Science.gov

Sample records for abundant photosynthetic organism

  1. Arsenic biomethylation by photosynthetic organisms

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Jun; Rensing, Christopher; Rosen, Barry P.; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a ubiquitous element that is widespread in the environment and causes numerous health problems. Biomethylation of As has implications for its mobility and toxicity. Photosynthetic organisms may play a significant role in As geochemical cycling by methylating it to different As species, but little is known about the mechanisms of methylation. Methylated As species have been found in many photosynthetic organisms, and several arsenite S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) methyltransferases have been characterized in cyanobacteria and algae. However, higher plants may not have the ability to methylate As. Instead, methylated arsenicals in plants probably originate from microorganisms in soils and the rhizosphere. Here, we propose possible approaches for developing ‘smart’ photosynthetic organisms with an enhanced and sensitive biomethylation capacity for bioremediation and safer food. PMID:22257759

  2. Regulation of Carotenoid Biosynthesis in Photosynthetic Organs.

    PubMed

    Llorente, Briardo

    2016-01-01

    A substantial proportion of the dazzling diversity of colors displayed by living organisms throughout the tree of life is determined by the presence of carotenoids, which most often provide distinctive yellow, orange and red hues. These metabolites play fundamental roles in nature that extend far beyond their importance as pigments. In photosynthetic lineages, carotenoids are essential to sustain life, since they have been exploited to maximize light harvesting and protect the photosynthetic machinery from photooxidative stress. Consequently, photosynthetic organisms have evolved several mechanisms that adjust the carotenoid metabolism to efficiently cope with constantly fluctuating light environments. This chapter will focus on the current knowledge concerning the regulation of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in leaves, which are the primary photosynthetic organs of most land plants. PMID:27485221

  3. Organ preservation using a photosynthetic solution

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Organs harvested from a body lapsing into circulatory deficit are exposed to low O2/high CO2, and reach a critical point where original functionality after transplantation is unlikely. The present study evaluates the effect of respiratory assistance using Chlorella photosynthesis on preservation of the rat pancreas from the viewpoint of donation after cardiac death (DCD). Methods Gas was exchanged through the peritoneum of rats under controlled ventilation with or without Chlorella photosynthetic respiratory assistance. A gas permeable pouch containing Chlorella in solution was placed in the peritoneum and then the space between the pouch and the peritoneum was filled with an emulsified perfluorocarbon gas carrier. Rat DCD pancreases procured 3 h after cardiac arrest were preserved for 30 min in a cold or mildly hypothermic environment or in a mildly hypothermic environment with photosynthetic respiratory support. The pancreases were then heterotopically transplanted into rats with STZ-induced diabetes. Results Levels of blood oxygen (PaO2) and carbon dioxide (PaCO2) increased and significantly decreased, respectively, in rats with mechanically reduced ventilation and rats given intraperitoneal photosynthetic respiratory support when compared with those without such support. Transplantation with DCD pancreases that had been stored under photosynthetic respiratory support resulted in the survival of all rats, which is impossible to achieve using pancreases that have been maintained statically in cold storage. Conclusion Respiratory assistance using photosynthesis helps to improve not only blood gas status in the event of respiratory insufficiency, but also graft recovery after pancreas transplantation with a DCD pancreas that has been damaged by prolonged warm ischemia. PMID:23369195

  4. Phosphofructokinase Activities in Photosynthetic Organisms 1

    PubMed Central

    Carnal, Nancy Wieland; Black, Clanton C.

    1983-01-01

    A pyrophosphate-dependent phosphofructokinase (PPi-PFK) activity is detectable in extracts of a wide variety of primitive and advanced plants, the Charalean algae, and in the photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodospirillum rubrum. Angiosperms with extractable PPi-PFK activities 4- to 70-fold higher than the respective ATP-PFK activities tend to be succulent and to exhibit CAM. Even though PPi-PFK activity is not detected in crude extracts of some well known CAM plants, e.g. plants in the Crassulaceae, gel filtration of the extract and/or inclusion of the PPi-PFK activator, fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, in the assay reveals that a PPi-PFK activity is present in these species. Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate likewise activates PPi-PFK activities in extracts of C3 and C4 plants. C3 and C4 plant PPi-PFK activities are roughly equivalent to ATP-PFK activities in the same species. PPi-PFK activity is also detected in some bryophytes, lower vascular plants, ferns, and gymnosperms. The Charophytes, advanced algae presumed to be similar to species ancestral to vascular plants, exhibit at least 4-fold higher PPi-PFK than ATP-PFK activities. R. rubrum also exhibits a much higher PPi-PFK activity than ATP-PFK activity. These data indicate that PPi-PFK may serve as an alternate enzyme to ATP-PFK in glycolysis in a wide range of photosynthetic organisms. PMID:16662776

  5. Quantifying Reversible Oxidation of Protein Thiols in Photosynthetic Organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slade, William O.; Werth, Emily G.; McConnell, Evan W.; Alvarez, Sophie; Hicks, Leslie M.

    2015-04-01

    Photosynthetic organisms use dynamic post-translational modifications to survive and adapt, which include reversible oxidative modifications of protein thiols that regulate protein structure, function, and activity. Efforts to quantify thiol modifications on a global scale have relied upon peptide derivatization, typically using isobaric tags such as TMT, ICAT, or iTRAQ that are more expensive, less accurate, and provide less proteome coverage than label-free approaches—suggesting the need for improved experimental designs for studies requiring maximal coverage and precision. Herein, we present the coverage and precision of resin-assisted thiol enrichment coupled to label-free quantitation for the characterization of reversible oxidative modifications on protein thiols. Using C. reinhardtii and Arabidopsis as model systems for algae and plants, we quantified 3662 and 1641 unique cysteinyl peptides, respectively, with median coefficient of variation (CV) of 13% and 16%. Further, our method is extendable for the detection of protein abundance changes and stoichiometries of cysteine oxidation. Finally, we demonstrate proof-of-principle for our method, and reveal that exogenous hydrogen peroxide treatment regulates the C. reinhardtii redox proteome by increasing or decreasing the level of oxidation of 501 or 67 peptides, respectively. As protein activity and function is controlled by oxidative modifications on protein thiols, resin-assisted thiol enrichment coupled to label-free quantitation can reveal how intracellular and environmental stimuli affect plant survival and fitness through oxidative stress.

  6. Quantifying reversible oxidation of protein thiols in photosynthetic organisms.

    PubMed

    Slade, William O; Werth, Emily G; McConnell, Evan W; Alvarez, Sophie; Hicks, Leslie M

    2015-04-01

    Photosynthetic organisms use dynamic post-translational modifications to survive and adapt, which include reversible oxidative modifications of protein thiols that regulate protein structure, function, and activity. Efforts to quantify thiol modifications on a global scale have relied upon peptide derivatization, typically using isobaric tags such as TMT, ICAT, or iTRAQ that are more expensive, less accurate, and provide less proteome coverage than label-free approaches--suggesting the need for improved experimental designs for studies requiring maximal coverage and precision. Herein, we present the coverage and precision of resin-assisted thiol enrichment coupled to label-free quantitation for the characterization of reversible oxidative modifications on protein thiols. Using C. reinhardtii and Arabidopsis as model systems for algae and plants, we quantified 3662 and 1641 unique cysteinyl peptides, respectively, with median coefficient of variation (CV) of 13% and 16%. Further, our method is extendable for the detection of protein abundance changes and stoichiometries of cysteine oxidation. Finally, we demonstrate proof-of-principle for our method, and reveal that exogenous hydrogen peroxide treatment regulates the C. reinhardtii redox proteome by increasing or decreasing the level of oxidation of 501 or 67 peptides, respectively. As protein activity and function is controlled by oxidative modifications on protein thiols, resin-assisted thiol enrichment coupled to label-free quantitation can reveal how intracellular and environmental stimuli affect plant survival and fitness through oxidative stress. PMID:25698223

  7. Optical properties of photosynthetic pigments and abundance of the cyanobacterium Trichodesmium in the eastern Caribbean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro Rodriguez, Ana Josefina

    1998-12-01

    This research documented the optical properties of the photosynthetic pigments, time series abundance, and remote sensing reflectance of Trichodesmium (marine cyanobacterium) populations in the upper water column at the Caribbean Time Series Station (CaTS), south of Puerto Rico, and the eastern Caribbean Sea. The Caribbean regions highly influenced by the Orinoco River discharge were devoid of Trichodesmium colonies. Correlations between Trichodesmium abundance and wind speed, chlorophyll a concentration, nitrate and silicate concentrations were statistically significant (p < 0.05). However, Trichodesmium abundance was not correlated with salinity, temperature and sigma-t variations in CaTS. Temporal and spatial relative proportions of the main photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a and phycoerythrin) in Trichodesmium colonies were highly variable. Colony pigment content generally increased as water column depth increased. Absorption and fluorescence excitation maxima of Trichodesmium phycoerythrin were similar. The in vitro fluorescence emission maximum was 10 nm greater than in vivo emission. Trichodesmium colony phycoerythrin content was 2.5 times greater than chlorophyll a content. The PUB/PEB (phycourobilin and phycoerythrobilin) chromophore ratio was always greater than 1 and varied between 1.4 and 4.6. Reflectance spectra and the derivative analyses of natural and artificial Trichodesmium bloom conditions were similar and showed five optical signals at: 436-439 nm and 676 nm (chlorophyll a), 492-498 nm (PUB chromophore), 542-547 nm (PEB chromophore), 567-570 nm (phycoerythrin natural fluorescence), and 623-630 nm (phycocyanin). Relative reflectance was inversely related to Trichodesmium abundance. The PUB chromophore signal was greater than the PEB chromophore and chlorophyll a signals. Spectroradiometric data and derivative analyses were useful techniques to study Trichodesmium abundance in CaTS. An algorithm to estimate Trichodesmium abundance using the

  8. Engineering photosynthetic organisms for the production of biohydrogen.

    PubMed

    Dubini, Alexandra; Ghirardi, Maria L

    2015-03-01

    Oxygenic photosynthetic organisms such as green algae are capable of absorbing sunlight and converting the chemical energy into hydrogen gas. This process takes advantage of the photosynthetic apparatus of these organisms which links water oxidation to H2 production. Biological H2 has therefore the potential to be an alternative fuel of the future and shows great promise for generating large scale sustainable energy. Microalgae are able to produce H2 under light anoxic or dark anoxic condition by activating 3 different pathways that utilize the hydrogenases as catalysts. In this review, we highlight the principal barriers that prevent hydrogen production in green algae and how those limitations are being addressed, through metabolic and genetic engineering.  We also discuss the major challenges and bottlenecks facing the development of future commercial algal photobiological systems for H2 production. Finally we provide suggestions for future strategies and potential new techniques to be developed towards an integrated system with optimized hydrogen production. PMID:24671643

  9. Three abundant germ line-specific transcripts in Volvox carteri encode photosynthetic proteins.

    PubMed

    Choi, G; Przybylska, M; Straus, D

    1996-09-01

    Volvox carteri is a multicellular eukaryotic green alga composed of about 2000 cells of only two differentiated types: somatic and germ line. To understand how embryonic cells are assigned either to somatic or germ line fates, we are investigating the regulation of transcripts that are abundant in only one cell type. Here we report the identity of three transcripts that are coordinately expressed at high levels in germ line cells but not in somatic cells. Surprisingly, all three transcripts encode photosynthetic chloroplast proteins (light-harvesting complex protein, oxygen-evolving enhancer protein 3, and ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase) that are transcribed from nuclear genes. We discuss why these mRNAs might be required at high levels in germ line cells and present a hypothesis, suggested by our results, on the evolution of cell specialization in the Volvocales. PMID:8781179

  10. Automated systems to monitor space radiation effect on photosynthetic organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, D.; di Costa, F.; Faraloni, C.; Fasolo, F.; Pace, E.; Perosino, M.; Torzillo, G.; Touloupakis, E.; Zanini, A.; Giardi, M. T.

    We developed automated biodevices to obtain, automatically, measures about the space radiation effect on living photosynthetic organisms, which can be used as biomass and oxygen-producing system on shuttles or ISS. Vitality measurements were performed by optical devices (fluorimeters) measuring fluorescence emission. Fluorescence methodology is a well known applied technique for studying photosynthetic activity, and in particular the oxygen-evolving process of photosynthetic organisms. Different strains of unicellular green algae are properly immobilized on agar growth medium and kept under survial light. The biodevices are characterised by the sensibility and selectivity of the biological component response, together with easy use, versatility, miniature size and low cost. We performed experiments in some facilities, in order to understand separately the effect of radiation of different LET, on the biochemical activity (gamma rays at Joint Research Centre -Varese, Italy; fast neutrons at CERF -- SPS beam at CERN -Geneva, Switzerland). The exposure to different radiation beams of the automatic devices, allowed us to test them under stress condition. In one year, these instrument are expected to be sent to space, inside a spacecraft, in order to study the effect of ionising cosmic radiation during an ESA flight.

  11. Tangled evolutionary processes with commonality and diversity in plastidial glycolipid synthesis in photosynthetic organisms.

    PubMed

    Hori, Koichi; Nobusawa, Takashi; Watanabe, Tei; Madoka, Yuka; Suzuki, Hideyuki; Shibata, Daisuke; Shimojima, Mie; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-01

    In photosynthetic organisms, the photosynthetic membrane constitutes a scaffold for light-harvesting complexes and photosynthetic reaction centers. Three kinds of glycolipids, namely monogalactosyldiacylglycerol, digalactosyldiacylglycerol, and sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol, constitute approximately 80-90% of photosynthetic membrane lipids and are well conserved from tiny cyanobacteria to the leaves of huge trees. These glycolipids perform a wide variety of functions beyond biological membrane formation. In particular, the capability of adaptation to harsh environments through regulation of membrane glycolipid composition is essential for healthy growth and development of photosynthetic organisms. The genome analysis and functional genetics of the model seed plant Arabidopsis thaliana have yielded many new findings concerning the biosynthesis, regulation, and functions of glycolipids. Nevertheless, it remains to be clarified how the complex biosynthetic pathways and well-organized functions of glycolipids evolved in early and primitive photosynthetic organisms, such as cyanobacteria, to yield modern photosynthetic organisms like land plants. Recently, genome data for many photosynthetic organisms have been made available as the fruit of the rapid development of sequencing technology. We also have reported the draft genome sequence of the charophyte alga Klebsormidium flaccidum, which is an intermediate organism between green algae and land plants. Here, we performed a comprehensive phylogenic analysis of glycolipid biosynthesis genes in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms including K. flaccidum. Based on the results together with membrane lipid analysis of this alga, we discuss the evolution of glycolipid synthesis in photosynthetic organisms. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Lipid Biology edited by Kent D. Chapman and Ivo Feussner. PMID:27108062

  12. RNA function and phosphorus use by photosynthetic organisms

    PubMed Central

    Raven, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) in RNA accounts for half or more of the total non-storage P in oxygenic photolithotrophs grown in either P-replete or P-limiting growth conditions. Since many natural environments are P-limited for photosynthetic primary productivity, and peak phosphorus fertilizer production is inevitable, the paper analyses what economies in P allocation to RNA could, in principle, increase P-use efficiency of growth (rate of dry matter production per unit organism P). The possibilities of decreasing P allocation to RNA without decreasing growth rate include (1) more widespread down-regulation of RNA production in P-limited organisms, (2) optimal allocation of P to RNA, both spatially among cell compartments and organs, and temporally depending on the stage of growth, and (3) a constant rate of protein synthesis through the diel cycle. Acting on these suggestions would, however, be technically demanding. PMID:24421782

  13. Engineering photosynthetic organisms for the production of biohydrogen

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Dubini, Alexandra; Ghirardi, Maria L.

    2014-03-27

    Oxygenic photosynthetic organisms such as green algae are capable of absorbing sunlight and converting the chemical energy into hydrogen gas. This process takes advantage of the photosynthetic apparatus of these organisms which links water oxidation to H2 production. Biological H2 has therefore the potential to be an alternative fuel of the future and shows great promise for generating large scale sustainable energy. Microalgae are able to produce H2 under light anoxic or dark anoxic condition by activating 3 different pathways that utilize the hydrogenases as catalysts. In this review, we highlight the principal barriers that prevent hydrogen production in greenmore » algae and how those limitations are being addressed, through metabolic and genetic engineering. We also discuss the major challenges and bottlenecks facing the development of future commercial algal photobiological systems for H2 production. Lastly we provide suggestions for future strategies and potential new techniques to be developed towards an integrated system with optimized hydrogen production.« less

  14. Engineering photosynthetic organisms for the production of biohydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Dubini, Alexandra; Ghirardi, Maria L.

    2014-03-27

    Oxygenic photosynthetic organisms such as green algae are capable of absorbing sunlight and converting the chemical energy into hydrogen gas. This process takes advantage of the photosynthetic apparatus of these organisms which links water oxidation to H2 production. Biological H2 has therefore the potential to be an alternative fuel of the future and shows great promise for generating large scale sustainable energy. Microalgae are able to produce H2 under light anoxic or dark anoxic condition by activating 3 different pathways that utilize the hydrogenases as catalysts. In this review, we highlight the principal barriers that prevent hydrogen production in green algae and how those limitations are being addressed, through metabolic and genetic engineering. We also discuss the major challenges and bottlenecks facing the development of future commercial algal photobiological systems for H2 production. Lastly we provide suggestions for future strategies and potential new techniques to be developed towards an integrated system with optimized hydrogen production.

  15. Structural organization of photosynthetic apparatus in agranal chloroplasts of maize.

    PubMed

    Romanowska, Elzbieta; Kargul, Joanna; Powikrowska, Marta; Finazzi, Giovanni; Nield, Jon; Drozak, Anna; Pokorska, Berenika

    2008-09-19

    We investigated the organization of photosystem II (PSII) in agranal bundle sheath thylakoids from a C(4) plant maize. Using blue native/SDS-PAGE and single particle analysis, we show for the first time that PSII in the bundle sheath (BS) chloroplasts exists in a dimeric form and forms light-harvesting complex II (LHCII).PSII supercomplexes. We also demonstrate that a similar set of photosynthetic membrane complexes exists in mesophyll and agranal BS chloroplasts, including intact LHCI.PSI supercomplexes, PSI monomers, PSII core dimers, PSII monomers devoid of CP43, LHCII trimers, LHCII monomers, ATP synthase, and cytochrome b(6)f complex. Fluorescence functional measurements clearly indicate that BS chloroplasts contain PSII complexes that are capable of performing charge separation and are efficiently sensitized by the associated LHCII. We identified a fraction of LHCII present within BS thylakoids that is weakly energetically coupled to the PSII reaction center; however, the majority of BS LHCII is shown to be tightly connected to PSII. Overall, we demonstrate that organization of the photosynthetic apparatus in BS agranal chloroplasts of a model C(4) plant is clearly distinct from that of the stroma lamellae of the C(3) plants. In particular, supramolecular organization of the dimeric LHCII.PSII in the BS thylakoids strongly suggests that PSII in the BS agranal membranes may donate electrons to PSI. We propose that the residual PSII activity may supply electrons to poise cyclic electron flow around PSI and prevent PSI overoxidation, which is essential for the CO(2) fixation in BS cells, and hence, may optimize ATP production within this compartment. PMID:18632664

  16. Synthetic biology for production of natural and new-to-nature terpenoids in photosynthetic organisms.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Philipp; Pollier, Jacob; Callewaert, Nico; Goossens, Alain

    2016-07-01

    With tens of thousands of characterized members, terpenoids constitute the largest class of natural compounds that are synthesized by all living organisms. Several terpenoids play primary roles in the maintenance of cell membrane fluidity, as pigments or as phytohormones, but most of them function as specialized metabolites that are involved in plant resistance to herbivores or plant-environment interactions. Terpenoids are an essential component of human nutrition, and many are economically important pharmaceuticals, aromatics and potential next-generation biofuels. Because of the often low abundance in their natural source, as well as the demand for novel terpenoid structures with new or improved bioactivities, terpenoid biosynthesis has become a prime target for metabolic engineering and synthetic biology projects. In this review we focus on the creation of new-to-nature or tailor-made plant-derived terpenoids in photosynthetic organisms, in particular by means of combinatorial biosynthesis and the activation of silent metabolism. We reflect on the characteristics of different potential photosynthetic host organisms and recent advances in synthetic biology and discuss their utility for the (heterologous) production of (novel) terpenoids. PMID:26867713

  17. Distribution and abundance of organic thiols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahey, R.

    1985-01-01

    The role of glutathione (GSH) in protecting against the toxicity of oxygen and oxygen by products is well established for all eukaryotes studied except Entamoeba histolytica which lacks mitochrondria, chloroplasts, and microtubules. The GSH is not universal among prokaryotes. Entamoeba histolytica does not produce GSH or key enzymes of GSH metabolism. A general method of thiol analysis based upon fluorescent labeling with monobromobimane and HPLC separation of the resulting thiol derivatives was developed to determine the occurrence of GSH and other low molecular weight thiols in bacteria. Glutathione is the major thiol in cyanobacteria and in most bacteria closely related to the purple photosynthetic bacteria, but GSH was not found in archaebacteria, green bacteria, or GRAM positive bacteria. It suggested that glutathione metabolism was incorporated into eukaryotes at the time that mitochondria and chloroplasts were acquired by endosymbiosis. In Gram positive aerobes, coenzyme A occurs at millimolar levels and CoA disulfide reductases are identified. The CoA, rather than glutathione, may function in the oxygen detoxification processes of these organisms.

  18. The essential gene set of a photosynthetic organism.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Benjamin E; Wetmore, Kelly M; Price, Morgan N; Diamond, Spencer; Shultzaberger, Ryan K; Lowe, Laura C; Curtin, Genevieve; Arkin, Adam P; Deutschbauer, Adam; Golden, Susan S

    2015-12-01

    Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 is a model organism used for studying photosynthesis and the circadian clock, and it is being developed for the production of fuel, industrial chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. To identify a comprehensive set of genes and intergenic regions that impacts fitness in S. elongatus, we created a pooled library of ∼ 250,000 transposon mutants and used sequencing to identify the insertion locations. By analyzing the distribution and survival of these mutants, we identified 718 of the organism's 2,723 genes as essential for survival under laboratory conditions. The validity of the essential gene set is supported by its tight overlap with well-conserved genes and its enrichment for core biological processes. The differences noted between our dataset and these predictors of essentiality, however, have led to surprising biological insights. One such finding is that genes in a large portion of the TCA cycle are dispensable, suggesting that S. elongatus does not require a cyclic TCA process. Furthermore, the density of the transposon mutant library enabled individual and global statements about the essentiality of noncoding RNAs, regulatory elements, and other intergenic regions. In this way, a group I intron located in tRNA(Leu), which has been used extensively for phylogenetic studies, was shown here to be essential for the survival of S. elongatus. Our survey of essentiality for every locus in the S. elongatus genome serves as a powerful resource for understanding the organism's physiology and defines the essential gene set required for the growth of a photosynthetic organism. PMID:26508635

  19. The essential gene set of a photosynthetic organism

    PubMed Central

    Rubin, Benjamin E.; Wetmore, Kelly M.; Price, Morgan N.; Diamond, Spencer; Shultzaberger, Ryan K.; Lowe, Laura C.; Curtin, Genevieve; Arkin, Adam P.; Deutschbauer, Adam; Golden, Susan S.

    2015-01-01

    Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 is a model organism used for studying photosynthesis and the circadian clock, and it is being developed for the production of fuel, industrial chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. To identify a comprehensive set of genes and intergenic regions that impacts fitness in S. elongatus, we created a pooled library of ∼250,000 transposon mutants and used sequencing to identify the insertion locations. By analyzing the distribution and survival of these mutants, we identified 718 of the organism’s 2,723 genes as essential for survival under laboratory conditions. The validity of the essential gene set is supported by its tight overlap with well-conserved genes and its enrichment for core biological processes. The differences noted between our dataset and these predictors of essentiality, however, have led to surprising biological insights. One such finding is that genes in a large portion of the TCA cycle are dispensable, suggesting that S. elongatus does not require a cyclic TCA process. Furthermore, the density of the transposon mutant library enabled individual and global statements about the essentiality of noncoding RNAs, regulatory elements, and other intergenic regions. In this way, a group I intron located in tRNALeu, which has been used extensively for phylogenetic studies, was shown here to be essential for the survival of S. elongatus. Our survey of essentiality for every locus in the S. elongatus genome serves as a powerful resource for understanding the organism’s physiology and defines the essential gene set required for the growth of a photosynthetic organism. PMID:26508635

  20. Methods and constructs for expression of foreign proteins in photosynthetic organisms

    DOEpatents

    Laible, Philip D.; Hanson, Deborah K.

    2002-01-01

    A method for expressing and purifying foreign proteins in photosynthetic organisms comprising the simultaneous expression of both the heterologous protein and a means for compartmentalizing or sequestering of the protein.

  1. Unexpected capacity for organic carbon assimilation by Thermosynechococcus elongatus, a crucial photosynthetic model organism.

    PubMed

    Zilliges, Yvonne; Dau, Holger

    2016-04-01

    Genetic modification of key residues of photosystems is essential to identify functionally crucial processes by spectroscopic and crystallographic investigation; the required protein stability favours use of thermophilic species. The currently unique thermophilic photosynthetic model organism is the cyanobacterial genus Thermosynechococcus. We report the ability of Thermosynechococcus elongatus to assimilate organic carbon, specifically D-fructose. Growth in the presence of a photosynthesis inhibitor opens the door towards crucial amino acid substitutions in photosystems by the rescue of otherwise lethal mutations. Yet depression of batch-culture growth after 7 days implies that additional developments are needed. PMID:26935247

  2. [Effects of organic fertilizer application rate on leaf photosynthetic characteristics and grain yield of dryland maize].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Juan; Jia, Zhi-Kuan; Liang, Lian-You; Ding, Rui-Xia; Wang, Min; Li, Han

    2012-02-01

    A 4-year field experiment was conducted at the Heyang Research Station in Weibei dryland to study the effects of organic fertilizer application rate on the leaf photosynthetic characteristics and grain yield of dryland maize. Comparing with applying chemical fertilizer, applying organic fertilizer increased the leaf photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance, but decreased the leaf intercellular CO2 concentration at each growth stage of maize significantly. With the increasing application rate of organic fertilizer, the leaf photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance at each growth stage of maize had a gradual increase, while the leaf intercellular CO2 concentration had a gradual decrease. The leaf photosynthesis of maize at each growth stage was controlled by non-stomatal factors, and the application of organic fertilizer reduced the non-stomatal limitation on the photosynthesis performance significantly. The 4-year application of organic fertilizer improved soil nutrient status, and soil nutrients were no longer the main factors limiting the leaf photosynthetic rate and grain yield of maize. PMID:22586967

  3. Quantum Life: How photosynthetic organisms use quantum coherence to enhance the efficiency of energy transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, Seth

    2014-03-01

    Femtosecond spectroscopy reveals significant quantum coherence in excitonic transport in photosynthetic organisms. How and why are living systems using quantum mechanics? This talk presents a simple theory of how to optimize energy transport in quantum systems that possess noise and disorder. Too much quantum coherence leads to destructive interference and localization, while too little coherence prevents energy from moving at all, via the watchdog or quantum Zeno effect. With just the right amount of quantum coherence, however, energy can move through photosynthetic complexes with almost 100% efficiency. This talk explains how plants and photosynthetic bacteria attain such high efficiencies for energy transport, and discusses how human-made systems could be designed to attain similar efficiencies.

  4. Did photosynthetic organisms take refuge in ice shadows during Snowball Earth events?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, A. J.; Warren, S. G.; Waddington, E. D.

    2014-12-01

    During the Snowball Earth glaciations of the Neoproterozoic, the Earth's oceans may have been completely covered with ice. Global ice cover, thick enough to block the transmission of light, would have prohibited the survival of photosynthetic eukaryotic organisms living under the ice cover. Fossil records indicate these organisms persisted during the Snowball Earth glaciations. The persistence of these organisms presents a complication to the Snowball Earth theory. If the Earth's oceans were unable to survive in planet's ocean during the Snowball Earth events, then in what environments did these organisms survive? Previously, our research has shown that narrow arms of the ocean, analogous to the modern Red Sea, could have been refugia for photosynthetic eukaryotes during Snowball Earth events. We have demonstrated that for a limited range of climate conditions, ice flow into an arm of the sea is restricted sufficiently to allow for the sea to remain partially free from sea-glacier penetration, a necessary condition for these regions to act as a refugia for photosynthetic eukaryotes during a Snowball Earth event. Presently, we demonstrate that thin-ice zones can form on the leeward sides of obstructions in channels. These thin-ice zones, which we call ice shadows, may have acted as refugia for photosynthetic eukaryotes during Snowball Earth events. We test the ability of ice shadows to form in channels where, in the absence of an obstruction, sea-glacier ice would be thick enough to prohibit the transmission of light. We find that ice shadows can form behind obstructions of various sizes and over a range of climate conditions. This research adds to the range of environments where photosynthetic eukaryotes may have survived during the Snowball Earth events.

  5. HSP33 in eukaryotes - an evolutionary tale of a chaperone adapted to photosynthetic organisms.

    PubMed

    Segal, Na'ama; Shapira, Michal

    2015-06-01

    HSP33 was originally identified in bacteria as a redox-sensitive chaperone that protects unfolded proteins from aggregation. Here, we describe a eukaryote ortholog of HSP33 from the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which appears to play a protective role under light-induced oxidizing conditions. The algal HSP33 exhibits chaperone activity, as shown by citrate synthase aggregation assays. Studies from the Jakob laboratory established that activation of the bacterial HSP33 upon its oxidation initiates by the release of pre-bound Zn from the well conserved Zn-binding motif Cys-X-Cys-Xn -Cys-X-X-Cys, and is followed by significant structural changes (Reichmann et al., ). Unlike the bacterial protein, the HSP33 from C. reinhardtii had lost the first cysteine residue of its center, diminishing Zn-binding activity under all conditions. As a result, the algal protein can be easily activated by minor structural changes in response to oxidation and/or excess heat. An attempt to restore the missing first cysteine did not have a major effect on Zn-binding and on the mode of activation. Replacement of all remaining cysteines abolished completely any residual Zn binding, although the chaperone activation was maintained. A phylogenetic analysis of the algal HSP33 showed that it clusters with the cyanobacterial protein, in line with its biochemical localization to the chloroplast. Indeed, expression of the algal HSP33 increases in response to light-induced oxidative stress, which is experienced routinely by photosynthetic organisms. Despite the fact that no ortholog could be found in higher eukaryotes, its abundance in all algal species examined could have a biotechnological relevance. PMID:25892083

  6. Measuring indigenous photosynthetic organisms to detect chemical warefare agents in water

    DOEpatents

    Greenbaum, Elias; Sanders, Charlene A.

    2005-11-15

    A method of testing water to detect the presence of a chemical or biological warfare agent is disclosed. The method is carried out by establishing control data by providing control water containing indigenous organisms but substantially free of a chemical and a biological warfare agent. Then measuring photosynthetic activity of the control water with a fluorometer to obtain control data to compare with test data to detect the presence of the chemical or agent. The test data is gathered by providing test water comprising the same indigenous organisms as contained in the control water. Further, the test water is suspected of containing the chemical or agent to be tested for. Photosynthetic activity is also measured by fluorescence induction in the test water using a fluorometer.

  7. Diversity and regulation of ATP sulfurylase in photosynthetic organisms

    PubMed Central

    Prioretti, Laura; Gontero, Brigitte; Hell, Ruediger; Giordano, Mario

    2014-01-01

    ATP sulfurylase (ATPS) catalyzes the first committed step in the sulfate assimilation pathway, the activation of sulfate prior to its reduction. ATPS has been studied in only a few model organisms and even in these cases to a much smaller extent than the sulfate reduction and cysteine synthesis enzymes. This is possibly because the latter were considered of greater regulatory importance for sulfate assimilation. Recent evidences (reported in this paper) challenge this view and suggest that ATPS may have a crucial regulatory role in sulfate assimilation, at least in algae. In the ensuing text, we summarize the current knowledge on ATPS, with special attention to the processes that control its activity and gene(s) expression in algae. Special attention is given to algae ATPS proteins. The focus on algae is the consequence of the fact that a comprehensive investigation of ATPS revealed that the algal enzymes, especially those that are most likely involved in the pathway of sulfate reduction to cysteine, possess features that are not present in other organisms. Remarkably, algal ATPS proteins show a great diversity of isoforms and a high content of cysteine residues, whose positions are often conserved. According to the occurrence of cysteine residues, the ATPS of eukaryotic algae is closer to that of marine cyanobacteria of the genera Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus and is more distant from that of freshwater cyanobacteria. These characteristics might have evolved in parallel with the radiation of algae in the oceans and the increase of sulfate concentration in seawater. PMID:25414712

  8. Identification of an Atypical Membrane Protein Involved in the Formation of Protein Disulfide Bonds in Oxygenic Photosynthetic Organisms*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Abhay K.; Bhattacharyya-Pakrasi, Maitrayee; Pakrasi, Himadri B.

    2008-01-01

    The evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis in cyanobacteria nearly three billion years ago provided abundant reducing power and facilitated the elaboration of numerous oxygen-dependent reactions in our biosphere. Cyanobacteria contain an internal thylakoid membrane system, the site of photosynthesis, and a typical Gram-negative envelope membrane system. Like other organisms, the extracytoplasmic space in cyanobacteria houses numerous cysteine-containing proteins. However, the existence of a biochemical system for disulfide bond formation in cyanobacteria remains to be determined. Extracytoplasmic disulfide bond formation in non-photosynthetic organisms is catalyzed by coordinated interaction between two proteins, a disulfide carrier and a disulfide generator. Here we describe a novel gene, SyndsbAB, required for disulfide bond formation in the extracytoplasmic space of cyanobacteria. The SynDsbAB orthologs are present in most cyanobacteria and chloroplasts of higher plants with fully sequenced genomes. The SynDsbAB protein contains two distinct catalytic domains that display significant similarity to proteins involved in disulfide bond formation in Escherichia coli and eukaryotes. Importantly, SyndsbAB complements E. coli strains defective in disulfide bond formation. In addition, the activity of E. coli alkaline phosphatase localized to the periplasm of Synechocystis 6803 is dependent on the function of SynDsbAB. Deletion of SyndsbAB in Synechocystis 6803 causes significant growth impairment under photoautotrophic conditions and results in hyper-sensitivity to dithiothreitol, a reductant, whereas diamide, an oxidant had no effect on the growth of the mutant strains. We conclude that SynDsbAB is a critical protein for disulfide bond formation in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms and required for their optimal photoautotrophic growth. PMID:18413314

  9. Light Modulates the Biosynthesis and Organization of Cyanobacterial Carbon Fixation Machinery through Photosynthetic Electron Flow.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yaqi; Casella, Selene; Fang, Yi; Huang, Fang; Faulkner, Matthew; Barrett, Steve; Liu, Lu-Ning

    2016-05-01

    Cyanobacteria have evolved effective adaptive mechanisms to improve photosynthesis and CO2 fixation. The central CO2-fixing machinery is the carboxysome, which is composed of an icosahedral proteinaceous shell encapsulating the key carbon fixation enzyme, Rubisco, in the interior. Controlled biosynthesis and ordered organization of carboxysomes are vital to the CO2-fixing activity of cyanobacterial cells. However, little is known about how carboxysome biosynthesis and spatial positioning are physiologically regulated to adjust to dynamic changes in the environment. Here, we used fluorescence tagging and live-cell confocal fluorescence imaging to explore the biosynthesis and subcellular localization of β-carboxysomes within a model cyanobacterium, Synechococcus elongatus PCC7942, in response to light variation. We demonstrated that β-carboxysome biosynthesis is accelerated in response to increasing light intensity, thereby enhancing the carbon fixation activity of the cell. Inhibition of photosynthetic electron flow impairs the accumulation of carboxysomes, indicating a close coordination between β-carboxysome biogenesis and photosynthetic electron transport. Likewise, the spatial organization of carboxysomes in the cell correlates with the redox state of photosynthetic electron transport chain. This study provides essential knowledge for us to modulate the β-carboxysome biosynthesis and function in cyanobacteria. In translational terms, the knowledge is instrumental for design and synthetic engineering of functional carboxysomes into higher plants to improve photosynthesis performance and CO2 fixation. PMID:26956667

  10. Thermoluminescence as a complementary technique for the toxicological evaluation of chemicals in photosynthetic organisms.

    PubMed

    Repetto, Guillermo; Zurita, Jorge L; Roncel, Mercedes; Ortega, José M

    2015-01-01

    Thermoluminescence is a simple technique very useful for studying electron transfer reactions on photosystem II (standard thermoluminescence) or the level of lipid peroxidation in membranes (high temperature thermoluminescence) in photosynthetic organisms. Both techniques were used to investigate the effects produced on Chlorella vulgaris cells by six compounds: the chemical intermediates bromobenzene and diethanolamine, the antioxidant propyl gallate, the semiconductor indium nitrate, the pesticide sodium monofluoroacetate and the antimalarial drug chloroquine. Electron transfer activity of the photosystem II significantly decreased after the exposure of Chlorella cells to all the six chemicals used. Lipid peroxidation was slightly decreased by the antioxidant propyl gallate, not changed by indium nitrate and very potently stimulated by diethanolamine, chloroquine, sodium monofluoroacetate and bromobenzene. For five of the chemicals studied (not bromobenzene) there is a very good correlation between the cytotoxic effects in Chlorella cells measured by the algal growth inhibition test, and the inhibition of photosystem II activity. The results suggest that one very important effect of these chemicals in Chlorella cells is the inhibition of photosynthetic metabolism by the blocking of photosystem II functionality. In the case of sodium monofluoroacetate, diethanolamine and chloroquine this inhibition seems to be related with the induction of high level of lipid peroxidation in cells that may alter the stability of photosystem II. The results obtained by both techniques supply information that can be used as a supplement to the growth inhibition test and allows a more complete assessment of the effects of a chemical in photosynthetic organisms of aquatic ecosystems. PMID:25461748

  11. Elevated temperature altered photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizopshere soil under cadmium stress

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Xia; Zhao, YongHua; Wang, WenKe; He, Yunhua

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring on photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and on organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium (Cd) stress. Elevated temperature was associated with increased soluble sugars, reducing sugars, starch, and total sugars, and with decreased amino acids in wheat seedlings under Cd stress. Elevated temperature improved total soluble sugars, free amino acids, soluble phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress. The activity of amylase, phenol oxidase, invertase, β-glucosidase, and l-asparaginase in rhizosphere soil was significantly improved by elevated temperature under Cd stress; while cellulase, neutral phosphatase, and urease activity significantly decreased. Elevated temperature significantly improved bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, and total microorganisms abundance and fluorescein diacetate activity under Cd stress. In conclusion, slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring improved the carbohydrate levels in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress in the short term. In addition, elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring stimulated available Cd by affecting pH, DOC, phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil, which resulted in the improvement of the Cd uptake by wheat seedlings. PMID:26395070

  12. Elevated temperature altered photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizopshere soil under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xia; Zhao, YongHua; Wang, WenKe; He, Yunhua

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring on photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and on organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium (Cd) stress. Elevated temperature was associated with increased soluble sugars, reducing sugars, starch, and total sugars, and with decreased amino acids in wheat seedlings under Cd stress. Elevated temperature improved total soluble sugars, free amino acids, soluble phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress. The activity of amylase, phenol oxidase, invertase, β-glucosidase, and l-asparaginase in rhizosphere soil was significantly improved by elevated temperature under Cd stress; while cellulase, neutral phosphatase, and urease activity significantly decreased. Elevated temperature significantly improved bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, and total microorganisms abundance and fluorescein diacetate activity under Cd stress. In conclusion, slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring improved the carbohydrate levels in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress in the short term. In addition, elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring stimulated available Cd by affecting pH, DOC, phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil, which resulted in the improvement of the Cd uptake by wheat seedlings. PMID:26395070

  13. Elevated temperature altered photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizopshere soil under cadmium stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Xia; Zhao, Yonghua; Wang, Wenke; He, Yunhua

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring on photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and on organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium (Cd) stress. Elevated temperature was associated with increased soluble sugars, reducing sugars, starch, and total sugars, and with decreased amino acids in wheat seedlings under Cd stress. Elevated temperature improved total soluble sugars, free amino acids, soluble phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress. The activity of amylase, phenol oxidase, invertase, β-glucosidase, and L-asparaginase in rhizosphere soil was significantly improved by elevated temperature under Cd stress; while cellulase, neutral phosphatase, and urease activity significantly decreased. Elevated temperature significantly improved bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, and total microorganisms abundance and fluorescein diacetate activity under Cd stress. In conclusion, slightly elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring improved the carbohydrate levels in wheat seedlings and organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under Cd stress in the short term. In addition, elevated atmospheric temperature in the spring stimulated available Cd by affecting pH, DOC, phenolic acids, and organic acids in rhizosphere soil, which resulted in the improvement of the Cd uptake by wheat seedlings.

  14. The xanthophyll cycle pigments, violaxanthin and zeaxanthin, modulate molecular organization of the photosynthetic antenna complex LHCII.

    PubMed

    Janik, Ewa; Bednarska, Joanna; Zubik, Monika; Sowinski, Karol; Luchowski, Rafal; Grudzinski, Wojciech; Matosiuk, Dariusz; Gruszecki, Wieslaw I

    2016-02-15

    The effect of violaxanthin and zeaxanthin, two main carotenoids of the xanthophyll cycle, on molecular organization of LHCII, the principal photosynthetic antenna complex of plants, was studied in a model system based on lipid-protein membranes, by means of analysis of 77 K chlorophyll a fluorescence and "native" electrophoresis. Violaxanthin was found to promote trimeric organization of LHCII, contrary to zeaxanthin which was found to destabilize trimeric structures. Moreover, violaxanthin was found to induce decomposition of oligomeric LHCII structures formed in the lipid phase and characterized by the fluorescence emission band at 715 nm. Both pigments promoted formation of two-component supramolecular structures of LHCII and xanthophylls. The violaxanthin-stabilized structures were composed mostly of LHCII trimers while, the zeaxanthin-stabilized supramolecular structures of LHCII showed more complex organization which depended periodically on the xanthophyll content. The effect of the xanthophyll cycle pigments on molecular organization of LHCII was analyzed based on the results of molecular modeling and discussed in terms of a physiological meaning of this mechanism. Supramolecular structures of LHCII stabilized by violaxanthin, prevent uncontrolled oligomerization of LHCII, potentially leading to excitation quenching, therefore can be considered as structures protecting the photosynthetic apparatus against energy loses at low light intensities. PMID:26773208

  15. Lamellar Organization of Pigments in Chlorosomes, the Light Harvesting Complexes of Green Photosynthetic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Pšenčík, J.; Ikonen, T. P.; Laurinmäki, P.; Merckel, M. C.; Butcher, S. J.; Serimaa, R. E.; Tuma, R.

    2004-01-01

    Chlorosomes of green photosynthetic bacteria constitute the most efficient light harvesting complexes found in nature. In addition, the chlorosome is the only known photosynthetic system where the majority of pigments (BChl) is not organized in pigment-protein complexes but instead is assembled into aggregates. Because of the unusual organization, the chlorosome structure has not been resolved and only models, in which BChl pigments were organized into large rods, were proposed on the basis of freeze-fracture electron microscopy and spectroscopic constraints. We have obtained the first high-resolution images of chlorosomes from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum by cryoelectron microscopy. Cryoelectron microscopy images revealed dense striations ∼20 Å apart. X-ray scattering from chlorosomes exhibited a feature with the same ∼20 Å spacing. No evidence for the rod models was obtained. The observed spacing and tilt-series cryoelectron microscopy projections are compatible with a lamellar model, in which BChl molecules aggregate into semicrystalline lateral arrays. The diffraction data further indicate that arrays are built from BChl dimers. The arrays form undulating lamellae, which, in turn, are held together by interdigitated esterifying alcohol tails, carotenoids, and lipids. The lamellar model is consistent with earlier spectroscopic data and provides insight into chlorosome self-assembly. PMID:15298919

  16. Lamellar organization of pigments in chlorosomes, the light harvesting complexes of green photosynthetic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Psencík, J; Ikonen, T P; Laurinmäki, P; Merckel, M C; Butcher, S J; Serimaa, R E; Tuma, R

    2004-08-01

    Chlorosomes of green photosynthetic bacteria constitute the most efficient light harvesting complexes found in nature. In addition, the chlorosome is the only known photosynthetic system where the majority of pigments (BChl) is not organized in pigment-protein complexes but instead is assembled into aggregates. Because of the unusual organization, the chlorosome structure has not been resolved and only models, in which BChl pigments were organized into large rods, were proposed on the basis of freeze-fracture electron microscopy and spectroscopic constraints. We have obtained the first high-resolution images of chlorosomes from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum by cryoelectron microscopy. Cryoelectron microscopy images revealed dense striations approximately 20 A apart. X-ray scattering from chlorosomes exhibited a feature with the same approximately 20 A spacing. No evidence for the rod models was obtained. The observed spacing and tilt-series cryoelectron microscopy projections are compatible with a lamellar model, in which BChl molecules aggregate into semicrystalline lateral arrays. The diffraction data further indicate that arrays are built from BChl dimers. The arrays form undulating lamellae, which, in turn, are held together by interdigitated esterifying alcohol tails, carotenoids, and lipids. The lamellar model is consistent with earlier spectroscopic data and provides insight into chlorosome self-assembly. PMID:15298919

  17. Designing artificial photosynthetic devices using hybrid organic-inorganic modules based on polyoxometalates.

    PubMed

    Symes, Mark D; Cogdell, Richard J; Cronin, Leroy

    2013-08-13

    Artificial photosynthesis aims at capturing solar energy and using it to produce storable fuels. However, while there is reason to be optimistic that such approaches can deliver higher energy conversion efficiencies than natural photosynthetic systems, many serious challenges remain to be addressed. Perhaps chief among these is the issue of device stability. Almost all approaches to artificial photosynthesis employ easily oxidized organic molecules as light harvesters or in catalytic centres, frequently in solution with highly oxidizing species. The 'elephant in the room' in this regard is that oxidation of these organic moieties is likely to occur at least as rapidly as oxidation of water, meaning that current device performance is severely curtailed. Herein, we discuss one possible solution to this problem: using self-assembling organic-polyoxometalate hybrid structures to produce compartments inside which the individual component reactions of photosynthesis can occur without such a high incidence of deleterious side reactions. PMID:23816903

  18. Efficient CO2 Fixation Pathways: Energy Plant: High Efficiency Photosynthetic Organisms

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    PETRO Project: UCLA is redesigning the carbon fixation pathways of plants to make them more efficient at capturing the energy in sunlight. Carbon fixation is the key process that plants use to convert carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere into higher energy molecules (such as sugars) using energy from the sun. UCLA is addressing the inefficiency of the process through an alternative biochemical pathway that uses 50% less energy than the pathway used by all land plants. In addition, instead of producing sugars, UCLA’s designer pathway will produce pyruvate, the precursor of choice for a wide variety of liquid fuels. Theoretically, the new biochemical pathway will allow a plant to capture 200% as much CO2 using the same amount of light. The pathways will first be tested on model photosynthetic organisms and later incorporated into other plants, thus dramatically improving the productivity of both food and fuel crops.

  19. 9th International Conference on Tetrapyrrole Photoreceptors of Photosynthetic Organisms (ICTPPO 2009): Meeting Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Lagarias, J. Clark

    2009-07-01

    Tetrapyrroles are strongly pigmented heterocyclic molecules that play key roles in the harvesting of light and in its efficient conversion into chemical energy by photosynthetic organisms, including agronomically important plant species. This grant provided financial support for the International Conference on Tetrapyrrole Photoreceptors of Photosynthetic Organisms (ICTPPO 2009), the ninth in the series of ad hoc biennial conferences focused on the structure, function and biotechnological applications of tetrapyrrole photoreceptors, held at Asilomar Conference Center, Monterey CA from July 26 to July 31, 2009. The goal of this meeting was to bring together leading experts in the field of tetrapyrrole photoreceptors and from associated fields with new investigators, to provide critical analyses of the current state of their fields, the challenges and opportunities therein and their most recent unpublished discoveries to stimulate new approaches to address key issues of agricultural and energy significance. Among the 80 participants included 40 PIs (including one Nobelist in chemistry, two members of the US National Academy of Science, and a recent inductee to the Royal Society), 8 senior scientists, 1 DOE program manager, 12 postdoctoral fellows and 20 graduate students representing 13 countries. One third of the formal lecture program was reserved for discussion, and these sessions particularly well supported the conference objectives. In the spirit of the Gordon Conference format adopted for this meeting, the conference proceedings were documented in a bound document available to all participants but were not distributed to the general public. The major output was the cross-breeding of scientists not previously associated with this meeting, both senior and junior, from the fields of photosynthesis/energy conversion, tetrapyrrole metabolism and bioinspired, tetrapyrrole-based light harvesting systems.

  20. Cyanide-resistant respiration in photosynthetic organs of freshwater aquatic plants. [Myriophyllum spicatum

    SciTech Connect

    Azcon-Bieto, J.; Murillo, J.; Penuelas, J.

    1987-07-01

    The rate and sensitivity to inhibitors (KCN and salicylhydroxamic acid(SHAM)) of respiratory oxygen uptake has been investigated in photosynthetic organs of several freshwater aquatic plant species. The oxygen uptake rates on a dry weigh basis of angiosperm leaves were generally higher than those of the corresponding stems. Leaves also had a higher chlorophyll content than stems. Respiration of leaves and stems of aquatic angiosperms was generally cyanide-resistant. The cyanide resistance of respiration of whole shoots of two aquatic bryophytes and an alga was lower. These results suggested that the photosynthetic tissues of aquatic plants have a considerable alternative pathway capacity. The angiosperm leaves generally showed the largest alternative path capacity. In all cases, the respiration rate of the aquatic plants studied was inhibited by SHAM alone by about 13 to 31%. These results were used for calculating the actual activities of the cytochrome and alternative pathways. These activities were generally higher in the leaves of angiosperms. The basal oxygen uptake rate of Myriophyllum spicatum leaves was greatly increased by CCCP, either in the presence or in the absence of substrates. These results suggest that respiration was limited by the adenylate system, and not by substrate availability. The increase in the respiratory rate by CCCP was due to a large increase in the activities of both the cytochrome and alternative pathways. The respiration rate of M. spicatum leaves in the presence of substrates was little inhibited by SHAM alone, but the SHAM-resistant rate (that is, the cytochrome path) was greatly stimulated by the further addition of CCCP. Similarly, the cyanide-resistant rate of O/sub 2/ uptake was also increased by the uncoupler.

  1. Suitability of different photosynthetic organisms for an extraterrestrial biological life support system.

    PubMed

    Lehto, Kirsi M; Lehto, Harry J; Kanervo, Eira A

    2006-01-01

    In the present era of intensive space and planetary research, efficient life support systems (LSSs) are needed to maintain suitable living conditions when humans move into space, i.e. away from the Earth's atmosphere. Thus far, such suitable conditions on various space flights and on the space stations (Mir and the International Space Station) have been maintained solely via physical and chemical means (transport of O2, H2O and food from the Earth, cleaning and recycling of air and water). However, for long-duration missions to distant destinations, such as exploratory missions to Mars, biological life support systems (BLSSs) may be needed to convert local CO2 and H2O to O2, and to food. As on earth, this conversion process would need to be based on photosynthesis. Use of higher plants and microalgae as BLSS organisms has been intensively studied. Here we review the growth requirements of these two types of photosynthetic organisms, with particular attention to their suitability for use in harsh Martian conditions, i.e. low temperatures, low atmospheric pressure, high CO2 concentration, high UV radiation and dryness. PMID:16439102

  2. Functions of tocopherols in the cells of plants and other photosynthetic organisms.

    PubMed

    Mokrosnop, V M

    2014-01-01

    Tocopherol synthesis has only been observed in photosynthetic organisms (plants, algae and some cyanobacteria). Tocopherol is synthesized in the inner membrane of chloroplasts and distributed between chloroplast membranes, thylakoids and plastoglobules. Physiological significance of tocopherols for human and animal is well-studied, but relatively little is known about their function in plant organisms. Among the best characterized functions oftocopherols in cells is their ability to scavenge and quench reactive oxygen species and fat-soluble by-products of oxidative stress. There are the data on the participation of different mechanisms of α-tocopherol action in protecting photosystem II (PS II) from photoinhibition both by deactivation of singlet oxygen produced by PSII and by reduction of proton permeability of thylakoid membranes, leading to acidification of lumen under high light conditions and activation of violaxanthin de-epoxidase. Additional biological activity of tocopherols, independent of its antioxidant functions have been demonstrated. Basic mechanisms for these effects are connected with the modulation of signal transduction pathways by specific tocopherols and, in some instances, by transcriptional activation of gene expression. PMID:25816585

  3. Collapsing Aged Culture of the Cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus Produces Compound(s) Toxic to Photosynthetic Organisms

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Assaf; Sendersky, Eleonora; Carmeli, Shmuel; Schwarz, Rakefet

    2014-01-01

    Phytoplankton mortality allows effective nutrient cycling, and thus plays a pivotal role in driving biogeochemical cycles. A growing body of literature demonstrates the involvement of regulated death programs in the abrupt collapse of phytoplankton populations, and particularly implicates processes that exhibit characteristics of metazoan programmed cell death. Here, we report that the cell-free, extracellular fluid (conditioned medium) of a collapsing aged culture of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus elongatus is toxic to exponentially growing cells of this cyanobacterium, as well as to a large variety of photosynthetic organisms, but not to eubacteria. The toxic effect, which is light-dependent, involves oxidative stress, as suggested by damage alleviation by antioxidants, and the very high sensitivity of a catalase-mutant to the conditioned medium. At relatively high cell densities, S. elongatus cells survived the deleterious effect of conditioned medium in a process that required de novo protein synthesis. Application of conditioned medium from a collapsing culture caused severe pigment bleaching not only in S. elongatus cells, but also resulted in bleaching of pigments in a cell free extract. The latter observation indicates that the elicited damage is a direct effect that does not require an intact cell, and therefore, is mechanistically different from the metazoan-like programmed cell death described for phytoplankton. We suggest that S. elongatus in aged cultures are triggered to produce a toxic compound, and thus, this process may be envisaged as a novel regulated death program. PMID:24959874

  4. Photoprotection Conferred by Changes in Photosynthetic Protein Levels and Organization during Dehydration of a Homoiochlorophyllous Resurrection Plant1

    PubMed Central

    Charuvi, Dana; Nevo, Reinat; Shimoni, Eyal; Naveh, Leah; Zia, Ahmad; Adam, Zach; Farrant, Jill M.; Kirchhoff, Helmut; Reich, Ziv

    2015-01-01

    During desiccation, homoiochlorophyllous resurrection plants retain most of their photosynthetic apparatus, allowing them to resume photosynthetic activity quickly upon water availability. These plants rely on various mechanisms to prevent the formation of reactive oxygen species and/or protect their tissues from the damage they inflict. In this work, we addressed the issue of how homoiochlorophyllous resurrection plants deal with the problem of excessive excitation/electron pressures during dehydration using Craterostigma pumilum as a model plant. To investigate the alterations in the supramolecular organization of photosynthetic protein complexes, we examined cryoimmobilized, freeze-fractured leaf tissues using (cryo)scanning electron microscopy. These examinations revealed rearrangements of photosystem II (PSII) complexes, including a lowered density during moderate dehydration, consistent with a lower level of PSII proteins, as shown by biochemical analyses. The latter also showed a considerable decrease in the level of cytochrome f early during dehydration, suggesting that initial regulation of the inhibition of electron transport is achieved via the cytochrome b6f complex. Upon further dehydration, PSII complexes are observed to arrange into rows and semicrystalline arrays, which correlates with the significant accumulation of sucrose and the appearance of inverted hexagonal lipid phases within the membranes. As opposed to PSII and cytochrome f, the light-harvesting antenna complexes of PSII remain stable throughout the course of dehydration. Altogether, these results, along with photosynthetic activity measurements, suggest that the protection of retained photosynthetic components is achieved, at least in part, via the structural rearrangements of PSII and (likely) light-harvesting antenna complexes into a photochemically quenched state. PMID:25713340

  5. The ancestral activation promiscuity of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylases from oxygenic photosynthetic organisms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (ADP-Glc PPase) catalyzes the first committed step in the synthesis of glycogen in bacteria and starch in algae and plants. In oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, ADP-Glc PPase is mainly activated by 3-phosphoglycerate (3-PGA) and to a lesser extent by other metabolites. In this work, we analyzed the activation promiscuity of ADP-Glc PPase subunits from the cyanobacterium Anabaena PCC 7120, the green alga Ostreococcus tauri, and potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber by comparing a specificity constant for 3-PGA, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP), fructose-6-phosphate, and glucose-6-phosphate. Results The 3-PGA specificity constant for the enzymes from Anabaena (homotetramer), O. tauri, and potato tuber was considerably higher than for other activators. O. tauri and potato tuber enzymes were heterotetramers comprising homologous small and large subunits. Conversely, the O. tauri small subunit (OtaS) homotetramer was more promiscuous because its FBP specificity constant was similar to that for 3-PGA. To explore the role of both OtaS and OtaL (O. tauri large subunit) in determining the specificity of the heterotetramer, we knocked out the catalytic activity of each subunit individually by site-directed mutagenesis. Interestingly, the mutants OtaSD148A/OtaL and OtaS/OtaLD171A had higher specificity constants for 3-PGA than for FBP. Conclusions After gene duplication, OtaS seemed to have lost specificity for 3-PGA compared to FBP. This was physiologically and evolutionarily feasible because co-expression of both subunits restored the specificity for 3-PGA of the resulting heterotetrameric wild type enzyme. This widespread promiscuity seems to be ancestral and intrinsic to the enzyme family. Its presence could constitute an efficient evolutionary mechanism to accommodate the ADP-Glc PPase regulation to different metabolic needs. PMID:23433303

  6. Light Modulates the Biosynthesis and Organization of Cyanobacterial Carbon Fixation Machinery through Photosynthetic Electron Flow1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yaqi; Casella, Selene

    2016-01-01

    Cyanobacteria have evolved effective adaptive mechanisms to improve photosynthesis and CO2 fixation. The central CO2-fixing machinery is the carboxysome, which is composed of an icosahedral proteinaceous shell encapsulating the key carbon fixation enzyme, Rubisco, in the interior. Controlled biosynthesis and ordered organization of carboxysomes are vital to the CO2-fixing activity of cyanobacterial cells. However, little is known about how carboxysome biosynthesis and spatial positioning are physiologically regulated to adjust to dynamic changes in the environment. Here, we used fluorescence tagging and live-cell confocal fluorescence imaging to explore the biosynthesis and subcellular localization of β-carboxysomes within a model cyanobacterium, Synechococcus elongatus PCC7942, in response to light variation. We demonstrated that β-carboxysome biosynthesis is accelerated in response to increasing light intensity, thereby enhancing the carbon fixation activity of the cell. Inhibition of photosynthetic electron flow impairs the accumulation of carboxysomes, indicating a close coordination between β-carboxysome biogenesis and photosynthetic electron transport. Likewise, the spatial organization of carboxysomes in the cell correlates with the redox state of photosynthetic electron transport chain. This study provides essential knowledge for us to modulate the β-carboxysome biosynthesis and function in cyanobacteria. In translational terms, the knowledge is instrumental for design and synthetic engineering of functional carboxysomes into higher plants to improve photosynthesis performance and CO2 fixation. PMID:26956667

  7. Organic carbon recovery and photosynthetic bacteria population in an anaerobic membrane photo-bioreactor treating food processing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Chitapornpan, S; Chiemchaisri, C; Chiemchaisri, W; Honda, R; Yamamoto, K

    2013-08-01

    Purple non-sulfur bacteria (PNSB) were cultivated by food industry wastewater in the anaerobic membrane photo-bioreactor. Organic removal and biomass production and characteristics were accomplished via an explicit examination of the long term performance of the photo-bioreactor fed with real wastewater. With the support of infra-red light transmitting filter, PNSB could survive and maintain in the system even under the continual fluctuations of influent wastewater characteristics. The average BOD and COD removal efficiencies were found at the moderate range of 51% and 58%, respectively. Observed photosynthetic biomass yield was 0.6g dried solid/g BOD with crude protein content of 0.41 g/g dried solid. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoretic analysis (DGGE) and 16S rDNA sequencing revealed the presence of Rhodopseudomonas palustris and significant changes in the photosynthetic bacterial community within the system. PMID:23489563

  8. Distribution and self-organization of photosynthetic pigments in micelles: implication for the assembly of light-harvesting complexes and reaction centers in the photosynthetic membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Scherz, A; Rosenbach-Belkin, V; Fisher, J R

    1990-01-01

    The addition of bacteriochlorophylls and bacteriopheophytins to formamide/water, 3:1 (vol/vol), (or water) containing small spherical micelles of Triton X-100 leads to the reorganization of the detergent into micelles that consist of 5000-40,000 amphiphilic molecules. The pigment distribution within the micelles was determined by modified Poisson statistics taking into consideration the various sizes of micelles. Pigment dimerization occurred in micelles with more than a single occupant and was driven by a free-energy change of -4.5 kcal/mol (1 cal = 4.184 J) for bacteriochlorophyll a in formamide/water, -7.6 kcal/mol for bacteriopheophytin a in formamide/water, and -6.6 kcal/mol for bacteriopheophytin a in water. These values correspond to the room temperature equilibrium constants 2.2 x 10(3) M-1, 3.9 x 10(5) M-1, and 7.5 x 10(4) M-1, respectively. The incorporation of bacteriochlorophylls with attached small formamide polymers and the subsequent dimerization of these pigments in the lipid phase provide a model for studying the synergetic organization of polypeptides and bacteriochlorophyll clusters in the photosynthetic membrane. PMID:11607092

  9. Anatomy of a cluster IDP. Part 2: Noble gas abundances, trace element geochemistry, isotopic abundances, and trace organic chemistry of several fragments from L2008#5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; Flynn, G. J.; Keller, L. P.; Mckay, David S.; Messenger, S.; Nier, A. O.; Schlutter, D. J.; Sutton, S. R.; Walker, R. M.

    1994-01-01

    The topics discussed include the following: noble gas content and release temperatures; trace element abundances; heating summary of cluster fragments; isotopic measurements; and trace organic chemistry.

  10. Designer organisms for photosynthetic production of ethanol from carbon dioxide and water

    DOEpatents

    Lee, James Weifu

    2011-07-05

    The present invention provides a revolutionary photosynthetic ethanol production technology based on designer transgenic plants, algae, or plant cells. The designer plants, designer algae, and designer plant cells are created such that the endogenous photosynthesis regulation mechanism is tamed, and the reducing power (NADPH) and energy (ATP) acquired from the photosynthetic water splitting and proton gradient-coupled electron transport process are used for immediate synthesis of ethanol (CH.sub.3CH.sub.2OH) directly from carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) and water (H.sub.2O). The ethanol production methods of the present invention completely eliminate the problem of recalcitrant lignocellulosics by bypassing the bottleneck problem of the biomass technology. The photosynthetic ethanol-production technology of the present invention is expected to have a much higher solar-to-ethanol energy-conversion efficiency than the current technology and could also help protect the Earth's environment from the dangerous accumulation of CO.sub.2 in the atmosphere.

  11. 13 ENDOR studies of organic radicals in natural isotopic abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirste, Burkhard

    13C ENDOR studies of phenoxyls, galvinoxyls, triphenylmethyl radicals, nitroxides, and cyclosilane and semiquinone radical anions with natural isotopic distribution are reported. The method is described, and it is shown that 13C coupling constants can be measured precisely; in favorable cases even the determination of signs is possible by general TRIPLE resonance. Studies of the relaxation behavior of 13C ENDOR signals or measurements of hyperfine shifts in liquid-crystalline solutions yield information about dipolar hyperfine interactions and hence π spin populations which is of aid in assignments to molecular positions. Complete sets of 13C coupling constants have been determined for 2,4,6-tri- tert-butylphenoxyl and Coppinger's radical. For the central carbon atoms of tert-butyl groups, a Q parameter of Qτ-Bu C = -34 MHz is proposed, and for a 29Si atom in trimethylsilyl groups, QTMSSi = +49 MHz. Favorable conditions for natural-abundance 13C ENDOR experiments, e.g., small hyperfine anisotropies and use of deuterated compounds, and limitations of the method are discussed.

  12. Automated Microscopy: Macro Language Controlling a Confocal Microscope and its External Illumination: Adaptation for Photosynthetic Organisms.

    PubMed

    Steinbach, Gábor; Kaňa, Radek

    2016-04-01

    Photosynthesis research employs several biophysical methods, including the detection of fluorescence. Even though fluorescence is a key method to detect photosynthetic efficiency, it has not been applied/adapted to single-cell confocal microscopy measurements to examine photosynthetic microorganisms. Experiments with photosynthetic cells may require automation to perform a large number of measurements with different parameters, especially concerning light conditions. However, commercial microscopes support custom protocols (through Time Controller offered by Olympus or Experiment Designer offered by Zeiss) that are often unable to provide special set-ups and connection to external devices (e.g., for irradiation). Our new system combining an Arduino microcontroller with the Cell⊕Finder software was developed for controlling Olympus FV1000 and FV1200 confocal microscopes and the attached hardware modules. Our software/hardware solution offers (1) a text file-based macro language to control the imaging functions of the microscope; (2) programmable control of several external hardware devices (light sources, thermal controllers, actuators) during imaging via the Arduino microcontroller; (3) the Cell⊕Finder software with ergonomic user environment, a fast selection method for the biologically important cells and precise positioning feature that reduces unwanted bleaching of the cells by the scanning laser. Cell⊕Finder can be downloaded from http://www.alga.cz/cellfinder. The system was applied to study changes in fluorescence intensity in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 cells under long-term illumination. Thus, we were able to describe the kinetics of phycobilisome decoupling. Microscopy data showed that phycobilisome decoupling appears slowly after long-term (>1 h) exposure to high light. PMID:27050040

  13. Molecular bases and photobiological consequences of light intensity adaptation in photosynthetic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y-B.; Durnford, D.; Koblizek, M.; Falkowski, P. G.

    2003-02-10

    By applying a combination of light transitions, uncouplers, and inhibitors of photosynthetic electron transport inhibitors we modulate the redox poise of many components in the plastid and examine the pattern of expression of cab1 gene. This gene encodes the major light harvesting protein that services photosystem II. While our results have confirmed our own previous finding that light intensity regulation of cab1 gene expression is signaled by the redox state of the PQ pool, we have also identified additional sensor(s) located in the PET chain.

  14. The activated sludge ecosystem contains a core community of abundant organisms

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, Aaron M; Albertsen, Mads; Vollertsen, Jes; Nielsen, Per H

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the microbial ecology of a system requires that the observed population dynamics can be linked to their metabolic functions. However, functional characterization is laborious and the choice of organisms should be prioritized to those that are frequently abundant (core) or transiently abundant, which are therefore putatively make the greatest contribution to carbon turnover in the system. We analyzed the microbial communities in 13 Danish wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal in consecutive years and a single plant periodically over 6 years, using Illumina sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA amplicons of the V4 region. The plants contained a core community of 63 abundant genus-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that made up 68% of the total reads. A core community consisting of abundant OTUs was also observed within the incoming wastewater to three plants. The net growth rate for individual OTUs was quantified using mass balance, and it was found that 10% of the total reads in the activated sludge were from slow or non-growing OTUs, and that their measured abundance was primarily because of immigration with the wastewater. Transiently abundant organisms were also identified. Among them the genus Nitrotoga (class Betaproteobacteria) was the most abundant putative nitrite oxidizer in a number of activated sludge plants, which challenges previous assumptions that Nitrospira (phylum Nitrospirae) are the primary nitrite-oxidizers in activated sludge systems with nutrient removal. PMID:26262816

  15. Studying the Supramolecular Organization of Photosynthetic Membranes within Freeze-fractured Leaf Tissues by Cryo-scanning Electron Microscopy.

    PubMed

    Charuvi, Dana; Nevo, Reinat; Kaplan-Ashiri, Ifat; Shimoni, Eyal; Reich, Ziv

    2016-01-01

    Cryo-scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of freeze-fractured samples allows investigation of biological structures at near native conditions. Here, we describe a technique for studying the supramolecular organization of photosynthetic (thylakoid) membranes within leaf samples. This is achieved by high-pressure freezing of leaf tissues, freeze-fracturing, double-layer coating and finally cryo-SEM imaging. Use of the double-layer coating method allows acquiring high magnification (>100,000X) images with minimal beam damage to the frozen-hydrated samples as well as minimal charging effects. Using the described procedures we investigated the alterations in supramolecular distribution of photosystem and light-harvesting antenna protein complexes that take place during dehydration of the resurrection plant Craterostigma pumilum, in situ. PMID:27403565

  16. Determination of photophysical parameters of chlorophyll {alpha} in photosynthetic organisms using the method of nonlinear laser fluorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Gostev, T S; Fadeev, V V

    2011-05-31

    We study the possibility of solving the multiparameter inverse problem of nonlinear laser fluorimetry of molecular systems with high local concentration of fluorophores (by the example of chlorophyll {alpha} molecules in photosynthetic organisms). The algorithms are proposed that allow determination of up to four photophysical parameters of chlorophyll {alpha} from the experimental fluorescence saturation curves. The uniqueness and stability of the inverse problem solution obtained using the proposed algorithms were assessed numerically. The laser spectrometer, designed in the course of carrying out the work and aimed at nonlinear laser fluorimetry in the quasi-stationary and nonstationary excitation regimes is described. The algorithms, proposed in this paper, are tested on pure cultures of microalgae Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under different functional conditions. (optical technologies in biophysics and medicine)

  17. Determination of photophysical parameters of chlorophyll α in photosynthetic organisms using the method of nonlinear laser fluorimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gostev, T. S.; Fadeev, V. V.

    2011-05-01

    We study the possibility of solving the multiparameter inverse problem of nonlinear laser fluorimetry of molecular systems with high local concentration of fluorophores (by the example of chlorophyll α molecules in photosynthetic organisms). The algorithms are proposed that allow determination of up to four photophysical parameters of chlorophyll α from the experimental fluorescence saturation curves. The uniqueness and stability of the inverse problem solution obtained using the proposed algorithms were assessed numerically. The laser spectrometer, designed in the course of carrying out the work and aimed at nonlinear laser fluorimetry in the quasi-stationary and nonstationary excitation regimes is described. The algorithms, proposed in this paper, are tested on pure cultures of microalgae Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Chlamydomonas reinhardtii under different functional conditions.

  18. Molecular cloning of a maize gene involved in photosynthetic membrane organization that is regulated by Robertson's Mutator.

    PubMed Central

    Martienssen, R A; Barkan, A; Freeling, M; Taylor, W C

    1989-01-01

    The maize photosynthetic mutant hcf106 has a distinctive and unusual thylakoid membrane organization, and fails to accumulate three of the five thylakoid membrane protein complexes. This mutant arose in a Robertson's Mutator background, and shows somatic instability typical of a transposon-induced allele. In addition, hcf106 is suppressed when Mu1 elements are inactive and modified in their terminal inverted repeats. Thus plants homozygous for the mutant allele adopt a mutant phenotype only when Mu1 elements are active and unmodified. DNA from the mutant allele has been cloned by 'transposon-tagging' using the transposon Mu1, and the identity of the clone confirmed by observing somatic excision of the transposon in a revertant sector. A 1.2 kb transcript homologous to the cloned DNA is found in wild-type and suppressed seedlings, but is not found in mutant seedlings, suggesting that suppression is mediated at the level of transcript accumulation. Images PMID:2548850

  19. Oxygen dynamics in photosynthetic membranes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savikhin, Sergei; Kihara, Shigeharu

    2008-03-01

    Production of oxygen by oxygenic photosynthetic organisms is expected to raise oxygen concentration within their photosynthetic membranes above normal aerobic values. These raised levels of oxygen may affect function of many proteins within photosynthetic cells. However, experiments on proteins in vitro are usually performed in aerobic (or anaerobic) conditions since the oxygen content of a membrane is not known. Using theory of diffusion and measured oxygen production rates we estimated the excess levels of oxygen in functioning photosynthetic cells. We show that for an individual photosynthetic cell suspended in water oxygen level is essentially the same as that for a non-photosynthetic sell. These data suggest that oxygen protection mechanisms may have evolved after the development of oxygenic photosynthesis in primitive bacteria and was driven by the overall rise of oxygen concentration in the atmosphere. Substantially higher levels of oxygen are estimated to occur in closely packed colonies of photosynthetic bacteria and in green leafs.

  20. Consequences of organic farming and landscape heterogeneity for species richness and abundance of farmland birds.

    PubMed

    Smith, Henrik G; Dänhardt, Juliana; Lindström, Ake; Rundlöf, Maj

    2010-04-01

    It has been suggested that organic farming may benefit farmland biodiversity more in landscapes that have lost a significant part of its former landscape heterogeneity. We tested this hypothesis by comparing bird species richness and abundance during the breeding season in organic and conventional farms, matched to eliminate all differences not directly linked to the farming practice, situated in either homogeneous plains with only a little semi-natural habitat or in heterogeneous farmland landscapes with abundant field borders and semi-natural grasslands. The effect of farm management on species richness interacted with landscape structure, such that there was a positive relationship between organic farming and diversity only in homogeneous landscapes. This pattern was mainly dependent on the species richness of passerine birds, in particular those that were invertebrate feeders. Species richness of non-passerines was positively related to organic farming independent of the landscape context. Bird abundance was positively related to landscape heterogeneity but not to farm management. This was mainly because the abundance of passerines, particularly invertebrate feeders, was positively related to landscape heterogeneity. We suggest that invertebrate feeders particularly benefit from organic farming because of improved foraging conditions through increased invertebrate abundances in otherwise depauperate homogeneous landscapes. Although many seed-eaters also benefit from increased insect abundance, they may also utilize crop seed resources in homogeneous landscapes and conventional farms. The occurrence of an interactive effect of organic farming and landscape heterogeneity on bird diversity will have consequences for the optimal allocation of resources to restore the diversity of farmland birds. PMID:20213151

  1. Comparative Transcriptional Profiling Established the Awn as the Major Photosynthetic Organ of the Barley Spike while the Lemma and the Palea Primarily Protect the Seed

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The lemma, palea, and awn of barley are photosynthetic organs and supply the developing seed with carbohydrates. In addition, the lemma and the palea cover the seed and protect it from pathogens and insects. In spite of the important role they play, there is very little information about gene expr...

  2. Effects of microgravityon the structural organization of Brassica rapa photosynthetic appartus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamchuk, N.; Kordyum, E.; Guikema, J.

    Leaf mesophyll cells of 13- and 15-day old Brassica rapa plants grown on board the space shuttle Columbia (STS-87) and in the ground control have been investigated using the methods of light and electron microscopy. 13-day old plants were fixed on orbit and 15-day old plants were fixed after landing. It was shown the essential differences in leaf mesophyll quantitative anatomical and ultrastructural characteristics between spaceflight and ground control variants. Both the volume of palisade parenchyma cells and a number of chloroplasts in those cells increased in spaceflight samples. Simultaneusly, a chloroplast size decreased together with increasing of a relative volume of stromal thylakoids, starch grains and plastoglobuli. It was also noted increasing of stromal thylakoid length. In the same time, both a total length of thylakoids in granae and the grana number diminished in space flight. In addition, the interthylakoid space could be expended and the thylakoid length was more variable in chloroplast granae on microgravity, that correlated with a shrinkage of thylakoids in granal stacks. The obtained data a er discussed with the questions on both the photosynthetic apparatus sensitivity to gravity and its adaptive possibility to microgravity.

  3. [Regulation of alternative CO[sub 2] fixation pathways in procaryotic and eucaryotic photosynthetic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The major goal of this project is to determine how microorganisms regulate the assimilation of CO[sup 2] via pathways alternative to the usual Calvin reductive pentose phosphate scheme. In particular, we are interest in the molecular basis for switches in CO[sub 2] metabolic paths. Several earlier studies had indicated that purple nonsulfur photosynthetic bacteria assimilate significant amounts of CO[sub 2] via alternative non-Calvin routes. We have deleted the gene that encodes. RubisCo (ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) in both the Rhodobacter sphaeroids and Rhodospirillum rubrum. The R. sphaeroides RubisCO deletion strain (strain 16) could not grow under photoheterotrophic conditions with malate as electron donor and CO[sub 2] as the electron acceptor; however the R. rub RubisCO deletion strain (strain I-19) could. Over the past year we have sought to physiologically characterize strain 16PHC. We found that, 16PHC exhibited rates of whole-cell CO[sub 2] fixation which were significantly higher than strain 16. Strain 16PHC could not grow photolithoautotrophically in a CO[sub 2] atmosphere; however, CO[sub 2] fixation catalyzed by photoheterotrophically grown 16PHC was repressed by the addition of DMSO. Likewise, we found that cells initially grown in the presence of DMSO could induce the CO[sub 2] fixation system when DMSO was removed. Thus, these results suggested that both PHC and I-19 could be used to study alternative CO[sub 2] fixation reactions and their significance in R. sphaexoides and R. rubrum.

