following a first order decay with half lives of 5.3, 18.4 and 1.3 days, respectively. A. aquaticus did not affect survival of indicators and pathogens substantially whereas HPC were influenced by presence of dead A. aquaticus. Growth rates increased with an average of 48% for bacteria grown on R-2A agar and an average of 83% for bacteria grown on yeast extract agar when dead A. aquaticus were present compared to no and living A. aquaticus present. A. aquaticus associated E. coli, K. pneumoniae and C. jejuni were measured (up to 25 per living and 500 per dead A. aquaticus) and so were A. aquaticus associated heterotrophic bacteria (>1.8*10(4) CFU per living and >6*10(4) CFU per dead A. aquaticus). A. aquaticus did not serve as an optimised habitat that increased survival of indicators and pathogens, since A. aquaticus associated E. coli, K. pneumoniae and C. jejuni were only measured as long as the bacteria were also present in the water and sediment.

  14. Evaluation of the varying Naturally Occurring Asbestos mitigation measures at School and Commercial construction projects in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalika, S.

    2012-12-01

    In commercial development or K-12 school construction, project sites are often purchased and much of the planning process completed prior to an assessment of the soils proposed for excavation or potential offhaul. Geologic maps, while initially helpful for identifying potential hazards such as landslides and earthquake faults, are less helpful in the identification of naturally occurring hazardous minerals, such as the seven regulated minerals currently classified as asbestos. Geologic maps identify mafic and ultramafic bedrock zones; however, a skilled geologist with knowledge of asbestos hazards will further visualize the earth-shaping processes that may have resulted in the deposition of naturally occurring asbestos in locations outside mapped ultramafic zones including the base of an alluvial fan or within streambed channels. When sampled as an afterthought prior to disposal, property owners are surprised by the budget-crippling costs of waste handling and disposal of NOA, as well as mitigations required to protect the health of construction workers, the public, and future site occupants. The California Air Resources Board (CARB) continues to lead the way in evaluation and regulation of NOA, through development of the CARB 435 preparation and laboratory analytical method, local enforcement of the Asbestos Airborne Toxic Control Measure for Construction, Grading, Quarrying, and Surface Mining Operations (ATCM), and implementation of dust control measures to protect public health. A thorough site evaluation and construction design includes utilization of the sampling methods developed by the California Geological Survey, laboratory analytical methods within CARB 435, and mitigation measures required by CARB, DTSC, and OSHA for the protection of worker and public health after NOA is discovered. The site evaluation should additionally include an assessment of the future site usage, as regulations differ based on potential health affects to future occupants

  15. Partitioning Respiration Between Plant and Microbial Sources Using Natural Abundance Stable Carbon Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, T. E.; Tu, K. P.

    2009-12-01

    Partitioning plant and microbial respiration is important for understanding the mechanistic basis of ecosystem respiration, as each can respond to changes in environmental conditions in different ways and at different timescales. In theory, natural abundance stable C isotopes can allow source partitioning when the isotopic difference between the sources can be resolved. The longstanding notion is that such differences do not exist, yet field measurements to support this conclusion are rare. The question remains as to how much isotopic difference exists between the plant and microbial respiration and whether or not this difference is sufficient for partitioning. We addressed this question by measuring the C isotope ratios (13C/12C) of plant, microbial, and whole ecosystem respiration from three contrasting ecosystems in California. We found significant variation in the 13C/12C ratios between plant and microbial sources. However, isotopic mass balance was not observed in more than half the cases. When isotopic mass balance was observed, the largest isotopic differences were always between CO2 evolved during leaf respiration and SOC decomposition, with leaf respiration more depleted by 1-8 per mil. Within plants, the leaf respiration was more depleted than rhizosphere respiration by 2-6 per mil. Among microbial sources, litter decomposition was more depleted than SOC decomposition by 1-5 per mil. The 13C/12C ratio of bulk C and respired CO2 exhibited similar trends, but bulk C values were clearly not a good surrogate for the 13C/12C ratios of respired CO2. Based on the 13C/12C ratios of respired CO2, belowground respiration accounted for 25% in the redwood forest, 37% in the grassland and 84% in the pine forest. Belowground respiration was further partitioned between rhizosphere, litter and SOC decomposition. Each contributed nearly equal amounts in the redwood forest (30/40/30) whereas litter respiration dominated in the grassland (20/70/10) and pine forest (15

  16. Do naturally occurring autoantibodies participate in the constitution of the pathological B-cell repertoire in systemic lupus erythematosus?

