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Sample records for abundant polycyclic aromatic

  1. Large Abundances of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Titan's Upper Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez-Puertas, M.; Dinelli, B. M.; Adriani, A.; Funke, B.; Garcia-Comas, M.; Moriconi, M. L.; D'Aversa, E.; Boersma, C.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the strong unidentified emission near 3.28 micron in Titan's upper daytime atmosphere recently discovered by Dinelli et al.We have studied it by using the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), after absorbing UV solar radiation, are able to emit strongly near 3.3 micron. By using current models for the redistribution of the absorbed UV energy, we have explained the observed spectral feature and have derived the vertical distribution of PAH abundances in Titan's upper atmosphere. PAHs have been found to be present in large concentrations, about (2-3) × 10(exp 4) particles / cubic cm. The identified PAHs have 9-96 carbons, with a concentration-weighted average of 34 carbons. The mean mass is approx 430 u; the mean area is about 0.53 sq. nm; they are formed by 10-11 rings on average, and about one-third of them contain nitrogen atoms. Recently, benzene together with light aromatic species as well as small concentrations of heavy positive and negative ions have been detected in Titan's upper atmosphere. We suggest that the large concentrations of PAHs found here are the neutral counterpart of those positive and negative ions, which hence supports the theory that the origin of Titan main haze layer is located in the upper atmosphere.

  2. LARGE ABUNDANCES OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN TITAN'S UPPER ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez-Puertas, M.; Funke, B.; Garcia-Comas, M.; Dinelli, B. M.; Adriani, A.; D'Aversa, E.; Moriconi, M. L.; Boersma, C.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2013-06-20

    In this paper, we analyze the strong unidentified emission near 3.28 {mu}m in Titan's upper daytime atmosphere recently discovered by Dinelli et al. We have studied it by using the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), after absorbing UV solar radiation, are able to emit strongly near 3.3 {mu}m. By using current models for the redistribution of the absorbed UV energy, we have explained the observed spectral feature and have derived the vertical distribution of PAH abundances in Titan's upper atmosphere. PAHs have been found to be present in large concentrations, about (2-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} particles cm{sup -3}. The identified PAHs have 9-96 carbons, with a concentration-weighted average of 34 carbons. The mean mass is {approx}430 u; the mean area is about 0.53 nm{sup 2}; they are formed by 10-11 rings on average, and about one-third of them contain nitrogen atoms. Recently, benzene together with light aromatic species as well as small concentrations of heavy positive and negative ions have been detected in Titan's upper atmosphere. We suggest that the large concentrations of PAHs found here are the neutral counterpart of those positive and negative ions, which hence supports the theory that the origin of Titan main haze layer is located in the upper atmosphere.

  3. Microbial abundance and degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Mahmood, S.K.; Rao, P.R. )

    1993-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of highly lipophilic chemicals that are generally formed during combustion, pyrolysis and pyrosynthesis of organic matter and are present ubiquitously in the urban environment as pollutants in very small quantities. The objective of the present study was to determine the activity of indigenous microbial populations of hazardous waste sites, their degree of adaptation, their ability to degrade toxic PAHs, and to study the potentials of different indigenous microbes to degrade the following selected PAHs from the polluted soil environment. PAHs selected for the study were anthracene, phenanthrene, chrysene, pyrene and fluoranthene. In this study, the indigenous contaminated soil populations were effective in removing the hydrocarbons and returning the soil to productivity. The biodegradation of PAHs in the selected soil was due to PAH degrader present in the bacterial as well as fungal communities. 13 refs., 2 tabs.

  4. Abundance and diversity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation bacteria in urban roadside soils in Shanghai.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaofei; Hou, Lijun; Liu, Min; Zheng, Yanling; Li, Ye; Lin, Xianbiao

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the impact of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on soil environments is of increasingly important concern. Therefore, the microbial degradation of PAHs in soils has drawn considerable attention, but little is known about the PAH degradation genes in urban soils. In this study, we examined the diversity and abundance of the PAH degradation bacteria and evaluated whether the specific bacteria can reflect PAH contents in the soils from urban roadsides directly receiving traffic emission. The results of phylogenetic analysis indicated that low PAH degradation bacterial diversity occurred in the urban roadside soils, only including Mycobacterium sp., Terrabacter sp., and one novel cluster. The community composition diversity of PAH degradation bacteria did not show a significant difference across the sampling sites. The abundance of PAH degradation genes ranged from 5.70 × 10(6) to 6.44 × 10(7) gene copies g(-1) dry soil, with an average abundance of 1.43 × 10(7) gene copies g(-1) dry soil, and their spatial variations were related significantly to PAH contents in the soils. The Mycobacterium sp. was the most widely detected and estimated to occupy 65.9-100 % of the total PAH degradation bacteria at most of the soil samples, implying that the Mycobacterium sp. might play a primary role in degrading PAHs in the contaminated urban soil environments.

  5. Influence of traffic conditions on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon abundance in street dust.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Li; Li, Yingxia; Yang, Zhifeng; Shi, Jianghong

    2010-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations were quantified in sieved street dusts from eight sampling sites with different traffic conditions in Beijing. The parent diagnostic ratio test and multi-regression analysis were used to identify the different PAH pollution sources. Results showed that more than 93% of the cumulative 16 priority pollutant PAHs (Sigma 16EPA-PAH) load was present in street dust with a diameter less than 300 microm across all the sampling sites. The concentration of Sigma 4-6 ring PAHs was 93 to 284% higher than that of Sigma 2-3 ring PAHs for most of the sites except the cycle lane site, indicating the dominance of pyrogenic inputs in street dusts at these sites. Cooking oil is an important PAH source in street dusts for all the sampling sites. Tire debris and vehicle emissions were also identified as significant contributors to the PAH loading in the heavy traffic zone, vehicle parking areas, the frequent brake usage zone, and the construction area.

  6. Abundances of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 14 chinese and american coals and their relation to coal rank and weathering

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, R.; Liu, Gaisheng; Zhang, Jiahua; Chou, C.-L.; Liu, J.

    2010-01-01

    The abundances of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the priority list of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) have been determined in 14 Chinese and American coals. The ranks of the samples range from lignite, bituminous coal, anthracite, to natural coke. Soxhlet extraction was conducted on each coal for 48 h. The extract was analyzed on a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The results show that the total PAH content ranged from 0.31 to 57.6 ??g/g of coal (on a dry basis). It varied with coal rank and is highest in the maturity range of bituminous coal rank. High-molecular-weight (HMW) PAHs are predominant in low-rank coals, but low-molecular-weight (LMW) PAHs are predominant in high-rank coals. The low-sulfur coals have a higher PAH content than high-sulfur coals. It may be explained by an increasing connection between disulfide bonds and PAHs in high-sulfur coal. In addition, it leads us to conclude that the PAH content of coals may be related to the depositional environment. ?? 2010 American Chemical Society.

  7. Bioassay of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Van Kirk, E.A.

    1980-08-01

    A positive relationship was found between the photodynamic activity of 24 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons versus published results on the mutagenicity, carcinogenicity, and initiation of unscheduled DNA synthesis. Metabolic activation of benzo(a)pyrene resulted in detection of increased mutagenesis in Paramecium tetraurelia as found also in the Ames Salmonella assay. The utility of P. tetraurelia as a biological detector of hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is discussed.

  8. Contorted polycyclic aromatics.

    PubMed

    Ball, Melissa; Zhong, Yu; Wu, Ying; Schenck, Christine; Ng, Fay; Steigerwald, Michael; Xiao, Shengxiong; Nuckolls, Colin

    2015-02-17

    CONSPECTUS: This Account describes a body of research in the design, synthesis, and assembly of molecular materials made from strained polycyclic aromatic molecules. The strain in the molecular subunits severely distorts the aromatic molecules away from planarity. We coined the term "contorted aromatics" to describe this class of molecules. Using these molecules, we demonstrate that the curved pi-surfaces are useful as subunits to make self-assembled electronic materials. We have created and continue to study two broad classes of these "contorted aromatics": discs and ribbons. The figure that accompanies this conspectus displays the three-dimensional surfaces of a selection of these "contorted aromatics". The disc-shaped contorted molecules have well-defined conformations that create concave pi-surfaces. When these disc-shaped molecules are substituted with hydrocarbon side chains, they self-assemble into columnar superstructures. Depending on the hydrocarbon substitution, they form either liquid crystalline films or macroscopic cables. In both cases, the columnar structures are photoconductive and form p-type, hole- transporting materials in field effect transistor devices. This columnar motif is robust, allowing us to form monolayers of these columns attached to the surface of dielectrics such as silicon oxide. We use ultrathin point contacts made from individual single-walled carbon nanotubes that are separated by a few nanometers to probe the electronic properties of short stacks of a few contorted discs. We find that these materials have high mobility and can sense electron-deficient aromatic molecules. The concave surfaces of these disc-shaped contorted molecules form ideal receptors for the molecular recognition and assembly with spherical molecules such as fullerenes. These interfaces resemble ball-and-socket joints, where the fullerene nests itself in the concave surface of the contorted disc. The tightness of the binding between the two partners can be

  9. Contorted polycyclic aromatics.

    PubMed

    Ball, Melissa; Zhong, Yu; Wu, Ying; Schenck, Christine; Ng, Fay; Steigerwald, Michael; Xiao, Shengxiong; Nuckolls, Colin

    2015-02-17

    CONSPECTUS: This Account describes a body of research in the design, synthesis, and assembly of molecular materials made from strained polycyclic aromatic molecules. The strain in the molecular subunits severely distorts the aromatic molecules away from planarity. We coined the term "contorted aromatics" to describe this class of molecules. Using these molecules, we demonstrate that the curved pi-surfaces are useful as subunits to make self-assembled electronic materials. We have created and continue to study two broad classes of these "contorted aromatics": discs and ribbons. The figure that accompanies this conspectus displays the three-dimensional surfaces of a selection of these "contorted aromatics". The disc-shaped contorted molecules have well-defined conformations that create concave pi-surfaces. When these disc-shaped molecules are substituted with hydrocarbon side chains, they self-assemble into columnar superstructures. Depending on the hydrocarbon substitution, they form either liquid crystalline films or macroscopic cables. In both cases, the columnar structures are photoconductive and form p-type, hole- transporting materials in field effect transistor devices. This columnar motif is robust, allowing us to form monolayers of these columns attached to the surface of dielectrics such as silicon oxide. We use ultrathin point contacts made from individual single-walled carbon nanotubes that are separated by a few nanometers to probe the electronic properties of short stacks of a few contorted discs. We find that these materials have high mobility and can sense electron-deficient aromatic molecules. The concave surfaces of these disc-shaped contorted molecules form ideal receptors for the molecular recognition and assembly with spherical molecules such as fullerenes. These interfaces resemble ball-and-socket joints, where the fullerene nests itself in the concave surface of the contorted disc. The tightness of the binding between the two partners can be

  10. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Farid

    2010-01-01

    Carbonaceous materials play an important role in space. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a ubiquitous component of the carbonaceous materials. PAHs are the best-known candidates to account for the IR emission bands. They are also thought to be among the carriers of the diffuse interstellar absorption bands (DIBs). PAH ionization states reflect the ionization balance of the medium while PAH size, composition, and structure reflect the energetic and chemical history of the medium. A major challenge is to reproduce in the laboratory the physical conditions that exist in the emission and absorption interstellar zones. The harsh physical conditions of the ISM -low temperature, collisionless, strong UV radiation fields- are simulated in the laboratory by associating a molecular beam with an ionizing discharge to generate a cold plasma expansion. PAH ions and radicals are formed from the neutral precursors in an isolated environment at low temperature and probed with high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectroscopy in the NUV-NIR range. Carbon nanoparticles are also formed during the short residence time of the precursors in the plasma and are characterized with time-offlight mass spectrometry. These experiments provide unique information on the spectra of large carbonaceous molecules and ions in the gas phase that can now be directly compared to interstellar and circumstellar observations (IR emission bands, DIBs, extinction curve). These findings also hold great potential for understanding the formation process of interstellar carbonaceous grains. We will review recent progress in the experimental and theoretical studies of PAHs, compare the laboratory data with astronomical observations and discuss the global implications.

  11. THE PHOTOTOXICITY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) continues to be interested in developing methods for the detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) in the environment. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) are common contaminants in our environment. Being major product...

  12. THE ABUNDANCES OF HYDROCARBON FUNCTIONAL GROUPS IN THE INTERSTELLAR MEDIUM INFERRED FROM LABORATORY SPECTRA OF HYDROGENATED AND METHYLATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    SciTech Connect

    Steglich, M.; Jäger, C.; Huisken, F.; Friedrich, M.; Plass, W.; Räder, H.-J.; Müllen, K.; Henning, Th.

    2013-10-01

    Infrared (IR) absorption spectra of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) containing methyl (-CH{sub 3}), methylene (CH{sub 2}), or diamond-like CH groups and IR spectra of mixtures of methylated and hydrogenated PAHs prepared by gas-phase condensation were measured at room temperature (as grains in pellets) and at low temperature (isolated in Ne matrices). In addition, the PAH blends were subjected to an in-depth molecular structure analysis by means of high-performance liquid chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Supported by calculations at the density functional theory level, the laboratory results were applied to analyze in detail the aliphatic absorption complex of the diffuse interstellar medium at 3.4 μm and to determine the abundances of hydrocarbon functional groups. Assuming that the PAHs are mainly locked in grains, aliphatic CH {sub x} groups (x = 1, 2, 3) would contribute approximately in equal quantities to the 3.4 μm feature (N {sub CHx}/N {sub H} ≈ 10{sup –5}-2 × 10{sup –5}). The abundances, however, may be two to four times lower if a major contribution to the 3.4 μm feature comes from molecules in the gas phase. Aromatic ≅CH groups seem to be almost absent from some lines of sight, but can be nearly as abundant as each of the aliphatic components in other directions (N{sub ≅CH}/N {sub H} ∼< 2 × 10{sup –5}; upper value for grains). Due to comparatively low binding energies, astronomical IR emission sources do not display such heavy excess hydrogenation. At best, especially in protoplanetary nebulae, CH{sub 2} groups bound to aromatic molecules, i.e., excess hydrogens on the molecular periphery only, can survive the presence of a nearby star.

  13. The relative abundance and seasonal distribution correspond with the sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the surface sediments of Chenab River, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Imran; Syed, Jabir Hussain; Kamal, Atif; Iqbal, Mehreen; Eqani, Syed-Ali-Mustjab-Akbar-Shah; Bong, Chui Wei; Taqi, Malik Mumtaz; Reichenauer, Thomas G; Zhang, Gan; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-06-01

    Chenab River is one of the most important rivers of Punjab Province (Pakistan) that receives huge input of industrial effluents and municipal sewage from major cities in the Central Punjab, Pakistan. The current study was designed to evaluate the concentration levels and associated ecological risks of USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the surface sediments of Chenab River. Sampling was performed from eight (n = 24) sampling stations of Chenab River and its tributaries. We observed a relatively high abundance of ∑16PAHs during the summer season (i.e. 554 ng g(-1)) versus that in the winter season (i.e. 361 ng g(-1)), with an overall abundance of two-, five- and six-ring PAH congeners. Results also revealed that the nitrate and phosphate contents in the sediments were closely associated with low molecular weight (LMW) and high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs, respectively. Source apportionment results showed that the combustion of fossil fuels appears to be the key source of PAHs in the study area. The risk quotient (RQ) values indicated that seven PAH congeners (i.e. phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)pyrene, chrysene and benzo(a)anthracene) could pose serious threats to the aquatic life of the riverine ecosystem in Pakistan. PMID:27234513

  14. The Abundances of Hydrocarbon Functional Groups in the Interstellar Medium Inferred from Laboratory Spectra of Hydrogenated and Methylated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steglich, M.; Jäger, C.; Huisken, F.; Friedrich, M.; Plass, W.; Räder, H.-J.; Müllen, K.; Henning, Th.

    2013-10-01

    Infrared (IR) absorption spectra of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) containing methyl (\\sbondCH3), methylene (\\protect{\\epsfbox{art/apjs484229un01.eps}}CH2), or diamond-like \\protect{\\epsfbox{art/apjs484229un02.eps}}CH groups and IR spectra of mixtures of methylated and hydrogenated PAHs prepared by gas-phase condensation were measured at room temperature (as grains in pellets) and at low temperature (isolated in Ne matrices). In addition, the PAH blends were subjected to an in-depth molecular structure analysis by means of high-performance liquid chromatography, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Supported by calculations at the density functional theory level, the laboratory results were applied to analyze in detail the aliphatic absorption complex of the diffuse interstellar medium at 3.4 μm and to determine the abundances of hydrocarbon functional groups. Assuming that the PAHs are mainly locked in grains, aliphatic CH x groups (x = 1, 2, 3) would contribute approximately in equal quantities to the 3.4 μm feature (N CHx /N H ≈ 10-5-2 × 10-5). The abundances, however, may be two to four times lower if a major contribution to the 3.4 μm feature comes from molecules in the gas phase. Aromatic \\epsfbox{art/apjs484229un03.eps} CH groups seem to be almost absent from some lines of sight, but can be nearly as abundant as each of the aliphatic components in other directions (N_{\\epsfbox{art/apjs484229un03.eps} CH}/N H lsim 2 × 10-5 upper value for grains). Due to comparatively low binding energies, astronomical IR emission sources do not display such heavy excess hydrogenation. At best, especially in protoplanetary nebulae, \\protect{\\epsfbox{art/apjs484229un01.eps}}CH2 groups bound to aromatic molecules, i.e., excess hydrogens on the molecular periphery only, can survive the presence of a nearby star.

  15. Birds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Albers, P.H.

    2006-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are present throughout the global environment and are produced naturally and by activities of humans. Effects of PAH on birds have been determined by studies employing egg injection, egg immersion, egg shell application, single and multiple oral doses, subcutaneous injection, and chemical analysis of field-collected eggs and tissue. The four-to six-ring aromatic compounds are the most toxic to embryos, young birds, and adult birds. For embryos, effects include death, developmental abnormalities, and a variety of cellular and biochemical responses. For adult and young birds, effects include reduced egg production and hatching, increased clutch or brood abandonment, reduced growth, increased organweights, and a variety of biochemical responses. Trophic level accumulation is unlikely. Environmental exposure to PAH in areas of high human population or habitats affected by recent petroleum spills might be sufficient to adversely affect reproduction. Evidence of long-term effects of elevated concentrations of environmental PAH on bird populations is very limited and the mechanisms of effect are unclear.

  16. Aromaticity Competition in Differentially Fused Borepin-Containing Polycyclic Aromatics.

    PubMed

    Messersmith, Reid E; Siegler, Maxime A; Tovar, John D

    2016-07-01

    This report describes the synthesis and characterization of a series of borepin-based polycyclic aromatics bearing two different arene fusions. The borepin synthesis features streamlined Ti-mediated alkyne reduction, leading to Z-olefins, followed by direct lithiation and borepin formation. These molecules allow for an assessment of aromatic competition between the fused rings and the central borepin core. Crystallographic, magnetic, and computational studies yielded insights about the aromaticity of novel, differentially fused [b,f]borepins and allowed for comparison to literature compounds. Multiple borepin motifs were also incorporated into polycyclic aromatics with five or six rings in the main backbone, and their properties were also evaluated.

  17. Interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds and Astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudgins, Douglas M.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Over the past fifteen years, thanks to significant, parallel advancements in observational, experimental, and theoretical techniques, tremendous strides have been made in our understanding of the role polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) in the interstellar medium (ISM). Twenty years ago, the notion of an abundant population of large, carbon rich molecules in the ISM was considered preposterous. Today, the unmistakable spectroscopic signatures of PAC - shockingly large molecules by previous interstellar chemistry standards - are recognized throughout the Universe. In this paper, we will examine the interstellar PAC model and its importance to astrophysics, including: (1) the evidence which led to inception of the model; (2) the ensuing laboratory and theoretical studies of the fundamental spectroscopic properties of PAC by which the model has been refined and extended; and (3) a few examples of how the model is being exploited to derive insight into the nature of the interstellar PAC population.

  18. PROTONATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS REVISITED

    SciTech Connect

    Ricca, Alessandra; Bauschlicher, Charles W. Jr; Allamandola, Louis J. E-mail: Charles.W.Bauschlicher@nasa.gov

    2011-02-01

    We reconsider the contribution that singly protonated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; HPAH{sup +}s) might make to the Class A component of the 6.2 {mu}m interstellar emission feature in light of the recent experimental measurements of protonated naphthalene and coronene. Our calculations on the small HPAH{sup +}s have a band near 6.2 {mu}m, as found in experiment. While the larger HPAH{sup +}s still have emission near 6.2 {mu}m, the much larger intensity of the band near 6.3 {mu}m overwhelms the weaker band at 6.2 {mu}m, so that the 6.2 {mu}m band is barely visible. Since the large PAHs are more representative of those in the interstellar medium, our work suggests that large HPAH{sup +}s cannot be major contributors to the observed emission at 6.2 {mu}m (i.e., Class A species). Saturating large PAH cations with hydrogen atoms retains the 6.2 {mu}m Class A band position, but the rest of the spectrum is inconsistent with observed spectra.

  19. Dihydrodiol dehydrogenase and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Smithgall, T.E.

    1986-01-01

    Carcinogenic activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by microsomal monoxygenases proceeds through trans-dihydrodiol metabolites to diol-epoxide ultimate carcinogens. This thesis directly investigated the role of dihydrodiol dehydrogenase, a cytosolic NAD(P)-linked oxidoreductase, in the detoxification of polycyclic aromatic trans-dihydrodiols. A wide variety of non-K-region trans-dihydrodiols were synthesized and shown to be substrates for the homogeneous rat liver dehydrogenase, including several potent proximate carcinogens derived from 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene, 5-methylchrysene, and benzo(a)pyrene. Since microsomal activation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is highly stereospecific, the stereochemical course of enzymatic trans-dihydrodiol oxidation was monitored using circular dichroism spectropolarimetry. The major product formed from the dehydrogenase-catalyzed oxidation of the trans-1,2-dihydrodiol of naphthalene was characterized using UV, IR, NMR, and mass spectroscopy, and appears to be 4-hydroxy-1,2-naphthoquinone. Mass spectral analysis suggests that an analogous hydroxylated o-quinone is formed as the major product of benzo(a)pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol oxidation. Enzymatic oxidation of trans-dihydrodiols was shown to be potently inhibited by all of the major classes of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs. Enhancement of trans-dihydrodiol proximate carcinogen oxidation may protect against possible adverse effects of the aspirin-like drugs, and help maintain the balance between activation and detoxification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  20. Monitoring of vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Hajaligol, Mohammad R.

    2004-06-01

    An apparatus for monitoring vapor phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a high-temperature environment has an excitation source producing electromagnetic radiation, an optical path having an optical probe optically communicating the electromagnetic radiation received at a proximal end to a distal end, a spectrometer or polychromator, a detector, and a positioner coupled to the first optical path. The positioner can slidably move the distal end of the optical probe to maintain the distal end position with respect to an area of a material undergoing combustion. The emitted wavelength can be directed to a detector in a single optical probe 180.degree. backscattered configuration, in a dual optical probe 180.degree. backscattered configuration or in a dual optical probe 90.degree. side scattered configuration. The apparatus can be used to monitor an emitted wavelength of energy from a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon as it fluoresces in a high temperature environment.

  1. Spectroscopic properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and astrophysical implications.

    PubMed

    d'Hendecourt, L; Ehrenfreund, P

    1997-01-01

    PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) are probably present as a mixture of neutral and ionized species and are responsible for the set of infrared emission bands in the 2-15 microns regions, which are observed in many different objects like reflection and planetary nebulae and external galaxies. PAHs are suggested to be the most abundant free organic molecules and ubiquitous in space. PAHs might also exist in the solid phase, included in interstellar ices in dense clouds. A complex aromatic network is expected on interstellar grains in the diffuse interstellar medium. The existence of an aromatic kerogen-like structure in carbonaceous meteorites and its similarity with interstellar spectra suggests a link between interstellar matter and primitive Solar System bodies. PMID:11541329

  2. Spectroscopic properties of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and astrophysical implications.

    PubMed

    d'Hendecourt, L; Ehrenfreund, P

    1997-01-01

    PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) are probably present as a mixture of neutral and ionized species and are responsible for the set of infrared emission bands in the 2-15 microns regions, which are observed in many different objects like reflection and planetary nebulae and external galaxies. PAHs are suggested to be the most abundant free organic molecules and ubiquitous in space. PAHs might also exist in the solid phase, included in interstellar ices in dense clouds. A complex aromatic network is expected on interstellar grains in the diffuse interstellar medium. The existence of an aromatic kerogen-like structure in carbonaceous meteorites and its similarity with interstellar spectra suggests a link between interstellar matter and primitive Solar System bodies.

  3. Characterization and analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Breuer, G.M.; Smith, J.P.

    1984-01-01

    Sampling and analytical procedures were developed for determining the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in animal-exposure chambers during studies on exposure to diesel exhaust, coal dust, or mixtures of these two pollutants. Fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, and benzo(a)pyrene were used as representative polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. High-pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection was used for analysis. Coal-dust only samples revealed a broad, rising background in the chromatogram with small peaks superimposed corresponding to fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo(a)anthracene, diesel exhaust only samples showed many peaks on a flat baseline including those corresponding to fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, and benzo(a)pyrene. In general, no polynuclear aromatics were noted in the clean air samples. The authors note that relatively minor changes in air/fuel ratio, lubricant, fuel, and load may have substantial effects on very minor components of the exhaust emission.

  4. Overview of Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds (PAC)

    PubMed Central

    Achten, Christine; Andersson, Jan T.

    2015-01-01

    The chemical group of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC), including the better-known subgroup of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and the heterocyclic aromatic compounds (NSO-PAC, heterocycles), comprise several thousand individual compounds. It is hard to find a comprehensive overview in the literature of these PACs that includes a substantial amount of relevant properties. Here an attempt is made to summarize the most studied but also some less well-known PACs. In addition to basic data such as recommended names, abbreviations, CAS numbers, molecular formulas, chemical structures, and exact mono-isotopic molecular weights, physico-chemical properties taken from the literature like boiling points, vapor pressures, water solubilities, Henry's Law constants, n-octanol-water partition coefficients (log KOW), and pKa are summarized. Selected toxicological data are listed indicating carcinogenic and mutagenic activity or effects on different organisms. PAC nomenclature is a complex topic, so suggestions for practical use are made. Regarding available data, estimated (instead of measured) values should be used with caution because considerable deviations from experimentally determined values can occur. For an enhanced understanding of the behavior of single PACs in comparison with each other, some of the properties mentioned above are plotted vs. the number of rings or the degree of alkylation. Also, some physico-chemical data are correlated with different functional groups as substituents of the PAHs. This article reveals that rather little is known about the less common PACs, e.g., higher molecular weight compounds, alkylated or otherwise substituted aromatics, for instance, keto-, oxo-, amino-, nitro-, cyano-PAHs, or some heterocyclic aromatic compounds, including their derivatives. It mirrors the limited state of knowledge about the variety of PACs that do not belong to the 16 EPA PAHs. PMID:26823644

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons profile of kitchen dusts.

    PubMed

    Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M A

    2011-03-01

    Concentrations and profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in thirty dust samples collected from kitchens that use wood cook system (WCS), kerosene stove cook system (KSCS) and butane gas cook system (BGCS). The total PAHs concentrations ranged from 52 to 497, 39 to 96 and 37 to 155 μg kg(-1) for WCS, KSCS and BGCS respectively. The results indicate predominance of lower molecular weight (2-3 rings) over higher molecular weight PAHs and users of wood cook system are more exposed to higher levels of PAHs than the users of either kerosene cook system or butane gas cook system.

  6. Synthesis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in He nanodroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gschliesser, D.; Ferreira da Silva, F.; Bartl, P.; Denifl, S.; Scheier, P.

    2012-11-01

    Here we report the first mass spectrometric study of the synthesis of larger polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules (PAHs) out of weakly bound triphenylene agglomerates in cold helium droplets upon electron ionization. A highly abundant single reaction product is observed which indicates an extremely efficient and selective process. We propose that the synthesis of large molecules like fullerenes in interstellar clouds may proceed via similar reactions. Future work on different PAHs like benz[a]anthracene or chrysene will give more insight into this fascinating synthesis process.

  7. Ultrasound induced aqueous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon reactivity.

    PubMed

    Wheat, P E; Tumeo, M A

    1997-01-01

    An investigation to determine the ability of ultrasonic radiation to chemically alter polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aqueous solution has been conducted. The data indicate that chemical alteration of PAHs can be induced under intense ultrasonic treatment. The extent and outcome of reaction is a function of irridation time and aqueous solution parameters. Reaction products were analysed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Reaction products from ultrasonic treatment of aqueous solutions of biphenyl include ortho, meta, and para-1,1 biphenols. The principal product from ultrasonic treatment of aqueous phenanthrene solutions appears to be a phenanthrene-diol. The number and composition of reaction products for both PAHs tested suggest that a free radical mechanism is likely during aqueous high intensity ultrasonic treatment. The use of ultrasound to treat PAH contaminated aqueous solutions in tandem with other methodologies appears promising. However, the toxicity of reaction products produced by treatment remains to be determined. PMID:11233926

  8. Structural Evolution of Interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammonds, Mark; Candian, Alessandra; Mori, Tamami; Usui, Fumihiko; Onaka, Takashi

    2015-08-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are an important reservoir for molecular carbon in the interstellar medium (ISM), and investigations into their chemistry and behaviour may be important to the understanding of how carbon is processed from simple forms into complex prebiotic molecules such as those detected in chondritic meteorites. In this study, infrared astronomical data from AKARI and other observatories are used together with laboratory and theoretical data to study variations in the structure of emitting PAHs in interstellar environments using spectroscopic decomposition techniques and bands arising from carbon-hydrogen bond vibrations at wavelengths from 3 - 14 microns. Results and inferences are discussed in terms of the processing of large carbonaceous molecules in astrophysical environments.

  9. Risk assessment of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Moeller, L. ); Lax, I. ); Torndal, U.B.; Eriksson, L.C. )

    1993-06-01

    Nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) constitute a group of substances formed during incomplete combustion. Sources include diesel vehicles, heating, smoking, certain types of food-processing, and incomplete combustion in general. 2-Nitrofluorene (NF) represents a model substance for the nitro-PAHs. An attempt has been made to estimate the lifetime human cancer risk due to background exposure to nitro-PAHs by two different models. The first model is based on genotoxic lesions produced by gamma-irradiation and the second model is based on an earlier published mega study (24,000 animals) on the carcinogenicity of the major metabolite of NF. Both models agreed well -- representing a yearly human cancer risk in the range of 0.15--49 [times] 10[sup [minus]6] for an urban citizen. The weaknesses and strengths of the models are discussed. 55 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in yogurt samples.

    PubMed

    Battisti, Chiara; Girelli, Anna Maria; Tarola, Anna Maria

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations and distributions of major polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in 20 kinds of yogurt specimens collected from Italian supermarkets using reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography equipped with fluorescence detection. The method was validated by determination of recovery percentages, precision (repeatability) and sensitivity (limits of detection) with yogurt samples fortified at 0.25, 0.5 and 1 µg/kg concentration levels. The recovery of 13 PAHs, with the exception of naphthalene and acenaphthene, ranged from 61% to 130% and from 60% to 97% at all the levels for yogurts with low (0.1%) and high (3.9%) fat content, respectively. The method is repeatable with relative standard deviation values <20% for all analytes. The results obtained demonstrate that acenaphthene, fluorantene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene were found in all samples with a similar distribution, but different content when yogurts with low and high fats were compared.

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and cancer in man

    SciTech Connect

    Mastrangelo, G.; Marzia, V.; Fadda, E.

    1996-11-01

    Various substances and industrial processes, surrogates of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), are currently classified as human carcinogens. This paper reviews recent epidemiological studies reporting direct evidence of the carcinogenic effects of PAHs in occupationally exposed subjects. Risks of lung and bladder cancer were dose dependent when PAHs were measured quantitatively and truly nonexposed groups were chosen for comparison. These new findings suggest that the current threshold limit value of 0.2 mg/m{sup 3} of benzene soluble matter (which indicates PAH exposure) is unacceptable because, after 40 years of exposure, it involves a relative risk of 1.2-1.4 for lung cancer and 2.2 for bladder cancer. 33 refs., 2 tabs.

  12. Soil type-dependent responses to phenanthrene as revealed by determining the diversity and abundance of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase genes by using a novel PCR detection system.

    PubMed

    Ding, Guo-Chun; Heuer, Holger; Zühlke, Sebastian; Spiteller, Michael; Pronk, Geertje Johanna; Heister, Katja; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid; Smalla, Kornelia

    2010-07-01

    A novel PCR primer system that targets a wide range of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ring-hydroxylating dioxygenase (PAH-RHD(alpha)) genes of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria was developed and used to study their abundance and diversity in two different soils in response to phenanthrene spiking. The specificities and target ranges of the primers predicted in silico were confirmed experimentally by cloning and sequencing of PAH-RHD(alpha) gene amplicons from soil DNA. Cloning and sequencing showed the dominance of phnAc genes in the contaminated Luvisol. In contrast, high diversity of PAH-RHD(alpha) genes of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria was observed in the phenanthrene-spiked Cambisol. Quantitative real-time PCR based on the same primers revealed that 63 days after phenanthrene spiking, PAH-RHD(alpha) genes were 1 order of magnitude more abundant in the Luvisol than in the Cambisol, while they were not detected in both control soils. In conclusion, sequence analysis of the amplicons obtained confirmed the specificity of the novel primer system and revealed a soil type-dependent response of PAH-RHD(alpha) gene-carrying soil bacteria to phenanthrene spiking.

  13. Hydrogenation-dehydrogenation reactions of polycyclic aromatics

    SciTech Connect

    Dutta, R.P.; Schobert, H.H.

    1995-12-31

    An understanding of the hydrogenation/dehydrogenation of polycyclic aromatic compounds is an important step in producing cycloalkanes from coal. Coal fragments released during depolymerization of coal tend to be aromatic in nature and therefore they need to be hydrogenated to produce desirable compounds. If these compounds can be hydrogenated to some extent during the depolymerization stage, a more efficient liquefaction process can be achieved. Studies at Penn State and other laboratories have shown that coal can be converted to over 95% oils. If the reaction conditions can be fine-tuned, a better quality product can be obtained. To obtain an understanding of how coal fragments would behave under various conditions, model compounds have been used in this investigation. Naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene and chrysene were subjected to various catalytic hydrogenation conditions. These included three temperatures and reaction times varying from 1 minute to 2 hours. Trends in the product compositions were analyzed and kinetic/thermodynamic data were compared for the various compounds. Once hydrogenation of the compounds has been optimized, the next most important factor that needs to be addressed is how do we avoid dehydrogenation reactions taking place. To understand this, some of the products from each compound that were hydrogenated were subjected to dehydrogenation conditions. This was achieved by heating the compounds under nitrogen for various reaction times and temperatures. Trends in the product composition were followed and analyzed, along with comparisons of kinetic data for each of the hydroaromatic dehydrogenations.

  14. Graphene etching on SiC grains as a path to interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons formation.

    PubMed

    Merino, P; Švec, M; Martinez, J I; Jelinek, P; Lacovig, P; Dalmiglio, M; Lizzit, S; Soukiassian, P; Cernicharo, J; Martin-Gago, J A

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons as well as other organic molecules appear among the most abundant observed species in interstellar space and are key molecules to understanding the prebiotic roots of life. However, their existence and abundance in space remain a puzzle. Here we present a new top-down route to form polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in large quantities in space. We show that aromatic species can be efficiently formed on the graphitized surface of the abundant silicon carbide stardust on exposure to atomic hydrogen under pressure and temperature conditions analogous to those of the interstellar medium. To this aim, we mimic the circumstellar environment using ultra-high vacuum chambers and investigate the SiC surface by in situ advanced characterization techniques combined with first-principles molecular dynamics calculations. These results suggest that top-down routes are crucial to astrochemistry to explain the abundance of organic species and to uncover the origin of unidentified infrared emission features from advanced observations.

  15. PHOTOTOXICITY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN COASTAL GREAT LAKES WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Photoinduced toxicity is the exacerbated toxicity of environmental contaminants by UV radiation. Photoinduced toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been well established in the laboratory for numerous aquatic species including larval fish. The contaminants sub-p...

  16. ADSORPTION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN AGED HARBOR SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of hydrophobic organic contaminants which have low aqueous solubilities and are common pollutants in harbor sediments. Adsorption and desorption isotherms for PAHs are conducted to study the abiotic sorption of PAHs in uncontami...

  17. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in roasted coffee

    PubMed Central

    JIMENEZ, ANGELICA; ADISA, AFOLABI; WOODHAM, CARA; SALEH, MAHMOUD

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are suspected to be carcinogenic and mutagenic. This study describes the presence of PAHs in light, medium and dark roasted coffee including instant and decaffeinated brands. Total PAHs concentration was related to the degree of roasting with light roasted coffee showing the least and dark roasted coffee showing the highest level. Both instant and decaffeinated coffee brand showed lower levels of PAHs. Naphthalene, acenaphthylene, pyrene and chrysene were the most abundant individual isomers. The concentrations ranged from 0 to 561 ng g−1 for naphthalene, 0 to 512 ng g−1 for acenaphthylene, 60 to 459 ng g−1 for pyrene and 56 to 371 ng g−1 for chrysene. Thus, roasting conditions should be controlled to avoid the formation of PAHs due to their suspected carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. PMID:25190557

  18. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in roasted coffee.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Angelica; Adisa, Afolabi; Woodham, Cara; Saleh, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are suspected to be carcinogenic and mutagenic. This study describes the presence of PAHs in light, medium and dark roasted coffee including instant and decaffeinated brands. Total PAHs concentration was related to the degree of roasting with light roasted coffee showing the least and dark roasted coffee showing the highest level. Both instant and decaffeinated coffee brand showed lower levels of PAHs. Naphthalene, acenaphthylene, pyrene and chrysene were the most abundant individual isomers. The concentrations ranged from 0 to 561 ng g(-1) for naphthalene, 0 to 512 ng g(-1) for acenaphthylene, 60 to 459 ng g(-1) for pyrene and 56 to 371 ng g(-1) for chrysene. Thus, roasting conditions should be controlled to avoid the formation of PAHs due to their suspected carcinogenic and mutagenic properties. PMID:25190557

  19. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Infrared Astrophysics with Spitzer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudgins, Douglas M.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2004-01-01

    Over the past fifteen years, thanks to significant, parallel advancements in observational, experimental, and theoretical techniques, tremendous strides have been made in our understanding of the role that carbon-rich plays in the interstellar medium (ISM). Twenty years ago, the possible existence of an abundant population of large, carbon-rich molecules in the ISM was unthinkable. Today, the unmistakable spectroscopic signatures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) - shockingly large molecules by the standards of traditional interstellar chemistry -are recognized throughout the Universe. In this presentation, we will examine the current state of the interstellar PAH model and explore how this data, in conjunction with the unparalleled observational data provided by the Spitzer Space Telescope, can be used to draw ever-deeper insights into the physical and chemical natures of a wide range of astrophysical environments.

  20. Sampling of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Otson, R.; Leach, J.M.; Chung, L.T.K.

    1987-07-01

    Limitations of NIOSH sampling method P and CAM 183 were defined for airborne standard mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) generated as vapors in a flow-through apparatus. The PAH fell into three categories: those that were too volatile to be collected by the NIOSH filtration method at normal ambient temperatures and were best sampled with Tenax or XAD-2 sorbent (i.e., indane, naphthalene, biphenyl, acenaphthene, fluorene, 9,10-dihydrophenanthrene, phenathrene, and anthracene); those that were quantitatively collected by filters, even after a brief airborne residence time (i.e., benz(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(a)pyrene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, and benzo(ghi)perylene); and those that partitioned between filter and sorbent (i.e., fluoranthene and pyrene). A combination glass fiber/silver membrane filter backed by two sorbent tubes in series gave overall mean recoveries of 94-96% for the 15 PAH studied at total concentrations of, nominally, 0.2 and 0.02 mg/m/sup 3/. Individual PAH concentrations were 0.03-0.05 and 0.003-0.005 mg/m/sup 3/, respectively.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and childhood asthma.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Parisa; Peters, Kamau O; Bidad, Katayoon; Strickland, Paul T

    2015-02-01

    Asthma is the most common chronic illness in children living in developed countries and the leading cause of childhood hospitalization and school absenteeism. Prevalence rates of asthma are increasing and show disparities across gender, geographic regions, and ethnic/racial groups. Common risk factors for developing childhood asthma include exposure to tobacco smoke, previous allergic reactions, a family history of asthma, allergic rhinitis or eczema, living in an urban environment, obesity and lack of physical exercise, severe lower respiratory tract infections, and male gender. Asthma exacerbation in children can be triggered by a variety of factors, including allergens (e.g., pollen, dust mites, and animal dander), viral and bacterial infections, exercise, and exposure to airway irritants. Recent studies have shown that exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a major component of fine particulate matter from combustion sources, is also associated with onset of asthma, and increasing asthmatic symptoms. In this paper, we review sources of childhood PAH exposure and the association between airborne PAH exposure and childhood asthma prevalence and exacerbation.

  2. [Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exposure and birth defects].

    PubMed

    Lin, S S; Huang, Y; Wang, C Y; Ren, A G

    2016-06-01

    Birth defects are one of the most common adverse birth outcomes, which create a heavy economic burden to the country, society and family. And they are also one of the biggest problems facing public health today. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of toxic pollutants existing in the environment widely, resulting from incomplete organic matter combustion, and can be taken into the body through various ways including the digestive tract, respiratory tract and so on. Recent researches suggest that the exposure of PAHs may be associated with various birth defects, while the special mechanism isn't very clear. This paper is a review of the relationship between PAHs and birth defects from the aspects of epidemiological data, experimental evidence on animals, which indicates that exposure of PAHs during pregnancy may be associated with birth defects including congenital heart defects, neural tube defects and cleft lip/plate. Furthermore, we explored the possible mechanism, including oxidative stress, oxidative damage and the changes of signal transduction pathway in order to provide some recommendations and suggestions on the future work.

  3. Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in China

    SciTech Connect

    Shanshan Xu; Wenxin Liu; Shu Tao

    2006-02-01

    Emission of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) listed as U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) priority pollutants from major sources in China were compiled. Geographical distribution and temporal change of the PAH emission, as well as emission profiles, are discussed. It was estimated that the total PAH emission in China was 25,300 tons in 2003. The emission profile featured a relatively higher portion of high molecular weight (HMW) species with carcinogenic potential due to large contributions of domestic coal and coking industry. Among various sources, biomass burning, domestic coal combustion, and the coking industry contributed 60%, 20%, and 16% of the total emission, respectively. Total emission, emission density, emission intensity, and emission per capita showed geographical variations. In general, the southeastern provinces were characterized by higher emission density, while those in western and northern China featured higher emission intensity and population-normalized emission. Although energy consumption in China went up continuously during the past two decades, annual emission of PAHs fluctuated depending on the amount of domestic coal consumption, coke production, and the efficiency of energy utilization. 47 refs., 6 figs.

  4. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons as Plausible Prebiotic Membrane Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groen, Joost; Deamer, David W.; Kros, Alexander; Ehrenfreund, Pascale

    2012-08-01

    Aromatic molecules delivered to the young Earth during the heavy bombardment phase in the early history of our solar system were likely to be among the most abundant and stable organic compounds available. The Aromatic World hypothesis suggests that aromatic molecules might function as container elements, energy transduction elements and templating genetic components for early life forms. To investigate the possible role of aromatic molecules as container elements, we incorporated different polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the membranes of fatty acid vesicles. The goal was to determine whether PAH could function as a stabilizing agent, similar to the role that cholesterol plays in membranes today. We studied vesicle size distribution, critical vesicle concentration and permeability of the bilayers using C6-C10 fatty acids mixed with amphiphilic PAH derivatives such as 1-hydroxypyrene, 9-anthracene carboxylic acid and 1,4 chrysene quinone. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) spectroscopy was used to measure the size distribution of vesicles and incorporation of PAH species was established by phase-contrast and epifluorescence microscopy. We employed conductimetric titration to determine the minimal concentration at which fatty acids could form stable vesicles in the presence of PAHs. We found that oxidized PAH derivatives can be incorporated into decanoic acid (DA) vesicle bilayers in mole ratios up to 1:10 (PAH:DA). Vesicle size distribution and critical vesicle concentration were largely unaffected by PAH incorporation, but 1-hydroxypyrene and 9-anthracene carboxylic acid lowered the permeability of fatty acid bilayers to small solutes up to 4-fold. These data represent the first indication of a cholesterol-like stabilizing effect of oxidized PAH derivatives in a simulated prebiotic membrane.

  5. Mechanisms for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation by ligninolytic fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Hammel, K.E.

    1995-06-01

    Ligninolytic fungi accomplish the partial degradation of numerous aromatic organopollutants. Their ability to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is particularly interesting because eukaryotes were previously considered to be unable to cleave fused-ring aromatics. Recent results indicate that extracellular peroxidases of these fungi are responsible for the initial oxidation of PAHs. Fungal lignin peroxidases oxidize certain PAHs directly, whereas fungal manganese peroxidases co-oxidize them indirectly during enzyme-mediated lipid peroxidation. 14 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from motorcycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Hsieh, Lien-Te; Liu, Hsu-Chung; Mi, Hsiao-Hsuan

    Emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, 2-7 ring) and regulated air pollutants (CO, HC, NO x, PM) from 2-stroke carburetor (2-Stk/Cb), 4-stroke carburetor (4-Stk/Cb) and 4-stroke fuel injection (4-Stk/FI) motorcycles were investigated by testing these vehicles on a chassis dynamometer. Exhaust samplings were carried out on diluted exhausts in a dilution tunnel connected to a constant volume sampling system. Measurements were performed on a standard driving cycle. The results reveal that low molecular weight PAHs (especially naphthalene) dominated in the exhaust gas. The averages of soluble organic fractions were 86.4%, 46.3% and 48.9% for the 2-Stk/Cb, 4-Stk/Cb and 4-Stk/FI motorcycles, respectively. PAH emissions are greater from cold-start driving than those from hot-start driving cycle for all these three kinds of motorcycles. Total PAH emission factors were 8320, 5990 and 3390 μg km -1 for the in-used 2-Stk/Cb, 4-Stk/Cb and 4-Stk/FI motorcycles, respectively. PAH emission factors were the largest for the 2-Stk/Cb motorcycles. Besides, the 2-Stk/Cb motorcycle had the largest total BaP equivalent emission factor of 10.8 μg km -1, indicating that the emission exhaust from the 2-Stk/Cb motorcycle was most carcinogenic. HC, PM and PAH emissions were the lowest for the 4-Stk/FI motorcycles. The correlation coefficient between CO and total PAH emissions for all the test motorcycles was 0.51, indicating that CO and PAH emissions are not highly correlated.

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmospheres of Titan and Jupiter.

    PubMed

    Sagan, C; Khare, B N; Thompson, W R; McDonald, G D; Wing, M R; Bada, J L; Vo-Dinh, T; Arakawa, E T

    1993-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are important components of the interstellar medium and carbonaceous chondrites, but have never been identified in the reducing atmospheres of the outer solar system. Incompletely characterized complex organic solids (tholins) produced by irradiating simulated Titan atmospheres reproduce well the observed UV/visible/IR optical constants of the Titan stratospheric haze. Titan tholin and a tholin generated in a crude simulation of the atmosphere of Jupiter are examined by two-step laser desorption/multiphoton ionization mass spectrometry. A range of two- to four-ring PAHs, some with one to four alkylation sites are identified, with net abundance approximately 10(-4) g g-1 (grams per gram) of tholins produced. Synchronous fluorescence techniques confirm this detection. Titan tholins have proportionately more one- and two-ring PAHs than do Jupiter tholins, which in turn have more four-ring and larger PAHs. The four-ringed PAH chrysene, prominent in some discussions of interstellar grains, is found in Jupiter tholins. Solid state 13C NMR spectroscopy suggests approximately equal to 25% of the total C in both tholins is tied up in aromatic and/or aliphatic alkenes. IR spectra indicate an upper limit in both tholins of approximately equal to 6% by mass in benzenes, heterocyclics, and PAHs with more than four rings. Condensed PAHs may contribute at most approximately 10% to the observed detached limb haze layers on Titan. As with interstellar PAHs, the synthesis route of planetary PAHs is likely to be via acetylene addition reactions.

  8. Alkyl polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons emissions in diesel/biodiesel exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casal, Carina S.; Arbilla, Graciela; Corrêa, Sergio M.

    2014-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widely studied in environmental matrices, such as air, water, soil and sediment, because of their toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Because of these properties, the environmental agencies of developed countries have listed sixteen PAHs as priority pollutants. Few countries have limits for these compounds for ambient air, but they only limit emissions from stationary and mobile sources and occupational areas. There are several studies to specifically address the 16 priority PAHs and very little for the alkyl PAHs. These compounds are more abundant, more persistent and frequently more toxic than the non-alkylated PAHs, and the toxicity increases with the number of alkyl substitutions on the aromatic ring. In this study, a method was developed for the analysis of PAHs and alkyl PAHs by using a GC-MS and large injection volume injection coupled with program temperature vaporisation, which allows for limits of detection below 1.0 ng μL-1. Several variables were tested, such as the injection volume, injection velocity, injector initial temperature, duration of the solvent split and others. This method was evaluated in samples from particulate matter from the emissions of engines employing standard diesel, commercial diesel and biodiesel B20. Samples were collected on a dynamometer bench for a diesel engine cycle and the results ranged from 0.5 to 96.9 ng mL-1, indicating that diesel/biodiesel makes a significant contribution to the formation of PAHs and alkyl PAHs.

  9. Distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Osaka Bay, Japan.

    PubMed

    Miki, Shizuho; Uno, Seiichi; Ito, Kazuki; Koyama, Jiro; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2014-08-30

    Contaminations in sediments by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and alkylated PAHs were investigated at 44 sites in Osaka Bay, Japan. Concentrations of total PAHs and alkylated PAHs were in the range 6.40-7800 ng/g dry weights and 13.7-1700 ng/g dry weights, respectively. The PAH concentrations tended to be higher along the shoreline in the vicinities of big ports, industrialized areas, and densely populated regions such as the cities of Osaka and Kobe. The major sources appeared to be pyrogenic or both pyrogenic and petrogenic at most of the sites. PAH concentrations were remarkably high at a site near Kobe, where the concentrations of dibenzo(a,h)anthracene and benzo(g,h,i)perylene exceeded the effects-range-medium concentration and eight PAHs were above the corresponding effects-range-low concentrations. Those PAHs may have been derived from the great fire associated with the large earthquake in 1995.

  10. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Far-infrared Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boersma, C.; Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.; Ricca, A.; Mattioda, A. L.; Peeters, E.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2011-03-01

    The far-IR characteristics of astrophysically relevant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) averaging in size around 100 carbon atoms have been studied using the theoretical spectra in the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. These spectra were calculated using density functional theory. Selections of PAH species are made, grouped together by common characteristics or trends, such as size, shape, charge, and composition, and their far-IR spectra compared. The out-of-plane modes involving the entire molecule are explored in detail, astronomical relevance is assessed, and an observing strategy is discussed. It is shown that PAHs produce richer far-IR spectra with increasing size. PAHs also produce richer far-IR spectra with increasing number of irregularities. However, series of irregular-shaped PAHs with the same compact core have common "Jumping-Jack" modes that "pile up" at specific frequencies in their average spectrum. For the PAHs studied here, around 100 carbon atoms in size, this band falls near 50 μm. PAH charge and nitrogen inclusion affect band intensities but have little effect on far-IR band positions. Detailed analysis of the two-dimensional, out-of-plane bending "drumhead" modes in the coronene and pyrene "families" and the one-dimensional, out-of-plane bending "bar" modes in the acene "family" show that these molecular vibrations can be treated as classical vibrating sheets and bars of graphene, respectively. The analysis also shows that the peak position of these modes is very sensitive to the area of the emitting PAH and does not depend on the particular geometry. Thus, these longest wavelength PAH bands could provide a unique handle on the size of the largest species in the interstellar PAH family. However, these bands are weak. Observing highly excited regions showing the mid-IR bands in which the emission from classical dust peaks at short wavelengths offers the best chance of detecting PAH emission in the far-IR. For these regions

  11. A metal-bridged tricyclic aromatic system: synthesis of osmium polycyclic aromatic complexes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Congqing; Zhu, Qin; Fan, Jinglan; Zhu, Jun; He, Xumin; Cao, Xiao-Yu; Xia, Haiping

    2014-06-10

    Aromaticity is one of the most important concepts in organic chemistry. A variety of metalla-aromatic compounds have been recently prepared and in most of those examples, the metal participates only in a monocyclic ring. In contrast, metal-bridged bicyclic aromatic molecules, in which a metal is shared between two aromatic rings, have been less developed. Herein, we report the first metal-bridged tricyclic aromatic system, in which the metal center is shared by three aromatic five-membered rings. These metalla-aromatics are formed by reaction between osmapentalyne and arene nucleophiles. Experimental results and theoretical calculations reveal that the three five-membered rings around the osmium center are aromatic. In addition, the broad absorption bands in the UV/Vis absorption spectra of these novel aromatic systems cover almost the entire visible region. This straightforward synthetic strategy may be extended to the synthesis of other metal-bridged polycyclic aromatics. PMID:24782397

  12. AROMATIC AND POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON FORMATION IN A LAMINAR PREMIXED N-BUTANE FLAME. (R825412)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Experimental and detailed chemical kinetic modeling work has been performed to investigate aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation pathways in a premixed, rich, sooting, n-butane¯oxygen¯argon burner s...

  13. Infrared spectra of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Keqing; Guo, B.; Bernath, P.F.

    1995-12-31

    Recording the spectra of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules is of great astronomical interest. Infrared spectra of gas-phase naphthalene, pyrene, and chrysene were obtained in absorption and emission. The band positions and relative intensities were measured and compared with theoretical calculations. These data will be compared to the astronomical observations of the unidentified infrared emission bands.

  14. METHODOLOGY OF AMBIENT AIR MONITORING FOR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the last decade, several studies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in ambient air in the U.S. specifically investigated (1) the sampling efficiency of two sorbents for PAH in air: XAD-2 and polyurethane foam (PUP); (2) the storage stability of PAH on quartz fiber fil...

  15. CHILDREN'S AGGREGATE EXPOSURE TO POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAHS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been frequently detected at children's homes and day care centers and may pose health concerns due to their carcinogenicity. Most PAHs have been persistent indoors and outdoors, therefore, children may be exposed to chronic low level...

  16. THE RATES OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON EMISSIONS FROM INCENSE BURNING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents the results of experiments performed to determine the amounts of gas- and particle-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) in incense smoke. Ten brands of incense, 3 of stick, 2 of joss stick, and one each of cone, smudge bundle, rope, powder, and rock, w...

  17. Measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) in interplanetary dust particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemett, S. J.; Maechling, C. R.; Zare, R. N.; Swan, P. D.; Walker, R. M.

    1993-01-01

    We report here the first definitive measurements of specific organic molecules (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's)) in interplanetary dust particles (IDP's). An improved version of the microbeam-two-step laser mass spectrometer was used for the analysis. Two IDP's gave similar mass spectra showing an abundance of PAH's. Control samples, including particles of probable terrestrial origin from the same stratospheric collector, gave either null results or quite different spectra. We conclude that the PAH's are probably indigenous to the IDP's and are not terrestrial contaminants. The instrument used to study the particles is a two-step laser mass spectrometer. Constituent neutral molecules of the sample are first desorbed with a pulsed infrared laser beam focussed to 40 micrometers. In the second step, PAH's in the desorbed plume are preferentially ionized by a pulsed UV laser beam. Resulting ions produced by resonant absorption are extracted into a reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer. This instrument has high spatial resolution, high ion transmission, unlimited mass range, and multichannel detection of all ion masses from a single laser shot.

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in olive oils on the Italian market.

    PubMed

    Menichini, E; Bocca, A; Merli, F; Ianni, D; Monfredini, F

    1991-01-01

    The six olive oils and seven virgin olive oils which are most consumed in Italy were analysed for 28 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The aim was to evaluate whether a carcinogenic hazard for the general population can derive from the dietary intake of this food, which is consumed particularly highly in the Mediterranean area. The analytical method involved extraction by liquid-liquid partition, filtration on silica gel, clean-up by thin-layer chromatography on silica gel, and analysis by high-resolution gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. The 3- and 4-ring PAHs which are most abundant in the environment were found in all samples, at individual levels up to ca. 40 micrograms/kg (for phenanthrene); no important difference was observed between olive oils and virgin olive oils. PAHs which are most suspected of being carcinogenic for humans were not detected (limit of detection, ca. 3 micrograms/kg). The average yearly intake of the detected PAHs through this food was estimated at ca. 0.56 mg per capita. PMID:1778272

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon ions and the diffuse interstellar bands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, F.; Allamandola, L. J.

    1995-01-01

    Neutral naphthalene (C10H8), phenanthrene (C14H10), and pyrene (C16H10) absorb strongly in the ultraviolet and may contribute to the extinction curve. High abundances are required to produce detectable structures. The cations of these Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) absorb in the visible. C10H8(+) has 12 discrete absorption bands which fall between 6800 and 5000 A. The strongest band at 6741 A falls close to the weak 6742 A diffuse interstellar band (DIB). Five other weaker bands also match DIBs. The possibility that C10H8(+) is responsible for some of the DIBs can be tested by searching for new DIBS at 6520, 6151, and 5965 A, other moderately strong naphthalene cation band positions. If C10H8(+) is indeed responsible for the 6742 A feature, it accounts for 0.3% of the cosmic carbon. The spectrum of C16H10(+) is dominated by a strong band at 4435 A in an Ar matrix and 4395 A in a Ne matrix, a position which falls very close to the strongest DIB, that at 4430 A. If C16H10(+), or a closely related pyrene-like ion is indeed responsible for the 4430 A feature, it accounts for 0.2% of the cosmic carbon. We also report an intense, very broad UV-to-visible continuum which is associated with both ions and could explain how PAHs convert interstellar UV and visible radiation into IR.

  20. Molecular Spectroscopy in Astrophysics: The Case of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Farid; DeVincent, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The role of molecular spectroscopy in astrophysics and astrochemistry is discussed in the context of the study of large, complex, carbon-bearing molecules, namely, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons or PAHs. These molecular species are now thought to be widespread in the interstellar medium in their neutral and ionized forms. Identifying the carriers responsible for unidentified interstellar spectral bands will allow to derive important information on cosmic elemental abundances as well as information on the physical conditions (density, temperature) reigning in specific interstellar environments. These, in turn, are key elements for a correct understanding of the energetic mechanisms that govern the origin and the evolution of the interstellar medium. A multidisciplinary approach - combining astronomical observations with laboratory simulations and theoretical modeling - is required to address these complex issues. Laboratory spectra of several PAHs, isolated at low temperature in inert gas matrices or seeded in a supersonic jet expansion, are discussed here and compared to the astronomical spectra of reddened, early type, stars. The electronic spectroscopy of PAHs in the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared domains is reviewed and an assessment of the potential contribution of PAHs to the interstellar extinction in the ultraviolet and in the visible is discussed.

  1. The Exobiological Role of Interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Ices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudgins, Douglas M.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Tremendous strides have been made in our understanding of interstellar material over the past twenty years thanks to significant, parallel developments in observational astronomy and laboratory astrophysics. Before this time, the composition of interstellar dust was largely guessed-at, the presence of ices in interstellar clouds ignored, and the notion that large, gas phase, carbon rich molecules might be abundant and widespread throughout the interstellar medium (ISM) considered impossible. Today, the composition of dust in the ISM is reasonably well constrained to micron-sized cold refractory materials comprised of amorphous and crystalline silicates mixed with an amorphous carbonaceous material containing aromatic structural units and short, branched aliphatic chains. Shrouded within the protective confines of cold, opaque molecular clouds--the birthplace of stars and planets--these cold dust particles secrete mantles of mixed molecular ices whose compositions are also well constrained. Finally, amidst the molecular inventory of these ice mantles are likely to be found polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), shockingly large molecules by the standards of interstellar chemistry, the telltale infrared spectral signature of which is now recognized throughout the Universe. In the first part of this talk, we will review the spectroscopic evidence that forms the basis for the currently accepted abundance and ubiquity of PANs in the ISM. We will then look at a few specific examples which illustrate how experimental and theoretical data can be applied to interpret the interstellar spectra and track how the PAN population evolves as it passes from its formation site in the circumstellar outflows of dying stars, through the various phases of the ISM, and into forniing planetary systems. Nevertheless, despite the fact that PANs likely represent the single largest molecular reservoir of organic carbon in evolving planetary systems, they are not what would be considered

  2. Experimental and modeling investigation of aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation in a premixed ethylene flame

    SciTech Connect

    Castaldi, M.J.; Marinov, N.M.; Melius, C.F.

    1996-02-01

    Experimental and detailed chemical kinetic modeling has been performed to investigate aromatic and polyaromatic hydrocarbon formation pathways in a rich, sooting, ethylene-oxygen-argon premixed flame. An atmospheric pressure, laminar flat flame operated at an equivalence ratio of 2.5 was used to acquire experimental data for model validation. Gas composition analysis was conducted by an on-line gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) technique. Measurements were made in the flame and post-flame zone for a number of low molecular weight species, aliphatics, aromatics and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranging from two to five-aromatic fused rings. The modeling results show the key reaction sequences leading to aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon growth involve the combination of resonantly stabilized radicals. In particular, propargyl and 1-methylallenyl combination reactions lead to benzene and methyl substituted benzene formation, while polycyclic aromatics are formed from cyclopentadienyl radicals and fused rings that have a shared C{sub 5} side structure. Naphthalene production through the reaction step of cyclopentadienyl self-combination and phenanthrene formation from indenyl and cyclopentadienyl combination were shown to be important in the flame modeling study. The removal of phenyl by O{sub 2} leading to cyclopentadienyl formation is expected to play a pivotal role in the PAH or soot precursor growth process under fuel-rich oxidation conditions.

  3. Phylogenetic comparison of two polycyclic aromatic hydrogen-degrading mycobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Govindaswami, M.; Loper, J.C.; Feldhake, D.J.

    1995-09-01

    Two mycobacterial strains previously isolated from fossil-fuel-contaminated environments and shown to degrade four- and/or five-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were further characterized. The two strains, PYR-I and RJGII-135, had similar growth characteristics, colony morphologies, and scotochromogenic pigmentations. DNA amplification fringerprints obtained with total genomic DNA indicated some strain similarities but with several distinctly different bands. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis based upon essentially full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences separates the two strains as distinct species within the fast-growing group of mycobacteria. Although both strains are thermosensitive, strain PYR-I has the bulged U between positions 184 and 193 characteristic of thermotolerant mycobacteria. Both strains are of potential use for reintroduction into and bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soils. 26 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Direct photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in drinking water sources.

    PubMed

    Sanches, S; Leitão, C; Penetra, A; Cardoso, V V; Ferreira, E; Benoliel, M J; Crespo, M T Barreto; Pereira, V J

    2011-09-15

    The widely used low pressure lamps were tested in terms of their efficiency to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons listed as priority pollutants by the European Water Framework Directive and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, in water matrices with very different compositions (laboratory grade water, groundwater, and surface water). Using a UV fluence of 1500 mJ/cm(2), anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene were efficiently degraded, with much higher percent removals obtained when present in groundwater (83-93%) compared to surface water (36-48%). The removal percentages obtained for fluoranthene were lower and ranged from 13 to 54% in the different water matrices tested. Several parameters that influence the direct photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined and their photolysis by-products were identified by mass spectrometry. The formation of photolysis by-products was found to be highly dependent on the source waters tested.

  5. Phototransformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons into stable, mutagenic components

    SciTech Connect

    Okinaka, R.T.; Nickols, J.W.; Whaley, T.W.; Strniste, G.F.

    1983-01-01

    This report compares the mutagenicity of photochemical products produced by exposure of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons benzo(a)pyrene and 9,10-dimethylanthracene or the aromatic amines 2-aminofluorene, 2-aminoanthracene and 2-aminonaphthalene to sunlight or to ultraviolet light (UVA). 2-Aminofluorene, giving the most active products, was further investigated with respect to the mechanism of photoactivation and the chemical identity of the photochemical products. Screening of HPLC resolved photochemical products demonstrated that the majority of the mutagenicity was localized to one peak - which co-chromatographed with 2-nitrofluorene.

  6. THE INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF NEUTRAL POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Ricca, Alessandra; Bauschlicher, Charles W. Jr.; Allamandola, Louis J. E-mail: Charles.W.Bauschlicher@nasa.gov

    2013-10-10

    The mid-infrared spectra of neutral homogeneous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) clusters have been computed using density functional theory including an empirical correction for dispersion. The C-H out-of-plane bending modes are redshifted for all the clusters considered in this work. The magnitude of the redshift and the peak broadening are dependent on PAH size, shape, and on the PAH arrangement in the cluster.

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in some grounded coffee brands.

