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Sample records for abuse accommodation syndrome

  1. Sex, lies, and statistics: inferences from the child sexual abuse accommodation syndrome.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Kenneth J; Curcio Alexander, Julia

    2013-01-01

    Victims of child sexual abuse often recant their complaints or do not report incidents, making prosecution of offenders difficult. The child with sexual abuse accommodation syndrome (CSAAS) has been used to explain this phenomenon by identifying common behavioral responses. Unlike PTSD but like rape trauma syndrome, CSAAS is not an official diagnostic term and should not be used as evidence of a defendant's guilt or to imply probative value in prosecutions. Courts have grappled with the ideal use of CSAAS in the evaluation of child witness testimony. Expert testimony should be helpful to the jurors without prejudicing them. The New Jersey Supreme Court ruled recently that statistical evidence about CSAAS implying the probability that a child is truthful runs the risk of confusing jury members and biasing them against the defendant. We review the parameters of expert testimony and its admissibility in this area, concluding that statistics about CSAAS should not be used to draw inferences about the victim's credibility or the defendant's guilt.

  2. Stockholm Syndrome and Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julich, Shirley

    2005-01-01

    This article, based on an analysis of unstructured interviews, identifies that the emotional bond between survivors of child sexual abuse and the people who perpetrated the abuse against them is similar to that of the powerful bi-directional relationship central to Stockholm Syndrome as described by Graham (1994). Aspects of Stockholm Syndrome…

  3. Cultural accommodation of group substance abuse treatment for Latino adolescents: Results of an RCT.

    PubMed

    Burrow-Sánchez, Jason J; Minami, Takuya; Hops, Hyman

    2015-10-01

    Comparative studies examining the difference between empirically supported substance abuse treatments versus their culturally accommodated counterparts with participants from a single ethnic minority group are frequently called for in the literature but infrequently conducted in practice. This randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare the efficacy of an empirically supported standard version of a group-based cognitive-behavioral treatment (S-CBT) to a culturally accommodated version (A-CBT) with a sample of Latino adolescents primarily recruited from the juvenile justice system. Development of the culturally accommodated treatment and testing was guided by the Cultural Accommodation Model for Substance Abuse Treatment (CAM-SAT). Seventy Latino adolescents (mean age = 15.2; 90% male) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 group-based treatment conditions (S-CBT = 36; A-CBT = 34) with assessments conducted at pretreatment, posttreatment, and 3-month follow-up. Longitudinal Poisson mixed models for count data were used to conduct the major analyses. The primary outcome variable in the analytic models was the number of days any substance was used (including alcohol, except tobacco) in the past 90 days. In addition, the variables ethnic identity, familism, and acculturation were included as cultural moderators in the analysis. Although both conditions produced significant decreases in substance use, the results did not support a time by treatment condition interaction; however, outcomes were moderated by ethnic identity and familism. The findings are discussed with implications for research and practice within the context of providing culturally relevant treatment for Latino adolescents with substance use disorders.

  4. [Ekbom syndrome in an intravenous methylphenidate abuser].

    PubMed

    Pereiro Gómez, César; Vicente-Alba, Javier; Ramos-Caneda, Alberto; Vázquez Ventoso, Carlos; Fontela-Vivanco, Eva; Díaz del Valle, Juan Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Ekbom syndrome is a mental disorder in which the patient has the monothematic delusion of being infected by parasites. It is an uncommon condition that was initially studied by dermatologists. The exactly etiology is unknown to date, though several causes have been proposed, including metabolic diseases (among other physical causes), psychiatric disorders, drugs, etc. Research has now found a relationship between drug abuse and psychotic symptoms, which appear to be due to altered levels of dopamine at the receptor level. In this article we review the clinical features of the condition and present the case report of an intravenous methylphenidate abuser who developed a delusion of parasitosis.

  5. STOP Abusive Behavior Syndrome: Developing a Community Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzman, Lois; Rivera, Mary

    This paper discusses the social-therapeutic approach to preventing abusive behavior, and describes the implementation of specific STOP Abusive Behavior Syndrome (ABS) projects in New York City, New York. The projects' goal is to empower people to continually develop throughout their lifespans. Basic tenants include the following: (1) emotions are…

  6. Determining the relative contribution of retinal disparity and blur cues to ocular accommodation in Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Lesley; Saunders, Kathryn J.; Little, Julie-Anne

    2017-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (DS) often exhibit hypoaccommodation alongside accurate vergence. This study investigates the sensitivity of the two systems to retinal disparity and blur cues, establishing the relationship between the two in terms of accommodative-convergence to accommodation (AC/A) and convergence-accommodation to convergence (CA/C) ratios. An objective photorefraction system measured accommodation and vergence under binocular conditions and when retinal disparity and blur cues were removed. Participants were aged 6–16 years (DS n = 41, controls n = 76). Measures were obtained from 65.9% of participants with DS and 100% of controls. Accommodative and vergence responses were reduced with the removal of one or both cues in controls (p < 0.007). For participants with DS, removal of blur was less detrimental to accommodative responses than removal of disparity; accommodative responses being significantly better when all cues were available or when blur was removed in comparison to when proximity was the only available cue. AC/A ratios were larger and CA/C ratios smaller in participants with DS (p < 0.00001). This study demonstrates that retinal disparity is the main driver to both systems in DS and illustrates the diminished influence of retinal blur. High AC/A and low CA/C ratios in combination with disparity-driven responses suggest prioritisation of vergence over accurate accommodation. PMID:28071728

  7. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Psychosomatic Symptoms in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Colin A.

    2005-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is characterized by chronic gastrointestinal symptoms without a demonstrable physical cause. In a subgroup of patients, irritable bowel syndrome may be part of a cluster of psychosomatic symptoms related to childhood sexual abuse. To investigate this possibility, the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS), the…

  8. High School General Education English Teachers' Perception of IEP Accommodations for Students with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krones, Mary Patricia

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative design study was to better understand the experiences of high school general education English teachers who have students with Asperger Syndrome in their classes. More specifically, this researcher wanted to better understand the teacher's perception of the IEP-denoted accommodations the general education teachers…

  9. Comparing and Combining Accommodation and Remediation Interventions to Improve the Written-Language Performance of Children with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Ariane B.; Codding, Robin S.; Tryon, Georgiana S.

    2013-01-01

    The relative effectiveness of two writing accommodations, word processing (WP) and speech-recognition (SR) technology, was examined relative to the writing skills of four boys with Asperger syndrome. The more effective accommodation was then combined with the Self-Regulated Strategy Development (SRSD) writing intervention and compared with SRSD…

  10. New Drugs of Abuse and Withdrawal Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Andrabi, Sara; Greene, Spencer; Moukaddam, Nidal; Moukkadam, Nidal; Li, Benjamin

    2015-11-01

    New drugs of abuse continue to emerge, including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, and hallucinogens. It is important to recognize their individual psychopharmacologic properties, symptoms of intoxication, and symptoms of withdrawal. Providers must be vigilant of acute medical or psychiatric complications that may arise from use of these substances. Treatment of the patient also includes recognition of any substance use disorders as well as comorbid psychiatric disorders. Although pharmacologic treatments for substance use disorder (of the drugs included in this article) are limited, there are a variety of psychotherapeutic modalities that may be of some benefit.

  11. Prevalence of Narcotic Bowel Syndrome in Opioid Abusers in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Bizhan; Arab, Peyman; Zahedi, Mohammad Javad; Shafieipour, Sara; Drossman, Douglas A.; Banivaheb, Ghodseyeh

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND In spite of the increasing trend in opioid abusers worldwide, the prevalence of narcotic bowel syndrome (NBS) is undetermined. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of NBS and other opioid bowel dysfunction (OBD) in opioid abusers in Kerman, southeast Iran. According to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the prevalence of NBS in opioid abusers. METHODS By referring to addiction treatment centers in Kerman city and in a cross-sectional study, 577 subjects with opium or opioid subtracts abuse were included in our study. A validated questionnaire was used for OBD assessment and diagnosis of NBS was made according to both the presence of chronic abdominal pain despite increasing the opioid dose and ruling out other causes of abdominal pain. SPSS software version 16 was used for data analysis. p value<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. RESULTS Constipation, regurgitation, and heartburn were the most gastrointestinal complaints that were found in 132(22.9%), 123(21.3%) and 91(15.8%) subjects, respectively. Only 16(2.8%) participants fulfilled all the NBS criteria. Simultaneous use of non-narcotic sedative drugs increased the risk of NBS significantly (the odds ratio 3:1 and p=0.049). CONCLUSION NBS is not rare among opioid abusers and should be considered as a cause of chronic abdominal pain in this group. PMID:25349684

  12. Prevalence of narcotic bowel syndrome in opioid abusers in iran.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Bizhan; Arab, Peyman; Zahedi, Mohammad Javad; Shafieipour, Sara; Drossman, Douglas A; Banivaheb, Ghodseyeh

    2014-10-01

    BACKGROUND In spite of the increasing trend in opioid abusers worldwide, the prevalence of narcotic bowel syndrome (NBS) is undetermined. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of NBS and other opioid bowel dysfunction (OBD) in opioid abusers in Kerman, southeast Iran. According to the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the prevalence of NBS in opioid abusers. METHODS By referring to addiction treatment centers in Kerman city and in a cross-sectional study, 577 subjects with opium or opioid subtracts abuse were included in our study. A validated questionnaire was used for OBD assessment and diagnosis of NBS was made according to both the presence of chronic abdominal pain despite increasing the opioid dose and ruling out other causes of abdominal pain. SPSS software version 16 was used for data analysis. p value<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. RESULTS Constipation, regurgitation, and heartburn were the most gastrointestinal complaints that were found in 132(22.9%), 123(21.3%) and 91(15.8%) subjects, respectively. Only 16(2.8%) participants fulfilled all the NBS criteria. Simultaneous use of non-narcotic sedative drugs increased the risk of NBS significantly (the odds ratio 3:1 and p=0.049). CONCLUSION NBS is not rare among opioid abusers and should be considered as a cause of chronic abdominal pain in this group.

  13. [The shaken baby syndrome as a kind of domestic abuse].

    PubMed

    Talarowska, Monika; Florkowski, Antoni; Mossakowska, Joanna; Gałecki, Piotr

    2010-07-01

    In the recent decades research on child abuse has grown impressively. Four types of child abuse: physical, psychological (emotional), sexual, and neglect have been clinically observed and defined. In 1972, John Caffey, a pediatric radiologist, published an article on the theory and practice of the abusive shaking of infants. This was followed, in 1974, with a second article on the whiplash shaken baby syndrome (SBS). Shaken baby syndrome, is caused by the violent shaking of a child with or without contact between the child's head and a hard surface. Such contact may result in head trauma, including subdural hematoma, diffuse axonal injury and retinal hemorrhage. The annual estimated rate of inflicted traumatic brain injury is 30 cases per 100,000 children aged 1 year of younger. Shaken baby syndrome often occurs after shaking in response to crying bouts. In 2001, an estimated 903,000 children were victims of SBS. Additionally, 1300 children were fatally injured from SBS the same year. The ability to detect SBS is difficult secondary to under reporting and misdiagnosis. There is no established set of symptoms that indicate SBS.

  14. Ehlers-Danlos syndrome(s) mimicking child abuse: Is there an impact on clinical practice?

    PubMed

    Castori, Marco

    2015-12-01

    Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is a heterogeneous group of heritable connective tissue disorders characterized by increased fragility of various non-ossified tissues. It is usually ascertained due to abnormal skin texture, scarring complications, vascular fragility, or chronic symptoms, such as fatigue and musculoskeletal pain. Sometimes, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome remains undetected until the patient, usually in the pediatric age, shows extensive or severe mucocutaneous injuries after only minor traumas. In this scenario, the misdiagnosis of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome with child abuse is a possibility, as occasionally reported in the literature. Recently, more attention was posed by lay people between the possible association of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and bone fragility. Literature and personal experience show a strong association between Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, generalized joint hypermobility and reduced bone mass density in older children and adults, especially fertile women. The existence of a true increased risk of fracture in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is still a matter of debate in children and adults with little and conflicting evidence. In case of suspected child abuse, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome is certainly on the differential for bruising, especially in EDS types with marked cutaneous and capillary involvement. In suspected child abuse cases, careful examination of the index case and her/his extended family is routine, as well as exclusion of other disorders such as osteogenesis imperfecta. The hypothesis of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome as an alternative explanation for infantile fractures remains speculative.

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in substance abuse: alcohol and alcoholism and syndromes associated with alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Spampinato, M Vittoria; Castillo, Mauricio; Rojas, Rafael; Palacios, Enrique; Frascheri, Laura; Descartes, Fernando

    2005-06-01

    Alcohol abuse is common among the population and results in significant diseases that shorten life span. Ethanol may result in chronic brain changes such as atrophy but may also result in neurologic disease that may be acute or chronic and sometimes life threatening. Accompanying vitamin deficiencies may lead to Wernicke's encephalopathy and changes in serum osmosis may lead to several acute demyelinating disorders. In addition, pregnant women who consume alcohol place their babies at high risk for the fetal alcohol syndrome. In this article we review these disorders and emphasize their imaging features.

  16. Shaken baby syndrome as a form of abusive head trauma.

    PubMed

    Al-Saadoon, Muna; Elnour, Ibtisam B; Ganesh, Anuradha

    2011-08-01

    Shaken baby syndrome (SBS) is a form of abuse that is characterised by brain injury. Because of the subtle and yet debilitating neurobehavioural impairment which ensues, SBS represents a diagnostic dilemma for attending clinicians. The situation is made worse by the young age of the affected child who may not be capable of explaining what happened. SBS has been reported in many parts of the world. To our knowledge, there is a dearth of literature on the topic from Arab/Islamic countries. This article attempts to shed light on the syndrome by reviewing information on the aetiology of SBS, as well as on its diagnosis and the reasons for delayed diagnosis. The central aim of this review is to increase awareness of SBS so that enlightened policies for prevention and intervention could be developed in the region and particularly in Oman.

  17. Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome mimicking child abuse by burning.

    PubMed

    Porzionato, Andrea; Aprile, Anna

    2007-05-03

    Child abuse by burning comprises 6-20% of all child abuse cases, but misdiagnosis may arise in cases of some medical conditions. We present two cases of suspected inflicted burns, later diagnosed as staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS). In case 1, a 6-month-old girl was referred to hospital for small round ulcerations on the face and abdomen, resembling cigarette burns. Because of the inconsistency of the mother's report (insect bites) with the injury pattern and an unstable family history, hospitalization was decided. The following day, new bullous lesions were visible on the neck and nose, indicating the natural origin of the findings, finally diagnosed as SSSS. In case 2, a 2-month-old boy was hospitalized for erythema, with bullous lesions on the abdomen. He was transferred to another hospital, with suspected congenital or autoimmune skin disorder but negative searches led to a diagnosis of inflicted scalds: a report was sent to the judicial authorities, and the child was entrusted to his grandparents. In fact, a review of the clinical documentation showed that, in the second hospitalization, new erythematous and bullous lesions had been described, which could not be ascribed to inflicted injuries. Child abuse was finally ruled out, and SSSS was diagnosed. In cases of suspected inflicted child burns, observation during hospitalization may reveal changes in lesions, ascribed to the evolution of medical conditions. SSSS diagnosis is mainly based on clinical grounds but, if the suspicion of abuse remains, isolation and phage typing of Staphylococcus aureus from nasal, pharyngeal or cutaneous swabs may confirm the diagnosis.

  18. A theoretical foundation for understanding clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Fogler, Jason M; Shipherd, Jillian C; Rowe, Erin; Jensen, Jennifer; Clarke, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    Incorporating elements from broadband theories of psychological adaptation to extreme adversity, including Summit's (1983) Child Sexual Abuse Accommodation Syndrome, Finkelhor and Browne's (1986) Traumagenic Dynamics Model of sexual abuse, and Pyszczynski and colleagues' (1997) Terror Management Theory, this paper proposes a unified theoretical model of clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse for future research. The model conceptualizes clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse as the convergence of interactive processes between the clergy-perpetrator, the parishioner-survivor, and the religious community.

  19. Patients Reporting Ritual Abuse in Childhood: A Clinical Syndrome. Report of 37 Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Walter C.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Thirty-seven adult dissociative disorder patients who reported ritual abuse in childhood by satanic cults are described. A clinical syndrome is presented that includes dissociative states with satanic overtones, posttraumatic stress disorder, survivor guilt, unusual fears, and substance abuse. Questions concerning reliability, credibility, and…

  20. A Theoretical Foundation for Understanding Clergy-Perpetrated Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogler, Jason M.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Rowe, Erin; Jensen, Jennifer; Clarke, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    Incorporating elements from broadband theories of psychological adaptation to extreme adversity, including Summit's (1983) Child Sexual Abuse Accommodation Syndrome, Finkelhor and Browne's (1986) Traumagenic Dynamics Model of sexual abuse, and Pyszczynski and colleagues' (1997) Terror Management Theory, this paper proposes a unified theoretical…

  1. Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... member, a trusted teacher, a doctor, or a school or religious youth counselor. Many teachers and counselors have training in how to recognize and report abuse. Telephone and online directories list local child abuse and family violence hotline numbers that you can call for help. ...

  2. Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... people to control their actions. Certain types of personality disorders or mental illness might also interfere with ... self-control. Of course, not everyone with a personality disorder or mental illness becomes abusive. Fortunately, people ...

  3. Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Early-Stage Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & Confusion Repetition Sleep Issues & Sundowning Suspicion & Delusions Wandering Abuse Start Here ...

  4. Beyond Munchausen syndrome by proxy: identification and treatment of child abuse in a medical setting.

    PubMed

    Stirling, John

    2007-05-01

    The condition widely known as Munchausen syndrome by proxy comprises both physical abuse and medical neglect and is also a form of psychological maltreatment. Although it is a relatively rare form of child abuse, pediatricians need to have a high index of suspicion when faced with seemingly inexplicable findings or treatment failures. The fabrication of a pediatric illness is a form of child abuse and not merely a mental health disorder, and there is a possibility of an extremely poor prognosis if the child is left in the home. In this statement, factors are identified that may help the physician recognize this insidious type of child abuse that occurs in a medical setting, and recommendations are provided for physicians regarding when to report a case to their state's child protective service agency.

  5. "Grievous bodily harm:" gamma hydroxybutyrate abuse leading to a Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.

    PubMed

    Friedman, J; Westlake, R; Furman, M

    1996-02-01

    Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) is a naturally occurring GABA-like drug used illicitly by bodybuilders. Although there are reports of several cases of GHB abuse, with a variety of nervous system complications, we present the first case associated with a Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.

  6. Concerns about Research and Prevention Strategies in Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy (MSBP) Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eminson, Mary; Jureidini, Jon

    2003-01-01

    This article examines three motives for research into Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy child abuse, which are to enhance treatment, to understand the psychopathology of perpetrators, and to find interventions to prevent its occurrence. It argues that only the first justification is valid and proposes that research energy be directed toward…

  7. Instructional Accommodations for Students with Asperger Syndrome in the General High School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baylis, Myrna

    2011-01-01

    General education teachers in the secondary sector are held responsible for adapting their lessons and classroom environment for students with Asperger Syndrome. With the growing number of students with Autism Spectrum Disorder being placed in general education classrooms, teachers are faced with yet another challenge in making their curriculum…

  8. [Diagnostics and treatment of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome patients with an alcohol abuse].

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Maria; Sonne, Charlotte

    2013-04-01

    Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is a condition with high morbidity and mortality and occurs as a consequence of thiamine deficiency. Clinical symptoms are often ambiguous and post-mortem examinations show that the syndrome is underdiagnosed and probably undertreated. There is sparse clinical evidence concerning optimal dosage and duration of treatment. This article reviews the current literature and concludes that all patients with a history of alcohol abuse should be treated with high dosage IV thiamine for an extended period of time, albeit further research is needed.

  9. Relationship between coronary artery ectasia, cocaine abuse and acute coronary syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Dendramis, Gregory; Paleologo, Claudia; Piraino, Davide; Assennato, Pasquale

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery ectasia (CAE) often represents a coronary angiography finding casually detected or following the occurrence of an acute coronary syndrome. The pathogenetic role of cocaine abuse in the genesis of CAE is still little known and very few data are available in literature. We describe a case of a 31-year-old male cocaine user admitted to our department for typical acute chest pain. Coronary angiography showed diffuse coronary ectasia with slow flows and without hemodynamically significant stenosis. An increasing of matrix metalloproteinases values and a reduction of their tissue inhibitors was showed both during hospitalization and at one month after discharge. This case report emphasizes the close relationship between cocaine abuse, CAE and acute coronary syndromes in patients without hemodynamically significant coronary stenosis. As reported by Satran et al, cocaine abuse should be considered an important risk factor for CAE and these patients appear to be at increased risk of angina and acute myocardial infarct. Further studies that can strengthen this hypothesis would be useful to deepen and better analyze this interesting association. PMID:27231522

  10. Liver biopsies in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome: influence of endemic disease and drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Comer, G M; Mukherjee, S; Scholes, J V; Holness, L G; Clain, D J

    1989-12-01

    A retrospective review of 48 liver biopsies in 34 patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and 10 patients with AIDS-related complex (ARC) was performed at Harlem Hospital Center to assess the diagnostic yield of liver biopsies in this distinct patient population. Among the patients, 93.2% were black and 32 were males, with a mean age of 36.7 yr. Intravenous drug abuse was a risk factor for AIDS in 81.8% of patients. Liver biopsies were particularly useful in patients with fever of unclear origin, which was positively correlated with the presence of granulomas (p = 0.01). Granulomas due to mycobacteria were present in 16 (33.3%) of the biopsies. Liver biopsy proved to be clinically significant in 14 of 17 patients (82.3%) with mycobacterial disease, or 29.3% of the liver biopsies. Chronic active hepatitis was present in 12 (29.2%) of the biopsies, and in all but one was due to non-A non-B hepatitis viruses. All patients with chronic active hepatitis were intravenous drug abusers or the sexual partners of intravenous drug abusers. Liver biopsy can provide important diagnostic information in AIDS patients. The pathological findings in this series reflect the high risk of exposure to tuberculosis and hepatitis in the intravenous drug abusers in Harlem.

  11. Stevens-Johnson syndrome and abuse of anabolic steroids

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) is characterized by mucocutaneous tenderness and typical hemorrhagic erosions, erythema and epidermal detachment presenting as blisters and areas of denuded skin. SJS is often observed after drug use as well as after bacterial or viral infections. Several drugs are at high risk of inducing SJS, but there are no cases in the English literature regarding anabolic steroid use triggering SJS. In our paper, we describe a case in which use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) was associated with SJS. The patient participated in competitive body-building and regularly took variable doses of AAS. Initial symptoms (headache, weakness, pharyngodynia, and fever) were ignored. After a week he presented to the Emergency Department with a burning sensation on the mouth, lips, and eyes. Painful, erythematous, maculopapular, and vesicular lesions appeared all over the body, including on the genitals. During hospitalization, he also developed a cardiac complication. The patient had not taken any drugs except AAS. PMID:28280713

  12. Update on injury mechanisms in abusive head trauma--shaken baby syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nadarasa, Jeyendran; Deck, Caroline; Meyer, Franck; Willinger, Rémy; Raul, Jean-Sébastien

    2014-12-01

    Violently shaking a baby leads to clinical presentations ranging from seizures to cardiopulmonary arrest. The main injuries sustained are retinal hemorrhages, subdural hemorrhages, and sometimes fractures and spine injury. It is important to have a global view of the injuries sustained by the infant to correctly discuss the biomechanical aspects of abusive head trauma. Recent works based on finite element models have shown that whiplash-shaking alone is enough to generate vitreo-retinal traction leading to retinal hemorrhage and to cause the rupture of bridging veins leading to subdural hemorrhage. We will review the main papers dealing with the mechanisms of shaken baby syndrome and present the most relevant hypothesis concerning the biomechanical aspects of injuries related to shaken baby syndrome.

  13. Active viral B hepatitis in parenteral drug abusers with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Leevy, C B; Nurse, H; Kapila, R

    1989-01-01

    Eighty-percent of 47 parenteral drug abusers with hepatomegaly and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome had HBV DNA in serum, although only 27% were HBsAg or "e" antigen-positive by polyclonal radioimmunoassay. Liver biopsies from each of 37 HBV DNA seropositive patients showed HBV DNA and were HBcAg-positive. The absence of positive HBsAg and "e" antigen in HBV DNA-positive patients was attributable to the presence of immune complexes; after in vitro dissociation of these complexes there was an increase in HBsAg from 24% to 86%, and of "e" antigen from 19% to 62%. These data indicate that actively replicating hepatitis B virus is common in patients with AIDS, and that precautions should be taken to prevent its dissemination. Therapy in these patients should address both human immunodeficiency and hepatitis B virus infections.

  14. Independent and reciprocal accommodation in anisometropic amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Horwood, Anna M.; Riddell, Patricia M

    2015-01-01

    Accommodation is considered to be a symmetrical response, and to be driven by the least ametropic and nonamblyopic eye in anisometropia. We report a case of a 4-year-old child with anisometropic amblyopia who accommodates asymmetrically, reliably demonstrating normal accommodation in the nonamblyopic eye and anti-accommodation of the amblyopic eye to near targets. The abnormal accommodation of the amblyopic eye remained largely unchanged over seven subsequent testing sessions undertaken over the course of therapy. We suggest that a congenital dysinnervation syndrome may result in relaxation of accommodation in relation to near cues and might be a hitherto-unconsidered additional etiologic factor in anisometropic amblyopia. PMID:20863728

  15. The liver in acquired immune deficiency syndrome: emphasis on patients with intravenous drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, B M; Stahl, R E; Giardina, M A; Wormser, G P; Weiss, L; Jankowski, R; Rosenthal, W S

    1987-03-01

    To assess the spectrum of hepatic abnormalities in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), we reviewed clinical, biochemical, and pathological material in 32 patients with AIDS. Eight-four percent of AIDS cases had a history of intravenous drug abuse. Ninety percent of AIDS patients has some liver biochemical abnormality at the first presentation of illness. During the course of AIDS, significant (p less than 0.05, paired Student's t test) rises in alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin occurred, without rises in aminotransferases. Mean abnormalities were mild, reflecting approximately 2-fold increases over baseline. Liver failure was not believed to contribute to the death of any AIDS patient. Pathological findings in AIDS included specific infectious diagnosis in 26%, granulomas in 16%, hemosiderosis in 26%, nonspecific abnormalities in 39%, cirrhosis in 23%, and chronic active hepatitis in 3%. AIDS cases were also compared to 10 selected age, sex, and epidemiologically similar non-AIDS patients. Although granulomas or infections were not seen in our comparison group, only the incidence of chronic active hepatitis was significantly different between the groups. If only those with intravenous drug abuse were studied, then none of 24 AIDS patients versus four of eight non-AIDS cases (p less than 0.005) had chronic active hepatitis. AIDS patients with specific hepatic infections tended to have a higher alkaline phosphatase and aspartate aminotransferase (p less than 0.05) than noninfected cases. However, substantial overlap existed, and no difference in hepatomegaly was noted. Ninety percent of AIDS patients were ingesting at least one potentially hepatotoxic drug. We conclude that AIDS patients have a high incidence of underlying hepatic abnormalities. However, clinical and biochemical abnormalities are similar in our selected liver biopsy patients with intravenous drug abuse with or without AIDS. As expected, AIDS patients have a higher incidence of hepatic

  16. Noise coupling between accommodation and accommodative vergence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, D.

    1973-01-01

    For monocular viewing, the fluctuations in accommodative lens power in the frequency range from 0.5 to 3 Hz were found to be considerably greater than those in accommodative vergence movements of the covered eye. Considering the close synkinesis between these motor responses for step changes or slow variations in accommodative stimulus, this finding is unexpected. This apparent lack of synkinesis is found to result mainly from the fact that the decrease in small-signal linear gain with increasing frequency is more rapid in the case of the accommodative vergence system than in the case of the accommodation system, rather than from some nonlinear phenomenon.

  17. A finite element analysis of the retinal hemorrhages accompanied by shaken baby syndrome/abusive head trauma.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Makoto; Yamazaki, Junpei; Mizunuma, Hiroshi

    2014-11-07

    We aimed to elucidate the mechanism of the retinal hemorrhage (RH) accompanied by shaken baby syndrome or abusive head trauma (SBS/AHT) by analyses using a computational model. We focused on a hypothesis that the vitreoretinal traction due to acceleration and deceleration caused by abusive shaking leads to retinal hemorrhage. A finite element (FE) mechanical model with simple spherical geometry was constructed. When the FE mechanical model was virtually shaken, the intensity of the stress applied to the retinal plane agreed well with the results from an analysis using a physical model made of agar gel. Impacts due to falling events induced more intensive tensile stresses, but with shorter duration, than the shake did. By applying a mathematical theory on tackiness, we propose a hypothesis that the time integration of the stress, in the unit of Pa·s, would be a good predictor of the RH accompanied by SBS/AHT. A single cycle of abusive shake amounted to 101Pa·s of time integration of inflicted stress, while a single impact event amounted to 36Pa·s. This would explain the paradoxical observation that shaking induces RH while RH due to impact events is only seen in a major event such as a fatal motor vehicle accident.

  18. [Techniques for measuring phakic and pseudophakic accommodation. Methodology for distinguishing between neurological and mechanical accommodative insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Roche, O; Roumes, C; Parsa, C

    2007-11-01

    The methods available for studying accommodation are evaluated: Donder's "push-up" method, dynamic retinoscopy, infrared optometry using the Scheiner principle, and wavefront analysis are each discussed with their inherent advantages and limitations. Based on the methodology described, one can also distinguish between causes of accommodative insufficiency. Dioptric insufficiency (accommodative lag) that remains equal at various testing distances from the subject indicates a sensory/neurologic (afferent), defect, whereas accommodative insufficiency changing with distance indicates a mechanical/restrictive (efferent) defect, such as in presbyopia. Determining accommodative insufficiency and the cause can be particularly useful when examining patients with a variety of diseases associated with reduced accommodative ability (e.g., Down syndrome and cerebral palsy) as well as in evaluating the effectiveness of various potentially accommodating intraocular lens designs.

  19. Psychiatric Syndromes in Adolescents with Marijuana Abuse and Dependency in Outpatient Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Guy; Panichelli-Mindel, Susan M.; Shera, David; Dennis, Mike; Tims, Frank; Ungemack, Jane

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current study to assist in understanding the prevalence and clinical correlates of psychiatric distress in adolescents seeking outpatient services for marijuana abuse or dependency. Methods: In a multi-site randomized clinical trial, 600 adolescents and their parents were assessed at intake using the Global Appraisals…

  20. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... to: What is Elder Abuse? Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse Substance abuse has been identified as the most frequently cited ... victim and/or the perpetrator who has the substance abuse problem. Substance abuse is believed to be a ...

  1. Handbook of Reasonable Accommodation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaton, Sandra M.; And Others

    The booklet discusses a basic concept in affirmative action and nondiscrimination for the handicapped, which requires federal agencies to make reasonable accommodation to the physical or mental limitations of a qualified handicapped applicant or employee unless the accommodation would impose an undue hardship on the agency. Reasonable…

  2. Analyzing Disability Accommodation Statements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard-Brak, L.; Lan, W. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Studies have indicated that the willingness of faculty members to accommodate students with disabilities differs according to academic discipline and instructor gender. The authors examined the attitudes of faculty members toward students with disabilities as reflected in course syllabi to discern instructor willingness to accommodate these…

  3. Habitability sleep accommodations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, H. T.

    1985-01-01

    Schematic outlines are presented with various design requirements for the accommodation of the spacecrew of Space Stations. The primary concern is for sleeping accommodations. Some other general requirements given are for a rest place, entertainment, dressing area, personal item stowage, body restraint, total privacy, external viewing, and grooming provisions. