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Sample records for abundant skeletal remains

  1. The examination of skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Knight, B

    1985-01-01

    In summary, unless the more sophisticated methods listed in the references are repeated and more success obtained with a series of bone samples of known date, no physico-chemical or morphological techniques have yet been devised that will determine date independently of environmental deterioration. The only exception is the radiocarbon estimation in bones of greater antiquity than those of medico-legal interest. The best mentor in the examination of skeletal remains is experience. Unfortunately, the majority of samples brought to the medical examiner remain of unknown provenance, and this prevents the doctor from checking his expertise against the true facts of identity and dating. The main point to bear in mind is that the tendency toward overinterpretation and dogmatic opinion should be avoided where the available data do not merit such a degree of certainty. There is no advantage in offering unfounded opinions to the investigators, since this might merely mislead them and perhaps cause them to exclude a class of possible identities because the doctor has unwisely told them to look only within a certain bracket of date and identifiable factors. As in any branch of forensic medicine, it is dangerous to speculate where the facts cannot firmly support the opinion.

  2. Identification of infant skeletal remains: case report.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, M; Miyasaka, S; Sato, H; Miyake, B; Seta, S

    1989-12-01

    Three cases of infant skeletal remains were described from the view point of personal identification. The age was exactly estimated from union of ossification centers, dental calcification and eruption. While, the sex estimation was not highly reliable, because sex differences had not clearly appeared in infant skeletons, and it was rather difficult in some cases. In infant skeletal remains, age estimation is especially important to help personal identification. The most recent photograph of a presumed person should be used for personal identification by superimposition technique since the size and proportion of infant skull constantly change as a result of its development.

  3. Weight references for burned human skeletal remains from Portuguese samples.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, David; Cunha, Eugénia; Thompson, Tim J U

    2013-09-01

    Weight is often one of the few recoverable data when analyzing human cremains but references are still rare, especially for European populations. Mean weights for skeletal remains were thus documented for Portuguese modern cremations of both recently deceased individuals and dry skeletons, and the effect of age, sex, and the intensity of combustion was investigated using both multivariate and univariate statistics. The cremains from fresh cadavers were significantly heavier than the ones from dry skeletons regardless of sex and age cohort (p < 0.001 to p = 0.003). As expected, males were heavier than females and age had a powerful effect in female skeletal weight. The effect of the intensity of combustion in cremains weight was unclear. These weight references may, in some cases, help estimating the minimum number of individuals, the completeness of the skeletal assemblage, and the sex of an unknown individual.

  4. Weight references for burned human skeletal remains from Portuguese samples.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, David; Cunha, Eugénia; Thompson, Tim J U

    2013-09-01

    Weight is often one of the few recoverable data when analyzing human cremains but references are still rare, especially for European populations. Mean weights for skeletal remains were thus documented for Portuguese modern cremations of both recently deceased individuals and dry skeletons, and the effect of age, sex, and the intensity of combustion was investigated using both multivariate and univariate statistics. The cremains from fresh cadavers were significantly heavier than the ones from dry skeletons regardless of sex and age cohort (p < 0.001 to p = 0.003). As expected, males were heavier than females and age had a powerful effect in female skeletal weight. The effect of the intensity of combustion in cremains weight was unclear. These weight references may, in some cases, help estimating the minimum number of individuals, the completeness of the skeletal assemblage, and the sex of an unknown individual. PMID:23822840

  5. Skeletal preservation of children's remains in the archaeological record.

    PubMed

    Manifold, B M

    2015-12-01

    Taphonomy is an important consideration in the reconstruction of past environments and events. Taphonomic alterations and processes are commonly encountered on human skeletal remains in both archaeological and forensic contexts. It is these processes that can alter the appearance of bone after death and the properties of the bones influence their reaction to these processes thus leading to differential preservation within a skeletal sample, none more so than the remains of children. This study investigates the skeletal preservation of 790 child and adolescent skeletons from six contrasting early and late medieval cemeteries from Britain in an attempt to assess whether geographical location and geology had an effect on the overall preservation of the skeletons. Skeletons were examined from six cemeteries, namely; Auldhame in Scotland, Edix Hill and Great Chesterford from Cambridgeshire; St Oswald's Priory from Gloucester and Wharram Percy from Yorkshire, and finally, the site of Llandough in Wales. The state of preservation was assessed using the anatomical preservation index (AP1), qualitative bone index (QBI) and the bone representation index (BRI). Also the presence of natural and artificial taphonomic processes was recorded for each skeleton. The results show a specific pattern of preservation and representation for non-adult remains across all sites with some differences in the states of preservation from different geographical locations and geological influences. Children under two years of age were found to be less affected by taphonomic processes than their older counterparts.

  6. Estimation of body size and physique from hominin skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Porter, A M W

    2002-01-01

    Three methods of measuring stature from skeletal remains are reviewed: the reconstructed skeletal length, the correspondence of long bone length to stature and the regression of stature on long bone length. Each involves problems and difficulties. For the anthropologist, there is the additional problem of applying findings from extant taxa to extinct taxa with potentially different morphologies and limb proportions. Of the various studies involving regression of the stature the findings of Trotter and Gleser are judged the most robust and useful notwithstanding problems and limitations. The lumbar vertebrae are potentially important as stature predictors. Estimation of body mass from the skeleton is also beset with problems. Eight methods are reviewed: Hartwig-Scherer's taxon independent solution, four methods involving measurements from the weight-bearing appendicular skeleton, Ruff's method using the length of the reconstructed skeleton and an estimate of body breadth, estimates from the total skeletal mass and estimates from the body mass index when the stature is known approximately. Lumbar vertebrae provide reasonable estimates of both body mass and stature and thus by derivation the body mass index. At present both forensic scientists and anthropologists lack adequate data and methods to estimate body size and shape from hominin skeletons. A further large and well-designed study using magnetic resonance imaging is required.

  7. Osteometric sex determination of burned human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, D; Thompson, T J U; Cunha, E

    2013-10-01

    Sex determination of human burned skeletal remains is extremely hard to achieve because of heat-related fragmentation, warping and dimensional changes. In particular, the latter is impeditive of osteometric analyses that are based on references developed on unburned bones. New osteometric references were thus obtained which allow for more reliable sex determinations. The calcined remains of cremated Portuguese individuals were examined and specific standard measurements of the humerus, femur, talus and calcaneus were recorded. This allowed for the compilation of new sex discriminating osteometric references which were then tested on independent samples with good results. Both the use of simple section points and of logistic regression equations provided successful sex classification scores. These references may now be used for the sex determination of burned skeletons. Its reliability is highest for contemporary Portuguese remains but nonetheless these results have important repercussion for forensic research. More conservative use of these references may also prove valuable for other populations as well as for archaeological research.

  8. Osteometric sex determination of burned human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, D; Thompson, T J U; Cunha, E

    2013-10-01

    Sex determination of human burned skeletal remains is extremely hard to achieve because of heat-related fragmentation, warping and dimensional changes. In particular, the latter is impeditive of osteometric analyses that are based on references developed on unburned bones. New osteometric references were thus obtained which allow for more reliable sex determinations. The calcined remains of cremated Portuguese individuals were examined and specific standard measurements of the humerus, femur, talus and calcaneus were recorded. This allowed for the compilation of new sex discriminating osteometric references which were then tested on independent samples with good results. Both the use of simple section points and of logistic regression equations provided successful sex classification scores. These references may now be used for the sex determination of burned skeletons. Its reliability is highest for contemporary Portuguese remains but nonetheless these results have important repercussion for forensic research. More conservative use of these references may also prove valuable for other populations as well as for archaeological research. PMID:24112343

  9. DNA Profiling Success Rates from Degraded Skeletal Remains in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Emma; Stephenson, Mishel

    2016-07-01

    No data are available regarding the success of DNA Short Tandem Repeat (STR) profiling from degraded skeletal remains in Guatemala. Therefore, DNA profiling success rates relating to 2595 skeletons from eleven cases at the Forensic Anthropology Foundation of Guatemala (FAFG) are presented. The typical postmortem interval was 30 years. DNA was extracted from bone powder and amplified using Identifiler and Minifler. DNA profiling success rates differed between cases, ranging from 50.8% to 7.0%, the overall success rate for samples was 36.3%. The best DNA profiling success rates were obtained from femur (36.2%) and tooth (33.7%) samples. DNA profiles were significantly better from lower body bones than upper body bones (p = <0.0001). Bone samples from males gave significantly better profiles than samples from females (p = <0.0001). These results are believed to be related to bone density. The findings are important for designing forensic DNA sampling strategies in future victim recovery investigations. PMID:27364268

  10. DNA Profiling Success Rates from Degraded Skeletal Remains in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Emma; Stephenson, Mishel

    2016-07-01

    No data are available regarding the success of DNA Short Tandem Repeat (STR) profiling from degraded skeletal remains in Guatemala. Therefore, DNA profiling success rates relating to 2595 skeletons from eleven cases at the Forensic Anthropology Foundation of Guatemala (FAFG) are presented. The typical postmortem interval was 30 years. DNA was extracted from bone powder and amplified using Identifiler and Minifler. DNA profiling success rates differed between cases, ranging from 50.8% to 7.0%, the overall success rate for samples was 36.3%. The best DNA profiling success rates were obtained from femur (36.2%) and tooth (33.7%) samples. DNA profiles were significantly better from lower body bones than upper body bones (p = <0.0001). Bone samples from males gave significantly better profiles than samples from females (p = <0.0001). These results are believed to be related to bone density. The findings are important for designing forensic DNA sampling strategies in future victim recovery investigations.

  11. Genetic analysis of the skeletal remains attributed to Francesco Petrarca.

    PubMed

    Caramelli, David; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Capelli, Cristian; Lari, Martina; Sampietro, María Lourdes; Gigli, Elena; Milani, Lucio; Pilli, Elena; Guimaraes, Silvia; Chiarelli, Brunetto; Marin, Vito Terribile Wien; Casoli, Antonella; Stanyon, Roscoe; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Barbujani, Guido

    2007-11-15

    We report on the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis of the supposed remains of Francesco Petrarca exhumed in November 2003, from the S. Maria Assunta church, in Arquà Padua (Italy) where he died in 1374. The optimal preservation of the remains allowed the retrieval of sufficient mtDNA for genetic analysis. DNA was extracted from a rib and a tooth and mtDNA sequences were determined in multiple clones using the strictest criteria currently available for validation of ancient DNA sequences, including independent replication. MtDNA sequences from the tooth and rib were not identical, suggesting that they belonged to different individuals. Indeed, molecular gender determination showed that the postcranial remains belonged to a male while the skull belonged to a female. Historical records indicated that the remains were violated in 1630, possibly by thieves. These results are consistent with morphological investigations and confirm the importance of integrating molecular and morphological approaches in investigating historical remains.

  12. [Stress deformations of skeletal remains from prehistoric cremation burials].

    PubMed

    Kühl, I

    1986-01-01

    Vertebrae and parts of joints from long bones from prehistoric cremations of the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age are presented, showing marked deformations caused by pressure during cremation when bones exposed to temperatures of 400 degrees-500 degrees Centigrade display minimal hardness. The vertebrae with deformation of the arcus parts are only from the lower vertebral column; on account of the weight of this body region, this suggests that the corpse lay in the dorsal position at the place of cremation. The fact that there were deformed arches only on one side might suggest an irregular structure of the surface on which the corpse lay. In the prone position, i.e. in the absence of pressure caused by body weight, all vertebrae should be unaltered; alternatively, if cremation wood was piled on top of the corpse, the arches of thoracic and cervical vertebrae are also likely to be deformed. Deformations resulting from weight bearing were found in the joints of extremities only, with flattening of the heads of joints as well as fissures in the external layers of bones and compression into folds. Some bones show distinct even grooves caused by direct pressure, possibly resulting from the fixation of joint regions for cremation? Evidently the deformations caused by the weighting down of different skeletal regions provide hints that may help in the recognition of cremation rites. It would be helpful if experimental cremations could be performed to establish the pressure necessary to cause deformations.

  13. Cognitive bias in forensic anthropology: visual assessment of skeletal remains is susceptible to confirmation bias.

    PubMed

    Nakhaeizadeh, Sherry; Dror, Itiel E; Morgan, Ruth M

    2014-05-01

    An experimental study was designed to examine cognitive biases within forensic anthropological non-metric methods in assessing sex, ancestry and age at death. To investigate examiner interpretation, forty-one non-novice participants were semi randomly divided into three groups. Prior to conducting the assessment of the skeletal remains, two of the groups were given different extraneous contextual information regarding the sex, ancestry and age at death of the individual. The third group acted as a control group with no extraneous contextual information. The experiment was designed to investigate if the interpretation and conclusions of the skeletal remains would differ amongst participants within the three groups, and to assess whether the examiners would confirm or disagree with the given extraneous context when establishing a biological profile. The results revealed a significant biasing effect within the three groups, demonstrating a strong confirmation bias in the assessment of sex, ancestry and age at death. In assessment of sex, 31% of the participants in the control group concluded that the skeleton remains were male. In contrast, in the group that received contextual information that the remains were male, 72% concluded that the remains were male, and in the participant group where the context was that the remains were of a female, 0% of the participants concluded that the remains were male. Comparable results showing bias were found in assessing ancestry and age at death. These data demonstrate that cognitive bias can impact forensic anthropological non-metric methods on skeletal remains and affects the interpretation and conclusions of the forensic scientists. This empirical study is a step in establishing an evidence base approach for dealing with cognitive issues in forensic anthropological assessments, so as to enhance this valuable forensic science discipline.

  14. Reliability in age determination by pulp/tooth ratio in upper canines in skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Cameriere, Roberto; Brogi, Giuseppe; Ferrante, Luigi; Mirtella, Dora; Vultaggio, Claudia; Cingolani, Mariano; Fornaciari, Gino

    2006-07-01

    Estimation of age of skeletal remains is one of the most complex questions for anthropologists. The most common macroscopic methods are based on dental wear and histological evaluation of bone remodeling. These methods are often qualitative, require great technical expertise, and have proved inexact in the estimation of ages over 50 years. Certain dental methods investigate the apposition of secondary dentine, in the study of tooth cross-sections, and X-rays to study width, height, and pulp area. The primary author previously proposed a method of estimating the age of a living person based on the pulp/tooth ratio (PTR) method in the upper canines. The aim of the present study is to verify whether the PTR method can also be used to estimate the age at death of skeletal remains. This paper investigates the study of historical samples of known age as a means to validate the proposed method.

  15. Highly efficient automated extraction of DNA from old and contemporary skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Zupanič Pajnič, Irena; Debska, Magdalena; Gornjak Pogorelc, Barbara; Vodopivec Mohorčič, Katja; Balažic, Jože; Zupanc, Tomaž; Štefanič, Borut; Geršak, Ksenija

    2016-01-01

    We optimised the automated extraction of DNA from old and contemporary skeletal remains using the AutoMate Express system and the PrepFiler BTA kit. 24 Contemporary and 25 old skeletal remains from WWII were analysed. For each skeleton, extraction using only 0.05 g of powder was performed according to the manufacturer's recommendations (no demineralisation - ND method). Since only 32% of full profiles were obtained from aged and 58% from contemporary casework skeletons, the extraction protocol was modified to acquire higher quality DNA and genomic DNA was obtained after full demineralisation (FD method). The nuclear DNA of the samples was quantified using the Investigator Quantiplex kit and STR typing was performed using the NGM kit to evaluate the performance of tested extraction methods. In the aged DNA samples, 64% of full profiles were obtained using the FD method. For the contemporary skeletal remains the performance of the ND method was closer to the FD method compared to the old skeletons, giving 58% of full profiles with the ND method and 71% of full profiles using the FD method. The extraction of DNA from only 0.05 g of bone or tooth powder using the AutoMate Express has proven highly successful in the recovery of DNA from old and contemporary skeletons, especially with the modified FD method. We believe that the results obtained will contribute to the possibilities of using automated devices for extracting DNA from skeletal remains, which would shorten the procedures for obtaining high-quality DNA from skeletons in forensic laboratories.

  16. Highly efficient automated extraction of DNA from old and contemporary skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Zupanič Pajnič, Irena; Debska, Magdalena; Gornjak Pogorelc, Barbara; Vodopivec Mohorčič, Katja; Balažic, Jože; Zupanc, Tomaž; Štefanič, Borut; Geršak, Ksenija

    2016-01-01

    We optimised the automated extraction of DNA from old and contemporary skeletal remains using the AutoMate Express system and the PrepFiler BTA kit. 24 Contemporary and 25 old skeletal remains from WWII were analysed. For each skeleton, extraction using only 0.05 g of powder was performed according to the manufacturer's recommendations (no demineralisation - ND method). Since only 32% of full profiles were obtained from aged and 58% from contemporary casework skeletons, the extraction protocol was modified to acquire higher quality DNA and genomic DNA was obtained after full demineralisation (FD method). The nuclear DNA of the samples was quantified using the Investigator Quantiplex kit and STR typing was performed using the NGM kit to evaluate the performance of tested extraction methods. In the aged DNA samples, 64% of full profiles were obtained using the FD method. For the contemporary skeletal remains the performance of the ND method was closer to the FD method compared to the old skeletons, giving 58% of full profiles with the ND method and 71% of full profiles using the FD method. The extraction of DNA from only 0.05 g of bone or tooth powder using the AutoMate Express has proven highly successful in the recovery of DNA from old and contemporary skeletons, especially with the modified FD method. We believe that the results obtained will contribute to the possibilities of using automated devices for extracting DNA from skeletal remains, which would shorten the procedures for obtaining high-quality DNA from skeletons in forensic laboratories. PMID:26615474

  17. Proposed classes of morphological autopsy findings for decomposed and skeletal remains in mass death investigations.

    PubMed

    Komar, Debra; Lathrop, Sarah; Potter, Wendy

    2008-12-01

    Analysis of mass death events, often involving partial or skeletal human remains, requires investigators to condense information on a large number of victims into a single report. Prosecution of war crimes typically requires that victims be categorized according to the injuries sustained. Reports recognizing only the presence or absence of trauma are misleading or misrepresentative. This study introduces a 4 class system for skeletal remains based on morphologic autopsy findings. Each class corresponds to the lethal potential of the trauma or pathologic conditions evident at autopsy, and the certainty with which cause of death can be determined. Data were extracted from 766 autopsy cases involving decomposed or skeletal remains from the New Mexico Office of the Medical Investigator in which cause and manner of death were ruled. Statistically significant associations between morphology class and the cause and manner of death, positive identification, and natural and non-natural deaths were evident in this study. Intraobserver and interobserver tests revealed excellent replicability and reliability in the assignment of morphology classes to individual cases. In addition to its mass death applications, this classification system offers potential research contributions to physical anthropologists and bioarchaeologists studying human populations in antiquity.

  18. Estimation of the most likely number of individuals from commingled human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Adams, Bradley J; Konigsberg, Lyle W

    2004-10-01

    This study examines quantification techniques applicable to human skeletal remains, and in particular the Lincoln index (LI), the minimum number of individuals (MNI), and what we refer to as the most likely number of individuals (MLNI), which is a modification of the LI by Chapman ([1951] Univ. Calif. Publ. Stat. 1:131-159). As part of the study, a test of pair-matching between commingled homologous elements, e.g., right and left femora, was performed based on gross morphology. The results show that pair-matching can be accurately performed, and that the MLNI is a useful technique for dealing with well-preserved commingled remains recovered from archaeological excavations and/or forensic investigations. Our results show that it is potentially misleading to draw population conclusions based on the MNI, except in instances where recovery is near 100%. The MLNI was found to be the best method to compensate for the potential underestimates of the MNI and potential bias in the original LI estimates resulting from small sample sizes. We demonstrate the use of MLNI in estimating the number of individuals from Lodge 21 at the Larson site, a late protohistoric structure at which the inhabitants were massacred and subsequently had their skeletal elements commingled by further taphonomic processes. We also show how to calculate estimates and standard errors for the recovery probabilities of skeletal elements.

  19. Novel dating method to distinguish between forensic and archeological human skeletal remains by bone mineralization indexes.

    PubMed

    Patonai, Zoltan; Maasz, Gabor; Avar, Peter; Schmidt, Janos; Lorand, Tamas; Bajnoczky, Istvan; Mark, Laszlo

    2013-03-01

    The fast, high-throughput distinction between paleoanthropological remains and recent forensic/clinical bone samples is of vital importance in the field of medicolegal science. In this paper, a novel screening method has been described, using the crystallinity index (C.I.) and carbonate-phosphate index (C/P) as a means to distinguish between archeological and forensic anthropological skeletal findings. According to the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analyses, the archeological bone samples are characterized by a range of C.I. between 2.84 and 3.78 and by low C/P values of 0.10-0.33, while the C.I. and C/P ranges of forensic skeletal remains are 2.55-3.18 and 0.38-0.88, respectively. Significant (p < 0.05) changes were observed in C/P as well as C.I. values between the groups of forensic and archeological skeletal samples. The suggested dating method needs only a few milligramms of bone tissue; thus, it can be extremely useful for distiguishing ancient and recent bone fragments.

  20. The Neandertal type site revisited: interdisciplinary investigations of skeletal remains from the Neander Valley, Germany.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Ralf W; Serre, David; Bonani, Georges; Feine, Susanne; Hillgruber, Felix; Krainitzki, Heike; Pääbo, Svante; Smith, Fred H

    2002-10-01

    The 1856 discovery of the Neandertal type specimen (Neandertal 1) in western Germany marked the beginning of human paleontology and initiated the longest-standing debate in the discipline: the role of Neandertals in human evolutionary history. We report excavations of cave sediments that were removed from the Feldhofer caves in 1856. These deposits have yielded over 60 human skeletal fragments, along with a large series of Paleolithic artifacts and faunal material. Our analysis of this material represents the first interdisciplinary analysis of Neandertal remains incorporating genetic, direct dating, and morphological dimensions simultaneously. Three of these skeletal fragments fit directly on Neandertal 1, whereas several others have distinctively Neandertal features. At least three individuals are represented in the skeletal sample. Radiocarbon dates for Neandertal 1, from which a mtDNA sequence was determined in 1997, and a second individual indicate an age of approximately 40,000 yr for both. mtDNA analysis on the same second individual yields a sequence that clusters with other published Neandertal sequences.

  1. The Neandertal type site revisited: Interdisciplinary investigations of skeletal remains from the Neander Valley, Germany

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Ralf W.; Serre, David; Bonani, Georges; Feine, Susanne; Hillgruber, Felix; Krainitzki, Heike; Pääbo, Svante; Smith, Fred H.

    2002-01-01

    The 1856 discovery of the Neandertal type specimen (Neandertal 1) in western Germany marked the beginning of human paleontology and initiated the longest-standing debate in the discipline: the role of Neandertals in human evolutionary history. We report excavations of cave sediments that were removed from the Feldhofer caves in 1856. These deposits have yielded over 60 human skeletal fragments, along with a large series of Paleolithic artifacts and faunal material. Our analysis of this material represents the first interdisciplinary analysis of Neandertal remains incorporating genetic, direct dating, and morphological dimensions simultaneously. Three of these skeletal fragments fit directly on Neandertal 1, whereas several others have distinctively Neandertal features. At least three individuals are represented in the skeletal sample. Radiocarbon dates for Neandertal 1, from which a mtDNA sequence was determined in 1997, and a second individual indicate an age of ≈40,000 yr for both. mtDNA analysis on the same second individual yields a sequence that clusters with other published Neandertal sequences. PMID:12232049

  2. Skeletal remains of Dr. Eugenio Antonio Berríos Sagredo.

    PubMed

    Solla, H E; Işcan, M Y

    2001-02-15

    It is often noted that even a well-designed osteological technique may not provide accurate results when applied to single forensic cases. Case studies are ideal to test if this concern is valid, and forensic anthropology is a testing ground for applying a population based standard to individual skeletal remains. Secondly, the increasing role anthropologists have played in forensic sciences has aided the medicolegal disciplines in a number of ways. For example, identification of skeletal remains is now more accurate than ever before. Many of these cases have brought perpetrators to court for justice. The purpose of this paper is to use osteological techniques to analyze skeletal remains and make a positive identification. The victim was found partially buried in the sand near El Pinar, Uruguay in 1995. The analysis indicated that the victim was a 45-year old, white, male who was about 170cm tall. Based on preliminary evidence that the victim might be Dr. Eugenio Antonio Berríos Sagredo, a digital superimposition was made using the victim's photograph and the unknown skull. This examination revealed that the skull corresponded consistently with the individual in the photograph. Results were supported by the fact that personal belongings, such as a medal and wrist watch, also pointed to the same individual. Dental records and radiographs when made available later also indicated the same identity. Dr. Berríos was accused of making nerve gas during the dictatorial regime of former Chilean President General Augusto Pinochet. It was also alleged that he made bombs that killed a Spanish diplomat in his laboratory and a Chilean diplomat in Washington, DC. Many complex techniques are often needed to make a positive identification and such was the case for this study. Because of the nature of anthropology as a holistic discipline, such complexity is an integral part of human biology and behavior and can be used successfully in the forensic sciences and medicolegal

  3. Comparison of morphological and molecular genetic sex-typing on mediaeval human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Christiane Maria; Niederstätter, Harald; McGlynn, George; Stadler, Harald; Parson, Walther

    2013-12-01

    Archaeological excavations conducted at an early mediaeval cemetery in Volders (Tyrol, Austria) produced 141 complete skeletal remains dated between the 5th/6th and 12th/13th centuries. These skeletons represent one of the largest historical series of human remains ever discovered in the East Alpine region. Little historical information is available for this region and time period. The good state of preservation of these bioarchaeological finds offered the opportunity of performing molecular genetic investigations. Adequate DNA extraction methods were tested in the attempt to obtain as high DNA yields as possible for further analyses. Molecular genetic sex-typing using a dedicated PCR multiplex ("Genderplex") gave interpretable results in 88 remains, 78 of which had previously been sexed based on morphological features. We observed a discrepancy in sex determination between the two methods in 21 cases. An unbiased follow-up morphological examination of these finds showed congruence with the DNA results in all but five samples.

  4. A review of sex estimation techniques during examination of skeletal remains in forensic anthropology casework.

    PubMed

    Krishan, Kewal; Chatterjee, Preetika M; Kanchan, Tanuj; Kaur, Sandeep; Baryah, Neha; Singh, R K

    2016-04-01

    Sex estimation is considered as one of the essential parameters in forensic anthropology casework, and requires foremost consideration in the examination of skeletal remains. Forensic anthropologists frequently employ morphologic and metric methods for sex estimation of human remains. These methods are still very imperative in identification process in spite of the advent and accomplishment of molecular techniques. A constant boost in the use of imaging techniques in forensic anthropology research has facilitated to derive as well as revise the available population data. These methods however, are less reliable owing to high variance and indistinct landmark details. The present review discusses the reliability and reproducibility of various analytical approaches; morphological, metric, molecular and radiographic methods in sex estimation of skeletal remains. Numerous studies have shown a higher reliability and reproducibility of measurements taken directly on the bones and hence, such direct methods of sex estimation are considered to be more reliable than the other methods. Geometric morphometric (GM) method and Diagnose Sexuelle Probabiliste (DSP) method are emerging as valid methods and widely used techniques in forensic anthropology in terms of accuracy and reliability. Besides, the newer 3D methods are shown to exhibit specific sexual dimorphism patterns not readily revealed by traditional methods. Development of newer and better methodologies for sex estimation as well as re-evaluation of the existing ones will continue in the endeavour of forensic researchers for more accurate results.

  5. Blood or spores? A cautionary note on interpreting cellular debris on human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Cappella, A; Stefanelli, S; Caccianiga, M; Rizzi, A; Bertoglio, B; Sforza, C; Cattaneo, C

    2015-07-01

    The identification of red blood cells on both skeletal human remains and decomposed corpses is of remarkable importance in forensic sciences, irrespective of its diagnostic value; their presence is often perplexing and difficult to interpret especially when in the context of decomposition and taphonomical variables. Some clinical research has focused on the morphological changes of red blood cells over time by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), but no research has investigated whether botanical structures can be confused for red blood cells. Since some literature has recently presumed the detection of erythrocyte-like cells on skeletal remains (even ancient) as surely erythrocytes, and most have never taken into consideration the chance of an origin different from blood, such as botanical, the present study aims at verifying the possibility of confusion between erythrocytes and botanical cells by applying SEM analysis and at highlighting the pitfalls in this particular issue through a test submitted to pathologists and natural scientists asked to discriminate between red blood cells and different vegetal structures (60 images obtained by SEM analysis). The results showed that although there are diagnostic features useful in identifying red blood cells from botanical structures, some spores resulted very similar to decaying red blood cells, which calls for attention and great caution when studying decomposed human remains. PMID:25563601

  6. Blood or spores? A cautionary note on interpreting cellular debris on human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Cappella, A; Stefanelli, S; Caccianiga, M; Rizzi, A; Bertoglio, B; Sforza, C; Cattaneo, C

    2015-07-01

    The identification of red blood cells on both skeletal human remains and decomposed corpses is of remarkable importance in forensic sciences, irrespective of its diagnostic value; their presence is often perplexing and difficult to interpret especially when in the context of decomposition and taphonomical variables. Some clinical research has focused on the morphological changes of red blood cells over time by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), but no research has investigated whether botanical structures can be confused for red blood cells. Since some literature has recently presumed the detection of erythrocyte-like cells on skeletal remains (even ancient) as surely erythrocytes, and most have never taken into consideration the chance of an origin different from blood, such as botanical, the present study aims at verifying the possibility of confusion between erythrocytes and botanical cells by applying SEM analysis and at highlighting the pitfalls in this particular issue through a test submitted to pathologists and natural scientists asked to discriminate between red blood cells and different vegetal structures (60 images obtained by SEM analysis). The results showed that although there are diagnostic features useful in identifying red blood cells from botanical structures, some spores resulted very similar to decaying red blood cells, which calls for attention and great caution when studying decomposed human remains.

  7. [Modern biology, imagery and forensic medicine: contributions and limitations in examination of skeletal remains].

    PubMed

    Lecomte, Dominique; Plu, Isabelle; Froment, Alain

    2012-06-01

    Forensic examination is often requested when skeletal remains are discovered. Detailed visual observation can provide much information, such as the human or animal origin, sex, age, stature, and ancestry, and approximate time since death. New three-dimensional imaging techniques can provide further information (osteometry, facial reconstruction). Bone chemistry, and particularly measurement of stable or unstable carbon and nitrogen isotopes, yields information on diet and time since death, respectively. Genetic analyses of ancient DNA are also developing rapidly. Although seldom used in a judicial context, these modern anthropologic techniques are nevertheless available for the most complex cases.

  8. An Analysis of the Alleged Skeletal Remains of Carin Göring

    PubMed Central

    Kjellström, Anna; Edlund, Hanna; Lembring, Maria; Ahlgren, Viktoria; Allen, Marie

    2012-01-01

    In 1991, treasure hunters found skeletal remains in an area close to the destroyed country residence of former Nazi leader Hermann Göring in northeastern Berlin. The remains, which were believed to belong to Carin Göring, who was buried at the site, were examined to determine whether it was possible to make a positive identification. The anthropological analysis showed that the remains come from an adult woman. The DNA analysis of several bone elements showed female sex, and a reference sample from Carin's son revealed mtDNA sequences identical to the remains. The profile has one nucleotide difference from the Cambridge reference sequence (rCRS), the common variant 263G. A database search resulted in a frequency of this mtDNA sequence of about 10% out of more than 7,000 European haplotypes. The mtDNA sequence found in the ulna, the cranium and the reference sample is, thus, very common among Europeans. Therefore, nuclear DNA analysis was attempted. The remains as well as a sample from Carin's son were successfully analysed for the three nuclear markers TH01, D7S820 and D8S1179. The nuclear DNA analysis of the two samples revealed one shared allele for each of the three markers, supporting a mother and son relationship. This genetic information together with anthropological and historical files provides an additional piece of circumstantial evidence in our efforts to identify the remains of Carin Göring. PMID:23284605

  9. An analysis of the alleged skeletal remains of Carin Göring.

    PubMed

    Kjellström, Anna; Edlund, Hanna; Lembring, Maria; Ahlgren, Viktoria; Allen, Marie

    2012-01-01

    In 1991, treasure hunters found skeletal remains in an area close to the destroyed country residence of former Nazi leader Hermann Göring in northeastern Berlin. The remains, which were believed to belong to Carin Göring, who was buried at the site, were examined to determine whether it was possible to make a positive identification. The anthropological analysis showed that the remains come from an adult woman. The DNA analysis of several bone elements showed female sex, and a reference sample from Carin's son revealed mtDNA sequences identical to the remains. The profile has one nucleotide difference from the Cambridge reference sequence (rCRS), the common variant 263G. A database search resulted in a frequency of this mtDNA sequence of about 10% out of more than 7,000 European haplotypes. The mtDNA sequence found in the ulna, the cranium and the reference sample is, thus, very common among Europeans. Therefore, nuclear DNA analysis was attempted. The remains as well as a sample from Carin's son were successfully analysed for the three nuclear markers TH01, D7S820 and D8S1179. The nuclear DNA analysis of the two samples revealed one shared allele for each of the three markers, supporting a mother and son relationship. This genetic information together with anthropological and historical files provides an additional piece of circumstantial evidence in our efforts to identify the remains of Carin Göring.

  10. Skeletal remains from Punic Carthage do not support systematic sacrifice of infants.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Jeffrey H; Houghton, Frank; Macchiarelli, Roberto; Bondioli, Luca

    2010-02-17

    Two types of cemeteries occur at Punic Carthage and other Carthaginian settlements: one centrally situated housing the remains of older children through adults, and another at the periphery of the settlement (the "Tophet") yielding small urns containing the cremated skeletal remains of very young animals and humans, sometimes comingled. Although the absence of the youngest humans at the primary cemeteries is unusual and worthy of discussion, debate has focused on the significance of Tophets, especially at Carthage, as burial grounds for the young. One interpretation, based on two supposed eye-witness reports of large-scale Carthaginian infant sacrifice [Kleitarchos (3(rd) c. BCE) and Diodorus Siculus (1(st) c. BCE)], a particular translation of inscriptions on some burial monuments, and the argument that if the animals had been sacrificed so too were the humans, is that Tophets represent burial grounds reserved for sacrificial victims. An alternative hypothesis acknowledges that while the Carthaginians may have occasionally sacrificed humans, as did their contemporaries, the extreme youth of Tophet individuals suggests these cemeteries were not only for the sacrificed, but also for the very young, however they died. Here we present the first rigorous analysis of the largest sample of cremated human skeletal remains (348 burial urns, N = 540 individuals) from the Carthaginian Tophet based on tooth formation, enamel histology, cranial and postcranial metrics, and the potential effects of heat-induced bone shrinkage. Most of the sample fell within the period prenatal to 5-to-6 postnatal months, with a significant presence of prenates. Rather than indicating sacrifice as the agent of death, this age distribution is consistent with modern-day data on perinatal mortality, which at Carthage would also have been exacerbated by numerous diseases common in other major cities, such as Rome and Pompeii. Our diverse approaches to analyzing the cremated human remains from

  11. Age estimation in archaeological skeletal remains: evaluation of four non-destructive age calculation methods.

    PubMed

    Vodanović, M; Dumančić, J; Galić, I; Savić Pavičin, I; Petrovečki, M; Cameriere, R; Brkić, H

    2011-12-01

    Estimation of age at death is an essential part of reconstructing information from skeletal material. The aim of the investigation was to reconstruct the chronological age of an archaeological sample from Croatia using cranial skeletal remains as well as to make an evaluation of the methods used for age estimation. For this purpose, four age calculation methods were used: palatal suture closure, occlusal tooth wear, tooth root translucency and pulp/tooth area ratio. Cramer's V test was used to test the association between the age calculation methods. Cramer's V test showed high association (0.677) between age determination results using palatal suture closure and occlusal tooth wear, and low association (0.177) between age determination results using palatal suture closure and pulp/tooth area ratio. Simple methods like palatal suture closure can provide data about age at death for large number of individuals, but with less accuracy. More complex methods which require qualified and trained personnel can provide data about age for a smaller number of individuals, but with more accuracy. Using different (both simple and complex) age calculation methods in archaeological samples can raise the level of confidence and percentage of success in determining age.

  12. Brief communication: a proposed osteological method for the estimation of pubertal stage in human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Shapland, Fiona; Lewis, Mary E

    2013-06-01

    Puberty forms an important threshold between childhood and adulthood, but this subject has received little attention in bioarchaeology. The new application of clinical methods to assess pubertal stage in adolescent skeletal remains is explored, concentrating on the development of the mandibular canine, hamate, hand phalanges, iliac crest and distal radius. Initial results from the medieval cemetery of St. Peter's Church, Barton-upon-Humber, England suggest that application of these methods may provide insights into aspects of adolescent development. This analysis indicates that adolescents from this medieval site were entering the pubertal growth spurt at a similar age to their modern counterparts, but that the later stages of pubertal maturation were being significantly delayed, perhaps due to environmental stress. Continued testing and refinement of these methods on living adolescents is still necessary to improve our understanding of their significance and accuracy in predicting pubertal stages.

  13. Skeletal Remains from Punic Carthage Do Not Support Systematic Sacrifice of Infants

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Jeffrey H.; Houghton, Frank; Macchiarelli, Roberto; Bondioli, Luca

    2010-01-01

    Two types of cemeteries occur at Punic Carthage and other Carthaginian settlements: one centrally situated housing the remains of older children through adults, and another at the periphery of the settlement (the “Tophet”) yielding small urns containing the cremated skeletal remains of very young animals and humans, sometimes comingled. Although the absence of the youngest humans at the primary cemeteries is unusual and worthy of discussion, debate has focused on the significance of Tophets, especially at Carthage, as burial grounds for the young. One interpretation, based on two supposed eye-witness reports of large-scale Carthaginian infant sacrifice [Kleitarchos (3rd c. BCE) and Diodorus Siculus (1st c. BCE)], a particular translation of inscriptions on some burial monuments, and the argument that if the animals had been sacrificed so too were the humans, is that Tophets represent burial grounds reserved for sacrificial victims. An alternative hypothesis acknowledges that while the Carthaginians may have occasionally sacrificed humans, as did their contemporaries, the extreme youth of Tophet individuals suggests these cemeteries were not only for the sacrificed, but also for the very young, however they died. Here we present the first rigorous analysis of the largest sample of cremated human skeletal remains (348 burial urns, N = 540 individuals) from the Carthaginian Tophet based on tooth formation, enamel histology, cranial and postcranial metrics, and the potential effects of heat-induced bone shrinkage. Most of the sample fell within the period prenatal to 5-to-6 postnatal months, with a significant presence of prenates. Rather than indicating sacrifice as the agent of death, this age distribution is consistent with modern-day data on perinatal mortality, which at Carthage would also have been exacerbated by numerous diseases common in other major cities, such as Rome and Pompeii. Our diverse approaches to analyzing the cremated human remains from

  14. Accuracy of metric sex analysis of skeletal remains using Fordisc based on a recent skull collection.

    PubMed

    Ramsthaler, F; Kreutz, K; Verhoff, M A

    2007-11-01

    It has been generally accepted in skeletal sex determination that the use of metric methods is limited due to the population dependence of the multivariate algorithms. The aim of the study was to verify the applicability of software-based sex estimations outside the reference population group for which discriminant equations have been developed. We examined 98 skulls from recent forensic cases of known age, sex, and Caucasian ancestry from cranium collections in Frankfurt and Mainz (Germany) to determine the accuracy of sex determination using the statistical software solution Fordisc which derives its database and functions from the US American Forensic Database. In a comparison between metric analysis using Fordisc and morphological determination of sex, average accuracy for both sexes was 86 vs 94%, respectively, and males were identified more accurately than females. The ratio of the true test result rate to the false test result rate was not statistically different for the two methodological approaches at a significance level of 0.05 but was statistically different at a level of 0.10 (p=0.06). Possible explanations for this difference comprise different ancestry, age distribution, and socio-economic status compared to the Fordisc reference sample. It is likely that a discriminant function analysis on the basis of more similar European reference samples will lead to more valid and reliable sexing results. The use of Fordisc as a single method for the estimation of sex of recent skeletal remains in Europe cannot be recommended without additional morphological assessment and without a built-in software update based on modern European reference samples.

  15. Microscopical study on estimation of time since death in skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, M; Kimijima, T; Miyasaka, S; Sato, H; Seta, S

    1991-03-01

    For the purpose of estimating time since death in skeletal remains, postmortem changes in human compact bones were examined by microradiography and electron microscopy. The UV-fluorescence of the peripheral zone of compact bone was also examined by microscopic spectrophotometry. Microradiographic examination revealed no morphological changes in bones left in the open air for long periods, except one of 15 years since death. In bones left in the soil, vacuoles of 5-10 microns diameter, which contained a honeycomb-like structure formed by small vacuoles of 0.5-1 microns diameter, were found in the peripheral zone of the substantia compacta approximately 5 years since death, and in bones of 6 years or more, this change extended to the mid-zone. In bones left in the sea for 4-5 years, vacuoles of 5-10 microns diameter were observed in the outer peripheral zone of the substantia compacta. The relative intensity of UV-fluorescence in bones dwindled with time since death and the correlation coefficient was considerably high.

  16. The reliability of osteometric techniques for the sex determination of burned human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, David

    2011-10-01

    The influence of heat-induced shrinkage on the osteometric sexual dimorphism of human skeletons is still poorly known. In order to investigate this issue, a sample composed of 84 Portuguese individuals cremated at a modern crematorium was examined using standard measurements from the femur, the talus and the calcaneus. In addition, sex determination of the sample was attempted by using osteometric standards developed from the Coimbra collection of identified skeletons. This was carried out to assess the extent of the effect of heat-induced shrinkage on the correct classification of known-sex skeletons while using standards developed on unburned skeletons. Results demonstrated that sexual dimorphism was still observable in the sample of calcined bones despite shrinkage. However, the application of conventional osteometric standards was unsuccessful. As expected, shrinkage caused most females to be correctly classified according to sex, but the sex allocation of males was very poor for all standard measurements. The results were obtained on a small sample but suggest that univariate metric techniques specifically developed for calcined bones may be valuable for sex determination. This would bring new methodological possibilities for biological anthropology and would enlarge the set of techniques regarding sex determination of burned skeletal remains.

  17. Dating human skeletal remains using 90Sr and 210Pb: case studies.

    PubMed

    Schrag, Bettina; Uldin, Tanya; Mangin, Patrice; Bochud, François; Froidevaux, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    In legal medicine, the post mortem interval (PMI) of interest covers the last 50 years. When only human skeletal remains are found, determining the PMI currently relies mostly on the experience of the forensic anthropologist, with few techniques available to help. Recently, several radiometric methods have been proposed to reveal PMI. For instance, (14)C and (90)Sr bomb pulse dating covers the last 60 years and give reliable PMI when teeth or bones are available. (232)Th series dating has also been proposed but requires a large amount of bones. In addition, (210)Pb dating is promising but is submitted to diagenesis and individual habits like smoking that must be handled carefully. Here we determine PMI on 29 cases of forensic interest using (90)Sr bomb pulse. In 12 cases, (210)Pb dating was added to narrow the PMI interval. In addition, anthropological investigations were carried out on 15 cases to confront anthropological expertise to the radiometric method. Results show that 10 of the 29 cases can be discarded as having no forensic interest (PMI>50 years) based only on the (90)Sr bomb pulse dating. For 10 other cases, the additional (210)Pb dating restricts the PMI uncertainty to a few years. In 15 cases, anthropological investigations corroborate the radiometric PMI. This study also shows that diagenesis and inter-individual difference in radionuclide uptake represent the main sources of uncertainty in the PMI determination using radiometric methods.

  18. The reliability of osteometric techniques for the sex determination of burned human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, David

    2011-10-01

    The influence of heat-induced shrinkage on the osteometric sexual dimorphism of human skeletons is still poorly known. In order to investigate this issue, a sample composed of 84 Portuguese individuals cremated at a modern crematorium was examined using standard measurements from the femur, the talus and the calcaneus. In addition, sex determination of the sample was attempted by using osteometric standards developed from the Coimbra collection of identified skeletons. This was carried out to assess the extent of the effect of heat-induced shrinkage on the correct classification of known-sex skeletons while using standards developed on unburned skeletons. Results demonstrated that sexual dimorphism was still observable in the sample of calcined bones despite shrinkage. However, the application of conventional osteometric standards was unsuccessful. As expected, shrinkage caused most females to be correctly classified according to sex, but the sex allocation of males was very poor for all standard measurements. The results were obtained on a small sample but suggest that univariate metric techniques specifically developed for calcined bones may be valuable for sex determination. This would bring new methodological possibilities for biological anthropology and would enlarge the set of techniques regarding sex determination of burned skeletal remains. PMID:21899836

  19. Human remains sold to the highest bidder! A snapshot of the buying and selling of human skeletal remains on eBay, an Internet auction site.

    PubMed

    Huxley, Angie K; Finnegan, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Internet auction sites have become increasingly popular, with diverse items up for sale to the public worldwide. The purposes of this paper are to inform the forensic community that human skeletal remains, old and new, are for sale on the eBay internet auction site, and to advise forensic scientists that eBay does not use a forensic anthropologist to assess photographs of these materials. Over the last few years, this website was "surfed," with numerous auctions during this period. After contacting eBay by email, representatives responded that they adhere to Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) and that their website indicates that auctions must state that sale of human remains is for instructional purposes only. Based on the photographs, the remains appear to be of prehistoric and modern origin. An unfortunate consequence of such sale may generate interest in stealing remains from graves, mortuaries, hospitals, or county morgues worldwide. PMID:14979339

  20. The dead do not lie: using skeletal remains for rapid assessment of historical small-mammal community baselines

    PubMed Central

    Terry, Rebecca C.

    2010-01-01

    Conservation and restoration efforts are often hindered by a lack of historical baselines that pre-date intense anthropogenic environmental change. In this paper I document that natural accumulations of skeletal remains represent a potential source of high-quality data on the historical composition and structure of small-mammal communities. I do so by assessing the fidelity of modern, decadal and centennial-scale time-averaged samples of skeletal remains (concentrated by raptor predation) to the living small-mammal communities from which they are derived. To test the power of skeletal remains to reveal baseline shifts, I employ the design of a natural experiment, comparing two taphonomically similar Great Basin cave localities in areas where anthropogenic land-use practices have diverged within the last century. I find relative stasis at the undisturbed site, but document rapid restructuring of the small-mammal community at the site subjected to recent disturbance. I independently validate this result using historical trapping records to show that dead remains accurately capture both the magnitude and direction of this baseline shift. Surveys of skeletal remains therefore provide a simple, powerful and rapid alternative approach for gaining insight into the historical structure and dynamics of modern small-mammal communities. PMID:20031992

  1. The effect of common imaging and hot water maceration on DNA recovery from skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Frank, Emilie M; Mundorff, Amy Z; Davoren, Jon M

    2015-12-01

    Identifying human remains often begins with cleaning and imaging the material. Hot water maceration is used to remove adherent soft tissue from bone and radiographs are taken to better visualize osseous details. Heat and radiation are known to have harmful effects on DNA, but their ability to degrade DNA when used for cleaning and imaging has not been well studied. To better understand their individual and combined effects on the recoverability of DNA from bone, skeletal samples were subjected to (1) hot water maceration (62 °C for 45 min); (2) CT scanning (0.6mm slices, 120 kV, 10.4s); (3) X-ray (50 kVp, 150 mA, 0.03 s, 40 in); and (4) all 3 treatments combined. Forty-eight DNA samples were extracted, quantified and amplified with the AmpFLSTR(®) Identifiler(®) system. Nearly all of the processed samples had reduced RFU values relative to the unprocessed samples, indicating some amount of genetic loss. This loss did not always translate into loss of profile completeness, since only a few samples had a reduction in the number of loci detected after processing. DNA yields were not significantly reduced by any one of the processing methods, however the results indicate that the damaging effects are additive. It is possible that processing may reduce a bone's DNA reservoir and as more procedures are preformed, the pool of available genetic information might be diminished. Many intrinsic and extrinsic factors can affect the recoverability of DNA from bone. Collecting a DNA sample prior to processing avoids the negative effects from hot water maceration and radiological imaging.

  2. Sr Isotopes and human skeletal remains, improving a methodological approach in migration studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solis Pichardo, G.; Schaaf, P. E.; Hernandez, T.; Horn, P.; Manzanilla, L. R.

    2013-12-01

    Asserting mobility of ancient humans is a major issue for anthropologists. Sr isotopes are widely used in anthropological sciences to trace human migration histories from ancient burials. Sr in bone approximately reflects the isotopic composition of the geological region where the person lived before death; whereas the Sr isotopic system in tooth enamel is thought to remain as a closed system and thus conserves the isotope ratio acquired during childhood. A comparison of the 87Sr/86Sr ratios found in tooth enamel and in bone is performed to determine if the human skeletal remains belonged to a local or a migrant. Until now, tooth enamel was considered to be less sensitive to secondary Sr contamination due to its higher crystallinity and larger sizes of the biogenic apatites in comparison to that in bone and dentine. In the past, enamel as well as bone material was powdered, dissolved and analyzed by thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS). In this contribution we show, however, that simple dissolution of enamel frequently yields erroneous results. Tooth enamel is often affected by secondary strontium contamination processes such as caries or diagenetic and environmental input, which can change the original isotopic composition. To avoid these problems we introduced a pre-treatment and three-step leaching procedure in enamel samples. Leaching is carried out with acetic acid of different concentrations, yielding two leachates and one residue of each sample. Frequently the 87Sr/86Sr results of the three leachates display different values confirming that secondary contamination did occur. Several examples from Teotihuacan, central Mexico demonstrate that enamel 87Sr/86Sr without leaching can show correct biogenic values, but there is also a considerable probability for these values to represent a mixture of original and secondary Sr without significance for migration reconstructions. Only the residue value is interpreted by us as the representative ratio for

  3. Monitoring DNA Contamination in Handled vs. Directly Excavated Ancient Human Skeletal Remains

    PubMed Central

    Pilli, Elena; Modi, Alessandra; Serpico, Ciro; Achilli, Alessandro; Lancioni, Hovirag; Lippi, Barbara; Bertoldi, Francesca; Gelichi, Sauro; Lari, Martina; Caramelli, David

    2013-01-01

    Bones, teeth and hair are often the only physical evidence of human or animal presence at an archaeological site; they are also the most widely used sources of samples for ancient DNA (aDNA) analysis. Unfortunately, the DNA extracted from ancient samples, already scarce and highly degraded, is widely susceptible to exogenous contaminations that can affect the reliability of aDNA studies. We evaluated the molecular effects of sample handling on five human skeletons freshly excavated from a cemetery dated between the 11 to the 14th century. We collected specimens from several skeletal areas (teeth, ribs, femurs and ulnas) from each individual burial. We then divided the samples into two different sets: one labeled as “virgin samples” (i.e. samples that were taken by archaeologists under contamination-controlled conditions and then immediately sent to the laboratory for genetic analyses), and the second called “lab samples”(i.e. samples that were handled without any particular precautions and subject to normal washing, handling and measuring procedures in the osteological lab). Our results show that genetic profiles from “lab samples” are incomplete or ambiguous in the different skeletal areas while a different outcome is observed in the “virgin samples” set. Generally, all specimens from different skeletal areas in the exception of teeth present incongruent results between “lab” and “virgin” samples. Therefore teeth are less prone to contamination than the other skeletal areas we analyzed and may be considered a material of choice for classical aDNA studies. In addition, we showed that bones can also be a good candidate for human aDNA analysis if they come directly from the excavation site and are accompanied by a clear taphonomic history. PMID:23372650

  4. Bona fide colour: DNA prediction of human eye and hair colour from ancient and contemporary skeletal remains

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background DNA analysis of ancient skeletal remains is invaluable in evolutionary biology for exploring the history of species, including humans. Contemporary human bones and teeth, however, are relevant in forensic DNA analyses that deal with the identification of perpetrators, missing persons, disaster victims or family relationships. They may also provide useful information towards unravelling controversies that surround famous historical individuals. Retrieving information about a deceased person’s externally visible characteristics can be informative in both types of DNA analyses. Recently, we demonstrated that human eye and hair colour can be reliably predicted from DNA using the HIrisPlex system. Here we test the feasibility of the novel HIrisPlex system at establishing eye and hair colour of deceased individuals from skeletal remains of various post-mortem time ranges and storage conditions. Methods Twenty-one teeth between 1 and approximately 800 years of age and 5 contemporary bones were subjected to DNA extraction using standard organic protocol followed by analysis using the HIrisPlex system. Results Twenty-three out of 26 bone DNA extracts yielded the full 24 SNP HIrisPlex profile, therefore successfully allowing model-based eye and hair colour prediction. HIrisPlex analysis of a tooth from the Polish general Władysław Sikorski (1881 to 1943) revealed blue eye colour and blond hair colour, which was positively verified from reliable documentation. The partial profiles collected in the remaining three cases (two contemporary samples and a 14th century sample) were sufficient for eye colour prediction. Conclusions Overall, we demonstrate that the HIrisPlex system is suitable, sufficiently sensitive and robust to successfully predict eye and hair colour from ancient and contemporary skeletal remains. Our findings, therefore, highlight the HIrisPlex system as a promising tool in future routine forensic casework involving skeletal remains, including

  5. Brief communication: a proposed method for the assessment of pubertal stage in human skeletal remains using cervical vertebrae maturation.

    PubMed

    Shapland, Fiona; Lewis, Mary E

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of age-at-death in non-adult skeletal remains is under constant review. However, in many past societies an individual's physical maturation may have been more important in social terms than their exact age, particularly during the period of adolescence. In a recent article (Shapland and Lewis: Am J Phys Anthropol 151 (2013) 302-310) highlighted a set of dental and skeletal indicators that may be useful in mapping the progress of the pubertal growth spurt. This article presents a further skeletal indicator of adolescent development commonly used by modern clinicians: cervical vertebrae maturation (CVM). This method is applied to a collection of 594 adolescents from the medieval cemetery of St. Mary Spital, London. Analysis reveals a potential delay in ages of attainment of the later CVM stages compared with modern adolescents, presumably reflecting negative environmental conditions for growth and development. The data gathered on CVM is compared to other skeletal indicators of pubertal maturity and long bone growth from this site to ascertain the usefulness of this method on archaeological collections.

  6. Housing system influences abundance of Pax3 and Pax7 in postnatal chicken skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Yin, H D; Li, D Y; Zhang, L; Yang, M Y; Zhao, X L; Wang, Y; Liu, Y P; Zhu, Q

    2014-06-01

    Paired box (Pax) proteins 3 and 7 are associated with activation of muscle satellite cells and play a major role in hyperplastic and hypertrophic growth in postnatal skeletal muscle fibers. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of housing system on abundance of Pax3 and Pax7 in postnatal chicken skeletal muscles. At 42 d, 1,200 chickens with similar BW were randomly assigned to cage, pen, and free-range group. The mRNA abundance was measured in pectoralis major and thigh muscle at d 56, 70, and 84, and the protein expression was quantified at d 84. Increases in mRNA abundance of PAX3 and PAX7 with age were less pronounced in caged system chickens than in pen and free-range chickens from d 56 to 84, and free-range chickens showed a more pronounced increase in gene expression with age compared with penned chickens. At d 84, quantities of PAX3 and PAX7 mRNA and protein were highest in both pectoralis major and thigh muscle of chickens raised in the free-range group, lowest in penned chickens, and intermediate in caged chickens (P < 0.05). These data indicate that housing system may influence muscle fiber muscle accretion by coordinating the expression of Pax3 and Pax7 in adult chicken skeletal muscles.

  7. Acute Endurance Exercise Induces Nuclear p53 Abundance in Human Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Tachtsis, Bill; Smiles, William J.; Lane, Steven C.; Hawley, John A.; Camera, Donny M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The tumor suppressor protein p53 may have regulatory roles in exercise response-adaptation processes such as mitochondrial biogenesis and autophagy, although its cellular location largely governs its biological role. We investigated the subcellular localization of p53 and selected signaling targets in human skeletal muscle following a single bout of endurance exercise. Methods: Sixteen, untrained individuals were pair-matched for aerobic capacity (VO2peak) and allocated to either an exercise (EX, n = 8) or control (CON, n = 8) group. After a resting muscle biopsy, EX performed 60 min continuous cycling at ~70% of VO2peak during which time CON subjects rested. A further biopsy was obtained from both groups 3 h post-exercise (EX) or 4 h after the first biopsy (CON). Results: Nuclear p53 increased after 3 h recovery with EX only (~48%, p < 0.05) but was unchanged in the mitochondrial or cytoplasmic fractions in either group. Autophagy protein 5 (Atg-5) decreased in the mitochondrial protein fraction 3 h post-EX (~69%, P < 0.05) but remained unchanged in CON. There was an increase in cytoplasmic levels of the mitophagy marker PINK1 following 3 h of rest in CON only (~23%, P < 0.05). There were no changes in mitochondrial, nuclear, or cytoplasmic levels of PGC-1α post-exercise in either group. Conclusions: The selective increase in nuclear p53 abundance following endurance exercise suggests a potential pro-autophagy response to remove damaged proteins and organelles prior to initiating mitochondrial biogenesis and remodeling responses in untrained individuals. PMID:27199762

  8. Sex Assessment Using the Femur and Tibia in Medieval Skeletal Remains from Ireland: Discriminant Function Analysis.

    PubMed

    Novak, Mario

    2016-04-01

    Sex determination based on discriminant function analysis of skeletal measurements is probably the most effective method for assessment of sex in archaeological and contemporary populations due to various reasons, but it also suffers from limitations such as population specificity. In this paper standards for sex assessment from the femur and tibia in the medieval Irish population are presented. Six femoral and six tibial measurements obtained from 56 male and 45 female skeletons were subjected to discriminant function analysis. Average accuracies obtained by this study range between 87.1 and 97%. The highest level of accuracy (97%) was achieved when using combined variables of the femur and tibia (maximum diameter of femoral head and circumference at tibial nutrient foramen), as well as two variables of the tibia (proximal epiphyseal breadth and circumference at nutrient foramen). Discriminant functions using a single variable provided accuracies between 87.1 and 96% with the circumference at the level of the tibial nutrient foramen providing the best separation. High accuracy rates obtained by this research correspond to the data recorded in other studies thus confirming the importance of discriminant function analysis in assessment of sex in both archaeological and forensic contexts.

  9. Tuberculosis in Late Neolithic-Early Copper Age human skeletal remains from Hungary.

    PubMed

    Pósa, Annamária; Maixner, Frank; Mende, Balázs Gusztáv; Köhler, Kitti; Osztás, Anett; Sola, Christophe; Dutour, Olivier; Masson, Muriel; Molnár, Erika; Pálfi, György; Zink, Albert

    2015-06-01

    Alsónyék-Bátaszék in Southern Hungary is one of the largest late Neolithic settlements and cemeteries excavated in Central Europe. In total, 2359 burials from the Late Neolithic - Early Copper Age Lengyel culture were found between 2006 and 2009 [1]. Anthropological investigations previously carried out on individuals from this site revealed an interesting paleopathological case of tuberculosis in the form of Pott's disease dated to the early 5(th) millennium BC. In this study, selected specimens from this osteoarcheological series were subjected to paleomicrobiological analysis to establish the presence of MTBC bacteria. As all individuals showing clear osteological signs of TB infection belonged to a single grave group, 38 individuals from this grave group were analysed. The sample included the case of Pott's disease as well as individuals both with and without osseous TB manifestations. The detection of TB DNA in the individual with Pott's disease provided further evidence for the occurrence of TB in Neolithic populations of Europe. Moreover, our molecular analysis indicated that several other individuals of the same grave group were also infected with TB, opening the possibility for further analyses of this unique Neolithic skeletal series.

  10. Tuberculosis in Late Neolithic-Early Copper Age human skeletal remains from Hungary.

    PubMed

    Pósa, Annamária; Maixner, Frank; Mende, Balázs Gusztáv; Köhler, Kitti; Osztás, Anett; Sola, Christophe; Dutour, Olivier; Masson, Muriel; Molnár, Erika; Pálfi, György; Zink, Albert

    2015-06-01

    Alsónyék-Bátaszék in Southern Hungary is one of the largest late Neolithic settlements and cemeteries excavated in Central Europe. In total, 2359 burials from the Late Neolithic - Early Copper Age Lengyel culture were found between 2006 and 2009 [1]. Anthropological investigations previously carried out on individuals from this site revealed an interesting paleopathological case of tuberculosis in the form of Pott's disease dated to the early 5(th) millennium BC. In this study, selected specimens from this osteoarcheological series were subjected to paleomicrobiological analysis to establish the presence of MTBC bacteria. As all individuals showing clear osteological signs of TB infection belonged to a single grave group, 38 individuals from this grave group were analysed. The sample included the case of Pott's disease as well as individuals both with and without osseous TB manifestations. The detection of TB DNA in the individual with Pott's disease provided further evidence for the occurrence of TB in Neolithic populations of Europe. Moreover, our molecular analysis indicated that several other individuals of the same grave group were also infected with TB, opening the possibility for further analyses of this unique Neolithic skeletal series. PMID:25857937

  11. Sex Assessment Using the Femur and Tibia in Medieval Skeletal Remains from Ireland: Discriminant Function Analysis.

    PubMed

    Novak, Mario

    2016-04-01

    Sex determination based on discriminant function analysis of skeletal measurements is probably the most effective method for assessment of sex in archaeological and contemporary populations due to various reasons, but it also suffers from limitations such as population specificity. In this paper standards for sex assessment from the femur and tibia in the medieval Irish population are presented. Six femoral and six tibial measurements obtained from 56 male and 45 female skeletons were subjected to discriminant function analysis. Average accuracies obtained by this study range between 87.1 and 97%. The highest level of accuracy (97%) was achieved when using combined variables of the femur and tibia (maximum diameter of femoral head and circumference at tibial nutrient foramen), as well as two variables of the tibia (proximal epiphyseal breadth and circumference at nutrient foramen). Discriminant functions using a single variable provided accuracies between 87.1 and 96% with the circumference at the level of the tibial nutrient foramen providing the best separation. High accuracy rates obtained by this research correspond to the data recorded in other studies thus confirming the importance of discriminant function analysis in assessment of sex in both archaeological and forensic contexts. PMID:27301232

  12. Fiber type effects on contraction-stimulated glucose uptake and GLUT4 abundance in single fibers from rat skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Castorena, Carlos M.; Arias, Edward B.; Sharma, Naveen; Bogan, Jonathan S.

    2014-01-01

    To fully understand skeletal muscle at the cellular level, it is essential to evaluate single muscle fibers. Accordingly, the major goals of this study were to determine if there are fiber type-related differences in single fibers from rat skeletal muscle for: 1) contraction-stimulated glucose uptake and/or 2) the abundance of GLUT4 and other metabolically relevant proteins. Paired epitrochlearis muscles isolated from Wistar rats were either electrically stimulated to contract (E-Stim) or remained resting (No E-Stim). Single fibers isolated from muscles incubated with 2-deoxy-d-[3H]glucose (2-DG) were used to determine fiber type [myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoform protein expression], 2-DG uptake, and abundance of metabolically relevant proteins, including the GLUT4 glucose transporter. E-Stim, relative to No E-Stim, fibers had greater (P < 0.05) 2-DG uptake for each of the isolated fiber types (MHC-IIa, MHC-IIax, MHC-IIx, MHC-IIxb, and MHC-IIb). However, 2-DG uptake for E-Stim fibers was not significantly different among these five fiber types. GLUT4, tethering protein containing a UBX domain for GLUT4 (TUG), cytochrome c oxidase IV (COX IV), and filamin C protein levels were significantly greater (P < 0.05) in MHC-IIa vs. MHC-IIx, MHC-IIxb, or MHC-IIb fibers. TUG and COX IV in either MHC-IIax or MHC-IIx fibers exceeded values for MHC-IIxb or MHC-IIb fibers. GLUT4 levels for MHC-IIax fibers exceeded MHC-IIxb fibers. GLUT4, COX IV, filamin C, and TUG abundance in single fibers was significantly (P < 0.05) correlated with each other. Differences in GLUT4 abundance among the fiber types were not accompanied by significant differences in contraction-stimulated glucose uptake. PMID:25491725

  13. DNA Identification of Skeletal Remains from World War II Mass Graves Uncovered in Slovenia

    PubMed Central

    Marjanović, Damir; Durmić-Pašić, Adaleta; Bakal, Narcisa; Haverić, Sanin; Kalamujić, Belma; Kovačević, Lejla; Ramić, Jasmin; Pojskić, Naris; Škaro, Vedrana; Projić, Petar; Bajrović, Kasim; Hadžiselimović, Rifat; Drobnič, Katja; Huffine, Ed; Davoren, Jon; Primorac, Dragan

    2007-01-01

    Aim To present the joint effort of three institutions in the identification of human remains from the World War II found in two mass graves in the area of Škofja Loka, Slovenia. Methods The remains of 27 individuals were found in two small and closely located mass graves. The DNA was isolated from bone and teeth samples using either standard phenol/chloroform alcohol extraction or optimized Qiagen DNA extraction procedure. Some recovered samples required the employment of additional DNA purification methods, such as N-buthanol treatment. QuantifilerTM Human DNA Quantification Kit was used for DNA quantification. PowerPlex 16 kit was used to simultaneously amplify 15 short tandem repeat (STR) loci. Matching probabilities were estimated using the DNA View program. Results Out of all processed samples, 15 remains were fully profiled at all 15 STR loci. The other 12 profiles were partial. The least successful profile included 13 loci. Also, 69 referent samples (buccal swabs) from potential living relatives were collected and profiled. Comparison of victims' profile against referent samples database resulted in 4 strong matches. In addition, 5 other profiles were matched to certain referent samples with lower probability. Conclusion Our results show that more than 6 decades after the end of the World War II, DNA analysis may significantly contribute to the identification of the remains from that period. Additional analysis of Y-STRs and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers will be performed in the second phase of the identification project. PMID:17696306

  14. Skeletal remains of a diminutive primate from the Paleocene of Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storch, Gerhard

    2008-10-01

    Most living mammal orders, including our own, started their career during the first 10 million years of the Cenozoic, the Age of Mammals. The fossil record documents that early Paleogene adaptive radiations of various clades included tiny species of the size of living shrews. Remains of particularly diminutive limb bones are described from the late Paleocene site of Walbeck, Sachsen-Anhalt. Discovered in 1939, it has remained the only known Paleocene mammal-bearing locality from Germany. The remains are referred to the family Adapisoriculidae, which is considered on the basis of the present postcranial evidence to represent plesiadapiform primates rather than alleged lipotyphlan insectivores as previously proposed. The Walbeck fossils compete with the Early Eocene species Toliapina vinealis from Europe and Picromomys petersonorum from North America for the status of the smallest known primate, fossil and living. Their estimated body weights are as small as 10 g. The limb bones show features related to enhanced flexion at the elbow and hip joint, suggesting arboreal habits and environments such as terminal branches. The diminutive size and tooth morphology suggest feeding on small insects and other invertebrates. Postcranials are important to assess early radiations, such tiny specimens as the present ones are extremely scarce in the fossil record, however.

  15. Modified DOP-PCR for improved STR typing of degraded DNA from human skeletal remains and bloodstains.

    PubMed

    Ambers, Angie; Turnbough, Meredith; Benjamin, Robert; Gill-King, Harrell; King, Jonathan; Sajantila, Antti; Budowle, Bruce

    2016-01-01

    Forensic and ancient DNA samples often are damaged and in limited quantity as a result of exposure to harsh environments and the passage of time. Several strategies have been proposed to address the challenges posed by degraded and low copy templates, including a PCR based whole genome amplification method called degenerate oligonucleotide-primed PCR (DOP-PCR). This study assessed the efficacy of four modified versions of the original DOP-PCR primer that retain at least a portion of the 5' defined sequence and alter the number of bases on the 3' end. The use of each of the four modified primers resulted in improved STR profiles from environmentally-damaged bloodstains, contemporary human skeletal remains, American Civil War era bone samples, and skeletal remains of WWII soldiers over those obtained by previously described DOP-PCR methods and routine STR typing. Additionally, the modified DOP-PCR procedure allows for a larger volume of DNA extract to be used, reducing the need to concentrate the sample and thus mitigating the effects of concurrent concentration of inhibitors. PMID:26832369

  16. The Effect of Time on Bone Fluorescence: Implications for Using Alternate Light Sources to Search for Skeletal Remains.

    PubMed

    Swaraldahab, Mohamed A H; Christensen, Angi M

    2016-03-01

    Bones fluoresce when exposed to certain wavelengths of shortwave light, and this property can be useful in locating and sorting skeletal remains in forensic contexts. The proteins in bone collagen are largely responsible for its fluorescent properties, but these proteins degrade and denature over time. This study examined the fluorescence of bones from four temporal groups (recent, semi-recent, ancient, and historic) ranging from 0 to 1064 years before present. Specimens were photographed under 490 nm wavelength light, and fluorescence was quantified by converting intensity to a gray scale value based on the RGB color model using ImageJ(®) software. Significant (p < 0.05) differences were found in mean fluorescence between all four temporal groups, and a 0.324 coefficient of correlation indicates a significant (inverse) relationship between fluorescence and time. Bone fluorescence decreases with time, but some fluorescence is retained even in older samples. Fluorescence can therefore be reliably used in many modern skeletal remains searches. PMID:27404617

  17. Evolutionary anthropology and genes: investigating the genetics of human evolution from excavated skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Anastasiou, Evilena; Mitchell, Piers D

    2013-10-01

    The development of molecular tools for the extraction, analysis and interpretation of DNA from the remains of ancient organisms (paleogenetics) has revolutionised a range of disciplines as diverse as the fields of human evolution, bioarchaeology, epidemiology, microbiology, taxonomy and population genetics. The paper draws attention to some of the challenges associated with the extraction and interpretation of ancient DNA from archaeological material, and then reviews the influence of paleogenetics on the field of human evolution. It discusses the main contributions of molecular studies to reconstructing the evolutionary and phylogenetic relationships between extinct hominins (human ancestors) and anatomically modern humans. It also explores the evidence for evolutionary changes in the genetic structure of anatomically modern humans in recent millennia. This breadth of research has led to discoveries that would never have been possible using traditional approaches to human evolution.