    PubMed

    Grover, Inderpreet Singh; Sharma, Rashmi; Singh, Satnam; Pal, Bonamali

    2013-08-01

    Potentially toxic 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in four brands of grounded coffee. Four to 13 PAHs were detected. Concentrations of total PAHs in different brands of coffee samples were in the range of 831.7-1,589.7 μg/kg. Benzo[a]pyrene (2A: probable human carcinogen) was found in Nescafe Premium whereas naphthalene (2B: possible human carcinogen) was found in all the samples of coffee. PMID:23242460

  8. Oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons under sulfate-reducing conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coates, J.D.; Anderson, R.T.; Lovley, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    [14C]naphthalene and phenanthrene were oxidized to 14CO2 without a detectable lag under strict anaerobic conditions in sediments from San Diego Bay, San Diego, Calif., that were heavily contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) but not in less contaminated sediments. Sulfate reduction was necessary for PAH oxidation. These results suggest that the self-purification capacity of PAH-contaminated sulfate-reducing environments may be greater than previously recognized.

  9. Determination of polycyclic aromatic compounds in fish tissue.

    PubMed

    Birkholz, D A; Coutts, R T; Hrudey, S E

    1988-09-30

    A method is presented for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles (PASHs), and basic polycyclic aromatic nitrogen heterocycles (PANHs) in fish. The analytical procedure includes Soxhlet extraction of prepared fish tissue with methylene chloride followed by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) using Bio-beads SX-3. For PAHs/PASHs, further cleanup is performed using adsorption chromatography on Florisil (5% water deactivated) and elution with hexane. For basic PANHs further cleanup of the fish extracts after GPC is achieved using liquid-liquid partitioning with 6 M hydrochloric acid and chloroform and then basifying the aqueous phase and extracting it with chloroform. Analysis of fortified fish samples was performed using capillary gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Good agreement was observed for both methods of analysis when applied to fish samples fortified with PAHs, PASHs and basic PANHs at 0.1 to 1 microgram/g, suggesting that the method is effective at removing interfering biogenic compounds prior to analysis. Average recovery of PAHs/PASHs from fortified fish tissue was 87% and 70% for fish tissue fortified at 0.24-1.1 and 0.024-0.11 microgram/g, respectively. Average recovery for basic PANHs was 97% for fish fortified at 1.2-1.4 micrograms/g.

  10. MODELING GALACTIC EXTINCTION WITH DUST AND 'REAL' POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    SciTech Connect

    Mulas, Giacomo; Casu, Silvia; Cecchi-Pestellini, Cesare; Zonca, Alberto E-mail: silvia@oa-cagliari.inaf.it E-mail: azonca@oa-cagliari.inaf.it

    2013-07-01

    We investigate the remarkable apparent variety of galactic extinction curves by modeling extinction profiles with core-mantle grains and a collection of single polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Our aim is to translate a synthetic description of dust into physically well-grounded building blocks through the analysis of a statistically relevant sample of different extinction curves. All different flavors of observed extinction curves, ranging from the average galactic extinction curve to virtually 'bumpless' profiles, can be described by the present model. We prove that a mixture of a relatively small number (54 species in 4 charge states each) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons can reproduce the features of the extinction curve in the ultraviolet, dismissing an old objection to the contribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the interstellar extinction curve. Despite the large number of free parameters (at most the 54 Multiplication-Sign 4 column densities of each species in each ionization state included in the molecular ensemble plus the 9 parameters defining the physical properties of classical particles), we can strongly constrain some physically relevant properties such as the total number of C atoms in all species and the mean charge of the mixture. Such properties are found to be largely independent of the adopted dust model whose variation provides effects that are orthogonal to those brought about by the molecular component. Finally, the fitting procedure, together with some physical sense, suggests (but does not require) the presence of an additional component of chemically different very small carbonaceous grains.

  11. Aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon formation in a laminar premixed n-butane flame

    SciTech Connect

    Marinov, N.M.; Pitz, W.J.; Westbrook, C.K.; Vincitore, A.M.; Castaldi, M.J.; Senkan, S.M.; Melius, C.F.

    1998-07-01

    Experimental and detailed chemical kinetic modeling work has been performed to investigate aromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation pathways in a premixed, rich, sooting, n-butane-oxygen-argon burner stabilized flame. An atmospheric pressure, laminar flat flame operated at an equivalence ratio of 2.6 was used to acquire experimental data for model validation. Gas composition analysis was conducted by an on-line gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer technique. Measurements were made in the main reaction and post-reaction zones for a number of low molecular weight species, aliphatics, aromatics, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) ranging from two to five-fused aromatic rings. Reaction flux and sensitivity analysis were used to help identify the important reaction sequences leading to aromatic and PAH growth and destruction in the n-butane flame. Reaction flux analysis showed the propargyl recombination reaction was the dominant pathway to benzene formation. The consumption of propargyl by H atoms was shown to limit propargyl, benzene, and naphthalene formation in flames as exhibited by the large negative sensitivity coefficients. Naphthalene and phenanthrene production was shown to be plausibly formed through reactions involving resonantly stabilized cyclopentadienyl and indenyl radicals. Many of the low molecular weight aliphatics, combustion by-products, aromatics, branched aromatics, and PAHs were fairly well simulated by the model. Additional work is required to understand the formation mechanisms of phenyl acetylene, pyrene, and fluoranthene in the n-butane flame. 73 refs.

  12. Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Gas-phase Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, J. D.; Witt, A. N.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to produce fluorescence spectra of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules in the gas-phase for comparison with blue luminescence (BL) emission observed in astrophysical sources Vijh et al. (2004, 2005a,b). The BL occurs roughly from 350 to 450 nm, with a sharp peak near 380 nm. PAHs with three to four rings, e.g. anthracene and pyrene, were found to produce luminescence in the appropriate spectral region, based on existing studies. Relatively few studies of the gas-phase fluorescence of PAHs exist; those that do exist have dealt primarily with the same samples commonly available for purchase such as pyrene and anthracene. In an attempt to understand the chemistry of the nebular environment we also obtained several nitrogen substituted PAHs from our colleagues at NASA Ames. In order to simulate the astrophysical environment we also took spectra by heating the PAHs in a flame. The flame environment counteracts the formation of eximers and permits the spectroscopy of free-flying neutral molecules. Experiments with coal tar demonstrate that fluorescence spectroscopy reveals primarily the presence of the smallest molecules, which are most abundant and which possess the highest fluorescence efficiencies. One gas-phase PAH that seems to fit the BL spectrum most closely is phenanthridine. In view of the results from the spectroscopy of coal tar, a compound containing a mixture of PAHs ranging from small to very large PAH molecules, we can not preclude the presence of larger PAHs in interstellar sources exhibiting BL.

  13. Composition, distribution, and characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil in Linfen, China

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, S.; Cheng, H.X.; Liu, Y.H.; Xia, X.J.; Xu, X.B.

    2009-02-15

    A total of 10 surface soil samples representing the entire area of Linfen City were collected and analyzed for the presence of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentration ranged from 1.1 to 63.7 {mu} g g{sup -1}. Analysis of the sources of contamination revealed that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the soil were derived from combustion sources. Specifically, the primary source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was coal combustion, but the samples were also effected to varying degrees by traffic emissions. Furthermore, increased levels of contamination were observed in northeast Linfen due to the distribution of industrial plants.

  14. Effects of ozonation on mutagenic activity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Fouillet, B.; Chambon, P.; Chambon, R. ); Castegnaro, M. ); Weill, N. )

    1991-07-01

    In this study, four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were tested. Benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P), Chrysene (CH), 7,12-dimethylbenzo(a)-anthracene (DMBA) and 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA) in hexane were treated with ozone to determine the effectiveness of degradation and to evaluate the genetic properties of ozone byproducts. Two types of ozonation were carried out: partial ozonation and total ozonation. The disappearance of parent compounds and the appearance of ozone byproducts were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with spectrofluorimetry and U.V. spectrophotometry. Plate incorporation mutagenicity assay, using a Salmonella typhimurium strain, was used to test the ozone byproducts with and without metabolic activation.

  15. Extraction Techniques for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Soils

    PubMed Central

    Lau, E. V.; Gan, S.; Ng, H. K.

    2010-01-01

    This paper aims to provide a review of the analytical extraction techniques for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils. The extraction technologies described here include Soxhlet extraction, ultrasonic and mechanical agitation, accelerated solvent extraction, supercritical and subcritical fluid extraction, microwave-assisted extraction, solid phase extraction and microextraction, thermal desorption and flash pyrolysis, as well as fluidised-bed extraction. The influencing factors in the extraction of PAHs from soil such as temperature, type of solvent, soil moisture, and other soil characteristics are also discussed. The paper concludes with a review of the models used to describe the kinetics of PAH desorption from soils during solvent extraction. PMID:20396670

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons residues in sandstorm depositions in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Fu, S; Li, K; Xia, X J; Xu, X B

    2009-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the concentration of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sandstorm depositions in Beijing, China. The PAH concentrations in 13 samples collected in Beijing ranged from 0.18 to 3.52 microg g(-1). Analysis of the sources of contamination revealed that the PAHs were derived from a coal combustion source, although various effects of traffic emissions were also observed. Furthermore, the PAH levels in Beijing tended to be higher in the southeast. Finally, the nemerow composite index revealed that the degree of pollution in the sandstorm depositions varied widely among sampling sites.

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons residues in sandstorm depositions in Beijing, China

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, S.; Li, K.; Xia, X.J.; Xu, X.B.

    2009-02-15

    This study was conducted to determine the concentration of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sandstorm depositions in Beijing, China. The PAH concentrations in 13 samples collected in Beijing ranged from 0.18 to 3.52 {mu} g g{sup -1}. Analysis of the sources of contamination revealed that the PAHs were derived from a coal combustion source, although various effects of traffic emissions were also observed. Furthermore, the PAH levels in Beijing tended to be higher in the southeast. Finally, the Nemerow composite index revealed that the degree of pollution in the sandstorm depositions varied widely among sampling sites.

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons residues in sandstorm depositions in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Fu, S; Li, K; Xia, X J; Xu, X B

    2009-02-01

    This study was conducted to determine the concentration of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sandstorm depositions in Beijing, China. The PAH concentrations in 13 samples collected in Beijing ranged from 0.18 to 3.52 microg g(-1). Analysis of the sources of contamination revealed that the PAHs were derived from a coal combustion source, although various effects of traffic emissions were also observed. Furthermore, the PAH levels in Beijing tended to be higher in the southeast. Finally, the nemerow composite index revealed that the degree of pollution in the sandstorm depositions varied widely among sampling sites. PMID:18773130

  19. Characteristics of wintertime polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon assemblage in aerosol of the Southern Adriatic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanović, V. Ž.; Pfendt, P. A.; Filipović, A. J.

    2007-09-01

    Features of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) assemblage in aerosol samples collected from the atmosphere of Herceg Novi during the winter months of two successive years were studied. The results showed almost the same concentration profiles of identified PAHs for samples from the two periods analyzed, generally suggesting a similar origin. Diagnostic ratios indicated combustion of wood and coal, emissions from petrol and diesel engines, and dust resuspension as sources that predominantly contributed to the atmospheric PAH concentrations. Statistical analysis, principal component analysis (PCA) in particular, allowed us to identify the impact of meteorological parameters on PAH abundance.

  20. Bladder cancer and occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Bonassi, S; Merlo, F; Pearce, N; Puntoni, R

    1989-10-15

    The association between occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and bladder cancer development was investigated in a population-based case-control study carried out in the Bormida valley, Italy. One hundred and twenty-one male cases and 342 male controls, matched age, were collected from local hospitals. Occupational exposure to PAH and aromatic amines (AA) was evaluated by means of a job exposure matrix, constructed specifically for this study. Subjects considered as sharing a "definite exposure to PAH" showed an increased risk even after adjustment for cigarette smoking and exposure to AA (OR = 2.14, 95% CL 0.82-5.60). No elevation in risk was found for the category "possible exposure to PAH" (OR = 1.05, 95% CL 0.45-2.44). The findings of this study are consistent with previous studies indicating PAH as a risk factor for bladder cancer. A possible residual confounding effect due to AA impurities is discussed.

  1. Synthesis of condensed phases containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons fullerenes and nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Reilly, Peter T. A.

    2004-10-19

    The invention relates to methods for producing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, fullerenes, and nanotubes, comprising: a. heating at least one carbon-containing material to form a condensed phase comprising at least one polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon; b. collecting at least some of the condensed phase; c. reacting the condensed phase to form fullerenes and/or nanotubes.

  2. Scavenging of airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by rain

    SciTech Connect

    van Noort, P.C.M.; Wondergem, E.

    1985-11-01

    The variation of the concentrations of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in rain with time during three precipitation events was determined. On all occasions these concentrations were found to decrease during the precipitation events. The apparent removal rate constants on a precipitation amount base for two of the three events were calculated to be 1.46 and ca. 3 mm/sup -1/. For the third event the concentration decrease did not allow the calculation of the apparent removal rate constant. Furthermore, concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in rain sampled simultaneously at ground level and at an altitude of 22 m were determined. These measurements demonstrate that concentrations of phenanthrene and fluoranthene in rainwater at ground level are noticeably higher than those at 200 m. No significant differences in concentrations of benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, benzo(ghi)perylene, and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene in rain at the two altitudes were found. It is concluded on the basis of these findings that at least on the event with sampling at two altitudes the main process responsible for the presence of phenanthrene in rain is below-cloud gas-phase scavenging and that for the other compounds except fluoranthene and benz(a)anthracene it holds that in-cloud scavenging is the main process; for fluoranthene and benz(a)anthracene below-cloud gas-phase scavenging and in-cloud scavenging are about equally important.

  3. Thermochemical Properties and Phase Behavior of Halogenated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Suuberg, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of vapor pressure of organic pollutants is essential in predicting their fate and transport in the environment. In the present study, the vapor pressures of 12 halogenated polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), i.e. 9-chlorofluorene, 2,7-dichlorofluorene, 2-bromofluorene, 9-bromofluorene, 2,7-dibromofluorene, 2-bromoanthracene, 9-chlorophenanthrene, 9-bromophenanthrene, 9,10-dibromophenanthrene, 1-chloropyrene, 7-bromobenz[a]anthracene and 6,12-dibromochrysene, were measured using the Knudsen effusion method over the temperature range of 301 to 464 K. Enthalpies and entropies of sublimation of these compounds were determined via application of the Clausius–Clapeyron equation. The data were also compared with earlier published literature values to study the influence of halogen substitution on vapor pressure of PACs. As expected, the halogen substitution decreases vapor pressure compared to parent compounds, but does not necessarily increase the enthalpy of sublimation. Moreover, the decrease of vapor pressure also depends on the substitution position and the substituted halogen, and the di-substitution of chlorine and/or bromine decreases the vapor pressure compared to single halogen substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Additionally, the enthalpy of fusion and melting temperature of these 12 PACs were determined using differential scanning calorimetry and melting point analysis. PMID:22139714

  4. Mutagenicity of photochemically-transformed polycyclic aromatic amines

    SciTech Connect

    Strniste, G.F.; Nickols, J.W.; Okinaka, R.T.; Whaley, T.W.

    1985-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic amines (PAA) constitute a class of suspect genotoxic chemicals found in certain energy-related complex organic mixtures. A variety of studies are reported on the photochemical transformation (oxidation) of polycyclic aromatic amines and the increase in genotoxicity of the resulting complex mixtures of radiation-generated products. Biological endpoints of cytotoxicity and mutagenicity were measured in the Ames/Salmonella standard-plate assay. Chemical fractionation and identification of various photoproducts was accomplished with h.p.l.c., uv and ir spectroscopic and mass spectrometric techniques. The benchmark PAA in these studies was aminofluorene (2-AF). Photooxidation of 2-AF can occur at both the exocyclic nitrogen and certain ring positions resulting in the formation of direct-acting and potent bacterial mutagens, including 2-nitrosofluorene, 2-nitrofluorene, and 2-nitrofluoren-9-one. UVA-irradiated 2-AF solutions also contain promutagenic compounds, i.e., is 2-aminofluoren-9-one. These results support the hypothesis that the critical step in the activation of major, identified direct-acting mutagenic 2-AF photoproducts is their reduction by bacterial nitroreductase enzymes to reactive hydroxylamines. Photochemical oxidation is an alternative mechanism of transforming PAA into direct-acting genotoxins. 24 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution in soil of suburban areas in Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jungang; Shi, Rongguang; Cai, Yanming; Liu, Yong

    2010-07-01

    Soil contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is an increasing problem and has aroused more and more concern in many countries, including China. In this study, representative soil samples (n = 87) of suburban areas in Tianjin (Xiqing, Dongli, Jinnan, Beichen) were evaluated for 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Surface soil samples were air-dried and sieved. Microwave assisted extraction was used for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons preparation prior to analysis with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The total concentrations of tested polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Xiqing, Dongli, Jinnan, Beichen ranged in 58.5-2,748.3, 36.1-6,734.7, 58.5-4,502.5, 29.7-852.5 ng/g and the averages of total concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were 600.5, 933.6, 640.8, 257.3 ng/g, respectively. Spatial variation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil was illustrated; Pollution status and comparison to other cities were also investigated. Serious polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons soil pollution was found in Dongli district, on the contrary, Bap in most sites in Beichen did not exceed relative standards and most sites in Beichen should be classified as non-contaminated soil. Principal component analysis was used to identify the possible sources of different districts. It turned out that coal combustion still was the most important sources in three districts except Beichen. Coking, traffic, cooking, biomass combustion also accounted for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pollution to certain extent in different districts. These data can be further used to assess the health risk associated with soils polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and help local government find proper way to reduce polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons pollution in soils.

  6. Toxicological profile for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The ATSDR Toxicological Profile for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs): Acenaphthene, Acenaphthylene, Anthracene, Benzo(a)anthracene, Benzo(a)pyrene, Benzo(b)fluoranthene, Benzo(g,h,i)perylene, Benzo(k)fluoranthene, Chrysene, Dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, Fluoranthene, Fluorene, Indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, Phenanthrene, Pyrene is intended to characterize succinctly the toxicological and health effects information for the substance. It identifies and reviews the key literature that describes the substance's toxicological properties. Other literature is presented but described in less detail. The profile begins with a public health statement, which describes in nontechnical language the substance's relevant toxicological properties. The adequacy of information to determine the substance's health effects is described. Research gaps in nontoxic and health effects information are described. Research gaps that are of significance to the protection of public health will be identified in a separate effort. The focus of the document is on health and toxicological information.

  7. Monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in seafoods from Lake Timsah.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Gamal A

    2002-03-01

    Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrpcarvons (PAHs) in some seafoods caught from Lake Timsah were determined. The tested samples were tilapia fish (Oreochromis aureus), crabs (Portuns pelagicus), bivalves (Venerupis decussata), clams (Strombus tricornis) and gastropods (Munes Sp.). Where these seafoods are locally and favorite consumed foods in the area around the lake (Ismailia governorate). Results showed that crabs contained significantly higher concentrations of both total and carcinogenic PAHs ranging from 1318.6 to 3767.4 and 1230.3 to 3442.2 microg kg(-1), respectively. Meanwhile, clams contained significantly lower levels with mean value of 28.4 microg kg(-1) for total and 24.4 microg kg(-1) for carcinogenic PAHs. The most frequently detected PAHs in the tested samples were indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene followed by benzo(a)pyrene, dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, and benzo(b)fluoranthene which are characterized as carcinogenic compounds. PMID:11970818

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons - Primitive pigment systems in the prebiotic environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deamer, D. W.

    1992-01-01

    The chemical evolution of meteoritic organics in the primitive earth is examined experimentally with attention given to the photochemical effects of hydrocarbon/water mixtures. Also addressed are the generation of amphiphilic products by photochemical reactions and the transduction of light energy into potentially useful forms. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) absorb light and exist in carbonaceous chondrites; PAHs are therefore examined as primitive pigments by means of salt solutions with pyrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene derivatives with hexadecane. The hexadecane undergoes photochemical oxidation and yields long-chain amphiphiles with oxygen supplied by water, and acid pH shifts also occur. PAHs are also tested in lipid bilayer membranes to examine light-energy transduction. Protons are found to accumulate within the membrane-bounded volume to form proton gradients, and this reaction is theorized to be a good model of primitive photochemical reactions that related to the transduction of light energy into useable forms.

  9. Phototoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons at varying light intensities

    SciTech Connect

    Ankley, G.T.; Phipps, G.L.; Mattson, V.R.; Erickson, R.J.; Kosian, P.A.; Cox, J.S.; Sheedy, B.R.; Mount, D.R.

    1994-12-31

    Conceptual models suggest that the toxicity of photoactivated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) should be a function both of chemical (PAH) dose, and intensity of the ultraviolet (UV) light to which the organism is exposed (photon dose). However, there have been no systematic studies with aquatic organisms to quantify the relationship between PAH dose and UV intensity in producing phototoxicity. In these studies, oligochaetes (Lumbriculus variegatus) were exposed, via the water, to multiple concentrations of individual PAHs known to be photoactivated (fluoranthene, pyrene, anthracene), and then placed under UV light of three different intensities. The resultant phototoxicity clearly was a function both of PAH dose and light intensity. A joint toxicity model relating toxicity to PAH concentrations and light intensity will be presented.

  10. Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons degradative soil Pseudomonas.

    PubMed

    Fuenmayor, S L; Rodriguez Lemoine, V

    1992-01-01

    Nine Pseudomonas strains, able to degrade polycycle aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were isolated from enriched cultures with naphthalene, as carbon source, and soil samples from a land farming process applied on oil sludge, as inocula. Degradative tests showed that all the strains were capable to catabolize naphthalene (Nah) and phenanthrene (Phn). U2 strain transferred the selected function (Nah) to P. aeruginosa T1 (Hgr Oct+), however some of the transconjugants lost the Oct character, suggesting that it is of plasmidic nature. T1 derivatives as well the wild strains U28 and U31 transferred Nah function to P. putida AC165. All of the examined transconjugants also catabolized phenanthrene, suggesting that Nah and Phn functions in U2, U28, and U31 strains are linked and probably encoded by transferable plasmids.

  11. Gas and Particulate Sampling of Airborne Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Lane, D.A.; Gundel, L.A.

    1995-10-01

    The denuder surfaces of the gas and particle (GAP) sampler (developed at the Atmospheric Environment Service of Environment Canada) have been modified by coating with XAD-4 resin, using techniques developed at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) for the lower capacity integrated organic vapor/particle sampler (IOVPS). The resulting high capacity integrated organic gas and particle sampler (IOGAPS) has been operated in ambient air at 16.7 L min{sup -1} for a 24-hour period in Berkeley, California, USA. Simultaneous measurements were made at the same collection rate with a conventional sampler that used a filter followed by two sorbent beds. Gas and particle partition measurements were determined for 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) ranging from 2-ring to 6-ring species. The IOGAPS indicated a higher particle fraction of these compounds than did the conventional sampler, suggesting that the conventional sampler suffered from 'blow-off' losses from the particles collected on the filter.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons' formation and occurrence in processed food.

    PubMed

    Singh, Lochan; Varshney, Jay G; Agarwal, Tripti

    2016-05-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emerged as an important contaminant group in a gamut of processed food groups like dairy, nuts, herbs, beverages, meat products etc. Different cooking processes and processing techniques like roasting, barbecuing, grilling, smoking, heating, drying, baking, ohmic-infrared cooking etc. contribute towards its formation. The level of PAHs depends on factors like distance from heat source, fuel used, level of processing, cooking durations and methods, whereas processes like reuse, conching, concentration, crushing and storage enhance the amount of PAHs in some food items. This review paper provides insight into the impact of dietary intake of PAHs, its levels and formation mechanism in processed food items and possible interventions for prevention and reduction of the PAHs contamination. The gaps and future prospects have also been assessed. PMID:26776034

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon removal from water by natural fiber sorption.

    PubMed

    Khan, Eakalak; Khaodhir, Sutha; Rotwiron, Paritta

    2007-08-01

    The use of two natural sorbents, kapok and cattail fibers, were investigated for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) removal from water. Naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and fluoranthene were the PAHs studied. For comparative purposes, a commercial polyester fiber sorbent was included in the investigation. The PAH sorption and retention capabilities of the three fibers were determined through batch and continuous-flow experiments under non-competitive and competitive conditions. In the batch experiments, cattail fiber was the most effective sorbent. Kapok fiber provided the lowest PAH retention, while cattail fiber had slightly less PAH retention than polyester fiber. When two PAHs were present in the same system, a competitive effect on the much less hydrophobic PAH was observed. Similar results were obtained in the column experiments, except that polyester fiber performed much poorer on naphthalene. Cattail fiber is a promising sorbent for treating PAH-contaminated water, such as urban runoff.

  14. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and the Diffuse Interstellar Bands: a Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, F.; Galazutdinov, G. A.; Krelowski, J.; Allamandola, L. J.; Musaev, F. A.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    We discuss the proposal relating the origin of some of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) to neutral and ionized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in interstellar clouds. Laboratory spectra of several PAHs, isolated at low temperature in inert gas matrices, are compared with an extensive set of astronomical spectra of reddened, early type stars. From this comparison, it is concluded that PAN ions are good candidates to explain some of the DIBs. Unambiguous assignments are difficult, however, due to the shift in wavelengths and the band broadening induced in the laboratory spectra by the solid matrix. Definitive band assignments and, ultimately, the test of the of the proposal that PAH ions carry some of the DIB must await the availability of gas-phase measurements in the laboratory. The present assessment offers a guideline for future laboratory experiments by allowing the preselection of promising PAH molecules to be studied in jet expansions.

  15. Deprotonated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons as Candidate Anomalous Microwave Emission Carriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammonds, Mark; Bell, Aaron Christopher; Candian, Alessandra; Sarre, Peter; Onaka, Takashi

    2015-08-01

    Anomalous microwave emission (AME) is a major puzzle in studies of the interstellar medium. The precise nature of the AME carrier is still a matter of active research and studies to identify candidate species are important in understanding how AME relates to other chemical and physical processes occurring within the interstellar medium. This work presents deprotonated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, a variety of large anionic carbonaceous molecules with strong permanent electric dipole moments, as potential candidate AME carriers. Theoretical studies find these molecules to be able to form and persist in the dense interstellar environments where AME is typically observed. Implications of the existence of this class of molecules are discussed in terms of physical and chemical processes in dense molecular clouds.

  16. Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in China by county

    SciTech Connect

    Yanxu Zhang; Shu Tao; Jun Cao; Raymond M. Coveney III

    2007-02-15

    Quantitative relationships among social, economic, and climate parameters, and energy consumption for Chinese provinces, provide data for regression models' estimated rates of energy consumption and emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by county. A nonlinear model was used for domestic coal combustion with total population and annual mean temperature as independent variables. Linear regression models were utilized for all other types of fuel consumption. Monte Carlo simulation demonstrated that emission factors, rather than the regression modeling, constitute the main source of uncertainty in prediction. Models were validated using available energy data of several northern and southern counties of China from the literature. The total PAHs produced by each county is approximately equivalent to the sum of the total emission from energy, coke, and aluminum production. 25 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments of China Sea.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanxia; Duan, Xiaoyong

    2015-10-01

    Increasing pollution pressures were placed in the coastal and estuarine ecosystems in China because of the elevated pollutants discharged from various sources. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment were closely linked to human activities, which have been intensively studied for their geochemical interest as markers. In this review, the status of PAH contamination in China Sea was assessed by comprehensive reviews of the concentrations, sources, and fates of PAHs in sediments of China Sea. PAH concentrations in China Sea sediments decreased from north to south due to the higher emissions in North China. Atmosphere was probably the main carrier of PAHs in the north due to the higher contents of atmospheric fine particles and higher wind speeds. However, riverine inputs were probably the most important sources of PAHs in the coastal sediments of South China due to higher rainfall.

  18. Failure of hydrogenation in protecting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatchell, M.; Stockett, M. H.; de Ruette, N.; Chen, T.; Giacomozzi, L.; Nascimento, R. F.; Wolf, M.; Anderson, E. K.; Delaunay, R.; Vizcaino, V.; Rousseau, P.; Adoui, L.; Huber, B. A.; Schmidt, H. T.; Zettergren, H.; Cederquist, H.

    2015-11-01

    A recent study of soft x-ray absorption in native and hydrogenated coronene cations, C24H12+m +m =0 -7 , led to the conclusion that additional hydrogen atoms protect (interstellar) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules from fragmentation [Reitsma et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 053002 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.053002]. The present experiment with collisions between fast (30-200 eV) He atoms and pyrene (C16H10+m + , m =0 , 6, and 16) and simulations without reference to the excitation method suggests the opposite. We find that the absolute carbon-backbone fragmentation cross section does not decrease but increases with the degree of hydrogenation for pyrene molecules.

  19. Transport of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Unsaturated Porous Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chahal, Maninder; Flury, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are complex organic molecules containing 2 or more fused benzene rings. Being hydrophobic and non-polar, PAHs tend to partition to the organic matter in the soil from bulk aqueous phase. Though transport of these contaminants has been well studied in saturated environment, interactive mechanisms of these fluorescent compounds in unsaturated (identified by presence of air-water interface) porous media is still not well understood. We studied is the transport of fluoranthene in unsaturated porous media as facilitated by moving air-water interfaces. Confocal microscopy was used to visualize the interactions of fluoranthene particles in a glass channel packed with quartz glass beads. The packed glass channel was used to mimic a porous media and effects of an advancing and receding capillary fringe on the detachment of fluoranthene.

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons' formation and occurrence in processed food.

    PubMed

    Singh, Lochan; Varshney, Jay G; Agarwal, Tripti

    2016-05-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emerged as an important contaminant group in a gamut of processed food groups like dairy, nuts, herbs, beverages, meat products etc. Different cooking processes and processing techniques like roasting, barbecuing, grilling, smoking, heating, drying, baking, ohmic-infrared cooking etc. contribute towards its formation. The level of PAHs depends on factors like distance from heat source, fuel used, level of processing, cooking durations and methods, whereas processes like reuse, conching, concentration, crushing and storage enhance the amount of PAHs in some food items. This review paper provides insight into the impact of dietary intake of PAHs, its levels and formation mechanism in processed food items and possible interventions for prevention and reduction of the PAHs contamination. The gaps and future prospects have also been assessed.

  1. Simulated transport of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in artificial streams

    SciTech Connect

    Bartell, S.M.; Landrum, P.F.; Giesy, J.P.; Leversee, G.J.

    1981-01-01

    A model was constructed to predict the pattern of flow and accumulation of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) (anthracene, naphthalene, and benzo(a)pyrene) in artificial streams located on the Savannah River Plant near Aiken, South Carolina. Predictions were based upon the premise that the fundamental chemistry of individual PAH contains useful information for predictive purposes. Model processes included volatilization, photolysis, sorption to sediments and particulates, and net accumulation by biota. Simulations of anthracene transport were compared to results of an experiment conducted in the streams. The model realistically predicted the concentration of dissolved anthracene through time and space. Photolytic degradation appeared to be a major pathway of anthracene flux from the streams.

  2. Enhanced bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by environmentally friendly techniques.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Huey-Min; Hu, Xiaoke; Zhao, Xueheng

    2007-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are recognized as a worldwide environmental contamination problem because of their intrinsic chemical stability, high resistance to various transformation processes, and toxicity property. Because of the wide distribution of the PAHs in the environment, human exposure to the PAHs is likely to occur from dermal contact, ingestion of particles, inhalation of airborne dust, or bioaccumulation in the food chains. Therefore, their remediation is considered indispensable for environmental clean up and human health. The objective of this article is to provide a quick review on toxicity of PAHs, biodegradation of PAHs, influence of selected environmental factors on PAHs biodegradation, selected techniques for enhancing biodegradation of PAHs, and a detailed description of two environmentally friendly techniques used in our laboratory for PAHs enhanced bioremediation. Finally, an overview on the green chemistry concept and its relevance to development of several environmental fingerprinting tools for predicting successful PAHs detoxification are discussed.

  3. NMR shifts for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from first-principles

    SciTech Connect

    Thonhauser, Timo; Ceresoli, Davide; Marzari, Nicola N.

    2009-09-03

    We present first-principles, density-functional theory calculations of the NMR chemical shifts for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, starting with benzene and increasing sizes up to the one- and two-dimensional infinite limits of graphene ribbons and sheets. Our calculations are performed using a combination of the recently developed theory of orbital magnetization in solids, and a novel approach to NMR calculations where chemical shifts are obtained from the derivative of the orbital magnetization with respect to a microscopic, localized magnetic dipole. Using these methods we study on equal footing the 1H and 13C shifts in benzene, pyrene, coronene, in naphthalene, anthracene, naphthacene, and pentacene, and finally in graphene, graphite, and an infinite graphene ribbon. Our results show very good agreement with experiments and allow us to characterize the trends for the chemical shifts as a function of system size.

  4. Uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by maize plants.

    PubMed

    Lin, H; Tao, S; Zuo, Q; Coveney, R M

    2007-07-01

    Roots and above-ground parts (tops) of maize plants, comprising cuticles, leaves and stems, have been exposed separately to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by means of air-tight bicameral exposure devices. Maize roots and tops of plants directly accumulate PAHs from aqueous solutions and from air in proportion to exposure levels. Root and leaf concentration factors (log RCF and log LCF) are log-linear functions of log-based octanol-water partition coefficient (log Kow) and log-based octanol-air partition coefficient (log Koa). The PAHs' concentrations among cuticles, leaves and stems display good correlations with each other. PAH concentrations in each part of the plant tested correlated positively with atmospheric PAHs' concentrations. Comparisons between PAHs' concentrations of root epidermis and root tissue showed similar correlations. Bulk concentrations of contaminants in various plant tissues differed greatly, but these differences disappeared after normalization to lipid contents suggesting lipid-based partitioning of PAHs among maize tissues.

  5. Prenatal Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons /Aromatics, BDNF and Child Development

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Frederica; Phillips, David H.; Wang, Ya; Roen, Emily; Herbstman, Julie; Rauh, Virginia; Wang, Shuang; Tang, Deliang

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Within a New York City (NYC) birth cohort, we assessed the associations between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and other aromatic DNA adducts and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations in umbilical cord blood, and neurodevelopment at age 2 years and whether BDNF is a mediator of the associations between PAH/aromatic-DNA adducts and neurodevelopment. Methods PAH/aromatic-DNA adduct concentrations in cord blood were measured in 505 children born to nonsmoking African-American and Dominican women residing in NYC, and a subset was assessed for neurodevelopment at 2 years using the Bayley Scales of Infant Development Mental Development Index (MDI). A spectrum of PAH/aromatic-DNA adducts was measured using the 32P-postlabeling assay; DNA adducts formed by benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a representative PAH, were measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC)/fluorescence. BDNF mature protein in cord blood plasma was quantified by an ELISA. Multivariate regression analysis, adjusting for potential confounders, was conducted. Results PAH/aromatic-DNA adduct concentration measured by postlabeling was inversely associated with BDNF concentration (p=0.02) and with MDI scores at 2 years (p=0.04). BDNF level was positively associated with MDI scores (p=0.003). Restricting to subjects having all three measures (PAH/aromatic-DNA adducts by postlabeling, MDI, and BDNF), results were similar but attenuated (p=0.13, p=0.05, p=0.01, respectively). Associations between B[a]P-DNA adducts and BDNF and B[a]P-DNA adducts and MDI at age 2 years were not significant. At age 3 years, the positive association of BDNF with MDI was not observed. Conclusions The results at age 2 suggest that prenatal exposure to a spectrum of PAH/aromatic pollutants may adversely affect early neurodevelopment, in part by reducing BDNF levels during the fetal period. However, the same relationship was not seen at age 3. PMID:26301740

  6. Structural characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon isomers in coal tars and combustion products

    SciTech Connect

    Nishioka, M.; Chang, H.C.; Lee, M.L.

    1986-10-01

    Isomeric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) with two to six rings in coal-derived products and in a carbon black were separated, identified, and quantified by using capillary column gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. A newly synthesized smectic liquid-crystalline polysiloxane and a conventional polymethylsiloxane were utilized as stationary phases. Many previously difficult to separate isomeric PAH (i.e., methylphenanthrenes/methylanthracenes, triphenylene/chrysene, methylchrysenes, benzofluoranthenes, and pentaphene/benzo(b)chrysene) were identified). The relative abundances of the PAH in these samples were compared and correlated to the reaction conditions during their production. The relationship between abundance and structure for the identified PAH was also discussed. 26 references, 5 figures, 1 table.

  7. Formation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Nitrogen Containing Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds in Titan's Atmosphere, the Interstellar Medium and Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landera, Alexander

    2013-12-01

    Several different mechanisms leading to the formation of (substituted) naphthalene and azanaphthalenes were examined using theoretical quantum chemical calculations. As a result, a series of novel synthetic routes to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Nitrogen Containing Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds (N-PACs) have been proposed. On Earth, these aromatic compounds originate from incomplete combustion and are released into our environment, where they are known to be major pollutants, often with carcinogenic properties. In the atmosphere of a Saturn's moon Titan, these PAH and N-PACs are believed to play a critical role in organic haze formation, as well as acting as chemical precursors to biologically relevant molecules. The theoretical calculations were performed by employing the ab initio G3(MP2,CC)/B3LYP/6-311G** method to effectively probe the Potential Energy Surfaces (PES) relevant to the PAH and N-PAC formation. Following the construction of the PES, Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Markus (RRKM) theory was used to evaluate all unimolecular rate constants as a function of collision energy under single-collision conditions. Branching ratios were then evaluated by solving phenomenological rate expressions for the various product concentrations. The most viable pathways to PAH and N-PAC formation were found to be those where the initial attack by the ethynyl (C2H) or cyano (CN) radical toward a unsaturated hydrocarbon molecule led to the formation of an intermediate which could not effectively lose a hydrogen atom. It is not until ring cyclization has occurred, that hydrogen elimination leads to a closed shell product. By quenching the possibility of the initial hydrogen atom elimination, one of the most competitive processes preventing the PAH or N-PAC formation was avoided, and the PAH or N-PAC formation was allowed to proceed. It is concluded that these considerations should be taken into account when attempting to explore any other potential routes towards

  8. Infrared Spectroscopy of Matrix-Isolated Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds and their Ions. 6; Polycyclic Aromatic Nitrogen Heterocycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattioda, A. L.; Hudgins, Douglas M.; Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.; Rosi, M.; Allamandola, L. J.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The matrix-isolation technique has been employed to measure the mid-infrared spectra of several polycyclic aromatic nitrogen heterocycles in both neutral and cationic forms. The species studied include: 7,8 benzoquinoline (C13H9N); 2-azapyrene (C15H9N); 1- and 2-azabenz(a)anthracene (C17H11N); and 1-, 2-, and 4-azachrysene (also C17H11N). The experimentally measured band frequencies and intensities for each molecule are tabulated and compared with their theoretically calculated values computed using density functional theory at the B3LYP/4-31G level. The overall agreement between experiment and theory is quite good, in keeping with previous investigations involving the parent aromatic hydrocarbons. Several interesting spectroscopic trends are found to accompany nitrogen substitution into the aromatic framework of these compounds. First, for the neutral species, the nitrogen atom produces a significant increase in the total integrated infrared intensity across the 1600 - 1100/cm region and plays an essential role in the molecular vibration that underlies an uncharacteristically intense, discrete feature that is observed near 1400/cm in the spectra of 7,8 benzoquinoline, 1-azabenz(a)anthracene, and 4-azachrysene. The origin of this enhanced infrared activity and the nature of the new 1400/cm vibrational mode are explored. Finally, in contrast to the parent hydrocarbon species, these aromatic nitrogen heterocycles possess a significant permanent dipole moment. Consequently, these dipole moments and the rotational constants are reported for these species in their neutral and ionized forms.

  9. Sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to polystyrene nanoplastic.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lijing; Fokkink, Remco; Koelmans, Albert A

    2016-07-01

    Microplastic has become an emerging contaminant of global concern. Bulk plastic can degrade to form smaller particles down to the nanoscale (<100 nm), which are referred to as nanoplastics. Because of their high surface area, nanoplastic may bind hydrophobic chemicals very effectively, increasing their hazard when such nanoplastics are taken up by biota. The present study reports distribution coefficients for sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to 70 nm polystyrene in freshwater, and PAH adsorption isotherms spanning environmentally realistic aqueous concentrations of 10(-5)  μg/L to 1 μg/L. Nanopolystyrene aggregate state was assessed using dynamic light scattering. The adsorption isotherms were nonlinear, and the distribution coefficients at the lower ends of the isotherms were very high, with values up to 10(9) L/kg. The high and nonlinear sorption was explained from π-π interactions between the planar PAHs and the surface of the aromatic polymer polystyrene and was higher than for micrometer-sized polystyrene. Reduction of nanopolystyrene aggregate sizes had no significant effect on sorption, which suggests that the PAHs could reach the sorption sites on the pristine nanoparticles regardless of the aggregation state. Pre-extraction of the nanopolystyrene with C18 polydimethylsiloxane decreased sorption of PAHs, which could be explained by removal of the most hydrophobic fraction of the nanopolystyrene. Environ Toxicol Chem 2016;35:1650-1655. © 2015 SETAC.

  10. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON CLUSTERS AS SOURCES OF INTERSTELLAR INFRARED EMISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Roser, J. E.; Ricca, A.

    2015-03-10

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (or PAHs) have been the subject of astrochemical research for several decades as principal sources of the interstellar aromatic infrared emission bands. PAH clusters could possibly contribute to these emission bands, but a lack of data on their infrared properties has made this hypothesis difficult to evaluate. Here we investigate homogeneous neutral PAH clusters by measuring the mid-infrared absorption spectra of the five nonlinear PAH molecules phenanthrene, chrysene, pyrene, perylene, and benzo[ghi]perylene within solid argon ice at a fixed temperature of 5 K. We attribute observed spectral shifts in their principal absorption bands as a function of argon/PAH ratio to clustering of the PAH molecules within the argon matrix. These shifts are related to the cluster structures forming in the matrix and the topology of the monomer PAH molecule. We predict that interstellar PAH molecules that are relatively large (no fewer than 50 carbon atoms per molecule) and compact will have clusters that contribute to the asymmetrically red-shaded profile of the interstellar 11.2 μm emission band.

  11. Partition characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on soils and sediments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiou, C.T.; Mcgroddy, S.E.; Kile, D.E.

    1998-01-01

    The partition behavior was determined for three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), i.e., naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene, from water to a range of soil and sediment samples. The measured partition coefficients of the individual PAHs between soil/sediment organic matter (SOM) and water (i.e., K(oc) values) are relatively invariant either for the 'clean' (uncontaminated) soils or for the clean sediments; however, the mean K(oc) values on the sediments are about twice the values on the soils. This disparity is similar to the earlier observation for other nonpolar solutes and reflects the compositional differences between soil and sediment organic matters. No significant differences in K(oc) are observed between a clean coastal marine sediment and freshwater sediments. The coastal sediments that are significantly impacted by organic contaminants exhibit higher K(oc) values. At given K(ow) values (octanol-water), the PAHs exhibit much higher K(oc) values than other relatively nonpolar solutes (e.g., chlorinated hydrocarbons). This effect is shown to result from the enhanced partition of PAHs to SOM rather than from lower K(ow) values of PAHs at given supercooled liquid solute solubilities in water. The enhanced partition of PAHs over other nonpolar solutes in SOM provides an account of the markedly different correlations between log K(oc) and log K(ow) for PAHs and for other nonpolar solutes. The improved partition of PAHs in SOM stems apparently from the enhanced compatibility of their cohesive energy densities with those of the aromatic components in SOM. The approximate aromatic fraction in soil/sediment organic matter has been assessed by solid-state 13C-NMR spectroscopy.The partition behavior was determined for three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), i.e., naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene, from water to a range of soil and sediment samples. The measured partition coefficients of the individual PAHs between soil/sediment organic matter (SOM

  12. Food heating and the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mutagens/carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Knize, M G; Salmon, C P; Pais, P; Felton, J S

    1999-01-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are mutagens and animal carcinogens sometimes formed when foods are heated or processed. Determining their role in cancer etiology depends on comparing human exposures and determining any significant dose-related effects. Chemical analysis of foods shows that flame-grilling can form both PAH and HAA, and that frying forms predominantly HAA. With detection limits of about 0.1 ng/g, amounts found in commercially processed or restaurant foods range from 0.1 to 14 ng/g for HAA, and levels of PAH up to 1 ng/g in a liquid smoke flavoring. Laboratory fried samples have greater amounts of PAH, up to 38 ng/g in hamburgers, and high levels of HAA, over 300 ng/g, are measured in grilled chicken breast. Understanding the processing conditions that form PAH and HAA can lead to methods to greatly reduce their occurrence in processed foods.

  13. Food heating and the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amine and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mutagens/carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Knize, M G; Salmon, C P; Pais, P; Felton, J S

    1999-01-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are mutagens and animal carcinogens sometimes formed when foods are heated or processed. Determining their role in cancer etiology depends on comparing human exposures and determining any significant dose-related effects. Chemical analysis of foods shows that flame-grilling can form both PAH and HAA, and that frying forms predominantly HAA. With detection limits of about 0.1 ng/g, amounts found in commercially processed or restaurant foods range from 0.1 to 14 ng/g for HAA, and levels of PAH up to 1 ng/g in a liquid smoke flavoring. Laboratory fried samples have greater amounts of PAH, up to 38 ng/g in hamburgers, and high levels of HAA, over 300 ng/g, are measured in grilled chicken breast. Understanding the processing conditions that form PAH and HAA can lead to methods to greatly reduce their occurrence in processed foods. PMID:10335376

  14. ASSAYING PARTICLE-BOUND POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS (PAH) FROM ARCHIVED PM2.5 FILTERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airborne particulate matter contains numerous organic species, including several polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) that are known or suspected carcinogens. Existing methods for measuring airborne PAHs are complex and costly, primarily because they are designed to collect...

  15. Evidence for the extraterrestrial origin of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Martian meteorite ALH84001.

    PubMed

    Clemett, S J; Dulay, M T; Gillette, J S; Chillier, X D; Mahajan, T B; Zare, R N

    1998-01-01

    Possible sources of terrestrial contamination are considered for the observation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Martian meteorite ALH84001. Contamination is concluded to be negligible. PMID:9809015

  16. AMENDMENT OF SEDIMENTS WITH A CARBONACEOUS RESIN REDUCES BIOAVAILABILITY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of laboratory and field test studies were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of Ambersorb, a carbonaceous resin, in reducing bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated sediments collected from the field. Amending contaminated sediment...

  17. DIGESTIVE BIOAVAILABILITY TO A DEPOSIT FEDDER (ARENICOLA MARINA) OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS ASSOCIATED WITH ANTHRPOGENIC PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Marine sediments around urban areas serve as catch basins for anthropogenic particles containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Using incubations with gut fluids extracted from a deposit-feeding polychaete (Arenicola marina), we determined the digestive bioavailability ...

  18. Identification of persulfate oxidation products of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon during remediation of contaminated soil

    EPA Science Inventory

    The extent of PAH transformation, the formation and transformation of reaction byproducts during persulfate oxidation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in coking plant soil was investigated. Pre-oxidation analyses indicated that oxygen-containing PAHs (oxy-PAHs) existed ...

  19. PHOTOACTIVATION AND TOXICITY OF MIXTURES OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON COMPOUNDS IN MARINE SEDIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The direct toxicity and photoinduced toxicity of sediment-associated acenaphthene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene were determined for the marine amphipod Rhepoxynius abronius. The four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were spiked into sediment in a concentration se...

  20. MUTAGENICITY IN SALMONELLA OF SULFUR-CONTAINING POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HETEROCYCLES AND THEIR DIHYDRODIOL DERIVATIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles (PASH) are common constituents of cigarette smoke, fossil fuel-derived materials, and their combustion byproducts. Many PASH are known mutagens and carcinogens. However, unlike their nonsulfur-containing counterparts, relatively little is k...

  1. MULTISUBSTRATE BIODEGRADATION KINETICS FOR BINARY AND COMPLEX MIXTURES OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biodegradation kinetics were studied for binary and complex mixtures of nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene, 2-methylnaphthalene, 2-ethylnaphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, pyrene, fluorene and fluoranthene. Discrepancies between the ...

  2. EPR and DFT Study of the Polycyclic Aromatic Radical Cations from Friedel-Crafts Alkylation Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tao; Wu, An-an; Gao, Li-guo; Wang, Han-qing

    2009-02-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance and electron-nuclear double resonance methods were used to study the polycyclic aromatic radical cations produced in a Friedel-Crafts alkylating system, with m-xylene, or p-xylene and alkyl chloride. The results indicate that the observed electron paramagnetic resonance spectra are due to polycyclic aromatic radicals formed from the parent hydrocarbons. It is suggested that benzyl halides produced in the Friedel-Crafts alkylation reactions undergo Scholl self-condensation to give polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which are converted into corresponding polycyclic aromatic radical cations in the presence of AlCl3. The identification of observed two radicals 2,6-dimethylanthracene and 1,4,5,8-tetramethylanthracene were supported by density functional theory calculations using the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p)//B3LYP/6-31G(d) approach. The theoretical coupling constants support the experimental assignment of the observed radicals.

  3. Modeling the Role of Alkanes, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, and Their Oligomers in Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation

    EPA Science Inventory

    A computationally efficient method to treat secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from various length and structure alkanes as well as SOA from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is implemented in the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model to predict aerosol concentrations ...

  4. COMPUTATIONAL METHODS FOR STUDYING THE INTERACTION BETWEEN POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND BIOLOGICAL MACROMOLECULES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Computational Methods for Studying the Interaction between Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Biological Macromolecules .

    The mechanisms for the processes that result in significant biological activity of PAHs depend on the interaction of these molecules or their metabol...

  5. STUDIES ON BIOREMEDIATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON-CONTAMINATED SEDIMENTS: BIOAVAILABILITY, BIODEGRADABILITY, AND TOXICITY ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The widespread contamination of aquatic sediments by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has created a need for cost-effective bioremediation processes, on which the bioavailability and the toxicity of PAHs often have a significant impact. This research investigated the biode...

  6. Separation of {sup 32}P-postlabeled DNA adducts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by HPLC

    SciTech Connect

    King, L.C.; Gallagher, J.E.; Lewtas, J.; George, M.

    1994-07-01

    The {sup 32}P-postlabeling assay, thin-layer chromatography, and reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) were used to separate DNA adducts formed from 10 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 6 nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NO{sub 2}-PAHs). The PAHs included benzo[j]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, benzo[a]pyrene, chrysene, 6-methylchrysene, 5-methylchrysene, and benz[a]anthracene. The NO{sub 2}-PAHs included 1-nitropyrene, 2-nitrofluoranthene, 3-nitrofluoranthene, 1,6-dinitropyrene, 1,3-dinitropyrene, and 1,8-dinitropyrene. Separation of seven of the major PAH-DNA adducts was achieved by an initial PAH HPLC gradient system. The major NO{sub 2}-PAH-DNA adducts were not all separated from each other using the initial PAH HPLC gradient but were clearly separated from the PAH-DNA adducts. A second NO{sub 2}-PAH HPLC gradient system was developed to separate NO{sub 2}-PAH-DNA adducts following one-dimensional TLC and HPLC analysis. HPLC profiles of NO{sub 2}-PAH-DNA adducts were compared using both adduct enhancement versions of the {sup 32}P-postlabeling assay to evaluate the use of this technique on HPLC to screen for the presence of NO{sub 2}-PAH-DNA adducts. To demonstrate the application of these separation methods to a complex mixture of DNA adducts, the chromatographic mobilities of the {sup 32}P-postlabeled DNA adduct standards (PAHs and NO{sub 2}-PAHs) were compared with those produced by a complex mixture of polycyclic organic matter (POM) extracted from diesel emission particles. The diesel-derived adducts did not elute with the identical retention time of any of the PAH or NO{sub 2}-PAH standards used in this study. HPLC analyses of the NO{sub 2}-PAH-derived adducts (butanol extracted) revealed the presence of multiple DNA adducts.

  7. Iridium-catalyzed intermolecular dehydrogenative silylation of polycyclic aromatic compounds without directing groups.

    PubMed

    Murai, Masahito; Takami, Keishi; Takai, Kazuhiko

    2015-03-16

    This study describes the iridium-catalyzed intermolecular dehydrogenative silylation of C(sp(2))-H bonds of polycyclic aromatic compounds without directing groups. The reaction produced various arylsilanes through both Si-H and C-H bond activation, with hydrogen as the sole byproduct. Reactivity was affected by the electronic nature of the aromatic compounds, and silylation of electron-deficient and polycyclic aromatic compounds proceeded efficiently. Site-selectivity was controlled predominantly by steric factors. Therefore, the current functionalization proceeded with opposite chemo- and site-selectivity compared to that observed for general electrophilic functionalization of aromatic compounds.

  8. Non-linear, cata-Condensed, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Materials: A Generic Approach and Physical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Haire, Barnaby T; Heard, Kane W J; Little, Mark S; Parry, Adam V S; Raftery, James; Quayle, Peter; Yeates, Stephen G

    2015-01-01

    A generic approach to the regiospecific synthesis of halogenated polycyclic aromatics is made possible by the one- or two-directional benzannulation reactions of readily available (ortho-allylaryl)trichloroacetates (the “BHQ” reaction). Palladium-catalysed cross-coupling reactions of the so-formed haloaromatics enable the synthesis of functionalised polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with surgical precision. Overall, this new methodology enables the facile mining of chemical space in search of new electronic functional materials. PMID:26059760

  9. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor and outdoor air with chromatographic methods.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li-Zhong; Shen, Xueyou; Liu, Yong-Jian

    2003-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in indoor and outdoor air of four typical homes in Hangzhou, China were determined with a highly automated chromatographic method. The results indicated that the concentrations of the 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the indoor air were between 1.907 microg/m3 and 14.29 microg/m3, which were much higher than those in the corresponding outdoor air. Because of the popular use of mothball in wardrobes, naphthalene had the highest concentration in all the 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which was up to 13.17 microg/m3 and contributed 68% to the total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the room. In kitchen, because of the representative cooking method, there had much of three- and four-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The indoor smoking not only led to high concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the indoor air, but also contributed almost all the benzo(a)pyrene. Naphthalene, acenaphthene and pyrene were considered being generated by the indoor sources in all the four homes.

  10. Magnetic graphene oxide as adsorbent for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites in human urine.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Linli; Xu, Hui

    2014-09-01

    Detection of monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons metabolites in urine is an advisable and valid method to assess human environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In this work, novel Fe3O4/graphene oxide composites were prepared and their application in the magnetic solid-phase extraction of monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urine was investigated by coupling with liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. In the hybrid material, superparamagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles provide fast separation to simplify the analytical process and graphene oxide provides a large functional surface for the adsorption. The prepared magnetic nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and vibrating sample magnetometry. The experimental conditions were optimized systematically. Under the optimal conditions, the recoveries of these compounds were in the range of 98.3-125.2%, the relative standard deviations ranged between 6.8 and 15.5%, and the limits of detection were in the range of 0.01-0.15 ng/mL. The simple, quick, and affordable method was successfully used in the analysis of human urinary monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in two different cities. The results indicated that the monohydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons level in human urine can provide useful information for environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) formation from the pyrolysis of different municipal solid waste fractions

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Hui; Wu, Chunfei; Onwudili, Jude A.; Meng, Aihong; Zhang, Yanguo; Williams, Paul T.

    2015-02-15

    Highlights: • PAH from pyrolysis of 9 MSW fractions was investigated. • Pyrolysis of plastics released more PAH than that of biomass. • Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH in the tar. • The mechanism of PAH release from biomass and plastics was proposed. - Abstract: The formation of 2–4 ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from the pyrolysis of nine different municipal solid waste fractions (xylan, cellulose, lignin, pectin, starch, polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) were investigated in a fixed bed furnace at 800 °C. The mass distribution of pyrolysis was also reported. The results showed that PS generated the most total PAH, followed by PVC, PET, and lignin. More PAH were detected from the pyrolysis of plastics than the pyrolysis of biomass. In the biomass group, lignin generated more PAH than others. Naphthalene was the most abundant PAH, and the amount of 1-methynaphthalene and 2-methynaphthalene was also notable. Phenanthrene and fluorene were the most abundant 3-ring PAH, while benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene were notable in the tar of PS, PVC, and PET. 2-ring PAH dominated all tar samples, and varied from 40 wt.% to 70 wt.%. For PS, PET and lignin, PAH may be generated directly from the aromatic structure of the feedstock.

  12. Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from gasohol and ethanol vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Abrantes, Rui; Vicente de Assunção, João; Pesquero, Célia Regina; Bruns, Roy Edward; Nóbrega, Raimundo Paiva

    The exhaust emission of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) considered toxic to human health were investigated on two spark ignition light duty vehicles, one being gasohol (Gasohol, in Brazil, is the generic denomination for mixtures of pure gasoline plus 20-25% of anhydrous ethyl alcohol fuel (AEAF).)-fuelled and the other a flexible-fuel vehicle fuelled with hydrated ethanol. The influence of fuel type and quality, aged lubricant oil type and use of fuel additives on the formation of these compounds was tested using standardized tests identical to US FTP-75 cycle. PAH sampling and chemical analysis followed the basic recommendations of method TO-13 (United States. Environmental Protection Agency, 1999. Compendium Method TO-13A - Determination of polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in Ambient Air Using Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (CG/MS). Center for environmental research information, Cincinnati, p. 78), with the necessary modification for this particular application. Results showed that the total PAH emission factor varied from 41.9 μg km -1 to 612 μg km -1 in the gasohol vehicle, and from 11.7 μg km -1 to 27.4 μg km -1 in the ethanol-fuelled vehicle, a significant difference in favor of the ethanol vehicle. Generally, emission of light molecular weight PAHs was predominant, while high molecular weights PAHs were not detected. In terms of benzo( a)pyrene toxicity equivalence, emission factors varied from 0.00984 μg TEQ km -1 to 4.61 μg TEQ km -1 for the gasohol vehicle and from 0.0117 μg TEQ km -1 to 0.0218 μg TEQ km -1 in the ethanol vehicle. For the gasohol vehicle, results showed that the use of fuel additive causes a significant increase in the emission of naphthalene and phenanthrene at a confidence level of 90% or higher; the use of rubber solvent on gasohol showed a reduction in the emission of naphthalene and phenanthrene at the same confidence level; the use of synthetic oil instead of mineral oil also contributed

  13. Modeling the unidentified infrared emission with combinations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Allamandola, L J; Hudgins, D M; Sandford, S A

    1999-02-01

    The infrared emission band spectrum associated with many different interstellar objects can be modeled successfully by using combined laboratory spectra of neutral and positively charged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). These model spectra, shown here for the first time, alleviate the principal spectroscopic criticisms previously leveled at the PAH hypothesis and demonstrate that mixtures of free molecular PAHs can indeed account for the overall appearance of the widespread interstellar infrared emission spectrum. Furthermore, these models give us insight into the structures, stabilities, abundances, and ionization balance of the interstellar PAH population. These, in turn, reflect conditions in the emission zones and shed light on the microscopic processes involved in the carbon nucleation, growth, and evolution in circumstellar shells and the interstellar medium.

  14. Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust from the Tokyo Metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Takada, H; Onda, T; Harada, M; Ogura, N

    1991-09-01

    Molecular distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust samples collected from the Tokyo Metropolitan area were determined by capillary gas chromatography following HPLC fractionation. Three- to six-ring PAHs and sulfur-heterocyclics were detected. PAHs in the dusts were dominated by three and four unsubstituted ring systems with significant amounts of their alkyl homologues. PAHs were widely distributed in the streets, with concentrations (sigma COMB) of a few microgram/g dust. Automobile exhaust, asphalt, gasoline fuel, diesel fuel, tyre particles, automobile crankcase oils, and atmospheric fallout were also analysed. The PAH profile, especially the relative abundance of alkyl-PAHs and sulfur-containing heterocyclics, indicated that PAHs in the street dusts from roads carrying heavy traffic are mainly derived from automobile exhausts; dusts from residential areas have a more significant contribution from atmospheric fallout.

  15. Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the urban environment: Occurrence, toxicity and source apportionment.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Nitika; Ayoko, Godwin A; Morawska, Lidia

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) represent a major class of toxic pollutants because of their carcinogenic and mutagenic characteristics. People living in urban areas are regularly exposed to PAHs because of abundance of their emission sources. Within this context, this study aimed to: (i) identify and quantify the levels of ambient PAHs in an urban environment; (ii) evaluate their toxicity; and (iii) identify their sources as well as the contribution of specific sources to measured concentrations. Sixteen PAHs were identified and quantified in air samples collected from Brisbane. Principal Component Analysis - Absolute Principal Component Scores (PCA-APCS) was used in order to conduct source apportionment of the measured PAHs. Vehicular emissions, natural gas combustion, petrol emissions and evaporative/unburned fuel were the sources identified; contributing 56%, 21%, 15% and 8% of the total PAHs emissions, respectively, all of which need to be considered for any pollution control measures implemented in urban areas. PMID:26428471

  16. Regionalized concentrations and fingerprints of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in German forest soils.

    PubMed

    Aichner, Bernhard; Bussian, Bernd M; Lehnik-Habrink, Petra; Hein, Sebastian

    2015-08-01

    Samples of 474 forest stands in Germany were analysed for concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in three sampling depths. Enhanced concentrations were mainly found at spots relatively close to densely industrialized and urbanized regions and at some topographically elevated areas. Average enrichment factors between mineral soil and humic layer depend on humus type i.e. decrease from mull via moder to mor. Based on their compound-patterns, the observed samples could be assigned to three main clusters. For some parts of our study area a uniform assignment of samples to clusters over larger regions could be identified. For instance, samples taken at vicinity to brown-coal strip-mining districts are characterized by high relative abundances of low-molecular-weight PAHs. These results suggest that PAHs are more likely originated from local and regional emitters rather than from long-range transport and that specific source-regions can be identified based on PAH fingerprints. PMID:25863006

  17. Regionalized concentrations and fingerprints of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in German forest soils.

    PubMed

    Aichner, Bernhard; Bussian, Bernd M; Lehnik-Habrink, Petra; Hein, Sebastian

    2015-08-01

    Samples of 474 forest stands in Germany were analysed for concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in three sampling depths. Enhanced concentrations were mainly found at spots relatively close to densely industrialized and urbanized regions and at some topographically elevated areas. Average enrichment factors between mineral soil and humic layer depend on humus type i.e. decrease from mull via moder to mor. Based on their compound-patterns, the observed samples could be assigned to three main clusters. For some parts of our study area a uniform assignment of samples to clusters over larger regions could be identified. For instance, samples taken at vicinity to brown-coal strip-mining districts are characterized by high relative abundances of low-molecular-weight PAHs. These results suggest that PAHs are more likely originated from local and regional emitters rather than from long-range transport and that specific source-regions can be identified based on PAH fingerprints.

  18. Distribution and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust from the Tokyo Metropolitan area.

    PubMed

    Takada, H; Onda, T; Harada, M; Ogura, N

    1991-09-01

    Molecular distributions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in street dust samples collected from the Tokyo Metropolitan area were determined by capillary gas chromatography following HPLC fractionation. Three- to six-ring PAHs and sulfur-heterocyclics were detected. PAHs in the dusts were dominated by three and four unsubstituted ring systems with significant amounts of their alkyl homologues. PAHs were widely distributed in the streets, with concentrations (sigma COMB) of a few microgram/g dust. Automobile exhaust, asphalt, gasoline fuel, diesel fuel, tyre particles, automobile crankcase oils, and atmospheric fallout were also analysed. The PAH profile, especially the relative abundance of alkyl-PAHs and sulfur-containing heterocyclics, indicated that PAHs in the street dusts from roads carrying heavy traffic are mainly derived from automobile exhausts; dusts from residential areas have a more significant contribution from atmospheric fallout. PMID:1785054

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from joss paper furnaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Jung, Ray-Chen; Wang, Ya-Fen; Hsieh, Lien-Te

    The emissions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were quantified for two joss paper furnaces burning two kinds of joss papers (recycled paper made and virgin bamboo made). A cyclone and a wet scrubber were installed in series on one of the two furnaces. Particulate and gaseous PAHs were collected with a sampling system meeting the criteria of U.S. EPA Modified Method 5. Twenty-one species of PAH were analyzed by GC/MS. Individual PAH emission factors vary from less than 1 mg kg -1 fuel to several tens of mg kg -1 fuel. The total (sum of 21 compounds) and the carcinogenic PAH (benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, indeno[1,2,3,-cd]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene) emission factors were not statistically different for the two furnaces and averaged 71.0 and 3.2 mg kg -1, respectively. The PAH profiles showed a predominance of naphthalene (58.1%), phenanthrene (11.7%) and fluorene (7.5%). Of the two joss papers examined, bamboo-made joss paper showed less emission in both particulate and gaseous PAHs. For particulate and gaseous PAHs, the removal efficiencies of total PAHs by the air pollution control devices were 42.5% and 11.7%, respectively. PAH emission factors in high airflow conditions were generally lower than those in low airflow condition.