    PubMed

    Gilbert, D; Brard, F; Jovelin, F; Tron, F

    1996-04-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is the prototype of systemic autoimmune diseases. In both human and mouse SLE diseases, the autoimmune response targets a restricted set of autoantigens. Many of them are nucleic acids and proteins involved in the synthesis and processing of DNA or RNA, a characteristic which should be taken into consideration to elucidate the origins of non organ-specific autoantibodies. Several observations, in particular those obtained from experimental models of SLE induced in normal mice, suggest that the breakdown of B-cell tolerance occurs in the periphery. Herewith, we present data further supporting the proposition that SLE-associated autoantibodies originate from natural autoantibody-secreting B cells activated in the internal environment of lupus mice. Thus, one may hypothesize that certain clones of the expanded primary B-cell repertoire are selected to differentiate into harmful IgG autoantibody-secreting clones, thereby raising the question of the nature of immunogenic structures involved in SLE. Our analysis of the immunochemical and structural properties of anti-nucleosome and anti-myeoloperoxidase monoclonal antibodies derived from (NZB x NZW)F1 mice leads us to propose that complexes formed by the association of DNA and DNA-binding proteins and, more generally, by anionic molecules associated with proteins, possess a selective advantage over other autoantigens to induce the differentiation of certain B-cell clones and the very special profile of the SLE-autoimmune response. These DNA/DNA-protein complexes could also play a role in the activation of the T-cell compartment in SLE.

  17. Naturally Occurring Peer Support through Social Media: The Experiences of Individuals with Severe Mental Illness Using YouTube

    PubMed Central

    Naslund, John A.; Grande, Stuart W.; Aschbrenner, Kelly A.; Elwyn, Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, people with diverse health conditions turn to social media to share their illness experiences or seek advice from others with similar health concerns. This unstructured medium may represent a platform on which individuals with severe mental illness naturally provide and receive peer support. Peer support includes a system of mutual giving and receiving where individuals with severe mental illness can offer hope, companionship, and encouragement to others facing similar challenges. In this study we explore the phenomenon of individuals with severe mental illness uploading videos to YouTube, and posting and responding to comments as a form of naturally occurring peer support. We also consider the potential risks and benefits of self-disclosure and interacting with others on YouTube. To address these questions, we used qualitative inquiry informed by emerging techniques in online ethnography. We analyzed n = 3,044 comments posted to 19 videos uploaded by individuals who self-identified as having schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder. We found peer support across four themes: minimizing a sense of isolation and providing hope; finding support through peer exchange and reciprocity; sharing strategies for coping with day-to-day challenges of severe mental illness; and learning from shared experiences of medication use and seeking mental health care. These broad themes are consistent with accepted notions of peer support in severe mental illness as a voluntary process aimed at inclusion and mutual advancement through shared experience and developing a sense of community. Our data suggest that the lack of anonymity and associated risks of being identified as an individual with severe mental illness on YouTube seem to be overlooked by those who posted comments or uploaded videos. Whether or not this platform can provide benefits for a wider community of individuals with severe mental illness remains uncertain. PMID:25333470

  18. Naturally Occurring Incompatibilities between Different Culex pipiens pallens Populations as the Basis of Potential Mosquito Control Measures

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lin; Zhu, Changliang; Zhang, Donghui

    2013-01-01

    Background Vector-borne diseases remain a threat to public health, especially in tropical countries. The incompatible insect technique has been explored as a potential control strategy for several important insect vectors. However, this strategy has not been tested in Culex pipiens pallens, the most prevalent mosquito species in China. Previous works used introgression to generate new strains that matched the genetic backgrounds of target populations while harboring a new Wolbachia endosymbiont, resulting in mating competitiveness and cytoplasmic incompatibility. The generation of these incompatible insects is often time-consuming, and the long-term stability of the newly created insect-Wolbachia symbiosis is uncertain. Considering the wide distribution of Cx. pipiens pallens and hence possible isolation of different populations, we sought to test for incompatibilities between natural populations and the possibility of exploiting these incompatibilities as a control strategy. Methodology/Principal Findings Three field populations were collected from three geographic locations in eastern China. Reciprocal cross results showed that bi-directional patterns of incompatibility existed between some populations. Mating competition experiments indicated that incompatible males could compete with cognate males in mating with females, leading to reduced overall fecundity. F1 offspring from incompatible crosses maintained their maternal crossing types. All three populations tested positive for Wolbachia. Removal of Wolbachia by tetracycline rendered matings between these populations fully compatible. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that naturally occurring patterns of cytoplasmic incompatibility between Cx. pipiens pallens populations can be the basis of a control strategy for this important vector species. The observed incompatibilities are caused by Wolbachia. More tests including field trials are warranted to evaluate the feasibility of this strategy as a