  4. SEASONAL ABUNDANCE OF ORGANIC MOLECULAR MARKERS IN URBAN PARTICULATE MATTER FROM PHILADELPHIA, PA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Organic molecular markers were measured in airborne particulate matter (PM10) from the City of Philadelphia North Broad Street air quality monitoring site to identify the seasonal abundances of key tracer compounds together with their dominant sources. Daily PM10...

  5. Determining carbon-carbon connectivities in natural abundance organic powders using dipolar couplings.

    PubMed

    Dekhil, Myriam; Mollica, Giulia; Bonniot, Tristan Texier; Ziarelli, Fabio; Thureau, Pierre; Viel, Stéphane

    2016-06-30

    We present a solid-state NMR methodology capable of investigating the carbon skeleton of natural abundance organic powders. The methodology is based on the (13)C-(13)C dipolar coupling interaction and allows carbon-carbon connectivities to be unambiguously established for a wide range of organic solids. This methodology is particularly suitable for disordered solids, such as natural or synthetic macromolecules, which cannot be studied using conventional diffraction or NMR techniques. PMID:27319808

  6. Organic Matter Degradation Drives Benthic Cyanobacterial Mat Abundance on Caribbean Coral Reefs

    PubMed Central

    Brocke, Hannah J.; Polerecky, Lubos; de Beer, Dirk; Weber, Miriam; Claudet, Joachim; Nugues, Maggy M.

    2015-01-01

    Benthic cyanobacterial mats (BCMs) are impacting coral reefs worldwide. However, the factors and mechanisms driving their proliferation are unclear. We conducted a multi-year survey around the Caribbean island of Curaçao, which revealed highest BCM abundance on sheltered reefs close to urbanised areas. Reefs with high BCM abundance were also characterised by high benthic cover of macroalgae and low cover of corals. Nutrient concentrations in the water-column were consistently low, but markedly increased just above substrata (both sandy and hard) covered with BCMs. This was true for sites with both high and low BCM coverage, suggesting that BCM growth is stimulated by a localised, substrate-linked release of nutrients from the microbial degradation of organic matter. This hypothesis was supported by a higher organic content in sediments on reefs with high BCM coverage, and by an in situ experiment which showed that BCMs grew within days on sediments enriched with organic matter (Spirulina). We propose that nutrient runoff from urbanised areas stimulates phototrophic blooms and enhances organic matter concentrations on the reef. This organic matter is transported by currents and settles on the seabed at sites with low hydrodynamics. Subsequently, nutrients released from the organic matter degradation fuel the growth of BCMs. Improved management of nutrients generated on land should lower organic loading of sediments and other benthos (e.g. turf and macroalgae) to reduce BCM proliferation on coral reefs. PMID:25941812

  7. Organic matter degradation drives benthic cyanobacterial mat abundance on Caribbean coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Brocke, Hannah J; Polerecky, Lubos; de Beer, Dirk; Weber, Miriam; Claudet, Joachim; Nugues, Maggy M

    2015-01-01

    Benthic cyanobacterial mats (BCMs) are impacting coral reefs worldwide. However, the factors and mechanisms driving their proliferation are unclear. We conducted a multi-year survey around the Caribbean island of Curaçao, which revealed highest BCM abundance on sheltered reefs close to urbanised areas. Reefs with high BCM abundance were also characterised by high benthic cover of macroalgae and low cover of corals. Nutrient concentrations in the water-column were consistently low, but markedly increased just above substrata (both sandy and hard) covered with BCMs. This was true for sites with both high and low BCM coverage, suggesting that BCM growth is stimulated by a localised, substrate-linked release of nutrients from the microbial degradation of organic matter. This hypothesis was supported by a higher organic content in sediments on reefs with high BCM coverage, and by an in situ experiment which showed that BCMs grew within days on sediments enriched with organic matter (Spirulina). We propose that nutrient runoff from urbanised areas stimulates phototrophic blooms and enhances organic matter concentrations on the reef. This organic matter is transported by currents and settles on the seabed at sites with low hydrodynamics. Subsequently, nutrients released from the organic matter degradation fuel the growth of BCMs. Improved management of nutrients generated on land should lower organic loading of sediments and other benthos (e.g. turf and macroalgae) to reduce BCM proliferation on coral reefs. PMID:25941812

  8. Organic amendments enhance microbial diversity and abundance of functional genes in Australian Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aldorri, Sind; McMillan, Mary; Pereg, Lily

    2016-04-01

    Food and cash crops play important roles in Australia's economy with black, grey and red clay soil, widely use for growing cotton, wheat, corn and other crops in rotation. While the majority of cotton growers use nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers only in the form of agrochemicals, a few experiment with the addition of manure or composted plant material before planting. We hypothesized that the use of such organic amendments would enhance the soil microbial function through increased microbial diversity and abundance, thus contribute to improved soil sustainability. To test the hypothesis we collected soil samples from two cotton-growing farms in close geographical proximity and with mostly similar production practices other than one grower has been using composted plants as organic amendment and the second farmer uses only agrochemicals. We applied the Biolog Ecoplate system to study the metabolic signature of microbial communities and used qPCR to estimate the abundance of functional genes in the soil. The soil treated with organic amendments clearly showed higher metabolic activity of a more diverse range of carbon sources as well as higher abundance of genes involved in the nitrogen and phosphorous cycles. Since microbes undertake a large number of soil functions, the use of organic amendments can contribute to the sustainability of agricultural soils.

  9. Non-coding RNAs’ partitioning in the evolution of photosynthetic organisms via energy transduction and redox signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kotakis, Christos

    2015-01-01

    Ars longa, vita brevis —HippocratesChloroplasts and mitochondria are genetically semi-autonomous organelles inside the plant cell. These constructions formed after endosymbiosis and keep evolving throughout the history of life. Experimental evidence is provided for active non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) in these prokaryote-like structures, and a possible functional imprinting on cellular electrophysiology by those RNA entities is described. Furthermore, updated knowledge on RNA metabolism of organellar genomes uncovers novel inter-communication bridges with the nucleus. This class of RNA molecules is considered as a unique ontogeny which transforms their biological role as a genetic rheostat into a synchronous biochemical one that can affect the energetic charge and redox homeostasis inside cells. A hypothesis is proposed where such modulation by non-coding RNAs is integrated with genetic signals regulating gene transfer. The implications of this working hypothesis are discussed, with particular reference to ncRNAs involvement in the organellar and nuclear genomes evolution since their integrity is functionally coupled with redox signals in photosynthetic organisms. PMID:25826417

  10. Nanophase Iron Oxides as an Ultraviolet Sunscreen for Ancient Photosynthetic Microbes: A Possible Link Between Early Organisms, Banded-Iron Formations, and the Oxygenation of the Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Rothschild, Lynn J.; Rothschild, Lynn J.; Rogoff, Dana A.

    2006-01-01

    We propose that nanophase iron oxide-bearing materials provided important niches for ancient photosynthetic microbes on the early Earth that ultimately led to the oxygenation of the Earth s atmosphere and the formation of iron oxide deposits. Atmospheric oxygen and ozone attenuate UV radiation on the Earth today providing substantial protection for photosynthetic organisms. With ultraviolet radiation fluxes likely to have been even higher on the early Earth than today, accessing solar radiation was particularly risky for early organisms. Yet, we know that photosynthesis arose then and played a critical role in subsequent evolution. Of primary importance was protection at approx.250-290 nm, where peak nucleic acid (approx.260 nm) and protein (approx.280 nm) absorptions occur. Nanophase ferric oxide/oxyhydroxide minerals absorb, and thus block, the lethal UV radiation, while transmitting light through much of the visible and near-infrared regions of interest to photosynthesis (400 to 1100 nm). Further, they were available in early environments, and are synthesized by many organisms. Based on ferric oxide/oxyhydroxide spectral properties, likely geologic processes, and the results of experiments with the photosynthetic organisms, Euglena sp. and Chlumydomonus reinhardtii, we propose a scenario where photosynthesis, and ultimately the oxygenation of the atmosphere, depended on the protection of early microbes by nanophase ferric oxides/oxyhydroxides. The results of this study are also applicable to other potentially habitable iron-bearing planetary bodies because of the evolutionary pressure to utilize solar radiation when available as an energy source.

  11. Fossilized intact polar lipids of photosynthetic organisms in ancient subsurface sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauersachs, T.; Schouten, S.; Hopmans, E. C.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.

    2009-12-01

    In recent years, the idea of a rich microbial biosphere in the marine sea floor has been widely accepted. This so-called “deep biosphere” is estimated to contain ca. 50 % of Earth’s total prokaryotic biomass with the overall order of magnitude of microbial cells in the sea floor being the same as the biomass of all surface plant life (Whitman et al. 1998). Evidence for the existence of a deep biosphere comes, among others, from the analysis of intact polar lipids (IPLs). This approach presumes that IPLs almost instantaneously lose their polar head group after cell death and thus do not preserve on geological timescales. Consequently, IPLs in the subsurface should derive from in situ production and hence indicate the presence of living prokaryotic cells. For example, in various oceanic subsurface sediments archaeal IPLs have been found, suggesting that Archaea constitute a major fraction of the deep biosphere biomass (Lipp et al. 2008). In this study, we found IPLs of heterocystous cyanobacteria in a number of ancient and deeply buried sediments. Heterocystous cyanobacteria are strictly photoautotrophic organisms that are a common constituent of the phytoplankton community in many freshwater and brackish environments but are also encountered in the marine realm as endosymbionts of diatom species. Under nitrogen-depleted conditions, these organisms carry out nitrogen fixation in specialized cells, known as heterocysts. These cells contain a suite of heterocyst glycolipids (HGs) that have not been identified in any other organism and are thus unique biological markers for nitrogen-fixing heterocystous cyanobacteria. Using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS/MS), we detected HGs in Pleistocene and Pliocene Mediterranean sapropels buried up to 60 m below the seafloor. In addition, these HGs were also found in lacustrine deposits of the Oligocene Lake Enspel (35 Ma), the Eocene Lake Messel

  12. Fabrication of Organic Light-Emitting Diodes Using Photosynthetic Pigments Extracted from Spinach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohtani, Naoki; Kitagawa, Natsuko; Matsuda, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    We fabricated organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) containing chlorophylls in the active region, which were extracted from spinach using a chemical method. Photoluminescence (PL) cannot be observed in the thin film of the extracted chlorophylls owing to concentration quenching. To overcome the concentration quenching, a host material, poly[(m-phenylenevinylene)-alt-(2,5-dihexyloxy-p-phenylenevinylene)] (PPV) was added in the active region. This leads to the observaton of electroluminescence (EL) signals originating from chlorophyll a. We also evaluated the lifetime of the PL and EL. Consequently, the OLEDs containing carotenoids in the active region exhibit the light-emission much longer time than that without carotenoidos. This is assigned to the antioxidant activities of carotenoids. OLEDs containing a large amount of carotenoids are resistant to the oxidation damage.

  13. Self-organized photosynthetic nanoparticle for cell-free hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwuchukwu, Ifeyinwa J.; Vaughn, Michael; Myers, Natalie; O'Neill, Hugh; Frymier, Paul; Bruce, Barry D.

    2010-01-01

    There is considerable interest in making use of solar energy through photosynthesis to create alternative forms of fuel. Here, we show that photosystem I from a thermophilic bacterium and cytochrome-c6 can, in combination with a platinum catalyst, generate a stable supply of hydrogen in vitro upon illumination. The self-organized platinization of the photosystem I nanoparticles allows electron transport from sodium ascorbate to photosystem I via cytochrome-c6 and finally to the platinum catalyst, where hydrogen gas is formed. Our system produces hydrogen at temperatures up to 55 °C and is temporally stable for >85 days with no decrease in hydrogen yield when tested intermittently. The maximum yield is ~ 5.5 µmol H2 h-1 mg-1 chlorophyll and is estimated to be ~25-fold greater than current biomass-to-fuel strategies. Future work will further improve this yield by increasing the kinetics of electron transfer, extending the spectral response and replacing the platinum catalyst with a renewable hydrogenase.

  14. Light represses transcription of asparagine synthetase genes in photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic organs of plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, Fongying; Coruzzi, G. )

    1991-10-01

    Asparagine synthetase (AS) mRNA in Pisum sativum accumulates preferentially in plants grown in the dark. Nuclear run-on experiments demonstrate that expression of both the AS1 and AS2 genes is negatively regulated by light at the level of transcription. A decrease in the transcriptional rate of the AS1 gene can be detected as early as 20 min after exposure to light. Time course experiments reveal that the levels of AS mRNA fluctuate dramatically during a normal light/dark cycle. This is due to a direct effect of light and not to changes associated with circadian rhythm. A novel finding is that the light-repressed expression of the AS1 gene is as dramatic nonphotosynthetic organs such as roots as it is in leaves. Experiments demonstrate that the small amount of light which passes through the soil is sufficient to repress AS1 expression in roots, indicating that light has a direct effect on AS1 gene expression in roots. The negative regulation of AS gene expression by light was shown to be a general phenomenon in plants which also occurs in nonlegumes such as Nicotiana plumbaginifolia and Nicotiana tabacum. Thus, the AS genes can serve as a model with which to dissect the molecular basis for light-regulated transcriptional repression in plants.

  15. Self-Organized Photosynthetic Nanoparticle for Cell-free Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect

    Iwuchukwu, Ifeyinwa J; Vaughn, Michael D; Myers, Natalie; O'Neill, Hugh Michael; Frymier, Paul Dexter; Bruce, Barry

    2009-01-01

    There is considerable interest in making use of solar energy through photosynthesis to create alternative forms of fuel. Here, we show that photosystem I from a thermophilic bacterium and cytochrome-c6 can, in combination with a platinum catalyst, generate a stable supply of hydrogen in vitro upon illumination. The self-organized platinization of the photosystem I nanoparticles allows electron transport from sodium ascorbate to photosystem I via cytochrome-c{sub 6} and finally to the platinum catalyst, where hydrogen gas is formed. Our system produces hydrogen at temperatures up to 55 C and is temporally stable for >85 days with no decrease in hydrogen yield when tested intermittently. The maximum yield is {approx} 5.5 {micro}mol H{sub 2} h{sup -1} mg{sup -1} chlorophyll and is estimated to be {approx} 25-fold greater than current biomass-to-fuel strategies. Future work will further improve this yield by increasing the kinetics of electron transfer, extending the spectral response and replacing the platinum catalyst with a renewable hydrogenase.

  16. Primary electron transfer processes in photosynthetic reaction centers from oxygenic organisms.

    PubMed

    Mamedov, Mahir; Govindjee; Nadtochenko, Victor; Semenov, Alexey

    2015-08-01

    This minireview is written in honor of Vladimir A. Shuvalov, a pioneer in the area of primary photochemistry of both oxygenic and anoxygenic photosyntheses (See a News Report: Allakhverdiev et al. 2014). In the present paper, we describe the current state of the formation of the primary and secondary ion-radical pairs within photosystems (PS) II and I in oxygenic organisms. Spectral-kinetic studies of primary events in PS II and PS I, upon excitation by ~20 fs laser pulses, are now available and reviewed here; for PS II, excitation was centered at 710 nm, and for PS I, it was at 720 nm. In PS I, conditions were chosen to maximally increase the relative contribution of the direct excitation of the reaction center (RC) in order to separate the kinetics of the primary steps of charge separation in the RC from that of the excitation energy transfer in the antenna. Our results suggest that the sequence of the primary electron transfer reactions is P680 → ChlD1 → PheD1 → QA (PS II) and P700 → A 0A/A 0B → A 1A/A 1B (PS I). However, alternate routes of charge separation in PS II, under different excitation conditions, are not ruled out. PMID:25648636

  17. Organic Nitrogen-Driven Stimulation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Hyphae Correlates with Abundance of Ammonia Oxidizers.

    PubMed

    Bukovská, Petra; Gryndler, Milan; Gryndlerová, Hana; Püschel, David; Jansa, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Large fraction of mineral nutrients in natural soil environments is recycled from complex and heterogeneously distributed organic sources. These sources are explored by both roots and associated mycorrhizal fungi. However, the mechanisms behind the responses of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) hyphal networks to soil organic patches of different qualities remain little understood. Therefore, we conducted a multiple-choice experiment examining hyphal responses to different soil patches within the root-free zone by two AM fungal species (Rhizophagus irregularis and Claroideoglomus claroideum) associated with Medicago truncatula, a legume forming nitrogen-fixing root nodules. Hyphal colonization of the patches was assessed microscopically and by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) using AM taxon-specific markers, and the prokaryotic and fungal communities in the patches (pooled per organic amendment treatment) were profiled by 454-amplicon sequencing. Specific qPCR markers were then designed and used to quantify the abundance of prokaryotic taxa showing the strongest correlation with the pattern of AM hyphal proliferation in the organic patches as per the 454-sequencing. The hyphal density of both AM fungi increased due to nitrogen (N)-containing organic amendments (i.e., chitin, DNA, albumin, and clover biomass), while no responses as compared to the non-amended soil patch were recorded for cellulose, phytate, or inorganic phosphate amendments. Abundances of several prokaryotes, including Nitrosospira sp. (an ammonium oxidizer) and an unknown prokaryote with affiliation to Acanthamoeba endosymbiont, which were frequently recorded in the 454-sequencing profiles, correlated positively with the hyphal responses of R. irregularis to the soil amendments. Strong correlation between abundance of these two prokaryotes and the hyphal responses to organic soil amendments by both AM fungi was then confirmed by qPCR analyses using all individual replicate patch samples. Further

  18. Organic Nitrogen-Driven Stimulation of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Hyphae Correlates with Abundance of Ammonia Oxidizers

    PubMed Central

    Bukovská, Petra; Gryndler, Milan; Gryndlerová, Hana; Püschel, David; Jansa, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Large fraction of mineral nutrients in natural soil environments is recycled from complex and heterogeneously distributed organic sources. These sources are explored by both roots and associated mycorrhizal fungi. However, the mechanisms behind the responses of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) hyphal networks to soil organic patches of different qualities remain little understood. Therefore, we conducted a multiple-choice experiment examining hyphal responses to different soil patches within the root-free zone by two AM fungal species (Rhizophagus irregularis and Claroideoglomus claroideum) associated with Medicago truncatula, a legume forming nitrogen-fixing root nodules. Hyphal colonization of the patches was assessed microscopically and by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) using AM taxon-specific markers, and the prokaryotic and fungal communities in the patches (pooled per organic amendment treatment) were profiled by 454-amplicon sequencing. Specific qPCR markers were then designed and used to quantify the abundance of prokaryotic taxa showing the strongest correlation with the pattern of AM hyphal proliferation in the organic patches as per the 454-sequencing. The hyphal density of both AM fungi increased due to nitrogen (N)-containing organic amendments (i.e., chitin, DNA, albumin, and clover biomass), while no responses as compared to the non-amended soil patch were recorded for cellulose, phytate, or inorganic phosphate amendments. Abundances of several prokaryotes, including Nitrosospira sp. (an ammonium oxidizer) and an unknown prokaryote with affiliation to Acanthamoeba endosymbiont, which were frequently recorded in the 454-sequencing profiles, correlated positively with the hyphal responses of R. irregularis to the soil amendments. Strong correlation between abundance of these two prokaryotes and the hyphal responses to organic soil amendments by both AM fungi was then confirmed by qPCR analyses using all individual replicate patch samples. Further

  19. Chemoselective single-site Earth-abundant metal catalysts at metal-organic framework nodes.

    PubMed

    Manna, Kuntal; Ji, Pengfei; Lin, Zekai; Greene, Francis X; Urban, Ania; Thacker, Nathan C; Lin, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Earth-abundant metal catalysts are critically needed for sustainable chemical synthesis. Here we report a simple, cheap and effective strategy of producing novel earth-abundant metal catalysts at metal-organic framework (MOF) nodes for broad-scope organic transformations. The straightforward metalation of MOF secondary building units (SBUs) with cobalt and iron salts affords highly active and reusable single-site solid catalysts for a range of organic reactions, including chemoselective borylation, silylation and amination of benzylic C-H bonds, as well as hydrogenation and hydroboration of alkenes and ketones. Our structural, spectroscopic and kinetic studies suggest that chemoselective organic transformations occur on site-isolated, electron-deficient and coordinatively unsaturated metal centres at the SBUs via σ-bond metathesis pathways and as a result of the steric environment around the catalytic site. MOFs thus provide a novel platform for the development of highly active and affordable base metal catalysts for the sustainable synthesis of fine chemicals. PMID:27574182

  20. Constraining the Abundances of Complex Organics in the Inner Regions of Solar-Type Protostars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Sepulcre, A.; Taquet, V.; Ceccarelli, C.; Neri, R.; Kahane, C.; Charnley, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    We present arcsecond-resolution observations, obtained with the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer, of multiple complex organic molecules in two hot corino protostars: IRAS 2A and IRAS 4A, in the NGC 1333 star-forming region. The distribution of the line emission is very compact, indicating the presence of COMs is mostly concentrated in the inner hot corino regions. A comparison of the COMs abundances with astrochemical models favours a gas-phase formation route for CH3OCH3, and a grain formation of C2H5OH, C2H5CN, and HCOCH2OH. The high abundances of methyl formate (HCOOCH3) remain underpredicted by an order of magnitude.

  1. High-resolution NMR of hydrogen in organic solids by DNP enhanced natural abundance deuterium spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossini, Aaron J.; Schlagnitweit, Judith; Lesage, Anne; Emsley, Lyndon

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate that high field (9.4 T) dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) at cryogenic (∼100 K) sample temperatures enables the rapid acquisition of natural abundance 1H-2H cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) solid-state NMR spectra of organic solids. Spectra were obtained by impregnating substrates with a solution of the stable DNP polarizing agent TEKPol in tetrachloroethane. Tetrachloroethane is a non-solvent for the solids, and the unmodified substrates are then polarized through spin diffusion. High quality natural abundance 2H CPMAS spectra of histidine hydrochloride monohydrate, glycylglycine and theophylline were acquired in less than 2 h, providing direct access to hydrogen chemical shifts and quadrupolar couplings. The spectral resolution of the 2H solid-state NMR spectra is comparable to that of 1H spectra obtained with state of the art homonuclear decoupling techniques.

  2. High-resolution NMR of hydrogen in organic solids by DNP enhanced natural abundance deuterium spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rossini, Aaron J; Schlagnitweit, Judith; Lesage, Anne; Emsley, Lyndon

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate that high field (9.4 T) dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) at cryogenic (∼100 K) sample temperatures enables the rapid acquisition of natural abundance (1)H-(2)H cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) solid-state NMR spectra of organic solids. Spectra were obtained by impregnating substrates with a solution of the stable DNP polarizing agent TEKPol in tetrachloroethane. Tetrachloroethane is a non-solvent for the solids, and the unmodified substrates are then polarized through spin diffusion. High quality natural abundance (2)H CPMAS spectra of histidine hydrochloride monohydrate, glycylglycine and theophylline were acquired in less than 2h, providing direct access to hydrogen chemical shifts and quadrupolar couplings. The spectral resolution of the (2)H solid-state NMR spectra is comparable to that of (1)H spectra obtained with state of the art homonuclear decoupling techniques. PMID:26363582

  3. A human interactome in three quantitative dimensions organized by stoichiometries and abundances.

    PubMed

    Hein, Marco Y; Hubner, Nina C; Poser, Ina; Cox, Jürgen; Nagaraj, Nagarjuna; Toyoda, Yusuke; Gak, Igor A; Weisswange, Ina; Mansfeld, Jörg; Buchholz, Frank; Hyman, Anthony A; Mann, Matthias

    2015-10-22

    The organization of a cell emerges from the interactions in protein networks. The interactome is critically dependent on the strengths of interactions and the cellular abundances of the connected proteins, both of which span orders of magnitude. However, these aspects have not yet been analyzed globally. Here, we have generated a library of HeLa cell lines expressing 1,125 GFP-tagged proteins under near-endogenous control, which we used as input for a next-generation interaction survey. Using quantitative proteomics, we detect specific interactions, estimate interaction stoichiometries, and measure cellular abundances of interacting proteins. These three quantitative dimensions reveal that the protein network is dominated by weak, substoichiometric interactions that play a pivotal role in defining network topology. The minority of stable complexes can be identified by their unique stoichiometry signature. This study provides a rich interaction dataset connecting thousands of proteins and introduces a framework for quantitative network analysis. PMID:26496610

  4. Constraining the Abundances of Complex Organics in the Inner Regions of Solar-type Protostars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taquet, Vianney; López-Sepulcre, Ana; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Neri, Roberto; Kahane, Claudine; Charnley, Steven B.

    2015-05-01

    The high abundances of Complex Organic Molecules (COMs) with respect to methanol, the most abundant COM, detected toward low-mass protostars, tend to be underpredicted by astrochemical models. This discrepancy might come from the large beam of the single-dish telescopes, encompassing several components of the studied protostar, commonly used to detect COMs. To address this issue, we have carried out multi-line observations of methanol and several COMs toward the two low-mass protostars NGC 1333-IRAS 2A and -IRAS 4A with the Plateau de Bure interferometer at an angular resolution of 2″, resulting in the first multi-line detection of the O-bearing species glycolaldehyde and ethanol and of the N-bearing species ethyl cyanide toward low-mass protostars other than IRAS 16293. The high number of detected transitions from COMs (more than 40 methanol transitions for instance) allowed us to accurately derive the source size of their emission and the COM column densities. The COM abundances with respect to methanol derived toward IRAS 2A and IRAS 4A are slightly, but not substantitally, lower than those derived from previous single-dish observations. The COM abundance ratios do not vary significantly with the protostellar luminosity, over five orders of magnitude, implying that low-mass hot corinos are quite chemically rich as high-mass hot cores. Astrochemical models still underpredict the abundances of key COMs, such as methyl formate or di-methyl ether, suggesting that our understanding of their formation remains incomplete.

  5. Probabilisitc Geobiological Classification Using Elemental Abundance Distributions and Lossless Image Compression in Recent and Modern Organisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Storrie-Lombardi, Michael C.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2005-01-01

    Last year we presented techniques for the detection of fossils during robotic missions to Mars using both structural and chemical signatures[Storrie-Lombardi and Hoover, 2004]. Analyses included lossless compression of photographic images to estimate the relative complexity of a putative fossil compared to the rock matrix [Corsetti and Storrie-Lombardi, 2003] and elemental abundance distributions to provide mineralogical classification of the rock matrix [Storrie-Lombardi and Fisk, 2004]. We presented a classification strategy employing two exploratory classification algorithms (Principal Component Analysis and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis) and non-linear stochastic neural network to produce a Bayesian estimate of classification accuracy. We now present an extension of our previous experiments exploring putative fossil forms morphologically resembling cyanobacteria discovered in the Orgueil meteorite. Elemental abundances (C6, N7, O8, Na11, Mg12, Ai13, Si14, P15, S16, Cl17, K19, Ca20, Fe26) obtained for both extant cyanobacteria and fossil trilobites produce signatures readily distinguishing them from meteorite targets. When compared to elemental abundance signatures for extant cyanobacteria Orgueil structures exhibit decreased abundances for C6, N7, Na11, All3, P15, Cl17, K19, Ca20 and increases in Mg12, S16, Fe26. Diatoms and silicified portions of cyanobacterial sheaths exhibiting high levels of silicon and correspondingly low levels of carbon cluster more closely with terrestrial fossils than with extant cyanobacteria. Compression indices verify that variations in random and redundant textural patterns between perceived forms and the background matrix contribute significantly to morphological visual identification. The results provide a quantitative probabilistic methodology for discriminating putatitive fossils from the surrounding rock matrix and &om extant organisms using both structural and chemical information. The techniques described appear applicable

  6. Organic and mineral imprints in fossil photosynthetic mats of an East Antarctic lake.

    PubMed

    Lepot, K; Compère, P; Gérard, E; Namsaraev, Z; Verleyen, E; Tavernier, I; Hodgson, D A; Vyverman, W; Gilbert, B; Wilmotte, A; Javaux, E J

    2014-09-01

    spheres interpreted as coccoidal bacteria may represent fossils of intracellular calcification. These organo-mineral associations support organically driven nanocarbonate crystallization and stabilization, hence providing potential markers for microbial calcification in ancient rocks. PMID:25039968

  7. Systems-wide analysis of acclimation responses to long-term heat stress and recovery in the photosynthetic model organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Hemme, Dorothea; Veyel, Daniel; Mühlhaus, Timo; Sommer, Frederik; Jüppner, Jessica; Unger, Ann-Katrin; Sandmann, Michael; Fehrle, Ines; Schönfelder, Stephanie; Steup, Martin; Geimer, Stefan; Kopka, Joachim; Giavalisco, Patrick; Schroda, Michael

    2014-11-01

    We applied a top-down systems biology approach to understand how Chlamydomonas reinhardtii acclimates to long-term heat stress (HS) and recovers from it. For this, we shifted cells from 25 to 42°C for 24 h and back to 25°C for ≥8 h and monitored abundances of 1856 proteins/protein groups, 99 polar and 185 lipophilic metabolites, and cytological and photosynthesis parameters. Our data indicate that acclimation of Chlamydomonas to long-term HS consists of a temporally ordered, orchestrated implementation of response elements at various system levels. These comprise (1) cell cycle arrest; (2) catabolism of larger molecules to generate compounds with roles in stress protection; (3) accumulation of molecular chaperones to restore protein homeostasis together with compatible solutes; (4) redirection of photosynthetic energy and reducing power from the Calvin cycle to the de novo synthesis of saturated fatty acids to replace polyunsaturated ones in membrane lipids, which are deposited in lipid bodies; and (5) when sinks for photosynthetic energy and reducing power are depleted, resumption of Calvin cycle activity associated with increased photorespiration, accumulation of reactive oxygen species scavengers, and throttling of linear electron flow by antenna uncoupling. During recovery from HS, cells appear to focus on processes allowing rapid resumption of growth rather than restoring pre-HS conditions. PMID:25415976

  8. Systems-Wide Analysis of Acclimation Responses to Long-Term Heat Stress and Recovery in the Photosynthetic Model Organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Hemme, Dorothea; Veyel, Daniel; Mühlhaus, Timo; Sommer, Frederik; Jüppner, Jessica; Unger, Ann-Katrin; Sandmann, Michael; Fehrle, Ines; Schönfelder, Stephanie; Steup, Martin; Geimer, Stefan; Kopka, Joachim; Giavalisco, Patrick; Schroda, Michael

    2014-01-01

    We applied a top-down systems biology approach to understand how Chlamydomonas reinhardtii acclimates to long-term heat stress (HS) and recovers from it. For this, we shifted cells from 25 to 42°C for 24 h and back to 25°C for ≥8 h and monitored abundances of 1856 proteins/protein groups, 99 polar and 185 lipophilic metabolites, and cytological and photosynthesis parameters. Our data indicate that acclimation of Chlamydomonas to long-term HS consists of a temporally ordered, orchestrated implementation of response elements at various system levels. These comprise (1) cell cycle arrest; (2) catabolism of larger molecules to generate compounds with roles in stress protection; (3) accumulation of molecular chaperones to restore protein homeostasis together with compatible solutes; (4) redirection of photosynthetic energy and reducing power from the Calvin cycle to the de novo synthesis of saturated fatty acids to replace polyunsaturated ones in membrane lipids, which are deposited in lipid bodies; and (5) when sinks for photosynthetic energy and reducing power are depleted, resumption of Calvin cycle activity associated with increased photorespiration, accumulation of reactive oxygen species scavengers, and throttling of linear electron flow by antenna uncoupling. During recovery from HS, cells appear to focus on processes allowing rapid resumption of growth rather than restoring pre-HS conditions. PMID:25415976

  9. Manganese limitation induces changes in the activity and in the organization of photosynthetic complexes in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Salomon, Eitan; Keren, Nir

    2011-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) ions are essential for oxygen evolution activity in photoautotrophs. In this paper, we demonstrate the dynamic response of the photosynthetic apparatus to changes in Mn bioavailability in cyanobacteria. Cultures of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis PCC 6803 could grow on Mn concentrations as low as 100 nm without any observable effect on their physiology. Below this threshold, a decline in the photochemical activity of photosystem II (PSII) occurred, as evident by lower oxygen evolution rates, lower maximal photosynthetic yield of PSII values, and faster Q(A) reoxidation rates. In 77 K chlorophyll fluorescence spectroscopy, a peak at 682 nm was observed. After ruling out the contribution of phycobilisome and iron stress-induced IsiA proteins, this band was attributed to the accumulation of partially assembled PSII. Surprisingly, the increase in the 682-nm peak was paralleled by a decrease in the 720-nm peak, dominated by PSI fluorescence. The effect on PSI was confirmed by measurements of the P(700) photochemical activity. The loss of activity was the result of two processes: loss of PSI core proteins and changes in the organization of PSI complexes. Blue native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis revealed a Mn limitation-dependent dissociation of PSI trimers into monomers. The sensitive range for changes in the organization of the photosynthetic apparatus overlaps with the range of Mn concentrations measured in natural environments. We suggest that the ability to manipulate PSI content and organization allows cyanobacteria to balance electron transport rates between the photosystems. At naturally occurring Mn concentrations, such a mechanism will provide important protection against light-induced damage. PMID:21088228

  10. Predators alter community organization of coral reef cryptofauna and reduce abundance of coral mutualists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stier, A. C.; Leray, M.

    2014-03-01

    Coral reefs are the most diverse marine systems in the world, yet our understanding of the processes that maintain such extraordinary diversity remains limited and taxonomically biased toward the most conspicuous species. Cryptofauna that live deeply embedded within the interstitial spaces of coral reefs make up the majority of reef diversity, and many of these species provide important protective services to their coral hosts. However, we know very little about the processes governing the diversity and composition of these less conspicuous but functionally important species. Here, we experimentally quantify the role of predation in driving the community organization of small fishes and decapods that live embedded within Pocillopora eydouxi, a structurally complex, reef-building coral found widely across the Indo-Pacific. We use surveys to describe the natural distribution of predators, and then, factorially manipulate two focal predator species to quantify the independent and combined effects of predator density and identity on P. eydouxi-dwelling cryptofauna. Predators reduced abundance (34 %), species richness (20 %), and modified species composition. Rarefaction revealed that observed reductions in species richness were primarily driven by changes in abundance. Additionally, the two predator species uniquely affected the beta diversity and composition of the prey assemblage. Predators reduced the abundance and modified the composition of a number of mutualist fishes and decapods, whose benefit to the coral is known to be both diversity- and density-dependent. We predict that the density and identity of predators present within P. eydouxi may substantially alter coral performance in the face of an increased frequency and intensity of natural and anthropogenic stressors.

  11. Reversed-phase HPLC determination of chlorophyll a' and phylloquinone in Photosystem I of oxygenic photosynthetic organisms. Universal existence of one chlorophyll a' molecule in Photosystem I.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Akimasa; Akai, Masahiko; Yoshida, Emi; Taki, Takashi; Watanabe, Tadashi

    2003-06-01

    Chlorophyll (Chl) a', the C132-epimer of Chl a, is a constituent of the primary electron donor (P700) of Photosystem (PS) I of a thermophilic cyanobacterium Synechococcus (Thermosynechococcus) elongatus, as was recently demonstrated by X-ray crystallography. To determine whether PS I of oxygenic photosynthetic organisms universally contains one molecule of Chl a', pigment compositions of thylakoid membranes and PS I complexes isolated from the cyanobacteria T. elongatus and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and the green plant spinach, were examined by simultaneous detection of phylloquinone (the secondary electron acceptor of PS I) and Chl a' by reversed-phase HPLC. The results were compared with the Chl a/P700 ratio determined spectrophotometrically. The Chl a'/PS I ratios of thylakoid membranes and PS I were about 1 for all the organisms examined, and one Chl a' molecule was found in PS I even after most of the peripheral subunits were removed. Chl a' showed a characteristic extraction behaviour significantly different from the bulk Chl a in acetone/methanol extraction upon varying the mixing ratio. These findings confirm that a single Chl a' molecule in P700 is the universal feature of PS I of the Chl a-based oxygenic photosynthetic organisms. PMID:12755700

  12. Targeted Access to the Genomes of Low Abundance Organisms in Complex Microbial Communities

    SciTech Connect

    Podar, Mircea; Abulencia, Carl; Walcher, Marion; Hutchinson, Don; Zengler, Karsten; Garcia, Joseph; Holland, Trevin; Cotton, Dave; Hauser, Loren John; Keller, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Current metagenomic approaches to the study of complex microbial consortia provide a glimpse into the community metabolism, and occasionally allow genomic assemblies for the most abundant organisms. However, little information is gained for the members of the community present at low frequency, especially those representing yet uncultured taxa-which includes the bulk of the diversity present in most environments. Here we used phylogenetically directed cell separation by fluorescence in situ hybridization and flow cytometry, followed by amplification and sequencing of a fraction of the genomic DNA of several bacterial cells that belong to the TM7 phylum. Partial genomic assembly allowed, for the first time, a look into the evolution and potential metabolism of a soil representative from this group of organisms for which there are no species in stable laboratory cultures. Genomic reconstruction from targeted cells of uncultured organisms directly isolated from the environment represents a powerful approach to access any specific members of a community and an alternative way to assess the community metabolic potential.

  13. Effects of multiple levels of social organization on survival and abundance.

    PubMed

    Ward, Eric J; Semmens, Brice X; Holmes, Elizabeth E; Balcomb Iii, Ken C

    2011-04-01

    Identifying how social organization shapes individual behavior, survival, and fecundity of animals that live in groups can inform conservation efforts and improve forecasts of population abundance, even when the mechanism responsible for group-level differences is unknown. We constructed a hierarchical Bayesian model to quantify the relative variability in survival rates among different levels of social organization (matrilines and pods) of an endangered population of killer whales (Orcinus orca). Individual killer whales often participate in group activities such as prey sharing and cooperative hunting. The estimated age-specific survival probabilities and survivorship curves differed considerably among pods and to a lesser extent among matrilines (within pods). Across all pods, males had lower life expectancy than females. Differences in survival between pods may be caused by a combination of factors that vary across the population's range, including reduced prey availability, contaminants in prey, and human activity. Our modeling approach could be applied to demographic rates for other species and for parameters other than survival, including reproduction, prey selection, movement, and detection probabilities. PMID:21054527

  14. Organic matter formed from hydrolysis of metal carbides of the iron peak of cosmic elemental abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cataldo, Franco

    2003-01-01

    This work is a modern revisitation of an old idea of great chemists of the past such as Berthelot, Mendeleev, Cloez and Moissan: the formation of organic matter under pre-biotic conditions starting from the hydrolysis of metal carbides. This idea was originally proposed for the formation of petroleum in the Earth and was extended to other bodies of the solar system by Sokolov at the end of the 19th century. The reason for this revisitation lies in the fact that complex organic matter resembling a petroleum fraction may exist in certain protoplanetary nebulae. The present work starts with a survey of the theory of the inorganic origin of petroleum and reports on current evidence for its derivation from residues of formerly living matter, but also considers theories that admit both a biogenic and an abiogenic origin for petroleum. By considering the cosmic abundance of elements and the evidence concerning the presence of carbides in meteorites, we discuss the formation, structure and hydrolysis products derived from the metal carbides of the iron peak of cosmic elemental abundance. Chromium carbide (Cr3C2) has then been used as a model compound for all the key carbides of the iron peak of the cosmic abundance (Cr, Fe, Ni, V, Mn, Co) and it has been hydrolysed under different conditions and the hydrocarbons formed have been analysed using electronic spectroscopy, high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode-array detector (HPLC-DAD) and by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Methane, a series of about 20 different alkenes with single and conjugated double bonds have been detected. Paraffins are formed simultaneously with the alkene series but no acetylenic hydrocarbons have been detected. This study confirms early works considering the easy hydrolysis of the carbides of Cr, Fe, Ni, Mn and Co with the formation of H2, a series of alkanes including methane and a series of alkenes including ethylene. The peculiar behaviour of copper carbide (copper is

  15. Thermal alteration of organic matter in recent marine sediments. 1: Pigments. [photosynthetic pigments from Tanner Basin off Southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikan, R.; Aizenshtat, Z.; Baedecker, M. J.; Kaplan, I. R.

    1974-01-01

    Sediment from Tanner Basin, the outer continental shelf off Southern California, was analyzed for photosynthetic pigments and their derivatives, namely carotenes and chlorins. Samples of the sediment were also exposed to raised temperatures (65, 100, 150 C) for various periods of time (1 week, 1 month, 2 months). Analysis of the heat-treated sediment revealed the presence of alpha-ionene and 2,6-dimethylnapthalene, thermal degradation products of Betacarotente. Chlorins were converted to nickel porphyrins of both DPEP and etio series. Possible mechanisms of these transformations are presented.

  16. Adaptation of an abundant Roseobacter RCA organism to pelagic systems revealed by genomic and transcriptomic analyses.

    PubMed

    Voget, Sonja; Wemheuer, Bernd; Brinkhoff, Thorsten; Vollmers, John; Dietrich, Sascha; Giebel, Helge-Ansgar; Beardsley, Christine; Sardemann, Carla; Bakenhus, Insa; Billerbeck, Sara; Daniel, Rolf; Simon, Meinhard

    2015-02-01

    The RCA (Roseobacter clade affiliated) cluster, with an internal 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of >98%, is the largest cluster of the marine Roseobacter clade and most abundant in temperate to (sub)polar oceans, constituting up to 35% of total bacterioplankton. The genome analysis of the first described species of the RCA cluster, Planktomarina temperata RCA23, revealed that this phylogenetic lineage is deeply branching within the Roseobacter clade. It shares not >65.7% of homologous genes with any other organism of this clade. The genome is the smallest of all closed genomes of the Roseobacter clade, exhibits various features of genome streamlining and encompasses genes for aerobic anoxygenic photosynthesis (AAP) and CO oxidation. In order to assess the biogeochemical significance of the RCA cluster we investigated a phytoplankton spring bloom in the North Sea. This cluster constituted 5.1% of the total, but 10-31% (mean 18.5%) of the active bacterioplankton. A metatranscriptomic analysis showed that the genome of P. temperata RCA23 was transcribed to 94% in the bloom with some variations during day and night. The genome of P. temperata RCA23 was also retrieved to 84% from metagenomic data sets from a Norwegian fjord and to 82% from stations of the Global Ocean Sampling expedition in the northwestern Atlantic. In this region, up to 6.5% of the total reads mapped on the genome of P. temperata RCA23. This abundant taxon appears to be a major player in ocean biogeochemistry. PMID:25083934

  17. Seasonal abundance of organic molecular markers in urban particulate matter from Philadelphia, PA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Min; McDow, Stephen R.; Tollerud, David J.; Mazurek, Monica A.

    Organic molecular markers were measured in airborne particulate matter (PM10) from the City of Philadelphia North Broad Street air quality monitoring site to identify the seasonal abundance of key tracer compounds together with their dominant sources. Daily PM10 samples were collected seasonally in 2000 for four 2-week periods (January, April, August, and October). The North Broad Street site is within a heavily populated location in Philadelphia, PA. A suite of 52 individual organic marker compounds was monitored in the PM10 samples. Molecular markers, homologous compound series, and nonpolar and polar organic compounds were detected at ng m -3 ambient concentrations using gas chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry (GC/IT MS). Organic diacids (C 3-C 9) and monoacids (C 10-C 30) had seasonal mass concentrations ranging from 91.0 (winter) to 261.8 ng m -3 (summer). Total n-alkanes (C 25-C 33) ranged from 25.9 (spring) to 49.5 ng m -3 (fall), total PAHs from 2.1 ng m -3 (summer) to 4.1 ng m -3 (winter), and total hopanes ranged from 4.0 ng m -3 (winter) to 7.4 ng m -3 (fall). The molecular marker ambient mass concentrations were normalized by the annual average mass of PM10 elemental carbon (EC) for the central Philadelphia area. The ambient mass concentrations to EC and OC ratios ranged from 2.6×10 -3 for total PAHs to EC to 115.3×10 -3 for total n-alkanoic acids to EC, 0.5×10 -3 for total PAHs to OC to 23.8×10 -3 for total n-alkanoic acids to OC. Ambient concentrations of individual markers are similar to other reported levels for metropolitan Los Angeles, CA and Atlanta, GA. Seasonal and daily variations of marker compounds are consistent with motor vehicle exhaust, particularly in winter. Summer concentration patterns indicate the importance of secondary organic aerosol to the PM10 ambient mass.

  18. Tectonics and the photosynthetic habitable zone (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleep, N. H.

    2009-12-01

    The traditional habitable zone lies between an inner stellar radius where the surface of the planet becomes too hot for liquid water carbon-based life and on outer radius, where the surface freezes. It is effectively the zone where photosynthesis is feasible. The concept extends to putative life on objects with liquid methane at the surface, like Titan. As a practical matter, photosynthesis leaves detectable biosignatures in the geological record; black shale on the Earth indicates that sulfide and probably FeO based photosynthesis existed by 3.8 Ga. The hard crustal rocks and the mantle sequester numerous photosynthetic biosignatures. Photosynthesis can produce detectable free oxygen with ozone in the atmosphere of extrasolar planets. In contrast, there is no outer limit for subsurface life in large silicate objects. Pre-photosynthetic niches are dependable but meager and not very detectable at great antiquity or great distance, with global productivity less than 1e-3 of the photosynthetic ones. Photosynthetic organisms have bountiful energy that modifies their surface environment and even tectonics. For example, metamorphic rocks formed at the expense of thick black shale are highly radioactive and hence self-fluxing. Active tectonics with volcanism and metamorphism prevents volatiles from being sequestered in the subsurface as on Mars. A heat-pipe object, like a larger Io, differs from the Earth in that the volatiles return to the deep interior distributed within massive volcanic deposits rather than concentrated in the shallow oceanic crust. One the Earth, the return of water to the surface by arc volcanoes controls its mantle abundance at the transition between behaving as a trace element and behaving as a major element that affects melting. The ocean accumulates the water that the mantle and crust do not take. The Earth has the “right” amount of water that erosion/deposition and tectonics both tend to maintain near sea level surfaces. The mantle contains

  19. Characterization of Antibiotic Resistance Gene Abundance and Microbiota Composition in Feces of Organic and Conventional Pigs from Four EU Countries.

    PubMed

    Gerzova, Lenka; Babak, Vladimir; Sedlar, Karel; Faldynova, Marcela; Videnska, Petra; Cejkova, Darina; Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Denis, Martine; Kerouanton, Annaelle; Ricci, Antonia; Cibin, Veronica; Österberg, Julia; Rychlik, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    One of the recent trends in animal production is the revival of interest in organic farming. The increased consumer interest in organic animal farming is mainly due to concerns about animal welfare and the use of antibiotics in conventional farming. On the other hand, providing animals with a more natural lifestyle implies their increased exposure to environmental sources of different microorganisms including pathogens. To address these concerns, we determined the abundance of antibiotic resistance and diversity within fecal microbiota in pigs kept under conventional and organic farming systems in Sweden, Denmark, France and Italy. The abundance of sul1, sul2, strA, tet(A), tet(B) and cat antibiotic resistance genes was determined in 468 samples by real-time PCR and the fecal microbiota diversity was characterized in 48 selected samples by pyrosequencing of V3/V4 regions of 16S rRNA. Contrary to our expectations, there were no extensive differences between the abundance of tested antibiotic resistance genes in microbiota originating from organic or conventionally housed pigs within individual countries. There were also no differences in the microbiota composition of organic and conventional pigs. The only significant difference was the difference in the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes in the samples from different countries. Fecal microbiota in the samples originating from southern European countries (Italy, France) exhibited significantly higher antibiotic resistance gene abundance than those from northern parts of Europe (Denmark, Sweden). Therefore, the geographical location of the herd influenced the antibiotic resistance in the fecal microbiota more than farm's status as organic or conventional. PMID:26218075

  20. Hydrogen production by photosynthetic microorganisms

    SciTech Connect

    Akano, T.; Fukatsu, K.; Miyasaka, H. |

    1996-12-31

    Hydrogen is a clean energy alternative to the fossil fuels, the main source of greenhouse gas emissions. We developed a stable system for the conversion of solar energy into hydrogen using photosynthetic microorganisms. Our system consists of the following three stages: (1) Photosynthetic starch accumulation in green microalgae (400 L x2); (2) Dark anaerobic fermentation of the algal starch biomass to produce hydrogen and organic compounds (155 L x2); and (3) Further conversion of the organic compounds to produce hydrogen using photosynthetic bacteria (three types of reactors, parallel plate, raceway, and tubular). We constructed a test plant of this process at Nankoh power plant of Kansai Electric Power Company in Osaka, Japan, and carried out a series of tests using CO{sub 2} obtained from a chemical absorption pilot-plant. The photobiological hydrogen production process used a combination of a marine alga, Chlamydomonas sp. MGA 161 and marine photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodopseudomonas sp. W-1S. The dark anaerobic fermentation of algal starch biomass was also investigated. Sustained and stable starch accumulation, starch degradation in the algal cell, and hydrogen production from algal fermentation and photosynthetic bacteria in the light were demonstrated during several experiments. 3 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  1. The abundance and organization of polypeptides associated with antigens of the Rh blood group system.

    PubMed

    Gardner, B; Anstee, D J; Mawby, W J; Tanner, M J; von dem Borne, A E

    1991-06-01

    Twelve murine monoclonal antibodies, which react with human red cells of common Rh phenotype but give weak or negative reactions with Rh null erythrocytes, were used in quantitative binding assays and competitive binding assays to investigate the abundance and organization of polypeptides involved in the expression of antigens of the Rh blood group system. Antibodies of the R6A-type (R6A, BRIC-69, BRIC-207) and the 2D10-type (MB-2D10, LA18.18, LA23.40) recognize related structures and 100,000-200,000 molecules of each antibody bind maximally to erythrocytes of common Rh phenotype. Antibodies of the BRIC-125 type (BRICs 32, 122, 125, 126, 168, 211) recognize structures that are unrelated to those recognized by R6A-type and 2D10-type antibodies and between 10,000 and 50,000 antibody molecules bind maximally to erythrocytes of the common Rh phenotype. The binding of antibodies of the R6A-type and the 2D10-type, but not of antibodies of the BRIC-125-type could be partially inhibited by human anti-D antibodies (polyclonal and monoclonal) and a murine anti-e-like antibody. These results are consistent with evidence (Moore & Green 1987; Avent et al., 1988b) that the Rh blood group antigens are associated with a complex that comprises two groups of related polypeptides of M(r) 30,000 and M(r) 35,000-100,000, respectively, and suggest that there are 1-2 x 10(5) copies of this complex per erythrocyte. The polypeptide recognized by antibodies of the BRIC-125 type is likely to be associated with this complex. PMID:9259831

  2. Nanophase iron oxides as a key ultraviolet sunscreen for ancient photosynthetic microbes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, Janice L.; Louris, Stephanie K.; Rogoff, Dana A.; Rothschild, Lynn J.

    2006-07-01

    We propose that nanophase iron-oxide-bearing materials provided important niches for ancient photosynthetic microbes on the Earth that ultimately led to the oxygenation of the Earth's atmosphere and the formation of iron-oxide deposits. Atmospheric oxygen and ozone attenuate ultraviolet radiation on the Earth today providing substantial protection for photosynthetic organisms. With ultraviolet radiation fluxes likely to have been even higher on the early Earth than today, accessing solar radiation was particularly risky for early organisms. Yet, we know that photosynthesis arose early and played a critical role in subsequent evolution. Of primary importance was protection below 290 nm, where peak nucleic acid (~260 nm) and protein (~280 nm) absorptions occur. Nanophase ferric oxide/oxyhydroxide minerals absorb, and thus block, the lethal ultraviolet radiation, while transmitting light through much of the visible and near-infrared regions of interest to photosynthesis (400 to 1100 nm). Furthermore, they were available in early environments, and are synthesized by many organisms. Based on experiments using nanophase ferric oxide/oxyhydroxide minerals as a sunscreen for photosynthetic microbes, we suggest that iron, an abundant element widely used in biological mechanisms, may have provided the protection that early organisms needed in order to be able to use photosynthetically active radiation while being protected from ultraviolet-induced damage. The results of this study are broadly applicable to astrobiology because of the abundance of iron in other potentially habitable bodies and the evolutionary pressure to utilize solar radiation when available as an energy source. This model could apply to a potential life form on Mars or other bodies where liquid water and ultraviolet radiation could have been present at significant levels. Based on ferric oxide/oxyhydroxide spectral properties, likely geologic processes, and the results of experiments with the

  3. Modulation of PSI and PSII Organization During Loss and Repair of Photosynthetic Activity in a Temperature Sensitive Mutant of Chlorella pyrenoidosa1

    PubMed Central

    Lavintman, Nelly; Galling, Gottfried; Ohad, Itzhak

    1981-01-01

    Photosynthetic activity and organization of chlorophyll(Chl)-protein complexes in a temperature sensitive mutant of Chlorella pyrenoidosa have been investigated. The mutant is practically indistinguishable from wild type cells when grown at 25 C. However, mutant cells grown at 33 C do not synthesize Chl and lose their ability to evolve O2. O2 evolution and Chl synthesis are restored upon incubation of the 33 C grown cells at 25 C in absence of cell division (repair). Based on polarographic measurements of photosynthetic activities, variable fluorescence, 77 K fluorescence emission, excitation spectra, analysis of Chl-protein complexes, membrane polypeptide pattern and radioactive labeling using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis techniques during growth at 33 C and/or under repair conditions, it is concluded that: a, polypeptides of chloroplastic translation required for H2O-splitting activity are absent from membranes of 33 C grown cells. Their synthesis and/or assembly during the repair process is light-dependent. b, Polypeptides required for the formation of photosystem II and photosytem I reaction centers continue to be formed during growth at 33 C in absence of Chl synthesis. These can be assembled into functional units following Chl synthesis and energization of the membranes during the repair process. c, The Chl-protein complex serving as an antenna of photosystem I is disorganized, and the Chl is used for the formation of functional reaction centers of photosystem I during growth at 33 C. These results show that Chl-protein complexes can be dissociated in vivo and reassembled in a different way; and formation of Chl-protein complexes can occur stepwise from previously synthesized and newly formed components including both polypeptides and Chl. Images PMID:16662090

  4. [Regulation of alternative CO{sub 2} fixation pathways in procaryotic and eucaryotic photosynthetic organisms]. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    The major goal of this project is to determine how microorganisms regulate the assimilation of CO{sup 2} via pathways alternative to the usual Calvin reductive pentose phosphate scheme. In particular, we are interest in the molecular basis for switches in CO{sub 2} metabolic paths. Several earlier studies had indicated that purple nonsulfur photosynthetic bacteria assimilate significant amounts of CO{sub 2} via alternative non-Calvin routes. We have deleted the gene that encodes. RubisCo (ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) in both the Rhodobacter sphaeroids and Rhodospirillum rubrum. The R. sphaeroides RubisCO deletion strain (strain 16) could not grow under photoheterotrophic conditions with malate as electron donor and CO{sub 2} as the electron acceptor; however the R. rub RubisCO deletion strain (strain I-19) could. Over the past year we have sought to physiologically characterize strain 16PHC. We found that, 16PHC exhibited rates of whole-cell CO{sub 2} fixation which were significantly higher than strain 16. Strain 16PHC could not grow photolithoautotrophically in a CO{sub 2} atmosphere; however, CO{sub 2} fixation catalyzed by photoheterotrophically grown 16PHC was repressed by the addition of DMSO. Likewise, we found that cells initially grown in the presence of DMSO could induce the CO{sub 2} fixation system when DMSO was removed. Thus, these results suggested that both PHC and I-19 could be used to study alternative CO{sub 2} fixation reactions and their significance in R. sphaexoides and R. rubrum.

  5. Micro-scale in situ characterisation of the organic and mineral composition of modern, hypersaline, photosynthetic microbial mats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautret, P.; Ramboz, C.; de Wit, R.; Delarue, F.; Orange, F.; Sorieul, S.; Westall, F.

    2012-04-01

    Physico-chemical and biological micro-scale environmental parameters within microbial mats formed in hypersaline conditions favour the precipitation of minerals, such as carbonates. We used optical microscopy and the technique "Fluorescence Induction Relaxation » (FIRe) to differentiate the photosynthetic activity of oxygenic photosynthesisers (cyanobacteria) from anoxygenic photosynthesisers (Chloroflexus-like bacteria, CFB) in samples obtained in 2011. After this preliminary investigation, we characterised the elemental composition of the different species of microorganisms, their extracellular substances (EPS), and the minerals precipitated on their surface. This study was made in-situ by µ-PIXE using the nuclear microprobe of the AIFIRA platform (CEN Bordeaux-Gradignan ; protons of 1.5 or 3MeV). With this microprobe it is possible to map the distribution of elements occurring in quantities down to several ppm, a resolution that is particularly favourable for studying microorganisms. SEM observation of the same zones allowed us to localise exactly the microbial structures (cells, EPS) and minerals analysed by nuclear probe. We were thus able to document the differential S and P concentrations in the different microbial species, the CLB being richer in P. Note that the CLB filaments are < 1 µm in diameter. We were also able to demonstrate the anti-correlation of Ca and Mg in the minerals precipitated directly on the microorganisms and on their EPS. Thus we have shown the utility of these in situ, nano-scale methods in studying microbial structures consisting of different species with different metabolic activitie, and different functional groups on their cell walls and EPS implicated in the bioprecipitation of different kinds of minerals. Such features in ancient microbial mats could aid their interpretation and possibly the distinction between ancient oxygenic and anoxygenic mats.

  6. Changes in Relative Thylakoid Protein Abundance Induced by Fluctuating Light in the Diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana.

    PubMed

    Grouneva, Irina; Muth-Pawlak, Dorota; Battchikova, Natalia; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2016-05-01

    One of the hallmarks of marine diatom biology is their ability to cope with rapid changes in light availability due to mixing of the water column and the lens effect. We investigated how irradiance fluctuations influence the relative abundance of key photosynthetic proteins in the centric diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana by means of mass-spectrometry-based approaches for relative protein quantitation. Most notably, fluctuating-light conditions lead to a substantial overall up-regulation of light-harvesting complex proteins as well as several subunits of photosystems II and I. Despite an initial delay in growth under FL, there were no indications of FL-induced photosynthesis limitation, in contrast to other photosynthetic organisms. Our findings further strengthen the notion that diatoms use a qualitatively different mechanism of photosynthetic regulation in which chloroplast-mitochondria interaction has overtaken crucial regulatory processes of photosynthetic light reactions that are typical for the survival of land plants, green algae, and cyanobacteria. PMID:27025989

  7. Enzymatic activities and prokaryotic abundance in relation to organic matter along a West-East Mediterranean transect (TRANSMED cruise).

    PubMed

    Zaccone, R; Boldrin, A; Caruso, G; La Ferla, R; Maimone, G; Santinelli, C; Turchetto, M

    2012-07-01

    The distribution of extracellular enzymatic activities (EEA) [leucine aminopeptidase (LAP), ß-glucosidase (GLU), alkaline phosphatase (AP)], as well as that of prokaryotic abundance (PA) and biomass (PB), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particulate organic carbon and particulate total nitrogen (POC, PTN), was determined in the epi-, meso-, and bathypelagic waters of the Mediterranean Sea along a West-East transect and at one Atlantic station located outside the Strait of Gibraltar. This study represents a synoptical evaluation of the microbial metabolism during early summer. Decreasing trends with depth were observed for most of the parameters (PA, PB, AP, DOC, POC, PTN). Significant differences between the western and eastern basins of the Mediterranean Sea were found, displaying higher rates of LAP and GLU and lower C/N ratios more in the eastern than in the western areas. Conversely, in the epipelagic layer, PA and PB were found to be higher in the western than in the eastern basins. PB was significantly related to DOC concentration (all data, n = 145, r = 0.53, P < 0.01), while significant correlations of EEA with POC and PTN were found in the epipelagic layer, indicating an active response of microbial metabolism to organic substrates. Specific enzyme activities normalized to cell abundance pointed out high values of LAP and GLU in the bathypelagic layer, especially in the eastern basin, while cell-specific AP was high in the epi- and bathypelagic zone of the eastern basin indicating a rapid regeneration of inorganic P for both prokaryotes and phytoplankton needs. Low activity and abundance characterized the Atlantic station, while opposite trends of these parameters were observed along the Mediterranean transect, showing the uncoupling between abundance and activity data. In the east Mediterranean Sea, decomposition processes increased probably in response to mesoscale structures which lead to organic matter downwelling. PMID:22349935

  8. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms.

    PubMed

    Kuczynska, Paulina; Jemiola-Rzeminska, Malgorzata; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2015-09-01

    Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvesting pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and fucoxanthin, there is a group of photoprotective carotenoids which includes β-carotene and the xanthophylls, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin, which are engaged in the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, some intermediate products of biosynthetic pathways have been identified in diatoms as well as unusual pigments, e.g., marennine. Marine algae have become widely recognized as a source of unique bioactive compounds for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medical applications. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on diatom photosynthetic pigments complemented by some new insights regarding their physico-chemical properties, biological role, and biosynthetic pathways, as well as the regulation of pigment level in the cell, methods of purification, and significance in industries. PMID:26389924

  9. The Photosynthetic Cycle

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Calvin, Melvin

    1955-03-21

    A cyclic sequence of transformations, including the carboxylation of RuDP (ribulose diphosphate) and its re-formation, has been deduced as the route for the creation of reduced carbon compounds in photosynthetic organisms. With the demonstration of RuDP as substrate for the carboxylation in a cell-free system, each of the reactions has now been carried out independently in vitro. Further purification of this last enzyme system has confirmed the deduction that the carboxylation of RuDP leads directly to the two molecules of PGA (phosphoglyceric acid) involving an internal dismutation and suggesting the name "carboxydismutase" for the enzyme. As a consequence of this knowledge of each of the steps in the photosynthetic CO{sub 2} reduction cycle, it is possible to define the reagent requirements to maintain it. The net requirement for the reduction of one molecule of CO{sub 2} is four equivalents of [H]and three molecules of ATP (adenine triphosphate). These must ultimately be supplied by the photochemical reaction. Some possible ways in which this may be accomplished are discussed.

  10. Photosynthetic Pigments in Diatoms

    PubMed Central

    Kuczynska, Paulina; Jemiola-Rzeminska, Malgorzata; Strzalka, Kazimierz

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthetic pigments are bioactive compounds of great importance for the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries. They are not only responsible for capturing solar energy to carry out photosynthesis, but also play a role in photoprotective processes and display antioxidant activity, all of which contribute to effective biomass and oxygen production. Diatoms are organisms of a distinct pigment composition, substantially different from that present in plants. Apart from light-harvesting pigments such as chlorophyll a, chlorophyll c, and fucoxanthin, there is a group of photoprotective carotenoids which includes β-carotene and the xanthophylls, diatoxanthin, diadinoxanthin, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin, which are engaged in the xanthophyll cycle. Additionally, some intermediate products of biosynthetic pathways have been identified in diatoms as well as unusual pigments, e.g., marennine. Marine algae have become widely recognized as a source of unique bioactive compounds for potential industrial, pharmaceutical, and medical applications. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on diatom photosynthetic pigments complemented by some new insights regarding their physico-chemical properties, biological role, and biosynthetic pathways, as well as the regulation of pigment level in the cell, methods of purification, and significance in industries. PMID:26389924

  11. Photosynthetic reaction centers in bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, J.R. Univ. of Chicago, IL ); Schiffer, M. )

    1990-07-30

    The photochemistry of photosynthesis begins in complexes called reaction centers. These have become model systems to study the fundamental process by which plants and bacteria convert and store solar energy as chemical free energy. In green plants, photosynthesis occurs in two systems, each of which contains a different reaction center, working in series. In one, known as photosystem 1, oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP[sup +]) is reduced to NADPH for use in a series of dark reactions called the Calvin cycle, named for Nobel Laureate Melvin Calvin, by which carbon dioxide is converted into useful fuels such as carbohydrates and sugars. In the other half of the photosynthetic machinery of green plants, called photosystem 2, water is oxidized to produce molecular oxygen. A different form of photosynthesis occurs in photosynthetic bacteria, which typically live at the bottom of ponds and feed on organic debris. Two main types of photosynthetic bacteria exist: purple and green. Neither type liberates oxygen from water. Instead, the bacteria feed on organic media or inorganic materials, such as sulfides, which are easier to reduce or oxidize than carbon dioxide or water. Perhaps in consequence, their photosynthetic machinery is simpler than that of green, oxygen-evolving plants and their primary photochemistry is better understood.

  12. Synthesis of High-Molecular-Weight Polyhydroxyalkanoates by Marine Photosynthetic Purple Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi-Takeuchi, Mieko; Morisaki, Kumiko; Toyooka, Kiminori; Numata, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a biopolyester/bioplastic that is produced by a variety of microorganisms to store carbon and increase reducing redox potential. Photosynthetic bacteria convert carbon dioxide into organic compounds using light energy and are known to accumulate PHA. We analyzed PHAs synthesized by 3 purple sulfur bacteria and 9 purple non-sulfur bacteria strains. These 12 purple bacteria were cultured in nitrogen-limited medium containing acetate and/or sodium bicarbonate as carbon sources. PHA production in the purple sulfur bacteria was induced by nitrogen-limited conditions. Purple non-sulfur bacteria accumulated PHA even under normal growth conditions, and PHA production in 3 strains was enhanced by nitrogen-limited conditions. Gel permeation chromatography analysis revealed that 5 photosynthetic purple bacteria synthesized high-molecular-weight PHAs, which are useful for industrial applications. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that mRNA levels of phaC and PhaZ genes were low under nitrogen-limited conditions, resulting in production of high-molecular-weight PHAs. We conclude that all 12 tested strains are able to synthesize PHA to some degree, and we identify 5 photosynthetic purple bacteria that accumulate high-molecular-weight PHA molecules. Furthermore, the photosynthetic purple bacteria synthesized PHA when they were cultured in seawater supplemented with acetate. The photosynthetic purple bacteria strains characterized in this study should be useful as host microorganisms for large-scale PHA production utilizing abundant marine resources and carbon dioxide. PMID:27513570

  13. Synthesis of High-Molecular-Weight Polyhydroxyalkanoates by Marine Photosynthetic Purple Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Higuchi-Takeuchi, Mieko; Morisaki, Kumiko; Toyooka, Kiminori; Numata, Keiji

    2016-01-01

    Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) is a biopolyester/bioplastic that is produced by a variety of microorganisms to store carbon and increase reducing redox potential. Photosynthetic bacteria convert carbon dioxide into organic compounds using light energy and are known to accumulate PHA. We analyzed PHAs synthesized by 3 purple sulfur bacteria and 9 purple non-sulfur bacteria strains. These 12 purple bacteria were cultured in nitrogen-limited medium containing acetate and/or sodium bicarbonate as carbon sources. PHA production in the purple sulfur bacteria was induced by nitrogen-limited conditions. Purple non-sulfur bacteria accumulated PHA even under normal growth conditions, and PHA production in 3 strains was enhanced by nitrogen-limited conditions. Gel permeation chromatography analysis revealed that 5 photosynthetic purple bacteria synthesized high-molecular-weight PHAs, which are useful for industrial applications. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that mRNA levels of phaC and PhaZ genes were low under nitrogen-limited conditions, resulting in production of high-molecular-weight PHAs. We conclude that all 12 tested strains are able to synthesize PHA to some degree, and we identify 5 photosynthetic purple bacteria that accumulate high-molecular-weight PHA molecules. Furthermore, the photosynthetic purple bacteria synthesized PHA when they were cultured in seawater supplemented with acetate. The photosynthetic purple bacteria strains characterized in this study should be useful as host microorganisms for large-scale PHA production utilizing abundant marine resources and carbon dioxide. PMID:27513570

  14. Factors controlling the abundance of organic sulfur in flash pyrolyzates of Upper Cretaceous kerogens from Sergipe Basin, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carmo, A.M.; Stankiewicz, B.A.; Mastalerz, Maria; Pratt, L.M.

    1997-01-01

    The molecular and elemental composition of immature kerogens isolated from Upper Cretaceous marine carbonates from Sergipe Basin, Brazil were investigated using combined pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and organic petrographic techniques. The kerogens are predominantly composed of reddish-fluorescing amorphous organic matter (AOM) and variable amounts of yellow-fluorescing alginite and liptodetrinite. The abundance of organic sulfur in the kerogens inferred from the ratio 2-ethyl-5-methylthiophene/(1,2-dimethylbenzene + dec-1-ene) in the pyrolyzates is variable and may be related to changes in the type of primary organic input and/or to variations in rates of bacterial sulfate reduction. A concomitant increase in S/C and O/C ratios determined in situ using the electron microprobe is observed in AOM and alginites and may be related to a progressive oxidation of the organic matter during sulfurization. The S/C ratio of the AOM is systematically higher than the S C ratio of the alginites. Combined with a thiophene distribution characteristic of pyrolyzates of Type II organic matter, the higher S/C of AOM in Sergipe kerogens suggests that sulfurization and incorporation of low-molecular weight lipids derived from normal marine organic matter into the kerogen structure predominated over direct sulfurization of highly aliphatic algal biomacromolecules.The molecular and elemental composition of immature kerogens isolated from Upper Cretaceous marine carbonates from Sergipe Basin, Brazil were investigated using combined pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and organic petrographic techniques. The kerogens are predominantly composed of reddish-fluorescing amorphous organic matter (AOM) and variable amounts of yellow-fluorescing alginite and liptodetrinite. The abundance of organic sulfur in the kerogens inferred from the ratio 2-ethyl-5-methylthiophene/(1,2-dimethylbenzene+dec-1-ene) in the pyrolyzates is variable and may be related to changes in

  15. Prochlorococcus, a Marine Photosynthetic Prokaryote of Global Significance

    PubMed Central

    Partensky, F.; Hess, W. R.; Vaulot, D.

    1999-01-01

    The minute photosynthetic prokaryote Prochlorococcus, which was discovered about 10 years ago, has proven exceptional from several standpoints. Its tiny size (0.5 to 0.7 μm in diameter) makes it the smallest known photosynthetic organism. Its ubiquity within the 40°S to 40°N latitudinal band of oceans and its occurrence at high density from the surface down to depths of 200 m make it presumably the most abundant photosynthetic organism on Earth. Prochlorococcus typically divides once a day in the subsurface layer of oligotrophic areas, where it dominates the photosynthetic biomass. It also possesses a remarkable pigment complement which includes divinyl derivatives of chlorophyll a (Chl a) and Chl b, the so-called Chl a2 and Chl b2, and, in some strains, small amounts of a new type of phycoerythrin. Phylogenetically, Prochlorococcus has also proven fascinating. Recent studies suggest that it evolved from an ancestral cyanobacterium by reducing its cell and genome sizes and by recruiting a protein originally synthesized under conditions of iron depletion to build a reduced antenna system as a replacement for large phycobilisomes. Environmental constraints clearly played a predominant role in Prochlorococcus evolution. Its tiny size is an advantage for its adaptation to nutrient-deprived environments. Furthermore, genetically distinct ecotypes, with different antenna systems and ecophysiological characteristics, are present at depth and in surface waters. This vertical species variation has allowed Prochlorococcus to adapt to the natural light gradient occurring in the upper layer of oceans. The present review critically assesses the basic knowledge acquired about Prochlorococcus both in the ocean and in the laboratory. PMID:10066832

  16. Formation kinetics and abundance of organic nitrates in α-pinene ozonolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkemeier, Thomas; Ammann, Markus; Pöschl, Ulrich; Shiraiwa, Manabu

    2016-04-01

    Formation of organic nitrates affects the total atmospheric budget of oxidized nitrogen (NOy) and alters the total aerosol mass yield from secondary sources. We investigated the formation of organic nitrate species during ozonolysis of α-pinene and subsequent formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) using the short-lived radioactive tracer 13N inside an aerosol flow reactor (Ammann et al., 2001). The results represent direct measurements of the organic nitrate content of α-pinene secondary aerosol and give insight into the kinetics of organic nitrate formation. Organic nitrates constituted up to 40 % of aerosol mass with a pronounced influence during the initial period of particle growth. Kinetic modelling, as well as additional experiments using OH scavengers and UV irradiation, suggests that organic peroxy radicals (RO2) from the reaction of α-pinene with secondarily produced OH are important intermediates in the organic nitrate formation process. Direct oxidation of α-pinene by NO3 was found to be a less efficient pathway for formation of particle phase nitrate. The organic nitrate content decreased very slightly with an increase of relative humidity on the experimental time scale. The experiments show a tight correlation between organic nitrate content and SOA number concentrations, implying that organic nitrates play an important role in nucleation and growth of nanoparticles. Since present in large amounts in organic aerosol, organic nitrates deposited in the lung might have implications for human health as they release nitric acid upon hydrolysis, especially in regions influenced by urban pollution and large sources of monoterpene SOA precursors. References Ammann et al. (2001) Radiochimica Acta 89, 831.

  17. Photoacclimation responses of the brown macroalga Sargassum Cymosum to the combined influence of UV radiation and salinity: cytochemical and ultrastructural organization and photosynthetic performance.

    PubMed

    Polo, Luz K; Felix, Marthiellen R de L; Kreusch, Marianne; Pereira, Debora T; Costa, Giulia B; Simioni, Carmen; Ouriques, Luciane C; Chow, Fungyi; Ramlov, Fernanda; Maraschin, Marcelo; Bouzon, Zenilda L; Schmidt, Eder C

    2014-01-01

    The photoacclimation responses of the brown macroalga Sargassum cymosum were studied to determine its cytochemical and ultrastructural organization, as well as photosynthetic pigments and performance. S. cymosum was cultivated in three salinities (30, 35 and 40 psu) under four irradiation treatments: PAR-only, PAR + UVA, PAR + UVB and PAR + UVA + UVB. Plants were exposed to PAR at 70 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1), PAR + UVB at 0.35 W m(-2) and PAR +UVA at 0.70 W m(-2) for 3 h per day during 7 days in vitro. Growth rate was not significantly affected by any type of radiation or salinity. The amount of pigments in S. cymosum was significantly influenced by the interaction of salinity and radiation treatments. Compared with PAR-only, UVR treatments modified the kinetics patterns of the photosynthesis/irradiance curve. After exposure to UVR, S. cymosum increased cell wall thickness and the presence of phenolic compounds. The number of mitochondria increased, whereas the number of chloroplasts showed few changes. Although S. cymosum showed insensitivity to changes in salinity, it can be concluded that samples treated under four irradiation regimes showed structural changes, which were more evident, but not severe, under PAR + UVB treatment. PMID:24329523

  18. Monte Carlo implementation of Schiff's approximation for estimating radiative properties of homogeneous, simple-shaped and optically soft particles: Application to photosynthetic micro-organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charon, Julien; Blanco, Stéphane; Cornet, Jean-François; Dauchet, Jérémi; El Hafi, Mouna; Fournier, Richard; Abboud, Mira Kaissar; Weitz, Sebastian

    2016-03-01

    In the present paper, Schiff's approximation is applied to the study of light scattering by large and optically-soft axisymmetric particles, with special attention to cylindrical and spheroidal photosynthetic micro-organisms. This approximation is similar to the anomalous diffraction approximation but includes a description of phase functions. Resulting formulations for the radiative properties are multidimensional integrals, the numerical resolution of which requires close attention. It is here argued that strong benefits can be expected from a statistical resolution by the Monte Carlo method. But designing such efficient Monte Carlo algorithms requires the development of non-standard algorithmic tricks using careful mathematical analysis of the integral formulations: the codes that we develop (and make available) include an original treatment of the nonlinearity in the differential scattering cross-section (squared modulus of the scattering amplitude) thanks to a double sampling procedure. This approach makes it possible to take advantage of recent methodological advances in the field of Monte Carlo methods, illustrated here by the estimation of sensitivities to parameters. Comparison with reference solutions provided by the T-Matrix method is presented whenever possible. Required geometric calculations are closely similar to those used in standard Monte Carlo codes for geometric optics by the computer-graphics community, i.e. calculation of intersections between rays and surfaces, which opens interesting perspectives for the treatment of particles with complex shapes.

  19. Accounting for non-independent detection when estimating abundance of organisms with a Bayesian approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, Julien; Royle, J. Andrew; MacKenzie, Darryl I.; Edwards, Holly H.; Kery, Marc; Gardner, Beth

    2011-01-01

    Summary 1. Binomial mixture models use repeated count data to estimate abundance. They are becoming increasingly popular because they provide a simple and cost-effective way to account for imperfect detection. However, these models assume that individuals are detected independently of each other. This assumption may often be violated in the field. For instance, manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) may surface in turbid water (i.e. become available for detection during aerial surveys) in a correlated manner (i.e. in groups). However, correlated behaviour, affecting the non-independence of individual detections, may also be relevant in other systems (e.g. correlated patterns of singing in birds and amphibians). 2. We extend binomial mixture models to account for correlated behaviour and therefore to account for non-independent detection of individuals. We simulated correlated behaviour using beta-binomial random variables. Our approach can be used to simultaneously estimate abundance, detection probability and a correlation parameter. 3. Fitting binomial mixture models to data that followed a beta-binomial distribution resulted in an overestimation of abundance even for moderate levels of correlation. In contrast, the beta-binomial mixture model performed considerably better in our simulation scenarios. We also present a goodness-of-fit procedure to evaluate the fit of beta-binomial mixture models. 4. We illustrate our approach by fitting both binomial and beta-binomial mixture models to aerial survey data of manatees in Florida. We found that the binomial mixture model did not fit the data, whereas there was no evidence of lack of fit for the beta-binomial mixture model. This example helps illustrate the importance of using simulations and assessing goodness-of-fit when analysing ecological data with N-mixture models. Indeed, both the simulations and the goodness-of-fit procedure highlighted the limitations of the standard binomial mixture model for aerial

  20. Occurrence and abundance of carbohydrates and amino compounds in sequentially extracted labile soil organic matter fractions.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study aimed to investigate the content of carbohydrates and amino compounds in three labile fraction of soil organic matter (SOM). Soil samples were collected from two agricultural fields in southern Italy and the light fraction (LF), the 500–53-µm particulate organic matter (POM) and the mobil...

  1. Weed seed persistence and microbial abundance in long-term organic and conventional cropping systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weed seed persistence in soil can be influenced by many factors, including crop management. This research was conducted to determine whether organic management systems with higher organic amendments and soil microbial biomass could reduce weed seed persistence compared to conventional management sy...

  2. Distribution and abundance of benthic organisms in the Sacramento River, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ferreira, Rodger F.; Green, D. Brady

    1977-01-01

    General comparisons were made between benthic organism samples collected in 1960-61 and 1972-73 from five sites in the Sacramento River between Red Bluff and Knights Landing, Calif. The composition of benthic organisms from both collection periods was similar. The 1972-73 data showed variable patterns in monthly changes at each site and downstream changes each month with number of organisms per square meter, number of taxa per square meter, and diversity index. Generally, the mean number of taxa per square meter and diversity index for all sampling periods were higher in the upper reach than the lower reach of the Sacramento River. (Woodard-USGS)

  3. Photosynthetic reaction center complexes from heliobacteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trost, J. T.; Vermaas, W. F. J.; Blankenship, R. E.

    1991-01-01

    Photosynthetic reaction centers are pigment-protein complexes that are responsible for the transduction of light energy into chemical energy. Considerable evidence indicates that photosynthetic organisms were present very early in the evolution of life on Earth. The goal of this project is to understand the early evolutionary development of photosynthesis by examining the properties of reaction centers isolated from certain contemporary organisms that appear to contain the simplest photosynthetic reaction centers. The major focus is on the family of newly discovered strictly anaerobic photosynthetic organisms that are grouped with the gram-positive phylum of bacteria. The properties of these reactions centers suggest that they may be the descendants of an ancestor that also gave rise to Photosystem 1 found in oxygen-evolving photosynthetic organisms. Photoactive reaction center-core antenna complexes were isolated from the photosynthetic bacteria, Heliobacillus mobilis and Heliobacterium gestii, by extraction of membranes with Deriphat 160C followed by differential centrifugation and sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Other aspects of this investigation are briefly discussed.

  4. Carbon uptake in low dissolved inorganic carbon environments: the effect of limited carbon availability on photosynthetic organisms in thermal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, K. D.; Omelon, C. R.; Bennett, P.

    2010-12-01

    Photosynthesis is the primary carbon fixation process in thermal waters below 70°C, but some hydrothermal waters have extremely low dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), potentially limiting the growth of inorganic carbon fixing organisms such as algae and cyanobacteria. To address the issue of how carbon is assimilated by phototrophs in these environments, we conducted experiments to compare inorganic carbon uptake mechanisms by two phylogenetically distinct organisms collected from geographically distinct carbon limited systems: the neutral pH geothermal waters of El Tatio, Chile, and the acidic geothermal waters of Tantalus Creek in Norris Geyser Basin, Yellowstone National Park. Discharge waters at El Tatio have low total DIC concentrations (2 to 6 ppm) found mainly as HCO3-; this is in contrast to even lower measured DIC values in Tantalus Creek (as low as 0.13 ppm) that, due to a measured pH of 2.5, exists primarily as CO2. Cyanobacteria and algae are innately physiologically plastic, and we are looking to explore the possibility that carbon limitation in these environments is extreme enough to challenge that plasticity and lead to a suite of carbon uptake adaptations. We hypothesize that these microorganisms utilize adaptive modes of Ci uptake that allow them to survive under these limiting conditions. Cyanobacteria (primarily Synechococcus spp.) isolated from El Tatio can utilize either passive CO2 uptake or active HCO3- uptake mechanisms, in contrast to the eukaryotic alga Cyanidium spp. from Tantalus Creek, which is restricted to an energy-dependent CO2 uptake mechanism. To test this hypothesis, we conducted pH drift experiments (Omelon et al., 2008) to examine changes in pH and [DIC] under a range of pH and [DIC] culture conditions. This work provides baseline information upon which we will begin to investigate the effects of low [DIC] on the growth of phototrophs collected from these and other less carbon limited systems.

  5. Evidence for a Role of VIPP1 in the Structural Organization of the Photosynthetic Apparatus in Chlamydomonas[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Nordhues, André; Schöttler, Mark Aurel; Unger, Ann-Katrin; Geimer, Stefan; Schönfelder, Stephanie; Schmollinger, Stefan; Rütgers, Mark; Finazzi, Giovanni; Soppa, Barbara; Sommer, Frederik; Mühlhaus, Timo; Roach, Thomas; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja; Lokstein, Heiko; Crespo, José Luis; Schroda, Michael

    2012-01-01

    The vesicle-inducing protein in plastids (VIPP1) was suggested to play a role in thylakoid membrane formation via membrane vesicles. As this functional assignment is under debate, we investigated the function of VIPP1 in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Using immunofluorescence, we localized VIPP1 to distinct spots within the chloroplast. In VIPP1-RNA interference/artificial microRNA cells, we consistently observed aberrant, prolamellar body-like structures at the origin of multiple thylakoid membrane layers, which appear to coincide with the immunofluorescent VIPP1 spots and suggest a defect in thylakoid membrane biogenesis. Accordingly, using quantitative shotgun proteomics, we found that unstressed vipp1 mutant cells accumulate 14 to 20% less photosystems, cytochrome b6f complex, and ATP synthase but 30% more light-harvesting complex II than control cells, while complex assembly, thylakoid membrane ultrastructure, and bulk lipid composition appeared unaltered. Photosystems in vipp1 mutants are sensitive to high light, which coincides with a lowered midpoint potential of the QA/QA− redox couple and increased thermosensitivity of photosystem II (PSII), suggesting structural defects in PSII. Moreover, swollen thylakoids, despite reduced membrane energization, in vipp1 mutants grown on ammonium suggest defects in the supermolecular organization of thylakoid membrane complexes. Overall, our data suggest a role of VIPP1 in the biogenesis/assembly of thylakoid membrane core complexes, most likely by supplying structural lipids. PMID:22307852

  6. Evidence for a role of VIPP1 in the structural organization of the photosynthetic apparatus in Chlamydomonas.

    PubMed

    Nordhues, André; Schöttler, Mark Aurel; Unger, Ann-Katrin; Geimer, Stefan; Schönfelder, Stephanie; Schmollinger, Stefan; Rütgers, Mark; Finazzi, Giovanni; Soppa, Barbara; Sommer, Frederik; Mühlhaus, Timo; Roach, Thomas; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja; Lokstein, Heiko; Crespo, José Luis; Schroda, Michael

    2012-02-01

    The vesicle-inducing protein in plastids (VIPP1) was suggested to play a role in thylakoid membrane formation via membrane vesicles. As this functional assignment is under debate, we investigated the function of VIPP1 in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Using immunofluorescence, we localized VIPP1 to distinct spots within the chloroplast. In VIPP1-RNA interference/artificial microRNA cells, we consistently observed aberrant, prolamellar body-like structures at the origin of multiple thylakoid membrane layers, which appear to coincide with the immunofluorescent VIPP1 spots and suggest a defect in thylakoid membrane biogenesis. Accordingly, using quantitative shotgun proteomics, we found that unstressed vipp1 mutant cells accumulate 14 to 20% less photosystems, cytochrome b(6)f complex, and ATP synthase but 30% more light-harvesting complex II than control cells, while complex assembly, thylakoid membrane ultrastructure, and bulk lipid composition appeared unaltered. Photosystems in vipp1 mutants are sensitive to high light, which coincides with a lowered midpoint potential of the Q(A)/Q(A)(-) redox couple and increased thermosensitivity of photosystem II (PSII), suggesting structural defects in PSII. Moreover, swollen thylakoids, despite reduced membrane energization, in vipp1 mutants grown on ammonium suggest defects in the supermolecular organization of thylakoid membrane complexes. Overall, our data suggest a role of VIPP1 in the biogenesis/assembly of thylakoid membrane core complexes, most likely by supplying structural lipids. PMID:22307852

  7. Photosynthetic complex stoichiometry dynamics in higher plants: environmental acclimation and photosynthetic flux control

    PubMed Central

    Schöttler, Mark A.; Tóth, Szilvia Z.

    2014-01-01

    The composition of the photosynthetic apparatus of higher plants is dynamically adjusted to long-term changes in environmental conditions such as growth light intensity and light quality, and to changing metabolic demands for ATP and NADPH imposed by stresses and leaf aging. By changing photosynthetic complex stoichiometry, a long-term imbalance between the photosynthetic production of ATP and NADPH and their metabolic consumption is avoided, and cytotoxic side reactions are minimized. Otherwise, an excess capacity of the light reactions, relative to the demands of primary metabolism, could result in a disturbance of cellular redox homeostasis and an increased production of reactive oxygen species, leading to the destruction of the photosynthetic apparatus and the initiation of cell death programs. In this review, changes of the abundances of the different constituents of the photosynthetic apparatus in response to environmental conditions and during leaf ontogenesis are summarized. The contributions of the different photosynthetic complexes to photosynthetic flux control and the regulation of electron transport are discussed. PMID:24860580

  8. Human Heart Mitochondrial DNA Is Organized in Complex Catenated Networks Containing Abundant Four-way Junctions and Replication Forks*

    PubMed Central

    Pohjoismäki, Jaakko L. O.; Goffart, Steffi; Tyynismaa, Henna; Willcox, Smaranda; Ide, Tomomi; Kang, Dongchon; Suomalainen, Anu; Karhunen, Pekka J.; Griffith, Jack D.; Holt, Ian J.; Jacobs, Howard T.

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of human heart mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) by electron microscopy and agarose gel electrophoresis revealed a complete absence of the θ-type replication intermediates seen abundantly in mtDNA from all other tissues. Instead only Y- and X-junctional forms were detected after restriction digestion. Uncut heart mtDNA was organized in tangled complexes of up to 20 or more genome equivalents, which could be resolved to genomic monomers, dimers, and linear fragments by treatment with the decatenating enzyme topoisomerase IV plus the cruciform-cutting T7 endonuclease I. Human and mouse brain also contained a population of such mtDNA forms, which were absent, however, from mouse, rabbit, or pig heart. Overexpression in transgenic mice of two proteins involved in mtDNA replication, namely human mitochondrial transcription factor A or the mouse Twinkle DNA helicase, generated abundant four-way junctions in mtDNA of heart, brain, and skeletal muscle. The organization of mtDNA of human heart as well as of mouse and human brain in complex junctional networks replicating via a presumed non-θ mechanism is unprecedented in mammals. PMID:19525233

  9. Bryophytes as Climate Indicators: moss and liverwort photosynthetic limitations and carbon isotope signals in organic material and peat deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, H.; Royles, J.; Horwath, A.; Hodell, D. A.; Convey, P.; Hodgson, D.; Wingate, L.; Ogeé, J.

    2011-12-01

    Bryophytes make a significant contribution to carbon sequestration and storage in polar, boreal, temperate and tropical biomes, and yet there is limited understanding of the determinants of carbon isotope composition. Bryophytes are poikilohydric and lack stomata in the vegetative (gametophyte) stage, and lack of roots and reliance on liquid water to maintain hydration status also imposes diffusional limitations on CO2 uptake and extent of carbon isotope discrimination. Real-time gas exchange and instantaneous discrimination studies can be used to quantify responses to liquid phase limitation. Thus, wetted tissues show less negative δ13C signals due to liquid phase conductance and, as the thallus surface dries, maximum CO2 assimilation and discrimination are attained when the limitation is primarily the internal (mesophyll) conductance. Continued desiccation then leads to additional biochemical limitation in drought tolerant species, and low discrimination, although the carbon gain is low at this time. In this paper we explore the extent of carbon isotope discrimination in bulk organic material and cellulose as a function of climatic and environmental conditions, in temperate, tropical and Antarctic bryophytes. Field studies have been used to investigate seasonal variations in precipitation and water vapour inputs for cloud forest formations as a function of bryophyte biomass, diversity and isotope composition in epiphytes (particularly leafy liverworts) along an altitudinal gradient in Peru. In the Antarctic, moss banks sampled on Signy Island consisted of only two species, primarily Chorisodontium aciphyllum and some Polytrichum strictum, allowing the collection of shallow and deep cores representative of growth over the past 200 to 2000 years. The well-preserved peat has provided data on growth (14C) and stable isotopic proxies (13C, 18O) for material contemporary with recent anthropogenic climate forcing (over the past 200 years), for comparison with longer

  10. Protein structure, electron transfer and evolution of prokaryotic photosynthetic reaction centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blankenship, R. E.

    1994-01-01

    Photosynthetic reaction centers from a variety of organisms have been isolated and characterized. The groups of prokaryotic photosynthetic organisms include the purple bacteria, the filamentous green bacteria, the green sulfur bacteria and the heliobacteria as anoxygenic representatives as well as the cyanobacteria and prochlorophytes as oxygenic representatives. This review focuses on structural and functional comparisons of the various groups of photosynthetic reaction centers and considers possible evolutionary scenarios to explain the diversity of existing photosynthetic organisms.

  11. Changing CO2 and the evolution of terrestrial and marine photosynthetic organisms during the terrestrialization process in the Palaeozoic.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vecoli, M.; Strother, P. K.; Servais, T.

    2009-04-01

    sequestration of Corg in organic matter trapped in plant biomass, litter, soils, and buried in sediments, adding up to the better known effect of increased weathering due to the evolution of deep rooting systems during late Devonian time onwards. In this study, we also examined the potential perturbations to the phytoplankton of the mid-Palaeozoic marine realm as CO2(aq) declined and as POM and DOM delivery to the shallow shelf increased nutrient flux to the oceans. We used the fossil record of acritarchs as a proxy for the large phytoplankton of the Palaeozoic. Our data show that the standing diversity of acritarchs (genus-level taxon richness) is highly correlated with the decline in Palaeozoic pCO2 as modelled by Berner and Kothavala (2001); the two curves show the same trends, the acritarch diversity curve being offset, on average, by a -10 my time lag. We propose that the gradual (and not catastrophic as previously assumed) decline in acritarch diversity observed during late Silurian - late Devonian times was causally linked to the decline in dissolved CO2 in the oceans and the associated increase in oceanic pH, which were in turn caused by the falling pCO2 in the atmosphere. These observations appear to link the decline of the acritarchs to the rise of the terrestrial biota through the effect of terrestrialization on pCO2.

  12. Abundance and diversity of total and nitrifying prokaryotes as influenced by biochemical quality of organic inputs combined with mineral nitrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muema, Esther; Vanlauwe, Bernard; Röhl, Carolin; Cadisch, Georg; Rasche, Frank

    2014-05-01

    Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea (AOB, AOA) co-exist in soil, but they respond differently to distinct fertilization strategies in agricultural soils. Accordingly, effects of organic inputs and combination with mineral nitrogen (N) on AOB and AOA remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to compare soil amendment with contrasting quality of organic inputs (i.e., high quality Tithonia diversifolia (TD; C/N ratio: 13, Lignin: 8.9 %; Polyphenols: 1.7 %), intermediate quality Calliandra calothyrsus (CC; 13; 13; 9.4) and low quality Zea mays (ZM; 59; 5.4; 1.2)), and combination with mineral N on the abundance (i.e., DNA-based gene quantification) and community structure (i.e., T-RFLP analysis) of total bacterial and archaea (16S rRNA gene), as well as AOB and AOA (targeting the amoA gene) communities in a Humic Nitisol. Soils (0-15 cm depth) were sampled prior to the onset of the rainy season in March 2012 in a 10 years old field experiment established in the central highlands of Kenya in 2002. Since the start of the experiment, organic inputs were applied annually at a rate of 4 Mg C ha-1 and mineral N twice a year as calcium ammonium nitrate (5Ca(NO3)2NH4NO3) at a rate of 120 kg N ha-1 growing season-1. Quality of organic inputs posed only a significant effect on the AOB community structure between TD versus ZM and CC versus ZM. Moreover, TD significantly increased the size of AOB over ZM input, while higher abundances for total bacteria, total archaea and AOA were measured in ZM and TD over CC. This was explained by high and available N in TD, but low lignin and polyphenol contents in TD and ZM as opposed to CC. AOB responded sensitively (i.e., complete community structure separation) to mineral N, specifically when combined with low quality ZM. Hence, AOB community was specifically responsive to quality of organic inputs and combination of low organic input with mineral N over AOA and total prokaryotic communities in the studied soil. The results

  13. Photosynthetic water splitting

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, E.

    1981-01-01

    The photosynthetic unit of hydrogen evolution, the turnover time of photosynthetic hydrogen production, and hydrogenic photosynthesis are discussed in the section on previous work. Recent results are given on simultaneous photoproduction of hydrogen and oxygen, kinetic studies, microscopic marine algae-seaweeds, and oxygen profiles.

  14. Abundance and Characterization of Dissolved Organic Carbon in Suburban Streams of Baltimore, Maryland, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, G.; Fazekas, M.

    2014-12-01

    The contribution of streams and rivers to the carbon cycle is significant, transporting to the oceans ~1.4 Pg C/yr, with dissolved carbon corresponding to as much as 0.7 Pg C/yr. Changes in land use have the potential effect of modifying this flux, particularly in urban areas where impervious areas are common. To investigate the effect of urbanization on riverine carbon transport, we studied four first-order streams in Towson, a suburb of Baltimore, Maryland, USA. The watersheds from the studied streams exhibit different levels of urbanization as measured by the percentage of impervious areas. Samples from these four streams were taken weekly, and several chemical constituents were measured either in the field or in the laboratory. These constituents included nitrate, dissolved organic nitrogen, pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total carbon, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), phosphate, the carbon isotopic compositions of DOC and DIC, and fluorescence intensity of the DOC. Results show that DOC concentrations were consistently below 5 mg C/L regardless of the level of imperviousness of the watershed. Similarly, carbon isotope ratios were consistent across the studied streams, with values centered around -26.4 per mil, thus suggesting a significant influx of soil-derived organic carbon originated from C3 plants that are common in the watersheds. Confirming this interpretation, fluorescence spectroscopy data suggest a humic-like origin for the DOC of the streams, thus pointing to the heterotrophic nature of the streams. The combined results suggest that the studied streams exhibit similar DOC concentrations, carbon isotopic values, and fluorescence spectra, despite their level of impervious surfaces in their watersheds.

  15. Abundance of organic compounds photochemically produced in the atmospheres of the Outer Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raulin, F.; Bossard, A.; Toupance, G.; Ponnamperuma, C.

    1979-01-01

    Organic photochemical syntheses in the Jovian atmosphere was simulated by irradiating, at 147 nm, gaseous mixtures of methane and ammonia with varying amounts of hydrogen. Some results relevant to the photochemistry of the Jupiter atmosphere at several tens of kilometers above the clouds were obtained: (1) a favorable effect of the pressure of high amounts of H2 on the yield of hydrocarbon synthesis when NH3 is mixed with CH4; (2) a very low yield of synthesis of unsaturated hydrocarbons in such conditions; and (3) the possibility of formation of detectable amounts of HCN and CH3CN.

  16. Clade-Specific Quantitative Analysis of Photosynthetic Gene Expression in Prochlorococcus

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Pinos, María-Carmen; Casado, Marta; Caballero, Gemma; Zinser, Erik R.; Dachs, Jordi; Piña, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Newly designed primers targeting rbcL (CO2 fixation), psbA (photosystem II) and rnpB (reference) genes were used in qRT-PCR assays to assess the photosynthetic capability of natural communities of Prochlorococcus, the most abundant photosynthetic organism on Earth and a major contributor to primary production in oligotrophic oceans. After optimizing sample collection methodology, we analyzed a total of 62 stations from the Malaspina 2010 circumnavigation (including Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans) at three different depths. Sequence and quantitative analyses of the corresponding amplicons showed the presence of high-light (HL) and low-light (LL) Prochlorococcus clades in essentially all 182 samples, with a largely uniform stratification of LL and HL sequences. Synechococcus cross-amplifications were detected by the taxon-specific melting temperatures of the amplicons. Laboratory exposure of Prochlorococcus MED4 (HL) and MIT9313 (LL) strains to organic pollutants (PAHs and organochlorine compounds) showed a decrease of rbcL transcript abundances, and of the rbcL to psbA ratios for both strains. We propose this technique as a convenient assay to evaluate effects of environmental stressors, including pollution, on the oceanic Prochlorococcus photosynthetic function. PMID:26244890

  17. Clade-Specific Quantitative Analysis of Photosynthetic Gene Expression in Prochlorococcus.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Pinos, María-Carmen; Casado, Marta; Caballero, Gemma; Zinser, Erik R; Dachs, Jordi; Piña, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    Newly designed primers targeting rbcL (CO2 fixation), psbA (photosystem II) and rnpB (reference) genes were used in qRT-PCR assays to assess the photosynthetic capability of natural communities of Prochlorococcus, the most abundant photosynthetic organism on Earth and a major contributor to primary production in oligotrophic oceans. After optimizing sample collection methodology, we analyzed a total of 62 stations from the Malaspina 2010 circumnavigation (including Atlantic, Pacific and Indian Oceans) at three different depths. Sequence and quantitative analyses of the corresponding amplicons showed the presence of high-light (HL) and low-light (LL) Prochlorococcus clades in essentially all 182 samples, with a largely uniform stratification of LL and HL sequences. Synechococcus cross-amplifications were detected by the taxon-specific melting temperatures of the amplicons. Laboratory exposure of Prochlorococcus MED4 (HL) and MIT9313 (LL) strains to organic pollutants (PAHs and organochlorine compounds) showed a decrease of rbcL transcript abundances, and of the rbcL to psbA ratios for both strains. We propose this technique as a convenient assay to evaluate effects of environmental stressors, including pollution, on the oceanic Prochlorococcus photosynthetic function. PMID:26244890

  18. Determination of Natural 14C Abundances in Dissolved Organic Carbon in Organic-Rich Marine Sediment Porewaters by Thermal Sulfate Reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, L.; Komada, T.

    2010-12-01

    The abundances of natural 14C in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the marine environment hold clues regarding the processes that influence the biogeochemical cycling of this large carbon reservoir. At present, UV irradiation is the widely accepted method for oxidizing seawater DOC for determination of their 14C abundances. This technique yields precise and accurate values with low blanks, but it requires a dedicated vacuum line, and hence can be difficult to implement. As an alternative technique that can be conducted on a standard preparatory vacuum line, we modified and tested a thermal sulfate reduction method that was previously developed to determine δ13C values of marine DOC (Fry B. et al., 1996. Analysis of marine DOC using a dry combustion method. Mar. Chem., 54: 191-201.) to determine the 14C abundances of DOC in marine sediment porewaters. In this method, the sample is dried in a 100 ml round-bottom Pyrex flask in the presence of excess oxidant (K2SO4) and acid (H3PO4), and combusted at 550 deg.C. The combustion products are cryogenically processed to collect and quantify CO2 using standard procedures. Materials we have oxidized to date range from 6-24 ml in volume, and 95-1500 μgC in size. The oxidation efficiency of this method was tested by processing known amounts of reagent-grade dextrose and sucrose (as examples of labile organic matter), tannic acid and humic acid (as examples of complex natural organic matter), and porewater DOC extracted from organic-rich nearshore sediments. The carbon yields for all of these materials averaged 99±4% (n=18). The 14C abundances of standard materials IAEA C-6 and IAEA C-5 processed by this method using >1mgC aliquots were within error of certified values. The size and the isotopic value of the blank were determined by a standard dilution technique using IAEA C-6 and IAEA C-5 that ranged in size from 150 to 1500 μgC (n=4 and 2, respectively). This yielded a blank size of 6.7±0.7 μgC, and a blank isotopic

  19. Effect of flagellates on free-living bacterial abundance in an organically contaminated aquifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinner, N.E.; Harvey, R.W.; Kazmierkiewicz-Tabaka, M.

    1997-01-01

    Little is known about the role of protists in the saturated subsurface. Porous media microcosms containing bacteria and protists, were used to determine whether flagellates from an organically contaminated aquifer could substantively affect the number of free- living bacteria (FLB). When flagellates were present, the 3-40% maximum breakthrough of fluorescent y labelled FLB injected into the microcosms was much lower than the 60-130% observed for killed controls Grazing and clearance rates (3-27 FLB flag-1 h-1 and 12-23 nI flag-1 h-1, respectively) calculated from the data were in the range reported for flagellates in other aqueous environments. The data provide evidence that flagellate bacterivory is an important control on groundwater FLB populations.

  20. Assessment of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Antimony Sulfides for Earth-Abundant Photovoltaic Applications.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ruo Xi; Butler, Keith T; Walsh, Aron

    2015-12-17

    Hybrid organic-inorganic solar absorbers are currently the subject of intense interest; however, the highest-performing materials contain Pb. Here we assess the potential of three Sb-based semiconductors: (i) Sb2S3, (ii) Cs2Sb8S13, and (iii) (CH3NH3)2Sb8S13. While the crystal structure of Sb2S3 is composed of 1D chains, 2D layers are formed in the ternary cesium and hybrid methylammonium antimony sulfide compounds. In each case, a stereochemically active Sb 5s(2) lone pair is found, resulting in a distorted coordination environment for the Sb cations. The bandgap of the binary sulfide is found to increase, while the ionization potential also changes, upon transition to the more complex compounds. Based on the predicted electronic structure, device configurations are suggested to be suitable for photovoltaic applications. PMID:26624204

  1. [Regulation of alternative CO{sub 2} fixation pathways in prokaryotic and eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms]. Progress report, June 15, 1991--June 14, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Tabita, R.

    1993-12-31

    The goal of this project to determine how photosynthetic microorganisms regulate the assimilation of CO{sub 2} via pathways alternative to the usual Calvin-Benson-Bassham reductive pentose phosphate scheme, particularly in the molecular basis for switches in CO{sub 2} metabolic paths. We have identified proteins on one-dimensional and two-dimensional SDS gels that appear differentially expressed in R. sphaeroides strain 16PHC which may be due to a mutation or change in some locus that controls the expression of several genes and their products. Similar observations were made relative to R. rubrum I-19 and the wild-type, namely that additional protein bands were observed in extracts of I-19 compared to the wild-type when both were grown photoheterotrophically with malate as electron donor and CO{sub 2} as the obligatory electron acceptor. The results of Tn5 mutagenesis of R. sphaeroides 16PHC resulted in the isolation of several strains that effectively changed back to the 16 phenotype; i.e., no malate-dependent phototrophic growth with CO{sub 2} as electron acceptor. We have found that both wild-type R. sphaeroides and R. rubrum, and the respective RubisCO negative mutant strains, are all capable of photolithoautotrophic growth using reduced sulfur compounds as electron donors and CO{sub 2} as the sole carbon source and electron acceptor. The fact that the RubisCO negative are capable of photoautotrophic growth is an exciting development for us because it proves that alternative or nonCalvin CO{sub 2} fixation pathways are extremely important to the overall carbon metabolism of these organisms. Moreover, wild-type strains turn off the synthesis of RubisCO under these cultural conditions. Thus, there appears to be separate autotrophic CO{sub 2} fixation pathways in these organisms, and a major emphasis has been placed to identify how these bacteria can grow autotrophically and fix CO{sub 2} in the absence of RubisCO.

  2. Biological optimization systems for enhancing photosynthetic efficiency and methods of use

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, Ryan W.; Chinnasamy, Senthil; Das, Keshav C.; de Mattos, Erico Rolim

    2012-11-06

    Biological optimization systems for enhancing photosynthetic efficiency and methods of use. Specifically, methods for enhancing photosynthetic efficiency including applying pulsed light to a photosynthetic organism, using a chlorophyll fluorescence feedback control system to determine one or more photosynthetic efficiency parameters, and adjusting one or more of the photosynthetic efficiency parameters to drive the photosynthesis by the delivery of an amount of light to optimize light absorption of the photosynthetic organism while providing enough dark time between light pulses to prevent oversaturation of the chlorophyll reaction centers are disclosed.

  3. A method for estimation of permittivity in photosynthetic membranes and the effect of permittivity on the photosynthetic quantum yield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, A. Yu.

    2013-02-01

    A new method for estimation of the internal permittivity of photosynthetic membranes is based on joint analysis of the optical data with high spectral resolution and precise X-ray data. The permittivity of the bacteriochlorophyll-containing membranes of purple bacteria ranges from 1.62 to 1.75. The relatively low permittivity of photosynthetic organisms provides a significant increase in the efficiency of energy migration from multiple antenna chlorophylls to reaction centers and photosynthetic efficiency in general.

  4. Resolving the influence of nitrogen abundances on sediment organic matter in macrophyte-dominated lakes, using fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xin; Wang, Shengrui; Jiao, Lixin; Yan, Caihong; Jin, Xiangcan

    2015-01-01

    A controlled experiment was designed to resolve the influence of nitrogen abundance on sediment organic matters in macrophyte-dominated lakes using fluorescence analysis. Macrophyte biomass showed coincident growth trends with time, but different variation rates with nitrogen treatment. All plant growth indexes with nitrogen addition (N, NH4Cl 100, 200, 400mg/kg, respectively) were lower than those of the control group. Four humic-like components, two autochthonous tryptophan-like components, and one autochthonous tyrosine-like component were identified using the parallel factor analysis model. The results suggested that the relative component changes of fluorescence in the colonized sediments were in direct relation to the change of root biomass with time. In the experiment, the root formation parameters of the plants studied were significantly affected by adding N in sediments, which may be related to the reason that the root growth was affected by N addition. Adding a low concentration of N to sediments can play a part in supplying nutrients to the plants. However, the intensive uptake of NH4(+) may result in an increase in the intracellular concentration of ammonia, which is highly toxic to the plant cells. Hence, our experiment results manifested that organic matter cycling in the macrophyte-dominated sediment was influenced by nitrogen enrichment through influencing vegetation and relevant microbial activity. PMID:25597678

  5. How Cyanobacterial Distributions Reveal Flow and Irradiance Conditions of Photosynthetic Biofilm Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prufert-Bebout, Lee; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Microbial life on Earth is enormously abundant at sediment-water interfaces. The fossil record in fact contains abundant evidence of the preservation of life on such surfaces. It is therefore critical to our interpretation of early Earth history, and potentially to history of life on other planets, to be able to recognize life forms at these interfaces. On Earth this life often occurs as organized structures of microbes and their extracellular exudates known as biofilms. When such biofilms occur in areas receiving sunlight photosynthetic biofilms are the dominant form in natural ecosystems due to selective advantage inherent in their ability to utilize solar energy. Cyanobacteria are the dominant phototrophic microbes in most modern and ancient photosynthetic biofilms, microbial mats and stromatolites. Due to their long (3.5 billion year) evolutionary history, this group has extensively diversified resulting in an enormous array of morphologies and physiological abilities. This enormous diversity and specialization results in very specific selection for a particular cyanobacterium in each available photosynthetic niche. Furthermore these organisms can alter their spatial orientation, cell morphology, pigmentation and associations with heterotrophic organisms in order to fine tune their optimization to a given micro-niche. These adaptations can be detected, and if adequate knowledge of the interaction between environmental conditions and organism response is available, the detectable organism response can be used to infer the environmental conditions causing that response. This presentation will detail two specific examples which illustrate this point, Light and water are essential to photosynthesis in cyanobacteria and these organisms have specific detectable behavioural responses to these parameters. We will present cyanobacterial responses to quantified flow and irradiance to demonstrate the interpretative power of distribution and orientation information. This

  6. Chronic hypoxia and VEGF differentially modulate abundance and organization of myosin heavy chain isoforms in fetal and adult ovine arteries.

    PubMed

    Hubbell, Margaret C; Semotiuk, Andrew J; Thorpe, Richard B; Adeoye, Olayemi O; Butler, Stacy M; Williams, James M; Khorram, Omid; Pearce, William J

    2012-11-15

    Chronic hypoxia increases vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and thereby promotes angiogenesis. The present study explores the hypothesis that hypoxic increases in VEGF also remodel artery wall structure and contractility through phenotypic transformation of smooth muscle. Pregnant and nonpregnant ewes were maintained at sea level (normoxia) or 3,820 m (hypoxia) for the final 110 days of gestation. Common carotid arteries harvested from term fetal lambs and nonpregnant adults were denuded of endothelium and studied in vitro. Stretch-dependent contractile stresses were 32 and 77% of normoxic values in hypoxic fetal and adult arteries. Hypoxic hypocontractility was coupled with increased abundance of nonmuscle myosin heavy chain (NM-MHC) in fetal (+37%) and adult (+119%) arteries. Conversely, hypoxia decreased smooth muscle MHC (SM-MHC) abundance by 40% in fetal arteries but increased it 123% in adult arteries. Hypoxia decreased colocalization of NM-MHC with smooth muscle α-actin (SM-αA) in fetal arteries and decreased colocalization of SM-MHC with SM-αA in adult arteries. Organ culture with physiological concentrations (3 ng/ml) of VEGF-A(165) similarly depressed stretch-dependent stresses to 37 and 49% of control fetal and adult values. The VEGF receptor antagonist vatalanib ablated VEGF's effects in adult but not fetal arteries, suggesting age-dependent VEGF receptor signaling. VEGF replicated hypoxic decreases in colocalization of NM-MHC with SM-αA in fetal arteries and decreases in colocalization of SM-MHC with SM-αA in adult arteries. These results suggest that hypoxic increases in VEGF not only promote angiogenesis but may also help mediate hypoxic arterial remodeling through age-dependent changes in smooth muscle phenotype and contractility. PMID:22992677

  7. Regulation of Photosynthetic Electron Transport and Photoinhibition

    PubMed Central

    Roach, Thomas; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja Krieger

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthetic organisms and isolated photosystems are of interest for technical applications. In nature, photosynthetic electron transport has to work efficiently in contrasting environments such as shade and full sunlight at noon. Photosynthetic electron transport is regulated on many levels, starting with the energy transfer processes in antenna and ending with how reducing power is ultimately partitioned. This review starts by explaining how light energy can be dissipated or distributed by the various mechanisms of non-photochemical quenching, including thermal dissipation and state transitions, and how these processes influence photoinhibition of photosystem II (PSII). Furthermore, we will highlight the importance of the various alternative electron transport pathways, including the use of oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor and cyclic flow around photosystem I (PSI), the latter which seem particularly relevant to preventing photoinhibition of photosystem I. The control of excitation pressure in combination with the partitioning of reducing power influences the light-dependent formation of reactive oxygen species in PSII and in PSI, which may be a very important consideration to any artificial photosynthetic system or technical device using photosynthetic organisms. PMID:24678670

  8. Molecular characterization of dissolved organic matter in glacial ice: coupling natural abundance 1H NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pautler, Brent G; Woods, Gwen C; Dubnick, Ashley; Simpson, André J; Sharp, Martin J; Fitzsimons, Sean J; Simpson, Myrna J

    2012-04-01

    Glaciers and ice sheets are the second largest freshwater reservoir in the global hydrologic cycle, and the onset of global climate warming has necessitated an assessment of their contributions to sea-level rise and the potential release of nutrients to nearby aquatic environments. In particular, the release of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from glacier melt could stimulate microbial activity in both glacial ecosystems and adjacent watersheds, but this would largely depend on the composition of the material released. Using fluorescence and (1)H NMR spectroscopy, we characterize DOM at its natural abundance in unaltered samples from a number of glaciers that differ in geographic location, thermal regime, and sample depth. Parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) modeling of DOM fluorophores identifies components in the ice that are predominantly proteinaceous in character, while (1)H NMR spectroscopy reveals a mixture of small molecules that likely originate from native microbes. Spectrofluorescence also reveals a terrestrial contribution that was below the detection limits of NMR; however, (1)H nuclei from levoglucosan was identified in Arctic glacier ice samples. This study suggests that the bulk of the DOM from these glaciers is a mixture of biologically labile molecules derived from microbes. PMID:22385100

  9. Spatial variability in the abundance, composition, and age of organic matter in surficial sediments of the East China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ying; Eglinton, Timothy; Yang, Liyang; Deng, Bing; Montluçon, Daniel; Zhang, Jing

    2013-12-01

    the sources and fate of organic matter (OM) sequestered in continental margin sediments is of importance because the mode and efficiency of OM burial impact the carbon cycle and the regulation of atmospheric CO2 over long time scales. We carried out molecular (lignin-derived phenols from CuO oxidation), elemental, isotopic (δ13C, Δ14C), and sedimentological (grain size and mineral surface area) analyses in order to examine spatial variability in the abundance, source, age of surface sediments of the East China Sea. Higher terrigenous organic matter values were found in the main accumulating areas of fluvial sediments, including the Changjiang (Yangtze) Estuary and Zhejiang-Fujian coastal zone. Isotopic and biomarker data suggest that the sedimentary OM in the inner shelf region was dominated by aged (Δ14C = -423 ± 42‰) but relatively lignin-rich OM (Λ = 0.94 ± 0.57 mg/100 mg OC) associated with fine-grained sediments, suggesting important contributions from soils. In contrast, samples from the outer shelf, while of similar age (Δ14 C = -450 ± 99‰), are lignin poor (Λ = 0.25 ± 0.14 mg/100 mg OC) and associated with coarse-grained material. Regional variation of lignin phenols and OM ages indicates that OM content is fundamentally controlled by hydrodynamic sorting (especially, sediment redistribution and winnowing) and in situ primary production. Selective sorption of acid to aldehyde in clay fraction also modified the ratios of lignin phenols. The burial of lignin in East China Sea is estimated to be relatively efficient, possibly as a consequence of terrigenous OM recalcitrance and/or relatively high sedimentation rates in the Changjiang Estuary and the adjacent Zhejing-Fujian mud belt.

  10. "Candidatus Propionivibrio aalborgensis": A Novel Glycogen Accumulating Organism Abundant in Full-Scale Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal Plants.

    PubMed

    Albertsen, Mads; McIlroy, Simon J; Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel; Karst, Søren M; Nielsen, Per H

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is widely used to remove phosphorus from wastewater. The process relies on polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) that are able to take up phosphorus in excess of what is needed for growth, whereby phosphorus can be removed from the wastewater by wasting the biomass. However, glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) may reduce the EBPR efficiency as they compete for substrates with PAOs, but do not store excessive amounts of polyphosphate. PAOs and GAOs are thought to be phylogenetically unrelated, with the model PAO being the betaproteobacterial "Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis" (Accumulibacter) and the model GAO being the gammaproteobacterial "Candidatus Competibacter phosphatis". Here, we report the discovery of a GAO from the genus Propionivibrio, which is closely related to Accumulibacter. Propionivibrio sp. are targeted by the canonical fluorescence in situ hybridization probes used to target Accumulibacter (PAOmix), but do not store excessive amounts of polyphosphate in situ. A laboratory scale reactor, operated to enrich for PAOs, surprisingly contained co-dominant populations of Propionivibrio and Accumulibacter. Metagenomic sequencing of multiple time-points enabled recovery of near complete population genomes from both genera. Annotation of the Propionivibrio genome confirmed their potential for the GAO phenotype and a basic metabolic model is proposed for their metabolism in the EBPR environment. Using newly designed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes, analyses of full-scale EBPR plants revealed that Propionivibrio is a common member of the community, constituting up to 3% of the biovolume. To avoid overestimation of Accumulibacter abundance in situ, we recommend the use of the FISH probe PAO651 instead of the commonly applied PAOmix probe set. PMID:27458436

  11. “Candidatus Propionivibrio aalborgensis”: A Novel Glycogen Accumulating Organism Abundant in Full-Scale Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Albertsen, Mads; McIlroy, Simon J.; Stokholm-Bjerregaard, Mikkel; Karst, Søren M.; Nielsen, Per H.

    2016-01-01

    Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) is widely used to remove phosphorus from wastewater. The process relies on polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) that are able to take up phosphorus in excess of what is needed for growth, whereby phosphorus can be removed from the wastewater by wasting the biomass. However, glycogen accumulating organisms (GAOs) may reduce the EBPR efficiency as they compete for substrates with PAOs, but do not store excessive amounts of polyphosphate. PAOs and GAOs are thought to be phylogenetically unrelated, with the model PAO being the betaproteobacterial “Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis” (Accumulibacter) and the model GAO being the gammaproteobacterial “Candidatus Competibacter phosphatis”. Here, we report the discovery of a GAO from the genus Propionivibrio, which is closely related to Accumulibacter. Propionivibrio sp. are targeted by the canonical fluorescence in situ hybridization probes used to target Accumulibacter (PAOmix), but do not store excessive amounts of polyphosphate in situ. A laboratory scale reactor, operated to enrich for PAOs, surprisingly contained co-dominant populations of Propionivibrio and Accumulibacter. Metagenomic sequencing of multiple time-points enabled recovery of near complete population genomes from both genera. Annotation of the Propionivibrio genome confirmed their potential for the GAO phenotype and a basic metabolic model is proposed for their metabolism in the EBPR environment. Using newly designed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) probes, analyses of full-scale EBPR plants revealed that Propionivibrio is a common member of the community, constituting up to 3% of the biovolume. To avoid overestimation of Accumulibacter abundance in situ, we recommend the use of the FISH probe PAO651 instead of the commonly applied PAOmix probe set. PMID:27458436

  12. Variability in the bulk composition and abundance of dissolved organic matter in the lower Mississippi and Pearl rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Shuiwang; Bianchi, Thomas S.; Shiller, Alan M.; Dria, Karl; Hatcher, Patrick G.; Carman, Kevin R.

    2007-06-01

    In this study, we examined the temporal and spatial variability of dissolved organic matter (DOM) abundance and composition in the lower Mississippi and Pearl rivers and effects of human and natural influences. In particular, we looked at bulk C/N ratio, stable isotopes (δ15N and δ13C) and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry of high molecular weight (HMW; 0.2 μm to 1 kDa) DOM. Monthly water samples were collected at one station in each river from August 2001 to 2003. Surveys of spatial variability of total dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and nitrogen (DON) were also conducted in June 2003, from 390 km downstream in the Mississippi River and from Jackson to Stennis Space Center in the Pearl River. Higher DOC (336-1170 μM), C/N ratio,% aromaticity, and more depleted δ15N (0.76-2.1‰) were observed in the Pearl than in the lower Mississippi River (223-380 μM, 4.7-11.5‰, respectively). DOC, C/N ratio, δ13C, δ15N, and % aromaticity of Pearl River HMW DOM were correlated with water discharge, which indicated a coupling between local soil inputs and regional precipitation events. Conversely, seasonal variability in the lower Mississippi River was more controlled by spatial variability of a larger integrative signal from the watershed as well as in situ DOM processing. Spatially, very little change occurred in total DOC in the downstream survey of the lower Mississippi River, compared to a decrease of 24% in the Pearl River. Differences in DOM between these two rivers were reflective of the Mississippi River having more extensive river processing of terrestrial DOM, more phytoplankton inputs, and greater anthropogenic perturbation than the Pearl River.

  13. Enhanced practical photosynthetic CO2 mitigation

    DOEpatents

    Bayless, David J.; Vis-Chiasson, Morgan L.; Kremer, Gregory G.

    2003-12-23

    This process is unique in photosynthetic carbon sequestration. An on-site biological sequestration system directly decreases the concentration of carbon-containing compounds in the emissions of fossil generation units. In this process, photosynthetic microbes are attached to a growth surface arranged in a containment chamber that is lit by solar photons. A harvesting system ensures maximum organism growth and rate of CO.sub.2 uptake. Soluble carbon and nitrogen concentrations delivered to the cyanobacteria are enhanced, further increasing growth rate and carbon utilization.

  14. Feasibility of a photosynthetic artificial lung.

    PubMed

    Basu-Dutt, S; Fandino, M R; Salley, S O; Thompson, I M; Whittlesey, G C; Klein, M D

    1997-01-01

    The success of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) for the treatment of acute respiratory failure has led to consideration of the development of a more portable, and perhaps even implantable, artificial lung. The authors suggest a bioregenerative life support system that includes a photo-synthetic organism that can remove CO2 and produce O2 in the presence of an energy source. To build a model of such a photosynthetic artificial lung, the photosynthetic capability of a high temperature strain of the algae Chlorella pyrenoidosa was maximized at a cell density of 25 million cells/ml to serve as the O2 producer and CO2 remover. The "patient" in this model was comprised of 1 L of medium or 350 ml of blood, interfaced with the photosynthetic system across a gas transfer membrane. The experiments demonstrated the ability of the plant cells to supply O2 and remove CO2 from the "patient" with a maximum rate of 0.55 mmoles/L/hr under the most favorable measured operating conditions. The projected rate of 1.0 mmoles/L/hr required for physiologic applications is not totally ab absurd idea, with a slightly modified set-up. Modifications may be in the form of regulating the photosynthetic pathway or genetically engineering a hybrid strain with enhanced O2 producing and suppressed photoinhibition capacity. PMID:9242940

  15. Effects of growth light and nitrogen nutrition on the organization of the photosynthetic apparatus in leaves of a C4 plant, Amaranthus cruentus.

    PubMed

    Tazoe, Youshi; Noguchi, Ko; Terashima, Ichiro

    2006-04-01

    Properties of C4 photosynthesis were examined in Amaranthus cruentus L. (NAD-malic enzyme (ME) subtype, dicot) grown under different light and nitrogen (N) conditions, from the viewpoint of N investment into their photosynthetic components. In low-light (LL) leaves, chlorophyll content per leaf area was greater and chlorophyll alb ratio was lower than in high-light (HL) leaves. These indicate that LL leaves invest more N into their light-harvesting systems. However, this N investment did not contribute to the increase in the quantum yield of photosynthesis on the incident photon flux density (PFD) basis (Qi) in LL leaves. N allocation to ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylasel oxygenase (Rubisco) was significantly higher in HL-high N (HN) leaves than in other leaves. On the other hand, N allocation to C4 enzymes [phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) and pyruvate Pi dikinase (PPDK)] was unaffected by the growth conditions. Maximum photosynthetic rates (Pmax) per Rubisco content were similar irrespective of the growth light treatments. Carbon isotope ratios (delta13 C) in the leaf dry matter were more negative in LL leaves than in HL leaves (LL = -19.3% per hundred, HL = -16.0% per hundred) and independent of leaf N. Vein density was highest in HL-HN leaves, and leaf thickness was unaffected by the growth light treatments. From these results, we conclude that A. cruentus leaves would not acclimate efficiently to low growth light. PMID:17080618

  16. Terracidiphilus gabretensis gen. nov., sp. nov., an Abundant and Active Forest Soil Acidobacterium Important in Organic Matter Transformation

    PubMed Central

    García-Fraile, Paula; Benada, Oldrich; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Baldrian, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the activity of bacteria in coniferous forests is highly important, due to the role of these environments as a global carbon sink. In a study of the microbial biodiversity of montane coniferous forest soil in the Bohemian Forest National Park (Czech Republic), we succeeded in isolating bacterial strain S55T, which belongs to one of the most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in active bacterial populations, according to the analysis of RNA-derived 16S rRNA amplicons. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the species most closely related to strain S55T include Bryocella elongata SN10T (95.4% identity), Acidicapsa ligni WH120T (95.2% identity), and Telmatobacter bradus TPB6017T (95.0% identity), revealing that strain S55T should be classified within the phylum Acidobacteria, subdivision 1. Strain S55T is a rod-like bacterium that grows at acidic pH (3 to 6). Its phylogenetic, genotypic, phenotypic, and chemotaxonomic characteristics indicate that strain S55T corresponds to a new genus within the phylum Acidobacteria; thus, we propose the name Terracidiphilus gabretensis gen. nov., sp. nov. (strain S55T = NBRC 111238T = CECT 8791T). This strain produces extracellular enzymes implicated in the degradation of plant-derived biopolymers. Moreover, analysis of the genome sequence of strain S55T also reveals the presence of enzymatic machinery required for organic matter decomposition. Soil metatranscriptomic analyses found 132 genes from strain S55T being expressed in the forest soil, especially during winter. Our results suggest an important contribution of T. gabretensis S55T in the carbon cycle in the Picea abies coniferous forest. PMID:26546425

  17. Terracidiphilus gabretensis gen. nov., sp. nov., an Abundant and Active Forest Soil Acidobacterium Important in Organic Matter Transformation.

    PubMed

    García-Fraile, Paula; Benada, Oldrich; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Baldrian, Petr; Lladó, Salvador

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the activity of bacteria in coniferous forests is highly important, due to the role of these environments as a global carbon sink. In a study of the microbial biodiversity of montane coniferous forest soil in the Bohemian Forest National Park (Czech Republic), we succeeded in isolating bacterial strain S55(T), which belongs to one of the most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) in active bacterial populations, according to the analysis of RNA-derived 16S rRNA amplicons. The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that the species most closely related to strain S55(T) include Bryocella elongata SN10(T) (95.4% identity), Acidicapsa ligni WH120(T) (95.2% identity), and Telmatobacter bradus TPB6017(T) (95.0% identity), revealing that strain S55(T) should be classified within the phylum Acidobacteria, subdivision 1. Strain S55(T) is a rod-like bacterium that grows at acidic pH (3 to 6). Its phylogenetic, genotypic, phenotypic, and chemotaxonomic characteristics indicate that strain S55(T) corresponds to a new genus within the phylum Acidobacteria; thus, we propose the name Terracidiphilus gabretensis gen. nov., sp. nov. (strain S55(T) = NBRC 111238(T) = CECT 8791(T)). This strain produces extracellular enzymes implicated in the degradation of plant-derived biopolymers. Moreover, analysis of the genome sequence of strain S55(T) also reveals the presence of enzymatic machinery required for organic matter decomposition. Soil metatranscriptomic analyses found 132 genes from strain S55(T) being expressed in the forest soil, especially during winter. Our results suggest an important contribution of T. gabretensis S55(T) in the carbon cycle in the Picea abies coniferous forest. PMID:26546425

  18. "PP2C7s", Genes Most Highly Elaborated in Photosynthetic Organisms, Reveal the Bacterial Origin and Stepwise Evolution of PPM/PP2C Protein Phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Kerk, David; Silver, Dylan; Uhrig, R Glen; Moorhead, Greg B G

    2015-01-01

    Mg+2/Mn+2-dependent type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs) are ubiquitous in eukaryotes, mediating diverse cellular signaling processes through metal ion catalyzed dephosphorylation of target proteins. We have identified a distinct PP2C sequence class ("PP2C7s") which is nearly universally distributed in Eukaryotes, and therefore apparently ancient. PP2C7s are by far most prominent and diverse in plants and green algae. Combining phylogenetic analysis, subcellular localization predictions, and a distillation of publically available gene expression data, we have traced the evolutionary trajectory of this gene family in photosynthetic eukaryotes, demonstrating two major sequence assemblages featuring a succession of increasingly derived sub-clades. These display predominant expression moving from an ancestral pattern in photosynthetic tissues toward non-photosynthetic, specialized and reproductive structures. Gene co-expression network composition strongly suggests a shifting pattern of PP2C7 gene functions, including possible regulation of starch metabolism for one homologue set in Arabidopsis and rice. Distinct plant PP2C7 sub-clades demonstrate novel amino terminal protein sequences upon motif analysis, consistent with a shifting pattern of regulation of protein function. More broadly, neither the major events in PP2C sequence evolution, nor the origin of the diversity of metal binding characteristics currently observed in different PP2C lineages, are clearly understood. Identification of the PP2C7 sequence clade has allowed us to provide a better understanding of both of these issues. Phylogenetic analysis and sequence comparisons using Hidden Markov Models strongly suggest that PP2Cs originated in Bacteria (Group II PP2C sequences), entered Eukaryotes through the ancestral mitochondrial endosymbiosis, elaborated in Eukaryotes, then re-entered Bacteria through an inter-domain gene transfer, ultimately producing bacterial Group I PP2C sequences. A key evolutionary

  19. "PP2C7s", Genes Most Highly Elaborated in Photosynthetic Organisms, Reveal the Bacterial Origin and Stepwise Evolution of PPM/PP2C Protein Phosphatases

    PubMed Central

    Kerk, David; Silver, Dylan; Uhrig, R. Glen; Moorhead, Greg B. G.

    2015-01-01

    Mg+2/Mn+2-dependent type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs) are ubiquitous in eukaryotes, mediating diverse cellular signaling processes through metal ion catalyzed dephosphorylation of target proteins. We have identified a distinct PP2C sequence class (“PP2C7s”) which is nearly universally distributed in Eukaryotes, and therefore apparently ancient. PP2C7s are by far most prominent and diverse in plants and green algae. Combining phylogenetic analysis, subcellular localization predictions, and a distillation of publically available gene expression data, we have traced the evolutionary trajectory of this gene family in photosynthetic eukaryotes, demonstrating two major sequence assemblages featuring a succession of increasingly derived sub-clades. These display predominant expression moving from an ancestral pattern in photosynthetic tissues toward non-photosynthetic, specialized and reproductive structures. Gene co-expression network composition strongly suggests a shifting pattern of PP2C7 gene functions, including possible regulation of starch metabolism for one homologue set in Arabidopsis and rice. Distinct plant PP2C7 sub-clades demonstrate novel amino terminal protein sequences upon motif analysis, consistent with a shifting pattern of regulation of protein function. More broadly, neither the major events in PP2C sequence evolution, nor the origin of the diversity of metal binding characteristics currently observed in different PP2C lineages, are clearly understood. Identification of the PP2C7 sequence clade has allowed us to provide a better understanding of both of these issues. Phylogenetic analysis and sequence comparisons using Hidden Markov Models strongly suggest that PP2Cs originated in Bacteria (Group II PP2C sequences), entered Eukaryotes through the ancestral mitochondrial endosymbiosis, elaborated in Eukaryotes, then re-entered Bacteria through an inter-domain gene transfer, ultimately producing bacterial Group I PP2C sequences. A key

  20. Mapping the spectral variability in photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic vegetation, soils, and shade using AVIRIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Dar A.; Smith, Milton O.; Sabol, Donald E.; Adams, John B.; Ustin, Susan L.

    1992-01-01

    The primary objective of this research was to map as many spectrally distinct types of green vegetation (GV), non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV), shade, and soil (endmembers) in an Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) scene as is warranted by the spectral variability of the data. Once determined, a secondary objective was to interpret these endmembers and their abundances spatially and spectrally in an ecological context.

  1. Determination of photosynthetic parameters in two seawater-tolerant vegetables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Nianwei; Zhou, Feng; Liu, Qian; Zhao, Wenqian

    2016-03-01

    It is difficult to determine the photosynthetic parameters of non-flat leaves/green stems using photosynthetic instruments, due to the unusual morphology of both organs, especially for Suaeda salsa and Salicornia bigelovii as two seawater-tolerant vegetables. To solve the problem, we developed a simple, practical, and effective method to measure and calculate the photosynthetic parameters (such as P N, g s, E) based on unit fresh mass, instead of leaf area. The light/CO2/temperature response curves of the plants can also be measured by this method. This new method is more effective, stable, and reliable than conventional methods for plants with non-flat leaves. In addition, the relative notes on measurements and calculation of photosynthetic parameters were discussed in this paper. This method solves technical difficulties in photosynthetic parameter determination of the two seawater-tolerant vegetables and similar plants.

  2. Whiting events: biogenic origin due to the photosynthetic activity of cyanobacterial picoplankton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, J. B.; Schultze-Lam, S.; Beveridge, T. J.; Des Marais, D. J.

    1997-01-01

    An annual whiting event occurs each year in late May to early June in Fayetteville Green Lake, New York. The initiation of this event correlates with exponential growth of the Synechococcus population within the lake. Synechococcus is the dominant (by approximately 4 orders of magnitude) autotrophic organism owing to the oligotrophic condition of the lake. The delta 13C values of the dissolved inorganic C range seasonally from -9.5% in winter to -6.2% in summer due to photosynthetic activity. Calcite precipitates principally in the microenvironment surrounding Synechococcus because of a photosynthetically driven alkalization process and the availability of the cells as nucleation sites. This calcite has a heavier delta 13C value (>4%) than does the dissolved inorganic C of the lake water owing to the cells' preferential uptake of 12C. A conceptual model suggests that photosynthetic activity and cell surface chemistry, together with the substantial surface area that arises from the great abundance of micron-sized cells, allow Synechococcus to dominate the annual whiting events in Fayetteville Green Lake.

  3. Two wheat (Triticum aestivum) pathogenesis-related 10 (PR-10) transcripts with distinct patterns of abundance in different organs.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Mohsen; Srivastava, Sanjeeva; Hall, Jocelyn C; Kav, Nat N V; Deyholos, Michael K

    2012-06-01

    PR-10 genes encode small, acidic, intracellular proteins that respond to abiotic and biotic stimuli. Transgenic expression of PR-10 genes has been shown to enhance early seedling growth of dicots in saline environments. To identify candidate PR-10 genes in cereals for increasing stress tolerance, we conducted phylogenetic analyses and real-time polymerase chain reaction of representatives of the two major clades of putative PR-10 genes in wheat. We observed that the abundance of BQ752893 was generally greater than the abundance of CV778999, particularly when measured in roots across four wheat genotypes. However, CV778999 transcripts were more abundant than BQ752893 in flag leaves. These data suggest that the transcripts define two functionally divergent groups of PR-10 type genes in wheat, both of which may be suitable targets for biotechnological manipulation under different circumstances. PMID:21818707

  4. Pulley reef: a deep photosynthetic coral reef on the West Florida Shelf, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Culter, J.K.; Ritchie, K.B.; Earle, S.A.; Guggenheim, D.E.; Halley, R.B.; Ciembronowicz, K.T.; Hine, A.C.; Jarrett, B.D.; Locker, S.D.; Jaap, W.C.

    2006-01-01

    Pulley Reef (24°50′N, 83°40′W) lies on a submerged late Pleistocene shoreline feature that formed during a sea-level stillstand from 13.8 to 14.5 ka (Jarrett et al. 2005). The reef is currently 60–75 m deep, exhibits 10–60% coral cover, and extends over approximately 160 km2 of the sea floor. Zooxanthellate corals are primarily Agaricia lamarcki, A. fragilis, Leptoseris cucullata, and less common Madracis formosa, M. pharensis, M. decactis, Montastraea cavernosa, Porites divaricata, Scolymia cubensis and Oculina tenella. Coralline algae are comparable in abundance to stony corals. Other macroalgae include Halimeda tuna, Dictyota divaricata, Lobophora variegata, Ventricatri ventricosa, Verdigelas pelas, and Kallymenia sp. Anadyomene menziesii is abundant. The reef provides a habitat for organisms typically observed at much shallower depths, and is the deepest known photosynthetic coral reef on the North America continental shelf (Fig. 1).

  5. Characterization of a flood-associated deposit on the Waipaoa River shelf using radioisotopes and terrigenous organic matter abundance and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kniskern, Tara A.; Mitra, Siddhartha; Orpin, Alan R.; Harris, Courtney K.; Walsh, J. P.; Corbett, D. R.

    2014-09-01

    An ephemeral oceanic-flood deposit adjacent to a well-studied small mountainous river (SMR), the Waipaoa River in northeastern New Zealand, was characterized using multiple proxies, including radioisotopes (234Th, 7Be, and 210Pb), bulk organic carbon abundance and isotopic signature (%OC, δ13C), as well as a biomarker of terrigenous organic matter (lignin). Field sampling was conducted within two weeks after a 1-in-8 year flood that occurred between January 30 and February 6, 2010. Geochemical analyses indicated that initial deposition of fresh riverine material extended alongshore to the north and south from the river mouth. A comparison of prior- and post-flood 7Be inventories revealed that flood sediments were widely dispersed between 20 and 70 m water depth, accounting for 50-80% of the estimated flood load. Surface (0-2 cm) isotopic carbon values increased with distance from Poverty Bay, positively correlating with total 210Pb activities, potentially reflecting increasing marine influence with water depth. Abundances of sedimentary organic carbon (OC) were 0.18-0.76% dry weight, and the total nitrogen varied from 0.02 to 0.13%. Stable isotope signatures of carbon (δ13COC), nitrogen (δ15N), and lignin abundances (λ6) throughout the study area ranged from -23.6 to -27.7‰, 1.9 to 5.3‰, and 0.93 to 9.0 mg 100 mg OC-1, respectively. The spatial distribution pattern of terrigenous organic matter (OM) abundance and interclass ratios (indicative of freshness of organic matter) varied along and across-shelf. Lignin abundances were high and interclass ratios were low in the southern depocenter and inner shelf areas, suggesting that this zone had recently received vascular-plant enriched OM, minimally altered by shelf-bed mixing processes. In contrast, sediments in the northern depocenter and outer shelf also contained elevated amounts of terrigenous sedimentary OM, but this material was generally lower in lignin abundance and had higher interclass ratios

  6. Systems Analysis of the Response of Photosynthesis, Metabolism, and Growth to an Increase in Irradiance in the Photosynthetic Model Organism Chlamydomonas reinhardtii[C][W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Mettler, Tabea; Mühlhaus, Timo; Hemme, Dorothea; Schöttler, Mark-Aurel; Rupprecht, Jens; Idoine, Adam; Veyel, Daniel; Pal, Sunil Kumar; Yaneva-Roder, Liliya; Winck, Flavia Vischi; Sommer, Frederik; Vosloh, Daniel; Seiwert, Bettina; Erban, Alexander; Burgos, Asdrubal; Arvidsson, Samuel; Schönfelder, Stephanie; Arnold, Anne; Günther, Manuela; Krause, Ursula; Lohse, Marc; Kopka, Joachim; Nikoloski, Zoran; Mueller-Roeber, Bernd; Willmitzer, Lothar; Bock, Ralph; Schroda, Michael; Stitt, Mark

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the systems response of metabolism and growth after an increase in irradiance in the nonsaturating range in the algal model Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. In a three-step process, photosynthesis and the levels of metabolites increased immediately, growth increased after 10 to 15 min, and transcript and protein abundance responded by 40 and 120 to 240 min, respectively. In the first phase, starch and metabolites provided a transient buffer for carbon until growth increased. This uncouples photosynthesis from growth in a fluctuating light environment. In the first and second phases, rising metabolite levels and increased polysome loading drove an increase in fluxes. Most Calvin-Benson cycle (CBC) enzymes were substrate-limited in vivo, and strikingly, many were present at higher concentrations than their substrates, explaining how rising metabolite levels stimulate CBC flux. Rubisco, fructose-1,6-biosphosphatase, and seduheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase were close to substrate saturation in vivo, and flux was increased by posttranslational activation. In the third phase, changes in abundance of particular proteins, including increases in plastidial ATP synthase and some CBC enzymes, relieved potential bottlenecks and readjusted protein allocation between different processes. Despite reasonable overall agreement between changes in transcript and protein abundance (R2 = 0.24), many proteins, including those in photosynthesis, changed independently of transcript abundance. PMID:24894045

  7. Energy transfer in real and artificial photosynthetic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, J.E.; Katz, J.J.; Hindman, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    A comparative study of the fluorescence emitted by three photosynthetic organisms (chlorella, tribonema, and anacystis) and the fluorescence of some model systems selected for study by criteria described below are reported. Light emission has been studied as a function of excitation wavelength and of temperature. Low temperature fluorescence studies on photosynthetic organisms and chloroplast preparations provide the chief experimental support for the existence of a PSII in green plants, and fluorescence at low temperatures has been used as the principal source of information on energy flow between the photosynthetic pigments. The nature and functional aspects of PSII and the course of energy transfer in the photosynthetic apparatus are highly pertinent to the oxygen evolution in green plant photosynthesis.

  8. Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO2 Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory Kremer; David J. Bayless; Morgan Vis; Michael Prudich; Keith Cooksey; Jeff Muhs

    2004-10-13

    This report highlights significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation Project for the period ending 09/30/2004. The primary effort of this quarter was focused on mass transfer of carbon dioxide into the water film to study the potential effects on the photosynthetic organisms that depend on the carbon. Testing of the carbon dioxide scrubbing capability (mass transfer capability) of flowing water film appears to be relatively high and largely unaffected by transport of the gas through the bioreactor. The implications are that the transfer of carbon dioxide into the film is nearly at maximum and that it is sufficient to sustain photosynthesis at whatever rate the organisms can sustain. This finding is key to assuming that the process is an energy (photon) limited reaction and not a nutrient limited reaction.

  9. Inorganic and organic fertilizers impact the abundance and proportion of antibiotic resistance and integron-integrase genes in agricultural grassland soil.

    PubMed

    Nõlvak, Hiie; Truu, Marika; Kanger, Kärt; Tampere, Mailiis; Espenberg, Mikk; Loit, Evelin; Raave, Henn; Truu, Jaak

    2016-08-15

    Soil fertilization with animal manure or its digestate may facilitate an important antibiotic resistance dissemination route from anthropogenic sources to the environment. This study examines the effect of mineral fertilizer (NH4NO3), cattle slurry and cattle slurry digestate amendment on the abundance and proportion dynamics of five antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and two classes of integron-integrase genes (intI1 and intI2) in agricultural grassland soil. Fertilization was performed thrice throughout one vegetation period. The targeted ARGs (sul1, tetA, blaCTX-M, blaOXA2 and qnrS) encode resistance to several major antibiotic classes used in veterinary medicine such as sulfonamides, tetracycline, cephalosporins, penicillin and fluoroquinolones, respectively. The non-fertilized grassland soil contained a stable background of tetA, blaCTX-M and sul1 genes. The type of applied fertilizer significantly affected ARGs and integron-integrase genes abundances and proportions in the bacterial community (p<0.001 in both cases), explaining 67.04% of the abundance and 42.95% of the proportion variations in the grassland soil. Both cattle slurry and cattle slurry digestate proved to be considerable sources of ARGs, especially sul1, as well as integron-integrases. Sul1, intI1 and intI2 levels in grassland soil were elevated in response to each organic fertilizer's application event, but this increase was followed by a stage of decrease, suggesting that microbes possessing these genes were predominantly entrained into soil via cattle slurry or its digestate application and had somewhat limited survival potential in a soil environment. However, the abundance of these three target genes did not decrease to a background level by the end of the study period. TetA was most abundant in mineral fertilizer treated soil and blaCTX-M in cattle slurry digestate amended soil. Despite significantly different abundances, the abundance dynamics of bacteria possessing these genes were

  10. Anoxic carbon flux in photosynthetic microbial mats as revealed by metatranscriptomics

    PubMed Central

    Burow, Luke C; Woebken, Dagmar; Marshall, Ian PG; Lindquist, Erika A; Bebout, Brad M; Prufert-Bebout, Leslie; Hoehler, Tori M; Tringe, Susannah G; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Weber, Peter K; Spormann, Alfred M; Singer, Steven W

    2013-01-01

    Photosynthetic microbial mats possess extraordinary phylogenetic and functional diversity that makes linking specific pathways with individual microbial populations a daunting task. Close metabolic and spatial relationships between Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi have previously been observed in diverse microbial mats. Here, we report that an expressed metabolic pathway for the anoxic catabolism of photosynthate involving Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi in microbial mats can be reconstructed through metatranscriptomic sequencing of mats collected at Elkhorn Slough, Monterey Bay, CA, USA. In this reconstruction, Microcoleus spp., the most abundant cyanobacterial group in the mats, ferment photosynthate to organic acids, CO2 and H2 through multiple pathways, and an uncultivated lineage of the Chloroflexi take up these organic acids to store carbon as polyhydroxyalkanoates. The metabolic reconstruction is consistent with metabolite measurements and single cell microbial imaging with fluorescence in situ hybridization and NanoSIMS. PMID:23190731

  11. Anoxic carbon flux in photosynthetic microbial mats as revealed by metatranscriptomics.

    PubMed

    Burow, Luke C; Woebken, Dagmar; Marshall, Ian P G; Lindquist, Erika A; Bebout, Brad M; Prufert-Bebout, Leslie; Hoehler, Tori M; Tringe, Susannah G; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Weber, Peter K; Spormann, Alfred M; Singer, Steven W

    2013-04-01

    Photosynthetic microbial mats possess extraordinary phylogenetic and functional diversity that makes linking specific pathways with individual microbial populations a daunting task. Close metabolic and spatial relationships between Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi have previously been observed in diverse microbial mats. Here, we report that an expressed metabolic pathway for the anoxic catabolism of photosynthate involving Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi in microbial mats can be reconstructed through metatranscriptomic sequencing of mats collected at Elkhorn Slough, Monterey Bay, CA, USA. In this reconstruction, Microcoleus spp., the most abundant cyanobacterial group in the mats, ferment photosynthate to organic acids, CO2 and H2 through multiple pathways, and an uncultivated lineage of the Chloroflexi take up these organic acids to store carbon as polyhydroxyalkanoates. The metabolic reconstruction is consistent with metabolite measurements and single cell microbial imaging with fluorescence in situ hybridization and NanoSIMS. PMID:23190731

  12. Characterisation of antioxidants in photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic leaf tissues of variegated Pelargonium zonale plants.

    PubMed

    Vidović, M; Morina, F; Milić-Komić, S; Vuleta, A; Zechmann, B; Prokić, Lj; Veljović Jovanović, S

    2016-07-01

    Hydrogen peroxide is an important signalling molecule, involved in regulation of numerous metabolic processes in plants. The most important sources of H2 O2 in photosynthetically active cells are chloroplasts and peroxisomes. Here we employed variegated Pelargonium zonale to characterise and compare enzymatic and non-enzymatic components of the antioxidative system in autotrophic and heterotrophic leaf tissues at (sub)cellular level under optimal growth conditions. The results revealed that both leaf tissues had specific strategies to regulate H2 O2 levels. In photosynthetic cells, the redox regulatory system was based on ascorbate, and on the activities of thylakoid-bound ascorbate peroxidase (tAPX) and catalase. In this leaf tissue, ascorbate was predominantly localised in the nucleus, peroxisomes, plastids and mitochondria. On the other hand, non-photosynthetic cells contained higher glutathione content, mostly located in mitochondria. The enzymatic antioxidative system in non-photosynthetic cells relied on the ascorbate-glutathione cycle and both Mn and Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase. Interestingly, higher content of ascorbate and glutathione, and higher activities of APX in the cytosol of non-photosynthetic leaf cells compared to the photosynthetic ones, suggest the importance of this compartment in H2 O2 regulation. Together, these results imply different regulation of processes linked with H2 O2 signalling at subcellular level. Thus, we propose green-white variegated leaves as an excellent system for examination of redox signal transduction and redox communication between two cell types, autotrophic and heterotrophic, within the same organ. PMID:26712503

  13. Direct extraction of photosynthetic electrons from single algal cells by nanoprobing system.

    PubMed

    Ryu, WonHyoung; Bai, Seoung-Jai; Park, Joong Sun; Huang, Zubin; Moseley, Jeffrey; Fabian, Tibor; Fasching, Rainer J; Grossman, Arthur R; Prinz, Fritz B

    2010-04-14

    There are numerous sources of bioenergy that are generated by photosynthetic processes, for example, lipids, alcohols, hydrogen, and polysaccharides. However, generally only a small fraction of solar energy absorbed by photosynthetic organisms is converted to a form of energy that can be readily exploited. To more efficiently use the solar energy harvested by photosynthetic organisms, we evaluated the feasibility of generating bioelectricity by directly extracting electrons from the photosynthetic electron transport chain before they are used to fix CO(2) into sugars and polysaccharides. From a living algal cell, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, photosynthetic electrons (1.2 pA at 6000 mA/m(2)) were directly extracted without a mediator electron carrier by inserting a nanoelectrode into the algal chloroplast and applying an overvoltage. This result may represent an initial step in generating "high efficiency" bioelectricity by directly harvesting high energy photosynthetic electrons. PMID:20201533

  14. How Cyanobacterial Distributions Reveal Flow and Irradiance Conditions of Photosynthetic Biofilm Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prufert-Bebout, Lee

    2001-01-01

    Microbial life on Earth is enormously abundant at sediment-water interfaces. The fossil record in fact contains abundant evidence of the preservation of life on such surfaces. It is therefore critical to our interpretation of early Earth history, and potentially to history of life on other planets, to be able to recognize life forms at these interfaces. On Earth this life often occurs as organized structures of microbes and their extracellular exudates known as biofilms. When such biofilms occur in areas receiving sunlight photosynthetic biofilms are the dominant form in natural ecosystems due to selective advantage inherent in their ability to utilize solar energy. Cyanobacteria are the dominant phototrophic microbes in most modern and ancient photosynthetic biofilms, microbial mats and stromatolites. Due to their long (3.5 billion year) evolutionary history, this group has extensively diversified resulting in an enormous array of morphologies and physiological abilities. This enormous diversity and specialization results in very specific selection for a particular cyanobacterium in each available photosynthetic niche. Furthermore these organisms can alter their spatial orientation, cell morphology, pigmentation and associations with heterotrophic organisms in order to fine tune their optimization to a given micro-niche. These adaptations can be detected, and if adequate knowledge of the interaction between environmental conditions and organism response is available, the detectable organism response can be used to infer the environmental conditions causing that response. This presentation will detail two specific examples which illustrate this point. Light and water are essential to photosynthesis in cyanobacteria and these organisms have specific detectable behavioral responses to these parameters. We will present cyanobacterial responses to quantified flow and irradiance to demonstrate the interpretative power of distribution and orientation information. This

  15. Prebiotic photosynthetic reactions.

    PubMed

    Chittenden, G J; Schwartz, A W

    1981-01-01

    Historically, numerous attempts have been made to mimic - by means of inorganic model reactions - the photosynthetic fixation of CO2 by green plants. The literature in this field is strewn with claims and counter-claims. Two factors have led us to reexamine this subject: firstly; doubts concerning the highly reducing model for the atmosphere of the primitive Earth and secondly; recent results which demonstrate that photoreductive fixation is feasable on a suitable catalytic surface, for both CO2 and N2. The latter observation is of particular interest due to the well-known susceptibility of NH3 to photolytic destruction. Our review of the literature leads us to suggest that similar processes would have been plausible for the primitive Earth and could have been prebiotic precursors to an early development of CO2-fixing autotrophs. PMID:6791723

  16. A new direction in effective accounting for the atmospheric CO 2 budget: Considering the combined action of carbonate dissolution, the global water cycle and photosynthetic uptake of DIC by aquatic organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zaihua; Dreybrodt, Wolfgang; Wang, Haijing

    2010-05-01

    The magnitudes, variations, locations and mechanisms responsible for the global atmospheric CO 2 sink are uncertain and under continuing debate. Previous studies have focused mainly on the sinks in the oceans, and soil and vegetation on the continents. Here, we show, based on theoretical calculations and field monitoring evidence, that there is an important but previously underestimated sink for atmospheric CO 2 as DIC-dissolved inorganic carbon that results from the combined action of carbonate dissolution, the global water cycle and the photosynthetic uptake of DIC by aquatic organisms in ocean and land. The sink constitutes up to 0.8242 Pg C/a, amounting to 29.4% of the terrestrial CO 2 sink, or 10.4% of the total anthropogenic CO 2 emission. 0.244 Pg C/a are transferred to the sea via continental rivers and 0.2278 Pg C/a by meteoric precipitation over the seas. 0.119 Pg C/a is released back to the atmosphere again, and 0.2334 Pg C/a is stored in the continental aquatic ecosystem. Therefore, the net sink is estimated as 0.7052 Pg C/a. This sink may increase with an intensification of the global water cycle as a consequence of global warming, rising anthropogenic emissions of CO 2 and carbonate dust in atmosphere, and afforestation, which increases the soil pCO 2 and thus the carbonate dissolution. Fertilization with the elements N, P, C, Fe, Zn, and Si increases the organic matter storage/burial by aquatic organisms and thus decreases the CO 2 return to the atmosphere. Based on the ensemble mean projection of global warming for the year 2100 by IPCC, it is estimated that the atmospheric CO 2 sink will increase by 21%, or about 0.18 Pg C/a. However, the uncertainty in the estimation of this sink needs further exploration.