  20. Uptake, translocation, and accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in vegetation

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, B.T. ); Hoylman, A.M. )

    1992-12-01

    A review of the scientific literature was conducted to determine the potential for plants to take up polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soils and the possibility of PAH movement from soils into vegetation at waste disposal sites associated with manufactured gas plants (MGP). Studies published since 1983 are considered in conjunction with previous publications and literature reviews on PAH uptake by vegetation. These studies indicate that the extent to which sorption to roots occurs is likely to be influenced by species-specific properties of the plant, physicochemical properties of each PAH, soil properties, and biodegradation rates of the PAHs in soil. PAHs containing five or more rings may sorb to plant roots but are not expected to be translocated to foliage in other than trace quantities. Uptake of naphthalene, anthracene, and benzo[a]anthracene by roots has been reported in the literature. In addition, eight PAHs of three and four rings (acenapthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, and chrysene) were isolated from leaves and roots of four plant species collected near a coal tar disposal trench in eastern Tennessee. A total concentration of 5519 ng/g was observed for the eight PAHs in roots of lamb's quarters. Coal tar, in soil, was implicated as the source of PAHs in the four plant species.

  1. Concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by chemically modified silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanovskaya, G. I.; Olenin, A. Yu.; Vasil'Eva, S. Yu.

    2011-02-01

    The ability of silver nanoparticles stabilized by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) to concentrate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from aqueous solutions was shown. It was found that fixed PAH molecules are capable of acting as electronic energy donors and of generating sensibilized fluorescence of silver nanoparticles. It was shown by spectral-luminescent investigations of dilute PAH solutions (5 × 10-10-1 × 10-6 g/ml) in the presence of silver nanoparticles (˜0.7 vol %) that the concentration of PAH molecules from solutions occurs due to its sorption on hydrocarbon CTAB radicals in close contact to the surface of metallic silver. On the basis of the spectral data, the sorption isotherms were obtained and the values of extraction degree and partition coefficients for naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, chrysene, pyrene, and 3,4-benzopyrene were calculated. It was found that the degree of extraction values of the investigated PAHs fall within the range of 73-98%, the partition coefficients (log D) ˜ 6, and the concentration coefficients ˜105.

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon adsorption on selected solid particulate matter fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bozek, Frantisek; Huzlik, Jiri; Pawelczyk, Adam; Hoza, Ignac; Naplavova, Magdalena; Jedlicka, Jiri

    2016-02-01

    This article is directed to evaluating the proportion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) captured on particulate matter (PM) classified as PM2.5-10 and PM2.5, i.e. particulate matter of aerodynamic diameter 2.5-10 μm and 2.5 μm. During three week-long and one 2-day campaigns, 22 paired air samples were taken in parallel of PM10 and PM2.5 fractions inside the Mrázovka tunnel in Prague, Czech Republic. Following sample preparation, concentrations of individual PAHs were determined using gas chromatography combined with mass spectrometry. Concentrations of individual pairs of each PAH were tested by the nonparametric method using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. At significance level p < 0.01, it was demonstrated that all individual PAHs, including their totals, were bound to the PM2.5 fraction. Exceptions were seen in the cases of acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, the concentrations of which fluctuated around the detection limit, where increased measurement error can be expected.

  3. Determinants of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon levels in house dust

    PubMed Central

    WHITEHEAD, TODD; METAYER, CATHERINE; GUNIER, ROBERT B.; WARD, MARY H.; NISHIOKA, MARCIA G.; BUFFLER, PATRICIA; RAPPAPORT, STEPHEN M.

    2010-01-01

    Estimation of human exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is often desired for the epidemiological studies of cancer. One way to obtain information about indoor levels of PAHs is to measure these chemicals in house dust. In this study, we evaluated the predictive value of self-reported and geographic data for estimating measured levels of nine PAHs in house dust from 583 households in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study (NCCLS). Using multivariable linear regression models, we evaluated the effects on house-dust PAH concentrations from the following covariates: residential heating sources, smoking habits, house characteristics, and outdoor emission sources. House dust was collected from 2001 to 2007, usingboth high-volume surface samplers and household vacuum cleaners, and was analyzed for nine PAHs using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All nine PAHs were detected in more than 93% of dust samples, with median concentrations ranging from 14 to 94 ng/g dust. Statistically significant effects on PAH concentrations in house dust were found for gas heating, outdoor PAH concentrations, and residence age. Yet, the optimal regression model only explained 15% of the variation in PAH levels in house dust. As self-reported data and outdoor PAH sources were only marginally predictive of observed PAH levels, we recommend that PAH concentrations be measured directly in dust samples for use in epidemiological studies. PMID:20040932

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and pesticides in milk powder.

    PubMed

    Dobrinas, Simona; Soceanu, Alina; Popescu, Viorica; Coatu, Valentina

    2016-05-01

    This Research Communication reports analysis of 37 compounds comprising polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides (OCPS and OPPS) in milk powder (one brand each of commercial infant formulae, follow-on formulae and baby formulae purchased from a local supermarket in Romania). The selected analytes were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), gas chromatography with electron capture detector (GC-ECD) and gas chromatography with thermionic sensitive detection (GC-TSD). The estimated limits of detection for most target analytes were in the μg/kg level (range 0·001-0·320 µg/kg). The purpose of the study was to determine the selected analytes, to assess the exposure of babies and infants and to produce data for comparison with tolerable limits according to the European Union Regulations. In most of the samples the organochlorine pesticides values were under the limit of detection. Exceptions were heptachlor epoxide and endosulfan sulphate, the last of which was found in all analysed samples at low concentrations. We also found detectable levels of ethoprophos, parathion-methyl, chlorpyrifos, prothiofos, guthion, disulfoton and fenchlorphos in most of the analysed samples. Benzo[a]pyrene, which is used as an indicator for the presence of PAHs, was not detected in selected samples. The low level of exposure to contaminants indicates that there are no health risks for the infants and babies that consume this brand of milk powder formulae. PMID:27210498

  5. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coke plant wastewater.

    PubMed

    Burmistrz, Piotr; Burmistrz, Michał

    2013-01-01

    The subject of examinations presented in this paper is the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) between solid and liquid phases in samples of raw wastewater and wastewater after treatment. The content of 16 PAHs according to the US EPA was determined in the samples of coke plant wastewater from the Zdzieszowice Coke Plant, Poland. The samples contained raw wastewater, wastewater after physico-chemical treatment as well as after biological treatment. The ΣPHA16 content varied between 255.050 μg L(-1) and 311.907 μg L(-1) in raw wastewater and between 0.940 and 4.465 μg L(-1) in wastewater after full treatment. Investigation of the distribution of PAHs showed that 71-84% of these compounds is adsorbed on the surface of suspended solids and 16-29% is dissolved in water. Distribution of individual PAHs and ΣPHA16 between solid phase and liquid phase was described with the use of statistically significant, linear equations. The calculated values of the partitioning coefficient Kp changed from 0.99 to 7.90 for naphthalene in samples containing mineral-organic suspension and acenaphthylene in samples with biological activated sludge, respectively.

  6. Diversity of metabolic capacities among strains degrading polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchez, M.; Besnaienou, B.; Blanchet, D.; Vandecasteele, J.P.

    1995-12-31

    Strains of Pseudomonas and Rhodococcus genera were isolated for their capacity to use, as a sole carbon and energy source, one of the following polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): naphthalene (NAP), fluorene (FLU), phenanthrene (PHE), anthracene (ANT), fluoranthene (FLT), and pyrene (PYR). The range of PAHs supporting growth of these pure strains was usually restricted, but several other hydrocarbons were used by Rhodococcus sp. All strains could grow on simple organic acids. Maximal specific growth rates ({mu}{sub max}) of all strains on their PAH growth substrates were determined by respirometry. No clear relationships between {mu}{sub max} values and the molecular weight or water solubility of PAHs were apparent, but Pseudomonas sp. exhibited the highest {mu}{sub max} values. Carbon balances for PAH biodegradation were established. Differences between strains were observed, but high mineralization rates and low production of soluble metabolites were obtained for all PAHs. Bacterial biomass represented 16% to 35% of the carbon consumed. Strain diversity was also apparent in the interactions observed in the degradation of a mixture of two PAHs by individual strains, which often involved inhibition of PAH substrate degradation, with or without cometabolization of the second PAH.

  7. Vibrational spectroscopic study of vinyl substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Maurya, Anju; Rastogi, Shantanu

    2015-12-01

    The mid infrared emission features observed in various astrophysical sources are attributed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. The models of emission spectra from a collection of PAHs show uncertainty in matching the 6.2 μm feature. This indicates the need to consider a larger variety of PAHs and PAH derivatives. Chemical pathways towards formation of PAHs in the astrophysical environments involve vinyl substituted PAHs as intermediate products. Vibrational spectroscopic study of vinyl-PAHs is reported in the present work. The vinyl group is substituted at similar positions in eight different PAHs. The obtained optimized structures show that vinyl substitution at 2 position in acenes gives planar geometry, while all other vinyl-PAHs are non-planar. Infrared spectra is simulated for neutrals as well as for cations. The results are compared with the spectra of corresponding plain PAHs and analyzed for possible match with astrophysical observations. New features, due to vinyl group in the composite spectra, identified at 6.64, 6.92, 7.27, 8.77 and 10.35 μm fall close to some sub features of the observed emission spectra. The paper provides data that may be used in the emission models particularly along proto planetary nebulae type cool objects. PMID:26117194

  8. DUSTY WINDS: EXTRAPLANAR POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON FEATURES OF NEARBY GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, Alexander; Veilleux, Sylvain; Rupke, David S. N. E-mail: veilleux@astro.umd.edu

    2013-09-10

    Recent observations have shown the presence of dust and molecular material in galactic winds, but relatively little is known about the distribution of these outflow components. To shed some light on this issue, we have used IRAC images from the Spitzer Space Telescope archive to investigate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission from a sample of 16 local galaxies with known winds. Our focus on nearby sources (median distance 8.6 Mpc) has revealed detailed PAH structure in the winds and allowed us to measure extraplanar PAH emission. We have identified extraplanar PAH features on scales of {approx}0.8-6.0 kpc. We find a nearly linear correlation between the amount of extraplanar PAH emission and the total infrared flux, a proxy for star formation activity in the disk. Our results also indicate a correlation between the height of extraplanar PAH emission and star formation rate surface density, which supports the idea of a surface density threshold on the energy or momentum injection rate for producing detectable extraplanar wind material.

  9. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Italian preserved food products in oil.

    PubMed

    Sannino, Anna

    2016-06-01

    A method based on gas chromatography/ tandem mass spectrometry was used to assess levels of 16 EU priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in 48 preserved food products in oil including foods such as vegetables in oil, fish in oil and oil-based sauces obtained from the Italian market. The benzo[a]pyrene concentrations ranged from <0.04 to 0.40 µg kg(-1), and 72.9% of the samples showed detectable levels of this compound. The highest contamination level was observed for chrysene with three additional PAHs (benzo[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[c]fluorene) giving mean values higher than the mean value for benzo[a]pyrene. Chrysene was detected in all the samples at concentrations ranging from 0.07 to 1.80 µg kg(-1) (median 0.31 µg kg(-1)). The contamination expressed as PAH4 (sum of benzo(a)pyrene, chrysene, benzo(a)anthracene and benzo(b)fluoranthene), for which the maximum tolerable limit has been set by Commission Regulation (EU) No. 835/2011, varied between 0.10 and 2.94 µg kg(-1). PMID:26886159

  10. Fullerenes, fulleranes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Allende meteorite.

    PubMed

    Becker, L; Bunch, T E

    1997-07-01

    In this paper, we confirm our earlier observations of fullerenes (C60 and C70) in the Allende meteorite (Becker et al., 1994a, 1995). Fullerene C60 was also detected in two separate C-rich (approximately 0.5-1.0%) dark inclusions (Heymann et al., 1987) that were hand picked from the Allende sample. The amounts of C60 detected were approximately 5 and approximately 10 ppb, respectively, which is considerably less than what was detected in the Allende 15/21 sample (approximately 100 ppb; Becker et al., 1994a, 1995). This suggests that fullerenes are heterogeneously distributed in the meteorite. In addition, we present evidence for fulleranes, (C60Hx), detected in separate samples by laser desorption (reflectron) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (LDMS). The LDMS spectra for the Allende extracts were remarkably similar to the spectra generated for the synthetic fullerane mixtures. Several fullerane products were synthesized using a Rh catalyst (Becker et al., 1993a) and separated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were also observed ppm levels) that included benzofluoranthene and corannulene, a cup-shaped molecule that has been proposed as a precursor molecule to the formation of fullerenes in the gas phase (Pope et al., 1993).

  11. Fullerenes, fulleranes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Allende meteorite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, L.; Bunch, T. E.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we confirm our earlier observations of fullerenes (C60 and C70) in the Allende meteorite (Becker et al., 1994a, 1995). Fullerene C60 was also detected in two separate C-rich (approximately 0.5-1.0%) dark inclusions (Heymann et al., 1987) that were hand picked from the Allende sample. The amounts of C60 detected were approximately 5 and approximately 10 ppb, respectively, which is considerably less than what was detected in the Allende 15/21 sample (approximately 100 ppb; Becker et al., 1994a, 1995). This suggests that fullerenes are heterogeneously distributed in the meteorite. In addition, we present evidence for fulleranes, (C60Hx), detected in separate samples by laser desorption (reflectron) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (LDMS). The LDMS spectra for the Allende extracts were remarkably similar to the spectra generated for the synthetic fullerane mixtures. Several fullerane products were synthesized using a Rh catalyst (Becker et al., 1993a) and separated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were also observed ppm levels) that included benzofluoranthene and corannulene, a cup-shaped molecule that has been proposed as a precursor molecule to the formation of fullerenes in the gas phase (Pope et al., 1993).

  12. Photoinduced toxicity of sediment-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, B.M.; Duxbury, C.L.; Marwood, C.A.; Huang, X.D.; Dixon, D.G.

    1994-12-31

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known to be both mutagenic and toxic. Light, in particular UV irradiation, increases their toxicity. Since aquatic plants cannot avoid PAHs or light, they are at risk. However, the major loadings of PAHs are in sediment. In this study the authors examined the assimilation of both intact and photomodified labelled PAHs bound to a surrogate, sediment (sand) by the higher aquatic plant Lemna gibba L. G-3. They found that simulated solar radiation significantly promoted the release of PAHs from sand and their assimilation by Lemna, although assimilation from the solid phase was slower than for chemicals placed directly into the aqueous medium. Toxicity of PAHs bound to sand was then measured by exposing plants to the sand-chemical composite for 8 d. Plants were exposed to both visible and SSR light conditions during this period, and toxicity was measured as inhibition of growth, inhibition of photosynthesis (chlorophyll fluorescence induction) and chlorosis. All three endpoints indicated that PAHs bound to a sediment phase can express phototoxicity and that the effects are most strongly promoted by the UV region of the solar spectrum. The authors have now extended this work to probe the effects of UV-B and PAHs on chloroplast development, with the finding that both stresses inhibit development of the photosynthetic apparatus.

  13. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) removal by sorption: A review.

    PubMed

    Lamichhane, Shanti; Bal Krishna, K C; Sarukkalige, Ranjan

    2016-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are organic micro pollutants which are persistent compounds in the environment due to their hydrophobic nature. Concerns over their adverse effects in human health and environment have resulted in extensive studies on various types of PAHs removal methods. Sorption is one of the widely used methods as PAHs possess a great sorptive ability into the solid media and their low aqueous solubility property. Several adsorbent media such as activated carbon, biochar, modified clay minerals have been largely used to remove PAHs from aqueous solution and to immobilise PAHs in the contaminated soils. According to the past studies, very high removal efficiency could be achieved using the adsorbents such as removal efficiency of activated carbon, biochar and modified clay mineral were 100%, 98.6% and >99%, respectively. PAHs removal efficiency or adsorption/absorption capacity largely depends on several parameters such as particle size of the adsorbent, pH, temperature, solubility, salinity including the production process of adsorbents. Although many studies have been carried out to remove PAHs using the sorption process, the findings have not been consolidated which potentially hinder to get the correct information for future study and to design the sorption method to remove PAHs. Therefore, this paper summarized the adsorbent media which have been used to remove PAHs especially from aqueous solutions including the factor affecting the sorption process reported in 142 literature published between 1934 and 2015. PMID:26820781

  14. Particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations in transportation microenvironments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houston, Douglas; Wu, Jun; Yang, Dongwoo; Jaimes, Guillermo

    2013-06-01

    This study is one of the first case studies to characterize the exposure of urban residents to traffic-related air pollution across locations and transportation microenvironments during everyday activities. Twenty-four adult residents of Boyle Heights, a neighborhood near downtown Los Angeles, carried a portable air pollution monitor and a Global Positioning Systems (GPS) tracking device for a total of 96 days. We found significant spatial and temporal variation in the particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (pPAH) concentrations in transportation microenvironments. Average pPAH concentrations were higher while walking outdoors (190 ng m-3) compared to traveling in private passenger vehicles (138-155 ng m-3) or traveling in public transportation (61-124 ng m-3). Although travel comprised 5% of participant days, it was associated with 27% of overall daily pPAH exposure. Regression models explained 40-55% of the variation in daily average pPAH concentrations, and 40-44% of the variation in 1-min interval concentrations. Important factors included time spent traveling, travel speed, meteorological and nearby land use factors, time of day, and proximity to roadways. Although future research is needed to develop stronger predictive models, our study demonstrates portable tracking devices can provide a more complete, diurnal characterization of air pollution exposures for urban populations.

  15. Magnetic Beads-based Bioelectrochemical Immunoassay of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Ying-Ying; Liu, Guodong; Wai, Chien M.; Lin, Yuehe

    2007-07-01

    A simple, rapid, and sensitive bioelectrochemical immunoassay method based on magnetic beads (MBs) has been developed to detect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The principle of this bioassay is based on a direct competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using PAH-antibody-coated MBs and horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-labeled PAH (HRP-PAH). A magnetic process platform was used to mix and shake the samples during the immunoreactions and to separate free and unbound reagents after the liquid-phase competitive immunoreaction among PAH-antibody-coated MBs, PAH analyte, and HRP-PAH. After a complete immunoassay, the HRP tracers attached to MBs were transferred to a substrate solution containing 3, 3´, 5, 5´- tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) for electrochemical detection. The voltammetric characteristics of the substrate were investigated, and the reduction peak current of TMB was used to quantify the concentration of PAH. The different parameters, including the amount of HRP-PAH conjugates, the enzyme catalytic reaction time, and the pH of the supporting electrolyte that governs the analytical performance of the immunoassay have been studied in detail and optimized. The detection limit of 50 pg mL-1 was obtained under optimum experimental conditions. The performance of this bioelectrochemical magnetic immunoassay was successfully evaluated with tap water spiked with PAHs, indicating that this convenient and sensitive technique offers great promise for decentralized environmental applications.

  16. Anharmonicity and infrared bands of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrignani, Annemieke; Maltseva, Elena; Candian, Alessandra; Mackie, Cameron; Huang, Xinchuan; Lee, Timothy J.; Tielens, Alexander; Oomens, Jos; Buma, Wybren Jan

    2015-08-01

    We present a systematic laboratory study of the CH stretching region in Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules of different shapes and sizes to investigate anharmonic behaviour and address the reliability of the never-validated but universally accepted scaling factors employed in astronomical PAH models. At the same time, new anharmonic theoretical quantum chemistry studies have been performed with the software program Spectro using our experimental data as benchmark. We performed mass and conformational-resolved, high-resolution spectroscopy of cold (~10K) linear and compact PAH molecules starting with naphthalene (C10H8) in the 3-µm CH stretching region. Surprisingly, the measured infrared spectra show many more strong modes than expected. Measurements of the deuterated counterparts demonstrate that these bands are the result of Fermi Resonances. First comparisons with harmonic and anharmonic DFT calculations using Gaussian 09 show that both approximations are not able to reproduce in detail the observed molecular reality. The improved anharmonic calculations performed with Spectro now include the effects of Fermi resonances and have been applied to PAHs for the first time. The analysis of the experimental data is greatly aided by these new theoretical quantum chemistry studies. Preliminary assignments are presented, aided by comparison between the observed rotational contour and the symmetry of candidate bands.

  17. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and fatal ischemic heart disease

    SciTech Connect

    Burstyn, I.; Kromhout, H.; Partanen, T.; Svane, O.; Langard, S.; Ahrens, W.; Kauppinen, T.; Stucker, I.; Shaham, J.; Heederik, D.; Ferro, G.; Heikkila, P.; Hooiveld, M.; Johansen, C.; Randem, B.G.; Boffetta, P.

    2005-11-01

    Several toxicologic and epidemiologic studies have produced evidence that occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) is a risk factor for ischemic heart disease (IHD). However, a clear exposure-response relation has not been demonstrated. We studied a relation between exposure to PAH and mortality from IHD (418 cases) in a cohort of 12,367 male asphalt workers from Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Israel, The Netherlands and Norway. Exposures to benzo(a)pyrene were assessed quantitatively using measurement-driven exposure models. Exposure to coal tar was assessed in a semiquantitative manner on the basis of information supplied by company representatives. We carried out sensitivity analyses to assess potential confounding by tobacco smoking. Both cumulative and average exposure indices for benzo(a)pyrene were positively associated with mortality from IHD. The highest relative risk for fatal IHD was observed for average benzo(a)pyrene exposures of 273 ng/m{sup 3} or higher, for which the relative risk was 1.64(95% confidence interval = 1.13-2.38). Similar results were obtained for coal tar exposure. Sensitivity analysis indicated that even in a realistic scenario of confounding by smoking, we would observe approximately 20% to 40% excess risk in IHD in the highest PAH-exposure categories. Our results lend support to the hypothesis that occupational PAH exposure causes fatal IHD and demonstrate a consistent exposure-response relation for this association.

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon biodegradation by a mixed bacterial culture

    SciTech Connect

    Dreyer, G.; Koenig, J.; Ringpfeil, M.

    1995-12-31

    Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are a complex mixture of organic compounds, was demonstrated using a bacterial mixed culture selected from a contaminated site by the BIOPRACT GmbH. The investigations were carried out in a laboratory fermenter using emulsified tar oil as the substrate to determine the following: (1) concentration of the single PAH and of the sum of PAHs relative to fermentation time, (2) carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and oxygen (O{sub 2}) content in the outflowing air during fermentation, (3) chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the broth, and (4) toxicity of the broth before and after fermentation according to the bioluminescence test (DIN 38412, part 34/1). The results of this model experiment indicated that the investigated mixed culture is able to effectively metabolize the PAHs contained in tar oil, including the higher condensed compounds such as benzo(a)pyrene. In the first 8 days of fermentation, the PAH sum decreased to below 5% of the starting concentration connected with a five-fold reduction of the toxic effect on Vibrio fischeri. The PAH degradation rate correlated with the rate of COD decrease, the rate of evolving CO{sub 2}, and the consumption of O{sub 2}.

  19. Generation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during woodworking operations.

    PubMed

    Bruschweiler, Evin D; Danuser, Brigitta; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Wild, Pascal; Schupfer, Patrick; Vernez, David; Boiteux, Philippe; Hopf, Nancy B

    2012-01-01

    Occupational exposures to wood dust have been associated with an elevated risk of sinonasal cancer (SNC). Wood dust is recognized as a human carcinogen but the specific cancer causative agent remains unknown. One possible explanation is a co-exposure to; wood dust and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs could be generated during incomplete combustion of wood due to heat created by use of power tools. To determine if PAHs are generated from wood during common wood working operations, PAH concentrations in wood dust samples collected in an experimental chamber operated under controlled conditions were analyzed. In addition, personal air samples from workers exposed to wood dust (n = 30) were collected. Wood dust was generated using three different power tools: vibrating sander, belt sander, and saw; and six wood materials: fir, Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF), beech, mahogany, oak and wood melamine. Monitoring of wood workers was carried out by means of personal sampler device during wood working operations. We measured 21 PAH concentrations in wood dust samples by capillary gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Total PAH concentrations in wood dust varied greatly (0.24-7.95 ppm) with the lowest being in MDF dust and the highest in wood melamine dust. Personal PAH exposures were between 37.5-119.8 ng m(-3) during wood working operations. Our results suggest that PAH exposures are present during woodworking operations and hence could play a role in the mechanism of cancer induction related to wood dust exposure.

  20. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in road dust over Greater Cairo, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Hassanien, Mahmoud A; Abdel-Latif, Nasser M

    2008-02-28

    Road dust samples were collected during 2005 and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined. Sites under investigation were selected to represent the different parts of Greater Cairo, Egypt. Estimation and spatial distribution pattern of PAHs in road dust were the main objectives of this study. The road dust samples were collected from 17 sites over greater Cairo. The concentration of PAHs was determined by using HPLC technique. Twelve common environmental PAHs were found to be distributed. The present data illustrated that the total average of PAHs over the investigated sites was ranged from 0.045 to 2.6 mg/kg. On individual scale, the highest concentrations were 1.031 and 1.028 mg/kg for pyrene and phenanthrene, meanwhile the lowest was benzo(a)pyrene with value 0.0001 mg/kg. The obtained results showed that the carcinogenic content of PAHs (naphthalene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene) ranged from 0.8 to 46.6% of total PAHs. It has been concluded from the present work that PAHs concentrations are greater and closer to traffic routes and industrial activities.

  1. Bioaccessibility of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: relevance to toxicity and carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Kelly L; Banks, Leah D; Mantey, Jane A; Huderson, Ashley C; Ramesh, Aramandla

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Bioaccessibility is a growing area of research in the field of risk assessment. As polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous environmental pollutants, they are the toxicants of focus to establish cancer risks in humans. Orally ingested PAHs also cause toxicity and even affect the pharmacokinetic behavior of some therapeutic agents. Toward this end, bioaccessibility is being used as a tool to assess the risk of PAHs via dietary exposures. Areas covered This review covers some in vitro bioaccessibility models for PAHs that have been used for the past one-and-a-half decade. This review also considers the factors that influence bioaccessibility and debates the merits and limitations of using a bioaccessibility concept for estimating risk from ingestion of PAH-contaminated soil and food. Finally, the authors discuss the implications of bioaccessibility for PAH-induced toxicity and cancers in the context of risk assessment. Expert opinion So far, much of the focus on PAH bioaccessibility is centered on soil as a preferential matrix. However, ingestion of PAHs through diet far exceeds the amount accidentally ingested through soil. Therefore, bioaccessibility could be exploited as a tool to assess the relative risk of various dietary ingredients tainted with PAHs. While bioaccessibility is a promising approach for assessing PAH risk arising from various types of contaminated soils, none of the models proposed appears to be valid. Bioaccessibility values, derived from in vitro studies, still require validation from in vivo studies. PMID:23898780

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in household dust near diesel transport routes.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chung-Yih; Chen, Heng-Chun; Cheng, Fang-Ching; Huang, Li-Ru; Chien, Po-Shan; Wang, Jing-Ya

    2012-02-01

    A river-dredging project has been undertaken in Nantou, Taiwan. A large number of diesel vehicles carrying gravel and sand shuttle back and forth on the main roads. Ten stations along major thoroughfares were selected as the exposure sites for testing, while a small village located about 9 km from a main traffic route was selected as the control site. Levels of household dust loading at the exposure sites (60.3 mg/m(2)) were significantly higher than those at the control site (38.2 mg/m(2)). The loading (μg/m(2)) of t-PAHs (total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the household dust at the exposure sites was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than was the case at the control site. The diagnostic ratios of PAHs showed that diesel emissions were the dominant source of PAHs at the exposure sites. The lack of a significant correlation between the concentrations of Fe and t-PAHs suggested that the t-PAHs in household dust might come from diverse sources. However, a significant correlation (P = 0.003) between the concentrations of Mo and t-PAHs implied that the most of the t-PAHs in the household dust might have resulted from diesel emissions. The lifetime cancer risks of BaP(eq) from household dust exposure were markedly higher than those resulting from inhalation exposure.

  3. Coarse-graining the structure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons clusters.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Rojas, J; Calvo, F; Wales, D J

    2016-05-18

    Clusters of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are essential components of soot and may concentrate a significant fraction of carbon matter in the interstellar medium. In this contribution, coarse-grained potentials are parameterized using all-atom reference data to model PAH molecules, such as coronene (C24H12) or circumcoronene (C54H18), and their aggregates. Low-energy structures of pure coronene or circumcoronene clusters obtained using basin-hopping global optimization are found to agree with atomistic results, and consist of finite 1D columnar motifs, sometimes juxtaposed in larger clusters. The structures are only weakly perturbed when quadrupolar interactions are included. π-Stacking also dominates in binary coronene/circumcoronene aggregates, although intriguing motifs are predicted in which one or more molecules are sandwiched between the other PAH species. The coarse-grained model is also extended to account for interaction with a flat graphitic substrate. In this case, binding is stronger with the substrate than with other molecules, and the PAHs are predicted to arrange into a flat triangular monolayer. PMID:27055581

  4. Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in rhizosphere soil

    SciTech Connect

    Schwab, A.P.; Banks, M.K.; Arunachalam, M.

    1995-12-31

    Increased contaminant biodegradation in soil in the presence of plants has been demonstrated for several classes of organic compounds. Although enhanced dissipation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was observed previously in the rhizosphere of several plant species, the mechanism of this effect has not been assessed. A laboratory experiment was conducted to test the importance of cometabolism and the presence of common rhizosphere organic acids on the loss of PAHs (pyrene and phenanthrene) from soil. The role of cometabolism in the mineralization of pyrene was tested by observing the impact of adding phenanthrene to soil containing {sup 14}C-pyrene and observing the effects on {sup 14}CO{sub 2} generation. Adding phenanthrene apparently induced cometabolism of pyrene, particularly in the presence of organic acids. In a subsequent experiment, mineralization of pyrene to {sup 14}CO{sub 2} was significantly greater in soil from the rhizospheres of warm-season grasses, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) and bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon L.), compared to soil from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), which did not differ from sterilized control soil. A highly branched, fine root system appears to be more effective in enhancing biodegradation than taproots, and the presence of organic acids increases rates of PAH mineralization.

  5. Atmospheric transport and outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from China

    SciTech Connect

    Chang Lang; Shu Tao; Wenxin Liu; Yanxu Zhang; Staci Simonich

    2008-07-15

    A potential receptor influence function (PRIF) model, based on air mass forward trajectory calculations, was applied to simulate the atmospheric transport and outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from China. With a 10 day atmospheric transport time, most neighboring countries and regions, as well as remote regions, were influenced by PAH emissions from China. Of the total annual PAH emission of 114 Gg, 92.7% remained within the boundary of mainland China. The geographic distribution of PRIFs within China was similar to the geographic distribution of the source regions, with high values in the North China Plain, Sichuan Basin, Shanxi, and Guizhou province. The Tarim basin and Sichuan basin had unfavorable meteorological conditions for PAH outflow. Of the PAH outflow from China (8092 tons or 7.1% of the total annual PAH emission), approximately 69.9% (5655 tons) reached no further than the offshore environment of mainland China and the South China Sea. Approximate 227, 71, 746, and 131 tons PAHs reached North Korea, South Korea, Russia-Mongolia region, and Japan, respectively, 2-4 days after the emission. Only 1.4 tons PAHs reached North America after more than 9 days. Interannual variation in the eastward PAH outflow was positively correlated to cold episodes of El Nino/Southern Oscillation. However, trans-Pacific atmospheric transport of PAHs from China was correlated to Pacific North America index (PNA) which is associated with the strength and position of westerly winds. 38 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Atmospheric transport and outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from China.

    PubMed

    Lang, Chang; Tao, Shu; Liu, Wenxin; Zhang, Yanxu; Simonich, Staci

    2008-07-15

    A potential receptor influence function (PRIF) model, based on air mass forward trajectory calculations, was applied to simulate the atmospheric transport and outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from China. With a 10 day atmospheric transport time, most neighboring countries and regions, as well as remote regions, were influenced by PAH emissions from China. Of the total annual PAH emission of 114 Gg, 92.7% remained within the boundary of mainland China. The geographic distribution of PRIFs within China was similar to the geographic distribution of the source regions, with high values in the North China Plain, Sichuan Basin, Shanxi, and Guizhou province. The Tarim basin and Sichuan basin had unfavorable meteorological conditions for PAH outflow. Of the PAH outflow from China (8092 tons or 7.1% of the total annual PAH emission), approximately 69.9% (5655 tons) reached no further than the offshore environment of mainland China and the South China Sea. Approximate 227, 71, 746, and 131 tons PAHs reached North Korea, South Korea, Russia-Mongolia region, and Japan, respectively, 2-4 days after the emission. Only 1.4 tons PAHs reached North America after more than 9 days. Interannual variation in the eastward PAH outflow was positively correlated to cold episodes of El Niño/Southern Oscillation. However, trans-Pacific atmospheric transport of PAHs from China was correlated to Pacific North America index (PNA) which is associated with the strength and position of westerly winds.

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons incidence in Portuguese traditional smoked meat products.

    PubMed

    Santos, C; Gomes, A; Roseiro, L C

    2011-09-01

    Meat and meat products safety is, nowadays, a priority quality requirement with chemical hazards having a great impact. Amongst the residues and contaminants, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be of particular concern, namely in those products having direct smoking during processing. In order to investigate the contamination levels in traditional dry fermented sausages manufactured in Alentejo (South of Portugal), 66 samples were collected from regional producers. PAH8 represented less than 0.5% of the total contamination profile, with benzo[a]anthracene and chrysene being the most concentrated compounds (maximum contents of 7.53 and 8.9 μgkg(-1)), irrespective of the product type analysed. Benzo[a]pyrene content varied between 0.21 and 1.00 μgkg(-1), with only one sample showing this maximum content. Blood sausages were potentially more risky, since total PAH8 contents were generally higher and because its presence in inner parts were significantly superior than that found in casings, comparatively to meat counterparts, which expressed superior benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalents.

  8. Plant bioindicators for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon toxicity in aquatic microcosms

    SciTech Connect

    Gensemer, R.W.; Solomon, K.R.; Day, K.E.; Hodson, P.V.; Servos, M.R.; Greenberg, B.M.

    1994-12-31

    Plant bioindicators are being developed to assess the effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in experimental aquatic ecosystems. The approach is to develop and test biomarker assays that are specifically predictive of ecological events at the population and/or community levels of organization in artificial aquatic microcosms. PAH mixtures were introduced into a series of aquatic microcosms using the wood preservative creosote as a PAH source. The authors applied creosote at five dosage levels designed to simulate conductions observed at highly contaminated sites. The growth and biomass of phytoplankton, periphyton, and macrophytes were then measured throughout the growing season, and compared to one or more biomarker assays used to detect PAH contamination. Preliminary results using fluorescence induction on aquatic macrophytes suggest that PAHs can significantly inhibit photosynthesis at even modest concentrations 1--4 hours after exposure. This assay thus is not only a sensitive indicator of PAH exposure, but may also describe mechanisms of PAH toxicity that ultimately reduce biomass or population growth for aquatic plants in these microcosms.

  9. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in drinking water of Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Distribution and seasonal variation of sixteen priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in the drinking water of Tehran, the capital of Iran. Detected single and total PAHs concentrations were in the range of 2.01-38.96 and 32.45-733.10 ng/L, respectively, which were quite high compared to the values recorded in other areas of the world. The average occurrence of PAHs with high molecular weights was 79.55%; for example, chrysene occurred in 60.6% of the samples, with a maximum concentration of 438.96 ng/L. In addition, mean carcinogen to non-carcinogen PAHs ratio was 63.84. Although the concentration of benzo[a]pyrene, as an indicator of water pollution to PAHs, was lower than the guideline value proposed by World Health Organization (WHO) as well as that of Iranian National Drinking Water Standards for all of the samples, the obtained results indicated that carcinogen PAHs present in the drinking water of Tehran can cause threats to human health. PMID:24499505

  10. Mild extractability and bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, J.; Alexander, M.

    1999-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the relationship between bioavailability of unaged and aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil and the amounts detected by mild solvent extraction. More aged than unaged anthracene remained in Lima loam following introduction of earthworms (Eisenia foetida), a mixed culture containing anthracene-degrading microorganisms, or earthworms or wheat after bacterial biodegradation of the compound. Aging decreased the percentage of anthracene recovered by mild extraction with n-butanol from soil following introduction of earthworms, growth of wheat, biodegradation by bacteria, or when maintained sterile. Biodegradation resulted in a marked decrease in the percentage of aged and unaged anthracene recovered from soil by mild extraction with n-butanol or ethyl acetate. Aging of fluoranthene and pyrene decreased the amount removed by mild extraction with n-butanol, ethyl acetate, and propanol. The uptake of aged and unaged anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene by earthworms was correlated with the amounts recovered from soil by mild extraction with n-butanol, propanol, and ethyl acetate. The retention of aged and unaged anthracene by wheat and barley was correlated with the amounts recovered from soil by the same procedure. The authors suggest that mild extraction with organic solvents can be used to predict the bioavailability of PAHs in soil.

  11. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in lime spray dryer ash

    SciTech Connect

    Ping Sun; Panuwat Taerakul; Linda K. Weavers; Harold W. Walker

    2005-10-01

    Four lime spray dryer (LSD) ash samples were collected from a spreader stoker boiler and measured for their concentrations of 16 U.S. EPA specified polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Results showed that the total measured PAH concentration correlated with the organic carbon content of the LSD ash. Each LSD ash sample was then separated using a 140 mesh sieve into two fractions: a carbon-enriched fraction ({gt}140 mesh) and a lime-enriched fraction ({lt}140 mesh). Unburned carbon was further separated from the carbon-enriched fraction with a lithiumheteropolytungstate (LST) solution. PAH measurements on these different fractions showed that unburned carbon had the highest PAH concentrations followed by the carbon-enriched fraction, indicating that PAHs were primarily associated with the carbonaceous material in LSD ash. However, detectable levels of PAHs were also found in the lime-enriched fraction, suggesting that the fine spray of slaked lime may sorb PAH compounds from the flue gas in the LSD process. 37 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and the diffuse interstellar bands: a survey.

    PubMed

    Salama, F; Galazutdinov, G A; Krelowski, J; Allamandola, L J; Musaev, F A

    1999-11-20

    We discuss the proposal relating the origin of some of the diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) to neutral and ionized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in interstellar clouds. Laboratory spectra of several PAHs, isolated at low temperature in inert gas matrices, are compared with the spectra of five reddened early-type stars selected from an extensive set of astronomical spectra. From this comparison, it is concluded that PAH ions are good candidates to explain some of the DIBS. Unambiguous assignments are difficult, however, because of the shift in wavelengths and the band broadening induced in the laboratory spectra by the solid matrix. This situation is illustrated by a comparison with the gas-phase spectra made available recently for two PAH ions. Definitive band assignments and, ultimately, the test of the proposal that PAH ions carry some of the DIBs must await the availability of a larger set of gas-phase measurements in the laboratory. The present assessment offers a guideline for future laboratory experiments by allowing the preselection of promising PAH molecules to be studied in jet expansions.

  13. Atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons onto Massachusetts Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Golomb, D.; Ryan, D.; Underhill, J.

    1997-12-31

    Wet and dry atmospheric deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was measured at biweekly intervals from 15 September 1992 to 16 September 1993 at two sites on Massachusetts Bay, Nahant, near Boston, and Truro, near the tip of Cape Cod. Wet and dry deposition was measured using a conventional wet/dry collector, except that the dry bucket contained a layer of water in order to simulate the uptake of dry deposition onto a water surface. The PAHs were extracted from the aqueous solution/suspension by methylene chloride and analyzed by GC-ECD and GC-MS. Dry and wet depositions of PAHs were significantly greater at Nahant than at Truro, due to the proximity of emission sources in the metropolitan Boston area. Highest deposition of PAHs was observed in the winter season. At Nahant, the total deposition (wet + dry) of PAHs amounted to 970 {mu}g m{sup {minus}2} yr{sup {minus}1}, at Truro 350 {mu}g m{sup {minus}2} yr{sup {minus}1}. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were not found above the detection limit of the analytical procedure.

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and cytochrome P450 in HIV pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rao, P. S. S.; Kumar, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    High prevalence of cigarette smoking in HIV patients is associated with increased HIV pathogenesis and disease progression. While the effect of smoking on the occurrence of lung cancer has been studied extensively, the association between smoking and HIV pathogenesis is poorly studied. We have recently shown the possible role of cytochrome P450 (CYP) in smoking/nicotine-mediated viral replication. In this review, we focus on the potential role of CYP pathway in polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), important constituents of cigarette smoke, mediated HIV pathogenesis. More specifically, we will discuss the role of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, which are the major PAH-activating CYP enzymes. Our results have shown that treatment with cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) increases viral replication in HIV-infected macrophages. CSC contains PAH, which are known to be activated by CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 into procarcinogens/toxic metabolites. The expression of these CYPs is regulated by aryl hydrocarbon receptors (AHR), the cellular target of PAH, and an important player in various diseases including cancer. We propose that PAH/AHR-mediated CYP pathway is a novel target to develop new interventions for HIV positive smokers. PMID:26082767

  15. Some carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by photoacoustic spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, R. K.; Kumar, Pardeep; Ram, R. S.; Zaidi, Zahid H.

    1999-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have attracted spectroscopists, astrophysicts and environmentalist because of their importance in our day to day life. It is well known that epoxides are produced during the metabolism of PAHs and have the requisite chemical reactivity to qualify them for the role as an ultimate carcinogenic form of PAHs. Several carcinogenic PAHs such as 3.4-benzopyrene, 1.2,3.4-dibenzopyrene, 3.4,9.10- dibenzopyrene etc. are found to be present in tobacco smoke and among air pollutants. Although PAH molecules are being studied for last several years by using conventional spectroscopy but no systematic attempt has been made to study non-radiative transitions. In our laboratory, we have studied many PAH molecules by a non-destructive technique with unique capability and sensitivity, known as Photoacoustic (PA) spectroscopy. PA spectroscopy is an analytical and research tool to get information about non-radiative transitions and singlet-triplet electronic transitions, where the conventional spectroscopic technique fails. The study of electronic transitions of some carcinogenic molecules are reported using PA and optical absorption spectra in boric acid glass in the region 250 - 400 nm. The electronic transitions of these molecules observed experimentally, have been interpreted using the optimized geometries and CNDO/S-CI method. A good agreement is found between the experimental and calculated results. Assignments of observed electronic transitions are made on the basis of singlet-triplet electronic transitions. Vibrations attached to these electronic transitions are attributed to the ground state vibrational modes.

  16. Solubilization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by perfluorinated surfactant micelles.

    PubMed

    An, Youn-Joo; Carraway, Elizabeth R; Schlautman, Mark A

    2002-01-01

    Due to their chemical and thermal stability, perfluorinated surfactants (PFSs) are promising materials for the development of novel environmental remediation applications. This stability also leads to the persistence of PFS in the environment; therefore, their properties and behavior should be well understood. This study focused on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and PFS interactions, particularly the solubilization of PAHs by PFS micelles. Naphthalene. phenanthrene, and pyrene were selected as representative PAHs and an anionic PFS, ammonium perfluorooctanoate (APFO) was used. Critical micelle concentration (CMC) values of APFO measured by surface tension, fluorescence probe, and solubility enhancement methods fell in the range of 20-30 mM at 22 +/- 1 degrees C. Apparent solubilities of molecular oxygen and PAHs in APFO micellar solutions depended linearly on the APFO concentration. Molar solubilization ratio (MSR) values were determined to be 9.50 x 10(-4), 4.17 x 10(-3), 2.31 x 10(-4), and 4.09 x 10(-5) and mole fraction micellar partition coefficient (Kmic) values were found to be 1.89 x 10(2), 9.50 x 10(2), 2.12 x 10(3), and 3.79 x 10(3) for oxygen, naphthalene, phenanthrene, and pyrene, respectively at 22 +/- 1 degrees C. log Kmic values for three PAHs were shown to be linearly correlated with the log values of octanol-water partition coefficients (log Kow).

  17. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Transformations in an Urban Fog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valsaraj, K.; Wornat, M. J.; Chen, J.; Ehrenhauser, F.

    2010-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are generated from incomplete combustion of fuels, coal-fired power plants and other anthropogenic activities. These are ubiquitous in all environments, especially the atmosphere. PAHs generally are found in the gaseous form and associated with the particles in the atmosphere. They are also found in the atmospheric water present in the form of fog, mist, rain, snow and ice. Particles (aerosols) in the atmosphere invariably contain a thin film of water which tends to have a high affinity for the adsorption of gaseous PAHs. Molecular dynamic simulations clearly show that the air-water interface is a preferable surface for adsorption of large molecular weight PAHs and atmospheric oxidants (e.g., O3, OH, 1O2, NO3). Thus, photochemical transformation of adsorbed PAHs in fog droplets is a possibility in the atmosphere. This could lead to the formation of water-soluble oxy-PAHs which are potential precursors for secondary organic aerosols (SOAs). Field work in Baton Rouge and Houston combined with laboratory work in thin film reactors have shown that this hypothesis is substantially correct. Field data on fog and aerosols (pre- and post-fog) will be enumerated. Laboratory work and their implications will be summarized. The thin film surface environment resulted in enhanced reaction kinetics compared to bulk phase kinetics. The influence of surface reactions on the product compositions is evaluated by performing experiments with different film thicknesses.

  18. Chemical Kinetics of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Monika; Tran, T.; Chiar, J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2012-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) comprise about 10% of the carbon in the interstellar medium. There is evidence of modification of PAHs in protoplanetary disks. What happens to these molecules as they are incorporated into protoplanetary disks? We address this question by investigating the chemical kinetics of PAHs in the disk environment. Kress et al. (2010) investigated the chemical behavior of PAHs at temperatures from 1000 to 2000 K at a pressure of 1e-6 bar, and proposed the concept of the 'soot line', analogous to the 'snow line' in the solar nebula. Inside of the soot line, PAHs are irreversibly destroyed via thermally-driven reactions. We will extend this study to more realistic disk conditions and timescales. In a related project (see poster by Tran, Chiar, et al.), we are investigating the differences in the PAH physical characteristics in quiescent dense clouds versus the environment around embedded protostars. Together, these studies will help us understand (1) the fate of interstellar PAHs in planet-forming disks and (2) the relationship between interstellar and solar system PAHs. We also will investigate the soot line in disks around sub-solar mass stars (e.g. M dwarfs). This work has been supported by the NASA Astrobiology Institute's Virtual Planetary Laboratory (PI: V. Meadows) and the NASA/EPOESS program (PI: C. Phillips).

  19. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Ionization Energy Lowering in Water Ices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gudipati, Murthy S.; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2004-01-01

    In studying various interstellar and solar system ice analogs, we have recently found that upon vacuum ultraviolet photolysis, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) frozen in water ice at low temperatures are easily ionized and indefinitely stabilized as trapped ions (Gudipati; Gudipati & Allamandola). Here we report the first experimental study that shows that PAH ionization energy is significantly lowered in PAH/H2O ices, in agreement with recent theoretical work (Woon & Park). The ionization energy (IE) of the PAH studied here, quaterrylene (C40H20, IE = 6.11 eV), is lowered by up to 2.11 eV in water ice. PAH ionization energy reduction in low-temperature water ice substantially expands the astronomical regions in which trapped ions and electrons may be important. This reduction in ionization energy should also hold for other types of trapped species in waterrich interstellar, circumstellar, and solar system ices. Subject headings: ISM: clouds - methods: laboratory - molecular processes - radiation mechanisms: nonthermal -ultraviolet: ISM - ultraviolet: solar system

  20. Infrared Spectroscopy of Matrix-Isolated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Cations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudgins, D. M.; Allamandola, L. J.

    1995-01-01

    Gaseous, ionized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are thought to be responsible for a very common family of interstellar infrared emission bands. Here the near- and mid-infrared spectra of the cations of the five most thermodynamically favored PAHs up to coronene: phenanthrene, pyrene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzo-(ghi)perylene, and coronene, are presented to test this hypothesis. For those molecules that have been studied previously (pyrene, pyrene-d(sub 10), and coronene), band positions and relative intensities are in agreement. In all of these cases we report additional features. Absolute integrated absorbance values are given for the phenanthrene, perdeuteriophenanthrene, pyrene, benzo(ghi]perylene, and coronene cations. With the exception of coronene, the cation bands corresponding to the CC modes are typically 2-5 times more intense than those of the CH out-of-plane bending vibrations. For the cations, the CC stretching and CH in-plane bending modes give rise to bands that are an order of magnitude stronger than those of the neutral species, and the CH out-of-plane bends produce bands that are 5-20 times weaker than those of the neutral species. This behavior is similar to that found in most other PAH cations studied to date. The astronomical implications of these PAH cation spectra are also discussed.

  1. Outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from Guangdong, southern China.

    PubMed

    Lang, Chang; Tao, Shu; Zhang, Gang; Fu, Jiamo; Simonich, Staci

    2007-12-15

    The atmospheric outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from Guangdong, China, a region of high PAH emission, was modeled using a potential receptor influence function (PRIF) probabilistic model which was based on a spatially resolved PAH inventory and air mass forward-trajectory calculations. Photochemical degradation and deposition (dry and wet) of PAHs during atmospheric transport were taken into consideration. On average, 48% of the PAHs (by mass) remained in the atmosphere for a transport period of 5 days, staying within the boundary of the source region. The medium molecular weight PAHs (four rings) were predicted to travel longer distances in the atmosphere than the low (three rings) or high molecular weight PAHs (five rings) because they are less photodegradable than the lower molecular weight, gas-phase PAHs and less likelyto undergo wet and dry depositions than the higher molecular weight, particulate phase PAHs. Under the strong influence of the East Asian monsoons in winter, the predominant outflow pattern of PAHs from Guangdong was to the South China Sea and Southeast Asian countries. In summer, PAHs were transported primarily to northern mainland China. Under particular weather conditions in winter, the PAH-containing air masses were lifted by cold fronts or convection and transported toward the Pacific Ocean by westerly winds. In addition to the distinct seasonality in PAH dispersion and outflow, interannual long-term variation in the outflow is likely influenced by El Niño and southern oscillation.

  2. Cardiac Autonomic Dysfunction from Occupational Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mi-Sun; Magari, Shannon; Christiani, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) exposures have been associated with cardiopulmonary mortality and cardiovascular events. This study investigated the association between a biological marker of PAHs exposure, assessed by urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP), and heart rate variability (HRV) in an occupational cohort of boilermakers. Methods Continuous 24-hour monitoring of the ambulatory electrocardiogram (ECG) and pre and post shift urinary 1-OHP were repeated over extended periods of the work week. Mixed effects models were fit for the 5-minute standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) in relation to urinary 1-OHP levels pre and post workshift on the day they wore the monitor, controlling for potential confounders. Results We found a significant decrease in 5-min SDNN during work of −13.6% (95% confidence interval, −17.2% to −9.8%) for every standard deviation (0.53 microgram/gram [μg/g] creatinine) increase in the next-morning pre-shift 1-OHP levels. The magnitude of reduction in 5-min SDNN were largest during the late night period after work and increased with every standard deviation (0.46 μg/g creatinine) increase in post-shift 1-OHP levels. Conclusion This is the first report providing evidence that occupational exposure to PAHs is associated with altered cardiac autonomic function. Acute exposure to PAHs may be an important predictor of cardiovascular disease risk in the work environment. PMID:21172795

  3. Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy of Polycyclic Aromatic Nitrogen Heterocycles (PANHS) and their Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattioda, Andrew L.; Hudgin, Douglas; Bauschlicher, Charles W.; Alamandola, Louis J.

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, polycyclic aromatic nitrogen heterocycles (PANHs) have attracted a good deal of attention because of their potent carcinogenic and mutagenic properties, and their prevalence in our environment. Such species also play a prominent role in the chemistry of life up to and including the very nucleobases from which our DNA is constructed. Surprisingly, these compounds may even be common outside of our terrestrial environment. To wit, it is now widely accepted that polycyclic aromatic materials are abundant in space and represent a major reservoir of organic carbon in the interstellar medium and developing planetary systems. Given that nitrogen is the fourth most abundant chemically reactive element in space (surpassed only by hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen), it is entirely reasonable to suspect that PANHs may represent an important component of that organic reservoir. Motivated by their intrinsic merit and with special attention toward evaluating their exobiological significance, we have initiated a program to study the spectroscopic and chemical properties of P A " s under conditions relevant to extraterrestrial environments. Here we present the first results of that program-infrared spectroscopic measurements on a series of PANH"s in neutral and cationic forms, isolated in inert matrices at cryogenic temperatures.temperatures. The species studied include: 1 -, and 2-azabenz[a]anthracene, 1-, 2-, and 4- azachrysene, dibenz[a,h]acridine, and dibenz[a,J)acridine. The experimental measurements are also compared with theoretical spectra calculated using density functional theory. General spectroscopic trends observed in this series of compounds are discussed and the implications of these results for Astrophysics and Exobiology are considered.

  4. Inhibitory effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on photosynthetic performance are not related to their aromaticity.

    PubMed

    Jajoo, Anjana; Mekala, Nageswara Rao; Tomar, Rupal Singh; Grieco, Michele; Tikkanen, Mikko; Aro, Eva-Mari

    2014-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are very toxic and highly persistent environmental pollutants which accumulate in soil and affect growth of the plants adversely. This study aims to investigate inhibitory effects of 3 major PAH particularly on photosynthetic processes in Arabidopsis thaliana grown in soil treated with PAH. The 3 PAH chosen differ from each other in aromaticity (number of rings) comprising their structure (2 rings: naphthalene, 3 rings: anthracene and 4 rings: pyrene). Several growth parameters and Chlorophyll a fluorescence was monitored in PAH treated plants. BN-PAGe analysis was done in order to get information about change in the protein conformation. PAH treatment led to increased value of Fo which collaborated with increase in the amount of free LHC as seen through BN-Page analysis. Thus PAH were found to inhibit PS II photochemistry and caused distinct change in pigment composition. However the results led us to infer that 3-ring anthracence is more inhibitory as compared to 2-ring naphthalene and 4-ring pyrene. This indicates that aromaticity of PAH is unrelated to their response on photosynthetic processes.

  5. Search for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Perseus molecular cloud with the Green Bank Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali-Haïmoud, Yacine; Pérez, Laura M.; Maddalena, Ronald J.; Roshi, D. Anish

    2015-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are believed to be the small-size tail of the interstellar carbonaceous dust grain population. Their vibrational emission is the most widely accepted source of the aromatic near-infrared features, and their rotational radiation is a likely explanation for the dust-correlated anomalous microwave emission (AME). Yet, no individual interstellar PAH molecule has been identified to date. It was recently recognized that quasi-symmetric planar PAHs ought to have a well identifiable comb-like rotational spectrum, and suggested to search for them in spectroscopic data with matched-filtering techniques. We report the results of the first such search, carried out with the Green Bank Telescope, and targeting the star-forming region IC 348 in the Perseus molecular cloud, a known source of AME. Our observations amounted to 16.75 h and spanned a 3-GHz-wide band extending from 23.3 to 26.3 GHz. Using frequency switching, we achieved a sensitivity of 0.4 mJy per 0.4 MHz channel (1σ). The non-detection of comb-like spectra allowed us to set upper bounds on the abundance of specific quasi-symmetric PAH molecules (specified uniquely by their moments of inertia) of approximately 0.1 per cent of the total PAH abundance. This bound generically applies to PAHs with approximately 15-100 carbon atoms.

  6. Infrared Spectroscopy of Matrix-Isolated Polycyclic Aromatic Nitrogen Heterocycles (PANHs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattioda, A. L.; Hudgins, D. M.; Bauschlicher, C. W.; Allamandola, L. J.; Biemesderfer, C. D.; Rosi, M.

    2002-01-01

    The mid-infrared spectra of the nitrogen-containing heterocyclic polycyclic aromatic compounds 1-azabenz[a]-anthracene; 2-azabenz[a]anthracene; 1-azachrysene; 2-azachrysene; 4-azachrysene; 2-azapyrene, and 7,8 benzoquinoline in their neutral and cation forms were investigated. The spectra of these species isolated in an argon matrix have been measured. Band frequencies and intensities were tabulated and these data compared with spectra computed using density functional theory at the B3LYP level. The overall agreement between experiment and theory is quite good, in keeping with earlier results on homonuclear polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The differences between the spectral properties of nitrogen bearing aromatics and non-substituted, neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons will be discussed.

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in spanish olive oils: relationship between benzo(a)pyrene and total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Acuña, Rafael; del Carmen Pérez-Camino, María; Cert, Arturo; Moreda, Wenceslao

    2008-11-12

    Samples of Spanish virgin olive oils (VOOs) from different categories, origins, varieties, and commercial brands were analyzed by HPLC with a programmable fluorescence detector to determine the content of nine heavy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs): benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(e)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, benzo(a)pyrene, dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, benzo(g,h,i)perilene, and indeno(1,2,3-c,d)pyrene. Samples of olive pomace and crude olive pomace oils were also investigated. Benzo(a)pyrene concentrations were below the allowed limit in the European Union (2 microg/kg) in 97% of the VOO samples. Only those samples coming from contaminated olive fruits or obtained in oil mills with highly polluted environments exceeded this value. High correlation coefficients (<0.99) were obtained between the contents of benzo(a)pyrene and the sum of the nine PAHs for all of the analyzed categories, suggesting that benzo(a)pyrene could be used as a marker of the content of these nine PAHs in olive oils.

  8. Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from selected processes in steelworks.

    PubMed

    Baraniecka, Joanna; Pyrzyńska, Krystyna; Szewczyńska, Małgorzata; Pośniak, Małgorzata; Dobrzyńska, Elzbieta

    2010-11-15

    The emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from selected processes in steelworks in southern Poland was investigated. Size-segregated samples of air particulate matter (<0.25, 0.25-0.5, 0.5-1.0, 1.0-2.5 and 2.5-10 μm) were collected at the electric arc furnace and rolling mill. The PAHs were sampled with the personal cascade impactor and identified by HPLC with fluorescence detector. The obtained results showed that collected PAH contents were significantly higher at the electric arc furnace. The highest content of total PAHs (93 ng m(-3)) was present in the smallest particles of 0.5 μm aerodynamic diameter or less, indicating that the ultrafine particles have a high contribution in the overall PM(2.5) fine fraction. Concentrations of Py, CH, BbF, BaP and BghiP came to 76% of total PAHs content in <0.25 μm fraction. The five- and six-ring compounds (BbF, BkF, BaP, DBA, BghiP) with 4-ring chrysene presented typical unimodal size distribution with one predominant peak for this particles' diameter. Phenanthrene and fluoranthene exhibited highest concentrations on coarse particles in the range of 10-2.5 μm, decreasing with decrease of a particle size fraction. Using the toxic equivalent factor (TEF), the mean contributions of the carcinogenic potency of BaP to the air samples collected at the arc furnace and rolling mill (fraction below 0.25 μm) were determined to be 66.3% and 50.3%, respectively.

  9. Simulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons transport in multimedia

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, L.; Chu, C.J.

    1999-07-01

    Many studies have indicated that the threat from toxic air pollutants such as VOCs comes not through inhalation by humans while the pollutants are in a gaseous state but through absorption when the pollutants are in a solid state such as in an aerosol or particulate form. Pollutants such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) usually exist in a semi-volatile state. To assess the risk of the PAHs, one needs to estimate the dose of the pollutants to which a human would be exposed through various pathways. In this study, the authors modified a Spatial Multimedia Compartmental Model (SMCM) originally developed by UCLA Professor Cohen to predict the PAHs distribution among multimedia such as air, water, soil and sediment in the Taipei metropolitan area. Three PAHs were considered in this study. They are Benzo(a)pyrene, Pyrene and Chrysene. When PAHs are emitted into atmosphere, physical and chemical mechanisms may redistribute the PAHs among multimedia. Five cases of PAHs distribution in multimedia were simulated: (1) PAHs distribution in a dry condition, (2) PAHs distribution when there are different dry deposition velocities, (3) PAHs distribution under a single rainfall event, (4) PAHs distribution when there are different soil properties, (5) PAHs distribution under a random rainfall case. The simulation results are concluded: (1) In the dry case, the PAHs accumulate mostly in soil and air compartments, (2) Different dry depositing velocities will affect the PAHs distribution among compartments. (3) Different soil properties affect the PAHs concentration in the soil and sediment compartments, (4) The soil PAHs concentrations usually increase for those PAHs with a high solid/gas ratio. (5) The random rainfall only affects the PAHs concentration in the soil.

  10. Fluorescence quenching of vaporous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalesskaya, G. A.; Piuzzi, F.; Sambor, E. G.

    2007-04-01

    The fluorescence quenching by oxygen of vapors of nine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with strongly different oxidation potentials 0.44 eV < E ox < 1.61 eV (anthracene, 9-methylanthracene, 2-aminoanthracene, 9,10-dibromanthracene, pyrene, chrysene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and carbazole) is studied. From the dependences of the fluorescence decay rates and intensities on the oxygen pressure P O2, the quenching rate constants k S O2 for the excited singlet states S 1 and the fraction f S O2 of the S 1 states quenched by oxygen are estimated. At P O2 = 5 Torr, the k S O2 constants vary from 1.2 × 107 to 3.0 × 105 s-1 Torr-1, while the fraction of the quenched excited singlet states changes from 0.1 (fluoranthene) to 0.7 (chrysene) and 0.8 (pyrene). The dependences of k S O2 on the photophysical and electron-donor characteristics of the fluorescing compounds are analyzed. It is shown that, in the gas phase of anthracene and its derivatives, the magnitudes of k S O2 are limited by the rate constants of gas-kinetic collisions k gk and do not depend on the electron-donor characteristics of fluorophores, while the fraction of quenched states f S O2 changes with the oxidation potential. For compounds with k S O2 < k gk, both the rate constants k S O2 and the fraction of quenched states f S O2 depend on the E ox of sensitizers, which demonstrates an important role played by the charge-transfer interactions in quenching of the S 1 states. The dependence of the rate constants k S O2 on the free energy of electron transfer ΔG et is considered.

  11. Near Infrared Spectra of Large Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattioda, A. L.; Hudgins, D. M.; Bauschlicher, C. W.; Allamandola, L. J.

    The widespread, mid-IR interstellar emission features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, and 11.2 microns are generally attributed to vibrationally excited polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Since these features typcially originate from radiation-rich regions, it has been generally thought that UV photons must dominate the interstellar excitation process since PAHs have very strong UV absorption bands. However, observations have shown that lower energy photons can also pump the emission (Aitken and Roche, Uchida and Sellgren), raising questions about the PAH model. Although it has long been known that larger PAHs should absorb at longer wavelengths (e.g. Schutte et. al., Salama et al., Li and Draine) data was not available for the isolated, neutral and ionized PAHs of sizes comparable to those thought responsible for the interstellar emission features. Here the matrix-isolated near-IR (NIR) spectra (from 0.7 to 2.5 microns) are presented for the anions and cations of PAHs ranging in size from C34H16 to C50H22. These molecules are characterized by strong absorption bands in this region, bands that can account for the emission of the interstellar features from UV poor regions. These NIR PAH transitions could also contribute to the extinction curve associated with the diffuse interstellar medium. For example, band overlap, as expected from a mixture of PAHs, can contribute to the continuum. Overlapping broad bands could lead to slight undulations in the continuum reminiscent of the Very Broad Structure (VBS, e.g. Hayes et al.). Furthermore, as previously pointed out, individual PAH bands may contribute to the diffuse interstellar band (DIB) spectrum (e.g. Romanini)

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in Kostrena coastal area.

    PubMed

    Linsak, Dijana Tomić; Linsak, Zeljko; Besić, Denis; Vojcić, Nina; Telezar, Mirna; Coklo, Miran; Susnić, Sasa; Mićović, Vladimir

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine pollution by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and heavy metals in seawater and sediment in Kostrena coastal area, as well as their toxicity using bioluminescence based tests. Total PAH concentration in seawater ranged 1.7-155.3 ng/L. The share of carcinogenetic PAH was relatively high, ranging 22-48.3%. Nickel concentrations in seawater were beyond detection limits (< 0.1 microg/L), vanadium concentrations ranged 0.66-1.96 microg/L, chrome concentrations were beyond detection limits, and copper concentrations were also beyond detection limits or extremely low (up to 0.32 microg/L). EC50 values in seawater ranged 23.80-90.90 ng/L. Correlation between total PAH concentration and toxicity of seawater showed strong connection between them (r = 0.9579). Total PAH concentration in marine sediment ranged 58.02-1116 microg/kg dry weight (d.w.). The share of carcinogenetic PAH was extremely high ranging 10-53%. Nickel concentrations in marine sediment ranged 8-24 mg/kg d.w., vanadium concentrations ranged 24-42 mg/kg d.w., chrome concentrations ranged 11-19 mg/kg d.w., and copper concentrations ranged 7-25 mg/kg d.w. EC50 values in marine sediment ranged 818-4596 microg/kg d.w. Correlation between total PAH concentration and toxicity of marine sediment showed weak connection between them (r = 0.2590). Previous studies of seawater samples from areas of the Adriatic sea under the direct influence of oil industry did not include concentrations of heavy metals, which makes our study the first to present such comprehensive results. Our results point out the need for further evaluations and following of marine environment pollution and its consequences on living organisms and marine ecosystem in whole.