  19. Modeling the effects of naturally occurring organic carbon on chlorinated ethene transport to a public supply well

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapelle, Francis H.; Kauffman, Leon J.; Widdowson, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    The vulnerability of public supply wells to chlorinated ethene (CE) contamination in part depends on the availability of naturally occurring organic carbon to consume dissolved oxygen (DO) and initiate reductive dechlorination. This was quantified by building a mass balance model of the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer, which is widely used for public water supply in New Jersey. This model was built by telescoping a calibrated regional three-dimensional (3D) MODFLOW model to the approximate capture zone of a single public supply well that has a history of CE contamination. This local model was then used to compute a mass balance between dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon (POC), and adsorbed organic carbon (AOC) that act as electron donors and DO, CEs, ferric iron, and sulfate that act as electron acceptors (EAs) using the Sequential Electron Acceptor Model in three dimensions (SEAM3D) code. SEAM3D was constrained by varying concentrations of DO and DOC entering the aquifer via recharge, varying the bioavailable fraction of POC in aquifer sediments, and comparing observed and simulated vertical concentration profiles of DO and DOC. This procedure suggests that approximately 15% of the POC present in aquifer materials is readily bioavailable. Model simulations indicate that transport of perchloroethene (PCE) and its daughter products trichloroethene (TCE), cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE), and vinyl chloride (VC) to the public supply well is highly sensitive to the assumed bioavailable fraction of POC, concentrations of DO entering the aquifer with recharge, and the position of simulated PCE source areas in the flow field. The results are less sensitive to assumed concentrations of DOC in aquifer recharge. The mass balance approach used in this study also indicates that hydrodynamic processes such as advective mixing, dispersion, and sorption account for a significant amount of the observed natural attenuation in this system.

  20. Naturally occurring peer support through social media: the experiences of individuals with severe mental illness using YouTube.

    PubMed

    Naslund, John A; Grande, Stuart W; Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Elwyn, Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, people with diverse health conditions turn to social media to share their illness experiences or seek advice from others with similar health concerns. This unstructured medium may represent a platform on which individuals with severe mental illness naturally provide and receive peer support. Peer support includes a system of mutual giving and receiving where individuals with severe mental illness can offer hope, companionship, and encouragement to others facing similar challenges. In this study we explore the phenomenon of individuals with severe mental illness uploading videos to YouTube, and posting and responding to comments as a form of naturally occurring peer support. We also consider the potential risks and benefits of self-disclosure and interacting with others on YouTube. To address these questions, we used qualitative inquiry informed by emerging techniques in online ethnography. We analyzed n = 3,044 comments posted to 19 videos uploaded by individuals who self-identified as having schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder. We found peer support across four themes: minimizing a sense of isolation and providing hope; finding support through peer exchange and reciprocity; sharing strategies for coping with day-to-day challenges of severe mental illness; and learning from shared experiences of medication use and seeking mental health care. These broad themes are consistent with accepted notions of peer support in severe mental illness as a voluntary process aimed at inclusion and mutual advancement through shared experience and developing a sense of community. Our data suggest that the lack of anonymity and associated risks of being identified as an individual with severe mental illness on YouTube seem to be overlooked by those who posted comments or uploaded videos. Whether or not this platform can provide benefits for a wider community of individuals with severe mental illness remains uncertain. PMID:25333470