  17. Spatiotemporal variations in the abundance and composition of bulk and chromophoric dissolved organic matter in seasonally hypoxia-influenced Green Bay, Lake Michigan, USA.

    PubMed

    DeVilbiss, Stephen E; Zhou, Zhengzhen; Klump, J Val; Guo, Laodong

    2016-09-15

    Green Bay, Lake Michigan, USA, is the largest freshwater estuary in the Laurentian Great Lakes and receives disproportional terrestrial inputs as a result of a high watershed to bay surface area ratio. While seasonal hypoxia and the formation of "dead zones" in Green Bay have received increasing attention, there are no systematic studies on the dynamics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and its linkage to the development of hypoxia. During summer 2014, bulk dissolved organic carbon (DOC) analysis, UV-vis spectroscopy, and fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEMs) coupled with PARAFAC analysis were used to quantify the abundance, composition and source of DOM and their spatiotemporal variations in Green Bay, Lake Michigan. Concentrations of DOC ranged from 202 to 571μM-C (average=361±73μM-C) in June and from 279 to 610μM-C (average=349±64μM-C) in August. In both months, absorption coefficient at 254nm (a254) was strongly correlated to bulk DOC and was most abundant in the Fox River, attesting a dominant terrestrial input. Non-chromophoric DOC comprised, on average, ~32% of bulk DOC in June with higher terrestrial DOM and ~47% in August with higher aquagenic DOM, indicating that autochthonous and more degraded DOM is of lower optical activity. PARAFAC modeling on EEM data resulted in four major fluorescent DOM components, including two terrestrial humic-like, one aquagenic humic-like, and one protein-like component. Variations in the abundance of DOM components further supported changes in DOM sources. Mixing behavior of DOM components also indicated that while bulk DOM behaved quasi-conservatively, significant compositional changes occurred during transport from the Fox River to the open bay. PMID:27243792

  18. Robust and Porous β-Diketiminate-Functionalized Metal-Organic Frameworks for Earth-Abundant-Metal-Catalyzed C-H Amination and Hydrogenation.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Nathan C; Lin, Zekai; Zhang, Teng; Gilhula, James C; Abney, Carter W; Lin, Wenbin

    2016-03-16

    We have designed a strategy for postsynthesis installation of the β-diketiminate (NacNac) functionality in a metal-organic framework (MOF) of UiO-topology. Metalation of the NacNac-MOF (I) with earth-abundant metal salts afforded the desired MOF-supported NacNac-M complexes (M = Fe, Cu, and Co) with coordination environments established by detailed EXAFS studies. The NacNac-Fe-MOF catalyst, I•Fe(Me), efficiently catalyzed the challenging intramolecular sp(3) C-H amination of a series of alkyl azides to afford α-substituted pyrrolidines. The NacNac-Cu-MOF catalyst, I•Cu(THF), was effective in promoting the intermolecular sp(3) C-H amination of cyclohexene using unprotected anilines to provide access to secondary amines in excellent selectivity. Finally, the NacNac-Co-MOF catalyst, I•Co(H), was used to catalyze alkene hydrogenation with turnover numbers (TONs) as high as 700 000. All of the NacNac-M-MOF catalysts were more effective than their analogous homogeneous catalysts and could be recycled and reused without a noticeable decrease in yield. The NacNac-MOFs thus provide a novel platform for engineering recyclable earth-abundant-element-based single-site solid catalysts for many important organic transformations. PMID:26885768

  19. Constraints on hydrocarbon and organic acid abundances in hydrothermal fluids at the Von Damm vent field, Mid-Cayman Rise (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDermott, J. M.; Seewald, J.; German, C. R.; Sylva, S. P.

    2013-12-01

    The generation of organic compounds in vent fluids has been of interest since the discovery of seafloor hydrothermal systems, due to implications for the sustenance of present-day microbial populations and their potential role in the origin of life on early Earth. Possible sources of organic compounds in hydrothermal systems include microbial production, thermogenic degradation of organic material, and abiotic synthesis. Abiotic organic synthesis reactions may occur during active circulation of seawater-derived fluids through the oceanic crust or within olivine-hosted fluid inclusions containing carbon-rich magmatic volatiles. H2-rich end-member fluids at the Von Damm vent field on the Mid-Cayman Rise, where fluid temperatures reach 226°C, provide an exciting opportunity to examine the extent of abiotic carbon transformations in a highly reducing system. Our results indicate multiple sources of carbon compounds in vent fluids at Von Damm. An ultramafic-influenced hydrothermal system located on the Mount Dent oceanic core complex at 2350 m depth, Von Damm vent fluids contain H2, CH4, and C2+ hydrocarbons in high abundance relative to basalt-hosted vent fields, and in similar abundance to other ultramafic-hosted systems, such as Rainbow and Lost City. The CO2 content and isotopic composition in end-member fluids are virtually identical to bottom seawater, suggesting that seawater DIC is unchanged during hydrothermal circulation of seawater-derived fluids. Accordingly, end-member CH4 that is present in slightly greater abundance than CO2 cannot be generated from reduction of aqueous CO2 during hydrothermal circulation. We postulate that CH4 and C2+ hydrocarbons that are abundantly present in Von Damm vent fluids reflect leaching of fluids from carbon- and H2-rich fluid inclusions hosted in plutonic rocks. Geochemical modeling of carbon speciation in the Von Damm fluids suggests that the relative abundances of CH4, C2+ hydrocarbons, and CO2 are consistent with

  20. Electrochemical and optical studies of model photosynthetic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-15

    The objective of this research is to obtain a better understanding of the relationship between the structural organization of photosynthetic pigments and their spectroscopic and electrochemical properties. Defined model systems were studied first. These included the least ordered (solutions) through the most highly ordered (Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) monolayers and self-assembled monolayers) systems containing BChl, BPheo, and UQ. Molecules other than the photosynthetic pigments and quinones were also examined, including chromophores (i.e. surface active cyanine dyes and phtahlocyanines) an redox active compounds (methyl viologen (MV) and surfactant ferrocenes), in order to develop the techniques needed to study the photosynthetic components. Because the chlorophylls are photosensitive and labile, it was easier first to develop procedures using stable species. Three different techniques were used to characterize these model systems. These included electrochemical techniques for determining the standard oxidation and reduction potentials of the photosynthetic components as well as methods for determining the heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants for BChl and BPheo at metal electrodes (Pt and Au). Resonance Raman (RR) and surface enhanced resonance Raman (SERR) spectroscopy were used to determine the spectra of the photosynthetic pigments and model compounds. SERRS was also used to study several types of photosynthetic preparations.

  1. The influence of semi-volatile and reactive primary emissions on the abundance and properties of global organic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jathar, S. H.; Farina, S. C.; Robinson, A. L.; Adams, P. J.

    2012-04-01

    Semi-volatile and reactive primary organic aerosols are modeled on a global scale using the GISS GCM II' "unified" climate model. We employ the volatility basis set framework to simulate emissions, chemical reactions and phase partitioning of primary and secondary organic aerosol (POA and SOA). The model also incorporates the emissions and reactions of intermediate volatility organic compounds (IVOCs) as a source of organic aerosol (OA), one that has been missing in most prior work. Model predictions are evaluated against a broad set of observational constraints including mass concentrations, degree of oxygenation, volatility and isotopic composition. A traditional model that treats POA as non-volatile and non-reactive is also compared to the same set of observations to highlight the progress made in this effort. The revised model predicts a global dominance of SOA and brings the POA/SOA split into better agreement with ambient measurements. This change is due to traditionally defined POA evaporating and the evaporated vapors oxidizing to form non-traditional SOA. IVOCs (traditionally not included in chemical transport models) oxidize to form condensable products that account for a third of total OA, suggesting that global models have been missing a large source of OA. Predictions of the revised model for the SOA fraction at 17 different locations compared much better to observations than predictions from the traditional model. Model-predicted volatility is compared with thermodenuder data collected at three different field campaigns: FAME-2008, MILAGRO-2006 and SOAR-2005. The revised model predicts the OA volatility much more closely than the traditional model. When compared against monthly averaged OA mass concentrations measured by the IMPROVE network, predictions of both the revised and traditional model lie within a factor of two in summer and mostly within a factor of five during winter. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the winter comparison can be

  2. Energy transfer in real and artificial photosynthetic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hindman, J.C.; Hunt, J.E.; Katz, J.J.

    1995-02-01

    Fluorescence emission from the photosynthetic organisms Tribonema aequale, Anacystis nidulau, and Chlorelia vulgais and from some chlorophyll model systems have been recorded as a function of excitation wavelength and temperature. Considerable similarity was observed in the effects of excitation wavelength and temperature on the fluorescence from intact photosynthetic organisms and the model systems. The parallelism in behavior suggest that self-assembly processes may occur in both the in vivo and in vitro systems that give rise to chlorophyll species at low temperature that may differ significantly from those present at ambient temperatures.

  3. Nanoscale Optoelectronic Photosynthetic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenbaum, Elias; Lee, Ida; Guillorn, Michael; Lee, James W.; Simpson, Michael L.

    2001-03-01

    This presentation provides an overview and recent progress in the Oak Ridge National Laboratory research program in molecular electronics and green plant photosynthesis. The photosynthetic reaction center is a nanoscale molecular diode and photovoltaic device. The key thrust of our research program is the construction of molecular electronic devices from these nanoscale structures. Progress in this multidisciplinary research program has been demonstrated by direct electrical contact of emergent electrons with the Photosystem I (PS I) reaction center by nanoparticle precipitation. Demonstration of stable diode properties of isolated reaction centers combined with the ability to orient PS I by self-assembly on a planar surface, makes this structure a good building block for 2-D and potentially 3-D devices. Metallization of isolated PS I does not alter their fundamental photophysical properties and they can be bonded to metal surfaces. We report here the first measurement of photovoltage from single PS I reaction centers. Working at the Cornell University National Nanofabrication Facility, we have constructed sets of dissimilar metal electrodes separated by distances as small as 6 nm. We plan to use these structures to make electrical contact to both ends of oriented PSI reaction centers and thereby realize biomolecular logic circuits. Potential applications of PSI reaction centers for optoelectronic applications as well as molecular logic device construction will be discussed.

  4. Effect of petroleum products on the decomposition of soil organic matter as assessed by 13C natural abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stelmach, Wioleta; Szarlip, Paweł; Trembaczowski, Andrzej; Bieganowski, Andrzej

    2016-04-01

    Petroleum products are common contaminants in soils due to human activities. They are toxic for microorganisms and threat their functions, including decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM). The direct estimation of altered SOM decomposition - based on the CO2 emission - is impossible after oil contamination, because oil decomposition also contributes to the CO2 release. We used the natural differences in the isotopic signature (δ13C) of SOM and of oil products to partition the total CO2 for both sources and to analyze the suppression of SOM decomposition. The dynamics of 13C fractionation during the mineralization of gasoline and diesel was measured during 42 days. The 13C fractionation varied between -8.8‰ and +3.6‰ within the first 10 days, and stabilized thereafter at about -5.3‰ for gasoline and +3.2‰ for diesel. These 13C fractionations and δ13C values of CO2 emitted from the soil were used for correct partitioning of the total CO2. Contamination with gasoline reduced the CO2 efflux from SOM decomposition by a factor of 25 (from 151 to 6 mg C-CO2 kg‑1 soil during 42 days). The negative effect of diesel was much lower: the CO2 efflux from SOM was decreased by less than a factor of 2. The strong effect of gasoline versus diesel reflects the lower absorption of gasoline to mineral particles and the development of a thin film on water surfaces, leading to toxicity for microorganisms. We conclude that the small differences of 13C of SOM and of organic pollutants can be used to partition CO2 fluxes and analyze pollutant effects on SOM decomposition.

  5. Redox regulation of photosynthetic gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Queval, Guillaume; Foyer, Christine H.

    2012-01-01

    Redox chemistry and redox regulation are central to the operation of photosynthesis and respiration. However, the roles of different oxidants and antioxidants in the regulation of photosynthetic or respiratory gene expression remain poorly understood. Leaf transcriptome profiles of a range of Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes that are deficient in either hydrogen peroxide processing enzymes or in low molecular weight antioxidant were therefore compared to determine how different antioxidant systems that process hydrogen peroxide influence transcripts encoding proteins targeted to the chloroplasts or mitochondria. Less than 10 per cent overlap was observed in the transcriptome patterns of leaves that are deficient in either photorespiratory (catalase (cat)2) or chloroplastic (thylakoid ascorbate peroxidase (tapx)) hydrogen peroxide processing. Transcripts encoding photosystem II (PSII) repair cycle components were lower in glutathione-deficient leaves, as were the thylakoid NAD(P)H (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (phosphate)) dehydrogenases (NDH) mRNAs. Some thylakoid NDH mRNAs were also less abundant in tAPX-deficient and ascorbate-deficient leaves. Transcripts encoding the external and internal respiratory NDHs were increased by low glutathione and low ascorbate. Regulation of transcripts encoding specific components of the photosynthetic and respiratory electron transport chains by hydrogen peroxide, ascorbate and glutathione may serve to balance non-cyclic and cyclic electron flow pathways in relation to oxidant production and reductant availability. PMID:23148274

  6. Model-measurement comparison of functional group abundance in α-pinene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene secondary organic aerosol formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggeri, Giulia; Bernhard, Fabian A.; Henderson, Barron H.; Takahama, Satoshi

    2016-07-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed by α-pinene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene photooxidation under different NOx regimes is simulated using the Master Chemical Mechanism v3.2 (MCM) coupled with an absorptive gas-particle partitioning module. Vapor pressures for individual compounds are estimated with the SIMPOL.1 group contribution model for determining apportionment of reaction products to each phase. We apply chemoinformatic tools to harvest functional group (FG) composition from the simulations and estimate their contributions to the overall oxygen to carbon ratio. Furthermore, we compare FG abundances in simulated SOA to measurements of FGs reported in previous chamber studies using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. These simulations qualitatively capture the dynamics of FG composition of SOA formed from both α-pinene and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene in low-NOx conditions, especially in the first hours after start of photooxidation. Higher discrepancies are found after several hours of simulation; the nature of these discrepancies indicates sources of uncertainty or types of reactions in the condensed or gas phase missing from current model implementation. Higher discrepancies are found in the case of α-pinene photooxidation under different NOx concentration regimes, which are reasoned through the domination by a few polyfunctional compounds that disproportionately impact the simulated FG abundance in the aerosol phase. This manuscript illustrates the usefulness of FG analysis to complement existing methods for model-measurement evaluation.

  7. High-precision optical measurements of 13C/12C isotope ratios in organic compounds at natural abundance

    PubMed Central

    Zare, Richard N.; Kuramoto, Douglas S.; Haase, Christa; Tan, Sze M.; Crosson, Eric R.; Saad, Nabil M. R.

    2009-01-01

    A continuous-flow cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) system integrating a chromatographic separation technique, a catalytic combustor, and an isotopic 13C/12C optical analyzer is described for the isotopic analysis of a mixture of organic compounds. A demonstration of its potential is made for the geochemically important class of short-chain hydrocarbons. The system proved to be linear over a 3-fold injection volume dynamic range with an average precision of 0.95‰ and 0.67‰ for ethane and propane, respectively. The calibrated accuracy for methane, ethane, and propane is within 3‰ of the values determined using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), which is the current method of choice for compound-specific isotope analysis. With anticipated improvements, the low-cost, portable, and easy-to-use CRDS-based instrumental setup is poised to evolve into a credible challenge to the high-cost and complex IRMS-based technique. PMID:19564619

  8. Small organic solutes in sticky droplets from orb webs of the spider Zygiella atrica (Araneae; Araneidae): β-alaninamide is a novel and abundant component.

    PubMed

    Townley, Mark A; Pu, Qinglin; Zercher, Charles K; Neefus, Christopher D; Tillinghast, Edward K

    2012-10-01

    In northeastern North America, Zygiella atrica often build their orb webs near the ocean. We analyzed individual field-built Z. atrica webs to determine if organic low-molecular-mass solutes (LMM) in their sticky droplets showed any unusual features not previously seen in orb webs of other species living in less salty environments. While two of the three most abundant organic LMM (putrescine (butane-1,4-diamine) and GABamide (4-aminobutanamide)) are already well-known from webs of inland spiders, the third major LMM, β-alaninamide (3-aminopropanamide), a homolog of GABamide, has not been detected in sticky droplets from any other araneoid spiders (27 species). It remains to be established, however, whether or not use of β-alaninamide is related to proximity to saltwater. We observed variability in organic LMM composition in Z. atrica webs that appeared to be influenced more by an undetermined factor associated with different collecting locations and/or collection dates than by different genders or instars. Shifts in composition when adult females were transferred from the field to the laboratory were also observed. Structural similarities and inverse correlations among β-alaninamide, GABamide, and N-acetylputrescine suggest that they may form a series of LMM fulfilling essentially the same, as yet unknown, role in the webs of those species in which they occur. PMID:23081916

  9. Influence of pregnancy in mid-to-late gestation on circulating metabolites, visceral organ mass, and abundance of proteins relating to energy metabolism in mature beef cows.

    PubMed

    Wood, K M; Awda, B J; Fitzsimmons, C; Miller, S P; McBride, B W; Swanson, K C

    2013-12-01

    In mid-to-late gestation, nutrient demand increases to meet the growth requirements of the conceptus and cows may alter metabolism in response to energy demands of pregnancy. By better understanding the metabolic role of pregnancy, there may be opportunities to better understand maintenance energy costs and improve overall feed efficiency. Eighteen mature Simmental/Angus crossbred cows, pregnant (PREG; n = 9) and nonpregnant (OPEN; n = 9), were used to investigate the effect of pregnancy on BW change, carcass traits, visceral organ mass, and circulating serum metabolites. Cows were blocked by day of expected parturition such that each block was slaughtered 4 to 5 wk before parturition. Cows were individually fed for ad libitum intake using Calan gates for 89 to 105 d. Cows were weighed, ultrasounded for rib (over the 12th and 13th rib) and rump fat, and a serum sample obtained at d 1, 56, and 3 to 5 d before slaughter. At slaughter, organs were removed, trimmed of fat, and weighed. Serum was analyzed for β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), NEFA, glucose, urea, total cholesterol, and triiodothyronine (T3). Tissue samples from liver, kidney, sternomandibularis muscle, ruminal papillae, pancreas, and small intestinal mucosa were collected at slaughter and snap frozen in liquid N. Western blots were conducted to quantify abundance of: proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), ATP synthase, ubiquitin, and Na(+)/K+ ATPase for all tissues; PPARγ, PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC1-α), 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and phosphorylated-AMPK (pAMPK) for liver, muscle, and rumen; phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) for liver and kidney; and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) for liver. Data were analyzed using PROC MIXED in SAS as a replicated randomized complete block. Liver weights (actual, relative to BW, relative to HCW) were heavier (P ≤ 0.02) in OPEN. Rumen mass and kidney fat weight, both relative to BW, were also greater (P ≤ 0.04) in OPEN. On d 56

  10. Diurnal variations in pathways of photosynthetic carbon fixation in a freshwater cyanobacterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labiosa, R. G.; Arrigo, K. R.; Grossman, A.; Reddy, T. E.; Shrager, J.

    2003-04-01

    . Some increase more rapidly following daybreak than others and decrease at different rates after night fall. Early results from microarrays containing the full genome of the organism show that almost all genes display higher transcript abundances during the day (including photosynthetic genes), with a few notable exceptions, and a few others display higher transcript abundance at night than during the day.

  11. Stable carbon isotope ratios of rock varnish organic matter: a new paleoenvironmental indicator.

    PubMed

    Dorn, R I; Deniro, M J

    1985-03-22

    Stable carbon isotope ratios of organic matter in rock varnishes of Holocene age from western North America and the Middle East show a strong association with the environment. This isotopic variability reflects the abundance of plants with different photosynthetic pathways in adjacent vegetation. Analyses of different layers of varnish on late Pleistocene desert landforms indicate that the carbon isotopic composition of varnish organic matter is a paleoenvironmental indicator. PMID:17777781

  12. Non-photosynthetic pigments as potential biosignatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwieterman, E. W.; Cockell, C. S.; Meadows, V. S.

    2014-03-01

    Photosynthetic organisms on Earth produce potentially detectable surface reflectance biosignatures due in part to the spectral location and strength of pigment absorption. However, life on Earth uses pigments for a multitude of purposes other than photosynthesis, including coping with extreme environments. Macroscopic environments exist on Earth where the surface reflectance is significantly altered by a nonphotosynthetic pigment, such as the case of hypersaline lakes and ponds (Oren et al. 1992). Here we explore the nature and potential detectability of non-photosynthetic pigments in disk-averaged planetary observations using a combination of laboratory measurements and archival reflectance spectra, along with simulated broadband photometry and spectra. The in vivo visible reflectance spectra of a cross section of pigmented microorganisms are presented to illustrate the spectral diversity of biologically produced pigments. Synthetic broadband colors are generated to show a significant spread in color space. A 1D radiative transfer model (Meadows & Crisp 1996; Crisp 1997) is used to approximate the spectra of scenarios where pigmented organisms are widespread on planets with Earth-like atmospheres. Broadband colors are revisited to show that colors due to surface reflectivity are not robust to the addition of scattering and absorption effects from the atmosphere. We consider a èbest case' plausible scenario for the detection of nonphotosynthetic pigments by using the Virtual Planetary Laboratory's 3D spectral Earth model (Robinson et al. 2011) to explore the detectability of the surface biosignature produced by pigmented halophiles that are widespread on an Earth-analog planet.

  13. Photosynthetic biomaterials: a pathway towards autotrophic tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Schenck, Thilo Ludwig; Hopfner, Ursula; Chávez, Myra Noemi; Machens, Hans-Günther; Somlai-Schweiger, Ian; Giunta, Riccardo Enzo; Bohne, Alexandra Viola; Nickelsen, Jörg; Allende, Miguel L; Egaña, José Tomás

    2015-03-01

    Engineered tissues are highly limited by poor vascularization in vivo, leading to hypoxia. In order to overcome this challenge, we propose the use of photosynthetic biomaterials to provide oxygen. Since photosynthesis is the original source of oxygen for living organisms, we suggest that this could be a novel approach to provide a constant source of oxygen supply independently of blood perfusion. In this study we demonstrate that bioartificial scaffolds can be loaded with a solution containing the photosynthetic microalgae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, showing high biocompatibility and photosynthetic activity in vitro. Furthermore, when photosynthetic biomaterials were engrafted in a mouse full skin defect, we observed that the presence of the microalgae did not trigger a native immune response in the host. Moreover, the analyses showed that the algae survived for at least 5 days in vivo, generating chimeric tissues comprised of algae and murine cells. The results of this study represent a crucial step towards the establishment of autotrophic tissue engineering approaches and suggest the use of photosynthetic cells to treat a broad spectrum of hypoxic conditions. PMID:25536030

  14. Superradiance Transition and Nonphotochemical Quenching in Photosynthetic Complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, Gennady Petrovich; Nesterov, Alexander; Lopez, Gustavo; Sayre, Richard Thomas

    2015-04-23

    Photosynthetic organisms have evolved protective strategies to allow them to survive in cases of intense sunlight fluctuation with the development of nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ). This process allows light harvesting complexes to transfer the excess sunlight energy to non-damaging quenching channels. This report compares the NPQ process with the superradiance transition (ST). We demonstrated that the maximum of the NPQ efficiency is caused by the ST to the sink associated with the CTS. However, experimental verifications are required in order to determine whether or not the NPQ regime is associated with the ST transition for real photosynthetic complexes. Indeed, it can happen that, in the photosynthetic apparatus, the NPQ regime occurs in the “non-optimal” region of parameters, and it could be independent of the ST.

  15. Functional Implications of Photosystem II Crystal Formation in Photosynthetic Membranes*

    PubMed Central

    Tietz, Stefanie; Puthiyaveetil, Sujith; Enlow, Heather M.; Yarbrough, Robert; Wood, Magnus; Semchonok, Dmitry A.; Lowry, Troy; Li, Zhirong; Jahns, Peter; Boekema, Egbert J.; Lenhert, Steven; Niyogi, Krishna K.; Kirchhoff, Helmut

    2015-01-01

    The structural organization of proteins in biological membranes can affect their function. Photosynthetic thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts have the remarkable ability to change their supramolecular organization between disordered and semicrystalline states. Although the change to the semicrystalline state is known to be triggered by abiotic factors, the functional significance of this protein organization has not yet been understood. Taking advantage of an Arabidopsis thaliana fatty acid desaturase mutant (fad5) that constitutively forms semicrystalline arrays, we systematically test the functional implications of protein crystals in photosynthetic membranes. Here, we show that the change into an ordered state facilitates molecular diffusion of photosynthetic components in crowded thylakoid membranes. The increased mobility of small lipophilic molecules like plastoquinone and xanthophylls has implications for diffusion-dependent electron transport and photoprotective energy-dependent quenching. The mobility of the large photosystem II supercomplexes, however, is impaired, leading to retarded repair of damaged proteins. Our results demonstrate that supramolecular changes into more ordered states have differing impacts on photosynthesis that favor either diffusion-dependent electron transport and photoprotection or protein repair processes, thus fine-tuning the photosynthetic energy conversion. PMID:25897076

  16. Functional Implications of Photosystem II Crystal Formation in Photosynthetic Membranes.

    PubMed

    Tietz, Stefanie; Puthiyaveetil, Sujith; Enlow, Heather M; Yarbrough, Robert; Wood, Magnus; Semchonok, Dmitry A; Lowry, Troy; Li, Zhirong; Jahns, Peter; Boekema, Egbert J; Lenhert, Steven; Niyogi, Krishna K; Kirchhoff, Helmut

    2015-05-29

    The structural organization of proteins in biological membranes can affect their function. Photosynthetic thylakoid membranes in chloroplasts have the remarkable ability to change their supramolecular organization between disordered and semicrystalline states. Although the change to the semicrystalline state is known to be triggered by abiotic factors, the functional significance of this protein organization has not yet been understood. Taking advantage of an Arabidopsis thaliana fatty acid desaturase mutant (fad5) that constitutively forms semicrystalline arrays, we systematically test the functional implications of protein crystals in photosynthetic membranes. Here, we show that the change into an ordered state facilitates molecular diffusion of photosynthetic components in crowded thylakoid membranes. The increased mobility of small lipophilic molecules like plastoquinone and xanthophylls has implications for diffusion-dependent electron transport and photoprotective energy-dependent quenching. The mobility of the large photosystem II supercomplexes, however, is impaired, leading to retarded repair of damaged proteins. Our results demonstrate that supramolecular changes into more ordered states have differing impacts on photosynthesis that favor either diffusion-dependent electron transport and photoprotection or protein repair processes, thus fine-tuning the photosynthetic energy conversion. PMID:25897076

  17. Abundance of Soil-Borne Entomopathogenic Fungi in Organic and Conventional Fields in the Midwestern USA with an Emphasis on the Effect of Herbicides and Fungicides on Fungal Persistence.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Eric H; Jaronski, Stefan T; Hodgson, Erin W; Gassmann, Aaron J

    2015-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) are widespread in agricultural fields and help suppress crop pests. These natural enemies may be hindered by certain agronomic practices associated with conventional agriculture including the use of pesticides. We tested whether the abundance of EPF differed between organic and conventional fields, and whether specific cropping practices and soil properties were correlated with their abundance. In one year of the survey, soil from organic fields and accompanying margins had significantly more EPF than conventional fields and accompanying margins. Regression analysis revealed that the percentage of silt and the application of organic fertilizer were positively correlated with EPF abundance; but nitrogen concentration, tillage, conventional fields, and margins of conventional fields were negatively correlated with EPF abundance. A greenhouse experiment in which fungicides and herbicides were applied to the soil surface showed no significant effect on EPF. Though organic fields were perceived to be more suitable environments for EPF, abiotic factors and cropping practices such as tillage may have greater impacts on the abundance of EPF. Also, fungicides and herbicides may not be as toxic to soil-borne EPF as originally thought. PMID:26191815

  18. Abundance of Soil-Borne Entomopathogenic Fungi in Organic and Conventional Fields in the Midwestern USA with an Emphasis on the Effect of Herbicides and Fungicides on Fungal Persistence

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Eric H.; Jaronski, Stefan T.; Hodgson, Erin W.; Gassmann, Aaron J.

    2015-01-01

    Entomopathogenic fungi (EPF) are widespread in agricultural fields and help suppress crop pests. These natural enemies may be hindered by certain agronomic practices associated with conventional agriculture including the use of pesticides. We tested whether the abundance of EPF differed between organic and conventional fields, and whether specific cropping practices and soil properties were correlated with their abundance. In one year of the survey, soil from organic fields and accompanying margins had significantly more EPF than conventional fields and accompanying margins. Regression analysis revealed that the percentage of silt and the application of organic fertilizer were positively correlated with EPF abundance; but nitrogen concentration, tillage, conventional fields, and margins of conventional fields were negatively correlated with EPF abundance. A greenhouse experiment in which fungicides and herbicides were applied to the soil surface showed no significant effect on EPF. Though organic fields were perceived to be more suitable environments for EPF, abiotic factors and cropping practices such as tillage may have greater impacts on the abundance of EPF. Also, fungicides and herbicides may not be as toxic to soil-borne EPF as originally thought. PMID:26191815

  19. In situ associations between marine photosynthetic picoeukaryotes and potential parasites - a role for fungi?

    PubMed

    Lepère, Cécile; Ostrowski, Martin; Hartmann, Manuela; Zubkov, Mikhail V; Scanlan, David J

    2016-08-01

    Photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PPEs) are important components of the marine picophytoplankton community playing a critical role in CO2 fixation but also as bacterivores, particularly in the oligotrophic gyres. Despite an increased interest in these organisms and an improved understanding of the genetic diversity of this group, we still know little of the environmental factors controlling the abundance of these organisms. Here, we investigated the quantitative importance of eukaryotic parasites in the free-living fraction as well as in associations with PPEs along a transect in the South Atlantic. Using tyramide signal amplification-fluorescence in situ hybridization (TSA-FISH), we provide quantitative evidence of the occurrence of free-living fungi in open ocean marine systems, while the Perkinsozoa and Syndiniales parasites were not abundant in these waters. Using flow cytometric cell sorting of different PPE populations followed by a dual-labelled TSA-FISH approach, we also demonstrate fungal associations, potentially parasitic, occurring with both pico-Prymnesiophyceae and pico-Chrysophyceae. These data highlight the necessity for further work investigating the specific role of marine fungi as parasites of phytoplankton to improve understanding of carbon flow in marine ecosystems. PMID:26420747

  20. Spectral measurements of photosynthetic efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The photosynthetic efficiency of plants was examined for plants in two very different canopies, a USDA cornfield having an instrumented flux tower in Beltsville, MD, USA and a coniferous forest in British Columbia, Canada, included in the tower network of the Canadian Carbon Program. Basic field st...

  1. Abundance of volatile and organic species in intermediate temperature fluids from the Von Damm and Piccard deep sea hydrothermal fields, Mid-Cayman Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDermott, J. M.; Seewald, J.; Reeves, E. P.; German, C. R.; Sylva, S. P.; Klein, F.

    2012-12-01

    vent fluids, and imply the presence of a CO2 sink. Von Damm fluid CO2/CH4 ratios are relatively constant at 1.0 to 1.5 (mol/mol) in the higher temperature fluids, and are low compared with CO2/CH4 ratios of 200 to 250 (mol/mol) in the higher temperature Piccard fluids. All vent fluids at Von Damm are enriched in CH4 and longer-chain n-alkanes. Von Damm fluid H2 and H2S abundances are consistent with those at Rainbow and other ultramafic-influenced systems. At the Von Damm vent field, H2 shows non-conservative behavior in intermediate fluids at temperatures ≤114 °C. Such behavior is consistent with previous studies, which attributed non-conservative H2 behavior in ~30 °C vent fluids to microbial consumption (e.g. Von Damm and Lilley, 2004). Similar activity may be occurring at Von Damm. At Piccard, H2 shows non-conservative mixing behavior at temperatures ≤149 °C. H2 depletion at Piccard occurs at higher temperatures than at Von Damm, in excess of the currently known limit for life at 122 °C (Takei et al., 2008), suggesting that abiotic as well as microbial processes may be affecting H2 abundance. Methylated organic compounds, including methanethiol and methanol, were also observed in vent fluids at Piccard and Von Damm, and further organic compound analyses are ongoing.

  2. Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are abundant in Solanaceae and have a family-specific impact on gene structure and genome organization.

    PubMed

    Seibt, Kathrin M; Wenke, Torsten; Muders, Katja; Truberg, Bernd; Schmidt, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are highly abundant non-autonomous retrotransposons that are widespread in plants. They are short in size, non-coding, show high sequence diversity, and are therefore mostly not or not correctly annotated in plant genome sequences. Hence, comparative studies on genomic SINE populations are rare. To explore the structural organization and impact of SINEs, we comparatively investigated the genome sequences of the Solanaceae species potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), wild tomato (Solanum pennellii), and two pepper cultivars (Capsicum annuum). Based on 8.5 Gbp sequence data, we annotated 82 983 SINE copies belonging to 10 families and subfamilies on a base pair level. Solanaceae SINEs are dispersed over all chromosomes with enrichments in distal regions. Depending on the genome assemblies and gene predictions, 30% of all SINE copies are associated with genes, particularly frequent in introns and untranslated regions (UTRs). The close association with genes is family specific. More than 10% of all genes annotated in the Solanaceae species investigated contain at least one SINE insertion, and we found genes harbouring up to 16 SINE copies. We demonstrate the involvement of SINEs in gene and genome evolution including the donation of splice sites, start and stop codons and exons to genes, enlargement of introns and UTRs, generation of tandem-like duplications and transduction of adjacent sequence regions. PMID:26996788

  3. A New Tool for NMR Crystallography: Complete (13)C/(15)N Assignment of Organic Molecules at Natural Isotopic Abundance Using DNP-Enhanced Solid-State NMR.

    PubMed

    Märker, Katharina; Pingret, Morgane; Mouesca, Jean-Marie; Gasparutto, Didier; Hediger, Sabine; De Paëpe, Gaël

    2015-11-01

    NMR crystallography of organic molecules at natural isotopic abundance (NA) strongly relies on the comparison of assigned experimental and computed NMR chemical shifts. However, a broad applicability of this approach is often hampered by the still limited (1)H resolution and/or difficulties in assigning (13)C and (15)N resonances without the use of structure-based chemical shift calculations. As shown here, such difficulties can be overcome by (13)C-(13)C and for the first time (15)N-(13)C correlation experiments, recorded with the help of dynamic nuclear polarization. We present the complete de novo (13)C and (15)N resonance assignment at NA of a self-assembled 2'-deoxyguanosine derivative presenting two different molecules in the asymmetric crystallographic unit cell. This de novo assignment method is exclusively based on aforementioned correlation spectra and is an important addition to the NMR crystallography approach, rendering firstly (1)H assignment straightforward, and being secondly a prerequisite for distance measurements with solid-state NMR. PMID:26485326

  4. Photosynthetic carbon reduction by seagrasses exposed to ultraviolet A radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The seagrasses Halophila engelmannii, Halodule wrightii, and Syringodium filiforme were examined for their intrinsic sensitivity to ultraviolet-A-UV-A and ultraviolet-B-UV-B radiation. The effect of UV-A on photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was also determined. Ultraviolet-A and ultraviolet-B were studied with emphasis on the greater respective environmental consequence in terms of seagrass distribution and abundance. Results indicate that an intrinsic sensitivity to UV-A alone is apparent only in Halophila, while net photosynthesis in Halodule and Syringodium seems unaffected by the level of UV-A provided. The sensitivity of Halophila to UV-A in the absense of (PAR) indicates that the photosynthetic reaction does not need to be in operation for damage to occur. Other significant results are reported.

  5. Photoinduced Energy Transfer in Artificial Photosynthetic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imahori, H.; Umeyama, T.

    Artificial photosynthesis is a current topic of intensive investigations, both in order to understand the reactions that play a central role in natural photosynthesis as well as to develop highly efficient solar energy conversion systems and molecular optoelectronic devices [1-34]. Artificial photosynthesis is defined as a research field that attempts to mimic the natural process of photosynthesis. Therefore, the outline of natural photosynthesis is described briefly for the better understanding of artificial photosynthesis . Natural photosynthetic system is regarded as one of the most elaborate nanobiological machines [35,36]. It converts solar energy into electrochemical potential or chemical energy, which is prerequisite for the living organisms on the earth. The core function of photosynthesis is a cascade of photoinduced energy and electron transfer between donors and acceptors in the antenna complexes and the reaction center. For instance, in purple photosynthetic bacteria (Rhodopseudomonas acidophila and Rhodopseudomonas palustris) there are two different types of antenna complexes: a core light-harvesting antenna (LH1) and peripheral light-harvesting antenna (LH2) [37-39]. LH1 surrounds the reaction center where charge separation takes place.

  6. The making of a photosynthetic animal

    PubMed Central

    Rumpho, Mary E.; Pelletreau, Karen N.; Moustafa, Ahmed; Bhattacharya, Debashish

    2011-01-01

    Symbiotic animals containing green photobionts challenge the common perception that only plants are capable of capturing the sun's rays and converting them into biological energy through photoautotrophic CO2 fixation (photosynthesis). ‘Solar-powered’ sacoglossan molluscs, or sea slugs, have taken this type of symbiotic association one step further by solely harboring the photosynthetic organelle, the plastid (=chloroplast). One such sea slug, Elysia chlorotica, lives as a ‘plant’ when provided with only light and air as a result of acquiring plastids during feeding on its algal prey Vaucheria litorea. The captured plastids (kleptoplasts) are retained intracellularly in cells lining the digestive diverticula of the sea slug, a phenomenon sometimes referred to as kleptoplasty. Photosynthesis by the plastids provides E. chlorotica with energy and fixed carbon for its entire lifespan of ∼10 months. The plastids are not transmitted vertically (i.e. are absent in eggs) and do not undergo division in the sea slug. However, de novo protein synthesis continues, including plastid- and nuclear-encoded plastid-targeted proteins, despite the apparent absence of algal nuclei. Here we discuss current data and provide hypotheses to explain how long-term photosynthetic activity is maintained by the kleptoplasts. This fascinating ‘green animal’ provides a unique model to study the evolution of photosynthesis in a multicellular heterotrophic organism. PMID:21177950

  7. Micromachined microbial and photosynthetic fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiao, Mu; Lam, Kien B.; Lin, Liwei

    2006-12-01

    This paper presents two types of fuel cells: a miniature microbial fuel cell (µMFC) and a miniature photosynthetic electrochemical cell (µPEC). A bulk micromachining process is used to fabricate the fuel cells, and the prototype has an active proton exchange membrane area of 1 cm2. Two different micro-organisms are used as biocatalysts in the anode: (1) Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast) is used to catalyze glucose and (2) Phylum Cyanophyta (blue-green algae) is used to produce electrons by a photosynthetic reaction under light. In the dark, the µPEC continues to generate power using the glucose produced under light. In the cathode, potassium ferricyanide is used to accept electrons and electric power is produced by the overall redox reactions. The bio-electrical responses of µMFCs and µPECs are characterized with the open-circuit potential measured at an average value of 300-500 mV. Under a 10 ohm load, the power density is measured as 2.3 nW cm-2 and 0.04 nW cm-2 for µMFCs and µPECs, respectively.

  8. Pigmentation as a survival strategy for ancient and modern photosynthetic microbes under high ultraviolet stress on planetary surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wynn-Williams, D. D.; Edwards, H. G. M.; Newton, E. M.; Holder, J. M.

    2002-01-01

    Solar radiation is the primary energy source for surface planetary life, so that pigments are fundamental components of any surface-dwelling organism. They may therefore have evolved in some form on Mars as they did on Earth. Photosynthetic microbes are major primary producers on Earth, but are concurrently vulnerable to ultraviolet (UV) damage. Using non-intrusive laser Raman spectroscopy to recognize the component parts of biomolecules, we have shown not only the abundance of microbial photosynthetic and photoprotective pigments in situ, but also their spatial distribution within their microhabitat. This essential aspect of their screening or avoidance survival strategies is lost on extraction with solvents. This precise approach is eminently suited to analysis of epilithic (surface) and endolithic (within rocks) communities in Antarctic desert habitats, which are putative analogues of early Mars. Raman spectra for key biomolecules (e.g. the UV screen parietin and the antioxidant [beta]-carotene in epilithic lichens) enable not only the detection of organics in light-stratified habitats, but also the characterization of unknown pigments. Typical biomarkers of astrobiological relevance in our Raman spectral database include scytonemin (a UV screen), chlorophyll (primary photosynthetic pigment), phycocyanin (accessory pigment for shade adaptation) and a hopanoid extracted from 2.5 Gya microbial stromatolite from Australia. This compound dates from the same time period when a wetter Mars could have had a potentially flourishing surface microbial community of its own. Analyses with a laboratory Raman instrument have been extended to a novel miniature Raman spectrometer, operating at the same optimal excitation wavelength (1064 nm) via an In-Ga-As detector. After evaluation in Antarctica, this instrument will be space-qualified for a proposed Mars rover mission to detect biomolecules in the near-surface sediment profile of palaeolakes, using experience with Antarctic

  9. Effects of ultraviolet radiation (UVA+UVB) on young gametophytes of Gelidium floridanum: growth rate, photosynthetic pigments, carotenoids, photosynthetic performance, and ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Simioni, Carmen; Schmidt, Eder C; Felix, Marthiellen R de L; Polo, Luz Karime; Rover, Ticiane; Kreusch, Marianne; Pereira, Debora T; Chow, Fungyi; Ramlov, Fernanda; Maraschin, Marcelo; Bouzon, Zenilda L

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of radiation (PAR+UVA+UVB) on the development and growth rates (GRs) of young gametophytes of Gelidium floridanum. In addition, photosynthetic pigments were quantified, carotenoids identified, and photosynthetic performance assessed. Over a period of 3 days, young gametophytes were cultivated under laboratory conditions and exposed to photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) at 80 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) and PAR+UVA (0.70 W m(-2))+UVB (0.35 W m(-2)) for 3 h per day. The samples were processed for light and electron microscopy to analyze the ultrastructure features, as well as carry out metabolic studies of GRs, quantify the content of photosynthetic pigments, identify carotenoids and assess photosynthetic performance. PAR+UVA+UVB promoted increase in cell wall thickness, accumulation of floridean starch grains in the cytoplasm and disruption of chloroplast internal organization. Algae exposed to PAR+UVA+UVB also showed a reduction in GR of 97%. Photosynthetic pigments, in particular, phycoerythrin and allophycocyanin contents, decreased significantly from UV radiation exposure. This result agrees with the decrease in photosynthetic performance observed after exposure to ultraviolet radiation, as measured by a decrease in the electron transport rate (ETR), where values of ETRmax declined approximately 44.71%. It can be concluded that radiation is a factor that affects the young gametophytes of G. floridanum at this stage of development. PMID:24893751

  10. Nanoplankton and picoplankton in the Western English Channel: abundance and seasonality from 2007-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarran, Glen A.; Bruun, John T.

    2015-09-01

    The nano- and picoplankton community at Station L4 in the Western English Channel was studied between 2007 and 2013 by flow cytometry to quantify abundance and investigate seasonal cycles within these communities. Nanoplankton included both photosynthetic and heterotrophic eukaryotic single-celled organisms while the picoplankton included picoeukaryote phytoplankton, Synechococcus sp. cyanobacteria and heterotrophic bacteria. A Box-Jenkins Transfer Function climatology analysis of surface data revealed that Synechococcus sp., cryptophytes, and heterotrophic flagellates had bimodal annual cycles. Nanoeukaryotes and both high and low nucleic acid-containing bacteria (HNA and LNA, respectively) groups exhibited unimodal annual cycles. Phaeocystis sp., whilst having clearly defined abundance maxima in spring was not detectable the rest of the year. Coccolithophores exhibited a weak seasonal cycle, with abundance peaks in spring and autumn. Picoeukaryotes did not exhibit a discernable seasonal cycle at the surface. Timings of maximum group abundance varied through the year. Phaeocystis sp. and heterotrophic flagellates peaked in April/May. Nanoeukaryotes and HNA bacteria peaked in June/July and had relatively high abundance throughout the summer. Synechococcus sp., cryptophytes and LNA bacteria all peaked from mid to late September. The transfer function model techniques used represent a useful means of identifying repeating annual cycles in time series data with the added ability to detect trends and harmonic terms at different time scales from months to decades.

  11. Photosynthetic water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenbaum, E.

    It has been demonstrated that eukaryotic green algae (as represented by Chlamydomonas) are inherently rugged algae with respect to the biophotolysis of water. There also exists a potential for selecting subpropulations of wild-type algae with enhanced properties for hydrogen and oxygen production. Second, hydrogenase activity in macroscopic marine algae does not conform to the conventional dogma of the catalog of reactions that this enzyme is supposed to catalyze. A kinetic argument has been presented which suggests that, with respect to light activated reactions, hydrogenase in these organisms operates primarily in a hydrogen uptake mode. Third, the light saturation curves for the simultaneous photoproduction of hydrogen and oxygen do not have the same analytical shape. It is suggested that a Photosystem I-like hydrogen producing light reaction may be present in anaerobically adapted Scenedesmus which is uncoupled from the Z scheme.

  12. Phytochromes in photosynthetically competent plants

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, L.H.

    1990-07-01

    Plants utilize light as a source of information in photomorphogenesis and of free energy in photosynthesis, two processes that are interrelated in that the former serves to increase the efficiency with which plants can perform the latter. Only one pigment involved in photomorphogenesis has been identified unequivocally, namely phytochrome. The thrust of this proposal is to investigate this pigment and its mode(s) of action in photosynthetically competent plants. Our long term objective is to characterize phytochrome and its functions in photosynthetically competent plants from molecular, biochemical and cellular perspectives. It is anticipated that others will continue to contribute indirectly to these efforts at the physiological level. The ultimate goal will be to develop this information from a comparative perspective in order to learn whether the different phytochromes have significantly different physicochemical properties, whether they fulfill independent functions and if so what these different functions are, and how each of the different phytochromes acts at primary molecular and cellular levels.

  13. The effects of the 2010 flood on the composition and abundance of the terrestrial organic matter in sediments along the inner-shelf off the Changjiang Estuary, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Bianchi, T. S.; Allison, M. A.; Chapman, P.; Yang, G.

    2011-12-01

    Surface sediments were collected within the primary depositional pathway along the inner-shelf off the Changjiang Estuary in winter 2009 and fall 2010 - before and after the 2010 flood in the Changjiang River. Multiple proxies (stable isotopes, lignin-phenols, pigments, cutins) were analyzed to examine the influence of this flooding event on the composition and abundance of river-derived terrestrial organic matter in sediments off the Changjiang Estuary. Elemental and stable isotope analyses showed significantly higher molar C/N ratios and enriched δ13C signatures for 2010 samples, which likely reflected inputs of C4 vascular plant materials. Post-flood concentrations of lignin-phenols were significantly lower in concentration than pre-flood concentrations in 2009. Lignin-phenol acid/aldehyde (Ad/Al) ratios, the lignin degradation index, showed significantly more degraded lignin post-flood in 2010 than that in 2009, which suggests greater inputs of lignins that were likely associated more with degraded soils, due to enhanced erosion from the flood, than surface plant litter. This was also in good agreement with higher inputs of another lignin soil proxy, the 3,5-Bd (3,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid) /V. Lignin-phenol source plots showed no significant differences in pre-and post flood sources, with sources largely consisting of a mixture of woody and non-woody gymnosperm and angiosperm inputs. Short lived radionuclides such as 7Be, 234Th analysis showed no apparent short-term sediment accumulation. The lack of evidence for new sediments deposited to the inner shelf after the flood was likely influenced in part, by the effects of extensive upstream damming on the Changjiang, especially the more recently constructed Three Gorges Dam.

  14. Photosynthetic Machineries in Nano-Systems

    PubMed Central

    Nagy, László; Magyar, Melinda; Szabó, Tibor; Hajdu, Kata; Giotta, Livia; Dorogi, Márta; Milano, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthetic reaction centres are membrane-spanning proteins, found in several classes of autotroph organisms, where a photoinduced charge separation and stabilization takes place with a quantum efficiency close to unity. The protein remains stable and fully functional also when extracted and purified in detergents thereby biotechnological applications are possible, for example, assembling it in nano-structures or in optoelectronic systems. Several types of bionanocomposite materials have been assembled by using reaction centres and different carrier matrices for different purposes in the field of light energy conversion (e.g., photovoltaics) or biosensing (e.g., for specific detection of pesticides). In this review we will summarize the current status of knowledge, the kinds of applications available and the difficulties to be overcome in the different applications. We will also show possible research directions for the close future in this specific field. PMID:24678673

  15. Application of photosynthetic N(2)-fixing cyanobacteria to the CELSS program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fry, Ian V.; Hrabeta, Jana; Dsouza, Joe; Packer, Lester

    1987-01-01

    The feasibility of using photosynthetic microalgae (cyanobacteria) as a subsystem component for the closed ecological life support system program, with particular emphasis on the manipulation of the biomass (protein/carbohydrate) was addressed. Using factors which retard growth rates, but not photosynthetic electron flux, the partitioning of photosynthetically derived reductant may be dictated towards CO2 fixation (carbohydrate formation) and away from N2 fixation (protein formation). Cold shock treatment of fairly dense cultures markedly increases the glycogen content from 1 to 35 percent (dry weight), and presents a useful technique to change the protein/carbohydrate ratio of these organisms to a more nutritionally acceptable form.

  16. Carotenoids are essential for the assembly of cyanobacterial photosynthetic complexes.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Tünde N; Chukhutsina, Volha; Domonkos, Ildikó; Knoppová, Jana; Komenda, Josef; Kis, Mihály; Lénárt, Zsófia; Garab, Győző; Kovács, László; Gombos, Zoltán; van Amerongen, Herbert

    2015-10-01

    In photosynthetic organisms, carotenoids (carotenes and xanthophylls) are important for light harvesting, photoprotection and structural stability of a variety of pigment-protein complexes. Here, we investigated the consequences of altered carotenoid composition for the functional organization of photosynthetic complexes in wild-type and various mutant strains of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Although it is generally accepted that xanthophylls do not play a role in cyanobacterial photosynthesis in low-light conditions, we have found that the absence of xanthophylls leads to reduced oligomerization of photosystems I and II. This is remarkable because these complexes do not bind xanthophylls. Oligomerization is even more disturbed in crtH mutant cells, which show limited carotenoid synthesis; in these cells also the phycobilisomes are distorted despite the fact that these extramembranous light-harvesting complexes do not contain carotenoids. The number of phycocyanin rods connected to the phycobilisome core is strongly reduced leading to high amounts of unattached phycocyanin units. In the absence of carotenoids the overall organization of the thylakoid membranes is disturbed: Photosystem II is not formed, photosystem I hardly oligomerizes and the assembly of phycobilisomes remains incomplete. These data underline the importance of carotenoids in the structural and functional organization of the cyanobacterial photosynthetic machinery. PMID:26045333

  17. Effect of clinostating on photosynthetic apparatus of pea plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochubey, S. M.; Volovik, O. I.; Porubleva, L. V.; Shevchenko, V. V.

    The photosynthetic membrane composition and low temperature fluorescence spectra were analyzed for pea chloroplasts from control and clinostated plants. Clinorotation induces a decrease in the amount of the oligomeric form of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b complex (LHCII) and an increase of its monomeric form. Some changes in organization of photosystem 1 (PS1) complex were revealed as well. These changes are in accordance with the variations of fluorescence characteristics and photochemical activity.

  18. The secondary history of Sutter's Mill CM carbonaceous chondrite based on water abundance and the structure of its organic matter from two clasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, P.; Quirico, E.; Garenne, A.; Yin, Q.-Z.; Bonal, L.; Schmitt, B.; Montes-Hernandez, G.; Montagnac, G.; Chiriac, R.; Toche, F.

    2014-11-01

    Sutter's Mill is a regolith breccia composed of both heavily altered clasts and more reduced xenoliths. Here, we present a detailed investigation of fragments of SM18 and SM51. We have characterized the water content and the mineralogy by infrared (IR) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and the structure of the organic compounds by Raman spectroscopy, to characterize the secondary history of the clasts, including aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism. The three methods used in this study suggest that SM18 was significantly heated. The amount of water contained in phyllosilicates derived by TGA is estimated to be approximately 3.2 wt%. This value is quite low compared with other CM chondrites that typically range from 6 to 12 wt%. The infrared transmission spectra of SM18 show that the mineralogy of the sample is dominated by a mixture of phyllosilicate and olivine. SM18 shows an intense peak at 11.2 μm indicative of olivine (Fig. 1). If we compare SM18 with other CM and metamorphosed CM chondrites, it shows one of the most intense olivine signatures, and therefore a lower proportion of phyllosilicate minerals. The Raman results tend to support a short-duration heating hypothesis. In the ID/IG versus FWHM-D diagram, SM18 appears to be unusual compared to most CM samples, and close to the metamorphosed CM chondrites Pecora Escarpment (PCA) 91008 and PCA 02012. In the case of SM51, infrared spectroscopy reveals that olivine is less abundant than in SM18 and the 10 μm silicate feature is more similar to that of moderately altered CM chondrites (like Murchison or Queen Alexandra Range [QUE] 97990). Raman spectroscopy does not clearly point to a heating event for SM51 in the ID/IG versus FWHM-D diagram. However, TGA analysis suggests that SM51 was slightly dehydrated as the amount of water contained in phyllosilicates is approximately 3.7 wt%, which is higher than SM18, but still lower than phyllosilicate water contents in weakly altered CM chondrites

  19. ENHANCED PRACTICAL PHOTOSYNTHETIC CO2 MITIGATION

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory Kremer; David J. Bayless; Morgan Vis; Michael Prudich; Keith Cooksey; Jeff Muhs

    2004-01-30

    This quarterly report documents significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation project during the period from 10/2/2003 through 1/1/2004. As indicated in the list of accomplishments below we have seen very encouraging results from the model scale tests in terms of organism growth rates and we have begun the final tests necessary to meet our project goals. Specific results and accomplishments for the fourth quarter of 2003 include: (1) Bioreactor support systems and test facilities--(A) The solar collector is working well and has survived the winter weather. (B) The improved high-flow CRF-2 test system has been used successfully to run several long-term growth tests with periodic harvesting events. The high flow harvesting system performed well. The mass measurement results after a 4-week test show 275% growth over the initial mass loading. This figure would have been higher had there been no leakage and handling losses. Carbon dating of biomass from this test is planned for carbon uptake estimation. The next test will include direct measurement of carbon uptake in addition to organism mass measurements. (C) Qualitative organism growth testing has begun in the pilot scale bioreactor. Some issues with uniformity of organism loading, fluid leakage and evaporation have surfaced and are currently being addressed, and quantitative testing will begin as soon as these problems are resolved. (2) Organisms and Growth Surfaces--(A) Montana State University (Subcontracted to do organism studies) submitted their final (3-year) project report. An abstract of the report in included in this quarterly report.

  20. Functional Relationship Between Phytoplankton and Aerobic Anoxygenic Photosynthetic Bacteria: Modes of Coexistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolber, Z. S.; Haffa, A.; Klimov, D.

    2006-12-01

    Aerobic Anoxygenic Photosynthetic Bacteria (AAPs) are ubiquitously distributed in the upper ocean. Although they contain bacteriochlorophyll a (BChla), the main absorption bands in the near UV (370 nm) and infrared (800-850 nm) make this pigment impractical in light harvesting below the first few meters of the water column. Instead, they utilize carotenoids as major light harvesting pigments. Since these carotenoids absorb in the 430-550 nm range, phytoplankton and AAPs utilize a similar portion of the available light spectrum. As AAPs cannot utilize water as the electron donor, they transfer electrons between a range of organic/inorganic electron donors and electron acceptors, thus significantly participating in the redox cycle in the upper ocean. We have measured the vertical distribution and photosynthetic properties of both phytoplankton and AAPs in a highly oligotrophic region 800 km SW of Monterey Bay (34N, 129W), and we have consistently observed the presence of a BChla maximum about 30 to 40 meters above the chlorophyll maximum, indicating that phytoplankton and AAPs occupy different ecological niches in the water column. However, the abundance of AAPs generally displayed a maximum at dawn and a minimum at the dusk, indicating a high level of mortality. This diel cycle was observed in 5 micron and 3 micron size fractions, indicating active grazing by small protists. Incubation experiments with natural, mixed population of AAPs and phytoplankton results in an unusually high accumulation of AAPs in DCMU-treated samples, indicating that pigmented protists do contribute significantly to AAP grazing in a tightly-controlled microbial loop. On the other hand, AAP incubations in pure cultures indicate that they biomineralize sulfur, thus affecting the sulfur cycle. All of these observations indicate that the role of AAPs in the upper ocean ecology is defined by their relationship with phototrophic and heterotrophic communities, rather than by their relative

  1. Remote measurement of photosynthetic efficiency using laser induced fluorescence transient (LIFT) technique.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieruschka, R.; Rascher, U.; Klimov, D.; Kolber, Z. S.; Berry, J. A.

    2007-12-01

    An understanding of spatial and temporal diversity of photosynthetic processes, water and energy exchange of complex plant canopies is essential for carbon and climate models. Remote sensing from space or aircraft platforms provides the only practical way to characterize the vast extent of plant canopies around the globe, but the basis for relating physiological processes to remote sensing is still largely theoretical. Experiments that bridge this gap are needed. Chlorophyll fluorescence measurements have been widely applied to quantify photosynthetic efficiency and non- photochemical energy dissipation non-destructively in photosynthetically active organisms. The most commonly used Pulse Amplitude Modulated (PAM) technique provides a saturating light pulse and is not practical at the canopy scale. We report here on a recently developed technique, Laser Induced Fluorescence Transient (LIFT), capable of remote measurement of photosynthetic efficiency of selected leaves at a distance of up to 50 m and we present here continuous studies on plans growing under natural conditions during the beginning of the winter season and the onset of summer drought in this Mediterranean climate. i) Lichens showed a strong diurnal variation in photosynthetic efficiency which correlated with relative humidity; ii) Photosynthetic efficiency of annual grass decreased with progressing drought stress; iii) An oak canopy showed very little variation of quantum yield from leaf out in spring to summer; iv) The combined effect of low temperature and high light intensity during an early winter strongly reduced the photosynthetic efficiency of four different species in response to chilling stress. These measures with the LIFT correlated well with (more limited) sampling by PAM fluoromentry and gas exchange. The ability to make continuous, automatic and remote measurements of photosynthetic efficiency of leaves with the LIFT provides a new approach for studying the heterogeneity of

  2. ENHANCED PRACTICAL PHOTOSYNTHETIC CO2 MITIGATION

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. David J. Bayless; Dr. Morgan Vis; Dr. Gregory Kremer; Dr. Michael Prudich; Dr. Keith Cooksey; Dr. Jeff Muhs

    2001-04-16

    This quarterly report documents significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation project during the period from 1/03/2001 through 4/02/2001. Many of the activities and accomplishments are continuations of work initiated and reported in last quarter's status report. Major activities and accomplishments for this quarter include: Three sites in Yellowstone National Park have been identified that may contain suitable organisms for use in a bioreactor; Full-scale culturing of one thermophilic organism from Yellowstone has progressed to the point that there is a sufficient quantity to test this organism in the model-scale bioreactor; The effects of the additive monoethanolamine on the growth of one thermophilic organism from Yellowstone has been tested; Testing of growth surface adhesion and properties is continuing; Construction of a larger model-scale bioreactor to improve and expand testing capabilities is completed and the facility is undergoing proof tests; Model-scale bioreactor tests examining the effects of CO{sub 2} concentration levels and lighting levels on organism growth rates are continuing; Alternative fiber optic based deep-penetration light delivery systems for use in the pilot-scale bioreactor have been designed, constructed and tested; An existing slug flow reactor system has been modified for use in this project, and a proof-of-concept test plan has been developed for the slug flow reactor; Research and testing of water-jet harvesting techniques is continuing, and a harvesting system has been designed for use in the model-scale bioreactor; and The investigation of comparative digital image analysis as a means for determining the ''density'' of algae on a growth surface is continuing Plans for next quarter's work and an update on the project's web page are included in the conclusions.

  3. ENHANCED PRACTICAL PHOTOSYNTHETIC CO2 MITIGATION

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. David J. Bayless; Dr. Morgan Vis; Dr. Gregory Kremer; Dr. Michael Prudich; Dr. Keith Cooksey; Dr. Jeff Muhs

    2001-01-16

    This is the first quarterly report of the project Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation. The official project start date, 10/02/2000, was delayed until 10/31/2000 due to an intellectual property dispute that was resolved. However, the delay forced a subsequent delay in subcontracting with Montana State University, which then delayed obtaining a sampling permit from Yellowstone National Park. However, even with these delays, the project moved forward with some success. Accomplishments for this quarter include: Culturing of thermophilic organisms from Yellowstone; Testing of mesophilic organisms in extreme CO{sub 2} conditions; Construction of a second test bed for additional testing; Purchase of a total carbon analyzer dedicated to the project; Construction of a lighting container for Oak Ridge National Laboratory optical fiber testing; Modified lighting of existing test box to provide more uniform distribution; Testing of growth surface adhesion and properties; Experimentation on water-jet harvesting techniques; and Literature review underway regarding uses of biomass after harvesting. Plans for next quarter's work and an update on the project's web page are included in the conclusions.

  4. Influence of thermal light correlations on photosynthetic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mendoza, Adriana; Manrique, Pedro; Caycedo-Soler, Felipe; Johnson, Neil F.; Rodríguez, Ferney J.; Quiroga, Luis

    2014-03-01

    The thermal light from the sun is characterized by both classical and quantum mechanical correlations. These correlations have left a fingerprint on the natural harvesting structures developed through five billion years of evolutionary pressure, specially in photosynthetic organisms. In this work, based upon previous extensive studies of spatio-temporal correlations of light fields, we hypothesize that structures involving photosensitive pigments like those present in purple bacteria vesicles emerge as an evolutionary response to the different properties of incident light. By using burstiness and memory as measures that quantify higher moments of the photon arrival statistics, we generate photon-time traces. They are used to simulate absorption on detectors spatially extended over regions comparable to these light fields coherence length. Finally, we provide some insights into the connection between these photo-statistical features with the photosynthetic membrane architecture and the lights' spatial correlation. Facultad de Ciencias Uniandes.

  5. Ion antiport accelerates photosynthetic acclimation in fluctuating light environments

    PubMed Central

    Armbruster, Ute; Carrillo, L. Ruby; Venema, Kees; Pavlovic, Lazar; Schmidtmann, Elisabeth; Kornfeld, Ari; Jahns, Peter; Berry, Joseph A.; Kramer, David M.; Jonikas, Martin C.

    2014-01-01

    Many photosynthetic organisms globally, including crops, forests and algae, must grow in environments where the availability of light energy fluctuates dramatically. How photosynthesis maintains high efficiency despite such fluctuations in its energy source remains poorly understood. Here we show that Arabidopsis thaliana K+ efflux antiporter (KEA3) is critical for high photosynthetic efficiency under fluctuating light. On a shift from dark to low light, or high to low light, kea3 mutants show prolonged dissipation of absorbed light energy as heat. KEA3 localizes to the thylakoid membrane, and allows proton efflux from the thylakoid lumen by proton/potassium antiport. KEA3’s activity accelerates the downregulation of pH-dependent energy dissipation after transitions to low light, leading to faster recovery of high photosystem II quantum efficiency and increased CO2 assimilation. Our results reveal a mechanism that increases the efficiency of photosynthesis under fluctuating light. PMID:25451040

  6. Ion antiport accelerates photosynthetic acclimation in fluctuating light environments.

    PubMed

    Armbruster, Ute; Carrillo, L Ruby; Venema, Kees; Pavlovic, Lazar; Schmidtmann, Elisabeth; Kornfeld, Ari; Jahns, Peter; Berry, Joseph A; Kramer, David M; Jonikas, Martin C

    2014-01-01

    Many photosynthetic organisms globally, including crops, forests and algae, must grow in environments where the availability of light energy fluctuates dramatically. How photosynthesis maintains high efficiency despite such fluctuations in its energy source remains poorly understood. Here we show that Arabidopsis thaliana K(+) efflux antiporter (KEA3) is critical for high photosynthetic efficiency under fluctuating light. On a shift from dark to low light, or high to low light, kea3 mutants show prolonged dissipation of absorbed light energy as heat. KEA3 localizes to the thylakoid membrane, and allows proton efflux from the thylakoid lumen by proton/potassium antiport. KEA3's activity accelerates the downregulation of pH-dependent energy dissipation after transitions to low light, leading to faster recovery of high photosystem II quantum efficiency and increased CO2 assimilation. Our results reveal a mechanism that increases the efficiency of photosynthesis under fluctuating light. PMID:25451040

  7. Pigment oligomers as natural and artificial photosynthetic antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, R.E.

    1996-12-31

    Green photosynthetic bacteria contain antenna complexes known as chlorosomes. These complexes are appressed to the cytoplasmic side of the inner cell membrane and function to absorb light and transfer the energy to the photochemical reaction center, where photochemical energy storage takes place. Chlorosomes differ from all other known photosynthetic antenna complexes in that the geometrical arrangement of pigments is determined primarily by pigment-pigment interactions instead of pigment-protein interactions. The bacteriochlorophyll c, d or e pigments found in chlorosomes form large oligomers with characteristic spectral properties significantly perturbed from those exhibited by monomeric pigments. Because of their close spatial interaction, the pigments are thought to be strongly coupled electronically, and many of the optical properties result from exciton interactions. This presentation will summarize existing knowledge on the chemical composition and properties of chlorosomes, the evidence for the oligomeric nature of chlorosome pigment organization and proposed structures for the oligomers, and the kinetics and mechanisms of energy transfer in chlorosomes.

  8. Hydrogen Biogeochemistry in Anaerobic and Photosynthetic Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The simple biochemistry of molecular hydrogen is central to a large number of microbial processes, affecting the interaction of organisms with each other and with the environment. In anoxic sediments, a great majority of microbial redox processes involve hydrogen as a reactant, product or potential by-product. Accordingly, the energetics (thermodynamics) of each of these processes is affected by variations in local H2 concentrations. It has long been established that this effect is important in governing microbe-microbe interactions and there are multiple demonstrations that "interspecies hydrogen transfer" can alter the products of, inhibit/stimulate, or even reverse microbial metabolic reactions. In anoxic sediments, H2 concentrations themselves are thought to be controlled by the thermodynamics of the predominant H2-consuming microbial process. In sediments from Cape Lookout Bight, this relationship quantitatively describes the co-variation of H2 concentrations with temperature (for methanogens and sulfate reducers) and with sulfate concentration (for sulfate reducers). The quantitative aspect is import= for two reasons: 1) it permits the modeling of H2-sensitive biogeochemistry, such as anaerobic methane oxidation or pathways of organic matter remineralization, as a function of environmental controls; 2) for such a relationship to be observed requires that intracellular biochemistry and bioenergetics are being directly expressed in a component of the extracellular medium. H2 could therefore be utilized a non-invasive probe of cellular energetic function in intact microbial ecosystems. Based on the latter principle we have measured down-core profiles of H2 and other relevant physico-chemical parameters in order to calculate the metabolic energy yields (DG) that support microbial metabolism in Cape Lookout Bight sediments. Methanogens in this system apparently function with energy yields significantly smaller than the minimum requirements suggested by pure

  9. Elevated atmospheric CO2 affected photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium stress.

    PubMed

    Jia, Xia; Liu, Tuo; Zhao, Yonghua; He, Yunhua; Yang, Mingyan

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of elevated CO2 (700 ± 23 μmol mol(-1)) on photosynthetic products in wheat seedlings and on organic compounds and biological activity in rhizosphere soil under cadmium (Cd) stress. Elevated CO2 was associated with decreased quantities of reducing sugars, starch, and soluble amino acids, and with increased quantities of soluble sugars, total sugars, and soluble proteins in wheat seedlings under Cd stress. The contents of total soluble sugars, total free amino acids, total soluble phenolic acids, and total organic acids in the rhizosphere soil under Cd stress were improved by elevated CO2. Compared to Cd stress alone, the activity of amylase, phenol oxidase, urease, L-asparaginase, β-glucosidase, neutral phosphatase, and fluorescein diacetate increased under elevated CO2 in combination with Cd stress; only cellulase activity decreased. Bacterial abundance in rhizosphere soil was stimulated by elevated CO2 at low Cd concentrations (1.31-5.31 mg Cd kg(-1) dry soil). Actinomycetes, total microbial abundance, and fungi decreased under the combined conditions at 5.31-10.31 mg Cd kg(-1) dry soil. In conclusion, increased production of soluble sugars, total sugars, and proteins in wheat seedlings under elevated CO2 + Cd stress led to greater quantities of organic compounds in the rhizosphere soil relative to seedlings grown under Cd stress only. Elevated CO2 concentrations could moderate the effects of heavy metal pollution on enzyme activity and microorganism abundance in rhizosphere soils, thus improving soil fertility and the microecological rhizosphere environment of wheat under Cd stress. PMID:26315595

  10. Changes in partitioning of carbon amongst photosynthetic pico- and nano-plankton groups in the Sargasso Sea in response to changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, John R.; Aucan, Jerome P.; Goldberg, Stacey R.; Lomas, Michael W.

    2013-09-01

    Picophytoplankton carbon biomass at the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS) site from June 2004 to December 2010 was estimated from the direct calibration of cellular carbon content and forward light scatter (via flow cytometry). Seasonality and interannual dynamics of Prochlorococcus, Synechococcus and small eukaryotic algae (<12 μm diameter) abundance, cellular carbon content (QC; particulate organic carbon; POC cell-1), and group-specific carbon biomass are reported. QC of individual taxa varied with depth and season by as much as an order of magnitude, roughly comparable to variability in abundance. During the time-series there were obvious shifts in the taxonomic distribution of photosynthetic carbon biomass; these interannual shifts in biomass were due to simultaneous changes in both QC and cell abundance. The observed pattern was not apparent from numerical abundance alone, highlighting the importance of QC measurements in place of using fixed conversion factors to better understand biological carbon dynamics. Changes in the phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) from positive to negative modes correlated with shifts in biomass between picocyanobacteria and small eukaryotic algae, respectively. Thus, shifts in algal community structure are inferred to be associated with changes in light intensity and implied nutrient supply via mixing (i.e., patterns in upper ocean stability). These observed changes in phytoplankton biomass partitioning were correlated with the important ocean carbon cycle parameters of export flux, mesopelagic transfer efficiency, and elemental stoichiometry. Importantly, interannual relationships between these parameters and algal biomass were detected only when QC was considered as variable.

  11. Effect of experimental crude oil contamination on abundance, mortality and resettlement of representative mud flat organisms in the mesohaline area of the elbe estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Bernem, K. H.

    After repeated experimental contamination with small doses of the crude oils Arabian light, Kuwait crude and Iranian light on a silty mud flat in the Elbe estuary, neither an increased mortality nor emigration was found in Macoma balthica or Nereis diversicolor. Oligochaetes increased in abundance. The entire population of Corophium volutator tried to leave the contaminated sediment. Most specimens came into contact with the oil coating of the sediment and were killed. Twelve weeks after the beginning of the contaminations the original community structure had reestablished. Different effects between the 3 crude oils tested were not significant.

  12. Photosynthetic lesions can trigger accelerated senescence in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Leister, Dario; Bolle, Cordelia

    2015-01-01

    Senescence is a highly regulated process characterized by the active breakdown of cells, which ultimately leads to the death of plant organs or whole plants. In annual plants such as Arabidopsis thaliana senescence can be observed in each individual leaf. Whether deficiencies in photosynthesis promote the induction of senescence was investigated by monitoring chlorophyll degradation, photosynthetic parameters, and reactive oxygen species accumulation in photosynthetic mutants. Several mutations affecting components of the photosynthetic apparatus, including psal-2, psan-2, and psbs, were found to lead to premature or faster senescence, as did simultaneous inactivation of the STN7 and STN8 kinases. Premature senescence is apparently not directly linked to an overall reduction in photosynthesis but to perturbations in specific aspects of the process. Dark-induced senescence is accelerated in mutants affected in linear electron flow, especially psad2-1, psan-2, and pete2-1, as well as in stn7 and stn8 mutants and STN7 and STN8 overexpressor lines. Interestingly, no direct link with ROS production could be observed. PMID:26272903

  13. Multiantenna artificial photosynthetic reaction center complex.

    PubMed

    Terazono, Yuichi; Kodis, Gerdenis; Liddell, Paul A; Garg, Vikas; Moore, Thomas A; Moore, Ana L; Gust, Devens

    2009-05-21

    In order to ensure efficient utilization of the solar spectrum, photosynthetic organisms use a variety of antenna chromophores to absorb light and transfer excitation to a reaction center, where photoinduced charge separation occurs. Reported here is a synthetic molecular heptad that features two bis(phenylethynyl)anthracene and two borondipyrromethene antennas linked to a hexaphenylbenzene core that also bears two zinc porphyrins. A fullerene electron acceptor self-assembles to both porhyrins via dative bonds. Excitation energy is transferred very efficiently from all four antennas to the porphyrins. Singlet-singlet energy transfer occurs both directly and by a stepwise funnel-like pathway wherein excitation moves down a thermodynamic gradient. The porphyrin excited states donate an electron to the fullerene with a time constant of 3 ps to generate a charge-separated state with a lifetime of 230 ps. The overall quantum yield is close to unity. In the absence of the fullerene, the porphyrin excited singlet state donates an electron to a borondipyrromethene on a slower time scale. This molecule demonstrates that by incorporating antennas, it is possible for a molecular system to harvest efficiently light throughout the visible from ultraviolet wavelengths out to approximately 650 nm. PMID:19438278

  14. The regulation of photosynthetic structure and function during nitrogen deprivation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Juergens, Matthew T; Deshpande, Rahul R; Lucker, Ben F; Park, Jeong-Jin; Wang, Hongxia; Gargouri, Mahmoud; Holguin, F Omar; Disbrow, Bradley; Schaub, Tanner; Skepper, Jeremy N; Kramer, David M; Gang, David R; Hicks, Leslie M; Shachar-Hill, Yair

    2015-02-01

    The accumulation of carbon storage compounds by many unicellular algae after nutrient deprivation occurs despite declines in their photosynthetic apparatus. To understand the regulation and roles of photosynthesis during this potentially bioenergetically valuable process, we analyzed photosynthetic structure and function after nitrogen deprivation in the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolite, and lipid profiling and microscopic time course data were combined with multiple measures of photosynthetic function. Levels of transcripts and proteins of photosystems I and II and most antenna genes fell with differing trajectories; thylakoid membrane lipid levels decreased, while their proportions remained similar and thylakoid membrane organization appeared to be preserved. Cellular chlorophyll (Chl) content decreased more than 2-fold within 24 h, and we conclude from transcript protein and (13)C labeling rates that Chl synthesis was down-regulated both pre- and posttranslationally and that Chl levels fell because of a rapid cessation in synthesis and dilution by cellular growth rather than because of degradation. Photosynthetically driven oxygen production and the efficiency of photosystem II as well as P700(+) reduction and electrochromic shift kinetics all decreased over the time course, without evidence of substantial energy overflow. The results also indicate that linear electron flow fell approximately 15% more than cyclic flow over the first 24 h. Comparing Calvin-Benson cycle transcript and enzyme levels with changes in photosynthetic (13)CO2 incorporation rates also pointed to a coordinated multilevel down-regulation of photosynthetic fluxes during starch synthesis before the induction of high triacylglycerol accumulation rates. PMID:25489023

  15. The Regulation of Photosynthetic Structure and Function during Nitrogen Deprivation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Juergens, Matthew T.; Deshpande, Rahul R.; Lucker, Ben F.; Park, Jeong-Jin; Wang, Hongxia; Gargouri, Mahmoud; Holguin, F. Omar; Disbrow, Bradley; Schaub, Tanner; Skepper, Jeremy N.; Kramer, David M.; Gang, David R.; Hicks, Leslie M.; Shachar-Hill, Yair

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of carbon storage compounds by many unicellular algae after nutrient deprivation occurs despite declines in their photosynthetic apparatus. To understand the regulation and roles of photosynthesis during this potentially bioenergetically valuable process, we analyzed photosynthetic structure and function after nitrogen deprivation in the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Transcriptomic, proteomic, metabolite, and lipid profiling and microscopic time course data were combined with multiple measures of photosynthetic function. Levels of transcripts and proteins of photosystems I and II and most antenna genes fell with differing trajectories; thylakoid membrane lipid levels decreased, while their proportions remained similar and thylakoid membrane organization appeared to be preserved. Cellular chlorophyll (Chl) content decreased more than 2-fold within 24 h, and we conclude from transcript protein and 13C labeling rates that Chl synthesis was down-regulated both pre- and posttranslationally and that Chl levels fell because of a rapid cessation in synthesis and dilution by cellular growth rather than because of degradation. Photosynthetically driven oxygen production and the efficiency of photosystem II as well as P700+ reduction and electrochromic shift kinetics all decreased over the time course, without evidence of substantial energy overflow. The results also indicate that linear electron flow fell approximately 15% more than cyclic flow over the first 24 h. Comparing Calvin-Benson cycle transcript and enzyme levels with changes in photosynthetic 13CO2 incorporation rates also pointed to a coordinated multilevel down-regulation of photosynthetic fluxes during starch synthesis before the induction of high triacylglycerol accumulation rates. PMID:25489023

  16. An Investigation into the Physico-chemical Factors Affecting the Abundance and Diversity of Aquatic Insects in Organically Manured Aquadams and Their Utilization by Oreochromis mossambicus (Perciformes: Cichlidae).