  18. The influence of body position and microclimate on ketamine and metabolite distribution in decomposed skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Cornthwaite, H M; Watterson, J H

    2014-10-01

    The influence of body position and microclimate on ketamine (KET) and metabolite distribution in decomposed bone tissue was examined. Rats received 75 mg/kg (i.p.) KET (n = 30) or remained drug-free (controls, n = 4). Following euthanasia, rats were divided into two groups and placed outdoors to decompose in one of the three positions: supine (SUP), prone (PRO) or upright (UPR). One group decomposed in a shaded, wooded microclimate (Site 1) while the other decomposed in an exposed sunlit microclimate with gravel substrate (Site 2), roughly 500 m from Site 1. Following decomposition, bones (lumbar vertebrae, thoracic vertebra, cervical vertebrae, rib, pelvis, femora, tibiae, humeri and scapulae) were collected and sorted for analysis. Clean, ground bones underwent microwave-assisted extraction using acetone : hexane mixture (1 : 1, v/v), followed by solid-phase extraction and analysis using GC-MS. Drug levels, expressed as mass normalized response ratios, were compared across all bone types between body position and microclimates. Bone type was a main effect (P < 0.05) for drug level and drug/metabolite level ratio for all body positions and microclimates examined. Microclimate and body position significantly influenced observed drug levels: higher levels were observed in carcasses decomposing in direct sunlight, where reduced entomological activity led to slowed decomposition.

  19. Autosomal and Y-STR analysis of degraded DNA from the 120-year-old skeletal remains of Ezekiel Harper.

    PubMed

    Ambers, Angie; Gill-King, Harrell; Dirkmaat, Dennis; Benjamin, Robert; King, Jonathan; Budowle, Bruce

    2014-03-01

    The 120-year-old skeletal remains of Confederate Civil War soldier Captain Ezekiel "Zeke" Harper were exhumed by court order in January 2011 for DNA analysis. The goal of the DNA testing was to support or refute whether Captain Harper had fathered a son (Earl J. Maxwell) with his Native American maid prior to his murder in 1892. Bones with adequate structural integrity (left tibia, right tibia, right femur, mandible, four teeth) were retrieved from the burial site and sent to the Institute of Applied Genetics in Fort Worth, Texas for analysis. Given the age and condition of the remains, three different extraction methods were used to maximize the probability of DNA recovery. The majority of the DNA isolates from over fifty separate bone sections yielded partial autosomal STR genotypes and partial Y-STR haplotypes. After comparing the partial results for concordance, consensus profiles were generated for comparison to reference samples from alleged family members. Considering the genetic recombination that occurs in autosomal DNA over the generations within a family, Y-STR analysis was determined to be the most appropriate and informative approach for determining potential kinship. Two of Earl J. Maxwell's grandsons submitted buccal samples for comparison. The Y-STR haplotypes obtained from both of these reference samples were identical to each other and to the alleles in Ezekiel Harper's consensus profile at all 17 loci examined. This Y-STR haplotype was not found in either of two major Y-STR population databases (U.S. Y-STR database and YHRD). The fact that the Y-STR haplotype obtained from Ezekiel's skeletal remains and Earl's grandsons is not found in either population database demonstrates its rarity and further supports a paternal lineage relationship among them. Results of the genetic analyses are consistent with the hypothesis that Earl J. Maxwell is the son of Ezekiel Harper.

  20. Age estimation of immature human skeletal remains using the post-natal development of the occipital bone.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, H F V; Gomes, J; Campanacho, V; Marinho, L

    2013-09-01

    Whenever age cannot be estimated from dental formation in immature human skeletal remains, other methods are required. In the post-natal period, development of the skeleton provides alternative age indicators, namely, those associated with skeletal maturity of the cranium. This study wishes to document the age at which the various ossification centres in the occipital bone fuse and provide readily available developmental probabilistic information for use in age estimation. A sample of 64 identified immature skeletons between birth and 8 years of age from the Lisbon collection was used (females = 29, males = 35). Results show that fusion occurs first in the posterior intra-occipital synchondrosis and between the jugular and condylar limbs of the lateral occipital to form the hypoglossal canal (1-4 years), followed by the anterior intra-occipital (3-7 years). Fusion of the post-natal occipital does not show differences in timing between males and females. Relative to other published sources, this study documents first and last ages of fusion of several ossification centres and the posterior probabilities of age given a certain stage of fusion. Given the least amount of overlap in stages of fusion, the closure of the hypoglossal canal provides the narrowest estimated age with the highest probability of age.

  1. Forensic approach to an archaeological casework of "vampire" skeletal remains in Venice: odontological and anthropological prospectus.

    PubMed

    Nuzzolese, Emilio; Borrini, Matteo

    2010-11-01

    During the years 2006-2007, the Archeological Superintendent of Veneto (Italy) promoted a research project on mass graves located on Nuovo Lazzaretto in Venice, where the corpses of plague deaths were buried during the 16th and 17th centuries. The burials were of different stages and are believed to be the remains of plague victims from the numerous outbreaks of pestilence, which occurred between the 15th and 17th centuries. Among the fragmented and commingled human bones, an unusual burial was found. The body was laid supine, with the top half of the thorax intact, arms parallel to the rachis axis, the articulations were anatomically unaltered. Both the skull morphology and the dimensions of the caput omeris suggest the body was a woman. A brick of moderate size was found inside the oral cavity, keeping the mandible wide open. The data collected by the anthropologist were used to generate a taphonomic profile, which precluded the positioning of the brick being accidental. Likewise, the probability of the brick having come from the surrounding burial sediment was rejected, as the only other inclusions found were bone fragments from previous burials in the same area. The data collected by the odontologist were employed for age estimation and radiological dental assessment. The forensic profile was based conceptually on the "circumstances of death" and concluded that the positioning of the brick was intentional, and attributed to a symbolic burial ritual. This ritual confirms the intimate belief held at those times, between the plague and the mythological character of the vampire.

  2. Forensic approach to an archaeological casework of "vampire" skeletal remains in Venice: odontological and anthropological prospectus.

    PubMed

    Nuzzolese, Emilio; Borrini, Matteo

    2010-11-01

    During the years 2006-2007, the Archeological Superintendent of Veneto (Italy) promoted a research project on mass graves located on Nuovo Lazzaretto in Venice, where the corpses of plague deaths were buried during the 16th and 17th centuries. The burials were of different stages and are believed to be the remains of plague victims from the numerous outbreaks of pestilence, which occurred between the 15th and 17th centuries. Among the fragmented and commingled human bones, an unusual burial was found. The body was laid supine, with the top half of the thorax intact, arms parallel to the rachis axis, the articulations were anatomically unaltered. Both the skull morphology and the dimensions of the caput omeris suggest the body was a woman. A brick of moderate size was found inside the oral cavity, keeping the mandible wide open. The data collected by the anthropologist were used to generate a taphonomic profile, which precluded the positioning of the brick being accidental. Likewise, the probability of the brick having come from the surrounding burial sediment was rejected, as the only other inclusions found were bone fragments from previous burials in the same area. The data collected by the odontologist were employed for age estimation and radiological dental assessment. The forensic profile was based conceptually on the "circumstances of death" and concluded that the positioning of the brick was intentional, and attributed to a symbolic burial ritual. This ritual confirms the intimate belief held at those times, between the plague and the mythological character of the vampire. PMID:20707834

  3. Age estimation of immature human skeletal remains from the diaphyseal length of the long bones in the postnatal period.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Hugo F V; Abrantes, Joana; Humphrey, Louise T

    2014-09-01

    Age at death in immature human skeletal remains has been estimated from the diaphyseal length of the long bones, but few studies have actually been designed specifically for the purpose of age estimation and those which have, show important caveats. This study uses regression and classical calibration to model the relationship between age and diaphyseal length of the six long bones, in a sample of 184 known sex and age individuals (72 females and 112 males), younger than 13 years of age, selected from Portuguese and English skeletal collections. Age estimation models based on classical calibration were obtained for each of the six long bones, and separately for each sex and for the sexes combined, and also for the entire sample and when it is subdivided into two subsamples at the age of 2 years. Comparisons between inverse and classical calibration show there is a systematic bias in age estimations obtained from inverse calibration. In the classical calibration models, the length of the femur provides the most accurate estimates of age. Age estimates are more accurate for the male subsample and for individuals under the age of 2 years. These results and a test of previously published methods caution against inverse calibration as a technique for developing age estimation methods even from the immature skeleton. Age estimation methods developed using cemetery collections of identified human skeletons should not be uncritically applied to present-day populations from the same region since many populations have experienced dramatic secular trends in growth and adult height over the last century.

  4. Stature in 19th and early 20th century Copenhagen. A comparative study based on skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Jørkov, Marie Louise S

    2015-12-01

    Individual stature depends on multifactorial causes and is often used as a proxy for investigating the biological standard of living. While the majority of European studies on 19th and 20th century populations are based on conscript heights, stature derived from skeletal remains are scarce. For the first time in Denmark this study makes a comparison between skeletal stature and contemporary Danish conscript heights and investigates stature of males and females temporally and between socially distinct individuals and populations in 19th and early 20th century Copenhagen. A total of 357 individuals (181 males, 176 females) excavated at the Assistens cemetery in Copenhagen is analyzed. Two stature regression formulae (Trotter, 1970; Boldsen, 1990) are applied using femur measurements and evaluated compared to conscript heights. The results indicate that mean male stature using Boldsen follows a similar trend as the Danish conscript heights and that Trotter overestimate stature by ca. 6cm over Boldsen. At an inter population level statistically significant differences in male stature are observed between first and second half of the 19th century towards a slight stature decrease and larger variation while there are no significant changes observed in female stature. There are insignificant differences in stature between middle and high class individuals, but male stature differs statistically between cemeteries (p=0.000) representing middle/high class, paupers and navy employees, respectively. Female stature had no significant wealth gradient (p=0.516). This study provides new evidence of stature among males and females during the 19th century and suggests that males may have been more sensitive to changes in environmental living and nutrition than females.

  5. Stature in 19th and early 20th century Copenhagen. A comparative study based on skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Jørkov, Marie Louise S

    2015-12-01

    Individual stature depends on multifactorial causes and is often used as a proxy for investigating the biological standard of living. While the majority of European studies on 19th and 20th century populations are based on conscript heights, stature derived from skeletal remains are scarce. For the first time in Denmark this study makes a comparison between skeletal stature and contemporary Danish conscript heights and investigates stature of males and females temporally and between socially distinct individuals and populations in 19th and early 20th century Copenhagen. A total of 357 individuals (181 males, 176 females) excavated at the Assistens cemetery in Copenhagen is analyzed. Two stature regression formulae (Trotter, 1970; Boldsen, 1990) are applied using femur measurements and evaluated compared to conscript heights. The results indicate that mean male stature using Boldsen follows a similar trend as the Danish conscript heights and that Trotter overestimate stature by ca. 6cm over Boldsen. At an inter population level statistically significant differences in male stature are observed between first and second half of the 19th century towards a slight stature decrease and larger variation while there are no significant changes observed in female stature. There are insignificant differences in stature between middle and high class individuals, but male stature differs statistically between cemeteries (p=0.000) representing middle/high class, paupers and navy employees, respectively. Female stature had no significant wealth gradient (p=0.516). This study provides new evidence of stature among males and females during the 19th century and suggests that males may have been more sensitive to changes in environmental living and nutrition than females. PMID:26256129

  6. The applicability of the Lamendin method to skeletal remains buried for a 16-year period: a cautionary note.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Danilo; Mele, Elia; Gibelli, Daniele; Merelli, Vera; Spagnoli, Laura; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The Lamendin method is widely reported as one of the most reliable means of age estimation of skeletal remains, but very little is known concerning the influence of burial in soil. This study aimed at verifying the reliability of the Lamendin method on corpses buried for 16 years in a cemetery. The Lamendin and the Prince and Ubelaker methods were applied. In all age groups except the 40- to 49-year-olds, the error was higher in the buried sample. The age-at-death error ranged between 10.7 and 36.8 years for the Lamendin method (vs. the reported 7.3-18.9 years) and 9.5 and 35.7 for the Prince and Ubelaker one (vs. the original 5.2-32.6 years); in all age groups, the error is closer to that found on archeological populations. These results suggest caution in applying the Lamendin method to forensic cases of human remains buried even for a brief period under soil. PMID:25413353

  7. DNA typing from skeletal remains following an explosion in a military fort--first experience in Ecuador (South-America).

    PubMed

    González-Andrade, Fabricio; Sánchez, Dora

    2005-10-01

    We present individual body identification efforts, to identify skeletal remains and relatives of missing persons of an explosion took place inside one of the munitions recesses of the Armoured Brigade of the Galapagos Armoured Cavalry, in the city of Riobamba, Ecuador, on Wednesday, November 20, 2002. Nineteen samples of bone remains and two tissue samples (a blood stain on a piece of fabric) from the zero zone were analysed. DNA extraction was made by Isoamilic Phenol-Chloroform-Alcohol, and proteinase K. We increased PCR cycles to identify DNA from bones to 35 cycles in some cases. An ABI 310 sequencer was used. Determination of the fragment size and the allelic designation of the different loci was carried out by comparison with the allelic ladders of the PowerPlex 16 kit and Gene Scan Analysis Software programme. Five possible family groups were established and were compared with the profiles found. Classical Bayesian methods were used to calculate the Likelihood Ratio and it was possible to identify five different genetic profiles in our country. This paper is important because is a novel experience for our forensic services, because this was the first time DNA had been used as an identification method in disasters, and it was validated by Ecuadorian justice like a very effective method.

  8. The applicability of the Lamendin method to skeletal remains buried for a 16-year period: a cautionary note.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Danilo; Mele, Elia; Gibelli, Daniele; Merelli, Vera; Spagnoli, Laura; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The Lamendin method is widely reported as one of the most reliable means of age estimation of skeletal remains, but very little is known concerning the influence of burial in soil. This study aimed at verifying the reliability of the Lamendin method on corpses buried for 16 years in a cemetery. The Lamendin and the Prince and Ubelaker methods were applied. In all age groups except the 40- to 49-year-olds, the error was higher in the buried sample. The age-at-death error ranged between 10.7 and 36.8 years for the Lamendin method (vs. the reported 7.3-18.9 years) and 9.5 and 35.7 for the Prince and Ubelaker one (vs. the original 5.2-32.6 years); in all age groups, the error is closer to that found on archeological populations. These results suggest caution in applying the Lamendin method to forensic cases of human remains buried even for a brief period under soil.

  9. Yersinia pestis DNA from Skeletal Remains from the 6th Century AD Reveals Insights into Justinianic Plague

    PubMed Central

    Harbeck, Michaela; Seifert, Lisa; Hänsch, Stephanie; Wagner, David M.; Birdsell, Dawn; Parise, Katy L.; Wiechmann, Ingrid; Grupe, Gisela; Thomas, Astrid; Keim, Paul; Zöller, Lothar; Bramanti, Barbara; Riehm, Julia M.; Scholz, Holger C.

    2013-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of the disease plague, has been implicated in three historical pandemics. These include the third pandemic of the 19th and 20th centuries, during which plague was spread around the world, and the second pandemic of the 14th–17th centuries, which included the infamous epidemic known as the Black Death. Previous studies have confirmed that Y. pestis caused these two more recent pandemics. However, a highly spirited debate still continues as to whether Y. pestis caused the so-called Justinianic Plague of the 6th–8th centuries AD. By analyzing ancient DNA in two independent ancient DNA laboratories, we confirmed unambiguously the presence of Y. pestis DNA in human skeletal remains from an Early Medieval cemetery. In addition, we narrowed the phylogenetic position of the responsible strain down to major branch 0 on the Y. pestis phylogeny, specifically between nodes N03 and N05. Our findings confirm that Y. pestis was responsible for the Justinianic Plague, which should end the controversy regarding the etiology of this pandemic. The first genotype of a Y. pestis strain that caused the Late Antique plague provides important information about the history of the plague bacillus and suggests that the first pandemic also originated in Asia, similar to the other two plague pandemics. PMID:23658525

  10. Yersinia pestis DNA from skeletal remains from the 6(th) century AD reveals insights into Justinianic Plague.

    PubMed

    Harbeck, Michaela; Seifert, Lisa; Hänsch, Stephanie; Wagner, David M; Birdsell, Dawn; Parise, Katy L; Wiechmann, Ingrid; Grupe, Gisela; Thomas, Astrid; Keim, Paul; Zöller, Lothar; Bramanti, Barbara; Riehm, Julia M; Scholz, Holger C

    2013-01-01

    Yersinia pestis, the etiologic agent of the disease plague, has been implicated in three historical pandemics. These include the third pandemic of the 19(th) and 20(th) centuries, during which plague was spread around the world, and the second pandemic of the 14(th)-17(th) centuries, which included the infamous epidemic known as the Black Death. Previous studies have confirmed that Y. pestis caused these two more recent pandemics. However, a highly spirited debate still continues as to whether Y. pestis caused the so-called Justinianic Plague of the 6(th)-8(th) centuries AD. By analyzing ancient DNA in two independent ancient DNA laboratories, we confirmed unambiguously the presence of Y. pestis DNA in human skeletal remains from an Early Medieval cemetery. In addition, we narrowed the phylogenetic position of the responsible strain down to major branch 0 on the Y. pestis phylogeny, specifically between nodes N03 and N05. Our findings confirm that Y. pestis was responsible for the Justinianic Plague, which should end the controversy regarding the etiology of this pandemic. The first genotype of a Y. pestis strain that caused the Late Antique plague provides important information about the history of the plague bacillus and suggests that the first pandemic also originated in Asia, similar to the other two plague pandemics.

  11. Dating human skeletal remains using a radiometric method: biogenic versus diagenetic 90Sr and 210Pb in vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Schrag, Bettina; Uldin, Tanya; Mangin, Patrice; Froidevaux, Pascal

    2012-07-10

    In forensic science, there is a strong interest in determining the post-mortem interval (PMI) of human skeletal remains up to 50 years after death. Currently, there are no reliable methods to resolve PMI, the determination of which relies almost exclusively on the experience of the investigating expert. Here we measured (90)Sr and (210)Pb ((210)Po) incorporated into bones through a biogenic process as indicators of the time elapsed since death. We hypothesised that the activity of radionuclides incorporated into trabecular bone will more accurately match the activity in the environment and the food chain at the time of death than the activity in cortical bone because of a higher remodelling rate. We found that determining (90)Sr can yield reliable PMI estimates as long as a calibration curve exists for (90)Sr covering the studied area and the last 50 years. We also found that adding the activity of (210)Po, a proxy for naturally occurring (210)Pb incorporated through ingestion, to the (90)Sr dating increases the reliability of the PMI value. Our results also show that trabecular bone is subject to both (90)Sr and (210)Po diagenesis. Accordingly, we used a solubility profile method to determine the biogenic radionuclide only, and we are proposing a new method of bone decontamination to be used prior to (90)Sr and (210)Pb dating.

  12. The effects of knee injury on skeletal muscle function, Na+, K+-ATPase content, and isoform abundance

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Ben D; Levinger, Pazit; Morris, Hayden G; Petersen, Aaron C; Garnham, Andrew P; Levinger, Itamar; McKenna, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    While training upregulates skeletal muscle Na+, K+-ATPase (NKA), the effects of knee injury and associated disuse on muscle NKA remain unknown. This was therefore investigated in six healthy young adults with a torn anterior cruciate ligament, (KI; four females, two males; age 25.0 ± 4.9 years; injury duration 15 ± 17 weeks; mean ± SD) and seven age- and BMI-matched asymptomatic controls (CON; five females, two males). Each participant underwent a vastus lateralis muscle biopsy, on both legs in KI and one leg in CON. Muscle was analyzed for muscle fiber type and cross-sectional area (CSA), NKA content ([3H]ouabain binding), and α1–3 and β1–2 isoform abundance. Participants also completed physical activity and knee function questionnaires (KI only); and underwent quadriceps peak isometric strength, thigh CSA and postural sway assessments in both injured and noninjured legs. NKA content was 20.1% lower in the knee-injured leg than the noninjured leg and 22.5% lower than CON. NKA α2 abundance was 63.0% lower in the knee-injured leg than the noninjured leg, with no differences in other NKA isoforms. Isometric strength and thigh CSA were 21.7% and 7.1% lower in the injured leg than the noninjured leg, respectively. In KI, postural sway did not differ between legs, but for two-legged standing was 43% higher than CON. Hence, muscle NKA content and α2 abundance were reduced in severe knee injury, which may contribute to impaired muscle function. Restoration of muscle NKA may be important in rehabilitation of muscle function after knee and other lower limb injury. PMID:25677549

  13. Skeletal Muscle Protein Breakdown Remains Elevated in Pediatric Burn Survivors up to One-Year Post-Injury.

    PubMed

    Chao, Tony; Herndon, David N; Porter, Craig; Chondronikola, Maria; Chaidemenou, Anastasia; Abdelrahman, Doaa Reda; Bohanon, Fredrick J; Andersen, Clark; Sidossis, Labros S

    2015-11-01

    Acute alterations in skeletal muscle protein metabolism are a well-established event associated with the stress response to burns. Nevertheless, the long-lasting effects of burn injury on skeletal muscle protein turnover are incompletely understood. This study was undertaken to investigate fractional synthesis (FSR) and breakdown (FBR) rates of protein in skeletal muscle of pediatric burn patients (n  =  42, >30% total body surface area burns) for up to 1 year after injury. Skeletal muscle protein kinetics were measured in the post-prandial state following bolus injections of C6 and N phenylalanine stable isotopes. Plasma and muscle phenylalanine enrichments were quantified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. We found that the FSR in burn patients was 2- to 3-fold higher than values from healthy men previously reported in the literature (P ≤ 0.05). The FBR was 4- to 6-fold higher than healthy values (P  <  0.01). Therefore, net protein balance was lower in burn patients compared with healthy men from 2 weeks to 12 months post-injury (P  <  0.05). These findings show that skeletal muscle protein turnover stays elevated for up to 1 year after burn, an effect attributable to simultaneous increases in FBR and FSR. Muscle FBR exceeds FSR during this time, producing a persistent negative net protein balance, even in the post-prandial state, which likely contributes to the prolonged cachexia seen in burned victims.

  14. Dating human skeletal remains: investigating the viability of measuring the equilibrium between 210Po and 210Pb as a means of estimating the post-mortem interval.

    PubMed

    Swift, B

    1998-11-30

    Estimating the post-mortem interval in skeletal remains is a notoriously difficult task; forensic pathologists often rely heavily upon experience in recognising morphological appearances. Previous techniques have involved measuring physical or chemical changes within the hydroxyapatite matrix, radiocarbon dating and 90Sr dating, though no individual test has been advocated. Within this paper it is proposed that measuring the equilibrium between two naturally occurring radio-isotopes, 210Po and 210Pb, and comparison with post-mortem examination samples would produce a new method of dating human skeletal remains. Possible limitations exist, notably the effect of diagenesis, time limitations and relative cost, though this technique could provide a relatively accurate means of determining the post-mortem interval. It is therefore proposed that a large study be undertaken to provide a calibration scale against which bones uncovered can be dated.

  15. Abundance of some skeletal muscle mitochondrial proteins is associated with increased blood serum insulin in bovine fetuses.

    PubMed

    Pajak, Beata; Pawlikowska, Patrycja; Cassar-Malek, Isabelle; Picard, Brigitte; Hocquette, Jean-François; Orzechowski, Arkadiusz

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the evolution of the abundance of cytochrome oxidase c subunit IV (NCOIV) and beta subunit of ATP synthase (β-ATP) during the last third of gestation in bovine skeletal muscles. Semitendinosus, longissimus thoracis and rectus abdominis muscles were chosen for the immunoblotting of the respective protein levels. Muscle and blood samples from bovine fetuses of randomly selected breeds were collected at 180, 210, and 260 days post-conception (dpc). The muscle tissue expressions of NCOIV, β-ATP were compared to blood glucose and insulin. At 260 dpc, protein levels of NCOIV raised in skeletal muscles. Additionally, β-ATP in semitendinosus and longissimus thoracis were elevated and paralleled by higher concentrations of blood serum insulin. It corroborates our previous observations indicating that accelerated metabolic differentiation of bovine skeletal muscles is associated with elevated blood insulin and occurs during the last trimester of gestation. Our observations point to the connection between insulin-sensitivity and the molecular mechanisms of mitochondrial contribution to ontogenesis of skeletal muscles.

  16. A Reappraisal of Developing Permanent Tooth Length as an Estimate of Age in Human Immature Skeletal Remains.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Hugo F V; Spake, Laure; Liversidge, Helen M

    2016-09-01

    This study expands on existing juvenile age prediction models from tooth length by increasing sample size and using classical calibration. A sample of 178 individuals from two European known sex and age skeletal samples was used to calculate prediction formulae for each tooth for each sex separately and combined. Prediction errors, residuals, and percentage of individuals whose real age fell within the 95% prediction interval were calculated. An ANCOVA was used to test sex and sample differences. Tooth length for age does not differ between the samples except for the canine and second premolar, and no statistically significant sex differences were detected. The least prediction error was found in the incisors and the first molar, and the highest prediction error was found in the third molar. Age prediction formulae provided here can be easily used in a variety of contexts where tooth length is measured from any isolated tooth. PMID:27320642

  17. Paleodemography of a medieval population in Japan: analysis of human skeletal remains from the Yuigahama-minami site.

    PubMed

    Nagaoka, Tomohito; Hirata, Kazuaki; Yokota, Emi; Matsu'ura, Shuji

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to obtain demographic data regarding the medieval population buried at the Yuigahama-minami site in Kamakura, Japan, and to detect a secular trend in the life expectancy of Japanese population over the last several thousand years. The Yuigahama-minami skeletal sample consists of 260 individuals, including 98 subadults (under 20 years old) and 162 adults. A Yuigahama-minami abridged life-table analysis yielded a life expectancy at birth (e0) of 24.0 years for both sexes, a life expectancy at age 15 years (e15) of 15.8 years for males, and an e15 of 18.0 years for females. The reliability of the estimated e0 was confirmed by analysis of the juvenility index. Demographic profiles comparing the Yuigahama-minami series with other skeletal series indicated that both the survivorship curve and life expectancy of the Yuigahama-minami sample are similar to those of the Mesolithic-Neolithic Jomon population, but are far lower than those of the early modern Edo population. These comparisons strongly suggest that life expectancy changed little over the thousands of years between the Mesolithic-Neolithic Jomon and medieval periods, but then improved remarkably during the few hundred years between the medieval period and early modern Edo period. The short-lived tendency of the Yuigahama-minami sample does not contradict the archaeological hypothesis of unsanitary living conditions in medieval Kamakura. This is the first investigation to address the demographic features of a medieval population in Japan, and will help refine our understanding of long-term trends in the demographic profiles of inhabitants of Japan.

  18. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) as a tool for the analysis of nonhuman skeletal remains in a medico-legal setting.

    PubMed

    Lucena, Joaquin; Mora, Esther; Rodriguez, Lucia; Muñoz, Mariela; Cantin, Mario G; Fonseca, Gabriel M

    2016-09-01

    To confirm the nature and forensic significance of questioned skeletal material submitted a medico-legal setting is a relatively common procedure, although not without difficulties when the remains are fragmented or burned. Different methodologies have been described for this purpose, many of them invasive, time and money consuming or dependent on the availability of the analytical instrument. We present a case in which skeletal material with unusual conditions of preservation and curious discovery was sent to a medico-legal setting to determine its human/nonhuman origin. A combined strategy of imagenological procedures (macroscopic, radiographic and cone beam computed tomography - CBCT-technology) was performed as non-invasive and rapid methods to assess the nonhuman nature of the material, specifically of pig (Sus scrofa) origin. This hypothesis was later confirmed by DNA analysis. CBCT data sets provide accurate three-dimensional reconstructions, which demonstrate its reliable use as a forensic tool. PMID:27372746

  19. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) as a tool for the analysis of nonhuman skeletal remains in a medico-legal setting.

    PubMed

    Lucena, Joaquin; Mora, Esther; Rodriguez, Lucia; Muñoz, Mariela; Cantin, Mario G; Fonseca, Gabriel M

    2016-09-01

    To confirm the nature and forensic significance of questioned skeletal material submitted a medico-legal setting is a relatively common procedure, although not without difficulties when the remains are fragmented or burned. Different methodologies have been described for this purpose, many of them invasive, time and money consuming or dependent on the availability of the analytical instrument. We present a case in which skeletal material with unusual conditions of preservation and curious discovery was sent to a medico-legal setting to determine its human/nonhuman origin. A combined strategy of imagenological procedures (macroscopic, radiographic and cone beam computed tomography - CBCT-technology) was performed as non-invasive and rapid methods to assess the nonhuman nature of the material, specifically of pig (Sus scrofa) origin. This hypothesis was later confirmed by DNA analysis. CBCT data sets provide accurate three-dimensional reconstructions, which demonstrate its reliable use as a forensic tool.

  20. A collation of recently published Western European formulae for age estimation of subadult skeletal remains: recommendations for forensic anthropology and osteoarchaeology.

    PubMed

    Rissech, Carme; Márquez-Grant, Nicholas; Turbón, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to provide an effective and quick reference guide based on the most useful European formulae recently published for subadult age estimation. All of these formulae derive from studies on postnatal growth of the scapula, innominate, femur, and tibia, based on modern skeletal data (173 ♂, 173 ♀) from five documented collections from Spain, Portugal, and Britain. The formulae were calculated from Inverse Regression. For this reason, these formulae are especially useful for modern samples from Western Europe and in particular on 20th century human remains from the Iberian Peninsula. Eleven formulae were selected as the most useful because they can be applied to individuals from within a wide age range and in individuals of unknown sex. Due to their high reliability and because they derive from documented European skeletal samples, we recommend these formulae be used on individuals of Caucasoid ancestry from Western Europe.

  1. New model for estimating the relationship between surface area and volume in the human body using skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Kasabova, Boryana E; Holliday, Trenton W

    2015-04-01

    A new model for estimating human body surface area and body volume/mass from standard skeletal metrics is presented. This model is then tested against both 1) "independently estimated" body surface areas and "independently estimated" body volume/mass (both derived from anthropometric data) and 2) the cylindrical model of Ruff. The model is found to be more accurate in estimating both body surface area and body volume/mass than the cylindrical model, but it is more accurate in estimating body surface area than it is for estimating body volume/mass (as reflected by the standard error of the estimate when "independently estimated" surface area or volume/mass is regressed on estimates derived from the present model). Two practical applications of the model are tested. In the first test, the relative contribution of the limbs versus the trunk to the body's volume and surface area is compared between "heat-adapted" and "cold-adapted" populations. As expected, the "cold-adapted" group has significantly more of its body surface area and volume in its trunk than does the "heat-adapted" group. In the second test, we evaluate the effect of variation in bi-iliac breadth, elongated or foreshortened limbs, and differences in crural index on the body's surface area to volume ratio (SA:V). Results indicate that the effects of bi-iliac breadth on SA:V are substantial, while those of limb lengths and (especially) the crural index are minor, which suggests that factors other than surface area relative to volume are driving morphological variation and ecogeographical patterning in limb prorportions.

  2. The contributions of anthropology and mitochondrial DNA analysis to the identification of the human skeletal remains of the Australian outlaw Edward 'Ned' Kelly.

    PubMed

    Blau, S; Catelli, L; Garrone, F; Hartman, D; Romanini, C; Romero, M; Vullo, C

    2014-07-01

    This paper details the anthropological and genetic analyses that contributed to the identification of the notorious Australian outlaw ('bushranger') Edward ('Ned') Kelly. In 1880 at the age of 25, Kelly was hanged and buried at the former Melbourne Gaol in Victoria, Australia. In 1929, the remains of executed prisoners (including those of Kelly) were haphazardly disinterred following the demolition of parts of the Melbourne Gaol and haphazardly reinterred in three distinct "pits" at the Pentridge Prison. In 1999 the Pentridge Prison was sold for commercial development and subsequently in 2008 and 2009 the human remains of prisoners were recovered. A total of 41 cases of unidentified human skeletal remains from Pentridge were examined using traditional anthropological techniques. At least one representative sample from each of the remains (mostly clavicles) from all three pits was selected for DNA analysis. Comparative ante-mortem reference samples were also located. Given the antiquity and condition of remains recovered from Pentridge, and the 130 years that had passed since Kelly's execution, mitochondrial DNA analysis was chosen as a suitable DNA analysis tool to examine the Pentridge cases to assist in the inclusion or exclusion of remains as being those of Ned Kelly. Only one of the Pentridge cases (Pen14) matched the HV1/HV2 mitochondrial DNA haplotype of the reference sample. Additional anthropological analyses indicated a number of pathological features that provided support that the remains of Pen14 are those of Edward ("Ned") Kelly.

  3. The value of radiocarbon analysis in determining the forensic interest of human skeletal remains found in unusual circumstances.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Hugo F V; Puentes, Katerina; Soares, António Monge; Santos, Agostinho; Magalhães, Teresa

    2012-02-01

    The case under analysis refers to the remains of a young adult female found in a shallow grave during the construction work of a hospital in Northern Portugal. The forensic interest of the finding could not be ruled out since distinguishing features pointing to an archaeological grave were lacking. For example, absence of archaeological artefacts could not establish its forensic significance with certainty, together with the absence of modern objects, such as remnants of clothing or personal objects. In addition, although the remains were badly preserved, the condition may not have resulted from a long post-depositional period, but instead could be explained by the geology of the site and the presence of plant roots. The radiocarbon analysis of the remains was meant to establish the death of the individual to before or after the mid-1950s, from comparison with bomb-curve content values. A value of 0.9789 ± 0.0044 for F(14)C (pmC = 97.19 ± 0.44% Modern or Δ(14)C = -28.1 ± 4.4‰) was obtained, which placed the death of the individual in the pre-mod-1950s period. This report illustrates the use of radiocarbon analysis in establishing whether the human remains are contemporary or not and describes evidence for what appears to be an historic clandestine grave.

  4. The value of radiocarbon analysis in determining the forensic interest of human skeletal remains found in unusual circumstances.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Hugo F V; Puentes, Katerina; Soares, António Monge; Santos, Agostinho; Magalhães, Teresa

    2012-02-01

    The case under analysis refers to the remains of a young adult female found in a shallow grave during the construction work of a hospital in Northern Portugal. The forensic interest of the finding could not be ruled out since distinguishing features pointing to an archaeological grave were lacking. For example, absence of archaeological artefacts could not establish its forensic significance with certainty, together with the absence of modern objects, such as remnants of clothing or personal objects. In addition, although the remains were badly preserved, the condition may not have resulted from a long post-depositional period, but instead could be explained by the geology of the site and the presence of plant roots. The radiocarbon analysis of the remains was meant to establish the death of the individual to before or after the mid-1950s, from comparison with bomb-curve content values. A value of 0.9789 ± 0.0044 for F(14)C (pmC = 97.19 ± 0.44% Modern or Δ(14)C = -28.1 ± 4.4‰) was obtained, which placed the death of the individual in the pre-mod-1950s period. This report illustrates the use of radiocarbon analysis in establishing whether the human remains are contemporary or not and describes evidence for what appears to be an historic clandestine grave. PMID:22281219

  5. Applying Knowledge of Species-Typical Scavenging Behavior to the Search and Recovery of Mammalian Skeletal Remains.

    PubMed

    Young, Alexandria; Stillman, Richard; Smith, Martin J; Korstjens, Amanda H

    2016-03-01

    Forensic investigations involving animal scavenging of human remains require a physical search of the scene and surrounding areas. However, there is currently no standard procedure in the U.K. for physical searches of scavenged human remains. The Winthrop and grid search methods used by police specialist searchers for scavenged remains were examined through the use of mock red fox (Vulpes vulpes) scatter scenes. Forty-two police specialist searchers from two different regions within the U.K. were divided between those briefed and not briefed with fox-typical scavenging information. Briefing searchers with scavenging information significantly affected the recovery of scattered bones (χ(2) = 11.45, df = 1, p = 0.001). Searchers briefed with scavenging information were 2.05 times more likely to recover bones. Adaptions to search methods used by searchers were evident on a regional level, such that searchers more accustom to a peri-urban to rural region recovered a higher percentage of scattered bones (58.33%, n = 84). PMID:26551615

  6. A probable case of gigantism/acromegaly in skeletal remains from the Jewish necropolis of "Ronda Sur" (Lucena, Córdoba, Spain; VIII-XII centuries CE).

    PubMed

    Viciano, Joan; De Luca, Stefano; López-Lázaro, Sandra; Botella, Daniel; Diéguez-Ramírez, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Pituitary gigantism is a rare endocrine disorder caused by hypersecretion of growth hormone during growing period. Individuals with this disorder have an enormous growth in height and associated degenerative changes. The continued hypersecretion of growth hormone during adulthood leads to acromegaly, a condition related to the disproportionate bone growth of the skull, hands and feet. The skeletal remains studied belong to a young adult male from the Jewish necropolis of "Ronda Sur" in Lucena (Córdoba, Spain, VIII-XII centuries CE). The individual shows a very large and thick neurocranium, pronounced supraorbital ridges, an extremely prominent occipital protuberance, and an extremely large and massive mandible. Additional pathologies include enlargement of the vertebral bodies with degenerative changes, thickened ribs, and a slight increased length of the diaphysis with an increased cortical bone thickness of lower limbs. Comparative metric analysis of the mandible with other individuals from the same population and a contemporary Mediterranean population shows a trend toward acromegalic morphology. This case is an important contribution in paleopathological literature because it is a rare condition that has not been widely documented in ancient skeletal remains. PMID:25776010

  7. A probable case of gigantism/acromegaly in skeletal remains from the Jewish necropolis of "Ronda Sur" (Lucena, Córdoba, Spain; VIII-XII centuries CE).

    PubMed

    Viciano, Joan; De Luca, Stefano; López-Lázaro, Sandra; Botella, Daniel; Diéguez-Ramírez, Juan Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Pituitary gigantism is a rare endocrine disorder caused by hypersecretion of growth hormone during growing period. Individuals with this disorder have an enormous growth in height and associated degenerative changes. The continued hypersecretion of growth hormone during adulthood leads to acromegaly, a condition related to the disproportionate bone growth of the skull, hands and feet. The skeletal remains studied belong to a young adult male from the Jewish necropolis of "Ronda Sur" in Lucena (Córdoba, Spain, VIII-XII centuries CE). The individual shows a very large and thick neurocranium, pronounced supraorbital ridges, an extremely prominent occipital protuberance, and an extremely large and massive mandible. Additional pathologies include enlargement of the vertebral bodies with degenerative changes, thickened ribs, and a slight increased length of the diaphysis with an increased cortical bone thickness of lower limbs. Comparative metric analysis of the mandible with other individuals from the same population and a contemporary Mediterranean population shows a trend toward acromegalic morphology. This case is an important contribution in paleopathological literature because it is a rare condition that has not been widely documented in ancient skeletal remains.

  8. Sexual dimorphism of the lateral angle of the internal auditory canal and its potential for sex estimation of burned human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, David; Thompson, Tim J U; Cunha, Eugénia

    2015-09-01

    The potential of the petrous bone for sex estimation has been recurrently investigated in the past because it is very resilient and therefore tends to preserve rather well. The sexual dimorphism of the lateral angle of the internal auditory canal was investigated in two samples of cremated Portuguese individuals in order to assess its usefulness for sex estimation in burned remains. These comprised the cremated petrous bones from fleshed cadavers (N = 54) and from dry and disarticulated bones (N = 36). Although differences between males and females were more patent in the sample of skeletons, none presented a very significant sexual dimorphism, thus precluding any attempt of sex estimation. This may have been the result of a difficult application of the method and of a differential impact of heat-induced warping which is known to be less frequent in cremains from dry skeletons. Results suggest that the lateral angle method cannot be applied to burned human skeletal remains.

  9. The detection of morphine and codeine in human teeth: an aid in the identification and study of human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, C; Gigli, F; Lodi, F; Grandi, M

    2003-06-01

    When studying unidentified putrefied or skeletonised human remains it may be difficult to obtain information on drug habits which may prove important for the construction of a biological profile or lead to hypotheses on the manner of death. The detection of morphine and codeine in teeth from human remains may prove crucial in obtaining such information and thus give forensic odontology and anthropology a further tool for identification. Because teeth can be an important deposit of exogenous substances accumulated both in the pulp and in the calcified tissues, they are an invaluable source of data from a toxicological point of view. The authors therefore tested 3 groups of teeth for morphine and codeine: the first group consisted of artificially aged teeth from individuals known to have died of heroin overdose; the second, of teeth from individuals with no history of drug abuse; the third, of teeth from cases of burnt, putrefied and skeletonised remains found in conditions strongly suggestive of a drug-related death. Results showed that in groups 1 and 3 morphine and codeine could still be identified in the teeth, proving that these tissues may be a reliable source for toxicological information concerning the history of the individual. Further studies are needed to verify whether the substances detected reflect drugs in circulation in an acute phase (and therefore present in blood vessels in the pulp) or whether they represent drugs which have percolated and been stored in dentine and enamel and thus denote a history of drug abuse. Nonetheless this study shows that teeth may be an important source of toxicological information in the forensic scenario.

  10. Estimation of stature by cephalometric facial dimensions in skeletonized bodies: study from a sample modern Colombians skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    González-Colmenares, Gretel; Medina, César Sanabria; Báez, Liliana Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of stature is an important factor in the identification of the deceased from unknown fragmentary and dismembered remains. The skull sometimes is the only remain available for identification. The aim of the present study was to estimate the stature of an individual from cephalo-facial dimensions. The study was carried out on 54 males and 16 females from the bone collection of the contemporary Colombian population that belongs to the National Institute of Legal Medicine. Ten cephalo-facial measurements were also made on each subject. The stature of each individual in centimeters was taken from the registration and/or from the autopsy document. The results indicate that the measurements N-M (p<0.001) and G-Op, Ba-N, Ma-SN (p<0.05) are correlated with stature for males. The correlation between these measures with stature for females was not significant. However, the formulae obtained from univariate linear regression analysis using cephalo-facial measurements showed a greater degree of reliability for estimation of stature in males and females.

  11. Complexities in the Use of Bomb-Curve Radiocarbon to Determine Time Since Death of Human Skeletal Remains

    SciTech Connect

    Ubelaker, D H; Buchholz, B A

    2005-04-26

    Atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons during the 1950s and early 1960s doubled the level of radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) in the atmosphere. From the peak in 1963, the level of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} has decreased exponentially with a mean life of about 16 years, not due to radioactive decay, but due to mixing with large marine and terrestrial carbon reservoirs. Since radiocarbon is incorporated into all living things, the bomb-pulse is an isotopic chronometer of the past half century. The absence of bomb radiocarbon in skeletonized human remains generally indicates a date of death before 1950. Comparison of the radiocarbon values with the post 1950 bomb-curve may also help elucidate when in the post 1950 era, the individual was still alive. Such interpretation however, must consider the age at death of the individual and the type of tissue sampled.

  12. Spatial fidelity of skeletal remains: elk wintering and calving grounds revealed by bones on the Yellowstone landscape.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joshua H

    2012-11-01

    The spatial distributions of bones on landscape surfaces (death assemblages) may contain high-quality data on species' landscape use. Previous investigations into the spatial fidelity of death assemblages focused on general habitat preferences of the source community. Using well-studied elk populations of Yellowstone National Park, I test the geographic sensitivity of death assemblages by assessing the fidelity of shed elk antlers to the distribution of bull elk in late winter (documented through aerial surveys). I also test the geographic fidelity of newborn calf bones to known calving areas. The spatial distribution of antlers is highly faithful to bull elk landscape use, describing the decadally averaged distribution of wintering grounds as well or better than individual aerial surveys. Discrepancies in geographic distributions between recent wintering patterns and the multi-decadal antler assemblage also suggests differences in winter landscape use between current and historical (wolf-free) populations. Neonatal remains, including those partially consumed by carnivores, were always recovered in known calving areas, and all sampled calving grounds produced neonatal bones. Bone surveys are a new, minimally invasive, low-impact tool for obtaining high-quality historically informed data on species' geographic and habitat requirements. This tool will be particularly useful for managing sensitive species, fragile ecosystems, and poorly studied regions.

  13. Sexual dimorphism of the lateral angle of the internal auditory canal and its potential for sex estimation of burned human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, David; Thompson, Tim J U; Cunha, Eugénia

    2015-09-01

    The potential of the petrous bone for sex estimation has been recurrently investigated in the past because it is very resilient and therefore tends to preserve rather well. The sexual dimorphism of the lateral angle of the internal auditory canal was investigated in two samples of cremated Portuguese individuals in order to assess its usefulness for sex estimation in burned remains. These comprised the cremated petrous bones from fleshed cadavers (N = 54) and from dry and disarticulated bones (N = 36). Although differences between males and females were more patent in the sample of skeletons, none presented a very significant sexual dimorphism, thus precluding any attempt of sex estimation. This may have been the result of a difficult application of the method and of a differential impact of heat-induced warping which is known to be less frequent in cremains from dry skeletons. Results suggest that the lateral angle method cannot be applied to burned human skeletal remains. PMID:25649669

  14. Increased Reactive Oxygen Species Production and Lower Abundance of Complex I Subunits and Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1B Protein Despite Normal Mitochondrial Respiration in Insulin-Resistant Human Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Lefort, Natalie; Glancy, Brian; Bowen, Benjamin; Willis, Wayne T.; Bailowitz, Zachary; De Filippis, Elena A.; Brophy, Colleen; Meyer, Christian; Højlund, Kurt; Yi, Zhengping; Mandarino, Lawrence J.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The contribution of mitochondrial dysfunction to skeletal muscle insulin resistance remains elusive. Comparative proteomics are being applied to generate new hypotheses in human biology and were applied here to isolated mitochondria to identify novel changes in mitochondrial protein abundance present in insulin-resistant muscle. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Mitochondria were isolated from vastus lateralis muscle from lean and insulin-sensitive individuals and from obese and insulin-resistant individuals who were otherwise healthy. Respiration and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production rates were measured in vitro. Relative abundances of proteins detected by mass spectrometry were determined using a normalized spectral abundance factor method. RESULTS NADH- and FADH2-linked maximal respiration rates were similar between lean and obese individuals. Rates of pyruvate and palmitoyl-dl-carnitine (both including malate) ROS production were significantly higher in obesity. Mitochondria from obese individuals maintained higher (more negative) extramitochondrial ATP free energy at low metabolic flux, suggesting that stronger mitochondrial thermodynamic driving forces may underlie the higher ROS production. Tandem mass spectrometry identified protein abundance differences per mitochondrial mass in insulin resistance, including lower abundance of complex I subunits and enzymes involved in the oxidation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) and fatty acids (e.g., carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1B). CONCLUSIONS We provide data suggesting normal oxidative capacity of mitochondria in insulin-resistant skeletal muscle in parallel with high rates of ROS production. Furthermore, we show specific abundance differences in proteins involved in fat and BCAA oxidation that might contribute to the accumulation of lipid and BCAA frequently associated with the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. PMID:20682693

  15. Ribosome abundance regulates the recovery of skeletal muscle protein mass upon recuperation from postnatal undernutrition in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutritionally-induced growth faltering in the perinatal period has been associated with reduced adult skeletal muscle mass; however, the mechanisms responsible for this are unclear. To identify the factors that determine the recuperative capacity of muscle mass, we studied offspring of FVB mouse dam...

  16. Unchanged [3H]ouabain binding site content but reduced Na+-K+ pump α2-protein abundance in skeletal muscle in older adults.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Michael J; Perry, Ben D; Serpiello, Fabio R; Caldow, Marissa K; Levinger, Pazit; Cameron-Smith, David; Levinger, Itamar

    2012-11-01

    Aging is associated with reduced muscle mass, weakness, and increased fatigability. In skeletal muscle, the Na(+)-K(+) pump (NKA) is important in regulating Na(+)-K(+) gradients, membrane excitability, and thus contractility, but the effects of aging on muscle NKA are unclear. We investigated whether aging is linked with reduced muscle NKA by contrasting muscle NKA isoform gene expression and protein abundance, and NKA total content in 17 Elderly (66.8 ± 6.4 yr, mean ± SD) and 16 Young adults (23.9 ± 2.2 yr). Participants underwent peak oxygen consumption assessment and a vastus lateralis muscle biopsy, which was analyzed for NKA α(1)-, α(2)-, α(3)-, β(1)-, β(2)-, and β(3)-isoform gene expression (real-time RT-PCR), protein abundance (immunoblotting), and NKA total content ([(3)H]ouabain binding sites). The Elderly had lower peak oxygen consumption (-36.7%, P = 0.000), strength (-36.3%, P = 0.001), NKA α(2)- (-24.4%, 11.9 ± 4.4 vs. 9.0 ± 2.7 arbitrary units, P = 0.049), and NKA β(3)-protein abundance (-23.0%, P = 0.041) than Young. The β(3)-mRNA was higher in Elderly compared with Young (P = 0.011). No differences were observed between groups for other NKA isoform mRNA or protein abundance, or for [(3)H]ouabain binding site content. Thus skeletal muscle in elderly individuals was characterized by decreased NKA α(2)- and β(3)-protein abundance, but unchanged α(1) abundance and [(3)H]ouabain binding. The latter was likely caused by reduced α(2) abundance with aging, preventing an otherwise higher [(3)H]ouabain binding that might occur with a greater membrane density in smaller muscle fibers. Further study is required to verify reduced muscle NKA α(2) with aging and possible contributions to impaired exercise capability and daily living activities. PMID:22936730

  17. Accentuated lines in the enamel of primary incisors from skeletal remains: A contribution to the explanation of early childhood mortality in a medieval population from Poland.

    PubMed

    Żądzińska, Elżbieta; Lorkiewicz, Wiesław; Kurek, Marta; Borowska-Strugińska, Beata

    2015-07-01

    Physiological disruptions resulting from an impoverished environment during the first years of life are of key importance for the health and biological status of individuals and populations. Studies of growth processes in archaeological populations point to the fact that the main causes of childhood mortality in the past are to be sought among extrinsic factors. Based on this assumption, one would expect random mortality of children, with the deceased individuals representing the entire subadult population. The purpose of this study is to explore whether differences in early childhood survival are reflected in differences in deciduous tooth enamel, which can provide an insight into the development of an individual during prenatal and perinatal ontogeny. Deciduous incisors were taken from 83 individuals aged 2.0-6.5 years from a medieval inhumation cemetery dated AD 1300-1600. Prenatal and postnatal enamel formation time, neonatal line width, and the number of accentuated lines were measured using an optical microscope. The significantly wider neonatal line and the higher frequency of accentuated lines in the enamel of the incisors of children who died at the age of 2-3 years suggest the occurrence of stronger or more frequent stress events in this group. These results indicate that in skeletal populations mortality was not exclusively determined by random external factors. Individuals predisposed by an unfavorable course of prenatal and perinatal growth were more likely to die in early childhood. PMID:25711723

  18. Insulin increases mRNA abundance of the amino acid transporter SLC7A5/LAT1 via an mTORC1‐dependent mechanism in skeletal muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Dillon K.; Drummond, Micah J.; Dickinson, Jared M.; Borack, Michael S.; Jennings, Kristofer; Volpi, Elena; Rasmussen, Blake B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Amino acid transporters (AATs) provide a link between amino acid availability and mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) activation although the direct relationship remains unclear. Previous studies in various cell types have used high insulin concentrations to determine the role of insulin on mTORC1 signaling and AAT mRNA abundance. However, this approach may limit applicability to human physiology. Therefore, we sought to determine the effect of insulin on mTORC1 signaling and whether lower insulin concentrations stimulate AAT mRNA abundance in muscle cells. We hypothesized that lower insulin concentrations would increase mRNA abundance of select AAT via an mTORC1‐dependent mechanism in C2C12 myotubes. Insulin (0.5 nmol/L) significantly increased phosphorylation of the mTORC1 downstream effectors p70 ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) and ribosomal protein S6 (S6). A low rapamycin dose (2.5 nmol/L) significantly reduced the insulin‐(0.5 nmol/L) stimulated S6K1 and S6 phosphorylation. A high rapamycin dose (50 nmol/L) further reduced the insulin‐(0.5 nmol/L) stimulated phosphorylation of S6K1 and S6. Insulin (0.5 nmol/L) increased mRNA abundance of SLC38A2/SNAT2 (P ≤ 0.043) and SLC7A5/LAT1 (P ≤ 0.021) at 240 min and SLC36A1/PAT1 (P = 0.039) at 30 min. High rapamycin prevented an increase in SLC38A2/SNAT2 (P = 0.075) and SLC36A1/PAT1 (P ≥ 0.06) mRNA abundance whereas both rapamycin doses prevented an increase in SLC7A5/LAT1 (P ≥ 0.902) mRNA abundance. We conclude that a low insulin concentration increases SLC7A5/LAT1 mRNA abundance in an mTORC1‐dependent manner in skeletal muscle cells. PMID:24760501

  19. In naming the dead: Autosomal and Y-chromosomal STR typing on human skeletal remains from an 18th/19th century aristocratic crypt in Gallspach, Upper Austria.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Reinhard; Renhart, Silvia; Gruber, Heinz; Kli Mesch, Wolfgang; Neuhuber, Franz; Cemper-Kiesslich, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Ancient DNA analyses have shown to be a powerful tool in the joint transdisciplinary assessment of archaeological records involving human remains. In this study we set out to identify single inhumations by synoptically evaluating the historical, archaeological, anthropological and molecular records on human remains from the crypt of the aristocratic family of Hoheneck (or: Hohenegg) dating to the 18(th) and 19(th) century AD. A total of 11 individuals were under investigation, yielding complete autosomal and Y-chromosomal STR profiles for 5 persons clearly showing a family group. DNA results, anthropological data and archaeological records taken together resulted in (almost) unambiguous correlation to historical records on the persons entombed in the crypt.

  20. Localization and abundance of early markers of fat cell differentiation in the skeletal muscle of cattle during growth--are DLK1-positive cells the origin of marbling flecks?

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Elke; Kuzinski, Judith; Komolka, Katrin; Gotoh, Takafumi; Maak, Steffen

    2015-02-01

    Localization and abundance of early markers of adipogenic differentiation were investigated in bovine muscle tissue to verify their association with marbling development. Bovine skeletal muscle samples were used for immunohistochemical localization and measurement of mRNA and protein abundance of delta-like homolog 1 (DLK1) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (CEBPB). The localization of DLK1-positive cells confirmed the position of small clusters of adipocytes which can be considered as the origin of marbling flecks. The results indicated higher DLK1 expression in the less marbled muscle of Holstein (HS) steers (P < 0.05) and a trend to higher CEBPB expression in Japanese Black (JB) steers (P < 0.1) at slaughter. The number of DLK1-positive cells and fat content were negatively correlated. The lower expression of DLK1 together with higher CEBPB abundance during fattening in JB may have contributed to the development of more adipocytes in the skeletal muscle of JB.

  1. Optimizing skeletal muscle reinnervation with nerve transfer.

    PubMed

    Lien, Samuel C; Cederna, Paul S; Kuzon, William M

    2008-11-01

    Denervation as a consequence of nerve injury causes profound structural and functional changes within skeletal muscle and can lead to a marked impairment in function of the affected limb. Prompt reinnervation of a muscle with a sufficient number of motion-specific motor axons generally results in good structural and functional recovery, whereas long-term denervation or insufficient or improper axonal recruitment uniformly results in poor functional recovery. Only nerve transfer has been highly efficacious in changing the clinical outcomes of patients with skeletal muscle denervation, especially in the case of proximal limb nerve injuries. Rapid reinnervation with an abundant number of motor axons remains the only clinically effective means to restore function to denervated skeletal muscles. PMID:18928892

  2. Skeletal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Bianco, Paolo; Robey, Pamela G.

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal stem cells (SSCs) reside in the postnatal bone marrow and give rise to cartilage, bone, hematopoiesis-supportive stroma and marrow adipocytes in defined in vivo assays. These lineages emerge in a specific sequence during embryonic development and post natal growth, and together comprise a continuous anatomical system, the bone-bone marrow organ. SSCs conjoin skeletal and hematopoietic physiology, and are a tool for understanding and ameliorating skeletal and hematopoietic disorders. Here and in the accompanying poster, we concisely discuss the biology of SSCs in the context of the development and postnatal physiology of skeletal lineages, to which their use in medicine must remain anchored. PMID:25758217

  3. cap alpha. -skeletal and. cap alpha. -cardiac actin genes are coexpressed in adult human skeletal muscle and heart

    SciTech Connect

    Gunning, P.; Ponte, P.; Blau, H.; Kedes, L.

    1983-11-01

    The authors determined the actin isotypes encoded by 30 actin cDNA clones previously isolated from an adult human muscle cDNA library. Using 3' untranslated region probes, derived from ..cap alpha.. skeletal, ..beta..- and ..gamma..-actin cDNAs and from an ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin genomic clone, they showed that 28 of the cDNAs correspond to ..cap alpha..-skeletal actin transcripts. Unexpectedly, however, the remaining two cDNA clones proved to derive from ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin mRNA. Sequence analysis confirmed that the two skeletal muscle ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin cDNAs are derived from transcripts of the cloned ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin gene. Comparison of total actin mRNA levels in adult skeletal muscle and adult heart revealed that the steady-state levels in skeletal muscle are about twofold greater, per microgram of total cellular RNA, than those in heart. Thus, in skeletal muscle and in heart, both of the sarcomeric actin mRNA isotypes are quite abundant transcripts. They conclude that ..cap alpha..-skeletal and ..cap alpha..-cardiac actin genes are coexpressed as an actin pair in human adult striated muscles. Since the smooth-muscle actins (aortic and stomach) and the cytoplasmic actins (..beta.. and ..gamma..) are known to be coexpressed in smooth muscle and nonmuscle cells, respectively, they postulate that coexpression of actin pairs may be a common feature of mammalian actin gene expression in all tissues.

  4. Genetic variability of transcript abundance in pig peri-mortem skeletal muscle: eQTL localized genes involved in stress response, cell death, muscle disorders and metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The genetics of transcript-level variation is an exciting field that has recently given rise to many studies. Genetical genomics studies have mainly focused on cell lines, blood cells or adipose tissues, from human clinical samples or mice inbred lines. Few eQTL studies have focused on animal tissues sampled from outbred populations to reflect natural genetic variation of gene expression levels in animals. In this work, we analyzed gene expression in a whole tissue, pig skeletal muscle sampled from individuals from a half sib F2 family shortly after slaughtering. Results QTL detection on transcriptome measurements was performed on a family structured population. The analysis identified 335 eQTLs affecting the expression of 272 transcripts. The ontologic annotation of these eQTLs revealed an over-representation of genes encoding proteins involved in processes that are expected to be induced during muscle development and metabolism, cell morphology, assembly and organization and also in stress response and apoptosis. A gene functional network approach was used to evidence existing biological relationships between all the genes whose expression levels are influenced by eQTLs. eQTLs localization revealed a significant clustered organization of about half the genes located on segments of chromosome 1, 2, 10, 13, 16, and 18. Finally, the combined expression and genetic approaches pointed to putative cis-drivers of gene expression programs in skeletal muscle as COQ4 (SSC1), LOC100513192 (SSC18) where both the gene transcription unit and the eQTL affecting its expression level were shown to be localized in the same genomic region. This suggests cis-causing genetic polymorphims affecting gene expression levels, with (e.g. COQ4) or without (e.g. LOC100513192) potential pleiotropic effects that affect the expression of other genes (cluster of trans-eQTLs). Conclusion Genetic analysis of transcription levels revealed dependence among molecular phenotypes as being

  5. Additive effects of a steroidal implant and zilpaterol hydrochloride on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and skeletal muscle messenger ribonucleic acid abundance in finishing steers.

    PubMed

    Baxa, T J; Hutcheson, J P; Miller, M F; Brooks, J C; Nichols, W T; Streeter, M N; Yates, D A; Johnson, B J

    2010-01-01

    This experiment investigated the effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) and the steroidal implant Revalor-S (RS; 120 mg of trenbolone acetate and 24 mg of estradiol-17beta) on finishing steer performance and the mRNA concentration of beta-adrenergic receptors (beta-AR) types I and II, and types I, IIA, and IIX myosin heavy chain (MHC) isoforms. A total of 2,279 feedlot steers weighing 426 +/- 6.4 kg were administered no implant or RS on d 0, and fed 0 or 8.3 mg of ZH/kg of diet DM during the last 30 d with a 3-d withdrawal. Treatments were randomly assigned to 24 pens (n = 6 pens/treatment). At slaughter, semimembranosus muscle tissue was excised for RNA isolation from 4 carcasses per pen. No interactions were detected for any of the variables measured in the experiment. Administration of ZH during the last 30 d of the feeding period increased (P < 0.01) ADG, G:F, HCW, and LM area; decreased (P < 0.01) 12th-rib fat depth and marbling; and improved (P < 0.01) yield grade. Treatment had no effect on beta1-AR mRNA levels, but there was an increase (P = 0.01) in beta(2)-AR mRNA levels due to ZH inclusion. Myosin heavy chain-I (MHC-I) mRNA levels were unaffected by treatment. For MHC-IIA mRNA concentrations, administration of RS tended (P = 0.08) to increase mRNA levels, whereas ZH feeding the last 30 d tended (P = 0.08) to decrease mRNA levels for this isoform of myosin. Feeding ZH the last 30 d before slaughter increased (P < 0.01) mRNA concentrations of MHC-IIX in semimembranosus muscle of steers. These data indicate the combined use of ZH and RS additively contributes to BW and carcass gain in finishing feedlot steers and decreases marbling scores and USDA quality grades. The LM area increased and fat thickness decreased. In addition, ZH feeding changes the mRNA levels of MHC isoforms to a faster, more glycolytic fiber type in bovine skeletal muscle. These changes in mRNA concentrations of MHC isoforms, due to ZH feeding, could be affecting skeletal muscle

  6. Trepanation and Roman medicine: a comparison of osteoarchaeological remains, material culture and written texts.

    PubMed

    Tullo, E

    2010-06-01

    Evidence for prehistoric trepanation is limited to preserved osteoarchaeological material, namely human skulls, and the occasional discovery of surgical instruments. However, the Roman empire gave rise to an abundant and diverse range of source types, including skeletal remains, material culture and detailed medical texts, each of which harbours the potential to contribute to our understanding of trepanation during this historical period. This paper highlights the advantages and inherent biases of each of these source types, and proposes that the simultaneous analysis and integration of different types of historical evidence is essential for the study of trepanation as a surgical procedure.

  7. Skeletal Dysplasias

    PubMed Central

    Krakow, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Synoposis The skeletal dysplasias are a group of more than 450 heritable disorders of bone. They frequently present in the newborn period with disproportion, radiographic abnormalities, and occasionally other organ system abnormalities. For improved clinical care it is important to determine a precise diagnosis to aid in management, familial recurrence and identify those disorders highly associated with mortality. Long-term management of these disorders is predicated on an understanding of the associated skeletal system abnormalities and these children are best served by a team approach to health care surveillance. PMID:26042906

  8. Skeletal muscle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are approximately 650-850 muscles in the human body these include skeletal (striated), smooth and cardiac muscle. The approximation is based on what some anatomists consider separate muscle or muscle systems. Muscles are classified based on their anatomy (striated vs. smooth) and if they are v...

  9. Where do those remains come from?

    PubMed

    Nociarová, Dominika; Adserias, M Jose; Malgosa, Assumpció; Galtés, Ignasi

    2014-12-01

    Part of the study of skeletal remains or corpses in advance decay located in the field involves determining their origin. They may be the result of criminal activity, accident, unearthed because of erosion, or they may also have originated from a cemetery. The discovery site, condition of the remains, and the associated artifacts, are factors that could be helpful for the forensic anthropologist to identify the origin of the remains. In order to contribute to this recognition, an analysis was made of the exhumations of 168 unclaimed human remains from the cemetery of Terrassa (Catalonia, Spain). This investigation presents a description of artifacts and conditions of remains that could indicate that the human remains may have originated from a cemetery. PMID:25459276

  10. Altered Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Proteome As the Basis of Disruption of Mitochondrial Function in Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Zabielski, Piotr; Lanza, Ian R; Gopala, Srinivas; Heppelmann, Carrie J Holtz; Bergen, H Robert; Dasari, Surendra; Nair, K Sreekumaran

    2016-03-01

    Insulin plays pivotal role in cellular fuel metabolism in skeletal muscle. Despite being the primary site of energy metabolism, the underlying mechanism on how insulin deficiency deranges skeletal muscle mitochondrial physiology remains to be fully understood. Here we report an important link between altered skeletal muscle proteome homeostasis and mitochondrial physiology during insulin deficiency. Deprivation of insulin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice decreased mitochondrial ATP production, reduced coupling and phosphorylation efficiency, and increased oxidant emission in skeletal muscle. Proteomic survey revealed that the mitochondrial derangements during insulin deficiency were related to increased mitochondrial protein degradation and decreased protein synthesis, resulting in reduced abundance of proteins involved in mitochondrial respiration and β-oxidation. However, a paradoxical upregulation of proteins involved in cellular uptake of fatty acids triggered an accumulation of incomplete fatty acid oxidation products in skeletal muscle. These data implicate a mismatch of β-oxidation and fatty acid uptake as a mechanism leading to increased oxidative stress in diabetes. This notion was supported by elevated oxidative stress in cultured myotubes exposed to palmitate in the presence of a β-oxidation inhibitor. Together, these results indicate that insulin deficiency alters the balance of proteins involved in fatty acid transport and oxidation in skeletal muscle, leading to impaired mitochondrial function and increased oxidative stress. PMID:26718503

  11. Taphonomy of the Tianyuandong human skeleton and faunal remains.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Jalvo, Yolanda; Andrews, Peter; Tong, HaoWen

    2015-06-01

    Tianyuan Cave is an Upper Palaeolithic site, 6 km from the core area of the Zhoukoudian Site Complex. Tianyuandong (or Tianyuan Cave) yielded one ancient (though not the earliest) fossil skeleton of Homo sapiens in China (42-39 ka cal BP). Together with the human skeleton, abundant animal remains were found, but no stone tools were recovered. The animal fossil remains are extremely fragmentary, in contrast to human skeletal elements that are, for the most part, complete. We undertook a taphonomic study to investigate the circumstances of preservation of the human skeleton in Tianyuan Cave, and in course of this we considered four hypotheses: funerary ritual, cannibalism, carnivore activity or natural death. Taphonomic results characterize the role of human action in the site and how these agents acted in the past. Because of disturbance of the human skeleton during its initial excavation, it is not known if it was in a grave cut or if there was any funerary ritual. No evidence was found for cannibalism or carnivore activity in relation to the human skeleton, suggesting natural death as the most reasonable possibility. PMID:25929706

  12. Taphonomy of the Tianyuandong human skeleton and faunal remains.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Jalvo, Yolanda; Andrews, Peter; Tong, HaoWen

    2015-06-01

    Tianyuan Cave is an Upper Palaeolithic site, 6 km from the core area of the Zhoukoudian Site Complex. Tianyuandong (or Tianyuan Cave) yielded one ancient (though not the earliest) fossil skeleton of Homo sapiens in China (42-39 ka cal BP). Together with the human skeleton, abundant animal remains were found, but no stone tools were recovered. The animal fossil remains are extremely fragmentary, in contrast to human skeletal elements that are, for the most part, complete. We undertook a taphonomic study to investigate the circumstances of preservation of the human skeleton in Tianyuan Cave, and in course of this we considered four hypotheses: funerary ritual, cannibalism, carnivore activity or natural death. Taphonomic results characterize the role of human action in the site and how these agents acted in the past. Because of disturbance of the human skeleton during its initial excavation, it is not known if it was in a grave cut or if there was any funerary ritual. No evidence was found for cannibalism or carnivore activity in relation to the human skeleton, suggesting natural death as the most reasonable possibility.