  1. Inhibition of Hedgehog-dependent tumors and cancer stem cells by a newly identified naturally occurring chemotype

    PubMed Central

    Infante, Paola; Alfonsi, Romina; Ingallina, Cinzia; Quaglio, Deborah; Ghirga, Francesca; D'Acquarica, Ilaria; Bernardi, Flavia; Di Magno, Laura; Canettieri, Gianluca; Screpanti, Isabella; Gulino, Alberto; Botta, Bruno; Mori, Mattia; Di Marcotullio, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    Hedgehog (Hh) inhibitors have emerged as valid tools in the treatment of a wide range of cancers. Indeed, aberrant activation of the Hh pathway occurring either by ligand-dependent or -independent mechanisms is a key driver in tumorigenesis. The smoothened (Smo) receptor is one of the main upstream transducers of the Hh signaling and is a validated target for the development of anticancer compounds, as underlined by the FDA-approved Smo antagonist Vismodegib (GDC-0449/Erivedge) for the treatment of basal cell carcinoma. However, Smo mutations that confer constitutive activity and drug resistance have emerged during treatment with Vismodegib. For this reason, the development of new effective Hh inhibitors represents a major challenge for cancer therapy. Natural products have always represented a unique source of lead structures in drug discovery, and in recent years have been used to modulate the Hh pathway at multiple levels. Here, starting from an in house library of natural compounds and their derivatives, we discovered novel chemotypes of Hh inhibitors by mean of virtual screening against the crystallographic structure of Smo. Hh functional based assay identified the chalcone derivative 12 as the most effective Hh inhibitor within the test set. The chalcone 12 binds the Smo receptor and promotes the displacement of Bodipy-Cyclopamine in both Smo WT and drug-resistant Smo mutant. Our molecule stands as a promising Smo antagonist able to specifically impair the growth of Hh-dependent tumor cells in vitro and in vivo and medulloblastoma stem-like cells and potentially overcome the associated drug resistance.

  2. Naturally occurring radioactive material from the aluminium industry--a case study: the Egyptian Aluminium Company, Nag Hammady, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Abbady, Adel G E; El-Arabi, A M

    2006-12-01

    The activity concentrations and the gamma-absorbed dose rates of the terrestrial naturally occurring radionuclides (226)Ra and (232)Th were determined in samples of bauxite, alumina and aluminium dross tailings industrial waste (used to produce two types of alums) using high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma ray spectrometry. The bauxite and alumina are imported by Egyptalum (The Egyptian Aluminium Company, Nag Hammady, Egypt) from Guinea and India. The activity concentrations in the bauxite range from 29 +/- 1 to 112 +/- 6 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, and 151 +/- 8 to 525 +/- 12 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th, with mean values of 62 +/- 8 and 378 +/- 50 Bq kg(-1), respectively. With respect to alumina and tail, the mean values are 5.7 +/- 1.1 and 8.4 +/- 0.8 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra and 7.2 +/- 1.6 and 10.7 +/- 1.2 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th. Potassium-40 was not detected in any of the studied samples. The measured activity concentrations of (226)Ra and (232)Th in bauxite are higher than the world average while in alumina and tail they are lower. As a measure of radiation hazard to the occupational workers and members of the public, the Ra equivalent activities and external gamma dose rates due to natural radionuclides at 1 m above the ground surface were calculated. The external gamma-radiation doses received by the Egyptalum workers are 97, 409, 8.5 and 12.7 microSv y(-1) for the Guinean and Indian bauxite, the alumina and tail, respectively, which is well below the recommended allowed dose of 1 mSv y(-1) for non-exposed workers.

  3. Naturally occurring peer support through social media: the experiences of individuals with severe mental illness using YouTube.

    PubMed

    Naslund, John A; Grande, Stuart W; Aschbrenner, Kelly A; Elwyn, Glyn

    2014-01-01

    Increasingly, people with diverse health conditions turn to social media to share their illness experiences or seek advice from others with similar health concerns. This unstructured medium may represent a platform on which individuals with severe mental illness naturally provide and receive peer support. Peer support includes a system of mutual giving and receiving where individuals with severe mental illness can offer hope, companionship, and encouragement to others facing similar challenges. In this study we explore the phenomenon of individuals with severe mental illness uploading videos to YouTube, and posting and responding to comments as a form of naturally occurring peer support. We also consider the potential risks and benefits of self-disclosure and interacting with others on YouTube. To address these questions, we used qualitative inquiry informed by emerging techniques in online ethnography. We analyzed n = 3,044 comments posted to 19 videos uploaded by individuals who self-identified as having schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder. We found peer support across four themes: minimizing a sense of isolation and providing hope; finding support through peer exchange and reciprocity; sharing strategies for coping with day-to-day challenges of severe mental illness; and learning from shared experiences of medication use and seeking mental health care. These broad themes are consistent with accepted notions of peer support in severe mental illness as a voluntary process aimed at inclusion and mutual advancement through shared experience and developing a sense of community. Our data suggest that the lack of anonymity and associated risks of being identified as an individual with severe mental illness on YouTube seem to be overlooked by those who posted comments or uploaded videos. Whether or not this platform can provide benefits for a wider community of individuals with severe mental illness remains uncertain.