    PubMed

    Rapatsa, M M; Moyo, N A G

    2015-08-01

    The interaction between the fish Oreochromis mossambicus (Percifomes: Cichlidae) and aquatic insects after application of chicken, cow, and pig manure was studied in 7,000-liter plastic aquadams. Principal component analysis showed that most of the variation in water quality after application of manure was accounted for by potassium, nitrogen, dissolved oxygen, phosphate, and alkalinity. Canonical correspondence analysis showed that Gyrinidae, Elminidae, Hydrophilidae, Hydraenidae, and Athericidae were associated with high nutrient levels (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) characteristic of the chicken manure. However, the most abundant aquatic insects Gerridae, Notonectidae, and Culicidae were close to the centre of the ordination and not defined by any nutrient gradient. The Shannon-Wiener diversity was highest in the aquadams treated with chicken manure. The most frequently occurring aquatic insects in the diet of O. mossambicus were culicid mosquitoes in all the treatments. However, in the laboratory, Chironomidae were the most preferred because they lacked refuge. Notonectidae and Gerridae were not recorded in the diet of O. mossambicus despite their abundance. This may be because of their anti-predation strategies. Laboratory experiments showed that Notonectidae, Gyrinidae, and Gerridae fed on Chironomidae and Culicidae. This implies that aquatic predatory insects competed for food with O. mossambicus. PMID:26314044

  17. Photosynthetic carbon metabolism of a marine grass.

    PubMed

    Benedict, C R; Scott, J R

    1976-06-01

    The delta(13)C value of a tropical marine grass Thalassia testudinum is -9.04 per thousand. This value is similar to the delta(13)C value of terrestrial tropical grasses. The delta(13)C values of the organic acid fraction, the amino acid fraction, the sugar fraction, malic acid, and glucose are: -11.2 per thousand, -13.1 per thousand, -10.1 per thousand, -11.1 per thousand, and -11.5 per thousand, respectively. The delta(13)C values of malic acid and glucose of Thalassia are similar to the delta(13)C values of these intermediates in sorghum leaves and attest to the presence of the photosynthetic C(4)-dicarboxylic acid pathway in this marine grass. The inorganic HCO(3) (-) for the growth of the grass fluctuates between -6.7 to -2.7 per thousand during the day. If CO(2) fixation in Thalassia is catalyzed by phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (which would result in a -3 per thousand fractionation between HCO(3) (-) and malic acid), the predicted delta(13)C value for Thalassia would be -9.7 to -5.7 per thousand. This range is close to the observed range of -12.6 to -7.8 per thousand for Thalassia and agree with the operation of the C(4)-dicarboxylic acid pathway in this plant. The early products of the fixation of HCO(3) (-) in the leaf sections are malic acid and aspartic acid which are similar to the early products of CO(2) fixation in C(4) terrestrial plants.Electron microscopy of the leaves of Thalassia reveal thick walled epidermal cells exceedingly rich in mitochondria and C(3)-type chloroplasts. The mesophyll cells have many different shapes and surround air lacunae which contain O(2) and CO(2). The mesophyll cells are highly vacuolated and the parietal cytoplasm contains an occasional chloroplast. This chloroplast contains grana but the lamellar system is not as developed as the system in epidermal chloroplasts. Extensive phloem tissue is present but the xylem elements are reduced in this aquatic grass. The vascular tissue is not surrounded by bundle sheath cells

  18. Early photosynthetic microorganisms and environmental evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golubic, S.

    1980-01-01

    Microfossils which are preserved as shrivelled kerogenous residues provide little information about cellular organization and almost none about the metabolic properties of the organisms. The distinction between prokaryotic vs eukaryotic, and phototrophic vs chemo- and organotrophic fossil microorganisms rests entirely on morphological comparisons with recent counterparts. The residual nature of the microbial fossil record promotes the conclusion that it must be biased toward (a) most abundant organisms, (b) those most resistant to degradation, and (c) those inhabiting environments with high preservation potential e.g., stromatolites. These criteria support the cyanophyte identity of most Precambrian microbial fossils on the following grounds: (1) as primary producers they dominate prokaryotic communities in modern extreme environments, e.g., intertidal zone; (2) several morphological counterparts of modern cyanophytes and microbial fossils have been established based on structure, cell division patterns and degradation sequences. The impact of anaerobic and oxygenic microbial photosynthesis on the evolution of Precambrian environments is discussed.

  19. Protection of the Photosynthetic Apparatus from Extreme Dehydration and Oxidative Stress in Seedlings of Transgenic Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Personat, José-María; Tejedor-Cano, Javier; Lindahl, Marika; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio; Jordano, Juan

    2012-01-01

    A genetic program that in sunflower seeds is activated by Heat Shock transcription Factor A9 (HaHSFA9) has been analyzed in transgenic tobacco seedlings. The ectopic overexpression of the HSFA9 program protected photosynthetic membranes, which resisted extreme dehydration and oxidative stress conditions. In contrast, heat acclimation of seedlings induced thermotolerance but not resistance to the harsh stress conditions employed. The HSFA9 program was found to include the expression of plastidial small Heat Shock Proteins that accumulate only at lower abundance in heat-stressed vegetative organs. Photosystem II (PSII) maximum quantum yield was higher for transgenic seedlings than for non-transgenic seedlings, after either stress treatment. Furthermore, protection of both PSII and Photosystem I (PSI) membrane protein complexes was observed in the transgenic seedlings, leading to their survival after the stress treatments. It was also shown that the plastidial D1 protein, a labile component of the PSII reaction center, and the PSI core protein PsaB were shielded from oxidative damage and degradation. We infer that natural expression of the HSFA9 program during embryogenesis may protect seed pro-plastids from developmental desiccation. PMID:23227265

  20. Hybrid system of semiconductor and photosynthetic protein.

    PubMed

    Kim, Younghye; Shin, Seon Ae; Lee, Jaehun; Yang, Ki Dong; Nam, Ki Tae

    2014-08-29

    Photosynthetic protein has the potential to be a new attractive material for solar energy absorption and conversion. The development of semiconductor/photosynthetic protein hybrids is an example of recent progress toward efficient, clean and nanostructured photoelectric systems. In the review, two biohybrid systems interacting through different communicating methods are addressed: (1) a photosynthetic protein immobilized semiconductor electrode operating via electron transfer and (2) a hybrid of semiconductor quantum dots and photosynthetic protein operating via energy transfer. The proper selection of materials and functional and structural modification of the components and optimal conjugation between them are the main issues discussed in the review. In conclusion, we propose the direction of future biohybrid systems for solar energy conversion systems, optical biosensors and photoelectric devices. PMID:25091409

  1. Sources of organic carbon for Rimicaris hybisae: Tracing individual fatty acids at two hydrothermal vent fields in the Mid-Cayman rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streit, Kathrin; Bennett, Sarah A.; Van Dover, Cindy L.; Coleman, Max

    2015-06-01

    Hydrothermal vents harbor ecosystems mostly decoupled from organic carbon synthesized with the energy of sunlight (photosynthetic carbon source) but fueled instead by oxidation of reduced compounds to generate a chemosynthetic carbon source. Our study aimed to disentangle photosynthetic and chemosynthetic organic carbon sources for the shrimp species Rimicaris hybisae, a primary consumer presumed to obtain its organic carbon mainly from ectosymbiotic chemoautotrophic bacteria living on its gill cover membrane. To provide ectosymbionts with ideal conditions for chemosynthesis, these shrimp live in dense clusters around vent chimneys; they are, however, also found sparsely distributed adjacent to diffuse vent flows, where they might depend on alternative food sources. Densely and sparsely distributed shrimp were sampled and dissected into abdominal tissue and gill cover membrane, covered with ectosymbiotic bacteria, at two hydrothermal vent fields in the Mid-Cayman rise that differ in vent chemistry. Fatty acids (FA) were extracted from shrimp tissues and their carbon isotopic compositions assessed. The FA data indicate that adult R. hybisae predominantly rely on bacteria for their organic carbon needs. Their FA composition is dominated by common bacterial FA of the n7 family (~41%). Bacterial FA of the n4 FA family are also abundant and found to constitute good biomarkers for gill ectosymbionts. Sparsely distributed shrimp contain fractions of n4 FA in gill cover membranes ~4% lower than densely packed ones (~18%) and much higher fractions of photosynthetic FA in abdominal tissues, ~4% more (compared with 1.6%), suggesting replacement of ectosymbionts along with exoskeletons (molt), while they take up alternative diets of partly photosynthetic organic carbon. Abdominal tissues also contain photosynthetic FA from a second source taken up presumably during an early dispersal phase and still present to c. 3% in adult shrimp. The contribution of photosynthetic carbon to

  2. Scytonemin and Photosynthetic Pigment Proxies for Late Pleistocene/Holocene Environmental Change in the Eastern Great Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fulton, J. M.; Van Mooy, B. A. S.

    2015-12-01

    Sedimentary pigments are biomarkers of photosynthetic organisms, most commonly derived from aquatic bacteria and algae but also with potential terrigenous sources. We detected a diverse pigment assemblage with variable down-core distributions in Great Salt Lake (GSL) sediments deposited since ca. 280 ka (GLAD1-GSL00, core 4). The most abundant pigments included derivatives of chlorophyll a, most likely from algae or cyanobacteria, bacteriochlorophyll c from green sulfur bacteria, okenone from purple sulfur bacteria, and scytonemin from UV-exposed cyanobacteria. Scytonemin is a biomarker for colonial cyanobacteria exposed to UV-radiation. In GSL it has potential sources from bioherms on the shoreline or microbiotic soil crusts from the adjacent Great Basin Desert. Scytonemin concentration was highest in the Upper Salt and Sapropel (USS) unit, deposited between 11.5-10 ka in shallow water (ca. 10 m), following deep pluvial Lake Bonneville (30-18 cal ka), the Provo lake level (ca. 18-15 cal ka), and the Gilbert transgression (11.6 cal ka). Scytonemin concentration was very low in sediments deposited during the deep lake phases, even though bioherms were prominent shoreline features. The USS was deposited under hypersaline waters and contained remarkably low concentrations of photosynthetic pigment derivatives that would be expected in organic-matter-rich sediments deposited under productive surface waters or anoxic bottom waters. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic data point toward a desert soil crust source for scytonemin in the USS, similar to what we previously observed in the Holocene Black Sea sapropel. We propose that increased aridity supported the widespread occurrence and erosion of microbiotic soil crusts during deposition of the USS. This is consistent with interpretations of Great Salt Lake hydrology, pointing toward a broader regional aridity event. Holocene sediments above the USS also contain scytonemin at relatively high concentration, consistent with

  3. Abundance of Cosmogenic Noble Gases as a Marker of the Organic Degradation by Cosmic Rays in the Surface Martian Rocks. Implications to MSL and Mars 2020

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlov, A. A.; Vasilyev, G. I.; Ostryakov, V. M.; Pavlov, A. K.; Mahaffy, P.

    2014-07-01

    We conducted a modeling study which links the rates of cosmogenic isotopes production with the radiation accumulation rates on Mars. We calculated the degradation level of the organic molecules at Cumberland based on the observed cosmogenic isotopes.

  4. Parameters of photosynthetic energy partitioning.

    PubMed

    Lazár, Dušan

    2015-03-01

    Almost every laboratory dealing with plant physiology, photosynthesis research, remote sensing, and plant phenotyping possesses a fluorometer to measure a kind of chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence induction (FLI). When the slow Chl FLI is measured with addition of saturating pulses and far-red illumination, the so-called quenching analysis followed by the so-called relaxation analysis in darkness can be realized. These measurements then serve for evaluation of the so-called energy partitioning, that is, calculation of quantum yields of photochemical and of different types of non-photochemical processes. Several theories have been suggested for photosynthetic energy partitioning. The current work aims to summarize all the existing theories, namely their equations for the quantum yields, their meaning and their assumptions. In the framework of these theories it is also found here that the well-known NPQ parameter ( [Formula: see text] ; Bilger and Björkman, 1990) equals the ratio of the quantum yield of regulatory light-induced non-photochemical quenching to the quantum yield of constitutive non-regulatory non-photochemical quenching (ΦNPQ/Φf,D). A similar relationship is also found here for the PQ parameter (ΦP/Φf,D). PMID:25569797

  5. Process for photosynthetically splitting water

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, E.

    1982-01-28

    In one form of the invention, hydrogen is produced by providing a reactor containing a body of water. The water contains photolytic material, i.e., photoactive material containing a hydrogen-catalyst. The interior of the reactor is isolated from atmosphere and includes a volume for receiving gases evolved from the body of water. The photolytic material is exposed to light to effect photosynthetic splitting of the water into gaseous hydrogen and oxygen. The gas-receiving volume is continuously evacuated by pumping to promote evolution of gaseous hydrogen and oxygen into that volume and to withdraw them therefrom. In another form of the invention, separation of the hydrogen and oxygen is effected by selectively diffusing the hydrogen through a heated semipermeable membrane in a separation zone while maintaining across the zone a magnetic field gradient biasing the oxygen away from the membrane. In a third form of the invention, the withdrawn gas is contacted with a membrane blocking flow of water vapor to the region for effecting recovery of the hydrogen. In a fourth embodiment, the invention comprises a process for selectively recovering hydrogen from a gas mixture comprising hydrogen and oxygen. The process is conducted in a separation zone and comprises contacting the mixture with a semipermeable membrane effecting selective diffusion of hydrogen while maintaining across the zone a magnetic field gradient effecting movement of oxygen in a direction away from the membrane.

  6. Evidence for only minor contributions from bacteria to sedimentary organic carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartgers, W. A.; Sinninghe Damste, J. S.; Requejo, A. G.; Allan, J.; Hayes, J. M.; de Leeuw, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    Because their molecular signatures are often prominent in extracts of sediments, bacteria are thought to be important contributors to petroleum source beds. It has been shown recently, however, that abundances of biomarkers do not always reflect relative contributions to sedimentary organic carbon (Corg). The contribution of photosynthetic green sulphur bacteria to sediments can be assessed effectively because the diagenetic products of distinctive carotenoids from these organisms occur widely and their biomass is isotopically labelled, being enriched in 13C. We show here that, although sediments and oils from the Western Canada and Williston basins contain prominent biomarkers of photosynthetic bacteria, the absence of 13C enrichment in the total Corg requires that the bacterial contribution is in fact minimal. Although the importance of bacterial reworking of sedimentary debris cannot be doubted, we argue that our findings, when considered in conjunction with those from other settings, suggest that bacterial biomass may commonly represent only a minor component of total Corg in carbonaceous rocks.

  7. [(3) H]-L685,458 binding sites are abundant in multiple peripheral organs in rats: implications for safety assessment of putative γ-secretase targeting drugs.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi-Ying; Li, Jian-Ming; Xiao, Ling; Mou, Lin; Cai, Yan; Huang, He; Luo, Xue-Gang; Yan, Xiao-Xin

    2014-12-01

    γ-Secretase is a multimeric enzyme complex that carries out proteolytic processing to a variety of cellular proteins. It is currently explored as a therapeutic target for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and cancer. Mechanism-based toxicity needs to be thoroughly evaluated for γ-secretase inhibitory and/or modulatory drugs. This study comparatively assessed putative γ-secretase catalytic sites in rat peripheral tissues relative to brain and explored an effort of its pharmacological inhibition on hair regeneration. Using [(3) H]-labelled L685,458, a potent γ-secretase inhibitor, as probe, we found more abundant presence of γ-secretase binding sites in the liver, gastrointestinal tract, hair follicle, pituitary gland, ovary and testis, as compared to the brain. Local application of L658,458 delayed vibrissal regrowth following whisker removal. These results suggest that γ-secretase may execute important biological functions in many peripheral systems, as in the brain. The development of γ-secretase inhibitors/modulators for AD and cancer therapy should include close monitoring of toxicological panels for hepatic, gastrointestinal, endocrinal and reproductive functions. PMID:24861611

  8. Land use Effects on Storage, Stability and Structure of Organic Carbon in Soil Density Fractions Revealed by 13C Natural Abundance and CPMAS 13C NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flessa, H.; Helfrich, M.; John, B.; Yamashita, T.; Ludwig, B.

    2004-12-01

    The type of land use and soil cultivation are important factors controlling organic carbon storage (SOC) in soils and they can also influence the relative importance, the structure, and the stability of different SOC pools. The objectives of our study were: i) to quantify the SOC stocks in different density fractions (mineral-associated soil organic matter > 2 g cm-3 (Mineral-SOM), free particulate organic matter < 1.6 g cm-3 (free POM), light occluded particulate organic matter < 1.6 g cm-3 (occluded POM<1.6) and dense occluded particulate organic matter 1.6 to 2.0 g cm-3 (occluded POM1.6-2.0)) of silty soils under different land use (spruce forest, grassland, maize, wheat), ii) to determine the structure of these SOC fractions by CPMAS 13C NMR spectroscopy, and iii) to analyse the stability of these SOC fractions in the maize soil on the basis of the stable isotope composition of SOC. The SOC concentration in the A horizon increased in the order wheat (12.7 g kg-1) < maize (13.0 g kg-1) < grassland (24.5 g kg-1) < spruce (40.5 g kg-1). The major part (86-91%) of the SOC was associated with the heavy mineral fraction at the grassland, maize and wheat site. In the A horizon of the spruce soil, the particulate organic matter accounted for 52% of the total SOC content. The chemical structure of the soil organic matter (SOM) was influenced by litter quality, the intensity of litter decomposition and the related production and storage of microbially-derived substances. SOM of the acid forest soil was characterized by large amounts of POM with a high content of spruce litter-derived alkyl C. In the biologically more active grassland and maize soil, litter-derived POM was decomposed more rapidly and SOC stocks were dominated by mineral-associated SOM which contained greater proportions of aryl and carbonyl C. The cultivation of the grassland soil induced enhanced mineralization of POM and in particular of mineral-associated SOM. The faster SOC turnover was associated

  9. Prioritization of copper for the use in photosynthetic electron transport in developing leaves of hybrid poplar

    PubMed Central

    Shahbaz, Muhammad; Ravet, Karl; Peers, Graham; Pilon, Marinus

    2015-01-01

    Plastocyanin (PC) is an essential and abundant copper (Cu) protein required for photosynthesis in higher plants. Severe copper deprivation has the potential to cause a defect in photosynthetic electron transport due to a lack in PC. The Cu-microRNAs, which are up-regulated under Cu deficiency, down-regulate the expression of target Cu proteins other than PC, cytochrome-c oxidase and the ethylene receptors. It has been proposed that this mechanism saves Cu for PC maturation. We aimed to test how hybrid poplar, a species that has capacity to rapidly expand its photosynthetically active tissue, responds to variations in Cu availability over time. Measurement of chlorophyll fluorescence after Cu depletion revealed a drastic effect on photosynthesis in hybrid poplar. The decrease in photosynthetic capacity was correlated with a reduction in PC protein levels. Compared to older leaves, PC decreased more strongly in developing leaves, which also lost more photosynthetic electron transport capacity. The effect of Cu depletion on older and more developed leaves was minor and these leaves maintained much of their photosynthetic capacity. Interestingly, upon resupply of Cu to the medium a very rapid recovery of Cu levels was seen in the younger leaves with a concomitant rise in the expression and activity of PC. In contrast, the expression of those Cu proteins, which are targets of microRNAs was under the same circumstances delayed. At the same time, Cu resupply had only minor effects on the older leaves. The data suggest a model where rapid recovery of photosynthetic capacity in younger leaves is made possible by a preferred allocation of Cu to PC in younger leaves, which is supported by Cu-microRNA expression. PMID:26089828

  10. PS2013 Satellite Workshop on Photosynthetic Light-Harvesting Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Niederman, Robert A.; Blankenship, Robert E.; Frank, Harry A.

    2015-02-07

    These funds were used for partial support of the PS2013 Satellite Workshop on Photosynthetic Light-Harvesting Systems, that was held on 8-11 August, 2013, at Washington University, St. Louis, MO. This conference, held in conjunction with the 16th International Congress on Photosynthesis/St. Louis, continued a long tradition of light-harvesting satellite conferences that have been held prior to the previous six international photosynthesis congresses. In this Workshop, the basis was explored for the current interest in replacing fossil fuels with energy sources derived form direct solar radiation, coupled with light-driven electron transport in natural photosynthetic systems and how they offer a valuable blueprint for conversion of sunlight to useful energy forms. This was accomplished through sessions on the initial light-harvesting events in the biological conversion of solar energy to chemically stored energy forms, and how these natural photosynthetic processes serve as a guide to the development of robust bio-hybrid and artificial systems for solar energy conversion into both electricity or chemical fuels. Organized similar to a Gordon Research Conference, a lively, informal and collegial setting was established, highlighting the exchange of exciting new data and unpublished results from ongoing studies. A significant amount of time was set aside for open discussion and interactive poster sessions, with a special session devoted to oral presentations by talented students and postdoctoral fellows judged to have the best posters. This area of research has seen exceptionally rapid progress in recent years, with the availability of a number of antenna protein structures at atomic resolution, elucidation of the molecular surface architecture of native photosynthetic membranes by atomic force microscopy and the maturing of ultrafast spectroscopic and molecular biological techniques for the investigation and manipulation of photosynthetic systems. The conferees

  11. Phylogeny of Galactolipid Synthase Homologs Together with their Enzymatic Analyses Revealed a Possible Origin and Divergence Time for Photosynthetic Membrane Biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Yuzawa, Yuichi; Nishihara, Hidenori; Haraguchi, Tsuyoshi; Masuda, Shinji; Shimojima, Mie; Shimoyama, Atsushi; Yuasa, Hideya; Okada, Norihiro; Ohta, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    The photosynthetic membranes of cyanobacteria and chloroplasts of higher plants have remarkably similar lipid compositions. In particular, thylakoid membranes of both cyanobacteria and chloroplasts are composed of galactolipids, of which monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) is the most abundant, although MGDG biosynthetic pathways are different in these organisms. Comprehensive phylogenetic analysis revealed that MGDG synthase (MGD) homologs of filamentous anoxygenic phototrophs Chloroflexi have a close relationship with MGDs of Viridiplantae (green algae and land plants). Furthermore, analyses for the sugar specificity and anomeric configuration of the sugar head groups revealed that one of the MGD homologs exhibited a true MGDG synthetic activity. We therefore presumed that higher plant MGDs are derived from this ancestral type of MGD genes, and genes involved in membrane biogenesis and photosystems have been already functionally associated at least at the time of Chloroflexi divergence. As MGD gene duplication is an important event during plastid evolution, we also estimated the divergence time of type A and B MGDs. Our analysis indicated that these genes diverged ∼323 million years ago, when Spermatophyta (seed plants) were appearing. Galactolipid synthesis is required to produce photosynthetic membranes; based on MGD gene sequences and activities, we have proposed a novel evolutionary model that has increased our understanding of photosynthesis evolution. PMID:22210603

  12. High Efficiency Light Harvesting by Carotenoids in the LH2 Complex from Photosynthetic Bacteria: Unique Adaptation to Growth under Low-Light Conditions

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Rhodopin, rhodopinal, and their glucoside derivatives are carotenoids that accumulate in different amounts in the photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodoblastus (Rbl.) acidophilus strain 7050, depending on the intensity of the light under which the organism is grown. The different growth conditions also have a profound effect on the spectra of the bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) pigments that assemble in the major LH2 light-harvesting pigment–protein complex. Under high-light conditions the well-characterized B800-850 LH2 complex is formed and accumulates rhodopin and rhodopin glucoside as the primary carotenoids. Under low-light conditions, a variant LH2, denoted B800-820, is formed, and rhodopinal and rhodopinal glucoside are the most abundant carotenoids. The present investigation compares and contrasts the spectral properties and dynamics of the excited states of rhodopin and rhodopinal in solution. In addition, the systematic differences in pigment composition and structure of the chromophores in the LH2 complexes provide an opportunity to explore the effect of these factors on the rate and efficiency of carotenoid-to-BChl energy transfer. It is found that the enzymatic conversion of rhodopin to rhodopinal by Rbl. acidophilus 7050 grown under low-light conditions results in nearly 100% carotenoid-to-BChl energy transfer efficiency in the LH2 complex. This comparative analysis provides insight into how photosynthetic systems are able to adapt and survive under challenging environmental conditions. PMID:25171303

  13. Effects of earthworms and plants on the soil structure, the physical stabilization of soil organic matter and the microbial abundance and diversity in soil aggregates in a long term study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zangerlé, Anne; Hissler, Christophe; Lavelle, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Earthworms and plant roots, as ecosystem engineers, have large effects on biotic and abiotic properties of the soil system. They create biogenic soil macroaggregates (i.e. earthworm casts and root macroaggregates) with specific physical, chemical and microbiological properties. Research to date has mainly considered their impacts in isolation thereby ignoring potential interactions between these organisms. On the other hand, most of the existing studies focused on short to midterm time scale. We propose in this study to consider effect of earthworms and plants on aggregate dynamics at long time scale. A 24 months macrocosm experiment, under semi-controlled conditions, was conducted to assess the impacts of corn and endogeic plus anecic earthworms (Apporectodea caliginosa and Lumbricus terrestris) on soil structure, C stabilization and microbial abundance and biodiversity. Aggregate stability was assessed by wet-sieving. Macroaggregates (>2 mm) were also visually separated according to their biological origin (e.g., earthworms, roots). Total C and N contents were measured in aggregates of all size classes and origins. Natural abundances of 13C of corn, a C4 plant, were used as a supplemental marker of OM incorporation in aggregates. The genetic structure and the abundance of the bacterial and fungal communities were characterized by using respectively the B- and F-ARISA fingerprinting approach and quantitative PCR bacteria (341F/515R) and fungi (FF330/FR1). They significantly impacted the soil physical properties in comparison to the other treatments: lower bulk density in the first 10cm of the soil with 0.95 g/cm3 in absence of corn plants and 0.88 g/cm3 in presence of corn plants compared to control soil (1.21g/cm3). The presence of earthworms increased aggregate stability (mean weight diameter) by 7.6 %, while plants alone had no simple impacts on aggregation. A significant interaction revealed that earthworms increased aggregate stability in the presence of

  14. N-15 NMR spectra of naturally abundant nitrogen in soil and aquatic natural organic matter samples of the International Humic Substances Society

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, K.A.; Cox, L.G.

    2009-01-01

    The naturally abundant nitrogen in soil and aquatic NOM samples from the International Humic Substances Society has been characterized by solid state CP/MAS 15N NMR. Soil samples include humic and fulvic acids from the Elliot soil, Minnesota Waskish peat and Florida Pahokee peat, as well as the Summit Hill soil humic acid and the Leonardite humic acid. Aquatic samples include Suwannee River humic, fulvic and reverse osmosis isolates, Nordic humic and fulvic acids and Pony Lake fulvic acid. Additionally, Nordic and Suwannee River XAD-4 acids and Suwannee River hydrophobic neutral fractions were analyzed. Similar to literature reports, amide/aminoquinone nitrogens comprised the major peaks in the solid state spectra of the soil humic and fulvic acids, along with heterocyclic and amino sugar/terminal amino acid nitrogens. Spectra of aquatic samples, including the XAD-4 acids, contain resolved heterocyclic nitrogen peaks in addition to the amide nitrogens. The spectrum of the nitrogen enriched, microbially derived Pony Lake, Antarctica fulvic acid, appeared to contain resonances in the region of pyrazine, imine and/or pyridine nitrogens, which have not been observed previously in soil or aquatic humic substances by 15N NMR. Liquid state 15N NMR experiments were also recorded on the Elliot soil humic acid and Pony Lake fulvic acid, both to examine the feasibility of the techniques, and to determine whether improvements in resolution over the solid state could be realized. For both samples, polarization transfer (DEPT) and indirect detection (1H-15N gHSQC) spectra revealed greater resolution among nitrogens directly bonded to protons. The amide/aminoquinone nitrogens could also be observed by direct detection experiments.

  15. N-15 NMR spectra of naturally abundant nitrogen in soil and aquatic natural organic matter samples of the International Humic Substances Society

    SciTech Connect

    Thorn, Kevin A.; Cox, Larry G.

    2009-02-28

    The naturally abundant nitrogen in soil and aquatic NOM samples from the International Humic Substances Society has been characterized by solid state CP/MAS ¹⁵N NMR. Soil samples include humic and fulvic acids from the Elliot soil, Minnesota Waskish peat and Florida Pahokee peat, as well as the Summit Hill soil humic acid and the Leonardite humic acid. Aquatic samples include Suwannee River humic, fulvic and reverse osmosis isolates, Nordic humic and fulvic acids and Pony Lake fulvic acid. Additionally, Nordic and Suwannee River XAD-4 acids and Suwannee River hydrophobic neutral fractions were analyzed. Similar to literature reports, amide/aminoquinone nitrogens comprised the major peaks in the solid state spectra of the soil humic and fulvic acids, along with heterocyclic and amino sugar/terminal amino acid nitrogens. Spectra of aquatic samples, including the XAD-4 acids, contain resolved heterocyclic nitrogen peaks in addition to the amide nitrogens. The spectrum of the nitrogen enriched, microbially derived Pony Lake, Antarctica fulvic acid, appeared to contain resonances in the region of pyrazine, imine and/or pyridine nitrogens, which have not been observed previously in soil or aquatic humic substances by ¹⁵N NMR. Liquid state ¹⁵N NMR experiments were also recorded on the Elliot soil humic acid and Pony Lake fulvic acid, both to examine the feasibility of the techniques, and to determine whether improvements in resolution over the solid state could be realized. For both samples, polarization transfer (DEPT) and indirect detection (¹H–¹⁵N gHSQC) spectra revealed greater resolution among nitrogens directly bonded to protons. The amide/aminoquinone nitrogens could also be observed by direct detection experiments.

  16. ENHANCED PRACTICAL PHOTOSYNTHETIC CO2 MITIGATION

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Gregory Kremer; Dr. David J. Bayless; Dr. Morgan Vis; Dr. Michael Prudich; Dr. Keith Cooksey; Dr. Jeff Muhs

    2002-10-15

    This report documents significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation project during the period from 10/2/2001 through 10/01/2002. This report marks the end of year 2 of a three-year project as well as the milestone date for completion of Phase I activities. This report includes our current status and defines the steps being taken to ensure that we meet the project goals by the end of year 3. As indicated in the list of accomplishments below our current efforts are focused on evaluating candidate organisms and growth surfaces, preparing to conduct long-term tests in the bench-scale bioreactor test systems, and scaling-up the test facilities from bench scale to pilot scale. Specific results and accomplishments for the third quarter of 2002 include: Organisms and Growth Surfaces: (1) Test results continue to indicate that thermophilic cyanobacteria have significant advantages as agents for practical photosynthetic CO{sub 2} mitigation before mesophilic forms. (2) Additional thermal features with developed cyanobacterial mats, which might be calcium resistant, were found in YNP. (3) Back to back tests show that there is no detectable difference in the growth of isolate 1.2 s.c. (2) in standard and Ca-modified BG-11 medium. The doubling time for both cases was about 12 hours. (4) The cultivation of cyanobacteria in Ca-BG medium should proceed in the pH range between 7 and 7.4, but this suggestion requires additional experiments. (5) Cyanobacteria can be grown in media where sodium is present at trace levels. (6) Ca{sup 2+} enriched medium can be used as a sink for CO{sub 2} under alkaline conditions. (7) Cyanobacteria are able to generate cones of filaments on travertine surfaces. [Travertine is a mixture of CaCO{sub 3} and CaSO{sub 4}]. We hypothesize that SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} stimulates the generation of such cones, because they are not almost generated on CaCO3 surface. On the other hand, we know that plant gas contains elevated

  17. Oxygen concentration inside a functioning photosynthetic cell.

    PubMed

    Kihara, Shigeharu; Hartzler, Daniel A; Savikhin, Sergei

    2014-05-01

    The excess oxygen concentration in the photosynthetic membranes of functioning oxygenic photosynthetic cells was estimated using classical diffusion theory combined with experimental data on oxygen production rates of cyanobacterial cells. The excess oxygen concentration within the plesiomorphic cyanobacterium Gloeobactor violaceus is only 0.025 μM, or four orders of magnitude lower than the oxygen concentration in air-saturated water. Such a low concentration suggests that the first oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria in solitary form could have evolved ∼2.8 billion years ago without special mechanisms to protect them against reactive oxygen species. These mechanisms instead could have been developed during the following ∼500 million years while the oxygen level in the Earth's atmosphere was slowly rising. Excess oxygen concentrations within individual cells of the apomorphic cyanobacteria Synechocystis and Synechococcus are 0.064 and 0.25 μM, respectively. These numbers suggest that intramembrane and intracellular proteins in isolated oxygenic photosynthetic cells are not subjected to excessively high oxygen levels. The situation is different for closely packed colonies of photosynthetic cells. Calculations show that the excess concentration within colonies that are ∼40 μm or larger in diameter can be comparable to the oxygen concentration in air-saturated water, suggesting that species forming colonies require protection against reactive oxygen species even in the absence of oxygen in the surrounding atmosphere. PMID:24806920

  18. Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO2 Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory Kremer; David J. Bayless; Morgan Vis; Michael Prudich; Keith Cooksey; Jeff Muhs

    2003-10-15

    This quarterly report documents significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation project during the period from 7/2/2003 through 10/01/2003. As indicated in the list of accomplishments below we are preparing for the final tests necessary to meet our project goals. Specific results and accomplishments for the third quarter of 2003 include: (1) Bioreactor support systems and test facilities: (A) The solar collector used in the light delivery system showed signs of degradation and hence had to be replaced by ORNL. A set of light readings were taken after the new solar collector was installed. The readings showed an acceptable light profile. (B) The CRF-2 test system has undergone major improvements to produce the high flow rates needed for harvesting (as determined by previous experiments). The main changes to the system are new stainless steel header/frame units with increased flow capacity and a modified pipe end sealing method to improve flow uniformity, and installation and plumbing for a new high flow harvesting pump. The improvements have been completed and the system is ready for testing. (C) The pilot scale bioreactor is ready for testing pending some information from the CRF-2 tests. (2) Organisms and Growth Surfaces: (A) The shape of the Chlorogloeopsis sp. cells (cyanobacteria) was found to be affected by environmental pH, which may be useful in culture quality control. Besides, the further investigation of this phenomenon suggested that the rate of cell adhesion to glass surface decreases upon medium alkalinization. Thus, harvesting effectiveness may be improved by increasing medium pH up to 9 before harvesting of cyanobacteria from a substratum.

  19. ENHANCED PRACTICAL PHOTOSYNTHETIC CO2 MITIGATION

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Gregory Kremer; Dr. David J. Bayless; Dr. Morgan Vis; Dr. Michael Prudich; Dr. Keith Cooksey; Dr. Jeff Muhs

    2002-01-15

    This quarterly report documents significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation project during the period from 10/3/2001 through 1/02/2002. Most of the achievements are milestones in our efforts to complete the tasks and subtasks that constitute the project objectives. Our research team has made significant progress towards completion of our Phase I objectives, and our current efforts remain focused on fulfilling these research objectives in accordance with the project timeline. Overall, we believe that we are on schedule to complete Phase I activities by 10/2002, which is the milestone date from the original project timeline. Specific results and accomplishments for the fourth quarter of 2001 include: (1) New procedures and protocols have been developed to increase the chances of successful implementation in the bioreactor of organisms that perform well in the lab. The new procedures include pre-screening of organisms for adhesion characteristics and a focus on identifying the organisms with maximum growth rate potential. (2) Preliminary results show an increase in adhesion to glass and a decrease in overall growth rates when using growth media prepared with tap water rather than distilled water. (3) Several of the organisms collected from Yellowstone National Park using the new procedures are currently being cultured in preparation for bioreactor tests. (4) One important result from a test of growth surface temperature distribution as a function of gas stream and drip-fluid temperatures showed a high dependence of membrane temperature on fluid temperature, with gas stream temperature having minimal effect. This result indicates that bioreactor growth surface temperatures can be controlled using fluid delivery temperature. The possible implications for implementation of the bioreactor concept are encouraging, since it may be possible to use the bioreactor with very high gas stream temperatures by controlling the temperature

  20. Binning of shallowly sampled metagenomic sequence fragments reveals that low abundance bacteria play important roles in sulfur cycling and degradation of complex organic polymers in an acid mine drainage community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, G. J.; Andersson, A.; Banfield, J. F.

    2007-12-01

    Our understanding of environmental microbiology has been greatly enhanced by community genome sequencing of DNA recovered directly the environment. Community genomics provides insights into the diversity, community structure, metabolic function, and evolution of natural populations of uncultivated microbes, thereby revealing dynamics of how microorganisms interact with each other and their environment. Recent studies have demonstrated the potential for reconstructing near-complete genomes from natural environments while highlighting the challenges of analyzing community genomic sequence, especially from diverse environments. A major challenge of shotgun community genome sequencing is identification of DNA fragments from minor community members for which only low coverage of genomic sequence is present. We analyzed community genome sequence retrieved from biofilms in an acid mine drainage (AMD) system in the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain, CA, with an emphasis on identification and assembly of DNA fragments from low-abundance community members. The Richmond mine hosts an extensive, relatively low diversity subterranean chemolithoautotrophic community that is sustained entirely by oxidative dissolution of pyrite. The activity of these microorganisms greatly accelerates the generation of AMD. Previous and ongoing work in our laboratory has focused on reconstrucing genomes of dominant community members, including several bacteria and archaea. We binned contigs from several samples (including one new sample and two that had been previously analyzed) by tetranucleotide frequency with clustering by Self-Organizing Maps (SOM). The binning, evaluated by comparison with information from the manually curated assembly of the dominant organisms, was found to be very effective: fragments were correctly assigned with 95% accuracy. Improperly assigned fragments often contained sequences that are either evolutionarily constrained (e.g. 16S rRNA genes) or mobile elements that are

  1. A geographic information system on the potential distribution and abundance of Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica in east Africa based on Food and Agriculture Organization databases.

    PubMed

    Malone, J B; Gommes, R; Hansen, J; Yilma, J M; Slingenberg, J; Snijders, F; Nachtergaele, F; Ataman, E

    1998-07-31

    distribution range of the two Fasciola species, regional variations in intensity and seasonal transmission patterns at different sites. Results further indicate that many of the methods used for crop productivity models can also be used to define the potential distribution and abundance of parasites. PMID:9735915

  2. THE C2 OXIDATIVE PHOTOSYNTHETIC CARBON CYCLE.

    PubMed

    Tolbert, N. E.

    1997-06-01

    The C2 oxidative photosynthetic carbon cycle plus the C3 reductive photosynthetic carbon cycle coexist. Both are initiated by Rubisco, use about equal amounts of energy, must regenerate RuBP, and result in exchanges of CO2 and O2 to establish rates of net photosynthesis, CO2 and O2 compensation points, and the ratio of CO2 and O2 in the atmosphere. These concepts evolved from research on O2 inhibition, glycolate metabolism, leaf peroxisomes, photorespiration, 18O2/16O2 exchange, CO2 concentrating processes, and a requirement for the oxygenase activity of Rubisco. Nearly 80 years of research on these topics are unified under the one process of photosynthetic carbon metabolism and its self-regulation. PMID:15012254

  3. BOREAS TE-10 Photosynthetic Response Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor); Middleton, Elizabeth; Sullivan, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-10 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected several data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on the gas exchange, reflectance, transmittance, chlorophyll content, carbon content, hydrogen content, nitrogen content, and photosynthetic response of boreal vegetation. This data set contains measurements of quantitative parameters and leaf photosynthetic response to increases in light conducted in the SSA during the growing seasons of 1994 and 1996 using an oxygen electrode system. Leaf photosynthetic responses were not collected in 1996. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  4. Solar abundance of osmium

    PubMed Central

    Jacoby, George; Aller, Lawrence H.

    1976-01-01

    The abundance parameter, log gfA, where g is the statistical weight of the lower level, f is the oscillator strength, and A is the abundance (by numbers of atoms with respect to hydrogen), has been derived for three lines of osmium by a method of spectrum synthesis. An apparent discordance of the derived abundance with that found from the carbonaceous chondrites is probably to be attributed primarily to errors in the f-values, and blending with unknown contributors. PMID:16592314

  5. Toward a photosynthetic microbial platform for terpenoid engineering.

    PubMed

    Davies, Fiona K; Jinkerson, Robert E; Posewitz, Matthew C

    2015-03-01

    Plant terpenoids are among the most diverse group of naturally-occurring organic compounds known, and several are used in contemporary consumer products. Terpene synthase enzymes catalyze complex rearrangements of carbon skeleton precursors to yield thousands of unique chemical structures that range in size from the simplest five carbon isoprene unit to the long polymers of rubber. Such chemical diversity has established plant terpenoids as valuable commodity chemicals with applications in the pharmaceutical, neutraceutical, cosmetic, and food industries. More recently, terpenoids have received attention as a renewable alternative to petroleum-derived fuels and as the building blocks of synthetic biopolymers. However, the current plant- and petrochemical-based supplies of commodity terpenoids have major limitations. Photosynthetic microorganisms provide an opportunity to generate terpenoids in a renewable manner, employing a single consolidated host organism that is able to use solar energy, H2O and CO2 as the primary inputs for terpenoid biosynthesis. Advances in synthetic biology have seen important breakthroughs in microbial terpenoid engineering, traditionally via fermentative pathways in yeast and Escherichia coli. This review draws on the knowledge obtained from heterotrophic microbial engineering to propose strategies for the development of microbial photosynthetic platforms for industrial terpenoid production. The importance of utilizing the wealth of genetic information provided by nature to unravel the regulatory mechanisms of terpenoid biosynthesis is highlighted. PMID:24510550

  6. Photosynthetic responses and accumulation of mesotrione in two freshwater algae.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yan; Lai, Jinhu; Wan, Jinbao; Chen, Lianshui

    2014-01-01

    Mesotrione is a herbicide used for killing annual grasses and broad-leaved weeds in maize. A recent investigation has shown that mesotrione has been detected as an organic contaminant in aquatic environments and may have a negative impact on aquatic organisms. To evaluate the eco-toxicity of mesotrione to algae, experiments focusing on photosynthetic responses and mesotrione accumulation in Microcystis sp. and Scenedesmus quadricauda were carried out. Both algae treated with mesotrione at 0.05-10 mg L(-1) for 7 days reduced the photosynthetic capacity. The fluorescence of chlorophyll a, the maximal PSII activity (Fv/Fm), and the parameters (Ik, α and ETRmax) of rapid light curves (RLCs) in both algae were decreased under mesotrione exposure. The 96 h EC50 values for mesotrione on S. quadricauda and Microcystis sp. were 4.41 and 6.19 mg L(-1), respectively. The latter shows more tolerance to mesotrione. Mesotrione was shown to be readily accumulated by both species. Such uptake of mesotrione led to the rapid removal of mesotrione from the medium. Overall, this study represents the initial comprehensive analyses of Microcystis sp. and S. quadricauda in adaptation to the mesotrione contaminated aquatic ecosystems. PMID:25059419

  7. Synergistic Two-Photon Absorption Enhancement in Photosynthetic Light Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kuo-Mei; Chen, Yu-Wei; Gao, Ting-Fong

    2012-06-01

    The grand scale fixation of solar energies into chemical substances by photosynthetic reactions of light-harvesting organisms provides Earth's other life forms a thriving environment. Scientific explorations in the past decades have unraveled the fundamental photophysical and photochemical processes in photosynthesis. Higher plants, green algae, and light-harvesting bacteria utilize organized pigment-protein complexes to harvest solar power efficiently and the resultant electronic excitations are funneled into a reaction center, where the first charge separation process takes place. Here we show experimental evidences that green algae (Chlorella vulgaris) in vivo display a synergistic two-photon absorption enhancement in their photosynthetic light harvesting. Their absorption coefficients at various wavelengths display dramatic dependence on the photon flux. This newly found phenomenon is attributed to a coherence-electronic-energy-transfer-mediated (CEETRAM) photon absorption process of light-harvesting pigment-protein complexes of green algae. Under the ambient light level, algae and higher plants can utilize this quantum mechanical mechanism to create two entangled electronic excitations adjacently in their light-harvesting networks. Concerted multiple electron transfer reactions in the reaction centers and oxygen evolving complexes can be implemented efficiently by the coherent motion of two entangled excitons from antennae to the charge separation reaction sites. To fabricate nanostructured, synthetic light-harvesting apparatus, the paramount role of the CEETRAM photon absorption mechanism should be seriously considered in the strategic guidelines.

  8. Microfluidic high-throughput selection of microalgal strains with superior photosynthetic productivity using competitive phototaxis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jaoon Young Hwan; Kwak, Ho Seok; Sung, Young Joon; Choi, Hong Il; Hong, Min Eui; Lim, Hyun Seok; Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Lee, Sang Yup; Sim, Sang Jun

    2016-01-01

    Microalgae possess great potential as a source of sustainable energy, but the intrinsic inefficiency of photosynthesis is a major challenge to realize this potential. Photosynthetic organisms evolved phototaxis to find optimal light condition for photosynthesis. Here we report a microfluidic screening using competitive phototaxis of the model alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, for rapid isolation of strains with improved photosynthetic efficiencies. We demonstrated strong relationship between phototaxis and photosynthetic efficiency by quantitative analysis of phototactic response at the single-cell level using a microfluidic system. Based on this positive relationship, we enriched the strains with improved photosynthetic efficiency by isolating cells showing fast phototactic responses from a mixture of 10,000 mutants, thereby greatly improving selection efficiency over 8 fold. Among 147 strains isolated after screening, 94.6% showed improved photoautotrophic growth over the parental strain. Two mutants showed much improved performances with up to 1.9- and 8.1-fold increases in photoautotrophic cell growth and lipid production, respectively, a substantial improvement over previous approaches. We identified candidate genes that might be responsible for fast phototactic response and improved photosynthesis, which can be useful target for further strain engineering. Our approach provides a powerful screening tool for rapid improvement of microalgal strains to enhance photosynthetic productivity. PMID:26852806

  9. Design criteria for optimal photosynthetic energy conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fingerhut, Benjamin P.; Zinth, Wolfgang; de Vivie-Riedle, Regina

    2008-12-01

    Photochemical solar energy conversion is considered as an alternative of clean energy. For future light converting nano-machines photosynthetic reaction centers are used as prototypes optimized during evolution. We introduce a reaction scheme for global optimization and simulate the ultrafast charge separation in photochemical energy conversion. Multiple molecular charge carriers are involved in this process and are linked by Marcus-type electron transfer. In combination with evolutionary algorithms, we unravel the biological strategies for high quantum efficiency in photosynthetic reaction centers and extend these concepts to the design of artificial photochemical devices for energy conversion.

  10. Photosynthetic potential of planets in 3 : 2 spin-orbit resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, S. P.; Mead, A. J.; Forgan, D. H.; Raven, J. A.; Cockell, C. S.

    2014-10-01

    Photosynthetic life requires sufficient photosynthetically active radiation to metabolize. On Earth, plant behaviour, physiology and metabolism are sculpted around the night-day cycle by an endogenous biological circadian clock. The evolution of life was influenced by the Earth-Sun orbital dynamic, which generates the photo-environment incident on the planetary surface. In this work, the unusual photo-environment of an Earth-like planet (ELP) in 3 : 2 spin-orbit resonance is explored. Photo-environments on the ELP are longitudinally differentiated, in addition to differentiations related to latitude and depth (for aquatic organisms) which are familiar on Earth. The light environment on such a planet could be compatible with Earth's photosynthetic life although the threat of atmospheric freeze-out and prolonged periods of darkness would present significant challenges. We emphasize the relationship between the evolution of life on a planetary body with its orbital dynamics.

  11. Functional Size of Photosynthetic Electron Transport Chain Determined by Radiation Inactivation 1

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Run Sun; Chien, Lee Feng; Wang, May Yun; Tsai, Mai Yu; Pan, Rong Long; Hsu, Ban Dar

    1987-01-01

    Radiation inactivation technique was employed to determine the functional size of photosynthetic electron transport chain of spinach chloroplasts. The functional size for photosystem I+II (H2O to methylviologen) was 623 ± 37 kilodaltons; for photosystem II (H2O to dimethylquinone/ferricyanide), 174 ± 11 kilodaltons; and for photosystem I (reduced diaminodurene to methylviologen), 190 ± 11 kilodaltons. The difference between 364 ± 22 (the sum of 174 ± 11 and 190 ± 11) kilodaltons and 623 ± 37 kilodaltons is partially explained to be due to the presence of two molecules of cytochrome b6/f complex of 280 kilodaltons. The molecular mass for other partial reactions of photosynthetic electron flow, also measured by radiation inactivation, is reported. The molecular mass obtained by this technique is compared with that determined by other conventional biochemical methods. A working hypothesis for the composition, stoichiometry, and organization of polypeptides for photosynthetic electron transport chain is proposed. PMID:16665649

  12. Engineering of cyanobacteria for the photosynthetic production of limonene from CO2.

    PubMed

    Kiyota, Hiroshi; Okuda, Yukiko; Ito, Michiho; Hirai, Masami Yokota; Ikeuchi, Masahiko

    2014-09-20

    Isoprenoids, major secondary metabolites in many organisms, are utilized in various applications. We constructed a model photosynthetic production system for limonene, a volatile isoprenoid, using a unicellular cyanobacterium that expresses the plant limonene synthase. This system produces limonene photosynthetically at a nearly constant rate and that can be efficiently recovered using a gas-stripping method. This production does not affect the growth of the cyanobacteria and is markedly enhanced by overexpression of three enzymes in the intrinsic pathway to provide the precursor of limonene, geranyl pyrophosphate. The photosynthetic production of limonene in our system is more or less sustained from the linear to stationary phase of cyanobacterial growth for up to 1 month. PMID:24905149

  13. Contributions of photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic cell types to leaf respiration in Vicia faba L. and their responses to growth temperature.

    PubMed

    Long, Benedict M; Bahar, Nur H A; Atkin, Owen K

    2015-11-01

    In intact leaves, mitochondrial populations are highly heterogeneous among contrasting cell types; how such contrasting populations respond to sustained changes in the environment remains, however, unclear. Here, we examined respiratory rates, mitochondrial protein composition and response to growth temperature in photosynthetic (mesophyll) and non-photosynthetic (epidermal) cells from fully expanded leaves of warm-developed (WD) and cold-developed (CD) broad bean (Vicia faba L.). Rates of respiration were significantly higher in mesophyll cell protoplasts (MCPs) than epidermal cell protoplasts (ECPs), with both protoplast types exhibiting capacity for cytochrome and alternative oxidase activity. Compared with ECPs, MCPs contained greater relative quantities of porin, suggesting higher mitochondrial surface area in mesophyll cells. Nevertheless, the relative quantities of respiratory proteins (normalized to porin) were similar in MCPs and ECPs, suggesting that ECPs have lower numbers of mitochondria yet similar protein complement to MCP mitochondria (albeit with lower abundance serine hydroxymethyltransferase). Several mitochondrial proteins (both non-photorespiratory and photorespiratory) exhibited an increased abundance in response to cold in both protoplast types. Based on estimates of individual protoplast respiration rates, combined with leaf cell abundance data, epidermal cells make a small but significant (2%) contribution to overall leaf respiration which increases twofold in the cold. Taken together, our data highlight the heterogeneous nature of mitochondrial populations in leaves, both among contrasting cell types and in how those populations respond to growth temperature. PMID:25828647

  14. ENHANCED PRACTICAL PHOTOSYNTHETIC CO2 MITIGATION

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Gregory Kremer; Dr. David J. Bayless; Dr. Morgan Vis; Dr. Michael Prudich; Dr. Keith Cooksey; Dr. Jeff Muhs

    2002-04-15

    This quarterly report documents significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation project during the period from 1/3/2001 through 4/02/2002. Most of the achievements are milestones in our efforts to complete the tasks and subtasks that constitute the project objectives, and we are currently on schedule to complete Phase I activities by 10/2002, the milestone date from the original project timeline. As indicated in the list of accomplishments below, we are continuing to evaluate candidate organisms and growth surfaces, and we are expanding the test facilities in preparation for scaled up system-level testing. Specific results and accomplishments for the first quarter of 2002 include: Organisms and Growth Surfaces: (1) Isolate 1.2 s.c. (2) has been selected for further investigations because of its favorable growth properties. (2) Research on optimal conditions for the growth of cyanobacterial isolates from YNP should be carried out using distilled water which has more stable chemical parameters, although tap water use may be permissible during full scale operations (at the cost of longer organism doubling times). (3) Tr. 9.4 WF is able to generate a biofilm on an Omnisil surface. Over the long term Omnisil does not inhibit the growth of TR 9.4 isolate, though it does elongate the lag phase of growth of this isolate. (4) Initial survivability tests for the TR 9.4 organism on Omnisil screens in the CRF2 modelscale bioreactor are underway. We have experienced problems keeping the organisms alive for more than three days, but we are currently investigating several possible causes for this unexpected result. (5) Accelerated materials testing have shown that Omnisil fabric has acceptable strength properties for use in a practical bioreactor system. Bioreactor support systems and test facilities: (1) Several CO{sub 2} scrubbing experiments have been completed in the translating slug flow test system, however the error introduced by the

  15. ENHANCED PRACTICAL PHOTOSYNTHETIC CO2 MITIGATION

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Gregory Kremer; Dr. David J. Bayless; Dr. Morgan Vis; Dr. Michael Prudich; Dr. Keith Cooksey; Dr. Jeff Muhs

    2001-10-15

    This report documents significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation project during the period from 10/03/2000 through 10/02/2001. Most of the achievements are milestones in our efforts to complete the tasks and subtasks that constitute the project objectives. This is the fourth quarterly report for this project, so it also serves as a year-1 project review. We have made significant progress on our Phase I objectives, and our current efforts are focused on fulfilling these research objectives ''on time'' relative to the project timeline. Overall, we believe that we are on schedule to complete Phase I activities by 10/2002, which is the milestone date from the original project timeline. Our results to date concerning the individual factors which have the most significant effect on CO{sub 2} uptake are inconclusive, but we have gathered useful information about the effects of lighting, temperature and CO{sub 2} concentration on one particular organism (Nostoc) and significant progress has been made in identifying other organisms that are more suitable for use in the bioreactor due to their better tolerance for the high temperatures likely to be encountered in the flue gas stream. Our current tests are focused on one such thermophilic organism (Cyanidium), and an enlarged bioreactor system (CRF-2) has been prepared for testing this organism. Tests on the enhanced mass transfer CO{sub 2} absorption technique are underway and useful information is currently being collected concerning pressure drop. The solar collectors for the deep-penetration hybrid solar lighting system have been designed and a single solar collector tracking unit is being prepared for installation in the pilot scale bioreactor system currently under construction. Much progress has been made in designing the fiber optic light delivery system, but final selection of the ''optimum'' delivery system design depends on many factors, most significantly the

  16. Short-Term Effects of Tillage Practices on Soil Organic Carbon Turnover Assessed by δ13C Abundance in Particle-Size Fractions of Black Soils from Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaoping; Chen, Xuewen

    2014-01-01

    The combination of isotope trace technique and SOC fractionation allows a better understanding of SOC dynamics. A five-year tillage experiment consisting of no-tillage (NT) and mouldboard plough (MP) was used to study the changes in particle-size SOC fractions and corresponding δ13C natural abundance to assess SOC turnover in the 0–20 cm layer of black soils under tillage practices. Compared to the initial level, total SOC tended to be stratified but showed a slight increase in the entire plough layer under short-term NT. MP had no significant impacts on SOC at any depth. Because of significant increases in coarse particulate organic carbon (POC) and decreases in fine POC, total POC did not remarkably decrease under NT and MP. A distinct increase in silt plus clay OC occurred in NT plots, but not in MP plots. However, the δ13C abundances of both coarse and fine POC increased, while those of silt plus clay OC remained almost the same under NT. The C derived from C3 plants was mainly associated with fine particles and much less with coarse particles. These results suggested that short-term NT and MP preferentially enhanced the turnover of POC, which was considerably faster than that of silt plus clay OC. PMID:25162052

  17. A global perspective on marine photosynthetic picoeukaryote community structure

    PubMed Central

    Kirkham, Amy R; Lepère, Cécile; Jardillier, Ludwig E; Not, Fabrice; Bouman, Heather; Mead, Andrew; Scanlan, David J

    2013-01-01

    A central goal in ecology is to understand the factors affecting the temporal dynamics and spatial distribution of microorganisms and the underlying processes causing differences in community structure and composition. However, little is known in this respect for photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PPEs), algae that are now recognised as major players in marine CO2 fixation. Here, we analysed dot blot hybridisation and cloning–sequencing data, using the plastid-encoded 16S rRNA gene, from seven research cruises that encompassed all four ocean biomes. We provide insights into global abundance, α- and β-diversity distribution and the environmental factors shaping PPE community structure and composition. At the class level, the most commonly encountered PPEs were Prymnesiophyceae and Chrysophyceae. These taxa displayed complementary distribution patterns, with peak abundances of Prymnesiophyceae and Chrysophyceae in waters of high (25:1) or low (12:1) nitrogen:phosphorus (N:P) ratio, respectively. Significant differences in phylogenetic composition of PPEs were demonstrated for higher taxonomic levels between ocean basins, using Unifrac analyses of clone library sequence data. Differences in composition were generally greater between basins (interbasins) than within a basin (intrabasin). These differences were primarily linked to taxonomic variation in the composition of Prymnesiophyceae and Prasinophyceae whereas Chrysophyceae were phylogenetically similar in all libraries. These data provide better knowledge of PPE community structure across the world ocean and are crucial in assessing their evolution and contribution to CO2 fixation, especially in the context of global climate change. PMID:23364354

  18. [Effects of water and nitrogen management modes on the leaf photosynthetic characters and yield formation of cotton with under-mulch drip irrigation].

    PubMed

    Luo, Hong-Hai; Zhang, Hong-Zhi; Tao, Xian-Ping; Zhang, Ya-Li; Zhang, Wang-feng

    2013-02-01

    Taking different genotype cotton varieties as test materials, a soil column culture experiment was conducted to study the effects of water and nitrogen management modes on the photosynthetic characters and yield formation of cotton with under-mulch drip irrigation in Xinjiang, Northwest China. Under the management mode W4N2, i.e., pre-sowing irrigation + limited drip irrigation before full-flowering + abundant drip irrigation after full-flowering in combining with basal 20% N + topdressing 80% N, the chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (gs) , actual photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Psi PSII), and photochemical quenching coefficient (qp) at full-flowering stage all decreased significantly, the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) increased, and the aboveground dry matter accumulation was inhibited, as compared with those under common drip irrigation. From full-flowering stage to boll-opening stage, the chlorophyll content, gs, Pn, Psi PSII, and qp increased with increasing water and nitrogen supply, and the aboveground dry matter accumulation was enhanced by compensation, which benefited the translocation and distribution of photosynthates to seed cotton. Under the fertilization mode of basal 20% N + topdressing 80% N, the seed cotton yield of Xinluzaol3 was the highest in treatment pre-sowing irrigation + common drip irrigation (W3), but that of Xinluzao43 was the highest in treatment pre-sowing irrigation + limited drip irrigation before full-flowering + abundant drip irrigation after full-flowering (W4). It was concluded that under the condition of pre-sowing irrigation, to appropriately decrease the water and nitrogen supply before full-flowering stage and increase the water and nitrogen supply at middle and late growth stages could extend the active photosynthesis duration and promote the photosynthates allocation to reproductive organ, which would fully exploit the yield-increasing potential of cotton with under

  19. Adaptation and acclimation of photosynthetic microorganisms to permanently cold environments.

    PubMed

    Morgan-Kiss, Rachael M; Priscu, John C; Pocock, Tessa; Gudynaite-Savitch, Loreta; Huner, Norman P A

    2006-03-01

    Persistently cold environments constitute one of our world's largest ecosystems, and microorganisms dominate the biomass and metabolic activity in these extreme environments. The stress of low temperatures on life is exacerbated in organisms that rely on photoautrophic production of organic carbon and energy sources. Phototrophic organisms must coordinate temperature-independent reactions of light absorption and photochemistry with temperature-dependent processes of electron transport and utilization of energy sources through growth and metabolism. Despite this conundrum, phototrophic microorganisms thrive in all cold ecosystems described and (together with chemoautrophs) provide the base of autotrophic production in low-temperature food webs. Psychrophilic (organisms with a requirement for low growth temperatures) and psychrotolerant (organisms tolerant of low growth temperatures) photoautotrophs rely on low-temperature acclimative and adaptive strategies that have been described for other low-temperature-adapted heterotrophic organisms, such as cold-active proteins and maintenance of membrane fluidity. In addition, photoautrophic organisms possess other strategies to balance the absorption of light and the transduction of light energy to stored chemical energy products (NADPH and ATP) with downstream consumption of photosynthetically derived energy products at low temperatures. Lastly, differential adaptive and acclimative mechanisms exist in phototrophic microorganisms residing in low-temperature environments that are exposed to constant low-light environments versus high-light- and high-UV-exposed phototrophic assemblages. PMID:16524924

  20. Adaptation and Acclimation of Photosynthetic Microorganisms to Permanently Cold Environments

    PubMed Central

    Morgan-Kiss, Rachael M.; Priscu, John C.; Pocock, Tessa; Gudynaite-Savitch, Loreta; Huner, Norman P. A.

    2006-01-01

    Persistently cold environments constitute one of our world's largest ecosystems, and microorganisms dominate the biomass and metabolic activity in these extreme environments. The stress of low temperatures on life is exacerbated in organisms that rely on photoautrophic production of organic carbon and energy sources. Phototrophic organisms must coordinate temperature-independent reactions of light absorption and photochemistry with temperature-dependent processes of electron transport and utilization of energy sources through growth and metabolism. Despite this conundrum, phototrophic microorganisms thrive in all cold ecosystems described and (together with chemoautrophs) provide the base of autotrophic production in low-temperature food webs. Psychrophilic (organisms with a requirement for low growth temperatures) and psychrotolerant (organisms tolerant of low growth temperatures) photoautotrophs rely on low-temperature acclimative and adaptive strategies that have been described for other low-temperature-adapted heterotrophic organisms, such as cold-active proteins and maintenance of membrane fluidity. In addition, photoautrophic organisms possess other strategies to balance the absorption of light and the transduction of light energy to stored chemical energy products (NADPH and ATP) with downstream consumption of photosynthetically derived energy products at low temperatures. Lastly, differential adaptive and acclimative mechanisms exist in phototrophic microorganisms residing in low-temperature environments that are exposed to constant low-light environments versus high-light- and high-UV-exposed phototrophic assemblages. PMID:16524924

  1. Longitudinal photosynthetic gradient in crust lichens' thalli.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li; Zhang, Gaoke; Lan, Shubin; Zhang, Delu; Hu, Chunxiang

    2014-05-01

    In order to evaluate the self-shading protection for inner photobionts, the photosynthetic activities of three crust lichens were detected using Microscope-Imaging-PAM. The false color images showed that longitudinal photosynthetic gradient was found in both the green algal lichen Placidium sp. and the cyanolichen Peltula sp. In longitudinal direction, all the four chlorophyll fluorescence parameters Fv/Fm, Yield, qP, and rETR gradually decreased with depth in the thalli of both of these two lichens. In Placidium sp., qN values decreased with depth, whereas an opposite trend was found in Peltula sp. However, no such photosynthetic heterogeneity was found in the thalli of Collema sp. in longitudinal direction. Microscope observation showed that photobiont cells are compactly arranged in Placidium sp. and Peltula sp. while loosely distributed in Collema sp. It was considered that the longitudinal photosynthetic heterogeneity was ascribed to the result of gradual decrease of incidence caused by the compact arrangement of photobiont cells in the thalli. The results indicate a good protection from the self-shading for the inner photobionts against high radiation in crust lichens. PMID:24477924

  2. Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO2 Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory Kremer; David J. Bayless; Morgan Vis; Michael Prudich; Keith Cooksey; Jeff Muhs

    2004-07-15

    This report highlights significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation Project for the period ending 06/30/2004. The major accomplishment was the modification of the header and harvesting work, with a system designed to distribute algae at startup, sustain operations and harvest in one unit.

  3. Hydrogen metabolism of photosynthetic bacteria and algae

    SciTech Connect

    Kumazawa, S.; Mitsui, A.

    1982-01-01

    The metabolism, metabolic pathways and biochemistry of hydrogen in photosynthetic bacteria and algae are reviewed. Detailed information on the occurrence and measurement of hydrogenase activity is presented. Hydrogen production rates for different species of algae and bacteria are presented. 173 references, 1 figure, 7 tables.

  4. Origin and evolution of photosynthetic reaction centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, John M.; Pierson, Beverly K.

    1987-09-01

    The prototype reaction center may have used protoporphyrin-IX associated with small peptides to transfer electrons or protons across the primitive cell membrane. The precursor of all contemporary reaction centers contained chlorophylla molecules as both primary electron donor and initial electron acceptor and an Fe-S center as secondary acceptor (RC-1 type). The biosynthetic pathway for chlorophylla evolved along with the evolution of a better organized reaction center associated with cytochromes and quinones in a primitive cyclic electron transport system. This reaction center probably functioned initially in photoassimilation, but was easily adapted to CO2 fixation using H2 and H2S as reductants. During this phase bacteriochlorophyllg may have evolved from chlorophylla in response to competition for light, and thereby initiated the gram-positive line of eubacteria. A second reaction center (RC-2) evolved from RC-1 between 3.5 and 2.5 Ga ago in response to the competition for reductants for CO2 fixation. The new organism containing RC-2 in series with RC-1 would have been able to use poor reducing agents such as the abundant aqueous ferrous ion in place of H2 and H2S. This new organism is proposed to be the common ancestor of all phototrophic eubacteria except those related to the gram-positive bacteria. All organisms containing bacteriochlorophylla lost either RC-1 or RC-2, while those organisms containing chlorophylla (ancestors of cyanobacteria) added a water-splitting enzyme to RC-2 between 3.0 and 2.5 Ga ago in order to use H2O in place of hydrated ferrous ion as electron donor for autotrophic photosynthesis.

  5. Microbial abundance and community in subsurface flow constructed wetland microcosms: role of plant presence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Xie, Huijun; Ngo, Huu Hao; Guo, Wenshan; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Cui; Liang, Shuang; Hu, Zhen; Yang, Zhongchen; Zhao, Congcong

    2016-03-01

    In this research, the role of plants in improving microorganism growth conditions in subsurface flow constructed wetland (CW) microcosms was determined. In particular, microbial abundance and community were investigated during summer and winter in Phragmites australis-planted CW microcosms (PA) and unplanted CW microcosms (control, CT). Results revealed that the removal efficiencies of pollutants and microbial community structure varied in winter with variable microbial abundance. During summer, PA comprised more dominant phyla (e.g., Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes), whereas CT contained more Cyanobacteria and photosynthetic bacteria. During winter, the abundance of Proteobacteria was >40 % in PA but dramatically decreased in CT. Moreover, Cyanobacteria and photosynthetic bacterial dominance in CT decreased. In both seasons, bacteria were more abundant in root surfaces than in sand. Plant presence positively affected microbial abundance and community. The potential removal ability of CT, in which Cyanobacteria and photosynthetic bacteria were abundant during summer, was more significantly affected by temperature reduction than that of PA with plant presence. PMID:25772872

  6. Comparative analysis of plastid genomes of non-photosynthetic Ericaceae and their photosynthetic relatives

    PubMed Central

    Logacheva, Maria D.; Schelkunov, Mikhail I.; Shtratnikova, Victoria Y.; Matveeva, Maria V.; Penin, Aleksey A.

    2016-01-01

    Although plastid genomes of flowering plants are typically highly conserved regarding their size, gene content and order, there are some exceptions. Ericaceae, a large and diverse family of flowering plants, warrants special attention within the context of plastid genome evolution because it includes both non-photosynthetic and photosynthetic species with rearranged plastomes and putative losses of “essential” genes. We characterized plastid genomes of three species of Ericaceae, non-photosynthetic Monotropa uniflora and Hypopitys monotropa and photosynthetic Pyrola rotundifolia, using high-throughput sequencing. As expected for non-photosynthetic plants, M. uniflora and H. monotropa have small plastid genomes (46 kb and 35 kb, respectively) lacking genes related to photosynthesis, whereas P. rotundifolia has a larger genome (169 kb) with a gene set similar to other photosynthetic plants. The examined genomes contain an unusually high number of repeats and translocations. Comparative analysis of the expanded set of Ericaceae plastomes suggests that the genes clpP and accD that are present in the plastid genomes of almost all plants have not been lost in this family (as was previously thought) but rather persist in these genomes in unusual forms. Also we found a new gene in P. rotundifolia that emerged as a result of duplication of rps4 gene. PMID:27452401

  7. Photosynthetic pigments as indicators of algal activity in the Upper Potomac Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sze, P.

    1981-10-01

    The Potomac River was monitored at Key Bridge from May - September, 1981. Temperature, major nutrients, photosynthetic pigments, abundance of major groups of photoplankton (direct counts), and potential photosynthetic production (oxygen method) were measured weekly in surface samples collected near mid-river. Chlorophyll A showed the same general trends as the cell counts and production with greatest algal activity in late May and August and a minimum in June. Centric diatoms and chlorococcalean green algae were the major planktonic algae in 1981, as in previous years. Overall, the activity of photoplankton did not show any significant change from previous years, and there was no evidence for prolonged nutrient depletion as a result of algal activity in the river.

  8. Primary Photosynthetic Energy Conversion in Bacterial Reaction Centers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinth, Wolfgang; Wachtveitl, J.

    The development of human societies is strongly influenced by the available energetic resources. In a period where the limitations of conventional fossil energy carriers become as evident as the often uncontrollable dangers of nuclear energy, one has to reconsider regenerative energy resources. Here photovoltaic or photochemical use of solar energy is an important approach. Since the early days of evolution some two billion years ago, the dominant energetic input into the life system on earth occurs via the conversion of solar energy performed in photosynthetic organisms. The fossil energy carriers that we use and waste today have been produced by photosynthesis over millions of years. In the race for an extended and versatile use of solar energy, semiconductorbased photovoltaic devices have been developed. However, even after decades of intense engineering they cannot serve as a competitive alternative to fossil energy. Under these circumstances new alternatives are required. One line of scientific development may use the operational principles of photosynthesis since photosynthesis is still our main energy source. In this respect, we will present results on the basic concepts of energy conversion in photosynthetic bacteria, which could be used as a guideline to alternative light energy conversion systems.

  9. An Inexpensive Apparatus for Growing Photosynthetic Microorganisms in Exotic Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, David J.; Herbert, Stephen K.

    2005-02-01

    Given the need for a light source, cyanobacteria and other photosynthetic microorganisms can be difficult and expensive to grow in large quantities. Lighted growth chambers and incubators typically cost 50-100% more than standard microbiological incubators. Self-shading of cells in liquid cultures prevents the growth of dense suspensions. Growing liquid cultures on a shaker table or lighted shaker incubator achieves greater cell densities, but adds considerably to the cost. For experiments in which gases other than air are required, the cost for conventional incubators increases even more. We describe an apparatus for growing photosynthetic organisms in exotic atmospheres that can be built relatively inexpensively (approximately $100 U.S.) using parts available from typical hardware or department stores (e.g., Wal-mart or K-mart). The apparatus uses microfiltered air (or other gases) to aerate, agitate, and mix liquid cultures, thus achieving very high cell densities (A750 > 3). Because gases are delivered to individual culture tubes, a variety of gas mixes can be used without the need for enclosed chambers. The apparatus works with liquid cultures of unicellular and filamentous species, and also works with agar slants.

  10. An inexpensive apparatus for growing photosynthetic microorganisms in exotic atmospheres.

    PubMed

    Thomas, David J; Herbert, Stephen K

    2005-02-01

    Given the need for a light source, cyanobacteria and other photosynthetic microorganisms can be difficult and expensive to grow in large quantities. Lighted growth chambers and incubators typically cost 50-100% more than standard microbiological incubators. Self-shading of cells in liquid cultures prevents the growth of dense suspensions. Growing liquid cultures on a shaker table or lighted shaker incubator achieves greater cell densities, but adds considerably to the cost. For experiments in which gases other than air are required, the cost for conventional incubators increases even more. We describe an apparatus for growing photosynthetic organisms in exotic atmospheres that can be built relatively inexpensively (approximately 100 dollars U.S.) using parts available from typical hardware or department stores (e.g., Wal-mart or K-mart). The apparatus uses microfiltered air (or other gases) to aerate, agitate, and mix liquid cultures, thus achieving very high cell densities (A750 > 3). Because gases are delivered to individual culture tubes, a variety of gas mixes can be used without the need for enclosed chambers. The apparatus works with liquid cultures of unicellular and filamentous species, and also works with agar slants. PMID:15711171

  11. Mechanism and analyses for extracting photosynthetic electrons using exogenous quinones - what makes a good extraction pathway?

    PubMed

    Longatte, G; Rappaport, F; Wollman, F-A; Guille-Collignon, M; Lemaître, F

    2016-08-01

    Plants or algae take many benefits from oxygenic photosynthesis by converting solar energy into chemical energy through the synthesis of carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water. However, the overall yield of this process is rather low (about 4% of the total energy available from sunlight is converted into chemical energy). This is the principal reason why recently many studies have been devoted to extraction of photosynthetic electrons in order to produce a sustainable electric current. Practically, the electron transfer occurs between the photosynthetic organism and an electrode and can be assisted by an exogenous mediator, mainly a quinone. In this regard, we recently reported on a method involving fluorescence measurements to estimate the ability of different quinones to extract photosynthetic electrons from a mutant of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. In the present work, we used the same kind of methodology to establish a zone diagram for predicting the most suitable experimental conditions to extract photoelectrons from intact algae (quinone concentration and light intensity) as a function of the purpose of the study. This will provide further insights into the extraction mechanism of photosynthetic electrons using exogenous quinones. Indeed fluorescence measurements allowed us to model the capacity of photosynthetic algae to donate electrons to an exogenous quinone by considering a numerical parameter called "open center ratio" which is related to the Photosystem II acceptor redox state. Then, using it as a proxy for investigating the extraction of photosynthetic electrons by means of an exogenous quinone, 2,6-DCBQ, we suggested an extraction mechanism that was globally found consistent with the experimentally extracted parameters. PMID:27411477

  12. Biogenic nanomaterials from photosynthetic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Jeffryes, Clayton; Agathos, Spiros N; Rorrer, Gregory

    2015-06-01

    The use of algal cell cultures represents a sustainable and environmentally friendly platform for the biogenic production of nanobiomaterials and biocatalysts. For example, advances in the production of biogeneic nanomaterials from algal cell cultures, such as crystalline β-chitin nanofibrils and gold and silver nanoparticles, could enable the 'green' production of biomaterials such as tissue-engineering scaffolds or drug carriers, supercapacitors and optoelectric materials. The in vivo functionalization, as well as newly demonstrated methods of production and modification, of biogenic diatom biosilica have led to the development of organic-inorganic hybrid catalytic systems as well as new biomaterials for drug delivery, biosensors and heavy-metal adsorbents. PMID:25445544

  13. RuBisCO in Non-Photosynthetic Alga Euglena longa: Divergent Features, Transcriptomic Analysis and Regulation of Complex Formation.

    PubMed

    Záhonová, Kristína; Füssy, Zoltán; Oborník, Miroslav; Eliáš, Marek; Yurchenko, Vyacheslav

    2016-01-01

    Euglena longa, a close relative of the photosynthetic model alga Euglena gracilis, possesses an enigmatic non-photosynthetic plastid. Its genome has retained a gene for the large subunit of the enzyme RuBisCO (rbcL). Here we provide new data illuminating the putative role of RuBisCO in E. longa. We demonstrated that the E. longa RBCL protein sequence is extremely divergent compared to its homologs from the photosynthetic relatives, suggesting a possible functional shift upon the loss of photosynthesis. Similarly to E. gracilis, E. longa harbors a nuclear gene encoding the small subunit of RuBisCO (RBCS) as a precursor polyprotein comprising multiple RBCS repeats, but one of them is highly divergent. Both RBCL and the RBCS proteins are synthesized in E. longa, but their abundance is very low compared to E. gracilis. No RBCS monomers could be detected in E. longa, suggesting that processing of the precursor polyprotein is inefficient in this species. The abundance of RBCS is regulated post-transcriptionally. Indeed, blocking the cytoplasmic translation by cycloheximide has no immediate effect on the RBCS stability in photosynthetically grown E. gracilis, but in E. longa, the protein is rapidly degraded. Altogether, our results revealed signatures of evolutionary degradation (becoming defunct) of RuBisCO in E. longa and suggest that its biological role in this species may be rather unorthodox, if any. PMID:27391690

  14. RuBisCO in Non-Photosynthetic Alga Euglena longa: Divergent Features, Transcriptomic Analysis and Regulation of Complex Formation

    PubMed Central

    Záhonová, Kristína; Füssy, Zoltán; Oborník, Miroslav; Eliáš, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Euglena longa, a close relative of the photosynthetic model alga Euglena gracilis, possesses an enigmatic non-photosynthetic plastid. Its genome has retained a gene for the large subunit of the enzyme RuBisCO (rbcL). Here we provide new data illuminating the putative role of RuBisCO in E. longa. We demonstrated that the E. longa RBCL protein sequence is extremely divergent compared to its homologs from the photosynthetic relatives, suggesting a possible functional shift upon the loss of photosynthesis. Similarly to E. gracilis, E. longa harbors a nuclear gene encoding the small subunit of RuBisCO (RBCS) as a precursor polyprotein comprising multiple RBCS repeats, but one of them is highly divergent. Both RBCL and the RBCS proteins are synthesized in E. longa, but their abundance is very low compared to E. gracilis. No RBCS monomers could be detected in E. longa, suggesting that processing of the precursor polyprotein is inefficient in this species. The abundance of RBCS is regulated post-transcriptionally. Indeed, blocking the cytoplasmic translation by cycloheximide has no immediate effect on the RBCS stability in photosynthetically grown E. gracilis, but in E. longa, the protein is rapidly degraded. Altogether, our results revealed signatures of evolutionary degradation (becoming defunct) of RuBisCO in E. longa and suggest that its biological role in this species may be rather unorthodox, if any. PMID:27391690

  15. OXYGEN ABUNDANCES IN CEPHEIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Luck, R. E.; Andrievsky, S. M.; Korotin, S. N.; Kovtyukh, V. V. E-mail: serkor@skyline.od.ua E-mail: scan@deneb1.odessa.ua

    2013-07-01

    Oxygen abundances in later-type stars, and intermediate-mass stars in particular, are usually determined from the [O I] line at 630.0 nm, and to a lesser extent, from the O I triplet at 615.7 nm. The near-IR triplets at 777.4 nm and 844.6 nm are strong in these stars and generally do not suffer from severe blending with other species. However, these latter two triplets suffer from strong non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects and thus see limited use in abundance analyses. In this paper, we derive oxygen abundances in a large sample of Cepheids using the near-IR triplets from an NLTE analysis, and compare those abundances to values derived from a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of the [O I] 630.0 nm line and the O I 615.7 nm triplet as well as LTE abundances for the 777.4 nm triplet. All of these lines suffer from line strength problems making them sensitive to either measurement complications (weak lines) or to line saturation difficulties (strong lines). Upon this realization, the LTE results for the [O I] lines and the O I 615.7 nm triplet are in adequate agreement with the abundance from the NLTE analysis of the near-IR triplets.

  16. ENHANCED PRACTICAL PHOTOSYNTHETIC CO2 MITIGATION

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Gregory Kremer; Dr. David J. Bayless; Dr. Morgan Vis; Dr. Michael Prudich; Dr. Keith Cooksey; Dr. Jeff Muhs

    2002-07-15

    This quarterly report documents significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation project during the period from 4/2/2001 through 7/01/2002. Most of the achievements are milestones in our efforts to complete the tasks and subtasks that constitute the project objectives, and we are currently on schedule to complete Phase I activities by 10/2002, the milestone date from the original project timeline. As indicated in the list of accomplishments below, our efforts are focused on improving the design of the bioreactor test system, evaluating candidate organisms and growth surfaces, and scaling-up the test facilities from bench scale to pilot scale. Specific results and accomplishments for the second quarter of 2002 include: Organisms and Growth Surfaces: (1) Our collection of cyanobacteria, isolated in YNP was increased to 15 unialgal cultures. (2) Illumination rate about 50 {micro}E/m{sup 2}/sec is not saturated for the growth of 1.2 s.c. (2) isolate. The decrease of illumination rate led to the decrease of doubling time of this isolate. (3) The positive effect of Ca{sup 2+} on the growth of isolate 1.2 s.c. (2) without Omnisil was revealed, though Ca{sup 2+} addition was indifferent for the growth of this isolate at the presence of Omnisil. (4) Calcium addition had a positive effect on the generation of cyanobacterial biofilm on Omnisil surface. (5) The survivability problems with the Tr9.4 organism on Omnisil screens in the CRF2 model-scale bioreactor have been solved. The problems were related to the method used to populate the growth surfaces. When pre-populated screens were placed in the bioreactor the microalgae died within 72 hours, but when the microalgae were cultured while in place in the bioreactor using a continuous-population method they grew well inside of the CRF2 test system and survived for the full 7-day test duration. CRF2 tests will continue as soon as the new combined drip system/harvesting system header pipe

  17. In situ mapping of the energy flow through the entire photosynthetic apparatus.

    PubMed

    Dostál, Jakub; Pšenčík, Jakub; Zigmantas, Donatas

    2016-07-01

    Absorption of sunlight is the first step in photosynthesis, which provides energy for the vast majority of organisms on Earth. The primary processes of photosynthesis have been studied extensively in isolated light-harvesting complexes and reaction centres, however, to understand fully the way in which organisms capture light it is crucial to also reveal the functional relationships between the individual complexes. Here we report the use of two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy to track directly the excitation-energy flow through the entire photosynthetic system of green sulfur bacteria. We unravel the functional organization of individual complexes in the photosynthetic unit and show that, whereas energy is transferred within subunits on a timescale of subpicoseconds to a few picoseconds, across the complexes the energy flows at a timescale of tens of picoseconds. Thus, we demonstrate that the bottleneck of energy transfer is between the constituents. PMID:27325098

  18. The sulfolipid sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol is not required for photosynthetic electron transport in Rhodobacter sphaeroides but enhances growth under phosphate limitation

    SciTech Connect

    Benning, C.; Somerville, C.R. ); Beatty, J.T. ); Prince, R.C. )

    1993-02-15

    All photosynthetic organisms, with the exception of several species of photosynthetic bacteria, are thought to contain the sulfolipid 6-sulfo-[alpha]-D-quinovosyldiacylglycerol. The association of this lipid with photosynthetic membranes has led to the assumption that it plays some role in photosynthesis. Stable null mutants of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides completely lacking sulfolipid were obtained by disruption of the sqdB gene. The ratios of the various components of the photosynthetic electron transport chain, as well as the electron transfer rates during cyclic electron transport, were not altered in the mutants, when grown under optimal conditions. Growth rates of wild type and mutants were identical under a variety of growth conditions, with the exception of phosphate limitation, which resulted in reduced growth of the mutants. Phosphate limitation of the wild type a used a significant reduction in the amount of all phospholipids and an increased amount of sulfolipid. By contrast, the sulfolipid-deficient mutant had reduced levels of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine but maintained a normal level of phosphatidylglycerol. In addition, two unidentified lipids lacking phosphorus accumulated in the membranes of both wild-type and mutant strains under phosphate limitation. We conclude that sulfolipid plays no significant unique role in photoheterotrophic growth or photosynthetic electron transport in R. sphaeroides but may function as a surrogate for phospholipids, particularly phosphatidylglycerol, under phosphate-limiting conditions. 34 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Electrochemical and optical studies of model photosynthetic systems. Final progress report, July 1, 1984--August 31, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-15

    The objective of this research is to obtain a better understanding of the relationship between the structural organization of photosynthetic pigments and their spectroscopic and electrochemical properties. Defined model systems were studied first. These included the least ordered (solutions) through the most highly ordered (Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) monolayers and self-assembled monolayers) systems containing BChl, BPheo, and UQ. Molecules other than the photosynthetic pigments and quinones were also examined, including chromophores (i.e. surface active cyanine dyes and phtahlocyanines) an redox active compounds (methyl viologen (MV) and surfactant ferrocenes), in order to develop the techniques needed to study the photosynthetic components. Because the chlorophylls are photosensitive and labile, it was easier first to develop procedures using stable species. Three different techniques were used to characterize these model systems. These included electrochemical techniques for determining the standard oxidation and reduction potentials of the photosynthetic components as well as methods for determining the heterogeneous electron transfer rate constants for BChl and BPheo at metal electrodes (Pt and Au). Resonance Raman (RR) and surface enhanced resonance Raman (SERR) spectroscopy were used to determine the spectra of the photosynthetic pigments and model compounds. SERRS was also used to study several types of photosynthetic preparations.

  20. BOREAS TE-9 NSA Photosynthetic Response Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G.; Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Dang, Qinglai; Margolis, Hank; Coyea, Marie

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-9 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected several data sets related to chemical and photosynthetic properties of leaves. This data set describes: (1) the response of leaf and shoot-level photosynthesis to ambient and intercellular CO2 concentration, temperature, and incident photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) for black spruce, jack pine, and aspen during the three intensive field campaigns (IFCs) in 1994 in the Northern Study Area (NSA); (2) the response of stomatal conductance to vapor pressure difference throughout the growing season of 1994; and (3) a range of shoot water potentials (controlled in the laboratory) for black spruce and jack pine. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  1. Photosynthetic hydrogen and oxygen production - Kinetic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenbaum, E.

    1982-01-01

    The simultaneous photoproduction of hydrogen and oxygen was measured in a study of the steady-state turnover times of two biological systems, by driving them into the steady state with repetitive, single-turnover flash illumination. The systems were: (1) in vitro, isolated chloroplasts, ferredoxin and hydrogenase; and (2) the anaerobically-adapted green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. It is found that the turnover times for production of both oxygen and hydrogen in photosynthetic water splitting are in milliseconds, and either equal to, or less than, the turnover time for carbon dioxide reduction in intact algal cells. There is therefore mutual compatibility between hydrogen and oxygen turnover times, and partial compatibility with the excitation rate of the photosynthetic reaction centers under solar irradiation conditions.

  2. Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO2 Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory Kremer; David J. Bayless; Morgan Vis; Michael Prudich; Keith Cooksey; Jeff Muhs

    2005-01-13

    This report highlights significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation Project during the ending 12/31/2004. Specific results and accomplishments for the program include review of pilot scale testing and design of a new bioreactor. Testing confirmed that algae can be grown in a sustainable fashion in the pilot bioreactor, even with intermittent availability of sunlight. The pilot-scale tests indicated that algal growth rate followed photon delivery during productivity testing.

  3. ENHANCED PRACTICAL PHOTOSYNTHETIC CO2 MITIGATION

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Gregory Kremer; Dr. David J. Bayless; Dr. Morgan Vis; Dr. Michael Prudich; Dr. Keith Cooksey; Dr. Jeff Muhs

    2003-04-15

    This quarterly report documents significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation project during the period from 1/2/2003 through 4/01/2003. As indicated in the list of accomplishments below we are progressing with long-term model scale bioreactor tests and are completing final preparations for pilot scale bioreactor testing. Specific results and accomplishments for the first quarter of 2003 are included.

  4. Coral bleaching independent of photosynthetic activity.

    PubMed

    Tolleter, Dimitri; Seneca, François O; DeNofrio, Jan C; Krediet, Cory J; Palumbi, Stephen R; Pringle, John R; Grossman, Arthur R

    2013-09-23

    The global decline of reef-building corals is due in part to the loss of algal symbionts, or "bleaching," during the increasingly frequent periods of high seawater temperatures. During bleaching, endosymbiotic dinoflagellate algae (Symbiodinium spp.) either are lost from the animal tissue or lose their photosynthetic pigments, resulting in host mortality if the Symbiodinium populations fail to recover. The >1,000 studies of the causes of heat-induced bleaching have focused overwhelmingly on the consequences of damage to algal photosynthetic processes, and the prevailing model for bleaching invokes a light-dependent generation of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) by heat-damaged chloroplasts as the primary trigger. However, the precise mechanisms of bleaching remain unknown, and there is evidence for involvement of multiple cellular processes. In this study, we asked the simple question of whether bleaching can be triggered by heat in the dark, in the absence of photosynthetically derived ROS. We used both the sea anemone model system Aiptasia and several species of reef-building corals to demonstrate that symbiont loss can occur rapidly during heat stress in complete darkness. Furthermore, we observed damage to the photosynthetic apparatus under these conditions in both Aiptasia endosymbionts and cultured Symbiodinium. These results do not directly contradict the view that light-stimulated ROS production is important in bleaching, but they do show that there must be another pathway leading to bleaching. Elucidation of this pathway should help to clarify bleaching mechanisms under the more usual conditions of heat stress in the light. PMID:24012312

  5. BIOGEOCHEMICAL STUDIES OF PHOTOSYNTHETIC MICROBIAL MATS AND THEIR BIOTA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David; Discipulo, M.; Turk, K.; Londry, K. L.

    2005-01-01

    Photosynthetic microbial mats offer an opportunity to define holistic functionality at the millimeter scale. At the same time. their biogeochemistry contributes to environmental processes on a planetary scale. These mats are possibly direct descendents of the most ancient biological communities; communities in which oxygenic photosynthesis might have been invented. Mats provide one of the best natural systems to study how microbial populations associate to control dynamic biogeochemical gradients. These are self- sustaining, complete ecosystems in which light energy absorbed over a dial (24 hour) cycle drives the synthesis of spatially-organized, diverse biomass. Tightly-coupled microorganisms in the mat have specialized metabolisms that catalyze transformations of carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, and a host of other elements.

  6. Engineering aspects of hydrogen production from photosynthetic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Herlevich, A.; Karpuk, M.

    1982-02-01

    Certain photosynthetic bacteria (PSB), for example, Rhodopseudomonas capsulata, evolve hydrogen when placed in an anaerobic environment with light and a suitable organic substrate. An engineering effort to use such bacteria for large-scale hydrogen production from sunlight is described. A system to produce 28,000 m/sup 3//day (1 x 10/sup 6/ ft/sup 3//day) of hydrogen has been designed on a conceptual level and includes hydrogen cleanup, substrate storage, and waste disposal. The most critical component in the design is the solar bacterial reactor. Several designs were developed and analyzed. A large covered pond concept appears most attractive. Cost estimates for the designs show favorable economics.

  7. Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO2 Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory Kremer; David J. Bayless; Morgan Vis; Michael Prudich; Keith Cooksey; Jeff Muhs

    2003-07-22

    This quarterly report documents significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation project during the period from 4/2/2003 through 7/01/2003. As indicated in the list of accomplishments below we have completed some long-term model scale bioreactor tests and are prepared to begin pilot scale bioreactor testing. Specific results and accomplishments for the second quarter of 2003 include: (1) Bioreactor support systems and test facilities: (a) Qualitative long-term survivability tests for S.C.1.2(2) on Omnisil have been successfully completed and results demonstrate a growth rate that appears to be acceptable. (b) Quantitative tests of long-term growth productivity for S.C.1.2(2) on Omnisil have been completed and initial results are promising. Initial results show that the mass of organisms doubled (from 54.9 grams to 109.8 grams) in about 5 weeks. Full results will be available as soon as all membranes and filters are completely dried. The growth rate should increase significantly with the initiation of weekly harvesting during the long term tests. (c) The phase 1 construction of the pilot scale bioreactor has been completed, including the solar collector and light distribution system. We are now in the phase of system improvement as we wait for CRF-2 results in order to be able to finalize the design and construction of the pilot scale system. (d) A mass transfer experimental setup was constructed in order to measure the mass transfer rate from the gas to the liquid film flowing over a membrane and to study the hydrodynamics of the liquid film flowing over a membrane in the bioreactor. Results were reported for mass transfer coefficient, film thickness, and fluid velocity over an Omnisil membrane with a ''drilled hole'' header pipe design. (2) Organisms and Growth Surfaces: (a) A selectivity approach was used to obtain a cyanobacterial culture with elevated resistance to acid pH. Microlonies of ''3.2.2 S.C.1 Positive'' migrated

  8. Using AVIRIS images to measure temporal trends in abundance of photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic canopy components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ustin, Susan L.; Smith, Milton O.; Roberts, Dar; Gamon, John A.; Field, Christopher B.

    1992-01-01

    The Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve, Stanford, California is a good example of hardwood rangeland ecosystems in California. Structurally, it is composed of a mosaic of serpentine grasslands, oak savannah, coastal chaparral, and mixed evergreen woodland, representing a broad cross-section of physiognomic classes. The Mediterranean climate produces an extended seasonal drought lasting throughout most of the growing season and has significant impact on the expression of divergent phenological patterns related to contrasting ecological strategies of these taxa. The region is well understood biologically due to the rich history of ecological research at the site. Thus, community characteristics, physiological characteristics, phenology, and temporal dynamics are reasonably well understood for many of the dominant species. Because of its proximity to NASA Ames Research Center, it has been subject to a large number of aircraft data acquisitions over many years. A more complete examination of this database would provide an opportunity to test current remote sensing hypotheses for measurement and detection of ecological attributes, particularly those involving canopy chemistry and physiology. Better definition of ecological rules might permit development of remotely sensed surrogate variables for biological properties that cannot be directly measured or measured with sufficient accuracy.

  9. Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviation/Space, 1980

    1980-01-01

    This is a list of aerospace organizations and other groups that provides educators with assistance and information in specific areas. Both government and nongovernment organizations are included. (Author/SA)

  10. Complete fluorescent fingerprints of extremophilic and photosynthetic microbes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dartnell, Lewis R.; Storrie-Lombardi, Michael C.; Ward, John M.

    2010-10-01

    The work reported here represents a study into the total fluorescence exhibited by a broad selection of model, extremophilic and photosynthetic bacterial strains, over a great range of excitation and emission wavelengths from ultraviolet (UV) through visible to near infrared. The aim is to identify distinctive fluorescent features that may serve as detectable biosignatures of remnant microbial life on the Martian surface. A lab-bench fluorescence spectrometer was used to generate an excitation-emission matrix (EEM) for the unpigmented Escherichia coli, radiation-resistant Deinococcus radiodurans, Antarctic Dry Valley isolates Brevundimonas sp. MV.7 and Rhodococcus sp. MV.10, and the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. Detailed EEMs, representing the fluorescence signature of each organism, are presented, and the most significant features suitable for biosignature surveys are identified, including small-molecule cellular metabolites, light-harvesting photosynthetic pigments and extracellular UV-screening compounds. E. coli exhibits the most intense emission from tryptophan, presumably due to the absence of UV-screening pigments that would shield the organism from short-wavelength light-exciting intracellular fluorescence. The efficacy of commonly available laser diodes for exciting cellular fluorescence is treated, along with the most appropriate filter wavelengths for imaging systems. The best combination of available laser diodes and PanCam filters aboard the ExoMars probe is proposed. The possibility of detecting fluorescence excited by solar UV radiation in freshly exposed surface samples by imaging when both sunlit and shadowed, perhaps by the body of the rover itself, is discussed. We also study how these biological fluorophore molecules may be degraded, and thus the potential biosignatures erased, by the high flux of far-ultraviolet light on Mars.

  11. Predicting the dynamics of protein abundance.

    PubMed

    Mehdi, Ahmed M; Patrick, Ralph; Bailey, Timothy L; Bodén, Mikael

    2014-05-01

    Protein synthesis is finely regulated across all organisms, from bacteria to humans, and its integrity underpins many important processes. Emerging evidence suggests that the dynamic range of protein abundance is greater than that observed at the transcript level. Technological breakthroughs now mean that sequencing-based measurement of mRNA levels is routine, but protocols for measuring protein abundance remain both complex and expensive. This paper introduces a Bayesian network that integrates transcriptomic and proteomic data to predict protein abundance and to model the effects of its determinants. We aim to use this model to follow a molecular response over time, from condition-specific data, in order to understand adaptation during processes such as the cell cycle. With microarray data now available for many conditions, the general utility of a protein abundance predictor is broad. Whereas most quantitative proteomics studies have focused on higher organisms, we developed a predictive model of protein abundance for both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe to explore the latitude at the protein level. Our predictor primarily relies on mRNA level, mRNA-protein interaction, mRNA folding energy and half-life, and tRNA adaptation. The combination of key features, allowing for the low certainty and uneven coverage of experimental observations, gives comparatively minor but robust prediction accuracy. The model substantially improved the analysis of protein regulation during the cell cycle: predicted protein abundance identified twice as many cell-cycle-associated proteins as experimental mRNA levels. Predicted protein abundance was more dynamic than observed mRNA expression, agreeing with experimental protein abundance from a human cell line. We illustrate how the same model can be used to predict the folding energy of mRNA when protein abundance is available, lending credence to the emerging view that mRNA folding affects translation efficiency

  12. Predicting the Dynamics of Protein Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Mehdi, Ahmed M.; Patrick, Ralph; Bailey, Timothy L.; Bodén, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    Protein synthesis is finely regulated across all organisms, from bacteria to humans, and its integrity underpins many important processes. Emerging evidence suggests that the dynamic range of protein abundance is greater than that observed at the transcript level. Technological breakthroughs now mean that sequencing-based measurement of mRNA levels is routine, but protocols for measuring protein abundance remain both complex and expensive. This paper introduces a Bayesian network that integrates transcriptomic and proteomic data to predict protein abundance and to model the effects of its determinants. We aim to use this model to follow a molecular response over time, from condition-specific data, in order to understand adaptation during processes such as the cell cycle. With microarray data now available for many conditions, the general utility of a protein abundance predictor is broad. Whereas most quantitative proteomics studies have focused on higher organisms, we developed a predictive model of protein abundance for both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe to explore the latitude at the protein level. Our predictor primarily relies on mRNA level, mRNA–protein interaction, mRNA folding energy and half-life, and tRNA adaptation. The combination of key features, allowing for the low certainty and uneven coverage of experimental observations, gives comparatively minor but robust prediction accuracy. The model substantially improved the analysis of protein regulation during the cell cycle: predicted protein abundance identified twice as many cell-cycle-associated proteins as experimental mRNA levels. Predicted protein abundance was more dynamic than observed mRNA expression, agreeing with experimental protein abundance from a human cell line. We illustrate how the same model can be used to predict the folding energy of mRNA when protein abundance is available, lending credence to the emerging view that mRNA folding affects translation

  13. Photosynthetic microorganisms in cold environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kviderova, Jana; Hajek, Josef; Elster, Josef; Bartak, Milos; Vaczi, Peter; Nedbalova, Linda

    The polar regions are considered as a model of extraterrestrial ecosystems. Depending on the average temperature, temperature variation and water availability, these conditions could be used as a model of Mars or Europa (e.g. (Elster and Benson, 2004). Two cases are presented: 1) Stable temperature and water availability The environment of cryosestic communities, i.e. organisms living in snow, is characterized by very stable temperature; the diurnal variations do not exceed 1 -2 ° C (Kváderová, 2010) and a are not usually exposed to freeze/thaw. Water is not usually limiting since the water content could reach up to 54 % (Nedbalová et al., 2008). The windblown sediments are important a source of nutrient and could provide protection against the excess of radiation. The nutrient concentrations in the snow are low are depleted rapidly when massive algal blooms forms. Such environment could be found near Mars polar caps or in Europa ice cover. The snow algae are the most important primary producers in snow. Their adaptation strategy is dependent on the developmental stages; the motile stages avoid the harsh conditions (e.g. high light) and sessile stages acclimatize to actual conditions. The main genera Chlamydomonas and Chloromonas (both Chlorophyta) are psychrophilic. Their growth optimum temperature is lower than 15 ° C and their growth is inhibited at temperatures above 20 ° C. 2) Unstable temperature and water availability The deglaciated surfaces, inhabited by lichen communities, are typical by variation in temper-ature and moisture. The temperature could range several tens ° C within a short time and the water availability is usually very limited. Due to temperature variation, the lichens are subjected to many freeze/thaw cycles. Such environments could be found in Martian deserts. The lichens are symbotic organisms composed of a mycobiont (heterotrophic fungi) and photo-bionts (algae and/or cyanobacteria). Majority of lichens are dehydrated in the field

  14. Solar abundance of platinum

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Harry; Aller, Lawrence H.

    1975-01-01

    Three lines of neutral platinum, located at λ 2997.98 Å, λ 3064.71 Å, and λ 3301.86 Å have been used to determine the solar platinum abundance by the method of spectral synthesis. On the scale, log A(H) = 12.00, the thus-derived solar platinum abundance is 1.75 ± 0.10, in fair accord with Cameron's value of log A(Pt) = 1.69 derived by Mason from carbonaceous chondrites and calculated on the assumption that log A(Si) = 7.55 in the sun. PMID:16592278

  15. An Energy Balance Model to Predict Chemical Partitioning in a Photosynthetic Microbial Mat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; Albert, Daniel B.; DesMarais, David J.

    2006-01-01

    Studies of biosignature formation in photosynthetic microbial mat communities offer potentially useful insights with regards to both solar and extrasolar astrobiology. Biosignature formation in such systems results from the chemical transformation of photosynthetically fixed carbon by accessory microorganisms. This fixed carbon represents a source not only of reducing power, but also energy, to these organisms, so that chemical and energy budgets should be coupled. We tested this hypothesis by applying an energy balance model to predict the fate of photosynthetic productivity under dark, anoxic conditions. Fermentation of photosynthetically fixed carbon is taken to be the only source of energy available to cyanobacteria in the absence of light and oxygen, and nitrogen fixation is the principal energy demand. The alternate fate for fixed carbon is to build cyanobacterial biomass with Redfield C:N ratio. The model predicts that, under completely nitrogen-limited conditions, growth is optimized when 78% of fixed carbon stores are directed into fermentative energy generation, with the remainder allocated to growth. These predictions were compared to measurements made on microbial mats that are known to be both nitrogen-limited and populated by actively nitrogen-fixing cyanobacteria. In these mats, under dark, anoxic conditions, 82% of fixed carbon stores were diverted into fermentation. The close agreement between these independent approaches suggests that energy balance models may provide a quantitative means of predicting chemical partitioning within such systems - an important step towards understanding how biological productivity is ultimately partitioned into biosignature compounds.

  16. Stellar Oxygen Abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Jeremy

    1994-04-01

    This dissertation addresses several issues concerning stellar oxygen abundances. The 7774 {\\AA} O I triplet equivalent widths of Abia & Rebolo [1989, AJ, 347, 186] for metal-poor dwarfs are found to be systematically too high. I also argue that current effective temperatures used in halo star abundance studies may be ~150 K too low. New color-Teff relations are derived for metal-poor stars. Using the revised Teff values and improved equivalent widths for the 7774A O I triplet, the mean [O/Fe] ratio for a handful of halo stars is found to be +0.52 with no dependence on Teff or [Fe/H]. Possible cosmological implications of the hotter Teff scale are discussed along with additional evidence supporting the need for a higher temperature scale for metal-poor stars. Our Teff scale leads to a Spite Li plateau value of N(Li)=2.28 +/- 0.09. A conservative minimal primordial value of N(Li)=2.35 is inferred. If errors in the observations and models are considered, consistency with standard models of Big Bang nucleosynthesis is still achieved with this larger Li abundance. The revised Teff scale raises the observed B/Be ratio of HD 140283 from 10 to 12, making its value more comfortably consistent with the production of the observed B and Be by ordinary spallation. Our Teff values are found to be in good agreement with values predicted from both the Victoria and Yale isochrone color-Teff relations. Thus, it appears likely that no changes in globular cluster ages would result. Next, we examine the location of the break in the [O/Fe] versus [Fe/H] plane in a quantitative fashion. Analysis of a relatively homogeneous data set does not favor any unique break point in the range -1.7 /= -3), in agreement with the new results for halo dwarfs. We find that the gap in the observed [O/H] distribution, noted by Wheeler et al

  17. Abundances of light elements.

    PubMed Central

    Pagel, B E

    1993-01-01

    Recent developments in the study of abundances of light elements and their relevance to cosmological nucleosynthesis are briefly reviewed. The simplest model, based on standard cosmology and particle physics and assuming homogeneous baryon density at the relevant times, continues to stand up well. PMID:11607388

  18. The HY5-PIF Regulatory Module Coordinates Light and Temperature Control of Photosynthetic Gene Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Toledo-Ortiz, Gabriela; Johansson, Henrik; Lee, Keun Pyo; Bou-Torrent, Jordi; Stewart, Kelly; Steel, Gavin; Rodríguez-Concepción, Manuel; Halliday, Karen J.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to interpret daily and seasonal alterations in light and temperature signals is essential for plant survival. This is particularly important during seedling establishment when the phytochrome photoreceptors activate photosynthetic pigment production for photoautotrophic growth. Phytochromes accomplish this partly through the suppression of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORS (PIFs), negative regulators of chlorophyll and carotenoid biosynthesis. While the bZIP transcription factor LONG HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5), a potent PIF antagonist, promotes photosynthetic pigment accumulation in response to light. Here we demonstrate that by directly targeting a common promoter cis-element (G-box), HY5 and PIFs form a dynamic activation-suppression transcriptional module responsive to light and temperature cues. This antagonistic regulatory module provides a simple, direct mechanism through which environmental change can redirect transcriptional control of genes required for photosynthesis and photoprotection. In the regulation of photopigment biosynthesis genes, HY5 and PIFs do not operate alone, but with the circadian clock. However, sudden changes in light or temperature conditions can trigger changes in HY5 and PIFs abundance that adjust the expression of common target genes to optimise photosynthetic performance and growth. PMID:24922306

  19. Phylogenomic analysis of the Chlamydomonas genome unmasks proteins potentially involved in photosynthetic function and regulation

    PubMed Central

    Karpowicz, Steven J.; Heinnickel, Mark; Dewez, David; Hamel, Blaise; Dent, Rachel; Niyogi, Krishna K.; Johnson, Xenie; Alric, Jean; Wollman, Francis-André; Li, Huiying; Merchant, Sabeeha S.

    2010-01-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a unicellular green alga, has been exploited as a reference organism for identifying proteins and activities associated with the photosynthetic apparatus and the functioning of chloroplasts. Recently, the full genome sequence of Chlamydomonas was generated and a set of gene models, representing all genes on the genome, was developed. Using these gene models, and gene models developed for the genomes of other organisms, a phylogenomic, comparative analysis was performed to identify proteins encoded on the Chlamydomonas genome which were likely involved in chloroplast functions (or specifically associated with the green algal lineage); this set of proteins has been designated the GreenCut. Further analyses of those GreenCut proteins with uncharacterized functions and the generation of mutant strains aberrant for these proteins are beginning to unmask new layers of functionality/regulation that are integrated into the workings of the photosynthetic apparatus. PMID:20490922

  20. Global characterization of the photosynthetic glycerolipids from a marine diatom Stephanodiscus sp. by ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jilin; Chen, Deying; Yan, Xiaojun; Chen, Juanjuan; Zhou, Chengxu

    2010-03-17

    The photosynthetic glycerolipids composition of algae is crucial for structural and physiological aspects. In this work, a comprehensive characterization of the photosynthetic glycerolipids of the diatom Stephanodiscus sp. was carried out by ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF MS). By use of the MS(E) data collection mode, the Q-TOF instrument offered a very viable alternative to triple quadrupoles for precursor ion scanning of photosynthetic glycerolipids and had the advantage of high efficiency, selectivity, sensitivity and mass accuracy. Characteristic fragment ions were utilized to identify the structures and acyl compositions of photosynthetic glycerolipids. Comparing the abundance of fragment ions, it was possible to determine the position of the sn-glycerol-bound fatty acyl chains. As a result, four classes of photosynthetic glycerolipid in the extract of Stephanodiscus sp. were unambiguously identified, including 16 monogalactosyldiacylglycerols (MGDGs), 9 digalactosyldiacylglycerols (DGDGs), 23 sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols (SQDGs) and 8 phosphatidylglycerols (PGs). As far as our knowledge, this is the first report on global identification of photosynthetic glycerolipids, including lipid classes, fatty acyl composition within lipids and the location of fatty acids in lipids (sn-1 vs. sn-2), in the extract of marine microalgae by UPLC-ESI-Q-TOF MS directly. PMID:20172098

  1. Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO2 Mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory Kremer; David J. Bayless; Morgan Vis; Michael Prudich; Keith Cooksey; Jeff Muhs

    2006-01-15

    This final report highlights significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation Project during the period from 10/1/2001 through 01/02/2006. As indicated in the list of accomplishments below, our efforts during this project were focused on the selection of candidate organisms and growth surfaces and initiating long-term tests in the bench-scale and pilot-scale bioreactor test systems. Specific results and accomplishments for the program include: (1) CRF-2 test system: (a) Sampling test results have shown that the initial mass of algae loaded into the Carbon Recycling Facility Version 2 (CRF-2) system can be estimated with about 3% uncertainty using a statistical sampling procedure. (b) The pressure shim header pipe insert design was shown to have better flow for harvesting than the drilled-hole design. (c) The CRF-2 test system has undergone major improvements to produce the high flow rates needed for harvesting (as determined by previous experiments). The main changes to the system are new stainless steel header/frame units, with increased flow capacity and a modified pipe-end-sealing method to improve flow uniformity, and installation and plumbing for a new high flow harvesting pump. Qualitative system tests showed that the harvesting system performed wonderfully, cleaning the growth surfaces within a matter of seconds. (d) Qualitative tests have shown that organisms can be repopulated on a harvested section of a bioreactor screen, demonstrating that continuous bioreactor operation is feasible, with continuous cycles of harvesting and repopulating screens. (e) Final preparations are underway for quantitative, long-term tests in the CRF-2 with weekly harvesting. (2) Pilot-scale test system: (a) The construction of the pilot-scale bioreactor was completed, including the solar collector and light distribution system. Over the course of the project, the solar collector used in the light delivery system showed some degradation, but

  2. ENHANCED PRACTICAL PHOTOSYNTHETIC CO2 MITIGATION

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Gregory Kremer; Dr. David J. Bayless; Dr. Morgan Vis; Dr. Michael Prudich; Dr. Keith Cooksey; Dr. Jeff Muhs

    2003-01-15

    This quarterly report documents significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation project during the period from 10/2/2001 through 1/01/2003. As indicated in the list of accomplishments below our current efforts are focused on evaluating candidate organisms and growth surfaces, preparing to conduct long-term tests in the bench-scale bioreactor test systems, and scaling-up the test facilities from bench scale to pilot scale. Specific results and accomplishments for the first quarter of 2003 include: Organisms and Growth Surfaces: (1) Additional thermal features with developed cyanobacterial mats, which might be calcium resistant, were found in the West Thumb area of YNP. New samples were isolated and are being cultured in glass tubes. (2) We checked the motile ability of 8.2.1 Synechococcus s.c. (10) and 3.2.2 Synechococcus s.c. 6. It was found that unicellular isolates 8.2.1 Synechococcus s.c. (10) and 3.2.2 Synechococcus s.c. 1 are phototaxic. Isolate 3.2.2 Synechococcus s.c. 1 currently consists of two populations: one population appears to be positive phototaxic, and second population appears negative phototaxis to the same level of light. This means that the character of screen illumination should be uniform and reasonable for cyanobacterial cells. (3) The aeration of growth media with 5% CO{sub 2} in air stimulates cyanobacterial growth 10-20 times over that with air alone. It is possible the rate of the stimulation of cyanobacterial growth in CRF will be higher because cyanobacteria will be grown as a biofilm. We plan to increase the concentration to 15% CO{sub 2} in air. (4) We are continuing the organizing of our collection of the thermophilic cyanobacteria isolated from Yellowstone National Park. During this reporting period we transferred about 160 samples and discarded about 80 samples with weak growth in standard media as BG-11, D or DH. As result of this work we currently have 13 unialgal cultures of thermophilic

  3. Organics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chian, Edward S. K.; DeWalle, Foppe B.

    1978-01-01

    Presents water analysis literature for 1978. This review is concerned with organics, and it covers: (1) detergents and surfactants; (2) aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons; (3) pesticides and chlorinated hydrocarbons; and (4) naturally occurring organics. A list of 208 references is also presented. (HM)

  4. Organizers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callison, Daniel

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on "organizers," tools or techniques that provide identification and classification along with possible relationships or connections among ideas, concepts, and issues. Discusses David Ausubel's research and ideas concerning advance organizers; the implications of Ausubel's theory to curriculum and teaching; "webbing," a specific…

  5. Application of photosynthetic N2-fixing cyanobacteria to the CELSS program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Packer, L.; Fry, I.; Belkin, S.

    1986-01-01

    Commercially available air lift fermentors were used to simultaneously monitor biomass production, N2-fixation, photosynthesis, respiration, and sensitivity to oxidative damage during growth under various nutritional and light regimes, to establish a data base for the integration of these organisms into a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) program. Certain cyanobacterial species have the unique ability to reduce atmospheric N2 to organic nitrogen. These organisms combine the ease of cultivation characteristics of prokaryotes with the fully developed photosynthetic apparatus of higher plants. This, along with their ability to adapt to changes in their environment by modulation of certain biochemical pathways, make them attractive candidates for incorporation into the CELSS program.

  6. Electron paramagnetic resonance study of a photosynthetic microbial mat and comparison with Archean cherts.

    PubMed

    Bourbin, M; Derenne, S; Gourier, D; Rouzaud, J-N; Gautret, P; Westall, F

    2012-12-01

    Organic radicals in artificially carbonized biomass dominated by oxygenic and non-oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria, Microcoleus chthonoplastes-like and Chloroflexus-like bacteria respectively, were studied by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The two bacteria species were sampled in mats from a hypersaline lake. They underwent accelerated ageing by cumulative thermal treatments to induce progressive carbonization of the biological material, mimicking the natural maturation of carbonaceous material of Archean age. For thermal treatments at temperatures higher than 620 °C, a drastic increase in the EPR linewidth is observed in the carbonaceous matter from oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria and not anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria. This selective EPR linewidth broadening reflects the presence of a catalytic element inducing formation of radical aggregates, without affecting the molecular structure or the microstructure of the organic matter, as shown by Raman spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy. For comparison, we carried out an EPR study of organic radicals in silicified carbonaceous rocks (cherts) from various localities, of different ages (0.42 to 3.5 Gyr) and having undergone various degrees of metamorphism, i.e. various degrees of natural carbonization. EPR linewidth dispersion for the most primitive samples was quite significant, pointing to a selective dipolar broadening similar to that observed for carbonized bacteria. This surprising result merits further evaluation in the light of its potential use as a marker of past bacterial metabolisms, in particular oxygenic photosynthesis, in Archean cherts. PMID:23254854

  7. Electron Paramagnetic Resonance Study of a Photosynthetic Microbial Mat and Comparison with Archean Cherts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourbin, M.; Derenne, S.; Gourier, D.; Rouzaud, J.-N.; Gautret, P.; Westall, F.

    2012-12-01

    Organic radicals in artificially carbonized biomass dominated by oxygenic and non-oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria, Microcoleus chthonoplastes-like and Chloroflexus-like bacteria respectively, were studied by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) spectroscopy. The two bacteria species were sampled in mats from a hypersaline lake. They underwent accelerated ageing by cumulative thermal treatments to induce progressive carbonization of the biological material, mimicking the natural maturation of carbonaceous material of Archean age. For thermal treatments at temperatures higher than 620 °C, a drastic increase in the EPR linewidth is observed in the carbonaceous matter from oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria and not anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria. This selective EPR linewidth broadening reflects the presence of a catalytic element inducing formation of radical aggregates, without affecting the molecular structure or the microstructure of the organic matter, as shown by Raman spectroscopy and Transmission Electron Microscopy. For comparison, we carried out an EPR study of organic radicals in silicified carbonaceous rocks (cherts) from various localities, of different ages (0.42 to 3.5 Gyr) and having undergone various degrees of metamorphism, i.e. various degrees of natural carbonization. EPR linewidth dispersion for the most primitive samples was quite significant, pointing to a selective dipolar broadening similar to that observed for carbonized bacteria. This surprising result merits further evaluation in the light of its potential use as a marker of past bacterial metabolisms, in particular oxygenic photosynthesis, in Archean cherts.

  8. Microbial solar cells: applying photosynthetic and electrochemically active organisms.

    PubMed

    Strik, David P B T B; Timmers, Ruud A; Helder, Marjolein; Steinbusch, Kirsten J J; Hamelers, Hubertus V M; Buisman, Cees J N

    2011-01-01

    Microbial solar cells (MSCs) are recently developed technologies that utilize solar energy to produce electricity or chemicals. MSCs use photoautotrophic microorganisms or higher plants to harvest solar energy, and use electrochemically active microorganisms in the bioelectrochemical system to generate electrical current. Here, we review the principles and performance of various MSCs in an effort to identify the most promising systems, as well as the bottlenecks and potential solutions, for "real-life" MSC applications. We present an outlook on future applications based on the intrinsic advantages of MSCs, specifically highlighting how these living energy systems can facilitate the development of an electricity-producing green roof. PMID:21067833

  9. Harnessing Solar Energy Using Photosynthetic and Organic Pigments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzsimons, Toby Ryan

    Fossil fuels are a finite energy resource that must be supplemented or replaced by more stable forms of electrical energy. Solar technology research strives to supplement and provide eventual replacement for fossil fuel technology. This experiment focused on the use of natural pigments as photo-sensitizers in the current generation of solar cells called dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Pigments from purified chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll a/b, crude spinach (Spinacia oleracea) extract, phycocyanin, and chlorophyllin were used to construct DSSCs and evaluated, along with a control containing no pigment, for solar energy conversion. The anode of the solar cells consisted of titanium dioxide (TiO2) plates soaked in pigment solutions for twenty-four hours. The plates were assembled, along with an electrolyte sandwiched between cells, and a platinum-coated counter plate that functioned as the cathode. A gasket seal was placed between the plates and held together with rubber bands. The DSSCs were each tested for a maximum power (Pmax) point and a resistor was selected that corresponded to the resistance at that point. The cells were randomly placed into a power block assembly located in an environmental chamber with lighting that provided an average of 27,590 lumens at the surface of DSSCs. With appropriate resistors in place, the cells were subjected to twelve-hour days and twelve-hour nights for ten days, and measurements were recorded every ten minutes. Data were collected to obtain values for voltage in millivolts (mV), current in microamps (microA), and power in microwatts (microW), as well as beginning and ending efficiencies in converting light to usable energy. Voltages were substantially higher during the day than at night for all pigments, except for the control, indicating that the pigments functioned as DSSCs. Hence, only daytime values were used for data analysis. Voltage during the ten-day experiment ranged from 3.99 to 274 mV; current ranged from 0.0180 to 41.9 microA, and power ranged from 0.00 to 11.3 microW. Chlorophyllin had the highest peak and least voltage (274 and 161 mV), highest peak and least current (41.9 and 21.8 microA), and highest peak and least power (11.3 and 4.84 microW). The ranking of the pigments for peak voltage was: Chlorophyllin = Crude Extract ≥ Chlorophyll a = Chlorophyll a/b ≥ Phycocyanin = Chlorophyll b > Control. The ranking for least voltage was: Chlorophyllin > Phycocyanin ≥ Chlorophyll a/b ≥ Crude Extract ≥ Chlorophyll b ≥ Chlorophyll a ≥ Control. Ranking for peak and least values were similar for current and power. Solar energy conversion (efficiency in converting light energy to usable energy in watts per square meter) for all treatments ranged from 0.000595 to 0.0217% at the beginning of the experiment, and was highest in cells constructed with chlorophyllin. Based on rankings from peak and ending voltage values, as well as other measurements, it was concluded that DSSCs constructed with chlorophyllin performed the best and lasted the longest as photo-sensitizers, compared to other pigments used in this investigation. The DSSCs constructed with crude extract performed almost as well as those constructed with chlorophyllin at the beginning of the experiment, but degradation of this naturally-made pigment may have prevented these cells from sustaining solar energy conversion for more than a few days. Other pigments demonstrated conversion values higher than those of control DSSCs which contained no pigments. The results from this project provide evidence that DSSCs can produce useable energy. More research is needed to enhance and prolong the efficiency of DSSCs in solar energy conversion.

  10. Hydrogen production using hydrogenase-containing oxygenic photosynthetic organisms

    DOEpatents

    Melis, Anastasios; Zhang, Liping; Benemann, John R.; Forestier, Marc; Ghirardi, Maria; Seibert, Michael

    2006-01-24

    A reversible physiological process provides for the temporal separation of oxygen evolution and hydrogen production in a microorganism, which includes the steps of growing a culture of the microorganism in medium under illuminated conditions to accumulate an endogenous substrate, depleting from the medium a nutrient selected from the group consisting of sulfur, iron, and/or manganese, sealing the culture from atmospheric oxygen, incubating the culture in light whereby a rate of light-induced oxygen production is equal to or less than a rate of respiration, and collecting an evolved gas. The process is particularly useful to accomplish a sustained photobiological hydrogen gas production in cultures of microorganisms, such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

  11. Hydrogen Production Using Hydrogenase-Containing Oxygenic Photosynthetic Organisms

    DOEpatents

    Melis, A.; Zhang, L.; Benemann, J. R.; Forestier, M.; Ghirardi, M.; Seibert, M.

    2006-01-24

    A reversible physiological process provides for the temporal separation of oxygen evolution and hydrogen production in a microorganism, which includes the steps of growing a culture of the microorganism in medium under illuminated conditions to accumulate an endogenous substrate, depleting from the medium a nutrient selected from the group consisting of sulfur, iron, and/or manganese, sealing the culture from atmospheric oxygen, incubating the culture in light whereby a rate of light-induced oxygen production is equal to or less than a rate of respiration, and collecting an evolved gas. The process is particularly useful to accomplish a sustained photobiological hydrogen gas production in cultures of microorganisms, such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

  12. The impact of cell-specific absorption properties on the correlation of electron transport rates measured by chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic oxygen production in planktonic algae.

    PubMed

    Blache, Ulrich; Jakob, Torsten; Su, Wanwen; Wilhelm, Christian

    2011-08-01

    Photosynthesis-irradiance (P-E)-curves describe the photosynthetic performance of autotrophic organisms. From these P-E-curves the photosynthetic parameters α-slope, P(max), and E(k) can be deduced which are often used to characterize and to compare different organisms or organisms in acclimation to different environmental conditions. Particularly, for in situ-measurements of P-E curves of phytoplankton the analysis of variable chlorophyll fluorescence proved its potential as a sensitive and rapid method. By using Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae), Nannochloropsis salina (Eustigmatophyceae), Skeletonema costatum and Cyclotella meneghiniana (Bacillariophyceae), the present study investigated the influence of cellular bio-optical properties on the correlation of the photosynthetic parameters derived from fluorescence-based P-E-curves with photosynthetic parameters obtained from the measurement of oxygen evolution. It is demonstrated that small planktonic algae show a wide range of cellular absorptivity which was subject to species-specifity, growth stage and environmental conditions, e.g. nutrient limitation. This variability in bio-optical properties resulted in a great deviation of relative electron transport rates (rETRs) from oxygen-based photosynthesis rates. Thus, the photosynthetic parameters α-slope and P(max) derived from rETRs strongly depend on the specific cellular absorptivity and cannot be used to compare the photosynthetic performance of cells with different optical properties. However, it was shown that E(k) is independent of cellular absorptivity and could be used to compare samples with unknown optical properties. PMID:21571541

  13. Electrostatics of photosynthetic reaction centers in membranes.

    PubMed

    Pennisi, Cristian P; Greenbaum, Elias; Yoshida, Ken

    2006-01-01

    Photosynthetic reaction centers are integral membrane complexes. They have potential application as molecular photovoltaic structures and have been used in diverse technological applications. A three-dimensional electrostatic model of the photosystem I reaction center (PSI) embedded in a lipid membrane is presented. The potential is obtained by solving the Poisson-Boltzmann equation with the finite element method (FEM). Simulations showing the potential distribution in a vesicle containing PSI reaction centers under different conditions are presented. The results of the simulations are compared with previous findings and a possible application of PSI to provide light activation of voltage-gated ion channels is discussed. PMID:17946611

  14. Culturing photosynthetic bacteria through surface plasmon resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Ooms, Matthew D.; Bajin, Lauren; Sinton, David

    2012-12-17

    In this work, cultivation of photosynthetic microbes in surface plasmon enhanced evanescent fields is demonstrated. Proliferation of Synechococcus elongatus was obtained on gold surfaces excited with surface plasmons. Excitation over three days resulted in 10 {mu}m thick biofilms with maximum cell volume density of 20% vol/vol (2% more total accumulation than control experiments with direct light). Collectively, these results indicate the ability to (1) excite surface-bound cells using plasmonic light fields, and (2) subsequently grow thick biofilms by coupling light from the surface. Plasmonic light delivery presents opportunities for high-density optofluidic photobioreactors for microalgal analysis and solar fuel production.

  15. Temperature response of Antarctic cryptoendolithic photosynthetic microorganisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ocampo-Friedmann, R.; Meyer, M. A.; Chen, M.; Friedmann, E. I.

    1988-01-01

    Growth responses to temperatures between 12.5 [degrees] C and 25 degrees C were determined for five photosynthetic microorganisms isolated from the Ross Desert cryptoendolithic community. Among eukaryotic algae, two strains of Trebouxia sp. have an upper temperature limit of 20 degrees C, and two strains of Hemichloris antarctica of 25 degrees C. The cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis sp., in contrast, grows at temperatures above 25 degrees C. These and earlier studies suggest that the eukaryotic algae of the Antarctic cryptoendolithic community have an upper temperature limit near 25 degrees C.

  16. Solar abundance of iridium

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Stephen; Aller, Lawrence H.

    1976-01-01

    By a method of spectrum synthesis, which yields log gfA, where g is the statistical weight of the lower level, f is the oscillator strength, and A is the abundance, an attempt is made to deduce the solar iridium abundance from one relatively unblended, but fairly weak IrI line, λ 3220.78 Å. If the Corliss-Bozman f-value for this line is adopted, we find log A(Ir) = 0.82 on the scale log A(H) = 12.00. The discordance with the value found from carbonaceous chondrites may arise from faulty f-values or from difficulties arising from line blending in this far ultraviolet domain of the solar spectrum. PMID:16578735

  17. Toward understanding as photosynthetic biosignatures: light harvesting and energy transfer calculation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsu, Y.; Umemura, M.; Shoji, M.; Shiraishi, K.; Kayanuma, M.; Yabana, K.

    2014-03-01

    Among several proposed biosignatures, red edge is a direct evidence of photosynthetic life if it is detected (Kiang et al 2007). Red edge is a sharp change in reflectance spectra of vegetation in NIR region (about 700-750 nm). The sign of red edge is observed by Earthshine or remote sensing (Wolstencroft & Raven 2002, Woolf et al 2002). But, why around 700-750 nm? The photosynthetic organisms on Earth have evolved to optimize the sunlight condition. However, if we consider about photosynthetic organism on extrasolar planets, they should have developed to utilize the spectra of its principal star. Thus, it is not strange even if it shows different vegetation spectra. In this study, we focused on the light absorption mechanism of photosynthetic organisms on Earth and investigated the fundamental properties of the light harvesting mechanisms, which is the first stage for the light absorption. Light harvesting complexes contain photosynthetic pigments like chlorophylls. Effective light absorption and the energy transfer are accomplished by the electronic excitations of collective photosynthetic pigments. In order to investigate this mechanism, we constructed an energy transfer model by using a dipole-dipole approximation for the interactions between electronic excitations. Transition moments and transition energies of each pigment are calculated at the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) level (Marques & Gross 2004). Quantum dynamics simulation for the excitation energy transfer was calculated by the Liouvelle's equation. We adopted the model to purple bacteria, which has been studied experimentally and known to absorb lower energy. It is meaningful to focus on the mechanism of this bacteria, since in the future mission, M planets will become a important target. We calculated the oscillator strengths in one light harvesting complex and confirmed the validity by comparing to the experimental data. This complex is made of an inner and an outer ring. The

  18. Solar coronal and photospheric abundances from solar energetic particle measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breneman, H. H.; Stone, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    Solar energetic particle (SEP) elemental abundance data from the cosmic ray subsystem (CRS) aboard the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft are used to derive unfractionated coronal and photospheric abundances for elements with Z = 6-30. It is found that the ionic charge-to-mass ratio (Q/M) is the principal organizing parameter for the fractionation of SEPs by acceleration and propagation processes and for flare-to-flare variability, making possible a single-parameter Q/M-dependent correction to the average SEP abundances to obtain unfractionated coronal abundances. A further correction based on first ionization potential allows the determination of unfractionated photospheric abundances.

  19. Solar Coronal and photospheric abundances from solar energetic particle measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breneman, H.; Stone, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    Solar energetic particle (SEP) elemental abundance data from the cosmic ray subsystem (CRS) aboard the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft are used to derive unfractionated coronal and photospheric abundances for elements with 3 Z or = 30. It is found that the ionic charge-to-mass ratio (Q/M) is the principal organizing parameter for the fractionation of SEPs by acceleration and propagation processes and for flare-to-flare variability, making possible a single-parameter Q/M-dependent correction to the average SEP abundances to obtain unfractionated coronal abundances. A further correction based on first ionization potential allows the determination of unfractionated photospheric abundances.

  20. Solar coronal and photospheric abundances from solar energetic particle measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breneman, H.; Stone, E. C.

    1985-01-01

    Solar energetic particle (SEP) elemental abundance data from the Cosmic Ray Subsystem (CRS) aboard the Voyager 1 and 2 spacecraft are used to derive unfractionated coronal and photospheric abundances for elements with 3 = or Z or = 30. The ionic charge-to-mass ratio (Q/M) is the principal organizing parameter for the fractionation of SEPs by acceleration and propagation processes and for flare-to-flare variability, making possible a single-parameter Q/M-dependent correction to the average SEP abundances to obtain unfractionated coronal abundances. A further correction based on first ionization potential allows the determination of unfractionated photospheric abundances.

  1. Influence of the Quantity and Quality of Light on Photosynthetic Periodicity in Coral Endosymbiotic Algae

    PubMed Central

    Sorek, Michal; Levy, Oren

    2012-01-01

    Symbiotic corals, which are benthic organisms intimately linked with their environment, have evolved many ways to deal with fluctuations in the local marine environment. One possible coping mechanism is the endogenous circadian clock, which is characterized as free running, maintaining a ∼24 h periodicity of circuits under constant stimuli or in the absence of external cues. The quantity and quality of light were found to be the most influential factors governing the endogenous clock for plants and algae. Unicellular dinoflagellate algae are among the best examples of organisms that exhibit circadian clocks using light as the dominant signal. This study is the first to examine the effects of light intensity and quality on the rhythmicity of photosynthesis in the symbiotic dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp., both as a free-living organism and in symbiosis with the coral Stylophora pistillata. Oxygen production measurements in Symbiodinium cultures exhibited rhythmicity with a periodicity of approximately 24 h under constant high light (LL), whereas under medium and low light, the cycle time increased. Exposing Symbiodinium cultures and corals to spectral light revealed different effects of blue and red light on the photosynthetic rhythm, specifically shortening or increasing the cycle time respectively. These findings suggest that the photosynthetic rhythm is entrained by different light cues, which are wired to an endogenous circadian clock. Furthermore, we provide evidence that mRNA expression was higher under blue light for two potential cryptochrome genes and higher under red light for a phytochrome gene isolated from Symbiodinium. These results offer the first evidence of the impact of the intensity and quality of light on the photosynthetic rhythm in algal cells living freely or as part of a symbiotic association. Our results indicate the presence of a circadian oscillator in Symbiodinium governing the photosynthetic apparatus through a light-induced signaling

  2. Functional Inactivation of Putative Photosynthetic Electron Acceptor Ferredoxin C2 (FdC2) Induces Delayed Heading Date and Decreased Photosynthetic Rate in Rice

    PubMed Central

    Ruan, Banpu; Kang, Shujing; He, Lei; Zhang, Sen; Dong, Guojun; Hu, Jiang; Zeng, Dali; Zhang, Guangheng; Gao, Zhenyu; Ren, Deyong; Hu, Xingming; Chen, Guang; Guo, Longbiao; Qian, Qian; Zhu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Ferredoxin (Fd) protein as unique electron acceptor, involved in a variety of fundamental metabolic and signaling processes, which is indispensable for plant growth. The molecular mechanisms of Fd such as regulation of electron partitioning, impact of photosynthetic rate and involvement in the carbon fixing remain elusive in rice. Here we reported a heading date delay and yellowish leaf 1 (hdy1) mutant derived from Japonica rice cultivar “Nipponbare” subjected to EMS treatment. In the paddy field, the hdy1 mutant appeared at a significantly late heading date and had yellow-green leaves during the whole growth stage. Further investigation indicated that the abnormal phenotype of hdy1 was connected with depressed pigment content and photosynthetic rate. Genetic analysis results showed that the hdy1 mutant phenotype was caused by a single recessive nuclear gene mutation. Map-based cloning revealed that OsHDY1 is located on chromosome 3 and encodes an ortholog of the AtFdC2 gene. Complementation and overexpression, transgenic plants exhibited the mutant phenotype including head date, leaf color and the transcription levels of the FdC2 were completely rescued by transformation with OsHDY1. Real-time PCR revealed that the expression product of OsHDY1 was detected in almost all of the organs except root, whereas highest expression levels were observed in seeding new leaves. The lower expression levels of HDY1 and content of iron were detected in hdy1 than WT’s. The FdC2::GFP was detected in the chloroplasts of rice. Real-time PCR results showed that the expression of many photosynthetic electron transfer related genes in hdy1 were higher than WT. Our results suggest that OsFdC2 plays an important role in photosynthetic rate and development of heading date by regulating electron transfer and chlorophyll content in rice. PMID:26598971

  3. Functional Inactivation of Putative Photosynthetic Electron Acceptor Ferredoxin C2 (FdC2) Induces Delayed Heading Date and Decreased Photosynthetic Rate in Rice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Juan; Qiu, Zhennan; Ruan, Banpu; Kang, Shujing; He, Lei; Zhang, Sen; Dong, Guojun; Hu, Jiang; Zeng, Dali; Zhang, Guangheng; Gao, Zhenyu; Ren, Deyong; Hu, Xingming; Chen, Guang; Guo, Longbiao; Qian, Qian; Zhu, Li

    2015-01-01

    Ferredoxin (Fd) protein as unique electron acceptor, involved in a variety of fundamental metabolic and signaling processes, which is indispensable for plant growth. The molecular mechanisms of Fd such as regulation of electron partitioning, impact of photosynthetic rate and involvement in the carbon fixing remain elusive in rice. Here we reported a heading date delay and yellowish leaf 1 (hdy1) mutant derived from Japonica rice cultivar "Nipponbare" subjected to EMS treatment. In the paddy field, the hdy1 mutant appeared at a significantly late heading date and had yellow-green leaves during the whole growth stage. Further investigation indicated that the abnormal phenotype of hdy1 was connected with depressed pigment content and photosynthetic rate. Genetic analysis results showed that the hdy1 mutant phenotype was caused by a single recessive nuclear gene mutation. Map-based cloning revealed that OsHDY1 is located on chromosome 3 and encodes an ortholog of the AtFdC2 gene. Complementation and overexpression, transgenic plants exhibited the mutant phenotype including head date, leaf color and the transcription levels of the FdC2 were completely rescued by transformation with OsHDY1. Real-time PCR revealed that the expression product of OsHDY1 was detected in almost all of the organs except root, whereas highest expression levels were observed in seeding new leaves. The lower expression levels of HDY1 and content of iron were detected in hdy1 than WT's. The FdC2::GFP was detected in the chloroplasts of rice. Real-time PCR results showed that the expression of many photosynthetic electron transfer related genes in hdy1 were higher than WT. Our results suggest that OsFdC2 plays an important role in photosynthetic rate and development of heading date by regulating electron transfer and chlorophyll content in rice. PMID:26598971

  4. Respiratory processes in non-photosynthetic plastids

    PubMed Central

    Renato, Marta; Boronat, Albert; Azcón-Bieto, Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    Chlororespiration is a respiratory process located in chloroplast thylakoids which consists in an electron transport chain from NAD(P)H to oxygen. This respiratory chain involves the NAD(P)H dehydrogenase complex, the plastoquinone pool and the plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX), and it probably acts as a safety valve to prevent the over-reduction of the photosynthetic machinery in stress conditions. The existence of a similar respiratory activity in non-photosynthetic plastids has been less studied. Recently, it has been reported that tomato fruit chromoplasts present an oxygen consumption activity linked to ATP synthesis. Etioplasts and amyloplasts contain several electron carriers and some subunits of the ATP synthase, so they could harbor a similar respiratory process. This review provides an update on the study about respiratory processes in chromoplasts, identifying the major gaps that need to be addressed in future research. It also reviews the proteomic data of etioplasts and amyloplasts, which suggest the presence of a respiratory electron transport chain in these plastids. PMID:26236317

  5. Photosynthetic water splitting: 1987 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, E.

    1988-01-01

    This document is an annual report of photosynthetic water splitting for the production of hydrogen and oxygen. Unicellular green algae are capable of evolving molecular hydrogen in the presence of carbon dioxide. Controlling factors that determine hydrogen evolution are either temperature or light intensity. Also, mutants of the green alga Chlamydomonas are capable of evolving hydrogen in the presence of carbon dioxide. The significance of these discoveries is that the presence of carbon dioxide (or bicarbonate) is a key factor in determining the activity of the Photosystem II water splitting complex. Second, a new advance in oxygen sensor technology has been made that, for the first time, allows the absolute measurement of photosynthetically evolved oxygen from a single colony of microalgae growing on a solidified agar medium. The key aspect of this electrochemical sensor is the utilization of ultra-pure potassium hydroxide as the electrolyte and a recognition of the role that electrolyte impurities play in contributing to base line noise. 9 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Thermal responses of Symbiodinium photosynthetic carbon assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oakley, Clinton A.; Schmidt, Gregory W.; Hopkinson, Brian M.

    2014-06-01

    The symbiosis between hermatypic corals and their dinoflagellate endosymbionts, genus Symbiodinium, is based on carbon exchange. This symbiosis is disrupted by thermally induced coral bleaching, a stress response in which the coral host expels its algal symbionts as they become physiologically impaired. The disruption of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) supply or the thermal inactivation of Rubisco have been proposed as sites of initial thermal damage that leads to the bleaching response. Symbiodinium possesses a highly unusual Form II ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco), which exhibits a lower CO2:O2 specificity and may be more thermally unstable than the Form I Rubiscos of other algae and land plants. Components of the CO2 concentrating mechanism (CCM), which supplies inorganic carbon for photosynthesis, may also be temperature sensitive. Here, we examine the ability of four cultured Symbiodinium strains to acquire and fix DIC across a temperature gradient. Surprisingly, the half-saturation constant of photosynthesis with respect to DIC concentration ( K P), an index of CCM function, declined with increasing temperature in three of the four strains, indicating a greater potential for photosynthetic carbon acquisition at elevated temperatures. In the fourth strain, there was no effect of temperature on K P. Finding no evidence for thermal inhibition of the CCM, we conclude that CCM components are not likely to be the primary sites of thermal damage. Reduced photosynthetic quantum yields, a hallmark of thermal bleaching, were observed at low DIC concentrations, leaving open the possibility that reduced inorganic carbon availability is involved in bleaching.

  7. Self-assembly and structural-functional flexibility of oxygenic photosynthetic machineries: personal perspectives.

    PubMed

    Garab, Győző

    2016-01-01

    This short review, with a bit of historical aspect and a strong personal bias and emphases on open questions, is focusing on the (macro-)organization and structural-functional flexibilities of the photosynthetic apparatus of oxygenic photosynthetic organisms at different levels of the structural complexity-selected problems that have attracted most my attention in the past years and decades. These include (i) the anisotropic organization of the pigment-protein complexes and photosynthetic membranes-a basic organizing principle of living matter, which can, and probably should be adopted to intelligent materials; (ii) the organization of protein complexes into chiral macrodomains, large self-assembling highly organized but structurally flexible entities with unique spectroscopic fingerprints-structures, where, important, high-level regulatory functions appear to 'reside'; (iii) a novel, dissipation-assisted mechanism of structural changes, based on a thermo-optic effect: ultrafast thermal transients in the close vicinity of dissipation of unused excitation energy, which is capable of inducing elementary structural changes; it makes plants capable of responding to excess excitation with reaction rates proportional to the overexcitation above the light-saturation of photosynthesis; (iv) the 3D ultrastructure of the granum-stroma thylakoid membrane assembly and other multilamellar membrane systems, and their remodelings-associated with regulatory mechanisms; (v) the molecular organization and structural-functional plasticity of the main light-harvesting complex of plants, in relation to their crystal structure and different in vivo and in vitro states; and (vi) the enigmatic role of non-bilayer lipids and lipid phases in the bilayer thylakoid membrane-warranting its high protein content and contributing to its structural flexibility. PMID:26494196

  8. Structure and Excitation Transfer Pathways in the Chlorophyll-Carotenoid Aggregate of the Photosynthetic Unit of Purple Bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulten, Klaus

    1998-03-01

    The absorption of light by light harvesting complexes and transfer of electronic excitation to the photosynthetic reaction center (RC) has been investigated on the basis of an atomic level model of the so-called photosynthetic unit of the photosynthetic bacterium Rb. sphaeroides. The photosynthetic unit combines in the intracytoplasmic membrane a nanometric (20-100 nm) assembly of three protein complexes: (i) the photosynthetic reaction center, (ii) a ring-shaped light harvesting complex LH-I, and (iii) multiple copies of a similar complex, LH-II. The unit has been modeled using the known structure of LH-II of Rs. molischianum. The lecture describes in detail the organization of chromophores involved in primary light absorption and excitation transfer: a hierarchy of ring-shaped chlorophyl aggregates with attached carotenoids. A quantum-mechanical description of the entire light harvesting process is developed employing electron structure calculations of individual and aggregated chlorophylls and carotenoids and associated effective Hamiltonian descriptions. The transfer times calculated, ranging between 100 fs and 100 ps for various processes, are found in close agreement with measured transfer rates. The results suggest that excitons are the key carriers of the excitation transfered. The photoprotection of chlorophylls by chlorophylls through triplet excitation transfer is also described.

  9. Ultra-high voltage electron microscopy of primitive algae illuminates 3D ultrastructures of the first photosynthetic eukaryote

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Toshiyuki; Nishida, Tomoki; Saito, Chieko; Yasuda, Hidehiro; Nozaki, Hisayoshi

    2015-01-01

    A heterotrophic organism 1–2 billion years ago enslaved a cyanobacterium to become the first photosynthetic eukaryote, and has diverged globally. The primary phototrophs, glaucophytes, are thought to retain ancestral features of the first photosynthetic eukaryote, but examining the protoplast ultrastructure has previously been problematic in the coccoid glaucophyte Glaucocystis due to its thick cell wall. Here, we examined the three-dimensional (3D) ultrastructure in two divergent species of Glaucocystis using ultra-high voltage electron microscopy. Three-dimensional modelling of Glaucocystis cells using electron tomography clearly showed that numerous, leaflet-like flattened vesicles are distributed throughout the protoplast periphery just underneath a single-layered plasma membrane. This 3D feature is essentially identical to that of another glaucophyte genus Cyanophora, as well as the secondary phototrophs in Alveolata. Thus, the common ancestor of glaucophytes and/or the first photosynthetic eukaryote may have shown similar 3D structures. PMID:26439276

  10. Abundance and patterns of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) in Arctic floodplain lakes of the Mackenzie River Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chateauvert, C. Adam; Lesack, Lance F. W.; Bothwell, Max L.

    2012-12-01

    The Mackenzie River Delta is a lake-rich arctic floodplain that receives high inputs of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and suspended particulates from allochthonous and autochthonous sources, and may transfer carbon from dissolved to particulate phase via in situ formation of transparent exopolymer particles (TEP). TEP provides food for grazers, surfaces for bacteria, and increased potential for aggregation and sedimentation of organic matter. During open water 2006, we tracked TEP abundances in three Delta lakes representing gradients that include declining river-to-lake connection times, increasing levels of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and declining chromophoric-DOM (CDOM). Unexpectedly, TEP abundances were highest immediately after the flood, when autochthonous autotrophic production was at a seasonal low and CDOM a seasonal high. Moreover, the lake with the strongest riverine influence and lowest levels of autochthonous autotrophic production had the highest mean TEP-carbon (TEP-C) concentrations among the lakes. The mean proportion of particulate organic carbon (POC) represented by TEP-C increased with increasing river connection time, and appears to represent a substantial proportion of POC in Mackenzie Delta Lakes. Unexpectedly, the TEP gradient was most strongly related to CDOM (river water source) rather than overall DOC. Variations in CDOM accounted for 53% of TEP-C variation among the lakes, indicating allochthonous matter was the most important source of TEP. DOC release from in situ macrophytes during periods of high photosynthesis may contribute to TEP formation in the lake with lowest riverine influence, but pH levels >9.5 driven by the high photosynthetic rates complicate the interpretation of results from this lake.

  11. Abundance of field galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klypin, Anatoly; Karachentsev, Igor; Makarov, Dmitry; Nasonova, Olga

    2015-12-01

    We present new measurements of the abundance of galaxies with a given circular velocity in the Local Volume: a region centred on the Milky Way Galaxy and extending to distance ˜10 Mpc. The sample of ˜750 mostly dwarf galaxies provides a unique opportunity to study the abundance and properties of galaxies down to absolute magnitudes MB ≈ -10 and virial masses M_vir= 109{ M_{⊙}}. We find that the standard Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model gives remarkably accurate estimates for the velocity function of galaxies with circular velocities V ≳ 70 kms-1 and corresponding virial masses M_vir≳ 5× 10^{10}{ M_{⊙}}, but it badly fails by overpredicting ˜5 times the abundance of large dwarfs with velocities V = 30-40 kms-1. The warm dark matter (WDM) models cannot explain the data either, regardless of mass of WDM particle. Just as in previous observational studies, we find a shallow asymptotic slope dN/dlog V ∝ Vα, α ≈ -1 of the velocity function, which is inconsistent with the standard ΛCDM model that predicts the slope α = -3. Though reminiscent to the known overabundance of satellite problem, the overabundance of field galaxies is a much more difficult problem. For the standard ΛCDM model to survive, in the 10 Mpc radius of the Milky Way there should be 1000 not yet detected galaxies with virial mass M_vir≈ 10^{10}{ M_{⊙}}, extremely low surface brightness and no detectable H I gas. So far none of this type of galaxies have been discovered.

  12. Late embryogenesis abundant proteins

    PubMed Central

    Olvera-Carrillo, Yadira; Reyes, José Luis

    2011-01-01

    Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins accumulate at the onset of seed desiccation and in response to water deficit in vegetative plant tissues. The typical LEA proteins are highly hydrophilic and intrinsically unstructured. They have been classified in different families, each one showing distinctive conserved motifs. In this manuscript we present and discuss some of the recent findings regarding their role in plant adaptation to water deficit, as well as those concerning to their possible function, and how it can be related to their intrinsic structural flexibility. PMID:21447997

  13. Investigating microbial carbon cycling using natural abundance isotope analysis of PLFA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, G. G.; Brady, A.; Cowie, B.

    2008-12-01

    Understanding microbial carbon sources and cycling is fundamental to our conceptualization of microbial ecosystems and their role in biogeochemical cycling in natural systems. Achieving this understanding requires application of a wide range of approaches. Natural abundance isotope analysis of individual compounds, particularly cellular components such as Phospholipids Fatty Acids (PLFA) can provide insights into the carbon sources and metabolic activities of the in situ microbial community from environmental samples. This is primarily because specific PLFA can be well resolved by gas chromatography even from complex matrices where confounding biological/organic compound abound. These PLFA can then be attributed to the viable microbial community, in some cases to specific components of this community and due to characteristic biosynthetic fractionations of stable isotope ratios, δ13C analysis of PLFA can: differentiate isotopically distinct primary carbon sources of heterotrophic communities; identify isotopic patterns characteristic of autotrophic versus heterotrophic processes; and elucidate microbial biosynthetic pathways. In cases where there δ13C cannot provide resolution of carbon sources, new approaches in Δ14C of PLFA can be applied. The vast range in Δ14C of ancient and modern carbon provides an easily traceable signal that can differentiate uptake and utilization of these carbon sources. This is particularly useful in cases such as contaminated sites where petroleum based contamination has occurred, or in natural systems where microbial communities may be utilizing geologic versus recently photosynthetically fixed carbon. This talk will present several examples demonstrating the utility of this approach.

  14. Heterologous expression of Arabidopsis phytochrome B in transgenic potato influences photosynthetic performance and tuber development

    SciTech Connect

    Thiele, A.; Herold, M.; Lenk, I.; Gatz, C. . Albrecht von Haller Inst. fuer Pflanzenwissenschaften); Quail, P.H. )

    1999-05-01

    Transgenic potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants expressing Arabidopsis phytochrome B were characterized morphologically and physiologically under white light in a greenhouse to explore their potential for improved photosynthesis and higher tuber yields. As expected, overexpression of functional phytochrome B caused pleiotropic effects such as semidwarfism, decreased apical dominance, a higher number of smaller but thicker leaves, and increased pigmentation. Because of increased numbers of chloroplasts in elongated palisade cells, photosynthesis per leaf area and in each individual plant increased. In addition, photosynthesis was less sensitive to photoinactivation under prolonged light stress. The beginning of senescence was not delayed, but deceleration of chlorophyll degradation extended the lifetime of photosynthetically active plants. Both the higher photosynthetic performance and the longer lifespan of the transgenic plants allowed greater biomass production, resulting in extended underground organs with increased tuber yields.