  13. TWEAK promotes exercise intolerance by decreasing skeletal muscle oxidative phosphorylation capacity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) and its receptor Fn14 are the major regulators of skeletal muscle mass in many catabolic conditions. However, their role in muscle metabolism remains largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the role of TWEAK on exercise capacity and skeletal muscle mitochondrial content and oxidative metabolism. Methods We employed wild-type and TWEAK-knockout (KO) mice and primary myotube cultures and performed biochemical, bioenergetics, and morphometric assays to evaluate the effects of TWEAK on exercise tolerance and muscle mitochondrial function and angiogenesis. Results TWEAK-KO mice showed improved exercise tolerance compared to wild-type mice. Electron microscopy analysis showed that the abundance of subsarcolemmal and intermyofibrillar mitochondria is significantly increased in skeletal muscle of TWEAK-KO mice compared to wild-type mice. Furthermore, age-related loss in skeletal muscle oxidative capacity was rescued in TWEAK-KO mice. Expression of a key transcriptional regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and several other molecules involved in oxidative metabolism were significantly higher in skeletal muscle of TWEAK-KO mice. Moreover, treatment of primary myotubes with soluble TWEAK inhibited the expression of PGC-1α and mitochondrial genes and decreased mitochondrial respiratory capacity. Deletion of TWEAK also improved angiogenesis and transcript levels of vascular endothelial growth factor in skeletal muscle of mice. Conclusions These results demonstrate that TWEAK decreases mitochondrial content and oxidative phosphorylation and inhibits angiogenesis in skeletal muscle. Neutralization of TWEAK is a potential approach for improving exercise capacity and oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle. PMID:23835416

  14. Propellant-remaining modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torgovitsky, S.

    1991-01-01

    A successful satellite mission is predicted upon the proper maintenance of the spacecraft's orbit and attitude. One requirement for planning and predicting the orbit and attitude is the accurate estimation of the propellant remaining onboard the spacecraft. Focuss is on the three methods that were developed for calculating the propellant budget: the errors associated with each method and the uncertainties in the variables required to determine the propellant remaining that contribute to these errors. Based on these findings, a strategy is developed for improved propellant-remaining estimation. The first method is based on Boyle's law, which related the values of pressure, volume, and temperature (PVT) of an ideal gas. The PVT method is used for the monopropellant and the bipropellant engines. The second method is based on the engine performance tests, which provide data that relate thrust and specific impulse associated with a propellant tank to that tank's pressure. Two curves representing thrust and specific impulse as functions of pressure are then generated using a polynomial fit on the engine performance data. The third method involves a computer simulation of the propellant system. The propellant flow is modeled by creating a conceptual model of the propulsion system configuration, taking into account such factors as the propellant and pressurant tank characteristics, thruster functionality, and piping layout. Finally, a thrust calibration technique is presented that uses differential correction with the computer simulation method of propellant-remaining modeling. Thrust calibration provides a better assessment of thruster performance and therefore enables a more accurate estimation of propellant consumed during a given maneuver.

  15. Skeletal Effects of Smoking.

    PubMed

    Cusano, Natalie E

    2015-10-01

    Smoking is a leading cause of preventable death and disability. Smoking has long been identified as a risk factor for osteoporosis, with data showing that older smokers have decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture risk compared to nonsmokers, particularly at the hip. The increase in fracture risk in smokers is out of proportion to the effects on bone density, indicating deficits in bone quality. Advanced imaging techniques have demonstrated microarchitectural deterioration in smokers, particularly in the trabecular compartment. The mechanisms by which smoking affects skeletal health remain unclear, although multiple pathways have been proposed. Smoking cessation may at least partially reverse the adverse effects of smoking on the skeleton.

  16. Skeletal Effects of Smoking.

    PubMed

    Cusano, Natalie E

    2015-10-01

    Smoking is a leading cause of preventable death and disability. Smoking has long been identified as a risk factor for osteoporosis, with data showing that older smokers have decreased bone mineral density and increased fracture risk compared to nonsmokers, particularly at the hip. The increase in fracture risk in smokers is out of proportion to the effects on bone density, indicating deficits in bone quality. Advanced imaging techniques have demonstrated microarchitectural deterioration in smokers, particularly in the trabecular compartment. The mechanisms by which smoking affects skeletal health remain unclear, although multiple pathways have been proposed. Smoking cessation may at least partially reverse the adverse effects of smoking on the skeleton. PMID:26205852

  17. Spatial patterning of vulture scavenged human remains.

    PubMed

    Spradley, M Katherine; Hamilton, Michelle D; Giordano, Alberto

    2012-06-10

    This article presents the results of a pilot study on the effects of vulture modification to human remains. A donated body from the Willed Body Donation Program was placed at the Forensic Anthropology Research Facility (FARF), an outdoor human decomposition laboratory located at Texas State University-San Marcos. The effects of vulture scavenging on the timing and sequence, and the rate of skeletonization, disarticulation, and dispersal were observed via a motion sensing camera and direct observation. Using GIS (Geographic Information Systems) and GPS (Global Positioning System) technologies and spatial analytical methods, the transport of skeletal elements was mapped in order to analyze dispersal and terrain-influenced patterns of active vulture scavenging. Results showed that the initial scavenging took place 37 days after placement at FARF. This delay in scavenging differs from previous research. After the initial appearance of the vultures, the body was reduced from a fully-fleshed individual to a skeleton within only 5h. This underscores the potential for errors in postmortem interval estimations made at vulture scavenged scenes. Additionally, spatial analysis showed that skeletal elements were dispersed by vultures to lower elevations, and that the disarticulation and dispersal of the skeletal elements occurs early in the scavenging sequence.

  18. Skeletal Muscle Tissue Engineering: Methods to Form Skeletal Myotubes and Their Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ostrovidov, Serge; Hosseini, Vahid; Ahadian, Samad; Fujie, Toshinori; Parthiban, Selvakumar Prakash; Ramalingam, Murugan; Bae, Hojae; Kaji, Hirokazu

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle tissue engineering (SMTE) aims to repair or regenerate defective skeletal muscle tissue lost by traumatic injury, tumor ablation, or muscular disease. However, two decades after the introduction of SMTE, the engineering of functional skeletal muscle in the laboratory still remains a great challenge, and numerous techniques for growing functional muscle tissues are constantly being developed. This article reviews the recent findings regarding the methodology and various technical aspects of SMTE, including cell alignment and differentiation. We describe the structure and organization of muscle and discuss the methods for myoblast alignment cultured in vitro. To better understand muscle formation and to enhance the engineering of skeletal muscle, we also address the molecular basics of myogenesis and discuss different methods to induce myoblast differentiation into myotubes. We then provide an overview of different coculture systems involving skeletal muscle cells, and highlight major applications of engineered skeletal muscle tissues. Finally, potential challenges and future research directions for SMTE are outlined. PMID:24320971

  19. Skeletal dysplasia in ancient Egypt.

    PubMed

    Kozma, Chahira

    2008-12-01

    The ancient Egyptian civilization lasted for over 3000 years and ended in 30 BCE. Many aspects of ancient Egyptian culture, including the existence of skeletal dysplasias, and in particular achondroplasia, are well known through the monuments and records that survived until modern times. The hot and dry climate in Egypt allowed for the preservation of bodies and skeletal anomalies. The oldest dwarf skeleton, the Badarian skeleton (4500 BCE), possibly represents an epiphyseal disorder. Among the remains of dwarfs with achondroplasia from ancient Egypt (2686-2190 BCE), exists a skeleton of a pregnant female, believed to have died during delivery with a baby's remains in situ. British museums have partial skeletons of dwarfs with achondroplasia, humeri probably affected with mucopolysaccharidoses, and a skeleton of a child with osteogenesis imperfecta. Skeletal dysplasia is also found among royal remains. The mummy of the pharaoh Siptah (1342-1197 BCE) shows a deformity of the left leg and foot. A mummified fetus, believed to be the daughter of king Tutankhamun, has scoliosis, spina bifida, and Sprengel deformity. In 2006 I reviewed the previously existing knowledge of dwarfism in ancient Egypt. The purpose of this second historical review is to add to that knowledge with an expanded contribution. The artistic documentation of people with skeletal dysplasia from ancient Egypt is plentiful including hundreds of amulets, statues, and drawing on tomb and temple walls. Examination of artistic reliefs provides a glance of the role of people with skeletal dysplasia and the societal attitudes toward them. Both artistic evidence and moral teachings in ancient Egypt reveal wide integration of individuals with disabilities into the society.

  20. Skeletal myoblasts for cardiac repair

    PubMed Central

    Durrani, Shazia; Konoplyannikov, Mikhail; Ashraf, Muhammad; Haider, Khawaja Husnain

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells provide an alternative curative intervention for the infarcted heart by compensating for the cardiomyocyte loss subsequent to myocardial injury. The presence of resident stem and progenitor cell populations in the heart, and nuclear reprogramming of somatic cells with genetic induction of pluripotency markers are the emerging new developments in stem cell-based regenerative medicine. However, until safety and feasibility of these cells are established by extensive experimentation in in vitro and in vivo experimental models, skeletal muscle-derived myoblasts, and bone marrow cells remain the most well-studied donor cell types for myocardial regeneration and repair. This article provides a critical review of skeletal myoblasts as donor cells for transplantation in the light of published experimental and clinical data, and indepth discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of skeletal myoblast-based therapeutic intervention for augmentation of myocardial function in the infarcted heart. Furthermore, strategies to overcome the problems of arrhythmogenicity and failure of the transplanted skeletal myoblasts to integrate with the host cardiomyocytes are discussed. PMID:21082891

  1. An Overview of the Medical Applications of Marine Skeletal Matrix Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, M. Azizur

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the medicinal potential of marine organisms has attracted increasing attention. This is due to their immense diversity and adaptation to unique ecological niches that has led to vast physiological and biochemical diversification. Among these organisms, marine calcifiers are an abundant source of novel proteins and chemical entities that can be used for drug discovery. Studies of the skeletal organic matrix proteins of marine calcifiers have focused on biomedical applications such as the identification of growth inducing proteins that can be used for bone regeneration, for example, 2/4 bone morphogenic proteins (BMP). Although a few reports on the functions of proteins derived from marine calcifiers can be found in the literature, marine calcifiers themselves remain an untapped source of proteins for the development of innovative pharmaceuticals. Following an overview of the current knowledge of skeletal organic matrix proteins from marine calcifiers, this review will focus on various aspects of marine skeletal protein research including sources, biosynthesis, structures, and possible strategies for chemical or physical modification. Special attention will be given to potential medical applications and recent discoveries of skeletal proteins and polysaccharides with biologically appealing characteristics. In addition, I will introduce an effective protocol for sample preparation and protein purification that includes isolation technology for biopolymers (of both soluble and insoluble organic matrices) from coralline algae. These algae are a widespread but poorly studied group of shallow marine calcifiers that have great potential for marine drug discovery. PMID:27626432

  2. An Overview of the Medical Applications of Marine Skeletal Matrix Proteins.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Azizur

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the medicinal potential of marine organisms has attracted increasing attention. This is due to their immense diversity and adaptation to unique ecological niches that has led to vast physiological and biochemical diversification. Among these organisms, marine calcifiers are an abundant source of novel proteins and chemical entities that can be used for drug discovery. Studies of the skeletal organic matrix proteins of marine calcifiers have focused on biomedical applications such as the identification of growth inducing proteins that can be used for bone regeneration, for example, 2/4 bone morphogenic proteins (BMP). Although a few reports on the functions of proteins derived from marine calcifiers can be found in the literature, marine calcifiers themselves remain an untapped source of proteins for the development of innovative pharmaceuticals. Following an overview of the current knowledge of skeletal organic matrix proteins from marine calcifiers, this review will focus on various aspects of marine skeletal protein research including sources, biosynthesis, structures, and possible strategies for chemical or physical modification. Special attention will be given to potential medical applications and recent discoveries of skeletal proteins and polysaccharides with biologically appealing characteristics. In addition, I will introduce an effective protocol for sample preparation and protein purification that includes isolation technology for biopolymers (of both soluble and insoluble organic matrices) from coralline algae. These algae are a widespread but poorly studied group of shallow marine calcifiers that have great potential for marine drug discovery. PMID:27626432

  3. An Overview of the Medical Applications of Marine Skeletal Matrix Proteins.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Azizur

    2016-09-12

    In recent years, the medicinal potential of marine organisms has attracted increasing attention. This is due to their immense diversity and adaptation to unique ecological niches that has led to vast physiological and biochemical diversification. Among these organisms, marine calcifiers are an abundant source of novel proteins and chemical entities that can be used for drug discovery. Studies of the skeletal organic matrix proteins of marine calcifiers have focused on biomedical applications such as the identification of growth inducing proteins that can be used for bone regeneration, for example, 2/4 bone morphogenic proteins (BMP). Although a few reports on the functions of proteins derived from marine calcifiers can be found in the literature, marine calcifiers themselves remain an untapped source of proteins for the development of innovative pharmaceuticals. Following an overview of the current knowledge of skeletal organic matrix proteins from marine calcifiers, this review will focus on various aspects of marine skeletal protein research including sources, biosynthesis, structures, and possible strategies for chemical or physical modification. Special attention will be given to potential medical applications and recent discoveries of skeletal proteins and polysaccharides with biologically appealing characteristics. In addition, I will introduce an effective protocol for sample preparation and protein purification that includes isolation technology for biopolymers (of both soluble and insoluble organic matrices) from coralline algae. These algae are a widespread but poorly studied group of shallow marine calcifiers that have great potential for marine drug discovery.

  4. Classification of pelvic ring fractures in skeletonized human remains.

    PubMed

    Báez-Molgado, Socorro; Bartelink, Eric J; Jellema, Lyman M; Spurlock, Linda; Sholts, Sabrina B

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic ring fractures are associated with high rates of mortality and thus can provide key information about circumstances surrounding death. These injuries can be particularly informative in skeletonized remains, yet difficult to diagnose and interpret. This study adapted a clinical system of classifying pelvic ring fractures according to their resultant degree of pelvic stability for application to gross human skeletal remains. The modified Tile criteria were applied to the skeletal remains of 22 individuals from the Cleveland Museum of Natural History and Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México that displayed evidence of pelvic injury. Because these categories are tied directly to clinical assessments concerning the severity and treatment of injuries, this approach can aid in the identification of manner and cause of death, as well as interpretations of possible mechanisms of injury, such as those typical in car-to-pedestrian and motor vehicle accidents. PMID:25381919

  5. Remembrance of things past: modelling the relationship between species' abundances in living communities and death assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Olszewski, Thomas D.

    2012-01-01

    Accumulations of dead skeletal material are a valuable archive of past ecological conditions. However, such assemblages are not equivalent to living communities because they mix the remains of multiple generations and are altered by post-mortem processes. The abundance of a species in a death assemblage can be quantitatively modelled by successively integrating the product of an influx time series and a post-mortem loss function (a decay function with a constant half-life). In such a model, temporal mixing increases expected absolute dead abundance relative to average influx as a linear function of half-life and increases variation in absolute dead abundance values as a square-root function of half-life. Because typical abundance distributions of ecological communities are logarithmically distributed, species' differences in preservational half-life would have to be very large to substantially alter species' abundance ranks (i.e. make rare species common or vice-versa). In addition, expected dead abundances increase at a faster rate than their range of variation with increased time averaging, predicting greater consistency in the relative abundance structure of death assemblages than their parent living community. PMID:21653564

  6. Chondroitin sulfate is a crucial determinant for skeletal muscle development/regeneration and improvement of muscular dystrophies.

    PubMed

    Mikami, Tadahisa; Koyama, Shinji; Yabuta, Yumi; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2012-11-01

    Skeletal muscle formation and regeneration require myoblast fusion to form multinucleated myotubes or myofibers, yet their molecular regulation remains incompletely understood. We show here that the levels of extra- and/or pericellular chondroitin sulfate (CS) chains in differentiating C2C12 myoblast culture are dramatically diminished at the stage of extensive syncytial myotube formation. Forced down-regulation of CS, but not of hyaluronan, levels enhanced myogenic differentiation in vitro. This characteristic CS reduction seems to occur through a cell-autonomous mechanism that involves HYAL1, a known catabolic enzyme for hyaluronan and CS. In vivo injection of a bacterial CS-degrading enzyme boosted myofiber regeneration in a mouse cardiotoxin-induced injury model and ameliorated dystrophic pathology in mdx muscles. Our data suggest that the control of CS abundance is a promising new therapeutic approach for the treatment of skeletal muscle injury and progressive muscular dystrophies.

  7. Satellite cells in human skeletal muscle plasticity.

    PubMed

    Snijders, Tim; Nederveen, Joshua P; McKay, Bryon R; Joanisse, Sophie; Verdijk, Lex B; van Loon, Luc J C; Parise, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells are considered to play a crucial role in muscle fiber maintenance, repair and remodeling. Our knowledge of the role of satellite cells in muscle fiber adaptation has traditionally relied on in vitro cell and in vivo animal models. Over the past decade, a genuine effort has been made to translate these results to humans under physiological conditions. Findings from in vivo human studies suggest that satellite cells play a key role in skeletal muscle fiber repair/remodeling in response to exercise. Mounting evidence indicates that aging has a profound impact on the regulation of satellite cells in human skeletal muscle. Yet, the precise role of satellite cells in the development of muscle fiber atrophy with age remains unresolved. This review seeks to integrate recent results from in vivo human studies on satellite cell function in muscle fiber repair/remodeling in the wider context of satellite cell biology whose literature is largely based on animal and cell models.

  8. Content and Access Remain Key

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Linda B.

    2007-01-01

    It is impossible to review the year's outstanding government publication landscape without acknowledging that change remains paramount. Just as striking, however, is that these changes go hand in hand with some familiar constants. Within this shifting environment, there are the consistency and dependability of government information itself,…

  9. The taphonomy of human remains in a glacial environment.

    PubMed

    Pilloud, Marin A; Megyesi, Mary S; Truffer, Martin; Congram, Derek

    2016-04-01

    A glacial environment is a unique setting that can alter human remains in characteristic ways. This study describes glacial dynamics and how glaciers can be understood as taphonomic agents. Using a case study of human remains recovered from Colony Glacier, Alaska, a glacial taphonomic signature is outlined that includes: (1) movement of remains, (2) dispersal of remains, (3) altered bone margins, (4) splitting of skeletal elements, and (5) extensive soft tissue preservation and adipocere formation. As global glacier area is declining in the current climate, there is the potential for more materials of archaeological and medicolegal significance to be exposed. It is therefore important for the forensic anthropologist to have an idea of the taphonomy in this setting and to be able to differentiate glacial effects from other taphonomic agents. PMID:26917542

  10. Extraction of DNA from Human Skeletal Material.

    PubMed

    Pajnič, Irena Zupanič

    2016-01-01

    In recent years the recovery and analysis of DNA from skeletal remains has been applied to several contexts ranging from disaster victim identification to the identification of the victims of conflict. Here are described procedures for processing the bone and tooth samples including mechanical and chemical cleaning, cutting and powdering in the presence of liquid nitrogen, complete demineralization of bone and tooth powder, DNA extraction, DNA purification using magnetic beads, and the precautions and strategies implemented to avoid and detect contamination. It has proven highly successful in the analysis of bones and teeth from Second World War victims' skeletal remains that have been excavated from mass graves in Slovenia and is also suitable for genetic identification of relatively fresh human remains. PMID:27259733

  11. Vitamin D and skeletal growth and development.

    PubMed

    Koo, Winston; Walyat, Nitin

    2013-09-01

    Vitamin D is critical to bone mineral metabolism and to the growth and development of the skeleton. Optimizing vitamin D status could be one of the cornerstones to optimize skeletal growth and achieving the maximum peak bone mass soon after the completion of adolescence. Maximizing peak bone mass is considered to be the key to primary prevention of osteoporosis. There is controversy, however, about what constitutes a healthy vitamin D status based on the most abundant circulating metabolite of vitamin D, namely 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25 OHD) in plasma or serum; and even the value of 25 OHD that should be used to define vitamin D deficiency. We reviewed the recent data on circulating 25 OHD concentrations and its relationship with skeletal growth in apparently healthy children and in those with nutritional vitamin D deficiency.

  12. MicroRNA Transcriptome Profiles During Swine Skeletal Muscle Development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    MicroRNA (miR) are a class of small RNAs that regulate gene expression by inhibiting translation of protein encoding transcripts. To evaluate the role of miR in skeletal muscle of swine, global microRNA abundance was measured at specific developmental stages including proliferating satellite cells,...

  13. [Pringle's disease with skeletal changes].

    PubMed

    Schöner, N; Kloss, R; Ellegast, H; Zelger, J

    1980-06-01

    A 45 year old woman with Pringle's disease (adenoma sebaceum), gingival and digital fibromas is reported, who had also characteristical skeletal lesions. Three of five children have cutaneous lesions, one of them also skeletal lesions.

  14. Silicon photonics: some remaining challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, G. T.; Topley, R.; Khokhar, A. Z.; Thompson, D. J.; Stanković, S.; Reynolds, S.; Chen, X.; Soper, N.; Mitchell, C. J.; Hu, Y.; Shen, L.; Martinez-Jimenez, G.; Healy, N.; Mailis, S.; Peacock, A. C.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Gardes, F. Y.; Soler Penades, J.; Alonso-Ramos, C.; Ortega-Monux, A.; Wanguemert-Perez, G.; Molina-Fernandez, I.; Cheben, P.; Mashanovich, G. Z.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses some of the remaining challenges for silicon photonics, and how we at Southampton University have approached some of them. Despite phenomenal advances in the field of Silicon Photonics, there are a number of areas that still require development. For short to medium reach applications, there is a need to improve the power consumption of photonic circuits such that inter-chip, and perhaps intra-chip applications are viable. This means that yet smaller devices are required as well as thermally stable devices, and multiple wavelength channels. In turn this demands smaller, more efficient modulators, athermal circuits, and improved wavelength division multiplexers. The debate continues as to whether on-chip lasers are necessary for all applications, but an efficient low cost laser would benefit many applications. Multi-layer photonics offers the possibility of increasing the complexity and effectiveness of a given area of chip real estate, but it is a demanding challenge. Low cost packaging (in particular, passive alignment of fibre to waveguide), and effective wafer scale testing strategies, are also essential for mass market applications. Whilst solutions to these challenges would enhance most applications, a derivative technology is emerging, that of Mid Infra-Red (MIR) silicon photonics. This field will build on existing developments, but will require key enhancements to facilitate functionality at longer wavelengths. In common with mainstream silicon photonics, significant developments have been made, but there is still much left to do. Here we summarise some of our recent work towards wafer scale testing, passive alignment, multiplexing, and MIR silicon photonics technology.

  15. Structure of Skeletal Muscle

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cells, Tissues, & Membranes Cell Structure & Function Cell Structure Cell Function Body Tissues Epithelial Tissue Connective Tissue Muscle Tissue ... nerves. This is directly related to the primary function of skeletal muscle, ... an impulse from a nerve cell. Generally, an artery and at least one vein ...

  16. Do inflammatory cells influence skeletal muscle hypertrophy?

    PubMed

    Koh, Timothy J; Pizza, Francis X

    2009-06-01

    Most research on muscle hypertrophy has focused on the responses of muscle cells to mechanical loading; however, a number of studies also suggest that inflammatory cells may influence muscle hypertrophy. Neutrophils and macrophages accumulate in skeletal muscle following increased mechanical loading, and we have demonstrated that macrophages are essential for hypertrophy following synergist ablation. Whether neutrophils are required remains to be determined. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs impair adaptive responses of skeletal muscle in both human and animal experiments suggesting that the routine use of such drugs could impair muscle performance. Much remains to be learned about the role of inflammatory cells in muscle hypertrophy, including the molecular signals involved in calling neutrophils and macrophages to skeletal muscle as well as those that regulate their function in muscle. In addition, although we have demonstrated that macrophages produce growth promoting factors during muscle hypertrophy, the full range of functional activities involved in muscle hypertrophy remains to be determined. Further investigation should provide insight into the intriguing hypothesis that inflammatory cells play integral roles in regulating muscle hypertrophy.

  17. In boys with abnormal developmental tempo, maturation of the skeleton and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis remains synchronous.

    PubMed

    Flor-Cisneros, Armando; Leschek, Ellen W; Merke, Deborah P; Barnes, Kevin M; Coco, Marilena; Cutler, Gordon B; Baron, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    The primary mechanism that initiates puberty is unknown. One possible clue is that pubertal maturation often parallels skeletal maturation. Conditions that delay skeletal maturation also tend to delay the onset of puberty, whereas conditions that accelerate skeletal maturation tend to hasten the onset of puberty. To examine this relationship, we studied boys with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (n = 13) and familial male-limited precocious puberty (n = 22), two conditions that accelerate maturational tempo, and boys with idiopathic short stature (n = 18) in which maturational tempo is sometimes delayed. In all three conditions, the onset of central puberty generally occurred at an abnormal chronological age but a normal bone age. Boys with the greatest skeletal advancement began central puberty at the earliest age, whereas boys with the greatest skeletal delay began puberty at the latest age. Furthermore, the magnitude of the skeletal advancement or delay matched the magnitude of the pubertal advancement or delay. This synchrony between skeletal maturation and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis maturation was observed among patients within each condition and also between conditions. In contrast, the maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis did not remain synchronous with other maturational processes including weight, height, or body mass index. We conclude that in boys with abnormal developmental tempo, maturation of the skeleton and the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis remains synchronous. This synchrony is consistent with the hypothesis that in boys, skeletal maturation influences hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis maturation.

  18. Gravity and Skeletal Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morey-Holton, Emily; Turner, Russell T.

    1999-01-01

    Two simultaneous experiments were performed using 5-week-old male Sprague Dawley rats; in one study, the rats were flown in low earth orbit; in the other study, the hindlimbs of the growing rats were elevated to prevent weight bearing. Following 9 d of unloading, weight bearing was restored for 4, 28, and 76 hrs. Afterwards, additional hindlimb unloading experiments were performed to evaluate the skeletal response to 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, and 24 hrs of restored weight bearing following 7 d of unloading. Cancellous and cortical bone histomorphometry were evaluated in the left tibia at the proximal metaphysis and in the left femur at mid-diaphysis, respectively. Steady-state mRNA levels for bone matrix proteins and skeletal signaling peptides were determined in total cellular RNA extracted from trabeculae from the right proximal tibiametaphysis and periosteum from the right femur. Spaceflight and hindlimb unloading each resulted in cancellous osteopenia, as well as a tendency towards decreased periosteal bone formation. Both models for skeletal unloading resulted in site specific reductions in mRNA levels for transforming growth factor-beta (sub 1) (TGF-beta) osteocalcin (OC), and prepro-alpha (I) subunit of type 1 collagen (collagen) and little or no changes in mRNA levels for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAP) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). Restoration of normal weight bearing resulted in transient increases in mRNA levels for the bone matrix proteins and TGF-beta in the proximal metaphysis and periosteum and no changes in either GAP or IGF-I mRNA levels. The timecourse for the response differed between the two skeletal compartments; the tibial metaphysis responded much more quickly to reloading. These results suggest that the skeletal adaptation to acute physiological changes in mechanical usage are mediated, in part, by changes in mRNA levels for bone matrix proteins and TGF-beta.

  19. Gadd45a Protein Promotes Skeletal Muscle Atrophy by Forming a Complex with the Protein Kinase MEKK4*♦

    PubMed Central

    Bullard, Steven A.; Seo, Seongjin; Schilling, Birgit; Dyle, Michael C.; Dierdorff, Jason M.; Ebert, Scott M.; DeLau, Austin D.; Gibson, Bradford W.; Adams, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy is a serious and highly prevalent condition that remains poorly understood at the molecular level. Previous work found that skeletal muscle atrophy involves an increase in skeletal muscle Gadd45a expression, which is necessary and sufficient for skeletal muscle fiber atrophy. However, the direct mechanism by which Gadd45a promotes skeletal muscle atrophy was unknown. To address this question, we biochemically isolated skeletal muscle proteins that associate with Gadd45a as it induces atrophy in mouse skeletal muscle fibers in vivo. We found that Gadd45a interacts with multiple proteins in skeletal muscle fibers, including, most prominently, MEKK4, a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase that was not previously known to play a role in skeletal muscle atrophy. Furthermore, we found that, by forming a complex with MEKK4 in skeletal muscle fibers, Gadd45a increases MEKK4 protein kinase activity, which is both sufficient to induce skeletal muscle fiber atrophy and required for Gadd45a-mediated skeletal muscle fiber atrophy. Together, these results identify a direct biochemical mechanism by which Gadd45a induces skeletal muscle atrophy and provide new insight into the way that skeletal muscle atrophy occurs at the molecular level. PMID:27358404

  20. A non-destructive method for dating human remains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lail, Warren K.; Sammeth, David; Mahan, Shannon; Nevins, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The skeletal remains of several Native Americans were recovered in an eroded state from a creek bank in northeastern New Mexico. Subsequently stored in a nearby museum, the remains became lost for almost 36 years. In a recent effort to repatriate the remains, it was necessary to fit them into a cultural chronology in order to determine the appropriate tribe(s) for consultation pursuant to the Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). Because the remains were found in an eroded context with no artifacts or funerary objects, their age was unknown. Having been asked to avoid destructive dating methods such as radiocarbon dating, the authors used Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) to date the sediments embedded in the cranium. The OSL analyses yielded reliable dates between A.D. 1415 and A.D. 1495. Accordingly, we conclude that the remains were interred somewhat earlier than A.D. 1415, but no later than A.D. 1495. We believe the remains are from individuals ancestral to the Ute Mouache Band, which is now being contacted for repatriation efforts. Not only do our methods contribute to the immediate repatriation efforts, they provide archaeologists with a versatile, non-destructive, numerical dating method that can be used in many burial contexts.

  1. Nosology and Classification of Genetic Skeletal Disorders: 2010 Revision

    PubMed Central

    Warman, Matthew L; Cormier-Daire, Valerie; Hall, Christine; Krakow, Deborah; Lachman, Ralph; LeMerrer, Martine; Mortier, Geert; Mundlos, Stefan; Nishimura, Gen; Rimoin, David L; Robertson, Stephen; Savarirayan, Ravi; Sillence, David; Spranger, Juergen; Unger, Sheila; Zabel, Bernhard; Superti-Furga, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Genetic disorders involving the skeletal system arise through disturbances in the complex processes of skeletal development, growth and homeostasis and remain a diagnostic challenge because of their variety. The Nosology and Classification of Genetic Skeletal Disorders provides an overview of recognized diagnostic entities and groups them by clinical and radiographic features and molecular pathogenesis. The aim is to provide the Genetics, Pediatrics and Radiology community with a list of recognized genetic skeletal disorders that can be of help in the diagnosis of individual cases, in the delineation of novel disorders, and in building bridges between clinicians and scientists interested in skeletal biology. In the 2010 revision, 456 conditions were included and placed in 40 groups defined by molecular, biochemical, and/or radiographic criteria. Of these conditions, 316 were associated with mutations in one or more of 226 different genes, ranging from common, recurrent mutations to “private” found in single families or individuals. Thus, the Nosology is a hybrid between a list of clinically defined disorders, waiting for molecular clarification, and an annotated database documenting the phenotypic spectrum produced by mutations in a given gene. The Nosology should be useful for the diagnosis of patients with genetic skeletal diseases, particularly in view of the information flood expected with the novel sequencing technologies; in the delineation of clinical entities and novel disorders, by providing an overview of established nosologic entities; and for scientists looking for the clinical correlates of genes, proteins and pathways involved in skeletal biology. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:21438135

  2. Double-energy X-ray absorptiometry in the diagnosis of osteopenia in ancient skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    González-Reimers, E; Velasco-Vázquez, J; Arnay-de-la-Rosa, M; Santolaria-Fernández, F; Gómez-Rodríguez, M A; Machado-Calvo, M

    2002-06-01

    Bone mineral density (BMD) assessed by double-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) accurately estimates the bone mass in living individuals, and is thus the method usually employed in the diagnosis and follow-up of osteopenia. It is preferred, in clinical settings, to the more invasive and destructive histomorphometrical assessment of trabecular bone mass in undecalcified bone samples. This study was performed in order to examine the value of DEXA-assessed BMD at the proximal end of the right tibia, either alone or in combination with the cortico-medullary index at the midshaft point of the right tibia (CMI), in the diagnosis of osteopenia in a prehistoric sample composed of 95 pre-Hispanic individuals from Gran Canaria. Age at death could be estimated in 34 cases. Diagnosis of osteopenia was performed by histomorphometrical assessment of trabecular bone mass (TBM) in an undecalcified bone section of a small portion of the proximal epiphysis of the right tibia. A high prevalence of osteopenia was found among the population of Gran Canaria. Both TBM and BMD were significantly lower in the older individuals than in younger ones, and BMD was also significantly lower in female individuals. BMD was moderately correlated with TBM (r = +0.51); the correlation was higher if CMI was included (multiple r = +0.615). BMD values lower than 0.7 g/cm2 showed a high specificity (>93%) at excluding normal TBM values. These methods were prospectively applied in a further sample of 21 right tibiae from Gran Canaria, Tenerife, and El Hierro. The results were similar to those obtained in the larger sample. Thus, DEXA-assessed BMD combined with CMI (noninvasive procedures) may be useful in detecting osteopenia in ancient populations.

  3. Uranium series dating of human skeletal remains from the del mar and sunnyvale sites, california.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, J L; Rosenbauer, R J

    1981-08-28

    Uranium series analyses of human bone samples from the Del Mar and Sunnyvale sites indicate ages of 11,000 and 8,300 years, respectively. The dates are supported by internal concordancy between thorium-230 and protactinium-231 decay systems. These ages are significantly younger than the estimates of 48,000 and 70,000 years based on amino acid racemization, and indicate that the individuals could derive from the population waves that came across the Bering Strait during the last sea-level low.

  4. A test of three methods for estimating stature from immature skeletal remains using long bone lengths.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Hugo F V

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the accuracy of three methods for stature estimation of children from long bone lengths was investigated. The sample utilized consists of nine identified immature skeletons (seven males and two females) of known cadaver length, aged between 1 and 14 years old. Results show that stature (cadaver length) is consistently underestimated by all three methods (from a minimum of 2.9 cm to a maximum of 19.3 cm). The femur/stature ratio provided the least accurate estimates of stature, and predictions were not significantly improved by the other two methods. Differences between true and estimated stature were also greatest when using the length of lower limb bones. Given that the study sample children grew in less than optimal environmental conditions, compared with the children that contributed to the development of the methods, they are stunted and have proportionally shorter legs. This suggests that stature estimation methods are not universally applicable and that environmental differences within a population (e.g., socioeconomic status differences) or differing levels of modernization and social and economic development between nations are an important source of variation in stature and body proportions of children. The fallibility of stature estimation methods, when they do not consider such variation, can be somewhat minimized if stature is estimated from the length of upper limb bones.

  5. Uranium series dating of human skeletal remains from the del mar and sunnyvale sites, california.

    PubMed

    Bischoff, J L; Rosenbauer, R J

    1981-08-28

    Uranium series analyses of human bone samples from the Del Mar and Sunnyvale sites indicate ages of 11,000 and 8,300 years, respectively. The dates are supported by internal concordancy between thorium-230 and protactinium-231 decay systems. These ages are significantly younger than the estimates of 48,000 and 70,000 years based on amino acid racemization, and indicate that the individuals could derive from the population waves that came across the Bering Strait during the last sea-level low. PMID:17789030

  6. Quantifying Inter-Laboratory Variability in Stable Isotope Analysis of Ancient Skeletal Remains

    PubMed Central

    Pestle, William J.; Crowley, Brooke E.; Weirauch, Matthew T.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past forty years, stable isotope analysis of bone (and tooth) collagen and hydroxyapatite has become a mainstay of archaeological and paleoanthropological reconstructions of paleodiet and paleoenvironment. Despite this method's frequent use across anthropological subdisciplines (and beyond), the present work represents the first attempt at gauging the effects of inter-laboratory variability engendered by differences in a) sample preparation, and b) analysis (instrumentation, working standards, and data calibration). Replicate analyses of a 14C-dated ancient human bone by twenty-one archaeological and paleoecological stable isotope laboratories revealed significant inter-laboratory isotopic variation for both collagen and carbonate. For bone collagen, we found a sizeable range of 1.8‰ for δ13Ccol and 1.9‰ for δ15Ncol among laboratories, but an interpretatively insignificant average pairwise difference of 0.2‰ and 0.4‰ for δ13Ccol and δ15Ncol respectively. For bone hydroxyapatite the observed range increased to a troublingly large 3.5‰ for δ13Cap and 6.7‰ for δ18Oap, with average pairwise differences of 0.6‰ for δ13Cap and a disquieting 2.0‰ for δ18Oap. In order to assess the effects of preparation versus analysis on isotopic variability among laboratories, a subset of the samples prepared by the participating laboratories were analyzed a second time on the same instrument. Based on this duplicate analysis, it was determined that roughly half of the isotopic variability among laboratories could be attributed to differences in sample preparation, with the other half resulting from differences in analysis (instrumentation, working standards, and data calibration). These findings have serious implications for choices made in the preparation and extraction of target biomolecules, the comparison of results obtained from different laboratories, and the interpretation of small differences in bone collagen and hydroxyapatite isotope values. To address the issues arising from inter-laboratory comparisons, we devise a novel measure we term the Minimum Meaningful Difference (MMD), and demonstrate its application. PMID:25061843

  7. Classification system of frontal sinus patterns by radiography. Its application to identification of unknown skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, M; Miyasaka, S; Sato, H; Seta, S

    1987-08-01

    Frontal sinuses of Japanese skulls were radiographically examined from the view point of identifying individuals. The system of classification of sinus was proposed, basing on the area size, the bilateral asymmetry, the superiority of side, the outline of upper borders, the partial septa and the supraorbital cells. Frontal sinus patterns could be divided into above 20,000 possible combinations by combining the class numbers in each classification item described above. The frontal sinus pattern of a given person was formulated as a code number which was determined by arranging the class numbers in each classification item as serial numbers. This identification system by the frontal sinus pattern should allow one to characterize each person. The application of this identification system to an actual criminal case was also described.

  8. New studies of post-Pleistocene human skeletal remains from the Rift Valley, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Rightmire, G P

    1975-05-01

    Prehistoric human crania from Bromhead's Site, Willey's Kopje, Makalia Burial Site, Nakuru, and other localities in the Eastern Rift Valley of Kenya are reassessed using measurements and a multivariate statistical approach. Materials available for comparison include series of Bushman and Hottentot crania. South and East African Negroes, and Egyptians. Up to 34 cranial measurements taken on these series are utilized to construct three multiple discriminant frameworks, each of which can assign modern individuals to a correct group with considerable accuracy. When the prehistoric crania are classified with the help of these discriminants, results indicate that several of the skulls are best grouped with modern Negroes. This is especially clear in the case of individuals from Bromhead's Site, Willey's Kopje, and Nakuru, and the evidence hardly suggests post-Pleistocene domination of the Rift and surrounding territory by "Mediterranean" Caucasoids, as has been claimed. Recent linguistic and archaeological findings are also reviewed, and these seem to support application of the term Nilotic Negro to the early Rift populations.

  9. Skeletal remains of mummified foetus for 36 years in mother's abdomen

    PubMed Central

    Gedam, B.S.; Shah, Yunus; Deshmukh, Shahaji; Bansod, Prasad Y.

    2014-01-01

    Lithopedion is a rare event that occurs in 0.0054% of all gestations.1 According to one report there are only about 330 known cases of stone baby in the world (Gang sung, Min Lee et al., 2010). About 1.5–1.8% of the abdominal babies develop into lithopedion. We report a 60-year-old female with pain and lump in lower abdomen since 2 months. Possibility of tumour was on evaluation. Eventually a mass containing foetal skeleton was found in her abdomen which was traced to her pregnancy 36 years back. PMID:25647606

  10. Uranium series dating of human skeletal remains from the Del Mar and Sunnyvale sites, California

    SciTech Connect

    Bischoff, J.L.; Rosenbauer, R.J.

    1981-08-28

    Uranium series analyses of human bone samples from the Del Mar and Sunnyvale sites indicate ages of 11,000 and 8300 years, respectively. The dates are supported by internal concordancy between thorium-230 and protactinium-231 decay systems. These ages are significantly younger than the estimates of 48,000 and 70,000 years based on amino acid racemization, and indicate that the individuals could derive from the population waves that came across the Bering Strait during the last sea-level low.

  11. Ancient skeletal remains of the Canary Islands: bone histology and chemical analysis.

    PubMed

    González-Reimers, E; Arnay-de-la-Rosa, M

    1992-09-01

    Prehispanic burials from the Canary Islands are often well preserved. Many of the bodies are mummified, most of them were not interred, but deposited in caves. Bone histological and trace element analysis of 117 skeletons of the prehispanic period of the Canary Islands was performed. In some of the islands we have found a high prevalence of osteoporosis, whereas in others, histomorphometrically assessed trabecular bone mass (TBM) (in undecalcified iliac crest specimens) was in the normal range. Bone trace elements analysis have shown high bone S(r), Mg and Mn, and low Fe, Zn and Cu in those skeletons with a more reduced TBM. These facts speak for a relative protein-calorie malnutrition and a consumption of a mainly vegetarian diet. This is especially marked in the skeletons from Gran Canaria.

  12. Uranium series dating of human skeletal remains from the Del Mar and Sunnyvale sites, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bischoff, J.L.; Rosenbauer, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    Uranium series analyses of human bone samples from the Del Mar and Sunnyvale sites indicate ages of 11,000 and 8,300 years, respectively. The dates are supported by internal concordancy between thorium-230 and protactinium-231 decay systems. These ages are significantly younger than the estimates of 48,000 and 70,000 years based on amino acid racemization, and indicate that the individuals could derive from the population waves that came across the Bering Strait during the last sea-level low. Copyright ?? 1981 AAAS.

  13. Application of the temporal bone for sex determination from the skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Kozerska, Magdalena; Skrzat, Janusz; Szczepanek, Anita

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents state of current knowledge on possibilities and accuracy of sex determination from the temporal bone. Experimental and comparative studies performed on temporal bones derived from different human populations allowed to verify to what extend this bone is valuable source of information on sex of individual. It was figured out that the temporal bone can be used for this purpose and the size of the mastoid process is considered to be one of the best sex discriminator. PMID:26839241

  14. PET and PET/CT imaging of skeletal metastases

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Bone scintigraphy augmented with radiographs or cross-sectional imaging, such as computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), has remained the commonest method to diagnose and follow up skeletal metastases. However, bone scintigraphy is associated with relatively poor spatial resolution, limited diagnostic specificity and reduced sensitivity for bone marrow disease. It also shows limited diagnostic accuracy in assessing response to therapy in a clinically useful time period. With the advent of hybrid positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scanners there has been an increasing interest in using various PET tracers to evaluate skeletal disease including [18F]fluoride (NaF) as a bone-specific tracer and [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose and [18F]choline as tumour-specific tracers. There is also early work exploring the receptor status of skeletal metastases with somatostatin receptor analogues. This review describes the potential utility of these tracers in the assessment of skeletal metastases. PMID:20663736

  15. Targeted Delivery Systems for Molecular Therapy in Skeletal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dang, Lei; Liu, Jin; Li, Fangfei; Wang, Luyao; Li, Defang; Guo, Baosheng; He, Xiaojuan; Jiang, Feng; Liang, Chao; Liu, Biao; Badshah, Shaikh Atik; He, Bing; Lu, Jun; Lu, Cheng; Lu, Aiping; Zhang, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities in the integral components of bone, including bone matrix, bone mineral and bone cells, give rise to complex disturbances of skeletal development, growth and homeostasis. Non-specific drug delivery using high-dose systemic administration may decrease therapeutic efficacy of drugs and increase the risk of toxic effects in non-skeletal tissues, which remain clinical challenges in the treatment of skeletal disorders. Thus, targeted delivery systems are urgently needed to achieve higher drug delivery efficiency, improve therapeutic efficacy in the targeted cells/tissues, and minimize toxicities in non-targeted cells/tissues. In this review, we summarize recent progress in the application of different targeting moieties and nanoparticles for targeted drug delivery in skeletal disorders, and also discuss the advantages, challenges and perspectives in their clinical translation. PMID:27011176

  16. Identification of the remains of King Richard III.

    PubMed

    King, Turi E; Fortes, Gloria Gonzalez; Balaresque, Patricia; Thomas, Mark G; Balding, David; Maisano Delser, Pierpaolo; Neumann, Rita; Parson, Walther; Knapp, Michael; Walsh, Susan; Tonasso, Laure; Holt, John; Kayser, Manfred; Appleby, Jo; Forster, Peter; Ekserdjian, David; Hofreiter, Michael; Schürer, Kevin

    2014-12-02

    In 2012, a skeleton was excavated at the presumed site of the Grey Friars friary in Leicester, the last-known resting place of King Richard III. Archaeological, osteological and radiocarbon dating data were consistent with these being his remains. Here we report DNA analyses of both the skeletal remains and living relatives of Richard III. We find a perfect mitochondrial DNA match between the sequence obtained from the remains and one living relative, and a single-base substitution when compared with a second relative. Y-chromosome haplotypes from male-line relatives and the remains do not match, which could be attributed to a false-paternity event occurring in any of the intervening generations. DNA-predicted hair and eye colour are consistent with Richard's appearance in an early portrait. We calculate likelihood ratios for the non-genetic and genetic data separately, and combined, and conclude that the evidence for the remains being those of Richard III is overwhelming.

  17. Skeletal adaptation in altered gravity environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keller, Tony S.; Strauss, Alvin M.

    1990-01-01

    It is generally agreed that the single factor that most limits human survivability in non Earth environments is the phenomenon of bone demineralization and the medical problems induced by the subsequent imbalance in the calcium metabolism. Alterations of skeletal properties occur as a result of disturbances in the normal mechanical loading environment of bone. These alterations or adaptations obey physical laws, but the precise mathematical relationship remains to be determined. Principles governing unloading and overloading of bone are gaining more attention as a consequence of the planning of manned space stations, Moon and Mars bases and spaceflights of long duration. A mathematical framework which allows for the prediction of skeletal adaptation on Earth and in non Earth gravity environments by power law relationships is presented.

  18. Parathyroid hormone (PTH)/PTH-related peptide type 1 receptor (PPR) signaling in osteocytes regulates anabolic and catabolic skeletal responses to PTH.

    PubMed

    Saini, Vaibhav; Marengi, Dean A; Barry, Kevin J; Fulzele, Keertik S; Heiden, Erica; Liu, Xiaolong; Dedic, Christopher; Maeda, Akira; Lotinun, Sutada; Baron, Roland; Pajevic, Paola Divieti

    2013-07-12

    Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is the only Food and Drug Administration-approved anabolic agent to treat osteoporosis; however, the cellular targets of PTH action in bone remain controversial. PTH modulates bone turnover by binding to the PTH/PTH-related peptide (PTHrP) type 1 receptor (PPR), a G-protein-coupled receptor highly expressed in bone and kidneys. Osteocytes, the most abundant cells in adult bone, also express PPR. However, the physiological relevance of PPR signaling in osteocytes remains to be elucidated. Toward this goal, we generated mice with PPR deletion in osteocytes (Ocy-PPRKO). Skeletal analysis of these mice revealed a significant increase in bone mineral density and trabecular and cortical bone parameters. Osteoblast activities were reduced in these animals, as demonstrated by decreased collagen type I α1 mRNA and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) expression. Importantly, when subjected to an anabolic or catabolic PTH regimen, Ocy-PPRKO animals demonstrated blunted skeletal responses. PTH failed to suppress SOST/Sclerostin or induce RANKL expression in Ocy-PPRKO animals compared with controls. In vitro, osteoclastogenesis was significantly impaired in Ocy-PPRKO upon PTH administration, indicating that osteocytes control osteoclast formation through a PPR-mediated mechanism. Taken together, these data indicate that PPR signaling in osteocytes is required for bone remodeling, and receptor signaling in osteocytes is needed for anabolic and catabolic skeletal responses.

  19. Comprehensive analysis of tropomyosin isoforms in skeletal muscles by top-down proteomics.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yutong; Peng, Ying; Lin, Ziqing; Chen, Yi-Chen; Wei, Liming; Hacker, Timothy A; Larsson, Lars; Ge, Ying

    2016-04-01

    Mammalian skeletal muscles are heterogeneous in nature and are capable of performing various functions. Tropomyosin (Tpm) is a major component of the thin filament in skeletal muscles and plays an important role in controlling muscle contraction and relaxation. Tpm is known to consist of multiple isoforms resulting from different encoding genes and alternative splicing, along with post-translational modifications. However, a systematic characterization of Tpm isoforms in skeletal muscles is still lacking. Therefore, we employed top-down mass spectrometry (MS) to identify and characterize Tpm isoforms present in different skeletal muscles from multiple species, including swine, rat, and human. Our study revealed that Tpm1.1 and Tpm2.2 are the two major Tpm isoforms in swine and rat skeletal muscles, whereas Tpm1.1, Tpm2.2, and Tpm3.12 are present in human skeletal muscles. Tandem MS was utilized to identify the sequences of the major Tpm isoforms. Furthermore, quantitative analysis revealed muscle-type specific differences in the abundance of un-modified and modified Tpm isoforms in rat and human skeletal muscles. This study represents the first systematic investigation of Tpm isoforms in skeletal muscles, which not only demonstrates the capabilities of top-down MS for the comprehensive characterization of skeletal myofilament proteins but also provides the basis for further studies on these Tpm isoforms in muscle-related diseases. PMID:27090236

  20. Comprehensive analysis of tropomyosin isoforms in skeletal muscles by top-down proteomics.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yutong; Peng, Ying; Lin, Ziqing; Chen, Yi-Chen; Wei, Liming; Hacker, Timothy A; Larsson, Lars; Ge, Ying

    2016-04-01

    Mammalian skeletal muscles are heterogeneous in nature and are capable of performing various functions. Tropomyosin (Tpm) is a major component of the thin filament in skeletal muscles and plays an important role in controlling muscle contraction and relaxation. Tpm is known to consist of multiple isoforms resulting from different encoding genes and alternative splicing, along with post-translational modifications. However, a systematic characterization of Tpm isoforms in skeletal muscles is still lacking. Therefore, we employed top-down mass spectrometry (MS) to identify and characterize Tpm isoforms present in different skeletal muscles from multiple species, including swine, rat, and human. Our study revealed that Tpm1.1 and Tpm2.2 are the two major Tpm isoforms in swine and rat skeletal muscles, whereas Tpm1.1, Tpm2.2, and Tpm3.12 are present in human skeletal muscles. Tandem MS was utilized to identify the sequences of the major Tpm isoforms. Furthermore, quantitative analysis revealed muscle-type specific differences in the abundance of un-modified and modified Tpm isoforms in rat and human skeletal muscles. This study represents the first systematic investigation of Tpm isoforms in skeletal muscles, which not only demonstrates the capabilities of top-down MS for the comprehensive characterization of skeletal myofilament proteins but also provides the basis for further studies on these Tpm isoforms in muscle-related diseases.

  1. Long-term skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with hypermetabolism in severely burned children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The long-term impact of burn trauma on skeletal muscle bioenergetics remains unknown. Here, we determined respiratory capacity and function of skeletal muscle mitochondria in healthy individuals and in burn victims for up to two years post-injury. Biopsies were collected from the m. vastus lateralis...

  2. Glucocorticoids and Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Bodine, Sue C; Furlow, J David

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoids are known to regulate protein metabolism in skeletal muscle, producing a catabolic effect that is opposite that of insulin. In many catabolic diseases, such as sepsis, starvation, and cancer cachexia, endogenous glucocorticoids are elevated contributing to the loss of muscle mass and function. Further, exogenous glucocorticoids are often given acutely and chronically to treat inflammatory conditions such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and rheumatoid arthritis, resulting in muscle atrophy. This chapter will detail the nature of glucocorticoid-induced muscle atrophy and discuss the mechanisms thought to be responsible for the catabolic effects of glucocorticoids on muscle. PMID:26215994

  3. Deep proteomics of mouse skeletal muscle enables quantitation of protein isoforms, metabolic pathways, and transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Atul S; Murgia, Marta; Nagaraj, Nagarjuna; Treebak, Jonas T; Cox, Jürgen; Mann, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Skeletal muscle constitutes 40% of individual body mass and plays vital roles in locomotion and whole-body metabolism. Proteomics of skeletal muscle is challenging because of highly abundant contractile proteins that interfere with detection of regulatory proteins. Using a state-of-the art MS workflow and a strategy to map identifications from the C2C12 cell line model to tissues, we identified a total of 10,218 proteins, including skeletal muscle specific transcription factors like myod1 and myogenin and circadian clock proteins. We obtain absolute abundances for proteins expressed in a muscle cell line and skeletal muscle, which should serve as a valuable resource. Quantitation of protein isoforms of glucose uptake signaling pathways and in glucose and lipid metabolic pathways provides a detailed metabolic map of the cell line compared with tissue. This revealed unexpectedly complex regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase and insulin signaling in muscle tissue at the level of enzyme isoforms.

  4. Deep Proteomics of Mouse Skeletal Muscle Enables Quantitation of Protein Isoforms, Metabolic Pathways, and Transcription Factors*

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Atul S.; Murgia, Marta; Nagaraj, Nagarjuna; Treebak, Jonas T.; Cox, Jürgen; Mann, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle constitutes 40% of individual body mass and plays vital roles in locomotion and whole-body metabolism. Proteomics of skeletal muscle is challenging because of highly abundant contractile proteins that interfere with detection of regulatory proteins. Using a state-of-the art MS workflow and a strategy to map identifications from the C2C12 cell line model to tissues, we identified a total of 10,218 proteins, including skeletal muscle specific transcription factors like myod1 and myogenin and circadian clock proteins. We obtain absolute abundances for proteins expressed in a muscle cell line and skeletal muscle, which should serve as a valuable resource. Quantitation of protein isoforms of glucose uptake signaling pathways and in glucose and lipid metabolic pathways provides a detailed metabolic map of the cell line compared with tissue. This revealed unexpectedly complex regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase and insulin signaling in muscle tissue at the level of enzyme isoforms. PMID:25616865

  5. Type 2 diabetes mellitus and skeletal muscle metabolic function.

    PubMed

    Phielix, Esther; Mensink, Marco

    2008-05-23

    Type 2 diabetic patients are characterized by a decreased fat oxidative capacity and high levels of circulating free fatty acids (FFAs). The latter is known to cause insulin resistance, in particularly in skeletal muscle, by reducing insulin stimulated glucose uptake, most likely via accumulation of lipid inside the muscle cell. A reduced skeletal muscle oxidative capacity can exaggerate this. Furthermore, type 2 diabetes is associated with impaired metabolic flexibility, i.e. an impaired switching from fatty acid to glucose oxidation in response to insulin. Thus, a reduced fat oxidative capacity and metabolic inflexibility are important components of skeletal muscle insulin resistance. The cause of these derangements in skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetic patients remains to be elucidated. An impaired mitochondrial function is a likely candidate. Evidence from both in vivo and ex vivo studies supports the idea that an impaired skeletal muscle mitochondrial function is related to the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. A decreased mitochondrial oxidative capacity in skeletal muscle was revealed in diabetic patients, using in vivo 31-Phosphorus Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (31P-MRS). However, quantification of mitochondrial function using ex vivo high-resolution respirometry revealed opposite results. Future (human) studies should challenge this concept of impaired mitochondrial function underlying metabolic defects and prove if mitochondria are truly functional impaired in insulin resistance, or low in number, and whether it represents the primary starting point of pathogenesis of insulin resistance, or is just an other feature of the insulin resistant state. PMID:18342897

  6. Calsequestrins in skeletal and cardiac muscle from adult Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Sandra; Mosole, Simone; Murgia, Marta; Nagaraj, Nagarjuna; Argenton, Francesco; Volpe, Pompeo; Nori, Alessandra

    2016-04-01

    Calsequestrin (Casq) is a high capacity, low affinity Ca(2+)-binding protein, critical for Ca(2+)-buffering in cardiac and skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum. All vertebrates have multiple genes encoding for different Casq isoforms. Increasing interest has been focused on mammalian and human Casq genes since mutations of both cardiac (Casq2) and skeletal muscle (Casq1) isoforms cause different, and sometime severe, human pathologies. Danio rerio (zebrafish) is a powerful model for studying function and mutations of human proteins. In this work, expression, biochemical properties cellular and sub-cellular localization of D. rerio native Casq isoforms are investigated. By quantitative PCR, three mRNAs were detected in skeletal muscle and heart with different abundances. Three zebrafish Casqs: Casq1a, Casq1b and Casq2 were identified by mass spectrometry (Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD002455). Skeletal and cardiac zebrafish calsequestrins share properties with mammalian Casq1 and Casq2. Skeletal Casqs were found primarily, but not exclusively, at the sarcomere Z-line level where terminal cisternae of sarcoplasmic reticulum are located. PMID:26585961

  7. [Regeneration capacity of skeletal muscle].

    PubMed

    Wernig, A

    2003-07-01

    The organotypic stem cell of skeletal muscle has previously been known as satellite cell. They allow muscle fiber growth during ontogenesis, enable fiber hypertrophy and are responsible for the very efficient repair of muscle fibers. This efficient apparatus is to some degree counterbalanced by an enormous use of the satellite cell pool: fiber atrophy probably is accompanied by loss of myonuclei such that every reversal of atrophy is bound to use new myonuclei i.e. satellite cells. How often in life does this occur? Hard to say. Moreover, the potent repair capacity is challenged by an unexpected vulnerability of skeletal muscle fibers: Passive stretching of contracted muscles may cause multiple "microdamage," disruption of contractile elements or tiny areas of true necrosis (focal necrosis). How often does this happen? Well, for many of us at least once per year when we go up and down mountains during vacation time, followed by sour muscles. Others may decide to change his/her (locomotor) behaviour by severe onset of jogging; it may happen that they suffer kidney failure on Monday due to muscle microdamage and the transfer of myoproteins into the serum over weekend. Also 20 minutes of stepping up and down something like a chair will do: There is a remarkable increase in kreatin kinase and other muscle derived proteins which lasts for days and is bound to reflect some muscle damage. How about sportsmen and worker who repeatedly use their muscles in such a way? We don't have answers yet to most of these questions, but considerable amount of information has been collected over the last years both in animal and--less--in human. What is common in all cases of growth and repair is the proliferation of the satellite cells and their consequent incorporation and fusion with the parent fiber. This way focal damage is repaired often without visible reminders. We would run out of satellite cells were they not stem cells: After division one daughter remains a satellite cell

  8. Antenatal diagnosis of lethal skeletal dysplasias.

    PubMed

    Tretter, A E; Saunders, R C; Meyers, C M; Dungan, J S; Grumbach, K; Sun, C C; Campbell, A B; Wulfsberg, E A

    1998-02-17

    Lethal skeletal dysplasias (LSD) are a heterogeneous group of rare but important genetic disorders characterized by abnormal growth and development of bone and cartilage. We describe the diagnosis and outcome of 29 cases of lethal skeletal dysplasias evaluated between January 1989 and December 1996 at the University of Maryland Medical Center and the Ultrasound Institute of Baltimore. Two cases presented at delivery with no prenatal care while the remaining 27 cases were identified by antenatal sonography. Final diagnoses included thanatophoric dysplasia (14), osteogenesis imperfecta, type II (6), achondrogenesis (2), short rib syndromes (3), campomelic syndrome (2), atelosteogenesis (1), and no evidence of a skeletal dysplasia (1). Twenty out of 27 pregnancies were terminated with an average at detection of 21.6 weeks. The other 7 pregnancies that went on to deliver had an average age at detection of 29.2 weeks. Fetal abnormalities in the terminated pregnancies were identified at a significantly earlier gestational age (P = 0.0016) than the pregnancies that continued. While the identification of LSD by sonography was excellent (26/27), only 13/27 (48%) were given an accurate specific antenatal diagnosis. In 8/14 (57%) cases with an inaccurate or nonspecific diagnosis there was a significant or crucial change in the genetic counseling. Thus, while antenatal sonography is an excellent method for discovering LSD, clinical examination, radiographs, and autopsy are mandatory for making a specific diagnosis. PMID:9489797

  9. Satellite cells in human skeletal muscle plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Snijders, Tim; Nederveen, Joshua P.; McKay, Bryon R.; Joanisse, Sophie; Verdijk, Lex B.; van Loon, Luc J. C.; Parise, Gianni

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells are considered to play a crucial role in muscle fiber maintenance, repair and remodeling. Our knowledge of the role of satellite cells in muscle fiber adaptation has traditionally relied on in vitro cell and in vivo animal models. Over the past decade, a genuine effort has been made to translate these results to humans under physiological conditions. Findings from in vivo human studies suggest that satellite cells play a key role in skeletal muscle fiber repair/remodeling in response to exercise. Mounting evidence indicates that aging has a profound impact on the regulation of satellite cells in human skeletal muscle. Yet, the precise role of satellite cells in the development of muscle fiber atrophy with age remains unresolved. This review seeks to integrate recent results from in vivo human studies on satellite cell function in muscle fiber repair/remodeling in the wider context of satellite cell biology whose literature is largely based on animal and cell models. PMID:26557092

  10. Age estimation in subadult Egyptian remains.

    PubMed

    Boccone, S; Micheletti Cremasco, M; Bortoluzzi, S; Moggi-Cecchi, J; Rabino Massa, E

    2010-10-01

    In anthropological analyses of past populations, it is very important to be able to accurately reconstruct the palaeodemographic profile in order to interpret infant mortality as an indicator of the environmental, social and cultural conditions. There are various methods to evaluate the age of immature individuals but some of these methods are strongly influenced by the different rates of skeletal development observed in populations from various geographical areas and/or from various time periods, as well as between the sexes. Clearly, there is a need for adopting a method of estimation of age at death, which will be the one most suitable for analysing the particular skeletal sample. In this study we investigated subadults from the Egyptian osteological collection housed in the Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography of the University of Turin. For each individual, the age at death was estimated based on the degree of eruption and mineralisation of the teeth. Then the estimated age at death was correlated with the measurements of the long bones and ilium. We showed that greater regularity and constancy of rates of skeletal growth could be assessed with measurements, alternative to using maximum length of diaphysis. Moreover, using alternative characters, it was possible to markedly increase the number of individuals whose age at death could be estimated. Our study also showed the need to use a reference sample consistent with the sample being analysed and, which was derived from similar biological-environmental context. Therefore, our proposed method can be used for the estimation of age at death in pre/protohistorical populations from the Mediterranean region.

  11. Leptin receptors in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Guerra, Borja; Santana, Alfredo; Fuentes, Teresa; Delgado-Guerra, Safira; Cabrera-Socorro, Alfredo; Dorado, Cecilia; Calbet, Jose A L

    2007-05-01

    Human skeletal muscle expresses leptin receptor mRNA; however, it remains unknown whether leptin receptors (OB-R) are also expressed at the protein level. Fourteen healthy men (age = 33.1 +/- 2.0 yr, height = 175.9 +/- 1.7 cm, body mass = 81.2 +/- 3.8 kg, body fat = 22.5 +/- 1.9%; means +/- SE) participated in this investigation. The expression of OB-R protein was determined in skeletal muscle, subcutaneous adipose tissue, and hypothalamus using a polyclonal rabbit anti-human leptin receptor. Three bands with a molecular mass close to 170, 128, and 98 kDa were identified by Western blot with the anti-OB-R antibody. All three bands were identified in skeletal muscle: the 98-kDa and 170-kDa bands were detected in hypothalamus, and the 98-kDa and 128-kDa bands were detected in thigh subcutaneous adipose tissue. The 128-kDa isoform was not detected in four subjects, whereas in the rest its occurrence was fully explained by the presence of intermuscular adipose tissue, as demonstrated using an anti-perilipin A antibody. No relationship was observed between the basal concentration of leptin in serum and the 170-kDa band density. In conclusion, a long isoform of the leptin receptor with a molecular mass close to 170 kDa is expressed at the protein level in human skeletal muscle. The amount of 170-kDa protein appears to be independent of the basal concentration of leptin in serum.

  12. Mechanotransduction in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Burkholder, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    Mechanical signals are critical to the development and maintenance of skeletal muscle, but the mechanisms that convert these shape changes to biochemical signals is not known. When a deformation is imposed on a muscle, changes in cellular and molecular conformations link the mechanical forces with biochemical signals, and the close integration of mechanical signals with electrical, metabolic, and hormonal signaling may disguise the aspect of the response that is specific to the mechanical forces. The mechanically induced conformational change may directly activate downstream signaling and may trigger messenger systems to activate signaling indirectly. Major effectors of mechanotransduction include the ubiquitous mitogen activated protein kinase (MAP) and phosphatidylinositol-3’ kinase (PI-3K), which have well described receptor dependent cascades, but the chain of events leading from mechanical stimulation to biochemical cascade is not clear. This review will discuss the mechanics of biological deformation, loading of cellular and molecular structures, and some of the principal signaling mechanisms associated with mechanotransduction. PMID:17127292

  13. Pediatric aspects of skeletal dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Ozono, Keiichi; Namba, Noriyuki; Kubota, Takuo; Kitaoka, Taichi; Miura, Kohji; Ohata, Yasuhisa; Fujiwara, Makoto; Miyoshi, Yoko; Michigami, Toshimi

    2012-10-01

    Skeletal dysplasia is a disorder of skeletal development characterized by abnormality in shape, length, a number and mineral density of the bone. Skeletal dysplasia is often associated with manifestation of other organs such as lung, brain and sensory systems. Skeletal dysplasias or dysostosis are classified with more than 400 different names. Enchondral bone formation is a coordinated event of chondrocyte proliferation, differentiation and exchange of terminally maturated chondrocyte with bone. Impaired enchondral bone formation will lead to skeletal dysplasia, especially associated with short long bones. Appropriate bone volume and mineral density are achieved by balance of bone formation and bone resorption and mineralization. The gene encoding fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 is responsible for achondroplasia, representative skeletal dysplasia with short stature. The treatment with growth hormone is approved for achondroplasia in Japan. Osteogenesis imperfecta is characterized by low bone mineral density and fragile bone. Data on the beneficial effect of bisphosphonate for osteogenesis imperfecta are accumulating. Osteopetrosis has high bone mineral density, but sometimes show bone fragility. In Japan as well as other countries, pediatrician treat larger numbers of patients with skeletal dysplasia with short stature and fragile bones compared to 20 years ago.

  14. Solar abundance of osmium

    PubMed Central

    Jacoby, George; Aller, Lawrence H.

    1976-01-01

    The abundance parameter, log gfA, where g is the statistical weight of the lower level, f is the oscillator strength, and A is the abundance (by numbers of atoms with respect to hydrogen), has been derived for three lines of osmium by a method of spectrum synthesis. An apparent discordance of the derived abundance with that found from the carbonaceous chondrites is probably to be attributed primarily to errors in the f-values, and blending with unknown contributors. PMID:16592314

  15. Time-averaged molluscan death assemblages: Palimpsests of richness, snapshots of abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kidwell, Susan M.

    2002-09-01

    Field tests that compare living communities to associated dead remains are the primary means of estimating the reliability of biological information in the fossil record; such tests also provide insights into the dynamics of skeletal accumulation. Contrary to expectations, molluscan death assemblages capture a strong signal of living species' rank-order abundances. This finding, combined with independent evidence for exponential postmortem destruction of dead cohorts, argues that, although the species richness of a death assemblage may be a time-averaged palimpsest of the habitat (molluscan death assemblages contain, on average, ˜25% more species than any single census of the local live community, after sample-size standardization), species' relative-abundance data from the same assemblage probably constitute a much higher acuity record dominated by the most recent dead cohorts (e.g., from the past few hundred years or so, rather than the several thousand years recorded by the total assemblage and usually taken as the acuity of species-richness information). The pervasive excess species richness of molluscan death assemblages requires further analysis and modeling to discriminate among possible sources. However, time averaging alone cannot be responsible unless rare species (species with low rates of dead-shell production) are collectively more durable (have longer taphonomic half-lives) than abundant species. Species richness and abundance data thus appear to present fundamentally different taphonomic qualities for paleobiological analysis. Relative- abundance information is more snapshot-like and thus taphonomically more straightforward than expected, especially compared to the complex origins of dead-species richness.

  16. Phosphoproteomic analysis of aged skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Gannon, Joan; Staunton, Lisa; O'Connell, Kathleen; Doran, Philip; Ohlendieck, Kay

    2008-07-01

    One of the most important post-translational modifications is represented by phosphorylation on tyrosine, threonine and serine residues. Since abnormal phosphorylation is associated with various pathologies, it was of interest to perform a phosphoproteomic profiling of age-related skeletal muscle degeneration. We used the fluorescent phospho-specific Pro-Q Diamond dye to determine whether changes in the overall phosphorylation of the soluble skeletal muscle proteome differs significantly between young adult and senescent fibres. As an established model system of sarcopenia, we employed 30-month-old rat gastrocnemius fibres. Following the mass spectrometric identification of 59 major 2-D phosphoprotein landmark spots, the fluorescent dye staining survey revealed that 22 muscle proteins showed a differential expression pattern between 3-month- and 30-month-old muscle. Increased phosphorylation levels were shown for myosin light chain 2, tropomyosin alpha, lactate dehydrogenase, desmin, actin, albumin and aconitase. In contrast, decreased phospho-specific dye binding was observed for cytochrome c oxidase, creatine kinase and enolase. Thus, aging-induced alterations in phosphoproteins appear to involve the contractile machinery and the cytoskeleton, as well as the cytosolic and mitochondrial metabolism. This confirms that sarcopenia of old age is a complex neuromuscular pathology that is associated with drastic changes in the abundance and structure of key muscle proteins. PMID:18575773

  17. Resistance Exercise Training Alters Mitochondrial Function in Human Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Craig; Reidy, Paul T.; Bhattarai, Nisha; Sidossis, Labros S.; Rasmussen, Blake B.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Loss of mitochondrial competency is associated with several chronic illnesses. Therefore, strategies that maintain or increase mitochondrial function will likely be of benefit in a number of clinical settings. Endurance exercise has long been known to increase mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle. Comparatively little is known regarding the impact of resistance exercise training on skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory function. Purpose The purpose of the current study was to determine the impact of chronic resistance training on skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity and function. Methods Here, we studied the impact of a 12-week resistance exercise training program on skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in eleven young healthy men. Muscle biopsies were collected before and after the 12-week training program and mitochondrial respiratory capacity determined in permeabilized myofibers by high-resolution respirometry. Results Resistance exercise training increased lean body mass and quadriceps muscle strength by 4 and 15%, respectively (P<0.001). Coupled mitochondria respiration supported by complex I, and complex I and II substrates, increased by 2- and 1.4-fold, respectively (P<0.01). The ratio of coupled complex I supported respiration to maximal respiration increased with resistance exercise training (P<0.05), as did complex I protein abundance (P<0.05), while the substrate control ratio for succinate was reduced after resistance exercise training (P<0.001). Transcripts responsible for proteins critical to electron transfer and NAD+ production increased with training (P<0.05), while transcripts involved in mitochondrial biogenesis were unaltered. Conclusion Collectively, 12-weeks of resistance exercise training resulted in qualitative and quantitative changes in skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration. This adaptation occurs with modest changes in mitochondrial proteins and transcript expression. Resistance exercise training

  18. Evidence of apoptosis in chronic alcoholic skeletal myopathy.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Solà, Joaquim; Nicolás, José-María; Fatjó, Francesca; García, Gloria; Sacanella, Emilio; Estruch, Ramón; Tobías, Esther; Badia, Eva; Urbano-Márquez, Alvaro

    2003-12-01

    Apoptosis is a common mechanism of programmed cell death that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of alcohol-induced organ damage. Experimental studies have suggested alcohol-mediated apoptosis in cardiac muscle. The relationship between skeletal and cardiac muscle damage in alcoholism led us to consider the possible role of apoptosis in the pathogenesis of skeletal myopathy. We prospectively evaluated apoptosis in skeletal muscle biopsies of 30 consecutively selected male high-dose well-nourished chronic alcohol consumers and 12 nonalcoholic controls. Alcohol consumption, evaluation of muscle strength by myometry, and deltoid muscle biopsy with immunohistochemical and morphometric analysis were performed. Apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL, BAX, and BCL-2 immunohistochemical assays. Chronic alcoholics compared with controls showed a significantly higher apoptotic index in TUNEL (2.35% +/- 0.25% versus 0.18% +/- 0.03%, P < 0.001), BAX (9.16% +/- 2.00% versus 0.66% +/- 0.22%, P < 0.001), and BCL-2 muscle assays (8.08% +/- 0.20% versus 0.83% +/- 0.20%, P = 0.001), respectively. In addition, these apoptotic indexes were higher in alcoholics with skeletal myopathy compared with in those without skeletal myopathy (3.04% +/- 0.36% versus 1.65% +/- 0.26%, P = 0.004 for TUNEL; 17.00% +/- 2.78% versus 1.33% +/- 0.22%, P < 0.001 for BAX; and 15.13% +/- 3.2% versus 1.03% +/- 0.33%, P < 0.001 for BCL-2 assays, respectively). We conclude that apoptosis is present in the skeletal muscle of high-dose alcohol consumers, mainly in those affected by myopathy. However, the specific pathogenic mechanism of apoptosis in chronic skeletal myopathy in alcoholics remains to be elucidated.