  4. Multiple forms of metallothionein from the digestive gland of naturally occurring and cadmium-exposed mussels, Mytilus galloprovincialis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanković, Dušica; Pavičić, Jasenka; Kozar, Sonja; Raspor, Biserka

    2002-06-01

    Polymorphism of metallothioneins in the digestive gland of naturally occurring (control) and experimentally Cd-exposed mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis (200 µg Cd l-1; 14 days) was studied by applying the conventional methods of Sephadex column liquid chromatography (G-75 and DEAE A-25), and by an electrochemical method (DPASV) for determination of Cd, Zn and Cu concentrations in chromatographic fractions. In both control and Cd-exposed mussels, two distinct molecular mass components of the metallothioneins, monomeric (MT-10) and dimeric (MT-20), were resolved by Sephadex G-75 gel filtration chromatography. In control mussels, the MT-10 component was predominantly expressed as containing markedly higher constitutive levels of Zn (100×) and Cu (10×) than of Cd. Each of these two molecular mass components was further resolved into seven metal-rich peaks by anion-exchange chromatography. In Cd-exposed mussels the larger proportion of Cd was bound to the MT-20 than to the MT-10 component, suggesting that the dimeric component may be considered as a primarily inducible metallothionein. The elution positions of metal-binding maxima of Cd-exposed and control mussels on the respective DEAE chromatographic profiles were comparable. A great similarity in elution positions of Cd maxima between the composite and single-specimen samples was also observed. Our study confirms a high multiplicity of MT forms in mussels from the Mytilus genus not only under the laboratory high-level metal exposure conditions, but also at a natural seawater metal exposure level. The ecotoxicological significance of dimeric and monomeric MT forms, as well as their possible application in the biomonitoring of seawater for trace metals, has been considered.

  5. Photoinduced chemical reactions on natural single crystals and synthesized crystallites of mercury(II) sulfide in aqueous solution containing naturally occurring amino acids.

    PubMed

    Pal, Bonamali; Ikeda, Shigeru; Ohtani, Bunsho

    2003-03-10

    Photoirradiation at >300 nm of aqueous suspensions of several natural crystal specimens and synthesized crystallites of mercury(II) sulfide (HgS) induced deaminocyclization of optically active or racemic lysine into pipecolinic acid (PCA) under deaerated conditions. This is the first example, to the best of our knowledge, of photoinduced chemical reactions of natural biological compounds over natural minerals. It was found that the natural HgS crystals had activity higher than those of synthesized ones but lower than those of other sulfides of transition metals, e.g., CdS and ZnS, belonging to the same II-IV chalcogenides. In almost all of the photoreactions, decompostion of HgS occurred to liberate hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) and Hg(2+), and the latter seemed to have undergone in-situ reductive deposition on HgS as Hg(0) after a certain induction period (24-70 h) during the photoirradiation, as indicated by the darkened color of the suspensions. The formation of PCA, presumably through combination of oxidation of lysine and reduction of an intermediate, cyclic Schiff base, could also be seen after a certain induction time of the Hg(0) formation. This was supported by the fact that the addition of small amount of Hg(2+) (0.5 wt % of HgS) increased the PCA yield by almost 2-fold. We also tried to elucidate certain aspects of the plausible stereochemical reactions in relation to the chiral crystal structure of HgS. Although, in some experiments, slight enantiomeric excess of the product PCA was observed, the excess was below or equal to the experimental error and no other supporting analytical data could not be obtained; we cannot conclude the enantiomeric photoproduction of PCA by the natural chiral HgS specimen. PMID:12611518

  6. Control of hypoglossal motoneurones during naturally occurring sleep and wakefulness in the intact, unanaesthetized cat: a field potential study.