  13. Background'' soil concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from Burlington, Vermont

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, R.L.; Sparks, M.K. )

    1993-03-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH's) were identified in soils from waterfront industrial land in Burlington prior to conversion to a park. PAH's ranged from 2,457 to 16,005 ppb. As a result, this area was placed on the Vt. DEC list of active'' hazardous sites. The few studies available regarding background concentrations of PAH's (i.e. ATSDR, 1990), suggested that the waterfront PAH values were low for urban soils. To provide a context for evaluating the waterfront PAH concentrations, a background study of soils in the City of Burlington was conducted. Twelve composite soil samples were collected from within a 1-mile radius of the proposed park; an area that encompasses a large portion of the City. To correlate PAH concentrations with land-uses, three samples were collected from each of four zones: industrial, mixed commercial-residential, residential and recreational. Samples (and one field blank) were analyzed via EPA method 8100. Total PAH's from the study ranged from 105.7 to 122,035 ppb. The minimum value was from a baseball field; the maximum value from a residential lawn. The arithmetic mean for the Burlington study was 19,380 ppb (compared to 10,530 ppb for the waterfront). The background'' values indicate that the waterfront park soils are below the study background'' mean. It is difficult to assess the origin of the elevated PAH values because of the numerous contributors of environmental PAH. One common element that appears to characterize soils with the highest background'' PAH values is linkage to recent or historic building fires. In many instances building combustion may be a dominant local source of soil PAH's.

  14. Generation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during woodworking operations

    PubMed Central

    Bruschweiler, Evin D.; Danuser, Brigitta; Huynh, Cong Khanh; Wild, Pascal; Schupfer, Patrick; Vernez, David; Boiteux, Philippe; Hopf, Nancy B.

    2012-01-01

    Occupational exposures to wood dust have been associated with an elevated risk of sinonasal cancer (SNC). Wood dust is recognized as a human carcinogen but the specific cancer causative agent remains unknown. One possible explanation is a co-exposure to; wood dust and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). PAHs could be generated during incomplete combustion of wood due to heat created by use of power tools. To determine if PAHs are generated from wood during common wood working operations, PAH concentrations in wood dust samples collected in an experimental chamber operated under controlled conditions were analyzed. In addition, personal air samples from workers exposed to wood dust (n = 30) were collected. Wood dust was generated using three different power tools: vibrating sander, belt sander, and saw; and six wood materials: fir, Medium Density Fiberboard (MDF), beech, mahogany, oak and wood melamine. Monitoring of wood workers was carried out by means of personal sampler device during wood working operations. We measured 21 PAH concentrations in wood dust samples by capillary gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Total PAH concentrations in wood dust varied greatly (0.24–7.95 ppm) with the lowest being in MDF dust and the highest in wood melamine dust. Personal PAH exposures were between 37.5–119.8 ng m−3 during wood working operations. Our results suggest that PAH exposures are present during woodworking operations and hence could play a role in the mechanism of cancer induction related to wood dust exposure. PMID:23087908

  15. Intraperitoneal mesotheliomas induced in mice by a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, J.M.; Anderson, L.M. ); Kovatch, R.M. )

    1989-01-01

    Female mice of 6 strains (C3H/HeN, BALB/c, C57BL/6N, DBA/2, NIH Swiss, and AKR/N) were given the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon carcinogen 3-methylcholanthrene (MC) intragastrically in olive oil at a dose of 20 mg/kg, weekly for 12 wk. Half were pretreated 24 h before each MC administration with intraperitoneal {beta}-naphthoflavone ({beta}-NF, 150 mg/kg in olive oil), a noncarinogenic inducer of certain cytochrome P-450 isozymes. Remaining mice were given olive oil prior to MC in the same fashion, or {beta}-NF in olive oil or olive oil alone without subsequent exposure to MC. All mice were killed when moribund or 13 mo after the start of treatment. Most of the mice, irrespective of treatment, exhibited signs of peritoneal injury, including inflammation, necrosis, granuloma formation, and mineralization. Mice of some of the strains also presented peritoneal mesotheliomas, in addition to a variety of other tumors. {beta}-NF pretreatment reduced the frequency of mesotheliomas: there was only one definite mesothelioma in any of the {beta}-NF-MC groups, in a C3H/He mouse. Most of the measotheliomas were mixed fibro-mesothelial type, sometimes with papillary epithelial excrescences. They typically grew in a botryoid pattern within the peritoneal cavity, coating the abdominal organs and sometimes actively invading these organs and the diaphragm. Some lesions exhibited pleomorphism, prominent giant cells, and frequent mitoses. In addition, several lesions consisting of severe mesothelial hyperplasia associated with tissue necrosis and inflammation were considered as possible early stages of mesothelioma development. It was postulated that peritoneal injury imposed by repeated intraperitoneal injection of oil acted as an enhancing factor for mesothelioma induction by MC.

  16. Environmental quality objectives for 10 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs).

    PubMed

    Kalf, D F; Crommentuijn, T; van de Plassche, E J

    1997-02-01

    Environmental quality objectives (EQOs) for water, soil, and sediment are derived for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). EQOs are an important instrument in the effects-oriented environmental policy of the Dutch Ministry of the Environment. These EQOs should be set in such a way that protection of organisms in all compartments is ensured. As intermedia transport of chemicals occurs, this means that EQOs derived for individual compartments have to be harmonized. EQOs are based on scientifically derived risk limits: maximum permissible concentrations (MPCs) and the negligible concentrations (NCs). MPCs are concentrations above which the risk of adverse effects is considered unacceptable. The NC is defined as the MPC/100 and takes possible effects of combination toxicity due to the presence of other substances into account. In this paper MPCs are derived for haphthalene, anthracene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, benzo[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene. The MPCs for these PAHs are for water 1.2, 0.07, 0.30, 0.30, 0.01, 0.34, 0.04, 0.05, 0.03, and 0.04 micrograms/liter, respectively; for soil 0.14, 0.12, 0.51, 2.6, 0.25, 10.7, 2.4. 0.26, 7.5, and 5.9 mg/kg, respectively; and for sediment 0.14, 0.12, 0.51, 2.6. 0.36, 10.7, 2.4, 2.7, 7.5, and 5.9 mg/kg, respectively. PMID:9056405

  17. Cation Far Infrared Vibrational Spectroscopy of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, W.; Zhang, J.; Han, F.

    2009-06-01

    The far infrared (FIR) region is crucial for spectroscopic investigations because of the existence of skeletal modes of moderately sized molecules. However, our knowledge of FIR modes is significantly lacking, largely due to the limited availability of light sources and detectors in this spectral region. The technique "pulsed field ionization zero kinetic energy electron spectroscopy" (PFI-ZEKE) is ideal for studies of FIR spectroscopy. This is because the low internal energy of the cation associated with the skeletal modes is particularly beneficial for the stability of the corresponding Rydberg states. In this work, we report our effort in studies of FIR spectroscopy of cationic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Using laser desorption, we can vaporize the non-volatile PAH for gas phase spectroscopy. To ensure the particle density and therefore the critical ion density in prolonging the lifetime of Rydberg electrons, we have used a "chamber-in-a-chamber" design and significantly shortened the distance between the desorption region and the detection region. From our studies of catacondensed PAHs, we have observed the emergence of the flexible waving modes with the increasing length of the molecular ribbon. Pericondensed PAHs, on the other hand, have shown significant out of plane IR active transitions. The planarity of the molecular frame is therefore a question of debate. The FIR modes are also interesting for another reason: they are also telltales of the precision of modern computational packages. The combination of experimental and theoretical studies will help with the identification of the chemical composition of the interstellar medium. This effort therefore directly serves the missions of the Spitzer Space Observatory and more importantly, the missions of the Herschel Space Observatory.

  18. Identification and discrimination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cloutis, Edward; Szymanski, Paul; Applin, Daniel; Goltz, Douglas

    2016-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widely present throughout the Solar System and beyond. They have been implicated as a contributor to unidentified infrared emission bands in the interstellar medium, comprise a substantial portion of the insoluble organic matter in carbonaceous chondrites, are expected stable components of organic matter on Mars, and are present in a wide range of terrestrial hydrocarbons and as components of biomolecules. However, PAH structures can be very complicated, making their identification challenging. Raman spectroscopy is known to be especially sensitive to the highly polarizable C-C and C=C bonds found in PAHs, and therefore, can be a powerful tool for PAH structural and compositional elucidation. This study examined Raman spectra of 48 different PAHs to determine the degree to which Raman spectroscopy could be used to uniquely identify different species, factors that control the positions of major Raman peaks, the degree to which induced fluorescence affects the intensity of Raman peaks, its usefulness for PAH discrimination, and the effects of varying excitation wavelength on some PAH Raman spectra. It was found that the arrangement and composition of phenyl (benzene) rings, and the type and position of functional groups can greatly affect fluorescence, positions and intensities of Raman peaks associated with the PAH backbone, and the introduction of new Raman peaks. Among the functional groups found on many of the PAHs that were analyzed, only a few Raman peaks corresponding to the molecular vibrations of these groups could be clearly distinguished. Comparison of the PAH Raman spectra that were acquired with both 532 and 785 nm excitation found that the longer wavelength resulted in reduced fluorescence, consistent with previous studies.

  19. Estimation of Chronic Personal Exposure to Airborne Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyunok; Zdeb, Michael; Perera, Frederica; Spengler, John

    2015-01-01

    Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) exposure from solid fuel burning represents an important public health issue for the majority of the global population. Yet, understanding of individual-level exposures remains limited. Objectives To develop regionally adaptable chronic personal exposure model to pro-carcinogenic PAH (c-PAH) for the population in Kraków, Poland. Methods We checked the assumption of spatial uniformity in eight c-PAH using the coefficients of divergence (COD), a marker of absolute concentration differences. Upon successful validation, we developed personal exposure models for eight pro-carcinogenic PAH by integrating individual-level data with area-level meteorological or pollutant data. We checked the resulting model for accuracy and precision against home outdoor monitoring data. Results During winter, COD of 0.1 for Kraków suggest overall spatial uniformity in the ambient concentration of the eight c-PAH. The three models that we developed were associated with index of agreement approximately equal to 0.9, root mean square error < 2.6 ng/m3, and 90th percentile of absolute difference ≤ 4 ng/m3 for the predicted and the observed concentrations for eight pro-carcinogenic PAH. Conclusions Inexpensive and logistically feasible information could be used to estimate chronic personal exposure to PAH profiles, in lieu of costly and labor-intensive personal air monitoring at wide scale. At the same time, thorough validation through direct personal monitoring and assumption checking are critical for successful model development. PMID:25965038

  20. Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in fog-rain events.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang; Li, Pengfei; Yan, Lili; Chen, Jianmin; Cheng, Tiantao; Xu, Shifen

    2011-11-01

    Atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) mainly originate from incomplete combustion or pyrolysis of materials containing carbon and hydrogen. They exist in gas and particle phases, as well as dissolved or suspended in precipitation (fog or rain). Current studies in atmospheric PAHs are predominantly focused on fog and rainwater samples. Some sampling difficulties are associated with fog samples. This study presented the first observation of the characteristics of PAHs in fog samples using a solid phase microextraction (SPME) technique. Eighteen fog samples were collected during ten fog events from March to December 2009 in the Shanghai area. PAHs were extracted by SPME and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). As the compounds were partially soluble in water, with solubility decreasing with increasing molecular weight, low molecular weight (LMW) PAH compounds were universally found in the fog water samples. Naphthalene (NaP), phenanthrene (Phe), anthracene (Ant) and fluoranthene (Flo) were dominant compounds in fog water. The total PAH concentration in fog water ranged from 0.03 to 6.67 μg L(-1) (mean of 1.06 μg L(-1)), and was much higher in winter than in summer. The concentration of PAHs in fog or rain water decreased after undergoing a pre-rain or pre-fog wash. The average concentration of PAHs was higher in fog than in rain. Diagnostic ratio analysis suggested that petroleum and combustion were the dominant contributors to PAHs in urban Shanghai. Backward trajectories were calculated to determine the origin of the air masses, showing that air masses were mostly from the northeast territory.

  1. Infrared Spectroscopy of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Cations. 3; The Members

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudgins, D. M.; Allamandola, L. J.; Wittebon, Fred C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    In spite of the fact that the infrared spectroscopic properties of only a few isolated ionized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known, gaseous, ionized PAHs are thought to be responsible for a very common family of infrared interstellar emission bands. In order to provide a data base to test this hypothesis and, if borne out, to use this emission band family as a probe of many different interstellar environments, we are carrying out a thorough study of the infrared spectroscopic properties of neutral and ionized PAHs in argon matrices. Here we present the near and mid-infrared spectra of the cations of the five most thermodynamically favored PAHs up to coronene: phenanthrene, pyrene, benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[ghilperylene, and coronene. The properties of naphthalene, the first member of the series, are given elsewhere. The spectra of perdeuterated phenanthrene and pyrene are also reported. For those molecules which have been previously studied (pyrene, d(10)-pyrene, and coronene), band positions and relative intensities are in agreement. In all cases we report additional features. Absolute integrated absorbance values are given for the phenanthrene, perdeutero-phenanthrene, pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, and coronene cations. With the exception of coronene,the cation bands corresponding to the CC modes are typically 2-5 times more intense than those of the CH out-of-plane bending vibrations. For the cations the CC stretching and CH in-plane bending modes give rise to bands which are an order of magnitude stronger than for the neutral species, and the CH out-of-plane bends produce bands which are 5-20 times weaker than in the neutral species. This behavior is similar to that found in most other PAH cations studied to date. The astronomical implications of these PAH cation spectra are also discussed.

  2. STRONG POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON EMISSION FROM z {approx} 2 ULIRGs

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, Vandana; Soifer, B. T.; Melbourne, Jason; Dey, Arjun; Brand, Kate; Brodwin, Mark; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Armus, Lee; Teplitz, Harry; Brown, Michael J. I.; Houck, James R.; Weedman, Daniel W.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Huang Jiasheng; Smith, Howard A.; Willner, Steve P.; Gonzalez, Anthony

    2009-08-01

    Using the Infrared Spectrograph on board the Spitzer Space Telescope, we present low-resolution (64 < {lambda}/{delta}{lambda} < 124), mid-infrared (20-38 {mu}m) spectra of 23 high-redshift ULIRGs detected in the Booetes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. All of the sources were selected to have (1) f {sub {nu}}(24 {mu}m)>0.5 mJy; (2) R - [24]>14 Vega mag; and (3) a prominent rest frame 1.6 {mu}m stellar photospheric feature redshifted into Spitzer's 3-8 {mu}m IRAC bands. Of these, 20 show emission from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), usually interpreted as signatures of star formation. The PAH features indicate redshifts in the range 1.5 < z < 3.0, with a mean of (z) = 1.96 and a dispersion of 0.30. Based on local templates, these sources have extremely large infrared luminosities, comparable to that of submillimeter galaxies. Our results confirm previous indications that the rest-frame 1.6 {mu}m stellar bump can be efficiently used to select highly obscured star-forming galaxies at z {approx} 2, and that the fraction of starburst-dominated ULIRGs increases to faint 24 {mu}m flux densities. Using local templates, we find that the observed narrow redshift distribution is due to the fact that the 24 {mu}m detectability of PAH-rich sources peaks sharply at z = 1.9. We can analogously use observed spectral energy distributions to explain the broader redshift distribution of Spitzer-detected ULIRGs that are dominated by an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Finally, we conclude that z {approx} 2 sources with a detectable 1.6 {mu}m stellar opacity feature lack sufficient AGN emission to veil the 7.7 {mu}m PAH band.

  3. Partition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on organobentonites from water.

    PubMed

    Chen, B L; Zhu, L Z

    2001-04-01

    A series of organobentonites synthesized by exchanging organic cation such as dodecyltri-methylammonium (DTMA), benzyldimethyltetradecylammonium (BDTDA), cetyltrimethyl-ammonium (CTMA), octodeyltrimethylammonium (OTMA) on bentonite. The optimal condition, properties and mechanisms for the organobentonites to sorb phenanthrene, anthracene, naphthalene, acenaphthene in water were investigated in detail. The partition behavior was determined for four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), such as naphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene and acenaphthene, from water to a series of organobentonites. The interlayer spacings and organic carbon contents of organobentonites, removal rate and sorption capacities for organobentonites to treat phenanthrene, anthracene, naphthalene, acenaphthene were correlated to the length of alkyl chains and the amounts of cation surfactant exchanged on the bentonite. Phenanthrene, anthracene, naphthalene, and acenaphthene sorption to organobentonites were characterized by linear isotherms, indicating solute partition between water and the organic phase composed of the large alkyl functional groups of quaternary ammonium cations. PAHs distribution coefficients (Kd) between organobentonites and water were proportional to the organic carbon contents of organobentonites. However, the partition coefficients (Koc) were nearly constants for PAHs in the system of organobentonite-water. The Koc of phenanthrene, anthracene, naphthalene, acenaphthene were 2.621 x 10(5), 2.106 x 10(5), 2.247 x 10(4), 5.085 x 10(4), respectively. The means Koc values on the organobentonites are about ten to twenty times larger than the values on the soils/sediments, what is significant prerequisite for organobentonite to apply to remediation of pollution soil and groundwater. The sorption mechanism was also evaluated from octanol-water partition coefficients and aqueous solubility of PAHs. The correlations between 1gKoc and 1gKow, 1gKoc and 1gS for PAHs in the system of

  4. Optimization and determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in biochar-based fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ping; Zhou, Hui; Gan, Jay; Sun, Mingxing; Shang, Guofeng; Liu, Liang; Shen, Guoqing

    2015-03-01

    The agronomic benefit of biochar has attracted widespread attention to biochar-based fertilizers. However, the inevitable presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in biochar is a matter of concern because of the health and ecological risks of these compounds. The strong adsorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to biochar complicates their analysis and extraction from biochar-based fertilizers. In this study, we optimized and validated a method for determining the 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in biochar-based fertilizers. Results showed that accelerated solvent extraction exhibited high extraction efficiency. Based on a Box-Behnken design with a triplicate central point, accelerated solvent extraction was used under the following optimal operational conditions: extraction temperature of 78°C, extraction time of 17 min, and two static cycles. The optimized method was validated by assessing the linearity of analysis, limit of detection, limit of quantification, recovery, and application to real samples. The results showed that the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons exhibited good linearity, with a correlation coefficient of 0.996. The limits of detection varied between 0.001 (phenanthrene) and 0.021 mg/g (benzo[ghi]perylene), and the limits of quantification varied between 0.004 (phenanthrene) and 0.069 mg/g (benzo[ghi]perylene). The relative recoveries of the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were 70.26-102.99%.

  5. Sources, fate, and toxic hazards of oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at PAH-contaminated sites.

    PubMed

    Lundstedt, Staffan; White, Paul A; Lemieux, Christine L; Lynes, Krista D; Lambert, Iain B; Oberg, Lars; Haglund, Peter; Tysklind, Mats

    2007-09-01

    In this paper we show that oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (oxy-PAHs) are important cocontaminants that should be taken into account during risk assessment and remediation of sites with high levels of PAHs. The presented data, which have been collected both from our own research and the published literature, demonstrate that oxy-PAHs are abundant but neglected contaminants at these sites. The oxy-PAHs show relatively high persistency and because they are formed through transformation of PAHs, their concentrations in the environment may even increase as the sites are remediated by methods that promote PAH degradation. Furthermore, we show that oxy-PAHs are toxic to both humans and the environment, although the toxicity seems to be manifested through other effects than those known to be important for polycyclic aromatic compounds in general, that is, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Finally, we present data that support the hypothesis that oxy-PAHs are more mobile in the environment than PAHs, due to their polarity, and thus have a higher tendency to spread from contaminated sites via surface water and groundwater. We believe that oxy-PAHs should be included in monitoring programs at PAH-contaminated sites, even if a number of other toxicologically relevant compounds that may also be present, such as nitro-PAHs and azaarenes, are not monitored. This is because oxy-PAH levels are difficult to predict from the PAH levels, because their environmental behavior differs substantially from that of PAHs, and oxy-PAHs may be formed as PAHs are degraded.

  6. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON EMISSION IN THE PROPLYD HST10: WHAT IS THE MECHANISM BEHIND PHOTOEVAPORATION?

    SciTech Connect

    Vicente, S.; Kamp, I.; Berne, O.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Huelamo, N.; Pantin, E.

    2013-03-10

    Proplyds are photodissociation-region-(PDR)-like cometary cocoons around young stars which are thought to originate through photoevaporation of the central protoplanetary disk by external UV radiation from the nearby OB stars. This Letter presents spatially resolved mid-infrared imaging and spectroscopy of the proplyd HST10 obtained with the Very Large Telescope/VISIR instrument. These observations allow us to detect polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission in the proplyd PDR and to study the general properties of PAHs in proplyds for the first time. We find that PAHs in HST10 are mostly neutral and at least 50 times less abundant than typical values found for the diffuse interstellar medium or the nearby Orion Bar. With such a low PAH abundance, photoelectric heating is significantly reduced. If this low abundance pertains also to the original disk material, gas heating rates could be too low to efficiently drive photoevaporation unless other processes can be identified. Alternatively, the model behind the formation of proplyds as evaporating disks may have to be revised.

  7. Pyrosequence analysis of bacterial communities in aerobic bioreactors treating polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Stephen D.; Aitken, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Two aerobic, lab-scale, slurry-phase bioreactors were used to examine the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in contaminated soil and the associated bacterial communities. The two bioreactors were operated under semi-continuous (draw-and-fill) conditions at a residence time of 35 days, but one was fed weekly and the other monthly. Most of the quantified PAHs, including high-molecular-weight compounds, were removed to a greater extent in the weekly-fed bioreactor, which achieved total PAH removal of 76%. Molecular analyses, including pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes, revealed significant shifts in the soil bacterial communities after introduction to the bioreactors and differences in the abundance and types of bacteria in each of the bioreactors. The weekly-fed bioreactor displayed a more stable bacterial community with gradual changes over time, whereas the monthly-fed bioreactor community was less consistent and may have been more strongly influenced by the influx of untreated soil during feeding. Phylogenetic groups containing known PAH-degrading bacteria previously identified through stable-isotope probing of the untreated soil were differentially affected by bioreactor conditions. Sequences from members of the Acidovorax and Sphingomonas genera, as well as the uncultivated ‘‘Pyrene Group 2’’ were abundant in the bioreactors. However, the relative abundances of sequences from the Pseudomonas, Sphingobium, and Pseudoxanthomonas genera, as well as from a group of unclassified anthracene degraders, were much lower in the bioreactors compared to the untreated soil. PMID:21369833

  8. Fusing porphyrins with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocycles for optoelectronic applications

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Mark E.; Diev, Viacheslav; Hanson, Kenneth; Forrest, Stephen R.

    2015-08-18

    A compound that can be used as a donor material in organic photovoltaic devices comprising a non-activated porphyrin fused with one or more non-activated polycyclic aromatic rings or one or more non-activated heterocyclic rings can be obtained by a thermal fusion process. The compounds can include structures of Formula I: ##STR00001## By heating the reaction mixture of non-activated porphyrins with non-activated polycyclic aromatic rings or heterocyclic rings to a fusion temperature and holding for a predetermined time, fusion of one or more polycyclic rings or heterocyclic rings to the non-activated porphyrin core in meso,.beta. fashion is achieved resulting in hybrid structures containing a distorted porphyrin ring with annulated aromatic rings. The porphyrin core can be olygoporphyrins.

  9. Absorption of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by biomembrane models: effect of the medium lipophilicity.

    PubMed

    Castelli, Francesco; Micieli, Dorotea; Ottimo, Sara; Minniti, Zelica; Sarpietro, Maria Grazia; Librando, Vito

    2008-10-01

    To demonstrate the relationship between the structure of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their effect on biomembranes, we have investigated the influence of three structurally different nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 2-nitrofluorene, 2,7-dinitrofluorene and 3-nitrofluoranthene, on the thermotropic behavior of dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine multilamellar vesicles, used as biomembrane models, by means of differential scanning calorimetry. The obtained results indicate that the studied nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons affected the thermotropic behavior of multilamellar vesicles to various extents, modifying the pretransition and the main phase transition peaks and shifting them to lower temperatures. The effect of the aqueous and lipophilic medium on the absorption process of these compounds by the biomembrane models has been also investigated revealing that the process is hindered by the aqueous medium but strongly allowed by the lipophilic medium. PMID:18723205

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from the high-temperature pyrolysis of pyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Mukherjee, J.; Sarofim, A.F.; Longwell, J.P. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1994-02-01

    The formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PaHs) from solid fuels is a complicated phenomenon involving many physical and chemical processes. In order to gain a better understanding of the types of reactions taking place during high-temperature PAH productions, the authors carried out a pure compound pyrolysis program between 1,200 and 1,500 K. In this work, which deals with pyrene pyrolysis in a laminar flow drop tube furnace, they identified four classes of condensed phase reaction products -- bipyrenes, their condensation or cyclodehydrogenation products, pyrene fragmentation products and soot. Statistical and steric factors -- accounted for qualitatively by the molecular topology of the reaction products -- were used to rationalize the relative abundance of the different products in the first two categories. The absence of PAH species that might arise from a sequential acetylene addition pathway (like benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, coronene, etc.) leads the authors to conclude that in the system the most important molecular weight growth channel involves direct polymerization of aromatics. Fragmentation products like triphenylene, cyclopenta[hi]acephenanthrylenes, and cyclopenta[cd]pyrene were also detected; however, based on evidence adduced from parallel studies, they think that high amounts of CPP in this and other studies result from isomerization rather than acetylene addition.

  11. Early-Life Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and ADHD Behavior Problems

    PubMed Central

    Perera, Frederica P.; Chang, Hsin-wen; Tang, Deliang; Roen, Emily L.; Herbstman, Julie; Margolis, Amy; Huang, Tzu-Jung; Miller, Rachel L.; Wang, Shuang; Rauh, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Importance Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are widespread urban air pollutants from combustion of fossil fuel and other organic material shown previously to be neurotoxic. Objective In a prospective cohort study, we evaluated the relationship between Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder behavior problems and prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure, adjusting for postnatal exposure. Materials and Methods Children of nonsmoking African-American and Dominican women in New York City were followed from in utero to 9 years. Prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure was estimated by levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon- DNA adducts in maternal and cord blood collected at delivery. Postnatal exposure was estimated by the concentration of urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites at ages 3 or 5. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder behavior problems were assessed using the Child Behavior Checklist and the Conners Parent Rating Scale- Revised. Results High prenatal adduct exposure, measured by elevated maternal adducts was significantly associated with all Conners Parent Rating Scale-Revised subscales when the raw scores were analyzed continuously (N = 233). After dichotomizing at the threshold for moderately to markedly atypical symptoms, high maternal adducts were significantly associated with the Conners Parent Rating Scale-Revised DSM-IV Inattentive (OR = 5.06, 95% CI [1.43, 17.93]) and DSM-IV Total (OR = 3.37, 95% CI [1.10, 10.34]) subscales. High maternal adducts were positivity associated with the DSM-oriented Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Problems scale on the Child Behavior Checklist, albeit not significant. In the smaller sample with cord adducts, the associations between outcomes and high cord adduct exposure were not statistically significant (N = 162). Conclusion The results suggest that exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons encountered in New York City air may play a role in childhood Attention

  12. From Interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Ice to the Origin of Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allamandola, Louis

    2004-01-01

    Tremendous strides have been made in our understanding of interstellar material over the past twenty years thanks to significant, parallel developments in observational astronomy and laboratory astrophysics. Twenty years ago the composition of interstellar dust was largely guessed at, the concept of ices in dense molecular clouds ignored, and the notion of large, abundant, gas phase, carbon rich molecules widespread throughout the interstellar medium (ISM) considered impossible. Today the composition of dust in the diffuse ISM is reasonably well constrained to cold refractory materials comprised of amorphous and crystalline silicates mixed with an amorphous carbonaceous material containing aromatic structural units and short, branched aliphatic chains. In the dense ISM, the birthplace of stars and planets, these cold dust particles are coated with mixed molecular ices whose composition is very well constrained. Lastly, the signature of carbon-rich polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), shockingly large molecules by early interstellar chemistry standards, is widespread throughout the Universe. The first part of this talk will describe how infrared studies of interstellar space, combined with laboratory simulations, have revealed the composition of interstellar ices (the building blocks of comets) and the high abundance and nature of interstellar PAHs. The laboratory database has now enabled us to gain insight into the identities, abundances, and physical state of many interstellar materials. Within a dense molecular cloud, and especially in the presolar nebula, the materials frozen into the interstellar/precometary ices are photoprocessed by ultraviolet light and produce more complex molecules. The remainder of the presentation will focus on the photochemical evolution of these materials and the possible role of these compounds on the to the carbonaceous components of micrometeorites, they are likely to have been important sources of complex materials on the early

  13. Postfunctionalization of BN-embedded polycyclic aromatic compounds for fine-tuning of their molecular properties.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Ye; Yang, Dong-Chu; Zhuang, Fang-Dong; Liu, Jia-Jie; Wang, Jie-Yu; Pei, Jian

    2015-06-01

    New BN-embedded, thiophene-fused, polycyclic aromatic compounds with planar geometry were designed and synthesized. The molecules showed excellent stability and chemical robustness. Postfunctionalization on this skeleton was demonstrated with a series of electrophilic bromination, palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling, and Knoevenagel condensation reactions. The π skeleton remained intact during these late-stage transformations. The optical and electronic properties have been well tuned through incorporation of electron-rich and -deficient groups on the backbone. This work shows the great advantage of the postfunctionalization strategy on BN-containing polycyclic aromatic compounds for fast diversification and materials screening. PMID:25955825

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons profiles of spent drilling fluids deposited at Emu-Uno, Delta State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M A

    2011-10-01

    The concentrations and profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in spent drilling fluid deposited at Emu-Uno, Delta State of Nigeria. The total concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the spent drilling fluid deposits ranged between 40 and 770 μg kg(-1). The PAHs profile were predominantly 2- and 3-rings with acenaphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene being the predominant PAHs. The prevalence of 2- and 3-rings PAHs in the spent drilling fluid deposits indicate contamination of the drilling fluids with crude oil during drilling. Incorporation of spent drilling fluids into the soil has serious implication for soil, surface water and groundwater quality.

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons profiles of spent drilling fluids deposited at Emu-Uno, Delta State, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Iwegbue, Chukwujindu M A

    2011-10-01

    The concentrations and profiles of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in spent drilling fluid deposited at Emu-Uno, Delta State of Nigeria. The total concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the spent drilling fluid deposits ranged between 40 and 770 μg kg(-1). The PAHs profile were predominantly 2- and 3-rings with acenaphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene being the predominant PAHs. The prevalence of 2- and 3-rings PAHs in the spent drilling fluid deposits indicate contamination of the drilling fluids with crude oil during drilling. Incorporation of spent drilling fluids into the soil has serious implication for soil, surface water and groundwater quality. PMID:21809098

  16. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in dry tea.

    PubMed

    Adisa, Afolabi; Jimenez, Angelica; Woodham, Cara; Anthony, Kevin; Nguyen, Thao; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-eight different tea samples sold in the United States were evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection (FLD) for their contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Many PAHs exhibit carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic properties and have been related to several kinds of cancer in man and experimental animals. The presence of PAHs in environmental samples such as water, sediments, and particulate air has been extensively studied, but food samples have received little attention. Eighteen PAHs congeners were analyzed, with percentage recovery higher than 85%. Contamination expressed as the sum of the 18 analyzed PAHs was between 101 and 1337 μg/kg on dry mass and the average contents in all of the 28 examined samples was 300 μg/kg on dry mass. Seven of the congeners were found in all samples with wide ranges of concentrations as follows: fluorene (7-48 μg/kg), anthracene (1-31 μg/kg), pyrene (1-970 μg/kg), benzo(a)anthracene (1-18 μg/kg) chrysene (17-365 μg/kg), benzo(a)pyrene (1-29 μg/kg), and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (4-119 μg/kg). The two most toxic congeners benzo(a)pyrene and dibenzo(a,h)anthracene were found at high concentrations only in Earl Grey Twinnings, Earl Grey Harney& Sons Fine Teas, and Chai Ultra Spice Black Tea Twinnings. Six PAH congeners are considered as suspected carcinogens (U.S.EPA), formed the basis of the estimation of the toxic equivalent (TEQ), Chai Ultra-Spice Black Tea Twinnings had the highest TEQ (110.9) followed by two grey tea samples, Earl Grey Harney & Sons Fine Tea (57.7) and Earl Grey Twinnings (54.5). Decaffeinated grey teas had the lowest TEQs, decaffeinated Earl Grey Bigelow (9.4) and Green Tea Honey Lemon Decaffeinated Lipton (9.6).

  17. Bioremediation of Mixtures of High Molecular Weight Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, H.; Wu, J.; Shi, X.; Sun, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Although bioremediation has been considered as one of the most promising means to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from polluted environments, the efficacy of PAHs bioremediation still remains challenged, especially for high molecular weight PAHs (HMW PAHs) and their mixtures. This study was focused on (a) isolation and characterization of pure strain and mixed microbial communities able to degrade HMW PAHs and (b) further evaluation of the ability of the isolated microbes to degrade HMW PAHs mixtures in the absence and presence of indigenous flora. Fluoranthene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and pyrene were selected as the representative HMW PAHs in this study. A pure bacterial strain, identified as Herbaspirillum chlorophenolicum FA1, was isolated from activated sludge. A mixed bacterial community designated as consortium-4 was isolated from petroleum contaminated soils, containing Pseudomonas sp. FbP1、Enterobacter sp. FbP2、Hydrogenophaga sp. FbP3 and Luteolibacter pohnpeiensis. FbP4. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that bacterial strains of Herbaspirillum chlorophenolicum FA1 and Luteolibacter pohnpeiensis. FbP4 can also degrade fluoranthene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and pyrene. Experiment results showed that both strain FA1 and consortium-4 could degrade fluoranthene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and pyrene within a wide range of temperature, pH and initial PAHs concentration. Degradation of HMW PAHs mixtures (binary and ternary) demonstrated the interactive effects that can alter the rate and extent of biodegradation within a mixture. The presence of indigenous flora was found to either increase or decrease the degradation of HMW PAHs, suggesting possible synergistic or competition effects. Biodegradation kinetics of HMW PAHs for sole substrates, binary and ternary systems was evaluated, with the purpose to better characterize and compare the biodegradation process of individual HMW PAH and mixtures of HMW PAHs. Results of this study

  18. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in dry tea

    PubMed Central

    ADISA, AFOLABI; JIMENEZ, ANGELICA; WOODHAM, CARA; ANTHONY, KEVIN; NGUYEN, THAO; SALEH, MAHMOUD A.

    2016-01-01

    Twenty-eight different tea samples sold in the United States were evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection (FLD) for their contamination with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Many PAHs exhibit carcinogenic, mutagenic, and teratogenic properties and have been related to several kinds of cancer in man and experimental animals. The presence of PAHs in environmental samples such as water, sediments, and particulate air has been extensively studied, but food samples have received little attention. Eighteen PAHs congeners were analyzed, with percentage recovery higher than 85%. Contamination expressed as the sum of the 18 analyzed PAHs was between 101 and 1337 μg/kg on dry mass and the average contents in all of the 28 examined samples was 300 μg/kg on dry mass. Seven of the congeners were found in all samples with wide ranges of concentrations as follows: fluorene (7–48 μg/kg), anthracene (1–31 μg/kg), pyrene (1–970 μg/kg), benzo(a)anthracene (1–18 μg/kg) chrysene (17–365 μg/kg), benzo(a)pyrene (1–29 μg/kg), and indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene (4–119 μg/kg). The two most toxic congeners benzo(a)pyrene and dibenzo(a,h)anthracene were found at high concentrations only in Earl Grey Twinnings, Earl Grey Harney& Sons Fine Teas, and Chai Ultra Spice Black Tea Twinnings. Six PAH congeners are considered as suspected carcinogens (U.S.EPA), formed the basis of the estimation of the toxic equivalent (TEQ), Chai Ultra-Spice Black Tea Twinnings had the highest TEQ (110.9) followed by two grey tea samples, Earl Grey Harney & Sons Fine Tea (57.7) and Earl Grey Twinnings (54.5). Decaffeinated grey teas had the lowest TEQs, decaffeinated Earl Grey Bigelow (9.4) and Green Tea Honey Lemon Decaffeinated Lipton (9.6). PMID:26065515

  19. Radiation and chemical studies of carcinogens, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chiachieh.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) are environmental pollutants. 3MC effectively neutralized the lethality of C3H mouse 10T1/2 cells resulting from B(a)P or DMBA. PAH binding to macromolecules increased linearly with exposure, but DNA-adducts saturated with exposure. 3MC or {alpha}NF appreciably reduced the formation of DNA adducts due to B(a)P or DMBA. The reductions in DNA-adduct formation did not result from a reduction in the induction of AHH. By using DNA adducts as chemical dose, and plotting the DMBA survival curve as a function of DMBA-DNA adducts, the curve was an exponential curve. A similar application with B(a)P-DNA adduct showed the survival curve as a shoulder followed by an exponential region. When 10T1/2 cells were treated with X-radiation and a PAH, the nontoxic compounds and B(a)P did not show any significant effect on X-ray survival curve. However, the damage due to DMBA was found to be additive to X-ray damage. The latter property of DMBA was lost when cells were cotreated with 3MC and DMBA presumably because damage to DNA due to DMBA alone was suppressed. Thus, the combined action is complex. DMBA produced damage in 10T1/2 cells that added to radiation damage. Although a nontoxic PAH could neutralize the effect of a toxic PAH, the former were not able to mitigate the lethal effects of radiation. Operationally, the latter results suggested that a nontoxic PAH could cancel out the effect of a toxic one because it inhibited the formation of the DNA damage with which radiation damage could interact rather than because the nontoxic PAH removed the radiation damage with which the PAH could interact. It showed that at least 4 hours were required for DMBA to affect the sublethal radiation damage repair, a period long enough for a large fraction of the latter damage to have been lost.

  20. Exposure of Firefighters to Particulates and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Baxter, C. Stuart; Hoffman, Joseph D.; Knipp, Michael J.; Reponen, Tiina; Haynes, Erin N.

    2015-01-01

    Firefighting continues to be among the most hazardous yet least studied occupations in terms of exposures and their relationship to occupational disease. Exposures are complex, involving mixtures of particles and chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Adverse health effects associated with these agents include elevated incidences of coronary heart disease and several cancers. PAHs have been detected at fire scenes, and in the firehouse rest area and kitchen, routinely adjoining the truck bay, and where firefighters spend a major part of each shift. An academic-community partnership was developed with the Cincinnati Fire Department with the goal of understanding active firefighters' airborne and dermal PAH exposure. PAHs were measured in air and particulates, and number and mass concentrations, respectively, of submicron (0.02–1 μm) and PM2.5 (2.5 μm diameter and less) particles during overhaul events in two firehouses and a University of Cincinnati administrative facility as a comparison location. During overhaul firefighters evaluate partially combusted materials for re-ignition after fire extinguishment and commonly remove Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA). Face and neck wipes were also collected at a domestic fire scene. Overhaul air samples had higher mean concentrations of PM2.5 and submicron particles than those collected in the firehouse, principally in the truck bay and kitchen. Among the 17 PAHs analyzed, only naphthalene and acenaphthylene were generally detectable. Naphthalene was present in 7 out of 8 overhaul activities, in 2 out of 3 firehouse (kitchen and truck bay) samples, and in none collected from the control site. In firefighter face and neck wipes a greater number of PAHs were found, several of which have carcinogenic activity, such as benzofluoranthene, an agent also found in overhaul air samples. Although the concentration for naphthalene, and all other individual PAHs, was very low, the potential simultaneous

  1. An Emission Inventory of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Xilong; Zhu, Xianlei; Wang, Xuesong

    2015-04-01

    Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are among the most dangerous compounds due to their high carcinogenic and mutagenic character. Emission inventory provides the primary data to account for the sources of ambient PAHs and server as a necessary database for effective PAHs pollution control. China is experiencing fast economic growth and large energy consumption, which might result in a large amount of PAHs anthropogenic emissions. Therefore, based on the previous studies and combined recently field emission measurements as well as socio-economic activity data, the development of a nationwide PAHs emission inventory is needed. In this work, the emission inventory of 16 PAHs listed as U.S. Environmental Protection Agency priority pollutants in China in the year 2012 is compiled. The emission amounts of PAHs were estimated as annual rates of emission-related activities multiplied by respective emission factors. The activities such as fuel consumption, including fossil fuel and biofuel, and socio-economic statistics were obtained from yearbook released by Chinese central government and/or provincial governments, as well as related industry reports. Emission factors were derived from the related literature. Recently reported emission factors from local measurements were used. The total emissions of PAHs were 120611 ton in 2012. In China, PAHs were emitted predominantly from domestic combustion of coal and biofuel, coking industry and motor vehicles, accounting for 72% of the total amount. PAHs emission profiles were significantly different between China and the other countries. The emission profile in China featured a relatively higher portion of high molecular weight species with carcinogenic potential due to large contributions of domestic combustion and coking industry. Domestic combustion of straw, coal and firewood emitted 19464 ton, 8831 ton, and 5062 ton of PAHs, respectively, which were much higher than those in other countries. Emission per capita showed

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in US and Swedish smokeless tobacco products

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Debate about the health implications of using smokeless tobacco products (STPs) has prompted considerable interest in characterising their levels of toxic and carcinogenic components. In the present study seventy smokeless tobacco products from the US and Sweden, categorized as chewing tobacco, dry and moist snuff, hard and soft pellets, plug, and loose and portion snus, were analysed for twenty one polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The tested brands represented 80-90% of the 2008 market share for the major STP categories in these two countries. Results There were significant differences in the total and individual PAH concentrations in the different styles of product. Substantially higher levels of total PAHs (10–60 fold) were found in moist and dry snuff and soft pellets than in the other smokeless tobacco styles. The individual PAH concentrations followed the same patterns as total PAHs except for naphthalene, for which the highest concentrations were found in snus and moist snuff. Good correlations were obtained between benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) and all the other PAHs except naphthalene, 1-methylnaphthalene and 2-methylnaphthalene, providing evidence for the first time that it can be used as a good marker for PAHs in STPs. Results were generally in good agreement with two previous studies of PAHs in STPs, except for naphthalene for which significantly lower concentrations were found than previously reported. Analysis of the ratios of different PAHs confirmed that the use of fire-cured tobaccos in the snuffs and soft pellet were the major source of PAHs in these product styles, and provided, for the first time, some indications as to the source of PAHs in the other STP styles, including petrogenic and other combustion sources. Conclusions This study confirms the presence of PAHs in STPs, and identifies substantial differences between the levels in different STP categories. Since previous studies of naphthalene concentrations in STPs differed so

  3. Ecotoxicity of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Eom, I C; Rast, C; Veber, A M; Vasseur, P

    2007-06-01

    Soil samples from a former cokery site polluted with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were assessed for their toxicity to terrestrial and aquatic organisms and for their mutagenicity. The total concentration of the 16 PAHs listed as priority pollutants by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US-EPA) was 2634+/-241 mg/kgdw in soil samples. The toxicity of water-extractable pollutants from the contaminated soil samples was evaluated using acute (Vibrio fischeri; Microtox test, Daphnia magna) and chronic (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, Ceriodaphnia dubia) bioassays and the EC values were expressed as percentage water extract in the test media (v/v). Algal growth (EC50-3d=2.4+/-0.2% of the water extracts) and reproduction of C. dubia (EC50-7d=4.3+/-0.6%) were the most severely affected, compared to bacterial luminescence (EC50-30 min=12+/-3%) and daphnid viability (EC50-48 h=30+/-3%). The Ames and Mutatox tests indicated mutagenicity of water extracts, while no response was found with the umu test. The toxicity of the soil samples was assessed on the survival and reproduction of earthworms (Eisenia fetida) and collembolae (Folsomia candida), and on the germination and growth of higher plants (Lactuca sativa L.: lettuce and Brassica chinensis J.: Chinese cabbage). The EC50 values were expressed as percentage contaminated soil in ISO soil test medium (weight per weight-w/w) and indicated severe effects on reproduction of the collembola F. candida (EC50-28 d=5.7%) and the earthworm E. fetida (EC50-28 d=18% and EC50-56 d=8%, based on cocoon and juvenile production, respectively). Survival of collembolae was already affected at a low concentration of the contaminated soil (EC50-28 d=11%). The viability of juvenile earthworms was inhibited at much lower concentrations of the cokery soil (EC50-14 d=28%) than the viability of adults (EC50-14 d=74%). Only plant growth was inhibited (EC50-17d=26%) while germination was not. Chemical analyses of water extracts allowed

  4. Bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Meador, J P; Stein, J E; Reichert, W L; Varanasi, U

    1995-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous in the marine environment, occurring at their highest environmental concentrations around urban centers. While they can occur naturally, the highest concentrations are mainly from human activities, and the primary sources are combustion products and petroleum. Two factors, lipid and organic carbon, control to a large extent the partitioning behavior of PAHs in sediment, water, and tissue; the more hydrophobic a compound, the greater the partitioning to these phases. These two factors, along with the octanol-water partition coefficient, are the best predictors of this partitioning and can be used to determine PAH behavior and its bioavailability in the environment. It is well known that the lipid of organisms contains the highest levels of hydrophobic compounds such as PAHs, and that organic carbon associated with sediment or dissolved in water can have the greatest influence on PAH bioavailability. Partitioning of combustion-derived PAHs between water and sediment may be much less than predicted, possibly because associations with particles are much stronger than expected. This reduced partitioning may produce erroneous results in predicting bioaccumulation where uptake from water is important. Accumulation of PAHs occurs in all marine organisms; however, there is a wide range in tissue concentrations from variable environmental concentrations, level and time of exposure, and species ability to metabolize these compounds. PAHs generally partition into lipid-rich tissues, and their metabolites can be found in most tissues. In fish, liver and bile accumulate the highest levels of parent PAH and metabolites; hence, these are the best tissues to analyze when determining PAH exposure. In invertebrates, the highest concentrations can be found in the internal organs, such as the hepatopancreas, and tissue concentrations appear to follow seasonal cycles, which may be related to variations in lipid content or spawning

  5. Toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Sese, Beke T; Grant, Alastair; Reid, Brian J

    2009-01-01

    The presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the environment has attracted much concern owing to their mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. Regulatory authorities have favored the use of biological indicators as an essential means of assessing potential toxicity of environmental pollutants. This study aimed to assess the toxicity of acenaphthene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]pyrene to Caenorhabditis elegans by measuring LC50 and EC50 values for growth and reproduction. The exposure to all chemicals was carried out in aqueous medium. All PAHs showed a low acute toxicity to C. elegans. There was no significant mortality in C. elegans after 24 h of exposure at PAH concentrations within (and indeed above) their respective solubility limits. Prolonged exposure (72 h) at high concentrations for acenaphthene (70,573 microg/L), phenanthrene (3758 microg/L), anthracene (1600 microg/L), fluoranthene (1955 microg/L), pyrene (1653 microg/L), and benzo[a]pyrene (80 microg/L) produced mortality. Results also showed that reproduction and growth were much more sensitive parameters of adverse response than lethality, and consequently may be more useful in assessing PAH toxicity using C. elegans. In comparison with previous studies, C. elegans was found to be approximately 2-fold less sensitive to acenaphthene, 5-fold less sensitive to phenanthrene, and 20-fold less sensitive to fluoranthene than Daphnia magna. However, the 48-h LC50 for benzo[a]pyrene (174 microg/L) reported in the present study with C. elegans was similar to that reported elsewhere for Daphnia magna (200 microg/L). Although C. elegans indicated greater sensitivity to benzo[a]pyrene than Artemia salina (174 microg/L vs. 10000 microg/L), the organism showed less sensitivity to pyrene (8 microg/L vs. 2418 microg/L), fluoranthene (40 microg/L vs. 2719 microg/L), and phenanthrene (677 microg/L vs. 4772 microg/L) than Artemia salina. Caenorhabditis elegans, while not the

  6. Argentation chromatography for the separation of polycyclic aromatic compounds according to ring number.

    PubMed

    Nocun, Margarete; Andersson, Jan T

    2012-01-01

    Crude oils are the most complex mixtures known and every speciation method relies on a simplification of their complexity. Argentation chromatography is shown to be superior to traditional liquid chromatographic ways of separating aromatic compounds based on the number of aromatic carbon atoms. A silver(I) mercaptopropano silica gel allows an efficient group separation of polycyclic aromatic compounds to be achieved. The usefulness of this phase is demonstrated for SRM 1582 Wilmington crude oil and a diesel fuel. Furthermore, the phase can also be used for semi-preparative purposes to collect fractions for further analysis with high resolution mass spectrometry. Orbitrap mass spectra are obtained here for the polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles and it is demonstrated that they can contain one to five naphtheno rings.

  7. Release behavior and formation mechanism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during coal pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Meiqi; Wang, Yulong; Dong, Jie; Li, Fan; Xie, Kechang

    2016-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are major environmental pollutants. They have attracted considerable attention due to their severe potential carcinogenic, mutagenic and genotoxic effects on human health. In this study, five different rank coals from China were pyrolyzed using pyro-probe CDS 5250 and the release behavior of 16 PAHs under different pyrolysis conditions were studied by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS). The structural characteristics of the five coals were determined by Cross-Polarization/Magic Angle Spinning Carbon-13 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (CP/MAS (13)C NMR) spectroscopy, and then the factors influencing the formation of PAHs during coal pyrolysis were discussed together with the coal structural data. It was shown that the amount of PAHs generated during coal pyrolysis was largely related to coal rank and followed the order of medium metamorphic coal > low metamorphic coal > high metamorphic coal. The amount of total PAHs varied as the temperature was increased from 400 °C to 1200 °C, which showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing, with the maximum value at 800 °C. Moreover, the species of PAHs released varied with pyrolysis temperatures. When the temperature was lower than 800 °C, the small ring PAHs were the most abundant, while the proportion of heavy rings increased at higher temperature. The results indicate that the formation of PAHs during coal pyrolysis depends on the structure of the coal. The species and amounts of PAHs generated during coal pyrolysis are closely related to the contents of protonated aromatic carbons and bridging ring junction aromatic carbons present in the coal structure.

  8. Biotransformation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by yeasts isolated from coastal sediments.

    PubMed Central

    MacGillivray, A R; Shiaris, M P

    1993-01-01

    Yeast abundance in the sediments of 13 coastal sites in Massachusetts was quantified, and the potential of yeast isolates to biotransform polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was determined. Plate counts of yeasts varied between 10(2) to 10(7) CFU g (dry weight) of sediment-1. The most abundant genera isolated and identified included Candida, Cryptococcus, Rhodotorula, Torulopsis, and Trichosporon. More than 50% of the isolates from heavily contaminated sites transformed phenanthrene, as determined by spray-plate screening. The plate counts of phenanthrene-transforming yeasts correlated significantly to the sediment concentrations of phenanthrene. Transformation of [9-14C]phenanthrene and [12-14C]benz[a]anthracene by individual isolates varied greatly, ranging from 0.15 to 8.15 mumol of PAH g-1 in 120-h incubations. Of the isolated yeasts, Trichosporon penicillatum exhibited the greatest capacity for phenanthrene transformation. The ability to transform PAHs appears to be widespread among yeasts in coastal sediments. PMID:8517753

  9. Aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons characterisation of Coimbra and Oporto PM2.5 urban aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocha, A. C.; Mirante, F.; Gonçalves, C.; Nunes, T.; Alves, C.; Evtyugina, M.; Kowacz, M.; Pio, C.; Rocha, C.; Vasconcelos, T.

    2009-04-01

    The concentration of organic pollutants in urban areas is mostly due to incomplete combustion from vehicles, industries and domestic heating. Some of these compounds, principally the aliphatic (ALIPH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) promote harmful effects in human health. The determination of the ALIPH and PAHs concentration levels and their possible emission sources are useful for air quality management and source apportionment studies. In order to estimate and compare the ambient concentrations and establish the main sources of these compounds, the fine fraction of the atmospheric particulate matter (PM2.5) was collected simultaneously in Oporto and Coimbra during summer and winter seasons using a high volume sampler. The organic compounds were extracted from the particulate matter, under reflux with dichloromethane and the total organic extract (TOE) was fractionated by flash chromatography using five different eluents with increasing polarity. The hydrocarbon fractions were analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Here we present and discuss the qualitative and quantitative composition of the aliphatic and aromatic fractions present in PM2.5 samples from both cities. The homologous series of C14 to C34 n-alkanes, isoprenoid hydrocarbons (pristane and phytane), PAHs and some petroleum markers have been identified and quantified. With the purpose of identifying the possible sources, various molecular diagnostic ratios were calculated. The global carbon preference index (CPI) closer to the unity, the large concentration of the unresolved complex mixture (UCM) and the presence of PAHs indicate that motor vehicle exhaust was the main emission source of the aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic fractions of Oporto and Coimbra aerosol, especially in the first city. Also, the remarkable presence of petroleum biomarkers such, as hopanes, confirms the previous results. Concentration ratios between PAHs were calculated and used to assign emission

  10. Fluorescence, Absorption, and Excitation Spectra of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons as a Tool for Quantitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Figueroa, A. M.; Ramazan, K. A.; Finlayson-Pitts, B. J.

    2004-01-01

    A quantitative and qualitative study of the interplay between absorption, fluorescence, and excitation spectra of pollutants called polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is conducted. The study of five PAH displays the correlation of the above-mentioned properties along with the associated molecular changes.

  11. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in biochar and biochar amended soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method for the determination of the 16 USEPA polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in biochar and soil amended with biochar was developed. Samples were Soxhlet extracted with acetone:cyclohexane 1:1, and PAHs were analysed by GC-MS after silica gel clean-up. In a comparative study based on reflu...

  12. PERSONAL EXPOSURE TO FINE PARTICLE POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS: OUTDOOR SOURCE TRACERS

    EPA Science Inventory


    The most carcinogenic and toxic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are the 4-5 ring PAH found preferentially adsorbed to the fine particles (<2.54u in urban ambient air and personal air. Personal exposure to the carcinogenic particle bound PAH is also highly correlated ...

  13. New SERS Substrates For Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Detection: Towards Quantitative SERS Sensors For Environmental Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Peron, O.; Rinnert, E.; Compere, C.; Toury, T.; Lamy de la Chapelle, M.

    2010-08-06

    In the investigation of chemical pollutions, such as PAHs (Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons) at low concentration in aqueous medium, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) stands for an alternative to the inherent low cross-section of normal Raman scattering. Indeed, SERS is a very sensitive spectroscopic technique due to the excitation of the surface plasmon modes of the nanostructured metallic film.

  14. Enumeration and phylogenetic analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading marine bacteria from Puget Sound sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Geiselbrecht, A.D.; Herwig, R.P.; Deming, J.W.; Staley, J.T.

    1996-09-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are primarily released into the environment through anthropomorphic sources. PAH degradation has been known to occur in marine sediments. This paper describes the enumeration, isolation, and preliminary characterization of PAH-degrading strains from Puget Sound sediments. 38 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Sources and deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to western US national parks

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seasonal snowpack, lichens, and lake sediment cores were collected from fourteen lake catchments in eight western U.S. National Parks and analyzed for sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to determine their current and historical deposition, as well as to identify thei...

  16. PERSONAL EXPOSURES TO POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS ASSOCIATED WITH THE NHEXAS PILOT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Personal exposure monitoring for select polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was performed as part of the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) Pilot Study in Baltimore, MD. Twenty-four hour PM10 sample collections (~5.7 m3) were performed using personal envi...

  17. SOLAR RADIATION DOSE AND PHOTOTOXICITY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS: A CASE STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons increases by as much as three orders of magnitude in the presence of solar radiation. The risk of this photoactive toxicity is thus based on both tissue concentrations of potentially photo activated compounds and the levels of subs...

  18. An evaluation of uncertainty associated to analytical measurements of selected polycyclic aromatic compounds in ambient air.

    PubMed

    Barrado-Olmedo, Ana Isabel; Pérez-Pastor, Rosa María; García-Alonso, Susana

    2012-11-15

    This paper presents an evaluation of uncertainty associated to analytical measurement of 18 polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in ambient air by liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC/FD). The study was focused on analyses of PM(10), PM(2.5) and gas phase fractions. Main analytical uncertainty was estimated for 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), four nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) and two hydroxy-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs) based on the analytical determination, reference material analysis and extraction step. Main contributions reached 15-30% and came from extraction process of real ambient samples, being those for nitro-PAHs the highest (20-30%). Range and mean concentration of selected PACs measured in gas phase and PM(10)/PM(2.5) particle fractions during a full year are also presented. Concentrations of OH-PAHs were about 2-4 orders of magnitude lower than their parent PAHs and comparable to those sparsely reported in literature.

  19. THE EFFECT OF IRRADIANCE SPECTRA ON THE PHOTOACTIVATED TOXICITY OF THREE POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Photoinduced toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is dependent on the concentration of compounds present and the dose of light recieved. Of the light present, only those wavelengths absorbed by the compound have the potential to initiate the photochemical events un...

  20. EFFECT OF IRRADIANCE SPECTRA ON THE PHOTOINDUCED TOXICITY OF THREE POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Photoinduced toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is dependent on the concentration of compounds present and the dose of light received. Of the light present, only those wavelengths absorbed by the compound have the potential to initiate the photochemical events un...

  1. Toxicity of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the toxicity and biochemical effects of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons. Topics include effects on metabolism and liver activity, cellular responses, binding characteristics, and the occurrence and path of the compounds in food chains. Bioaccumulation studies in specific areas, and isolation and detection techniques are also considered. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  2. Particle in a Disk: A Spectroscopic and Computational Laboratory Exercise Studying the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Corannulene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frey, E. Ramsey; Sygula, Andrzej; Hammer, Nathan I.

    2014-01-01

    This laboratory exercise introduces undergraduate chemistry majors to the spectroscopic and theoretical study of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), corannulene. Students explore the spectroscopic properties of corannulene using UV-vis and Raman vibrational spectroscopies. They compare their experimental results to simulated vibrational…

  3. Genome Sequence of Rhodococcus opacus Strain R7, a Biodegrader of Mono- and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    PubMed Central

    Zampolli, J.; Presti, I.; Cappelletti, M.; D’Ursi, P.; Orro, A.; Mezzelani, A.; Milanesi, L.

    2014-01-01

    Rhodococcus opacus strain R7 (CIP107348) degrades several mono- and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Here, we present the high-quality draft genome sequence of strain R7, consisting of 10,118,052 bp, with a G+C content of 67.0%, 9,602 protein-coding genes, and 62 RNAs genes. PMID:25146139

  4. ANALYSIS OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS BY ION TRAP TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An ion-trap mass spectrometer with a wave board and tandem mass spectrometry software was used to analyze gas chromatographically separated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by using collision-induced dissociation (CID). The nonresonant (multiple collision) mode was used to...

  5. Coal-tar-based pavement sealcoat, polycyclic aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), and environmental health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.

    2011-01-01

    Studies by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) have identified coal-tar-based sealcoat-the black, viscous liquid sprayed or painted on asphalt pavement such as parking lots-as a major source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in urban areas for large parts of the Nation. Several PAHs are suspected human carcinogens and are toxic to aquatic life.

  6. COMPARATIVE STUDIES OF THE EFFECT OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON GEOMETRY ON THE HYDROLYSIS OF DIOL EPOXIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Comparative studies of the effect of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon geometry on the hydrolysis of diol epoxides

    The interaction of the diol epoxides (DEs) of both planar and non-planar PAHs with water have been examined using quantum mechanical and molecular dynamics. Th...

  7. THE PHOTOTOXOICITY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS: A THEORETICAL STUDY OF EXCITED STATES AND CORRELATION TO EXPERIMENT

    EPA Science Inventory



    Investigators using models to determine the phototoxic effects of sunlight on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHS) have invoked the excited states of the molecule as important in elucidating the mechanism of these reactions. Energies of actual excited states were calcu...

  8. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON BIODEGRADATION AS A FUNCTION OF OXYGEN TENSION IN CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory tests were conducted to determine the effect of soil gas oxygen concentration on the degradation and mineralization of spiked 14C-pyrene and nonspiked 16 priority pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) present in the soil. The soil used for the evaluation was...

  9. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON FORMATION IN OPPOSED FLOW DIFFUSION FLAMES OF ETHANE. (R825412)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    The effect of fuel-side carbon density on the levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) formation in atmospheric pressure, opposed flow, ethane diffusion flames has been studied using heated micro-probe sampling and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (...

  10. Peat fires as source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsibart, Anna

    2013-04-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) arrive from pyrogenic sources including volcanism and the combustion of oil products and plant materials. The production of PAHs during the combustion of plant materials was considered in a number of publications, but their results were mainly obtained in laboratory experiments. Insufficient data are available on the hightemperature production of PAHs in environmental objects. For example, natural fires are frequently related to the PAH sources in landscapes, but very little factual data are available on this topic. On Polistovskii reserve (Russia, Pskov region) the soil series were separated depending on the damage to the plants; these series included soils of plots subjected to fires of different intensities, as well as soils of the background plots. The series of organic and organomineral soils significantly differed in their PAH distributions. In this series, the concentration of PAHs in the upper horizons of the peat soils little varied or slightly decreased, but their accumulation occurred at a depth of 5-10 or 10-20 cm in the soils after the fires. For example, in the series of high moor soils, the content of PAHs in the upper horizons remained almost constant; significant differences were observed in the subsurface horizons: from 2 ng/g in the background soil to 70 ng/g after the fire. In the upper horizons of the oligotrophic peat soils under pine forests, the total PAH content also varied only slightly. At the same time, the content of PAHs in the soil series increased from 15 to 90 ng/g with the increasing pyrogenic damage to the plot. No clear trends of the PAH accumulation were recorded in the organomineral soils. The content of PAHs in the soddy-podzolic soil subjected to fire slightly decreased (from 20 to 10 ng/g) compared to the less damaged soil. In peat fires, the access of oxygen to the fire zone is lower than in forest fires. The oxygen deficit acts as a factor of the organic fragments recombination and

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the South American environment.

    PubMed

    Barra, Ricardo; Castillo, Caroline; Torres, Joao Paulo Machado

    2007-01-01

    Pollution of the environment with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) should be a global concern, especially in urbanized areas. In South American countries, where notable increase in urban populations has been observed in the past few years, reliable information about the pollution status of these urban environments is not always easily accessible, and therefore an effort to collect updated information is required. This review attempts to contribute by analyzing the existing information regarding environmental levels of PAHs in some South American countries. A regional trend for environmental PAH information is an uneven contribution, because some countries, such as Bolivia, Peru, Paraguay, and Ecuador, have reported no information at all in the scientific literature, reflecting to a certain extent the different patterns of economic, technical, and scientific development. PAH air monitoring is one of the areas that has received the most attention during the last few years, mainly in Brazil, Chile, and Argentina, where data represent a few geographical areas within the region. PAH levels in air from some urban areas in Argentina, Brazil, and Chile, considered moderate to high (100-1000ng/m3), are probably among the highest values reported in the open literature. Urbanization, vehicle pollution, and wood fires are the principal contributors to the high reported levels. In more temperate areas, a clear distinction is observed between summer and winter levels. PAH monitoring in soils is very limited within the region, with few data available, and most information indicates widespread pollution. In Brazil, values for many representative ecosystems were found. In Chile, data from forestry and agricultural areas indicate in general low concentrations, in spite of a relatively high detection frequency. Pollution levels in soils are highly dependent on their closeness to PAH sources and certain cultural practices (agricultural burnings, forest fires, etc.). Water PAH

  12. Airborne Exposures to Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds Among Workers in Asphalt Roofing Manufacturing Facilities.

    PubMed

    Trumbore, David C; Osborn, Linda V; Johnson, Kathleen A; Fayerweather, William E

    2015-01-01

    We studied exposure of 151 workers to polycyclic aromatic compounds and asphalt emissions during the manufacturing of asphalt roofing products-including 64 workers from 10 asphalt plants producing oxidized, straight-run, cutback, and wax- or polymer-modified asphalts, and 87 workers from 11 roofing plants producing asphalt shingles and granulated roll roofing. The facilities were located throughout the United States and used asphalt from many refiners and crude oils. This article helps fill a gap in exposure data for asphalt roofing manufacturing workers by using a fluorescence technique that targets biologically active 4-6 ring polycyclic aromatic compounds and is strongly correlated with carcinogenic activity in animal studies. Worker exposures to polycyclic aromatic compounds were compared between manufacturing plants, at different temperatures and using different raw materials, and to important external benchmarks. High levels of fine limestone particulate in the plant air during roofing manufacturing increased polycyclic aromatic compound exposure, resulting in the hypothesis that the particulate brought adsorbed polycyclic aromatic compounds to the worker breathing zone. Elevated asphalt temperatures increased exposures during the pouring of asphalt. Co-exposures in these workplaces which act as confounders for both the measurement of total organic matter and fluorescence were detected and their influence discussed. Exposures to polycyclic aromatic compounds in asphalt roofing manufacturing facilities were lower than or similar to those reported in hot-mix paving application studies, and much below those reported in studies of hot application of built-up roofing asphalt. These relatively low exposures in manufacturing are primarily attributed to air emission controls in the facilities, and the relatively moderate temperatures, compared to built-up roofing, used in these facilities for oxidized asphalt. The exposure to polycyclic aromatic compounds was a very

  13. Applications of electrochemically-modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC): Separations of aromatic amino acids and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, L.