  19. Usefulness of protein analysis for detecting pathologies in bone remains.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Martínez, Cristina; Prieto-Bonete, Gemma; Pérez-Cárceles, María D; Luna, Aurelio

    2016-01-01

    Forensic pathology often uses osteobiography, which involves biological profiles based on a determination of the age, sex, constitution, pathological states and other anomalies (paleopathology) of subjects for identification purposes. In this paper, proteins were analysed in bone remains. A total of 45 long bones from 45 different cadavers (29 males, 16 females) with a mean age of 66.31 years (S.D.=19.48, range 20-97) were used to search for pathological biomarkers which are closely related to several diseases. The bones were removed from the cement niches of a cemetery in Murcia (south-eastern Spain), where they had lain for between 18 and 45 years (mean time 25.84 years, S.D.=8.91). After a specific extraction using Tris-Urea buffer, were measured using HPLC/MS/MS. Our results show that proteins resulting from tumoral diseases and bacterial and viral pathogens can be detected and identified in the skeletal remains, making them useful pathological biomarkers for constructing biological profiles.

  20. A partial skeletal proteome of the brittle star Ophiocoma wendtii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaver, Ryan W.

    The formation of mineralized tissue was critical to the evolution and diversification of metazoans and remains functionally significant in most animal lineages. Of special importance is the protein found occluded within the mineral matrix, which facilitates the process of biomineralization and modulates the final mineral structure. These skeletal matrix proteins have well been described in several species, including the sea urchin Stronglyocentrotus purpuratus, an important model organism. Biomineralization research is limited in other echinoderm classes. This research encompasses the first description of mineral matrix proteins in a member of the echinoderm class Ophiuroidea. This work describes the skeletal matrix proteins of the brittle star Ophiocoma wendtii using bioinformatic and proteomic techniques. General characteristics of matrix protein are described and a number of candidate biomineralization related genes have been identified, cloned, and sequenced. The unique evolutionary and biochemical properties of brittle star skeletal matrix proteins are also described.

  1. Mitochondrial energetics is impaired in vivo in aged skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Gouspillou, Gilles; Bourdel-Marchasson, Isabelle; Rouland, Richard; Calmettes, Guillaume; Biran, Marc; Deschodt-Arsac, Véronique; Miraux, Sylvain; Thiaudiere, Eric; Pasdois, Philippe; Detaille, Dominique; Franconi, Jean-Michel; Babot, Marion; Trézéguet, Véronique; Arsac, Laurent; Diolez, Philippe

    2014-02-01

    With aging, most skeletal muscles undergo a progressive loss of mass and strength, a process termed sarcopenia. Aging-related defects in mitochondrial energetics have been proposed to be causally involved in sarcopenia. However, changes in muscle mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation with aging remain a highly controversial issue, creating a pressing need for integrative approaches to determine whether mitochondrial bioenergetics are impaired in aged skeletal muscle. To address this issue, mitochondrial bioenergetics was first investigated in vivo in the gastrocnemius muscle of adult (6 months) and aged (21 months) male Wistar rats by combining a modular control analysis approach with (31) P magnetic resonance spectroscopy measurements of energetic metabolites. Using this innovative approach, we revealed that the in vivo responsiveness ('elasticity') of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to contraction-induced increase in ATP demand is significantly reduced in aged skeletal muscle, a reduction especially pronounced under low contractile activities. In line with this in vivo aging-related defect in mitochondrial energetics, we found that the mitochondrial affinity for ADP is significantly decreased in mitochondria isolated from aged skeletal muscle. Collectively, the results of this study demonstrate that mitochondrial bioenergetics are effectively altered in vivo in aged skeletal muscle and provide a novel cellular basis for this phenomenon. PMID:23919652

  2. Redox proteins are constitutively secreted by skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Manabe, Yasuko; Takagi, Mayumi; Nakamura-Yamada, Mio; Goto-Inoue, Naoko; Taoka, Masato; Isobe, Toshiaki; Fujii, Nobuharu L

    2014-11-01

    Myokines are skeletal muscle-derived hormones. In this study, using a C2C12 myotube contraction system, we sought to determine whether the skeletal muscle secreted thioredoxin (TRX) and related redox proteins. Redox proteins such as TRXs, peroxiredoxins, and glutaredoxins were detected in the C2C12 myotube culture medium in the absence of any stimulation. The amounts of TRXs, peroxiredoxins, and glutaredoxins secreted by the C2C12 myotubes were not affected by the contraction, unless the myotubes were injured. Because TRX-1 was known to be a secreted protein that lacks a signal peptide, we examined whether this protein was secreted via exosome vesicles. The results indicated that TRX-1 was not secreted via exosome vesicles. We concluded that TRX-1 and related redox proteins are myokines that are constitutively secreted by the skeletal muscle cells. Although the mechanism of TRX-1 secretion remains unclear, our findings suggest that the skeletal muscle is an endocrine organ and the redox proteins that are constitutively secreted from the skeletal muscle may exert antioxidant and systemic health-promoting effects.

  3. Exercise, hormones and skeletal adaptations during childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Farr, Joshua N; Laddu, Deepika R; Going, Scott B

    2014-11-01

    Although primarily considered a disorder of the elderly, emerging evidence suggests the antecedents of osteoporosis are established during childhood and adolescence. A complex interplay of genetic, environmental, hormonal and behavioral factors determines skeletal development, and a greater effort is needed to identify the most critical factors that establish peak bone strength. Indeed, knowledge of modifiable factors that determine skeletal development may permit optimization of skeletal health during growth and could potentially offset reductions in bone strength with aging. The peripubertal years represent a unique period when the skeleton is particularly responsive to loading exercises, and there is now overwhelming evidence that exercise can optimize skeletal development. While this is not controversial, the most effective exercise prescription and how much investment in this prescription is needed to significantly impact bone health continues to be debated. Despite considerable progress, these issues are not easy to address, and important questions remain unresolved. This review focuses on the key determinants of skeletal development, whether exercise during childhood and adolescence should be advocated as a safe and effective strategy for optimizing peak bone strength, and whether investment in exercise early in life protects against the development of osteoporosis and fractures later in life.

  4. Aneuploidy and Skeletal Health

    PubMed Central

    Kamalakar, Archana; Harris, John R.; McKelvey, Kent D.; Suva, Larry J.

    2014-01-01

    The normal human chromosome complement consists of 46 chromosomes comprising 22 morphologically different pairs of autosomes and one pair of sex chromosomes. Variations in either chromosome number and/or structure frequently result in significant mental impairment, and/or a variety of other clinical problems, among them, altered bone mass and strength. Chromosomal syndromes associated with specific chromosomal abnormalities are classified as either numerical or structural and may involve more than one chromosome. Aneuploidy refers to the presence of an extra copy of a specific chromosome, or trisomy, as seen in Down’s syndrome (trisomy 21), or the absence of a single chromosome, or monosomy, as seen in Turner syndrome (a single X chromosome in females: 45, X). Aneuploidies have diverse phenotypic consequences, ranging from severe mental retardation and developmental abnormalities to increased susceptibility to various neoplasms and premature death. In fact, trisomy 21 is the prototypical aneuploidy in humans, is the most common genetic abnormality associated with longevity and is one of the most widespread genetic causes of intellectual disability. In this review, the impact of trisomy 21 on the bone mass, architecture, skeletal health and quality of life of people with Down syndrome will be discussed. PMID:24980541

  5. In utero Undernutrition Programs Skeletal and Cardiac Muscle Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Beauchamp, Brittany; Harper, Mary-Ellen

    2016-01-01

    In utero undernutrition is associated with increased risk for insulin resistance, obesity, and cardiovascular disease during adult life. A common phenotype associated with low birth weight is reduced skeletal muscle mass. Given the central role of skeletal muscle in whole body metabolism, alterations in its mass as well as its metabolic characteristics may contribute to disease risk. This review highlights the metabolic alterations in cardiac and skeletal muscle associated with in utero undernutrition and low birth weight. These tissues have high metabolic demands and are known to be sites of major metabolic dysfunction in obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Recent research demonstrates that mitochondrial energetics are decreased in skeletal and cardiac muscles of adult offspring from undernourished mothers. These effects apparently lead to the development of a thrifty phenotype, which may represent overall a compensatory mechanism programmed in utero to handle times of limited nutrient availability. However, in an environment characterized by food abundance, the effects are maladaptive and increase adulthood risks of metabolic disease. PMID:26779032

  6. Skeletal muscle proteomics: current approaches, technical challenges and emerging techniques

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Skeletal muscle fibres represent one of the most abundant cell types in mammals. Their highly specialised contractile and metabolic functions depend on a large number of membrane-associated proteins with very high molecular masses, proteins with extensive posttranslational modifications and components that exist in highly complex supramolecular structures. This makes it extremely difficult to perform conventional biochemical studies of potential changes in protein clusters during physiological adaptations or pathological processes. Results Skeletal muscle proteomics attempts to establish the global identification and biochemical characterisation of all members of the muscle-associated protein complement. A considerable number of proteomic studies have employed large-scale separation techniques, such as high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis or liquid chromatography, and combined them with mass spectrometry as the method of choice for high-throughput protein identification. Muscle proteomics has been applied to the comprehensive biochemical profiling of developing, maturing and aging muscle, as well as the analysis of contractile tissues undergoing physiological adaptations seen in disuse atrophy, physical exercise and chronic muscle transformation. Biomedical investigations into proteome-wide alterations in skeletal muscle tissues were also used to establish novel biomarker signatures of neuromuscular disorders. Importantly, mass spectrometric studies have confirmed the enormous complexity of posttranslational modifications in skeletal muscle proteins. Conclusions This review critically examines the scientific impact of modern muscle proteomics and discusses its successful application for a better understanding of muscle biology, but also outlines its technical limitations and emerging techniques to establish new biomarker candidates. PMID:21798084

  7. Proteomics Analysis of the Zebrafish Skeletal Extracellular Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Kessels, Maurijn Y.; Huitema, Leonie F. A.; Boeren, Sjef; Kranenbarg, Sander; Schulte-Merker, Stefan; van Leeuwen, Johan L.; de Vries, Sacco C.

    2014-01-01

    The extracellular matrix of the immature and mature skeleton is key to the development and function of the skeletal system. Notwithstanding its importance, it has been technically challenging to obtain a comprehensive picture of the changes in skeletal composition throughout the development of bone and cartilage. In this study, we analyzed the extracellular protein composition of the zebrafish skeleton using a mass spectrometry-based approach, resulting in the identification of 262 extracellular proteins, including most of the bone and cartilage specific proteins previously reported in mammalian species. By comparing these extracellular proteins at larval, juvenile, and adult developmental stages, 123 proteins were found that differed significantly in abundance during development. Proteins with a reported function in bone formation increased in abundance during zebrafish development, while analysis of the cartilage matrix revealed major compositional changes during development. The protein list includes ligands and inhibitors of various signaling pathways implicated in skeletogenesis such as the Int/Wingless as well as the insulin-like growth factor signaling pathways. This first proteomic analysis of zebrafish skeletal development reveals that the zebrafish skeleton is comparable with the skeleton of other vertebrate species including mammals. In addition, our study reveals 6 novel proteins that have never been related to vertebrate skeletogenesis and shows a surprisingly large number of differences in the cartilage and bone proteome between the head, axis and caudal fin regions. Our study provides the first systematic assessment of bone and cartilage protein composition in an entire vertebrate at different stages of development. PMID:24608635

  8. Paleopathological Study of Dwarfism-Related Skeletal Dysplasia in a Late Joseon Dynasty (South Korean) Population

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Eun Jin; Lee, Won-Joon; Hu, Kyung-Seok; Hwang, Jae Joon

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal dysplasias related to genetic etiologies have rarely been reported for past populations. This report presents the skeletal characteristics of an individual with dwarfism-related skeletal dysplasia from South Korea. To assess abnormal deformities, morphological features, metric data, and computed tomography scans are analyzed. Differential diagnoses include achondroplasia or hypochondroplasia, chondrodysplasia, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, thalassemia-related hemolytic anemia, and lysosomal storage disease. The diffused deformities in the upper-limb bones and several coarsened features of the craniofacial bones indicate the most likely diagnosis to have been a certain type of lysosomal storage disease. The skeletal remains of EP-III-4-No.107 from the Eunpyeong site, although incomplete and fragmented, provide important clues to the paleopathological diagnosis of skeletal dysplasias. PMID:26488291

  9. The effects of dietary protein and amino acids on skeletal metabolism.

    PubMed

    Bihuniak, Jessica D; Insogna, Karl L

    2015-07-15

    Dietary protein is required for optimal skeletal growth and maturation. Although Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) exist for global dietary protein intake, the level and sources of dietary protein that are optimal for skeletal health over the life continuum have not been established. This is partly due to the difficulty in quantifying the effects of variable levels of a nutrient's intake over a lifetime as well as the complex nature of the relationships between dietary protein and calcium economy. Areas of current uncertainty include the precise source and amount of dietary protein required for optimal skeletal accretion and maintenance of skeletal mass, as well as the site-specific effects of dietary protein. The cellular and molecular mechanisms that underpin the actions of dietary protein on mineral metabolism and skeletal homeostasis remain unclear. This review attempts to summarize recent data bearing on these questions. PMID:25843057

  10. OXYGEN ABUNDANCES IN CEPHEIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Luck, R. E.; Andrievsky, S. M.; Korotin, S. N.; Kovtyukh, V. V. E-mail: serkor@skyline.od.ua E-mail: scan@deneb1.odessa.ua

    2013-07-01

    Oxygen abundances in later-type stars, and intermediate-mass stars in particular, are usually determined from the [O I] line at 630.0 nm, and to a lesser extent, from the O I triplet at 615.7 nm. The near-IR triplets at 777.4 nm and 844.6 nm are strong in these stars and generally do not suffer from severe blending with other species. However, these latter two triplets suffer from strong non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) effects and thus see limited use in abundance analyses. In this paper, we derive oxygen abundances in a large sample of Cepheids using the near-IR triplets from an NLTE analysis, and compare those abundances to values derived from a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) analysis of the [O I] 630.0 nm line and the O I 615.7 nm triplet as well as LTE abundances for the 777.4 nm triplet. All of these lines suffer from line strength problems making them sensitive to either measurement complications (weak lines) or to line saturation difficulties (strong lines). Upon this realization, the LTE results for the [O I] lines and the O I 615.7 nm triplet are in adequate agreement with the abundance from the NLTE analysis of the near-IR triplets.

  11. Interstellar Abundance Standards Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofia, Ulysses J.; Meyer, David M.

    2001-06-01

    We evaluate the stellar abundances often used to represent the total (gas plus dust) composition of the interstellar medium. Published abundances for B stars, young later type (F and G) stars, and the Sun are compared to the modeled dust-phase and measured gas-phase compositions of the interstellar medium. This study uses abundances for the five most populous elements in dust grains-C, O, Mg, Si, and Fe-and the cosmically abundant element, N. We find that B stars have metal abundances that are too low to be considered valid representations of the interstellar medium. The commonly invoked interstellar standard that is two-thirds of the solar composition is also rejected by recent observations. Young (<=2 Gyr) F and G disk stars and the Sun, however, cannot be ruled out as reliable proxies for the total interstellar composition. If their abundances are valid representations of the interstellar medium, then the apparent underabundance of carbon with respect to that required by dust models, i.e., the carbon crisis, is substantially eased.

  12. Reintegration of the regenerated and the remaining tissues during joint regeneration in the newt Cynops pyrrhogaster

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Takeshi; Yamada, Shigehito

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Urodele amphibians, such as newts, can regenerate a functional limb, including joints, after amputation at any level along the proximal−distal axis of the limb. The blastema can regenerate the limb morphology largely independently of the stump after proximal−distal identity has been established, but the remaining and regenerated tissues must be structurally reintegrated (matched in size and shape). Here we used newt joint regeneration as a model to investigate reintegration, because a functionally interlocking joint requires structural integration between its opposing skeletal elements. After forelimbs were amputated at the elbow joint, the joint was regenerated between the remaining and regenerated skeletal elements. The regenerated cartilage was thick around the amputated joint to make a reciprocally interlocking joint structure with the remaining bone. Furthermore, during regeneration, the extracellular matrix of the remaining tissues was lost, suggesting that the remaining tissues might contribute to the morphogenesis of regenerating cartilage. Our results showed that the area of the regenerated cartilage matched the area of the apposed remaining cartilage, thus contributing to formation of a functional structure. PMID:27499865

  13. Skeletal muscle involvement in cardiomyopathies.

    PubMed

    Limongelli, Giuseppe; D'Alessandro, Raffaella; Maddaloni, Valeria; Rea, Alessandra; Sarkozy, Anna; McKenna, William J

    2013-12-01

    The link between heart and skeletal muscle disorders is based on similar molecular, anatomical and clinical features, which are shared by the 'primary' cardiomyopathies and 'primary' neuromuscular disorders. There are, however, some peculiarities that are typical of cardiac and skeletal muscle disorders. Skeletal muscle weakness presenting at any age may indicate a primary neuromuscular disorder (associated with creatine kinase elevation as in dystrophinopathies), a mitochondrial disease (particularly if encephalopathy, ocular myopathy, retinitis, neurosensorineural deafness, lactic acidosis are present), a storage disorder (progressive exercise intolerance, cognitive impairment and retinitis pigmentosa, as in Danon disease), or metabolic disorders (hypoglycaemia, metabolic acidosis, hyperammonaemia or other specific biochemical abnormalities). In such patients, skeletal muscle weakness usually precedes the cardiomyopathy and dominates the clinical picture. Nevertheless, skeletal involvement may be subtle, and the first clinical manifestation of a neuromuscular disorder may be the occurrence of heart failure, conduction disorders or ventricular arrhythmias due to cardiomyopathy. ECG and echocardiogram, and eventually, a more detailed cardiovascular evaluation may be required to identify early cardiac involvement. Paediatric and adult cardiologists should be proactive in screening for neuromuscular and related disorders to enable diagnosis in probands and evaluation of families with a focus on the identification of those at risk of cardiac arrhythmia and emboli who may require specific prophylactic treatments, for example, pacemaker, implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and anticoagulation. PMID:24149064

  14. Atomic data for stellar spectroscopy: recent successes and remaining needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneden, Christopher; Lawler, James E.; Wood, Michael P.; Den Hartog, Elizabeth A.; Cowan, John J.

    2014-11-01

    Stellar chemical composition analyses provide vital insights into galactic nucleosynthesis. Atomic line data are critical inputs to stellar abundance computations. Recent lab studies have made significant progress in refining and extending knowledge of transition probabilities, isotopic wavelength shifts, and hyperfine substructure patterns for the absorption lines that are of most interest to stellar spectroscopists. The observable neutron-capture (n-capture) element species (Z \\gt 30) have been scrutinized in lab studies by several groups. For many species the uncertainties in experimental oscillator strengths are ≤slant 10%, which permits detailed assessment of rapid and slow n-capture nucleosynthesis contributions. In this review, extreme examples of r-process-enriched stars in the galactic halo will be shown, which suggest that the description of observable n-capture abundances in these stars is nearly complete. Unfortunately, there are serious remaining concerns about the reliability of observed abundances of lighter elements. In particular, it is not clear that line formation in real stellar atmospheres is being modeled correctly. But for many elements with Z \\lt 30 the atomic transition data are not yet settled. Highlights will be given of some recent large improvements, with suggestions for the most important needs for the near future.

  15. Toys Remain Viral Playground for 24 Hours

    MedlinePlus

    ... a toy's surface at typical indoor temperatures and humidity levels. Specifically, they tested the ability of so- ... East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). At 60 percent relative humidity, 1 percent of the virus remained infectious on ...

  16. Taphonomic Patterning of Cemetery Remains Received at the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, Boston, Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Pokines, James T; Zinni, Debra Prince; Crowley, Kate

    2016-01-01

    A sample of 49 cases of cemetery remains received at the Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, Massachusetts (OCME-MA), in Boston was compared with published taphonomic profiles of cemetery remains. The present sample is composed of a cross section of typical cases in this region that ultimately are derived from modern to historical coffin burials and get turned over to or seized by law enforcement. The present sample was composed of a large portion of isolated remains, and most were completely skeletonized. The most prevalent taphonomic characteristics included uniform staining (77.6%), coffin wear (46.9%), and cortical Exfoliation (49.0%). Other taphonomic changes occurring due to later surface exposure of cemetery remains included subaerial weathering, animal gnawing, algae formation, and excavation marks. A case of one set of skeletal remains associated with coffin artifacts and cemetery offerings that was recovered from transported cemetery fill is also presented.

  17. FAK-Mediated Mechanotransduction in Skeletal Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Currey, Jennifer A.; Brunski, John; Helms, Jill A.

    2007-01-01

    The majority of cells are equipped to detect and decipher physical stimuli, and then react to these stimuli in a cell type-specific manner. Ultimately, these cellular behaviors are synchronized to produce a tissue response, but how this is achieved remains enigmatic. Here, we investigated the genetic basis for mechanotransduction using the bone marrow as a model system. We found that physical stimuli produced a pattern of principal strain that precisely corresponded to the site-specific expression of sox9 and runx2, two transcription factors required for the commitment of stem cells to a skeletogenic lineage, and the arrangement and orientation of newly deposited type I collagen fibrils. To gain insights into the genetic basis for skeletal mechanotransduction we conditionally inactivated focal adhesion kinase (FAK), an intracellular component of the integrin signaling pathway. By doing so we abolished the mechanically induced osteogenic response and thus identified a critical genetic component of the molecular machinery required for mechanotransduction. Our data provide a new framework in which to consider how physical forces and molecular signals are synchronized during the program of skeletal regeneration. PMID:17460757

  18. Negative Skeletal Effects of Locally Produced Adiponectin

    PubMed Central

    Abbott, Marcia J.; Roth, Theresa M.; Ho, Linh; Wang, Liping; O’Carroll, Dylan; Nissenson, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show that high circulating levels of adiponectin are associated with low bone mineral density. The effect of adiponectin on skeletal homeostasis, on osteoblasts in particular, remains controversial. We investigated this issue using mice with adipocyte-specific over-expression of adiponectin (AdTg). MicroCT and histomorphometric analysis revealed decreases (15%) in fractional bone volume in AdTg mice at the proximal tibia with no changes at the distal femur. Cortical bone thickness at mid-shafts of the tibia and at the tibiofibular junction was reduced (3–4%) in AdTg mice. Dynamic histomorphometry at the proximal tibia in AdTg mice revealed inhibition of bone formation. AdTg mice had increased numbers of adipocytes in close proximity to trabecular bone in the tibia, associated with increased adiponectin levels in tibial marrow. Treatment of BMSCs with adiponectin after initiation of osteoblastic differentiation resulted in reduced mineralized colony formation and reduced expression of mRNA of osteoblastic genes, osterix (70%), Runx2 (52%), alkaline phosphatase (72%), Col1 (74%), and osteocalcin (81%). Adiponectin treatment of differentiating osteoblasts increased expression of the osteoblast genes PPARγ (32%) and C/ebpα (55%) and increased adipocyte colony formation. These data suggest a model in which locally produced adiponectin plays a negative role in regulating skeletal homeostasis through inhibition of bone formation and by promoting an adipogenic phenotype. PMID:26230337

  19. Skeletal Complications of Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, Abigail A.; Gordon, Catherine M.

    2015-01-01

    Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric illness with profound medical consequences. Among the many adverse physical sequelae of AN, bone health is impacted by starvation and can be permanently impaired over the course of the illness. In this review of skeletal complications associated with eating disorders, we discuss the epidemiology, neuroendocrine changes, adolescent vs. adult skeletal considerations, orthopedic concerns, assessment of bone health, and treatment options for individuals with AN. The focus of the review is the skeletal sequelae associated with anorexia nervosa, but we also briefly consider other eating disorders that may afflict adolescents and young adults. The review presents updates to the field of bone health in AN, and also suggests knowledge gaps and areas for future investigation. PMID:26166318

  20. Mummified remains from the Archaeological Museum in Zagreb, Croatia - Reviewing peculiarities and limitations of human and non-human radiological identification and analysis in mummified remains.

    PubMed

    Petaros, Anja; Janković, Ivor; Cavalli, Fabio; Ivanac, Gordana; Brkljačić, Boris; Čavka, Mislav

    2015-10-01

    Forensic protocols and medico-legal techniques are increasingly being employed in investigations of museological material. The final findings of such investigations may reveal interesting facts on historical figures, customs and habits, as well as provide meaningful data for forensic use. Herein we present a case review where forensic experts were requested to identify taxonomic affinities, stage of preservation and provide skeletal analysis of mummified non-human archaeological remains, and verify whether two mummified hands are human or not. The manuscript offers a short review on the process and particularities of radiological species identification, the impact of post-mortem changes in the analysis and imaging of mummified remains as well as the macroscopical interpretation of trauma, pathology and authenticity in mummified remains, which can all turn useful when dealing with forensic cases. PMID:26344461

  1. Mummified remains from the Archaeological Museum in Zagreb, Croatia - Reviewing peculiarities and limitations of human and non-human radiological identification and analysis in mummified remains.

    PubMed

    Petaros, Anja; Janković, Ivor; Cavalli, Fabio; Ivanac, Gordana; Brkljačić, Boris; Čavka, Mislav

    2015-10-01

    Forensic protocols and medico-legal techniques are increasingly being employed in investigations of museological material. The final findings of such investigations may reveal interesting facts on historical figures, customs and habits, as well as provide meaningful data for forensic use. Herein we present a case review where forensic experts were requested to identify taxonomic affinities, stage of preservation and provide skeletal analysis of mummified non-human archaeological remains, and verify whether two mummified hands are human or not. The manuscript offers a short review on the process and particularities of radiological species identification, the impact of post-mortem changes in the analysis and imaging of mummified remains as well as the macroscopical interpretation of trauma, pathology and authenticity in mummified remains, which can all turn useful when dealing with forensic cases.

  2. Localisation of AMPK γ subunits in cardiac and skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Pinter, Katalin; Grignani, Robert T; Watkins, Hugh; Redwood, Charles

    2013-12-01

    The trimeric protein AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important sensor of energetic status and cellular stress, and mutations in genes encoding two of the regulatory γ subunits cause inherited disorders of either cardiac or skeletal muscle. AMPKγ2 mutations cause hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with glycogen deposition and conduction abnormalities; mutations in AMPKγ3 result in increased skeletal muscle glycogen. In order to gain further insight into the roles of the different γ subunits in muscle and into possible disease mechanisms, we localised the γ2 and γ3 subunits, along with the more abundant γ1 subunit, by immunofluorescence in cardiomyocytes and skeletal muscle fibres. The predominant cardiac γ2 variant, γ2-3B, gave a striated pattern in cardiomyocytes, aligning with the Z-disk but with punctate staining similar to T-tubule (L-type Ca(2+) channel) and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SERCA2) markers. In skeletal muscle fibres AMPKγ3 localises to the I band, presenting a uniform staining that flanks the Z-disk, also coinciding with the position of Ca(2+) influx in these muscles. The localisation of γ2-3B- and γ3-containing AMPK suggests that these trimers may have similar functions in the different muscles. AMPK containing γ2-3B was detected in oxidative skeletal muscles which had low expression of γ3, confirming that these two regulatory subunits may be co-ordinately regulated in response to metabolic requirements. Compartmentalisation of AMPK complexes is most likely dependent on the regulatory γ subunit and this differential localisation may direct substrate selection and specify particular functional roles.

  3. Altered content of AMP-activated protein kinase isoforms in skeletal muscle from spinal cord injured subjects.

    PubMed

    Kostovski, Emil; Boon, Hanneke; Hjeltnes, Nils; Lundell, Leonidas S; Ahlsén, Maria; Chibalin, Alexander V; Krook, Anna; Iversen, Per Ole; Widegren, Ulrika

    2013-11-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a pivotal regulator of energy homeostasis. Although downstream targets of AMPK are widely characterized, the physiological factors governing isoform expression of this protein kinase are largely unknown. Nerve/contractile activity has a major impact on the metabolic phenotype of skeletal muscle, therefore likely to influence AMPK isoform expression. Spinal cord injury represents an extreme form of physical inactivity, with concomitant changes in skeletal muscle metabolism. We assessed the influence of longstanding and recent spinal cord injury on protein abundance of AMPK isoforms in human skeletal muscle. We also determined muscle fiber type as a marker of glycolytic or oxidative metabolism. In subjects with longstanding complete injury, protein abundance of the AMPKγ3 subunit, as well as myosin heavy chain (MHC) IIa and IIx, were increased, whereas abundance of the AMPKγ1 subunit and MHC I were decreased. Similarly, abundance of AMPKγ3 and MHC IIa proteins were increased, whereas AMPKα2, -β1, and -γ1 subunits and MHC I abundance was decreased during the first year following injury, reflecting a more glycolytic phenotype of the skeletal muscle. However, in incomplete cervical lesions, partial recovery of muscle function attenuated the changes in the isoform profile of AMPK and MHC. Furthermore, exercise training (electrically stimulated leg cycling) partly normalized mRNA expression of AMPK isoforms. Thus, physical activity affects the relative expression of AMPK isoforms. In conclusion, skeletal muscle abundance of AMPK isoforms is related to physical activity and/or muscle fiber type. Thus, physical/neuromuscular activity is an important determinant of isoform abundance of AMPK and MCH. This further underscores the need for physical activity as part of a treatment regimen after spinal cord injury to maintain skeletal muscle metabolism. PMID:24022865

  4. Skeletal Muscle Gender Dimorphism from Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Dimova, Kalina; Metskas, Lauren Ann; Kulp, Mohini; Scordilis, Stylianos P.

    2011-01-01

    Gross contraction in skeletal muscle is primarily determined by a relatively small number of contractile proteins, however this tissue is also remarkably adaptable to environmental factors1 such as hypertrophy by resistance exercise and atrophy by disuse. It thereby exhibits remodeling and adaptations to stressors (heat, ischemia, heavy metals, etc.)2,3. Damage can occur to muscle by a muscle exerting force while lengthening, the so-called eccentric contraction4. The contractile proteins can be damaged in such exertions and need to be repaired, degraded and/or resynthesized; these functions are not part of the contractile proteins, but of other much less abundant proteins in the cell. To determine what subset of proteins is involved in the amelioration of this type of damage, a global proteome must be established prior to exercise5 and then followed subsequent to the exercise to determine the differential protein expression and thereby highlight candidate proteins in the adaptations to damage and its repair. Furthermore, most studies of skeletal muscle have been conducted on the male of the species and hence may not be representative of female muscle. In this article we present a method for extracting proteins reproducibly from male and female muscles, and separating them by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by high resolution digital imaging6. This provides a protocol for spots (and subsequently identified proteins) that show a statistically significant (p < 0.05) two-fold increase or decrease, appear or disappear from the control state. These are then excised, digested with trypsin and separated by high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (LC/MS) for protein identification (LC/MS/MS)5. This methodology (Figure 1) can be used on many tissues with little to no modification (liver, brain, heart etc.). PMID:22215112

  5. Skeletal muscle gender dimorphism from proteomics.

    PubMed

    Dimova, Kalina; Metskas, Lauren Ann; Kulp, Mohini; Scordilis, Stylianos P

    2011-01-01

    Gross contraction in skeletal muscle is primarily determined by a relatively small number of contractile proteins, however this tissue is also remarkably adaptable to environmental factors such as hypertrophy by resistance exercise and atrophy by disuse. It thereby exhibits remodeling and adaptations to stressors (heat, ischemia, heavy metals, etc.). Damage can occur to muscle by a muscle exerting force while lengthening, the so-called eccentric contraction. The contractile proteins can be damaged in such exertions and need to be repaired, degraded and/or resynthesized; these functions are not part of the contractile proteins, but of other much less abundant proteins in the cell. To determine what subset of proteins is involved in the amelioration of this type of damage, a global proteome must be established prior to exercise and then followed subsequent to the exercise to determine the differential protein expression and thereby highlight candidate proteins in the adaptations to damage and its repair. Furthermore, most studies of skeletal muscle have been conducted on the male of the species and hence may not be representative of female muscle. In this article we present a method for extracting proteins reproducibly from male and female muscles, and separating them by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis followed by high resolution digital imaging. This provides a protocol for spots (and subsequently identified proteins) that show a statistically significant (p < 0.05) two-fold increase or decrease, appear or disappear from the control state. These are then excised, digested with trypsin and separated by high-pressure liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (LC/MS) for protein identification (LC/MS/MS). This methodology (Figure 1) can be used on many tissues with little to no modification (liver, brain, heart etc.). PMID:22215112

  6. Solar abundance of platinum

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Harry; Aller, Lawrence H.

    1975-01-01

    Three lines of neutral platinum, located at λ 2997.98 Å, λ 3064.71 Å, and λ 3301.86 Å have been used to determine the solar platinum abundance by the method of spectral synthesis. On the scale, log A(H) = 12.00, the thus-derived solar platinum abundance is 1.75 ± 0.10, in fair accord with Cameron's value of log A(Pt) = 1.69 derived by Mason from carbonaceous chondrites and calculated on the assumption that log A(Si) = 7.55 in the sun. PMID:16592278

  7. The H19 long noncoding RNA gives rise to microRNAs miR-675-3p and miR-675-5p to promote skeletal muscle differentiation and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Bijan K.; Pfeifer, Karl; Dutta, Anindya

    2014-01-01

    Regulated expression of the H19 long noncoding RNA gene has been well characterized as a paradigm for genomic imprinting, but the H19 RNA's biological function remains largely unclear. H19 is abundantly expressed maternally in embryonic tissues but is strongly repressed after birth, and significant transcription persists only in skeletal muscle. Thus, we examined the role of the H19 RNA in skeletal muscle differentiation and regeneration. Knockdown of H19 RNA in myoblast cells and H19 knockout mouse satellite cells decreases differentiation. H19 exon1 encodes two conserved microRNAs, miR-675-3p and miR-675-5p, both of which are induced during skeletal muscle differentiation. The inhibition of myogenesis by H19 depletion during myoblast differentiation is rescued by exogenous expression of miR-675-3p and miR-675-5p. H19-deficient mice display abnormal skeletal muscle regeneration after injury, which is rectified by reintroduction of miR-675-3p and miR-675-5p. miR-675-3p and miR-675-5p function by directly targeting and down-regulating the anti-differentiation Smad transcription factors critical for the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway and the DNA replication initiation factor Cdc6. Therefore, the H19 long noncoding RNA has a critical trans-regulatory function in skeletal muscle differentiation and regeneration that is mediated by the microRNAs encoded within H19. PMID:24532688

  8. Monitoring Butterfly Abundance: Beyond Pollard Walks

    PubMed Central

    Pellet, Jérôme; Bried, Jason T.; Parietti, David; Gander, Antoine; Heer, Patrick O.; Cherix, Daniel; Arlettaz, Raphaël

    2012-01-01

    Most butterfly monitoring protocols rely on counts along transects (Pollard walks) to generate species abundance indices and track population trends. It is still too often ignored that a population count results from two processes: the biological process (true abundance) and the statistical process (our ability to properly quantify abundance). Because individual detectability tends to vary in space (e.g., among sites) and time (e.g., among years), it remains unclear whether index counts truly reflect population sizes and trends. This study compares capture-mark-recapture (absolute abundance) and count-index (relative abundance) monitoring methods in three species (Maculinea nausithous and Iolana iolas: Lycaenidae; Minois dryas: Satyridae) in contrasted habitat types. We demonstrate that intraspecific variability in individual detectability under standard monitoring conditions is probably the rule rather than the exception, which questions the reliability of count-based indices to estimate and compare specific population abundance. Our results suggest that the accuracy of count-based methods depends heavily on the ecology and behavior of the target species, as well as on the type of habitat in which surveys take place. Monitoring programs designed to assess the abundance and trends in butterfly populations should incorporate a measure of detectability. We discuss the relative advantages and inconveniences of current monitoring methods and analytical approaches with respect to the characteristics of the species under scrutiny and resources availability. PMID:22859980

  9. In Abundance: Networked Participatory Practices as Scholarship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Bonnie E.

    2015-01-01

    In an era of knowledge abundance, scholars have the capacity to distribute and share ideas and artifacts via digital networks, yet networked scholarship often remains unrecognized within institutional spheres of influence. Using ethnographic methods including participant observation, interviews, and document analysis, this study investigates…

  10. Skeletal stem cells in space and time.

    PubMed

    Kassem, Moustapha; Bianco, Paolo

    2015-01-15

    The nature, biological characteristics, and contribution to organ physiology of skeletal stem cells are not completely determined. Chan et al. and Worthley et al. demonstrate that a stem cell for skeletal tissues, and a system of more restricted, downstream progenitors, can be identified in mice and demonstrate its role in skeletal tissue maintenance and regeneration.

  11. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy after Aerobic Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Konopka, Adam R.; Harber, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    Current dogma suggests aerobic exercise training has minimal effect on skeletal muscle size. We and others have demonstrated that aerobic exercise acutely and chronically alters protein metabolism and induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy. These findings promote an antithesis to the status quo by providing novel perspective on skeletal muscle mass regulation and insight into exercise-countermeasures for populations prone to muscle loss. PMID:24508740

  12. Satellite Cell Heterogeneity in Skeletal Muscle Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Matthew T; Sacco, Alessandra

    2016-06-01

    The cellular turnover required for skeletal muscle maintenance and repair is mediated by resident stem cells, also termed satellite cells. Satellite cells normally reside in a quiescent state, intermittently entering the cell cycle to fuse with neighboring myofibers and replenish the stem cell pool. However, the mechanisms by which satellite cells maintain the precise balance between self-renewal and differentiation necessary for long-term homeostasis remain unclear. Recent work has supported a previously unappreciated heterogeneity in the satellite cell compartment that may underlie the observed variability in cell fate and function. In this review, we examine the work supporting this notion as well as the potential governing principles, developmental origins, and principal determinants of satellite cell heterogeneity.

  13. Abundances of light elements.

    PubMed Central

    Pagel, B E

    1993-01-01

    Recent developments in the study of abundances of light elements and their relevance to cosmological nucleosynthesis are briefly reviewed. The simplest model, based on standard cosmology and particle physics and assuming homogeneous baryon density at the relevant times, continues to stand up well. PMID:11607388

  14. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  15. Predicting the remaining service life of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, J.F.

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear power plants are providing, currently, about 17 percent of the U.S. electricity and many of these plants are approaching their licensed life of 40 years. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Laboratory are carrying out a program to develop a methodology for assessing the remaining safe-life of the concrete components and structures in nuclear power plants. This program has the overall objective of identifying potential structural safety issues, as well as acceptance criteria, for use in evaluations of nuclear power plants for continued service. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is contributing to this program by identifying and analyzing methods for predicting the remaining life of in-service concrete materials. This report examines the basis for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials of nuclear power facilities. Methods for predicting the service life of new and in-service concrete materials are analyzed. These methods include (1) estimates based on experience, (2) comparison of performance, (3) accelerated testing, (4) stochastic methods, and (5) mathematical modeling. New approaches for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials are proposed and recommendations for their further development given. Degradation processes are discussed based on considerations of their mechanisms, likelihood of occurrence, manifestations, and detection. They include corrosion, sulfate attack, alkali-aggregate reactions, frost attack, leaching, radiation, salt crystallization, and microbiological attack.

  16. Skeletal trauma in child abuse.

    PubMed

    Swoboda, Sara L; Feldman, Kenneth W

    2013-11-01

    Fractures and other skeletal injuries are common in childhood. Most are the result of falls, motor vehicle accidents, and other forms of accidental trauma. However, skeletal trauma is present in a significant number of abused children. Age and developmental abilities are key components in raising clinical suspicion for child abuse. Children who are unable to provide their own history because of age or developmental delay require increased attention. Younger children are more likely to have abusive fractures, whereas accidental fractures increase with age and developmental abilities. The consequences of missing abuse are high because children returned to their homes without intervention are likely to face further abuse and have an increased mortality risk. Because of the potentially high cost of undiagnosed child abuse, diagnosis of a skeletal injury is incomplete without diagnosing its etiology. All health providers for children should be able to recognize patterns of skeletal injury secondary to abusive trauma and understand the process for initiating Child Protective Services (CPS) investigations when necessary. Although they can occur accidentally, fractures in nonmobile children should always increase the clinician's concern for abusive trauma. In light of the significant consequences for children when abuse is missed by a primary care provider, abuse should be on the differential diagnosis for all presenting childhood injuries.

  17. Atlas of fetal skeletal radiology

    SciTech Connect

    Ornov, A.; Borochowitz, Z.; Lachman, R.; Rimoin, D.L.

    1987-01-01

    This atlas presents anterior, posterior and lateral views of normal but spontaneously aborted fetuses from 10 weeks through 27 weeks of gestation. The series of radiographs exhibits a wide array of skeletal dysplasia, and a chapter on the normal chondroosseous development - the formation of cartilage and bone and ossification of individual bones is included for further clarification.

  18. Ovarian function in mice results in abrogated skeletal muscle PPARdelta and FoxO1-mediated gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Menopause, the age-related loss of ovarian hormone production, promotes increased adiposity and associated metabolic pathology, but molecular mechanisms remain unclear. We previously reported that estrogen increases skeletal muscle PPARDelta expression in vivo, and transgenic mice overexpressing mus...

  19. Predicting the Dynamics of Protein Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Mehdi, Ahmed M.; Patrick, Ralph; Bailey, Timothy L.; Bodén, Mikael

    2014-01-01

    Protein synthesis is finely regulated across all organisms, from bacteria to humans, and its integrity underpins many important processes. Emerging evidence suggests that the dynamic range of protein abundance is greater than that observed at the transcript level. Technological breakthroughs now mean that sequencing-based measurement of mRNA levels is routine, but protocols for measuring protein abundance remain both complex and expensive. This paper introduces a Bayesian network that integrates transcriptomic and proteomic data to predict protein abundance and to model the effects of its determinants. We aim to use this model to follow a molecular response over time, from condition-specific data, in order to understand adaptation during processes such as the cell cycle. With microarray data now available for many conditions, the general utility of a protein abundance predictor is broad. Whereas most quantitative proteomics studies have focused on higher organisms, we developed a predictive model of protein abundance for both Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccharomyces pombe to explore the latitude at the protein level. Our predictor primarily relies on mRNA level, mRNA–protein interaction, mRNA folding energy and half-life, and tRNA adaptation. The combination of key features, allowing for the low certainty and uneven coverage of experimental observations, gives comparatively minor but robust prediction accuracy. The model substantially improved the analysis of protein regulation during the cell cycle: predicted protein abundance identified twice as many cell-cycle-associated proteins as experimental mRNA levels. Predicted protein abundance was more dynamic than observed mRNA expression, agreeing with experimental protein abundance from a human cell line. We illustrate how the same model can be used to predict the folding energy of mRNA when protein abundance is available, lending credence to the emerging view that mRNA folding affects translation

  20. Functional Overload Enhances Satellite Cell Properties in Skeletal Muscle.

    PubMed

    Fujimaki, Shin; Machida, Masanao; Wakabayashi, Tamami; Asashima, Makoto; Takemasa, Tohru; Kuwabara, Tomoko

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle represents a plentiful and accessible source of adult stem cells. Skeletal-muscle-derived stem cells, termed satellite cells, play essential roles in postnatal growth, maintenance, repair, and regeneration of skeletal muscle. Although it is well known that the number of satellite cells increases following physical exercise, functional alterations in satellite cells such as proliferative capacity and differentiation efficiency following exercise and their molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we found that functional overload, which is widely used to model resistance exercise, causes skeletal muscle hypertrophy and converts satellite cells from quiescent state to activated state. Our analysis showed that functional overload induces the expression of MyoD in satellite cells and enhances the proliferative capacity and differentiation potential of these cells. The changes in satellite cell properties coincided with the inactivation of Notch signaling and the activation of Wnt signaling and likely involve modulation by transcription factors of the Sox family. These results indicate the effects of resistance exercise on the regulation of satellite cells and provide insight into the molecular mechanism of satellite cell activation following physical exercise.

  1. Management of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in skeletally immature individuals.

    PubMed

    Moksnes, Håvard; Engebretsen, Lars; Risberg, May Arna

    2012-03-01

    Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in skeletally immature individuals remain a challenge for the child, the parents, orthopaedic surgeons, and physical therapists. The main challenges are the potential risk of recurrent instability, secondary injuries following nonoperative treatment, and the risks involved with surgical treatment due to the vulnerability of the epiphyseal growth plates. We first present the physiological background for considerations that must be made when advising on treatment alternatives for skeletally immature individuals after ACL injury. The implications of continuous musculoskeletal development for treatment decisions are emphasized. No randomized controlled trials have been performed to investigate outcomes of different treatment algorithms. There is no consensus in the literature on clinical treatment decision criteria for whether a skeletally immature child should undergo transphyseal ACL reconstruction, physeal sparing ACL reconstruction, or nonoperative treatment. Additionally, well-described rehabilitation programs designed for either nonoperative treatment or postoperative rehabilitation have not been published. Based on the currently available evidence, we propose a treatment algorithm for the management of ACL injuries in skeletally immature individuals. Finally, we suggest directions for future prospective studies, which should include development of valid and reliable outcome measures and specific rehabilitation programs. PMID:21891880

  2. Mill and the right to remain uninformed.

    PubMed

    Strasser, M

    1986-08-01

    In a recent article in the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, David Ost (1984) claims that patients do not have a right to waive their right to information. He argues that patients cannot make informed rational decisions without full information and thus, a right to waive information would involve a right to avoid one's responsibility to act as an autonomous moral agent. In support of his position, Ost cites a passage from Mill. Yet, a correct interpretation of the passage in question would support one's right to remain uninformed in certain situations. If the information would hurt one's chances for survival or hurt one's ability to make calm, rational decisions, then one not only does not have a duty to find out the information, but one's exercising one's right to remain uninformed may be the only rational course of action to take.

  3. Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsipher, A.; Daniel, W. IV; Kiesler, J.E.; Mackey, V. III

    1996-05-06

    Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp`s Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they required that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains.

  4. Direct Dating of Hominids Remains In Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Y.; Falguères, C.

    When archaeological sites are associated with human remains, it is relevant to be able to date those valuable remains for different reasons. The main one is that it avoids the stratigraphical problems which can be due to intrusive burials in the sequence. The other reason consists in the fact that human bones may be encountered out of established stratigraphical context. On the other hand, the majority of dating methods currently used are destructive and can not be applied on these precious samples particularly when they are older than 40,000 years and can not be dated by radiocarbon. Since several years, we have developped a completely non-destructive method which consists in the measurement of human remains using the gamma -ray spectrometry. This technique has been used recently by other laboratories. We present here two important cases for the knowledge of human evolution in Eurasia. The first example is Qafzeh site in Israel where many human skeletons have been unearthed from burials associated with fauna and lithic artefacts. This site has been dated by several independent radiometric methods. So, it was possible to compare our gamma results with the other results yielded by the different methods. The second case concerns the most evolved Homo erectus found in Java, Indonesia, at Ngandong site, close to the Solo river. A recent debate has been focused on the age of these fossils and their direct dating is of outmost importance for the knowledge of settlement of Modern Humans in South-East Asia.

  5. Solar abundance of iridium

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Stephen; Aller, Lawrence H.

    1976-01-01

    By a method of spectrum synthesis, which yields log gfA, where g is the statistical weight of the lower level, f is the oscillator strength, and A is the abundance, an attempt is made to deduce the solar iridium abundance from one relatively unblended, but fairly weak IrI line, λ 3220.78 Å. If the Corliss-Bozman f-value for this line is adopted, we find log A(Ir) = 0.82 on the scale log A(H) = 12.00. The discordance with the value found from carbonaceous chondrites may arise from faulty f-values or from difficulties arising from line blending in this far ultraviolet domain of the solar spectrum. PMID:16578735

  6. AMP-activated protein kinase regulates nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase expression in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Brandauer, Josef; Vienberg, Sara G; Andersen, Marianne A; Ringholm, Stine; Risis, Steve; Larsen, Per S; Kristensen, Jonas M; Frøsig, Christian; Leick, Lotte; Fentz, Joachim; Jørgensen, Sebastian; Kiens, Bente; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen F P; Richter, Erik A; Zierath, Juleen R; Goodyear, Laurie J; Pilegaard, Henriette; Treebak, Jonas T

    2013-01-01

    Deacetylases such as sirtuins (SIRTs) convert NAD to nicotinamide (NAM). Nicotinamide phosphoribosyl transferase (Nampt) is the rate-limiting enzyme in the NAD salvage pathway responsible for converting NAM to NAD to maintain cellular redox state. Activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) increases SIRT activity by elevating NAD levels. As NAM directly inhibits SIRTs, increased Nampt activation or expression could be a metabolic stress response. Evidence suggests that AMPK regulates Nampt mRNA content, but whether repeated AMPK activation is necessary for increasing Nampt protein levels is unknown. To this end, we assessed whether exercise training- or 5-amino-1-β-d-ribofuranosyl-imidazole-4-carboxamide (AICAR)-mediated increases in skeletal muscle Nampt abundance are AMPK dependent. One-legged knee-extensor exercise training in humans increased Nampt protein by 16% (P < 0.05) in the trained, but not the untrained leg. Moreover, increases in Nampt mRNA following acute exercise or AICAR treatment (P < 0.05 for both) were maintained in mouse skeletal muscle lacking a functional AMPK α2 subunit. Nampt protein was reduced in skeletal muscle of sedentary AMPK α2 kinase dead (KD), but 6.5 weeks of endurance exercise training increased skeletal muscle Nampt protein to a similar extent in both wild-type (WT) (24%) and AMPK α2 KD (18%) mice. In contrast, 4 weeks of daily AICAR treatment increased Nampt protein in skeletal muscle in WT mice (27%), but this effect did not occur in AMPK α2 KD mice. In conclusion, functional α2-containing AMPK heterotrimers are required for elevation of skeletal muscle Nampt protein, but not mRNA induction. These findings suggest AMPK plays a post-translational role in the regulation of skeletal muscle Nampt protein abundance, and further indicate that the regulation of cellular energy charge and nutrient sensing is mechanistically related. PMID:23918774

  7. Distribution of albatross remains in the Far East regions during the Holocene, based on zooarchaeological remains.

    PubMed

    Eda, Masaki; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2004-07-01

    Many albatross remains have been found in the Japanese Islands and the surrounding areas, such as Sakhalin and South Korea. These remains are interesting for two reasons: numerous sites from which albatross remains have been found are located in coastal regions of the Far East where no albatrosses have been distributed recently, and there are some sites in which albatross remains represent a large portion of avian remains, although albatrosses are not easily preyed upon by human beings. We collected data on albatross remains from archaeological sites in the Far East regions during the Holocene and arranged the remains geographically, temporally and in terms of quantity. Based on these results, we showed that coastal areas along the Seas of Okhotsk and Japan have rarely been used by albatrosses in Modern times, though formerly there were many albatrosses. We proposed two explanations for the shrinkage of their distributional range: excessive hunting in the breeding areas, and distributional changes of prey for albatrosses. PMID:15277721

  8. Coal's role in electrical power generation: Will it remain competitive?

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, C.

    1999-07-01

    Coal is the most abundant worldwide fossil fuel. In the US, coal represents 95% of fossil energy reserves. The US coal resources represent more energy than either proven oil or natural gas reserves and can be expected to last more than 250 years at current consumption rates. Coal fired power plants currently produce 56% of electrical generation in the US and 36% worldwide, and forecasts show coal use to increase. Impressive statistics such as these, along with the direct correlation between electrical growth and GDP should indicate that coal has a bright future. There are some clouds on the horizon, however, that could dim this seemingly rosy picture. Potentially, the greatest challenge to coal's future is CO2 emission restrictions to address global climate change. Realistically, coal has to be a part of the generation mix of developing nations, particularly those with abundant coal resources such as China and India. If electrification of these countries and corresponding economic growth is to take place, there are not presently a lot of cost effective alternatives. This paper presents a discussion of what the coal industry is doing to remain competitive. It looks at environmental and competitive issues facing coal use.

  9. Skeletal analysis and comparison of bog bodies from Northern European peat bogs.

    PubMed

    Pestka, Jan M; Barvencik, Florian; Beil, Frank T; Marshall, Robert P; Jopp, Eilin; Schilling, Arndt F; Bauerochse, Andreas; Fansa, Mamoun; Püschel, Klaus; Amling, Michael

    2010-04-01

    Although numerous bodies were deposited in Western European bogs in the past centuries, few were found and underwent archeological analysis. No studies comparing skeletal structure and mineralization of bog bodies from different ages have been performed to this day. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze and compare skeletal features and specifics of the human remains of three bog bodies from the Iron and Middle Ages found in Northern European peat bogs. Demineralization due to the acidic environment in peat bogs was comparably pronounced in all three bodies. Still, the macroscopic state of skeletal preservation was excellent. In addition to contact radiography, we used peripheral quantitative computed tomography to measure cortical bone mineral density. The conservation of skeletal three-dimensional microstructural elements was assessed by high-resolution microcomputed tomography analysis. These techniques revealed severe differences in bone mineral density and enabled us to determine handedness in all three bodies. Additionally, unique skeletal features like intravital bone lesions, immobilization osteoporosis, and Harris lines were found. A deformity of the left femoral head was observed which had the typical appearance of an advanced stage of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. This study gives detailed insight into the skeletal microstructure and microarchitecture of 800- to 2,700-year-old bog bodies. Skeletal analysis enables us to draw conclusions not only concerning changes in the acidic environment of the bog, but also serves as a diagnostic tool to unravel life circumstances and diseases suffered by humans in the Iron and Middle Ages.

  10. A MED13-dependent skeletal muscle gene program controls systemic glucose homeostasis and hepatic metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Amoasii, Leonela; Holland, William; Sanchez-Ortiz, Efrain; Baskin, Kedryn K.; Pearson, Mackenzie; Burgess, Shawn C.; Nelson, Benjamin R.; Bassel-Duby, Rhonda; Olson, Eric N.

    2016-01-01

    The Mediator complex governs gene expression by linking upstream signaling pathways with the basal transcriptional machinery. However, how individual Mediator subunits may function in different tissues remains to be investigated. Through skeletal muscle-specific deletion of the Mediator subunit MED13 in mice, we discovered a gene regulatory mechanism by which skeletal muscle modulates the response of the liver to a high-fat diet. Skeletal muscle-specific deletion of MED13 in mice conferred resistance to hepatic steatosis by activating a metabolic gene program that enhances muscle glucose uptake and storage as glycogen. The consequent insulin-sensitizing effect within skeletal muscle lowered systemic glucose and insulin levels independently of weight gain and adiposity and prevented hepatic lipid accumulation. MED13 suppressed the expression of genes involved in glucose uptake and metabolism in skeletal muscle by inhibiting the nuclear receptor NURR1 and the MEF2 transcription factor. These findings reveal a fundamental molecular mechanism for the governance of glucose metabolism and the control of hepatic lipid accumulation by skeletal muscle. Intriguingly, MED13 exerts opposing metabolic actions in skeletal muscle and the heart, highlighting the customized, tissue-specific functions of the Mediator complex. PMID:26883362

  11. Skeletal analysis and comparison of bog bodies from Northern European peat bogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pestka, Jan M.; Barvencik, Florian; Beil, Frank T.; Marshall, Robert P.; Jopp, Eilin; Schilling, Arndt F.; Bauerochse, Andreas; Fansa, Mamoun; Püschel, Klaus; Amling, Michael

    2010-04-01

    Although numerous bodies were deposited in Western European bogs in the past centuries, few were found and underwent archeological analysis. No studies comparing skeletal structure and mineralization of bog bodies from different ages have been performed to this day. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze and compare skeletal features and specifics of the human remains of three bog bodies from the Iron and Middle Ages found in Northern European peat bogs. Demineralization due to the acidic environment in peat bogs was comparably pronounced in all three bodies. Still, the macroscopic state of skeletal preservation was excellent. In addition to contact radiography, we used peripheral quantitative computed tomography to measure cortical bone mineral density. The conservation of skeletal three-dimensional microstructural elements was assessed by high-resolution microcomputed tomography analysis. These techniques revealed severe differences in bone mineral density and enabled us to determine handedness in all three bodies. Additionally, unique skeletal features like intravital bone lesions, immobilization osteoporosis, and Harris lines were found. A deformity of the left femoral head was observed which had the typical appearance of an advanced stage of Legg-Calve-Perthes disease. This study gives detailed insight into the skeletal microstructure and microarchitecture of 800- to 2,700-year-old bog bodies. Skeletal analysis enables us to draw conclusions not only concerning changes in the acidic environment of the bog, but also serves as a diagnostic tool to unravel life circumstances and diseases suffered by humans in the Iron and Middle Ages.

  12. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase is phosphorylated in response to insulin stimulation in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Hinchee-Rodriguez, Kathryn; Garg, Neha; Venkatakrishnan, Priya; Roman, Madeline G.; Adamo, Martin L.; Masters, Bettie Sue; Roman, Linda J.

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM) is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States, and is quickly becoming a global pandemic. T2DM results from reduced insulin sensitivity coupled with a relative failure of insulin secretion. Reduced insulin sensitivity has been associated with reduced nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and impaired glucose uptake in T2DM skeletal muscle. Upon insulin stimulation, NO synthesis increases in normal adult skeletal muscle, whereas no such increase is observed in T2DM adults. Endothelial NOS is activated by phosphorylation in the C-terminal tail in response to insulin. Neuronal NOS (nNOS), the primary NOS isoform in skeletal muscle, contains a homologous phosphorylation site, raising the possibility that nNOS, too, may undergo an activating phosphorylation event upon insulin treatment. Yet it remains unknown if or how nNOS is regulated by insulin in skeletal muscle. Data shown herein indicate that nNOS is phosphorylated in response to insulin in skeletal muscle and that this phosphorylation event occurs rapidly in C2C12 myotubes, resulting in increased NO production. In vivo phosphorylation of nNOS was also observed in response to insulin in mouse skeletal muscle. These results indicate, for the first time, that nNOS is phosphorylated in skeletal muscle in response to insulin and in association with increased NO production. PMID:23680665

  13. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase is phosphorylated in response to insulin stimulation in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Hinchee-Rodriguez, Kathryn; Garg, Neha; Venkatakrishnan, Priya; Roman, Madeline G; Adamo, Martin L; Masters, Bettie Sue; Roman, Linda J

    2013-06-01

    Type 2 Diabetes (T2DM) is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States, and is quickly becoming a global pandemic. T2DM results from reduced insulin sensitivity coupled with a relative failure of insulin secretion. Reduced insulin sensitivity has been associated with reduced nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and impaired glucose uptake in T2DM skeletal muscle. Upon insulin stimulation, NO synthesis increases in normal adult skeletal muscle, whereas no such increase is observed in T2DM adults. Endothelial NOS is activated by phosphorylation in the C-terminal tail in response to insulin. Neuronal NOS (nNOS), the primary NOS isoform in skeletal muscle, contains a homologous phosphorylation site, raising the possibility that nNOS, too, may undergo an activating phosphorylation event upon insulin treatment. Yet it remains unknown if or how nNOS is regulated by insulin in skeletal muscle. Data shown herein indicate that nNOS is phosphorylated in response to insulin in skeletal muscle and that this phosphorylation event occurs rapidly in C2C12 myotubes, resulting in increased NO production. In vivo phosphorylation of nNOS was also observed in response to insulin in mouse skeletal muscle. These results indicate, for the first time, that nNOS is phosphorylated in skeletal muscle in response to insulin and in association with increased NO production. PMID:23680665

  14. Regulation of skeletal muscle capillary growth in exercise and disease.

    PubMed

    Haas, Tara L; Nwadozi, Emmanuel

    2015-12-01

    Capillaries, which are the smallest and most abundant type of blood vessel, form the primary site of gas, nutrient, and waste transfer between the vascular and tissue compartments. Skeletal muscle exhibits the capacity to generate new capillaries (angiogenesis) as an adaptation to exercise training, thus ensuring that the heightened metabolic demand of the active muscle is matched by an improved capacity for distribution of gases, nutrients, and waste products. This review summarizes the current understanding of the regulation of skeletal muscle capillary growth. The multi-step process of angiogenesis is coordinated through the integration of a diverse array of signals associated with hypoxic, metabolic, hemodynamic, and mechanical stresses within the active muscle. The contributions of metabolic and mechanical factors to the modulation of key pro- and anti-angiogenic molecules are discussed within the context of responses to a single aerobic exercise bout and short-term and long-term training. Finally, the paradoxical lack of angiogenesis in peripheral artery disease and diabetes and the implications for disease progression and muscle health are discussed. Future studies that emphasize an integrated analysis of the mechanisms that control skeletal muscle capillary growth will enable development of targeted exercise programs that effectively promote angiogenesis in healthy individuals and in patient populations. PMID:26554747

  15. Immunomodulatory effects of massage on nonperturbed skeletal muscle in rats

    PubMed Central

    Waters-Banker, Christine; Dupont-Versteegden, Esther E.

    2013-01-01

    Massage is an ancient manual therapy widely utilized by individuals seeking relief from various musculoskeletal maladies. Despite its popularity, the majority of evidence associated with massage benefits is anecdotal. Recent investigations have uncovered physiological evidence supporting its beneficial use following muscle injury; however, the effects of massage on healthy, unperturbed skeletal muscle are unknown. Utilizing a custom-fabricated massage mimetic device, the purpose of this investigation was to elucidate the effects of various loading magnitudes on healthy skeletal muscle with particular interest in the gene expression profile and modulation of key immune cells involved in the inflammatory response. Twenty-four male Wistar rats (200 g) were subjected to cyclic compressive loading (CCL) over the right tibialis anterior muscle for 30 min, once a day, for 4 consecutive days using four loading conditions: control (0N), low load (1.4N), moderate load (4.5N), and high load (11N). Microarray analysis showed that genes involved with the immune response were the most significantly affected by application of CCL. Load-dependent changes in cellular abundance were seen in the CCL limb for CD68+ cells, CD163+ cells, and CD43+cells. Surprisingly, load-independent changes were also discovered in the non-CCL contralateral limb, suggesting a systemic response. These results show that massage in the form of CCL exerts an immunomodulatory response to uninjured skeletal muscle, which is dependent upon the applied load. PMID:24201707

  16. Regulation of skeletal muscle capillary growth in exercise and disease.

    PubMed

    Haas, Tara L; Nwadozi, Emmanuel

    2015-12-01

    Capillaries, which are the smallest and most abundant type of blood vessel, form the primary site of gas, nutrient, and waste transfer between the vascular and tissue compartments. Skeletal muscle exhibits the capacity to generate new capillaries (angiogenesis) as an adaptation to exercise training, thus ensuring that the heightened metabolic demand of the active muscle is matched by an improved capacity for distribution of gases, nutrients, and waste products. This review summarizes the current understanding of the regulation of skeletal muscle capillary growth. The multi-step process of angiogenesis is coordinated through the integration of a diverse array of signals associated with hypoxic, metabolic, hemodynamic, and mechanical stresses within the active muscle. The contributions of metabolic and mechanical factors to the modulation of key pro- and anti-angiogenic molecules are discussed within the context of responses to a single aerobic exercise bout and short-term and long-term training. Finally, the paradoxical lack of angiogenesis in peripheral artery disease and diabetes and the implications for disease progression and muscle health are discussed. Future studies that emphasize an integrated analysis of the mechanisms that control skeletal muscle capillary growth will enable development of targeted exercise programs that effectively promote angiogenesis in healthy individuals and in patient populations.

  17. Why Do Some Cores Remain Starless?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anathpindika, S.

    2016-08-01

    Prestellar cores, by definition, are gravitationally bound but starless pockets of dense gas. Physical conditions that could render a core starless (in the local Universe) is the subject of investigation in this work. To this end, we studied the evolution of four starless cores, B68, L694-2, L1517B, L1689, and L1521F, a VeLLO. We demonstrate: (i) cores contracted in quasistatic manner over a timescale on the order of ~ 105 yr. Those that remained starless briefly acquired a centrally concentrated density configuration that mimicked the profile of a unstable BonnorEbert sphere before rebounding, (ii) three cores viz. L694-2, L1689-SMM16, and L1521F remained starless despite becoming thermally super-critical. By contrast, B68 and L1517B remained sub-critical; L1521F collapsed to become a VeLLO only when gas-cooling was enhanced by increasing the size of dust-grains. This result is robust, for other starless cores viz. B68, L694-2, L1517B, and L1689 could also be similarly induced to collapse. The temperature-profile of starless cores and those that collapsed was found to be radically different. While in the former type, only very close to the centre of a core was there any evidence of decline in gas temperature, by contrast, a core of the latter type developed a more uniformly cold interior. Our principle conclusions are: (a) thermal super-criticality of a core is insufficient to ensure it will become protostellar, (b) potential star-forming cores (the VeLLO L1521F here), could be experiencing dust-coagulation that must enhance gasdust coupling and in turn lower gas temperature, thereby assisting collapse. This also suggests, mere gravitational/virial boundedness of a core is insufficient to ensure it will form stars.

  18. So close: remaining challenges to eradicating polio.

    PubMed

    Toole, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative, launched in 1988, is close to achieving its goal. In 2015, reported cases of wild poliovirus were limited to just two countries - Afghanistan and Pakistan. Africa has been polio-free for more than 18 months. Remaining barriers to global eradication include insecurity in areas such as Northwest Pakistan and Eastern and Southern Afghanistan, where polio cases continue to be reported. Hostility to vaccination is either based on extreme ideologies, such as in Pakistan, vaccination fatigue by parents whose children have received more than 15 doses, and misunderstandings about the vaccine's safety and effectiveness such as in Ukraine. A further challenge is continued circulation of vaccine-derived poliovirus in populations with low immunity, with 28 cases reported in 2015 in countries as diverse as Madagascar, Ukraine, Laos, and Myanmar. This paper summarizes the current epidemiology of wild and vaccine-derived poliovirus, and describes the remaining challenges to eradication and innovative approaches being taken to overcome them.

  19. Decomposition Technique for Remaining Useful Life Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Bhaskar (Inventor); Goebel, Kai F. (Inventor); Saxena, Abhinav (Inventor); Celaya, Jose R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The prognostic tool disclosed here decomposes the problem of estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of a component or sub-system into two separate regression problems: the feature-to-damage mapping and the operational conditions-to-damage-rate mapping. These maps are initially generated in off-line mode. One or more regression algorithms are used to generate each of these maps from measurements (and features derived from these), operational conditions, and ground truth information. This decomposition technique allows for the explicit quantification and management of different sources of uncertainty present in the process. Next, the maps are used in an on-line mode where run-time data (sensor measurements and operational conditions) are used in conjunction with the maps generated in off-line mode to estimate both current damage state as well as future damage accumulation. Remaining life is computed by subtracting the instance when the extrapolated damage reaches the failure threshold from the instance when the prediction is made.

  20. Skeletal Fragility in Endogenous Hypercortisolism.

    PubMed

    Mazziotti, Gherardo; Delgado, Adriano; Maffezzoni, Filippo; Formenti, Annamaria; Giustina, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal fragility is a frequent complication of endogenous hypercortisolism, and fragility fractures may be the first clinical manifestation of the disease. Fractures involve more frequently the vertebrae and may occur in 30-50% of the patients exposed to glucocorticoid excess, in close relationship with severity and duration of hypercortisolism. Although improvement of bone mineral density was reported after resolution of hypercortisolism, there are patients with persistently high fracture risk after the cure of hypercortisolism, and other patients in whom the resolution of hypercortisolism may take a long time, implying a multistep therapeutic approach. Since vertebral fractures tend to occur early during the natural history of disease, a skeletal-specific approach should be undertaken in these patients; however, the cost-effectiveness of this approach is still largely unknown since data on effectiveness and safety of bone-active drugs in endogenous hypercortisolism are scarce. PMID:27210111

  1. Skeletal and body composition evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazess, R. B.

    1983-01-01

    Research on radiation detectors for absorptiometry; analysis of errors affective single photon absorptiometry and development of instrumentation; analysis of errors affecting dual photon absorptiometry and development of instrumentation; comparison of skeletal measurements with other techniques; cooperation with NASA projects for skeletal evaluation in spaceflight (Experiment MO-78) and in laboratory studies with immobilized animals; studies of postmenopausal osteoporosis; organization of scientific meetings and workshops on absorptiometric measurement; and development of instrumentation for measurement of fluid shifts in the human body were performed. Instrumentation was developed that allows accurate and precise (2% error) measurements of mineral content in compact and trabecular bone and of the total skeleton. Instrumentation was also developed to measure fluid shifts in the extremities. Radiation exposure with those procedures is low (2-10 MREM). One hundred seventy three technical reports and one hundred and four published papers of studies from the University of Wisconsin Bone Mineral Lab are listed.

  2. Control of Vertebrate Skeletal Mineralization by Polyphosphates

    PubMed Central

    Omelon, Sidney; Georgiou, John; Henneman, Zachary J.; Wise, Lisa M.; Sukhu, Balram; Hunt, Tanya; Wynnyckyj, Chrystia; Holmyard, Douglas; Bielecki, Ryszard; Grynpas, Marc D.

    2009-01-01

    Background Skeletons are formed in a wide variety of shapes, sizes, and compositions of organic and mineral components. Many invertebrate skeletons are constructed from carbonate or silicate minerals, whereas vertebrate skeletons are instead composed of a calcium phosphate mineral known as apatite. No one yet knows why the dynamic vertebrate skeleton, which is continually rebuilt, repaired, and resorbed during growth and normal remodeling, is composed of apatite. Nor is the control of bone and calcifying cartilage mineralization well understood, though it is thought to be associated with phosphate-cleaving proteins. Researchers have assumed that skeletal mineralization is also associated with non-crystalline, calcium- and phosphate-containing electron-dense granules that have been detected in vertebrate skeletal tissue prepared under non-aqueous conditions. Again, however, the role of these granules remains poorly understood. Here, we review bone and growth plate mineralization before showing that polymers of phosphate ions (polyphosphates: (PO3−)n) are co-located with mineralizing cartilage and resorbing bone. We propose that the electron-dense granules contain polyphosphates, and explain how these polyphosphates may play an important role in apatite biomineralization. Principal Findings/Methodology The enzymatic formation (condensation) and destruction (hydrolytic degradation) of polyphosphates offers a simple mechanism for enzymatic control of phosphate accumulation and the relative saturation of apatite. Under circumstances in which apatite mineral formation is undesirable, such as within cartilage tissue or during bone resorption, the production of polyphosphates reduces the free orthophosphate (PO43−) concentration while permitting the accumulation of a high total PO43− concentration. Sequestering calcium into amorphous calcium polyphosphate complexes can reduce the concentration of free calcium. The resulting reduction of both free PO43− and free

  3. The complexities of skeletal biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karsenty, Gerard

    2003-01-01

    For a long time, the skeleton was seen as an amorphous tissue of little biological interest. But such a view ignored the large number of genetic and degenerative diseases affecting this organ. Over the past 15 years, molecular and genetic studies have modified our understanding of skeletal biology. By so doing this progress has affected our understanding of diseases and suggested in many instances new therapeutic opportunities.

  4. Abundance of field galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klypin, Anatoly; Karachentsev, Igor; Makarov, Dmitry; Nasonova, Olga

    2015-12-01

    We present new measurements of the abundance of galaxies with a given circular velocity in the Local Volume: a region centred on the Milky Way Galaxy and extending to distance ˜10 Mpc. The sample of ˜750 mostly dwarf galaxies provides a unique opportunity to study the abundance and properties of galaxies down to absolute magnitudes MB ≈ -10 and virial masses M_vir= 109{ M_{⊙}}. We find that the standard Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model gives remarkably accurate estimates for the velocity function of galaxies with circular velocities V ≳ 70 kms-1 and corresponding virial masses M_vir≳ 5× 10^{10}{ M_{⊙}}, but it badly fails by overpredicting ˜5 times the abundance of large dwarfs with velocities V = 30-40 kms-1. The warm dark matter (WDM) models cannot explain the data either, regardless of mass of WDM particle. Just as in previous observational studies, we find a shallow asymptotic slope dN/dlog V ∝ Vα, α ≈ -1 of the velocity function, which is inconsistent with the standard ΛCDM model that predicts the slope α = -3. Though reminiscent to the known overabundance of satellite problem, the overabundance of field galaxies is a much more difficult problem. For the standard ΛCDM model to survive, in the 10 Mpc radius of the Milky Way there should be 1000 not yet detected galaxies with virial mass M_vir≈ 10^{10}{ M_{⊙}}, extremely low surface brightness and no detectable H I gas. So far none of this type of galaxies have been discovered.

  5. Late embryogenesis abundant proteins

    PubMed Central

    Olvera-Carrillo, Yadira; Reyes, José Luis

    2011-01-01

    Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins accumulate at the onset of seed desiccation and in response to water deficit in vegetative plant tissues. The typical LEA proteins are highly hydrophilic and intrinsically unstructured. They have been classified in different families, each one showing distinctive conserved motifs. In this manuscript we present and discuss some of the recent findings regarding their role in plant adaptation to water deficit, as well as those concerning to their possible function, and how it can be related to their intrinsic structural flexibility. PMID:21447997

  6. Skeletal muscle: an endocrine organ.

    PubMed

    Pratesi, Alessandra; Tarantini, Francesca; Di Bari, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Tropism and efficiency of skeletal muscle depend on the complex balance between anabolic and catabolic factors. This balance gradually deteriorates with aging, leading to an age-related decline in muscle quantity and quality, called sarcopenia: this condition plays a central role in physical and functional impairment in late life. The knowledge of the mechanisms that induce sarcopenia and the ability to prevent or counteract them, therefore, can greatly contribute to the prevention of disability and probably also mortality in the elderly. It is well known that skeletal muscle is the target of numerous hormones, but only in recent years studies have shown a role of skeletal muscle as a secretory organ of cytokines and other peptides, denominated myokines (IL6, IL8, IL15, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and leukaemia inhibitory factor), which have autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine actions and are deeply involved in inflammatory processes. Physical inactivity promotes an unbalance between these substances towards a pro-inflammatory status, thus favoring the vicious circle of sarcopenia, accumulation of fat - especially visceral - and development of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer, dementia and depression, according to what has been called "the diseasome of physical inactivity". PMID:23858303

  7. Some remaining problems in HCDA analysis. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.W.

    1981-01-01

    The safety assessment and licensing of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) requires an analysis on the capability of the reactor primary system to sustain the consequences of a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Although computational methods and computer programs developed for HCDA analyses can predict reasonably well the response of the primary containment system, and follow up the phenomena of HCDA from the start of excursion to the time of dynamic equilibrium in the system, there remain areas in the HCDA analysis that merit further analytical and experimental studies. These are the analysis of fluid impact on reactor cover, three-dimensional analysis, the treatment of the perforated plates, material properties under high strain rates and under high temperatures, the treatment of multifield flows, and the treatment of prestressed concrete reactor vessels. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the structural mechanics of HCDA analysis in these areas where improvements are needed.

  8. Environmental threats to buried archaeological remains.

    PubMed

    Nord, Anders G; Tronner, Kate; Mattsson, Einar; Borg, Gunnar Ch; Ullén, Inga

    2005-05-01

    The last century's environmental pollution has created health problems, acidification of ground and lakes, and serious damage to our cultural heritage. Outdoor monuments suffer from this pollution, but so do buried archaeological remains. However, research on the deterioration of archaeological artifacts underground has so far been limited, and it is important to draw attention to this neglected field. This article presents results obtained at the Swedish National Heritage Board on the degradation of archaeological objects of bronze and iron and of bones from prehistoric graves, materials of which seem to be most affected by pollutants. The investigation methods, which were employed, are described. Other relevant studies are briefly reviewed. It is obvious that the deterioration rate of archaeological artifacts, especially of inorganic materials, has accelerated in recent years, and that this increased deterioration to a large part can be attributed to anthropogenic pollution. Regions that might be endangered are exemplified.

  9. Rare-earth abundances in chondritic meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evensen, N. M.; Hamilton, P. J.; Onions, R. K.

    1978-01-01

    Fifteen chondrites, including eight carbonaceous chondrites, were analyzed for rare earth element abundances by isotope dilution. Examination of REE for a large number of individual chondrites shows that only a small proportion of the analyses have flat unfractionated REE patterns within experimental error. While some of the remaining analyses are consistent with magmatic fractionation, many patterns, in particular those with positive Ce anomalies, can not be explained by known magmatic processes. Elemental abundance anomalies are found in all major chondrite classes. The persistence of anomalies in chondritic materials relatively removed from direct condensational processes implies that anomalous components are resistant to equilibrium or were introduced at a late stage of chondrite formation. Large-scale segregation of gas and condensate is implied, and bulk variations in REE abundances between planetary bodies is possible.

  10. Chemical abundance of comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyckoff, Susan; Wehinger, Peter

    1988-01-01

    Observations of NH2, (OI) and molecular ion spectra in comets represent virtually all of the volatile fraction of a comet nucleus. Their study leads to the N2, NH3, H2O, CO2, CO content of the nucleus, and thus to important constraints on models of comet formation and chemical processing in the primitive solar nebula. The observations of Comet Halley provide the opportunity for the first comprehensive determination of the abundances in a comet nucleus. The carbon isotope abundance ratio 12 C/13 C = 65 plus or minus 8 has been determined for Comet Halley from resolved rotational line structure in the CN B-X (0,0) band. The ratio is approximately 30 pct lower than the solar system value, 89, indicating either an enhancement of 13CN or a depletion of 12CN in the comet. Scenarios consistent with the observed carbon isotope ratio are: (1) formation of the comet at the periphery of the solar nebula in a fractionation-enriched 13CN region, or hidden from 12CN enrichment sources, and (2) capture of an interestellar comet. Long-slit charge coupled device (CCD) spectra obtained at the time of the spacecraft encounter of Comet Halley have also been analyzed. Scale lengths, production rates and column densities of CH, CN, C2 and NH2 were determined.

  11. Flare Plasma Iron Abundance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Brian R.; Dan, Chau; Jain, Rajmal; Schwartz, Richard A.; Tolbert, Anne K.

    2008-01-01

    The equivalent width of the iron-line complex at 6.7 keV seen in flare X-ray spectra suggests that the iron abundance of the hottest plasma at temperatures >approx.10 MK may sometimes be significantly lower than the nominal coronal abundance of four times the photospheric value that is commonly assumed. This conclusion is based on X-ray spectral observations of several flares seen in common with the Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) and the Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS) on the second Indian geostationary satellite, GSAT-2. The implications of this will be discussed as it relates to the origin of the hot flare plasma - either plasma already in the corona that is directly heated during the flare energy release process or chromospheric plasma that is heated by flare-accelerated particles and driven up into the corona. Other possible explanations of lower-than-expected equivalent widths of the iron-line complex will also be discussed.

  12. Schools Of Up to A Dozen Animal Skeletons, Each In Form of the Ellipitcal Letter "O", Ranging in Height From 4 Inches to Over 1 Ft. and Body Thickness of 1/2-3/4 Inches, Have Been Found Embedded in Top 1 of Only 2 Extruded Limestone Streambeds That Run Across West Face of Grandeur Pk., Wasatch Range and Then Turn East, Going Upstream, to Church Fork (or Park), Millcreek Canyon, Remaining Separated. Lower Streambed Was Not Examined Beyond West Face. Various Other Skeletal Structures Exist and Strata of Seashells Have Previously Been Shown(1), Esp. in Antitributary Streams.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, Keith L.; McDonald, Russell T.

    2004-05-01

    Walking s. along dirt road that lies above residential area at about Lake Bonneville shoreline (5,200 ft.) and viewing e. at the 8,299 ft. Gradeur Pk., we count e-w running subridges from Parleys Canyon and recognize that 4th such ridge is that which descends from Grandeur Pk. About 300 ft. below the peak (no surveyor's instruments are employed), the upper limestone streambed passes thru 4th subridge, where the streambed reaches its highest elevation on w. face, running due n. and then this white limestone streambed to its present main ravine, turns 90 degrees to w., down towards Salt Lake Valley and remains, closely, the former main drainage ravine. Intersection of this 4th subridge with upper limestone streambed locates about 1 dozen "0"-shaped skeletons. However, it is clear that at some period, upper stream turned 90 degrees to w. at this intersection, running down present 4th ridgecrest and then turned to n.w., 50-100 ft. later to travel a few hundred meters to intercept the former main revine. Some seashells and "0" skeletons are located in this 50-100 ft. distance but immed. beyond, on 4th subridge, we could find no evidence of streamflow, altho observations were too hasty and we could have gone further w. We Rocky Mts. were formed this 1st and smallest n.w. streambed was forced out of ground and is very appar. when viewed from S. L. Valley, but small. The lower extruded streambed, above, is probably younger than the above highest one, which is more rich in limestone over w. face of Grandeur Pk. and lies perhaps 300 ft below 1st streambed and connects to 4th subridge high up on it's s. side, near ridge crest, in a broad and spread out manner. It probably supplied all water for the extruded large 2nd, smaller 3rd, large 4th, n.w. oriented streambeds that each make a 45 degree angle with 4th subridge and terminate in above drainage ravine. These skeletal forms demonstrate early life that existed 1/4 - 1/3 billion years ago (permocarboniferous ice age) and

  13. Smart Point Cloud: Definition and Remaining Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poux, F.; Hallot, P.; Neuville, R.; Billen, R.

    2016-10-01

    Dealing with coloured point cloud acquired from terrestrial laser scanner, this paper identifies remaining challenges for a new data structure: the smart point cloud. This concept arises with the statement that massive and discretized spatial information from active remote sensing technology is often underused due to data mining limitations. The generalisation of point cloud data associated with the heterogeneity and temporality of such datasets is the main issue regarding structure, segmentation, classification, and interaction for an immediate understanding. We propose to use both point cloud properties and human knowledge through machine learning to rapidly extract pertinent information, using user-centered information (smart data) rather than raw data. A review of feature detection, machine learning frameworks and database systems indexed both for mining queries and data visualisation is studied. Based on existing approaches, we propose a new 3-block flexible framework around device expertise, analytic expertise and domain base reflexion. This contribution serves as the first step for the realisation of a comprehensive smart point cloud data structure.

  14. Inhaler devices: what remains to be done?

    PubMed

    Smith, Ian J; Bell, John; Bowman, Nic; Everard, Mark; Stein, Stephen; Weers, Jeffry G

    2010-12-01

    The 1000 Years of Pharmaceutical Aerosols Conference convened posing the question; "what remains to be done?" When applying this question to the topic of inhaler devices, two hugely different perspectives could be taken. On the one hand, it could be argued that because there is an array of delivery systems available and the industry, prescribing physicians and patients alike have considerable choice, why would we believe it necessary to do anything further? On the other hand, as an industry, we are constantly reminded by our "customers" that the inhaler devices available are less than adequate, and in some cases woefully inadequate, that they are not "patient" friendly, not intuitive to use and importantly do nothing to encourage the patient to take the medication as intended and as prescribed. So, taking the second point of view as more reflective of reality--the Voice of the Customer--our starting point must be that there is still much to do in the field of inhaler devices. The purpose of this article is to outline some key basic requirements for inhaler design and perhaps to question some of the entrenched thinking that has pervaded inhaler product design for too many years.

  15. Heavy element abundances and massive star formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Boqi; Silk, Joseph

    1993-01-01

    The determination of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) remains a great challenge in astronomy. In the solar neighborhood, the IMF is reasonable well determined for stellar masses from about 0.1 to 60 solar mass. However, outside the solar neighborhood, the IMF is poorly known. Among those frequently discussed arguments favoring a different IMF outside the solar neighborhood are the estimated time to consume the remaining gas in spiral galaxies, and the high rate of forming massive stars in starburst galaxies. An interesting question then is whether there may be an independent way of testing possible variations in the IMF. Indeed, the heavy elements in the interstellar medium are mostly synthesized in massive stars, so increasing, or decreasing, the fraction of massive stars naturally leads to a variation in the heavy element yield, and thus, the metallicity. The observed abundance should severely constrain any deviations of the IMF from the locally determined IMF. We focus on element oxygen, which is the most abundant heavy element in the interstellar medium. Oxygen is ejected only by massive stars that can become Type 1 supernovae, and the oxygen abundance is, therefore, a sensitive function of the fraction of massive stars in the IMF. Adopting oxygen enables us to avoid uncertainties in Type 1 supernovae. We use the nucleosynthesis results to calculate the oxygen yield for given IMF. We then calculate the oxygen abundance in the interstellar medium assuming instantaneous recycling of oxygen.

  16. Cremated human remains: is measurement of the lateral angle of the meatus acusticus internus a reliable method of sex determination?

    PubMed

    Masotti, Sabrina; Succi-Leonelli, Elisa; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lateral angle (LA) method-based on the measurement of the angle at which the internal acoustic canal opens up to the surface of the petrous bone-for sex determination in cremated skeletal remains of Italians. The sample consisted of 160 adult individuals of known age and sex who had recently died and were cremated in the crematorium of Ferrara (northern Italy). Several studies have demonstrated that the petrous portion of the temporal bone may be a valuable tool for sex diagnosis in unburned skeletal remains. Since petrous bones are usually preserved after cremation, this method could be of particular interest in the case of burned skeletal remains. The repeatability of intra- and inter-observer measurements was good. The results indicated that male and female lateral angles were significantly different but that the values did not differ among age-groups. There was no bilateral difference in LA. However, neither the 45° angle, proposed in earlier studies as the sectioning point for this variable from male and female data distributions, nor another angular value allowed satisfactory discrimination between the sexes in our sample. The influence of the "age" factor (about 82 % of females were of ≥ 75 years of age) on the results is critically discussed. The results of this study suggest that the LA method is not sufficiently reliable to assess the sex of elderly Italian individuals from their burned remains and thus should only be used in conjunction with other sexing techniques.

  17. Myogenic regulatory factor (MRF) expression is affected by exercise in postnatal chicken skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Yin, Huadong; Li, Diyan; Wang, Yan; Zhao, Xiaoling; Liu, Yiping; Yang, Zhiqin; Zhu, Qing

    2015-05-01

    The MyoD1, MyoG, Myf5, and Mrf4 proteins belong to the family of muscle regulatory factors (MRFs) and play important roles in skeletal muscle hyperplasia and hypertrophy. We hypothesized that exercise would affect MRF mRNA and protein abundance in postnatal chicken skeletal muscle driving molecular changes that could ultimately lead to increased muscle fiber diameter. At day (d) 43, twelve hundred chickens with similar body weight were randomly assigned to cage, pen, and free-range groups. The MRF mRNA abundance was measured in the pectoralis major and thigh muscle at d56, d70, and d84, and the protein levels of MRFs were determined from the thigh muscle at d84. The results showed no significant difference in mRNA of the MRFs among the three groups at d56 (P>0.05). At d84, chicken in the pen and free-range group showed higher MyoD1, MyoG, Myf5, and Mrf4 mRNA abundance compared to the caged chickens (P<0.05). Free-range chickens had higher Mrf4 and MyoG expression than those in penned ones (P<0.05). Protein abundances of all four factors were lowest in the caged group, and Mrf4 and MyoG protein quantities were greatest in free-range chickens (P<0.05), but Myf5 and MyoD1 protein abundance did not differ between penned and caged groups. The results suggested that exercise up-regulated MRF expression in the postnatal skeletal muscles, which led to an increase in muscle fiber diameter, and eventually affected the meat quality of the skeletal muscles in adult chickens.

  18. Why is Trichodesmium abundant in the Kuroshio?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiozaki, T.; Takeda, S.; Itoh, S.; Kodama, T.; Liu, X.; Hashihama, F.; Furuya, K.

    2015-12-01

    The genus Trichodesmium is recognized as an abundant and major diazotroph in the Kuroshio, but the reason for this remains unclear. The present study investigated the abundance of Trichodesmium spp. and nitrogen fixation together with concentrations of dissolved iron and phosphate in the Kuroshio and its marginal seas. We performed the observations near the Miyako Islands, which form part of the Ryukyu Islands, situated along the Kuroshio, since our satellite analysis suggested that material transport could occur from the islands to the Kuroshio. Trichodesmium spp. bloomed (> 20 000 filaments L-1) near the Miyako Islands, abundance was high in the Kuroshio and the Kuroshio bifurcation region of the East China Sea, but was low in the Philippine Sea. The abundance of Trichodesmium spp. was significantly correlated with the total nitrogen fixation activity. The surface concentrations of dissolved iron (0.19-0.89 nM) and phosphate (< 3-36 nM) were similar for all of the study areas, indicating that the nutrient distribution could not explain the spatial differences in Trichodesmium spp. abundance and nitrogen fixation. Numerical particle-tracking experiments simulated the transportation of water around the Ryukyu Islands to the Kuroshio. Our results indicate that Trichodesmium growing around the Ryukyu Islands could be advected into the Kuroshio.

  19. Abundances in Sagittarius Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonifacio, P.; Zaggia, S.; Sbordone, L.; Santin, P.; Monaco, L.; Monai, S.; Molaro, P.; Marconi, G.; Girardi, L.; Ferraro, F.; di Marcantonio, P.; Caffau, E.; Bellazzini, M.

    The Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal is a very complex galaxy, which has undergone prolonged star formation. From the very first high resolution chemical analysis of Sgr stars, conducted using spectra obtained during the commissioning of UVES at VLT, it was clear that the star had undergone a high level of chemical processing, at variance with most of the other Local Group dwarf spheroidals. Thanks to FLAMES at VLT we now have accurate metallicities and abundances of alpha-chain elements for about 150 stars, which provide the first reliable metallicity distribution for this galaxy. Besides the already known high metallicity tail the existence of a metal-poor population has also been highlighted, although an assessment of the fraction of Sgr stars which belong to this population requires a larger sample. From our data it is also obvious that Sagittarius is a nucleated galaxy and that the centre of the nucleus coincides with M54, as already shown by Monaco et al.

  20. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after

  1. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after

  2. Protection benefits desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) abundance: the influence of three management strategies on a threatened species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berry, Kristin H.; Lyren, Lisa M.; Yee, Julie L.; Bailey, Tracy Y.

    2014-01-01

    We surveyed an area of ∼260 km2 in the western Mojave Desert to evaluate relationships between condition of Agassiz's Desert Tortoise populations (Gopherus agassizii) and habitat on lands that have experienced three different levels of management and protection. We established 240 1-ha plots using random sampling, with 80 plots on each of the three types of managed lands. We conducted surveys in spring 2011 and collected data on live tortoises, shell-skeletal remains, other signs of tortoises, perennial vegetation, predators, and evidence of human use. Throughout the study area and regardless of management area, tortoise abundance was positively associated with one of the more diverse associations of perennial vegetation. The management area with the longest history of protection, a fence, and legal exclusion of livestock and vehicles had significantly more live tortoises and lower death rates than the other two areas. Tortoise presence and abundance in this protected area had no significant positive or negative associations with predators or human-related impacts. In contrast, the management area with a more recent exclusion of livestock, limited vehicular traffic, and with a recent, partial fence had lower tortoise densities and high death rates. Tortoise abundance here was negatively associated with vehicle tracks and positively associated with mammalian predators and debris from firearms. The management area with the least protection—unfenced, with uncontrolled vehicle use, sheep grazing, and high trash counts—also had low tortoise densities and high death rates. Tortoise abundance was negatively associated with sheep grazing and positively associated with trash and mammalian predator scat.cat.

  3. Palate Shape and Depth: A Shape-Matching and Machine Learning Method for Estimating Ancestry from Human Skeletal Remains.

    PubMed

    Maier, Christopher A; Zhang, Kang; Manhein, Mary H; Li, Xin

    2015-09-01

    In the past, assessing ancestry relied on the naked eye and observer experience; however, replicability has become an important aspect of such analysis through the application of metric techniques. This study examines palate shape and assesses ancestry quantitatively using a 3D digitizer and shape-matching and machine learning methods. Palate curves and depths were recorded, processed, and tested for 376 individuals. Palate shape was an accurate indicator of ancestry in 58% of cases. Cluster analysis revealed that the parabolic, hyperbolic, and elliptical shapes are discrete from one another. Preliminary results indicate that palate depth in Hispanic individuals is greatest. Palate shape appears to be a useful indicator of ancestry, particularly when assessed by a computer. However, these data suggest that palate shape is not useful for assessing ancestry in Hispanic individuals. Although ancestry may be determined from palate shape, the use of multiple features is recommended and more reliable.

  4. In what ways can human skeletal remains be used to understand health and disease from the past?

    PubMed Central

    Metcalfe, Neil H

    2007-01-01

    Disease and illness in previous generations can be investigated using palaeopathology. This article describes the commonly used techniques in palaeopathology, includes examples of how such techniques are able to formulate data on a variety of health issues that occurred in the past and suggests how these data can be relevant today. PMID:17403958

  5. Sex determination in skeletal remains from the medieval Eastern Adriatic coast – discriminant function analysis of humeri

    PubMed Central

    Bašić, Željana; Anterić, Ivana; Vilović, Katarina; Petaros, Anja; Bosnar, Alan; Madžar, Tomislav; Polašek, Ozren; Anđelinović, Šimun

    2013-01-01

    Aim To investigate the usefulness of humerus measurement for sex determination in a sample of medieval skeletons from the Eastern Adriatic Coast. Additional aim was to compare the results with contemporary female population. Methods Five humerus measurements (maximum length, epicondylar width, maximum vertical diameter of the head, maximum and minimum diameter of the humerus at midshaft) for 80 male and 35 female medieval and 19 female contemporary humeri were recorded. Only sufficiently preserved skeletons and those with no obvious pathological or traumatic changes that could affect the measurements were included. For ten samples, analysis of DNA was performed in order to determine sex using amelogenin. Results The initial comparison of men and women indicated significant differences in all five measures (P < 0.001). Discriminant function for sex determination indicated that as much as 85% of cases could be properly categorized, with better results in men (86%) than women (80%). Furthermore, the comparison of the medieval and contemporary women did not show significant difference in any of the measured features. Sex results obtained by anthropological and DNA analysis matched in all 10 cases. Conclusion The results indicate that humerus measurement in Croatian medieval population may be sufficient to determine the sex of the skeleton. Furthermore, it seems that secular changes have not substantially affected contemporary population, suggesting that the results of this study are transferable to contemporary population as well. PMID:23771758

  6. Origin of Stellar Abundances in the early Galaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Montes, F.; Beers, T. C.; Cowan, J.; Elliot, T.; Schatz, H.; Farouqi, K.; Gallino, R.; Heil, M.; Kratz, K.-L.; Pfeiffer, B.; Pignatari, M.

    2007-10-26

    Observations of metal-poor stars in the last decade have revealed an abundance pattern that have recently been explained as the result of two nucleosynthesis processes, a strong r-process that creates most of the Z{>=}56 and some 38{<=}Z{<=}47 abundances and a light element primary process (LEPP) responsible for creating the remaining 38{<=}Z{<=}47 abundances and some small contribution to heavier elements. We review some of the current literature on the LEPP and show a derived abundance pattern as a function of mass number.

  7. Column abundance measurements of atmospheric hydroxyl at 45 deg S

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, S. W.; Keep, D. J.; Burnett, C. R.; Burnett, E. B.

    1994-01-01

    The first Southern Hemisphere measurements of the vertical column abundance of atmospheric hydroxyl (OH) have been obtained at Lauder, New Zealand (45 deg S) with a PEPSIOS instrument measuring the absorption of sunlight at 308 nm. The variation of column OH with solar zenith angle is similar to that measured at other sites. However average annual abundances of OH are about 20% higher than those found by similar measurements at 40 deg N. Minimum OH abundances about 10% less than average levels at 40 deg N, are observed during austral spring. The OH abundance abruptly increases by 30% in early summer and remains at the elevated level until late the following winter.

  8. Ciguatera: recent advances but the risk remains.

    PubMed

    Lehane, L; Lewis, R J

    2000-11-01

    Ciguatera is an important form of human poisoning caused by the consumption of seafood. The disease is characterised by gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular disturbances. In cases of severe toxicity, paralysis, coma and death may occur. There is no immunity, and the toxins are cumulative. Symptoms may persist for months or years, or recur periodically. The epidemiology of ciguatera is complex and of central importance to the management and future use of marine resources. Ciguatera is an important medical entity in tropical and subtropical Pacific and Indian Ocean regions, and in the tropical Caribbean. As reef fish are increasingly exported to other areas, it has become a world health problem. The disease is under-reported and often misdiagnosed. Lipid-soluble, polyether toxins known as ciguatoxins accumulated in the muscles of certain subtropical and tropical marine finfish cause ciguatera. Ciguatoxins arise from biotransformation in the fish of less polar ciguatoxins (gambiertoxins) produced by Gambierdiscus toxicus, a marine dinoflagellate that lives on macroalgae, usually attached to dead coral. The toxins and their metabolites are concentrated in the food chain when carnivorous fish prey on smaller herbivorous fish. Humans are exposed at the end of the food chain. More than 400 species of fish can be vectors of ciguatoxins, but generally only a relatively small number of species are regularly incriminated in ciguatera. Ciguateric fish look, taste and smell normal, and detection of toxins in fish remains a problem. More than 20 precursor gambiertoxins and ciguatoxins have been identified in G. toxicus and in herbivorous and carnivorous fish. The toxins become more polar as they undergo oxidative metabolism and pass up the food chain. The main Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX-1) causes ciguatera at levels=0.1 microg/kg in the flesh of carnivorous fish. The main Caribbean ciguatoxin (C-CTX-1) is less polar and 10-fold less toxic than P-CTX-1. Ciguatoxins

  9. Skeletal muscle cramps during exercise.

    PubMed

    Schwellnus, M P

    1999-11-01

    Cramps are painful, involuntary contractions of skeletal muscle that occur during or immediately after exercise and are common in endurance athletes. Although cramps can occur in many rare medical conditions, most athletes who have exercise-associated muscle cramping do not have congenital or acquired medical disorders. The cause of cramping is not well understood but may have to do with abnormal spinal control of motor neuron activity, particularly when a muscle contracts in a shortened position. Important risk factors include muscle fatigue and poor stretching habits. Treatment consists mainly of passive stretching, with supportive measures as needed. Special diagnostic studies and conditioning programs may be necessary for recurrent episodes.

  10. Actinide abundances in ordinary chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hagee, B.; Bernatowicz, T. J.; Podosek, F. A.; Johnson, M. L.; Burnett, D. S.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of actinide and light REE (LREE) abundances and of phosphate abundances in equilibrated ordinary chondrites were obtained and were used to define the Pu abundance in the solar system and to determine the degree of variation of actinide and LREE abundances. The results were also used to compare directly the Pu/U ratio with the earlier obtained ratio determined indirectly, as (Pu/Nd)x(Nd/U), assuming that Pu behaves chemically as a LREE. The data, combined with high-accuracy isotope-dilution data from the literature, show that the degree of gram-scale variability of the Th, U, and LREE abundances for equilibrated ordinary chondrites is a factor of 2-3 for absolute abundances and up to 50 percent for relative abundances. The observed variations are interpreted as reflecting the differences in the compositions and/or proportions of solar nebula components accreted to ordinary chondrite parent bodies.

  11. Proteogenomic Analysis of a Hibernating Mammal Indicates Contribution of Skeletal Muscle Physiology to the Hibernation Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kyle J; Vermillion, Katie L; Jagtap, Pratik; Johnson, James E; Griffin, Timothy J; Andrews, Matthew T

    2016-04-01

    Mammalian hibernation is a strategy employed by many species to survive fluctuations in resource availability and environmental conditions. Hibernating mammals endure conditions of dramatically depressed heart rate, body temperature, and oxygen consumption yet do not show the typical pathological response. Because of the high abundance and metabolic cost of skeletal muscle, not only must it adjust to the constraints of hibernation, but also it is positioned to play a more active role in the initiation and maintenance of the hibernation phenotype. In this study, MS/MS proteomic data from thirteen-lined ground squirrel skeletal muscles were searched against a custom database of transcriptomic and genomic protein predictions built using the platform Galaxy-P. This proteogenomic approach allows for a thorough investigation of skeletal muscle protein abundance throughout their circannual cycle. Of the 1563 proteins identified by these methods, 232 were differentially expressed. These data support previously reported physiological transitions, while also offering new insight into specific mechanisms of how their muscles might be reducing nitrogenous waste, preserving mass and function, and signaling to other tissues. Additionally, the combination of proteomic and transcriptomic data provides unique opportunities for estimating post-transcriptional regulation in skeletal muscle throughout the year and improving genomic annotation for this nonmodel organism.

  12. Proteogenomic Analysis of a Hibernating Mammal Indicates Contribution of Skeletal Muscle Physiology to the Hibernation Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kyle J; Vermillion, Katie L; Jagtap, Pratik; Johnson, James E; Griffin, Timothy J; Andrews, Matthew T

    2016-04-01

    Mammalian hibernation is a strategy employed by many species to survive fluctuations in resource availability and environmental conditions. Hibernating mammals endure conditions of dramatically depressed heart rate, body temperature, and oxygen consumption yet do not show the typical pathological response. Because of the high abundance and metabolic cost of skeletal muscle, not only must it adjust to the constraints of hibernation, but also it is positioned to play a more active role in the initiation and maintenance of the hibernation phenotype. In this study, MS/MS proteomic data from thirteen-lined ground squirrel skeletal muscles were searched against a custom database of transcriptomic and genomic protein predictions built using the platform Galaxy-P. This proteogenomic approach allows for a thorough investigation of skeletal muscle protein abundance throughout their circannual cycle. Of the 1563 proteins identified by these methods, 232 were differentially expressed. These data support previously reported physiological transitions, while also offering new insight into specific mechanisms of how their muscles might be reducing nitrogenous waste, preserving mass and function, and signaling to other tissues. Additionally, the combination of proteomic and transcriptomic data provides unique opportunities for estimating post-transcriptional regulation in skeletal muscle throughout the year and improving genomic annotation for this nonmodel organism. PMID:26903422

  13. Statin-induced Myopathy in Skeletal Muscle: the Role of Exercise.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Hyo-Bum

    2014-09-01

    Statins are widely used drugs to lower cholesterol levels and to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, it has been reported that statins are associated with adverse side effects of skeletal myopathy. Statin treatment can impair mitochondrial function and induce apoptosis in skeletal muscle in both human and animal models. Ubiquinone plays an essential role in transferring electrons in the mitochondrial electron transfer chain for oxidative phosphorylation. However, statin treatment reduces ubiquinone levels in the cholesterol synthesis pathway, which may be associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. In addition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and apoptosis induced by statins may provide cellular and molecular mechanisms in skeletal myopathy. Exercise is the most effective therapy to prevent metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. However, whether exercise provides a benefit to or exacerbation of statin-induced myopathy in skeletal muscle remains poorly investigated. This review will briefly provide a comprehensive summary regarding the effects of statins on skeletal myopathy, and discuss the potential mechanisms of statin-induced myopathy and the role of exercise in statin-induced myopathy in skeletal muscle. PMID:26064857

  14. Unacylated ghrelin restores insulin and autophagic signaling in skeletal muscle of diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Tam, Bjorn T; Pei, Xiao M; Yung, Benjamin Y; Yip, Shea P; Chan, Lawrence W; Wong, Cesar S; Siu, Parco M

    2015-12-01

    Impairment of insulin signaling in skeletal muscle detrimentally affects insulin-stimulated disposal of glucose. Restoration of insulin signaling in skeletal muscle is important as muscle is one of the major sites for disposal of blood glucose. Recently, unacylated ghrelin (UnAG) has received attention in diabetic research due to its favorable actions on improving glucose tolerance, glycemic control, and insulin sensitivity. The investigation of UnAG has entered phase Ib clinical trial in type 2 diabetes and phase II clinical trial in hyperphagia in Prader-Willi syndrome. Nonetheless, the precise mechanisms responsible for the anti-diabetic actions of UnAG remain incompletely understood. In this study, we examined the effects of UnAG on restoring the impaired insulin signaling in skeletal muscle of db/db diabetic mice. Our results demonstrated that UnAG effectively restored the impaired insulin signaling in diabetic muscle. UnAG decreased insulin receptor substrate (IRS) phosphorylation, increased protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation, and, hence, suppressed mTOR signaling. Consequently, UnAG enhanced Glut4 localization and increased PDH activity in the diabetic skeletal muscle. Intriguingly, our data indicated that UnAG normalized the suppressed autophagic signaling in diabetic muscle. In conclusion, our findings illustrated that UnAG restored the impaired insulin and autophagic signaling in skeletal muscle of diabetic mice, which are valuable to understand the underlying mechanisms of the anti-diabetic action of UnAG at peripheral skeletal muscle level. PMID:26228926

  15. Alendronate increases skeletal mass of growing rats during unloading by inhibiting resorption of calcified cartilage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bikle, D. D.; Morey-Holton, E. R.; Doty, S. B.; Currier, P. A.; Tanner, S. J.; Halloran, B. P.

    1994-01-01

    Loss of bone mass during periods of skeletal unloading remains an important clinical problem. To determine the extent to which resorption contributes to the relative loss of bone during skeletal unloading of the growing rat and to explore potential means of preventing such bone loss, 0.1 mg P/kg alendronate was administered to rats before unloading of the hindquarters. Skeletal unloading markedly reduced the normal increase in tibial mass and calcium content during the 9 day period of observation, primarily by decreasing bone formation, although bone resorption was also modestly stimulated. Alendronate not only prevented the relative loss of skeletal mass during unloading but led to a dramatic increase in calcified tissue in the proximal tibia compared with the vehicle-treated unloaded or normally loaded controls. Bone formation, however, assessed both by tetracycline labeling and by [3H]proline and 45Ca incorporation, was suppressed by alendronate treatment and further decreased by skeletal unloading. Total osteoclast number increased in alendronate-treated animals, but values were similar to those in controls when corrected for the increased bone area. However, the osteoclasts had poorly developed brush borders and appeared not to engage the bone surface when examined at the ultrastructural level. We conclude that alendronate prevents the relative loss of mineralized tissue in growing rats subjected to skeletal unloading, but it does so primarily by inhibiting the resorption of the primary and secondary spongiosa, leading to altered bone modeling in the metaphysis.

  16. Diacylglycerol kinase-δ regulates AMPK signaling, lipid metabolism, and skeletal muscle energetics.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lake Q; de Castro Barbosa, Thais; Massart, Julie; Deshmukh, Atul S; Löfgren, Lars; Duque-Guimaraes, Daniella E; Ozilgen, Arda; Osler, Megan E; Chibalin, Alexander V; Zierath, Juleen R

    2016-01-01

    Decrease of AMPK-related signal transduction and insufficient lipid oxidation contributes to the pathogenesis of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Previously, we identified that diacylglycerol kinase-δ (DGKδ), an enzyme involved in triglyceride biosynthesis, is reduced in skeletal muscle from type 2 diabetic patients. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DGKδ plays a role in maintaining appropriate AMPK action in skeletal muscle and energetic aspects of contraction. Voluntary running activity was reduced in DGKδ(+/-) mice, but glycogen content and mitochondrial markers were unaltered, suggesting that DGKδ deficiency affects skeletal muscle energetics but not mitochondrial protein abundance. We next determined the role of DGKδ in AMPK-related signal transduction and lipid metabolism in isolated skeletal muscle. AMPK activation and signaling were reduced in DGKδ(+/-) mice, concomitant with impaired lipid oxidation and elevated incorporation of free fatty acids into triglycerides. Strikingly, DGKδ deficiency impaired work performance, as evident by altered force production and relaxation dynamics in response to repeated contractions. In conclusion, DGKδ deficiency impairs AMPK signaling and lipid metabolism, thereby highlighting the deleterious role of excessive lipid metabolites in the development of peripheral insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes pathogenesis. DGKδ deficiency also influences skeletal muscle energetics, which may lead to low physical activity levels in type 2 diabetes.

  17. "Recent" macrofossil remains from the Lomonosov Ridge, central Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Duc, Cynthia; de Vernal, Anne; Archambault, Philippe; Brice, Camille; Roberge, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The examination of surface sediment samples collected from 17 sites along the Lomonosov Ridge at water depths ranging from 737 to 3339 meters during Polarstern Expedition PS87 in 2014 (Stein, 2015), indicates a rich biogenic content almost exclusively dominated by calcareous remains. Amongst biogenic remains, microfossils (planktic and benthic foraminifers, pteropods, ostracods, etc.) dominate but millimetric to centrimetric macrofossils occurred frequently at the surface of the sediment. The macrofossil remains consist of a large variety of taxa, including gastropods, bivalvia, polychaete tubes, scaphopods, echinoderm plates and spines, and fish otoliths. Among the Bivalvia, the most abundant taxa are Portlandia arctica, Hyalopecten frigidus, Cuspidaria glacilis, Policordia densicostata, Bathyarca spp., and Yoldiella spp. Whereas a few specimens are well preserved and apparently pristine, most mollusk shells displayed extensive alteration features. Moreover, most shells were covered by millimeter scale tubes of the serpulid polychaete Spirorbis sp. suggesting transport from low intertidal or subtidal zone. Both the ecological affinity and known geographic distribution of identified bivalvia as named above support the hypothesis of transportation rather than local development. In addition to mollusk shells, more than a hundred fish otoliths were recovered in surface sediments. The otoliths mostly belong to the Gadidae family. Most of them are well preserved and without serpulid tubes attached to their surface, suggesting a local/regional origin, unlike the shell remains. Although recovered at the surface, the macrofaunal assemblages of the Lomonosov Ridge do not necessarily represent the "modern" environments as they may result from reworking and because their occurrence at the surface of the sediment may also be due to winnowing of finer particles. Although the shells were not dated, we suspect that their actual ages may range from modern to several thousands of

  18. Control levels of acetylcholinesterase expression in the mammalian skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Grubic, Z; Zajc-Kreft, K; Brank, M; Mars, T; Komel, R; Miranda, A F

    1999-05-14

    synthesized AChE molecular forms to be reduced and AChE mRNA unchanged. This observation is consistent with the explanation that translation and/or early post-translational processes are impaired under such conditions (M. Brank, K. Zajc-Kreft, S. Kreft, R. Komel, Z. Grubic, Biogenesis of acetylcholinesterase is impaired, although its mRNA level remains normal, in the glucocorticoid-treated rat skeletal muscle, Eur. J. Biochem. 251 (1998) 374-381). The AChE mRNA level is therefore important but not the only control level of AChE expression in the mammalian skeletal muscle.

  19. On the abundance and activity pattern of zoobenthos inhabiting a tropical reef area, Cebu, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faubel, A.

    1984-12-01

    A benthic faunal study was carried out in the tidal area of Mactan Island (Cebu, Philippines). The area was subdivided along a transect from the beach to the reef according to benthic assemblages. The sediments are largely composed of calcareous skeletal remains of the indigenous biota and surrounding calcareous rocks. The content of protein and carbohydrates of the sediment was estimated, providing an approximation of organic matter in terms of feeding efficiency. Total number of zoobenthos, both as regards the sediment samples and as to the epifaunal communities associated with seaweeds, is rather uniformly distributed justifying the 95% confidence level ( P>0.05). Distinct differences are apparent in abundance values of individual taxa. Although the study area showed the expected distribution pattern, with dominance of Nematoda (39%) living in sediment and Harpacticoida (36 66%) dwelling on Thalassia and algae, Polychaeta reveal a dominant attraction to both these habitats. The reasons for this phenomenon are discussed in relation to the absolute lack of macrofaunal predators The zoobenthos adjust their distribution and activity to fluctuating conditions of the environment. Light is mainly suggested as stimulating diel migration activities of the benthic fauna, moving upwards from the sediment to the algae and Thalassia during daytime. In a field experiment the zoobenthos was investigated for digestion activity over a diurnal cycle. The results reveal that feeding activity of zoobenthos follows a diel cycle showing maximum activity during the morning and evening obviously influenced by changes of light.

  20. Effect of hemiplegia on skeletal maturation.

    PubMed

    Roberts, C D; Vogtle, L; Stevenson, R D

    1994-11-01

    Children with cerebral palsy have been reported to have poor growth and delayed skeletal maturation, but it is unclear whether these effects are related to the underlying brain injury or to concomitant malnutrition. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of hemiplegic cerebral palsy on skeletal maturation and growth, with the unaffected side used as each subject's control. Bilateral hand-wrist radiographs were obtained for 19 children with spastic hemiplegia. Skeletal maturation was determined in a blinded fashion with the Fels method. The skeletal age of the affected (hemiplegic) side was less than that of the unaffected (control) side in all 19 subjects; the mean difference in skeletal age was 7.3 months (p < 0.001). The delay in skeletal maturation of the affected side correlated linearly with age and upper extremity function. These findings show that brain injury results in delayed skeletal maturation independent of malnutrition. This effect on skeletal maturation may explain, in part, the reason that some children with cerebral palsy grow poorly. PMID:7965443

  1. Soluble miniagrin enhances contractile function of engineered skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Weining; Bursac, Nenad

    2012-01-01

    Neural agrin plays a pleiotropic role in skeletal muscle innervation and maturation, but its specific effects on the contractile function of aneural engineered muscle remain unknown. In this study, neonatal rat skeletal myoblasts cultured within 3-dimensional engineered muscle tissue constructs were treated with 10 nM soluble recombinant miniagrin and assessed using histological, biochemical, and functional assays. Depending on the treatment duration and onset time relative to the stage of myogenic differentiation, miniagrin was found to induce up to 1.7-fold increase in twitch and tetanus force amplitude. This effect was associated with the 2.3-fold up-regulation of dystrophin gene expression at 6 d after agrin removal and enhanced ACh receptor (AChR) cluster formation, but no change in cell number, expression of muscle myosin, or important aspects of intracellular Ca2+ handling. In muscle constructs with endogenous ACh levels suppressed by the application of α-NETA, miniagrin increased AChR clustering and twitch force amplitude but failed to improve intracellular Ca2+ handling and increase tetanus-to-twitch ratio. Overall, our studies suggest that besides its synaptogenic function that could promote integration of engineered muscle constructs in vivo, neural agrin can directly promote the contractile function of aneural engineered muscle via mechanisms distinct from those involving endogenous ACh.—Bian, W., Bursac, N. Soluble miniagrin enhances contractile function of engineered skeletal muscle. PMID:22075647

  2. The effects of burial on drug detection in skeletal tissues.

    PubMed

    Desrosiers, Nathalie A; Watterson, James H

    2010-07-01

    Skeletal tissues have recently been investigated for use in post-mortem toxicology. Variables affecting drug concentration in these tissues, however, are still poorly characterized. In this work, the relative effects of burial on the response of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) assays were examined. Rats were acutely exposed to ketamine or diazepam, euthanized and buried outdoors. After one month, the remains were exhumed and skeletal tissue drug levels were compared those of non-buried rats. A climate-controlled burial was also undertaken using defleshed bones to approximate an extended decomposition. Long bones (femora, tibiae) were isolated and separated into tissue type (diaphyseal bone, epiphyseal bone, and marrow), and according to treatment (i.e. buried or non-buried). Following methanolic extraction (bone) or simple homogenization (marrow), samples were analyzed with ELISA. Samples were then pooled according to treatment, extracted by solid phase extraction (SPE) and confirmed with GC-MS. Under the conditions examined, the effects of burial appear to be drug and tissue dependent. Ketamine-exposed tissues demonstrated the greatest differences, especially in bone marrow. In diazepam-exposed tissues, burial did not seem to greatly affect drug response and some gave greater assay response compared to the non-buried set. Overall, the data suggest that fresh tissue samples may not be representative of decomposed samples in terms of skeletal tissue drug levels.

  3. [Skeletal dysplasias. The network SKELNET].

    PubMed

    Després, S; Engel, M W; Zabel, B

    2007-12-01

    The network concept of SKELNET was developed to meet the problems and requirements encountered caring for patients with skeletal dysplasias. Skeletal dysplasias are a clinically and genetically extremely diverse group of chronic genetic diseases, which primarily affect the development of the skeleton. The rarity, extensive heterogeneity and complex pathophysiology have made these conditions a challenge to diagnose and study. They represent a group of 200 to 300 specific disorders with patients located all across Germany. So far the diagnostic process in Germany relies on a few specialists who evaluate the X-rays and clinical picture of the patient. In addition, diagnostic tests are restricted to a few laboratories across Europe. Consequences are low efficiency in diagnosis, clinical management, treatment, follow-up and scientific knowledge resulting in extremely prolonged periods between upcoming symptoms and correct diagnosis, and probably a high number of unknown and insufficiently treated cases. The improvement of cooperation among the experts is one of the key points to optimize diagnostic procedures. As the cooperating clinical and scientific specialists are at various locations in Germany, one of the major efforts is to channel the different levels of clinical and research information, making patient data files accessible and transparent to experts. This approach aims at the development of new strategies for all-embracing high level patient care fulfilling all requirements concerning the protection of personal data.

  4. Fat Targets for Skeletal Health

    PubMed Central

    Kawai, Masanobu; Devlin, Maureen J; Rosen, Clifford J

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence points to a critical role for the skeleton in several homeostatic processes including energy balance. The connection between fuel utilization and skeletal remodeling begins in the bone marrow with lineage allocation of mesenchymal stromal cells into adipocytes or osteoblasts. Mature bone cells secrete factors that influence insulin sensitivity and fat cells synthesize cytokines that regulate osteoblast differentiation. The emerging importance of the bone-fat interaction suggests that novel molecules could be used as targets to enhance bone formation and possibly prevent fractures. In this review, we discuss three pathways that could favor pharmacologic intervention with the ultimate goal of enhancing bone mass and reducing osteoporotic fracture risk. Not surprisingly, because of the complex interactions across homeostatic networks, other pathways will likely be activated by this targeting and these could prove to be beneficial or detrimental for the organism. Hence a more complete picture of energy utilization and skeletal remodeling will be required to bring these potential agents into any future clinical armamentarium. PMID:19468288

  5. Shark-inflicted trauma: a case study of unidentified remains recovered from the Gulf of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Allaire, Maria T; Manhein, Mary H; Burgess, George H

    2012-11-01

    Here, we present a case of an unidentified male whose remains, except for the right arm, were recovered from the Gulf of Mexico 10 years prior to osteological analysis by forensic anthropologists. After the poorly preserved soft tissue was removed and the bones cleaned, forensic analysis revealed an unusual series of hard tissue trauma later attributed by a shark expert as shark scavenging and/or predation. Identified were five unique hard tissue trauma patterns that are bite mark artifacts produced by sharks: punctures without fractures, punctures with associated fractures, striations with bone shaving, overlapping striations, and incised bone gouges. The cooperation among experts provided a comprehensive death case analysis and a better understanding of shark-inflicted trauma on human skeletal remains.

  6. Skeletal morphology of two controversial Poecilosclerid genera (Porifera, Demospongiae): Discorhabdella and Crambe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maldonado, M.; Uriz, M. J.

    1996-09-01

    The genera Discorhabdella and Crambe are characterized by bearing uncommon spicule types, i.e. pseudoastrose acanthostyles and sphaeroclones, respectively. They have traditionally been considered to be unrelated taxa, but the present reexamination made evident that an important amount of skeletal features are shared by both. Some of these morphological features, such as the ornamentation on the point of the ectosomal subtylostyles, are reported for the first time. The study also revealed that a tuberose nature of the tyles of the main choanosomal megascleres could be a common ancestral condition in both genera. The morphology of the multi-toothed anchorate chelae showed a gradual transition across the species, suggesting that the morphological diversity in chelae was generated in these genera through a “palmate-anchorate-arcuate” evolutionary sequence. However, the forward or backward direction of this sequence remained unclear from the available evidence. Important levels of skeletal variability were found to affect many of the skeletal characters, especially in the genus Crambe. In some cases, this variability transgressed the limits theoretically defining a species, making evident that the traditional procedure just based on comparison of the skeletons becomes unreliable when tackling the taxonomy of these genera. Most of the skeletal variability seemed to correspond to genetic polymorphisms, except in the case of C. acuata. In this taxon, the skeletal variability could be a result of the existence of a cryptic species, originated by a misconceived synonymy between C. acuata and C. chelastra. Besides the skeletal variability, the obscure taxonomic meaning of many skeletal features favored the existence of conflicting taxonomic proposals for the suprageneric location of these genera, depending on the author’s criteria. This study made evident that any subsequent attempt of phylogenetic inference should be based on an unweighted analysis of the available

  7. Regulation of NADPH oxidases in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Leonardo F; Laitano, Orlando

    2016-09-01

    The only known function of NAD(P)H oxidases is to produce reactive oxygen species (ROS). Skeletal muscles express three isoforms of NAD(P)H oxidases (Nox1, Nox2, and Nox4) that have been identified as critical modulators of redox homeostasis. Nox2 acts as the main source of skeletal muscle ROS during contractions, participates in insulin signaling and glucose transport, and mediates the myocyte response to osmotic stress. Nox2 and Nox4 contribute to skeletal muscle abnormalities elicited by angiotensin II, muscular dystrophy, heart failure, and high fat diet. Our review addresses the expression and regulation of NAD(P)H oxidases with emphasis on aspects that are relevant to skeletal muscle. We also summarize: i) the most widely used NAD(P)H oxidases activity assays and inhibitors, and ii) studies that have defined Nox enzymes as protagonists of skeletal muscle redox homeostasis in a variety of health and disease conditions. PMID:27184955

  8. Defective skeletal mineralization in pediatric CKD.

    PubMed

    Wesseling-Perry, Katherine

    2015-04-01

    Although traditional diagnosis and treatment of renal osteodystrophy focused on changes in bone turnover, current data demonstrate that abnormalities in skeletal mineralization are also prevalent in pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) and likely contribute to skeletal morbidities that continue to plague this population. It is now clear that alterations in osteocyte biology, manifested by changes in osteocytic protein expression, occur in early CKD before abnormalities in traditional measures of mineral metabolism are apparent and may contribute to defective skeletal mineralization. Current treatment paradigms advocate the use of 1,25(OH)2vitamin D for the control of secondary hyperparathyroidism; however, these agents fail to correct defective skeletal mineralization and may exacerbate already altered osteocyte biology. Further studies are critically needed to identify the initial trigger for abnormalities of skeletal mineralization as well as the potential effects that current therapeutic options may have on osteocyte biology and bone mineralization. PMID:25638580

  9. Defective skeletal mineralization in pediatric CKD.

    PubMed

    Wesseling-Perry, Katherine

    2015-04-01

    Although traditional diagnosis and treatment of renal osteodystrophy focused on changes in bone turnover, current data demonstrate that abnormalities in skeletal mineralization are also prevalent in pediatric chronic kidney disease (CKD) and likely contribute to skeletal morbidities that continue to plague this population. It is now clear that alterations in osteocyte biology, manifested by changes in osteocytic protein expression, occur in early CKD before abnormalities in traditional measures of mineral metabolism are apparent and may contribute to defective skeletal mineralization. Current treatment paradigms advocate the use of 1,25(OH)2vitamin D for the control of secondary hyperparathyroidism; however, these agents fail to correct defective skeletal mineralization and may exacerbate already altered osteocyte biology. Further studies are critically needed to identify the initial trigger for abnormalities of skeletal mineralization as well as the potential effects that current therapeutic options may have on osteocyte biology and bone mineralization.

  10. Reidentification of Avian Embryonic Remains from the Cretaceous of Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Varricchio, David J.; Balanoff, Amy M.; Norell, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic remains within a small (4.75 by 2.23 cm) egg from the Late Cretaceous, Mongolia are here re-described. High-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRCT) was used to digitally prepare and describe the enclosed embryonic bones. The egg, IGM (Mongolian Institute for Geology, Ulaanbaatar) 100/2010, with a three-part shell microstructure, was originally assigned to Neoceratopsia implying extensive homoplasy among eggshell characters across Dinosauria. Re-examination finds the forelimb significantly longer than the hindlimbs, proportions suggesting an avian identification. Additional, postcranial apomorphies (strut-like coracoid, cranially located humeral condyles, olecranon fossa, slender radius relative to the ulna, trochanteric crest on the femur, and ulna longer than the humerus) identify the embryo as avian. Presence of a dorsal coracoid fossa and a craniocaudally compressed distal humerus with a strongly angled distal margin support a diagnosis of IGM 100/2010 as an enantiornithine. Re-identification eliminates the implied homoplasy of this tri-laminate eggshell structure, and instead associates enantiornithine birds with eggshell microstructure composed of a mammillary, squamatic, and external zones. Posture of the embryo follows that of other theropods with fore- and hindlimbs folded parallel to the vertebral column and the elbow pointing caudally just dorsal to the knees. The size of the egg and embryo of IGM 100/2010 is similar to the two other Mongolian enantiornithine eggs. Well-ossified skeletons, as in this specimen, characterize all known enantiornithine embryos suggesting precocial hatchlings, comparing closely to late stage embryos of modern precocial birds that are both flight- and run-capable upon hatching. Extensive ossification in enantiornithine embryos may contribute to their relatively abundant representation in the fossil record. Neoceratopsian eggs remain unrecognized in the fossil record. PMID:26030147

  11. Sarcoplasmic masses in the skeletal muscle of a stranded pigmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps).

    PubMed

    Sierra, Eva; de los Monteros, Antonio Espinosa; Fernández, Antonio; Arbelo, Manuel; Caballero, María José; Rivero, Miguel; Herráez, Pedro

    2013-07-01

    We measured the abundance of sarcoplasmic masses within skeletal muscle myocytes of an adult female stranded pigmy sperm whale (Kogia breviceps). The presence of these masses in other species has been reported in association with myopathies, including myotonic dystrophy, the most frequently related pathology. Other histopathologic muscle changes included a high number of internal nuclei, variations in fiber size and shape, and the predominance of type I fibers.

  12. Satellite Cells and Skeletal Muscle Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Dumont, Nicolas A; Bentzinger, C Florian; Sincennes, Marie-Claude; Rudnicki, Michael A

    2015-07-01

    Skeletal muscles are essential for vital functions such as movement, postural support, breathing, and thermogenesis. Muscle tissue is largely composed of long, postmitotic multinucleated fibers. The life-long maintenance of muscle tissue is mediated by satellite cells, lying in close proximity to the muscle fibers. Muscle satellite cells are a heterogeneous population with a small subset of muscle stem cells, termed satellite stem cells. Under homeostatic conditions all satellite cells are poised for activation by stimuli such as physical trauma or growth signals. After activation, satellite stem cells undergo symmetric divisions to expand their number or asymmetric divisions to give rise to cohorts of committed satellite cells and thus progenitors. Myogenic progenitors proliferate, and eventually differentiate through fusion with each other or to damaged fibers to reconstitute fiber integrity and function. In the recent years, research has begun to unravel the intrinsic and extrinsic mechanisms controlling satellite cell behavior. Nonetheless, an understanding of the complex cellular and molecular interactions of satellite cells with their dynamic microenvironment remains a major challenge, especially in pathological conditions. The goal of this review is to comprehensively summarize the current knowledge on satellite cell characteristics, functions, and behavior in muscle regeneration and in pathological conditions.

  13. Radiology of postnatal skeletal development. Pt. 7

    SciTech Connect

    Ogden, J.A.; Phillips, S.B.

    1983-02-01

    Twenty-four pairs of scapulae from fetal specimens and 35 pairs of scapulae from postnatal cadavers ranging in age from full-term neonates to 14 years, were studied morphologically and roentgenographically. Air-cartilage interfacing was used to demonstrate both the osseous and cartilaginous contours. When the entire chondro-osseous dimensions, rather than just the osseous dimensions, were measured, the scapula had a height-width ratio ranging from 1.36 to 1.52 (average 1.44) during most of fetal development. The exceptions were three stillborns with camptomelic, thanatophoric, and achondrogenic dwarfism in which the ratio averaged 0.6. At no time during fetal development was the glenoid cavity convex; it always had a concave articular surface. However, the osseous subchrondral countour was often flat or slightly convex. In the postnatal period the height-width ratio averaged 1.49. The ratio remained virtually unchanged throughout skeletal growth and maturation. In a patient with unilateral Sprengel's deformity the ratio for the normal side was 1.5, while the abnormal was 1.0. The cartilaginous glenoid cavity was always concave during postnatal development, even in the specimens with major structural deformities, although the subchondral osseous contour was usually flat or convex during the first few years of postnatal development. Ossification of the coracoid process began with the development of a primary center at three to four months. A bipolar physis was present between the primary coracoid center and the primary scapular center until late adolescence.

  14. Effect of limb immobilization on skeletal muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, F. W.

    1982-01-01

    Current knowledge and questions remaining concerning the effects of limb immobilization on skeletal muscle is reviewed. The most dramatic of these effects is muscle atrophy, which has been noted in cases of muscles fixed at or below their resting length. Immobilization is also accompanied by a substantial decrease in motoneuronal discharges, which results in the conversion of slow-twitch muscle to muscle with fast-twitch characteristics. Sarcolemma effects include no change or a decrease in resting membrane potential, the appearance of extrajunctional acetylcholine receptors, and no change in acetylcholinesterase activity. Evidence of changes in motoneuron after hyperpolarization characteristics suggests that the muscle inactivity is responsible for neuronal changes, rather than vice versa. The rate of protein loss from atrophying muscles is determined solely by the first-order rate constant for degradation. Various other biochemical and functional changes have been noted, including decreased insulin responsiveness and protein synthesis. The model of limb immobilization may also be useful for related studies of muscle adaptation.

  15. Twelve hours of heat stress induces inflammatory signaling in porcine skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Shanthi; Reynolds, Carmen; Hollinger, Katrin; Pearce, Sarah C; Gabler, Nicholas K; Baumgard, Lance H; Rhoads, Robert P; Selsby, Joshua T

    2016-06-01

    Heat stress causes morbidity and mortality in humans and animals and threatens food security by limiting livestock productivity. Inflammatory signaling may contribute to heat stress-mediated skeletal muscle dysfunction. Previously, we discovered increased circulating endotoxin and intramuscular oxidative stress and TNF-α protein abundance, but not inflammatory signaling following 24 and 72 h of heat stress. Thus the purpose of this investigation was to clarify the role of inflammatory signaling in heat-stressed skeletal muscle. Crossbred gilts (n = 8/group) were assigned to either thermal neutral (24°C), heat stress (37°C), or pair-fed thermal neutral (24°C) conditions for 12 h. Following treatment, animals were euthanized, and the semitendinosus red (STR) and white (STW) were recovered. Heat stress did not alter inflammatory signaling in STW. In STR, relative heat shock protein abundance was similar between groups, as was nuclear content of heat shock factor 1. In whole homogenate, relative abundance of the NF-κB activator inhibitory κB kinase-α was increased by heat stress, although abundance of NF-κB was similar between groups. Relative abundance of phosphorylated NF-κB was increased by heat stress in nuclear fractions. Activator protein-1 (AP-1) signaling was similar between groups. While there were few differences in transcript expression between thermal neutral and heat stress, 80 and 56% of measured transcripts driven by NF-κB or AP-1, respectively, were increased by heat stress compared with pair-fed thermal neutral. Heat stress also caused a reduction in IL-6 transcript and relative protein abundance. These data demonstrate that short-term heat stress causes inflammatory signaling through NF-κB in oxidative, but not glycolytic, skeletal muscle. PMID:27009052

  16. Rummaging through Earth's Attic for Remains of Ancient Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, John C.; Wells, Llyd E.; Gonzalez, Guillermo

    2002-11-01

    We explore the likelihood that early remains of Earth, Mars, and Venus have been preserved on the Moon in high enough concentrations to motivate a search mission. During the Late Heavy Bombardment, the inner planets experienced frequent large impacts. Material ejected by these impacts near the escape velocity would have had the potential to land and be preserved on the surface of the Moon. Such ejecta could yield information on the geochemical and biological state of early Earth, Mars, and Venus. To determine whether the Moon has preserved enough ejecta to justify a search mission, we calculate the amount of terran material incident on the Moon over its history by considering the distribution of ejecta launched from the Earth by large impacts. In addition, we make analogous estimates for Mars and Venus. We find, for a well-mixed regolith, that the median surface abundance of terran material is roughly 7 ppm, corresponding to a mass of approximately 20,000 kg of terran material over a 10×10-square-km area. Over the same area, the amount of material transferred from Venus is 1-30 kg and material from Mars as much as 180 kg. Given that the amount of terran material is substantial, we estimate the fraction of this material surviving impact with intact geochemical and biological tracers.

  17. Vasodilator interactions in skeletal muscle blood flow regulation

    PubMed Central

    Hellsten, Y; Nyberg, M; Jensen, L G; Mortensen, S P

    2012-01-01

    During exercise, oxygen delivery to skeletal muscle is elevated to meet the increased oxygen demand. The increase in blood flow to skeletal muscle is achieved by vasodilators formed locally in the muscle tissue, either on the intraluminal or on the extraluminal side of the blood vessels. A number of vasodilators have been shown to bring about this increase in blood flow and, importantly, interactions between these compounds seem to be essential for the precise regulation of blood flow. Two compounds stand out as central in these vasodilator interactions: nitric oxide (NO) and prostacyclin. These two vasodilators are both stimulated by several compounds, e.g. adenosine, ATP, acetylcholine and bradykinin, and are affected by mechanically induced signals, such as shear stress. NO and prostacyclin have also been shown to interact in a redundant manner where one system can take over when formation of the other is compromised. Although numerous studies have examined the role of single and multiple pharmacological inhibition of different vasodilator systems, and important vasodilators and interactions have been identified, a large part of the exercise hyperaemic response remains unexplained. It is plausible that this remaining hyperaemia may be explained by cAMP- and cGMP-independent smooth muscle relaxation, such as effects of endothelial derived hyperpolarization factors (EDHFs) or through metabolic modulation of sympathetic effects. The nature and role of EDHF as well as potential novel mechanisms in muscle blood flow regulation remain to be further explored to fully elucidate the regulation of exercise hyperaemia. PMID:22988140

  18. Can we create ethnically diverse skeletal collection from donated bodies?

    PubMed

    Weiss, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Understanding bone health is least invasively and most effectively done through studying skeletal remains that reflect the living populations who will benefit from the knowledge produced through research. Donated body collections that accurately represent modern populations are needed for osteological insights to be applied to clinical practices. However, even though the US is growing increasingly diverse, donated body collections still suffer from a lack of ethnic diversity. Most individuals who donate their whole-bodies after death are European-American. Reasons for a lack of ethnic diversity stem from past injustices and present religious norms. Increasing body donation among minorities in the US and abroad may be difficult. PMID:25775919

  19. [Transplantation of autologous skeletal myoblasts in ischemic cardiac insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Pouzet, B; Hagège, A A; Vilquin, J T; Desnos, M; Duboc, D; Marolleau, J P; Menashé, P

    2001-01-01

    Despite medical therapeutic advances, congestive heart failure (CHF), which is the common ultimate consequence of many primary cardiovascular diseases, remains a major and growing public health problem. Although orthotopic heart transplantation is the gold standard, there is now growing evidence that one therapeutic option could be cellular cardiomyoplasty. Autologous adult skeletal myoblast transplantation seems to be the most clinically relevant, compared with other cell types, in that it avoids immunosuppression therapy, availability and ethical issues. Previous experimental studies have documented the efficacy of myoblast transplantation in improving function of infarcted myocardium. Although the mechanisms involved in this improvement are not elucidated, it has been demonstrated convincingly enough to consider ripping to clinical trials.

  20. Can we create ethnically diverse skeletal collection from donated bodies?

    PubMed

    Weiss, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Understanding bone health is least invasively and most effectively done through studying skeletal remains that reflect the living populations who will benefit from the knowledge produced through research. Donated body collections that accurately represent modern populations are needed for osteological insights to be applied to clinical practices. However, even though the US is growing increasingly diverse, donated body collections still suffer from a lack of ethnic diversity. Most individuals who donate their whole-bodies after death are European-American. Reasons for a lack of ethnic diversity stem from past injustices and present religious norms. Increasing body donation among minorities in the US and abroad may be difficult.

  1. The TWEAK–Fn14 dyad is involved in age-associated pathological changes in skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Tajrishi, Marjan M.; Sato, Shuichi; Shin, Jonghyun; Zheng, Timothy S.; Burkly, Linda C.; Kumar, Ashok

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • The levels of TWEAK receptor Fn14 are increased in skeletal muscle during aging. • Deletion of Fn14 attenuates age-associated skeletal muscle fiber atrophy. • Deletion of Fn14 inhibits proteolysis in skeletal muscle during aging. • TWEAK–Fn14 signaling activates transcription factor NF-κB in aging skeletal muscle. • TWEAK–Fn14 dyad is involved in age-associated fibrosis in skeletal muscle. - Abstract: Progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia) is a major clinical problem in the elderly. Recently, proinflammatory cytokine TWEAK and its receptor Fn14 were identified as key mediators of muscle wasting in various catabolic states. However, the role of the TWEAK–Fn14 pathway in pathological changes in skeletal muscle during aging remains unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that the levels of Fn14 are increased in skeletal muscle of 18-month old (aged) mice compared with adult mice. Genetic ablation of Fn14 significantly increased the levels of specific muscle proteins and blunted the age-associated fiber atrophy in mice. While gene expression of two prominent muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases MAFBx and MuRF1 remained comparable, levels of ubiquitinated proteins and the expression of autophagy-related molecule Atg12 were significantly reduced in Fn14-knockout (KO) mice compared with wild-type mice during aging. Ablation of Fn14 significantly diminished the DNA-binding activity of transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), gene expression of various inflammatory molecules, and interstitial fibrosis in skeletal muscle of aged mice. Collectively, our study suggests that the TWEAK–Fn14 signaling axis contributes to age-associated muscle atrophy and fibrosis potentially through its local activation of proteolytic systems and inflammatory pathways.

  2. Abundance coefficients, a new method for measuring microorganism relative abundance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forester, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    A new method of measuring the relative abundance of microorganisms by using a set of interrelated coefficients, termed 'abundance coefficients' or 'AC', is proposed. These coefficients provide a means of recording abundance for geometric density categories, and each density measurement represents an approximation of the Poisson parameter ??t. The AC is the natural logarithm of a 'characteristic value,' which is a particular number for each geometric density category. The 'characteristic values' are based upon a probabilistic error statement derived from the Poisson formula, and they present evidence for separation of the geometric category boundaries by e = 2.71828. The proposed AC provide a means for recording species abundance in a manner suitable for arithmetic manipulation, for population structure studies, and for the determination of practical limits for defining the presence or absence of a species. Further, these coefficients provide for both intrasample and intersample abundance comparisons. ?? 1977 Plenum Publishing Corporation.

  3. The peculiar apoptotic behavior of skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Salucci, Sara; Burattini, Sabrina; Baldassarri, Valentina; Battistelli, Michela; Canonico, Barbara; Valmori, Aurelio; Papa, Stefano; Falcieri, Elisabetta

    2013-08-01

    Apoptosis plays an active role in maintaining skeletal muscle homeostasis. Its deregulation is involved in several skeletal muscle disorders such as dystrophies, myopathies, disuse and sarcopenia. The aim of this work was to study in vitro the apoptotic behavior induced by etoposide, staurosporine and hydrogen peroxide in the C2C12 skeletal muscle cell line, comparing myoblast vs myotube sensitivity, investigated by means of morphological and cytofluorimetric analyses. Myotubes appeared more resistant than myoblasts to apoptotic induction. In myoblasts treated with etoposide, nuclei with chromatin condensation were observed, in the presence of a diffuse DNA fragmentation, as shown by confocal microscopy. The latter also appeared in myotubes, where apoptotic and normal nuclei coexisted inside the same syncytium. After staurosporine treatment, myobalsts evidenced late apoptotic features and a high number of TUNEL-positive nuclei. Secondary necrosis appeared in myotubes, where myonuclei with cleaved DNA again coexisted with normal myonuclei. After H₂O₂ exposure, myotubes, differently from myoblasts, showed a poor sensitivity to cell death. Intriguingly, autophagic granules appeared abundantly in myotubes after each treatment. In myotubes, mitochondria were better preserved than in myoblasts since those which were damaged were probably degraded through autophagic processes. These findings demonstrate a scarce sensitivity of myotubes to apoptotic stimuli due to acquisition of an apoptosis-resistant phenotype during differentiation. The presence of nuclear-dependent "territorial" death domains in the syncytium could explain a slower death of myotubes compared to mononucleated cells. In addition, autophagy could preserve and protect muscle cell integrity against chemical stimuli, making C2C12 cells, in particular myotubes, more resistant to apoptosis induction. PMID:23400589

  4. Skeletal muscle is an endocrine organ.

    PubMed

    Iizuka, Kenji; Machida, Takuji; Hirafuji, Masahiko

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle plays a key role in postural retention as well as locomotion for maintaining the physical activities of human life. Skeletal muscle has a second role as an elaborate energy production and consumption system that influences the whole body's energy metabolism. Skeletal muscle is a specific organ that engenders a physical force, and exercise training has been known to bring about multiple benefits for human health maintenance and/or improvement. The mechanisms underlying the improvement of the human physical condition have been revealed: skeletal muscle synthesizes and secretes multiple factors, and these muscle-derived factors, so-called as myokines, exert beneficial effects on peripheral and remote organs. In this short review, we focus on the third aspect of skeletal muscle function - namely, the release of multiple types of myokines, which constitute a broad network for regulating the function of remote organs as well as skeletal muscle itself. We conclusively show that skeletal muscle is one of the endocrine organs and that understanding the mechanisms of production and secretion of myokines may lead to a new pharmacological approach for treatment of clinical disorders.

  5. A high resolution δ13C record in a modern Porites lobata coral: Insights into controls on skeletal δ13C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, Nicola; Finch, Adrian A.; EIMF

    2012-05-01

    δ13C was determined at a high spatial resolution by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) across a 1 year section of a modern Porites lobata coral skeleton from Hawaii. Skeletal δ13C is dominated by large oscillations of 5-7‰ that typically cover skeletal distances equivalent to periods of ˜14-40 days. These variations do not reflect seawater temperature and it is unlikely that they reflect variations in the δ13C of local seawater. We observe no correlation between skeletal δ13C and the pH of the calcification fluid (estimated from previous measurements of skeletal δ11B). We conclude that either the proportion of skeletal carbon derived from metabolic CO2 is not reflected by estimated ECF pH (as the [CO2] in the overlying coral tissue varies) and/or the δ13C composition of the metabolic CO2 is highly variable. We also observe no correlation between skeletal δ13C and previous δ18O SIMS measurements. Variations in skeletal δ13C and δ18O do not have a common timing, providing no evidence that skeletal δ13C and δ18O vary in response to a single factor. This suggests that skeletal δ13C is principally driven by variations in the δ13C composition of metabolic CO2 rather than by the abundance of metabolic CO2, which would also affect skeletal δ18O. The δ13C composition of metabolic CO2 reflects the processes of photosynthesis, heterotrophic feeding and respiration in the overlying coral tissue. Corals catabolise stored lipid reserves to meet energetic demands when photosynthesis conditions are sub-optimal. Variations in the amounts and types of reserves utilised could induce changes in the δ13C composition of metabolic CO2 and the resultant skeleton which are temporally offset from skeletal δ18O records.

  6. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is fundamental to the cardiometabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nistala, Ravi; Stump, Craig S

    2006-01-01

    The cardiometabolic syndrome is associated with insulin resistance and a dysregulation of glucose and lipid metabolism that occurs in multiple tissues. Of these, skeletal muscle is the most abundant insulin-sensitive tissue, handling > 40% of the postprandial glucose uptake, while consuming 20% of the body's energy. The inability to efficiently take up and store fuel, and to transition from fat to glucose as the primary source of fuel during times of plenty (increased insulin), has been termed metabolic inflexibility. This resistance to insulin is thought to be a major contributor to the whole-body metabolic dysregulation that leads to increased cardiovascular risk. Recent investigation has identified specific defects in postinsulin receptor signaling in skeletal muscle from resistant humans and animals. Potential mechanisms contributing to this reduced insulin signaling and action include decreases in mitochondrial oxidative capacity, increased intramuscular lipid accumulation, increased reactive oxygen species generation, and up-regulated inflammatory pathways. Future research is focused on understanding these and other potential mechanisms to identify therapeutic targets for reducing cardiometabolic syndrome risk. PMID:17675899

  7. Emerging tools to study proteoglycan function during skeletal development.

    PubMed

    Brown, D S; Eames, B F

    2016-01-01

    In the past 20years, appreciation for the varied roles of proteoglycans (PGs), which are specific types of sugar-coated proteins, has increased dramatically. PGs in the extracellular matrix were long known to impart structural functions to many tissues, especially articular cartilage, which cushions bones and allows mobility at skeletal joints. Indeed, osteoarthritis is a debilitating disease associated with loss of PGs in articular cartilage. Today, however, PGs have a demonstrated role in cell biological processes, such as growth factor signalling, prompting new perspectives on the etiology of PG-associated diseases. Here, we review diseases associated with defects in PG synthesis and sulfation, also highlighting current understanding of the underlying genetics, biochemistry, and cell biology. Since most research has analyzed a class of PGs called heparan sulfate PGs, more attention is paid here to studies of chondroitin sulfate PGs (CSPGs), which are abundant in cartilage. Interestingly, CSPG synthesis is tightly linked to the cell biological processes of secretion and lysosomal degradation, suggesting that these systems may be linked genetically. Animal models of loss of CSPG function have revealed CSPGs to impact skeletal development. Specifically, our work from a mutagenesis screen in zebrafish led to the hypothesis that cartilage PGs normally delay the timing of endochondral ossification. Finally, we outline emerging approaches in zebrafish that may revolutionize the study of cartilage PG function, including transgenic methods and novel imaging techniques. Our recent work with X-ray fluorescent imaging, for example, enables direct correlation of PG function with PG-dependent biological processes. PMID:27312503

  8. Deciphering skeletal patterning: clues from the limb.

    PubMed

    Mariani, Francesca V; Martin, Gail R

    2003-05-15

    Even young children can distinguish a Tyrannosaurus rex from a Brontosaurus by observing differences in bone size, shape, number and arrangement, that is, skeletal pattern. But despite our extensive knowledge about cartilage and bone formation per se, it is still largely a mystery how skeletal pattern is established. Much of what we do know has been learned from studying limb development in chicken and mouse embryos. Based on the data from such studies, models for how limb skeletal pattern is established have been proposed and continue to be hotly debated.

  9. Erratum: Interstellar Abundance Standards Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofia, U. J.; Meyer, D. M.

    2001-09-01

    In the Letter ``Interstellar Abundance Standards Revisited'' by U. J. Sofia and D. M. Meyer (ApJ, 554, L221 [2001]), Table 2 and its footnotes contain several typographical errors. The corrected table is shown below. We note that the solar reference standard now implies a positive abundance of nitrogen in halo dust.

  10. The impact of skeletal unloading on bone formation.

    PubMed

    Bikle, Daniel D; Sakata, Takeshi; Halloran, Bernard P

    2003-06-01

    Skeletal unloading leads to decreased bone formation and decreased bone mass. Bone resorption is uncoupled from bone formation, contributing to the bone loss. During space flight bone is lost principally from the bones most loaded in the 1 g environment. Determining the mechanism(s) by which loading of bone is sensed and translated into a signal(s) controlling bone formation remains the holy grail in this field. It seems likely that matrix/cell interactions will underlie much of the mechanocoupling. Integrins are a prime mediator of such interactions. The role for systemic hormones such as PTH, GH and 1,25(OH)2D compared to locally produced factors such as IGF-I, PTHrP, BMPs and TGF beta in modulating the cellular response to load remains unclear. Our studies demonstrate that skeletal unloading leads to resistance to the anabolic actions of IGF-I on bone as a result of failure of IGF-I to activate its own signaling pathways. This is associated with a reduction in integrin expression, suggesting crosstalk between these two pathways. As the mechanism(s) by which bone responds to changes in mechanical load with changes in bone formation is further elucidated, applications of this knowledge to other etiologies of osteoporosis are likely to develop. Skeletal unloading provides a perturbation in bone mineral homeostasis that can be used to understand the mechanisms by which bone mineral homeostasis is maintained, and that such understanding will lead to effective treatment for disuse osteoporosis in addition to preventive measures for the bone loss that accompanies space travel.

  11. Bone deformities and skeletal malformations in the Roman Imperial Age.

    PubMed

    Minozzi, Simona; Catalano, Paola; Pantano, Walter; Caldarini, Carla; Fornaciari, Gino

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes some cases of individuals affected by skeletal deformities resulting in "freak" appearance. The skeletal remains were found during large archaeological excavations in the Roman territory, carried out by the Special Superintendence to the Archeological Heritage of Rome in the last years, dated back to the Imperial Age. The first cases reported are referred to two growth disorders with opposite effects: a case of dwarfism and another of gigantism. The former concerns a young man from the Collatina necropolis with very short and malformed limbs, which allowed a diagnosis of acondroplasic dwarfism, a rare congenital disorder that limits height below 130 cm. The latter case comes from the necropolis of Torre Serpentana in Fidenae, and is instead referred to a young person of very high stature, about 204 cm, suffering from Gigantism, a rare condition which in this case seems to have been linked to a hormonal dysfunction due to a pituitary adenoma. A third case regards a joint disease affecting the vertebral column and causing severe deformities. The skeleton was found in the Collatina necropolis and belongs to an old woman, suffering from ankylosing spondylitis. Finally, the last and very peculiar case is related to an individual recovered in the necropolis of Castel Malnome. The skeletal remains belong to an adult man with a complete fusion of the temporo-mandibular joint, which compromised mastication and caused severe deformation of the maxillofacial complex. These cases are described in detail together with the possible implications that these deformities could have on in the social context. PMID:25702379

  12. The impact of skeletal unloading on bone formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bikle, Daniel D.; Sakata, Takeshi; Halloran, Bernard P.

    2003-01-01

    Skeletal unloading leads to decreased bone formation and decreased bone mass. Bone resorption is uncoupled from bone formation, contributing to the bone loss. During space flight bone is lost principally from the bones most loaded in the 1 g environment. Determining the mechanism(s) by which loading of bone is sensed and translated into a signal(s) controlling bone formation remains the holy grail in this field. It seems likely that matrix/cell interactions will underlie much of the mechanocoupling. Integrins are a prime mediator of such interactions. The role for systemic hormones such as PTH, GH and 1,25(OH)2D compared to locally produced factors such as IGF-I, PTHrP, BMPs and TGF beta in modulating the cellular response to load remains unclear. Our studies demonstrate that skeletal unloading leads to resistance to the anabolic actions of IGF-I on bone as a result of failure of IGF-I to activate its own signaling pathways. This is associated with a reduction in integrin expression, suggesting crosstalk between these two pathways. As the mechanism(s) by which bone responds to changes in mechanical load with changes in bone formation is further elucidated, applications of this knowledge to other etiologies of osteoporosis are likely to develop. Skeletal unloading provides a perturbation in bone mineral homeostasis that can be used to understand the mechanisms by which bone mineral homeostasis is maintained, and that such understanding will lead to effective treatment for disuse osteoporosis in addition to preventive measures for the bone loss that accompanies space travel.

  13. Upregulation of uncoupling protein-3 in skeletal muscle during exercise: a potential antioxidant function.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ning; Zhang, Guizhong; Bo, Hai; Qu, Jinting; Ma, Guodong; Cao, Dongning; Wen, Li; Liu, Shusen; Ji, Li Li; Zhang, Yong

    2009-01-15

    Uncoupling protein-3 (UCP3) expression has been shown to increase dramatically in response to muscular contraction, but the physiological significance of UCP3 upregulation is still elusive. In this study, UCP3 mRNA and protein expression were investigated along with mitochondrial respiratory function, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and antioxidant defense in rat skeletal muscle during and after an acute bout of prolonged exercise. UCP3 mRNA expression was elevated sharply at 45 min of exercise, reaching 7- to 8-fold above resting level at 150 min. The increase in UCP3 protein content showed a latent response but was elevated approximately 1.9-fold at 120 min of exercise. Both UCP3 mRNA and UCP3 protein gradually returned to resting levels 24 h postexercise. Mitochondrial ROS production was progressively increased during exercise. However, ROS showed a dramatic drop at 150 min although their levels remained severalfold higher during the recovery. Mitochondrial State 4 respiration rate was increased by 46 and 58% (p < 0.05) at 90 and 120 min, respectively, but returned to resting rate at 150 min, when State 3 respiration and respiratory control index (RCI) were suppressed. ADP-to-oxygen consumption (P/O) ratio and ATP synthase activity were lowered at 3 h postexercise, whereas proton motive force and mitochondrial malondialdehyde content were unchanged. Manganese superoxide dismutase gene expression was not affected by exercise except for an increase in mRNA abundance at 3 h postexercise. These data demonstrate that UCP3 expression in rat skeletal muscle can be rapidly upregulated during prolonged exercise, possibly owing to increased ROS generation. Increased UCP3 may partially alleviate the proton gradient across the inner membrane, thereby reducing further ROS production by the electron transport chain. However, prolonged exercise caused a decrease in energy coupling efficiency in muscle mitochondria revealed by an increased respiration rate due to

  14. Combinatory effects of siRNA-induced myostatin inhibition and exercise on skeletal muscle homeostasis and body composition.

    PubMed

    Mosler, Stephanie; Relizani, Karima; Mouisel, Etienne; Amthor, Helge; Diel, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Inhibition of myostatin (Mstn) stimulates skeletal muscle growth, reduces body fat, and induces a number of metabolic changes. However, it remains unexplored how exercise training modulates the response to Mstn inhibition. The aim of this study was to investigate how siRNA-mediated Mstn inhibition alone but also in combination with physical activity affects body composition and skeletal muscle homeostasis. Adult mice were treated with Mstn-targeting siRNA and subjected to a treadmill-based exercise protocol for 4 weeks. Effects on skeletal muscle and fat tissue, expression of genes, and serum concentration of proteins involved in myostatin signaling, skeletal muscle homeostasis, and lipid metabolism were investigated and compared with Mstn(-/-) mice. The combination of siRNA-mediated Mstn knockdown and exercise induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy, which was associated with an upregulation of markers for satellite cell activity. SiRNA-mediated Mstn knockdown decreased visceral fat and modulated lipid metabolism similar to effects observed in Mstn(-/-) mice. Myostatin did not regulate its own expression via an autoregulatory loop, however, Mstn knockdown resulted in a decrease in the serum concentrations of myostatin propeptide, leptin, and follistatin. The ratio of these three parameters was distinct between Mstn knockdown, exercise, and their combination. Taken together, siRNA-mediated Mstn knockdown in combination with exercise stimulated skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Each intervention or their combination induced a specific set of adaptive responses in the skeletal muscle and fat metabolism which could be identified by marker proteins in serum. PMID:24760516

  15. SNAT2 and LAT1 transporter abundance is developmentally regulated in skeletal muscle of neonatal pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previously, we demonstrated that the insulin and amino acid–induced activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), is developmentally regulated in neonatal pigs. Recent studies have indicated an important role of the System A transporters (SNAT2 and SLC1A5) and the L transporter...

  16. Skel: Generative Software for Producing Skeletal I/O Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Logan, J.; Klasky, S.; Lofstead, J.; Abbasi, H.; Ethier, S.; Grout, R.; Ku, S. H.; Liu, Q.; Ma, X.; Parashar, M.; Podhorszki, N.; Schwan, K.; Wolf, M.

    2011-01-01

    Massively parallel computations consist of a mixture of computation, communication, and I/O. As part of the co-design for the inevitable progress towards exascale computing, we must apply lessons learned from past work to succeed in this new age of computing. Of the three components listed above, implementing an effective parallel I/O solution has often been overlooked by application scientists and was usually added to large scale simulations only when existing serial techniques had failed. As scientists teams scaled their codes to run on hundreds of processors, it was common to call on an I/O expert to implement a set of more scalable I/O routines. These routines were easily separated from the calculations and communication, and in many cases, an I/O kernel was derived from the application which could be used for testing I/O performance independent of the application. These I/O kernels developed a life of their own used as a broad measure for comparing different I/O techniques. Unfortunately, as years passed and computation and communication changes required changes to the I/O, the separate I/O kernel used for benchmarking remained static no longer providing an accurate indicator of the I/O performance of the simulation making I/O research less relevant for the application scientists. In this paper we describe a new approach to this problem where I/O kernels are replaced with skeletal I/O applications automatically generated from an abstract set of simulation I/O parameters. We realize this abstraction by leveraging the ADIOS middleware's XML I/O specification with additional runtime parameters. Skeletal applications offer all of the benefits of I/O kernels including allowing I/O optimizations to focus on useful I/O patterns. Moreover, since they are automatically generated, it is easy to produce an updated I/O skeleton whenever the simulation's I/O changes. In this paper we analyze the performance of automatically generated I/O skeletal applications for the S3D

  17. Skeletal Muscle Abnormalities in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Kinugawa, Shintaro; Takada, Shingo; Matsushima, Shouji; Okita, Koichi; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Exercise capacity is lowered in patients with heart failure, which limits their daily activities and also reduces their quality of life. Furthermore, lowered exercise capacity has been well demonstrated to be closely related to the severity and prognosis of heart failure. Skeletal muscle abnormalities including abnormal energy metabolism, transition of myofibers from type I to type II, mitochondrial dysfunction, reduction in muscular strength, and muscle atrophy have been shown to play a central role in lowered exercise capacity. The skeletal muscle abnormalities can be classified into the following main types: 1) low endurance due to mitochondrial dysfunction; and 2) low muscle mass and muscle strength due to imbalance of protein synthesis and degradation. The molecular mechanisms of these skeletal muscle abnormalities have been studied mainly using animal models. The current review including our recent study will focus upon the skeletal muscle abnormalities in heart failure. PMID:26346520

  18. [Contributions by Austrian physicians to skeletal diseases].

    PubMed

    Ellegast, H H; Strasser, E

    1991-01-01

    We report about Austrian physicians who made major contributions to the scientific research of skeletal disorders. They include pathologists, radiologists, clinicians, pediatricians and surgeons. We present a short biography as well as a brief discussion of their major papers.

  19. Inflammation induced loss of skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Londhe, Priya; Guttridge, Denis C

    2015-11-01

    Inflammation is an important contributor to the pathology of diseases implicated in skeletal muscle dysfunction. A number of diseases and disorders including inflammatory myopathies and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disorder (COPD) are characterized by chronic inflammation or elevation of the inflammatory mediators. While these disease states exhibit different pathologies, all have in common the loss of skeletal muscle mass and a deregulated skeletal muscle physiology. Pro-inflammatory cytokines are key contributors to chronic inflammation found in many of these diseases. This section of the review focuses on some of the known inflammatory disorders like COPD, Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) and inflammatory myopathies that display skeletal muscle atrophy and also provides the reader an overview of the mediators of inflammation, their signaling pathways, and mechanisms of action. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Muscle Bone Interactions".

  20. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 inhibition ameliorates pathogenesis and improves skeletal muscle regeneration in muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong; Mittal, Ashwani; Makonchuk, Denys Y.; Bhatnagar, Shephali; Kumar, Ashok

    2009-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal X-linked genetic disorder of skeletal muscle caused by mutation in dystrophin gene. Although the degradation of skeletal muscle extracellular matrix, inflammation and fibrosis are the common pathological features in DMD, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, we have investigated the role and the mechanisms by which increased levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) protein causes myopathy in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. The levels of MMP-9 but not tissue inhibitor of MMPs were drastically increased in skeletal muscle of mdx mice. Besides skeletal muscle, infiltrating macrophages were found to contribute significantly to the elevated levels of MMP-9 in dystrophic muscle. In vivo administration of a nuclear factor-kappa B inhibitory peptide, NBD, blocked the expression of MMP-9 in dystrophic muscle of mdx mice. Deletion of Mmp9 gene in mdx mice improved skeletal muscle structure and functions and reduced muscle injury, inflammation and fiber necrosis. Inhibition of MMP-9 increased the levels of cytoskeletal protein β-dystroglycan and neural nitric oxide synthase and reduced the amounts of caveolin-3 and transforming growth factor-β in myofibers of mdx mice. Genetic ablation of MMP-9 significantly augmented the skeletal muscle regeneration in mdx mice. Finally, pharmacological inhibition of MMP-9 activity also ameliorated skeletal muscle pathogenesis and enhanced myofiber regeneration in mdx mice. Collectively, our study suggests that the increased production of MMP-9 exacerbates dystrophinopathy and MMP-9 represents as one of the most promising therapeutic targets for the prevention of disease progression in DMD. PMID:19401296

  1. Effects of short-term endurance exercise training on acute doxorubicin-induced FoxO transcription in cardiac and skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Kavazis, Andreas N; Smuder, Ashley J; Powers, Scott K

    2014-08-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is a potent antitumor agent used in cancer treatment. Unfortunately, DOX can induce myopathy in both cardiac and skeletal muscle, which limits its clinical use. Importantly, exercise training has been shown to protect against DOX-mediated cardiac and skeletal muscle myopathy. However, the mechanisms responsible for this exercise-induced muscle protection remain elusive. These experiments tested the hypothesis that short-term exercise training protects against acute DOX-induced muscle toxicity, in part, due to decreased forkhead-box O (FoxO) transcription of atrophy genes. Rats (n = 6 per group) were assigned to sedentary or endurance exercise-trained groups and paired with either placebo or DOX treatment. Gene expression and protein abundance were measured in both cardiac and skeletal muscles to determine the impact of DOX and exercise on FoxO gene targets. Our data demonstrate that DOX administration amplified FoxO1 and FoxO3 mRNA expression and increased transcription of FoxO target genes [i.e., atrogin-1/muscle atrophy F-box (MaFbx), muscle ring finger-1 (MuRF-1), and BCL2/adenovirus E1B 19 kDa protein-interacting protein 3 (BNIP3)] in heart and soleus muscles. Importantly, exercise training protected against DOX-induced increases of FoxO1 and MuRF-1 in cardiac muscle and also prevented the rise of FoxO3, MuRF-1, and BNIP3 in soleus muscle. Furthermore, our results indicate that exercise increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) in both the heart and soleus muscles. This is important because increased PGC-1α expression is known to suppress FoxO activity resulting in reduced expression of FoxO target genes. Together, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that exercise training protects against DOX-induced myopathy in both heart (FoxO1 and MuRF-1) and skeletal muscles (FoxO3, MuRF-1, and BNIP3).

  2. Cardiac assistance from skeletal muscle: a reappraisal.

    PubMed

    Salmons, Stanley

    2009-02-01

    Cardiac assistance from skeletal muscle offers an attractive surgical solution to the problem of end-stage heart failure, yet it is widely regarded as a failed approach. I argue here that this is an outdated assessment. Systematic progress has been made over the last 25 years in understanding the relevant basic science. In the light of these advances we should be reconsidering the place of skeletal muscle assist in the surgical armamentarium. PMID:18954996

  3. Angiotensin II: role in skeletal muscle atrophy.

    PubMed

    Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio; Córdova, Gonzalo; Salas, José Diego

    2012-09-01

    Skeletal muscle, the main protein reservoir in the body, is a tissue that exhibits high plasticity when exposed to changes. Muscle proteins can be mobilized into free amino acids when skeletal muscle wasting occurs, a process called skeletal muscle atrophy. This wasting is an important systemic or local manifestation under disuse conditions (e.g., bed rest or immobilization), in starvation, in older adults, and in several diseases. The molecular mechanisms involved in muscle wasting imply the activation of specific signaling pathways which ultimately manage muscle responses to modulate biological events such as increases in protein catabolism, oxidative stress, and cell death by apoptosis. Many factors have been involved in the generation and maintenance of atrophy in skeletal muscle, among them angiotensin II (Ang-II), the main peptide of renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Together with Ang-II, the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and the Ang-II receptor type 1 (AT-1 receptor) are expressed in skeletal muscle, forming an important local axis that can regulate its function. In many of the conditions that lead to muscle wasting, there is an impairment of RAS in a global or local fashion. At this point, there are several pieces of evidence that suggest the participation of Ang-II, ACE, and AT-1 receptor in the generation of skeletal muscle atrophy. Interestingly, the Ang-II participation in muscle atrophy is strongly ligated to the regulation of hypertrophic activity of factors such as insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). In this article, we reviewed the current state of Ang-II and RAS function on skeletal muscle wasting and its possible use as a therapeutic target to improve skeletal muscle function under atrophic conditions.

  4. Symbiodinium Clade Affects Coral Skeletal Isotopic Ratio

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carilli, J.; Charles, C. D.; Garren, M.; McField, M.; Norris, R. D.

    2011-12-01

    The influence of different physiologies of Symbiodinium dinoflagellate symbiont clades on the skeletal chemistry of associated coral hosts has not previously been investigated. This is an important issue because coral skeletons are routinely used for tropical paleoclimatic reconstructions. We analyzed coral skeletal samples collected simultaneously from neighboring colonies off Belize and found that those harboring different clades of Symbiodinium displayed significantly different skeletal oxygen isotopic compositions. We also found evidence for mean shifts in skeletal oxygen isotopic composition after coral bleaching (the loss and potential exchange of symbionts) in two of four longer coral cores from the Mesoamerican Reef, though all experienced similar climatic conditions. Thus, we suggest that symbiont clade identity leaves a signature in the coral skeletal archive and that this influence must be considered for quantitative environmental reconstruction. In addition, we suggest that the skeletal isotopic signature may be used to identify changes in the dominant symbiont clade that have occurred in the past, to identify how common and widespread this phenomenon is--a potential adaptation to climate change.

  5. Redox control of skeletal muscle atrophy.

    PubMed

    Powers, Scott K; Morton, Aaron B; Ahn, Bumsoo; Smuder, Ashley J

    2016-09-01

    Skeletal muscles comprise the largest organ system in the body and play an essential role in body movement, breathing, and glucose homeostasis. Skeletal muscle is also an important endocrine organ that contributes to the health of numerous body organs. Therefore, maintaining healthy skeletal muscles is important to support overall health of the body. Prolonged periods of muscle inactivity (e.g., bed rest or limb immobilization) or chronic inflammatory diseases (i.e., cancer, kidney failure, etc.) result in skeletal muscle atrophy. An excessive loss of muscle mass is associated with a poor prognosis in several diseases and significant muscle weakness impairs the quality of life. The skeletal muscle atrophy that occurs in response to inflammatory diseases or prolonged inactivity is often associated with both oxidative and nitrosative stress. In this report, we critically review the experimental evidence that provides support for a causative link between oxidants and muscle atrophy. More specifically, this review will debate the sources of oxidant production in skeletal muscle undergoing atrophy as well as provide a detailed discussion on how reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species modulate the signaling pathways that regulate both protein synthesis and protein breakdown.

  6. Mitofusion-2-mediated alleviation of insulin resistance in rats through reduction in lipid intermediate accumulation in skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Increased lipid accumulation and mitochondrial dysfunction within skeletal muscle have been shown to be strongly associated with insulin resistance. However, the role of mitofusion-2 (MFN2), a key factor in mitochondrial function and energy metabolism, in skeletal muscle lipid intermediate accumulation remains to be elucidated. Results A high-fat diet resulted in insulin resistance as well as accumulation of cytosolic lipid intermediates and down-regulation of MFN2 and CPT1 in skeletal muscle in rats, while MFN2 overexpression improved insulin sensitivity and reduced lipid intermediates in muscle, possibly by upregulation of CPT1 expression. Conclusions MFN2 overexpression can rescue insulin resistance, possibly by upregulating CPT1 expression leading to reduction in the accumulation of lipid intermediates in skeletal muscle. These observations contribute to the investigations of new diabetes therapies. PMID:23815800

  7. P38 MAPK signaling underlies a cell autonomous loss of stem cell self-renewal in aged skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Bernet, Jennifer D.; Doles, Jason D.; Hall, John K.; Kelly-Tanaka, Kathleen; Carter, Thomas A.; Olwin, Bradley B.

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle aging results in a gradual loss of skeletal muscle mass, skeletal muscle function and decreased regenerative capacity, which can lead to sarcopenia and increased mortality. While the mechanisms underlying sarcopenia remain unclear, the skeletal muscle stem cell, or satellite cell, is required for muscle regeneration. Therefore, identification of signaling pathways affecting satellite cell function during aging may provide insights into therapeutic targets for combating sarcopenia. Here, we show that a cell-autonomous loss in self-renewal occurs via alterations in FGF Receptor 1 and p38αβ MAPK signaling in aged satellite cells. We further demonstrate that pharmacological manipulation of these pathways can ameliorate age-associated self-renewal defects. Thus, our data highlight an age-associated deregulation of a satellite cell homeostatic network and reveal potential therapeutic opportunities for the treatment of progressive muscle wasting. PMID:24531379

  8. Aerobic Exercise and Pharmacological Therapies for Skeletal Myopathy in Heart Failure: Similarities and Differences

    PubMed Central

    Bacurau, Aline V.; Cunha, Telma F.; Souza, Rodrigo W.; Voltarelli, Vanessa A.; Gabriel-Costa, Daniele; Brum, Patricia C.

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal myopathy has been identified as a major comorbidity of heart failure (HF) affecting up to 20% of ambulatory patients leading to shortness of breath, early fatigue, and exercise intolerance. Neurohumoral blockade, through the inhibition of renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAS) and β-adrenergic receptor blockade (β-blockers), is a mandatory pharmacological therapy of HF since it reduces symptoms, mortality, and sudden death. However, the effect of these drugs on skeletal myopathy needs to be clarified, since exercise intolerance remains in HF patients optimized with β-blockers and inhibitors of RAS. Aerobic exercise training (AET) is efficient in counteracting skeletal myopathy and in improving functional capacity and quality of life. Indeed, AET has beneficial effects on failing heart itself despite being of less magnitude compared with neurohumoral blockade. In this way, AET should be implemented in the care standards, together with pharmacological therapies. Since both neurohumoral inhibition and AET have a direct and/or indirect impact on skeletal muscle, this review aims to provide an overview of the isolated effects of these therapeutic approaches in counteracting skeletal myopathy in HF. The similarities and dissimilarities of neurohumoral inhibition and AET therapies are also discussed to identify potential advantageous effects of these combined therapies for treating HF. PMID:26904163

  9. Skeleton Genetics: a comprehensive database for genes and mutations related to genetic skeletal disorders.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chong; Jiang, Yi; Xu, Chenyang; Liu, Xinting; Hu, Lin; Xiang, Yanbao; Chen, Qingshuang; Chen, Denghui; Li, Huanzheng; Xu, Xueqin; Tang, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    Genetic skeletal disorders (GSD) involving the skeletal system arises through disturbances in the complex processes of skeletal development, growth and homeostasis and remain a diagnostic challenge because of their clinical heterogeneity and genetic variety. Over the past decades, tremendous effort platforms have been made to explore the complex heterogeneity, and massive new genes and mutations have been identified in different GSD, but the information supplied by literature is still limited and it is hard to meet the further needs of scientists and clinicians. In this study, combined with Nosology and Classification of genetic skeletal disorders, we developed the first comprehensive and annotated genetic skeletal disorders database, named 'SkeletonGenetics', which contains information about all GSD-related knowledge including 8225 mutations in 357 genes, with detailed information associated with 481 clinical diseases (2260 clinical phenotype) classified in 42 groups defined by molecular, biochemical and/or radiographic criteria from 1698 publications. Further annotations were performed to each entry including Gene Ontology, pathways analysis, protein-protein interaction, mutation annotations, disease-disease clustering and gene-disease networking. Furthermore, using concise search methods, intuitive graphical displays, convenient browsing functions and constantly updatable features, 'SkeletonGenetics' could serve as a central and integrative database for unveiling the genetic and pathways pre-dispositions of GSD.Database URL: http://101.200.211.232/skeletongenetics/. PMID:27580923

  10. Mechanisms of Hyperhomocysteinemia Induced Skeletal Muscle Myopathy after Ischemia in the CBS−/+ Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Veeranki, Sudhakar; Tyagi, Suresh C.

    2015-01-01

    Although hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) elicits lower than normal body weights and skeletal muscle weakness, the mechanisms remain unclear. Despite the fact that HHcy-mediated enhancement in ROS and consequent damage to regulators of different cellular processes is relatively well established in other organs, the nature of such events is unknown in skeletal muscles. Previously, we reported that HHcy attenuation of PGC-1α and HIF-1α levels enhanced the likelihood of muscle atrophy and declined function after ischemia. In the current study, we examined muscle levels of homocysteine (Hcy) metabolizing enzymes, anti-oxidant capacity and focused on protein modifications that might compromise PGC-1α function during ischemic angiogenesis. Although skeletal muscles express the key enzyme (MTHFR) that participates in re-methylation of Hcy into methionine, lack of trans-sulfuration enzymes (CBS and CSE) make skeletal muscles more susceptible to the HHcy-induced myopathy. Our study indicates that elevated Hcy levels in the CBS−/+ mouse skeletal muscles caused diminished anti-oxidant capacity and contributed to enhanced total protein as well as PGC-1α specific nitrotyrosylation after ischemia. Furthermore, in the presence of NO donor SNP, either homocysteine (Hcy) or its cyclized version, Hcy thiolactone, not only increased PGC-1α specific protein nitrotyrosylation but also reduced its association with PPARγ in C2C12 cells. Altogether these results suggest that HHcy exerts its myopathic effects via reduction of the PGC-1/PPARγ axis after ischemia. PMID:25608649

  11. Mechanisms of hyperhomocysteinemia induced skeletal muscle myopathy after ischemia in the CBS-/+ mouse model.

    PubMed

    Veeranki, Sudhakar; Tyagi, Suresh C

    2015-01-01

    Although hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) elicits lower than normal body weights and skeletal muscle weakness, the mechanisms remain unclear. Despite the fact that HHcy-mediated enhancement in ROS and consequent damage to regulators of different cellular processes is relatively well established in other organs, the nature of such events is unknown in skeletal muscles. Previously, we reported that HHcy attenuation of PGC-1α and HIF-1α levels enhanced the likelihood of muscle atrophy and declined function after ischemia. In the current study, we examined muscle levels of homocysteine (Hcy) metabolizing enzymes, anti-oxidant capacity and focused on protein modifications that might compromise PGC-1α function during ischemic angiogenesis. Although skeletal muscles express the key enzyme (MTHFR) that participates in re-methylation of Hcy into methionine, lack of trans-sulfuration enzymes (CBS and CSE) make skeletal muscles more susceptible to the HHcy-induced myopathy. Our study indicates that elevated Hcy levels in the CBS-/+ mouse skeletal muscles caused diminished anti-oxidant capacity and contributed to enhanced total protein as well as PGC-1α specific nitrotyrosylation after ischemia. Furthermore, in the presence of NO donor SNP, either homocysteine (Hcy) or its cyclized version, Hcy thiolactone, not only increased PGC-1α specific protein nitrotyrosylation but also reduced its association with PPARγ in C2C12 cells. Altogether these results suggest that HHcy exerts its myopathic effects via reduction of the PGC-1/PPARγ axis after ischemia. PMID:25608649

  12. The Indispensable Role of Cyclin-Dependent Kinase 1 in Skeletal Development

    PubMed Central

    Saito, Masanori; Mulati, Mieradili; Talib, S. Zakiah A.; Kaldis, Philipp; Takeda, Shu; Okawa, Atsushi; Inose, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal development is tightly regulated through the processes of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. Although the involvement of transcription and growth factors on the regulation of skeletal development has been extensively studied, the role of cell cycle regulatory proteins in this process remains elusive. To date, through cell-specific loss-of-function experiments in vivo, no cell cycle regulatory proteins have yet been conclusively shown to regulate skeletal development. Here, we demonstrate that cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) regulates skeletal development based on chondrocyte-specific loss-of-function experiments performed in a mouse model. Cdk1 is highly expressed in columnar proliferative chondrocytes and is greatly downregulated upon differentiation into hypertrophic chondrocytes. Cdk1 is essential for proper chondrocyte proliferation and deletion of Cdk1 resulted in accelerated differentiation of chondrocytes. In vitro and ex vivo analyses revealed that Cdk1 is an essential cell cycle regulatory protein for parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) signaling pathway, which is critical to chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. These results demonstrate that Cdk1 functions as a molecular switch from proliferation to hypertrophic differentiation of chondrocytes and thus is indispensable for skeletal development. Given the availability of inhibitors of Cdk1 activity, our results could provide insight for the treatment of diseases involving abnormal chondrocyte proliferation, such as osteoarthritis. PMID:26860366

  13. Skeleton Genetics: a comprehensive database for genes and mutations related to genetic skeletal disorders

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chong; Jiang, Yi; Xu, Chenyang; Liu, Xinting; Hu, Lin; Xiang, Yanbao; Chen, Qingshuang; Chen, Denghui; Li, Huanzheng; Xu, Xueqin; Tang, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    Genetic skeletal disorders (GSD) involving the skeletal system arises through disturbances in the complex processes of skeletal development, growth and homeostasis and remain a diagnostic challenge because of their clinical heterogeneity and genetic variety. Over the past decades, tremendous effort platforms have been made to explore the complex heterogeneity, and massive new genes and mutations have been identified in different GSD, but the information supplied by literature is still limited and it is hard to meet the further needs of scientists and clinicians. In this study, combined with Nosology and Classification of genetic skeletal disorders, we developed the first comprehensive and annotated genetic skeletal disorders database, named ‘SkeletonGenetics’, which contains information about all GSD-related knowledge including 8225 mutations in 357 genes, with detailed information associated with 481 clinical diseases (2260 clinical phenotype) classified in 42 groups defined by molecular, biochemical and/or radiographic criteria from 1698 publications. Further annotations were performed to each entry including Gene Ontology, pathways analysis, protein–protein interaction, mutation annotations, disease–disease clustering and gene–disease networking. Furthermore, using concise search methods, intuitive graphical displays, convenient browsing functions and constantly updatable features, ‘SkeletonGenetics’ could serve as a central and integrative database for unveiling the genetic and pathways pre-dispositions of GSD. Database URL: http://101.200.211.232/skeletongenetics/ PMID:27580923

  14. Skeletal muscle action of estrogen receptor α is critical for the maintenance of mitochondrial function and metabolic homeostasis in females.

    PubMed

    Ribas, Vicent; Drew, Brian G; Zhou, Zhenqi; Phun, Jennifer; Kalajian, Nareg Y; Soleymani, Teo; Daraei, Pedram; Widjaja, Kevin; Wanagat, Jonathan; de Aguiar Vallim, Thomas Q; Fluitt, Amy H; Bensinger, Steven; Le, Thuc; Radu, Caius; Whitelegge, Julian P; Beaven, Simon W; Tontonoz, Peter; Lusis, Aldons J; Parks, Brian W; Vergnes, Laurent; Reue, Karen; Singh, Harpreet; Bopassa, Jean C; Toro, Ligia; Stefani, Enrico; Watt, Matthew J; Schenk, Simon; Akerstrom, Thorbjorn; Kelly, Meghan; Pedersen, Bente K; Hewitt, Sylvia C; Korach, Kenneth S; Hevener, Andrea L

    2016-04-13

    Impaired estrogen receptor α (ERα) action promotes obesity and metabolic dysfunction in humans and mice; however, the mechanisms underlying these phenotypes remain unknown. Considering that skeletal muscle is a primary tissue responsible for glucose disposal and oxidative metabolism, we established that reduced ERα expression in muscle is associated with glucose intolerance and adiposity in women and female mice. To test this relationship, we generated muscle-specific ERα knockout (MERKO) mice. Impaired glucose homeostasis and increased adiposity were paralleled by diminished muscle oxidative metabolism and bioactive lipid accumulation in MERKO mice. Aberrant mitochondrial morphology, overproduction of reactive oxygen species, and impairment in basal and stress-induced mitochondrial fission dynamics, driven by imbalanced protein kinase A-regulator of calcineurin 1-calcineurin signaling through dynamin-related protein 1, tracked with reduced oxidative metabolism in MERKO muscle. Although muscle mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) abundance was similar between the genotypes, ERα deficiency diminished mtDNA turnover by a balanced reduction in mtDNA replication and degradation. Our findings indicate the retention of dysfunctional mitochondria in MERKO muscle and implicate ERα in the preservation of mitochondrial health and insulin sensitivity as a defense against metabolic disease in women.

  15. Skeletal muscle action of estrogen receptor α is critical for the maintenance of mitochondrial function and metabolic homeostasis in females.

    PubMed

    Ribas, Vicent; Drew, Brian G; Zhou, Zhenqi; Phun, Jennifer; Kalajian, Nareg Y; Soleymani, Teo; Daraei, Pedram; Widjaja, Kevin; Wanagat, Jonathan; de Aguiar Vallim, Thomas Q; Fluitt, Amy H; Bensinger, Steven; Le, Thuc; Radu, Caius; Whitelegge, Julian P; Beaven, Simon W; Tontonoz, Peter; Lusis, Aldons J; Parks, Brian W; Vergnes, Laurent; Reue, Karen; Singh, Harpreet; Bopassa, Jean C; Toro, Ligia; Stefani, Enrico; Watt, Matthew J; Schenk, Simon; Akerstrom, Thorbjorn; Kelly, Meghan; Pedersen, Bente K; Hewitt, Sylvia C; Korach, Kenneth S; Hevener, Andrea L

    2016-04-13

    Impaired estrogen receptor α (ERα) action promotes obesity and metabolic dysfunction in humans and mice; however, the mechanisms underlying these phenotypes remain unknown. Considering that skeletal muscle is a primary tissue responsible for glucose disposal and oxidative metabolism, we established that reduced ERα expression in muscle is associated with glucose intolerance and adiposity in women and female mice. To test this relationship, we generated muscle-specific ERα knockout (MERKO) mice. Impaired glucose homeostasis and increased adiposity were paralleled by diminished muscle oxidative metabolism and bioactive lipid accumulation in MERKO mice. Aberrant mitochondrial morphology, overproduction of reactive oxygen species, and impairment in basal and stress-induced mitochondrial fission dynamics, driven by imbalanced protein kinase A-regulator of calcineurin 1-calcineurin signaling through dynamin-related protein 1, tracked with reduced oxidative metabolism in MERKO muscle. Although muscle mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) abundance was similar between the genotypes, ERα deficiency diminished mtDNA turnover by a balanced reduction in mtDNA replication and degradation. Our findings indicate the retention of dysfunctional mitochondria in MERKO muscle and implicate ERα in the preservation of mitochondrial health and insulin sensitivity as a defense against metabolic disease in women. PMID:27075628

  16. Skeletal muscle action of estrogen receptor α is critical for the maintenance of mitochondrial function and metabolic homeostasis in females

    PubMed Central

    Ribas, Vicent; Drew, Brian G.; Zhou, Zhenqi; Phun, Jennifer; Kalajian, Nareg Y.; Soleymani, Teo; Daraei, Pedram; Widjaja, Kevin; Wanagat, Jonathan; de Aguiar Vallim, Thomas Q.; Fluitt, Amy H.; Bensinger, Steven; Le, Thuc; Radu, Caius; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Beaven, Simon W.; Tontonoz, Peter; Lusis, Aldons J.; Parks, Brian W.; Vergnes, Laurent; Reue, Karen; Singh, Harpreet; Bopassa, Jean C.; Toro, Ligia; Stefani, Enrico; Watt, Matthew J.; Schenk, Simon; Akerstrom, Thorbjorn; Kelly, Meghan; Pedersen, Bente K.; Hewitt, Sylvia C.; Korach, Kenneth S.; Hevener, Andrea L.

    2016-01-01

    Impaired estrogen receptor α(ERα) action promotes obesity and metabolic dysfunction in humans and mice; however, the mechanisms underlying these phenotypes remain unknown. Considering that skeletal muscle is a primary tissue responsible for glucose disposal and oxidative metabolism, we established that reduced ERαexpression in muscle is associated with glucose intolerance and adiposity in women and female mice. To test this relationship, we generated muscle-specific ERαknockout (MERKO) mice. Impaired glucose homeostasis and increased adiposity were paralleled by diminished muscle oxidative metabolism and bioactive lipid accumulation in MERKO mice. Aberrant mitochondrial morphology, overproduction of reactive oxygen species, and impairment in basal and stress-induced mitochondrial fission dynamics, driven by imbalanced protein kinase A–regulator of calcineurin 1–calcineurin signaling through dynamin-related protein 1, tracked with reduced oxidative metabolism in MERKO muscle. Although muscle mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) abundance was similar between the genotypes, ERαdeficiency diminished mtDNA turnover by a balanced reduction in mtDNA replication and degradation. Our findings indicate the retention of dysfunctional mitochondria in MERKO muscle and implicate ERαin the preservation of mitochondrial health and insulin sensitivity as a defense against metabolic disease in women. PMID:27075628

  17. Cremated human remains: is measurement of the lateral angle of the meatus acusticus internus a reliable method of sex determination?

    PubMed

    Masotti, Sabrina; Succi-Leonelli, Elisa; Gualdi-Russo, Emanuela

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the lateral angle (LA) method-based on the measurement of the angle at which the internal acoustic canal opens up to the surface of the petrous bone-for sex determination in cremated skeletal remains of Italians. The sample consisted of 160 adult individuals of known age and sex who had recently died and were cremated in the crematorium of Ferrara (northern Italy). Several studies have demonstrated that the petrous portion of the temporal bone may be a valuable tool for sex diagnosis in unburned skeletal remains. Since petrous bones are usually preserved after cremation, this method could be of particular interest in the case of burned skeletal remains. The repeatability of intra- and inter-observer measurements was good. The results indicated that male and female lateral angles were significantly different but that the values did not differ among age-groups. There was no bilateral difference in LA. However, neither the 45° angle, proposed in earlier studies as the sectioning point for this variable from male and female data distributions, nor another angular value allowed satisfactory discrimination between the sexes in our sample. The influence of the "age" factor (about 82 % of females were of ≥ 75 years of age) on the results is critically discussed. The results of this study suggest that the LA method is not sufficiently reliable to assess the sex of elderly Italian individuals from their burned remains and thus should only be used in conjunction with other sexing techniques. PMID:23344564

  18. Channelopathies of skeletal muscle excitability

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Stephen C.

    2016-01-01

    Familial disorders of skeletal muscle excitability were initially described early in the last century and are now known to be caused by mutations of voltage-gated ion channels. The clinical manifestations are often striking, with an inability to relax after voluntary contraction (myotonia) or transient attacks of severe weakness (periodic paralysis). An essential feature of these disorders is fluctuation of symptoms that are strongly impacted by environmental triggers such as exercise, temperature, or serum K+ levels. These phenomena have intrigued physiologists for decades, and in the past 25 years the molecular lesions underlying these disorders have been identified and mechanistic studies are providing insights for therapeutic strategies of disease modification. These familial disorders of muscle fiber excitability are “channelopathies” caused by mutations of a chloride channel (ClC-1), sodium channel (NaV1.4), calcium channel (CaV1.1) and several potassium channels (Kir2.1, Kir2.6, Kir3.4). This review provides a synthesis of the mechanistic connections between functional defects of mutant ion channels, their impact on muscle excitability, how these changes cause clinical phenotypes, and approaches toward therapeutics. PMID:25880512

  19. Aspects of skeletal muscle modelling.

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Marcelo; Herzog, Walter

    2003-01-01

    The modelling of skeletal muscle raises a number of philosophical questions, particularly in the realm of the relationship between different possible levels of representation and explanation. After a brief incursion into this area, a list of desiderata is proposed as a guiding principle for the construction of a viable model, including: comprehensiveness, soundness, experimental consistency, predictive ability and refinability. Each of these principles is illustrated by means of simple examples. The presence of internal constraints, such as incompressibility, may lead to counterintuitive results. A one-panel example is exploited to advocate the use of the principle of virtual work as the ideal tool to deal with these situations. The question of stability in the descending limb of the force-length relation is addressed and a purely mechanical analogue is suggested. New experimental results confirm the assumption that fibre stiffness is positive even in the descending limb. The indeterminacy of the force-sharing problem is traditionally resolved by optimizing a, presumably, physically meaningful target function. After presenting some new results in this area, based on a separation theorem, it is suggested that a more fundamental approach to the problem is the abandoning of optimization criteria in favour of an explicit implementation of activation criteria. PMID:14561335

  20. Mandibular shape and skeletal divergency.

    PubMed

    Ferrario, V F; Sforza, C; De Franco, D J

    1999-04-01

    Pre-treatment lateral cephalograms of 41 skeletal Class I girls aged 11 to 15 were divided according to MP-SN angle: lower than 28 degrees (hypodivergent, 10 girls), between 31 and 34 degrees (normodivergent, 18 girls), or larger than 37 degrees (hyperdivergent, 13 girls). The mandibular outlines were traced and digitized, and differences in shape were quantified using the elliptic Fourier series. Size differences were measured from the areas enclosed by the mandibular outlines. Shape differences were assessed by calculating a morphological distance (MD) between the size-independent mean mathematical reconstructions of the mandibular outlines of the three divergency classes. Mandibular shape was different in the three classes: large variations were found in hyperdivergent girls versus normodivergent girls (MD = 4.61), while smaller differences were observed in hypodivergent girls (MD versus normodivergent 2.91). Mean size-independent mandibular shapes were superimposed on an axis passing through the centres of gravity of the condyle and of the chin. Normodivergent and hyperdivergent mandibles differed mostly at gonion, the coronoid process, sigmoid notch, alveolar process, posterior border of the ramus, and along the mandibular plane. A significant size effect was also found, with smaller mandibles in the hyperdivergent girls.

  1. Skeletal manifestations of infantile scurvy.

    PubMed

    Brickley, Megan; Ives, Rachel

    2006-02-01

    Recent investigations of human skeletal material from the historic St. Martin's cemetery, England, found a range of abnormal lesions in six infants that are almost certainly related to scurvy. Porous and proliferative bone lesions affecting the cranial bones and scapulae were found, and this paper presents images obtained using both macroscopic and scanning electron microscope examination of the lesions. Previous work on infantile scurvy (Ortner et al., 1997-2001) relied heavily on changes at the sphenoid, which is often missing in archaeological bone, so the identification of changes attributable to scurvy on other cranial bones and the scapulae is encouraging. The ability to recognize changes related to scurvy on a range of bones will ensure an enhanced potential for recognition of this disease in future research involving archaeological bone. Research on historical documents from Birmingham dating to the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, combined with the probable cases of scurvy identified, supports the view that the paucity of cases of infantile scurvy from the archaeological record reflects a lack of understanding and recognition of bone manifestations, rather than a lack of occurrence in this period. Changes linked to scurvy were only found in infants from the poorer sections of the community from St. Martin's, and this is almost certainly linked to patterns of food consumption and may be related to shortages of potatoes, due to blight, experienced during this period.

  2. Mineral Abundance Near Aristarchus Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, Alison; Storrs, A.

    2007-12-01

    Mineral Abundance Near Aristarchus Crater Alison Bradford and Alex Storrs Towson University We analyze Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images to determine the abundance of minerals near Aristarchus crater. Following the calibration of Robinson et al. (2007) we present ratio maps of images obtained in August of 2005 showing the abundance of TiO2 and other minerals in this interesting area in the middle of Oceanus Procellarum. A prominent cleft (Schroter's Valley, presumably a collapsed lava tube) makes this region of special interest for analyzing the formation of mare basalts. Reference: Robinson, M.S., et al. (2007): "High resolution mapping of TiO2 abundances on the Moon using the Hubble Space Telescope", GRL 34, L13203

  3. The boron abundance of Procyon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemke, Michael; Lambert, David L.; Edvardsson, Bengt

    1993-01-01

    The B I 2496.8 A resonance line and HST/GHRS echelle spectra are used with model atmospheres and synthetic spectra to derive the B abundance of the F dwarfs Procyon (Alpha Canis Minoris), Theta Ursae Majoris, and Iota Pegasi. The B abundance of Theta UMa and Iota Peg is similar to that derived by Boesgaard and Heacox (1978) from the B II resonance line in spectra of A- and B-type stars. These two dwarfs show normal abundances of Li, Be, and B. Procyon, which is highly depleted in Li and Be, is depleted in B by a factor of at least 3. Comparison of the spectra of Procyon and the halo dwarf HD 140283 shows that the B abundance assigned by Duncan et al. (1992) to three halo dwarfs is not greatly overestimated as a result of contamination of the B I line by an unidentified line.

  4. Adaptation of the Skeletal System during Long-duration Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibonga, Jean D.; Cavanagh, Peter R.; Lang, Thomas F.; LeBlanc, Adrian D.; Schneider, Victor S.; Shackelford, Linda C.; Smith, Scott M.; Vico, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    exceeds spaceflight exposure but for which the restoration of whole bone strength remains an open issue and may involve structural alteration; and 4. Display risk factors for bone loss -- such as the negative calcium balance and down-regulated calcium-regulating hormones in response to bone atrophy -- that can be compounded by the constraints of conducting mission operations (inability to provide essential nutrients and vitamins). The full characterization of the skeletal response to mechanical unloading in space is not complete. In particular, countermeasures used to date have been inadequate and it is not yet known whether more appropriate countermeasures can prevent the changes in bone that have been found in previous flights, knowledge gaps related to the effects of prolonged (greater than or equal to 6 months) space exposure and to partial gravity environments are substantial, and longitudinal measurements on crew members after spaceflight are required to assess the full impact on skeletal recovery.

  5. Integrative Analysis of Porcine microRNAome during Skeletal Muscle Development

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Lijun; Chen, Yaosheng; Liu, Xiaohong; Ye, Sanxing; Yu, Kaifan; Huang, Zheng; Yu, Jingwei; Zhou, Xingyu; Chen, Hu; Mo, Delin

    2013-01-01

    Pig is an important agricultural animal for meat production and provides a valuable model for many human diseases. Functional studies have demonstrated that microRNAs (miRNAs) play critical roles in almost all aspects of skeletal muscle development and disease pathogenesis. To investigate the miRNAs involved in regulating different periods of skeletal muscle development, we herein performed a comprehensive research for porcine microRNAome (miRNAome) during 10 skeletal muscle developmental stages including 35, 49, 63, 77, 91 dpc (days post coitum) and 2, 28, 90, 120, 180 dpn (days postnatal) using Solexa sequencing technology. Our results extend the repertoire of pig miRNAome to 247 known miRNAs processed from 210 pre-miRNAs and 297 candidate novel miRNAs through comparison with known miRNAs in the miRBase. Expression analysis of the 15 most abundant miRNAs in every library indicated that functional miRNAome may be smaller and tend to be highly expressed. A series of muscle-related miRNAs summarized in our study present different patterns between myofibers formation phase and muscle maturation phase, providing valuable reference for investigation of functional miRNAs during skeletal muscle development. Analysis of temporal profiles of miRNA expression identifies 18 novel candidate myogenic miRNAs in pig, which might provide new insight into regulation mechanism mediated by miRNAs underlying muscle development. PMID:24039761

  6. Characterizing microstructural changes of skeletal muscle tissues using spectral transformed Mueller matrix polarization parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Chao; He, Honghui; Chang, Jintao; Ma, Hui

    2016-03-01

    Polarization imaging techniques are recognized as potentially powerful tools to detect the structural changes of biological tissues. Meanwhile, spectral features of the scattered light can also provide abundant microstructural information, therefore can be applied in biomedical studies. In this paper, we adopt the polarization reflectance spectral imaging to analyze the microstructural changes of hydrolyzing skeletal muscle tissues. We measure the Mueller matrix, which is a comprehensive description of the polarization properties, of the bovine skeletal muscle samples in different periods of time, and analyze its behavior using the multispectral Mueller matrix transformation (MMT) technique. The experimental results show that for bovine skeletal muscle tissues, the backscattered spectral MMT parameters have different values and variation features at different stages. We can also find the experimental results indicate that the stages of hydrolysis for bovine skeletal muscle samples can be judged by the spectral MMT parameters. The results presented in this work show that combining with the spectral technique, the MMT parameters have the potential to be used as tools for meat quality detection and monitoring.

  7. Micromorphological Aspects of Forensic Geopedology: can vivianite be a marker of human remains permanence in soil?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ern, Stephania Irmgard Elena; Trombino, Luca; Cattaneo, Cristina

    2010-05-01

    The number of death cases of forensic interest grows up every year. When decomposed or skeletal remains come out from the soil, the bones become of anthropological competence and the scene of crime become of soil specialists competence. The present study concerns real cases of buried/hidden remains in clandestine graves which have been studied in order to prove the permanence in soil even if the soil particles have been washed away or the body is no more buried. One hypothesis has been taken in account, related to the evidences of vivianite crystallization on the bones. The vivianite is an iron hydrate phosphate (Fe3(PO4)2·8(H2O)) that usually forms in anoxic, reducing and rich in organic matter conditions. In these conditions the iron in the soil is in reduced form (Fe2+) and associates with the phosphorous, present in the environment, as attested in archaeological contexts. Going back to the cases of buried/hidden remains, it is possible to state that the soil can be source of iron, while the bones can supply phosphorous and the decomposition process induces the anoxic/reducing conditions in the burial area. In this light, the presence of vivianite crystallizations on the bones could be a method to discriminate burial (i.e. permanence in soil) even if the remains are found in a different context than a clandestine grave. Analyses have been performed using petrographic microscope and scanning electron microscope microanalysis (SEM-EDS) on bones, and point out the presence of vivianite crystallizations on the bones. This evidence, thanks to the significance of vivianite in the archaeological context, can be regarded as a marker of the permanence of the human remains into the soil, like a ‘buried evidence' testimonial; on the contrary the absence of vivianite is not indicative of a ‘non buried status'. Further studies and new experiments are in progress in order to clarify the pathways of vivianite crystallization on different skeletal districts, in different

  8. LITHIUM ABUNDANCES OF EXTREMELY METAL-POOR TURNOFF STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, Wako; Inoue, Susumu; Barklem, Paul S.; Beers, Timothy C.; Christlieb, Norbert; Perez, Ana E. GarcIa; Norris, John E.; Carollo, Daniela E-mail: Paul.Barklem@physics.uu.se E-mail: N.Christlieb@lsw.uni-heidelberg.de E-mail: jen@mso.anu.edu.au E-mail: inoue@tap.scphys.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2009-06-20

    We have determined Li abundances for eleven metal-poor turnoff stars, among which eight have [Fe/H] <-3, based on LTE analyses of high-resolution spectra obtained with the High Dispersion Spectrograph on the Subaru Telescope. The Li abundances for four of these eight stars are determined for the first time by this study. Effective temperatures are determined by a profile analysis of H{alpha} and H{beta}. While seven stars have Li abundances as high as the Spite Plateau value, the remaining four objects with [Fe/H] <-3 have A(Li) =log (Li/H)+ 12 {approx}< 2.0, confirming the existence of extremely metal-poor (EMP) turnoff stars having low Li abundances, as reported by previous work. The average of the Li abundances for stars with [Fe/H]<-3 is lower by 0.2 dex than that of the stars with higher metallicity. No clear constraint on the metallicity dependence or scatter of the Li abundances is derived from our measurements for the stars with [Fe/H]<-3. Correlations of the Li abundance with effective temperatures, with abundances of Na, Mg, and Sr, and with the kinematical properties are investigated, but no clear correlation is seen in the EMP star sample.

  9. Chemical abundance analysis of 19 barium stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guo-Chao; Liang, Yan-Chun; Spite, Monique; Chen, Yu-Qin; Zhao, Gang; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Guo-Qing; Liu, Yu-Juan; Liu, Nian; Deng, Li-Cai; Spite, Francois; Hill, Vanessa; Zhang, Cai-Xia

    2016-01-01

    We aim at deriving accurate atmospheric parameters and chemical abundances of 19 barium (Ba) stars, including both strong and mild Ba stars, based on the high signal-to-noise ratio and high resolution Echelle spectra obtained from the 2.16 m telescope at Xinglong station of National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The chemical abundances of the sample stars were obtained from an LTE, plane-parallel and line-blanketed atmospheric model by inputting the atmospheric parameters (effective temperatures Teff, surface gravities log g, metallicity [Fe/H] and microturbulence velocity ξt) and equivalent widths of stellar absorption lines. These samples of Ba stars are giants as indicated by atmospheric parameters, metallicities and kinematic analysis about UVW velocity. Chemical abundances of 17 elements were obtained for these Ba stars. Their Na, Al, α- and iron-peak elements (O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Ni) are similar to the solar abundances. Our samples of Ba stars show obvious overabundances of neutron-capture (n-capture) process elements relative to the Sun. Their median abundances of [Ba/Fe], [La/Fe] and [Eu/Fe] are 0.54, 0.65 and 0.40, respectively. The Y I and Zr I abundances are lower than Ba, La and Eu, but higher than the α- and iron-peak elements for the strong Ba stars and similar to the iron-peak elements for the mild stars. There exists a positive correlation between Ba intensity and [Ba/Fe]. For the n-capture elements (Y, Zr, Ba, La), there is an anti-correlation between their [X/Fe] and [Fe/H]. We identify nine of our sample stars as strong Ba stars with [Ba/Fe] >0.6 where seven of them have Ba intensity Ba=2-5, one has Ba=1.5 and another one has Ba=1.0. The remaining ten stars are classified as mild Ba stars with 0.17<[Ba/Fe] <0.54.

  10. The microRNA signature in response to nutrient restriction and refeeding in skeletal muscle of Chinese perch (Siniperca chuatsi).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xin; Chen, Dunxue; Hu, Yi; Wu, Ping; Wang, Kaizuo; Zhang, Junzhi; Chu, Wuying; Zhang, Jianshe

    2015-04-01

    The Chinese perch (Siniperca chuatsi) is one of the most commercially important carnivorous fish species in aquaculture with its large-scale culture in China. Increasing evidence suggests that microRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role in muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. However, the knowledge of the identity of myogenic miRNAs and the effect of nutrient status on miRNA expression in teleost remains limited. In the present study, among the 21 miRNAs identified with high abundance in the fast muscle of adult Chinese perch, 19 miRNAs were differentially expressed in the adults and juveniles. The postprandial changes in the transcript abundance were determined for the 21 miRNAs following a single satiating meal in the juveniles after fasting for 1 week. The results showed that the seven miRNAs (miR-10c, miR-107a, miR-133a-3p, miR-140-3p, miR-181a-5p, miR-206, and miR-214) were sharply upregulated or downregulated within 1 h after refeeding. These miRNAs may be the promising candidate miRNAs involved in a fast-response signaling system that regulates fish skeletal muscle growth. Target prediction and expressional analysis suggested that four miRNAs (miR-10c, miR-107a, miR-140-3p, and miR-181a-5p) might play a role in regulating the translation of target gene transcripts such as myostatin following acute anabolic stimuli.

  11. Dysregulation of skeletal muscle protein metabolism by alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Steiner, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse, either by acute intoxication or prolonged excessive consumption, leads to pathological changes in many organs and tissues including skeletal muscle. As muscle protein serves not only a contractile function but also as a metabolic reserve for amino acids, which are used to support the energy needs of other tissues, its content is tightly regulated and dynamic. This review focuses on the etiology by which alcohol perturbs skeletal muscle protein balance and thereby over time produces muscle wasting and weakness. The preponderance of data suggest that alcohol primarily impairs global protein synthesis, under basal conditions as well as in response to several anabolic stimuli including growth factors, nutrients, and muscle contraction. This inhibitory effect of alcohol is mediated, at least in part, by a reduction in mTOR kinase activity via a mechanism that remains poorly defined but likely involves altered protein-protein interactions within mTOR complex 1. Furthermore, alcohol can exacerbate the decrement in mTOR and/or muscle protein synthesis present in other catabolic states. In contrast, alcohol-induced changes in muscle protein degradation, either global or via specific modulation of the ubiquitin-proteasome or autophagy pathways, are relatively inconsistent and may be model dependent. Herein, changes produced by acute intoxication versus chronic ingestion are contrasted in relation to skeletal muscle metabolism, and limitations as well as opportunities for future research are discussed. As the proportion of more economically developed countries ages and chronic illness becomes more prevalent, a better understanding of the etiology of biomedical consequences of alcohol use disorders is warranted. PMID:25759394

  12. Skeletal muscle α-actin diseases (actinopathies): pathology and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Kristen J; Ravenscroft, Gianina; Laing, Nigel G

    2013-01-01

    Mutations in the skeletal muscle α-actin gene (ACTA1) cause a range of congenital myopathies characterised by muscle weakness and specific skeletal muscle structural lesions. Actin accumulations, nemaline and intranuclear bodies, fibre-type disproportion, cores, caps, dystrophic features and zebra bodies have all been seen in biopsies from patients with ACTA1 disease, with patients frequently presenting with multiple pathologies. Therefore increasingly it is considered that these entities may represent a continuum of structural abnormalities arising due to ACTA1 mutations. Recently an ACTA1 mutation has also been associated with a hypertonic clinical presentation with nemaline bodies. Whilst multiple genes are known to cause many of the pathologies associated with ACTA1 mutations, to date actin aggregates, intranuclear rods and zebra bodies have solely been attributed to ACTA1 mutations. Approximately 200 different ACTA1 mutations have been identified, with 90 % resulting in dominant disease and 10 % resulting in recessive disease. Despite extensive research into normal actin function and the functional consequences of ACTA1 mutations in cell culture, animal models and patient tissue, the mechanisms underlying muscle weakness and the formation of structural lesions remains largely unknown. Whilst precise mechanisms are being grappled with, headway is being made in terms of developing therapeutics for ACTA1 disease, with gene therapy (specifically reducing the proportion of mutant skeletal muscle α-actin protein) and pharmacological agents showing promising results in animal models and patient muscle. The use of small molecules to sensitise the contractile apparatus to Ca(2+) is a promising therapeutic for patients with various neuromuscular disorders, including ACTA1 disease. PMID:22825594

  13. Skeletal Muscle an Active Compartment in the Sequestering and Metabolism of Doxorubicin Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Fabris, Sergio; MacLean, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Doxorubicin remains one of the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents however its effect on healthy tissue, such as skeletal muscle, remains poorly understood. The purpose of the current study was to examine the accumulation of doxorubicin (DOX) and its metabolite doxorubicinol (DOXol) in skeletal muscle of the rat up to 8 days after the administration of a 1.5 or 4.5 mg kg-1 i.p. dose. Subsequent to either dose, DOX and DOXol were observed in skeletal muscle throughout the length of the experiment. Interestingly an efflux of DOX was examined after 96 hours, followed by an apparent re-uptake of the drug which coincided with a spike and rapid decrease of plasma DOX concentrations. The interstitial space within the muscle did not appear to play a significant rate limiting compartment for the uptake or release of DOX or DOXol from the tissue to the circulation. Furthermore, there was no evidence that DOX preferentially accumulated in a specific muscle group with either dose. It appears that the sequestering of drug in skeletal muscle plays an acute and important role in the systemic availability and metabolism of DOX which may have a greater impact on the clinical outcome than previously considered. PMID:26401619

  14. How sex hormones promote skeletal muscle regeneration.

    PubMed

    Velders, Martina; Diel, Patrick

    2013-11-01

    Skeletal muscle regeneration efficiency declines with age for both men and women. This decline impacts on functional capabilities in the elderly and limits their ability to engage in regular physical activity and to maintain independence. Aging is associated with a decline in sex hormone production. Therefore, elucidating the effects of sex hormone substitution on skeletal muscle homeostasis and regeneration after injury or disuse is highly relevant for the aging population, where sarcopenia affects more than 30 % of individuals over 60 years of age. While the anabolic effects of androgens are well known, the effects of estrogens on skeletal muscle anabolism have only been uncovered in recent times. Hence, the purpose of this review is to provide a mechanistic insight into the regulation of skeletal muscle regenerative processes by both androgens and estrogens. Animal studies using estrogen receptor (ER) antagonists and receptor subtype selective agonists have revealed that estrogens act through both genomic and non-genomic pathways to reduce leukocyte invasion and increase satellite cell numbers in regenerating skeletal muscle tissue. Although animal studies have been more conclusive than human studies in establishing a role for sex hormones in the attenuation of muscle damage, data from a number of recent well controlled human studies is presented to support the notion that hormonal therapies and exercise induce added positive effects on functional measures and lean tissue mass. Based on the fact that aging human skeletal muscle retains the ability to adapt to exercise with enhanced satellite cell activation, combining sex hormone therapies with exercise may induce additive effects on satellite cell accretion. There is evidence to suggest that there is a 'window of opportunity' after the onset of a hypogonadal state such as menopause, to initiate a hormonal therapy in order to achieve maximal benefits for skeletal muscle health. Novel receptor subtype selective

  15. Lip prints: The barcode of skeletal malocclusion

    PubMed Central

    Raghav, Pradeep; Kumar, Naveen; Shingh, Shishir; Ahuja, N.K.; Ghalaut, Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In orthodontics, apart from essential diagnostic aids, there are so many soft tissue analyses in which lips are major part of concern. However, lip prints have never been used in orthodontics as diagnostic aid or forensic tool. Therefore, this study was designed to explore the possible association of lip prints with skeletal malocclusion. Materials and Methods: A sample of 114 subjects in the age group of 18-30 years, from North Indian adult population were selected on the basis of skeletal class I, class II and class III malocclusion, each comprising of 38 subjects with equal number of males and females. Lip prints of all the individuals were recorded and digital soft copies of lateral cephalograms were taken. Lip prints were compared between different skeletal malocclusions. Results: It was found that branched lip pattern was most common in North Indian adult population with no sexual dimorphism. The Z-test for proportion showed that the prevalence of vertical lip pattern was significantly higher in subjects having skeletal class III malocclusion. Conclusion: A definite co-relation of vertical lip patterns with skeletal class III malocclusion was revealed. PMID:24255559

  16. Vital effects in coral skeletal composition display strict three-dimensional control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meibom, A.; Yurimoto, H.; Cuif, J.-P.; Domart-Coulon, I.; Houlbreque, F.; Constantz, B.; Dauphin, Y.; Tambutte, E.; Tambutte, S.; Allemand, D.; Wooden, J.; Dunbar, R.

    2006-01-01

    Biological control over coral skeletal composition is poorly understood but critically important to paleoenvironmental reconstructions. We present microanalytical measurements of trace-element abundances as well as oxygen and carbon isotopic compositions of individual skeletal components in the zooxanthellate coral Colpophyllia sp. Our data show that centers of calcification (COC) have higher trace element concentrations and distinctly lighter isotopic compositions than the fibrous components of the skeleton. These observations necessitate that COC and the fibrous skeleton are precipitated by different mechanisms, which are controlled by specialized domains of the calicoblastic cell-layer. Biological processes control the composition of the skeleton even at the ultra-structure level. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Genetic identification of putative remains of the famous astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus.

    PubMed

    Bogdanowicz, Wiesław; Allen, Marie; Branicki, Wojciech; Lembring, Maria; Gajewska, Marta; Kupiec, Tomasz

    2009-07-28

    We report the results of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA analyses of skeletal remains exhumed in 2005 at Frombork Cathedral in Poland, that are thought to be those of Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543). The analyzed bone remains were found close to the altar Nicolaus Copernicus was responsible for during his tenure as priest. The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) profiles from 3 upper molars and the femurs were identical, suggesting that the remains originate from the same individual. Identical mtDNA profiles were also determined in 2 hairs discovered in a calendar now exhibited at Museum Gustavianum in Uppsala, Sweden. This calendar was the property of Nicolaus Copernicus for much of his life. These findings, together with anthropological data, support the identification of the human remains found in Frombork Cathedral as those of Nicolaus Copernicus. Up-to-now the particular mtDNA haplotype has been observed only 3 times in Germany and once in Denmark. Moreover, Y-chromosomal and autosomal short tandem repeat markers were analyzed in one of the tooth samples, that was much better preserved than other parts of the skeleton. Molecular sex determination revealed that the skeleton is from a male individual, and this result is consistent with morphological investigations. The minimal Y-chromosomal haplotype determined in the putative remains of Nicolaus Copernicus has been observed previously in many countries, including Austria, Germany, Poland, and the Czech Republic. Finally, an analysis of the SNP located in the HERC2 gene revealed the C/C genotype that is predominant in blue-eyed humans, suggesting that Copernicus may have had a light iris color.

  18. La Ferrassie 8 Neandertal child reloaded: New remains and re-assessment of the original collection.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Olivencia, Asier; Crevecoeur, Isabelle; Balzeau, Antoine

    2015-05-01

    The first evidence of the partial infant Neandertal skeleton La Ferrassie 8 (LF8) was discovered in 1970, although most of the remains were found in 1973 as part of the 1968-1973 work at the site by H. Delporte. This individual and the other Neandertal children from La Ferrassie were published in the early 1980s by J.-L. Heim, and since then LF8 has been regarded as coming from a poorly documented excavation. The recent rediscovery of the box that contained the hominin bones given by Delporte to Heim in the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (MNHN) collection provided new fossils and helped to locate LF8 in the site: level M2 in square 1. Two visits to the Musée d'Archéologie nationale et Domaine national de Saint-Germain-en-Laye (MAN) yielded additional fossil remains from both the 1970 and 1973 excavations and resulted in the discovery of all of the notes from the excavation of H. Delporte between 1968 and 1973. Here the new fossil remains (47 after performing all possible refits), representing significant portions of the cranium, mandible, and vertebral column together with fragmentary hand and costal remains, are described. Unsurprisingly, the morphology of the bony labyrinth and of a complete stapes from the nearly complete left temporal show clear Neandertal affinities. Additionally, a complete reassessment of the original LF8 collection has resulted in the identification of several errors in the anatomical determination. Despite the significant increase in the anatomical representation of LF8, the skeletal remains are still limited to the head, thorax, pelvis, and four hand phalanges, with some very fragile elements relatively well preserved. Different hypotheses are proposed to explain this anatomical representation, which can be tested during future fieldwork.

  19. Nitrogen abundance in Comet Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wyckoff, Susan; Tegler, Stephen C.; Engel, Lisa

    1991-01-01

    Data on the nitrogen-containing compounds that observed spectroscopically in the coma of Comet Halley are summarized, and the elemental abundance of nitrogen in the Comet Halley nucleus is derived. It is found that 90 percent of elemental nitrogen is in the dust fraction of the coma, while in the gas fraction, most of the nitrogen is contained in NH3 and CN. The elemental nitrogen abundance in the ice component of the nucleus was found to be deficient by a factor of about 75, relative to the solar photosphere, indicating that the chemical partitioning of N2 into NH3 and other nitrogen compounds during the evolution of the solar nebula cannot account completely for the low abundance ratio N2/NH3 = 0.1, observed in the comet. It is suggested that the low N2/NH3 ratio in Comet Halley may be explained simply by physical fractionation and/or thermal diffusion.

  20. Solar and stellar photospheric abundances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allende Prieto, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    The determination of photospheric abundances in late-type stars from spectroscopic observations is a well-established field, built on solid theoretical foundations. Improving those foundations to refine the accuracy of the inferred abundances has proven challenging, but progress has been made. In parallel, developments on instrumentation, chiefly regarding multi-object spectroscopy, have been spectacular, and a number of projects are collecting large numbers of observations for stars across the Milky Way and nearby galaxies, promising important advances in our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. After providing a brief description of the basic physics and input data involved in the analysis of stellar spectra, a review is made of the analysis steps, and the available tools to cope with large observational efforts. The paper closes with a quick overview of relevant ongoing and planned spectroscopic surveys, and highlights of recent research on photospheric abundances.

  1. Robust Abundance Estimation in Animal Abundance Surveys with Imperfect Detection

    EPA Science Inventory

    Surveys of animal abundance are central to the conservation and management of living natural resources. However, detection uncertainty complicates the sampling process of many species. One sampling method employed to deal with this problem is depletion (or removal) surveys in whi...

  2. Regulation of gene expression in vertebrate skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Carvajal, Jaime J. Rigby, Peter W.J.

    2010-11-01

    During embryonic development the integration of numerous synergistic signalling pathways turns a single cell into a multicellular organism with specialized cell types and highly structured, organized tissues. To achieve this, cells must grow, proliferate, differentiate and die according to their spatiotemporal position. Unravelling the mechanisms by which a cell adopts the correct fate in response to its local environment remains one of the fundamental goals of biological research. In vertebrates skeletal myogenesis is coordinated by the activation of the myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs) in response to signals that are interpreted by their associated regulatory elements in different precursor cells during development. The MRFs trigger a cascade of transcription factors and downstream structural genes, ultimately resulting in the generation of one of the fundamental histotypes. In this review we discuss the regulation of the different MRFs in relation to their position in the myogenic cascade, the changes in the general transcriptional machinery during muscle differentiation and the emerging importance of miRNA regulation in skeletal myogenesis.

  3. Rapid Skeletal Turnover In A Radiographic Mimic Of Osteopetrosis

    PubMed Central

    Whyte, Michael P.; Madson, Katherine L.; Mumm, Steven; McAlister, William H.; Novack, Deborah V.; Blair, Jo C.; Helliwell, Timothy R.; Stolina, Marina; Abernethy, Laurence J.; Shaw, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Among the high bone mass disorders, the osteopetroses reflect osteoclast failure that prevents skeletal resorption and turnover leading to reduced bone growth and modeling and characteristic histopathological and radiographic findings. We report an 11-year-old boy with a new syndrome that radiographically mimics osteopetrosis but features rapid skeletal turnover. He presented at age 21 months with a parasellar, osteoclast-rich giant cell granuloma. Radiographs showed a dense skull, generalized osteosclerosis, and cortical thickening, medullary cavity narrowing, and diminished modeling of tubular bones. His serum alkaline phosphatase was > 5,000 IU/L (normal < 850). After partial resection, the granuloma re-grew but then regressed and stabilized during three years of uncomplicated pamidronate treatment. His hyperphosphatasemia transiently diminished but all bone turnover markers, especially those of apposition, remained elevated. Two years after pamidronate therapy stopped, BMD z-scores reached + 9.1 and + 5.8 in the lumbar spine and hip, respectively, and iliac crest histopathology confirmed rapid bone remodeling. Serum multiplex biomarker profiling was striking for low sclerostin. Mutation analysis was negative for activation of LRP4, LRP5, or TGFβ1 and for defective SOST, OPG, RANKL, RANK, SQSTM1, or sFRP1. Microarray showed no notable copy number variation. Studies of his non-consanguineous parents were unremarkable. The etiology and pathogenesis of this unique syndrome are unknown. PMID:24919763

  4. Dysspondyloenchondromatosis: Another COL2A1-Related Skeletal Dysplasia?

    PubMed Central

    Nakane, T.; Tando, T.; Aoyagi, K.; Hatakeyama, K.; Nishimura, G.; Coucke, I.P.J.; Mortier, G.; Sugita, K.

    2011-01-01

    Dysspondyloenchondromatosis (DSC) is a rare skeletal dysplasia that has currently been classified into the group of spondylometaphyseal dysplasias. To date, only 12 affected individuals have been reported. All cases are sporadic, and the etiology remains unknown. Distinctive features of DSC are anisospondyly and enchondroma-like lesions in the metaphyseal and diaphyseal portions of the long tubular bones. Affected individuals usually develop kyphoscoliosis and asymmetric limb shortening at an early age. Interestingly, some of the skeletal changes overlap with spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia (SEMD) Strudwick type, a rare type II collagen disorder. Based on this resemblance we postulated that DSC may be allelic to SEMD Strudwick type and therefore performed a COL2A1 analysis in an affected boy who was diagnosed as having DSC at the age of 3 years. The identification of a novel heterozygous COL2A1 missense mutation (p.Gly753Asp) in the proband confirms our hypothesis and suggests that DSC may be another type II collagen disorder. PMID:22570642

  5. Functional heterogeneity of side population cells in skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Uezumi, Akiyoshi; Ojima, Koichi; Fukada, So-ichiro; Ikemoto, Madoka; Masuda, Satoru; Miyagoe-Suzuki, Yuko; Takeda, Shin'ichi . E-mail: takeda@ncnp.go.jp

    2006-03-17

    Skeletal muscle regeneration has been exclusively attributed to myogenic precursors, satellite cells. A stem cell-rich fraction referred to as side population (SP) cells also resides in skeletal muscle, but its roles in muscle regeneration remain unclear. We found that muscle SP cells could be subdivided into three sub-fractions using CD31 and CD45 markers. The majority of SP cells in normal non-regenerating muscle expressed CD31 and had endothelial characteristics. However, CD31{sup -}CD45{sup -} SP cells, which are a minor subpopulation in normal muscle, actively proliferated upon muscle injury and expressed not only several regulatory genes for muscle regeneration but also some mesenchymal lineage markers. CD31{sup -}CD45{sup -} SP cells showed the greatest myogenic potential among three SP sub-fractions, but indeed revealed mesenchymal potentials in vitro. These SP cells preferentially differentiated into myofibers after intramuscular transplantation in vivo. Our results revealed the heterogeneity of muscle SP cells and suggest that CD31{sup -}CD45{sup -} SP cells participate in muscle regeneration.

  6. Thyroid hormones regulate skeletal muscle regeneration after acute injury.

    PubMed

    Leal, Anna Lúcia R C; Albuquerque, João Paulo C; Matos, Marina S; Fortunato, Rodrigo S; Carvalho, Denise P; Rosenthal, Doris; da Costa, Vânia Maria Corrêa

    2015-02-01

    We evaluated the effects of hypo- and hyperthyroid statuses during the initial phase of skeletal muscle regeneration in rats. To induce hypo- or hyperthyroidism, adult male Wistar rats were treated with methimazole (0.03%) or T4 (10 μg/100 g), respectively, for 10 days. Three days before sacrifice, a crush injury was produced in the solear muscles of one half of the animals, while the other half remained intact. T3, T4, TSH, and leptin serum levels were not affected by the injury. Serum T3 and T4 levels were significantly increased in hyperthyroid and hyper-injury animals. Hypothyroidism was confirmed by the significant increase in serum TSH levels in hypothyroid and hypo-injury animals. Injury increased cell infiltration and macrophage accumulation especially in hyperthyroid animals. Both type 2 and type 3 deiodinases were induced by lesion, and the opposite occurred with the type 1 isoform, at least in the control and hyperthyroid groups. Injury increased both MyoD and myogenin expression in all the studied groups, but only MyoD expression was increased by thyroidal status only at the protein level. We conclude that thyroid hormones modulate skeletal muscle regeneration possibly by regulating the inflammatory process, as well as MyoD and myogenin expression in the injured tissue.

  7. The role of phosphatases in the initiation of skeletal mineralization.

    PubMed

    Millán, José Luis

    2013-10-01

    Endochondral ossification is a carefully orchestrated process mediated by promoters and inhibitors of mineralization. Phosphatases are implicated, but their identities and functions remain unclear. Mutations in the tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP) gene cause hypophosphatasia, a heritable form of rickets and osteomalacia, caused by an arrest in the propagation of hydroxyapatite (HA) crystals onto the collagenous extracellular matrix due to accumulation of extracellular inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi), a physiological TNAP substrate and a potent calcification inhibitor. However, TNAP knockout (Alpl(-/-)) mice are born with a mineralized skeleton and have HA crystals in their chondrocyte- and osteoblast-derived matrix vesicles (MVs). We have shown that PHOSPHO1, a soluble phosphatase with specificity for two molecules present in MVs, phosphoethanolamine and phosphocholine, is responsible for initiating HA crystal formation inside MVs and that PHOSPHO1 and TNAP have nonredundant functional roles during endochondral ossification. Double ablation of PHOSPHO1 and TNAP function leads to the complete absence of skeletal mineralization and perinatal lethality, despite normal systemic phosphate and calcium levels. This strongly suggests that the Pi needed for initiation of MV-mediated mineralization is produced locally in the perivesicular space. As both TNAP and nucleoside pyrophosphohydrolase-1 (NPP1) behave as potent ATPases and pyrophosphatases in the MV compartment, our current model of the mechanisms of skeletal mineralization implicate intravesicular PHOSPHO1 function and Pi influx into MVs in the initiation of mineralization and the functions of TNAP and NPP1 in the extravesicular progression of mineralization.

  8. Coronal Abundances and Their Variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saba, Julia L. R.

    1996-01-01

    This contract supported the investigation of elemental abundances in the solar corona, principally through analysis of high-resolution soft X-ray spectra from the Flat Crystal Spectrometer on NASA's Solar Maximum Mission. The goals of the study were a characterization of the mean values of relative abundances of elements accessible in the FCS data, and information on the extent and circumstances of their variability. This is the Final Report, summarizing the data analysis and reporting activities which occurred during the period of performance, June 1993 - December 1996.

  9. Chemical Abundances of Symbiotic Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gałan, C.; Mikołajewska, J.; Hinkle, K. H.; Joyce, R. R.

    2015-12-01

    High resolution (R ˜ 50000), near-IR spectra were used to measure photospheric abundances of CNO and elements around the iron peak for 24 symbiotic giants. Spectrum synthesis was employed using local thermal equilibrium and hydrostatic model atmospheres. The metallicities are distributed in a wide range with maximum around [Fe/H] ˜-0.4 - - 0.3 dex. Enrichment in 14N indicates that all the sample giants have experienced the first dredge-up. The relative abundance of [Ti/Fe] is generally large in red symbiotic systems.

  10. Coronal abundances and their variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saba, Julia L. R.

    1994-01-01

    This contract supports the investigation of elemental abundances in the solar corona, principally through analysis of high-resolution soft x-ray spectra from the Flat Crystal Spectrometer (FCS) on the Solar Maximum Mission. The goals of the study are a characterization of the mean values of relative abundances of elements accessible in the FCS data, and information on the extent and circumstances of their variability. This report is a summation of the data analysis and reporting activities which occurred during the first ten months of the contract, 15 Jun. 1993 to 15 Apr. 1994.

  11. The solar abundance of beryllium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, J. E.; Aller, L. H.

    1974-01-01

    The solar abundance of beryllium is deduced from high-resolution Kitt Peak observations of the 3130.43- and 3131.08-A lines of Be II interpreted by the method of spectrum synthesis. The results are in good agreement with those previously obtained by Grevesse (1968) and by Hauge and Engvold (1968) and indicate that in the photospheric layers, beryllium is depleted below the chondritic value by a factor of about two. It is found that the beryllium abundance is equal to logN(Be)/N(H) + 12 = 1.08 plus or minus 0.05.

  12. SOLAR MODELS WITH REVISED ABUNDANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Bi, S. L.; Li, T. D.; Yang, W. M.; Li, L. H.

    2011-04-20

    We present new solar models in which we use the latest low abundances and further include the effects of rotation, magnetic fields, and extra-mixing processes. We assume that the extra-element mixing can be treated as a diffusion process, with the diffusion coefficient depending mainly on the solar internal configuration of rotation and magnetic fields. We find that such models can well reproduce the observed solar rotation profile in the radiative region. Furthermore, the proposed models can match the seismic constraints better than the standard solar models, also when these include the latest abundances, but neglect the effects of rotation and magnetic fields.

  13. Skeletal muscle atrophy and the E3 ubiquitin ligases MuRF1 and MAFbx/atrogin-1

    PubMed Central

    Baehr, Leslie M.

    2014-01-01

    Muscle RING finger 1 (MuRF1) and muscle atrophy F-box (MAFbx)/atrogin-1 were identified more than 10 years ago as two muscle-specific E3 ubiquitin ligases that are increased transcriptionally in skeletal muscle under atrophy-inducing conditions, making them excellent markers of muscle atrophy. In the past 10 years much has been published about MuRF1 and MAFbx with respect to their mRNA expression patterns under atrophy-inducing conditions, their transcriptional regulation, and their putative substrates. However, much remains to be learned about the physiological role of both genes in the regulation of mass and other cellular functions in striated muscle. Although both MuRF1 and MAFbx are enriched in skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle, this review will focus on the current understanding of MuRF1 and MAFbx in skeletal muscle, highlighting the critical questions that remain to be answered. PMID:25096180

  14. Myoglobinuria and Skeletal Muscle Phosphorylase Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Nixon, J. C.; Hobbs, W. K.; Greenblatt, J.

    1966-01-01

    Investigation of a patient complaining of exercise-induced dark urine, pain, stiffness and tenderness of skeletal muscle revealed findings characteristic of McArdle's disease. The dark urine was attributable to the excretion of myoglobin, and an ischemic exercise test failed to demonstrate the usual rise and fall in blood lactate and pyruvate. Enzyme assays of skeletal muscle showed an absence of phosphorylase, a slight increase in phosphorylase b kinase and a slight decrease in phosphoglucomutase. Chemical and histochemical analyses demonstrated an increase in the skeletal muscle glycogen content and an enlargement of the muscle cells. No abnormality of liver glycogen metabolism was found. In the absence of specific therapy, an effective and practical form of treatment is reduction of exercise below the threshold of symptoms. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:4952390

  15. The benefits of coffee on skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Dirks-Naylor, Amie J

    2015-12-15

    Coffee is consumed worldwide with greater than a billion cups of coffee ingested every day. Epidemiological studies have revealed an association of coffee consumption with reduced incidence of a variety of chronic diseases as well as all-cause mortality. Current research has primarily focused on the effects of coffee or its components on various organ systems such as the cardiovascular system, with relatively little attention on skeletal muscle. Summary of current literature suggests that coffee has beneficial effects on skeletal muscle. Coffee has been shown to induce autophagy, improve insulin sensitivity, stimulate glucose uptake, slow the progression of sarcopenia, and promote the regeneration of injured muscle. Much more research is needed to reveal the full scope of benefits that coffee consumption may exert on skeletal muscle structure and function.

  16. Genetic engineering for skeletal regenerative medicine.

    PubMed

    Gersbach, Charles A; Phillips, Jennifer E; García, Andrés J

    2007-01-01

    The clinical challenges of skeletal regenerative medicine have motivated significant advances in cellular and tissue engineering in recent years. In particular, advances in molecular biology have provided the tools necessary for the design of gene-based strategies for skeletal tissue repair. Consequently, genetic engineering has emerged as a promising method to address the need for sustained and robust cellular differentiation and extracellular matrix production. As a result, gene therapy has been established as a conventional approach to enhance cellular activities for skeletal tissue repair. Recent literature clearly demonstrates that genetic engineering is a principal factor in constructing effective methods for tissue engineering approaches to bone, cartilage, and connective tissue regeneration. This review highlights this literature, including advances in the development of efficacious gene carriers, novel cell sources, successful delivery strategies, and optimal target genes. The current status of the field and the challenges impeding the clinical realization of these approaches are also discussed.

  17. Skeletal cryptococcosis from 1977 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Heng-Xing; Lu, Lu; Chu, Tianci; Wang, Tianyi; Cao, Daigui; Li, Fuyuan; Ning, Guangzhi; Feng, Shiqing

    2015-01-01

    Skeletal cryptococcosis, an aspect of disseminated cryptococcal disease or isolated skeletal cryptococcal infection, is a rare but treatable disease. However, limited information is available regarding its clinical features, treatment, and prognosis. This systematic review examined all cases published between April 1977 and May 2013 with regard to the factors associated with this disease, including patient sex, age, and epidemiological history; affected sites; clinical symptoms; underlying diseases; laboratory tests; radiological manifestations; and delays in diagnosis, treatment, follow-up assessments, and outcomes. We found that immune abnormality is a risk factor but does not predict mortality; these observations are due to recent Cryptococcus neoformans var gattii (CNVG) outbreaks (Chaturvedi and Chaturvedi, 2011). Dissemination was irrespective of immune status and required combination therapy, and dissemination carried a worse prognosis. Therefore, a database of skeletal cryptococcosis cases should be created. PMID:25642211

  18. Birth prevalence rates of skeletal dysplasias.

    PubMed

    Stoll, C; Dott, B; Roth, M P; Alembik, Y

    1989-02-01

    This study establishes the prevalence rates at birth of the skeletal dysplasias which can be diagnosed in the perinatal period or during pregnancy. Using a population-based register of congenital anomalies, a prevalence rate of 3.22 0/000 was observed. The most frequent types of skeletal dysplasia were achondroplasia and osteogenesis imperfecta (0.64 0/000, 1/15,000 births), thanatophoric dysplasia and achondrogenesis (0.28 0/000). The mutation rate for achondroplasia was higher in our material than in the other studies: 3.3 x 10(-5) per gamete per generation. Our study demonstrates that prenatal diagnosis by ultrasound is possible in some skeletal dysplasias. PMID:2785882

  19. Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva without characteristic skeletal anomalies.

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, Hasan

    2012-05-01

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) is a rare but extremely disabling genetic disease of the skeletal system. This disease is characterized by progression of heterotopic ossification within skeletal muscles, ligaments and tendons. Most patients with FOP are misdiagnosed early in life before the appearance of heterotopic ossification and undergo diagnostic procedures such as biopsy that can cause lifelong disability. Almost all of the patients have some peculiar congenital anomalies, including short great toes, hallux valgus, short thumbs and hypoplasia of digital phalanges. These congenital defects support the diagnosis of FOP, but are not constantly observed in the totality of patients. If necessary, genetic studies can be performed to confirm the diagnosis. Once diagnosed, patients should be advised in order to avoid unnecessary traumas, surgical procedures, biopsies, intramuscular injections and vaccinations. Here, we describe a patient with FOP without characteristic congenital skeletal anomalies.

  20. Tropomodulin 1 directly controls thin filament length in both wild-type and tropomodulin 4-deficient skeletal muscle

    PubMed Central

    Gokhin, David S.; Ochala, Julien; Domenighetti, Andrea A.; Fowler, Velia M.

    2015-01-01

    The sarcomeric tropomodulin (Tmod) isoforms Tmod1 and Tmod4 cap thin filament pointed ends and functionally interact with the leiomodin (Lmod) isoforms Lmod2 and Lmod3 to control myofibril organization, thin filament lengths, and actomyosin crossbridge formation in skeletal muscle fibers. Here, we show that Tmod4 is more abundant than Tmod1 at both the transcript and protein level in a variety of muscle types, but the relative abundances of sarcomeric Tmods are muscle specific. We then generate Tmod4−/− mice, which exhibit normal thin filament lengths, myofibril organization, and skeletal muscle contractile function owing to compensatory upregulation of Tmod1, together with an Lmod isoform switch wherein Lmod3 is downregulated and Lmod2 is upregulated. However, RNAi depletion of Tmod1 from either wild-type or Tmod4−/− muscle fibers leads to thin filament elongation by ∼15%. Thus, Tmod1 per se, rather than total sarcomeric Tmod levels, controls thin filament lengths in mouse skeletal muscle, whereas Tmod4 appears to be dispensable for thin filament length regulation. These findings identify Tmod1 as the key direct regulator of thin filament length in skeletal muscle, in both adult muscle homeostasis and in developmentally compensated contexts. PMID:26586224

  1. Aquifer water abundance evaluation using a fuzzy- comprehensive weighting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Z.

    2016-08-01

    Aquifer water abundance evaluation is a highly relevant issue that has been researched for many years. Despite prior research, problems with the conventional evaluation method remain. This paper establishes an aquifer water abundance evaluation method that combines fuzzy evaluation with a comprehensive weighting method to overcome both the subjectivity and lack of conformity in determining weight by pure data analysis alone. First, this paper introduces the principle of a fuzzy-comprehensive weighting method. Second, the example of well field no. 3 (of a coalfield) is used to illustrate the method's process. The evaluation results show that this method is can more suitably meet the real requirements of aquifer water abundance assessment, leading to more precise and accurate evaluations. Ultimately, this paper provides a new method for aquifer water abundance evaluation.

  2. Molecular Factors Underlying the Deposition of Intramuscular Fat and Collagen in Skeletal Muscle of Nellore and Angus Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Taiane S.; Sanglard, Letícia M. P.; Silva, Walmir; Chizzotti, Mário L.; Rennó, Luciana N.; Serão, Nick V. L.; Silva, Fabyano F.; Guimarães, Simone E. F.; Ladeira, Márcio M.; Dodson, Michael V.; Du, Min; Duarte, Marcio S.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have shown that intramuscular adipogenesis and fibrogenesis may concomitantly occur in skeletal muscle of beef cattle. Thus, we hypothesized that the discrepancy of intramuscular fat content in beef from Nellore and Angus was associated with differences in intramuscular adipogenesis and fibrogenesis during the finishing phase. To test our hypothesis, longissimus muscle samples of Nellore (n = 6; BW = 372.5 ± 37.3 kg) and Angus (n = 6; BW = 382.8 ± 23.9 kg) cattle were collected for analysis of gene and protein expression, and quantification of intramuscular fat and collagen. Least-squares means were estimated for the effect of Breed and differences were considered at P ≤ 0.05. A greater intramuscular fat content was observed in skeletal muscle of Angus compared to Nellore cattle (P≤0.05). No differences were observed for mRNA expression of lipogenic and lipolytic markers ACC, FAS, FABP4, SERBP–1, CPT–2, LPL, and ACOX (P > 0.05) in skeletal muscle of Nellore and Angus cattle. Similarly, no differences were observed in mRNA expression of adipogenic markers Zfp423, PPARγ, and C/EBPα (P>0.05) However, a greater PPARγ protein content was observed in skeletal muscle of Angus compared to Nellore cattle (P≤0.05). A greater abundance of adipo/fibrogenic cells, evaluated by the PDGFRα content, was observed in skeletal muscle of Angus than Nellore cattle (P≤0.05). No differences in fibrogenesis were observed in skeletal muscle of Angus and Nellore cattle, which is in accordance with the lack of differences in intramuscular collagen content in beef from both breeds (P>0.05). These findings demonstrate that difference in intramuscular fat content is associated with a slightly enhanced adipogenesis in skeletal muscle of Angus compared to Nellore cattle, while no difference in fibrogenesis. PMID:26436893

  3. In vivo Phosphoproteome of Human Skeletal Muscle Revealed by Phosphopeptide Enrichment and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS

    PubMed Central

    Højlund, Kurt; Bowen, Benjamin P.; Hwang, Hyonson; Flynn, Charles R.; Madireddy, Lohith; Thangiah, Geetha; Langlais, Paul; Meyer, Christian; Mandarino, Lawrence J.; Yi, Zhengping

    2009-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation plays an essential role in signal transduction pathways that regulate substrate and energy metabolism, contractile function, and muscle mass in human skeletal muscle. Abnormal phosphorylation of signaling enzymes has been identified in insulin resistant muscle using phosphoepitope-specific antibodies, but its role in other skeletal muscle disorders remains largely unknown. This may be in part due to insufficient knowledge of relevant targets. Here, we therefore present the first large-scale in vivo phosphoproteomic study of human skeletal muscle from 3 lean, healthy volunteers. Trypsin digestion of 3-5 mg human skeletal muscle protein was followed by phosphopeptide enrichment using SCX and TiO2. The resulting phosphopeptides were analyzed by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Using this unbiased approach, we identified 306 distinct in vivo phosphorylation sites in 127 proteins, including 240 phosphoserines, 53 phosphothreonines and 13 phosphotyrosines in at least 2 out of 3 subjects. In addition, 61 ambiguous phosphorylation sites were identified in at least 2 out of 3 subjects. The majority of phosphoproteins detected are involved in sarcomeric function, excitation-contraction coupling (the Ca2+-cycle), glycolysis and glycogen metabolism. Of particular interest, we identified multiple novel phosphorylation sites on several sarcomeric Z-disc proteins known to be involved in signaling and muscle disorders. These results provide numerous new targets for the investigation of human skeletal muscle phosphoproteins in health and disease and demonstrate feasibility of phosphoproteomics research of human skeletal muscle in vivo. PMID:19764811

  4. Taurine transporter knockout depletes muscle taurine levels and results in severe skeletal muscle impairment but leaves cardiac function uncompromised.

    PubMed

    Warskulat, Ulrich; Flögel, Ulrich; Jacoby, Christoph; Hartwig, Hans-Georg; Thewissen, Michael; Merx, Marc W; Molojavyi, Andrej; Heller-Stilb, Birgit; Schrader, Jürgen; Häussinger, Dieter

    2004-03-01

    Taurine is the most abundant free amino acid in heart and skeletal muscle. In the present study, the effects of hereditary taurine deficiency on muscle function were examined in taurine transporter knockout (taut-/-) mice. These mice show an almost complete depletion of heart and skeletal muscle taurine levels. Treadmill experiments demonstrated that total exercise capacity of taut-/- mice was reduced by >80% compared with wild-type controls. The decreased performance of taut-/- mice correlated with increased lactate levels in serum during exercise. Surprisingly, cardiac function of taut-/- mice as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, echocardiography, and isolated heart studies showed a largely normal phenotype under both control and stimulated conditions. However, analysis of taut-/- skeletal muscle revealed electromyographic abnormalities. (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of tissue extracts showed that in the heart of taut-/- mice the lack of taurine was compensated by the up-regulation of various organic solutes. In contrast, a deficit of >10 mM in total organic osmolyte concentration was found in skeletal muscle. The present study identifies taurine transport as a crucial factor for the maintenance of skeletal muscle function and total exercise capacity, while cardiac muscle apparently can compensate for the loss of taurine. PMID:14734644

  5. Taurine transporter knockout depletes muscle taurine levels and results in severe skeletal muscle impairment but leaves cardiac function uncompromised.

    PubMed

    Warskulat, Ulrich; Flögel, Ulrich; Jacoby, Christoph; Hartwig, Hans-Georg; Thewissen, Michael; Merx, Marc W; Molojavyi, Andrej; Heller-Stilb, Birgit; Schrader, Jürgen; Häussinger, Dieter

    2004-03-01

    Taurine is the most abundant free amino acid in heart and skeletal muscle. In the present study, the effects of hereditary taurine deficiency on muscle function were examined in taurine transporter knockout (taut-/-) mice. These mice show an almost complete depletion of heart and skeletal muscle taurine levels. Treadmill experiments demonstrated that total exercise capacity of taut-/- mice was reduced by >80% compared with wild-type controls. The decreased performance of taut-/- mice correlated with increased lactate levels in serum during exercise. Surprisingly, cardiac function of taut-/- mice as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging, echocardiography, and isolated heart studies showed a largely normal phenotype under both control and stimulated conditions. However, analysis of taut-/- skeletal muscle revealed electromyographic abnormalities. (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of tissue extracts showed that in the heart of taut-/- mice the lack of taurine was compensated by the up-regulation of various organic solutes. In contrast, a deficit of >10 mM in total organic osmolyte concentration was found in skeletal muscle. The present study identifies taurine transport as a crucial factor for the maintenance of skeletal muscle function and total exercise capacity, while cardiac muscle apparently can compensate for the loss of taurine.

  6. Model reduction for stochastic chemical systems with abundant species.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephen; Cianci, Claudia; Grima, Ramon

    2015-12-01

    Biochemical processes typically involve many chemical species, some in abundance and some in low molecule numbers. We first identify the rate constant limits under which the concentrations of a given set of species will tend to infinity (the abundant species) while the concentrations of all other species remains constant (the non-abundant species). Subsequently, we prove that, in this limit, the fluctuations in the molecule numbers of non-abundant species are accurately described by a hybrid stochastic description consisting of a chemical master equation coupled to deterministic rate equations. This is a reduced description when compared to the conventional chemical master equation which describes the fluctuations in both abundant and non-abundant species. We show that the reduced master equation can be solved exactly for a number of biochemical networks involving gene expression and enzyme catalysis, whose conventional chemical master equation description is analytically impenetrable. We use the linear noise approximation to obtain approximate expressions for the difference between the variance of fluctuations in the non-abundant species as predicted by the hybrid approach and by the conventional chemical master equation. Furthermore, we show that surprisingly, irrespective of any separation in the mean molecule numbers of various species, the conventional and hybrid master equations exactly agree for a class of chemical systems.

  7. Model reduction for stochastic chemical systems with abundant species

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Stephen; Cianci, Claudia; Grima, Ramon

    2015-12-07

    Biochemical processes typically involve many chemical species, some in abundance and some in low molecule numbers. We first identify the rate constant limits under which the concentrations of a given set of species will tend to infinity (the abundant species) while the concentrations of all other species remains constant (the non-abundant species). Subsequently, we prove that, in this limit, the fluctuations in the molecule numbers of non-abundant species are accurately described by a hybrid stochastic description consisting of a chemical master equation coupled to deterministic rate equations. This is a reduced description when compared to the conventional chemical master equation which describes the fluctuations in both abundant and non-abundant species. We show that the reduced master equation can be solved exactly for a number of biochemical networks involving gene expression and enzyme catalysis, whose conventional chemical master equation description is analytically impenetrable. We use the linear noise approximation to obtain approximate expressions for the difference between the variance of fluctuations in the non-abundant species as predicted by the hybrid approach and by the conventional chemical master equation. Furthermore, we show that surprisingly, irrespective of any separation in the mean molecule numbers of various species, the conventional and hybrid master equations exactly agree for a class of chemical systems.

  8. Model reduction for stochastic chemical systems with abundant species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Stephen; Cianci, Claudia; Grima, Ramon

    2015-12-01

    Biochemical processes typically involve many chemical species, some in abundance and some in low molecule numbers. We first identify the rate constant limits under which the concentrations of a given set of species will tend to infinity (the abundant species) while the concentrations of all other species remains constant (the non-abundant species). Subsequently, we prove that, in this limit, the fluctuations in the molecule numbers of non-abundant species are accurately described by a hybrid stochastic description consisting of a chemical master equation coupled to deterministic rate equations. This is a reduced description when compared to the conventional chemical master equation which describes the fluctuations in both abundant and non-abundant species. We show that the reduced master equation can be solved exactly for a number of biochemical networks involving gene expression and enzyme catalysis, whose conventional chemical master equation description is analytically impenetrable. We use the linear noise approximation to obtain approximate expressions for the difference between the variance of fluctuations in the non-abundant species as predicted by the hybrid approach and by the conventional chemical master equation. Furthermore, we show that surprisingly, irrespective of any separation in the mean molecule numbers of various species, the conventional and hybrid master equations exactly agree for a class of chemical systems.

  9. Gene expression changes controlling distinct adaptations in the heart and skeletal muscle of a hibernating mammal.

    PubMed

    Vermillion, Katie L; Anderson, Kyle J; Hampton, Marshall; Andrews, Matthew T

    2015-03-01

    Throughout the hibernation season, the thirteen-lined ground squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) experiences extreme fluctuations in heart rate, metabolism, oxygen consumption, and body temperature, along with prolonged fasting and immobility. These conditions necessitate different functional requirements for the heart, which maintains contractile function throughout hibernation, and the skeletal muscle, which remains largely inactive. The adaptations used to maintain these contractile organs under such variable conditions serves as a natural model to study a variety of medically relevant conditions including heart failure and disuse atrophy. To better understand how two different muscle tissues maintain function throughout the extreme fluctuations of hibernation we performed Illumina HiSeq 2000 sequencing of cDNAs to compare the transcriptome of heart and skeletal muscle across the circannual cycle. This analysis resulted in the identification of 1,076 and 1,466 differentially expressed genes in heart and skeletal muscle, respectively. In both heart and skeletal muscle we identified a distinct cold-tolerant mechanism utilizing peroxisomal metabolism to make use of elevated levels of unsaturated depot fats. The skeletal muscle transcriptome also shows an early increase in oxidative capacity necessary for the altered fuel utilization and increased oxygen demand of shivering. Expression of the fetal gene expression profile is used to maintain cardiac tissue, either through increasing myocyte size or proliferation of resident cardiomyocytes, while skeletal muscle function and mass are protected through transcriptional regulation of pathways involved in protein turnover. This study provides insight into how two functionally distinct muscles maintain function under the extreme conditions of mammalian hibernation.

  10. Lack of Skeletal Muscle IL-6 Affects Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Activity at Rest and during Prolonged Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Gudiksen, Anders; Schwartz, Camilla Lindgren; Bertholdt, Lærke; Joensen, Ella; Knudsen, Jakob G.; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2016-01-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) plays a key role in the regulation of skeletal muscle substrate utilization. IL-6 is produced in skeletal muscle during exercise in a duration dependent manner and has been reported to increase whole body fatty acid oxidation, muscle glucose uptake and decrease PDHa activity in skeletal muscle of fed mice. The aim of the present study was to examine whether muscle IL-6 contributes to exercise-induced PDH regulation in skeletal muscle. Skeletal muscle-specific IL-6 knockout (IL-6 MKO) mice and floxed littermate controls (control) completed a single bout of treadmill exercise for 10, 60 or 120 min, with rested mice of each genotype serving as basal controls. The respiratory exchange ratio (RER) was overall higher (P<0.05) in IL-6 MKO than control mice during the 120 min of treadmill exercise, while RER decreased during exercise independent of genotype. AMPK and ACC phosphorylation also increased with exercise independent of genotype. PDHa activity was in control mice higher (P<0.05) at 10 and 60 min of exercise than at rest but remained unchanged in IL-6 MKO mice. In addition, PDHa activity was higher (P<0.05) in IL-6 MKO than control mice at rest and 60 min of exercise. Neither PDH phosphorylation nor acetylation could explain the genotype differences in PDHa activity. Together, this provides evidence that skeletal muscle IL-6 contributes to the regulation of PDH at rest and during prolonged exercise and suggests that muscle IL-6 normally dampens carbohydrate utilization during prolonged exercise via effects on PDH. PMID:27327080

  11. Skeletal dysplasia in perinatal lethal osteogenesis imperfecta. A complex disorder of endochondral and intramembranous ossification.

    PubMed

    Marion, M J; Gannon, F H; Fallon, M D; Mennuti, M T; Lodato, R F; Kaplan, F S

    1993-08-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) Type II is a rare heritable disorder of bone matrix that results in catastrophic congenital skeletal dysplasia. Two cases of OI Type II had symmetric rhizomelic skeletal dysplasia apparent on ultrasound at 16 and 20 weeks' gestation. Histologic and histochemical studies performed on skeletal tissue from fetal autopsies showed the following: (1) abnormal growth plate tissue characterized by failure of formation of primary bony spongiosa; (2) persistence of calcified cartilage bars in the diaphysis; (3) metaphyseal microfractures; (4) abundant cartilaginous fracture callus; (5) absence of bony callus; (6) failure of formation of intramembranous cortical diaphyseal bone; (7) angulation of long bones in portions of the metadiaphyses bordered by fracture callus; and (8) mechanical failure of the perichondral ring of LaCroix with a normal fibrous ossification groove of Ranvier. These findings suggest that skeletal dysplasia in OI Type II results from the action of muscular forces on a skeleton weakened by a complex disorder of endochondral and intramembranous ossification. The paucity of primary metaphyseal trabeculae and subperiosteal cortical bone leads to pathologic fractures of the immature fiber bone and an imperfect attempt at fracture repair. Angulation and shortening of long bones occurs between numerous sites of focal endochondral fracture callus. Mechanical failure of the fibrous perichondral ring leads to further collapse and shortening without obvious functional impairment of the fibrous ossification groove. Perinatal lethal OI provides insight into how a molecular disorder predominantly of Type I collagen metabolism results in pathology of numerous tissues, leading to severe skeletal dysplasia without primarily affecting chondrogenesis. PMID:8339500

  12. Analysis of tarantula skeletal muscle protein sequences and identification of transcriptional isoforms

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jingui; Sun, Yongqiao; Zhao, Fa-Qing; Yu, Jun; Craig, Roger; Hu, Songnian

    2009-01-01

    Background Tarantula has been used as a model system for studying skeletal muscle structure and function, yet data on the genes expressed in tarantula muscle are lacking. Results We constructed a cDNA library from Aphonopelma sp. (Tarantula) skeletal muscle and got 2507 high-quality 5'ESTs (expressed sequence tags) from randomly picked clones. EST analysis showed 305 unigenes, among which 81 had more than 2 ESTs. Twenty abundant unigenes had matches to skeletal muscle-related genes including actin, myosin, tropomyosin, troponin-I, T and C, paramyosin, muscle LIM protein, muscle protein 20, a-actinin and tandem Ig/Fn motifs (found in giant sarcomere-related proteins). Matches to myosin light chain kinase and calponin were also identified. These results support the existence of both actin-linked and myosin-linked regulation in tarantula skeletal muscle. We have predicted full-length as well as partial cDNA sequences both experimentally and computationally for myosin heavy and light chains, actin, tropomyosin, and troponin-I, T and C, and have deduced the putative peptides. A preliminary analysis of the structural and functional properties was also carried out. Sequence similarities suggested multiple isoforms of most myofibrillar proteins, supporting the generality of multiple isoforms known from previous muscle sequence studies. This may be related to a mix of muscle fiber types. Conclusion The present study serves as a basis for defining the transcriptome of tarantula skeletal muscle, for future in vitro expression of tarantula proteins, and for interpreting structural and functional observations in this model species. PMID:19298669

  13. 7 CFR 160.29 - Containers to remain intact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Containers to remain intact. 160.29 Section 160.29... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.29 Containers to remain intact... the containers holding such naval stores remain intact as sampled until the analysis,...

  14. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  15. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  16. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  17. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  18. Radiology of postnatal skeletal development. Pt. 6

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, S.M.; Ogden, J.A.

    1982-11-01

    Thirty-six pairs of proximal radioulnar and elbow units from cadavers and prepared skeletons ranging in age from full-term neonates to fourteen years, were studied morphologically and roentgenographically. Air/cartilage interfacing was used to demonstrate the osseous and cartilaginous portions of the developing epiphyses. These roentgenographic aspects are discussed and illustrated to provide a reference index. The skeletal development is outlined with regard to the diagnosis of several traumatic skeletal diseases as dislocation of elbow or radial head. Moteggia fracture dislocation and Nursemaid's elbow.

  19. Skeletal implants in aesthetic facial surgery.

    PubMed

    Cox, A J; Wang, T D

    1999-01-01

    The features of the nose, mentum, and malar complex define a person's profile and give the essence of character to the visage. Whether profile deficiencies are due to congenital, traumatic, or aging factors, facial plastic surgeons are able to meet patients' and their own exacting demands more thoroughly with skeletal implants. Although the search for the perfect implant continues, today's armamentarium of implant materials is vast and, with appropriate selection and attention to technique, facial skeletal implants can be successful in creating change impossible to obtain with soft tissue techniques alone. This article reviews both the biomaterials used in mandibular and malar complex implants and the techniques.

  20. THE SOLAR FLARE IRON ABUNDANCE

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, K. J. H.; Dennis, B. R. E-mail: Brian.R.Dennis@nasa.gov

    2012-03-20

    The abundance of iron is measured from emission line complexes at 6.65 keV (Fe line) and 8 keV (Fe/Ni line) in RHESSI X-ray spectra during solar flares. Spectra during long-duration flares with steady declines were selected, with an isothermal assumption and improved data analysis methods over previous work. Two spectral fitting models give comparable results, viz., an iron abundance that is lower than previous coronal values but higher than photospheric values. In the preferred method, the estimated Fe abundance is A(Fe) = 7.91 {+-} 0.10 (on a logarithmic scale, with A(H) = 12) or 2.6 {+-} 0.6 times the photospheric Fe abundance. Our estimate is based on a detailed analysis of 1898 spectra taken during 20 flares. No variation from flare to flare is indicated. This argues for a fractionation mechanism similar to quiet-Sun plasma. The new value of A(Fe) has important implications for radiation loss curves, which are estimated.

  1. Abundance estimation and conservation biology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nichols, J.D.; MacKenzie, D.I.

    2004-01-01

    Abundance is the state variable of interest in most population–level ecological research and in most programs involving management and conservation of animal populations. Abundance is the single parameter of interest in capture–recapture models for closed populations (e.g., Darroch, 1958; Otis et al., 1978; Chao, 2001). The initial capture–recapture models developed for partially (Darroch, 1959) and completely (Jolly, 1965; Seber, 1965) open populations represented efforts to relax the restrictive assumption of population closure for the purpose of estimating abundance. Subsequent emphases in capture–recapture work were on survival rate estimation in the 1970’s and 1980’s (e.g., Burnham et al., 1987; Lebreton et al.,1992), and on movement estimation in the 1990’s (Brownie et al., 1993; Schwarz et al., 1993). However, from the mid–1990’s until the present time, capture–recapture investigators have expressed a renewed interest in abundance and related parameters (Pradel, 1996; Schwarz & Arnason, 1996; Schwarz, 2001). The focus of this session was abundance, and presentations covered topics ranging from estimation of abundance and rate of change in abundance, to inferences about the demographic processes underlying changes in abundance, to occupancy as a surrogate of abundance. The plenary paper by Link & Barker (2004) is provocative and very interesting, and it contains a number of important messages and suggestions. Link & Barker (2004) emphasize that the increasing complexity of capture–recapture models has resulted in large numbers of parameters and that a challenge to ecologists is to extract ecological signals from this complexity. They offer hierarchical models as a natural approach to inference in which traditional parameters are viewed as realizations of stochastic processes. These processes are governed by hyperparameters, and the inferential approach focuses on these hyperparameters. Link & Barker (2004) also suggest that our attention

  2. Actinide abundances in ordinary chondrites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hagee, B.; Bernatowicz, T.J.; Podosek, F.A.; Johnson, M.L.; Burnett, D.S.; Tatsumoto, M.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of 244Pu fission Xe, U, Th, and light REE (LREE) abundances, along with modal petrographic determinations of phosphate abundances, were carried out on equilibrated ordinary chondrites in order to define better the solar system Pu abundance and to determine the degree of variation of actinide and LREE abundances. Our data permit comparison of the directly measured Pu/ U ratio with that determined indirectly as (Pu/Nd) ?? (Nd/U) assuming that Pu behaves chemically as a LREE. Except for Guaren??a, and perhaps H chondrites in general, Pu concentrations are similar to that determined previously for St. Se??verin, although less precise because of higher trapped Xe contents. Trapped 130Xe 136Xe ratios appear to vary from meteorite to meteorite, but, relative to AVCC, all are similar in the sense of having less of the interstellar heavy Xe found in carbonaceous chondrite acid residues. The Pu/U and Pu/Nd ratios are consistent with previous data for St. Se??verin, but both tend to be slightly higher than those inferred from previous data on Angra dos Reis. Although significant variations exist, the distribution of our Th/U ratios, along with other precise isotope dilution data for ordinary chondrites, is rather symmetric about the CI chondrite value; however, actinide/(LREE) ratios are systematically lower than the CI value. Variations in actinide or LREE absolute and relative abundances are interpreted as reflecting differences in the proportions and/or compositions of more primitive components (chondrules and CAI materials?) incorporated into different regions of the ordinary chondrite parent bodies. The observed variations of Th/U, Nd/U, or Ce/U suggest that measurements of Pu/U on any single equilibrated ordinary chondrite specimen, such as St. Se??verin, should statistically be within ??20-30% of the average solar system value, although it is also clear that anomalous samples exist. ?? 1990.

  3. Remaining Useful Life Estimation in Prognosis: An Uncertainty Propagation Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankararaman, Shankar; Goebel, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The estimation of remaining useful life is significant in the context of prognostics and health monitoring, and the prediction of remaining useful life is essential for online operations and decision-making. However, it is challenging to accurately predict the remaining useful life in practical aerospace applications due to the presence of various uncertainties that affect prognostic calculations, and in turn, render the remaining useful life prediction uncertain. It is challenging to identify and characterize the various sources of uncertainty in prognosis, understand how each of these sources of uncertainty affect the uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction, and thereby compute the overall uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction. In order to achieve these goals, this paper proposes that the task of estimating the remaining useful life must be approached as an uncertainty propagation problem. In this context, uncertainty propagation methods which are available in the literature are reviewed, and their applicability to prognostics and health monitoring are discussed.

  4. Protein carbonylation and heat shock proteins in human skeletal muscle: relationships to age and sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Beltran Valls, Maria R; Wilkinson, Daniel J; Narici, Marco V; Smith, Kenneth; Phillips, Bethan E; Caporossi, Daniela; Atherton, Philip J

    2015-02-01

    Aging is associated with a gradual loss of muscle mass termed sarcopenia, which has significant impact on quality-of-life. Because oxidative stress is proposed to negatively impact upon musculoskeletal aging, we investigated links between human aging and markers of oxidative stress, and relationships to muscle mass and strength in young and old nonsarcopenic and sarcopenic adults. Sixteen young and 16 old males (further subdivided into "old" and "old sarcopenic") were studied. The abundance of protein carbonyl adducts within skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic, myofibrillar, and mitochondrial protein subfractions from musculus vastus lateralis biopsies were determined using Oxyblot immunoblotting techniques. In addition, concentrations of recognized cytoprotective proteins (eg, heat shock proteins [HSP], αβ-crystallin) were also assayed. Aging was associated with increased mitochondrial (but not myofibrillar or sarcoplasmic) protein carbonyl adducts, independently of (stage-I) sarcopenia. Correlation analyses of all subjects revealed that mitochondrial protein carbonyl abundance negatively correlated with muscle strength ([1-repetition maximum], p = .02, r (2) = -.16), but not muscle mass (p = .13, r (2) = -.08). Abundance of cytoprotective proteins, including various HSPs (HSP 27 and 70), were unaffected by aging/sarcopenia. To conclude, these data reveal that mitochondrial protein carbonylation increases moderately with age, and that this increase may impact upon skeletal muscle function, but is not a hallmark of (stage-I) sarcopenia, per se.

  5. Age assessment of Natufian remains from the land of Israel.

    PubMed

    Karasik, D; Arensburg, B; Pavlovsky, O M

    2000-10-01

    The Natufian population of Israel was first described by Garrod in 1932, and since then hundreds of skeletons have been discovered in archaeological excavations. Their culture is amply discussed in the literature as designating the transitional stage between extractive and productive subsistence economics in the period ca. 13,000-10,000 years BP. The Natufians represent a local population with strong biologic ties to the more ancient Upper Paleolithic inhabitants of the area. The scope of the present study is to review, on the basis of new skeletal material and new age-assessing methods, the age and sex tables attributed to this group, which usually indicate a mean age of death around 32 years.

  6. Inflicted Skeletal Trauma: The Relationship of Perpetrators to Their Victims

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starling, Suzanne P.; Sirotnak, Andrew P.; Heisler, Kurt W.; Barnes-Eley, Myra L.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Although inflicted skeletal trauma is a very common presentation of child abuse, little is known about the perpetrators of inflicted skeletal injuries. Studies exist describing perpetrators of inflicted traumatic brain injury, but no study has examined characteristics of perpetrators of inflicted skeletal trauma. Methods: All cases of…

  7. New prognostic factors and scoring system for patients with skeletal metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Katagiri, Hirohisa; Okada, Rieko; Takagi, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Mitsuru; Murata, Hideki; Harada, Hideyuki; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Asakura, Hirofumi; Ogawa, Hirofumi

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to update a previous scoring system for patients with skeletal metastases, that was proposed by Katagiri et al. in 2005, by introducing a new factor (laboratory data) and analyzing a new patient cohort. Between January 2005 and January 2008, we treated 808 patients with symptomatic skeletal metastases. They were prospectively registered regardless of their treatments, and the last follow-up evaluation was performed in 2012. There were 441 male and 367 female patients with a median age of 64 years. Of these patients, 749 were treated nonsurgically while the remaining 59 underwent surgery for skeletal metastasis. A multivariate analysis was conducted using the Cox proportional hazards model. We identified six significant prognostic factors for survival, namely, the primary lesion, visceral or cerebral metastases, abnormal laboratory data, poor performance status, previous chemotherapy, and multiple skeletal metastases. The first three factors had a larger impact than the remaining three. The prognostic score was calculated by adding together all the scores for individual factors. With a prognostic score of ≥7, the survival rate was 27% at 6 months, and only 6% at 1 year. In contrast, patients with a prognostic score of ≤3 had a survival rate of 91% at 1 year, and 78% at 2 years. Comparing the revised system with the previous one, there was a significantly lower number of wrongly predicted patients using the revised system. This revised scoring system was able to predict the survival rates of patients with skeletal metastases more accurately than the previous system and may be useful for selecting an optimal treatment. PMID:25044999

  8. Comparison of the calcium release channel of cardiac and skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum by target inactivation analysis

    SciTech Connect

    McGrew, S.G.; Inui, Makoto; Chadwick, C.C.; Boucek, R.J. Jr.; Jung, C.Y.; Fleischer, S. )

    1989-02-07

    The calcium release channel of sarcoplasmic reticulum which triggers muscle contraction in excitation-contraction coupling has recently been isolated. The channel has been found to be morphologically identical with the feet structures of the junctional face membrane of terminal cisternae and consists of an oligomer of a unique high molecular weight polypeptide. In this study, the authors compare the target size of the calcium release channel from heart and skeletal muscle using target inactivation analysis. The target molecular weights of the calcium release channel estimated by measuring ryanodine binding after irradiation are similar for heart (139,000) and skeletal muscle (143,000) and are smaller than the monomeric unit (estimated to be about 360,000). The target size, estimated by measuring polypeptide remaining after irradiation, was essentially the same for heart and skeletal muscle, 1,061,000 and 1,070,000, respectively, indicating an oligomeric association of protomers. Thus, the calcium release channel of both cardiac and skeletal muscle reacts uniquely with regard to target inactivation analysis in that (1) the size by ryanodine binding is smaller than the monomeric unit and (2) a single hit leads to destruction of more than one polypeptide, by measuring polypeptide remaining. The target inactivation analysis studies indicate that heart and skeletal muscle receptors are structurally very similar.

  9. High‐throughput collagen fingerprinting of intact microfaunal remains; a low‐cost method for distinguishing between murine rodent bones

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Muxin; Shameer, Sanu; Patel, Soyab; Chamberlain, Andrew T.

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Microfaunal skeletal remains can be sensitive indicators of the contemporary ecosystem in which they are sampled and are often recovered in owl pellets in large numbers. Species identification of these remains can be obtained using a range of morphological criteria established for particular skeletal elements, but typically dominated by a reliance on cranial characters. However, this can induce biases under different environmental and taphonomic conditions. The aim of this research was to develop a high‐throughput method of objectively identifying rodent remains from archaeological deposits using collagen fingerprinting, most notably the identification of rats from other myomorph rodents as a means to identify disturbances in the archaeofauna through the presence of invasive taxa not contemporary with the archaeological deposits. Methods Collagen was extracted from complete microfaunal skeletal remains in such a manner as to leave the bones morphologically intact (i.e., weaker concentration of acid than previously used over shorter length of time). Acid‐soluble collagen was then ultrafiltered into ammonium bicarbonate and digested with trypsin prior to dilution in the MALDI matrix and acquisition of peptide mass fingerprints using a matrix‐assisted laser desorption/ionisation time‐of‐flight (MALDI‐TOF) mass spectrometer. Results Collagen fingerprinting was able to distinguish between Rattus, Mus, Apodemus and Micromys at the genus level; at the species level, R. rattus and R. norvegicus could be separated whereas A. flavicollis and A. sylvaticus could not. A total of 12,317 archaeological microvertebrate samples were screened for myomorph signatures but none were found to be invasive rats (Rattus) or mice (Mus). Of the contemporary murine fauna, no harvest mice (Micromys) were identified and only 24 field mouse (Apodemus) discovered. Conclusions As a result, no evidence of recent bioturbation could be inferred from the faunal remains of these

  10. Presumably bacterial remains in banded iron formations: beginning of investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astafieva, M.

    2014-04-01

    Ancient Archaean and Protherozoic rocks are the model objects for investigation of rocks comprising astromaterials. Judging by their age these terrestrial rocks are the nearest to the rocks of meteorites. They are represented as a rule by deeply metamorphized layers of volcanogenic and volcanogenic-sedimentary rocks and bacterial-paleontological investigations of these rocks usually meet some difficulties. But paleontological studies of these rocks usually meet some difficulties. One of these difficulties is usual high metamorphization of rocks. That is why investigation of Archaean banded iron formations is of great importance. Banded iron formations are known everywhere. The oldest banded iron formations are met in Archaean. Their widest distribution was in Proterozoic. They are constituent part of metamorphic complexes of all ancient shields. Formation of these units ended in Phanerozoic. Peculiarity of their development in time, thin layering, rhythmyc repetitiveness are reasons of great interest to these formations. Banded iron formations are sedimentary rocks. Interbedding of ferrigenous (magnetite, hematite, siderite etc.) interlayers and siliceous layers are typical to these formations. Stratificatification is thin, thickness of interlayers is less than 1-2 mm. Iron content exceeds 15%. Potentially all minerals of ferrigenous interlayers could be of biogenic nature because both for oxygenized (hematite) and reduced (magnetite and siderite) minerals direct mechanism of bacterial production is established by microbiologists. Basic ore mineral of banded iron formations is magnetite. But magnetite origin is not clear till nowadays and this problem is very actual [2]. Nevertheless bacterial remains by themselves have not been found and it is not surprising. It is proved that finely dispersed non-completely formed magnetite compose basic mass of magnetite formed for example by thermophylic iron-reducing bacteria. Processes of structure arrangement and crystal

  11. Effect of space flight on sodium, copper, manganese and magnesium content in the skeletal bones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prokhonchukov, A. A.; Taitsev, V. P.; Shakhunov, B. A.; Zhizhina, V. A.; Kolesnik, A. G.; Komissarova, N. A.

    1979-01-01

    Sodium content decreased in the human skeletal bones and rose in the rat bones following space flight. In man copper content rose in the femoral bone and decreased in the vertebral body and the sternum, but was unchanged in the rest of the bones. Magnesium content was decreased in the femoral bone and the sternum, and in the vertebrae, but remained unchanged in the rest of the bones. Possible mechanisms of the changes detected are discussed.

  12. Fish abundance, distribution, and habitat use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffnagle, Timothy L.; Valdez, Richard A.; Speas, David W.

    The 1996 controlled flood in the Colorado River, Grand Canyon, was designed, in part, to improve conditions for juvenile native fishes by reshaping habitat and displacing non-native fishes. We examined changes in abundance and distributions of native and non-native fishes immediately before and after the controlled flood and recovery of affected species 2.5 and 6 months after. Catch-per-unit-effort (CPUE) of humpback chub and flannelmouth sucker did not differ in pre- versus post-flood periods. CPUE of plains killifish, bluehead sucker and fathead minnow decreased following the flood, and CPUE of speckled dace and rainbow trout increased. Juvenile humpback chub remained primarily along talus shorelines at all discharges, while at higher discharges, speckled dace shifted from mid-channel riffles to debris fans and talus and fathead minnows used primarily vegetated shorelines. There was evidence of some downstream displacement of plains killifish, fathead minnows and rainbow trout. Catch rates of all species showed seasonal variation following the flood, with summer recruitment of young-of-the-year, particularly fathead minnows and plains killifish. Although short-term reductions in catch rates of fathead minnows and plains killifish occurred, these populations returned to pre-flood densities by 6 months after the flood. Catch rates of all species before and after the flood were similar to those recorded in previous years. We determined that the controlled flood did not significantly alter native fish distributions or abundances through Grand Canyon.

  13. Maxillary protraction using skeletal anchorage and intermaxillary elastics in Skeletal Class III patients

    PubMed Central

    Ağlarcı, Cahide; Albayrak, Gayem Eroğlu; Fındık, Yavuz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this case report is to describe the treatment of a patient with skeletal Class III malocclusion with maxillary retrognathia using skeletal anchorage devices and intermaxillary elastics. Miniplates were inserted between the mandibular lateral incisor and canine teeth on both sides in a male patient aged 14 years 5 months. Self-drilling mini-implants (1.6 mm diameter, 10 mm length) were installed between the maxillary second premolar and molar teeth, and Class III elastics were used between the miniplates and miniscrews. On treatment completion, an increase in the projection of the maxilla relative to the cranial base (2.7 mm) and significant improvement of the facial profile were observed. Slight maxillary counterclockwise (1°) and mandibular clockwise (3.3°) rotations were also observed. Maxillary protraction with skeletal anchorage and intermaxillary elastics was effective in correcting a case of Skeletal Class III malocclusion without dentoalveolar side effects. PMID:25798416

  14. Skeletal muscle fibre types in the dog.

    PubMed Central

    Latorre, R; Gil, F; Vázquez, J M; Moreno, F; Mascarello, F; Ramirez, G

    1993-01-01

    Using a variety of histochemical methods we have investigated the mATPase reaction of skeletal muscle fibres in the dog. Types I, IIA, IIDog (peculiar to the dog) and IIC fibres were identified. The results reveal that the interpretation of the fibre type composition depends on the methods used. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8226288

  15. Advances and challenges in skeletal muscle angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Oliver; Hellsten, Ylva; Egginton, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    The role of capillaries is to serve as the interface for delivery of oxygen and removal of metabolites to/from tissues. During the past decade there has been a proliferation of studies that have advanced our understanding of angiogenesis, demonstrating that tissue capillary supply is under strict control during health but poorly controlled in disease, resulting in either excessive capillary growth (pathological angiogenesis) or losses in capillarity (rarefaction). Given that skeletal muscle comprises nearly 40% of body mass in humans, skeletal muscle capillary density has a significant impact on metabolism, endocrine function, and locomotion and is tightly regulated at many different levels. Skeletal muscle is also high adaptable and thus one of the few organ systems that can be experimentally manipulated (e.g., by exercise) to study physiological regulation of angiogenesis. This review will focus on the methodological concerns that have arisen in determining skeletal muscle capillarity and highlight the concepts that are reshaping our understanding of the angio-adaptation process. We also summarize selected new findings (physical influences, molecular changes, and ultrastructural rearrangement of capillaries) that identify areas of future research with the greatest potential to expand our understanding of how angiogenesis is normally regulated, and that may also help to better understand conditions of uncontrolled (pathological) angiogenesis. PMID:26608338

  16. IQ Measurement in Children with Skeletal Dysplasia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, John G.; And Others

    1979-01-01

    IQ studies on 68 children (5 months-15 years) with skeletal dysplasia (dwarfism) were reviewed to provide counseling to parents of newborn affected children. Results of the study show that this population performs intellectually in the same range as other children. Journal availability: see EC 115 198. (PHR)

  17. Mechanotransduction pathways in skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Yamada, André Katayama; Verlengia, Rozangela; Bueno Junior, Carlos Roberto

    2012-02-01

    In the last decade, molecular biology has contributed to define some of the cellular events that trigger skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Recent evidence shows that insulin like growth factor 1/phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (IGF-1/PI3K/Akt) signaling is not the main pathway towards load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. During load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy process, activation of mTORC1 does not require classical growth factor signaling. One potential mechanism that would activate mTORC1 is increased synthesis of phosphatidic acid (PA). Despite the huge progress in this field, it is still early to affirm which molecular event induces hypertrophy in response to mechanical overload. Until now, it seems that mTORC1 is the key regulator of load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. On the other hand, how mTORC1 is activated by PA is unclear, and therefore these mechanisms have to be determined in the following years. The understanding of these molecular events may result in promising therapies for the treatment of muscle-wasting diseases. For now, the best approach is a good regime of resistance exercise training. The objective of this point-of-view paper is to highlight mechanotransduction events, with focus on the mechanisms of mTORC1 and PA activation, and the role of IGF-1 on hypertrophy process. PMID:22171534

  18. New Skeletal-Space-Filling Models

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Frank H.

    1977-01-01

    Describes plastic, skeletal molecular models that are color-coded and can illustrate both the conformation and overall shape of small molecules. They can also be converted to space-filling counterparts by the additions of color-coded polystyrene spheres. (MLH)

  19. Enhancing skeletal features in digitally reconstructed radiographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Dongshan; Kuduvalli, Gopinath

    2006-03-01

    Generation of digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR) is a critical part of 2D-3D image registration that is utilized in patient position alignment for image-guided radiotherapy and radiosurgery. The DRRs are generated from a pre-operative CT scan and used as the references to match the X-ray images for determining the change of patient position. Skeletal structures are the primary image features to facilitate the registration between the DRR and X-ray images. In this paper, we present a method to enhance skeletal features of spinal regions in DRRs. The attenuation coefficient at each voxel is first calculated by applying an exponential transformation of the original attenuation coefficient in the CT scan. This is a preprocessing step that is performed prior to DRR generation. The DRR is then generated by integrating the newly calculated attenuation coefficients along the ray that connects the X-ray source and the pixel in the DRR. Finally, the DRR is further enhanced using a weighted top-hat filter. During the entire process, because there is no original CT information lost, even the small skeletal features contributed by low intensity part of CT data are preserved in the enhanced DRRs. Experiments on clinical data were conducted to compare the image quality of DRRs with and without enhancement. The results showed that the image contrast of skeletal features in the enhanced DRRs is significantly improved. This method has potential to be applied for more accurate and robust 2D-3D image registration.

  20. Space travel directly induces skeletal muscle atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandenburgh, H.; Chromiak, J.; Shansky, J.; Del Tatto, M.; Lemaire, J.

    1999-01-01

    Space travel causes rapid and pronounced skeletal muscle wasting in humans that reduces their long-term flight capabilities. To develop effective countermeasures, the basis of this atrophy needs to be better understood. Space travel may cause muscle atrophy indirectly by altering circulating levels of factors such as growth hormone, glucocorticoids, and anabolic steroids and/or by a direct effect on the muscle fibers themselves. To determine whether skeletal muscle cells are directly affected by space travel, tissue-cultured avian skeletal muscle cells were tissue engineered into bioartificial muscles and flown in perfusion bioreactors for 9 to 10 days aboard the Space Transportation System (STS, i.e., Space Shuttle). Significant muscle fiber atrophy occurred due to a decrease in protein synthesis rates without alterations in protein degradation. Return of the muscle cells to Earth stimulated protein synthesis rates of both muscle-specific and extracellular matrix proteins relative to ground controls. These results show for the first time that skeletal muscle fibers are directly responsive to space travel and should be a target for countermeasure development.

  1. Connexins in skeletal muscle development and disease.

    PubMed

    Merrifield, Peter A; Laird, Dale W

    2016-02-01

    Gap junctions consist of clusters of intercellular channels composed of connexins that connect adjacent cells and allow the exchange of small molecules. While the 21 member multi-gene family of connexins are ubiquitously found in humans, only Cx39, Cx40, Cx43 and Cx45 have been documented in developing myoblasts and injured adult skeletal muscle while healthy adult skeletal muscle is devoid of connexins. The use of gap junctional blockers and cultured myoblast cell lines have suggested that these connexins play a critical role in myotube formation and muscle regeneration. More recent genetically-modified mouse models where Cx43 function is greatly compromized or ablated have further supported a role for Cx43 in regulating skeletal muscle development. In the last decade, we have become aware of a cohort of patients that have a development disorder known as oculodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD). These patients harbor either gain or loss of Cx43 function gene mutations that result in many organ anomalies raising questions as to whether they suffer from defects in skeletal muscle formation or regeneration upon injury. Interesting, some ODDD patients report muscle weakness and loss of limb control but it is not clear if this is neurogenic or myogenic in origin. This review will focus on the role connexins play in muscle development and repair and discuss the impact of Cx43 mutants on muscle function. PMID:26688333

  2. Space travel directly induces skeletal muscle atrophy.

    PubMed

    Vandenburgh, H; Chromiak, J; Shansky, J; Del Tatto, M; Lemaire, J

    1999-06-01

    Space travel causes rapid and pronounced skeletal muscle wasting in humans that reduces their long-term flight capabilities. To develop effective countermeasures, the basis of this atrophy needs to be better understood. Space travel may cause muscle atrophy indirectly by altering circulating levels of factors such as growth hormone, glucocorticoids, and anabolic steroids and/or by a direct effect on the muscle fibers themselves. To determine whether skeletal muscle cells are directly affected by space travel, tissue-cultured avian skeletal muscle cells were tissue engineered into bioartificial muscles and flown in perfusion bioreactors for 9 to 10 days aboard the Space Transportation System (STS, i.e., Space Shuttle). Significant muscle fiber atrophy occurred due to a decrease in protein synthesis rates without alterations in protein degradation. Return of the muscle cells to Earth stimulated protein synthesis rates of both muscle-specific and extracellular matrix proteins relative to ground controls. These results show for the first time that skeletal muscle fibers are directly responsive to space travel and should be a target for countermeasure development.

  3. Mechanotransduction pathways in skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Yamada, André Katayama; Verlengia, Rozangela; Bueno Junior, Carlos Roberto

    2012-02-01

    In the last decade, molecular biology has contributed to define some of the cellular events that trigger skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Recent evidence shows that insulin like growth factor 1/phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B (IGF-1/PI3K/Akt) signaling is not the main pathway towards load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. During load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy process, activation of mTORC1 does not require classical growth factor signaling. One potential mechanism that would activate mTORC1 is increased synthesis of phosphatidic acid (PA). Despite the huge progress in this field, it is still early to affirm which molecular event induces hypertrophy in response to mechanical overload. Until now, it seems that mTORC1 is the key regulator of load-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy. On the other hand, how mTORC1 is activated by PA is unclear, and therefore these mechanisms have to be determined in the following years. The understanding of these molecular events may result in promising therapies for the treatment of muscle-wasting diseases. For now, the best approach is a good regime of resistance exercise training. The objective of this point-of-view paper is to highlight mechanotransduction events, with focus on the mechanisms of mTORC1 and PA activation, and the role of IGF-1 on hypertrophy process.

  4. Tissue engineering skeletal muscle for orthopaedic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payumo, Francis C.; Kim, Hyun D.; Sherling, Michael A.; Smith, Lee P.; Powell, Courtney; Wang, Xiao; Keeping, Hugh S.; Valentini, Robert F.; Vandenburgh, Herman H.

    2002-01-01

    With current technology, tissue-engineered skeletal muscle analogues (bioartificial muscles) generate too little active force to be clinically useful in orthopaedic applications. They have been engineered genetically with numerous transgenes (growth hormone, insulinlike growth factor-1, erythropoietin, vascular endothelial growth factor), and have been shown to deliver these therapeutic proteins either locally or systemically for months in vivo. Bone morphogenetic proteins belonging to the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily are osteoinductive molecules that drive the differentiation pathway of mesenchymal cells toward the chondroblastic or osteoblastic lineage, and stimulate bone formation in vivo. To determine whether skeletal muscle cells endogenously expressing bone morphogenetic proteins might serve as a vehicle for systemic bone morphogenetic protein delivery in vivo, proliferating skeletal myoblasts (C2C12) were transduced with a replication defective retrovirus containing the gene for recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6 (C2BMP-6). The C2BMP-6 cells constitutively expressed recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6 and synthesized bioactive recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6, based on increased alkaline phosphatase activity in coincubated mesenchymal cells. C2BMP-6 cells did not secrete soluble, bioactive recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-6, but retained the bioactivity in the cell layer. Therefore, genetically-engineered skeletal muscle cells might serve as a platform for long-term delivery of osteoinductive bone morphogenetic proteins locally.

  5. Development of Sensory Receptors in Skeletal Muscle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeSantis, Mark

    2000-01-01

    The two major goals for this project is to (1) examine the hindlimb walking pattern of offspring from the Flight dams as compared with offspring of the ground control groups from initiation of walking up to two months thereafter; and (2) examine skeletal muscle.

  6. miRNAs Related to Skeletal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Seeliger, Claudine; Balmayor, Elizabeth R; van Griensven, Martijn

    2016-09-01

    miRNAs as non-coding, short, double-stranded RNA segments are important for cellular biological functions, such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. miRNAs mainly contribute to the inhibition of important protein translations through their cleavage or direct repression of target messenger RNAs expressions. In the last decade, miRNAs got in the focus of interest with new publications on miRNAs in the context of different diseases. For many types of cancer or myocardial damage, typical signatures of local or systemically circulating miRNAs have already been described. However, little is known about miRNA expressions and their molecular effect in skeletal diseases. An overview of published studies reporting miRNAs detection linked with skeletal diseases was conducted. All regulated miRNAs were summarized and their molecular interactions were illustrated. This review summarizes the involvement and interaction of miRNAs in different skeletal diseases. Thereby, 59 miRNAs were described to be deregulated in tissue, cells, or in the circulation of osteoarthritis (OA), 23 miRNAs deregulated in osteoporosis, and 107 miRNAs deregulated in osteosarcoma (OS). The molecular influences of miRNAs regarding OA, osteoporosis, and OS were illustrated. Specific miRNA signatures for skeletal diseases are described in the literature. Some overlapped, but also unique ones for each disease exist. These miRNAs may present useful targets for the development of new therapeutic approaches and are candidates for diagnostic evaluations. PMID:27418331

  7. [Effects of lycopene on the skeletal system].

    PubMed

    Sołtysiak, Patrycja; Folwarczna, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant substances of plant origin, such as lycopene, may favorably affect the skeletal system. Lycopene is a carotenoid pigment, responsible for characteristic red color of tomatoes. It is believed that lycopene may play a role in the prevention of various diseases; despite theoretical premises and results of experimental studies, the effectiveness of lycopene has not yet been clearly demonstrated in studies carried out in humans. The aim of the study was to present the current state of knowledge on the effects of lycopene on the osseous tissue in in vitro and in vivo experimental models and on the skeletal system in humans. Results of the studies indicate that lycopene may inhibit bone resorption. Favorable effects of high doses of lycopene on the rat skeletal system in experimental conditions, including the model of osteoporosis induced by estrogen deficiency, have been demonstrated. The few epidemiological and clinical studies, although not fully conclusive, suggest a possible beneficial effect of lycopene present in the diet on the skeletal system. PMID:25720611

  8. Skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism in an animal model of pulmonary emphysema: formoterol and skeletal muscle dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Sullo, Nikol; Roviezzo, Fiorentina; Matteis, Maria; Spaziano, Giuseppe; Del Gaudio, Stefania; Lombardi, Assunta; Lucattelli, Monica; Polverino, Francesca; Lungarella, Giuseppe; Cirino, Giuseppe; Rossi, Francesco; D'Agostino, Bruno

    2013-02-01

    Skeletal muscle dysfunction is a significant contributor to exercise limitation in pulmonary emphysema. This study investigated skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism before and after aerosol exposure to a long-acting β-agonist (LABA), such as formoterol, in the pallid mouse (B6.Cg-Pldnpa/J), which has a deficiency in serum α(1)-antitrypsin (α(1)-PI) and develops spontaneous pulmonary emphysema. C57 BL/6J and its congener pallid mice of 8-12 and 16 months of age were treated with vehicle or formoterol aerosol challenge for 120 seconds. Morphological and morphometric studies and evaluations of mitochondrial adenosine diphosphate-stimulated respiration and of cytochrome oxidase activity on skeletal muscle were performed. Moreover, the mtDNA content in skeletal muscle and the mediators linked to muscle mitochondrial function and biogenesis, as well as TNF-α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), were also evaluated. The lungs of pallid mice at 12 and 16 months of age showed patchy areas of airspace enlargements, with the destruction of alveolar septa. No significant differences were observed in basal values of mitochondrial skeletal muscle oxidative processes between C57 BL/6J and pallid mice. Exposure to LABA significantly improved mitochondrial skeletal muscle oxidative processes in emphysematous mice, where the mtDNA content was significantly higher with respect to 8-month-old pallid mice. This effect was compared with a significant increase of PGC-1α in skeletal muscles of 16-month-old pallid mice, with no significant changes in TNF-α concentrations. In conclusion, in emphysematous mice that showed an increased mtDNA content, exposure to inhaled LABA can improve mitochondrial skeletal muscle oxidative processes. PGC-1α may serve as a possible mediator of this effect.

  9. Long-term stability of RNA in post-mortem bovine skeletal muscle, liver and subcutaneous adipose tissues

    PubMed Central

    Bahar, Bojlul; Monahan, Frank J; Moloney, Aidan P; Schmidt, Olaf; MacHugh, David E; Sweeney, Torres

    2007-01-01

    Background Recovering high quality intact RNA from post-mortem tissue is of major concern for gene expression studies in animals and humans. Since the availability of post-mortem tissue is often associated with substantial delay, it is important that we understand the temporal variation in the stability of total RNA and of individual gene transcripts so as to be able to appropriately interpret the data generated from such studies. Hence, the objective of this experiment was to qualitatively and quantitatively assess the integrity of total and messenger RNA extracted from bovine skeletal muscle, subcutaneous adipose tissue and liver stored at 4°C at a range of time points up to 22 days post-mortem. These conditions were designed to mimic the environment prevailing during the transport of beef from the abattoir to retail outlets. Results The 28S and 18S rRNA molecules of total RNA were intact for up to 24 h post-mortem in liver and adipose tissues and up to 8 days post-mortem in skeletal muscle. The mRNA of housekeeping genes (GAPDH and ACTB) and two diet-related genes (RBP5 and SCD) were detectable up to 22 days post-mortem in skeletal muscle. While the mRNA stability of the two housekeeping genes was different in skeletal muscle and liver, they were similar to each other in adipose tissue. After 22 days post-mortem, the relative abundance of RBP5 gene was increased in skeletal muscle and in adipose tissue and decreased in liver. During this period, the relative abundance of SCD gene also increased in skeletal muscle whereas it decreased in both adipose tissue and liver. Conclusion Stability of RNA in three tissues (skeletal muscle, subcutaneous adipose tissue and liver) subjected to long-term post-mortem storage at refrigeration temperature indicated that skeletal muscle can be a suitable tissue for recovering biologically useful RNA for gene expression studies even if the tissue is subjected to post-mortem storage for weeks, whereas adipose tissue and liver

  10. The aggrecanopathies; an evolving phenotypic spectrum of human genetic skeletal diseases.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Beth G; Briggs, Michael D

    2016-01-01

    The large chondroitin sulphated proteoglycan aggrecan (ACAN) is the most abundant non-collagenous protein in cartilage and is essential for its structure and function. Mutations in ACAN result in a broad phenotypic spectrum of non-lethal skeletal dysplasias including spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasia, spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, familial osteochondritis dissecans and various undefined short stature syndromes associated with accelerated bone maturation. However, very little is currently known about the disease pathways that underlie these aggrecanopathies, although they are likely to be a combination of haploinsufficiency and dominant-negative (neomorphic) mechanisms. This review discusses the known human and animal aggrecanopathies in the context of clinical presentation and potential disease mechanisms. PMID:27353333

  11. Detection of the Remaining Files Copied from Removable Storage Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizawa, Chikako; Andoh, Yuu; Nishida, Makoto

    This paper proposes a method for detecting remaining files copied from removable storage medium. The proposed method logs events that the database of a file system, “Folder”, is changed. The remaining file can be detected by tracing the sequence of logs using path/file-name matching. Our experimental result suggests that the proposed method can accurately detect remaining files left on the computer.

  12. Coronal abundances and their variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saba, Julia L. R.

    1994-01-01

    This contract supports the investigation of elemental abundances in the solar corona, principally through analysis of high-resolution software X-ray spectra from the Flat Crystal Spectrometer on NASA's Solar Maximum Mission. The goals of the study are a characterization of the mean values of relative abundances of elements accessible in the FCS data, and information on the extent and circumstances of their variability. This report is a summation of the data analysis and reporting activities which occurred since the last report, submitted two months early, in April 1994, to facilitate evaluation of the first year's progress for contract renewal. Hence this report covers the period 15 April 1994 - 15 December 1994. A list of publications resulting from this research is included.

  13. Gene Regions Responding to Skeletal Muscle Atrophy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, Frank W.

    1997-01-01

    Our stated specific aims for this project were: 1) Identify the region(s) of the mouse IIb myosin heavy chain (MHC) promoter necessary for in vivo expression in mouse fast-twitch muscle, and 2) Identify the region(s) of the mouse IIb MHC promoter responsive to immobilization in mouse slow-twitch muscle in vivo. We sought to address these specific aims by introducing various MHC IIb promoter/reporter gene constructs directly into the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles of living mice. Although the method of somatic gene transfer into skeletal muscle by direct injection has been successfully used in our laboratory to study the regulation of the skeletal alpha actin gene in chicken skeletal muscle, we had many difficulties utilizing this procedure in the mouse. Because of the small size of the mouse soleus and the difficulty in obtaining consistent results, we elected not to study this muscle as first proposed. Rather, our MHC IIb promoter deletion experiments were performed in the gastrocnemius. Further, we decided to use hindlimb unloading via tail suspension to induce an upregulation of the MHC IIb gene, rather than immobilization of the hindlimbs via plaster casts. This change was made because tail suspension more closely mimics spaceflight, and this procedure in our lab results in a smaller loss of overall body mass than the mouse hindlimb immobilization procedure. This suggests that the stress level during tail suspension is less than during immobilization. This research has provided an important beginning point towards understanding the molecular regulation of the MHC lIb gene in response to unweighting of skeletal muscle Future work will focus on the regulation of MHC IIb mRNA stability in response to altered loading of skeletal muscle

  14. The solar abundance of thulium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, J. E.; Aller, L. H.

    1974-01-01

    Consideration of one relatively unblended line of the solar spectrum, namely, the 3131.258-A line of Tm II, which yields a thulium abundance of 0.80 plus or minus 0.10 with the Corliss and Bozman (1962) f-value. The uncertainty of this figure is discussed in conjunction with the contradictory findings of some other investigators. The need for further detailed study of the lanthanides by the method of spectrum synthesis is pointed out.

  15. Characterization of the proteinaceous skeletal organic matrix from the precious coral Corallium konojoi.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Azizur; Karl, Kristian; Nonaka, Masanori; Fujimura, Hiroyuki; Shinjo, Ryuichi; Oomori, Tamotsu; Wörheide, Gert

    2014-11-01

    The Japanese red and pink corals are known to be precious because of their commercial value resulting from their use in ornaments, jewelry, and medicine. Precious corals are very interesting models for biomineralization studies and possess two different skeletal structures: an axial skeleton and an endoskeleton (sclerites). Although it has long been known that the organic matrix proteins existing in coral skeletons are critical for the oriented precipitation of CaCO3 crystals, these proteins in moderate deep-sea Japanese precious corals remain uncharacterized. Therefore, in this study, we performed skeletal whole proteome analyses using 1D and 2D electrophoresis, nano-LC, and MALDI-TOF-TOF MS. We identified a total of 147 functional coral skeletal organic matrix proteins (120 from the sclerites and 36 from the axial skeleton), including two calcium-binding calmodulin. Among the organic matrix proteins identified, nine key proteins are highly typical and common in both skeletons. Strong glycosylation activity, which is essential for skeletal formation in calcifying organisms, was detected in both skeletons. This work demonstrates unique biomineralization-related proteins in precious corals and provides the first description of the major proteinaceous components of CaCO3 minerals in precious corals, enabling the comparative investigation of biocalcification in other octocorals.

  16. The retention of primary oxygen isotope compositions of fossil elephant skeletal phosphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayliffe, L. K.; Chivas, A. R.; Leakey, M. G.

    1994-12-01

    Fossil elephant remains from sediments of Plio-Pleistocene age in the vicinity of Lake Turkana, Kenya, provide insights into the ability of the phosphate-oxygen system to preserve original δ18O values ( δ18Op) in the depositional environment. Individual fossil specimens exhibit systematic variations in the δ18Op values of their various tooth and bone components. Differences in δ18Op values between these skeletal components can be as high as 3.6%., despite the fact that equivalent phases for individual modern elephants have δ18Op values which vary by less than 0.6%.. XRD traces of the different skeletal phases of modern and fossil samples, also infer differential preservation of primary apatite crystallinities among the various fossil phases. Fossil samples of dentine, cementum and bone have X-ray spectra with sharper and more intense peaks compared to their modern counterparts, but little change in crystallinity is observed for fossil enamel samples. A model based on the premise that the enamel phase preserves primary isotope signatures and that the accompanying skeletal phases are partially re-equilibrated with the fluids associated with the microbial decomposition of the elephant's carcass is consistent with the features of the 18O p dataset. This isotopic evidence, in conjunction with the physical and chemical attributes of enamel, has led us to postulate that enamel could be preserving primary isotope signatures while other skeletal components are affected to varying degrees by alteration processes in the burial environment.

  17. Monovalent Cationic Channel Activity in the Inner Membrane of Nuclei from Skeletal Muscle Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Yarotskyy, Viktor; Dirksen, Robert T.

    2014-01-01

    Nuclear ion channels remain among the least studied and biophysically characterized channels. Although considerable progress has been made in characterizing calcium release channels in the nuclear membrane, very little is known regarding the properties of nuclear monovalent cationic channels. Here, we describe a method to isolate nuclei from adult skeletal muscle fibers that are suitable for electrophysiological experiments. Using this approach, we show for the first time, to our knowledge, that a nuclear monovalent cationic channel (NMCC) is prominently expressed in the inner membrane of nuclei isolated from flexor digitorum brevis skeletal muscle fibers of adult mice. In isotonic 140 mM KCl, the skeletal muscle NMCC exhibits a unitary conductance of ∼160 pS and high, voltage-independent open probability. Based on single-channel reversal potential measurements, NMCCs are slightly more permeable to potassium ions over sodium (PK/PNa = 2.68 ± 0.21) and cesium (PK/PCs = 1.39 ± 0.03) ions. In addition, NMCCs do not permeate divalent cations, are inhibited by calcium ions, and demonstrate weak rectification in asymmetric Ca2+-containing solutions. Together, these studies characterize a voltage-independent NMCC in skeletal muscle, the properties of which are ideally suited to serve as a countercurrent mechanism during calcium release from the nuclear envelope. PMID:25418088

  18. Cavin4b/Murcb Is Required for Skeletal Muscle Development and Function in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Housley, Michael P.; Njaine, Brian; Ricciardi, Filomena; Stone, Oliver A.; Hölper, Soraya; Krüger, Marcus; Kostin, Sawa; Stainier, Didier Y. R.

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscles provide metazoans with the ability to feed, reproduce and avoid predators. In humans, a heterogeneous group of genetic diseases, termed muscular dystrophies (MD), lead to skeletal muscle dysfunction. Mutations in the gene encoding Caveolin-3, a principal component of the membrane micro-domains known as caveolae, cause defects in muscle maintenance and function; however it remains unclear how caveolae dysfunction underlies MD pathology. The Cavin family of caveolar proteins can form membrane remodeling oligomers and thus may also impact skeletal muscle function. Changes in the distribution and function of Cavin4/Murc, which is predominantly expressed in striated muscles, have been reported to alter caveolae structure through interaction with Caveolin-3. Here, we report the generation and phenotypic analysis of murcb mutant zebrafish, which display impaired swimming capacity, skeletal muscle fibrosis and T-tubule abnormalities during development. To understand the mechanistic importance of Murc loss of function, we assessed Caveolin-1 and 3 localization and found it to be abnormal. We further identified an in vivo function for Murc in Erk signaling. These data link Murc with developmental defects in T-tubule formation and progressive muscle dysfunction, thereby providing a new candidate for the etiology of muscular dystrophy. PMID:27294373

  19. Thyroid hormones and skeletal muscle — new insights and potential implications

    PubMed Central

    Salvatore, Domenico; Simonides, Warner S.; Dentice, Monica; Zavacki, Ann Marie; Larsen, P. Reed

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid hormone signalling regulates crucial biological functions, including energy expenditure, thermogenesis, development and growth. The skeletal muscle is a major target of thyroid hormone signalling. The type two (DIO2) and three (DIO3) iodothyronine deiodinases have been identified in skeletal muscle. DIO2 expression is tightly regulated and catalyzes outer ring monodeiodination of the secreted prohormone tetraiodothyronine (T4) to generate the active hormone triiodothyronine (T3). T3 may remain in the myocyte to signal through nuclear receptors or exit the cell to mix with the extracellular pool. By contrast, DIO3 inactivates T3 through removal of an inner ring iodine. Regulation of the expression and activity of deiodinases constitutes a cell-autonomous, pre-receptor mechanism for controlling the intracellular concentration of T3. This local control of T3 activity is crucial during the various phases of myogenesis. Here, we review the roles of T3 in skeletal muscle development and homeostasis, with a focus on the emerging local deiodinase-mediated control of T3 signalling. Moreover, we discuss these novel findings in the context of both muscle homeostasis and pathology, and examine how they can be therapeutically harnessed to improve satellite cell-mediated muscle repair in patients with skeletal muscle disorders, muscle atrophy or injury. PMID:24322650

  20. Skeletal muscle myoblasts possess a stretch-responsive local angiotensin signalling system.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Adam P W; Baker, Jeff; De Lisio, Michael; Parise, Gianni

    2011-06-01

    A paucity of information exists regarding the presence of local renin-angiotensin systems (RASs) in skeletal muscle and associated muscle stem cells. Skeletal muscle and muscle stem cells were isolated from C57BL/6 mice and examined for the presence of a local RAS using quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), immunohistochemistry (IHC), Western blotting and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Furthermore, the effect of mechanical stimulation on RAS member gene expression was analysed. Whole skeletal muscle, primary myoblasts and C2C12 derived myoblasts and myotubes differentially expressed members of the RAS including angiotensinogen, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 (AT(1)) and type 2 (AT(2)). Renin transcripts were never detected, however, mRNA for the 'renin-like' enzyme cathepsin D was observed and Ang I and Ang II were identified in cell culture supernatants from proliferating myoblasts. AT(1) appeared to co-localise with polymerised actin filaments in proliferating myoblasts and was primarily found in the nucleus of terminally differentiated myotubes. Furthermore, mechanical stretch of proliferating and differentiating C2C12 cells differentially induced mRNA expression of angiotensinogen, AT(1) and AT(2). Proliferating and differentiated muscle stem cells possess a local stress-responsive RAS in vitro. The precise function of a local RAS in myoblasts remains unknown. However, evidence presented here suggests that Ang II may be a regulator of skeletal muscle myoblasts.

  1. Use it or lose it: multiscale skeletal muscle adaptation to mechanical stimuli.

    PubMed

    Wisdom, Katrina M; Delp, Scott L; Kuhl, Ellen

    2015-04-01

    Skeletal muscle undergoes continuous turnover to adapt to changes in its mechanical environment. Overload increases muscle mass, whereas underload decreases muscle mass. These changes are correlated with, and enabled by, structural alterations across the molecular, subcellular, cellular, tissue, and organ scales. Despite extensive research on muscle adaptation at the individual scales, the interaction of the underlying mechanisms across the scales remains poorly understood. Here, we present a thorough review and a broad classification of multiscale muscle adaptation in response to a variety of mechanical stimuli. From this classification, we suggest that a mathematical model for skeletal muscle adaptation should include the four major stimuli, overstretch, understretch, overload, and underload, and the five key players in skeletal muscle adaptation, myosin heavy chain isoform, serial sarcomere number, parallel sarcomere number, pennation angle, and extracellular matrix composition. Including this information in multiscale computational models of muscle will shape our understanding of the interacting mechanisms of skeletal muscle adaptation across the scales. Ultimately, this will allow us to rationalize the design of exercise and rehabilitation programs, and improve the long-term success of interventional treatment in musculoskeletal disease.

  2. Review. Use it or lose it: Multiscale skeletal muscle adaptation to mechanical stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Wisdom, Katrina M.; Delp, Scott L.; Kuhl, Ellen

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle undergoes continuous turnover to adapt to changes in its mechanical environment. Overload increases muscle mass, whereas underload decreases muscle mass. These changes are correlated with, and enabled by, structural alterations across the molecular, subcellular, cellular, tissue, and organ scales. Despite extensive research on muscle adaptation at the individual scales, the interaction of the underlying mechanisms across the scales remains poorly understood. Here we present a thorough review and a broad classification of multiscale muscle adaptation in response to a variety of mechanical stimuli. From this classification, we suggest that a mathematical model for skeletal muscle adaptation should include the four major stimuli, overstretch, understretch, overload, and underload, and the five key players in skeletal muscle adaptation, myosin heavy chain isoform, serial sarcomere number, parallel sarcomere number, pennation angle, and extracellular matrix composition. Including this information in multiscale computational models of muscle will shape our understanding of the interacting mechanisms of skeletal muscle adaptation across the scales. Ultimately, this will allow us to rationalize the design of exercise and rehabilitation programs, and improve the long-term success of interventional treatment in musculoskeletal disease. PMID:25199941

  3. Regulation of blood flow distribution in skeletal muscle: role of erythrocyte-released ATP

    PubMed Central

    Ellsworth, Mary L; Sprague, Randy S

    2012-01-01

    The maintenance of adequate tissue O2 levels in skeletal muscle is vital for normal physiology and requires a well regulated and appropriately distributed convective O2 supply. Inherent in this fundamental physiological process is the requirement for a mechanism which both senses tissue O2 need and locally adjusts flow to appropriately meet that need. Over the past several years we and others have suggested that, in skeletal muscle, O2 carrying erythrocytes participate in the regulation of total blood flow and its distribution by releasing ATP. Importantly, the release of this vasoactive molecule must be both rapid and well controlled if it is to serve an important physiological role. Here we provide insights into three distinct regulated signalling pathways within the erythrocyte that are activated by exposure to reduced O2 tension or in response to binding of agonists to the prostacyclin or β-adrenergic receptors. Although much has been learned about the role of the erythrocyte in perfusion of skeletal muscle, much remains to be understood. However, what is clear is that the long established passive carrier of O2 also contributes to the regulation of the distribution of microvascular perfusion in skeletal muscle by virtue of its capacity to release ATP. PMID:22586223

  4. MODERN BEAMS FOR ANCIENT MUMMIES COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY OF THE HOLOCENE MUMMIFIED REMAINS FROM WADI TAKARKORI (ACACUS, SOUTH-WESTERN LIBYA; MIDDLE PASTORAL).

    PubMed

    Di Vincenzo, Fabio; Carbone, Iacopo; Ottini, Laura; Profico, Antonio; Ricci, Francesca; Tafuri, Mary Anne; Fornaciari, Gino; Manzi, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    The Middle Pastoral human remains from Wadi Takarkori in the Libyan Acacus mountains (Fezzan) are exceptionally preserved partial mummies ranging between 6100 and 5000 uncal years BP; this small sample represents the most ancient of its kind ever found. In this report, we present a survey of the skeletal anatomy of these mummifed corpses, based on high resolution CT-scan data, including a preliminary phenetic interpretation of their cranial morphology.

  5. The skeletal endocannabinoid system: clinical and experimental insights.

    PubMed

    Raphael, Bitya; Gabet, Yankel

    2016-05-01

    Recently, there has been a rapidly growing interest in the role of cannabinoids in the regulation of skeletal remodeling and bone mass, addressed in basic, translational and clinical research. Since the first publications in 2005, there are more than 1000 publications addressing the skeletal endocannabinoid system. This review focuses on the roles of the endocannabinoid system in skeletal biology via the cannabinoid receptors CB1, CB2 and others. Endocannabinoids play important roles in bone formation, bone resorption and skeletal growth, and are sometimes age, gender, species and strain dependent. Controversies in the literature and potential therapeutic approaches targeting the endocannabinoid system in skeletal disorders are also discussed.

  6. Skeletal myopathy in heart failure: effects of aerobic exercise training.

    PubMed

    Brum, P C; Bacurau, A V; Cunha, T F; Bechara, L R G; Moreira, J B N

    2014-04-01

    Reduced aerobic capacity, as measured by maximal oxygen uptake, is a hallmark in cardiovascular diseases and strongly predicts poor prognosis and higher mortality rates in heart failure patients. While exercise capacity is poorly correlated with cardiac function in this population, skeletal muscle abnormalities present a striking association with maximal oxygen uptake. This fact draws substantial attention to the clinical relevance of targeting skeletal myopathy in heart failure. Considering that skeletal muscle is highly responsive to aerobic exercise training, we addressed the benefits of aerobic exercise training to combat skeletal myopathy in heart failure, focusing on the mechanisms by which aerobic exercise training counteracts skeletal muscle atrophy.

  7. Plasmodium falciparum immunodetection in bone remains of members of the Renaissance Medici family (Florence, Italy, sixteenth century).

    PubMed

    Fornaciari, Gino; Giuffra, Valentina; Ferroglio, Ezio; Gino, Sarah; Bianucci, Raffaella

    2010-09-01

    Medical accounts and ancient autopsy reports imply that tertian malarial fevers caused the death of four members of the Medici family of Florence: Eleonora of Toledo (1522-1562), Cardinal Giovanni (1543-1562), don Garzia (1547-1562) and Grand Duke Francesco I (1531-1587). All members of the Medici family hunted in the endemic malarial areas of Tuscany, such as the marshy areas surrounding their villas and along the swampy Maremma and were, therefore, highly exposed to the risk of being infected by Falciparum malaria. To determine if the original death certificates issued by the court physicians were correct, we carried out immunological investigations and then compared the biological results to the historical sources. Bone samples were examined for the presence of Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich- protein-2 (PfHRP2) and P. falciparum lactate dehydrogenase (PfLDH) using two different qualitative double-antibody immunoassays. Our findings provide the first modern laboratory evidence of the presence of P. falciparum ancient proteins in the skeletal remains of four members of the Medici family. We confirm the clinical diagnosis of the court physicians, using modern methods. Finally, this study demonstrates that immunodetection can be successfully applied not only to mummified tissues but also to skeletal remains, thus opening new paths of investigation for large archaeological series.

  8. Chlorine Abundances in Martian Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, D.D.; Garrison, D.H.; Park, J.

    2009-01-01

    Chlorine measurements made in martian surface rocks by robotic spacecraft typically give Chlorine (Cl) abundances of approximately 0.1-0.8%. In contrast, Cl abundances in martian meteorites appear lower, although data is limited, and martian nakhlites were also subjected to Cl contamination by Mars surface brines. Chlorine abundances reported by one lab for whole rock (WR) samples of Shergotty, ALH77005, and EET79001 range 108-14 ppm, whereas Cl in nakhlites range 73-1900 ppm. Measurements of Cl in various martian weathering phases of nakhlites varied 0.04-4.7% and reveal significant concentration of Cl by martian brines Martian meteorites contain much lower Chlorine than those measured in martian surface rocks and give further confirmation that Cl in these surface rocks was introduced by brines and weathering. It has been argued that Cl is twice as effective as water in lowering the melting point and promoting melting at shallower martian depths, and that significant Cl in the shergottite source region would negate any need for significant water. However, this conclusion was based on experiments that utilized Cl concentrations more analogous to martian surface rocks than to shergottite meteorites, and may not be applicable to shergottites.

  9. The Bliss of Motor Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Latash, Mark L.

    2012-01-01

    Motor control is an area of natural science exploring how the nervous system interacts with other body parts and the environment to produce purposeful, coordinated actions. A central problem of motor control – the problem of motor redundancy – was formulated by Nikolai Bernstein as the problem of elimination of redundant degrees-of-freedom. Traditionally, this problem has been addressed using optimization methods based on a variety of cost functions. This review draws attention to a body of recent findings suggesting that the problem has been formulated incorrectly. An alternative view has been suggested as the principle of abundance, which considers the apparently redundant degrees-of-freedom as useful and even vital for many aspects of motor behavior. Over the past ten years, dozens of publications have provided support for this view based on the ideas of synergic control, computational apparatus of the uncontrolled manifold hypothesis, and the equilibrium-point (referent configuration) hypothesis. In particular, large amounts of “good variance” – variance in the space of elements that has no effect on the overall performance – have been documented across a variety of natural actions. “Good variance” helps an abundant system to deal with secondary tasks and unexpected perturbations; its amount shows adaptive modulation across a variety of conditions. These data support the view that there is no problem of motor redundancy; there is bliss of motor abundance. PMID:22246105

  10. The Abundance of Interstellar Fluorine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauroesch, James T.

    2005-01-01

    The primary objective of this program was to obtain FUSE observations of the interstellar absorption lines of F I at 951 and 954 Angstroms to derive the abundance of fluorine toward the star HD 164816. The nucleosynthetic source(s) of fluorine are still a matter of debate - the present day abundance of fluorine can potentially constrain models for pulsationally driven dredge-up in asymptotic giant branch stars. An accurate measure for the depletion behavior of fluorine will determine whether it may be detectable in QSO absorption line systems - an unambiguous detection of fluorine at suitably high redshifts would provide the best evidence to date for the neutrino process in massive stars. Furthermore, due to its extreme reactivity, measurement of the gas-phase interstellar fluorine abundance is important for models of grain chemistry. Despite the importance of measuring the interstellar fluorine abundance, at the time of our proposal only one previous detection has been made due to the low relative abundance of fluorine, the lack of lines outside the far-UV, and the blending of the available F I transitions with lines of Hz. The star HD 164816 is associated with the Lagoon nebula (M8), and at a distance of approximately 1.5 kpc probes both distant and local gas. Beginning April 8th, 2004 FUSE FP-Split observations of the star HD 164816 were obtained for this program. This data became available in the FUSE data archive May 21, 2004, and these observations were then downloaded and we began our analysis. Our analysis procedure has involved (1) fitting stellar models to the FUSE spectra, (2) using the multiple lines of Hz and N I at other wavelengths in the FUSE bandpass to derive column densities for the lines of H2 and N I which are blended with the F I features at 951 and 954 angstroms (3) the measurement of the column densities of F I and the species O I and C1 I which are important species for the dis-entangling of dust and nucleosynthetic effects. As discussed in

  11. 49 CFR 845.51 - Investigation to remain open.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Investigation to remain open. 845.51 Section 845.51 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION... § 845.51 Investigation to remain open. Accident investigations are never officially closed but are...

  12. 49 CFR 845.51 - Investigation to remain open.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Investigation to remain open. 845.51 Section 845... § 845.51 Investigation to remain open. Accident investigations are never officially closed but are kept open for the submission of new and pertinent evidence by any interested person. If the Board finds...

  13. Observational case series: an algorithm incorporating multidetector computed tomography in the medicolegal investigation of human remains after a natural disaster.

    PubMed

    Berran, Philip J; Mazuchowski, Edward L; Marzouk, Abubakr; Harcke, H Theodore

    2014-07-01

    An algorithm incorporating multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), digital radiographs, and external examination was used to triage cases for noninvasive or complete autopsy after a natural disaster. The algorithm was applied to 27 individuals who died during or soon after the earthquake that struck the Republic of Haiti on January 12, 2010. Of the 27 cases reviewed, 7 (26%) required a complete autopsy to determine cause and manner of death. In the remaining 20 (74%), cause and manner of death were determined with a reasonable degree of medical certainty after review of circumstances, an external examination, and postmortem imaging by MDCT and digital radiography (noninvasive autopsy). MDCT was particularly useful in detecting skeletal fractures caused by blunt force injury which were not evident on digital radiographs. The algorithm incorporating postmortem MDCT can be useful in the triage of human remains for autopsy after a natural disaster.

  14. Estimation of the pre-burning condition of human remains in forensic contexts.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, D; Cunha, E; Thompson, T J U

    2015-09-01

    The determination of the original condition of human remains prior to burning is critical since it may facilitate the reconstruction of circumstances surrounding death in forensic cases. Although the use of heat-induced bone changes is not a completely reliable proxy for determining pre-burning conditions, it is not completely devoid of potential, as we can observe a clear difference in the occurrence of such features between the fleshed and dry bones. In order to quantify this difference and determine its true value for forensic research, the frequencies of heat-induced warping and thumbnail fractures were documented on modern cremations of cadavers from recently deceased individuals and from the cremations of skeletons previously inhumed. The effect of age, sex, time span from death to cremation, duration and temperature of combustion on those frequencies was statistically investigated. Results demonstrated that the heat-induced features were significantly more frequent in the sample of cadavers. In addition, warping was determined to be the most useful indicator of the pre-burning condition of human remains. Temperature of combustion was the only variable having a significant effect on the frequency of both features, suggesting that fluctuation of temperature, along with collagen preservation and recrystallization of the inorganic phase, is paramount for their occurrence. Both warping and thumbnail fractures may eventually be used for the estimation of the pre-burning condition of human remains in lack of other indicators, but their reliability is far from absolute. Ideally, such inference must be supported by other data such as skeletal representation, objects or defleshing marks on the bones.

  15. Estimation of the pre-burning condition of human remains in forensic contexts.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, D; Cunha, E; Thompson, T J U

    2015-09-01

    The determination of the original condition of human remains prior to burning is critical since it may facilitate the reconstruction of circumstances surrounding death in forensic cases. Although the use of heat-induced bone changes is not a completely reliable proxy for determining pre-burning conditions, it is not completely devoid of potential, as we can observe a clear difference in the occurrence of such features between the fleshed and dry bones. In order to quantify this difference and determine its true value for forensic research, the frequencies of heat-induced warping and thumbnail fractures were documented on modern cremations of cadavers from recently deceased individuals and from the cremations of skeletons previously inhumed. The effect of age, sex, time span from death to cremation, duration and temperature of combustion on those frequencies was statistically investigated. Results demonstrated that the heat-induced features were significantly more frequent in the sample of cadavers. In addition, warping was determined to be the most useful indicator of the pre-burning condition of human remains. Temperature of combustion was the only variable having a significant effect on the frequency of both features, suggesting that fluctuation of temperature, along with collagen preservation and recrystallization of the inorganic phase, is paramount for their occurrence. Both warping and thumbnail fractures may eventually be used for the estimation of the pre-burning condition of human remains in lack of other indicators, but their reliability is far from absolute. Ideally, such inference must be supported by other data such as skeletal representation, objects or defleshing marks on the bones. PMID:24878617

  16. THE EFFECTS OF INITIAL ABUNDANCES ON NITROGEN IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, Kamber R.; Bergin, Edwin A.

    2014-12-20

    The dominant form of nitrogen provided to most solar system bodies is currently unknown, though available measurements show that the detected nitrogen in solar system rocks and ices is depleted with respect to solar abundances and the interstellar medium. We use a detailed chemical/physical model of the chemical evolution of a protoplanetary disk to explore the evolution and abundance of nitrogen-bearing molecules. Based on this model, we analyze how initial chemical abundances provided as either gas or ice during the early stages of disk formation influence which species become the dominant nitrogen bearers at later stages. We find that a disk with the majority of its initial nitrogen in either atomic or molecular nitrogen is later dominated by atomic and molecular nitrogen as well as NH{sub 3} and HCN ices, where the dominant species varies with disk radius. When nitrogen is initially in gaseous ammonia, it later becomes trapped in ammonia ice except in the outer disk where atomic nitrogen dominates. For a disk with the initial nitrogen in the form of ammonia ice, the nitrogen remains trapped in the ice as NH{sub 3} at later stages. The model in which most of the initial nitrogen is placed in atomic N best matches the ammonia abundances observed in comets. Furthermore, the initial state of nitrogen influences the abundance of N{sub 2}H{sup +}, which has been detected in protoplanetary disks. Strong N{sub 2}H{sup +} emission is found to be indicative of an N{sub 2} abundance greater than n{sub N{sub 2}}/n{sub H{sub 2}}>10{sup −6} in addition to tracing the CO snow line. Our models also indicate that NO is potentially detectable, with lower N gas abundances leading to higher NO abundances.

  17. Skeletal muscle signature of a champion sprint runner

    PubMed Central

    Luden, Nicholas; Minchev, Kiril; Raue, Ulrika; Jemiolo, Bozena; Trappe, Todd A.

    2015-01-01

    We had the unique opportunity to study the skeletal muscle characteristics, at the single fiber level, of a world champion sprint runner who is the current indoor world record holder in the 60-m hurdles (7.30 s) and former world record holder in 110-m hurdles (12.91 s). Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis at rest and 4 h after a high-intensity exercise challenge (4 × 7 repetitions of resistance exercise). Single muscle fiber analyses were conducted for fiber type distribution (myosin heavy chain, MHC), fiber size, contractile function (strength, speed, and power) and mRNA expression (before and after the exercise bout). The world-class sprinter's leg muscle had a high abundance (24%) of the pure MHC IIx muscle fibers with a total fast-twitch fiber population of 71%. Power output of the MHC IIx fibers (35.1 ± 1.4 W/l) was 2-fold higher than MHC IIa fibers (17.1 ± 0.5 W/l) and 14-fold greater than MHC I fibers (2.5 ± 0.1 W/l). Additionally, the MHC IIx fibers were highly responsive to intense exercise at the transcriptional level for genes involved with muscle growth and remodeling (Fn14 and myostatin). To our knowledge, the abundance of pure MHC IIx muscle fibers is the highest observed in an elite sprinter. Further, the power output of the MHC IIa and MHC IIx muscle fibers was greater than any human values reported to date. These data provide a myocellular basis for the high level of sprinting success achieved by this individual. PMID:25749440

  18. Diagenetic signals from ancient human remains - bioarchaeological applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szostek, Krzysztof; Stepańczak, Beata; Szczepanek, Anita; Kępa, Małgorzata; Głąb, Henryk; Jarosz, Paweł; Włodarczak, Piotr; Tunia, Krzysztof; Pawlyta, Jacek; Paluszkiewicz, Czesława; Tylko, Grzegorz

    2011-01-01

    This preliminary study examines the potential effects of diagenetic processes on the oxygen-isotope ratios of bone and tooth phosphate (δ18O) from skeletal material of individuals representing the Corded Ware Culture (2500-2400 BC) discovered in Malżyce (Southern Poland). Intra-individual variability of Ca/P, CI, C/P, collagen content (%) and oxygen isotopes was observed through analysis of enamel, dentin and postcranial bones. Using a variety of analytical techniques, it was found that, despite the lack of differences in soil acidity, not all the parts of a skeleton on a given site had been equally exposed to diagenetic post mortem changes. In a few cases, qualitative changes in the FTIR spectrum of analysed bones were observed. The data suggest that apart from quantitative analyses, i.e., the calculation of Ca/P, CI, C/P and collagen content, qualitative analyses such as examination of the absorbance line are recommended. The degree to which a sample is, contaminated on the basis of any additional, non-biogenic peaks, deemed to be contaminated should also be specified.

  19. The solar abundance of Oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grevesse, N.

    2009-07-01

    With Martin Asplund (Max Planck Institute of Astrophysics, Garching) and Jacques Sauval (Observatoire Royal de Belgique, Brussels) I recently published detailed reviews on the solar chemical composition ({Asplund et al. 2005}, {Grevesse et al. 2007}). A new one, with Pat Scott (Stockholm University) as additional co-author, will appear in Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics ({Asplund et al. 2009}). Here we briefly analyze recent works on the solar abundance of Oxygen and recommend a value of 8.70 in the usual astronomical scale.

  20. Abundance measurements in stellar environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leone, F.

    2014-05-01

    Most of what we know about stars, and systems of stars, is derived from the analysis of their electromagnetic radiation. This lesson is an attempt to describe to Physicists, without any Astrophysical background, the framework to understand the present status of abundance determination in stellar environments and its limit. These notes are dedicated to the recently passed, November 21, 2013, Prof. Dimitri Mihalas who spent his life confuting the 19th century positivist philosopher Auguste Comte who stated that we shall not at all be able to determine the chemical composition of stars.

  1. Abundance measurements in stellar environments

    SciTech Connect

    Leone, F.

    2014-05-09

    Most of what we know about stars, and systems of stars, is derived from the analysis of their electromagnetic radiation. This lesson is an attempt to describe to Physicists, without any Astrophysical background, the framework to understand the present status of abundance determination in stellar environments and its limit. These notes are dedicated to the recently passed, November 21, 2013, Prof. Dimitri Mihalas who spent his life confuting the 19th century positivist philosopher Auguste Comte who stated that we shall not at all be able to determine the chemical composition of stars.

  2. Persistence of identifiable remains of white sturgeon juveniles in digestive tracts of northern pikeminnow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gadomski, D.M.; Frost, C.N.

    2004-01-01

    Juvenile white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, have not been commonly identified as prey items in digestive tracts of fishes collected in the wild. In particular, the diet of northern pikeminnow, Ptychocheilus oregonensis, an abundant Pacific Northwest freshwater predator which has been widely studied, has not included juvenile white sturgeon. To aid in interpreting these results and help in planning future feeding studies, we determined the persistence of identifiable remains of white sturgeon juveniles in this predator's digestive tract. Northern pikeminnow (mean total length = 476 mm), were force-fed meals of 2 or 3 juvenile white sturgeon (mean total length = 91 mm). After digestive periods of 4, 8, 16, 24, 28, and 32h at a water temperature of about 17 ??C, fish were sacrificed, digestive tracts removed, and contents examined. Our results indicate that juvenile white sturgeon would be readily discernable in digestive tracts of northern pikeminnow at least a day after feeding, with scutes remaining undigested and identifiable for 28 h.

  3. Leucine incorporation into mixed skeletal muscle protein in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Nair, K.S.; Halliday, D.; Griggs, R.C. Clinical Research Centre, Harrow )

    1988-02-01

    Fractional mixed skeletal muscle protein synthesis (FMPS) was estimated in 10 postabsorptive healthy men by determining the increment in the abundance of ({sup 13}C)-leucine in quadriceps muscle protein during an intravenous infusion of L-(1-{sup 13}C)leucine. Whole-body muscle protein synthesis (MPS) was calculated based on the estimation of muscle mass from creatinine excretion and compared with whole-body protein synthesis (WBPS) calculated from the nonoxidative portion of leucine flux. A significant correlation was found between MPS. The contribution of MPS to WBPS was 27 {plus minus} 1%, which is comparable to the reports in other species. Morphometric analyses of adjacent muscle samples in eight subjects demonstrated that the biopsy specimens consisted of 86.5 {plus minus} 2% muscular as opposed to other tissues. Because fiber type composition varies between biopsies, the authors examined the relationship between proportions of each fiber type and FMPS. Variation in the composition of biopsies and in fiber-type proportion did not affect the estimation of muscle protein synthesis rate. They conclude that stable isotope techniques using serial needle biopsies permit the direct measurement of FMPS in humans and that this estimation is correlated with an indirect estimation of WBPS.

  4. MicroRNA-29a induces insulin resistance by targeting PPARδ in skeletal muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, YUEHUA; GU, PINGQING; SHI, WEIJIE; LI, JINGYUN; HAO, QUN; CAO, XIAOMEI; LU, QIN; ZENG, YU

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) induces metabolic syndrome, which is often characterized by insulin resistance (IR), in adults. Previous research has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) play a role in the target genes involved in this process, but the mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we examined miRNA profiles using samples of skeletal muscles from both IUGR and control rat offspring whose mothers were fed either a protein-restricted diet or a diet which involved normal amounts of protein during pregnancy, respectively. miR-29a was found to be upregulated in the skeletal muscles of IUGR offspring. The luciferase reporter assay confirmed the direct interaction between miR-29a and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ). Overexpression of miR-29a in the skeletal muscle cell line C2C12 suppressed the expression of its target gene PPARδ, which, in turn, influenced the expression of its coactivator, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α). Thus, PPARδ/PGC-1α-dependent signals together reduced insulin-dependent glucose uptake and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. Overexpression of miR-29a also caused a decrease in levels of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4), the most important glucose transporter in skeletal muscle, which partially induced a decrease insulin-dependent glucose uptake. These findings provide evidence for a novel micro-RNA-mediated mechanism of PPARδ regulation, and we also noted the IR-promoting actions of miR-29a in skeletal muscles of IUGR. PMID:26936652

  5. FOXO1 Mediates Vitamin D Deficiency-induced Insulin Resistance in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Songcang; Villalta, Armando; Agrawal, Devendra K.

    2015-01-01

    Prospective epidemiological studies have consistently shown a relationship between vitamin D deficiency, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2). This is supported by recent trials showing that vitamin D supplementation in prediabetic or insulin-resistant patients with inadequate vitamin D levels improves insulin sensitivity. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying vitamin D deficiency-induced insulin resistance and DM2 remain unknown. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance is a primary defect in the majority of patients with DM2. While sustained activation of forkhead box O1 (FOXO1) in skeletal muscle causes insulin resistance, a relationship between vitamin D deficiency and FOXO1 activation in muscle is unknown. We generated skeletal muscle-specific vitamin D receptor (VDR)-null mice and discovered that these mice developed insulin resistance and glucose intolerance accompanied by increased expression and activity of FOXO1. We also found sustained FOXO1 activation in the skeletal muscle of global VDR-null mice. Treatment of C2C12 muscle cells with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (VD3) reduced FOXO1 expression, nuclear translocation, and activity. The VD3-dependent suppression of FOXO1 activation disappeared by knockdown of VDR, indicating that it is VDR-dependent. Taken together, these results suggest that FOXO1 is a critical target mediating VDR-null signaling in skeletal muscle. The novel findings provide the conceptual support that persistent FOXO1 activation may be responsible for insulin resistance and impaired glucose metabolism in vitamin D signaling-deficient mice, as well as evidence for the utility of vitamin D supplementation for intervention in DM2. PMID:26462119

  6. Fnip1 regulates skeletal muscle fiber type specification, fatigue resistance, and susceptibility to muscular dystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Nicholas L.; Banks, Glen B.; Tsang, Mark; Margineantu, Daciana; Gu, Haiwei; Djukovic, Danijel; Chan, Jacky; Torres, Michelle; Liggitt, H. Denny; Hirenallur-S, Dinesh K.; Hockenbery, David M.; Raftery, Daniel; Iritani, Brian M.

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian skeletal muscle is broadly characterized by the presence of two distinct categories of muscle fibers called type I “red” slow twitch and type II “white” fast twitch, which display marked differences in contraction strength, metabolic strategies, and susceptibility to fatigue. The relative representation of each fiber type can have major influences on susceptibility to obesity, diabetes, and muscular dystrophies. However, the molecular factors controlling fiber type specification remain incompletely defined. In this study, we describe the control of fiber type specification and susceptibility to metabolic disease by folliculin interacting protein-1 (Fnip1). Using Fnip1 null mice, we found that loss of Fnip1 increased the representation of type I fibers characterized by increased myoglobin, slow twitch markers [myosin heavy chain 7 (MyH7), succinate dehydrogenase, troponin I 1, troponin C1, troponin T1], capillary density, and mitochondria number. Cultured Fnip1-null muscle fibers had higher oxidative capacity, and isolated Fnip1-null skeletal muscles were more resistant to postcontraction fatigue relative to WT skeletal muscles. Biochemical analyses revealed increased activation of the metabolic sensor AMP kinase (AMPK), and increased expression of the AMPK-target and transcriptional coactivator PGC1α in Fnip1 null skeletal muscle. Genetic disruption of PGC1α rescued normal levels of type I fiber markers MyH7 and myoglobin in Fnip1-null mice. Remarkably, loss of Fnip1 profoundly mitigated muscle damage in a murine model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. These results indicate that Fnip1 controls skeletal muscle fiber type specification and warrant further study to determine whether inhibition of Fnip1 has therapeutic potential in muscular dystrophy diseases. PMID:25548157

  7. The Effect of Psychostimulants on Skeletal Health in Boys co-Treated with Risperidone

    PubMed Central

    Schlechte, Janet A.; Burns, Trudy L.; Zemel, Babette S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To examine the skeletal effects of chronic psychostimulant treatment in children and adolescents. Study design Medically healthy 5 to 17 year-old males from four different clinic-based studies were combined for this analysis. They were divided by psychostimulant use into 3 groups: none to negligible, intermittent, and continuous use. Most (95%) had also received risperidone for six months or more. Treatment history was extracted from medical and pharmacy records. Anthropometric and bone measurements, using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT), were obtained at each research visit. Multivariable linear regression analysis models examined whether age-sex-specific height Z-score and skeletal outcomes differed among the three psychostimulant-use groups. Results The sample consisted of 194 males with a mean age of 11.7±2.8 years at study entry. The majority had an externalizing disorder. There was no significant difference across the three treatment groups in height Z-score or in skeletal outcomes at the radius, lumbar spine, or whole body. One hundred forty-four boys had valid follow-up skeletal data 1.4±0.7 years after study entry. Again, neither height Z-score nor the skeletal outcomes were different among those who remained on psychostimulants between the two visits, started psychostimulants anew, or had not taken psychostimulants. Conclusions Following chronic treatment, psychostimulants did not appear to significantly affect bone mass accrual in children and adolescents taking risperidone. There was a small, but statistically not significant, negative impact on longitudinal growth. PMID:25863660

  8. Fnip1 regulates skeletal muscle fiber type specification, fatigue resistance, and susceptibility to muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Nicholas L; Banks, Glen B; Tsang, Mark; Margineantu, Daciana; Gu, Haiwei; Djukovic, Danijel; Chan, Jacky; Torres, Michelle; Liggitt, H Denny; Hirenallur-S, Dinesh K; Hockenbery, David M; Raftery, Daniel; Iritani, Brian M

    2015-01-13

    Mammalian skeletal muscle is broadly characterized by the presence of two distinct categories of muscle fibers called type I "red" slow twitch and type II "white" fast twitch, which display marked differences in contraction strength, metabolic strategies, and susceptibility to fatigue. The relative representation of each fiber type can have major influences on susceptibility to obesity, diabetes, and muscular dystrophies. However, the molecular factors controlling fiber type specification remain incompletely defined. In this study, we describe the control of fiber type specification and susceptibility to metabolic disease by folliculin interacting protein-1 (Fnip1). Using Fnip1 null mice, we found that loss of Fnip1 increased the representation of type I fibers characterized by increased myoglobin, slow twitch markers [myosin heavy chain 7 (MyH7), succinate dehydrogenase, troponin I 1, troponin C1, troponin T1], capillary density, and mitochondria number. Cultured Fnip1-null muscle fibers had higher oxidative capacity, and isolated Fnip1-null skeletal muscles were more resistant to postcontraction fatigue relative to WT skeletal muscles. Biochemical analyses revealed increased activation of the metabolic sensor AMP kinase (AMPK), and increased expression of the AMPK-target and transcriptional coactivator PGC1α in Fnip1 null skeletal muscle. Genetic disruption of PGC1α rescued normal levels of type I fiber markers MyH7 and myoglobin in Fnip1-null mice. Remarkably, loss of Fnip1 profoundly mitigated muscle damage in a murine model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. These results indicate that Fnip1 controls skeletal muscle fiber type specification and warrant further study to determine whether inhibition of Fnip1 has therapeutic potential in muscular dystrophy diseases.

  9. Cytokine Signaling in Skeletal Muscle Wasting.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jin; Liu, Bin; Liang, Chun; Li, Yangxin; Song, Yao-Hua

    2016-05-01

    Skeletal muscle wasting occurs in a variety of diseases including diabetes, cancer, Crohn's disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), disuse, and denervation. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is involved in mediating the wasting effect. To date, a causal relationship between TNF-α signaling and muscle wasting has been established in animal models. However, results from clinical trials are conflicting. This is partly due to the fact that other factors such as TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) are also involved in skeletal muscle wasting. Because muscle wasting is often associated with physical inactivity and reduced food intake, therapeutic interventions will be most effective when multiple approaches are used in conjunction with nutritional support and exercise. PMID:27025788

  10. Laminin-211 in skeletal muscle function

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, Johan; Durbeej, Madeleine

    2013-01-01

    A chain is no stronger than its weakest link is an old idiom that holds true for muscle biology. As the name implies, skeletal muscle’s main function is to move the bones. However, for a muscle to transmit force and withstand the stress that contractions give rise to, it relies on a chain of proteins attaching the cytoskeleton of the muscle fiber to the surrounding extracellular matrix. The importance of this attachment is illustrated by a large number of muscular dystrophies caused by interruption of the cytoskeletal-extracellular matrix interaction. One of the major components of the extracellular matrix is laminin, a heterotrimeric glycoprotein and a major constituent of the basement membrane. It has become increasingly apparent that laminins are involved in a multitude of biological functions, including cell adhesion, differentiation, proliferation, migration and survival. This review will focus on the importance of laminin-211 for normal skeletal muscle function. PMID:23154401

  11. Skeletal Implications of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Misof, Barbara M; Moreira, Carolina A; Klaushofer, Klaus; Roschger, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with numerous comorbidities, among which osteoporosis is of high significance. Low bone mass and the occurrence of fragility fractures is a common finding in patients with COPD. Typical risk factors related directly or indirectly to these skeletal complications include systemic inflammation, tobacco smoking, vitamin D deficiency, and treatment with oral or inhaled corticosteroids. In particular, treatment with glucocorticoids appears to be a strong contributor to bone changes in COPD, but does not fully account for all skeletal complications. Additional to the effects of COPD on bone mass, there is evidence for COPD-related changes in bone microstructure and material properties. This review summarizes the clinical outcomes of low bone mass and increased fracture risk, and reports on recent observations in bone tissue and material in COPD patients. PMID:26861899

  12. YAP-Mediated Mechanotransduction in Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Fischer, Martina; Rikeit, Paul; Knaus, Petra; Coirault, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is not only translating chemical energy into mechanical work, it is also a highly adaptive and regenerative tissue whose architecture and functionality is determined by its mechanical and physical environment. Processing intra- and extracellular mechanical signaling cues contributes to the regulation of cell growth, survival, migration and differentiation. Yes-associated Protein (YAP), a transcriptional coactivator downstream of the Hippo pathway and its paralog, the transcriptional co-activator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), were recently found to play a key role in mechanotransduction in various tissues including skeletal muscle. Furthermore, YAP/TAZ modulate myogenesis and muscle regeneration and abnormal YAP activity has been reported in muscular dystrophy and rhabdomyosarcoma. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of mechanosensing and -signaling in striated muscle. We highlight the role of YAP signaling and discuss the different routes and hypotheses of its regulation in the context of mechanotransduction. PMID:26909043

  13. Cellular Players in Skeletal Muscle Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Ceafalan, Laura Cristina; Popescu, Bogdan Ovidiu; Hinescu, Mihail Eugen

    2014-01-01

    Skeletal muscle, a tissue endowed with remarkable endogenous regeneration potential, is still under focused experimental investigation mainly due to treatment potential for muscle trauma and muscular dystrophies. Resident satellite cells with stem cell features were enthusiastically described quite a long time ago, but activation of these cells is not yet controlled by any medical interventions. However, after thorough reports of their existence, survival, activation, and differentiation there are still many questions to be answered regarding the intimate mechanism of tissue regeneration. This review delivers an up-to-date inventory of the main known key players in skeletal muscle repair, revealed by various models of tissue injuries in mechanical trauma, toxic lesions, and muscular dystrophy. A better understanding of the spatial and temporal relationships between various cell populations, with different physical or paracrine interactions and phenotype changes induced by local or systemic signalling, might lead to a more efficient approach for future therapies. PMID:24779022

  14. Bone Proteoglycan Changes During Skeletal Unloading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamauchi, M.; Uzawa, K.; Pornprasertsuk, S.; Arnaud, S.; Grindeland, R.; Grzesik, W.

    1999-01-01

    Skeletal adaptability to mechanical loads is well known since the last century. Disuse osteopenia due to the microgravity environment is one of the major concerns for space travelers. Several studies have indicated that a retardation of the mineralization process and a delay in matrix maturation occur during the space flight. Mineralizing fibrillar type I collagen possesses distinct cross-linking chemistries and their dynamic changes during mineralization correlate well with its function as a mineral organizer. Our previous studies suggested that a certain group of matrix proteoglycans in bone play an inhibitory role in the mineralization process through their interaction with collagen. Based on these studies, we hypothesized that the altered mineralization during spaceflight is due in part to changes in matrix components secreted by cells in response to microgravity. In this study, we employed hindlimb elevation (tail suspension) rat model to study the effects of skeletal unloading on matrix proteoglycans in bone.

  15. Skeletal muscle mitochondrial energetic efficiency and aging.

    PubMed

    Crescenzo, Raffaella; Bianco, Francesca; Mazzoli, Arianna; Giacco, Antonia; Liverini, Giovanna; Iossa, Susanna

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive loss of maximal cell functionality, and mitochondria are considered a key factor in aging process, since they determine the ATP availability in the cells. Mitochondrial performance during aging in skeletal muscle is reported to be either decreased or unchanged. This heterogeneity of results could partly be due to the method used to assess mitochondrial performance. In addition, in skeletal muscle the mitochondrial population is heterogeneous, composed of subsarcolemmal and intermyofibrillar mitochondria. Therefore, the purpose of the present review is to summarize the results obtained on the functionality of the above mitochondrial populations during aging, taking into account that the mitochondrial performance depends on organelle number, organelle activity, and energetic efficiency of the mitochondrial machinery in synthesizing ATP from the oxidation of fuels. PMID:25970752

  16. Skeletal and body composition evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mazess, R.B.

    1983-03-01

    Research on radiation detectors for absorptiometry analysis of errors affecting single photon absorptiometry and development of instrumentation, analysis of errors affecting dual photon absorptiometry and development of instrumentation, comparison of skeletal measurements with other techniques, cooperation with NASA projects for skeletal evaluation in spaceflight (Experiment MO-78) and in laboratory studies with immobilized animals, studies of postmenopausal osteoporosis, organization of scientific meetings and workshops on absorptiometric measurement, and development of instrumentation for measurement of fluid shifts in the human body were performed. Instrumentation was developed that allows accurate and precise (2% error) measurements of mineral content in compact and trabecular bone and of the total skeleton. Instrumentation was also developed to measure fluid shifts in the extremities. Radiation exposure with those procedures is low (2-10 MREM). One hundred seventy three technical reports and one hundred and four published papers of studies from the University of Wisconsin Bone Mineral Lab are listed.

  17. Epigenetic regulation of skeletal muscle metabolism.

    PubMed

    Howlett, Kirsten F; McGee, Sean L

    2016-07-01

    Normal skeletal muscle metabolism is essential for whole body metabolic homoeostasis and disruptions in muscle metabolism are associated with a number of chronic diseases. Transcriptional control of metabolic enzyme expression is a major regulatory mechanism for muscle metabolic processes. Substantial evidence is emerging that highlights the importance of epigenetic mechanisms in this process. This review will examine the importance of epigenetics in the regulation of muscle metabolism, with a particular emphasis on DNA methylation and histone acetylation as epigenetic control points. The emerging cross-talk between metabolism and epigenetics in the context of health and disease will also be examined. The concept of inheritance of skeletal muscle metabolic phenotypes will be discussed, in addition to emerging epigenetic therapies that could be used to alter muscle metabolism in chronic disease states. PMID:27215678

  18. 6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK. VIEW IS TO THE WEST. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  19. 7. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. NOTE CROSS SUPPORT POLES EXTENDING TO HILLSIDE. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  20. 53. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST SHOWING THE REMAINS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST SHOWING THE REMAINS OF A WOODEN SETTLING BOX IN THE BACKGROUND RIGHT. AMALGAMATING PANS IN THE FOREGROUND. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  1. 11. DOUBLE CURVED RACK. UPPER PORTION ROTATES; LOWER PORTION REMAINS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DOUBLE CURVED RACK. UPPER PORTION ROTATES; LOWER PORTION REMAINS STATIONARY. DISCARDED ROLLER NEAR CENTER OF FRAME. - Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, Bridge No. Z-6, Spanning North Branch of Chicago River, South of Cortland Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  2. Looking east inside of casthouse no. 6 at the remains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking east inside of casthouse no. 6 at the remains of slag runner and slag notch of blast furnace no. 6. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  3. 60. NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF THE REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF THE REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  4. 59. REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE LADLE HOUSE IS ON THE RIGHT. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  5. 14. VIEW LOOKING WEST, GRAIN LEG REMAINS AND CHUTE OPENING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW LOOKING WEST, GRAIN LEG REMAINS AND CHUTE OPENING OVER RECEIVING HOPPER, ON TRACK DECK - West Shore Railroad, Pier 7 Grain Elevator, Hudson River & Pershing Road vicinity, West New York, Hudson County, NJ

  6. 13. VIEW LOOKING EAST, REMAINS OF HATCH COVER AND CHUTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW LOOKING EAST, REMAINS OF HATCH COVER AND CHUTE TO SMALL HOPPER, GRAIN LEGS, AND CONVEYOR DRIVE SHAFT FROM TRACK DECK - West Shore Railroad, Pier 7 Grain Elevator, Hudson River & Pershing Road vicinity, West New York, Hudson County, NJ

  7. 7. Detail view: east side of north end, showing remains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail view: east side of north end, showing remains of Fort San Antonio - Puente Guillermo Esteves, Spanning San Antonio Channel at PR-25 (Juan Ponce de Leon Avenue), San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  8. 25. CAFETERIA Note remains of tile floor in foreground. Food ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. CAFETERIA Note remains of tile floor in foreground. Food cooked on the stove was served to workers in the eating area to the left of the counter (off picture). - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  9. 4. Band Wheel and Walking Beam Mechanism, Including Remains of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Band Wheel and Walking Beam Mechanism, Including Remains of Frame Belt House, Looking Southeast - David Renfrew Oil Rig, East side of Connoquenessing Creek, 0.4 mile North of confluence with Thorn Creek, Renfrew, Butler County, PA

  10. 33. VIEW SHOWING THE REMAINS OF THE ORIGINAL ARIZONA CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. VIEW SHOWING THE REMAINS OF THE ORIGINAL ARIZONA CANAL HEADING, ARIZONA DAM, LOOKING EAST Photographer: Mark Durben, December 1990 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  11. 7. VIEW SOUTH, REMAINS OF ORIGINAL STONE ABUTMENTS ON HILLSIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW SOUTH, REMAINS OF ORIGINAL STONE ABUTMENTS ON HILLSIDE SOUTH OF BRIDGE, EAST END - Cincinnati, Jackson & Mackinaw Railroad Bridge, Abandonned Penn Central Route, spanning Tom's Run, Farmersville, Montgomery County, OH

  12. 12. DETAIL VIEW NORTHWEST OF BOILER REMAINS, WITH FRAGMENTS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL VIEW NORTHWEST OF BOILER REMAINS, WITH FRAGMENTS OF SEVEN-PISTON UNDERFEED STOKER - Turners Falls Power & Electric Company, Hampden Station, East bank of Connecticut River, Chicopee, Hampden County, MA

  13. 7. VIEW OF VESSEL FROM PORT BON, SHOWING REMAINS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF VESSEL FROM PORT BON, SHOWING REMAINS OF MAIN CABIN. AFT CABIN STILL STANDS ON STERN IN BACKGROUND - Motorized Sailing Vessel "Fox", Beached on East Bank ofBayou Lafourche, Larose, Lafourche Parish, LA

  14. 11. Remains of Douglasfir cordwood abandoned when kilns ceased operation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Remains of Douglas-fir cordwood abandoned when kilns ceased operation, looking northeast. - Warren King Charcoal Kilns, 5 miles west of Idaho Highway 28, Targhee National Forest, Leadore, Lemhi County, ID

  15. View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, view to the southwest - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  16. View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, view to the west-northwest - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  17. View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, view to the south - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  18. View of remains of Feature 17, a cottage, view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of remains of Feature 17, a cottage, view to the northwest - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  19. View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, view to the north - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  20. View of the remains of Feature 19, a cottage, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the remains of Feature 19, a cottage, view to the west-northwest - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