    PubMed

    Fung, Simon J; Chase, Michael H

    2014-08-01

    The present electrophysiological study was designed to determine the discharge threshold of hypoglossal motoneurones during naturally occurring states of sleep and wakefulness in the intact, unanaesthetized cat. The antidromic field potential, which reflects the net level of membrane excitability of motoneurones and therefore their discharge threshold, was recorded in the hypoglossal nucleus following stimulation of the hypoglossal nerve. The amplitude of the antidromic field potential was larger during wakefulness and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep compared with REM sleep. There was no significant difference in the amplitude of the field potential when wakefulness was compared with NREM sleep (P = 0.103, df = 3, t = 2.324). However, there was a 46% reduction in amplitude during REM sleep compared with NREM sleep (P < 0.001, df = 10, t = 6.421) or wakefulness (P < 0.01, df = 4, t = -4.598). These findings indicate that whereas the excitability of motoneurones that comprise the hypoglossal motor pool is relatively constant during wakefulness and NREM sleep, their excitability is significantly reduced during REM sleep. This state-dependent pattern of control of hypoglossal motoneurones during REM sleep is similar to that reported for motoneurones in other motor nuclei at all levels of the neuraxis. The decrease in the evoked response of hypoglossal motoneurones, which reflects a significant increase in the discharge threshold of individual motoneurones, results in atonia of the lingual and related muscles during REM sleep. PMID:24605864

  7. Phosphatase production and activity in Citrobacter freundii and a naturally occurring, heavy-metal-accumulating Citrobacter sp.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, D M; Dean, A C; Wiffen, P; Macaskie, L E

    1995-10-01

    The ability of a naturally occurring Citrobacter sp. to accumulate cadmium has been attributed to cellular precipitation of CdHPO4, utilizing HPO4(2-) liberated via the activity of an overproduced, Cd-resistant acid-type phosphatase. Phosphatase production and heavy metal accumulation by batch cultures of this strain (N14) and a phosphatase-deficient mutant were compared with two reference strains of Citrobacter freundii. Only strain N14 expressed a high level of acid phosphatase and accumulated lanthanum and uranyl ion enzymically. Acid phosphatase is regulated via carbon-starvation; although the C. freundii strains overexpressed phosphatase activity in carbon-limiting continuous culture, this was approximately 20-fold less than the activity of strain N14 grown similarly. Citrobacter strain N14 was originally isolated from a metal-contaminated soil environment; phosphatase overproduction and metal accumulation were postulated as a detoxification mechanism. However, application of Cd-stress, and enrichment for Cd-resistant C. freundii ('training'), reduced the phosphatase activity of this organism by about 50% as compared to Cd-unstressed cultures. The acid phosphatase of C. freundii and Citrobacter N14 had a similar pattern of resistance to some diagnostic reagents. The enzyme of the latter is similar to the PhoN acid phosphatase of Salmonella typhimurium described by other workers; the results are discussed with respect to the known phosphatases of the enterobacteria.

  8. A naturally occurring splicing site mutation in the Brassica rapa FLC1 gene is associated with variation in flowering time.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yu-Xiang; Wu, Jian; Sun, Ri-Fei; Zhang, Xiao-Wei; Xu, Dong-Hui; Bonnema, Guusje; Wang, Xiao-Wu

    2009-01-01

    FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), encoding a MADS-domain transcription factor in Arabidopsis, is a repressor of flowering involved in the vernalization pathway. This provides a good reference for Brassica species. Genomes of Brassica species contain several FLC homologues and several of these colocalize with flowering-time QTL. Here the analysis of sequence variation of BrFLC1 in Brassica rapa and its association with the flowering-time phenotype is reported. The analysis revealed that a G-->A polymorphism at the 5' splice site in intron 6 of BrFLC1 is associated with flowering phenotype. Three BrFLC1 alleles with alternative splicing patterns, including two with different parts of intron 6 retained and one with the entire exon 6 excluded from the transcript, were identified in addition to alleles with normal splicing. It was inferred that aberrant splicing of the pre-mRNA leads to loss-of-function of BrFLC1. A CAPS marker was developed for this locus to distinguish Pi6+1(G) and Pi6+1(A). The polymorphism detected with this marker was significantly associated with flowering time in a collection of 121 B. rapa accessions and in a segregating Chinese cabbage doubled-haploid population. These findings suggest that a naturally occurring splicing mutation in the BrFLC1 gene contributes greatly to flowering-time variation in B. rapa.

  9. A computer aided thermodynamic approach for predicting the formation of Z-DNA in naturally occurring sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, P. S.; Ellison, M. J.; Quigley, G. J.; Rich, A.