  15. Mobile hydrogen carbonate acts as proton acceptor in photosynthetic water oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Koroidov, Sergey; Shevela, Dmitriy; Shutova, Tatiana; Samuelsson, Göran; Messinger, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Cyanobacteria, algae, and plants oxidize water to the O2 we breathe, and consume CO2 during the synthesis of biomass. Although these vital processes are functionally and structurally well separated in photosynthetic organisms, there is a long-debated role for CO2/ in water oxidation. Using membrane-inlet mass spectrometry we demonstrate that acts as a mobile proton acceptor that helps to transport the protons produced inside of photosystem II by water oxidation out into the chloroplast’s lumen, resulting in a light-driven production of O2 and CO2. Depletion of from the media leads, in the absence of added buffers, to a reversible down-regulation of O2 production by about 20%. These findings add a previously unidentified component to the regulatory network of oxygenic photosynthesis and conclude the more than 50-y-long quest for the function of CO2/ in photosynthetic water oxidation. PMID:24711433

  16. Mobile hydrogen carbonate acts as proton acceptor in photosynthetic water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Koroidov, Sergey; Shevela, Dmitriy; Shutova, Tatiana; Samuelsson, Göran; Messinger, Johannes

    2014-04-29

    Cyanobacteria, algae, and plants oxidize water to the O2 we breathe, and consume CO2 during the synthesis of biomass. Although these vital processes are functionally and structurally well separated in photosynthetic organisms, there is a long-debated role for CO2/ in water oxidation. Using membrane-inlet mass spectrometry we demonstrate that acts as a mobile proton acceptor that helps to transport the protons produced inside of photosystem II by water oxidation out into the chloroplast's lumen, resulting in a light-driven production of O2 and CO2. Depletion of from the media leads, in the absence of added buffers, to a reversible down-regulation of O2 production by about 20%. These findings add a previously unidentified component to the regulatory network of oxygenic photosynthesis and conclude the more than 50-y-long quest for the function of CO2/ in photosynthetic water oxidation. PMID:24711433

  17. The PsbP and PsbQ family proteins in the photosynthetic machinery of chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Ifuku, Kentaro

    2014-08-01

    The PsbP and PsbQ proteins are extrinsic subunits of the photosystem II in eukaryotic photosynthetic organisms including higher plants, green algae and euglena. It has been suggested that PsbP and PsbQ have evolved from their cyanobacterial homologs, while considerable genetic and functional modifications have occurred to generate the eukaryote-type proteins. In addition, number of PsbP and PsbQ homologs exist in the thylakoid lumen of chloroplasts. These homologs are nuclear-encoded and likely diverged by gene duplication, and recent studies have elucidated their various functions in the photosynthetic machinery. In this short review, recent findings and new idea about these components will be discussed. PMID:24477118

  18. Structure, Function, and Regulation of Antenna Complexes of Green Photosynthetic Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Robert E. Blankenship

    2001-04-27

    This project is concerned with the structure and function of the chlorosome antennas found in green photosynthetic bacteria. Chlorosomes are ellipsoidal structures attached to the cytoplasmic side of the inner cell membrane. These antenna complexes provide a very large absorption cross section for light capture. Evidence is overwhelming that the chlorosome represents a very different type of antenna from that found in any other photosynthetic system yet studied. It is now clear that chlorosomes do not contain traditional pigment-proteins, in which the pigments bind to specific sites on proteins. Instead, the chlorosome pigments are organized in vivo into pigment oligomers in which direct pigment-pigment interactions are of dominant importance. Our group has used a multidisciplinary approach to investigate this unique system, including model systems, ultrafast spectroscopy, molecular biology, protein chemistry and X-ray crystallography.

  19. Flare Plasma Iron Abundance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Dan, Chau; Jain, Rajmal; Schwartz, Richard A.; Tolbert, Anne K.

    2008-01-01

    The equivalent width of the iron-line complex at 6.7 keV seen in flare X-ray spectra suggests that the iron abundance of the hottest plasma at temperatures >approx.10 MK may sometimes be significantly lower than the nominal coronal abundance of four times the photospheric value that is commonly assumed. This conclusion is based on X-ray spectral observations of several flares seen in common with the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) and the Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) on the second Indian geostationary satellite, GSAT-2. The implications of this will be discussed as it relates to the origin of the hot flare plasma - either plasma already in the corona that is directly heated during the flare energy release process or chromospheric plasma that is heated by flare-accelerated particles and driven up into the corona. Other possible explanations of lower-than-expected equivalent widths of the iron-line complex will also be discussed.

  20. Structural basis of photosynthetic water-splitting

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Jian-Ren; Kawakami, Keisuke; Kamiya, Nobuo

    2013-12-10

    Photosynthetic water-splitting takes place in photosystem II (PSII), a membrane protein complex consisting of 20 subunits with an overall molecular mass of 350 kDa. The light-induced water-splitting reaction catalyzed by PSII not only converts light energy into biologically useful chemical energy, but also provides us with oxygen indispensible for sustaining oxygenic life on the earth. We have solved the structure of PSII at a 1.9 Å resolution, from which, the detailed structure of the Mn{sub 4}CaO{sub 5}-cluster, the catalytic center for water-splitting, became clear. Based on the structure of PSII at the atomic resolution, possible mechanism of light-induced water-splitting was discussed.

  1. Structure and function of isozymes: Evolutionary aspects and role of oxygen in eucaryotic organisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Satyanarayana, T.

    1985-01-01

    Oxygen is not only one of the most abundant elements on the Earth, but it is also one of the most important elements for life. In terms of composition, the feature of the atmosphere that most distinguishes Earth from other planets is the presence of abundant amounts of oxygen. The first forms of life may have been similar to present day anaerobic bacteria such as clostridium. The relationship between prokaryotes and eukaryotes, if any, has been a topic of much speculation. With only a few exceptions eukaryotes are oxygen-utilizing organisms. This research eukaryotes or eukaryotic biochemical processes requiring oxygen, could have arisen quite early in evolution and utilized the small quantities of photocatalytically produced oxygen which are thought to have been present on the Earth prior to the evolution of massive amounts of photosynthetically-produced oxygen.

  2. Oxygen abundance and convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van't Veer, C.; Cayrel, R.

    The triplet IR lines of O I near 777 nm are computed with the Kurucz's code, modified to accept several convection models. The program has been run with the MLT algorithm, with l/H = 1.25 and 0.5, and with the Canuto-Mazzitelli and Canuto-Goldman-Mazzitelli approaches, on a metal-poor turnoff-star model atmosphere with Teff=6200 K, log g = 4.3, [Fe/H]= -1.5. The results show that the differences in equivalent widths for the 4 cases do not exceed 2 per cent (0.3 mA). The convection treatment is therefore not an issue for the oxygen abundance derived from the permitted lines.

  3. Blue-light-regulated transcription factor, Aureochrome, in photosynthetic stramenopiles.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Fumio

    2016-03-01

    During the course of evolution through various endosymbiotic processes, diverse photosynthetic eukaryotes acquired blue light (BL) responses that do not use photosynthetic pathways. Photosynthetic stramenopiles, which have red algae-derived chloroplasts through secondary symbiosis, are principal primary producers in aquatic environments, and play important roles in ecosystems and aquaculture. Through secondary symbiosis, these taxa acquired BL responses, such as phototropism, chloroplast photo-relocation movement, and photomorphogenesis similar to those which green plants acquired through primary symbiosis. Photosynthetic stramenopile BL receptors were undefined until the discovery in 2007, of a new type of BL receptor, the aureochrome (AUREO), from the photosynthetic stramenopile alga, Vaucheria. AUREO has a bZIP domain and a LOV domain, and thus BL-responsive transcription factor. AUREO orthologs are only conserved in photosynthetic stramenopiles, such as brown algae, diatoms, and red tide algae. Here, a brief review is presented of the role of AUREOs as photoreceptors for these diverse BL responses and their biochemical properties in photosynthetic stramenopiles. PMID:26781435

  4. Adaptation to quantum flux by the emerson photosynthetic unit.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, R P

    1972-09-01

    The size of the Emerson photosynthetic unit was measured in Chlorella pyrenoidosa strain no. 252 grown at light intensities between 50 and 1000 foot candles. The Emerson photosynthetic unit changed from a minimum size of 1970 molecules chlorophyll a + b/O(2) per flash in cells grown at 1000 foot candles to a maximum size of 3150 molecules chlorophyll a + b/O(2) per flash for cells grown at 50 foot candles. The size changes were interpreted as a partial adaptation where the trapping center antenna responded to changes in incident light intensity. Light-induced changes in chlorophyll content and size of the Emerson photosynthetic unit were directly related.Two strains of Chlorella pyrenoidosa adapted by growth to 500 foot candles were then illuminated at the reduced light intensity of 50 foot candles. Emerson photosynthetic unit size (Emerson strain) increased from 2110 molecules Chlorophyll a + b/O(2) per flash at time zero to a maximum size of 3160 after 65 hours at 50 foot candles. The Emerson photosynthetic unit size for strain 252 transferred from 500 to 50 foot candles was 2260 at zero hours and 3650 after 50 hours at 50 foot candles. Emerson photosynthetic unit sizes for similar cultures which remained at 500 foot candles were almost constant in size. Oxygen yield per flash per cell was nearly constant whereas Emerson photosynthetic unit size increased in cells moved to the reduced incident light intensity. PMID:16658173

  5. Adaptation to Quantum Flux by the Emerson Photosynthetic Unit 1

    PubMed Central

    Sheridan, R. P.

    1972-01-01

    The size of the Emerson photosynthetic unit was measured in Chlorella pyrenoidosa strain no. 252 grown at light intensities between 50 and 1000 foot candles. The Emerson photosynthetic unit changed from a minimum size of 1970 molecules chlorophyll a + b/O2 per flash in cells grown at 1000 foot candles to a maximum size of 3150 molecules chlorophyll a + b/O2 per flash for cells grown at 50 foot candles. The size changes were interpreted as a partial adaptation where the trapping center antenna responded to changes in incident light intensity. Light-induced changes in chlorophyll content and size of the Emerson photosynthetic unit were directly related. Two strains of Chlorella pyrenoidosa adapted by growth to 500 foot candles were then illuminated at the reduced light intensity of 50 foot candles. Emerson photosynthetic unit size (Emerson strain) increased from 2110 molecules Chlorophyll a + b/O2 per flash at time zero to a maximum size of 3160 after 65 hours at 50 foot candles. The Emerson photosynthetic unit size for strain 252 transferred from 500 to 50 foot candles was 2260 at zero hours and 3650 after 50 hours at 50 foot candles. Emerson photosynthetic unit sizes for similar cultures which remained at 500 foot candles were almost constant in size. Oxygen yield per flash per cell was nearly constant whereas Emerson photosynthetic unit size increased in cells moved to the reduced incident light intensity. PMID:16658173

  6. Carbon Gain and Photosynthetic Response of Chrysanthemum to Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density Cycles 1

    PubMed Central

    Stoop, Johan M. H.; Willits, Dan H.; Peet, Mary M.; Nelson, Paul V.

    1991-01-01

    Most models of carbon gain as a function of photosynthetic irradiance assume an instantaneous response to increases and decreases in irradiance. High- and low-light-grown plants differ, however, in the time required to adjust to increases and decreases in irradiance. In this study the response to a series of increases and decreases in irradiance was observed in Chrysanthemum × morifolium Ramat. “Fiesta” and compared with calculated values assuming an instantaneous response. There were significant differences between high- and low-light-grown plants in their photosynthetic response to four sequential photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) cycles consisting of 5-minute exposures to 200 and 400 micromoles per square meter per second (μmol m−2s−1). The CO2 assimilation rate of high-light-grown plants at the cycle peak increased throughout the PPFD sequence, but the rate of increase was similar to the increase in CO2 assimilation rate observed under continuous high-light conditions. Low-light leaves showed more variability in their response to light cycles with no significant increase in CO2 assimilation rate at the cycle peak during sequential cycles. Carbon gain and deviations from actual values (percentage carbon gain over- or underestimation) based on assumptions of instantaneous response were compared under continuous and cyclic light conditions. The percentage carbon gain overestimation depended on the PPFD step size and growth light level of the leaf. When leaves were exposed to a large PPFD increase, the carbon gain was overestimated by 16 to 26%. The photosynthetic response to 100 μmol m−2 s−1 PPFD increases and decreases was rapid, and the small overestimation of the predicted carbon gain, observed during photosynthetic induction, was almost entirely negated by the carbon gain underestimation observed after a decrease. If the PPFD cycle was 200 or 400 μmol m−2 s−1, high- and low-light leaves showed a carbon gain overestimation of 25

  7. The post-Paleozoic chronology and mechanism of 13C depletion in primary marine organic matter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popp, B. N.; Takigiku, R.; Hayes, J. M.; Louda, J. W.; Baker, E. W.

    1989-01-01

    Carbon-isotopic compositions of geoporphyrins have been measured from marine sediments of Mesozoic and Cenozoic age in order to elucidate the timing and extent of depletion of 13C in marine primary producers. These results indicate that the difference in isotopic composition of coeval marine carbonates and marine primary photosynthate was approximately 5 to 7 permil greater during the Mesozoic and early Cenozoic than at present. In contrast to the isotopic record of marine primary producers, isotopic compositions of terrestrial organic materials have remained approximately constant for this same interval of time. This difference in the isotopic records of marine and terrestrial organic matter is considered in terms of the mechanisms controlling the isotopic fractionation associated with photosynthetic fixation of carbon. We show that the decreased isotopic fractionation between marine carbonates and organic matter from the Early to mid-Cenozoic may record variations in the abundance of atmospheric CO2.

  8. Revised scheme for the mechanism of photoinhibition and its application to enhance the abiotic stress tolerance of the photosynthetic machinery.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Yoshitaka; Murata, Norio

    2014-11-01

    When photosynthetic organisms are exposed to abiotic stress, their photosynthetic activity is significantly depressed. In particular, photosystem II (PSII) in the photosynthetic machinery is readily inactivated under strong light and this phenomenon is referred to as photoinhibition of PSII. Other types of abiotic stress act synergistically with light stress to accelerate photoinhibition. Recent studies of photoinhibition have revealed that light stress damages PSII directly, whereas other abiotic stresses act exclusively to inhibit the repair of PSII after light-induced damage (photodamage). Such inhibition of repair is associated with suppression, by reactive oxygen species (ROS), of the synthesis of proteins de novo and, in particular, of the D1 protein, and also with the reduced efficiency of repair under stress conditions. Gene-technological improvements in the tolerance of photosynthetic organisms to various abiotic stresses have been achieved via protection of the repair system from ROS and, also, by enhancing the efficiency of repair via facilitation of the turnover of the D1 protein in PSII. In this review, we summarize the current status of research on photoinhibition as it relates to the effects of abiotic stress and we discuss successful strategies that enhance the activity of the repair machinery. In addition, we propose several potential methods for activating the repair system by gene-technological methods. PMID:25139449

  9. Actinide abundances in ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagee, B.; Bernatowicz, T. J.; Podosek, F. A.; Johnson, M. L.; Burnett, D. S.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of actinide and light REE (LREE) abundances and of phosphate abundances in equilibrated ordinary chondrites were obtained and were used to define the Pu abundance in the solar system and to determine the degree of variation of actinide and LREE abundances. The results were also used to compare directly the Pu/U ratio with the earlier obtained ratio determined indirectly, as (Pu/Nd)x(Nd/U), assuming that Pu behaves chemically as a LREE. The data, combined with high-accuracy isotope-dilution data from the literature, show that the degree of gram-scale variability of the Th, U, and LREE abundances for equilibrated ordinary chondrites is a factor of 2-3 for absolute abundances and up to 50 percent for relative abundances. The observed variations are interpreted as reflecting the differences in the compositions and/or proportions of solar nebula components accreted to ordinary chondrite parent bodies.

  10. Spatial patterns of photosynthesis in thin- and thick-leaved epiphytic orchids: unravelling C3–CAM plasticity in an organ-compartmented way

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Maria Aurineide; Matiz, Alejandra; Cruz, Aline Bertinatto; Matsumura, Aline Tiemi; Takahashi, Cassia Ayumi; Hamachi, Leonardo; Félix, Lucas Macedo; Pereira, Paula Natália; Latansio-Aidar, Sabrina Ribeiro; Aidar, Marcos Pereira Marinho; Demarco, Diego; Freschi, Luciano; Mercier, Helenice; Kerbauy, Gilberto Barbante

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims A positive correlation between tissue thickness and crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) expression has been frequently suggested. Therefore, this study addressed the question of whether water availability modulates photosynthetic plasticity in different organs of two epiphytic orchids with distinct leaf thickness. Methods Tissue morphology and photosynthetic mode (C3 and/or CAM) were examined in leaves, pseudobulbs and roots of a thick-leaved (Cattleya walkeriana) and a thin-leaved (Oncidium ‘Aloha’) epiphytic orchid. Morphological features were studied comparing the drought-induced physiological responses observed in each organ after 30 d of either drought or well-watered treatments. Key Results Cattleya walkeriana, which is considered a constitutive CAM orchid, displayed a clear drought-induced up-regulation of CAM in its thick leaves but not in its non-leaf organs (pseudobulbs and roots). The set of morphological traits of Cattleya leaves suggested the drought-inducible CAM up-regulation as a possible mechanism of increasing water-use efficiency and carbon economy. Conversely, although belonging to an orchid genus classically considered as performing C3 photosynthesis, Oncidium ‘Aloha’ under drought seemed to express facultative CAM in its roots and pseudobulbs but not in its leaves, indicating that such photosynthetic responses might compensate for the lack of capacity to perform CAM in its thin leaves. Morphological features of Oncidium leaves also indicated lower efficiency in preventing water and CO2 losses, while aerenchyma ducts connecting pseudobulbs and leaves suggested a compartmentalized mechanism of nighttime carboxylation via phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) (pseudobulbs) and daytime carboxylation via Rubisco (leaves) in drought-exposed Oncidium plants. Conclusions Water availability modulated CAM expression in an organ-compartmented manner in both orchids studied. As distinct regions of the same orchid could perform

  11. The Arabidopsis Thylakoid Chloride Channel AtCLCe Functions in Chloride Homeostasis and Regulation of Photosynthetic Electron Transport

    PubMed Central

    Herdean, Andrei; Nziengui, Hugues; Zsiros, Ottó; Solymosi, Katalin; Garab, Győző; Lundin, Björn; Spetea, Cornelia

    2016-01-01

    Chloride ions can be translocated across cell membranes through Cl− channels or Cl−/H+ exchangers. The thylakoid-located member of the Cl− channel CLC family in Arabidopsis thaliana (AtCLCe) was hypothesized to play a role in photosynthetic regulation based on the initial photosynthetic characterization of clce mutant lines. The reduced nitrate content of Arabidopsis clce mutants suggested a role in regulation of plant nitrate homeostasis. In this study, we aimed to further investigate the role of AtCLCe in the regulation of ion homeostasis and photosynthetic processes in the thylakoid membrane. We report that the size and composition of proton motive force were mildly altered in two independent Arabidopsis clce mutant lines. Most pronounced effects in the clce mutants were observed on the photosynthetic electron transport of dark-adapted plants, based on the altered shape and associated parameters of the polyphasic OJIP kinetics of chlorophyll a fluorescence induction. Other alterations were found in the kinetics of state transition and in the macro-organization of photosystem II supercomplexes, as indicated by circular dichroism measurements. Pre-treatment with KCl but not with KNO3 restored the wild-type photosynthetic phenotype. Analyses by transmission electron microscopy revealed a bow-like arrangement of the thylakoid network and a large thylakoid-free stromal region in chloroplast sections from the dark-adapted clce plants. Based on these data, we propose that AtCLCe functions in Cl− homeostasis after transition from light to dark, which affects chloroplast ultrastructure and regulation of photosynthetic electron transport. PMID:26904077

  12. A compendium of temperature responses of Rubisco kinetic traits: variability among and within photosynthetic groups and impacts on photosynthesis modeling

    PubMed Central

    Galmés, Jeroni; Hermida-Carrera, Carmen; Laanisto, Lauri; Niinemets, Ülo

    2016-01-01

    The present study provides a synthesis of the in vitro and in vivo temperature responses of Rubisco Michaelis–Menten constants for CO2 (Kc) and O2 (Ko), specificity factor (Sc,o) and maximum carboxylase turnover rate (kcatc) for 49 species from all the main photosynthetic kingdoms of life. Novel correction routines were developed for in vitro data to remove the effects of study-to-study differences in Rubisco assays. The compilation revealed differences in the energy of activation (∆Ha) of Rubisco kinetics between higher plants and other photosynthetic groups, although photosynthetic bacteria and algae were under-represented and very few species have been investigated so far. Within plants, the variation in Rubisco temperature responses was related to species’ climate and photosynthetic mechanism, with differences in ∆Ha for kcatc among C3 plants from cool and warm environments, and in ∆Ha for kcatc and Kc among C3 and C4 plants. A negative correlation was observed among ∆Ha for Sc/o and species’ growth temperature for all data pooled, supporting the convergent adjustment of the temperature sensitivity of Rubisco kinetics to species’ thermal history. Simulations of the influence of varying temperature dependences of Rubisco kinetics on Rubisco-limited photosynthesis suggested improved photosynthetic performance of C3 plants from cool habitats at lower temperatures, and C3 plants from warm habitats at higher temperatures, especially at higher CO2 concentration. Thus, variation in Rubisco kinetics for different groups of photosynthetic organisms might need consideration to improve prediction of photosynthesis in future climates. Comparisons between in vitro and in vivo data revealed common trends, but also highlighted a large variability among both types of Rubisco kinetics currently used to simulate photosynthesis, emphasizing the need for more experimental work to fill in the gaps in Rubisco datasets and improve scaling from enzyme kinetics to

  13. A compendium of temperature responses of Rubisco kinetic traits: variability among and within photosynthetic groups and impacts on photosynthesis modeling.

    PubMed

    Galmés, Jeroni; Hermida-Carrera, Carmen; Laanisto, Lauri; Niinemets, Ülo

    2016-09-01

    The present study provides a synthesis of the in vitro and in vivo temperature responses of Rubisco Michaelis-Menten constants for CO2 (Kc) and O2 (Ko), specificity factor (Sc,o) and maximum carboxylase turnover rate (kcatc) for 49 species from all the main photosynthetic kingdoms of life. Novel correction routines were developed for in vitro data to remove the effects of study-to-study differences in Rubisco assays. The compilation revealed differences in the energy of activation (∆Ha) of Rubisco kinetics between higher plants and other photosynthetic groups, although photosynthetic bacteria and algae were under-represented and very few species have been investigated so far. Within plants, the variation in Rubisco temperature responses was related to species' climate and photosynthetic mechanism, with differences in ∆Ha for kcatc among C3 plants from cool and warm environments, and in ∆Ha for kcatc and Kc among C3 and C4 plants. A negative correlation was observed among ∆Ha for Sc/o and species' growth temperature for all data pooled, supporting the convergent adjustment of the temperature sensitivity of Rubisco kinetics to species' thermal history. Simulations of the influence of varying temperature dependences of Rubisco kinetics on Rubisco-limited photosynthesis suggested improved photosynthetic performance of C3 plants from cool habitats at lower temperatures, and C3 plants from warm habitats at higher temperatures, especially at higher CO2 concentration. Thus, variation in Rubisco kinetics for different groups of photosynthetic organisms might need consideration to improve prediction of photosynthesis in future climates. Comparisons between in vitro and in vivo data revealed common trends, but also highlighted a large variability among both types of Rubisco kinetics currently used to simulate photosynthesis, emphasizing the need for more experimental work to fill in the gaps in Rubisco datasets and improve scaling from enzyme kinetics to realized

  14. Capella: Structure and Abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickhouse, Nancy S.

    1999-01-01

    This grant covers the analysis of EUVE spectra of the cool star binary system Capella. This project has also required the analysis of simultaneous Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astrophysics (ASCA) data. The ASCA spectrum of Capella could not be fit with standard models; by imposing models based on strong lines observed with EUVE, a problem wavelength region was identified. Correcting the problem required calculations of atomic collision strengths of higher principal quantum number than had ever been calculated. With these new models applied to the ASCA spectrum, better fits were obtained. Findings are that: (1) ASCA and EUVE spectra are both dominated by a region at 6 x 10(exp 6) K. (2) The high energy cut-off of the ASCA spectrum is consistent with emission from the highest ionization stages of EUVE, namely Fe XXIV. (3) EUVE requires a continuous emission measure distribution with more than two temperatures. (4) The ASCA spectra are of such high statistical significance that systematic uncertainties dominate, including atomic physics issues and calibration issues. (5) While the ASCA spectral fits achieve lower Chi(exp 2 with two-temperature fits, the EUVE-derived emission measure distribution models are also consistent with the spectra. (6) The Fe/H ratio obtained from the ASCA fit is within 20 % of the Fe/H abundance obtained from the summed spectra of Capella over 5 EUVE pointings, as well as the 1996 EUVE data. This result confirms our claims that quasi-continua composed of weak emission lines in the short wavelength spectrometer of EUVE are not major contributors to the measured Capella continuum. Other abundance ratios are also determined from the ASCA data, using models derived with EUVE. Si, Si, and Mg appear to be close to solar photospheric values, while the ratio of Ne/Fe is three to four times lower than solar photospheric values. Whether there is a general First Ionization Potential (FIP) effect or a specific neon anomaly cannot be determined

  15. Communication: Coherences observed in vivo in photosynthetic bacteria using two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Dahlberg, Peter D.; Norris, Graham J.; Wang, Cheng; Viswanathan, Subha; Singh, Ved P.; Engel, Gregory S.

    2015-01-01

    Energy transfer through large disordered antenna networks in photosynthetic organisms can occur with a quantum efficiency of nearly 100%. This energy transfer is facilitated by the electronic structure of the photosynthetic antennae as well as interactions between electronic states and the surrounding environment. Coherences in time-domain spectroscopy provide a fine probe of how a system interacts with its surroundings. In two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy, coherences can appear on both the ground and excited state surfaces revealing detailed information regarding electronic structure, system-bath coupling, energy transfer, and energetic coupling in complex chemical systems. Numerous studies have revealed coherences in isolated photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes, but these coherences have not been observed in vivo due to the small amplitude of these signals and the intense scatter from whole cells. Here, we present data acquired using ultrafast video-acquisition gradient-assisted photon echo spectroscopy to observe quantum beating signals from coherences in vivo. Experiments were conducted on isolated light harvesting complex II (LH2) from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, whole cells of R. sphaeroides, and whole cells of R. sphaeroides grown in 30% deuterated media. A vibronic coherence was observed following laser excitation at ambient temperature between the B850 and the B850∗ states of LH2 in each of the 3 samples with a lifetime of ∼40-60 fs. PMID:26373989

  16. Development of photosynthetic biofilms affected by dissolved and sorbed copper in a eutrophic river.

    PubMed

    Barranguet, Christiane; Plans, Marc; van der Grinten, t Esther; Sinke, Jan J; Admiraal, Wim

    2002-09-01

    Photosynthetic biofilms are capable of immobilizing important concentrations of metals, therefore reducing bioavailability to organisms. But also metal pollution is believed to produce changes in the microalgal species composition of biofilms. We investigated the changes undergone by natural photosynthetic biofilms from the River Meuse, The Netherlands, under chronic copper (Cu) exposure. The suspended particles in the river water had only a minor effect on reduction of sorption and toxicity of Cu to algae. Biofilms accumulated Cu proportionally to the added concentration, also at the highest concentration used (9 microM Cu). The physiognomy of the biofilms was affected through the growth of the chain-forming diatom Melosira varians, changing from long filaments to short tufts, although species composition was not affected by the Cu exposure. The Cu decreased phosphate uptake and algal biomass measured as chl a, which degraded exponentially in time. Photosynthetic activity was always less sensitive than algal biomass; the photon yield decreased linearly in time. The protective and insulating role of the biofilm, supported by ongoing autotrophic activity, was indicated as essential in resisting metal toxicity. We discuss the hypothesis that the toxic effects of Cu progress almost independently of the species composition, counteracting ongoing growth, and conclude that autotrophic biofilms act as vertical heterogeneous units. Effective feedback mechanisms and density dependence explain several discrepancies observed earlier. PMID:12206437

  17. Communication: Coherences observed in vivo in photosynthetic bacteria using two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlberg, Peter D.; Norris, Graham J.; Wang, Cheng; Viswanathan, Subha; Singh, Ved P.; Engel, Gregory S.

    2015-09-01

    Energy transfer through large disordered antenna networks in photosynthetic organisms can occur with a quantum efficiency of nearly 100%. This energy transfer is facilitated by the electronic structure of the photosynthetic antennae as well as interactions between electronic states and the surrounding environment. Coherences in time-domain spectroscopy provide a fine probe of how a system interacts with its surroundings. In two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy, coherences can appear on both the ground and excited state surfaces revealing detailed information regarding electronic structure, system-bath coupling, energy transfer, and energetic coupling in complex chemical systems. Numerous studies have revealed coherences in isolated photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes, but these coherences have not been observed in vivo due to the small amplitude of these signals and the intense scatter from whole cells. Here, we present data acquired using ultrafast video-acquisition gradient-assisted photon echo spectroscopy to observe quantum beating signals from coherences in vivo. Experiments were conducted on isolated light harvesting complex II (LH2) from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, whole cells of R. sphaeroides, and whole cells of R. sphaeroides grown in 30% deuterated media. A vibronic coherence was observed following laser excitation at ambient temperature between the B850 and the B850∗ states of LH2 in each of the 3 samples with a lifetime of ˜40-60 fs.

  18. Communication: Coherences observed in vivo in photosynthetic bacteria using two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlberg, Peter D.; Norris, Graham J.; Wang, Cheng; Viswanathan, Subha; Singh, Ved P.; Engel, Gregory S.

    2015-09-14

    Energy transfer through large disordered antenna networks in photosynthetic organisms can occur with a quantum efficiency of nearly 100%. This energy transfer is facilitated by the electronic structure of the photosynthetic antennae as well as interactions between electronic states and the surrounding environment. Coherences in time-domain spectroscopy provide a fine probe of how a system interacts with its surroundings. In two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy, coherences can appear on both the ground and excited state surfaces revealing detailed information regarding electronic structure, system-bath coupling, energy transfer, and energetic coupling in complex chemical systems. Numerous studies have revealed coherences in isolated photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes, but these coherences have not been observed in vivo due to the small amplitude of these signals and the intense scatter from whole cells. Here, we present data acquired using ultrafast video-acquisition gradient-assisted photon echo spectroscopy to observe quantum beating signals from coherences in vivo. Experiments were conducted on isolated light harvesting complex II (LH2) from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, whole cells of R. sphaeroides, and whole cells of R. sphaeroides grown in 30% deuterated media. A vibronic coherence was observed following laser excitation at ambient temperature between the B850 and the B850{sup ∗} states of LH2 in each of the 3 samples with a lifetime of ∼40-60 fs.

  19. Conservation of distantly related membrane proteins: photosynthetic reaction centers share a common structural core.

    PubMed

    Sadekar, Sumedha; Raymond, Jason; Blankenship, Robert E

    2006-11-01

    Photosynthesis was established on Earth more than 3 billion years ago. All available evidences suggest that the earliest photosynthetic organisms were anoxygenic and that oxygen-evolving photosynthesis is a more recent development. The reaction center complexes that form the heart of the energy storage process are integral membrane pigment proteins that span the membrane in vectorial fashion to carry out electron transfer. The origin and extent of distribution of these proteins has been perplexing from a phylogenetic point of view mostly because of extreme sequence divergence. A series of integral membrane proteins of known structure and varying degrees of sequence identity have been compared using combinatorial extension-Monte Carlo methods. The proteins include photosynthetic reaction centers from proteobacteria and cyanobacterial photosystems I and II, as well as cytochrome oxidase, bacteriorhodopsin, and cytochrome b. The reaction center complexes show a remarkable conservation of the core structure of 5 transmembrane helices, strongly implying common ancestry, even though the residual sequence identity is less than 10%, whereas the other proteins have structures that are unrelated. A relationship of sequence with structure was derived from the reaction center structures; with characteristic decay length of 1.6 A. Phylogenetic trees derived from the structural alignments give insights into the earliest photosynthetic reaction center, strongly suggesting that it was a homodimeric complex that did not evolve oxygen. PMID:16887904

  20. Comparing photosynthetic characteristics of Isoetes sinensis Palmer under submerged and terrestrial conditions

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tao; Liu, Xing

    2015-01-01

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is widespread in terrestrial and aquatic species, plastic in response to environmental changes. Isoetes L. is one of the earliest basal vascular plants and CAM is popular in this genus. Isoetes sinensis Palmer is an amphibious species, alternating frequently between terrestrial and aquatic environments. Given this, we investigated and compared photosynthetic characteristics over a diurnal cycle under submerged condition (SC) and terrestrial condition (TC). The results suggest that I. sinensis possesses a stronger CAM capacity under SC. Compared with under TC, titratable acidity levels and organic acid concentrations were more enriched under SC, whereas soluble sugar or starch and protein levels were lower under SC. Transcript analyses for nine photosynthetic genes revealed that CAM-associated genes possessed high transcripts under SC, but C3-related transcripts were highly expressed under TC. In addition, the enzyme activity measurements demonstrated that PEPC activity over a diurnal cycle was slightly higher under SC, whereas Rubisco activity during the daytime was greater under TC. This comprehensive study probably facilitates general understandings about the CAM photosynthetic characteristics of Isoetes in response to the environmental changes. PMID:26634994

  1. Radiative energy budget reveals high photosynthetic efficiency in symbiont-bearing corals

    PubMed Central

    Brodersen, Kasper Elgetti; Lichtenberg, Mads; Ralph, Peter J.; Kühl, Michael; Wangpraseurt, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The light field on coral reefs varies in intensity and spectral composition, and is the key regulating factor for phototrophic reef organisms, for example scleractinian corals harbouring microalgal symbionts. However, the actual efficiency of light utilization in corals and the mechanisms affecting the radiative energy budget of corals are underexplored. We present the first balanced light energy budget for a symbiont-bearing coral based on a fine-scale study of the microenvironmental photobiology of the massive coral Montastrea curta. The majority (more than 96%) of the absorbed light energy was dissipated as heat, whereas the proportion of the absorbed light energy used in photosynthesis was approximately 4.0% under an irradiance of 640 µmol photons m−2 s−1. With increasing irradiance, the proportion of heat dissipation increased at the expense of photosynthesis. Despite such low energy efficiency, we found a high photosynthetic efficiency of the microalgal symbionts showing high gross photosynthesis rates and quantum efficiencies (QEs) of approximately 0.1 O2 photon−1 approaching theoretical limits under moderate irradiance levels. Corals thus appear as highly efficient light collectors with optical properties enabling light distribution over the corallite/tissue microstructural canopy that enables a high photosynthetic QE of their photosynthetic microalgae in hospite. PMID:24478282

  2. Redundant roles of photoreceptors and cytokinins in regulating photosynthetic acclimation to canopy density.

    PubMed

    Boonman, A; Prinsen, E; Voesenek, L A C J; Pons, T L

    2009-01-01

    The regulation of photosynthetic acclimation to canopy density was investigated in tobacco canopies and in tobacco and Arabidopsis plants with part of their foliage experimentally shaded. Both species acclimated to canopy light gradients and partial shading by allocating photosynthetic capacity to leaves in high light and adjusting chloroplast organization to the local light conditions. An investigation was carried out to determine whether signalling mediated by photoreceptors, sugars, cytokinin, and nitrate is involved in and necessary for proper photosynthetic acclimation. No evidence was found for a role for sugars, or for nitrate. The distribution of cytokinins in tobacco stands of contrasting density could be explained in part by irradiance-dependent delivery of cytokinins through the transpiration stream. Functional studies using a comprehensive selection of Arabidopsis mutants and transgenics showed that normal wild-type responses to partial shading were retained when signalling mediated by photoreceptors or cytokinins was disrupted. This indicates that these pathways probably operate in a redundant manner. However, the reduction of the chlorophyll a/b ratio in response to local shade was completely absent in the Arabidopsis Ws-2 accession mutated in PHYTOCHROME D and in the triple phyAphyCphyD mutant. Moreover, cytokinin receptor mutants also showed a reduced response, suggesting a previously unrecognized function of phyD and cytokinins. PMID:19240103

  3. Redundant roles of photoreceptors and cytokinins in regulating photosynthetic acclimation to canopy density

    PubMed Central

    Boonman, A.; Prinsen, E.; Voesenek, L. A. C. J.; Pons, T. L.

    2009-01-01

    The regulation of photosynthetic acclimation to canopy density was investigated in tobacco canopies and in tobacco and Arabidopsis plants with part of their foliage experimentally shaded. Both species acclimated to canopy light gradients and partial shading by allocating photosynthetic capacity to leaves in high light and adjusting chloroplast organization to the local light conditions. An investigation was carried out to determine whether signalling mediated by photoreceptors, sugars, cytokinin, and nitrate is involved in and necessary for proper photosynthetic acclimation. No evidence was found for a role for sugars, or for nitrate. The distribution of cytokinins in tobacco stands of contrasting density could be explained in part by irradiance-dependent delivery of cytokinins through the transpiration stream. Functional studies using a comprehensive selection of Arabidopsis mutants and transgenics showed that normal wild-type responses to partial shading were retained when signalling mediated by photoreceptors or cytokinins was disrupted. This indicates that these pathways probably operate in a redundant manner. However, the reduction of the chlorophyll a/b ratio in response to local shade was completely absent in the Arabidopsis Ws-2 accession mutated in PHYTOCHROME D and in the triple phyAphyCphyD mutant. Moreover, cytokinin receptor mutants also showed a reduced response, suggesting a previously unrecognized function of phyD and cytokinins. PMID:19240103

  4. A new perspective on hydrogen production by photosynthetic water-splitting

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J.W.; Greenbaum, E.

    1996-05-01

    Present energy systems are heavily dependent on fossil fuels. This will eventually lead to the foreseeable depletion of fossil energy resources and, according to some reports, global climate changes due to the emission of carbon dioxide. In principle, hydrogen production by biophotolysis of water can be an ideal solar energy conversion system for sustainable development of human activities in harmony with the global environment. In photosynthetic hydrogen production research, there are currently two main efforts: (1) Direct photoevolution of hydrogen and oxygen by photosynthetic water splitting using the ferredoxin/hydrogenase pathway; (2) Dark hydrogen production by fermentation of organic reserves such as starch that are generated by photosynthesis during the light period. In this chapter, the advantages and challenges of the two approaches for hydrogen production will be discussed, in relation to a new opportunity brought by our recent discovery of a new photosynthetic water-splitting reaction which, potentially, has twice the energy efficiency of conventional watersplitting via the two light reaction Z-scheme of photosynthesis.

  5. Structure, Function and Reconstitution of Antenna Complexes of Green Photosynthetic Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, Robert E.

    2005-06-10

    Most chlorophyll-type pigments in a photosynthetic organism function as an antenna, absorbing light and transferring excitations to a photochemical reaction center where energy storage takes place by a series of chemical reactions. The green photosynthetic bacteria are characterized by large antenna complexes known as chlorosomes, in which pigment-pigment interactions are of dominant importance. The overall objective of this project is to determine the mechanisms of excitation transfer and regulation of this unique antenna system, including how it is integrated into the rest of the photosynthetic energy transduction apparatus. Techniques that are being used in this research include biochemical analysis, spectroscopy, microscopy, X-ray structural studies, and reconstitution from purified components. Our recent results indicate that the chlorosome baseplate structure, which is the membrane attachment site for the chlorosome to the membrane, is a unique pigment-protein that contains large amounts of carotenoids and small amounts of bacteriochlorophyll a. Reconstitution of directed energy transfer in chlorosomes will be carried out using purified baseplates and oligomeric pigments. The integral membrane B808-866 antenna complex from Chloroflexus aurantiacus and the Fenna-Matthews-Olson protein-reaction center complex from green sulfur bacteria will be characterized by spectroscopic and structural techniques.

  6. Thermal Quantum Correlations in Photosynthetic Light-Harvesting Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdian, M.; Kouhestani, H.

    2015-08-01

    Photosynthesis is one of the ancient biological processes, playing crucial role converting solar energy to cellular usable currency. Environmental factors and external perturbations has forced nature to choose systems with the highest efficiency and performance. Recent theoretical and experimental studies have proved the presence of quantum properties in biological systems. Energy transfer systems like Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex shows quantum entanglement between sites of Bacteriophylla molecules in protein environment and presence of decoherence. Complex biological systems implement more truthful mechanisms beside chemical-quantum correlations to assure system's efficiency. In this study we investigate thermal quantum correlations in FMO protein of the photosynthetic apparatus of green sulfur bacteria by quantum discord measure. The results confirmed existence of remarkable quantum correlations of of BChla pigments in room temperature. This results approve involvement of quantum correlation mechanisms for information storage and retention in living organisms that could be useful for further evolutionary studies. Inspired idea of this study is potentially interesting to practice by the same procedure in genetic data transfer mechanisms.

  7. Host control and nutrient trading in a photosynthetic symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Dean, Andrew D; Minter, Ewan J A; Sørensen, Megan E S; Lowe, Christopher D; Cameron, Duncan D; Brockhurst, Michael A; Jamie Wood, A

    2016-09-21

    Photosymbiosis is one of the most important evolutionary trajectories, resulting in the chloroplast and the subsequent development of all complex photosynthetic organisms. The ciliate Paramecium bursaria and the alga Chlorella have a well established and well studied light dependent endosymbiotic relationship. Despite its prominence, there remain many unanswered questions regarding the exact mechanisms of the photosymbiosis. Of particular interest is how a host maintains and manages its symbiont load in response to the allocation of nutrients between itself and its symbionts. Here we construct a detailed mathematical model, parameterised from the literature, that explicitly incorporates nutrient trading within a deterministic model of both partners. The model demonstrates how the symbiotic relationship can manifest as parasitism of the host by the symbionts, mutualism, wherein both partners benefit, or exploitation of the symbionts by the hosts. We show that the precise nature of the photosymbiosis is determined by both environmental conditions (how much light is available for photosynthesis) and the level of control a host has over its symbiont load. Our model provides a framework within which it is possible to pose detailed questions regarding the evolutionary behaviour of this important example of an established light dependent endosymbiosis; we focus on one question in particular, namely the evolution of host control, and show using an adaptive dynamics approach that a moderate level of host control may evolve provided the associated costs are not prohibitive. PMID:26925812

  8. Dissecting pigment architecture of individual photosynthetic antenna complexes in solution

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Quan; Moerner, W. E.

    2015-01-01

    Oligomerization plays a critical role in shaping the light-harvesting properties of many photosynthetic pigment−protein complexes, but a detailed understanding of this process at the level of individual pigments is still lacking. To study the effects of oligomerization, we designed a single-molecule approach to probe the photophysical properties of individual pigment sites as a function of protein assembly state. Our method, based on the principles of anti-Brownian electrokinetic trapping of single fluorescent proteins, step-wise photobleaching, and multiparameter spectroscopy, allows pigment-specific spectroscopic information on single multipigment antennae to be recorded in a nonperturbative aqueous environment with unprecedented detail. We focus on the monomer-to-trimer transformation of allophycocyanin (APC), an important antenna protein in cyanobacteria. Our data reveal that the two chemically identical pigments in APC have different roles. One (α) is the functional pigment that red-shifts its spectral properties upon trimer formation, whereas the other (β) is a “protective” pigment that persistently quenches the excited state of α in the prefunctional, monomer state of the protein. These results show how subtleties in pigment organization give rise to functionally important aspects of energy transfer and photoprotection in antenna complexes. The method developed here should find immediate application in understanding the emergent properties of other natural and artificial light-harvesting systems. PMID:26438850

  9. ATP drives direct photosynthetic production of 1-butanol in cyanobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Ethan I.; Liao, James C.

    2012-01-01

    While conservation of ATP is often a desirable trait for microbial production of chemicals, we demonstrate that additional consumption of ATP may be beneficial to drive product formation in a nonnatural pathway. Although production of 1-butanol by the fermentative coenzyme A (CoA)-dependent pathway using the reversal of β-oxidation exists in nature and has been demonstrated in various organisms, the first step of the pathway, condensation of two molecules of acetyl-CoA to acetoacetyl-CoA, is thermodynamically unfavorable. Here, we show that artificially engineered ATP consumption through a pathway modification can drive this reaction forward and enables for the first time the direct photosynthetic production of 1-butanol from cyanobacteria Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942. We further demonstrated that substitution of bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase (AdhE2) with separate butyraldehyde dehydrogenase (Bldh) and NADPH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (YqhD) increased 1-butanol production by 4-fold. These results demonstrated the importance of ATP and cofactor driving forces as a design principle to alter metabolic flux. PMID:22474341

  10. Mimicking the Role of the Antenna in Photosynthetic Photoprotection

    SciTech Connect

    Terazono, Yuichi; Kodis, Gerdenis; Bhushan, Kul; Zaks, Julia; Madden, Christopher; Moore, Ana L.; Moore, Thomas A.; Fleming, Graham R.; Gust, Devens

    2011-03-09

    One mechanism used by plants to protect against damage from excess sunlight is called nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ). Triggered by low pH in the thylakoid lumen, NPQ leads to conversion of excess excitation energy in the antenna system to heat before it can initiate production of harmful chemical species by photosynthetic reaction centers. Here we report a synthetic hexad molecule that functionally mimics the role of the antenna in NPQ. When the hexad is dissolved in an organic solvent, five zinc porphyrin antenna moieties absorb light, exchange excitation energy, and ultimately decay by normal photophysical processes. Their excited-state lifetimes are long enough to permit harvesting of the excitation energy for photoinduced charge separation or other work. However, when acid is added, a pH-sensitive dye moiety is converted to a form that rapidly quenches the first excited singlet states of all five porphyrins, converting the excitation energy to heat and rendering the porphyrins kinetically incompetent to readily perform useful photochemistry.

  11. Sensor Needs for Effective Measurement of Non-Photosynthetic Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serbin, G.; Hunt, E. R.; Daughtry, C. S.; Doraiswamy, P. C.

    2009-12-01

    Non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) is an important carbon pool in agricultural and non-agricultural environments. In cultivated agricultural environments, NPV manifests itself in the form of crop residues, or the stems, cobs, leaves and other plant parts left in the field after harvest. Modern conservation tillage systems leave substantial quantities of crop residues on the soil surface in comparison with conventional intensive tillage systems, which plow residues under the soil surface. Crop residue cover is an important parameter in agricultural carbon cycle and water quality models. These crop residues, when left intact on the surface, protect the soil from wind and water erosion, reduce evaporation, recycle nutrients, and add organic carbon to the soil surface when they decompose. However, crop residues can be harvested for biofuel feedstock or animal feed and fodder, even in tillage systems which minimally disturb the underlying soil. In rangelands, non-photosynthetic vegetation is an important indicator of rangeland health and soil quality. In non-agricultural settings, NPV can serve as fuel for brush files. As such, the removal of NPV can result in the erosion and transport of soils, and thus, SOC. Current ground-based methods of NPV estimation are tedious and not well-suited for estimating over large areas. Current multispectral spaceborne platforms are not well-suited for estimation of NPV as they lack the appropriate spectral bands in the shortwave infrared (SWIR) portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. The ideal system for measurement of NPV utilizes the Cellulose Absorption Index (CAI), requiring three SWIR bands. Alternatively, estimation of NPV is possible with the Shortwave Infrared Normalized Difference Residue Index (SINDRI) utilizing ASTER bands 6 and 7. While SINDRI is not as effective as CAI, it outperforms the remaining NPV indices and is not as expensive to implement as CAI. SINDRI can also be applied to existing ASTER imagery acquired prior

  12. Unique role for translation initiation factor 3 in the light color regulation of photosynthetic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Gutu, Andrian; Nesbit, April D; Alverson, Andrew J; Palmer, Jeffrey D; Kehoe, David M

    2013-10-01

    Light-harvesting antennae are critical for collecting energy from sunlight and providing it to photosynthetic reaction centers. Their abundance and composition are tightly regulated to maintain efficient photosynthesis in changing light conditions. Many cyanobacteria alter their light-harvesting antennae in response to changes in ambient light-color conditions through the process of chromatic acclimation. The control of green light induction (Cgi) pathway is a light-color-sensing system that controls the expression of photosynthetic genes during chromatic acclimation, and while some evidence suggests that it operates via transcription attenuation, the components of this pathway have not been identified. We provide evidence that translation initiation factor 3 (IF3), an essential component of the prokaryotic translation initiation machinery that binds the 30S subunit and blocks premature association with the 50S subunit, is part of the control of green light induction pathway. Light regulation of gene expression has not been previously described for any translation initiation factor. Surprisingly, deletion of the IF3-encoding gene infCa was not lethal in the filamentous cyanobacterium Fremyella diplosiphon, and its genome was found to contain a second, redundant, highly divergent infC gene which, when deleted, had no effect on photosynthetic gene expression. Either gene could complement an Escherichia coli infC mutant and thus both encode bona fide IF3s. Analysis of prokaryotic and eukaryotic genome databases established that multiple infC genes are present in the genomes of diverse groups of bacteria and land plants, most of which do not undergo chromatic acclimation. This suggests that IF3 may have repeatedly evolved important roles in the regulation of gene expression in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. PMID:24048028

  13. Towards autotrophic tissue engineering: Photosynthetic gene therapy for regeneration.

    PubMed

    Chávez, Myra Noemi; Schenck, Thilo Ludwig; Hopfner, Ursula; Centeno-Cerdas, Carolina; Somlai-Schweiger, Ian; Schwarz, Christian; Machens, Hans-Günther; Heikenwalder, Mathias; Bono, María Rosa; Allende, Miguel L; Nickelsen, Jörg; Egaña, José Tomás

    2016-01-01

    The use of artificial tissues in regenerative medicine is limited due to hypoxia. As a strategy to overcome this drawback, we have shown that photosynthetic biomaterials can produce and provide oxygen independently of blood perfusion by generating chimeric animal-plant tissues during dermal regeneration. In this work, we demonstrate the safety and efficacy of photosynthetic biomaterials in vivo after engraftment in a fully immunocompetent mouse skin defect model. Further, we show that it is also possible to genetically engineer such photosynthetic scaffolds to deliver other key molecules in addition to oxygen. As a proof-of-concept, biomaterials were loaded with gene modified microalgae expressing the angiogenic recombinant protein VEGF. Survival of the algae, growth factor delivery and regenerative potential were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. This work proposes the use of photosynthetic gene therapy in regenerative medicine and provides scientific evidence for the use of engineered microalgae as an alternative to deliver recombinant molecules for gene therapy. PMID:26474040

  14. Cultivar variation in cotton photosynthetic performance under different temperature regimes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) yields are impacted by overall photosynthetic production. Factors that influence crop photosynthesis are the plants genetic makeup and the environmental conditions. This study investigated cultivar variation in photosynthesis when plants were grown in the field under...

  15. Capella: Structure and Abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brickhouse, Nancy S.

    1999-01-01

    This grant covers the analysis of ASCA spectra of the cool star binary system Capella. This project has also required the analysis of simultaneous EUVE data. The ASCA spectrum of Capella could not be fit with standard models; by imposing models based on strong lines observed with EUVE, a problem wavelength region was identified. Correcting the problem required calculations of atomic collision strengths of higher principal quantum number than had ever been calculated, resulting in a paper in process by Liedahl and Brickhouse. With these new models applied to the ASCA spectrum, better fits were obtained. While solar abundance ratios are generally consistent with the ASCA data, the ratio of Ne/Fe is three to four times lower than solar photospheric values. Whether there is a general First Ionization Potential (FIP) effect or a specific neon anomaly cannot be determined from these data. Detailed discussion has been provided to NASA in the most recent annual report (1997). Two poster presentations have been made regarding modeling requirements. A substantial paper is in the final revision form, following review by six co-authors. The results of this work have wide implications, since the newly calculated emission lines almost certainly contribute to other problems in fitting not only other stellar spectra, but also composite supernova remnants, galaxies, and cooling flow clusters of galaxies. Furthermore, Liedahl and Brickhouse have identified other species for which lines of a similar nature (high principal quantum number) will contribute significant flux. For moderate resolution X-ray spectra, lines left out of the models in relatively isolated bands, will be attributed to continuum flux by spectral fitting engines, causing errors in line-to-continuum ratios. Thus addressing the general theoretical problem is of crucial importance.

  16. Modelling occurrence and abundance of species when detection is imperfect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Royle, J. Andrew; Nichols, J.D.; Kery, M.

    2005-01-01

    Relationships between species abundance and occupancy are of considerable interest in metapopulation biology and in macroecology. Such relationships may be described concisely using probability models that characterize variation in abundance of a species. However, estimation of the parameters of these models in most ecological problems is impaired by imperfect detection. When organisms are detected imperfectly, observed counts are biased estimates of true abundance, and this induces bias in stated occupancy or occurrence probability. In this paper we consider a class of models that enable estimation of abundance/occupancy relationships from counts of organisms that result from surveys in which detection is imperfect. Under such models, parameter estimation and inference are based on conventional likelihood methods. We provide an application of these models to geographically extensive breeding bird survey data in which alternative models of abundance are considered that include factors that influence variation in abundance and detectability. Using these models, we produce estimates of abundance and occupancy maps that honor important sources of spatial variation in avian abundance and provide clearly interpretable characterizations of abundance and occupancy adjusted for imperfect detection.

  17. Low levels of ribosomal RNA partly account for the very high photosynthetic phosphorus-use efficiency of Proteaceae species

    PubMed Central

    Sulpice, Ronan; Ishihara, Hirofumi; Schlereth, Armin; Cawthray, Gregory R; Encke, Beatrice; Giavalisco, Patrick; Ivakov, Alexander; Arrivault, StÉphanie; Jost, Ricarda; Krohn, Nicole; Kuo, John; Laliberté, Etienne; Pearse, Stuart J; Raven, John A; Scheible, Wolf-rüdiger; Teste, François; Veneklaas, Erik J; Stitt, Mark; Lambers, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Proteaceae species in south-western Australia occur on phosphorus- (P) impoverished soils. Their leaves contain very low P levels, but have relatively high rates of photosynthesis. We measured ribosomal RNA (rRNA) abundance, soluble protein, activities of several enzymes and glucose 6-phosphate (Glc6P) levels in expanding and mature leaves of six Proteaceae species in their natural habitat. The results were compared with those for Arabidopsis thaliana. Compared with A. thaliana, immature leaves of Proteaceae species contained very low levels of rRNA, especially plastidic rRNA. Proteaceae species showed slow development of the photosynthetic apparatus (‘delayed greening’), with young leaves having very low levels of chlorophyll and Calvin–Benson cycle enzymes. In mature leaves, soluble protein and Calvin–Benson cycle enzyme activities were low, but Glc6P levels were similar to those in A. thaliana. We propose that low ribosome abundance contributes to the high P efficiency of these Proteaceae species in three ways: (1) less P is invested in ribosomes; (2) the rate of growth and, hence, demand for P is low; and (3) the especially low plastidic ribosome abundance in young leaves delays formation of the photosynthetic machinery, spreading investment of P in rRNA. Although Calvin–Benson cycle enzyme activities are low, Glc6P levels are maintained, allowing their effective use. PMID:24895754

  18. Low levels of ribosomal RNA partly account for the very high photosynthetic phosphorus-use efficiency of Proteaceae species.

    PubMed

    Sulpice, Ronan; Ishihara, Hirofumi; Schlereth, Armin; Cawthray, Gregory R; Encke, Beatrice; Giavalisco, Patrick; Ivakov, Alexander; Arrivault, Stéphanie; Jost, Ricarda; Krohn, Nicole; Kuo, John; Laliberté, Etienne; Pearse, Stuart J; Raven, John A; Scheible, Wolf-Rüdiger; Teste, François; Veneklaas, Erik J; Stitt, Mark; Lambers, Hans

    2014-06-01

    Proteaceae species in south-western Australia occur on phosphorus- (P) impoverished soils. Their leaves contain very low P levels, but have relatively high rates of photosynthesis. We measured ribosomal RNA (rRNA) abundance, soluble protein, activities of several enzymes and glucose 6-phosphate (Glc6P) levels in expanding and mature leaves of six Proteaceae species in their natural habitat. The results were compared with those for Arabidopsis thaliana. Compared with A. thaliana, immature leaves of Proteaceae species contained very low levels of rRNA, especially plastidic rRNA. Proteaceae species showed slow development of the photosynthetic apparatus (‘delayed greening’), with young leaves having very low levels of chlorophyll and Calvin-Benson cycle enzymes. In mature leaves, soluble protein and Calvin-Benson cycle enzyme activities were low, but Glc6P levels were similar to those in A. thaliana. We propose that low ribosome abundance contributes to the high P efficiency of these Proteaceae species in three ways: (1) less P is invested in ribosomes; (2) the rate of growth and, hence, demand for P is low; and (3) the especially low plastidic ribosome abundance in young leaves delays formation of the photosynthetic machinery, spreading investment of P in rRNA. Although Calvin-Benson cycle enzyme activities are low, Glc6P levels are maintained, allowing their effective use. PMID:24895754

  19. Abundances in dwarf irregular galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dufour, Reginald J.

    1986-01-01

    The results of abundance studies of dwarf irregular galaxies and similar objects are reviewed with special attention to variations in the CNO element group. Observations of the forbidden N II and semiforbidden C III lines in the most metal-poor galaxy known, IZw 18, are presented for the first time and CNO abundances are derived via a photoionization model and discussed in the context of the abundances found in other metal-poor H II regions and galaxies.

  20. Photosynthetic light harvesting: excitons and coherence

    PubMed Central

    Fassioli, Francesca; Dinshaw, Rayomond; Arpin, Paul C.; Scholes, Gregory D.

    2014-01-01

    Photosynthesis begins with light harvesting, where specialized pigment–protein complexes transform sunlight into electronic excitations delivered to reaction centres to initiate charge separation. There is evidence that quantum coherence between electronic excited states plays a role in energy transfer. In this review, we discuss how quantum coherence manifests in photosynthetic light harvesting and its implications. We begin by examining the concept of an exciton, an excited electronic state delocalized over several spatially separated molecules, which is the most widely available signature of quantum coherence in light harvesting. We then discuss recent results concerning the possibility that quantum coherence between electronically excited states of donors and acceptors may give rise to a quantum coherent evolution of excitations, modifying the traditional incoherent picture of energy transfer. Key to this (partially) coherent energy transfer appears to be the structure of the environment, in particular the participation of non-equilibrium vibrational modes. We discuss the open questions and controversies regarding quantum coherent energy transfer and how these can be addressed using new experimental techniques. PMID:24352671

  1. Photosynthetically active sunlight at high southern latitudes.

    PubMed

    Frederick, John E; Liao, Yixiang

    2005-01-01

    A network of scanning spectroradiometers has acquired a multiyear database of visible solar irradiance, covering wavelengths from 400 to 600 nm, at four sites in the high-latitude Southern Hemisphere, from 55 degrees S to 90 degrees S. Monthly irradiations computed from the hourly measurements reveal the character of the seasonal cycle and illustrate the role of cloudiness as functions of latitude. Near summer solstice, the combined influences of solar elevation and the duration of daylight would produce a monthly irradiation with little latitude dependence under clear skies. However, the attenuation associated with local cloudiness varies geographically, with the greatest effect at the most northern locations, Ushuaia, Argentina and Palmer Station on the Antarctic Peninsula. Near summer solstice, the South Pole experiences the largest monthly irradiation of the sites studied, where relatively clear skies contribute to this result. Scaling factors derived from radiative-transfer calculations combined with the measured 400-600 nm irradiances allow estimating irradiances integrated over the wavelength band 400-700 nm. This produces a climatology of photosynthetically active radiation for each month of the year at each site. PMID:15689179

  2. Renewable hydrogen production by photosynthetic water splitting

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W.

    1998-06-01

    This mission-oriented research project is focused on the production of renewable hydrogen. The authors have demonstrated that certain unicellular green algae are capable of sustained simultaneous photoproduction of hydrogen and oxygen by light-activated photosynthetic water splitting. It is the goal of this project to develop a practical chemical engineering system for the development of an economic process that can be used to produce renewable hydrogen. There are several fundamental problems that need to be solved before the application of this scientific knowledge can be applied to the development a practical process: (I) maximizing net thermodynamic conversion efficiency of light energy into hydrogen energy, (2) development of oxygen-sensitive hydrogenase-containing mutants, and (3) development of bioreactors that can be used in a real-world chemical engineering process. The authors are addressing each of these problems here at ORNL and in collaboration with their research colleagues at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, the University of California, Berkeley, and the University of Hawaii. This year the authors have focused on item 1 above. In particular, they have focused on the question of how many light reactions are required to split water to molecular hydrogen and oxygen.

  3. Dynamic Environmental Photosynthetic Imaging Reveals Emergent Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Jeffrey A; Savage, Linda J; Zegarac, Robert; Hall, Christopher C; Satoh-Cruz, Mio; Davis, Geoffry A; Kovac, William Kent; Chen, Jin; Kramer, David M

    2016-06-22

    Understanding and improving the productivity and robustness of plant photosynthesis requires high-throughput phenotyping under environmental conditions that are relevant to the field. Here we demonstrate the dynamic environmental photosynthesis imager (DEPI), an experimental platform for integrated, continuous, and high-throughput measurements of photosynthetic parameters during plant growth under reproducible yet dynamic environmental conditions. Using parallel imagers obviates the need to move plants or sensors, reducing artifacts and allowing simultaneous measurement on large numbers of plants. As a result, DEPI can reveal phenotypes that are not evident under standard laboratory conditions but emerge under progressively more dynamic illumination. We show examples in mutants of Arabidopsis of such "emergent phenotypes" that are highly transient and heterogeneous, appearing in different leaves under different conditions and depending in complex ways on both environmental conditions and plant developmental age. These emergent phenotypes appear to be caused by a range of phenomena, suggesting that such previously unseen processes are critical for plant responses to dynamic environments. PMID:27336966

  4. Photocurrent of a single photosynthetic protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerster, Daniel; Reichert, Joachim; Bi, Hai; Barth, Johannes V.; Kaniber, Simone M.; Holleitner, Alexander W.; Visoly-Fisher, Iris; Sergani, Shlomi; Carmeli, Itai

    2012-10-01

    Photosynthesis is used by plants, algae and bacteria to convert solar energy into stable chemical energy. The initial stages of this process--where light is absorbed and energy and electrons are transferred--are mediated by reaction centres composed of chlorophyll and carotenoid complexes. It has been previously shown that single small molecules can be used as functional components in electric and optoelectronic circuits, but it has proved difficult to control and probe individual molecules for photovoltaic and photoelectrochemical applications. Here, we show that the photocurrent generated by a single photosynthetic protein--photosystem I--can be measured using a scanning near-field optical microscope set-up. One side of the protein is anchored to a gold surface that acts as an electrode, and the other is contacted by a gold-covered glass tip. The tip functions as both counter electrode and light source. A photocurrent of ~10 pA is recorded from the covalently bound single-protein junctions, which is in agreement with the internal electron transfer times of photosystem I.

  5. ENHANCED PRACTICAL PHOTOSYNTHETIC CO2 MITIGATION

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Gregory Kremer; Dr. David J. Bayless; Dr. Morgan Vis; Dr. Michael Prudich; Dr. Keith Cooksey; Dr. Jeff Muhs

    2001-07-25

    This quarterly report documents significant achievements in the Enhanced Practical Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} Mitigation project during the period from 4/03/2001 through 7/02/2001. Most of the achievements are milestones in our efforts to complete the tasks and subtasks that constitute the project objectives. Note that this version of the quarterly technical report is a revision to add the reports from subcontractors Montana State and Oak Ridge National Laboratories The significant accomplishments for this quarter include: Development of an experimental plan and initiation of experiments to create a calibration curve that correlates algal chlorophyll levels with carbon levels (to simplify future experimental procedures); Completion of debugging of the slug flow reactor system, and development of a plan for testing the pressure drop of the slug flow reactor; Design and development of a new bioreactor screen design which integrates the nutrient delivery drip system and the harvesting system; Development of an experimental setup for testing the new integrated drip system/harvesting system; Completion of model-scale bioreactor tests examining the effects of CO{sub 2} concentration levels and lighting levels on Nostoc 86-3 growth rates; Completion of the construction of a larger model-scale bioreactor to improve and expand testing capabilities and initiation of tests; Substantial progress on construction of a pilot-scale bioreactor; and Preliminary economic analysis of photobioreactor deployment. Plans for next quarter's work are included in the conclusions. A preliminary economic analysis is included as an appendix.

  6. Supramolecular structures modeling photosynthetic reaction center function

    SciTech Connect

    Wasielewski, M.R.; Gaines, G.L. III; Gosztola, D.; Niemczyk, M.P.; Svec, W.A.

    1992-08-20

    Work in our laboratory has focused on the influence of solvent motion on the rates and energetics of photochemical charge separation in glassy solids. The efficiencies of many nonadiabatic electron transfer reactions involving photochemical electron donors with relatively low excited state energies, such as porphyrins and chlorophylls, are poor in the solid state. Recent work has shown that placing a porphyrin-acceptor system in a glassy solid at low temperature significantly raises the energy of ks ion-pair state. This destabilization can be as much as 0.8 eV relative to the ion pair state energy in a polar liquid. This contrasts sharply with photosynthetic reaction centers, which maintain medium-independent electron transfer rates with relatively small free energies of charge separation. Using this information we have set out to design photochemical systems that produce long-lived radical ion pairs in glassy solids with high quantum efficiency. These systems maintain their efficiency when placed in other glassy matrices, such as polymers. An important consequence of this effort is the design of molecules that minimize the electronic interaction between the oxidized donor and reduced acceptor. This minimization can be attained by careful design of the spacer groups linking the donor and acceptor and by using more than a single electron transfer step to increase the distance between the separated charges as is done in natural photosynthesis.

  7. Regulation of the photosynthetic apparatus under fluctuating growth light.

    PubMed

    Tikkanen, Mikko; Grieco, Michele; Nurmi, Markus; Rantala, Marjaana; Suorsa, Marjaana; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2012-12-19

    Safe and efficient conversion of solar energy to metabolic energy by plants is based on tightly inter-regulated transfer of excitation energy, electrons and protons in the photosynthetic machinery according to the availability of light energy, as well as the needs and restrictions of metabolism itself. Plants have mechanisms to enhance the capture of energy when light is limited for growth and development. Also, when energy is in excess, the photosynthetic machinery slows down the electron transfer reactions in order to prevent the production of reactive oxygen species and the consequent damage of the photosynthetic machinery. In this opinion paper, we present a partially hypothetical scheme describing how the photosynthetic machinery controls the flow of energy and electrons in order to enable the maintenance of photosynthetic activity in nature under continual fluctuations in white light intensity. We discuss the roles of light-harvesting II protein phosphorylation, thermal dissipation of excess energy and the control of electron transfer by cytochrome b(6)f, and the role of dynamically regulated turnover of photosystem II in the maintenance of the photosynthetic machinery. We present a new hypothesis suggesting that most of the regulation in the thylakoid membrane occurs in order to prevent oxidative damage of photosystem I. PMID:23148275

  8. Rice Photosynthetic Productivity and PSII Photochemistry under Nonflooded Irrigation

    PubMed Central

    He, Haibing; Yang, Ru; Jia, Biao; Chen, Lin; Fan, Hua; Cui, Jing; Yang, Dong; Li, Menglong; Ma, Fu-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Nonflooded irrigation is an important water-saving rice cultivation technology, but little is known on its photosynthetic mechanism. The aims of this work were to investigate photosynthetic characteristics of rice during grain filling stage under three nonflooded irrigation treatments: furrow irrigation with plastic mulching (FIM), furrow irrigation with nonmulching (FIN), and drip irrigation with plastic mulching (DI). Compared with the conventional flooding (CF) treatment, those grown in the nonflooded irrigation treatments showed lower net photosynthetic rate (PN), lower maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm), and lower effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (ΦPSII). And the poor photosynthetic characteristics in the nonflooded irrigation treatments were mainly attributed to the low total nitrogen content (TNC). Under non-flooded irrigation, the PN, Fv/Fm, and ΦPSII significantly decreased with a reduction in the soil water potential, but these parameters were rapidly recovered in the DI and FIM treatments when supplementary irrigation was applied. Moreover, The DI treatment always had higher photosynthetic productivity than the FIM and FIN treatments. Grain yield, matter translocation, and dry matter post-anthesis (DMPA) were the highest in the CF treatment, followed by the DI, FIM, and FIN treatments in turn. In conclusion, increasing nitrogen content in leaf of rice plants could be a key factor to improve photosynthetic capacity in nonflooded irrigation. PMID:24741364

  9. Regulation of the photosynthetic apparatus under fluctuating growth light

    PubMed Central

    Tikkanen, Mikko; Grieco, Michele; Nurmi, Markus; Rantala, Marjaana; Suorsa, Marjaana; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2012-01-01

    Safe and efficient conversion of solar energy to metabolic energy by plants is based on tightly inter-regulated transfer of excitation energy, electrons and protons in the photosynthetic machinery according to the availability of light energy, as well as the needs and restrictions of metabolism itself. Plants have mechanisms to enhance the capture of energy when light is limited for growth and development. Also, when energy is in excess, the photosynthetic machinery slows down the electron transfer reactions in order to prevent the production of reactive oxygen species and the consequent damage of the photosynthetic machinery. In this opinion paper, we present a partially hypothetical scheme describing how the photosynthetic machinery controls the flow of energy and electrons in order to enable the maintenance of photosynthetic activity in nature under continual fluctuations in white light intensity. We discuss the roles of light-harvesting II protein phosphorylation, thermal dissipation of excess energy and the control of electron transfer by cytochrome b6f, and the role of dynamically regulated turnover of photosystem II in the maintenance of the photosynthetic machinery. We present a new hypothesis suggesting that most of the regulation in the thylakoid membrane occurs in order to prevent oxidative damage of photosystem I. PMID:23148275

  10. Hydraulic basis for the evolution of photosynthetic productivity.

    PubMed

    Scoffoni, Christine; Chatelet, David S; Pasquet-Kok, Jessica; Rawls, Michael; Donoghue, Michael J; Edwards, Erika J; Sack, Lawren

    2016-01-01

    Clarifying the evolution and mechanisms for photosynthetic productivity is a key to both improving crops and understanding plant evolution and habitat distributions. Current theory recognizes a role for the hydraulics of water transport as a potential determinant of photosynthetic productivity based on comparative data across disparate species. However, there has never been rigorous support for the maintenance of this relationship during an evolutionary radiation. We tested this theory for 30 species of Viburnum, diverse in leaf shape and photosynthetic anatomy, grown in a common garden. We found strong support for a fundamental requirement for leaf hydraulic capacity (Kleaf) in determining photosynthetic capacity (Amax), as these traits diversified across this lineage in tight coordination, with their proportionality modulated by the climate experienced in the species' range. Variation in Kleaf arose from differences in venation architecture that influenced xylem and especially outside-xylem flow pathways. These findings substantiate an evolutionary basis for the coordination of hydraulic and photosynthetic physiology across species, and their co-dependence on climate, establishing a fundamental role for water transport in the evolution of the photosynthetic rate. PMID:27255836

  11. Alternative oxidase: a respiratory electron transport chain pathway essential for maintaining photosynthetic performance during drought stress.

    PubMed

    Vanlerberghe, Greg C; Martyn, Greg D; Dahal, Keshav

    2016-07-01

    Photosynthesis and respiration are the hubs of energy metabolism in plants. Drought strongly perturbs photosynthesis as a result of both diffusive limitations resulting from stomatal closure, and in some cases biochemical limitations that are associated with a reduced abundance of key photosynthetic components. The effects of drought on respiration, particularly respiration in the light (RL ), are less understood. The plant mitochondrial electron transport chain includes a non-energy conserving terminal oxidase called alternative oxidase (AOX). Several studies have shown that drought increases AOX transcript, protein and maximum capacity. Here we review recent studies comparing wild-type (WT) tobacco to transgenic lines with altered AOX protein amount. Specifically during drought, RL was compromised in AOX knockdown plants and enhanced in AOX overexpression plants, compared with WT. Significantly, these differences in RL were accompanied by dramatic differences in photosynthetic performance. Knockdown of AOX increased the susceptibility of photosynthesis to drought-induced biochemical limitations, while overexpression of AOX delayed the development of such biochemical limitations, compared with WT. Overall, the results indicate that AOX is essential to maintaining RL during drought, and that this non-energy conserving respiration maintains photosynthesis during drought by promoting energy balance in the chloroplast. This review also outlines several areas for future research, including the possibility that enhancement of non-energy conserving respiratory electron sinks may be a useful biotechnological approach to increase plant performance during stress. PMID:27080742

  12. Abundance models improve spatial and temporal prioritization of conservation resources.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Alison; Fink, Daniel; Reynolds, Mark D; Hochachka, Wesley M; Sullivan, Brian L; Bruns, Nicholas E; Hallstein, Eric; Merrifield, Matt S; Matsumoto, Sandi; Kelling, Steve

    2015-10-01

    Conservation prioritization requires knowledge about organism distribution and density. This information is often inferred from models that estimate the probability of species occurrence rather than from models that estimate species abundance, because abundance data are harder to obtain and model. However, occurrence and abundance may not display similar patterns and therefore development of robust, scalable, abundance models is critical to ensuring that scarce conservation resources are applied where they can have the greatest benefits. Motivated by a dynamic land conservation program, we develop and assess a general method for modeling relative abundance using citizen science monitoring data. Weekly estimates of relative abundance and occurrence were compared for prioritizing times and locations of conservation actions for migratory waterbird species in California, USA. We found that abundance estimates consistently provided better rankings of observed counts than occurrence estimates. Additionally, the relationship between abundance and occurrence was nonlinear and varied by species and season. Across species, locations prioritized by occurrence models had only 10-58% overlap with locations prioritized by abundance models, highlighting that occurrence models will not typically identify the locations of highest abundance that are vital for conservation of populations. PMID:26591443

  13. Structural and Functional Hierarchy in Photosynthetic Energy Conversion-from Molecules to Nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Szabó, Tibor; Magyar, Melinda; Hajdu, Kata; Dorogi, Márta; Nyerki, Emil; Tóth, Tünde; Lingvay, Mónika; Garab, Győző; Hernádi, Klára; Nagy, László

    2015-12-01

    Basic principles of structural and functional requirements of photosynthetic energy conversion in hierarchically organized machineries are reviewed. Blueprints of photosynthesis, the energetic basis of virtually all life on Earth, can serve the basis for constructing artificial light energy-converting molecular devices. In photosynthetic organisms, the conversion of light energy into chemical energy takes places in highly organized fine-tunable systems with structural and functional hierarchy. The incident photons are absorbed by light-harvesting complexes, which funnel the excitation energy into reaction centre (RC) protein complexes containing redox-active chlorophyll molecules; the primary charge separations in the RCs are followed by vectorial transport of charges (electrons and protons) in the photosynthetic membrane. RCs possess properties that make their use in solar energy-converting and integrated optoelectronic systems feasible. Therefore, there is a large interest in many laboratories and in the industry toward their use in molecular devices. RCs have been bound to different carrier matrices, with their photophysical and photochemical activities largely retained in the nano-systems and with electronic connection to conducting surfaces. We show examples of RCs bound to carbon-based materials (functionalized and non-functionalized single- and multiwalled carbon nanotubes), transitional metal oxides (ITO) and conducting polymers and porous silicon and characterize their photochemical activities. Recently, we adapted several physical and chemical methods for binding RCs to different nanomaterials. It is generally found that the P(+)(QAQB)(-) charge pair, which is formed after single saturating light excitation is stabilized after the attachment of the RCs to the nanostructures, which is followed by slow reorganization of the protein structure. Measuring the electric conductivity in a direct contact mode or in electrochemical cell indicates that there is an

  14. Structural and Functional Hierarchy in Photosynthetic Energy Conversion—from Molecules to Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szabó, Tibor; Magyar, Melinda; Hajdu, Kata; Dorogi, Márta; Nyerki, Emil; Tóth, Tünde; Lingvay, Mónika; Garab, Győző; Hernádi, Klára; Nagy, László

    2015-12-01

    Basic principles of structural and functional requirements of photosynthetic energy conversion in hierarchically organized machineries are reviewed. Blueprints of photosynthesis, the energetic basis of virtually all life on Earth, can serve the basis for constructing artificial light energy-converting molecular devices. In photosynthetic organisms, the conversion of light energy into chemical energy takes places in highly organized fine-tunable systems with structural and functional hierarchy. The incident photons are absorbed by light-harvesting complexes, which funnel the excitation energy into reaction centre (RC) protein complexes containing redox-active chlorophyll molecules; the primary charge separations in the RCs are followed by vectorial transport of charges (electrons and protons) in the photosynthetic membrane. RCs possess properties that make their use in solar energy-converting and integrated optoelectronic systems feasible. Therefore, there is a large interest in many laboratories and in the industry toward their use in molecular devices. RCs have been bound to different carrier matrices, with their photophysical and photochemical activities largely retained in the nano-systems and with electronic connection to conducting surfaces. We show examples of RCs bound to carbon-based materials (functionalized and non-functionalized single- and multiwalled carbon nanotubes), transitional metal oxides (ITO) and conducting polymers and porous silicon and characterize their photochemical activities. Recently, we adapted several physical and chemical methods for binding RCs to different nanomaterials. It is generally found that the P+(QAQB)- charge pair, which is formed after single saturating light excitation is stabilized after the attachment of the RCs to the nanostructures, which is followed by slow reorganization of the protein structure. Measuring the electric conductivity in a direct contact mode or in electrochemical cell indicates that there is an

  15. Abundance coefficients, a new method for measuring microorganism relative abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forester, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    A new method of measuring the relative abundance of microorganisms by using a set of interrelated coefficients, termed 'abundance coefficients' or 'AC', is proposed. These coefficients provide a means of recording abundance for geometric density categories, and each density measurement represents an approximation of the Poisson parameter ??t. The AC is the natural logarithm of a 'characteristic value,' which is a particular number for each geometric density category. The 'characteristic values' are based upon a probabilistic error statement derived from the Poisson formula, and they present evidence for separation of the geometric category boundaries by e = 2.71828. The proposed AC provide a means for recording species abundance in a manner suitable for arithmetic manipulation, for population structure studies, and for the determination of practical limits for defining the presence or absence of a species. Further, these coefficients provide for both intrasample and intersample abundance comparisons. ?? 1977 Plenum Publishing Corporation.

  16. Photosynthetic antennas and reaction centers: Current understanding and prospects for improvement

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, R.E.

    1996-09-01

    A brief introduction to the principles, structures and kinetic processes that take place in natural photosynthetic reaction center complexes is presented. Energy is first collected by an antenna system, and is transferred to a reaction center complex where primary electron transfer takes place. Secondary reactions lead to oxidation of water and reduction of CO{sub 2} in some classes of organisms. Antenna systems are highly regulated to maximize energy collection efficiency while avoiding photodamage. Some areas that are presently not well understood are listed.

  17. Photosynthetic membrane-less microbial fuel cells to enhance microalgal biomass concentration.

    PubMed

    Uggetti, Enrica; Puigagut, Jaume

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to quantitatively assess the net increase in microalgal biomass concentration induced by photosynthetic microbial fuel cells (PMFC). The experiment was conducted on six lab-scale PMFC constituted by an anodic chamber simulating an anaerobic digester connected to a cathodic chamber consisting of a mixed algae consortia culture. Three PMFC were operated at closed circuit (PMFC(+)) whereas three PMFC were left unconnected as control (PMFC(-)). PMFC(+) produced a higher amount of carbon dioxide as a product of the organic matter oxidation that resulted in 1.5-3 times higher biomass concentration at the cathode compartment when compared to PMFC(-). PMID:27455126

  18. On the Quenching of the Fluorescence Yield in Photosynthetic Systems 12

    PubMed Central

    van Grondelle, Rienk; Duysens, Louis N.

    1980-01-01

    A modified matrix model describing transfer of excitation energy in the photosynthetic pigment system is discussed. In addition to the antenna pigments and reaction centers of the simple matrix model, a coupling complex is postulated mediating energy transfer between antenna and reaction centers. The values of the parameters describing the transfer properties of the coupling complex can be chosen in such a way that a number of recent unexplained measurements of fluorescence properties of various purple bacteria can be described. If such coupling complexes are present in oxygen evolving organisms, some of their properties must be different from those of purple bacteria. PMID:16661272

  19. Quantifying the effects of light intensity on bioproduction and maintenance energy during photosynthetic growth of Rhodobacter sphaeroides.

    PubMed

    Imam, Saheed; Fitzgerald, Colin M; Cook, Emily M; Donohue, Timothy J; Noguera, Daniel R

    2015-02-01

    Obtaining a better understanding of the physiology and bioenergetics of photosynthetic microbes is an important step toward optimizing these systems for light energy capture or production of valuable commodities. In this work, we analyzed the effect of light intensity on bioproduction, biomass formation, and maintenance energy during photoheterotrophic growth of Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Using data obtained from steady-state bioreactors operated at varying dilution rates and light intensities, we found that irradiance had a significant impact on biomass yield and composition, with significant changes in photopigment, phospholipid, and biopolymer storage contents. We also observed a linear relationship between incident light intensity and H2 production rate between 3 and 10 W m(-2), with saturation observed at 100 W m(-2). The light conversion efficiency to H2 was also higher at lower light intensities. Photosynthetic maintenance energy requirements were also significantly affected by light intensity, with links to differences in biomass composition and the need to maintain redox homeostasis. Inclusion of the measured condition-dependent biomass and maintenance energy parameters and the measured photon uptake rate into a genome-scale metabolic model for R. sphaeroides (iRsp1140) significantly improved its predictive performance. We discuss how our analyses provide new insights into the light-dependent changes in bioenergetic requirements and physiology during photosynthetic growth of R. sphaeroides and potentially other photosynthetic organisms. PMID:25428581

  20. PSI Mehler reaction is the main alternative photosynthetic electron pathway in Symbiodinium sp., symbiotic dinoflagellates of cnidarians.

    PubMed

    Roberty, Stéphane; Bailleul, Benjamin; Berne, Nicolas; Franck, Fabrice; Cardol, Pierre

    2014-10-01

    Photosynthetic organisms have developed various photoprotective mechanisms to cope with exposure to high light intensities. In photosynthetic dinoflagellates that live in symbiosis with cnidarians, the nature and relative amplitude of these regulatory mechanisms are a matter of debate. In our study, the amplitude of photosynthetic alternative electron flows (AEF) to oxygen (chlororespiration, Mehler reaction), the mitochondrial respiration and the Photosystem I (PSI) cyclic electron flow were investigated in strains belonging to three clades (A1, B1 and F1) of Symbiodinium. Cultured Symbiodinium strains were maintained under identical environmental conditions, and measurements of oxygen evolution, fluorescence emission and absorption changes at specific wavelengths were used to evaluate PSI and PSII electron transfer rates (ETR). A light- and O2 -dependent ETR was observed in all strains. This electron transfer chain involves PSII and PSI and is insensitive to inhibitors of mitochondrial activity and carbon fixation. We demonstrate that in all strains, the Mehler reaction responsible for photoreduction of oxygen by the PSI under high light, is the main AEF at the onset and at the steady state of photosynthesis. This sustained photosynthetic AEF under high light intensities acts as a photoprotective mechanism and leads to an increase of the ATP/NADPH ratio. PMID:24975027

  1. Leaf expansion and development of photosynthetic capacity and pigments in Liquidambar Styraciflua (Hamamelidaceae)-effects of UV-B radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Dillenburg, L.R.; Sullivan, J.H.; Teramura, A.H.

    1995-07-01

    In order to perform their functions as photosynthetic organs, leaves must cope with excess heat and potentially damaging ultraviolet radiation. Possible increases in the UV-B portion of the solar spectrum may place an additional burden on leaves, and this could be particularly important for young expanding leaves with poorly developed UV-B defense mechanisms. We evaluated the effects of supplemental UV-B radiation on leaf expansion and the development of photosynthetic capacity and pigments in sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.) seedlings. Seedlings were grown in the field under either ambient or ambient plus 3 or 5.0 kJ of biologically effective supplemental UV-B radiation. Although final leaf size was unaffected, the rate of leaf elongation and accumulation of leaf area was slower in leaves exposed to the lower supplemental UV-B irradiance. In contrast, chlorophyll accumulation and the development of photosynthetic capacity was more rapid in plants exposed to the higher, compared to the lower supplemental UV-B irradiance. The accumulation of anthocyanins and other putative flavonoids or UV-absorbing compounds was scarcely affected by exposure to supplemental UV-B radiation. These results suggest that the UV-B portion of the solar spectrum may, in the absence of gross affects on biomass, exert subtle influences on leaf ontogeny and the development of photosynthetic pigments and capacity in sweetgum. 44 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Vertical distribution of major photosynthetic picoeukaryotic groups in stratified marine waters.

    PubMed

    Cabello, Ana M; Latasa, Mikel; Forn, Irene; Morán, Xosé Anxelu G; Massana, Ramon

    2016-05-01

    Photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PPEs) are fundamental contributors to oceanic primary production and form diverse communities dominated by prymnesiophytes, chlorophytes, pelagophytes and chrysophytes. Here, we studied the vertical distribution of these major groups in two offshore regions of the northern Iberian Peninsula during summer stratification. We performed a fine-scale vertical sampling (every ∼2 m) across the DCM and used fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to determine the PPE composition and to explore the possible segregation of target groups in the light, nutrient and temperature gradients. Chlorophytes, pelagophytes and prymnesiophytes, in this order of abundance, accounted for the total PPEs recorded by flow cytometry in the Avilés canyon, and for more than half in the Galicia Bank, whereas chrysophytes were undetected. Among the three detected groups, often the prymnesiophytes were dominant in biomass. In general, all groups were present throughout the water column with abundance peaks around the DCM, but their distributions differed: pelagophytes were located deeper than the other two groups, chlorophytes presented two peaks and prymnesiophytes exhibited surface abundances comparable to those at the DCM. This study offers first indications that the vertical distribution of different PPE groups is heterogeneous within the DCM. PMID:26971724

  3. Regulation of Photosynthetic Carbon Metabolism in Cucumber by Light Intensity and Photosynthetic Period 1

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, N. Suzanne; Pharr, David M.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of photosynthetic periods and light intensity on cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) carbon exchange rates and photoassimilate partitioning were determined in relation to the activities of galactinol synthase and sucrose-phosphate synthase. Carbon assimilation and partitioning appeared to be controlled by different mechanisms. Carbon exchange rates were influenced by total photon flux density, but were nearly constant over the entire photoperiod for given photoperiod lengths. Length of the photosynthetic periods did influence photoassimilate partitioning. Assimilate export rate was decreased by more than 60% during the latter part of the short photoperiod treatment. This decrease in export rate was associated with a sharp increase in leaf starch acccumulation rate. Results were consistent with the hypothesis that starch accumulation occurs at the expense of export under short photoperiods. Galactinol synthase activities did not appear to influence the partitioning of photoassimilates between starch and transport carbohydrates. Sucrose phosphate synthase activities correlated highly with sugar formation rates (sucrose, raffinose, stachyose + assimilate export rate, r = 0.93, α = 0.007). Cucumber leaf sucrose phosphate synthase fluctuated diurnally in a similar pattern to that observed in vegetative soybean plants. PMID:16665742

  4. Differential Allocation to Photosynthetic and Non-Photosynthetic Nitrogen Fractions among Native and Invasive Species

    PubMed Central

    Funk, Jennifer L.; Glenwinkel, Lori A.; Sack, Lawren

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species are expected to cluster on the “high-return” end of the leaf economic spectrum, displaying leaf traits consistent with higher carbon assimilation relative to native species. Intra-leaf nitrogen (N) allocation should support these physiological differences; however, N biochemistry has not been examined in more than a few invasive species. We measured 34 leaf traits including seven leaf N pools for five native and five invasive species from Hawaii under low irradiance to mimic the forest understory environment. We found several trait differences between native and invasive species. In particular, invasive species showed preferential N allocation to metabolism (amino acids) rather than photosynthetic light reactions (membrane-bound protein) by comparison with native species. The soluble protein concentration did not vary between groups. Under these low irradiance conditions, native species had higher light-saturated photosynthetic rates, possibly as a consequence of a greater investment in membrane-bound protein. Invasive species may succeed by employing a wide range of N allocation mechanisms, including higher amino acid production for fast growth under high irradiance or storage of N in leaves as soluble protein or amino acids. PMID:23700483

  5. Erratum: Interstellar Abundance Standards Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofia, U. J.; Meyer, D. M.

    2001-09-01

    In the Letter ``Interstellar Abundance Standards Revisited'' by U. J. Sofia and D. M. Meyer (ApJ, 554, L221 [2001]), Table 2 and its footnotes contain several typographical errors. The corrected table is shown below. We note that the solar reference standard now implies a positive abundance of nitrogen in halo dust.

  6. Is It Beneficial for the Major Photosynthetic Antenna Complex of Plants To Form Trimers?

    PubMed

    Janik, Ewa; Bednarska, Joanna; Zubik, Monika; Sowinski, Karol; Luchowski, Rafal; Grudzinski, Wojciech; Gruszecki, Wieslaw I

    2015-07-01

    The process of primary electric charge separation in photosynthesis takes place in the reaction centers, but photosynthesis can operate efficiently and fluently due to the activity of several pigment-protein complexes called antenna, which absorb light quanta and transfer electronic excitations toward the reaction centers. LHCII is the major photosynthetic pigment-protein antenna complex of plants and appears in the trimeric form. Several recent reports point to trimeric organization of LHCII as a key factor responsible for the chloroplast architecture via stabilization of granal organization of the thylakoid membranes. In the present work, we address the question of whether such an organization could also directly influence the antenna properties of this pigment-protein complex. Chlorophyll fluorescence analysis reveals that excitation energy transfer in LHCII is substantially more efficient in trimers and dissipative energy losses are higher in monomers. It could be concluded that trimers are exceptionally well suited to perform the antenna function. Possibility of fine regulation of the photosynthetic antenna function via the LHCII trimer-monomer transition is also discussed, based on the fluorescence lifetime analysis in a single chloroplast. PMID:26085037

  7. Spectropolarimetry of Photosynthetic Pigments as Global Surface Biosignatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, W. B.; Parenteau, M. N.; Blankenship, R. E.; Germer, T. A.; Meadows, V. S.; Telesco, C. M.

    2015-12-01

    Photosynthesis is an ancient metabolic process on the early Earth. The most primitive phototrophs used reductants such as H2, H2S, and Fe(II) and were widespread in marine, intertidal, and likely continental habitats. These anoxygenic phototrophs were the key primary producers for the first ~1 billion years before the evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis at 2.7 Ga. The potential clearly exists for this type of primitive photosynthesis to operate on habitable exoplanets. Anoxygenic phototrophs are not known to emit gases that are uniquely biogenic in origin, so we focus on surface pigments signatures as having the strongest promise to offer identifiable biosignatures for a pre-oxygenic habitable exoplanet. Following our earlier work that showed photosynthetic cyanobacteria yield a polarization signature potentially useful in remote sensing, here we seek to characterize the remotely detectable polarization biosignatures associated with anoxygenic phototrophs. The six major pigments of anoxygenic phototrophs (bacteriochlorophylls [Bchls]) absorb in the near-infrared (NIR) from ~705 - 1040 nm. The lower symmetry of the pigment structure relative to chlorophylls shifts the energy absorption bands to longer wavelengths. As a result, Bchls are well suited to absorbing the relatively higher flux of red and NIR radiation of M dwarf stars, the most abundant type of star in the Galaxy, as well as the plentiful flux of typical main sequence stars. Homochirality is a powerful biosignature, and because of the optical activity of biological molecules, it can, in principle, be remotely observed on macroscopic scales using circular polarization spectroscopy. Bchls and Chls are optically active molecules with several chiral centers, strongly interacting with the incident light. We measured the reflectance and transmission full Stokes polarization spectra of pure cultures of anoxygenic phototrophs and environmental samples of microbial mats, and found strong correlations between

  8. The Protective Roles of the Antioxidant Enzymes Superoxide Dismutase and Catalase in the Green Photosynthetic Bacterium Chloroflexus Aurantiacus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blankenship, Robert E.; Rothschild, Lynn (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the biochemical response of the green thermophilic photosynthetic bacterium Chloroflexus aurantiacus to oxidative stress. Lab experiments focused primarily on characterizing the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase and the response of this organism to oxidative stress. Experiments in the field at the hotsprings in Yellowstone National Park focused on the changes in the level of these enzymes during the day in response to oxidants and to the different types of ultraviolet radiation.

  9. Discovery of a Katablepharis sp. in the Columbia River estuary that is abundant during the spring and bears a unique large ribosomal subunit sequence element.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Peter; Herfort, Lydie; Peterson, Tawnya D; Zuber, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Heterotrophic protists play significant roles in pelagic food webs as bacterivorous and herbivorous consumers. However, heterotrophic protists-unlike autotrophic ones-are often difficult to track since they tend to lack features such as photosynthetic pigments that allow for remote sensing or for bulk characterization. Difficulty in the identification of heterotrophic protists has often resulted in lumping them into broad groups, but there is a strong need to develop methods that increase the spatial and temporal resolution of observations applied to particular organisms in order to discover the drivers of population structure and ecological function. In surveys of small subunit rRNA, gene (SSU) sequences of microbial eukaryotes from the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean, the heterotrophic flagellate Katablepharis sp. were found to dominate protist assemblages (including autotrophic and heterotrophic fractions) in the spring, prior to the freshet. We discovered a 332 base pair unique sequence element (USE) insertion in the large subunit rRNA gene (28S) that is not present in other katablepharids or in any other eukaryote. Using this USE, we were able to detect Katablepharis within mixed assemblages in river, estuarine, and oceanic samples and determine spatial and temporal patterns in absolute abundance through quantitative PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Given their high abundance and repeatable temporal patterns of occurrence, we hypothesize that the Columbia River Estuary Katablepharis (Katablepharis CRE) plays an important role in estuarine biogeochemical and ecosystem function. PMID:25168204

  10. Discovery of a Katablepharis sp. in the Columbia River estuary that is abundant during the spring and bears a unique large ribosomal subunit sequence element

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, Peter; Herfort, Lydie; Peterson, Tawnya D; Zuber, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Heterotrophic protists play significant roles in pelagic food webs as bacterivorous and herbivorous consumers. However, heterotrophic protists—unlike autotrophic ones—are often difficult to track since they tend to lack features such as photosynthetic pigments that allow for remote sensing or for bulk characterization. Difficulty in the identification of heterotrophic protists has often resulted in lumping them into broad groups, but there is a strong need to develop methods that increase the spatial and temporal resolution of observations applied to particular organisms in order to discover the drivers of population structure and ecological function. In surveys of small subunit rRNA, gene (SSU) sequences of microbial eukaryotes from the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean, the heterotrophic flagellate Katablepharis sp. were found to dominate protist assemblages (including autotrophic and heterotrophic fractions) in the spring, prior to the freshet. We discovered a 332 base pair unique sequence element (USE) insertion in the large subunit rRNA gene (28S) that is not present in other katablepharids or in any other eukaryote. Using this USE, we were able to detect Katablepharis within mixed assemblages in river, estuarine, and oceanic samples and determine spatial and temporal patterns in absolute abundance through quantitative PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Given their high abundance and repeatable temporal patterns of occurrence, we hypothesize that the Columbia River Estuary Katablepharis (Katablepharis CRE) plays an important role in estuarine biogeochemical and ecosystem function. PMID:25168204

  11. Bio-inspired photo-electronic material based on photosynthetic proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedev, Nikolai; Trammell, Scott A.; Tsoi, Stanislav; Spano, Anthony; Kim, Jin Ho; Xu, Jimmy; Twigg, Mark E.; Schnur, Joel M.

    2009-08-01

    The construction of efficient light energy converting (photovoltaic and photo-electronic) devices is a current and great challenge in science and technology and one that will have important economic consequences. Several innovative nanoelectronic materials were proposed to achieve this goal, semiconductor quantum dots, metallic nanowires and carbon nanotubes (CNT) are among them. As a charge separating unit for light energy conversion, we propose the utilization of the most advanced photoelectronic material developed by nature, photosynthetic reaction center proteins. As a first step in this direction, we constructed a novel bioinorganic nanophotoelectronic material with photoactive photosynthetic reaction center (RC) proteins encapsulated inside a multiwall CNT arrayed electrode. The material consists of photosynthetic RC-cytochrome complexes acting as charge separating units bound to the inner walls of a CNT electrode and ubiquinone-10 (Q2) serving as a soluble electron-transfer mediator to the counter electrode. The proteins were immobilized inside carbon nanotubes by a Ni(NTA)-alkane-pyrene linker, forming a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on the surface of inner CNT walls and allowing for unidirectional protein orientation. The material demonstrates an enhanced photoinduced electron transfer rate and shows substantial improvement in photocurrent density compared to that obtained with the same proteins when immobilized on planar graphite (HOPG) electrode. The results suggest that protein encapsulation in precisely organized arrayed tubular electrode architecture can considerably improve the performance of photovoltaic, photoelectronic, or biofuel cell devices. They demonstrate the potential for substantial advantages of precisely organized nano electrode tubular arrayed architecture for variety biotechnological applications.

  12. Diverse Arrangement of Photosynthetic Gene Clusters in Aerobic Anoxygenic Phototrophic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Qiang; Zhang, Rui; Koblížek, Michal; Boldareva, Ekaterina N.; Yurkov, Vladimir; Yan, Shi; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2011-01-01

    Background Aerobic anoxygenic photototrophic (AAP) bacteria represent an important group of marine microorganisms inhabiting the euphotic zone of the ocean. They harvest light using bacteriochlorophyll (BChl) a and are thought to be important players in carbon cycling in the ocean. Methodology/Principal Findings Aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria represent an important part of marine microbial communities. Their photosynthetic apparatus is encoded by a number of genes organized in a so-called photosynthetic gene cluster (PGC). In this study, the organization of PGCs was analyzed in ten AAP species belonging to the orders Rhodobacterales, Sphingomonadales and the NOR5/OM60 clade. Sphingomonadales contained comparatively smaller PGCs with an approximately size of 39 kb whereas the average size of PGCs in Rhodobacterales and NOR5/OM60 clade was about 45 kb. The distribution of four arrangements, based on the permutation and combination of the two conserved regions bchFNBHLM-LhaA-puhABC and crtF-bchCXYZ, does not correspond to the phylogenetic affiliation of individual AAP bacterial species. While PGCs of all analyzed species contained the same set of genes for bacteriochlorophyll synthesis and assembly of photosynthetic centers, they differed largely in the carotenoid biosynthetic genes. Spheroidenone, spirilloxanthin, and zeaxanthin biosynthetic pathways were found in each clade respectively. All of the carotenoid biosynthetic genes were found in the PGCs of Rhodobacterales, however Sphingomonadales and NOR5/OM60 strains contained some of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes outside of the PGC. Conclusions/Significance Our investigations shed light on the evolution and functional implications in PGCs of marine aerobic anoxygenic phototrophs, and support the notion that AAP are a heterogenous physiological group phylogenetically scattered among Proteobacteria. PMID:21949847

  13. THE OXYGEN ABUNDANCE IN THE SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD

    SciTech Connect

    RodrIguez, Monica; Delgado-Inglada, Gloria E-mail: gloria@inaoep.mx

    2011-06-01

    We present a homogeneous analysis of the oxygen abundance in five H II regions and eight planetary nebulae (PNe) located at distances lower than 2 kpc and with available spectra of high quality. We find that both the collisionally excited lines (CELs) and recombination lines imply that the PNe are overabundant in oxygen by about 0.2 dex. An explanation that reconciles the oxygen abundances derived with CELs for H II regions and PNe with the values found for B stars, the Sun, and the diffuse interstellar medium (ISM) requires the presence in H II regions of an organic refractory dust component that is not present in PNe. This dust component has already been invoked to explain the depletion of oxygen in molecular clouds and in the diffuse ISM.

  14. Top consumer abundance influences lake methane efflux

    PubMed Central

    Devlin, Shawn P.; Saarenheimo, Jatta; Syväranta, Jari; Jones, Roger I.

    2015-01-01

    Lakes are important habitats for biogeochemical cycling of carbon. The organization and structure of aquatic communities influences the biogeochemical interactions between lakes and the atmosphere. Understanding how trophic structure regulates ecosystem functions and influences greenhouse gas efflux from lakes is critical to understanding global carbon cycling and climate change. With a whole-lake experiment in which a previously fishless lake was divided into two treatment basins where fish abundance was manipulated, we show how a trophic cascade from fish to microbes affects methane efflux to the atmosphere. Here, fish exert high grazing pressure and remove nearly all zooplankton. This reduction in zooplankton density increases the abundance of methanotrophic bacteria, which in turn reduce CH4 efflux rates by roughly 10 times. Given that globally there are millions of lakes emitting methane, an important greenhouse gas, our findings that aquatic trophic interactions significantly influence the biogeochemical cycle of methane has important implications. PMID:26531291

  15. Top consumer abundance influences lake methane efflux.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Shawn P; Saarenheimo, Jatta; Syväranta, Jari; Jones, Roger I

    2015-01-01

    Lakes are important habitats for biogeochemical cycling of carbon. The organization and structure of aquatic communities influences the biogeochemical interactions between lakes and the atmosphere. Understanding how trophic structure regulates ecosystem functions and influences greenhouse gas efflux from lakes is critical to understanding global carbon cycling and climate change. With a whole-lake experiment in which a previously fishless lake was divided into two treatment basins where fish abundance was manipulated, we show how a trophic cascade from fish to microbes affects methane efflux to the atmosphere. Here, fish exert high grazing pressure and remove nearly all zooplankton. This reduction in zooplankton density increases the abundance of methanotrophic bacteria, which in turn reduce CH4 efflux rates by roughly 10 times. Given that globally there are millions of lakes emitting methane, an important greenhouse gas, our findings that aquatic trophic interactions significantly influence the biogeochemical cycle of methane has important implications. PMID:26531291

  16. Isotope Ratios of Cellulose from Plants Having Different Photosynthetic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Sternberg, Leonel O.; Deniro, Michael J.; Johnson, Hyrum B.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrogen and carbon isotope ratios of cellulose nitrate and oxygen isotope ratios of cellulose from C3, C4, and Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plants were determined for plants growing within a small area in Val Verde County, Texas. Plants having CAM had distinctly higher deuterium/hydrogen (D/H) ratios than plants having C3 and C4 metabolism. When hydrogen isotope ratios are plotted against carbon isotope ratios, each photosynthetic mode separates into a distinct cluster of points. C4 plants had many D/H ratios similar to those of C3 plants, so that hydrogen isotope ratios cannot be used to distinguish between these two photosynthetic modes. Portulaca mundula, which may have a modified photosynthetic mode between C4 and CAM, had a hydrogen isotope ratio between those of the C4 and CAM plants. When oxygen isotope ratios are plotted against carbon isotope ratios, no distinct clustering of the C4 and CAM plants occurs. Thus, oxygen isotope ratios are not useful in distinguishing between these metabolic modes. A plot of hydrogen isotope ratios versus oxygen isotope ratios for this sample set shows considerable overlap between oxygen isotope ratios of the different photosynthetic modes without a concomitant overlap in the hydrogen isotope ratios of CAM and the other two photosynthetic modes. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that higher D/H ratios in CAM plants relative to C3 and C4 plants are due to isotopic fractionations occurring during biochemical reactions. PMID:16663460

  17. Principles of light harvesting from single photosynthetic complexes

    PubMed Central

    Schlau-Cohen, G. S.

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthetic systems harness sunlight to power most life on Earth. In the initial steps of photosynthetic light harvesting, absorbed energy is converted to chemical energy with near-unity quantum efficiency. This is achieved by an efficient, directional and regulated flow of energy through a network of proteins. Here, we discuss the following three key principles of this flow and of photosynthetic light harvesting: thermal fluctuations of the protein structure; intrinsic conformational switches with defined functional consequences; and environmentally triggered conformational switches. Through these principles, photosynthetic systems balance two types of operational costs: metabolic costs, or the cost of maintaining and running the molecular machinery, and opportunity costs, or the cost of losing any operational time. Understanding how the molecular machinery and dynamics are designed to balance these costs may provide a blueprint for improved artificial light-harvesting devices. With a multi-disciplinary approach combining knowledge of biology, this blueprint could lead to low-cost and more effective solar energy conversion. Photosynthetic systems achieve widespread light harvesting across the Earth's surface; in the face of our growing energy needs, this is functionality we need to replicate, and perhaps emulate. PMID:26052423

  18. Principles of light harvesting from single photosynthetic complexes.

    PubMed

    Schlau-Cohen, G S

    2015-06-01

    Photosynthetic systems harness sunlight to power most life on Earth. In the initial steps of photosynthetic light harvesting, absorbed energy is converted to chemical energy with near-unity quantum efficiency. This is achieved by an efficient, directional and regulated flow of energy through a network of proteins. Here, we discuss the following three key principles of this flow and of photosynthetic light harvesting: thermal fluctuations of the protein structure; intrinsic conformational switches with defined functional consequences; and environmentally triggered conformational switches. Through these principles, photosynthetic systems balance two types of operational costs: metabolic costs, or the cost of maintaining and running the molecular machinery, and opportunity costs, or the cost of losing any operational time. Understanding how the molecular machinery and dynamics are designed to balance these costs may provide a blueprint for improved artificial light-harvesting devices. With a multi-disciplinary approach combining knowledge of biology, this blueprint could lead to low-cost and more effective solar energy conversion. Photosynthetic systems achieve widespread light harvesting across the Earth's surface; in the face of our growing energy needs, this is functionality we need to replicate, and perhaps emulate. PMID:26052423

  19. Photosynthetic terpene hydrocarbon production for fuels and chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X; Ort, DR; Yuan, JS

    2015-01-28

    Photosynthetic hydrocarbon production bypasses the traditional biomass hydrolysis process and represents the most direct conversion of sunlight energy into the next-generation biofuels. As a major class of biologically derived hydrocarbons with diverse structures, terpenes are also valuable in producing a variety of fungible bioproducts in addition to the advanced drop-in' biofuels. However, it is highly challenging to achieve the efficient redirection of photosynthetic carbon and reductant into terpene biosynthesis. In this review, we discuss four major scientific and technical barriers for photosynthetic terpene production and recent advances to address these constraints. Collectively, photosynthetic terpene production needs to be optimized in a systematic fashion, in which the photosynthesis improvement, the optimization of terpene biosynthesis pathway, the improvement of key enzymes and the enhancement of sink effect through terpene storage or secretion are all important. New advances in synthetic biology also offer a suite of potential tools to design and engineer photosynthetic terpene platforms. The systemic integration of these solutions may lead to disruptive' technologies to enable biofuels and bioproducts with high efficiency, yield and infrastructure compatibility.

  20. Growth and photosynthetic responses of wheat plants grown in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathy, B. C.; Brown, C. S.; Levine, H. G.; Krikorian, A. D.

    1996-01-01

    Growth and photosynthesis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Super Dwarf) plants grown onboard the space shuttle Discovery for 10 d were examined. Compared to ground control plants, the shoot fresh weight of space-grown seedlings decreased by 25%. Postflight measurements of the O2 evolution/photosynthetic photon flux density response curves of leaf samples revealed that the CO2-saturated photosynthetic rate at saturating light intensities in space-grown plants declined 25% relative to the rate in ground control plants. The relative quantum yield of CO2-saturated photosynthetic O2 evolution measured at limiting light intensities was not significantly affected. In space-grown plants, the light compensation point of the leaves increased by 33%, which likely was due to an increase (27%) in leaf dark-respiration rates. Related experiments with thylakoids isolated from space-grown plants showed that the light-saturated photosynthetic electron transport rate from H2O through photosystems II and I was reduced by 28%. These results demonstrate that photosynthetic functions are affected by the microgravity environment.

  1. Diversity of nitrogen assimilation pathways among microbial photosynthetic eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Terrado, Ramon; Monier, Adam; Edgar, Robyn; Lovejoy, Connie

    2015-06-01

    In an effort to better understand the diversity of genes coding for nitrogen (N) uptake and assimilation pathways among microalgae, we analyzed the transcriptomes of five phylogenetically diverse single celled algae originally isolated from the same high arctic marine region. The five photosynthetic flagellates (a pelagophyte, dictyochophyte, chrysoph-yte, cryptophyte and haptophyte) were grown on standard media and media with only urea or nitrate as a nitrogen source; cells were harvested during late exponential growth. Based on homolog protein sequences, transcriptomes of each alga were interrogated to retrieve genes potentially associated with nitrogen uptake and utilization pathways. We further investigated the phylogeny of poorly characterized genes and gene families that were identified. While the phylogeny of the active urea transporter (DUR3) was taxonomically coherent, those for the urea transporter superfamily, putative nitrilases and amidases indicated complex evolutionary histories, and preliminary evidence for horizontal gene transfers. All five algae expressed genes for ammonium assimilation and all but the chrysophyte expressed genes involved in nitrate utilization and the urea cycle. Among the four algae with nitrate transporter transcripts, we detected lower expression levels in three of these (the dictyochophyte, pelagophyte, and cryptophyte) grown in the urea only medium compared with cultures from the nitrate only media. The diversity of N pathway genes in the five algae, and their ability to grow using urea as a nitrogen source, suggest that these flagellates are able to use a variety of organic nitrogen sources, which would be an advantage in an inorganic nitrogen - limited environment, such as the Arctic Ocean. PMID:26986665

  2. Bringing abundance into environmental politics: Constructing a Zionist network of water abundance, immigration, and colonization.

    PubMed

    Alatout, Samer

    2009-06-01

    For more than five decades, resource scarcity has been the lead story in debates over environmental politics. More importantly, and whenever environmental politics implies conflict, resource scarcity is constructed as the culprit. Abundance of resources, if at all visited in the literature, holds less importance. Resource abundance is seen, at best, as the other side of scarcity--maybe the successful conclusion of multiple interventions that may turn scarcity into abundance. This paper reinstates abundance as a politico-environmental category in its own right. Rather than relegating abundance to a second-order environmental actor that matters only on occasion, this paper foregrounds it as a crucial element in modern environmental politics. On the substantive level, and using insights from science and technology studies, especially a slightly modified actor-network framework, I describe the emergence and consolidation of a Zionist network of abundance, immigration, and colonization in Palestine between 1918 and 1948. The essential argument here is that water abundance was constructed as fact, and became a political rallying point around which a techno-political network emerged that included a great number of elements. To name just a few, the following were enrolled in the service of such a network: geologists, geophysicists, Zionist settlement experts, Zionist organizations, political and technical categories of all sorts, Palestinians as the negated others, Palestinian revolts in search of political rights, the British Mandate authorities, the hydrological system of Palestine, and the absorptive capacity of Palestine, among others. The point was to successfully articulate these disparate elements into a network that seeks opening Palestine for Jewish immigration, redefining Palestinian geography and history through Judeo-Christian Biblical narratives, and, in the process, de-legitimizing political Palestinian presence in historic Palestine. PMID:19848183

  3. Suppression of Photosynthetic Gene Expression in Roots Is Required for Sustained Root Growth under Phosphate Deficiency1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jun; Yu, Haopeng; Tian, Caihuan; Zhou, Wenkun; Li, Chuanyou; Jiao, Yuling; Liu, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Plants cope with inorganic phosphate (Pi) deficiencies in their environment by adjusting their developmental programs and metabolic activities. For Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the developmental responses include the inhibition of primary root growth and the enhanced formation of lateral roots and root hairs. Pi deficiency also inhibits photosynthesis by suppressing the expression of photosynthetic genes. Early studies showed that photosynthetic gene expression was also suppressed in Pi-deficient roots, a nonphotosynthetic organ; however, the biological relevance of this phenomenon remains unknown. In this work, we characterized an Arabidopsis mutant, hypersensitive to Pi starvation7 (hps7), that is hypersensitive to Pi deficiency; the hypersensitivity includes an increased inhibition of root growth. HPS7 encodes a tyrosylprotein sulfotransferase. Accumulation of HPS7 proteins in root tips is enhanced by Pi deficiency. Comparative RNA sequencing analyses indicated that the expression of many photosynthetic genes is activated in roots of hps7. Under Pi deficiency, the expression of photosynthetic genes in hps7 is further increased, which leads to enhanced accumulation of chlorophyll, starch, and sucrose. Pi-deficient hps7 roots also produce a high level of reactive oxygen species. Previous research showed that the overexpression of GOLDEN-like (GLK) transcription factors in transgenic Arabidopsis activates photosynthesis in roots. The GLK overexpressing (GLK OX) lines also exhibit increased inhibition of root growth under Pi deficiency. The increased inhibition of root growth in hps7 and GLK OX lines by Pi deficiency was completely reversed by growing the plants in the dark. Based on these results, we propose that suppression of photosynthetic gene expression is required for sustained root growth under Pi deficiency. PMID:24868033

  4. Carotenoid Photoprotection in Artificial Photosynthetic Antennas

    SciTech Connect

    Kloz, Miroslav; Pillai, Smitha; Kodis, Gerdenis; Gust, Devens; Moore, Thomas A.; Moore, Ana L.; van Grondelle, Rienk; Kennis, John T. M.

    2011-04-14

    . These synthetic systems are providing a deeper understanding of structural and environmental effects on the interactions between carotenoids and tetrapyrroles and thereby better defining their role in controlling natural photosynthetic systems.

  5. Abundance, Distribution and Cycling of Organic Carbon and Nitrogen in University Valley (McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica) Permafrost Soils with Differing Ground Thermal and Moisture Conditions: Analogue to C-N Cycle on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faucher, B. F.; Lacelle, D. L.; Davila, A. D.; Pollard, W. P.; McKay, C. P. M.

    2016-05-01

    High elevation McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica are key Mars analogue sites. Our investigation focuses on the link between ground ice origin, distribution and cycling of organic carbon and nitrogen in University Valley, and its soil habitability.

  6. The boron abundance of Procyon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemke, Michael; Lambert, David L.; Edvardsson, Bengt

    1993-01-01

    The B I 2496.8 A resonance line and HST/GHRS echelle spectra are used with model atmospheres and synthetic spectra to derive the B abundance of the F dwarfs Procyon (Alpha Canis Minoris), Theta Ursae Majoris, and Iota Pegasi. The B abundance of Theta UMa and Iota Peg is similar to that derived by Boesgaard and Heacox (1978) from the B II resonance line in spectra of A- and B-type stars. These two dwarfs show normal abundances of Li, Be, and B. Procyon, which is highly depleted in Li and Be, is depleted in B by a factor of at least 3. Comparison of the spectra of Procyon and the halo dwarf HD 140283 shows that the B abundance assigned by Duncan et al. (1992) to three halo dwarfs is not greatly overestimated as a result of contamination of the B I line by an unidentified line.

  7. Interstellar Dust Models Consistent with Extinction, Emission, and Abundance Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zubko, Viktor; Dwek, Eli; Arendt, Richard G.

    2004-01-01

    We present new interstellar dust models which have been derived by simultaneously fitting the far ultraviolet to near infrared extinction, the diffuse infrared emission, and, unlike previous models, the elemental abundances in dust for the diffuse interstellar medium. We found that dust models consisting of a mixture of spherical graphite and silicate grains, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules, in addition to porous composite particles containing silicate, organic refractory, and water ice, provide an improved .t to the UV-to-infrared extinction and infrared emission measurements, while consuming the amounts of elements well within the uncertainties of adopted interstellar abundances, including B star abundances. These models are a signi.cant improvement over the recent Li & Draine (2001, ApJ, 554, 778) model which requires an excessive amount of silicon to be locked up in dust: 48 ppm (atoms per million of H atoms), considerably more than the solar abundance of 34 ppm or the B star abundance of 19 ppm.

  8. Photosynthetic light reactions: integral to chloroplast retrograde signalling.

    PubMed

    Gollan, Peter J; Tikkanen, Mikko; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2015-10-01

    Chloroplast retrograde signalling is ultimately dependent on the function of the photosynthetic light reactions and not only guides the acclimation of the photosynthetic apparatus to changing environmental and metabolic cues, but has a much wider influence on the growth and development of plants. New information generated during the past few years about regulation of photosynthetic light reactions and identification of the underlying regulatory proteins has paved the way towards better understanding of the signalling molecules produced in chloroplasts upon changes in the environment. Likewise, the availability of various mutants lacking regulatory functions has made it possible to address the role of excitation energy distribution and electron flow in the thylakoid membrane in inducing the retrograde signals from chloroplasts to the nucleus. Such signalling molecules also induce and interact with hormonal signalling cascades to provide comprehensive information from chloroplasts to the nucleus. PMID:26318477

  9. Tracking photosynthetic efficiency with narrow-band spectroradiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamon, John A.; Field, Christopher B.

    1992-01-01

    Narrow-waveband spectroradiometry presents the possibility of detecting subtle signals closely related to the current physiological state of vegetation. One such signal related to the epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle pigments, violaxanthin, antheraxanthin, and zeaxanthin is discussed. Recent advances in plant ecophysiology demonstrated a close relationship between these pigments and the regulatory state of photosystem 2 in photosynthesis. Our recent field studies of sunflower (Helianthus annuus) and oak (Quercus agrifolia) demonstrated that a 'xanthophyll signal' can be isolated from the diurnal reflectance spectra of intact canopies. Furthermore, the xanthophyll signal can be used to derive a 'physiological reflectance index' (PRI) that closely correlates with the actual photosynthetic efficiency (defined as the photosynthetic rate divided by the incident PAR) in closed canopies. If these signals were detectable in Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometers (AVIRIS) images, they could lead to improved remote estimates of photosynthetic fluxes.

  10. Global scale environmental control of plant photosynthetic capacity

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ali, Ashehad; Xu, Chonggang; Rogers, Alistair; McDowell, Nathan G.; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Fisher, Rosie A.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Reich, Peter B.; Bauerle, William L.; Wilson, Cathy J.; et al

    2015-12-01

    Photosynthetic capacity, determined by light harvesting and carboxylation reactions, is a key plant trait that determines the rate of photosynthesis; however, in Earth System Models (ESMs) at a reference temperature, it is either a fixed value for a given plant functional type or derived from a linear function of leaf nitrogen content. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive analysis that considered correlations of environmental factors with photosynthetic capacity as determined by maximum carboxylation (Vc,m) rate scaled to 25°C (i.e., Vc,25; μmol CO2·m–2·s–1) and maximum electron transport rate (Jmax) scaled to 25°C (i.e., J25; μmol electron·m–2·s–1) at the global scale.more » Our results showed that the percentage of variation in observed Vc,25 and J25 explained jointly by the environmental factors (i.e., day length, radiation, temperature, and humidity) were 2–2.5 times and 6–9 times of that explained by area-based leaf nitrogen content, respectively. Environmental factors influenced photosynthetic capacity mainly through photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency, rather than through leaf nitrogen content. The combination of leaf nitrogen content and environmental factors was able to explain ~56% and ~66% of the variation in Vc,25 and J25 at the global scale, respectively. As a result, our analyses suggest that model projections of plant photosynthetic capacity and hence land–atmosphere exchange under changing climatic conditions could be substantially improved if environmental factors are incorporated into algorithms used to parameterize photosynthetic capacity in ESMs.« less

  11. Global-scale environmental control of plant photosynthetic capacity.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ashehad A; Xu, Chonggang; Rogers, Alistair; McDowell, Nathan G; Medlyn, Belinda E; Fisher, Rosie A; Wullschleger, Stan D; Reich, Peter B; Vrugt, Jasper A; Bauerle, William L; Santiago, Louis S; Wilson, Cathy J

    2015-12-01

    Photosynthetic capacity, determined by light harvesting and carboxylation reactions, is a key plant trait that determines the rate of photosynthesis; however, in Earth System Models (ESMs) at a reference temperature, it is either a fixed value for a given plant functional type or derived from a linear function of leaf nitrogen content. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive analysis that considered correlations of environmental factors with photosynthetic capacity as determined by maximum carboxylation (V(cm)) rate scaled to 25 degrees C (i.e., V(c),25; μmol CO2 x m(-2)x s(-1)) and maximum electron transport rate (J(max)) scaled to 25 degrees C (i.e., J25; μmol electron x m(-2) x s(-1)) at the global scale. Our results showed that the percentage of variation in observed V(c),25 and J25 explained jointly by the environmental factors (i.e., day length, radiation, temperature, and humidity) were 2-2.5 times and 6-9 times of that explained by area-based leaf nitrogen content, respectively. Environmental factors influenced photosynthetic capacity mainly through photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency, rather than through leaf nitrogen content. The combination of leaf nitrogen content and environmental factors was able to explain -56% and -66% of the variation in V(c),25 and J25 at the global scale, respectively. Our analyses suggest that model projections of plant photosynthetic capacity and hence land-atmosphere exchange under changing climatic conditions could be substantially improved if environmental factors are incorporated into algorithms used to parameterize photosynthetic capacity in ESMs. PMID:26910960

  12. Global scale environmental control of plant photosynthetic capacity

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Ashehad; Xu, Chonggang; Rogers, Alistair; McDowell, Nathan G.; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Fisher, Rosie A.; Wullschleger, Stan D.; Reich, Peter B.; Bauerle, William L.; Wilson, Cathy J.; Vrugt, Jasper A.; Santiago, Louis S.

    2015-12-01

    Photosynthetic capacity, determined by light harvesting and carboxylation reactions, is a key plant trait that determines the rate of photosynthesis; however, in Earth System Models (ESMs) at a reference temperature, it is either a fixed value for a given plant functional type or derived from a linear function of leaf nitrogen content. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive analysis that considered correlations of environmental factors with photosynthetic capacity as determined by maximum carboxylation (Vc,m) rate scaled to 25°C (i.e., Vc,25; μmol CO2·m–2·s–1) and maximum electron transport rate (Jmax) scaled to 25°C (i.e., J25; μmol electron·m–2·s–1) at the global scale. Our results showed that the percentage of variation in observed Vc,25 and J25 explained jointly by the environmental factors (i.e., day length, radiation, temperature, and humidity) were 2–2.5 times and 6–9 times of that explained by area-based leaf nitrogen content, respectively. Environmental factors influenced photosynthetic capacity mainly through photosynthetic nitrogen use efficiency, rather than through leaf nitrogen content. The combination of leaf nitrogen content and environmental factors was able to explain ~56% and ~66% of the variation in Vc,25 and J25 at the global scale, respectively. As a result, our analyses suggest that model projections of plant photosynthetic capacity and hence land–atmosphere exchange under changing climatic conditions could be substantially improved if environmental factors are incorporated into algorithms used to parameterize photosynthetic capacity in ESMs.

  13. Metabolic Engineering and Modeling of Metabolic Pathways to Improve Hydrogen Production by Photosynthetic Bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao, Y.; Navid, A.

    2014-12-19

    Rising energy demands and the imperative to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are driving research on biofuels development. Hydrogen gas (H2) is one of the most promising biofuels and is seen as a future energy carrier by virtue of the fact that 1) it is renewable, 2) does not evolve the “greenhouse gas” CO2 in combustion, 3) liberates large amounts of energy per unit weight in combustion (having about 3 times the energy content of gasoline), and 4) is easily converted to electricity by fuel cells. Among the various bioenergy strategies, environmental groups and others say that the concept of the direct manufacture of alternative fuels, such as H2, by photosynthetic organisms is the only biofuel alternative without significant negative criticism [1]. Biological H2 production by photosynthetic microorganisms requires the use of a simple solar reactor such as a transparent closed box, with low energy requirements, and is considered as an attractive system to develop as a biocatalyst for H2 production [2]. Various purple bacteria including Rhodopseudomonas palustris, can utilize organic substrates as electron donors to produce H2 at the expense of solar energy. Because of the elimination of energy cost used for H2O oxidation and the prevention of the production of O2 that inhibits the H2-producing enzymes, the efficiency of light energy conversion to H2 by anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria is in principle much higher than that by green algae or cyanobacteria, and is regarded as one of the most promising cultures for biological H2 production [3]. Here implemented a simple and relatively straightforward strategy for hydrogen production by photosynthetic microorganisms using sunlight, sulfur- or iron-based inorganic substrates, and CO2 as the feedstock. Carefully selected microorganisms with bioengineered beneficial

  14. Photosynthetic production of itaconic acid in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803.

    PubMed

    Chin, Taejun; Sano, Mei; Takahashi, Tetsuya; Ohara, Hitomi; Aso, Yuji

    2015-02-10

    Here, we report the photosynthetic production of itaconic acid (IA), a promising building block, from carbon dioxide (CO₂) by Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. The engineered PCC6803 strain expressing cis-aconitate decarboxylase, the key enzyme in IA biosynthesis, produced 0.9 mg/L and 14.5 mg/L of IA at production rates of 42.8 μgL(-1)day(-1) and 919.0 μgL(-1)day(-1), under conditions of constant bubbling with air and 5% CO₂, respectively. This is the first report on the possibility of IA production from CO₂ via the photosynthetic process in cyanobacteria. PMID:25554635

  15. RESPONSE OF THE PHOTOSYNTHETIC APPARATUS OF PHAEODACTYLYM TRICORNUTUM (BACILLARIOPHYCEAE) TO NITRATE, PHOSPHATE OR IRON STARVATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effects of nitrate, phosphate, and iron starvation and resupply on photosynthetic pigments, selected photosynthetic proteins, and photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry were examined in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin (CCMP1327). lthough cell chlorophyll a (chl a) c...

  16. Ecotoxicological studies of micro- and nanosized barium titanate on aquatic photosynthetic microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Polonini, Hudson C; Brandão, Humberto M; Raposo, Nádia R B; Mouton, Ludovic; Yéprémian, Claude; Couté, Alain; Brayner, Roberta

    2014-09-01

    The interaction between live organisms and micro- or nanosized materials has become a current focus in toxicology. As nanosized barium titanate has gained momentum lately in the medical field, the aims of the present work are: (i) to assess BT toxicity and its mechanisms on the aquatic environment, using two photosynthetic organisms (Anabaena flos-aquae, a colonial cyanobacteria, and Euglena gracilis, a flagellated euglenoid); (ii) to study and correlate the physicochemical properties of BT with its toxic profile; (iii) to compare the BT behavior (and Ba(2+) released ions) and the toxic profile in synthetic (Bold's Basal, BB, or Mineral Medium, MM) and natural culture media (Seine River Water, SRW); and (iv) to address whether size (micro, BT MP, or nano, BT NP) is an issue in BT particles toxicity. Responses such as growth inhibition, cell viability, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, adenosine-5-triphosphate (ATP) content and photosynthetic efficiency were evaluated. The main conclusions are: (i) BT have statistically significant toxic effects on E. gracilis growth and viability even in small concentrations (1μgmL(-1)), for both media and since the first 24 h; on the contrary of on A. flos-aquae, to whom the effects were noticeable only for the higher concentrations (after 96 h: ≥75 μg mL(-1) for BT NP and =100 μg mL(-1) for BT MP, in BB; and ≥75 μg mL(-1) for both materials in SRW), in spite of the viability being affected in all concentrations; (ii) the BT behaviors in synthetic and natural culture media were slightly different, being the toxic effects more pronounced when grown in SRW - in this case, a worse physiological state of the organisms in SRW can occur and account for the lower resistance, probably linked to a paucity of nutrients or even a synergistic effect with a contaminant from the river; and (iii) the effects seem to be mediated by induced stress without a direct contact in A. flos-aquae and by direct endocytosis in E. gracilis, but in

  17. The Abundance and Distribution of Presolar Materials in Cluster IDPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Messenger, Scott; Keller, Lindsay; Nakamura-Messenger, Keiko; Ito, Motoo

    2007-01-01

    Presolar grains and remnants of interstellar organic compounds occur in a wide range of primitive solar system materials, including meteorites, interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), and comet Wild-2 samples. Among the most abundant presolar phases are silicate stardust grains and molecular cloud material. However, these materials have also been susceptible to destruction and alteration during parent body and nebular processing. In addition to their importance as direct samples of remote and ancient astrophysical environments, presolar materials thus provide a measure of how well different primitive bodies have preserved the original solar system starting materials. The matrix normalized abundances of presolar silicate grains in meteorites range from 20 ppm in Semarkona and Bishunpur to 170 ppm for Acfer 094. The lower abundances of presolar silicates in Bishunpur and Semarkona has been ascribed to the destruction of presolar silicates during aqueous processes. Presolar silicates appear to be significantly more abundant in anhydrous IDPs, possibly because these materials did not experience parent body hydrothermal alteration. Among IDPs the estimated abundances of presolar silicates vary by more than an order of magnitude, from 480 to 5500 ppm. The wide disparity in the abundances of presolar silicates of IDPs may be a consequence of the relatively small total area analyzed in those studies and the fine grain sizes of the IDPs. Alternatively, there may be a wide range in presolar silicate abundances between different IDPs. This view is supported by the observation that 15N-rich IDPs have higher presolar silicate abundances than those with isotopically normal N.

  18. Towards clarifying what distinguishes cyanobacteria able to resurrect after desiccation from those that cannot: The photosynthetic aspect.

    PubMed

    Raanan, Hagai; Oren, Nadav; Treves, Haim; Keren, Nir; Ohad, Itzhak; Berkowicz, Simon M; Hagemann, Martin; Koch, Moriz; Shotland, Yoram; Kaplan, Aaron

    2016-06-01

    Organisms inhabiting biological soil crusts (BSCs) are able to cope with extreme environmental conditions including daily hydration/dehydration cycles, high irradiance and extreme temperatures. The photosynthetic machinery, potentially the main source of damaging reactive oxygen species during cessation of CO(2) fixation in desiccating cells, must be protected to avoid sustained photodamage. We compared certain photosynthetic parameters and the response to excess light of BCS-inhabiting, desiccation-tolerant cyanobacteria Leptolyngbya ohadii and Nostoc reinholdii with those observed in the "model" organisms Nostoc sp. PCC 7120, able to resurrect after mild desiccation, and Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 and Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 that are unable to recover from dehydration. Desiccation-tolerant strains exhibited a transient decline in the photosynthetic rate at light intensities corresponding to the inflection point in the PI curve relating the O(2) evolution rate to light intensity. They also exhibited a faster and larger loss of variable fluorescence and profoundly faster Q(A)(-) re-oxidation rates after exposure to high illumination. Finally, a smaller difference was found in the temperature of maximal thermoluminescence signal in the absence or presence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (DCMU) than observed in "model" cyanobacteria. These parameters indicate specific functional differences of photosystem II (PSII) between desiccation tolerant and sensitive cyanobacteria. We propose that exposure to excess irradiation activates a non-radiative electron recombination route inside PSII that minimizes formation of damaging singlet oxygen in the desiccation-tolerant cyanobacteria and thereby reduces photodamage. PMID:26896589

  19. Role of Rhodobacter sp. Strain PS9, a Purple Non-Sulfur Photosynthetic Bacterium Isolated from an Anaerobic Swine Waste Lagoon, in Odor Remediation

    PubMed Central

    Do, Young S.; Schmidt, Thomas M.; Zahn, James A.; Boyd, Eric S.; de la Mora, Arlene; DiSpirito, Alan A.

    2003-01-01

    Temporal pigmentation changes resulting from the development of a purple color in anaerobic swine waste lagoons were investigated during a 4-year period. The major purple photosynthetic bacterium responsible for these color changes and the corresponding reductions in odor was isolated from nine photosynthetic lagoons. By using morphological, physiological, and phylogenetic characterization methods we identified the predominant photosynthetic bacterium as a new strain of Rhodobacter, designated Rhodobacter sp. strain PS9. Rhodobacter sp. strain PS9 is capable of photoorganotrophic growth on a variety of organic compounds, including all of the characteristic volatile organic compounds (VOC) responsible for the odor associated with swine production facilities (J. A. Zahn, A. A. DiSpirito, Y. S. Do, B. E. Brooks, E. E. Copper, and J. L. Hatfield, J. Environ. Qual. 30:624-634, 2001). The seasonal variations in airborne VOC emitted from waste lagoons showed that there was a 80 to 93% decrease in the concentration of VOC during a photosynthetic bloom. During the height of a bloom, the Rhodobacter sp. strain PS9 population accounted for 10% of the total community and up to 27% of the eubacterial community based on 16S ribosomal DNA signals. Additional observations based on seasonal variations in meteorological, biological, and chemical parameters suggested that the photosynthetic blooms of Rhodobacter sp. strain PS9 were correlated with lagoon water temperature and with the concentrations of sulfate and phosphate. In addition, the photosynthetic blooms of Rhodobacter sp. strain PS9 were inversely correlated with the concentrations of protein and fluoride. PMID:12620863

  20. Ear of durum wheat under water stress: water relations and photosynthetic metabolism.

    PubMed

    Tambussi, Eduardo A; Nogués, Salvador; Araus, José Luis

    2005-06-01

    The photosynthetic characteristics of the ear and flag leaf of well-watered (WW) and water-stressed (WS) durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) were studied in plants grown under greenhouse and Mediterranean field conditions. Gas exchange measurements simultaneously with modulated chlorophyll fluorescence were used to study the response of the ear and flag leaf to CO2 and O2 during photosynthesis. C4 metabolism was identified by assessing the sensitivity of photosynthetic rate and electron transport to oxygen. The presence of CAM metabolism was assessed by measuring daily patterns of stomatal conductance and net CO2 assimilation. In addition, the histological distribution of Rubisco protein in the ear parts was studied by immunocytochemical localisation. Relative water content (RWC) and osmotic adjustment (osmotic potential at full turgor) were also measured in these organs. Oxygen sensitivity of the assimilation rate and electron transport, the lack of Rubisco compartmentalisation in the mesophyll tissues and the gas-exchange pattern at night indicated that neither C4 nor CAM metabolism occurs in the ear of WW or WS plants. Nevertheless, photosynthetic activity of the flag leaf was more affected by WS conditions than that of the ear, under both growing conditions. The lower sensitivity under water stress of the ear than of the flag leaf was linked to higher RWC and osmotic adjustment in the ear bracts and awns. We demonstrate that the better performance of the ear under water stress (compared to the flag leaf) is not related to C4 or CAM photosynthesis. Rather, drought tolerance of the ear is explained by its higher RWC in drought. Osmotic adjustment and xeromorphic traits of ear parts may be responsible. PMID:15645303

  1. An integrated study of photochemical function and expression of a key photochemical gene (psbA) in photosynthetic communities of Lake Bonney (McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica).

    PubMed

    Kong, Weidong; Li, Wei; Romancova, Ingrid; Prášil, Ondřej; Morgan-Kiss, Rachael M

    2014-08-01

    Lake Bonney is one of several permanently ice-covered lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, which maintain the only year-round biological activity on the Antarctic continent. Vertically stratified populations of autotrophic microorganisms occupying the water columns are adapted to numerous extreme conditions, including very low light, hypersalinity, ultra-oligotrophy and low temperatures. In this study, we integrated molecular biology, microscopy, flow cytometry, and functional photochemical analyses of the photosynthetic communities residing in the east and west basins of dry valley Lake Bonney. Diversity and abundance of the psbA gene encoding a major protein of the photosystem II reaction center were monitored during the seasonal transition between Antarctic summer (24-h daylight) to winter (24-h darkness). Vertical trends through the photic zone in psbA abundance (DNA and mRNA) closely matched that of primary production in both lobes. Seasonal trends in psbA transcripts differed between the two lobes, with psbA expression in the west basin exhibiting a transient rise in early Fall. Last, using spectroscopic and flow cytometric analyses, we provide the first evidence that the Lake Bonney photosynthetic community is dominated by picophytoplankton that possess photosynthetic apparatus adapted to extreme shade. PMID:24499459

  2. Gestational and Lactational Exposure to Ethinyl Estradiol, but not Bisphenol A, Decreases Androgen-Dependent Reproductive Organ Weights and Epididymal Sperm Abundance in the Male Long Evans Hooded Rat.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many chemicals released into the environment are capable of disrupting normal sex steroid balance, including the oral contraceptive ethinyl estradiol (EE) and the plastic monomer bisphenol A (BPA). EE and BPA are reported to impair reproductive organ development in laboratory ani...

  3. Could narrow marine embayments prevent sea-glacier invasion, and protect photosynthetic life during a Snowball Earth?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Adam J.

    During the Snowball Earth events of the Neoproterozoic, the Earth's oceans may have been completely covered in ice. This ice would have been thick enough to prohibit the transmission of light to the liquid water underneath the entirely frozen surface of the ocean. However, photosynthetic eukaryotes are thought to have survived during these events. This is the first work to throughly attempt to reconcile how photosynthetic eukaryotes survived on a planet with a completely frozen ocean surface. Narrow marine embayments like the modern-day Red Sea, would restrict the inflow of sea glaciers. These embayments, if located in regions of net sublimation, would restrict sea-glacier invasion and could provide refuge for these organisms at the end of their channels. This work demonstrates that under a set of climate conditions and channel geometries, narrow marine embayments allow for incomplete sea-glacier invasion, a necessary condition for marine embayments to provide refugia.

  4. (1)H, (15)N and (13)C resonance assignments of translationally-controlled tumor protein from photosynthetic microalga Nannochloropsis oceanica.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xingzhe; Xiao, Yan; Cui, Qiu; Feng, Yingang

    2015-10-01

    Translationally-controlled tumor protein (TCTP) is a eukaryote-conserved protein with crucial roles in cellular growth. It has also been proposed that plant TCTP has functions specific to plant, while no structure of TCTP from photosynthetic organism has been reported. Nannochloropsis is a photosynthetic microalga with high yield of lipid and high-value polyunsaturated fatty acid, which is promising for biodiesel production. Study of growth-related proteins may provide new clue for improving the yield of lipid. TCTP from Nannochloropsis oceanica shares low sequence identity with structure-known TCTPs. Here we reported the NMR resonance assignments of TCTP from N. oceanica for further structural and functional studies. PMID:25680850

  5. Abundance, size distributions and trace-element binding of organic and iron-rich nanocolloids in Alaskan rivers, as revealed by field-flow fractionation and ICP-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolpe, Björn; Guo, Laodong; Shiller, Alan M.; Aiken, George R.

    2013-03-01

    Water samples were collected from six small rivers in the Yukon River basin in central Alaska to examine the role of colloids and organic matter in the transport of trace elements in Northern high latitude watersheds influenced by permafrost. Concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), selected elements (Al, Si, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Rb, Sr, Ba, Pb, U), and UV-absorbance spectra were measured in 0.45 μm filtered samples. 'Nanocolloidal size distributions' (0.5-40 nm, hydrodynamic diameter) of humic-type and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb were determined by on-line coupling of flow field-flow fractionation (FFF) to detectors including UV-absorbance, fluorescence, and ICP-MS. Total dissolved and nanocolloidal concentrations of the elements varied considerably between the rivers and between spring flood and late summer base flow. Data on specific UV-absorbance (SUVA), spectral slopes, and the nanocolloidal fraction of the UV-absorbance indicated a decrease in aromaticity and size of CDOM from spring flood to late summer. The nanocolloidal size distributions indicated the presence of different 'components' of nanocolloids. 'Fulvic-rich nanocolloids' had a hydrodynamic diameter of 0.5-3 nm throughout the sampling season; 'organic/iron-rich nanocolloids' occurred in the <8 nm size range during the spring flood; whereas 'iron-rich nanocolloids' formed a discrete 4-40 nm components during summer base flow. Mn, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn were distributed between the nanocolloid components depending on the stability constant of the metal (+II)-organic complexes, while stronger association of Cr to the iron-rich nanocolloids was attributed to the higher oxidation states of Cr (+III or +IV). Changes in total dissolved element concentrations, size and composition of CDOM, and occurrence and size of organic/iron and iron-rich nanocolloids were related to variations in their sources from either the upper organic

  6. Photosynthetic Microbial Mats are Exemplary Sources of Diverse Biosignatures (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Des Marais, D. J.; Jahnke, L. L.

    2013-12-01

    microorganisms as well as networks of C flow within mats; thus they offer insights about community structure. For example, relative 13C/12C values of individual lipid biosignatures can indicate trophic relationships between key groups of microorganisms. Mat microenvironments can affect the stability of authigenic minerals and alter the chemical compositions and crystal forms of carbonate, sulfate and metal oxide minerals. Interactions between low molecular weight organic compounds and sulfides in mat pore waters can produce alkyl sulfide gases. Processes associated with these physically coherent biofilms can trap and bind detrital grains, enhance mineral precipitation or dissolution, and stabilize sediment surfaces. Accordingly mats can create distinctive sedimentary fabrics and structures. Stromatolites are the most ancient, widespread examples of such fabrics and structures. Thus photosynthetic microbial mats create diverse biosignatures that, when preserved in the geologic record, can help to identify the former presence of key populations of microorganisms and reveal key processes that occurred within ancient mats as well as the interactions between those ecosystems and their environment.

  7. A simulation of global regimes of potential leaf net photosynthetic rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Rourke, Patricia A.

    1982-01-01

    Worldwide patterns of leaf net photosynthetic rates are produced by a parameterized model (PHOTO 1) in relation to plant climates. PHOTO 1 produces a continuum of photosynthetic plant leaf responses to climatic variables via its two submodels which characterize the phtosynthetic activity of generalized C4 and C3 plants. World maps depict seasonal net photosynthetic rates.

  8. Effect of Pb2+ ions on photosynthetic apparatus.

    PubMed

    Sersen, Frantisek; Kralova, Katarina; Pesko, Matus; Cigan, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Using model lead compounds Pb(NO3)2 and Pb(CH3CHOO)2, the mechanism and the site of action of Pb2+ ions in the photosynthetic apparatus of spinach chloroplasts were studied. Both compounds inhibited photosynthetic electron transport (PET) through photosystem 1 (PS1) and photosystem 2 (PS2), while Pb(NO3)2 was found to be more effective PET inhibitor. Using EPR spectroscopy the following sites of Pb2+ action in the photosynthetic apparatus were determined: the water-splitting complex and the Z•/D• intermediates on the donor side of PS2 and probably also the ferredoxin on the acceptor side of PS1, because cyclic electron flow in chloroplasts was impaired by treatment with Pb2+ ions. Study of chlorophyll fluorescence in suspension of spinach chloroplasts in the presence of Pb2+ ions confirmed their site of action in PS2. Using fluorescence spectroscopy also formation of complexes between Pb2+ and amino acid residues in photosynthetic proteins was confirmed and constants of complex formation among Pb2+ and aromatic amino acids were calculated for both studied lead compounds. PMID:24177022

  9. A Model for Prediction of Heat Stability of Photosynthetic Membranes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A previous study has revealed a positive correlation between heat-induced damage to photosynthetic membranes (thylakoid membranes) and chlorophyll loss. In this study, we exploited this correlation and developed a model for prediction of thermal damage to thylakoids. Prediction is based on estimat...

  10. Light-harvesting processes in the dynamic photosynthetic antenna.

    PubMed

    Duffy, C D P; Valkunas, L; Ruban, A V

    2013-11-21

    We present our perspective on the theoretical basis of light-harvesting within the photosynthetic membrane. Far from being a static structure, the photosynthetic membrane is a highly dynamic system, with protein mobility playing an important role in the damage/repair cycle of photosystem II (PSII), in balancing the input of energy between PSI and PSII, and in the photoprotection of PSII in response to a sudden excess of illumination. The concept of a photosynthetic antenna is illustrated and the state transition phenomenon is discussed as an example of purposeful antenna mobility. We discuss fluorescence recovery after photo-bleaching as a technique for visualising membrane mobility, before introducing light-induced grana membrane reorganisation as an integral part of the rapid photoprotective switch in plants. We then discuss current theoretical approaches to modelling the energy transfer dynamics of the PSII antenna: the atomistic models of intra-complex transfer and the coarse-grained approach to the inter-complex dynamics. Finally we discuss the future prospect of extending these methods, beyond the static picture of the membrane, to the dynamic PSII photosynthetic antenna. PMID:23868502

  11. Predicting Photosynthetic Fluxes from Spectral Reflectance of Leaves and Canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gamon, John A.

    1997-01-01

    The central hypothesis of this study has been that photosynthetic efficiency and capacity can be predicted from 'physiological reflectance indices' derived from spectral reflectance of leaves and canopies. I have approached this topic with a combination of laboratory and field experiments, and have also explored the potential of deriving a meaningful physiological index from imaging spectrometry (e.g. AVIRIS). A few highlights are presented below. The main emphasis has been on the 'Photochemical Reflectance Index' (PRI), derived from reflectance at 531 nm and 570 nm. Unlike most 'conventional' vegetation indices (e.g. NDVI), PRI changes rapidly both with illumination and physiological state, because it detects the interconversion of xanthophyll cycle pigments, which serve as photoregulatory pigments and control energy distribution for the photosynthetic system. This approach has differed dramatically from most remote sensing in that it has emphasized temporal variation in narrow-band spectral signatures, instead of spatial patterns of broadband indices. Our primary conclusion has been that PRI works well as an index of photosynthetic light-use efficiency at the leaf scale, much in the same way as the fluorescence index DeltaF/Fm. However, unlike DeltaF/Fm which must be measured at close scales, PRI can be sampled at a range of spatial scales, presenting the possibility of monitoring photosynthetic fluxes remotely.

  12. Photosynthetic terpene hydrocarbon production for fuels and chemicals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Photosynthetic terpene production[ED1] represents an energy and carbon-efficient route for hydrocarbon fuel production. Diverse terpene structures also provide the potential to produce next-generation 'drop-in' hydrocarbon fuel molecules. However, it is highly challenging to achieve efficient redire...

  13. Evolution of heliobacteria: implications for photosynthetic reaction center complexes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vermaas, W. F.; Blankenship, R. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    The evolutionary position of the heliobacteria, a group of green photosynthetic bacteria with a photosynthetic apparatus functionally resembling Photosystem I of plants and cyanobacteria, has been investigated with respect to the evolutionary relationship to Gram-positive bacteria and cyanobacteria. On the basis of 16S rRNA sequence analysis, the heliobacteria appear to be most closely related to Gram-positive bacteria, but also an evolutionary link to cyanobacteria is evident. Interestingly, a 46-residue domain including the putative sixth membrane-spanning region of the heliobacterial reaction center protein show rather strong similarity (33% identity and 72% similarity) to a region including the sixth membrane-spanning region of the CP47 protein, a chlorophyll-binding core antenna polypeptide of Photosystem II. The N-terminal half of the heliobacterial reaction center polypeptide shows a moderate sequence similarity (22% identity over 232 residues) with the CP47 protein, which is significantly more than the similarity with the Photosystem I core polypeptides in this region. An evolutionary model for photosynthetic reaction center complexes is discussed, in which an ancestral homodimeric reaction center protein (possibly resembling the heliobacterial reaction center protein) with 11 membrane-spanning regions per polypeptide has diverged to give rise to the core of Photosystem I, Photosystem II, and of the photosynthetic apparatus in green, purple, and heliobacteria.

  14. Assessing Photosynthetic Oxygen Liberation Using a BBC Microcomputer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, Annette J. W.; Spragg, Robert M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a technique which gives an automatic and accurate assessment of photosynthetic oxygen liberation with graphical results available immediately. This program takes readings from an oxygen electrode and a photocell simultaneously. The types of results and unique features of the technique are discussed. (ML)

  15. Gene expression responses in photosynthetic tissues to herbicides and pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When plants are attacked by pathogens, the photosynthetic tissue is often dramatically affected. The chloroplasts within this tissue can participate in defense by being a source of many plant secondary metabolites that serve as defense signaling compounds, antioxidants, and phytoalexins. The chlorop...

  16. An Improved Method for Extraction and Separation of Photosynthetic Pigments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katayama, Nobuyasu; Kanaizuka, Yasuhiro; Sudarmi, Rini; Yokohama, Yasutsugu

    2003-01-01

    The method for extracting and separating hydrophobic photosynthetic pigments proposed by Katayama "et al." ("Japanese Journal of Phycology," 42, 71-77, 1994) has been improved to introduce it to student laboratories at the senior high school level. Silica gel powder was used for removing water from fresh materials prior to extracting pigments by a…

  17. Solar and stellar photospheric abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allende Prieto, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    The determination of photospheric abundances in late-type stars from spectroscopic observations is a well-established field, built on solid theoretical foundations. Improving those foundations to refine the accuracy of the inferred abundances has proven challenging, but progress has been made. In parallel, developments on instrumentation, chiefly regarding multi-object spectroscopy, have been spectacular, and a number of projects are collecting large numbers of observations for stars across the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, promising important advances in our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. After providing a brief description of the basic physics and input data involved in the analysis of stellar spectra, a review is made of the analysis steps, and the available tools to cope with large observational efforts. The paper closes with a quick overview of relevant ongoing and planned spectroscopic surveys, and highlights of recent research on photospheric abundances.

  18. Robust Abundance Estimation in Animal Abundance Surveys with Imperfect Detection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surveys of animal abundance are central to the conservation and management of living natural resources. However, detection uncertainty complicates the sampling process of many species. One sampling method employed to deal with this problem is depletion (or removal) surveys in whi...

  19. Coronal abundances and their variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saba, Julia L. R.

    1995-01-01

    This contract supports the investigation of elemental abundances in the solar corona, principally through analysis of high-resolution soft X-ray spectra from the Flat Crystal Spectrometer on the Solar Maximum Mission. The goals of the study are a characterization of the mean values of relative abundances of elements accessible in the FCS data, and information on the extent and circumstances of their variability. This report is a summation of the data analysis and reporting activities which occurred during the period of 15 April 1994 to 15 April 1995.

  20. The solar abundance of beryllium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, J. E.; Aller, L. H.

    1974-01-01

    The solar abundance of beryllium is deduced from high-resolution Kitt Peak observations of the 3130.43- and 3131.08-A lines of Be II interpreted by the method of spectrum synthesis. The results are in good agreement with those previously obtained by Grevesse (1968) and by Hauge and Engvold (1968) and indicate that in the photospheric layers, beryllium is depleted below the chondritic value by a factor of about two. It is found that the beryllium abundance is equal to logN(Be)/N(H) + 12 = 1.08 plus or minus 0.05.

  1. Chemical Abundances of Symbiotic Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gałan, C.; Mikołajewska, J.; Hinkle, K. H.; Joyce, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    High resolution (R ˜ 50000), near-IR spectra were used to measure photospheric abundances of CNO and elements around the iron peak for 24 symbiotic giants. Spectrum synthesis was employed using local thermal equilibrium and hydrostatic model atmospheres. The metallicities are distributed in a wide range with maximum around [Fe/H] ˜-0.4 - - 0.3 dex. Enrichment in 14N indicates that all the sample giants have experienced the first dredge-up. The relative abundance of [Ti/Fe] is generally large in red symbiotic systems.

  2. Coronal Abundances and Their Variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saba, Julia L. R.

    1996-01-01

    This contract supported the investigation of elemental abundances in the solar corona, principally through analysis of high-resolution soft X-ray spectra from the Flat Crystal Spectrometer on NASA's Solar Maximum Mission. The goals of the study were a characterization of the mean values of relative abundances of elements accessible in the FCS data, and information on the extent and circumstances of their variability. This is the Final Report, summarizing the data analysis and reporting activities which occurred during the period of performance, June 1993 - December 1996.

  3. SOLAR MODELS WITH REVISED ABUNDANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Bi, S. L.; Li, T. D.; Yang, W. M.; Li, L. H.

    2011-04-20

    We present new solar models in which we use the latest low abundances and further include the effects of rotation, magnetic fields, and extra-mixing processes. We assume that the extra-element mixing can be treated as a diffusion process, with the diffusion coefficient depending mainly on the solar internal configuration of rotation and magnetic fields. We find that such models can well reproduce the observed solar rotation profile in the radiative region. Furthermore, the proposed models can match the seismic constraints better than the standard solar models, also when these include the latest abundances, but neglect the effects of rotation and magnetic fields.

  4. Photosynthetic H2 metabolism in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (unicellular green algae).

    PubMed

    Melis, Anastasios

    2007-10-01

    Unicellular green algae have the ability to operate in two distinctly different environments (aerobic and anaerobic), and to photosynthetically generate molecular hydrogen (H2). A recently developed metabolic protocol in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii permitted separation of photosynthetic O2-evolution and carbon accumulation from anaerobic consumption of cellular metabolites and concomitant photosynthetic H2-evolution. The H2 evolution process was induced upon sulfate nutrient deprivation of the cells, which reversibly inhibits photosystem-II and O2-evolution in their chloroplast. In the absence of O2, and in order to generate ATP, green algae resorted to anaerobic photosynthetic metabolism, evolved H2 in the light and consumed endogenous substrate. This study summarizes recent advances on green algal hydrogen metabolism and discusses avenues of research for the further development of this method. Included is the mechanism of a substantial tenfold starch accumulation in the cells, observed promptly upon S-deprivation, and the regulated starch and protein catabolism during the subsequent H2-evolution. Also discussed is the function of a chloroplast envelope-localized sulfate permease, and the photosynthesis-respiration relationship in green algae as potential tools by which to stabilize and enhance H2 metabolism. In addition to potential practical applications of H2, approaches discussed in this work are beginning to address the biochemistry of anaerobic H2 photoproduction, its genes, proteins, regulation, and communication with other metabolic pathways in microalgae. Photosynthetic H2 production by green algae may hold the promise of generating a renewable fuel from nature's most plentiful resources, sunlight and water. The process potentially concerns global warming and the question of energy supply and demand. PMID:17721788

  5. Kinetics of photosynthetic response to ultraviolet and photosynthetically active radiation in Synechococcus WH8102 (cyanobacteria).

    PubMed

    Fragoso, Glaucia M; Neale, Patrick J; Kana, Todd M; Pritchard, Alicia L

    2014-01-01

    The picoplanktonic cyanobacteria, Synechococcus spp., (Nägeli) are important contributors to global ocean primary production that can be stressed by solar radiation, both in the photosynthetically active (PAR) and ultraviolet (UV) range. We studied the responses of PSII quantum yield (active fluorescence), carbon fixation ((14)C assimilation) and oxygen evolution (membrane inlet mass spectrometry) in Synechococcus WH8102 under moderate UV and PAR. PSII quantum yield decreased during exposure to moderate UV and UV+PAR, with response to the latter being faster (6.4 versus 2.8 min, respectively). Repair processes were also faster when UV+PAR exposure was followed by moderate PAR (1.68 min response time) than when UV was followed by very low PAR (10.5 min response time). For the UV+PAR treatment, the initial decrease in quantum yield was followed by a 50% increase ("rebound") after 7 min exposure, showing an apparent photoprotection induction. While oxy