    1998-03-27

    The research in this thesis explores the separation capabilities of a new technique termed electrochemically-modulated liquid chromatography (EMLC). The thesis begins with a general introduction section which provides a literature review of this technique as well as a brief background discussion of the two research projects in each of the next two chapters. The two papers which follow investigate the application of EMLC to the separation of a mixture of aromatic amino acids and of a mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The last section presents general conclusions and summarizes the thesis. References are compiled in the reference section of each chapter. The two papers have been removed for separate processing.

  14. UV irradiation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ices: production of alcohols, quinones, and ethers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, M. P.; Sandford, S. A.; Allamandola, L. J.; Gillette, J. S.; Clemett, S. J.; Zare, R. N.

    1999-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water ice were exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation under astrophysical conditions, and the products were analyzed by infrared spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. Peripheral carbon atoms were oxidized, producing aromatic alcohols, ketones, and ethers, and reduced, producing partially hydrogenated aromatic hydrocarbons, molecules that account for the interstellar 3.4-micrometer emission feature. These classes of compounds are all present in carbonaceous meteorites. Hydrogen and deuterium atoms exchange readily between the PAHs and the ice, which may explain the deuterium enrichments found in certain meteoritic molecules. This work has important implications for extraterrestrial organics in biogenesis.

  15. Determination of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water by solid-phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianli; Kang, Haiyan; Wu, Junfeng

    2016-05-01

    Given the potential risks of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the analysis of their presence in water is very urgent. We have developed a novel procedure for determining chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water based on solid-phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The extraction parameters of solid-phase extraction were optimized in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the proposed method showed wide linear ranges (1.0-1000 ng/L) with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9952 to 0.9998. The limits of detection and the limits of quantification were in the range of 0.015-0.591 and 0.045-1.502 ng/L, respectively. Recoveries ranged from 82.5 to 102.6% with relative standard deviations below 9.2%. The obtained method was applied successfully to the determination of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in real water samples. Most of the chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were detected and 1-monochloropyrene was predominant in the studied water samples. This is the first report of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples in China. The toxic equivalency quotients of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the studied tap water were 9.95 ng the toxic equivalency quotient m(-3) . 9,10-Dichloroanthracene and 1-monochloropyrene accounted for the majority of the total toxic equivalency quotients of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tap water.

  16. Determination of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water by solid-phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xianli; Kang, Haiyan; Wu, Junfeng

    2016-05-01

    Given the potential risks of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the analysis of their presence in water is very urgent. We have developed a novel procedure for determining chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water based on solid-phase extraction coupled with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The extraction parameters of solid-phase extraction were optimized in detail. Under the optimal conditions, the proposed method showed wide linear ranges (1.0-1000 ng/L) with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9952 to 0.9998. The limits of detection and the limits of quantification were in the range of 0.015-0.591 and 0.045-1.502 ng/L, respectively. Recoveries ranged from 82.5 to 102.6% with relative standard deviations below 9.2%. The obtained method was applied successfully to the determination of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in real water samples. Most of the chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were detected and 1-monochloropyrene was predominant in the studied water samples. This is the first report of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples in China. The toxic equivalency quotients of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the studied tap water were 9.95 ng the toxic equivalency quotient m(-3) . 9,10-Dichloroanthracene and 1-monochloropyrene accounted for the majority of the total toxic equivalency quotients of chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in tap water. PMID:26960154

  17. Particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the atmosphere of Bizerte city, Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Ben Hassine, S; Hammami, B; Ben Ameur, W; El Megdiche, Y; Barhoumi, B; Driss, M R

    2014-09-01

    The particle-phase concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were determined in 13 air samples collected in an urban area of Bizerte (Tunisia) during 2009-2010. Atmospheric particulate samples were extracted by ultrasonic bath and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. PAH were found in all the analyzed air samples and the most abundant compounds were pyrene, fluoranthene, benzo[g,h,i]perylene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, chrysene and benzo[a]pyrene. ∑14-PAH concentrations ranging from 9.38 to 44.81 ng m(-3) with mean value of 25.39 ng m(-3). PAH diagnostic ratio source analysis revealed gasoline and diesel vehicular emissions as major sources. The mean total benzo[a]pyrene toxicity equivalent calculated for samples was 3.66 ng m(-3) and the mean contribution of the carcinogenic potency of benzo[a]pyrene was determined to be 55.8 %. Concentrations of particulate PAH in Bizerte city atmosphere were approximately eight times greater than sampled at a nearby rural site.

  18. Analysis of isomeric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by charge-exchange chemical ionization mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Simonsick, W.J. Jr.; Hites, R.A.

    1984-12-01

    Charge-exchange chemical ionization mass spectrometry (using a 15% mixture of methane in argon) yields abundant M/sup +/, M + H/sup +/, M + C/sub 2/H/sub 5//sup +/ ions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). On the basis of the relative intensities of the M + H/sup +/ ion to the M/sup +/ ion, this technique can differentiate, in a predictable manner, isomeric structures of PAH. The operating conditions were evaluated and optimized; the most significant contributions to the variations in the (M + H)/sup +//M/sup +/ ratios are the temperature, pressure, and condition of the ion source. The optimum ion source temperature (250/sup 0/C) and pressure (0.8 torr) are easily controlled and regulated. The variable contamination of the ion source is compensated by an internal standard 1,2,3,5-tetrafluorobenzene. The analyses of Standard Reference Materials 1648 and 1649 (air particulate samples) and a carbon black extract are reported. Triphenylene and chrysene, although not chromatographically resolved, can be quantitated by using this technique. The identification of acephenanthrylene based on the measurement of ratios and calculated ionization potentials is also presented.

  19. Characterization of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an urban atmosphere of central-southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Florentina; Tapia, Araceli; Cabañas, Beatriz; Martínez, Ernesto; Albaladejo, José

    2015-12-01

    Over 1-year period, 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with particulate matter PM10 have been monitored for the first time in the atmosphere of Ciudad Real, situated at the central-southern Spain. PM10-bound PAHs were collected using a high-volume sampler from autumn 2012 to summer 2013 and were analyzed by HPLC with fluorescence detector. The most abundant PAHs were pyrene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene and benzo[g,h,i]perylene. The ∑PAH concentrations in Ciudad Real were 888, 368, 259 and 382 pg m(-3) for winter, spring, summer and autumn seasons, respectively. The diurnal variation of PAH was also investigated presenting the highest concentrations during the evening (19:00-23:00). Benzo[a]pyrene concentrations ranged from 2.4 to 110 pg m(-3), these values are lower than the target value proposed by the European legislation, 1 ng m(-3). Diagnostic ratios were used to identify potential sources of PAHs. Results suggest that vehicle emissions are the major source of identified PAHs, with a higher contribution of diesel engines although other anthropogenic sources could also have an impact on the PAH levels.

  20. Effects of pollution sources and soil properties on distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Juan; Yang, Jun-cheng; Wang, Ren-qing; Hou, Hong; Du, Xiao-ming; Fan, Shu-kai; Liu, Jiang-sheng; Dai, Jiu-lan

    2013-10-01

    In this study, the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil profiles and the soil properties were analyzed in Hunpu, a typical wastewater irrigation area, northeast of China. The total concentrations of 16 priority control PAHs ranged from 7.88 to 2,231.42 μg/kg. Among 16 PAHs, the most abundant was Phenanthrene and the 3- or 4- ring PAHs were predominant. The PAH concentrations were higher in the upland fields near the oil wells, whereas leaching of PAH into the groundwater caused low concentrations in the paddy fields. The geochemical indices and the results from the principal component analysis of all 16 PAHs indicated that PAHs were mainly from atmospheric dusts in the top soil in I-1P/I-3P/I-7P and through soil profiles in I-4U/I-5P/I-8U, whereas those in the bottom layers were mainly from petroleum production and wastewater irrigation in I-1P/I-3P/I-7P and through soil profiles in I-2U and I-6U. In the redundancy analysis, PAHs exhibited negative correlation with pH, depth, silt, and clay, but had positive correlation with sand and organic matter. Finally, total toxic equivalent in the soil profiles and the calculated health risk of PAHs in the surface soil using contaminated land exposure assessment model elucidated the cancer risk that PAHs pose on human health in the Hunpu region.

  1. Characterization of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in an urban atmosphere of central-southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Florentina; Tapia, Araceli; Cabañas, Beatriz; Martínez, Ernesto; Albaladejo, José

    2015-12-01

    Over 1-year period, 13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) associated with particulate matter PM10 have been monitored for the first time in the atmosphere of Ciudad Real, situated at the central-southern Spain. PM10-bound PAHs were collected using a high-volume sampler from autumn 2012 to summer 2013 and were analyzed by HPLC with fluorescence detector. The most abundant PAHs were pyrene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, dibenzo[a,h]anthracene and benzo[g,h,i]perylene. The ∑PAH concentrations in Ciudad Real were 888, 368, 259 and 382 pg m(-3) for winter, spring, summer and autumn seasons, respectively. The diurnal variation of PAH was also investigated presenting the highest concentrations during the evening (19:00-23:00). Benzo[a]pyrene concentrations ranged from 2.4 to 110 pg m(-3), these values are lower than the target value proposed by the European legislation, 1 ng m(-3). Diagnostic ratios were used to identify potential sources of PAHs. Results suggest that vehicle emissions are the major source of identified PAHs, with a higher contribution of diesel engines although other anthropogenic sources could also have an impact on the PAH levels. PMID:26201660

  2. LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON FORMATION AND DESTRUCTION IN THE CIRCUMSTELLAR OUTFLOWS OF CARBON STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Contreras, Cesar S.; Salama, Farid E-mail: Farid.Salama@nasa.gov

    2013-09-15

    The formation and destruction mechanisms of interstellar dust analogs formed from a variety of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) and hydrocarbon molecular precursors are studied in the laboratory. We used the newly developed facility COSmIC, which simulates interstellar and circumstellar environments, to investigate both PAHs and species that include the cosmically abundant atoms O, N, and S. The species generated in a discharge plasma are detected, monitored, and characterized in situ using highly sensitive techniques that provide both spectral and ion mass information. We report here the first series of measurements obtained in these experiments which focus on the characterization of the most efficient molecular precursors in the chemical pathways that eventually lead to the formation of carbonaceous grains in the stellar envelopes of carbon stars. We compare and discuss the relative efficiencies of the various molecular precursors that lead to the formation of the building blocks of carbon grains. We discuss the most probable molecular precursors in terms of size and structure and the implications for the expected growth and destruction processes of interstellar carbonaceous dust.

  3. Charged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon clusters and the galactic extended red emission

    PubMed Central

    Rhee, Young Min; Lee, Timothy J.; Gudipati, Murthy S.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Head-Gordon, Martin

    2007-01-01

    The species responsible for the broad extended red emission (ERE), discovered in 1975 and now known to be widespread throughout the Galaxy, still is unidentified. Spanning the range from ≈540 to 900 nm, the ERE is a photoluminescent process associated with a wide variety of different interstellar environments. Over the years, a number of plausible candidates have been suggested, but subsequent observations ruled them out. The objects that present the ERE also emit the infrared features attributed to free polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules, suggesting that closely related materials are plausible ERE carriers. Here, we show that the peculiar spectra and unique properties of closed-shell cationic PAH dimers satisfy the existing observational constraints and suggest that emission from mixtures of charged PAH clusters accounts for much of the ERE. This work provides a view into the structures, stabilities, abundances, and ionization balance of PAH-related species in the emission zones, which, in turn, reflects physical conditions in the emission zones and sheds fundamental light on the nanoscale processes involved in carbon-particle nucleation and growth and carbonaceous dust evolution in the interstellar medium. PMID:17372209

  4. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Mainstream Smoke of Popular U.S. Cigarettes

    PubMed Central

    Vu, An T.; Taylor, Kenneth M.; Holman, Matthew R.; Ding, Yan S.; Hearn, Bryan; Watson, Clifford H.

    2015-01-01

    The mainstream smoke yields of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined for 50 commercial U.S. cigarettes using a validated GC/MS method with the International Organization of Standardization (ISO) and Canadian Intense (CI) smoking machine regimens. PAH mainstream smoke deliveries vary widely among the commercial cigarettes with the ISO smoking regimen primarily because of differing filter ventilation. The more abundant, lower molecular weight PAHs such as naphthalene, fluorene, and phenanthrene predominantly comprise the total PAH yields. In contrast, delivery yields of high molecular weight PAHs such as benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[e]pyrene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) are much lower. Comparative analysis of PAHs deliveries shows brand specific differences. Correlation analysis shows strong positive associations between BaP and most of the other PAHs as well as total PAHs. The results suggest that BaP may be a representative marker for other PAH constituents in cigarette smoke generated from similarly blended tobacco, particularly those PAHs with similar molecular weights and chemical structures. PMID:26158771

  5. Microbial community dynamics and biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in polluted marine sediments in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y F; Tam, N F Y

    2011-01-01

    Dynamics of microbial community and biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in polluted marine sediments, artificially spiked with a mixture of PAHs (fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene), were examined for a period of 60 days. Microbial communities were characterised by bacterial counts, ester-linked fatty acid methyl ester (EL-FAME) analysis and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). A noted reduction in species diversity occurred only in the high PAH level treatment at onset. Both EL-FAME and DGGE demonstrated a marked shift in microbial community, in all the PAH level treatments, afterwards, with increases in the number of fatty acid degraders, the relative abundance of fatty acid biomarkers for gram-negative bacteria and a decrease in species diversity. The shift was also accompanied by the significant decrease in PAH concentrations. By the end of the experiment, diversity indices, based on both approaches, recovered when PAH concentrations declined to their background levels, except in the high PAH level treatment. PMID:21620420

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and the unidentified infrared emission bands - Auto exhaust along the Milky Way

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allamandola, L. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Barker, J. R.

    1985-01-01

    The unidentified infrared emission features (UIR bands) are attributed to a collection of partially hydrogenated, positively charged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This assignment is based on a spectroscopic analysis of the UIR bands. Comparison of the observed interstellar 6.2 and 7.7-micron bands with the laboratory measured Raman spectrum of a collection of carbon-based particulates (auto exhaust) shows a very good agreement, supporting this identification. The infrared emission is due to relaxation from highly vibrationally and electronically excited states. The excitation is probably caused by UV photon absorption. The infrared fluorescence of one particular, highly vibrationally excited PAH (chrysene) is modeled. In this analysis the species is treated as a molecule rather than bulk material and the non-thermodynamic equilibrium nature of the emission is fully taken into account. From a comparison of the observed ratio of the 3.3 to 11.3-micron UIR bands with the model calculations, the average number of carbon atoms per molecule is estimated to be about 20. The abundance of interstellar PAHs is calculated to be about 2 x 10 to the -7th with respect to hydrogen.

  7. [Over One Hundred Year Sediment Record of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Lake Bosten, Xinjiang].

    PubMed

    Shen, Bei-bei; Wu, Jing-lu; Zhao, Zhong-hua; Zeng, Hai-ao; Jin, Miao

    2016-02-15

    The vertical distributions of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated from a sediment core in the Lake Bosten, Xinjiang. Meanwhile, the possible source and risk assessment of PAHs in Lake Bosten were also discussed. The total PAHs concentration in the sediment core ranged from 37.5 ng x g(-1) to 184.5 ng x g(-1), and Naphthalene and Phenanthrene were the dominant compounds throughout the core. Over the one hundred year, the vertical profile of PAHs underwent significant changes around 1950s. The vertical distributions of PAHs had little change and low molecular weight PAHs were dominant PAHs before 1950s. Since then, the high molecular weight PAHs appeared and increased with fluctuations. A sharp increase in PAHs level and individuals was observed especially after 1990s and a maximum was found in the surface sediment. The results suggested PAHs in Lake Bosten were from the local sources, which were dominated by the low temperature combustion. Besides, the abundance of PAHs from high temperature combustion processes, such as combustion of industrial coal and vehicle emission, increased significantly in recent years. However, based on the results of risk assessment, the PAHs may not induce adverse biological effects on the aquatic ecosystem in Lake Bosten.

  8. Sources of heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban stormwater runoff.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jeffrey N; Peake, Barrie M

    2006-04-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals were measured in road debris collecting in urban areas and in the suspended sediment (SS) component of runoff from two stormwater catchments in Dunedin, New Zealand. Levels in the road debris ranged from 119-527 microg/g for lead, 50-464 microg/g for copper, 241-1 325 microg/g for zinc and 1.20-11.6 microg/g for sigma16PAH. The SS from the largely rural catchment (20% urban) had similar concentrations to the road debris, indicating that this urban material was the main source of the contaminants measured in the stormwater. Similar PAH fingerprint profiles and isomer ratios indicative of dominant pyrogenic (combustion) sources were also found in these two groups of materials. The SS from the 100% urban catchment contained 2- to 6-fold higher concentrations of metals and 10-fold greater levels of sigma16PAH. The higher levels of lead and copper were probably a result of industrial land uses in this catchment, while the additional zinc was linked to an abundance of zinc-galvanised roofing iron in the catchment's residential suburbs. The PAH profiles and isomer ratios were different for this urban catchment and suggested that a disused gasworks was contributing PAHs to the stormwater runoff. PMID:16014309

  9. Fluxes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to marine and lacustrine sediments in the northeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gschwend, Philip M.; Hites, Ronald A.

    1981-12-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were measured in dated sediment cores from several sites in the northeastern United States (Lake Superior, Isle Royale, Somes Sound, Hadlock Lower Pond. Coburn Mountain Pond, and outer Boston Harbor). Fluxes of ten PAH were measured for each site for the periods roughly corresponding to the present, 1950, and 1900. Remote sites consistently demonstrated present-day deliveries of individual PAH near 1 ng cm-2 yr-1, probably reflecting the atmospheric fallout of these combustion-derived pollutants. Sites located nearer to urban centers showed much greater current inputs (average of 35 ng cm-2 yr-1 for most individual PAH), presumably caused by greater fallout of PAH-laden particles nearer their urban origins, augmented by runoff delivery of PAH-contaminated sediments. Differences in the relative abundances of individual PAH at remote-versus-urban locations support suggestions of different delivery mechanisms. The sedimentary historical records of PAH inputs confirm the previous finding that anthropogenic activities began introducing large quantities of PAH into the environment about 80-100 years ago.

  10. High-resolution record of pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon deposition during the 20th century.

    PubMed

    Lima, Ana Lúcia C; Eglinton, Timothy I; Reddy, Christopher M

    2003-01-01

    A high-resolution record of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) deposition in Rhode Island over the past approximately 180 years was constructed using a sediment core from the anoxic Pettaquamscutt River basin. The record showed significantly more structure than has hitherto been reported and revealed four distinct maxima in PAH flux. The characteristic increase in PAH flux at the turn of the 20th century was captured in detail, leading to an initial maximum prior to the Great Depression. The overall peak in PAH flux in the 1950s was followed by a maximum that immediately preceded the 1973 Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) oil embargo. During the most recent portion of the record, an abrupt increase in PAH flux between 1996 and 1999 has been found to follow a period of near constant fluxes. Because source-diagnostic ratios indicate that petrogenic inputs are minor throughout the record, these trends are interpreted in terms of past variations in the magnitude and type of combustion processes. For the most recent PAH maximum, energy consumption data suggest that diesel fuel combustion, and hence traffic of heavier vehicles, is the most probable cause for the increase in PAH flux. Systematic variations in the relative abundance of individual PAHs in conjunction with the above changes in flux are interpreted in relation to the evolution of combustion processes. Coronene, retene, and perylene are notable exceptions, exhibiting unique down-core profiles. PMID:12542290

  11. Identification of products formed during the heterogeneous nitration and ozonation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, Richard E.; Jeong, Haewoo; Haddadi, Shokouh; Fisseha Derseh, Rebeka; Gowan, Alexandra; Beránek, Josef; Kubátová, Alena

    2016-03-01

    The 3- and 4-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are the most abundant of PAHs in air particulate matter (PM). Thus we have investigated heterogeneous oxidation of 3- and 4-ring PAHs in a small-scale flow reactor using quartz filter as a support. Four representative PAHs, anthracene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and fluoranthene, were exposed to either NO2, O3 or NO2+O3 (NO3/N2O5) with a goal to identify and attempt quantification of major product distribution. A combination of gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with/without derivatization and liquid chromatography with high resolution MS (LC-HRMS) was used for identification. For the first time, a comprehensive characterization of a broad range of products enabled identifying ketone/diketone, aldehyde, hydroxyl, and carboxylic acid PAH derivatives. Exposure to NO3/N2O5 (formed by reacting NO2 with O3, a more powerful reactant than either O3 or NO2) produced additional compounds not observed with either oxidant alone. Multiple isomers of nitrofluoranthene and, for the first time, nitrophenanthrene were identified. In addition hydroxy-nitro-PAH derivatives were observed for the reaction of anthracene with NO3/N2O5. Monitoring of specific common ions such as those of 176 and 205 m/z attributed to carbonyl phenanthrene and deprotonated phenanthrene ions respectively was shown to be a useful tool for identification of multiple pyrene oxidation products.

  12. Biostimulation Reveals Functional Redundancy of Anthracene-Degrading Bacteria in Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Contaminated Soil

    PubMed Central

    Dunlevy, Sage R.; Singleton, David R.; Aitken, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Stable-isotope probing was previously used to identify bacterial anthracene-degraders in untreated soil from a former manufactured gas plant site. However, subsequent pyrosequence analyses of total bacterial communities and quantification of 16S rRNA genes indicated that relative abundances of the predominant anthracene-degrading bacteria (designated Anthracene Group 1) diminished as a result of biological treatment conditions in lab-scale, aerobic bioreactors. This study identified Alphaproteobacterial anthracene-degrading bacteria in bioreactor-treated soil which were dissimilar to those previously identified. The largest group of sequences was from the Alterythrobacter genus while other groups of sequences were associated with bacteria within the order Rhizobiales and the genus Bradyrhizobium. Conditions in the bioreactor enriched for organisms capable of degrading anthracene which were not the same as those identified as dominant degraders in the untreated soil. Further, these data suggest that identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in contaminated but untreated soil may be a poor indicator of the most active degraders during biological treatment. PMID:24302851

  13. Vibrational Spectroscopy after OSU - From C2- to Interstellar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allamandola, Louis J.

    2006-01-01

    The composition of interstellar ice and dust provides insight into the chemical history of the interstellar medium and early solar system. It is now possible to probe this unique and unusual chemistry and determine the composition of these microscopic interstellar particles which are hundreds to many thousands of light years away thanks to substantial progress in two areas: astronomical spectroscopic techniques in the middle-infrared, the spectral region most diagnostic of chemical composition, and laboratory simulations which realistically reproduce the critical conditions in various interstellar environments. High quality infrared spectra of many different astronomical sources, some associated with giant, dark molecular clouds -the birthplace of stars and planets- and others in more tenuous, UV radiation rich regions are now available. The fundamentals of IR spectroscopy and what comparisons of astronomical IR spectra with laboratory spectra of materials prepared under realistic simulated interstellar conditions tell us about the components of these materials is the subject of this talk. These observations have shown that mixed molecular ices comprised of H2O, CH3OH, CO, NH3 and H2CO contain most of the molecular material in molecular clouds and that gas phase, ionized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread and surprisingly abundant throughout most of the interstellar medium.

  14. Neutral and ionized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, diffuse interstellar bands and the ultraviolet extinction curve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salama, Farid; Allamandola, Louis John

    1993-01-01

    Neutral naphthalene C10H8, phenanthrene C14H10 and pyrene C16H10 absorb strongly in the ultraviolet region and may contribute to the extinction curve. High abundances are required to produce detectable structures. The cations of these polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) absorb in the visible C10H8(+) has 13 discrete absorption bands which fall between 6800 and 4500 A. The strongest band at 6741 A falls close to the weak 6742 A diffuse interstellar band (DIB). Five other weaker bands also match DIBs. The possibility that C10H8(+) is responsible for some of the DIBs can be tested by searching for new DIBs at 6520 and 6151 A, other strong naphthalene cation band positions. If C10H8(+) is indeed responsible for the 6742 A feature, it accounts for 0.3% of the cosmic carbon. The spectrum of C16H10(+) is dominated by a strong band at 4435 A in an Ar matrix and 4395 A in Ne, wavelengths which fall very close to the strongest DIB at 4430 A. If C16H10(+) or a closely related pyrene-like ion, is indeed responsible for the 4430 A feature, it accounts for 0.2% of the cosmic carbon. An intense, very broad UV-to-visible continuum is reported which is associated with both ions and could explain how PAHs convert interstellar UV and visible radiation into IR radiation.

  15. EU marker polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in food supplements: analytical approach and occurrence

    PubMed Central

    Zelinkova, Zuzana; Wenzl, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Several food supplements comprising botanical, oil and bee products collected from retail markets in different countries were tested for the occurrence of 4 EU marker Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene). A robust GC/MS-based stable-isotope dilution method was used taking into account the differences in the type of matrices. The accuracy of the results was assessed by implementing several quality control tools. Sixty-eight samples of 94 analysed products exceeded the level of 0.5 μg/kg for the sum of the four EU marker PAHs (ΣPAH4). Benzo[a]pyrene exceeded the limit of quantification in 49 samples. The PAH with the highest abundance in all products was chrysene. On average, propolis extracts and other bee products showed relatively high levels of ΣPAH4 (mean 188.2 μg/kg), whereas the contamination levels of fish oil supplements were very low or mostly undetectable. Considerably high ΣPAH4 amounts found in some samples could remarkably increase the daily exposure of consumers to PAHs, demonstrating the need for continuous monitoring of ΣPAH4 in food supplements. PMID:26467752

  16. [Over One Hundred Year Sediment Record of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Lake Bosten, Xinjiang].

    PubMed

    Shen, Bei-bei; Wu, Jing-lu; Zhao, Zhong-hua; Zeng, Hai-ao; Jin, Miao

    2016-02-15

    The vertical distributions of 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated from a sediment core in the Lake Bosten, Xinjiang. Meanwhile, the possible source and risk assessment of PAHs in Lake Bosten were also discussed. The total PAHs concentration in the sediment core ranged from 37.5 ng x g(-1) to 184.5 ng x g(-1), and Naphthalene and Phenanthrene were the dominant compounds throughout the core. Over the one hundred year, the vertical profile of PAHs underwent significant changes around 1950s. The vertical distributions of PAHs had little change and low molecular weight PAHs were dominant PAHs before 1950s. Since then, the high molecular weight PAHs appeared and increased with fluctuations. A sharp increase in PAHs level and individuals was observed especially after 1990s and a maximum was found in the surface sediment. The results suggested PAHs in Lake Bosten were from the local sources, which were dominated by the low temperature combustion. Besides, the abundance of PAHs from high temperature combustion processes, such as combustion of industrial coal and vehicle emission, increased significantly in recent years. However, based on the results of risk assessment, the PAHs may not induce adverse biological effects on the aquatic ecosystem in Lake Bosten. PMID:27363137

  17. Dust and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon in the HD 34700 Debris Disk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seok, Ji Yeon; Li, Aigen

    2015-08-01

    The debris disk around the Vega-type star HD 34700 is detected in dust thermal emission from the near-infrared (IR) to millimeter (mm) and submm wavelength range. Also detected is a distinct set of emission features at 3.3, 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3, and 12.7 μ {{m}}, which are commonly attributed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules. We model the observed dust IR spectral energy distribution (SED) and PAH emission features of the HD 34700 disk in terms of porous dust and astronomical-PAHs. Porous dust together with a mixture of neutral and ionized PAHs closely explains the dust IR SED and PAH emission features observed in the HD 34700 disk. Due to the stellar radiation pressure and Poynting-Robertson drag together with the photodissociation of PAHs, substantial removal of dust and PAHs has occurred in the disk, and continuous replenishment of these materials is required to maintain their current abundances. This implies that these materials are not primitive but secondary products probably originating from mutual collisions among planetesimals, asteroids, and comets.

  18. EU marker polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in food supplements: analytical approach and occurrence.

    PubMed

    Zelinkova, Zuzana; Wenzl, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Several food supplements comprising botanical, oil and bee products collected from retail markets in different countries were tested for the occurrence of 4 EU marker Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs; benz[a]anthracene, chrysene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene). A robust GC/MS-based stable-isotope dilution method was used taking into account the differences in the type of matrices. The accuracy of the results was assessed by implementing several quality control tools. Sixty-eight samples of 94 analysed products exceeded the level of 0.5 μg/kg for the sum of the four EU marker PAHs (ΣPAH4). Benzo[a]pyrene exceeded the limit of quantification in 49 samples. The PAH with the highest abundance in all products was chrysene. On average, propolis extracts and other bee products showed relatively high levels of ΣPAH4 (mean 188.2 μg/kg), whereas the contamination levels of fish oil supplements were very low or mostly undetectable. Considerably high ΣPAH4 amounts found in some samples could remarkably increase the daily exposure of consumers to PAHs, demonstrating the need for continuous monitoring of ΣPAH4 in food supplements. PMID:26467752

  19. Microbial metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: isolation and characterization of a pyrene-degrading bacterium.

    PubMed Central

    Heitkamp, M A; Franklin, W; Cerniglia, C E

    1988-01-01

    Microbiological analyses of sediments located near a point source for petrogenic chemicals resulted in the isolation of a pyrene-mineralizing bacterium. This isolate was identified as a Mycobacterium sp. on the basis of its cellular and colony morphology, gram-positive and strong acid-fast reactions, diagnostic biochemical tests, 66.6% G + C content of the DNA, and high-molecular-weight mycolic acids (C58 to C64). The mycobacterium mineralized pyrene when grown in a mineral salts medium supplemented with nutrients but was unable to utilize pyrene as a sole source of carbon and energy. The mycobacterium grew well at 24 and 30 degrees C and minimally at 35 degrees C. No growth was observed at 5 or 42 degrees C. The mycobacterium grew well at salt concentrations up to 4%. Pyrene-induced Mycobacterium cultures mineralized 5% of the pyrene after 6 h and reached a maximum of 48% mineralization within 72 h. Treatment of induced and noninduced cultures with chloramphenicol showed that pyrene-degrading enzymes were inducible in this Mycobacterium sp. This bacterium could also mineralize other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and alkyl- and nitro-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons including naphthalene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, 3-methylcholanthrene, 1-nitropyrene, and 6-nitrochrysene. This is the first report of a bacterium able to extensively mineralize pyrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons containing four aromatic rings. Images PMID:3202633

  20. FORMATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND THEIR GROWTH TO SOOT -A REVIEW OF CHEMICAL REACTION PATHWAYS. (R824970)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The generation by combustion processes of airborne species of current health concern such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and soot particles necessitates a detailed understanding of chemical reaction pathways responsible for their formation. The present review discus...

  1. PHOTOACTIVATED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON TOXICITY IN MEDAKA (ORYZIAS LATIPES) EMBRYOS: RELEVANCE TO ENVIRONMENTAL RISK IN CONTAMINATED SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The hazard for photoactivated toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been clearly demonstrated; however, to our knowledge, the risk in contaminated systems has not been characterized. To address this question, a median lethal dose (LD50) for fluoranthene photoa...

  2. COMPARISON OF IMMUNOASSAY AND GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY/MASS SPECTROMETRY FOR MEASUREMENT OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN CONTAMINATED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are frequently encountered in the environment and may pose health concerns due to their carcinogenicity. A commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), was evaluated as a screening method for monitoring PAHs at contaminated site...

  3. IMPORTANCE OF MATERNAL TRANSFER OF THE PHOTOREACTIVE POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON FLUORANTHENE FROM BENTHIC ADULT BIVALVES TO THEIR PELAGIC LARVAE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to determine if maternal transfer of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from benthic adult bivalves could result in phototoxicity to their pelagic larvae when exposed to ultraviolet light (UV). In these experiments, adult bivalves were e...

  4. IMPORTANCE OF BLACK CARBON IN DISTRIBUTION AND BIOACCUMULATION MODELS OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN CONTAMINATED MARINE SEDIMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The roles and relative importance of nonpyrogenic organic carbon (NPOC) and black carbon (BC) as binding phases of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were assessed by their ability to estimate pore water concentrations and biological uptake in various marine sediments. Sedim...

  5. Δg: The new aromaticity index based on g-factor calculation applied for polycyclic benzene rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ucun, Fatih; Tokatlı, Ahmet

    2015-02-01

    In this work, the aromaticity of polycyclic benzene rings was evaluated by the calculation of g-factor for a hydrogen placed perpendicularly at geometrical center of related ring plane at a distance of 1.2 Å. The results have compared with the other commonly used aromatic indices, such as HOMA, NICSs, PDI, FLU, MCI, CTED and, generally been found to be in agreement with them. So, it was proposed that the calculation of the average g-factor as Δg could be applied to study the aromaticity of polycyclic benzene rings without any restriction in the number of benzene rings as a new magnetic-based aromaticity index.

  6. Seasonal variation of particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons associated with PM10 in Guangzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Ji-Hua; Bi, Xin-Hui; Duan, Jing-Cun; Rahn, Kenneth A.; Sheng, Guo-Ying; Fu, Jia-Mo

    2006-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous pollutants in the urban atmosphere. An investigation on seasonal variation of PAHs in the urban atmosphere of Guangzhou, China was conducted in this study. 112 PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter < 10 μm) samples were collected at two sites between June 2002 and June 2003. PAHs were analyzed with GC-MS (gas chromatography-mass spectrometry). The result showed that PAHs exhibit distinct seasonal variation. The seasonal concentration for the ∑PAHs ranged from 8.11 to 106.26 ng m - 3 . The average ∑PAHs measured were highest in winter and lowest in summer. The PAHs distribution patterns were similar within each season at two sites. 5-6 ring PAHs were the abundant compounds, which accounted for 65-90% of ∑PAHs and benzo [b + k] fluoranthene dominated in four seasons. The PAHs concentration and distribution pattern fluctuated greatly in winter for the cold air current. Based on the different temperature in winter, the samples were split into two groups. PM10 and the abundance of the PAHs in winter-1 (temperature, 12-22 °C) were much greater than in winter-2 (temperature, 8-12 °C). In winter-1 benzo [b + k] fluoranthene and Indeno [1, 2, 3] pyrene dominated while chrysene and benzo [b + k] fluoranthene dominated in winter-2. Meteorological conditions such as wind speed and temperature had a strong influence on the seasonal variation. Potential sources of PAHs were identified using the molecular diagnostic ratios between PAHs. Results showed fossil fuel combustion may be the major source of PAHs at the two sites.

  7. Long-term simulation of in situ biostimulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Maiysha D.; Singleton, David R.; Aitken, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    A continuous-flow column study was conducted to evaluate the long-term effects of in situ biostimulation on the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil from a manufactured gas plant site. Simulated groundwater amended with oxygen and inorganic nutrients was introduced into one column, while a second column receiving unamended groundwater served as a control. PAH and dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations, as well as microbial community profiles, were monitored along the column length immediately before and at selected intervals up to 534 days after biostimulation commenced. Biostimulation resulted in significantly greater PAH removal than in the control condition (73% of total measured PAHs vs. 34%, respectively), with dissolution accounting for a minor amount of the total mass loss (~6%) in both columns. Dissolution was most significant for naphthalene, acenaphthene, and fluorene, accounting for >20% of the total mass removed for each. A known group of PAH-degrading bacteria, ‘Pyrene Group 2’ (PG2), was identified as a dominant member of the microbial community and responded favorably to biostimulation. Spatial and temporal variations in soil PAH concentration and PG2 abundance were strongly correlated to DO advancement, although there appeared to be transport of PG2 organisms ahead of the oxygen front. At an estimated oxygen demand of 6.2 mg O2/g dry soil and a porewater velocity of 0.8 m/day, it took between 374 and 466 days for oxygen breakthrough from the 1-m soil bed in the biostimulated column. This study demonstrated that the presence of oxygen was the limiting factor in PAH removal, as opposed to the abundance and/or activity of PAH-degrading bacteria once oxygen reached a previously anoxic zone. PMID:22311590

  8. Manganese peroxidase mRNA and enzyme activity levels during bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-contaminated soil with Phanerochaete chrysosporium

    SciTech Connect

    Bogan, B.W.; Schoenike, B.; Lamar, R.T.; Cullen, D.

    1996-07-01

    mRNA extraction from soil and quantitation by competitive reverse transcription-PCR were combined to study the expression of three manganese peroxidase (MnP) genes during removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from cultures of Phanerochaete chrysosporium grown in presterilized soil. Periods of high mnp transcript levels and extractable MnP enzyme activity were temporally correlated, although separated by a short (1- to 2-day) lag period. This time frame also coincided with maximal rates of fluorene oxidation and chrysene disappearance in soil cultures, supporting the hypothesis that high ionization potential polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are oxidized in soil via MnP-dependent mechanisms. The patterns of transcript abundance over time in soil-grown P. chrysosporium were similar for all three of the mnp mRNAs studied, indicating that transcription of this gene family may be coordinately regulated under these growth conditions. 47 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in suspended particulate matter by synchronous fluorescence spectroscopic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Homdutt; Jain, V. K.; Khan, Zahid H.

    2007-09-01

    The synchronous fluorescence (SF) technique has been used in the identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from air particulate sample in an urban environment of Delhi, Jawaharlal Nehru University. Suspended particulate matter samples of 24 h duration were collected on glass fiber filter papers. PAHs were extracted from the filter papers using dichloromethane (DCM) + hexane with ultrasonication method. Qualitative measurements of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were carried out using the SF technique at various wavelength intervals (Δ λ). Due to the difference in chemical structure, each PAH gives specific characteristic spectrum for each Δ λ. Following PAHs were detected in our measurement: benz(a)anthracene (BaA), pyrene (Pyr), chrysene (Chry), fluoranthene (Flan), phenanthrene (Phen), and benz(ghi)perylene (BghiP). This is in agreement with our earlier work for determination of these PAHs using gas chromatography (GC). The seasonal variation of the PAHs was found to be maximum in winter and minimum during the monsoon.

  10. Fused polycyclic aromatics incorporating boron in the core: fundamentals and applications.

    PubMed

    Escande, Aude; Ingleson, Michael J

    2015-04-14

    The incorporation of boron into the core structure of fused polycyclic aromatics generates compounds with highly attractive properties that have recently received significant attention. Embedding boron into the backbone of ladder or 2D poly aromatic hydrocarbons is an underexplored approach to modulate optoelectronic properties, with tricoordinate boron representing a novel acceptor moiety for organic optoelectronic applications. Furthermore, the incorporation of boron into polycyclics containing other heteroatoms (e.g., chalcogens or pnictogens) leads to more extensive structural diversity and considerable ability to modify the frontier orbital energies and character, often in a controlled manner, to fine tune material properties for specific applications. This feature article summarizes the recent key developments in this field.

  11. Purification and characterization of mouse single-chain antibody against polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Ustinov, Valentin A; Averjanov, Anton V; Glushkov, Andrey N

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) such as benzo[a]pyren mainly induce lung cancer in humans. We characterized the mouse single chain antibody against benzo[a]pyren (pSh). pSh was expressed and purified as cellulose binding domain fusion (pSh-CBD). The pSh-CBD bound five different PAH with high affinity. The 18 amino acid linker connected pSh-CBD heavy and light chains provided correct protein folding. The KDs for pSh-CBD and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were similar to KDs for monoclonal antibody, approximately 10(-8). Separately heavy and light chains of pSh-CBD did not interact with benzo[a]pyren. Previously defined eleven pSh-CBD aa involved to benzo[a]pyren binding were confirmed by mutagenesis.

  12. Understanding the Reactivity of Planar Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Towards the Graphene Limit.

    PubMed

    García-Rodeja, Yago; Solà, Miquel; Fernández, Israel

    2016-07-18

    The Diels-Alder reactivity of maleic anhydride towards the bay regions of planar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was explored computationally in the DFT framework. The process becomes more and more exothermic and the associated activation barriers become lower and lower when the size of the system increases. This enhanced reactivity follows an exponential behavior that reaches its maximum for systems having 18-20 benzenoid rings in their structures. This peculiar behavior was analyzed in detail by using the activation strain model of reactivity in combination with energy decomposition analysis. The influence of the change in the aromaticity of the polycyclic compound during the process on the respective activation barriers was also studied. PMID:27304921

  13. Regiospecific oxidation of polycyclic aromatic phenols to quinones by hypervalent iodine reagents.

    PubMed

    Wu, Anhui; Duan, Yazhen; Xu, Daiwang; Penning, Trevor M; Harvey, Ronald G

    2010-03-20

    The hypervalent iodine reagents o-iodoxybenzoic acid (IBX) and bis(trifluoro-acetoxy)iodobenzene (BTI) are shown to be general reagents for regio-controlled oxidation of polycyclic aromatic phenols (PAPs) to specific isomers (ortho, para, or remote) of polycyclic aromatic quinones (PAQs). The oxidations of a series of PAPs with IBX take place under mild conditions to furnish the corresponding ortho-PAQs. In contrast, oxidations of the same series of PAPs with BTI exhibit variable regiospecificity, affording para-PAQs where structurally feasible and ortho-PAQs or remote PAQ isomers in other cases. The structures of the specific PAQ isomers formed are predictable on the basis of the inherent regioselectivities of the hypervalent iodine reagents in combination with the structural requirements of the phenol precursors. IBX and BTI are recommended as the preferred reagents for regio-controlled oxidation of PAPs to PAQs.

  14. Atmospheric chemistry of gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: formation of atmospheric mutagens.

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, R; Arey, J

    1994-01-01

    The atmospheric chemistry of the 2- to 4-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which exist mainly in the gas phase in the atmosphere, is discussed. The dominant loss process for the gas-phase PAH is by reaction with the hydroxyl radical, resulting in calculated lifetimes in the atmosphere of generally less than one day. The hydroxyl (OH) radical-initiated reactions and nitrate (NO3) radical-initiated reactions often lead to the formation of mutagenic nitro-PAH and other nitropolycyclic aromatic compounds, including nitrodibenzopyranones. These atmospheric reactions have a significant effect on ambient mutagenic activity, indicating that health risk assessments of combustion emissions should include atmospheric transformation products. PMID:7821285

  15. Toxicity of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the toxicity and biochemical effects of aromatic polycyclic hydrocarbons. Topics include effects on metabolism and liver activity, cellular responses, binding characteristics, and the occurrence and path of the compounds in food chains. Bioaccumulation studies in specific areas, and isolation and detection techniques are also considered. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  16. Ru-Catalyzed Benzannulation Leads to Luminescent Boron-Containing Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Valentin M; Lerner, Hans-Wolfram; Wagner, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    A series of boron-containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been synthesized through the Ru-catalyzed cyclization of aryl ene-ynes. The benchtop-stable products show deep blue photoluminescence. Reversible electrochemical reduction is possible at moderate electrode potentials (about -2.0 V vs FcH/FcH(+)); some of the compounds also underwent reversible oxidation. The systematic expansion of the PAH scaffolds permitted the analysis of even subtle structure-property relationships. PMID:26468670

  17. Phototoxicity of non-carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aquatic organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Kagan, J.; Kagan, E.D.; Kagan, I.A.; Kagan, P.A.; Quigley, S.

    1985-01-01

    Anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene are phototoxic in Daphnia magna, Artemia salina, first instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, late embryonic forms of Rana pipiens, and fish (Pimephales promelas). Since polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are generated in the combustion processes held responsible for the damages of acid rain, and they are introduced into the environment through other means as well, the high phototoxicity of the major pollutants, which are not carcinogenic, suggests that greater attention must be given to their environmental significance.

  18. Assessment of the bioavailability and phytotoxicity of sediment spiked with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Rončević, Srđan; Spasojević, Jelena; Maletić, Snežana; Jazić, Jelena Molnar; Isakovski, Marijana Kragulj; Agbaba, Jasmina; Grgić, Marko; Dalmacija, Božo

    2016-02-01

    Large amounts of sediment are dredged globally every year. This sediment is often contaminated with low concentrations of metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, pesticides and other organic pollutants. Some of this sediment is disposed of on land, creating a need for risk assessment of the sediment disposal method, to minimize the degradation of environmental quality and prevent risks to human health. Evaluating the available fractions of certain polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is very important, as in the presence of various organisms, they are believed to be easily subject to the processes of bioaccumulation, biosorption and transformation. In order to determine the applicability of applying these methods for the evaluation of pollutant bioavailability in sediments, the desorption kinetics from the sediment of various polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the presence of Tenax and XAD4 were examined over the course of 216 h. Changes in the PAH concentrations in dredged sediments using five different seed plants during a short time of period (10 days) were also followed. Using chemical extraction techniques with Tenax and XAD4, a time of around 24 h is enough to achieve equilibrium for all four PAHs. Results showed good agreement between the seed accumulation and PAH extraction methods with both agents. If we compare the two extraction techniques, XAD4 gave better results for phenanthrene, pyrene and benzo(a)pyrene, and Tenax gave better results for chrysene.

  19. Processing of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by fog in an urban environment.

    PubMed

    Ehrenhauser, Franz S; Khadapkar, Kalindi; Wang, Youliang; Hutchings, James W; Delhomme, Olivier; Kommalapati, Raghava R; Herckes, Pierre; Wornat, Mary J; Valsaraj, Kalliat T

    2012-10-26

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous pollutants in the atmosphere, predominantly known for their toxicity. Although there has been substantial work on the atmospheric degradation of PAH, little is known about how the presence of atmospheric droplets (e.g., a fog cloud) affects the fate of PAH. In order to assess the processing of PAH and their corresponding oxidation products during a fog event, two field-sampling campaigns in Fresno, CA and Davis, CA were conducted. The simultaneous evaluation of concentrations of the PAH and oxygenated polycyclic aromatic compounds (OPAC) in the gas phase, particulate matter and fog water droplets before, during and after fog allows for the characterization of transformative and transport processes in a fog cloud. By tracking the ratio of OPAC to PAH in the individual atmospheric phases, two major polycyclic aromatic compounds-processing pathways can be identified: (i) the dissolution of OPAC from particulate matter and (ii) the uptake and oxidation of PAH in the fog water droplets. Wet deposition steadily decreases the pollutant concentration in the fog cloud droplets during a fog event; however, uptake and concentration via evaporative water loss upon the dissipation of a fog cloud cause an increase in the atmospheric pollutant concentration.

  20. Aromatic organosulfates in atmospheric aerosols: Synthesis, characterization, and abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staudt, Sean; Kundu, Shuvashish; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; He, Xianran; Cui, Tianqu; Lin, Ying-Hsuan; Kristensen, Kasper; Glasius, Marianne; Zhang, Xiaolu; Weber, Rodney J.; Surratt, Jason D.; Stone, Elizabeth A.

    2014-09-01

    Aromatic organosulfates are identified and quantified in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from Lahore, Pakistan, Godavari, Nepal, and Pasadena, California. To support detection and quantification, authentic standards of phenyl sulfate, benzyl sulfate, 3- and 4-methylphenyl sulfate and 2-, 3-, and 4-methylbenzyl sulfate were synthesized. Authentic standards and aerosol samples were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to negative electrospray ionization (ESI) quadrupole time-of-flight (ToF) mass spectrometry. Benzyl sulfate was present in all three locations at concentrations ranging from 4 to 90 pg m-3. Phenyl sulfate, methylphenyl sulfates and methylbenzyl sulfates were observed intermittently with abundances of 4 pg m-3, 2-31 pg m-3, 109 pg m-3, respectively. Characteristic fragment ions of aromatic organosulfates include the sulfite radical (rad SO3-, m/z 80) and the sulfate radical (rad SO4-, m/z 96). Instrumental response factors of phenyl and benzyl sulfates varied by a factor of 4.3, indicating that structurally-similar organosulfates have significantly different instrumental responses and highlighting the need to develop authentic standards for absolute quantitation organosulfates. In an effort to better understand the sources of aromatic organosulfates to the atmosphere, chamber experiments with the precursor toluene were conducted under conditions that form biogenic organosulfates. Aromatic organosulfates were not detected in the chamber samples, suggesting that they form through different pathways, have different precursors (e.g. naphthalene or methylnaphthalene), or are emitted from primary sources.

  1. Responses of bacterial communities in seagrass sediments to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced stress.

    PubMed

    Ling, Juan; Jiang, Yu-Feng; Wang, You-Shao; Dong, Jun-De; Zhang, Yan-Ying; Zhang, Yuan-Zhou

    2015-10-01

    The seagrass meadows represent one of the highest productive marine ecosystems, and have the great ecological and economic values. Bacteria play important roles in energy flow, nutrient biogeochemical cycle and organic matter turnover in marine ecosystems. The seagrass meadows are experiencing a world-wide decline, and the pollution is one of the main reasons. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are thought be the most common. Bacterial communities in the seagrass Enhalus acoroides sediments were analyzed for their responses to PAHs induced stress. Dynamics of the composition and abundance of bacterial communities during the incubation period were explored by polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and quantitative PCR assay, respectively. Both the incubation time and the PAHs concentration played significant roles in determining the microbial diversity, as reflected by the detected DGGE bands. Analysis of sequencing results showed that the Gammaproteobacteria were dominant in the seagrass sediments, accounting for 61.29 % of all sequenced bands. As PAHs could be used as carbon source for microbes, the species and diversity of the PAH-added groups (group 1 and 2) presented higher Shannon Wiener index than the group CK, with the group 1 showing the highest values almost through the same incubation stage. Patterns of changes in abundance of the three groups over the experiment time were quite different. The bacterial abundance of the group CK and group 2 decreased sharply from 4.15 × 10(11) and 6.37 × 10(11) to 1.17 × 10(10) and 1.07 × 10(10) copies/g from day 2 to 35, respectively while bacterial abundance of group 1 increased significantly from 1.59 × 10(11) copies/g at day 2 to 8.80 × 10(11) copies/g at day 7, and then dropped from day 14 till the end of the incubation. Statistical analysis (UMPGA and PCA) results suggested that the bacterial community were more likely to be affected by the incubation time than the

  2. Responses of bacterial communities in seagrass sediments to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced stress.

    PubMed

    Ling, Juan; Jiang, Yu-Feng; Wang, You-Shao; Dong, Jun-De; Zhang, Yan-Ying; Zhang, Yuan-Zhou

    2015-10-01

    The seagrass meadows represent one of the highest productive marine ecosystems, and have the great ecological and economic values. Bacteria play important roles in energy flow, nutrient biogeochemical cycle and organic matter turnover in marine ecosystems. The seagrass meadows are experiencing a world-wide decline, and the pollution is one of the main reasons. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are thought be the most common. Bacterial communities in the seagrass Enhalus acoroides sediments were analyzed for their responses to PAHs induced stress. Dynamics of the composition and abundance of bacterial communities during the incubation period were explored by polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and quantitative PCR assay, respectively. Both the incubation time and the PAHs concentration played significant roles in determining the microbial diversity, as reflected by the detected DGGE bands. Analysis of sequencing results showed that the Gammaproteobacteria were dominant in the seagrass sediments, accounting for 61.29 % of all sequenced bands. As PAHs could be used as carbon source for microbes, the species and diversity of the PAH-added groups (group 1 and 2) presented higher Shannon Wiener index than the group CK, with the group 1 showing the highest values almost through the same incubation stage. Patterns of changes in abundance of the three groups over the experiment time were quite different. The bacterial abundance of the group CK and group 2 decreased sharply from 4.15 × 10(11) and 6.37 × 10(11) to 1.17 × 10(10) and 1.07 × 10(10) copies/g from day 2 to 35, respectively while bacterial abundance of group 1 increased significantly from 1.59 × 10(11) copies/g at day 2 to 8.80 × 10(11) copies/g at day 7, and then dropped from day 14 till the end of the incubation. Statistical analysis (UMPGA and PCA) results suggested that the bacterial community were more likely to be affected by the incubation time than the

  3. Effect of enhanced reactive nitrogen availability on plant-sediment mediated degradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in contaminated mangrove sediment.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shan; Lu, Haoliang; Zhang, Qiong; Liu, JingChun; Yan, Chongling

    2016-02-15

    As land-ocean interaction zones, mangrove systems receive substantial polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from sewage and combustion of fossil fuel. In this study, we investigated the relationship between dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) availability and degradation rate of phenanthrene, a typical PAH compound, in mangrove plant-sediment systems, using Avicennia marina as a model plant. After 50 day incubation, phenanthrene removal ratios in sediments ranged from 53.8% to 97.2%. In non-rhizosphere sediment, increasing DIN accessibility increased microbial biomass and total microbial activity, while enhancements in population size of phenanthrene degradation bacteria (PDB) and phenanthrene degradation rates were insignificant. In contrast, the presence of excessive DIN in rhizosphere sediment resulted in a significantly large number of PDB, leading to a rapid dissipation rate of phenanthrene. The differences in degradation rates and abundances of degrader in sediment may be explained by the enhanced root activity due to the elevation in DIN accessibility.

  4. Trapping aryl radicals with acetylene: Evidence for C{sub 2}-accretion as a mechanism for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon growth

    SciTech Connect

    Necula, A.; Scott, L.T.

    2000-02-23

    The formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), fullerenes, soot, and other carbonaceous materials during the combustion or pyrolysis of low-molecular weight hydrocarbons requires, at a minimum, that small molecules and/or reactive intermediates somehow become joined to make larger ones. Most likely, more than one type of intermolecular C-C bond-forming reaction plays a role. The accretion of C{sub 2}-units has long been considered a probable pathway for the stepwise growth of PAH in flames, but evidence also points to the operation of bimolecular processes in which both partners can be relatively large. The experiments reported here address the former paradigm and provide clear support for a specific C{sub 2}-accretion pathway in which the key C-C bond-forming step involves the simple trapping of aryl radicals by acetylene (C{sub 2}H{sub 2}), both of which are abundant species in flames.

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from the Coast of Weihai, China: Spatial distribution, sources and ecotoxicological risks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Daolai; Liu, Jinqing; Yin, Ping; Lin, Xuehui; Liu, Na; Meng, Xianwei

    2016-08-15

    This study was conducted to measure the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations and evaluate the distribution, sources in surface sediments from various coastal sites in Weihai, which create good conditions for rapid development because of their excellent geographical location and abundant marine resources. The results indicated that the total PAHs contents in the sediments of Weihai ranged from 2.69 to 166.50ngg(-1), with an average of 67.44ngg(-1). Phenanthrene, Fluoranthene, Benzo(b)fluoranthene, Chrysene, and Pyrene were dominant in sediments, primarily as a result of high temperature combustion and biomass. Molecular ratios suggested that these PAHs in the sediments of Weihai were predominantly from pyrogenic sources such as grass, wood and charcoal combustion, as well as engine exhaust which is similar to the result of the study of the Yellow River Delta, China. The result of probability risk assessment additionally elucidated low PAH ecological risk in the surface sediments of Weihai, China. PMID:27236234

  6. Combined Effects of Prenatal Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Material Hardship on Child IQ

    PubMed Central

    Vishnevetsky, Julia; Tang, Deliang; Chang, Hsin-Wen; Roen, Emily L.; Wang, Ya; Rauh, Virginia; Wang, Shuang; Miller, Rachel L.; Herbstman, Julie; Perera, Frederica P.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are common carcinogenic and neurotoxic urban air pollutants. Toxic exposures, including air pollution, are disproportionately high in communities of color and frequently co-occur with chronic economic deprivation. Objectives We examined whether the association between child IQ and prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons differed between groups of children whose mothers reported high vs. low material hardship during their pregnancy and through child age 5. We tested statistical interactions between hardships and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, as measured by DNA adducts in cord blood, to determine whether material hardship exacerbated the association between adducts and IQ scores. Design Prospective cohort. Participants were recruited from 1998 to 2006 and followed from gestation through age 7 years. Setting Urban community (New York City) Participants A community-based sample of 276 minority urban youth Exposure measure Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in cord blood as an individual biomarker of prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure. Maternal material hardship self-reported prenatally and at multiple timepoints through early childhood. Main outcome measure Child IQ at 7 years assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Results Significant inverse effects of high cord PAH-DNA adducts on full scale IQ, perceptual reasoning and working memory scores were observed in the groups whose mothers reported a high level of material hardship during pregnancy or recurring high hardship into the child’s early years, and not in those without reported high hardship. Significant interactions were observed between high cord adducts and prenatal hardship on working memory scores (β=−8.07, 95% CI (−14.48, −1.66) and between high cord adducts and recurrent material hardship (β=−9.82, 95% CI (−16.22, −3.42). Conclusion The findings add to other evidence that socioeconomic

  7. THE EFFECTS OF EQUIVALENCE RATIO ON THE FORMATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS AND SOOT IN PREMIXED ETHANE FLAMES. (R825412)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    The formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and soot has been investigated in atmospheric-pressure, laminar, ethane/oxygen/argon premixed flames as a function of mixture equivalence ratio. Mole fraction profiles of major products, trace aromatics, ...

  8. Levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in different types of hospital waste incinerator ashes.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lijuan; Zhang, Fu-Shen; Hao, Zhengping; Wang, Hailin

    2008-07-01

    Waste ashes from three types of hospital waste (HW) incinerators, built in SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome) period and currently running in China, were collected and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) properties in the ashes were investigated. The mean summation PAH levels in the waste ashes varied widely from 4.16 mg kg(-1) to 198.92 mg kg(-1), and the mean amounts of carcinogenic PAHs ranged from 0.74 to 96.77 mg kg(-1), exceeding the limits regulated by several countries. Among the three types of incinerators, two medium-scale incinerators generated relatively high levels of PAHs (mean summation PAH 22.50 and 198.92 mg kg(-1)) compared to small-scale and large-scale incinerators (mean summation PAH 4.16 and 16.43 mg kg(-1)). Bottom ashes were dominated by low molecular weight PAHs (LM-PAH; containing two- to three-ringed PAHs) and medium molecular weight PAHs (MM-PAH; containing four-ringed PAHs), while fly ashes were abundant in MM-PAH and high molecular weight PAHs (HM-PAH, containing five- to six-ringed PAHs). Statistical analysis indicated that there was a positive relationship (R2=0.88) between organic matter and total PAHs thus it has the potential to be used as an indicator for PAHs in HW ashes. Moreover, it was found that PAHs in the ashes correlated highly with some metallic elements either positively (e.g. Fe, Ti, Mg) or negatively (Ca), indicating that these elements might promote or prevent PAH formation during HW combustion. Although bottom ash resulted from HW incinerators has not been classified as hazardous material, the results of this study indicated that this type of waste ash contained high levels of PAHs thus need special treatment before landfill. PMID:18440054

  9. Surface Layer Accretion in Transitional and Conventional Disks: From Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons to Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Becker, Daniel; Chiang, Eugene

    2011-01-01

    "Transitional" T Tauri disks have optically thin holes with radii gsim10 AU, yet accrete up to the median T Tauri rate. Multiple planets inside the hole can torque the gas to high radial speeds over large distances, reducing the local surface density while maintaining accretion. Thus multi-planet systems, together with reductions in disk opacity due to grain growth, can explain how holes can be simultaneously transparent and accreting. There remains the problem of how outer disk gas diffuses into the hole. Here it has been proposed that the magnetorotational instability (MRI) erodes disk surface layers ionized by stellar X-rays. In contrast to previous work, we find that the extent to which surface layers are MRI-active is limited not by ohmic dissipation but by ambipolar diffusion, the latter measured by Am: the number of times a neutral hydrogen molecule collides with ions in a dynamical time. Simulations by Hawley & Stone showed that Am ~ 100 is necessary for ions to drive MRI turbulence in neutral gas. We calculate that in X-ray-irradiated surface layers, Am typically varies from ~10-3 to 1, depending on the abundance of charge-adsorbing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, whose properties we infer from Spitzer observations. We conclude that ionization of H2 by X-rays and cosmic rays can sustain, at most, only weak MRI turbulence in surface layers 1-10 g cm-2 thick, and that accretion rates in such layers are too small compared to observed accretion rates for the majority of disks.

  10. Alkylphenols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in eastern Mediterranean Spanish coastal marine bivalves.

    PubMed

    Bouzas, Alberto; Aguado, Daniel; Martí, Nuria; Pastor, José Manuel; Herráez, Rosa; Campins, Pilar; Seco, Aurora

    2011-05-01

    This paper reports the first results on alkylphenol pollution in edible bivalves from the Spanish coast. Two sampling campaigns (July 2006 and July 2007) were carried out to determine the concentration of nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP), and eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in wild mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialys) and clams (Donax trunculus) at 14 sampling sites along the eastern Mediterranean Spanish coast. The results show that NP is the predominant alkylphenol, being the port of Valencia the most polluted area (up to 147 μg/kg wet weight in clams). Moving away from the ports the concentration of NP in bivalves decreased. OP concentration was below its detection limit in most of the studied areas and its maximum concentration (6 μg/kg w/w) was measured in clams from the port of Sagunto. The presence of low levels of PAHs was observed in most of the studied areas. The total PAHs concentration (i.e., sum of the eight measured PAHs) achieved a maximum value of 10.09 μg/kg w/w in the north coast of Valencia city. The distribution pattern of the individual PAHs showed that both pollution sources petrogenic and pyrolytic were present in the sampled areas. Fluoranthene was the most abundant PAH in mussels while benzo(b)fluoranthene in clams. The maximum concentration of 10 μg/kg w/w for benzo(a)pyrene established by the European Commission was never reached, indeed sampled bivalves showed concentrations 10 times lower than this reference value. Thus, they can be considered safe for human consumption. Despite the low contamination levels, the results show an overall pollution of bivalves by alkylphenol and PAHs as well as an increment in the number of polluted areas from 2006 to 2007. Thus, periodical sampling campaigns should be carried out to monitor the long-term tendency of these toxic and persistent pollutants.

  11. Long-range atmospheric transport and the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Changbai Mountain.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiangai; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Zhu, Weihong; Kannan, Narayanan; Li, Donghao

    2015-01-01

    The Changbai (also known as "Baekdu") Mountain, on the border between China and North Korea, is the highest mountain (2750 m) in northeastern China. Recently, this mountain region has experienced a dramatic increase in air pollution, not only because of increasing volumes of tourism-derived traffic but also because of the long-range transport of polluted westerly winds passing through major industrial and urban cities in the eastern region of China. To assess the relative importance of the two sources of pollution, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as model substances were determined in the mountain soil. A total of 32 soil samples were collected from different sides of the mountain at different latitudes between July and August of 2009. The ∑PAH concentrations were within the range 38.5-190.1 ng g(-1) on the northern side, 117.7-443.6 ng g(-1) on the southern side, and 75.3-437.3 ng g(-1) on the western side. A progressive increase in the level of ∑PAHs with latitude was observed on the southern and western sides that face the westerly wind with abundant precipitation. However, a similar concentration gradient was not observed on the northern side that receives less rain and is on the leeward direction of the wind. The high-molecular-weight PAH compounds were predominant in the soils on the southern and western sides, while low-molecular-weight PAHs dominated the northern side soils. These findings show that the distribution of PAHs in the mountain soil is strongly influenced by the atmospheric long-range transport and cold trapping.

  12. Quantification of Twenty-one Metabolites of Methylnaphthalenes and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Human Urine

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zheng; Romanoff, Lovisa C.; Trinidad, Debra A.; Pittman, Erin N.; Hilton, Donald; Hubbard, Kendra; Carmichael, Hasan; Parker, Jonathan; Calafat, Antonia M.; Sjödin, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their alkylated derivatives, such as methylnaphthalenes (MeNs), are harmful pollutants ubiquitously present in the environment. Exposure to PAHs has been linked to a variety of adverse health effects and outcomes, including cancer. Alkyl PAHs have been proposed as petrogenic source indicators because of their relatively high abundance in unburned petroleum products. We report a method to quantify 11 urinary methyl naphthols (Me-OHNs), metabolites of 1- and 2-methylnaphthalenes, and 10 monohydroxy PAH metabolites (OH-PAHs), using automated liquid-liquid extraction and isotope dilution gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). After spiking urine (1 mL) with 13C-labeled internal standards, the conjugated target analytes were hydrolyzed enzymatically in the presence of ascorbic acid. Then, their free species were preconcentrated into 20% toluene in pentane, derivatized and quantified by GC-MS/MS. The 11 Me-OHNs eluted as 6 distinct chromatographic peaks, each representing 1–3 isomers. Method detection limits were 1.0–41 pg/mL and the coefficients of variance in quality control materials were 4.7–19%. The method was used to analyze two National Institute of Standards and Technology’s Standard Reference Materials and samples from 30 smokers and 30 non-smokers. Geometric mean concentrations were on average 37 (Me-OHNs) and 9.0 (OH-PAHs) fold higher in smokers than in non-smokers. These findings support the usefulness of Me-OHNs as potential biomarkers of non-occupational exposure to MeNs and sources containing MeNs. PMID:24714969

  13. Long-range atmospheric transport and the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Changbai Mountain.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiangai; Kim, Seung-Kyu; Zhu, Weihong; Kannan, Narayanan; Li, Donghao

    2015-01-01

    The Changbai (also known as "Baekdu") Mountain, on the border between China and North Korea, is the highest mountain (2750 m) in northeastern China. Recently, this mountain region has experienced a dramatic increase in air pollution, not only because of increasing volumes of tourism-derived traffic but also because of the long-range transport of polluted westerly winds passing through major industrial and urban cities in the eastern region of China. To assess the relative importance of the two sources of pollution, 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as model substances were determined in the mountain soil. A total of 32 soil samples were collected from different sides of the mountain at different latitudes between July and August of 2009. The ∑PAH concentrations were within the range 38.5-190.1 ng g(-1) on the northern side, 117.7-443.6 ng g(-1) on the southern side, and 75.3-437.3 ng g(-1) on the western side. A progressive increase in the level of ∑PAHs with latitude was observed on the southern and western sides that face the westerly wind with abundant precipitation. However, a similar concentration gradient was not observed on the northern side that receives less rain and is on the leeward direction of the wind. The high-molecular-weight PAH compounds were predominant in the soils on the southern and western sides, while low-molecular-weight PAHs dominated the northern side soils. These findings show that the distribution of PAHs in the mountain soil is strongly influenced by the atmospheric long-range transport and cold trapping. PMID:25036943

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in dust from computers : one possible indoor source of human exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yu; Cheng, Tiantao; Chen, Jianmin

    Computer is an important part of our usual life and work. The harmful exposure to the radiation of computers has been paid attention broadly. However, chemical pollution related to computers is rarely reported. Here we investigated the levels and sources of EPA 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in dust samples collected from components and internal walls of computers' boxes (in-computers) in Shanghai, China. Dust samples were collected from 27 computers in different indoor environment: offices, laboratories, and one net bar. The levels of PAHs in dust samples were from 8.22 μg g -1 to 42.04 μg g -1. BbF, BgP, DbA, Chry and BaP were the most abundant PAHs. The levels of PAHs in computers in smoking rooms (mainly in the net bar) were usually 1.35-2.87 times higher than those in nonsmoking rooms, indicating that the indoor environment of different rooms affected the loading of dust PAHs significantly. To study the source of PAHs in computers, six dust samples were collected from windowsills (out-computers) in the corresponding rooms. The results indicated that most PAHs from in-computers were greater than those from out-computers, which indicated that parts of PAHs in computers may be emitted from the heated plastic material out of chips in computers when they are running, and be adsorbed on dust deposited on these components. The potential exposure of PAHs from computers was also evaluated, and our results showed that people maybe exposure particle-phase PAHs up to 2.99 ng m -3 which are just sprayed out with dust from computers.

  15. Distribution of pesticides and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in house dust as a function of particle size.

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, R G; Fortune, C R; Willis, R D; Camann, D E; Antley, J T

    1999-01-01

    House dust is a repository for environmental pollutants that may accumulate indoors from both internal and external sources over long periods of time. Dust and tracked-in soil accumulate most efficiently in carpets, and the pollutants associated with dust and soil may present an exposure risk to infants and toddlers, who spend significant portions of their time in contact with or in close proximity to the floor and who engage in frequent mouthing activities. The availability of carpet dust for exposure by transfer to the skin or by suspension into the air depends on particle size. In this study, a large sample of residential house dust was obtained from a commercial cleaning service whose clients were homeowners residing in the Raleigh-Durham-Chapel Hill (Research Triangle) area of North Carolina. The composite dust was separated into seven size fractions ranging from < 4 to 500 microm in diameter, and each fraction was analyzed for 28 pesticides and 10 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Over 20% of the fractionated dust sample consisted of particles < 25 microm in diameter. Fourteen pesticides and all 10 of the target PAHs were detected in one or more of the seven size-fractionated samples. Sample concentrations reported range from 0.02 to 22 microg/g; the synthetic pyrethroids cis- and trans-permethrin were the most abundant pesticide residue. The concentrations of nearly all of the target analytes increased gradually with decreasing particle size for the larger particles, then increased dramatically for the two smallest particle sizes (4-25 microm and < 4 microm). Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:10464072

  16. Distribution and origins of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in riverine, estuarine, and marine sediments in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Boonyatumanond, Ruchaya; Wattayakorn, Gullaya; Togo, Ayako; Takada, Hideshige

    2006-08-01

    To assess the status of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contamination in coastal and riverine environments in Thailand, we collected 42 surface sediment samples from canals, a river, an estuary, and coastal areas in Thailand in 2003 and analyzed them for PAHs with 3-7 benzene rings by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The total concentration of PAHs ranged from 6 to 8399 ng/g dry weight. The average total PAH concentrations were 2290+/-2556 ng/g dry weight (n=8) in canals, 263+/-174 (n=11) in the river, 179+/-222 (n=9) in the estuary, and 50+/-56 (n=14) in coastal areas. Comparison of the concentration range with a worldwide survey of sedimentary PAH concentrations ranked PAH contamination in Thai sediments as low to moderate. The ratio of the sum of methylphenanthrenes to phenanthrene (MP/P ratio) allows discrimination of PAH sources between petrogenic (>2) and pyrogenic (<0.5) origins. Sediments from urban canals in Bangkok showed the highest PAH concentrations and petrogenic signatures (MP/P=1.84+/-0.98 [n=6] in canal sediments) with abundant alkylated PAHs, indicating major sources of petrogenic PAHs in the city. To identify the sources of the petrogenic inputs in Thailand, we analyzed triterpanes, biomarkers of petroleum pollution, in the sediment samples and in potential source materials. Hopane profiles were remarkably uniform throughout the nation, suggesting a diffuse single source (e.g. automobiles). Molecular profiles of hopanes and PAHs in sediments from the urban canals were similar to those in street dust, indicating that street dust is one of the major sources of petrogenic PAHs in the urban area. On the other hand, low levels of PAHs (approximately 50 ng/g) with a pyrogenic signature (MP/P ratio approximately 0.5) were widely recorded in remote areas of the coast and the Chao Phraya River. These pyrogenic PAHs may be atmospherically transported throughout the nation. Middle and lower reaches of the Chao Phraya River, the river

  17. Molecular diffusivity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafson, K.E.; Dickhut, R.M. . Dept. of Physical Sciences Virginia Inst. of Marine Science, Gloucester Point, VA )

    1994-04-01

    Molecular diffusivities in air are essential for the accurate determination of chemical fluxes across the air-water interface. Gas-phase diffusion coefficients are also important parameters for describing the dispersion of contaminants in unsaturated soils. The molecular diffusivities of benzene, toluene, naphthalene, acenaphthylene, phenanthrene, anthracene, benz[a]anthracene, pyrene, and benzo[e]pyrene were measured in air at temperatures ranging from [minus]5 to +40 C using a modified arrested flow method. Molecular diffusivities in air for all compounds studied decreased with molecular size, and increased logarithmically with temperature. The experimental data have been used to formulate a predictive equation for the estimation of molecular diffusivities of aromatic chemicals in air as a function of temperature and molar volume.

  18. Aromatic organosulfates in atmospheric aerosols: synthesis, characterization, and abundance

    PubMed Central

    Staudt, Sean; Kundu, Shuvashish; Lehmler, Hans-Joachim; He, Xianran; Cui, Tianqu; Lin, Ying-Hsuan; Kristensen, Kasper; Glasius, Marianne; Zhang, Xiaolu; Weber, Rodney J.; Surratt, Jason D.; Stone1, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Aromatic organosulfates are identified and quantified in fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from Lahore, Pakistan, Godavari, Nepal, and Pasadena, California. To support detection and quantification, authentic standards of phenyl sulfate, benzyl sulfate, 3-and 4-methylphenyl sulfate and 2-, 3-, and 4-methylbenzyl sulfate were synthesized. Authentic standards and aerosol samples were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled to negative electrospray ionization (ESI) quadrupole time-of-flight (ToF) mass spectrometry. Benzyl sulfate was present in all three locations at concentrations ranging from 4 – 90 pg m−3. Phenyl sulfate, methylphenyl sulfates and methylbenzyl sulfates were observed intermittently with abundances of 4 pg m−3, 2-31 pg m−3, 109 pg m−3, respectively. Characteristic fragment ions of aromatic organosulfates include the sulfite radical (•SO3−, m/z 80) and the sulfate radical (•SO4−,m/z 96). Instrumental response factors of phenyl and benzyl sulfates varied by a factor of 4.3, indicating that structurally-similar organosulfates may have significantly different instrumental responses and highlighting the need to develop authentic standards for absolute quantitation organosulfates. In an effort to better understand the sources of aromatic organosulfates to the atmosphere, chamber experiments with the precursor toluene were conducted under conditions that form biogenic organosulfates. Aromatic organosulfates were not detected in the chamber samples, suggesting that they form through different pathways, have different precursors (e.g. naphthalene or methylnaphthalene), or are emitted from primary sources. PMID:24976783

  19. A Multiscale Study of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Properties in Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galliano, F.

    2009-01-01

    In the present contribution, I summarize a systematic study of ISO and Spitzer mid-IR spectra of Galactic regions and star forming galaxies. This study quantifies the relative variations of the main aromatic features inside spatially resolved objects as well as among the integrated spectra of 50 objects. Our analysis implies that the properties of the PAHs are remarkably universal throughout our sample and at different spatial scales. In addition, the relative variations of the band ratios, as large as one order of magnitude, are mainly controled by the fraction of ionized PAHs. In particular, I show that we can rule out both the modification of the PAH size distribution and the mid-IR extinction, as an explanation of these variations. High values of the I6.2/I11.3 ratio are found to be associated with the far-UV illuminated surface of PDRs, at the scale of an interstellar cloud, and associated with star formation activity, at the scale of a galaxy. Using a few well-studied Galactic regions, we provide an empirical relation between the I6.2/I11.3 ratio and the ionization/recombination ratio G_0/n_e√{Tgas}. Finally, I show that these trends are consistent with the detailed modeling of the PAH emission within photodissociation regions, taking into account the radiative transfer, the stochastic heating and the charge exchange between gas and dust.

  20. Effect of interlayer cations of montmorillonite on the biodegradation and adsorption of crude oil polycyclic aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Ugochukwu, Uzochukwu C; Manning, David A C; Fialips, Claire I

    2014-09-01

    Cation exchange capacity, surface acidity and specific surface area are surface properties of clay minerals that make them act as catalysts or supports in most biogeochemical processes hence making them play important roles in environmental control. However, the role of homoionic clay minerals during the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic compounds is not well reported. In this study, the effect of interlayer cations of montmorillonites in the removal of some crude oil polycyclic aromatic compounds during biodegradation was investigated in aqueous clay/oil microcosm experiments with a hydrocarbon degrading microorganism community. The homoionic montmorillonites were prepared via cation exchange reactions by treating the unmodified montmorillonite with the relevant metallic chloride. The study indicated that potassium-montmorillonite and zinc-montmorillonite did not enhance the biodegradation of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons whereas calcium-montmorillonite, and ferric-montmorillonite enhanced their biodegradation significantly. Adsorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was significant during biodegradation with potassium- and zinc-montmorillonite where there was about 45% removal of the polycyclic aromatic compounds by adsorption in the experimental microcosm containing 5:1 ratio (w/w) of clay to oil. PMID:24813351

  1. Effect of interlayer cations of montmorillonite on the biodegradation and adsorption of crude oil polycyclic aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Ugochukwu, Uzochukwu C; Manning, David A C; Fialips, Claire I

    2014-09-01

    Cation exchange capacity, surface acidity and specific surface area are surface properties of clay minerals that make them act as catalysts or supports in most biogeochemical processes hence making them play important roles in environmental control. However, the role of homoionic clay minerals during the biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic compounds is not well reported. In this study, the effect of interlayer cations of montmorillonites in the removal of some crude oil polycyclic aromatic compounds during biodegradation was investigated in aqueous clay/oil microcosm experiments with a hydrocarbon degrading microorganism community. The homoionic montmorillonites were prepared via cation exchange reactions by treating the unmodified montmorillonite with the relevant metallic chloride. The study indicated that potassium-montmorillonite and zinc-montmorillonite did not enhance the biodegradation of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons whereas calcium-montmorillonite, and ferric-montmorillonite enhanced their biodegradation significantly. Adsorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons was significant during biodegradation with potassium- and zinc-montmorillonite where there was about 45% removal of the polycyclic aromatic compounds by adsorption in the experimental microcosm containing 5:1 ratio (w/w) of clay to oil.

  2. Biotransformation of nitro-polycyclic aromatic compounds by vegetable and fruit cell extracts*

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Bo; Yang, Jun; Yang, Qing

    2012-01-01

    Extracts from various vegetables and fruits were investigated for their abilities to reduce nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs). The extracts from grape and onion exhibited an interesting selectivity, yielding corresponding hydroxylamines or amines as major products under mild conditions of 30 °C and pH 7.0. Grape extracts reduced the 4-nitro-1,8-naphthalic anhydride with the highest conversion rate (>99%) and the highest ratio of hydroxylamine to amine (95:5). In contrast, the onion extracts reduced 4-nitro-1,8-naphthalic anhydride with a conversion rate of 94% and a ratio of hydroxylamine to amine of 8:92. The thiol-reducing agent, β-mercaptoethanol, and metal cations, Ca2+ and Mg2+, greatly increased the reductive efficiency. This work provides an alternative strategy for biotransformation of nitro-polycyclic compounds. PMID:22467365

  3. Biological Monitoring of Occupational Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons at an Electric Steel Foundry in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Campo, Laura; Hanchi, Mariem; Olgiati, Luca; Polledri, Elisa; Consonni, Dario; Zrafi, Ines; Saidane-Mosbahi, Dalila; Fustinoni, Silvia

    2016-07-01

    Occupational exposures during iron and steel founding have been classified as carcinogenic to humans, and the exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in this industrial setting may contribute to cancer risk. The occupational exposure to PAHs was assessed in 93 male workers at an electric steel foundry in Tunisia by biomonitoring, with the aims of characterizing the excretion profile and investigating the influence of job title and personal characteristics on the biomarkers. Sixteen 2-6 ring unmetabolized PAHs (U-PAHs) and eight hydroxylated PAH metabolites (OHPAHs) were analyzed by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. Among U-PAHs, urinary naphthalene (U-NAP) was the most abundant compound (median level: 643ng l(-1)), followed by phenanthrene (U-PHE, 18.5ng l(-1)). Urinary benzo[a]pyrene (U-BaP) level was <0.30ng l(-1) Among OHPAHs, 2-hydroxynaphthalene (2-OHNAP) was the most abundant metabolite (2.27 µg l(-1)). Median 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHPYR) was 0.52 µg l(-1) Significant correlations among urinary biomarkers were observed, with Pearson's r ranging from 0.177 to 0.626. 1-OHPYR was correlated to benzo[a]pyrene, but not to five- and six-rings PAHs. A multiple linear regression model showed that job title was a significant determinant for almost all U-PAHs. In particular, employees in the steel smelter workshop had higher levels of high-boiling U-PAHs and lower levels of low-boiling U-PAHs than those of workers with other job titles. Among OHPAHs, this model was significant only for naphthols and 1-hydroxyphenanthrene (1-OHPHE). Smoking status was a significant predictor for almost all biomarkers. Among all analytes, U-PHE and 1-OHPHE were the less affected by tobacco smoke, and they were significantly correlated with both low- and high-molecular-weight compounds, and their levels were related to job titles, so they could be proposed as suitable

  4. Biological Monitoring of Occupational Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons at an Electric Steel Foundry in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Campo, Laura; Hanchi, Mariem; Olgiati, Luca; Polledri, Elisa; Consonni, Dario; Zrafi, Ines; Saidane-Mosbahi, Dalila; Fustinoni, Silvia

    2016-07-01

    Occupational exposures during iron and steel founding have been classified as carcinogenic to humans, and the exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in this industrial setting may contribute to cancer risk. The occupational exposure to PAHs was assessed in 93 male workers at an electric steel foundry in Tunisia by biomonitoring, with the aims of characterizing the excretion profile and investigating the influence of job title and personal characteristics on the biomarkers. Sixteen 2-6 ring unmetabolized PAHs (U-PAHs) and eight hydroxylated PAH metabolites (OHPAHs) were analyzed by gas chromatography-triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry, respectively. Among U-PAHs, urinary naphthalene (U-NAP) was the most abundant compound (median level: 643ng l(-1)), followed by phenanthrene (U-PHE, 18.5ng l(-1)). Urinary benzo[a]pyrene (U-BaP) level was <0.30ng l(-1) Among OHPAHs, 2-hydroxynaphthalene (2-OHNAP) was the most abundant metabolite (2.27 µg l(-1)). Median 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHPYR) was 0.52 µg l(-1) Significant correlations among urinary biomarkers were observed, with Pearson's r ranging from 0.177 to 0.626. 1-OHPYR was correlated to benzo[a]pyrene, but not to five- and six-rings PAHs. A multiple linear regression model showed that job title was a significant determinant for almost all U-PAHs. In particular, employees in the steel smelter workshop had higher levels of high-boiling U-PAHs and lower levels of low-boiling U-PAHs than those of workers with other job titles. Among OHPAHs, this model was significant only for naphthols and 1-hydroxyphenanthrene (1-OHPHE). Smoking status was a significant predictor for almost all biomarkers. Among all analytes, U-PHE and 1-OHPHE were the less affected by tobacco smoke, and they were significantly correlated with both low- and high-molecular-weight compounds, and their levels were related to job titles, so they could be proposed as suitable

  5. Biodegradation of Various Aromatic Compounds by Enriched Bacterial Cultures: Part A-Monocyclic and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Oberoi, Akashdeep Singh; Philip, Ligy; Bhallamudi, S Murty

    2015-08-01

    Present study focused on the screening of bacterial consortium for biodegradation of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (MAH) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Target compounds in the present study were naphthalene, acenaphthene, phenanthrene (PAHs), and benzene (MAH). Microbial consortia enriched with the above target compounds were used in screening experiments. Naphthalene-enriched consortium was found to be the most efficient consortium, based on its substrate degradation rate and its ability to degrade other aromatic pollutants with significantly high efficiency. Substrate degradation rate with naphthalene-enriched culture followed the order benzene > naphthalene > acenaphthene > phenanthrene. Chryseobacterium and Rhodobacter were discerned as the predominant species in naphthalene-enriched culture. They are closely associated to the type strain Chryseobacterium arthrosphaerae and Rhodobacter maris, respectively. Single substrate biodegradation studies with naphthalene (PAH) and benzene (MAH) were carried out using naphthalene-enriched microbial consortium (NAPH). Phenol and 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde were identified as the predominant intermediates during benzene and naphthalene degradation, respectively. Biodegradation of toluene, ethyl benzene, xylene, phenol, and indole by NAPH was also investigated. Monod inhibition model was able to simulate biodegradation kinetics for benzene, whereas multiple substrate biodegradation model was able to simulate biodegradation kinetics for naphthalene.

  6. Current-voltage characteristics of a homologous series of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Böhme, Thilo; Simpson, Christopher D; Müllen, Klaus; Rabe, Jürgen P

    2007-01-01

    A novel alkyl-substituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) with D(2h) symmetry and 78 carbon atoms in the aromatic core (C78) was synthesized, thereby completing a homologous series of soluble PAH compounds with increasing size of the aromatic pi system (42, 60, and 78 carbon atoms). The optical band gaps were determined by UV/Vis and fluorescence spectroscopy in solution. Scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS) revealed diode-like current versus voltage (I-V) characteristics through individual aromatic cores in monolayers at the interface between the solution and the basal plane of graphite. The asymmetry of the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics increases with the increasing size of the aromatic core, and the concomitantly decreasing HOMO-LUMO gap. This is attributed to resonant tunneling through the HOMO of the adsorbed molecule, and an asymmetric position of the molecular species in the tunnel junction. Consistently, submolecularly resolved STM images at negative substrate bias are in good agreement with the calculated pattern for the electron densities of the HOMOs. The analysis provides the basis for tailoring rectification with a single molecule in an STM junction. PMID:17579898

  7. Determination of total and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aviation jet fuel.

    PubMed

    Bernabei, M; Reda, R; Galiero, R; Bocchinfuso, G

    2003-01-24

    The aviation jet fuel widely used in turbine engine aircraft is manufactured from straight-run kerosene. The combustion quality of jet fuel is largely related to the hydrocarbon composition of the fuel itself; paraffins have better burning properties than aromatic compounds, especially naphthalenes and light polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which are characterised as soot and smoke producers. For this reason the burning quality of fuel is generally measured as smoke fermation. This evaluation is carried out with UV spectrophotometric determination of total naphthalene hydrocarbons and a chromatographic analysis to determine the total aromatic compounds. These methods can be considered insufficient to evaluate the human health impact of these compounds due to their inability to measure trace (ppm) amounts of each aromatic hyrcarbon and each PAH in accordance with limitations imposed because of their toxicological properties. In this paper two analytical methods are presented. Both are based on a gas chromatographic technique with a mass detector operating in be selected ion monitoring mode. The first method was able to determine more than 60 aromatic hydrocarbons in a fuel sample in a 35-min chromatographic run, while the second was able to carry out the analysis of more than 30 PAHs in a 40-min chromatographic run. The linearity and sensitivity of the methods in measuring these analytes at trace levels are described.

  8. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Astrophysics: The State of the Pah Model and a Possible Tracer of Nitrogen in Carbon-Rich Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudgins, Douglas M.; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past fifteen years, thanks to significant, parallel advancements in observational, experimental, and theoretical techniques, tremendous strides have been made in our understanding of the role aromatic materials play in the interstellar medium (ISM). Twenty years ago, the possible existence of an abundant population of large, carbon-rich molecules in the ISM was unthinkable. Today, the unmistakable spectroscopic signatures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules (PAHs) - shockingly large molecules by the standards of traditional interstellar chemistry - are recognized throughout the Universe. In this paper, we will examine the current state of the interstellar PAH model and its utility as a diagnostic tool to derive insight into the nature of the interstellar PAH population. As an example of this application, we will examine the results of our recent spectroscopic studies of polycyclic aromatic nitrogen heterocycles (PANHs)-PAHs with an atom of nitrogen substituted into the aromatic skeleton-and discuss a possible tracer of such species amongst the interstellar PAH emission bands in the latest observational data.

  9. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation potential of Gulf of Mexico native coastal microbial communities after the Deepwater Horizon oil spill

    PubMed Central

    Kappell, Anthony D.; Wei, Yin; Newton, Ryan J.; Van Nostrand, Joy D.; Zhou, Jizhong; McLellan, Sandra L.; Hristova, Krassimira R.

    2014-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon (DWH) blowout resulted in oil transport, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the Gulf of Mexico shoreline. The microbial communities of these shorelines are thought to be responsible for the intrinsic degradation of PAHs. To investigate the Gulf Coast beach microbial community response to hydrocarbon exposure, we examined the functional gene diversity, bacterial community composition, and PAH degradation capacity of a heavily oiled and non-oiled beach following the oil exposure. With a non-expression functional gene microarray targeting 539 gene families, we detected 28,748 coding sequences. Of these sequences, 10% were uniquely associated with the severely oil-contaminated beach and 6.0% with the non-oiled beach. There was little variation in the functional genes detected between the two beaches; however the relative abundance of functional genes involved in oil degradation pathways, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), were greater in the oiled beach. The microbial PAH degradation potentials of both beaches, were tested in mesocosms. Mesocosms were constructed in glass columns using sands with native microbial communities, circulated with artificial sea water and challenged with a mixture of PAHs. The low-molecular weight PAHs, fluorene and naphthalene, showed rapid depletion in all mesocosms while the high-molecular weight benzo[α]pyrene was not degraded by either microbial community. Both the heavily oiled and the non-impacted coastal communities showed little variation in their biodegradation ability for low molecular weight PAHs. Massively-parallel sequencing of 16S rRNA genes from mesocosm DNA showed that known PAH degraders and genera frequently associated with oil hydrocarbon degradation represented a major portion of the bacterial community. The observed similar response by microbial communities from beaches with a different recent history of oil exposure suggests that Gulf Coast beach communities are

  10. Speciation of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present during fog time collected submicron particles.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dharmendra Kumar; Sharma, Swati; Habib, Gazala; Gupta, Tarun

    2015-08-01

    Airborne submicron particles (PM1) were collected using PM1 sampler during the fog-dominated days (December 2013-January 2014). PM1 values varied between 58.12 μg/m(3) and 198.75 μg/m(3), and average mass concentration was 162.33 ± 38.25 μg/m(3) while total average concentration of particle-associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) determined was 616.31 ± 30.31 ng/m(3). This is a signal for an alarming high pollution level at this site situated in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP). PAHs were extracted from filters using toluene and acetonitrile. Quantitative measurements of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were carried out using the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. The extracts were analyzed for 16 target polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) including carcinogenic compound benzo(a)pyrene (19.86 ± 38.98 ng/m(3)). Fluoranthene, benzo(a)anthracene, anthracene, and fluorene were the predominant compounds found in the samples collected during foggy days. Based on number of rings, four-ring PAH compounds had maximum contribution (43%) in this fog time collected submicron particles followed by three-ring (21%), five-ring (20%), six-ring (13%), and two-ring (3%), respectively. In winter and foggy days, wood and coal combustion and biomass burning also significantly contribute to the PAH levels. However, diagnostic ratio suggests diesel emissions as the prime source of PAHs at this sampling site.

  11. Magnetic ionic liquids as non-conventional extraction solvents for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Trujillo-Rodríguez, María J; Nacham, Omprakash; Clark, Kevin D; Pino, Verónica; Anderson, Jared L; Ayala, Juan H; Afonso, Ana M

    2016-08-31

    This work describes the applicability of magnetic ionic liquids (MILs) in the analytical determination of a group of heavy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Three different MILs, namely, benzyltrioctylammonium bromotrichloroferrate (III) (MIL A), methoxybenzyltrioctylammonium bromotrichloroferrate (III) (MIL B), and 1,12-di(3-benzylbenzimidazolium) dodecane bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl)]imide bromotrichloroferrate (III) (MIL C), were designed to exhibit hydrophobic properties, and their performance examined in a microextraction method for hydrophobic analytes. The magnet-assisted approach with these MILs was performed in combination with high performance liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection. The study of the extraction performance showed that MIL A was the most suitable solvent for the extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and under optimum conditions the fast extraction step required ∼20 μL of MIL A for 10 mL of aqueous sample, 24 mmol L(-1) NaOH, high ionic strength content of NaCl (25% (w/v)), 500 μL of acetone as dispersive solvent, and 5 min of vortex. The desorption step required the aid of an external magnetic field with a strong NdFeB magnet (the separation requires few seconds), two back-extraction steps for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons retained in the MIL droplet with n-hexane, evaporation and reconstitution with acetonitrile. The overall method presented limits of detection down to 5 ng L(-1), relative recoveries ranging from 91.5 to 119%, and inter-day reproducibility values (expressed as relative standard derivation) lower than 16.4% for a spiked level of 0.4 μg L(-1) (n = 9). The method was also applied for the analysis of real samples, including tap water, wastewater, and tea infusion. PMID:27506350

  12. Theoretical infrared spectra of large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Amit; Rastogi, Shantanu

    2007-07-01

    Theoretical and experimental spectroscopic studies have underlined the contribution of large PAHs towards the astrophysical mid-infrared emission bands. Quantum chemical study of eight large PAHs using density functional theory approach is reported along with their infrared spectra. Systematic variation of bands with PAH size is noted and a better agreement with the observed astrophysical bands is obtained. Compared to small and medium sized PAHs there is substantial C-H stretch intensity in the cation spectra. This is attributed to smaller change in charge on the hydrogens upon ionization. For the C-H out-of-plane mode large PAHs correlate well with observed features on the shorter wavelength side of the 11.2 microm band. Presence of two sub-components of the broad 7.7 microm band in large PAHs compares very well with the corresponding astrophysical band and point to the abundance of large PAH cations in interstellar environments. The data presented here may be used for a more detailed study on the profile variations accompanying the mid-IR bands in various interstellar environments.

  13. Theoretical infrared spectra of large polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathak, Amit; Rastogi, Shantanu

    2007-07-01

    Theoretical and experimental spectroscopic studies have underlined the contribution of large PAHs towards the astrophysical mid-infrared emission bands. Quantum chemical study of eight large PAHs using density functional theory approach is reported along with their infrared spectra. Systematic variation of bands with PAH size is noted and a better agreement with the observed astrophysical bands is obtained. Compared to small and medium sized PAHs there is substantial C-H stretch intensity in the cation spectra. This is attributed to smaller change in charge on the hydrogens upon ionization. For the C-H out-of-plane mode large PAHs correlate well with observed features on the shorter wavelength side of the 11.2 μ m band. Presence of two sub-components of the broad 7.7 μ m band in large PAHs compares very well with the corresponding astrophysical band and point to the abundance of large PAH cations in interstellar environments. The data presented here may be used for a more detailed study on the profile variations accompanying the mid-IR bands in various interstellar environments.

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the atmospheres of Titan and Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, Carl; Khare, B. N.; Thompson, W. R.; Mcdonald, G. D.; Wing, Michael R.; Bada, Jeffrey L.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Arakawa, E. T.

    1993-01-01

    PAHs are important components of the interstellar medium and carbonaceous chondrites, but have never been identified in the reducing atmospheres of the outer solar system. Incompletely characterized complex organic solids (tholins) produced by irradiating simulated Titan atmospheres reproduce well the observed UV/visible/IR optical constants of the Titan stratospheric haze. Titan tholin and a tholin generated in a crude simulation of the atmosphere of Jupiter are examined by two-step laser desorption/multiphoton ionization mass spectrometry. A range of two- to four-ring PAHs, some with one to four alkylation sites, are identified, with a net abundance of about 0.0001 g/g (grams per gram) of tholins produced. Synchronous fluorescence techniques confirm this detection. Titan tholins have proportionately more one- and two-ring PAHs than do Jupiter tholins, which in turn have more four-ring and larger PAHs. The four-ringed PAH chrysene, prominent in some discussions of interstellar grains, is found in Jupiter tholins.

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and the unidentified infrared emission bands: Auto exhaust along the Milky Wayexclamation

    SciTech Connect

    Allamandola, L.J.; Tielens, A.G.G.M.; Barker, J.R.

    1985-03-01

    We have attributed the unidentified infrared emission feature (UIR bands) to a collection of partially hydrogenated, positively charged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This assignment is based on a spectrocopic analysis of the UIR bands. Comparison of the observed interstellar 6.2 and 7.7 ..mu..m bands with the laboratory measured Raman spectrum of a collection of carbon-based particulates (auto exhaust) shows a very good agreement, supporting this idenfication. The infrared-emission is due to relaxation from highly vibrationally and electronically excited states. The infrared emission is due to relaxation from highly vibrationally excited states. The excitation is probably caused by UV photon absorption.

  16. Emission of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from light-duty diesel vehicles exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Abrantes, Rui; de Assunção, João V.; Pesquero, Célia R.

    Standardised tests were performed on four light-duty diesel vehicles running in a chassis dynamometer at a vehicular emission laboratory, using the FTP-75 test cycle procedure. The aim was to characterise emissions of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), substances that create health hazards and are, as yet, unregulated. The pollutants were analysed in both solid and gaseous phases using high-performance liquid chromatography. Total PAH values ranged from 1.133 to 5.801 mg km -1. Naphthalene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene and chrysene were detected in all tests. In addition, PAH emission was observed to be inversely related to emission of CO 2.

  17. Detection of Medium-Sized Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons via Fluorescence Energy Transfer

    PubMed Central

    Serio, Nicole; Prignano, Lindsey; Peters, Sean; Levine, Mindy

    2015-01-01

    Reported herein is the use of proximity-induced non-covalent energy transfer for the detection of medium-sized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This energy transfer occurs within the cavity of γ-cyclodextrin in various aqueous environments, including human plasma and coconut water. Highly efficient energy transfer was observed, and the efficiency of the energy transfer is independent of the concentration of γ-cyclodextrin used, demonstrating the importance of hydrophobic binding in facilitating such energy transfer. Low limits of detection were also observed for many of the PAHs investigated, which is promising for the development of fluorescence-based detection schemes. PMID:25821390

  18. Characterization and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Sediments from the Bohai Sea, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jihua; Hu, Ningjing; Shi, Xuefa

    2015-04-01

    Characterization and source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Sediments from the Bohai Sea, China Liu Jihua, Hu Ningjing, Shi Xuefa First Institute of Oceanography, State Oceanic Administration, Qingdao 266061, China Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a class of ubiquitous organic contaminants in the environment. Indeed, 16 PAH compounds have been listed as priority pollutants by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the European Union because of their potential toxicity to humans and ecosystems. As POPs are released or escape into the environment, their global accumulation in marine sediments generates a complex balance between inputs and outputs. Furthermore, PAHs in coastal sediments can serve as effective tracers of materials transport from land-to-sea (Fang et al., 2009). Hence, investigations of PAHs in sediments can provide useful information for further understanding of environmental processes and material transport. In this study, sixteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were extracted from a total of 112 surface sediment samples collected across the entire territory of the Bohai Sea. The detectable concentrations of PAHs ranged from 97.2 to 300.7 ng/g across all samples, indicating low contamination levels of PAHs compared with reported values for other coastal sediments in China and developed countries. The highest concentrations were found within three belts in the vicinity of Luan River Estuary-Qinhuangdao Harbor, the Cao River Estuary-Bohai Sea Center, and north of the Yellow River Estuary. The distribution patterns of PAHs and source identification implied that PAH contamination in the Bohai Sea mainly originates from offshore oil exploration, sewage discharge from rivers and shipping activities. Further Principal components analysis (PCA)/multivariate linear regression (MLR) analysis suggested that the contributions of spilled oil products (petrogenic), coal combustion and traffic

  19. THE FAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF VERY LARGE NEUTRAL POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    SciTech Connect

    Ricca, Alessandra; Bauschlicher, Charles W.; Mattioda, Andrew L.; Boersma, Christiaan; Allamandola, Louis J.

    2010-01-20

    Here we report the computed far-infrared (FIR) spectra of neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules containing at least 82 carbons up to 130 carbons and with shapes going from compact round and oval-type structures to rectangular and to trapezoidal. The effects of size and shape on the FIR band positions and intensities are discussed. Using FIR data from the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database Version 1.1, we generate synthetic spectra that support the suggestion that the 16.4, 17.4, and 17.8 mum bands arise from PAHs.

  20. Qsars for photoinduced toxicity: 1. acute lethality of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons to daphnia magna'

    SciTech Connect

    Mekenyan, O.G.; Ankley, G.T.; Veith, G.D.; Call, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    Research with a variety of aquatic species has shown that while polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are generally not acutely toxic in conventional laboratory tests, many are extremely toxic in the presence of sunlight. In an effort to develop a model for predicting which PAHs may exhibit photo-induced toxicity, Newsted and Giesy (1987) reported a parabolic relationship between the toxicity and the energy of the triplet state of a variety of PAHs. The authors have reexamined these data and propose a more mechanistic explanation for the prediction of photo-induced PAH toxicity. They sought a molecular descriptor which could be computed from structure rather than measured empirically.

  1. Measurement of particulate phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) around a petroleum refinery.

    PubMed

    Rao, Padma S; Ansari, M Faiyaz; Pipalatkar, P; Kumar, A; Nema, P; Devotta, S

    2008-02-01

    A study on concentrations of ambient particulates viz. total suspended particulate matters (TSP), respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were carried out at six sites around the Asia's largest, 12 MMTPA, petroleum refinery in west coast of India. PAH concentrations are correlated with each other in these sites, suggesting that they have related sources and sinks. The present article discusses the monitoring aspects such as sample collection, pretreatment and analytical methods and compares the monitored levels for assessing the source receptor distribution pattern. The main sources of RSPM and PAHs in urban air are automobile exhaust (CPCB, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in air and their effects on human health. " http://www.cpcb.nic.in/ph/ch21103.htm ", 2003; Manuel et al., Environmental Science and Technology, 13: 227-231, 2004) and industrial emissions like petroleum refinery (Vo-Dinh, Chemical analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, Wiley: New York, 1989; Wagrowaski and Hites, Environmental Science and Technology, 31: 279-282, 1997). Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous constituents of urban airborne particulate mostly generated by anthropogenic activities (Li et al., Environmental Science and Technology, 37:1958-2965, 2003; Thorsen et al., Environmental Science and Technology, 38: 2029-2037, 2004; Ohura et al., Environmental Science and Technology, 32: 450-455, 2004) and some of them are of major health concern mainly due to their well-known carcinogenic and mutagenic properties (Soclo et al., Marine Pollution Bulletin, 40: 387-396, 2000; Chen et al., Environment International, 28: 659-668, 2003; Larsen and Baker, Environmental Science and Technology, 32: 450-455, 2003). Limited information is available on PAHs contributions from refineries to ambient air. Hence this study would not only create a database but also provide necessary inputs towards dose-response relationship for

  2. Contamination of soils in the urbanized areas of Belarus with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukharchyk, T. I.; Khomich, V. S.; Kakareka, S. V.; Kurman, P. V.; Kozyrenko, M. I.

    2013-02-01

    The content of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the soils of urbanized areas, including the impact zones of Belarus, were studied. The concentrations of 16 PAHs in the soils were determined for individual and high-rise building zones, forests, and forest parks of Belarus. The levels of the PAH accumulation in the soils of different industrial enterprises and boiler stations were analyzed. Possible sources of soil contamination with PAHs were considered, and the structure of the PAHs in the soils was shown. The levels of the soil contamination were determined from the regulated parameters for individual compounds and the sum of 16 PAHs.

  3. Interrelationship of Pyrogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Contamination in Different Environmental Media.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung-Kyu; Lee, Dong Soo; Shim, Won Joon; Yim, Un Hyuk; Shin, Yong-Seung

    2009-01-01

    Interrelationships between pyrogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were assessed in air, soil, water, sediment, and tree leaves by using multi-media monitoring data. Concurrent concentration measurements were taken bimonthly for a year for the multi-media at urban and suburban sites. PAH level correlations between air and other media were observed at the urban site but were less clear at the suburban site. Considering a closer PAHs distribution/fate characteristics to soil than suspended solids, contamination in sediment seemed to be governed primarily by that in soil. The partitioning of PAHs in waters could be better accounted for by sorption onto black carbon and dissolved organic carbon. PMID:22303141

  4. Assessment of concentration, bioaccumulation and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in zooplankton of Chabahar Bay.

    PubMed

    Ziyaadini, Morteza; Mehdinia, Ali; Khaleghi, Leila; Nassiri, Mahmoud

    2016-06-15

    The amounts and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) in the zooplankton community of Chabahar Bay were investigated. The highest amounts of total PAHs (tPAHs) in the water and zooplankton samples were 62.2ngL(-1) and 1478.6ngg(-1) dry weights, in near the Shahid Beheshti Port and desalination, respectively. The greatest amount of BAF (51,780) was obtained in the entry of Bay, and it was related to the phenanthrene accumulation. Using molecular ratio, the results showed that the major input source of PAH compounds in zooplankton of Chabahar Bay was pyrolytic (fuel) source.

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in smoke particles from wood and duff burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Yulin L.; Quanci, John F.; Borys, Randolf D.; Quanci, Martin J.

    Smoke particles from wood burning and duff burning were analysed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. PAH composition in smoke particles from wood burning was found to resemble those from other environmental samples, such as air particles and sediments where parental PAH are the predominant species. A catalytic combustor retrofitted on the wood-burning stove reduced the PAH concentrations significantly. The reduction was more pronounced for parental PAH than their alkylated homologs. Probably, the molecular configuration affects the catalytic efficiency. Smoke particles from duff burning contained a strikingly different PAH composition, with phenanthrene, alkylated phenanthrenes, alkylated cycolopenta( def)phenanthrene and dodecahydrochrysene as the predominant species.

  6. Synthesis, Characterization, and Electronic Structures of Porphyrins Fused with Polycyclic Aromatic Ring Systems.

    PubMed

    Okujima, Tetsuo; Mack, John; Nakamura, Jun; Kubheka, Gugu; Nyokong, Tebello; Zhu, Hua; Komobuchi, Naoki; Ono, Noboru; Yamada, Hiroko; Uno, Hidemitsu; Kobayashi, Nagao

    2016-10-01

    A series of porphyrins fused with acenaphthylene, phenanthroline, and benzofluoranthene polycyclic aromatic rings were prepared by means of a 3+1 porphyrin synthesis approach and subsequent retro-Diels-Alder reaction of bicyclo[2.2.2]octadiene-fused precursors. Analysis of the magnetic circular dichroism spectra and the results of time-dependent DFT calculations are used to identify the reasons for the trends observed in the wavelengths and relative intensities of the Q bands of the products. Michl's perimeter model is used as a conceptual framework to explain the changes in the relative energies of the frontier π-molecular orbitals. PMID:27558988

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Holocene-Pleistocene sediments of the Laptev Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozdova, A. N.; Vetrov, A. A.; Romankevich, E. A.; Prokuda, N. A.; Sukhoverkhov, S. V.; Bratskaya, S. Yu.; Sergienko, V. I.; Semiletov, I. P.; Ulyantsev, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    The distribution and genesis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied in a 40-m core from a lagoon of the Laptev Sea that appeared during the Holocene resulting from the flooding of seawater into a freshwater lake in the area of the Buor-Khaya Gulf. The bulk of the core is constituted of permafrost rocks, thawed partially in their upper layers and covered with recent sediments (mainly by the products of intense thermoabrasion). The ratio of petrogenic and pyrogenic PAHs was evaluated.

  8. Evidence that Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Two Carbonaceous Chondrites Predate Parent-Body Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plows, F. L.; Elsila, J. E.; Zare, R. N.; Buseck, P. R.

    2003-01-01

    Organic material in meteorites provides insight into the cosmochemistry of the early solar system. The distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Allende and Murchison carbonaceous chondrites was investigated using spatially resolved microprobe laser-desorption laser-ionization mass spectrometry. Sharp chemical gradients of PAHs are associated with specific meteorite features. The ratios of various PAH intensities relative to the smallest PAH, naphthalene, are nearly constant across the sample. These findings suggest a common origin for PAHs dating prior to or contemporary with the formation of the parent body, consistent with proposed interstellar formation mechanisms.

  9. Effect of mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and sediments on fluoranthene biodegradation patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Beckles, D.M.; Ward, C.H.; Hughes, J.B.

    1998-07-01

    The biodegradation of fluoranthene, alone and in mixtures with naphthalene and acenaphthene, was studied in systems with and without sediments. In sediment-free systems, fluoranthene was not degraded when present alone or in combination with acenaphthene but was degraded when combined with naphthalene. Naphthalene and acenaphthene degradation were not influenced by fluoranthene. In sediment-containing systems, fluoranthene degradation occurred only in the presence of naphthalene. After complete degradation of naphthalene, fluoranthene degradation stopped. Experiments using all three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in both sediment-free and -containing systems showed results similar to those obtained using pairs.

  10. Ocean pollution detection: Dioxins, PCBs, and polycyclic aromatics. (Latest citations from Oceanic abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the detection and monitoring of dioxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polycyclic aromatics as pollutants in the ocean. The citations examine the development of analytical methods for determining bioaccumulation factors for these substances and for measuring their concentrations in seawater and marine sediments. Factors which influence the degree of pollution of marine ecosystems, rates at which pollution declines, and the use of existing contamination levels to predict the severity of future pollution by organic substances are discussed. (Contains a minimum of 73 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. First detection of an ultraviolet transition in an ionized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chillier, Xavier D. F.; Stone, Bradley M.; Salama, Farid; Allamandola, Louis J.

    1999-07-01

    We report the first measurement of a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon cation electronic transition in the ultraviolet spectral region. The UV excitation spectrum of the Dn-XD0 transition of the perylene cation (C20H12+) isolated in an argon matrix was pumped with tunable, coherent radiation and monitored using the vibronic bands of the D1(2B3g)→(2Au)D0 system. The two component band peaks at 244 and 250.2 nm, close to the S2(1B3u)←(1Ag)S0 transition in neutral perylene.

  12. HPLC Determination Of Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds By Fluorescence Detected With A Charge-Coupled Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalkian, Rafi D.; Denton, M. Bonner

    1989-05-01

    A solid-state two-dimensional charge-coupled device (CCD) is used to quantitate polycyclic aromatic compounds by native fluorescence. The mixture is separated by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the fluorescence emission from each peak is integrated by the detector. A new technique, charge-dependent variable binning, applied to one-dimensional spectroscopy leads to outstanding dynamic range. Excellent linearity and limits of detection are obtained for several priority pollutants. Synchronous and derivative techniques can be applied to the two-dimensional fluorescence data obtained to resolve overlapping peaks. The analyzed mixture consists of fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, and perylene.

  13. Hypothetical Two-Step Initiation of Experimental Carcinogenesis by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Aminoazo Dyes

    PubMed Central

    Contag, Bodo

    2012-01-01

    A new hypothesis is discussed, which describes the initiation of the carcinogenesis through polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aminoazo dyes (AZOs) as a two-step process: the oncogenic proteins of the ras or ras-like on-cogenes activated by mutation (“initiation A ”) co-operate with the complexes in the plasma membrane formed during the "initiation B " stage from the parent compounds of the PAHs or AZOs with cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I. The final result of this co-operation, or the "complete initiation", is an irreversibly modified membrane architecture with negative consequences for growth control. PMID:22582097

  14. Comparison of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon distributions and sedimentary organic matter characteristics in contaminated, coastal sediments from Pensacola Bay, Florida.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Myrna J; Chefetz, Benny; Deshmukh, Ashish P; Hatcher, Patrick G

    2005-03-01

    In this study, we examined the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a contaminated coastal area and the characteristics of the natural organic matter in tandem. We present a detailed study of PAH concentration, distribution, and organic matter characteristics of three core samples from Pensacola Bay, Florida. Solid-state 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), pyrolysis gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) thermochemolysis GC-MS were applied to obtain structural details about the sedimentary organic matter. Elemental compositions (carbon and nitrogen) and estimates of black carbon contents are also reported. These coastal sediments were found to contain more PAHs in the upper 15 cm layers than in the bottom 15-25 cm samples. The samples that contained the most PAHs also contained the least amount of aromatic carbon and contained a significant amount of paraffinic carbon. Lignin-derived pyrolysis and TMAH thermochemolysis products were abundant and generally higher in all of the samples in comparison to those reported for modern coastal sediments, indicating a large flux of terrestrial carbon. The black carbon contents were found to range from 4.3% to 6.8%, which are significantly lower than other reports of black carbon in sediments, which represent as much as 65% of the total organic carbon content. The low black carbon content suggests that this type of refractory carbon may not be as responsible for regulating PAH distribution as indicated by other researchers.

  15. Phytomediated Biostimulation of the Autochthonous Bacterial Community for the Acceleration of the Depletion of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Contaminated Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Gentini, Alessandro; Becarelli, Simone; Azaizeh, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a large group of organic contaminants causing hazards to organisms including humans. The objective of the study was to validate the vegetation of dredged sediments with Phragmites australis as an exploitable biostimulation approach to accelerate the depletion of PAHs in nitrogen spiked sediments. Vegetation with Phragmites australis resulted in being an efficient biostimulation approach for the depletion of an aged PAHs contamination (229.67 ± 15.56 μg PAHs/g dry weight of sediment) in dredged sediments. Phragmites australis accelerated the oxidation of the PAHs by rhizodegradation. The phytobased approach resulted in 58.47% of PAHs depletion. The effects of the treatment have been analyzed in terms of both contaminant depletion and changes in relative abundance of the metabolically active Gram positive and Gram negative PAHs degraders. The metabolically active degraders were quantified both in the sediments and in the root endospheric microbial community. Quantitative real-time PCR reactions have been performed on the retrotranscribed transcripts encoding the Gram positive and Gram negative large α subunit (RHDα) of the aromatic ring hydroxylating dioxygenases. The Gram positive degraders resulted in being selectively favored by vegetation with Phragmites australis and mandatory for the depletion of the six ring condensed indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene and benzo[g,h,i]perylene. PMID:25170516

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and molecular hydrogen in oxygen-rich planetary nebulae: the case of NGC 6720

    PubMed Central

    Cox, N. L. J.; Pilleri, P.; Berné, O.; Cernicharo, J.; Joblin, C.

    2015-01-01

    Evolved stars are primary sources for the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dust grains. Their circumstellar chemistry is usually designated as either oxygen-rich or carbon-rich, although dual-dust chemistry objects, whose infrared spectra reveal both silicate- and carbon-dust features, are also known. The exact origin and nature of this dual-dust chemistry is not yet understood. Spitzer-IRS mid-infrared spectroscopic imaging of the nearby, oxygen-rich planetary nebula NGC 6720 reveals the presence of the 11.3 μm aromatic (PAH) emission band. It is attributed to emission from neutral PAHs, since no band is observed in the 7–8 μm range. The spatial distribution of PAHs is found to closely follow that of the warm clumpy molecular hydrogen emission. Emission from both neutral PAHs and warm H2 is likely to arise from photo-dissociation regions associated with dense knots that are located within the main ring. The presence of PAHs together with the previously derived high abundance of free carbon (relative to CO) suggest that the local conditions in an oxygen-rich environment can also become conducive to in-situ formation of large carbonaceous molecules, such as PAHs, via a bottom-up chemical pathway. In this scenario, the same stellar source can enrich the interstellar medium with both oxygen-rich dust and large carbonaceous molecules. PMID:26924856

  17. Enhanced sorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from aqueous solution by modified pine bark.

    PubMed

    Li, Yungui; Chen, Baoliang; Zhu, Lizhong

    2010-10-01

    To enhance removal efficiency of natural sorbent with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), single-solute and bi-solute sorption of phenanthrene and pyrene onto raw and modified pine bark were investigated. Pine bark was modified using Soxhlet extraction, saponification and acid hydrolysis, yielding six bark fractions with different chemical compositions. Raw pine bark exhibited high affinities with PAHs, and sorption was dominated by partitioning. The relatively nonlinear sorption isotherms of modified bark were attributed to the specific interaction between sorbate and aromatic core of sorbent. Comparison with lipid and suberin, lignin was the most powerful sorption medium, but which was almost completely suppressed by coexisting polysaccharide. After consuming polysaccharide by acid hydrolysis, sorption of pine bark fractions was notably increased (4-17 folds); and sorption of pyrene just decreased 16-34% with phenanthrene as a competitor. These observations suggest that pine bark is of great potential for PAHs removal and can be significantly promoted by acid hydrolysis for environmental application.

  18. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons with Armchair Edges and the 12.7 μm Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candian, A.; Sarre, P. J.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2014-08-01

    In this Letter, we report the results of density functional theory calculations on medium-sized neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules with armchair edges. These PAH molecules possess strong C-H stretching and bending modes around 3 μm and in the fingerprint region (10-15 μm), and also strong ring deformation modes around 12.7 μm. Perusal of the entries in the NASA Ames PAHs Database shows that ring deformation modes of PAHs are common, although generally weak. Therefore, we propose that armchair PAHs with NC > 65 are responsible for the 12.7 μm aromatic infrared band in H II regions and discuss the astrophysical implications in the context of the PAH life cycle.

  19. POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS WITH ARMCHAIR EDGES AND THE 12.7 μm BAND

    SciTech Connect

    Candian, A.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Sarre, P. J.

    2014-08-10

    In this Letter, we report the results of density functional theory calculations on medium-sized neutral polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules with armchair edges. These PAH molecules possess strong C-H stretching and bending modes around 3 μm and in the fingerprint region (10-15 μm), and also strong ring deformation modes around 12.7 μm. Perusal of the entries in the NASA Ames PAHs Database shows that ring deformation modes of PAHs are common, although generally weak. Therefore, we propose that armchair PAHs with N{sub C} > 65 are responsible for the 12.7 μm aromatic infrared band in H II regions and discuss the astrophysical implications in the context of the PAH life cycle.

  20. Use of constant wavelength synchronous spectrofluorimetry for identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air particulate samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Homdutt; Jain, V. K.; Khan, Zahid H.

    2013-05-01

    We have developed a simple, rapid, inexpensive method for the identification of fluoranthene (Flan), benz(a)anthracene (BaA), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), benzo(k)fluoranthene (BkF), pyrene (Pyr), benz(ghi)perylene (BghiP) in suspended particulate matter in an urban environment of Delhi. Suspended particulate matter samples of 24 h duration were collected on glass fiber filter papers. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were extracted from the filter papers using dichloromethane (DCM) and hexane with ultrasonication method. Comparison of the characteristic emission of spectra of PAHs with standard spectra indicated the degree of condensation of aromatic compounds present in investigated mixtures. It was also possible to identify some individual compounds. However, this identification could be more effective with the use of the respective values of Δλ parameter for each particular component of the mixture.

  1. Use of constant wavelength synchronous spectrofluorimetry for identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in air particulate samples.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Homdutt; Jain, V K; Khan, Zahid H

    2013-05-01

    We have developed a simple, rapid, inexpensive method for the identification of fluoranthene (Flan), benz(a)anthracene (BaA), benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), benzo(k)fluoranthene (BkF), pyrene (Pyr), benz(ghi)perylene (BghiP) in suspended particulate matter in an urban environment of Delhi. Suspended particulate matter samples of 24h duration were collected on glass fiber filter papers. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were extracted from the filter papers using dichloromethane (DCM) and hexane with ultrasonication method. Comparison of the characteristic emission of spectra of PAHs with standard spectra indicated the degree of condensation of aromatic compounds present in investigated mixtures. It was also possible to identify some individual compounds. However, this identification could be more effective with the use of the respective values of Δλ parameter for each particular component of the mixture. PMID:23501938

  2. THE EFFECT OF ROUTE OF ADMINISTRATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS ON DNA ADDUCTION AND CYTOGENETIC DAMAGE IN PERIPHERAL BLOOD LYMPHOCYTES OF MICE AND RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of route of administration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on DNA adduction and cytogenetic damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes of mice and rats

    Experiments were designed to investigate how the route of exposure to polycyclic
    aromatic hydrocarbons (PA...

  3. Reflectance spectroscopy (350-2500 nm) of solid-state polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izawa, M. R. M.; Applin, D. M.; Norman, L.; Cloutis, E. A.

    2014-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are organic compounds based on fused aromatic rings, and are formed in a variety of astrophysical, solar nebula and planetary processes. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are known or suspected to occur in a wide variety of planetary settings including icy satellites, Titan’s hazes, carbonaceous meteorites, comet nuclei, ring particles; and terrestrial organic-rich lithologies such as coals, asphaltites, and bituminous sands. Relatively few measurements of the visible and near-infrared spectra of PAHs exist, yet this wavelength region (350-2500 nm) is widely used for remote sensing. This study presents detailed analyses of the 350-2500 nm reflectance spectra of 47 fine-grained powders of different high-purity solid-state PAHs. Spectral properties of PAHs change with variations in the number and connectivity of linked aromatic rings and the presence and type of side-groups and heterocycles. PAH spectra are characterized by three strong features near ∼880 nm, ∼1145 nm, and ∼1687 nm due to overtones of νCH fundamental stretching vibrations. Some PAHs are amenable to remote detection due to the presence of diagnostic spectral features, including: Nsbnd H stretching overtones at 1490-1515 nm in NH- and NH2-bearing PAHs, aliphatic or saturated bond Csbnd H overtone vibrations at ∼1180-1280 nm and ∼1700-1860 nm; a broad asymmetric feature between ∼1450 nm and ∼1900 nm due to Osbnd H stretching overtones in aromatic alcohols, Csbnd H and Cdbnd O combinations near ∼2000-2010 nm and ∼2060-2270 nm in acetyl and carboxyl-bearing PAHs. Other substituents such as sulphonyl, thioether ether and carboxyl heterocycles, or cyano, nitrate, and aromatic side groups, do not produce well-resolved diagnostic spectral features but do cause shifts in the positions of the aromatic Csbnd H vibrational overtone features. Fluorescence is commonly suppressed by the presence of heterocycles, side-groups and in many non-alternant PAHs

  4. Analysis of the impregnation of ZnO:Mn2+ nanoparticles on cigarette filters for trapping polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Estrada-Izquierdo, Irma; Sánchez-Espindola, Esther; Uribe-Hernández, Raúl; Ramón-Gallegos, Eva

    2012-10-01

    Each cigarette can generate 1149 ng of a mixture of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, of which there are a lot of information about its harmful effects on the environment and human health, they are considered mutagenic, teratogenic and carcinogenic. In this paper we tested ZnO:Mn2+ nanoparticles, attached to the filters of cigarettes. The first results showed that the filtration system was able to catch the Benzo(a)pyrene contained in cigarette smoke; but more tests are needed to quantify the efficiency with greater accuracy over other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  5. A STUDY OF THE CONCENTRATIONS OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN GAS WORKS RETORT HOUSES

    PubMed Central

    Lawther, P. J.; Commins, B. T.; Waller, R. E.

    1965-01-01

    Measurements of the concentration of 3:4-benzpyrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have been made in gas works retort houses of several types. The tarry fumes which escaped from retorts contained extremely high concentrations of polycyclic hydrocarbons, but in general men were only exposed to these very briefly. The mean concentration of 3:4-benzpyrene determined from long-period samples at sites representative of normal working conditions in three works was 3 μg./m.3, over 100 times the normal level in the City of London. Above the retorts in an old horizontal retort house the concentration was over 200 μg./m.3, about 10,000 times that in the City, and the `top-man' working there could be exposed to this in the normal course of his duty. We found no working areas in the vertical retort houses where men could be exposed to such massive concentrations of polycyclic hydrocarbons. Apart from defining these special conditions above horizontal retorts our results did not reveal any gross differences in pollution of the general air in horizontal and continuous vertical retort houses. Images PMID:14261701

  6. Elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in exhaust particles emitted by light-duty vehicles.

    PubMed

    Alves, Célia A; Barbosa, Cátia; Rocha, Sónia; Calvo, Ana; Nunes, Teresa; Cerqueira, Mário; Pio, Casimiro; Karanasiou, Angeliki; Querol, Xavier

    2015-08-01

    The main purpose of this work was to evaluate the chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) emitted by eight different light-duty vehicles. Exhaust samples from petrol and diesel cars (Euro 3 to Euro 5) were collected in a chassis dynamometer facility. To simulate the real-world driving conditions, three ARTEMIS cycles were followed: road, to simulate a fluid traffic flow and urban with hot and cold starts, to simulate driving conditions in cities. Samples were analysed for the water-soluble ions, for the elemental composition and for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), respectively, by ion chromatography, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Nitrate and phosphate were the major water-soluble ions in the exhaust particles emitted from diesel and petrol vehicles, respectively. The amount of material emitted is affected by the vehicle age. For vehicles ≥Euro 4, most elements were below the detection limits. Sodium, with emission factors in the ranges 23.5-62.4 and 78.2-227μg km(-1), for petrol and diesel Euro 3 vehicles, respectively, was the major element. The emission factors of metallic elements indicated that diesel vehicles release three to five times more than petrol automobiles. Element emissions under urban cycles are higher than those found for on-road driving, being three or four times higher, for petrol vehicles, and two or three times, for diesel vehicles. The difference between cycles is mainly due to the high emissions for the urban cycle with hot start-up. As registered for elements, most of the PAH emissions for vehicles ≥Euro 4 were also below the detection limits. Regardless of the vehicle models or driving cycles, the two- to four-ring PAHs were always dominant. Naphthalene, with emission factors up to 925 μg km(-1), was always the most abundant PAH. The relative cancer risk associated with

  7. Cancer risk assessment, indicators, and guidelines for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air.

    PubMed Central

    Boström, Carl-Elis; Gerde, Per; Hanberg, Annika; Jernström, Bengt; Johansson, Christer; Kyrklund, Titus; Rannug, Agneta; Törnqvist, Margareta; Victorin, Katarina; Westerholm, Roger

    2002-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are formed during incomplete combustion. Domestic wood burning and road traffic are the major sources of PAHs in Sweden. In Stockholm, the sum of 14 different PAHs is 100-200 ng/m(3) at the street-level site, the most abundant being phenanthrene. Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) varies between 1 and 2 ng/m(3). Exposure to PAH-containing substances increases the risk of cancer in humans. The carcinogenicity of PAHs is associated with the complexity of the molecule, i.e., increasing number of benzenoid rings, and with metabolic activation to reactive diol epoxide intermediates and their subsequent covalent binding to critical targets in DNA. B[a]P is the main indicator of carcinogenic PAHs. Fluoranthene is an important volatile PAH because it occurs at high concentrations in ambient air and because it is an experimental carcinogen in certain test systems. Thus, fluoranthene is suggested as a complementary indicator to B[a]P. The most carcinogenic PAH identified, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, is also suggested as an indicator, although it occurs at very low concentrations. Quantitative cancer risk estimates of PAHs as air pollutants are very uncertain because of the lack of useful, good-quality data. According to the World Health Organization Air Quality Guidelines for Europe, the unit risk is 9 X 10(-5) per ng/m(3) of B[a]P as indicator of the total PAH content, namely, lifetime exposure to 0.1 ng/m(3) would theoretically lead to one extra cancer case in 100,000 exposed individuals. This concentration of 0.1 ng/m(3) of B[a]P is suggested as a health-based guideline. Because the carcinogenic potency of fluoranthene has been estimated to be approximately 20 times less than that of B[a]P, a tentative guideline value of 2 ng/m(3) is suggested for fluoranthene. Other significant PAHs are phenanthrene, methylated phenanthrenes/anthracenes and pyrene (high air concentrations), and large-molecule PAHs such as dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benzo

  8. Emissions of Parent, Nitro, and Oxygenated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons from Residential Wood Combustion in Rural China

    PubMed Central

    SHEN, Guofeng; TAO, Shu; WEI, Siye; ZHANG, Yanyan; WANG, Rong; WANG, Bin; LI, Wei; SHEN, Huizhong; HUANG, Ye; CHEN, Yuanchen; CHEN, Han; YANG, Yifeng; WANG, Wei; WANG, Xilong; LIU, Wenxin; SIMONICH, Staci L. M.

    2012-01-01

    Residential wood combustion is one of the important sources of air pollution in developing countries. Among the pollutants emitted, parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pPAHs) and their derivatives, including nitrated and oxygenated PAHs (nPAHs and oPAHs), are of concern because of their mutagenic and carcinogenic effects. In order to evaluate their impacts on regional air quality and human health, emission inventories, based on realistic emission factors (EFs), are needed. In this study, the EFs of 28 pPAHs (EFPAH28), 9 nPAHs (EFPAHn9) and 4 oPAHs (EFPAHo4) were measured for residential combustion of 27 wood fuels in rural China. The measured EFPAH28, EFPAHn9, and EFPAHo4 for brushwood were 86.7±67.6, 3.22±1.95×10−2, and 5.56±4.32 mg/kg, which were significantly higher than 12.7±7.0, 8.27±5.51×10−3, and 1.19±1.87 mg/kg for fuel wood combustion (p < 0.05). Sixteen U.S. EPA priority pPAHs contributed approximately 95% of the total of the 28 pPAHs measured. EFs of pPAHs, nPAHs, and oPAHs were positively correlated with one another. Measured EFs varied obviously depending on fuel properties and combustion conditions. The EFs of pPAHs, nPAHs, and oPAHs were significantly correlated with modified combustion efficiency and fuel moisture. Nitro-naphthalene and 9-fluorenone were the most abundant nPAHs and oPAHs identified. Both nPAHs and oPAHs showed relatively high tendencies to be present in the particulate phase than pPAHs due to their lower vapor pressures. The gas-particle partitioning of freshly emitted pPAHs, nPAHs and oPAHs was primarily controlled by organic carbon absorption. PMID:22765266

  9. Elements and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in exhaust particles emitted by light-duty vehicles.

    PubMed

    Alves, Célia A; Barbosa, Cátia; Rocha, Sónia; Calvo, Ana; Nunes, Teresa; Cerqueira, Mário; Pio, Casimiro; Karanasiou, Angeliki; Querol, Xavier

    2015-08-01

    The main purpose of this work was to evaluate the chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) emitted by eight different light-duty vehicles. Exhaust samples from petrol and diesel cars (Euro 3 to Euro 5) were collected in a chassis dynamometer facility. To simulate the real-world driving conditions, three ARTEMIS cycles were followed: road, to simulate a fluid traffic flow and urban with hot and cold starts, to simulate driving conditions in cities. Samples were analysed for the water-soluble ions, for the elemental composition and for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), respectively, by ion chromatography, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Nitrate and phosphate were the major water-soluble ions in the exhaust particles emitted from diesel and petrol vehicles, respectively. The amount of material emitted is affected by the vehicle age. For vehicles ≥Euro 4, most elements were below the detection limits. Sodium, with emission factors in the ranges 23.5-62.4 and 78.2-227μg km(-1), for petrol and diesel Euro 3 vehicles, respectively, was the major element. The emission factors of metallic elements indicated that diesel vehicles release three to five times more than petrol automobiles. Element emissions under urban cycles are higher than those found for on-road driving, being three or four times higher, for petrol vehicles, and two or three times, for diesel vehicles. The difference between cycles is mainly due to the high emissions for the urban cycle with hot start-up. As registered for elements, most of the PAH emissions for vehicles ≥Euro 4 were also below the detection limits. Regardless of the vehicle models or driving cycles, the two- to four-ring PAHs were always dominant. Naphthalene, with emission factors up to 925 μg km(-1), was always the most abundant PAH. The relative cancer risk associated with

  10. Emission of oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from indoor solid fuel combustion.

    PubMed

    Shen, Guofeng; Tao, Shu; Wang, Wei; Yang, Yifeng; Ding, Junnan; Xue, Miao; Min, Yujia; Zhu, Chen; Shen, Huizhong; Li, Wei; Wang, Bin; Wang, Rong; Wang, Wentao; Wang, Xilong; Russell, Armistead G

    2011-04-15

    Indoor solid fuel combustion is a dominant source of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) and the latter are believed to be more toxic than the former. However, there is limited quantitative information on the emissions of OPAHs from solid fuel combustion. In this study, emission factors of OPAHs (EF(OPAH)) for nine commonly used crop residues and five coals burnt in typical residential stoves widely used in rural China were measured under simulated kitchen conditions. The total EF(OPAH) ranged from 2.8 ± 0.2 to 8.1 ± 2.2 mg/kg for tested crop residues and from 0.043 to 71 mg/kg for various coals and 9-fluorenone was the most abundant specie. The EF(OPAH) for indoor crop residue burning were 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than those from open burning, and they were affected by fuel properties and combustion conditions, like moisture and combustion efficiency. For both crop residues and coals, significantly positive correlations were found between EFs for the individual OPAHs and the parent PAHs. An oxygenation rate, R(o), was defined as the ratio of the EFs between the oxygenated and parent PAH species to describe the formation potential of OPAHs. For the studied OPAH/PAH pairs, mean R(o) values were 0.16-0.89 for crop residues and 0.03-0.25 for coals. R(o) for crop residues burned in the cooking stove were much higher than those for open burning and much lower than those in ambient air, indicating the influence of secondary formation of OPAH and loss of PAHs. In comparison with parent PAHs, OPAHs showed a higher tendency to be associated with particulate matter (PM), especially fine PM, and the dominate size ranges were 0.7-2.1 μm for crop residues and high caking coals and <0.7 μm for the tested low caking briquettes. PMID:21375317

  11. Actions of a versatile fluorene-degrading bacterial isolate on polycyclic aromatic compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Grifoll, M; Selifonov, S A; Gatlin, C V; Chapman, P J

    1995-01-01

    Pseudomonas cepacia F297 grew with fluorene as a sole source of carbon and energy; its growth yield corresponded to an assimilation of about 40% of fluorene carbon. The accumulation of a ring meta-cleavage product during growth and the identification of 1-indanone in growth media and washed-cell suspensions suggest that strain F297 metabolizes fluorene by mechanisms analogous to those of naphthalene degradation. In addition to fluorene, strain F297 utilized for growth a wide variety of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs), including naphthalene, 2,3-dimethylnaphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, and dibenzothiophene. Fluorene-induced cells of the strain also transformed 2,6-dimethylnaphthalene, biphenyl, dibenzofuran, acenaphthene, and acenaphthylene. The identification of products formed from those substrates (by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) in washed-cell suspensions indicates that P. cepacia F297 carries out the following reactions: (i) aromatic ring oxidation and cleavage, apparently using the pyruvate released for growth, (ii) methyl group oxidations, (iii) methylenic oxidations, and (iv) S oxidations of aromatic sulfur heterocycles. Strain F297 grew with a creosote-PAC mixture, producing an almost complete removal of all aromatic compounds containing 2 to 3 rings in 14 days, as demonstrated by gas chromatography analysis of the remaining PACs recovered from cultures. The identification of key chemicals confirmed that not only are certain compounds depleted but also the anticipated reaction products are found. PMID:7487007

  12. Monohydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons influence spicule formation in the early development of sea urchins (Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Nobuo; Ogiso, Shouzo; Yachiguchi, Koji; Kawabe, Kimi; Makino, Fumiya; Toriba, Akira; Kiyomoto, Masato; Sekiguchi, Toshio; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Kondo, Takashi; Kitamura, Kei-ichiro; Hong, Chun-Sang; Srivastav, Ajai K; Oshima, Yuji; Hattori, Atsuhiko; Hayakawa, Kazuichi

    2015-05-01

    We previously demonstrated that monohydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OHPAHs), which are metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), act on calcified tissue and suppress osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity in the scales of teleost fish. The compounds may possibly influence other calcified tissues. Thus, the present study noted the calcified spicules in sea urchins and examined the effect of both PAHs and OHPAHs on spicule formation during the embryogenesis of sea urchins. After fertilization, benz[a]anthracene (BaA) and 4-hydroxybenz[a]anthracene (4-OHBaA) were added to seawater at concentrations of 10(-8) and 10(-7) M and kept at 18 °C. The influence of the compound was given at the time of the pluteus larva. At this stage, the length of the spicule was significantly suppressed by 4-OHBaA (10(-8) and 10(-7) M). BaA (10(-7) M) decreased the length of the spicule significantly, while the length did not change with BaA (10(-8) M). The expression of mRNAs (spicule matrix protein and transcription factors) in the 4-OHBaA (10(-7) M)-treated embryos was more strongly inhibited than were those in the BaA (10(-7) M)-treated embryos. This is the first study to demonstrate that OHPAHs suppress spicule formation in sea urchins.

  13. Effect of temperature on oxygen quenching of excited states polycyclic aromatic compounds in the vapor phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalesskaya, G. A.; Kuchinskiĭ, A. V.

    2009-01-01

    The temperature dependences of oxygen quenching rate constants of singlet ( k_S^{O_2 } ) and triplet ( k_T^{O_2 } ) states, as well as of the fractions of singlet ( q_S^{O_2 } ) and triplet ( q_T^{O_2 } ) states quenched by oxygen in vapor pahse of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), namely, anthracene, 2-aminoanthracene, 9-methylanthracene, 9,10-dibromoanthracene, chrysene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and carbazole, are studied. It is found that in the temperature range 433-673 K, the oxygen quenching rate constants of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons either do not change or slightly decrease with increasing temperature. The quenching activation energies E a for these cases are determined. The effect of the stored vibrational energy and the free energy of electron transfer from a PAH to oxygen on the temperature dependences of k_S^{O_2 } and k_T^{O_2 } is considered. The role played by charge-transfer complexes in the observed temperature dependences k_S^{O_2 } of and k_T^{O_2 } , as well as the applicability of a model of electron transfer concerted with reorganization of reactants for description of quenching in heated vapors is discussed.

  14. Study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons adsorbed on graphene using density functional theory with empirical dispersion correction.

    PubMed

    Ershova, Olga V; Lillestolen, Timothy C; Bichoutskaia, Elena

    2010-06-28

    The interaction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules with hydrogen-terminated graphene is studied using density functional theory with empirical dispersion correction. The effective potential energy surfaces for the interaction of benzene, C(6)H(6), naphthalene, C(10)H(8), coronene, C(24)H(12), and ovalene, C(32)H(14), with hydrogen-terminated graphene are calculated as functions of the molecular displacement along the substrate. The potential energy surfaces are also described analytically using the lowest harmonics of the Fourier expansion. It is shown that inclusion of the dispersive interaction, which is the most important contribution to the binding of these weakly bound systems, does not change the shape of the interaction energy surfaces or the value of the barriers to the motion of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules on graphene. The potential energy surfaces are used in the estimation of the friction forces acting on the molecules along the direction of motion. These results underpin the modelling, using density functional theory, of electromechanical devices based on the relative vibrations of graphene layers and telescoping carbon nanotubes.

  15. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in urban atmospheric particulate of NCR, Delhi, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonwani, Saurabh; Amreen, Hassan; Khillare, P. S.

    2016-07-01

    The present study identifies the particulate Polycyclic Aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and their sources in ambient atmosphere of Delhi, India. PM10 (aerodynamic diameter, ≤10 μm) samples were collected weekly at two residential areas from July 2013 to January 2014. First sampling site was located in centre of the city, while other was at city's background (located in South-East direction of the Delhi). PM10 was collected on Whatman GF/A (8"x10") glass fibre filters using High-Volume sampler having a constant flow rate of 1.10 m3/min. A total of 55 samples, 27 from city centre and 28 from background site were collected during sampling period, covering two different seasons. The samples were analysed for determination of 16 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) system (Waters, USA). A source apportionment study using Molecular Diagnostic Ratio (MDR) and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) were conducted for both sampling sites in order to identify the potential PAHs sources in Delhi. MDR was used for the preliminary identification of sources and PCA was used for further confirmation of the PAH sources at both the sites in Delhi. Results indicated towards traffic and coal combustion related sources as dominant contributors of urban atmospheric PAHs in Delhi.

  16. Firefighting instructors' exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during live fire training scenarios.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Katherine M; Logan, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    Cumulative exposures of firefighting instructors to toxic contaminants generated from live-fire training potentially far exceed firefighter exposures arising from operational fires. This study measured the atmospheric concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) outside and inside the structural firefighting ensembles worn by instructors during five live fire training evolutions. In addition, the contamination of ensembles by deposition of PAHs was characterized. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons outside the instructors' structural firefighting ensembles during the training evolutions ranged from 430 μg/m(3) to 2700 μg/m(3), and inside the structural firefighting ensembles from 32 μg/m(3) to 355 μg/m(3). Naphthalene, phenanthrene and acenaphthylene dominated the PAHs generated in the live fire evolutions, but benzo[a]pyrene was the greatest contributor to the toxicity of the PAH mixture both inside and outside the structural firefighting ensembles. Deposition of PAHs onto the structural firefighting ensembles was measured at between 69 and 290 ng/cm(2), with phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]anthracene detected on all samples. These findings suggest that firefighting instructor exposures to PAHs during a single live-fire training evolution are comparable with exposures occurring in industrial settings over a full shift. Further research is required to investigate the importance of various potential routes of exposure to PAHs as a result of ingress and deposition of PAHs in/on structural firefighting ensembles.

  17. Retention behavior of alkyl-substituted polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles in reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Walter B; Sander, Lane C; de Alda, Miren Lopez; Lee, Milton L; Wise, Stephen A

    2016-08-26

    Retention indices for 79 alkyl-substituted polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles (PASHs) were determined by using reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) on a monomeric and polymeric octadecylsilane (C18) stationary phase. Molecular shape parameters [length, breadth, thickness (T), and length-to-breadth ratio (L/B)] were calculated for all the compounds studied. Based on separations of isomeric methylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on polymeric C18 phases, alkyl-substituted PASHs are expected to elute based on increasing L/B ratios. However, the correlation coefficients had a wide range of values from r=0.43 to r=0.93. Several structural features besides L/B ratios were identified to play an important role in the separation mechanism of PASHs on polymeric C18 phases. First, the location of the sulfur atom in a bay-like-region results in alkylated-PASHs being more retentive than non-bay-like-region alkylated-PASHs, and they elute later than expected based on L/B value. Second, the placement of the alkyl group in the k region of the structure resulted in a later elution than predicted by L/B. Third, highly nonplanar methyl-PASHs (i.e., 1-Me and 11-MeBbN12T) elute prior to the parent PASH (BbN12T).

  18. Polycyclic Aromatic Acids Are Primary Metabolites of Alkyl-PAHs-A Case Study with Nereis diversicolor.

    PubMed

    Malmquist, Linus M V; Selck, Henriette; Jørgensen, Kåre B; Christensen, Jan H

    2015-05-01

    Although concentrations of alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (alkyl-PAHs) in oil-contaminated sediments are higher than those of unsubstituted PAHs, only little attention has been given to metabolism and ecotoxicity of alkyl-PAHs. In this study we demonstrated that metabolism of alkyl-PAHs primarily forms polycyclic aromatic acids (PAAs). We generalize this to other alkyl-PAHs, based on literature and the present study of the metabolism of 1-methylphenanthrene, 3,6-dimethylphenanthrene, and 1-, 2-, 3-, and 6-methylchrysene related to their unsubstituted parent PAHs. Also, we observed that body burdens and production of PAAs was related to the position of the methyl group, showing the same isomer specific preferences as for microbial degradation of alkyl-PAHs. We detected a high production of PAAs, and larger metabolism of alkyl-PAHs than their unsubstituted parent PAHs. We therefore propose that carboxylic acid metabolites of alkyl-PAHs have the potential of constituting a new class of contaminants in marine waters that needs attention in relation to ecological risk assessments.

  19. Firefighting instructors' exposures to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during live fire training scenarios.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Katherine M; Logan, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    Cumulative exposures of firefighting instructors to toxic contaminants generated from live-fire training potentially far exceed firefighter exposures arising from operational fires. This study measured the atmospheric concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) outside and inside the structural firefighting ensembles worn by instructors during five live fire training evolutions. In addition, the contamination of ensembles by deposition of PAHs was characterized. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons outside the instructors' structural firefighting ensembles during the training evolutions ranged from 430 μg/m(3) to 2700 μg/m(3), and inside the structural firefighting ensembles from 32 μg/m(3) to 355 μg/m(3). Naphthalene, phenanthrene and acenaphthylene dominated the PAHs generated in the live fire evolutions, but benzo[a]pyrene was the greatest contributor to the toxicity of the PAH mixture both inside and outside the structural firefighting ensembles. Deposition of PAHs onto the structural firefighting ensembles was measured at between 69 and 290 ng/cm(2), with phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene, and benzo[a]anthracene detected on all samples. These findings suggest that firefighting instructor exposures to PAHs during a single live-fire training evolution are comparable with exposures occurring in industrial settings over a full shift. Further research is required to investigate the importance of various potential routes of exposure to PAHs as a result of ingress and deposition of PAHs in/on structural firefighting ensembles. PMID:25679824

  20. Degradation and formation of polycyclic aromatic compounds during bioslurry treatment of an aged gasworks soil.

    PubMed

    Lundstedt, Staffan; Haglund, Peter; Oberg, Lars

    2003-07-01

    The goals of this study were to investigate the relative degradation rates of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in contaminated soil, and to assess whether persistent oxidation products are formed during their degradation. Samples were taken on five occasions during a pilot-scale bioslurry treatment of soil from a former gasworks site. More than 100 PACs were identified in the soil, including unsubstituted polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkylated PAHs (alkyl-PAHs), heterocyclic PACs, and oxygenated PAHs (oxy-PAHs), such as ketones, quinones, and coumarins. During the treatment, the low molecular weight PAHs and heterocyclics were degraded faster than the high molecular weight compounds. The unsubstituted PAHs also appear to have degraded more quickly than the corresponding alkyl-PAHs and nitrogen-containing heterocyclics. No new oxidation products that were not present in the untreated soil were identified after the soil treatment. However, oxy-PAHs that were present in the untreated soil were generally degraded more slowly than the parent compounds, suggesting that they were formed during the treatment or that they are more persistent. Two oxidation products, 1-acenaphthenone and 4-oxapyrene-5-one, were found at significantly higher concentrations at the end of the study. Because oxy-PAHs can be acutely toxic, mutagenic, or carcinogenic, we suggest that this group of compounds should also be monitored during the treatment of PAH-contaminated soil. PMID:12836964

  1. Accumulation and elimination of 16 polycyclic aromatic compounds in the earthworm (Eisenia fetida).

    PubMed

    Matscheko, Nadja; Lundstedt, Staffan; Svensson, Linda; Harju, Mikael; Tysklind, Mats

    2002-08-01

    Accumulation and elimination of different polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) were studied in earthworms (Eisenia fetida) exposed to contaminated soil from an old gasworks site. In total, 12 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), two N- and S-heterocyclic PACs, and two PAC-quinones were included in the study. Peak-shaped accumulation curves were found for many of the compounds. After 19 d of exposure, the ratio between concentrations in worm lipids and soil organic matter was 0.02 on average. The half-lives of the PACs were relatively long, between 2 and 11 d. The elimination rate constants, k2, correlated both with literature-derived octanol-water partition coefficients (Kow) for PAHs (r2 = 0.93) and the computed polarizability (r2 = 0.88) of all the compounds. The elimination rate constants of PAHs are comparable to those of PCBs found in earlier studies, and the linear regression coefficient, r2, of k2 against Kow for PAHs and PCBs together was 0.93. PMID:12152775

  2. Sequential accelerated solvent extraction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons with different solvents: performance and implication.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoxuan; Ran, Yong; Gong, Jian; Chen, Diyun

    2010-01-01

    Sixteen USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) extracted by Soxhlet extraction (S-PAHs) with dichloromethane and routine accelerated solvent extraction (A-PAHs) with 1:1 toluene/methanol, respectively, were investigated in 24 soil samples from two cities in the center of the Pearl River Delta, South China. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, methylphenanthrene and perylene, in two soils, two sediments, and an immature oil shale were also sequentially extracted by accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) with each of four different organic solvents for three times. The A-PAHs' concentrations are 2.41 times the S-PAHs' concentrations. For sequential three ASEs, PAHs in the first extract account for 56 to 67% of their total concentrations in the sequential three extractions and toluene displays the best extraction performance among the four solvents. Diagnostic ratios of PAHs in Soxhlet extraction, routine ASE, and sequential ASE with each solvent for a given sample are very similar, suggesting their identical petrogenic and pyrogenic sources in the soils and sediments. But the PAH ratios for the shale have an obvious petrogenic origin. The perylene/5-ring PAH ratios indicate a diagenetic source, especially in the shale and sediments. The correlation analysis shows that A-PAHs/S-PAHs is better associated with the contents of total organic carbon (TOC) than those of black carbon (BC). The above results indicate the significant petrogenic origin of PAHs and the important effect of organic matter on their extraction and distribution in the investigated field soils/sediments. PMID:21284305

  3. Mutagenic hazards of complex polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon mixtures in contaminated soil

    SciTech Connect

    Lemieux, C.L.; Lambert, A.B.; Lundstedt, S.; Tysklind, M.; White, P.A.

    2008-04-15

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate hazard/risk assessment methods for complex environmental mixtures that involve a targeted, priority chemical approach based on the cumulative hazard/risk of known mixture components or analyses of sufficiently similar mixtures. Ten polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-contaminated soils were separated into nonpolar and semipolar fractions, and both fractions elicited positive responses on the Salmonella reverse mutation assay. Targeted and nontargeted methods of hazard prediction routinely overestimated mutagenic activities for the nonpolar soil fractions, suggesting nonadditive interactions of PAHs in complex mixtures. This suggests that current risk assessment methods for complex mixtures may provide conservative estimates regarding soils contaminated with priority PAHs alone. Significant underestimations of total risk, however, will be obtained if the soils also contain unidentified PAHs as well as polycyclic aromatic compounds and related compounds that contribute to the total mutagenic activity. Furthermore, estimates of excess lifetime cancer risk associated with the nondietary ingestion of the PAH-contaminated soils studied here indicate that a traditional risk assessment model based on identified priority PAHs and an assumption of additivity generally underestimates the risk associated with the nonpolar soil fractions (in comparison to bioassay-derived risk estimates). Additional cancer risk may be associated with the more polar compounds that also are found at these contaminated sites and that rarely are included in the standard risk assessment methodology.

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts and the CYP1A1 restriction fragment length polymorphism

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, P.G.; Bowman, E.D.; Weston, A.; Harris, C.C.; Sugimura, H.; Caporaso, N.E.; Petruzzelli, S.F. ); Trump, B.F. )

    1992-11-01

    Human cancer risk assessment at a genetic level involves the investigation of carcinogen metabolism and DNA adduct formation. Wide interindividual differences in metabolism result in different DNA adduct levels. For this and other reasons, many laboratories have considered DNA adducts to be a measure of the biologically effective dose of a carcinogen. Techniques for studying DNA adducts using chemically specific assays are becoming available. A modification of the [sup 32]P-postlabeling assay for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon DNA adducts described here provides potential improvements in quantification. DNA adducts, however, reflect only recent exposure to carcinogens; in contrast, genetic testing for metabolic capacity indicates the extent to which carcinogens can be activated and exert genotoxic effects. Such studies may reflect both separate and integrated risk factors together with DNA adduct levels. A recently described restriction fragment length polymorphism for the CYP1A1, which codes for the cytochrome P450 enzyme primarily responsible for the metabolic activation of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, has been found to be associated with lung cancer risk in a Japanese population. In a subset of individuals enrolled in a US lung cancer case-control study, no association with lung cancer was found. 17 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions of particles of various sizes from smoldering incense.

    PubMed

    Yang, T T; Lin, T S; Wu, J J; Jhuang, F J

    2012-02-01

    Release of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in particles of various sizes from smoldering incenses was determined. Among the three types of incense investigated, yielding the total PAH emission rate and factor ranges for PM0.25 were 2,139.7-6,595.6 ng/h and 1,762.2-8,094.9 ng/g, respectively. The PM0.25/PM2.5 ratio of total PAH emission factors and rates from smoldering three incenses was greater than 0.92. This study shows that total particle PAH emission rates and factors were mainly <0.25 μm. Furthermore, the total toxic equivalency emission rates and factors of PAHs for PM0.25 were 241.3-469.7 and 198.8-576.2 ng/g from the three smoldering incenses. The benzo[a]pyrene accounted for 65.2%-68.0% of the total toxic equivalency emission factor of PM2.5 for the three incenses. Experimental results clearly indicate that the PAH emission rates and factors were influenced significantly by incense composition, including carbon and hydrogen content. The study concludes that smoldering incense with low atomic hydrogen/carbon ratios minimized the production of total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons of both PM2.5 and PM0.25.

  6. Retention behavior of isomeric polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles in reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Walter B; Sander, Lane C; de Alda, Miren Lopez; Lee, Milton L; Wise, Stephen A

    2016-08-26

    Retention indices for 70 polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles (PASHs) were determined using reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) on a monomeric and a polymeric C18 stationary phase. Molecular shape parameters [length, breadth, thickness (T), and length-to-breadth ratio (L/B)] were calculated for all the compounds studied. Correlations between the retention on the polymeric C18 phase and PASH geometry (L/B and T) were investigated for six specific PASH isomer groups with molecular mass (MM) 184Da, 234Da, 258Da, 284Da, 334Da, and 384Da. Similar to previous studies for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), PASH elution order on the polymeric C18 phase was generally found to follow increasing L/B values. Correlation coefficients for retention vs L/B ranged from r=0.45 (MM 184Da) to r=0.89 (MM 284Da). In the case of smaller PASHs (MM≤258Da), the location of the sulfur atom in the bay-region of the structure resulted in later than expected elution of these isomers based on L/B. In the case of the larger PASHs (MM≥284Da), nonplanarity had a significant influence on earlier than predicted elution based on L/B values. PMID:27481401

  7. Distribution, sources and ecological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water and sediments from Tiber River and estuary, Italy.

    PubMed

    Montuori, Paolo; Aurino, Sara; Garzonio, Fatima; Sarnacchiaro, Pasquale; Nardone, Antonio; Triassi, Maria

    2016-10-01

    The concentration, source and ecological risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Tiber River and its environmental impact on the Tyrrhenian Sea (Central Mediterranean Sea) were estimated. The 16 priority PAHs were determined in the water dissolved phase (DP), suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediments collected from 21 sites in four different seasons. Total concentrations of PAHs ranged from 10.3 to 951.6ngL(-1) and from 36.2 to 545.6ngg(-1) in water (sum of DP and SPM) and in sediment samples, respectively. The compositions of PAHs showed that 2- to 4-ring PAHs were abundant in DP, 4- to 6-ring PAHs were predominant in SPM samples, and 4- to 5-ring PAHs were abundant in sediments. The diagnostic ratio analysis indicated that the PAHs mainly had a pyrolytic source. The toxic equivalent concentration of carcinogenic PAHs was 45.3ngTEQg(-1), suggesting low carcinogenic risk for Tiber River. Total PAHs loads into the sea were calculated in about 3161.7kgyear(-1) showing that this river is one of the main contribution sources of these contaminants to the Tyrrhenian Sea. PMID:27265739

  8. Hydrous pyrolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and implications for the origin of PAH in hydrothermal petroleum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCollom, T. M.; Simoneit, B. R.; Shock, E. L.

    1999-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are found at high concentrations in thermally altered organic matter and hydrothermally generated petroleum from sediment-covered seafloor hydro-thermal systems. To better understand the factors controlling the occurrence of PAH in thermally altered environments, the reactivities of two PAH, phenanthrene and anthracene, were investigated in hydrothermal experiments. The compounds were heated with water at 330 degrees C in sealed reaction vessels for durations ranging from 1 to 17 days. Iron oxide and sulfide minerals, formic acid, or sodium for-mate were included in some experiments to vary conditions within the reaction vessel. Phenanthrene was unreactive both in water alone and in the presence of minerals for up to 17 days, while anthracene was partially hydrogenated (5-10%) to di- and tetrahydroanthracene. In the presence of 6-21 vol % formic acid, both phenanthrene and anthracene reacted extensively to form hydrogenated and minor methylated derivatives, with the degree of hydrogenation and methylation increasing with the amount of formic acid. Phenanthrene was slightly hydrogenated in sodium formate solutions. The hydrogenation reactions could be readily reversed; heating a mixture of polysaturated phenanthrenes resulted in extensive dehydrogenation (aromatization) after 3 days at 330 degrees C. While the experiments demonstrate that reaction pathways for the hydrogenation of PAH under hydrothermal conditions exist, the reactions apparently require higher concentrations of H2 than are typical of geologic settings. The experiments provide additional evidence that PAH may be generated in hydrothermal systems from progressive aromatization and dealkylation of biologically derived polycyclic precursors such as steroids and terpenoids. Furthermore, the results indicate that PAH initially present in sediments or formed within hydrothermal systems are resistant to further thermal degradation during hydrothermal alteration.

  9. Hydrous pyrolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and implications for the origin of PAH in hydrothermal petroleum.

    PubMed

    McCollom, T M; Simoneit, B R; Shock, E L

    1999-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are found at high concentrations in thermally altered organic matter and hydrothermally generated petroleum from sediment-covered seafloor hydro-thermal systems. To better understand the factors controlling the occurrence of PAH in thermally altered environments, the reactivities of two PAH, phenanthrene and anthracene, were investigated in hydrothermal experiments. The compounds were heated with water at 330 degrees C in sealed reaction vessels for durations ranging from 1 to 17 days. Iron oxide and sulfide minerals, formic acid, or sodium for-mate were included in some experiments to vary conditions within the reaction vessel. Phenanthrene was unreactive both in water alone and in the presence of minerals for up to 17 days, while anthracene was partially hydrogenated (5-10%) to di- and tetrahydroanthracene. In the presence of 6-21 vol % formic acid, both phenanthrene and anthracene reacted extensively to form hydrogenated and minor methylated derivatives, with the degree of hydrogenation and methylation increasing with the amount of formic acid. Phenanthrene was slightly hydrogenated in sodium formate solutions. The hydrogenation reactions could be readily reversed; heating a mixture of polysaturated phenanthrenes resulted in extensive dehydrogenation (aromatization) after 3 days at 330 degrees C. While the experiments demonstrate that reaction pathways for the hydrogenation of PAH under hydrothermal conditions exist, the reactions apparently require higher concentrations of H2 than are typical of geologic settings. The experiments provide additional evidence that PAH may be generated in hydrothermal systems from progressive aromatization and dealkylation of biologically derived polycyclic precursors such as steroids and terpenoids. Furthermore, the results indicate that PAH initially present in sediments or formed within hydrothermal systems are resistant to further thermal degradation during hydrothermal alteration.

  10. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and chlorinated pesticides in background air in central Europe - investigating parameters affecting wet scavenging of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahpoury, P.; Lammel, G.; Holubová Šmejkalová, A.; Klánová, J.; Přibylová, P.; Váňa, M.

    2014-10-01

    Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and chlorinated pesticides (CPs) were measured in air and precipitation at a background site in central Europe. Σ PAH concentrations in air and rainwater ranged from 0.7 to 327.9 ng m-3 and below analytical method detection limit (< MDL) to 2.1 × 103 ng L-1. The concentrations of PCBs and CPs in rainwater were < MDL. Σ PCB and Σ CP concentrations in air ranged from < MDL to 44.6 and < MDL to 351.7 pg m-3, respectively. The potential relationships between PAH wet scavenging and particulate matter and rainwater properties were investigated. The concentrations of ionic species in particulate matter and rainwater were significantly correlated, highlighting the importance of particle scavenging process. Overall, higher scavenging efficiencies were found for relatively less volatile PAHs, underlining the effect of analyte gas-particle partitioning on scavenging process. The PAH wet scavenging was more effective when the concentrations of ionic species were high. In addition, the elemental and organic carbon contents of the particulate matter were found to influence the PAH scavenging.

  11. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and chlorinated pesticides in background air in central Europe - investigating parameters affecting wet scavenging of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahpoury, P.; Lammel, G.; Holubová Šmejkalová, A.; Klánová, J.; Přibylová, P.; Váňa, M.

    2015-02-01

    Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and chlorinated pesticides (CPs) were measured in air and precipitation at a background site in central Europe. ∑ PAH concentrations in air and rainwater ranged from 0.7 to 327.9 ng m-3 and below limit of quantification (< LOQ) to 2.1 × 103 ng L-1. The concentrations of PCBs and CPs in rainwater were < LOQ. ∑ PCB and ∑ CP concentrations in air ranged from < LOQ to 44.6 and < LOQ to 351.7 pg m-3, respectively. The potential relationships between PAH wet scavenging and particulate matter and rainwater properties were investigated. The concentrations of ionic species in particulate matter and rainwater were significantly correlated, highlighting the importance of particle scavenging process. Overall, higher scavenging efficiencies were found for relatively less volatile PAHs, underlining the effect of analyte gas-particle partitioning on scavenging process. The particulate matter removal by rain, and consequently PAH wet scavenging, was more effective when the concentrations of ionic species were high. In addition, the elemental and organic carbon contents of the particulate matter were found to influence the PAH scavenging.

  12. Infrared Spectroscopy of Matrix-Isolated Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds and Their Ions. 7; Phenazine, a Dual Substituted Polycyclic Aromatic Nitrogen Heterocycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mattioda, A. L.; Hudgins, D. M.; Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2004-01-01

    The matrix-isolation technique has been employed to measure the mid-infrared spectra of phenazine (C12H8N2), a dual substituted Polycyclic Aromatic Nitrogen Heterocycle (PANH), in the neutral, cationic and anionic forms. The experimentally measured band frequencies and intensities are tabulated and compared with their calculated values as well as those of the non-substituted parent molecule, anthracene. The theoretical band positions and intensities were calculated using both the 3-31 G as well as the larger 6-3lG* Basis Sets. A comparison of the results can be found in the tables. The spectroscopic properties of phenazine and its cation are similar to those observed in mono-substituted PANHs, with one exception. The presence of a second nitrogen atom results in an additional enhancement of the cation's total integrated intensity, for the 1500-1000 cm(sup -1) (6.7 to 10 micron) region, over that observed for a mono-substituted PANH cation. The significance of this enhancement and the astrobiological implications of these results are discussed.

  13. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Metabolic Network in Mycobacterium vanbaaleniiPYR-1 ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Kweon, Ohgew; Kim, Seong-Jae; Holland, Ricky D.; Chen, Hongyan; Kim, Dae-Wi; Gao, Yuan; Yu, Li-Rong; Baek, Songjoon; Baek, Dong-Heon; Ahn, Hongsik; Cerniglia, Carl E.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated a metabolic network (MN) from Mycobacterium vanbaaleniiPYR-1 for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from the perspective of structure, behavior, and evolution, in which multilayer omics data are integrated. Initially, we utilized a high-throughput proteomic analysis to assess the protein expression response of M. vanbaaleniiPYR-1 to seven different aromatic compounds. A total of 3,431 proteins (57.38% of the genome-predicted proteins) were identified, which included 160 proteins that seemed to be involved in the degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons. Based on the proteomic data and the previous metabolic, biochemical, physiological, and genomic information, we reconstructed an experiment-based system-level PAH-MN. The structure of PAH-MN, with 183 metabolic compounds and 224 chemical reactions, has a typical scale-free nature. The behavior and evolution of the PAH-MN reveals a hierarchical modularity with funnel effects in structure/function and intimate association with evolutionary modules of the functional modules, which are the ring cleavage process (RCP), side chain process (SCP), and central aromatic process (CAP). The 189 commonly upregulated proteins in all aromatic hydrocarbon treatments provide insights into the global adaptation to facilitate the PAH metabolism. Taken together, the findings of our study provide the hierarchical viewpoint from genes/proteins/metabolites to the network via functional modules of the PAH-MN equipped with the engineering-driven approaches of modularization and rationalization, which may expand our understanding of the metabolic potential of M. vanbaaleniiPYR-1 for bioremediation applications. PMID:21725022

  14. LASER DESORPTION-IONIZATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS FROM GLASS SURFACES WITH ION MOBILITY SPECTROMETRY ANALYSIS. (R826769)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed as adsorbates on borosilicate glass at levels from 40 pg (5.5 pg mm-2) to 7 small mu, Greekg (1 

  15. ROLE OF SOURCE MATRIX IN THE BIOAVAILABILITY OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS TO DEPOSIT-FEEDING BENTHIC INVERTEBRATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to benthic organisms is complicated by the variety of ways that they are introduced to coastal waters (dissolved, as nonaqueous phase liquids, and tightly bound to soot, coal, tire rubber, and eroded shale). In order ...

  16. PILOT-SCALE SUBCRITICAL WATER REMEDIATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON- AND PESTICIDE-CONTAMINATED SOIL. (R825394)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Subcritical water (hot water under enough pressure to maintain the liquid
    state) was used to remove polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and pesticides
    from highly contaminated soils. Laboratory-scale (8 g of soil) experiments were
    used to determine conditions f...

  17. Development of a Relative Potency Factor (Rpf) Approach for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Mixtures (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is conducting a peer review and public comment of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) mixtures that when finalized will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database. ...

  18. Development of a Relative Potency Factor (RPF) Approach for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Mixtures (Interagency Science Consultation Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    On February 26, 2010, the draft Development of a Relative Potency Factor (RPF) Approach for Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH) Mixtures document and the charge to external peer reviewers were released for external peer review and public comment. The draft document and t...

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Pannonibacter phragmitetus Strain CGMCC9175, a Halotolerant Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon-Degrading Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Decai; Zhou, Lisha; Zhang, Zhuo

    2016-01-01

    Pannonibacter phragmitetus CGMCC9175 is a halotolerant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)-degrading bacterium isolated from PAH-contaminated intertidal zone sediment. Here, we report the 5.7-Mb draft genome sequence of this strain, which will provide insights into the diversity of Pannonibacter and the mechanism of PAH degradation in sediments. PMID:26823598

  20. Cumulative Exposure Assessment for Trace-Level Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) using Human Blood and Plasma Analysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans experience chronic cumulative trace-level exposure to mixtures of volatile, semi-volatile, and non-volatile polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) present in the environment as by-products of combustion processes. Certain PAHs are known or suspected human carcinogens and ...

  1. TRENDS OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON LEVELS AND MUTAGENICITY IN SANTIAGO'S INHALABLE AIRBORNE PARTICLES IN THE PERIOD 1992-1996.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Trends of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for 1992-1996 (cold season) and their mutagenic activity were investigated in organic extracts from the Santiago. Chile. inhalable particles (PM10). The highest PAH concentrations were observed in 1992 and decline...

  2. CYCLOPENTA-FUSED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN STRAIN A/J MOUSE LUNG: DNA ADDUCTS, ONCOGENE MUTATIONS, & TUMORIGENESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyclopenta-fused Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Strain AJJ Mouse Lung: DNA Adducts, Oncogene Mutations, and Tumorigenesis.

    We have examined the relationships between DNA adducts, Ki-ras oncogene mutations, DNA adducts, and adenoma induction in the lungs of strain A/J...

  3. THE APPLICATION OF COMPUTATIONAL MOLECULAR METHODS TO UNDERSTAND THE HEALTH EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENTAL CHEMICALS-POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In evaluating the risk posed by chemicals introduced into the environment, information
    about their molecular mechanism of action provides a basis for extrapolating from the
    laboratory to the environment. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are a large class
    of...

  4. PHOTO-INDUCED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON TOXIC POTENTIALS OF NEAR SHORE LARVAL FISH HABITAT IN THE GREAT LAKES, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Photo-induced toxicity (PIT) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) has been documented in laboratory studies for both invertebrate and vertebrate aquatic organisms. PIT has not been verified in field studies for larval fish to date. Filtered water samples and larval fish were...

  5. Charge migration in dicationic electrophiles and its application to the synthesis of aza-polycyclic aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Li, Ang; Kindelin, Patrick J; Klumpp, Douglas A

    2006-03-16

    [reaction: see text] Superacid-promoted reactions of dicationic electrophiles have been studied, and the positive charge centers are found to migrate apart in a predictable manner. Using isotopic labeling the charge migration is found in one system to occur through successive deprotonation-reprotonation steps. The charge migration chemistry is the basis for new general synthetic route to aza-polycyclic aromatic compounds.

  6. FISH BILIARY POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON METABOLITES ESTIMATED BY FIXED-WAVELENGTH FLUORESCENCE: COMPARISON WITH HPLC-FLUORESCENT DETECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fixed wavelength fluorescence (FF) was compared to high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-F) as an estimation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure to fish. Two excitation/emission wavelength pairs were used to measure naphthalene- an...

  7. Identification and quantification of seven fused aromatic rings C26H14 peri-condensed benzenoid polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in a complex mixture of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal tar.

    PubMed

    Oña-Ruales, Jorge O; Ruiz-Morales, Yosadara; Wise, Stephen A

    2016-04-15

    A methodology for the characterization of groups of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) using a combination of normal phase liquid chromatography with ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (NPLC/UV-vis) and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was used for the identification and quantification of seven fused aromatic rings C26H14 peri-condensed benzenoid polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, PAHs, in standard reference material (SRM) 1597a, complex mixture of PAHs from coal tar. The NPLC/UV-vis isolated the fractions based on the number of aromatic carbons and the GC/MS allowed the identification and quantification of five of the nine C26H14 PAH isomers; naphtho[1,2,3,4-ghi]perylene, dibenzo[b,ghi]perylene, dibenzo[b,pqr]perylene, naphtho[8,1,2-bcd]perylene, and dibenzo[cd,lm]perylene using a retention time comparison with authentic reference standards. For the other four benzenoid isomers with no available reference standards the following two approaches were used. First, the annellation theory was used to achieve the potential identification of benzo[qr]naphtho[3,2,1,8-defg]chrysene, and second, the elution distribution in the GC fractions was used to support the potential identification of benzo[qr]naphtho[3,2,1,8-defg]chrysene and to reach the tentative identifications of dibenzo[a,ghi]perylene, naphtho[7,8,1,2,3-pqrst]pentaphene, and anthra[2,1,9,8-opqra]naphthacene. It is the first time that naphtho[1,2,3,4-ghi]perylene, dibenzo[b,ghi]perylene, dibenzo[b,pqr]perylene, naphtho[8,1,2-bcd]perylene, and dibenzo[cd,lm]perylene are quantified, and the first time that benzo[qr]naphtho[3,2,1,8-defg]chrysene is potentially identified, in any sample, in any context.

  8. Geochemical markers and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in solvent extracts from diesel engine particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Fabiańska, Monika; Kozielska, Barbara; Bielaczyc, Piotr; Woodburn, Joseph; Konieczyński, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Exhaust particulate from compression ignition (CI) engines running on engine and chassis dynamometers was studied. Particulate dichloromethane extracts were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and biomarkers by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). PAH group profiles were made and the PAH group shares according to the number of rings (2 or 3; 4; 5 or more) as well as diagnostic indices were calculated. Values of geochemical ratios of selected biomarkers and alkyl aromatic hydrocarbons were compared with literature values. A geochemical interpretation was carried out using these values and biomarker and alkyl aromatic hydrocarbon distributions. It has been shown that geochemical features are unequivocally connected to the emission of fossil fuels and biofuels burned in CI engines. The effect of the exothermic combustion process is limited to low-molecular-weight compounds, which shows that the applied methodology permits source identification of PAHs coexisting in the particulate emitted.

  9. Solubilization of Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds into n-Decyltrimethylammonium Perfluorocarboxylate Micelles.

    PubMed

    Yoshida; Moroi

    2000-12-01

    Solubilization of polycyclic aromatic compounds in aqueous dilute solutions of three cationic amphiphiles was studied. The maximum additive concentrations (MACs) of the aromatic compounds were constant below their critical micelle concentrations (cmcs) and monotonically increased above the cmcs. The first stepwise association constants (K(1)) between a solubilizate monomer and a vacant micelle were evaluated from the MACs for the solubilizates using the mass action model for solubilization into micelles in the dilute solution. The standard Gibbs energy changes of solubilization (DeltaG degrees ) were calculated from K(1), and the enthalpy and entropy changes of solubilization were estimated from the temperature dependence. MACs of each surfactant at the same surfactant concentration above the cmc were different depending on the cmc, but there was little difference in the DeltaG degrees values. Some differences appeared in the enthalpy and entropy values in accordance with their micellar size or degrees of counterion binding to micelles. DeltaG degrees for solubilization decreased linearly with carbon number of aromatic solubilizate for each micellar solution. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  10. Geochemical markers and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in solvent extracts from diesel engine particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Fabiańska, Monika; Kozielska, Barbara; Bielaczyc, Piotr; Woodburn, Joseph; Konieczyński, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Exhaust particulate from compression ignition (CI) engines running on engine and chassis dynamometers was studied. Particulate dichloromethane extracts were qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and biomarkers by gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). PAH group profiles were made and the PAH group shares according to the number of rings (2 or 3; 4; 5 or more) as well as diagnostic indices were calculated. Values of geochemical ratios of selected biomarkers and alkyl aromatic hydrocarbons were compared with literature values. A geochemical interpretation was carried out using these values and biomarker and alkyl aromatic hydrocarbon distributions. It has been shown that geochemical features are unequivocally connected to the emission of fossil fuels and biofuels burned in CI engines. The effect of the exothermic combustion process is limited to low-molecular-weight compounds, which shows that the applied methodology permits source identification of PAHs coexisting in the particulate emitted. PMID:26728284

  11. Determination of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by HPLC-photoionization tandem mass spectrometry in wood smoke particles and soil samples.

    PubMed

    Avagyan, Rozanna; Nyström, Robin; Boman, Christoffer; Westerholm, Roger

    2015-06-01

    A simple and fast method for analysis of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons using pressurized liquid extraction and high performance liquid chromatography utilizing photoionization tandem mass spectrometry was developed. Simultaneous separation and determination of nine hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and two hydroxy biphenyls could be performed in negative mode with a run time of 12 min, including equilibration in 5 min. The calibration curves were in two concentration ranges; 1-50 ng/mL and 0.01-50 μg/mL, with coefficients of correlation R (2) > 0.997. The limits of detection and method quantification limits were in the range of 9-56 pg and 5-38 ng/g, respectively. A two-level full factorial experimental design was used for screening of conditions with the highest impact on the extraction. The extraction procedure was automated and suitable for a large number of samples. The extraction recoveries ranged from 70 to 102 % and the matrix effects were between 92 and 104 %. The overall method was demonstrated on wood smoke particles and soil samples with good analytical performance, and five OH-PAHs were determined in the concentration range of 0.19-210 μg/g. As far as we know, hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined in wood smoke and soil samples using photoionization mass spectrometry for the first time in this present study. Accordingly, this study shows that high performance liquid chromatography photoionization tandem mass spectrometry can be a good option for the determination of hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in complex environmental samples. Graphical Abstract The method developed in this study was used to determine hydroxylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in wood smoke and soil.

  12. THE INFRARED SPECTRA OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS WITH SOME OR ALL HYDROGEN ATOMS REMOVED

    SciTech Connect

    Bauschlicher, Charles W. Jr.; Ricca, Alessandra E-mail: Alessandra.Ricca-1@nasa.gov

    2013-10-20

    The loss of one hydrogen from C{sub 96}H{sub 24} does not significantly affect the infrared spectra of the neutral, cation, or anion. Excluding a very weak C-C stretching band at 5.1 μm, the loss of two adjacent duo hydrogens does not significantly affect the spectra compared with the parent. Removing all of the hydrogen atoms significantly increases the intensity of the new C-C stretching band, and, for the cation, shifts it to a longer (5.2 μm) wavelength. Observations show a feature near 5.25 μm, which has been attributed to overtone and combination bands from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). This current work suggests that dehydrogenated PAHs might also contribute to this band, but its weakness implies that fully dehydrogenated cationic or dicationic species are very rare.

  13. Formation of H{sub 2} from internally heated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: Excitation energy dependence

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, T. E-mail: henning@fysik.su.se; Gatchell, M.; Stockett, M. H.; Schmidt, H. T.; Cederquist, H.; Zettergren, H. E-mail: henning@fysik.su.se; Delaunay, R.; Rousseau, P.; Adoui, L.; Domaracka, A.; Huber, B. A.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    2015-04-14

    We have investigated the effectiveness of molecular hydrogen (H{sub 2}) formation from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are internally heated by collisions with keV ions. The present and earlier experimental results are analyzed in view of molecular structure calculations and a simple collision model. We estimate that H{sub 2} formation becomes important for internal PAH temperatures exceeding about 2200 K, regardless of the PAH size and the excitation agent. This suggests that keV ions may effectively induce such reactions, while they are unlikely due to, e.g., absorption of single photons with energies below the Lyman limit. The present analysis also suggests that H{sub 2} emission is correlated with multi-fragmentation processes, which means that the [PAH-2H]{sup +} peak intensities in the mass spectra may not be used for estimating H{sub 2}-formation rates.

  14. Formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from bimolecular reactions of phenyl radicals at high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Constantinidis, P; Schmitt, H-C; Fischer, I; Yan, B; Rijs, A M

    2015-11-21

    The self-reaction of the phenyl radical is one of the key reactions in combustion chemistry. Here we study this reaction in a high-temperature flow reactor by IR/UV ion dip spectroscopy, using free electron laser radiation as mid-infrared source. We identified several major reaction products based on their infrared spectra, among them indene, 1,2-dihydronaphthalene, naphthalene, biphenyl and para-terphenyl. Due to the structural sensitivity of the method, the reaction products were identified isomer-selectively. The work shows that the formation of indene and naphthalene, which was previously considered to be evidence for the HACA (hydrogen abstraction C2H2 addition) mechanism in the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and soot can also be understood in a phenyl addition model.

  15. Formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in northern and middle taiga soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabov, D. N.; Beznosikov, V. A.; Kondratenok, B. M.; Yakovleva, E. V.

    2008-11-01

    An integrated study of the qualitative and quantitative composition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the atmospheric precipitation-soil-lysimetric water system was performed using high performance liquid chromatography. It was shown that the accumulation of low-molecular PAHs (phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benz[a]anthracene, and chrysene) in soils is due to the transformation of organic matter and the regional transport and deposition of PAHs with atmospheric precipitation on the underlying surface. High-molecular polyarenes (benz[b]fluoranthene, benz[k]fluoranthene, benz[a]pyrene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benzo[ghi]perylene, and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene) mainly result from the decomposition of soil organic matter.

  16. Laser-induced solid-surface room-temperature phosphorimetry of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Campiglia, A.D.; Hueber, D.M.; Vo-dinh, T.

    1996-02-01

    Laser-induced solid-surface room-temperature phosphorimetry (SSRTP) has been employed for the detection of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. A nitrogen-pumped laser and a dye laser were used as excitation sources. The effects of sample volume, laser irradiation, and background reduction treatment on the precision and sensitivity of the method were studied. With the use of thallium (I) acetate as a phosphorescence enhancer, picogram limits of detection were estimated for phenanthrene, pyrene, benzo[{ital g},{ital h},{ital i}]perylene, chrysene, coronene, and 1,2-benzofluorene. The study demonstrates that laser excitation can improve the sensitivity of SSRTP by up to three orders of magnitude. {copyright} {ital 1996 Society for Applied Spectroscopy.}

  17. Isomer discrimination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Murchison meteorite by resonant ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, Michael P.; Abo-Riziq, Ali; Crews, Bridgit; Grace, Louis; de Vries, Mattanjah S.

    2008-12-01

    We have used two-color resonant two-photon ionization (2C-R2PI) mass spectrometry to discriminate between isomers of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Murchison meteorite. We measured the 2C-R2PI spectra of chrysene and triphenylene seeded in a supersonic jet by laser desorption. Since each isomer differs in its R2PI spectrum, we can distinguish between isomers using wavelength dependent ionization and mass spectrometry. We found both chrysene and triphenylene in sublimates from carbonaceous residue obtained by acid demineralization of the Murchison meteorite. Their R2PI mass spectra show only the molecular ion, even though these samples contain a complex inventory of organic molecules.

  18. Identification of cytochrome P4501A inducers in complex mixtures of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Villeneuve, D.L.; DeVita, W.M.; Crunkilton, R.L.

    1998-12-31

    An in vitro ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) assay was used to study the ability of individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and mixtures of PAHs to induce Ah receptor (AhR) mediated cytochrome P4501A activity in PLHC-1 fish hepatoma cells. The purpose was to identify the most potent inducers from a set of thirteen separate PAHs and describe interactions occurring in complex mixtures of these PAHs. Where possible, potency was expressed in terms of 2,3,7,8 tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) equivalents (TCDD-EQ) by normalizing the PAH results to a TCDD standard curve. The most potent inducers were benzo(k)fluoranthene > benzo(a)pyrene {approx} benzo(b)fluoranthene > chrysene {approx} benzo(a)anthracene. At equal concentrations, these PAHs yielded potencies of 1670, 940, 655, 255, and 185 pg TCDD-EQ/g, respectively. Analysis of various mixtures of the thirteen PAHs suggested that complex interactions may be occurring.

  19. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air particles in the city of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria.

    PubMed

    Vera Castellano, A; López Cancio, J; Santana Alemán, P; Santana Rodríguez, J

    2003-07-01

    Concentration levels, seasonal variation and winter/summer ratios of 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the TSP of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria city were determined. The study area is under the influence of heavy traffic (80000 vehicles/day). Pyr/BaA, Pyr/Flt, B(ghi)P/I(cd)P and B(b+k)F/B(ghi)P ratios were calculated; the values of these two last suggest a strong influence of diesel fuel burning. Levels of TSP and TSP-bound PAHs were also established. The hazard potential of PAHs in terms of carcinogenicity of BaP is acceptable. Potential risk on the basis of TEFs is also studied. PMID:12705945

  20. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous environment by chemical treatments: a review.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Clemente, Ainhoa; Torres-Palma, Ricardo A; Peñuela, Gustavo A

    2014-04-15

    Due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic potential, the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from aqueous environment using physical, biological and chemical processes has been studied by several researchers. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge concerning PAHs including their physico-chemical properties, input sources, occurrence, adverse effects and conventional and alternative chemical processes applied for their removal from water. The mechanisms and reactions involved in each treatment method are reported, and the effects of various variables on the PAH degradation rate as well as the extent of degradation are also discussed. Extensive literature analysis has shown that an effective way to perform the conversion and mineralization of this type of substances is the application of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Furthermore, combined processes, particularly AOPs coupled with biological treatments, seem to be one of the best solutions for the treatment of effluents containing PAHs.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in pyrogenic soils of swampy landscapes of the Meshchera lowland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsibart, A. S.; Gennadiev, A. N.; Koshovskii, T. S.; Gamova, N. S.

    2016-03-01

    The composition and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were studied in organomineral and organic soils of the Meshchera National Park. It was found that the background oligotrophic peat soils unaffected by fires in central parts of the bogs are characterized by the increased PAH concentrations due to their high sorption capacity. The fires of 2007 and 2010 resulted in the transformation of the plant cover and soil morphology, the formation of new horizons, and the change in the PAHs content and composition. Significant burn-off of organic matter was found in oligotrophic-eutrophic soils and resulted in the decrease of PAHs content after fire. Only partial burn-off of organic horizons and intense formation of PAHs were recorded in the soil with initially great thickness of peat horizons. Pyrogenic accumulation of PAHs was identified in organomineral soils of the marginal parts of bogs and of forest sites.

  2. Isolation and gas-chromatographic determinations of saturated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mussels

    SciTech Connect

    Bulter, A.C.; Sibbald, R.R.

    1986-10-01

    The method here presented is intended for application in the analysis of trace quantities of petroleum hydrocarbons in oil-polluted mussels. It is a technique incorporating saponification, pentane extraction and silica gel cleanup, and represents a modification and ad hoc synthesis of other procedures. Recovery efficiencies of the method are 80% or greater for C/sub 15/ to C/sub 38/ n-alkanes, and vary between 0% for naphthalene and 84% for pyrene. Isolation and quantification of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) fraction are of importance in environmental monitoring; some compounds in this group are either known or suspected to be carcinogenic agents. Concomitant analysis for the saturated hydrocarbons fraction can provide essential clues to the petrogenic or pyrolytic origin of the PAHs.

  3. Isolation and gas-chromatographic determination of saturated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mussels

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, A.C.; Sibbald, R.R.

    1986-10-01

    The method here presented is intended for application in the analysis of trace quantities of petroleum hydrocarbons in oil-polluted mussels. It is a technique incorporating saponification, pentane extraction and silica gel cleanup, and represents a modification and ad hoc synthesis of other procedures. Recovery efficiencies of the method are 80% or greater for C/sub 15/ to C/sub 38/ n-alkanes, and vary between 0% for naphthalene and 84% for pyrene. Isolation and quantification of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) fraction are of importance in environmental monitoring; some compounds in this group are either known or suspected to be carcinogenic agents. Concomitant analysis for the saturated hydrocarbons fraction can provide essential clues to the petrogenic or pyrolytic origin of the PAHs.

  4. Responses of Chironomus tentans and Hyalella azteca to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, A.C.; Burton, G.A. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    The toxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is affected by ultraviolet (UV) light and a number of interacting environmental variables. The effect of two photoinduced PAHs, anthracene and fluoranthene, was studied with the midge, C. tentans, and the amphipod H. azteca in water-only and sediment exposures. Reduced growth was observed in the presence of UV light at low (ug/L) concentrations. Mixtures showed approximately additive responses. The amphipod was slightly more sensitive to photoinduced toxicity. Responses were modified by exposure differences due to behavior patterns, which altered UV exposures. Results suggest natural factors such as inorganic and organic particulates, in combination with behavior, have a significant role in determining the ecological relevance of photoinduced PAH toxicity.

  5. Parking lot sealcoat: An unrecognized source of urban polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, B.J.; Van Metre, P.C.; Bashara, T.J.; Wilson, J.T.; Johns, D.A.

    2005-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a ubiquitous contaminant in urban environments. Although numerous sources of PAHs to urban runoff have been identified, their relative importance remains uncertain. We show that a previously unidentified source of urban PAHs, parking lot sealcoat, may dominate loading of PAHs to urban water bodies in the United States. Particles in runoff from parking lots with coal-tar emulsion sealcoat had mean concentrations of PAHs of 3500 mg/kg, 65 times higher than the mean concentration from unsealed asphalt and cement lots. Diagnostic ratios of individual PAHs indicating sources are similar for particles from coal-tar emulsion sealed lots and suspended sediment from four urban streams. Contaminant yields projected to the watershed scale for the four associated watersheds indicate that runoff from sealed parking lots could account for the majority of stream PAH loads. ?? 2005 American Chemical Society.

  6. Air pollution from a large steel factory: polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions from coke-oven batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenzo Liberti; Michele Notarnicola; Roberto Primerano; Paolo Zannetti

    2006-03-15

    A systematic investigation of solid and gaseous atmospheric emissions from some coke-oven batteries of one of Europe's largest integrated steel factory (Taranto, Italy) has been carried out. These emissions, predominantly diffuse, originate from oven leakages, as well as from cyclic operations of coal loading and coke unloading. In air monitoring samples, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were consistently detected at concentrations largely exceeding threshold limit values. By means of PAHs speciation profile and benzo-(a)pyrene (BaP) equivalent dispersion modeling from diffuse sources, the study indicated that serious health risks exist not only in working areas, but also in a densely populated residential district near the factory. 30 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aqueous environment by chemical treatments: a review.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Clemente, Ainhoa; Torres-Palma, Ricardo A; Peñuela, Gustavo A

    2014-04-15

    Due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic potential, the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from aqueous environment using physical, biological and chemical processes has been studied by several researchers. This paper reviews the current state of knowledge concerning PAHs including their physico-chemical properties, input sources, occurrence, adverse effects and conventional and alternative chemical processes applied for their removal from water. The mechanisms and reactions involved in each treatment method are reported, and the effects of various variables on the PAH degradation rate as well as the extent of degradation are also discussed. Extensive literature analysis has shown that an effective way to perform the conversion and mineralization of this type of substances is the application of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Furthermore, combined processes, particularly AOPs coupled with biological treatments, seem to be one of the best solutions for the treatment of effluents containing PAHs. PMID:24552655

  8. Identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in unleaded petrol and diesel exhaust emission.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Vinay Kumar; Prasad, Sahdeo; Patel, Devendra K; Khan, Altaf Husain; Tripathi, Madhu; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2010-09-01

    Inhalation of emissions from petrol and diesel exhaust particulates is associated with potentially severe biological effects. In the present study, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were identified from smokes released by the automobile exhaust from petrol and diesel. Intensive sampling of unleaded petrol and diesel exhaust were done by using 800-cm(3) motor car and 3,455-cm(3) vehicle, respectively. The particulate phase of exhaust was collected on Whatman filter paper. Particulate matters were extracted from filter paper by using Soxhlet. PAHs were identified from particulate matter by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography using C(18) column. A total of 14 PAHs were identified in petrol and 13 in case of diesel sample after comparing to standard samples for PAH estimation. These inhalable PAHs released from diesel and petrol exhaust are known to possess mutagenic and carcinogenic activity, which may present a potential risk for the health of inhabitants.

  9. Use of antioxidant enzymes of clam Ruditapes philippinarum as biomarker to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lin; Tang, Xuexi; Wang, Ying; Sui, Yadong; Xiao, Hui

    2016-03-01

    The typical organic pollutant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) anthracene was selected as a contaminant to investigate its effects on the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the clam Ruditapes philippinarum. The results show that SOD, CAT and GSH-Px had diff erent induction and inhibition reactions to anthracene stress, and that three diff erent organs in R. philippinarum (visceral mass, muscle tissue and mantle) had diff erent sensitivities to anthracene stress. This study suggest that SOD activities of the visceral mass, CAT activitities of the mantle and the visceral mass, and GSH-Px activity of the muscle tissue could be used as sensitive indicators of anthracene stress in R. philippinarum.

  10. Photocatalytic degradation-excitation-emission matrix fluorescence for increasing the selectivity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon analyses.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon-Chang; Jordan, James A; Nahorniak, Michelle L; Booksh, Karl S

    2005-12-01

    The application of photocatalysis enhancement to calibration of fluorescence excitation-emission matrixes (EEMs) with parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis is described. In this study, three- and four-way PARAFAC analysis was employed to extract the fluorescent species' spectra from overlapping EEMs. Time-dependent photocatalysis degradation of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was employed to create an additional dimension for analysis. The consequent four-dimension degradation-EEM data cubes have greater selectivity for each PAH than do three-dimension EEM data cubes alone. On a scale of 0 to 1, with 0 being completely collinear spectra and 1 being orthogonal spectra, including the time-dependent measurements increased the selectivity an average of 21%, from 0.73 to 0.87.

  11. Formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from bimolecular reactions of phenyl radicals at high temperatures.

    PubMed

    Constantinidis, P; Schmitt, H-C; Fischer, I; Yan, B; Rijs, A M

    2015-11-21

    The self-reaction of the phenyl radical is one of the key reactions in combustion chemistry. Here we study this reaction in a high-temperature flow reactor by IR/UV ion dip spectroscopy, using free electron laser radiation as mid-infrared source. We identified several major reaction products based on their infrared spectra, among them indene, 1,2-dihydronaphthalene, naphthalene, biphenyl and para-terphenyl. Due to the structural sensitivity of the method, the reaction products were identified isomer-selectively. The work shows that the formation of indene and naphthalene, which was previously considered to be evidence for the HACA (hydrogen abstraction C2H2 addition) mechanism in the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and soot can also be understood in a phenyl addition model. PMID:26457393

  12. Role of volcanic dust in the atmospheric transport and deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and mercury.

    PubMed

    Stracquadanio, Milena; Dinelli, Enrico; Trombini, Claudio

    2003-12-01

    The role of volcanic ash as scavenger of atmospheric pollutants, in their transport and final deposition to the ground is examined. Attention is focused on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and on particulate mercury (Hgp). The ash-fall deposits studied belong to the 2001 and 2002 eruptive activity of Mount Etna, Southern Italy, and were investigated at three (2001) and four (2002) sites downwind of the major tephra dispersal pattern. The dry deposition of mercury and PAHs was determined, and, in particular, a downward flux to the ground of PAHs (approximately 7.29 microg m(-2) per day) and mercury (750 ng m(-2) per day) was estimated in Catania from October 26 to October 28, 2002. Finally, evidence on the anthropogenic origin of PAHs scavenged from the troposphere by volcanic ash is supported by the analysis of PAH compositions in granulometrically homogeneous fractions.

  13. Gas-phase Reactions of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Anions with Molecules of Interstellar Relevance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demarais, Nicholas J.; Yang, Zhibo; Martinez, Oscar; Wehres, Nadine; Snow, Theodore P.; Bierbaum, Veronica M.

    2012-02-01

    We have studied reactions of small dehydrogenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon anions with neutral species of interstellar relevance. Reaction rate constants are measured at 300 K for the reactions of phenide (C6H- 5), naphthalenide (C10H- 7), and anthracenide (C14H- 9) with atomic H, H2, and D2 using a flowing afterglow-selected ion flow tube instrument. Reaction rate constants of phenide with neutral molecules (CO, O2, CO2, N2O, C2H2, CH3OH, CH3CN, (CH3)2CO, CH3CHO, CH3Cl, and (CH3CH2)2O) are also measured under the same conditions. Experimental measurements are accompanied by ab initio calculations to provide insight into reaction pathways and enthalpies. Our measured reaction rate constants should prove useful in the modeling of astrophysical environments, particularly when applied to dense regions of the interstellar and circumstellar medium.

  14. Evaluation of models for predicting the phototoxicity potency of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, R.J.; Ankley, G.T.; Sheedy, B.R.; Kosian, P.A.; Mattson, V.R.; Cox, J.S.; Defoe, D.L.

    1995-12-31

    The acute phototoxicities of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus were investigated in order to evaluate a predictive structure/activity relationship (SAR) for the phototoxic potential of PAHs and to determine the relationship of phototoxicity to PAH accumulation, light intensity, and exposure duration. Test organisms were exposed to multiple concentrations of anthracene, pyrene, fluorene, and fluoranthene in water for 96 h and then to various intensities of ultraviolet light for 96 h in clean water. In agreement with the SAR model, fluorene was not phototoxic while pyrene, fluoranthene, and anthracene were. Based upon measured accumulations of PAHs, anthracene and pyrene had similar potencies, and both were 3--4 fold more toxic than fluoranthene. Time-to-death was found to adhere well to a model based on damage accumulating as a function of the product of chemical accumulation and light intensity. Additivity of PAH phototoxicity was evaluated in exposures using mixtures of these chemicals.

  15. Assessment of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during firefighting by measurement of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene.

    PubMed

    Moen, B E; Ovrebø, S

    1997-06-01

    Firefighters may be exposed to carcinogenic agents in the smoke from fires, and there has been some concern regarding firefighters' risk of developing occupational-related cancer. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are present in most fires, posing a cancer risk. The objective of this study was to evaluate the PAH exposure among firefighters. Students (n = 9) and teachers (n = 4) at a firefighter training school delivered urine samples before and 6 to 7 hours after extinguishing burning diesel fuel. The urine samples were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography for 1-hydroxypyrene. A small but significant increase in 1-hydroxypyrene levels in the urine was found after the firefighting. This means that firefighting may cause exposure to PAHs. Although the exposure levels were low in this study, they may be different during other types of fires.

  16. Characterizing the parent and oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mangrove sediments of Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaowei; Yuan, Ke; Yang, Lihua; Lin, Li; Tam, Nora F Y; Chen, Baowei; Luan, Tiangang

    2015-09-15

    Parent and oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in mangrove sediments of Hong Kong. Most of the analytes were detected, and the dominant carbonylic and hydroxylated PAHs in mangrove sediments were 9-fluorenone and 2-hydroxy fluorene, respectively. The concentration of 9-fluorenone and 9,10-anthraquinone was higher than their parent PAHs. Moreover, the concentration of total organic matter (TOM) related with those of the parent PAHs and carbonylic PAHs, except for hydroxylated PAHs, which indicated that TOM was not the only factor regulating the distribution of oxygenated PAHs. Nevertheless, the parent PAHs in mangrove sediments was correlated positively with carbonylic PAHs which demostrated not only the similar source but also the fate of these two compound class. However, hydroxylated PAHs had different source by comparing with parent PAHs and carbonylic PAHs, they were probably originated from biodegradation and accumulated in mangrove sediments. PMID:26111652

  17. Toxicity assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediments from European high mountain lakes.

    PubMed

    Quiroz, Roberto; Grimalt, Joan O; Fernández, Pilar

    2010-05-01

    Sediment quality guidelines and toxic equivalent factors have been used for assessment of the toxicity of sedimentary long-range atmospherically transported polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to the organisms living in high mountain European lakes. This method has provided indices that are consistent with experimental studies evaluating in situ sedimentary estrogenic activity or physiological response to AhR binding in fish from the same lakes. All examined lakes in north, central, west, northeast and southeast European mountains have shown sedimentary PAH concentrations that are above thresholds of no effect but only those situated in the southeast lakes district exhibited concentrations above the indices of probable effects. These mountains, Tatras, are also those having PAH concentrations of highest activity for AhR binding. Chrysene+triphenylene, dibenz[a]anthracene, benzo[k]fluoranthene and indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene are the main compounds responsible for the observed toxic effects.

  18. Determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) content and risk assessment from edible oils in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kang, Bomi; Lee, Byung-Mu; Shin, Han-Seung

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) content and a risk assessment from consumption of Korean edible oils were investigated. Liquid-liquid extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy were used to measure eight PAH in edible oils commonly consumed in Korea. The total average PAH concentration was 0.548 μg/kg from edible oils and the content of the 8 PAH was lower than 2 μg/kg, which is the maximum tolerable limit reported by the commission regulation. The contents of the eight PAH were converted to exposure assessment and risk characterization values. Dietary exposure to PAH from edible oils was 0.025 ng-TEQBaP/kg/d, and margin of exposure (MOE) was 4 × 10(6), which represents negligible concern. Although PAH were detected from edible oils in Korea, their contribution to human exposure to PAH is considered not significant.

  19. Potential of non-ligninolytic fungi in bioremediation of chlorinated and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Marco-Urrea, Ernest; García-Romera, Inmaculada; Aranda, Elisabet

    2015-12-25

    In previous decades, white-rot fungi as bioremediation agents have been the subjects of scientific research due to the potential use of their unspecific oxidative enzymes. However, some non-white-rot fungi, mainly belonging to the Ascomycota and Zygomycota phylum, have demonstrated their potential in the enzymatic transformation of environmental pollutants, thus overcoming some of the limitations observed in white-rot fungi with respect to growth in neutral pH, resistance to adverse conditions and the capacity to surpass autochthonous microorganisms. Despite their presence in so many soil and water environments, little information exists on the enzymatic mechanisms and degradation pathways involved in the transformation of hydrocarbons by these fungi. This review describes the bioremediation potential of non-ligninolytic fungi with respect to chlorinated hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and also shows known conversion pathways and the prospects for future research.

  20. THE NASA AMES POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBON INFRARED SPECTROSCOPIC DATABASE: THE COMPUTED SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Bauschlicher, C. W.; Ricca, A.; Boersma, C.; Mattioda, A. L.; Cami, J.; Peeters, E.; Allamandola, L. J.; Sanchez de Armas, F.; Puerta Saborido, G.; Hudgins, D. M.

    2010-08-15

    The astronomical emission features, formerly known as the unidentified infrared bands, are now commonly ascribed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The laboratory experiments and computational modeling done at the NASA Ames Research Center to create a collection of PAH IR spectra relevant to test and refine the PAH hypothesis have been assembled into a spectroscopic database. This database now contains over 800 PAH spectra spanning 2-2000 {mu}m (5000-5 cm{sup -1}). These data are now available on the World Wide Web at www.astrochem.org/pahdb. This paper presents an overview of the computational spectra in the database and the tools developed to analyze and interpret astronomical spectra using the database. A description of the online and offline user tools available on the Web site is also presented.

  1. Compost-mediated removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Sasek, V; Bhatt, M; Cajthaml, T; Malachová, K; Lednická, D

    2003-04-01

    Compost-assisted remediation of a manufactured-gas plant soil contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was performed in thermally insulated composting chamber using mushroom compost consisting wheat straw, chicken manure, and gypsum. The degradation of individual PAHs was in range of 20-60% at the end of 54 days of composting followed by further increase of PAH removal (37-80%) after another 100 days of maturation. Both chemical analysis of the contaminated soil for PAHs and ecotoxicity tests on bioluminescent bacteria, earthworms, and plant seeds were performed before and after the composting. After the composting, inhibition of bioluminescence decreased, whereas no significant change in toxicity was observed for earthworm survival and seed germination. Using bacterial culture of Escherichia coli K12 genotoxicity tests were performed on samples taken from different parts of the composting pile; after the composting the decrease in genotoxicity was observed only in the sample taken from upper part of the composted pile.

  2. Approaches for externally validated QSAR modelling of Nitrated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon mutagenicity.

    PubMed

    Gramatica, P; Pilutti, P; Papa, E

    2007-01-01

    Nitrated Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs), ubiquitous environmental pollutants, are recognized mutagens and carcinogens. A set of mutagenicity data (TA100) for 48 nitro-PAHs was modeled by the Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSAR) regression method, and OECD principles for QSAR model validation were applied. The proposed Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) models are based on two topological molecular descriptors. The models were validated for predictivity by both internal and external validation. For the external validation, three different splitting approaches, D-optimal Experimental Design, Self Organizing Maps (SOM) and Random Selection by activity sampling, were applied to the original data set in order to compare these methodologies and to select the best descriptors able to model each prediction set chemicals independently of the splitting method applied. The applicability domain was verified by the leverage approach.

  3. Evaluation of cytochrome P450{sub BS{beta}} reactivity against polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and drugs

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, Eduardo; Hayen, Heiko; Niemeyer, Christof M.; E-mail: christof.niemeyer@uni-dortmund.de

    2007-03-30

    The oxidation of 10 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) by cytochrome P450{sub BS{beta}} using three different electron acceptors is reported. Three PAH were found to be substrates for the oxidation by P450{sub BS{beta}}, namely anthracene, 9-methyl-anthracene and azulene. The respective oxidation products were identified by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry. In addition, 10 drug-like compounds were investigated for their effects on the catalytic activity of P450{sub BS{beta}} by carrying out inhibition studies. The stability of P450{sub BS{beta}} against hydrogen peroxide, cumene, and ter-butyl hydroperoxide was determined. Overall, the results of this study suggested that the P450{sub BS{beta}} enzyme represents a powerful catalyst in terms of the catalytic activity and operational stability.

  4. Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) by Bacteria Isolated from Light Oil Polluted Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohnuma, T.; Suto, K.; Inoue, C.

    2007-03-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have polluted soil and groundwater widely and for long term because of their low solubility at normal temperature. Several microorganisms, such as Pseudomonas sp., Sphigomonas sp., a white-rot fungus and so on, being able to decompose PAHs, have been isolated and researched. This study reported to investigate biodegradation of low molecule PAH by isolated bacteria from light oil polluted soil. 12 isolates were obtained from a light oil polluted soil using naphthalene, fluorene and anthracene as sole carbon source, of which 4 isolates grew with naphthalene, 4 isolates did with fluorene and 4 isolates did with anthracene. Among them 3 isolates showed the ability to degrade phenanthrene additionally. These phenanthrene degradation and growth rates were almost same as that of S. yanoikuyae (DSM6900), which is the typical bacteria of PAHs degrader. Therefore, the isolate seemed to have an expectation for PAHs degradation.

  5. Degradation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) by indigenous mixed and pure cultures isolated from coastal sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Tadros, M.G.; Hughes, J.B.

    1997-12-31

    The goal of this paper was to quantify and characterize microorganisms (bacteria) in sediment samples contaminated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs: fluorene and naphthalene). The isolated organisms were evaluated for their ability to degrade PAHs compounds. The results indicated that the total number of recovered heterotrophic colony forming units was higher than zone forming units produced by the PAHs compounds. There was a relationship between the biomass of the bacteria recovered from the sediment and the degradation of the compounds. This indicated the utilization of the compounds by the bacteria as a carbon source. Two bacterial species were isolated from the contaminated sediments and identified as Pseudomonas sp. and Ochrobactrum sp. 14 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  6. Restoration and source identification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons after the Wu Yi San oil spill, Korea.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yu Lee; Lee, Hyo Jin; Jeong, He Jin; Park, Shin Yeong; Yang, Won Ho; Kim, Heung-Yun; Kim, Gi Beum

    2016-10-15

    On January 31, 2014, an oil spill accident occurred in Yeosu, South Korea. A total 800-899kl of oil from the pipeline was spilled into the sea. After the oil spill, the KIOST (Korea Institute of Ocean Science & Technology) researched PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in various media, but sedimentary PAHs were not analyzed despite their longer persistency than in other media. Therefore, this study examined PAH levels in intertidal sediments around Gwangyang Bay and identified PAH sources using oil fingerprinting. PAH residual levels showed a dramatic decrease during the four months after the accident and then remained at a relatively constant level. Analysis through regression equations indicate that this study area is likely to be restored to the PAH levels prior to the accident. Furthermore, the source analysis and oil fingerprinting analysis showed that PAH contamination in this study was unlikely to have originated from the spilled oil.

  7. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons alter the structure of oceanic and oligotrophic microbial food webs.

    PubMed

    Cerezo, Maria Isabel; Agusti, Susana

    2015-12-30

    One way organic pollutants reach remote oceanic regions is by atmospheric transport. During the Malaspina-2010 expedition, across the Atlantic, Indian, and Pacific Oceans, we analyzed the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) effects on oceanic microbial food webs. We performed perturbation experiments adding PAHs to classic dilution experiments. The phytoplankton growth rates were reduced by more than 5 times, being Prochlorococcus spp. the most affected. 62% of the experiments showed a reduction in the grazing rates due to the presence of PAHs. For the remaining experiments, grazing usually increased likely due to cascading effects. We identified changes in the slope of the relation between the growth rate and the dilution fraction induced by the pollutants, moving from no grazing to V-shape, or to negative slope, indicative of grazing increase by cascade effects and alterations of the grazers' activity structure. Our perturbation experiments indicate that PAHs could influence the structure oceanic food-webs structure.

  8. Characterizing the parent and oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mangrove sediments of Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaowei; Yuan, Ke; Yang, Lihua; Lin, Li; Tam, Nora F Y; Chen, Baowei; Luan, Tiangang

    2015-09-15

    Parent and oxygenated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in mangrove sediments of Hong Kong. Most of the analytes were detected, and the dominant carbonylic and hydroxylated PAHs in mangrove sediments were 9-fluorenone and 2-hydroxy fluorene, respectively. The concentration of 9-fluorenone and 9,10-anthraquinone was higher than their parent PAHs. Moreover, the concentration of total organic matter (TOM) related with those of the parent PAHs and carbonylic PAHs, except for hydroxylated PAHs, which indicated that TOM was not the only factor regulating the distribution of oxygenated PAHs. Nevertheless, the parent PAHs in mangrove sediments was correlated positively with carbonylic PAHs which demostrated not only the similar source but also the fate of these two compound class. However, hydroxylated PAHs had different source by comparing with parent PAHs and carbonylic PAHs, they were probably originated from biodegradation and accumulated in mangrove sediments.

  9. En Route to Stimuli-Responsive Boron-, Nitrogen-, and Sulfur-Doped Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Valentin M; Massoth, Julian G; Bolte, Michael; Lerner, Hans-Wolfram; Wagner, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    Replacing both meso carbon atoms of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bisanthene by boron atoms creates an efficient blue fluorophore with a strong electron-accepting character. The corresponding meso-B,S-doped bisanthene exhibits a solvent-dependent green-to-orange photoluminescence and undergoes a reversible reduction at E1/2 =-2.06 V (vs. FcH/FcH(+) ). After oxidation of the sulfur atom, the resulting sulfoxide emits in the blue range of the spectrum, shows only negligible solvatochromism, and a reversible redox transition at E1/2 =-1.74 V. Several related B, N- and B, S-containing PAHs have been prepared following the same modular synthetic procedure and are also described herein. In order to systematically compare their optoelectronic properties, all products have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry as well as UV/Vis absorption/emission spectroscopy.

  10. [Limit values for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil of children's playgrounds--basic criteria and recommendations].

    PubMed

    Roscher, E; Liebl, B; Schwegler, U; Schmied, R; Kerscher, G

    1996-01-01

    Elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAK) are often found in the soil of former waste disposal sites, industrial areas, etc. It is desirable and useful to determine orientation values to facilitate and unify the evaluation of contaminations under the aspects of present or planned uses of an area, health protection and decision-making on remedial measures. In the present paper we wish to draw attention to, and discuss problems resulting from, particular characteristics of PAK, e.g. the toxicological property "complete carcinogens" or the necessity of taking into account oral, inhalative and dermal exposure of children on a playground. Based on the discussion, orientation values for benzo[a]pyrene and PAK ("normal" pattern) of 0.5 mg/kg soil and 5 mg/kg soil, respectively, are recommended for top soil of vegetation-free playgrounds. In comparison, deductions carried out by other working groups are presented.

  11. Extraction agents for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from soil in soil washing technologies.

    PubMed

    Lau, Ee Von; Gan, Suyin; Ng, Hoon Kiat; Poh, Phaik Eong

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil have been recognised as a serious health and environmental issue due to their carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic properties. One of the commonly employed soil remediation techniques to clean up such contamination is soil washing or solvent extraction. The main factor which governs the efficiency of this process is the solubility of PAHs in the extraction agent. Past field-scale soil washing treatments for PAH-contaminated soil have mainly employed organic solvents or water which is either toxic and costly or inefficient in removing higher molecular weight PAHs. Thus, the present article aims to provide a review and discussion of the alternative extraction agents that have been studied, including surfactants, biosurfactants, microemulsions, natural surfactants, cyclodextrins, vegetable oil and solution with solid phase particles. These extraction agents have been found to remove PAHs from soil at percentages ranging from 47 to 100% for various PAHs. PMID:24100092

  12. Source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their derivatives in indoor air

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, B.; Mitra, S.

    1996-12-31

    The average person spends more than 80% of his time indoors, thus analysis of the sources of airborne pollutants in indoor air is an important issue. In this paper, we use factor analysis and multiple regression to identify and apportion the different sources of select indoor polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), their derivatives, and nicotine in indoor air, using data gathered in eight homes in Columbus, OH during the winter of 1986/1987. These homes had different indoor PAH sources, namely, environmental tobacco smoke, gas cooking/heating, and electrical cooking stoves. We find that, of all the sources, environmental tobacco smoke appears to have the greatest impact on the total indoor PAH concentrations. In smokers` homes, more than 87% of the total PAH is due to this source. Background sources are the largest contributor to PAHs in nonsmokers` homes. Very little PAH can be attributed to gas or electric appliances in the home. 16 refs., 3 tabs.

  13. Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Datuo karst Tiankeng of South China.

    PubMed

    Theodore, Oramah I; Qi, Shihua; Kong, Xiangsheng; Liu, Huafeng; Li, Jun; Li, Jie; Wang, Xiangqing; Wang, Yinhui

    2008-10-01

    Levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in surface soils of Datuo karst Tiankeng (large sinkholes) in South China with the use of a gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) system. This paper provides data on the levels and distribution of PAHs from the top to the bottom of the Datuo karst Tiankeng. The results showed that the sum of the 16 EPA priority PAHs from the sampled locations from top to bottom had a relative increment in PAHs concentration. summation operatorPAHs ranged from 16.93 ng/g to 68.07 ng/g with a mean concentration of 42.15 ng/g. The correlated results showed the bottom of the large sinkhole, which accounts for the higher concentrations, probably acts like a trap for the PAHs. Thus, the low evaporation rate at the bottom may play a key role in controlling the high concentration of PAHs at the bottom.

  14. Tracking polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in lichens: It's all about the algae.

    PubMed

    Augusto, Sofia; Sierra, Jordi; Nadal, Martí; Schuhmacher, Marta

    2015-12-01

    Lichens, symbioses of fungi and algae and/or cyanobacteria, have the remarkable ability to uptake and accumulate semivolatile organic compounds (SVOC) from air, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), but the mechanism of accumulation is still unknown. Understanding these mechanisms is critical to standardize the use of lichens as environmental bioindicators and to further integrate them in air monitoring networks. Through a series of experiments we show that gas phase PAHs easily cross lichen's surface and accumulate in the photosynthetic algal layer of lichens. Once accumulated, they remain in the algal layer and not within the fungus hyphae, or adhered to lichen's surface, as it was previously supposed to happen. Additionally, when lichens are washed, gas phase PAHs still remain in the algal layer. Our results reveal that lichens may be utilized as bioindicators of gas phase PAHs, overcoming current limitations of air monitoring.

  15. [Distribution, formation, carcinogenic and mutagenic activities of nitro derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons].

    PubMed

    Khesina, A Ia; Makhover, M S; Khitrovo, I A

    1989-01-01

    Nitro-PAHs (nitro-substituted derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) are a class of chemical compounds with high biologic activity. They have been detected in samples of air pollutants, diesel and gasoline engine exhausts, in airplane exhaust emissions, cigarette smoke condensate, emissions of coke ovens, wood-burning fireplaces, coal-fired plants, in food and tea. Concentrations of nitro-PAHs have been compared with those of PAHs present in air pollutant samples and emissions from different sources. Information on the environmental occurrence, formation, and decomposition of nitro-PAHs in the atmosphere is given. Biologic effects (carcinogenic and mutagenic) of pure nitro-PAHs and nitro-PAHs-containing complex mixtures are discussed.

  16. En Route to Stimuli-Responsive Boron-, Nitrogen-, and Sulfur-Doped Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Hertz, Valentin M; Massoth, Julian G; Bolte, Michael; Lerner, Hans-Wolfram; Wagner, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    Replacing both meso carbon atoms of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) bisanthene by boron atoms creates an efficient blue fluorophore with a strong electron-accepting character. The corresponding meso-B,S-doped bisanthene exhibits a solvent-dependent green-to-orange photoluminescence and undergoes a reversible reduction at E1/2 =-2.06 V (vs. FcH/FcH(+) ). After oxidation of the sulfur atom, the resulting sulfoxide emits in the blue range of the spectrum, shows only negligible solvatochromism, and a reversible redox transition at E1/2 =-1.74 V. Several related B, N- and B, S-containing PAHs have been prepared following the same modular synthetic procedure and are also described herein. In order to systematically compare their optoelectronic properties, all products have been investigated by cyclic voltammetry as well as UV/Vis absorption/emission spectroscopy. PMID:27514699

  17. Investigation of the Reactions and Distribution of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Fullerenes in Extraterrestrial Material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zare, Richard N.

    2005-01-01

    The work funded by this research grant includes four specific projects: (1) Mapping the spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in a variety of meteoritic samples and comparing this distribution with mineralogical features of the meteorite to determine whether a correlation exists between the two. (2) Developing a method for detection of fullerenes in extraterrestrial samples using microprobe laser-desorption laser-ionization mass spectrometry ( pL2MS) and utilizing this technique to investigate fullerene presence, while exploring the possibility of spatially mapping the fullerene distribution in these samples through in situ detection. (3) Investigating a possible formation pathway for meteoritic and ancient terrestrial kerogen involving the photochemical reactions of PAHs with alkanes under prebiotic and astrophysically relevant conditions. (4) Studying reaction pathways and identifying the photoproducts generated during the photochemical evolution of PAH-containing interstellar ice analogs as part of an ongoing collaboration with researchers at the Astrochemistry Lab at NASA Ames.

  18. Analysis of carcinogenic Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHS): an overview of modern electroanalytical techniques and their applications.

    PubMed

    Şentürk, Zühre

    2013-02-01

    A number of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been shown to be toxicants, and induce carcinogenic and immunotoxic effects. Since PAHs are often present in low concentrations and it may be difficult to determine them in complex matrices, it is therefore essential to use powerful analytical tools to separate and identify the analyses in the samples. In this paper, initially, a short description of the principles, instrumentation, and use of common extraction and analytical techniques for PAH pollutants and their metabolites will be made in light of the previously reported works and major reviews. Special attention will be given to the use of modern polarographic and voltammetric techniques on the mercury and different types of solid electrodes, together with their some practical applications. The main drawbacks and limitations of these methods will also be discussed.

  19. Parking lot sealcoat: an unrecognized source of urban polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Barbara J. Mahler; Peter C. Van Metre; Thomas J. Bashara; Jennifer T. Wilson; David A. Johns

    2005-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a ubiquitous contaminant in urban environments. Although numerous sources of PAHs to urban runoff have been identified, their relative importance remains uncertain. The authors show that a previously unidentified source of urban PAHs, parking lot sealcoat, may dominate loading of PAHs to urban water bodies in the United States. Particles in runoff from parking lots with coal-tar emulsion sealcoat had mean concentrations of PAHs of 3500 mg/kg, 65 times higher than the mean concentration from unsealed asphalt and cement lots. Diagnostic ratios of individual PAHs indicating sources are similar for particles from coal-tar emulsion sealed lots and suspended sediment from four urban streams. Contaminant yields projected to the watershed scale for the four associated watersheds indicate that runoff from sealed parking lots could account for the majority of stream PAH loads. 35 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Atmospheric concentrations and dry deposition rates of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) for Tampa Bay, Florida, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poor, Noreen; Tremblay, Raphael; Kay, Heidi; Bhethanabotla, Venkat; Swartz, Erick; Luther, Mark; Campbell, Scott

    2004-11-01

    Sampling of 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) at the Gandy Bridge monitoring site between May and August 2002 provided preliminary ambient air concentrations and dry deposition rates for Tampa Bay. The HiC-IOGAPS dramatically improved the recovery of lower molecular weight gas and particle PAHs, as evidenced by the recoveries of PAHs in back-up denuders and filter packs. Total PAH (gas+particle) concentrations ranged from 80 to 190 ng m-3. Concentrations of naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, fluoranthene, and pyrene were consistently higher than concentrations of the remaining 10 PAHs. Assuming an unidirectional flux of these compounds from air to water, the estimated total (gas+particle) dry deposition flux was 11.5 μg m-2 d-1, or 6.7 μg m-2 d-1 if naphthalene is excluded.

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in Beluga whales from the Arctic

    SciTech Connect

    Mathieu, A.; Payne, J.F.; Fancey, L.L.

    1997-09-01

    The Arctic is still relatively pristine in nature, but it is also vulnerable to pollution because contaminants originating from midlatitudes are transported to the Arctic by atmospheric processes, ocean currents, and river. Recognition of this fact of Arctic vulnerability has resulted in a Declaration on the Protection of the Arctic Environment by eight Arctic countries. A manifest aim of this declaration is to develop an Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Program. We report here on the presence of measurable levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts, including relatively high levels in Arctic beluga (Delphinapterus leucas). These results lend support to the value of developing biological assessment programs for Arctic wildlife. 15 refs., 1 tab.

  2. Evaluation of occupational exposure to mixed dusts and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in silicon carbide plants.

    PubMed

    Dufresne, A; Lesage, J; Perrault, G

    1987-02-01

    Workers in the silicon carbide industry have experienced occupational health diseases, particularly lung disorders such as silicosis. The silicon carbide production process mainly employs petroleum coke, sawdust, pure crystalline silica and graphite. Since crystalline silica is present in the occupational environment, the airborne dust content of various polymorphs of silica, especially quartz, cristobalite and tridymite, was determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The analytical method was modified to eliminate graphite, since it overlaps with the main diffraction plane of quartz. Exploratory field surveys were conducted to identify the minerals present in that occupational environment and to evaluate the validity of the analytical method. The surveys provided information on the mineralogical nature of the dust, its respirable content and the concentration of silica polymorphs. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons also were measured, and the effect of their adsorption on graphite was evaluated.

  3. A Graphene-Based Nanosensor for In Situ Monitoring of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs).

    PubMed

    Church, Jared; Wang, Xiaochen; Calderon, Jean; Lee, Woo Hyoung; Cho, Hyoung J; Zhai, Lei

    2016-02-01

    A graphene-based nanosensor was developed for in situ monitoring of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aqueous solutions. The sensor was fabricated using photolithography and etching of Au/Ti film on a silicon wafer followed by the transfer of a single graphene layer which was prepared separately by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The performance of the graphene nanosensor was characterized using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). The graphene-based sensor demonstrated a fast (<10 sec) and linear response to toluene (0 to 17 ppm) at +400 mV versus Ag/AgCl when measured amperometrically. The novelty can be found in utilizing high affinity of graphene to PAHs and intermolecular electron delocalization at the interface of graphene and a benzene ring for toluene detection in water. The developed sensor is applicable to many contaminated water bodies or engineered systems due to its reduced sensing cost, portability, and ease of use. PMID:27433633

  4. Estimation and characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from magnesium metallurgy facilities in China.

    PubMed

    Nie, Zhiqiang; Yang, Yufei; Tang, Zhenwu; Liu, Feng; Wang, Qi; Huang, Qifei

    2014-11-01

    Field monitoring was conducted to develop a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission inventory for the magnesium (Mg) metallurgy industry in China. PAH emissions in stack gas and fly/bottom ash samples from different smelting units of a typical Mg smelter were measured and compared. Large variations of concentrations, congener patterns, and emission factors of PAHs during the oxidation and reduction stages in the Mg smelter were observed. The measured average emission factor (166,487 μg/t Mg) was significantly higher than those of other industrial sources. Annual emission from Mg metallurgy in 2012 in China was estimated at 116 kg (514 g BaPeq) for PAHs. The results of this study suggest that PAH emission from Mg industries should be considered by local government agencies. These data may be helpful for understanding PAH levels produced by the Mg industry and in developing a PAH inventory.

  5. Concentration and particle size distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons formed by thermal cooking.

    PubMed

    Saito, E; Tanaka, N; Miyazaki, A; Tsuzaki, M

    2014-06-15

    The concentration and particle size distribution of 19 major polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted by thermal cooking were investigated. Corn, trout, beef, prawns, and pork were selected for grilling. The PAHs in the oil mist emitted when the food was grilled were collected according to particle size range and analysed by GC/MS. Much higher concentrations of PAHs were detected in the oil mist emitted by grilled pork, trout, and beef samples, which were rich in fat. The main components of the cooking exhaust were 3- and 4-ring PAHs, regardless of food type. The particle size distribution showed that almost all the PAHs were concentrated in particles with diameters of <0.43 μm. For pork, the toxic equivalent of benzo[a]pyrene accounted for 50% of the PAHs in particles with diameters of <0.43 μm. From these results, we estimated that >90% of the PAHs would reach the alveolar region of the lungs.

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmospheric dustfall from the industrial corridor in Hubei Province, Central China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiaquan; Qu, Chengkai; Qi, Shihua; Cao, Junji; Zhan, Changlin; Xing, Xinli; Xiao, Yulun; Zheng, Jingru; Xiao, Wensheng

    2015-10-01

    Thirty atmospheric dustfall samples collected from an industrial corridor in Hubei Province, central China, were analyzed for 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) to investigate their concentrations, spatial distributions, sources, and health risks. Total PAH concentrations (ΣPAHs) ranged from 1.72 to 13.17 µg/g and averaged 4.91 µg/g. High molecular weight (4-5 rings) PAHs averaged 59.67% of the ΣPAHs. Individual PAH concentrations were not significantly correlated with total organic carbon, possibly due to the semi-continuous inputs from anthropogenic sources. Source identification studies suggest that the PAHs were mainly from motor vehicles and biomass/coal combustion. The incremental lifetime cancer risks associated with exposure to PAHs in the dustfall ranged from 10(-4) to 10(-6); these indicate potentially serious carcinogenic risks for exposed populations in the industrial corridor.

  7. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene: a biomarker for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure in coal liquefaction workers.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, R; Kowalczyk, G; Gardiner, K; Hale, K; Walton, S; Calvert, I

    1995-04-01

    This study was undertaken to assess the suitability of urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHPyr) as a biological marker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure in coal liquefaction workers. This is believed to be the first evaluation of the method in coal liquefaction workers. Ten workers were selected from a group of 30 workers considered likely to be at risk of contamination from PAHs by virtue of their jobs. Spot urine samples were collected at the start of a work period and at the end of each work shift, with analysis of 1-OHPyr being undertaken by high-performance liquid chromatography linked to a fluorescence detector. Exposure was assessed by the completion of questionnaires. Excretion of 1-OHPyr increased significantly over the working period, and there was a significant increase in 1-OHPyr where start-shift and end-shift samples were taken over one shift. A significant decrease in 1-OHPyr was found during breaks away from work.

  8. [Symptoms of atopy in persons exposed to chronic immunosuppression of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons].

    PubMed

    Szczeklik, J; Kowalczyk, E; Gałuszka, Z

    1995-01-01

    The frequency of the atopy symptoms was estimated in 126 coke oven workers chronically exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The assessment was based on questionnaire, point skin tests with the allergens of dust, feathers, mould grass as well as on the measurements of total blood serum IgE concentration. The control group was consisted of 75 men, workers of cold rolling mill division where the environmental conditions were much better. It was observed that positive questionnaire data and positive skin tests were significantly less frequent in men exposed to PAHs. The men serum IgE values were not statistically different in both group workers although in coke oven workers the tendency to higher IgE values was observed. It is rather suggested that more useful method might be the measurement of specific serum IgE.

  9. Sorption effects interfering with the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in aqueous samples.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Oliver; Kalbe, Ute; Meißner, Kerstin; Sobottka, Sebastian

    2014-05-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are severe environmental pollutants that are analyzed frequently. The risk assessment of PAH impact to groundwater can be performed using leaching tests. Therby a liquid-solid separation step including centrifugation may be required, which in turn might lead to loss of analytes due to sorption on the equipment. Thus we determined the PAH recoveries from various container materials (polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polytetraflourethylene (PTFE), stainless steel (ES), and perflouroalkoxy (PFA)) and compared them to selected PAH properties. We found the best recoveries for PFA (68%) and PTFE (65%) containers. We found good negative correlations (-0.93 and better) between PAH recovery and log partition coefficient organic carbon-water (logKOC) for PFA, PTFE, and ES containers.

  10. Effect of concentration on sequestration and bioavailability of two polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, N.; Alexander, M.

    1999-10-15

    A study was conducted to determine the effect of concentration on sequestration and bioavailability of phenanthrene and pyrene in soil. The compounds at 1.0, 10, and 100 mg/kg of soil became increasingly resistant to a mild solvent extraction and progressively less bioavailable to earthworms (Eisenia foetida) as a result of aging for 120 days. Aging also resulted in both compounds at 1.0 and 10 mg/kg and phenanthrene but not pyrene at 100 mg/kg becoming more resistant to microbial degradation. Increasing the concentration led to an increase in the percentages of the unaged and aged compounds that were susceptible to microbial degradation. Some of each of the two compounds was still available to earthworms following biodegradation. The data show that sequestration of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons occurs at both low and high concentrations.

  11. Persistent organic pollutants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mosses after fire at the Brazilian Antarctic Station.

    PubMed

    Colabuono, Fernanda Imperatrice; Taniguchi, Satie; Cipro, Caio Vinícius Zecchin; da Silva, Josilene; Bícego, Márcia Caruso; Montone, Rosalinda Carmela

    2015-04-15

    A fire at the Brazilian Antarctic Station on February 25th, 2012 led to the burning of material that produced organic pollutants. To evaluate the impact in the surrounding area, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were analyzed in moss samples collected in the vicinities of the station before and after the incident and compared to findings from previous studies in the same region. PCBs were on the same magnitude as that reported in previous studies, which could be associated to the global dispersion of these compounds and may not be related to the local fire. In contrast, concentrations of HCB and PAHs were higher than those reported in previous studies. No PBDEs were found above the method detection limit. Organic contaminant concentrations in mosses decreased a few months after the fire, which is an important characteristic when considering the use of mosses for monitoring recent exposure.

  12. Proposal of a procedure for the analysis of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in mosses.

    PubMed

    Concha-Graña, Estefanía; Piñeiro-Iglesias, María; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; López-Mahía, Purificación; Prada-Rodríguez, Darío

    2015-03-01

    A useful analytical procedure for the analysis of 19 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in moss samples using microwave assisted extraction and programmed temperature vaporization-gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (PTV-GC-MS/MS) determination is proposed. The state of art in PAHs analysis in mosses was reviewed. All the steps of the analysis were optimized regarding not only to the analytical parameters, but also the cost, the total time of analysis and the labour. The method was validated for one moss species used as moss monitor in ambient air, obtaining high recoveries (between 83-108%), low quantitation limits (lower than 2 ng g(-1)), good intermediate precision (relative standard deviation lower than 10%), uncertainties lower than 20%. Finally, the method was checked for other species, demonstrating its suitability for the analysis of different moss species. For this reason the proposed method can be helpful in air biomonitoring studies.

  13. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal hyphae contribute to the uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by plant roots.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yanzheng; Cheng, Zhaoxia; Ling, Wanting; Huang, Jing

    2010-09-01

    The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) hyphae-mediated uptake of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by the roots of ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) was investigated using three-compartment systems. Glomus mosseae and Glomus etunicatum were chosen, and fluorene and phenanthrene were used as representative PAHs. When roots were grown in un-spiked soils, AM hyphae extended into PAH-spiked soil and clearly absorbed and transported PAHs to roots, resulting in high concentrations of fluorene and phenanthrene in roots. This was further confirmed by the batch equilibration experiment, which revealed that the partition coefficients (K(d)) of tested PAHs by mycorrhizal hyphae were 270-356% greater than those by roots, suggesting the great potential of hyphae to absorb PAHs. Because of fluorene's lower molecular weight and higher water solubility, its translocation by hyphae was greater than that of phenanthrene. These results provide new perspectives on the AM hyphae-mediated uptake by plants of organic contaminants from soil. PMID:20403686

  14. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in blood related to lower body mass in common loons.

    PubMed

    Paruk, James D; Adams, Evan M; Uher-Koch, Hannah; Kovach, Kristin A; Long, Darwin; Perkins, Christopher; Schoch, Nina; Evers, David C

    2016-09-15

    We captured 93 wintering adult and subadult Common Loons (Gavia immer) in coastal Louisiana from 2011 to 2015 following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. We tested blood samples for exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and measured physiological variables including hematocrit, hemoglobin and total blood protein. PAH concentrations in loon blood differed from year to year and by age class. High PAH concentrations were significantly related to lower body masses in both adult and subadult birds and higher serum protein levels in adults only. PAH concentrations had marginal relations with both hematocrit and hemoglobin levels. The types of PAHs detected also underwent a major shift over time. The PAHs detected in 2011, 2012, and 2015 were primarily low molecular weight (three carbon rings); however, in 2013, most detected PAHs were high molecular weight (four carbon rings). It is unclear what events led to the increase in PAH concentrations and the shift in type of PAHs over time. PMID:27177142

  15. Formation of H2 from internally heated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: excitation energy dependence.

    PubMed

    Chen, T; Gatchell, M; Stockett, M H; Delaunay, R; Domaracka, A; Micelotta, E R; Tielens, A G G M; Rousseau, P; Adoui, L; Huber, B A; Schmidt, H T; Cederquist, H; Zettergren, H

    2015-04-14

    We have investigated the effectiveness of molecular hydrogen (H2) formation from Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) which are internally heated by collisions with keV ions. The present and earlier experimental results are analyzed in view of molecular structure calculations and a simple collision model. We estimate that H2 formation becomes important for internal PAH temperatures exceeding about 2200 K, regardless of the PAH size and the excitation agent. This suggests that keV ions may effectively induce such reactions, while they are unlikely due to, e.g., absorption of single photons with energies below the Lyman limit. The present analysis also suggests that H2 emission is correlated with multi-fragmentation processes, which means that the [PAH-2H](+) peak intensities in the mass spectra may not be used for estimating H2-formation rates.

  16. Infrared frequencies and intensities for astrophysically important polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon cations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szczepanski, Jan; Vala, Martin

    1993-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been implicated as the carriers of the 'unidentified infrared' (UIR) emission bands observed from the interstellar medium. It has long been thought that these molecules, if present, probably exist as cations. In this paper we present infrared spectra of the cations of five moderate-sized PAHs. The PAH cations have been produced by low-energy electron impact and then trapped and stabilized in argon matrices at 12 K. To date, results have been obtained on naphthalene, anthracene, pyrene, perylene, and coronene. A common feature of the infrared spectra of all these cations is the very different intensity pattern of the ions compared to the neutral parents. Visible and (partial) infrared spectra of the coronene cation are also presented. It is shown that the out-of-plane CH bending mode shifts to a position very close to the UIR band at 11.3 microns. The astrophysical impact of these observations is discussed.

  17. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Coastal Sediment of Klang Strait, Malaysia: Distribution Pattern, Risk Assessment and Sources

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoly Sany, Seyedeh Belin; Hashim, Rosli; Salleh, Aishah; Rezayi, Majid; Mehdinia, Ali; Safari, Omid

    2014-01-01

    Concentration, source, and ecological risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in 22 stations from surface sediments in the areas of anthropogenic pollution in the Klang Strait (Malaysia). The total PAH level in the Klang Strait sediment was 994.02±918.1 µg/kg dw. The highest concentration was observed in stations near the coastline and mouth of the Klang River. These locations were dominated by high molecular weight PAHs. The results showed both pyrogenic and petrogenic sources are main sources of PAHs. Further analyses indicated that PAHs primarily originated from pyrogenic sources (coal combustion and vehicular emissions), with significant contribution from petroleum inputs. Regarding ecological risk estimation, only station 13 was moderately polluted, the rest of the stations suffered rare or slight adverse biological effects with PAH exposure in surface sediment, suggesting that PAHs are not considered as contaminants of concern in the Klang Strait. PMID:24747349

  18. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air of Jeedimetla Industrial Development Area-Hyderabad.

    PubMed

    Suneela, Motati; Reddy, M K; Reddy, R C

    2004-07-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have received increased attention in recent years in air pollution studies, as some of these compounds are highly carcinogenic or mutagenic. PAHs are mainly associated with respirable suspended particulate matter (RSPM) (diameter <10 m in size). Hence, it is important to determine the concentration of PAHs adsorbed on RSPM to know the extent of human exposure to these potentially carcinogenic substances. The study was carried out at 10 locations in and around the Jeedimetla industrial development area, Hyderabad during April 2000. Higher concentrations of B(a)A and B(b)F were observed at Nandanagar, Py and B(a)P at Kukatpally while, F1 concentrations at Allwyn Colony. These variations in the concentration can be attributed to their source and climatic conditions during sampling.

  19. Effects and uptake of polycyclic aromatic compounds in snails (Helix aspersa).

    PubMed

    Sverdrup, Line Emilie; De Vaufleury, Annette; Hartnik, Thomas; Hagen, Snorre B; Loibner, Andreas Paul; Jensen, John

    2006-07-01

    The International Standardization Organization recently launched a soil toxicity test with snails (Helix aspersa). We assessed the sensitivity of this test for seven polycyclic aromatic compounds. Control animals had 100% survival and low variability for growth measurements. Maximum exposure concentrations of 2800 mg/kg (4000 mg/kg for acridine) had no effect on survival. Similarly, growth (biomass and shell size) was not affected by pyrene, fluoranthene, fluorene, carbazole, phenanthrene, or acridine, whereas dibenzothiophene gave a 10% effect concentration of 1600 mg/kg. Measured internal concentrations of carbazole, dibenzothiophene, and acridine increased with increasing soil concentrations, but biota-soil accumulation factors were low (0.002-0.1). Compared to previously tested organisms, with all being exposed in the same soil type and under similar test conditions, the H. aspersa test was relatively insensitive to all substances.

  20. The phototoxicity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: a theoretical study of excited states and correlation to experiment.

    PubMed

    Betowski, Leon D; Enlow, Mark; Riddick, Lee

    2002-06-01

    Investigators using models to determine the phototoxic effects of sunlight on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have invoked the excited states of the molecule as important in elucidating the mechanism of these reactions. Energies of actual excited states were calculated for ten PAHs by several ab initio methods. The main method used for these calculations was the Configuration Interaction approach, modeling excited states as combinations of single substitutions out of the Hartree-Fock ground state. These calculations correlate well with both experimentally measured singlet and triplet state energies and also previous HOMO-LUMO gap energies that approximate the singlet state energies. The excited state calculations then correlate well with general models of photo-induced toxicity based for the PAHs.

  1. Determination of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in diesel particulates by gas chromatography with chemiluminescent detection

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, W.C.; Fine, D.H.; Chiu, S.K.; Biemann, K.

    1984-06-01

    An analytical technique is described for the determination of nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAH) in diesel particulates. It involves the use of capillary gas chromatography for the separation of nitro-PAH and subsequent detection by chemiluminescence. The detection limit of the method is determined to 10-25 pg injected on-column. 1-Nitronaphthalene, 2-nitronaphthalene, 2-nitrofluorene, and 1-nitropyrene were selectively detected in the sample. The presence of 1-nitronaphthalene and 1-nitropyrene were unequivocally confirmed by mass spectrometry. Because of detector selectivity to nitro compounds, the presence of PAH and related derivatives does not interfere with the analysis. The technique is useful for the screening of nitroaromatics in complex environmental samples. 35 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  2. Occurrence of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban particulate matter PM10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Rosario Sienra, María; Rosazza, Nelson G.

    2006-10-01

    Ambient measurements of nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) were carried out during July 2000 and September-October 2000 in Santiago de Chile City. Fifteen samples of 24 h were collected at two sampling sites whose characteristics were representative of the prevailing conditions of the area. These compounds were characterized and quantified by gas chromatography mass selective detection. Atmospheric concentrations of nitro-PAHs are of interest because these compound classes include potent mutagens and carcinogens. The compounds analyzed in the samples included 1-nitropyrene, 2-nitrofluorene and 3-nitrofluoranthene. The concentration found ranged from below the detection limit in all cases to 1.8 ng m - 3 for 1-nitropyrene, to 1.12 ng m - 3 for 2-nitrofluorene and to 3.9 ng m - 3 for 3-nitrofluoranthene. This study respresents evidence of nitroaromatics in urban air particles from Santiago de Chile.

  3. SPE-LC-FD determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon monohydroxy derivatives in cephalopods.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Diana; Silva, Liliana J G; Lino, Celeste M; Morais, Simone; Pena, Angelina

    2014-03-26

    A new analytical methodology, based on liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (LC-FD), after extraction, enzymatic hydrolysis, and solid-phase extraction (SPE) through Oasis HLB cartridges, was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of three monohydroxy derivatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The optimized analytical method is sensitive, accurate, and precise, with recoveries between 62 and 110% and limits of detection of 227, 9, and 45 ng/g for 1-hydroxynaphthalene, 2-hydroxyfluorene, and 1-hydroxypyrene, respectively. Their levels were estimated in different cephalopod matrices (edible tissues and hemolymph). The methodology was applied to samples of the major cephalopod species consumed worldwide. Of the 18 samples analyzed, 39% were contaminated with 1-hydroxynaphthalene, which was the only PAH metabolite detected. Its concentration ranged from 786 to 1145 ng/g. This highly sensitive and specific method allows the identification and quantitation of PAH metabolites in forthcoming food safety and environmental monitoring programs.

  4. Application of random forests method to predict the retention indices of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Goudarzi, N; Shahsavani, D; Emadi-Gandaghi, F; Chamjangali, M Arab

    2014-03-14

    In this work, a quantitative structure-retention relationship (QSRR) investigation was carried out based on the new method of random forests (RF) for prediction of the retention indices (RIs) of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds. The RIs of these compounds were calculated using the theoretical descriptors generated from their molecular structures. Effects of the important parameters affecting the ability of the RF prediction power such as the number of trees (nt) and the number of randomly selected variables to split each node (m) were investigated. Optimization of these parameters showed that in the point m=70, nt=460, the RF method can give the best results. Also, performance of the RF model was compared with that of the artificial neural network (ANN) and multiple linear regression (MLR) techniques. The results obtained show the relative superiority of the RF method over the MLR and ANN ones.

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons affect survival and development of common snapping turtle (Chelydra serpentina) embryos and hatchlings.

    PubMed

    Van Meter, Robin J; Spotila, James R; Avery, Harold W

    2006-08-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are toxic compounds found in the John Heinz National Wildlife Refuge in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. We assessed the impact of PAHs and crude oil on snapping turtle development and behavior by exposing snapping turtle eggs from the Refuge and from three clean reference sites to individual PAHs or a crude oil mixture at stage 9 of embryonic development. Exposure to PAHs had a significant effect on survival rates in embryos from one clean reference site, but not in embryos from the other sites. There was a positive linear relationship between level of exposure to PAHs and severity of deformities in embryos collected from two of the clean reference sites. Neither righting response nor upper temperature tolerance (critical thermal maximum, CTM) of snapping turtle hatchlings with no or minor deformities was significantly affected by exposure to PAHs. PMID:16360251

  6. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons loads into the Mediterranean Sea: estimate of Sarno River inputs.

    PubMed

    Montuori, Paolo; Triassi, Maria

    2012-03-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) pollution in the Sarno River and its environmental impact on the Gulf of Naples (Tyrrhenian Sea, Central Mediterranean Sea) were estimated. The 16 PAHs identified by the USEPA as priority pollutants and perylene were determined in the water dissolved phase (DP), suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediments. Total PAHs concentrations ranged from 23.1 to 2670.4 ng L(-1) in water (sum of DP and SPM) and from 5.3 to 678.6 ng g(-1) in sediment samples. Source analysis revealed that PAHs mainly came from combustion process. Contaminant discharges of PAHs into the sea were calculated in about 8530 gd(-1) showing that this river should account as one of the main contribution sources of PAHs to the Tyrrhenian Sea. PMID:22285406

  7. Effect of beer marinades on formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in charcoal-grilled pork.

    PubMed

    Viegas, Olga; Yebra-Pimentel, Iria; Martínez-Carballo, Elena; Simal-Gandara, Jesus; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2014-03-26

    The effect of marinating meat with Pilsner beer, nonalcoholic Pilsner beer, and Black beer (coded respectively PB, P0B, and BB) on the formation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in charcoal-grilled pork was evaluated and compared with the formation of these compounds in unmarinated meat. Antiradical activity of marinades (DPPH assay) was assayed. BB exhibited the strongest scavenging activity (68.0%), followed by P0B (36.5%) and PB (29.5%). Control and marinated meat samples contained the eight PAHs named PAH8 by the EFSA and classified as suitable indicators for carcinogenic potency of PAHs in food. BB showed the highest inhibitory effect in the formation of PAH8 (53%), followed by P0B (25%) and PB (13%). The inhibitory effect of beer marinades on PAH8 increased with the increase of their radical-scavenging activity. BB marinade was the most efficient on reduction of PAH formation, providing a proper mitigation strategy.

  8. Fast Screening of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons using Trapped Ion Mobility Spectrometry - Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Castellanos, A.; Benigni, P.; Hernandez, D. R.; DeBord, J. D.; Ridgeway, M. E.; Park, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    In the present paper, we showed the advantages of trapped ion mobility spectrometry coupled too mass spectrometry (TIMS-MS) combined with theoretical calculations for fast identification (millisecond timescale) of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) compounds from complex mixtures. Accurate PAH collision cross sections (CCS, in nitrogen as a bath gas) are reported for the most commonly encountered PAH compounds and the ability to separate PAH geometric isomers is shown for three isobaric pairs with mobility resolution exceeding 150 (3–5 times higher than conventional IMS devices). Theoretical candidate structures (optimized at the DFT/B3LYP level) are proposed for the most commonly encountered PAH compounds showing good agreement with the experimental CCS values (<5%). The potential of TIMS-MS for the separation and identification of PAH compounds from complex mixtures without the need of lengthy pre-separation steps is illustrated for the case of a complex soil mixture. PMID:25558291

  9. Interactions between polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and dissolved humic material: binding and dissociation

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, J.F.; Jimenez, B.D.

    1985-11-01

    Binding of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) to dissolved humic material (DHM) was examined by using equilibrium dialysis and fluorescence techniques. There was a direct relationship between the hydrophobicity of the PAH and the affinity for binding to DHM. The binding affinity P/sub a/ for benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), benzanthracene, and anthracene decreased slightly as the concentration of DHM increased. The binding of BaP to DHM was completely reversible and the extent of reversibility was unrelated to the sorption time. The rate of binding of BaP to DHM, measured by the quenching to BaP fluorescence, was very rapid and was completed within 5-10 min. The results suggest that the presence of DHM, or other sorptive components of the dissolved organic pool, may affect binding to sediment or suspended particles and thus alter the fate and transport of organic contaminants in aquatic systems.

  10. A model of the fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Saguenay Fjord, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Lun, R.; Lee, K.; Marco, L. de; Nalewajko, C.; Mackay, D. |

    1998-02-01

    A comprehensive mass balance model is described that simulates the fate of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the Saguenay Fjord in eastern Quebec, Canada. The receiving environment is segmented into five compartments that are connected by upstream and downstream flows. Each segment consists of a layer of surficial sediment and a water column exposed to the atmosphere. The steady state model provides a method by which defined loadings of PAHs from the atmosphere and industrial sources are combined with other input parameters such as advective flow and atmospheric deposition rates to deduce quantities, concentrations, and transport and transformation rates. Results are presented for naphthalene, phenanthrene, and benzo[a]pyrene. The overall environmental pathways and simulation results are discussed. The simulated concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene in the sediment ranged from 100 to 315 ng/g, which are in good agreement with reported measurements.

  11. [Improving Agricultural Safety of Soils Contaminated with Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons by In Situ Bioremediation].

    PubMed

    Jiao, Hai-huan; Pan, Jian-gang; Xu, Shena-jun; Bai, Zhi-hui; Wang, Dong; Huang, Zhan-bin

    2015-08-01

    In order to reduce the risk of enrichment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in crops, reduce the potential hazards of food-sourced PAHs to human and increase the agricultural safety of PAHs contaminated soils, the bio-augmented removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was investigated through in situ remediation by introducing Rhodobacter sphaeroides (RS) into the agricultural soil contaminated by PAHs. The 50-times diluted RS was sprayed on leaf surface (in area B) or irrigated to roots (in area D). The treatment of spraying water of the equal amount was taken as the control (A) and the wheat field without any treatment as the blank (CK). Treatments were conducted since wheat seeding. Soil and wheat samples were collected in the mature period to analyze the changes of community structure of the soil microorganisms and the concentration of PAHs in soils and investigate the strengthening and restoration effects of RS on PAHs contaminated soils. Compared to the CK Area, the areas B and D revealed that the variation ratio of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) that were the biomarker of soil microorganisms was 29.6%, and the ratio of total PAHs removed was increased 1.59 times and 1.68 times, respectively. The dry weight of wheat grain of 50 spikes was increased by 8.95% and 12.5%, respectively, and the enrichment factor of total PAHs was decreased by 58.9% and 62.2% respectively in the wheat grains. All the results suggested that RS reduced enrichment of PAHs in wheat grains and increased wheat yield, which had great exploitation and utilization potentiality in repairing and improving the agricultural safety of the soils contaminated with PHAs.

  12. Analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their oxygen-containing derivatives and metabolites in soils.

    PubMed

    Bandowe, Benjamin A Musa; Wilcke, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Although polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been extensively studied, the knowledge of their oxygen-containing derivatives and metabolites (OPAHs) in soils is limited. We modified and tested an existing analytical protocol involving pressurized liquid extraction of soil followed by fractionation of target compounds into PAHs and OPAHs on a silica gel column and gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry-based separation and quantification. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and carbonyl-OPAHs were quantified directly after separation on silica gel columns, and hydroxyl/carboxyl-OPAHs were quantified after silylation with N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide. Recoveries between 78 and 97% (relative standard deviation [RSD], 5-12%) were obtained for six carbonyl-OPAHs, whereas 1,2-acenaphthenequinone and 1,4-naphthoquinone showed lower recoveries of 34 and 44% (RSD, 19 and 28%, respectively). Five hydroxyl/carboxyl-OPAHs had recoveries between 36 and 70% (RSD, 13-46%), six others had between 2 and 7% (RSD, 8-25%), and nine were lost in sample preparation. Limits of detection ranged from 0.1 to 1.6 ng g(-1) for OPAHs and from 0.01 to 0.56 ng g(-1) for PAHs. The protocol was applied to soils from a former gasworks site, Berlin, an urban soil from Mainz, both in Germany, and a forest soil from near Manaus, Brazil. The sums of 34 PAH concentrations were 107,000, 3505, and 21 ng g(-1); those of seven carbonyl-OPAHs were 15,690, 170, and 7 ng g(-1); and those of 11 hydroxyl/carboxyl-OPAHs 518, 36, and 16 ng g(-1) for Berlin, Mainz, and Manaus soils, respectively. Several OPAHs were present at concentrations higher than or equal to their parent PAHs, demonstrating the importance of OPAH measurement for the assessment of PAH-related environmental risks. PMID:20830923

  13. Tumour-promoting activity of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their oxygenated or nitrated derivatives.

    PubMed

    Misaki, Kentaro; Takamura-Enya, Takeji; Ogawa, Hideoki; Takamori, Kenji; Yanagida, Mitsuaki

    2016-03-01

    Various types of polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in diesel exhaust particles are thought to contribute to carcinogenesis in mammals. Although the carcinogenicity, mutagenicity and tumour-initiating activity of these compounds have been evaluated, their tumour-promoting activity is unclear. In the present study, to determine the tumour-inducing activity of PACs, including previously known mutagenic compounds in atmospheric environments, a transformation assay for promoting activity mediated by the release of contact inhibition was conducted for six polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), seven oxygenated PAHs (oxy-PAHs) and seven nitrated PAHs (nitro-PAHs) using mouse embryonic fibroblast cells transfected with the v-Ha-ras gene (Bhas 42 cells). Of these, two PAHs [benzo[k]fluoranthene (B[k]FA) and benzo[b]fluoranthene (B[b]FA)], one oxy-PAH [6H-benzo[cd]pyren-6-one (BPO)] and two nitro-PAHs (3-nitro-7H-benz[de]anthracen-7-one and 6-nitrochrysene) were found to exhibit particularly powerful tumour-promoting activity (≥10 foci following exposure to <100nM). In addition, clear mRNA expression of CYP1A1, which is associated with aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-mediated activation, was observed following the exposure of cells to two PAHs (B[k]FA and B[b]FA) and three oxy-PAHs (1,2-naphthoquinone, 11H-benzo[b]fluoren-11-one and BPO). Further, an HO-1 antioxidant response activation was observed following exposure to B[k]FA, B[b]FA and BPO, suggesting that the induction of tumour-promoting activity in these compounds is correlated with the dysfunction of signal transduction via AhR-mediated responses and/or oxidative stress responses.

  14. First results from the oil sands passive air monitoring network for polycyclic aromatic compounds.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Jasmin K; Harner, Tom; Su, Ky; Mihele, Cristian; Eng, Anita

    2015-03-01

    Results are reported from an ongoing passive air monitoring study for polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs) in the Athabasca oil sands region in Alberta, Canada. Polyurethane foam (PUF) disk passive air samplers were deployed for consecutive 2-month periods from November 2010 to June 2012 at 17 sites. Samples were analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkylated PAHs, dibenzothiophene and its alkylated derivatives (DBTs). Relative to parent PAHs, alkylated PAHs and DBTs are enriched in bitumen and therefore considered to be petrogenic markers. Concentrations in air were in the range 0.03-210 ng/m(3), 0.15-230 ng/m(3) and 0.01-61 ng/m(3) for ∑PAHs, ∑alkylated PAHs and ΣDBTs, respectively. An exponential decline of the PAC concentrations in air with distance from mining areas and related petrogenic sources was observed. The most significant exponential declines were for the alkylated PAHs and DBTs and attributed to their association with mining-related emissions and near-source deposition, due to their lower volatility and greater association with depositing particles. Seasonal trends in concentrations in air for PACs were not observed for any of the compound classes. However, a forest fire episode during April to July 2011 resulted in greatly elevated PAH levels at all passive sampling locations. Alkylated PAHs and DBTs were not elevated during the forest fire period, supporting their association with petrogenic sources. Based on the results of this study, an "Athabasca PAC profile" is proposed as a potential source marker for the oil sands region. The profile is characterized by ∑PAHs/∑Alkylated PAHs = ∼0.2 and ∑PAHs/∑DBTs = ∼5.

  15. Bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and survival of earthworms (Eisenia andrei) exposed to biochar amended soils.

    PubMed

    Malev, O; Contin, M; Licen, S; Barbieri, P; De Nobili, M

    2016-02-01

    Biochar has a charcoal polycyclic aromatic structure which allows its long half-life in soil, making it an ideal tool for C sequestration and for adsorption of organic pollutants, but at the same time raises concerns about possible adverse impacts on soil biota. Two biochars were tested under laboratory-controlled conditions on Eisenia andrei earthworms: a biochar produced at low temperature from wine tree cuttings (WTB) and a commercial low tar hardwood lump charcoal (HLB). The avoidance test (48-h exposure) showed that earthworms avoid biochar-treated soil with rates higher than 16 t ha(-1) for HLB and 64 t ha(-1) for WTB. After 42 days, toxic effects on earthworms were observed even at application rates (100 t ha(-1)) that are generally considered beneficial for most crops. The concentration of HLB and WTB required to kill half of earthworms' population (LC50; 95% confidence limits) in the synthetic OECD soil was 338 and 580 t ha(-1), respectively. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in earthworms exposed to the two biochar types at 100 t ha(-1) was tested in two soils of different texture. In biochar-treated soils, the average earthworm survival rates were about 64% in the sandy and 78% clay-loam soils. PAH accumulation was larger in the sandy soil and largest in soils amended with HLB. PAH with less than four rings were preferentially scavenged from the soil by biochars, and this behaviour may mask that of the more dangerous components (i.e. four to five rings), which are preferentially accumulated. Earthworms can accumulate PAH as a consequence of exposure to biochar-treated soils and transfer them along the food chain. Soil type and biochar quality are both relevant in determining PAH transfer.

  16. Particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and n-alkanes in recycled paper processing operations.

    PubMed

    Chalbot, Marie-Cecile; Vei, Ino; Lykoudis, Spyros; Kavouras, Ilias G

    2006-09-21

    The aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic fractions of dust collected in the vicinity of recycled paper processing operations were analyzed using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Total measured dust concentration (up to 8.73+/-2.02 mg/m3) fluctuated substantially in the different steps of paper manufacture. This was attributed to the type of the operation such as, the release of fibers and particles during paper cutting and the use of reactive chemicals and excessive water under high temperature and pressure during the bleaching and the water rinsing/drying step. Particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) (from fluorene to benzo[ghi]perylene with mean concentrations from 3.8+/-0.5 to 41.4+/-0.4 ng/m3) and the unresolved mixture of branched, cyclic and unsaturated hydrocarbons (UCM) were measured in all samples while, n-alkanes from n-C20 to n-C27, were only observed in cutting and packaging areas (from 180.6+/-18.9 to 4297.9+/-794.9 ng/m3). The profile of occupational PAHs in bleaching and treatment of contaminated recycled raw paper was comparable to that observed for anthropogenic activities. The values of molecular diagnostic ratios indicated the contribution of oil residues and emissions from worklifts and other equipment used for pulp and paper handling. Total benzo[a]pyrene-equivalent (BaP) concentrations of particulate PAHs (varied from 323 up to 1104 pg/m3), provided evidence that workers were exposed to high quantities of PAHs as compared with exposures to urban air and other indoor settings, posing long-term threat to their health. PMID:16704897

  17. Bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and survival of earthworms (Eisenia andrei) exposed to biochar amended soils.

    PubMed

    Malev, O; Contin, M; Licen, S; Barbieri, P; De Nobili, M

    2016-02-01

    Biochar has a charcoal polycyclic aromatic structure which allows its long half-life in soil, making it an ideal tool for C sequestration and for adsorption of organic pollutants, but at the same time raises concerns about possible adverse impacts on soil biota. Two biochars were tested under laboratory-controlled conditions on Eisenia andrei earthworms: a biochar produced at low temperature from wine tree cuttings (WTB) and a commercial low tar hardwood lump charcoal (HLB). The avoidance test (48-h exposure) showed that earthworms avoid biochar-treated soil with rates higher than 16 t ha(-1) for HLB and 64 t ha(-1) for WTB. After 42 days, toxic effects on earthworms were observed even at application rates (100 t ha(-1)) that are generally considered beneficial for most crops. The concentration of HLB and WTB required to kill half of earthworms' population (LC50; 95% confidence limits) in the synthetic OECD soil was 338 and 580 t ha(-1), respectively. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in earthworms exposed to the two biochar types at 100 t ha(-1) was tested in two soils of different texture. In biochar-treated soils, the average earthworm survival rates were about 64% in the sandy and 78% clay-loam soils. PAH accumulation was larger in the sandy soil and largest in soils amended with HLB. PAH with less than four rings were preferentially scavenged from the soil by biochars, and this behaviour may mask that of the more dangerous components (i.e. four to five rings), which are preferentially accumulated. Earthworms can accumulate PAH as a consequence of exposure to biochar-treated soils and transfer them along the food chain. Soil type and biochar quality are both relevant in determining PAH transfer. PMID:26490928

  18. Diversity of Soil Nematodes in Areas Polluted with Heavy Metals and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Lanzhou, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gen; Qin, Jie; Shi, Dazhong; Zhang, Yingmei; Ji, Weihong

    2009-07-01

    This study investigated the soil nematode community structure along the Yellow River in the Lanzhou area of China, and analyzed the impact of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, and Zn) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the nematode community. Soil samples from five locations (named A-E), which were chosen for soil analysis, showed significant differences in their heavy metal content ( p < 0.01), as well as in the variety of nematodes (up to 41 genera) and families (up to 20) that were present. The different samples also differed significantly in the total PAH content ( p < 0.05), as well as the six types of PAH present. Sites A-C showed the most severe contamination with heavy metals and PAHs; these sites had the lowest abundance of fungivores and omnivore/predators, but the proportion of bacteriovores was the highest ( p < 0.05). Site E, in contrast, showed only minor pollution with heavy metals and PAHs, and it contained the highest abundance of plant parasites ( p < 0.05). Several nematode ecological indicators were found to correlate with concentration of soil pollutants at all the sites tested: the maturity index (MI, in addition to plant parasites), plant parasite index (PPI), ΣMI (including all the soil nematodes), Shannon-Wiener diversity index ( H''), and Wasilewska index (WI). Disturbance to the soil environment was more severe when MI, ΣMI, and H' values were lower. The results of the study show that the abundance and structure of the soil nematode communities in the sampling locations were strongly influenced by levels of heavy metals and PAHs in the soil. They also show that the diversity index H' and the maturity index can be valuable tools for assessing the impact of pollutants on nematodes.

  19. Diversity of soil nematodes in areas polluted with heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Lanzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gen; Qin, Jie; Shi, Dazhong; Zhang, Yingmei; Ji, Weihong

    2009-07-01

    This study investigated the soil nematode community structure along the Yellow River in the Lanzhou area of China, and analyzed the impact of heavy metals (Cd, Pb, Cr, Cu, and Zn) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) on the nematode community. Soil samples from five locations (named A-E), which were chosen for soil analysis, showed significant differences in their heavy metal content (p < 0.01), as well as in the variety of nematodes (up to 41 genera) and families (up to 20) that were present. The different samples also differed significantly in the total PAH content (p < 0.05), as well as the six types of PAH present. Sites A-C showed the most severe contamination with heavy metals and PAHs; these sites had the lowest abundance of fungivores and omnivore/predators, but the proportion of bacteriovores was the highest (p < 0.05). Site E, in contrast, showed only minor pollution with heavy metals and PAHs, and it contained the highest abundance of plant parasites (p < 0.05). Several nematode ecological indicators were found to correlate with concentration of soil pollutants at all the sites tested: the maturity index (MI, in addition to plant parasites), plant parasite index (PPI), SigmaMI (including all the soil nematodes), Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H''), and Wasilewska index (WI). Disturbance to the soil environment was more severe when MI, SigmaMI, and H' values were lower. The results of the study show that the abundance and structure of the soil nematode communities in the sampling locations were strongly influenced by levels of heavy metals and PAHs in the soil. They also show that the diversity index H' and the maturity index can be valuable tools for assessing the impact of pollutants on nematodes. PMID:19205795

  20. Quantitative determination of hydroxy polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons as a biomarker of exposure to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Woudneh, Million B; Benskin, Jonathan P; Grace, Richard; Hamilton, M Coreen; Magee, Brian H; Hoeger, Glenn C; Forsberg, Norman D; Cosgrove, John R

    2016-07-01

    A high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) method was developed for quantitative analysis of hydroxy polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (OH-PAHs). Four hydroxy metabolites of known and suspected carcinogenic PAHs (benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), benz[a]anthracene (B[a]A), and chrysene (CRY)) were selected as suitable biomarkers of PAH exposure and associated risks to human health. The analytical method included enzymatic deconjugation, liquid - liquid extraction, followed by derivatization with methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide and instrumental analysis. Photo-induced oxidation of target analytes - which has plagued previously published methods - was controlled by a combination of minimizing exposure to light, employing an antioxidant (2-mercaptoethanol) and utilizing a nitrogen atmosphere. Stability investigations also indicated that conjugated forms of the analytes are more stable than the non-conjugated forms. Accuracy and precision of the method were 77.4-101% (<4.9% RSD) in synthetic urine and 92.3-117% (<15% RSD) in human urine, respectively. Method detection limits, determined using eight replicates of low-level spiked human urine, ranged from 13 to 24pg/mL. The method was successfully applied for analysis of a pooled human urine sample and 78 mouse urine samples collected from mice fed with PAH-contaminated diets. In mouse urine, greater than 94% of each analyte was present in its conjugated form. PMID:27266337