    1986-01-01

    The ease with which a particular DNA segment adopts the left-handed Z-conformation depends largely on the sequence and on the degree of negative supercoiling to which it is subjected. We describe a computer program (Z-hunt) that is designed to search long sequences of naturally occurring DNA and retrieve those nucleotide combinations of up to 24 bp in length which show a strong propensity for Z-DNA formation. Incorporated into Z-hunt is a statistical mechanical model based on empirically determined energetic parameters for the B to Z transition accumulated to date. The Z-forming potential of a sequence is assessed by ranking its behavior as a function of negative superhelicity relative to the behavior of similar sized randomly generated nucleotide sequences assembled from over 80,000 combinations. The program makes it possible to compare directly the Z-forming potential of sequences with different base compositions and different sequence lengths. Using Z-hunt, we have analyzed the DNA sequences of the bacteriophage phi X174, plasmid pBR322, the animal virus SV40 and the replicative form of the eukaryotic adenovirus-2. The results are compared with those previously obtained by others from experiments designed to locate Z-DNA forming regions in these sequences using probes which show specificity for the left-handed DNA conformation.

  10. Impacts of land use on spatial distribution of mortality rates of cancers caused by naturally occurring asbestos.

    PubMed

    Wei, Binggan; Jia, Xianjie; Ye, Bixiong; Yu, Jiangping; Zhang, Biao; Zhang, Xiuwu; Lu, Rongan; Dong, Tingrong; Yang, Linsheng

    2012-09-01

    This study investigated the spatial distributions of mortality rates of six cancers: mesothelioma, lung cancer, intestinal cancer, nasopharyngeal and laryngeal cancer, liver cancer, and stomach cancer in Dayao using Geographic Information Systems. Relationships between the mortality rates of the six cancers and land use patterns were investigated by Pearson Correlation Coefficients. The results indicated that the mortality rates of nasopharyngeal and laryngeal cancer, lung cancer, intestinal cancer, and mesothelioma were significantly associated with outcropped asbestos. Both the proportions of farmland and urban area were positively related to the mortality rates of nasopharyngeal and laryngeal cancer, lung cancer, intestinal cancer, and mesothelioma, and significant negative correlations were found between the proportion of forestland and nasopharyngeal and laryngeal cancer and intestinal cancer. It can be concluded that naturally occurring asbestos may significantly elevate the mortality rates of nasopharyngeal and laryngeal cancer, intestinal cancer, lung cancer, and mesothelioma. Moreover, higher proportions of farmland, urban area, and lower proportions of forested land may elevate the mortality rate of the four cancers.

  11. RP-HPLC method for the quantitative analysis of naturally occurring flavonoids in leaves of Blumea balsamifera DC.

    PubMed

    Nessa, Fazilatun; Ismail, Zhari; Karupiah, Sundram; Mohamed, Nornisah

    2005-09-01

    A selective and sensitive reversed-phase (RP) high-performance liquid chromatographic method is developed for the quantitative analysis of five naturally occurring flavonoids of Blumea balsamifera DC, namely dihydroquercetin-7,4'-dimethyl ether (DQDE), blumeatin (BL), quercetin (QN), 5,7,3',5'-tetrahydroxyflavanone (THFE), and dihydroquercetin-4'-methyl ether (DQME). These compounds have been isolated using various chromatographic methods. The five compounds are completely separated within 35 min using an RP C18, Nucleosil column and with an isocratic methanol-0.5% phosphoric acid (50:50, v/v) mobile phase at the flow rate of 0.9 mL/min. The separation of the compounds is monitored at 285 nm using UV detection. Identifications of specific flavonoids are made by comparing their retention times with those of the standards. Reproducibility of the method is good, with coefficients of variation of 1.48% for DQME, 2.25% for THFE, 2.31% for QN, 2.23% for DQDE, and 1.51% for BL. The average recoveries of pure flavonoids upon addition to lyophilized powder and subsequent extraction are 99.8% for DQME, 99.9% for THFE, 100.0% for BL, 100.6% for DQDE, and 97.4% for QN. PMID:16212782

  12. Naturally occurring anti-band-3 antibodies and complement together mediate phagocytosis of oxidatively stressed human erythrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, H.U.; Bussolino, F.; Flepp, R.; Fasler, S.; Stammler, P.; Kazatchkine, M.D.; Arese, P.

    1987-11-01

    Treatment of erythrocytes with the thiol-specific oxidant azodicarboxylic acid bis(dimethylamide) (diamide) enhances their phagocytosis by adherent monocytes. Phagocytosis of diamide-treated erythrocytes required that the cells were opsonized with whole serum, since complement inactivation abolished phagocytosis. Opsonization with whole serum containing 20-100 times the physiological concentration of naturally occurring anti-band-3- antibodies enhanced phagocytosis of diamide-treated erythrocytes. High inputs of anti-band-3 also restored phagocytosis of erythrocytes that had been incubated with complement-inactivated serum. Elevated concentrations of anti-spectrin antibodies were ineffective in whole and complement-inactivated serum. Specific recognition of diamide-treated erythrocytes by anti-band-3 antibodies may be due to generation of anti-band-3 reactive protein oligomers on intact diamide-treated erythrocytes. Generation of such oligomers was dose-dependent with respect to diamide. Bound anti-band-3 alone was not sufficient to mediate phagocytosis. It resulted in deposition of complement component C3b on the cells through activation of the alternative complement pathway in amounts exceeding that of bound antibodies by two orders of magnitude. Thus, anti-band-3 and complement together mediate phagocytosis of oxidatively stressed erythrocytes, which simulate senescent erythrocytes with respect to bound antibody and complement.

  13. Functional Comparison of 45 Naturally Occurring Isoforms of the Plasmodium falciparum Chloroquine Resistance Transporter (PfCRT).

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Paul S; Hassett, Matthew R; Roepe, Paul D

    2015-08-18

    At least 53 distinct isoforms of Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT) protein are expressed in strains or isolates of P. falciparum malarial parasites from around the globe. These parasites exhibit a range of sensitivities to chloroquine (CQ) and other drugs. Mutant PfCRT is believed to confer cytostatic CQ resistance (CQR(CS)) by transporting CQ away from its DV target (free heme released upon hemoglobin digestion). One theory is that variable CQ transport catalyzed by these different PfCRT isoforms is responsible for the range of CQ sensitivities now found for P. falciparum. Alternatively, additional mutations in drug-selected parasites, or additional functions of PfCRT, might complement PfCRT-mediated CQ transport in conferring the range of observed resistance phenotypes. To distinguish between these possibilities, we recently optimized a convenient method for measuring PfCRT-mediated CQ transport, involving heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we use this method to quantify drug transport activity for 45 of 53 of the naturally occurring PfCRT isoforms. Data show that variable levels of CQR likely depend upon either additional PfCRT functions or additional genetic events, including perhaps changes that influence DV membrane potential. The data also suggest that the common K76T PfCRT mutation that is often used to distinguish a P. falciparum CQR phenotype is not, in and of itself, a fully reliable indicator of CQR status.

  14. Diagnostic accuracy of magnetic resonance imaging for meniscal tears in dogs affected with naturally occuring cranial cruciate ligament rupture.

    PubMed

    Blond, Laurent; Thrall, Donald E; Roe, Simon C; Chailleux, Nadege; Robertson, Ian D

    2008-01-01

    A stifle magnetic resonance (MR) imaging protocol was developed based on the appearance of the cruciate ligaments and menisci in normal dogs. Proton density images were subjectively considered to have the highest likelihood of detecting a meniscal lesion. Following this initial evaluation, the accuracy of high-field MR imaging to detect meniscal tears in dogs was evaluated in 11 dogs suffering from naturally occurring cranial cruciate ligament rupture. Dogs underwent MR imaging of the affected stifle before surgery. MR imaging and surgical findings were assessed independently, and then compared. Five tears of the medial meniscus were correctly diagnosed with MR imaging and 19 normal menisci were accurately characterized as such, based on MR images. In one medial meniscus, changes consistent with meniscal degeneration were seen on MR images but this was not seen at surgery. With regard to the lateral meniscus, one false positive diagnosis of a tear was made and this likely represented a normal variation. One other lateral meniscus had changes consistent with meniscal degeneration but, as with the similar lesion seen in the medial meniscus, this was not confirmed surgically. The global sensitivity of MR imaging for the diagnosis of a meniscal tear was 100% and the specificity was 94%. High-field MR imaging is a reliable method to diagnose meniscal tears preoperatively and this may be useful in selecting the surgical approach to clinically abnormal joints and may decrease the need for arthrotomy.

  15. <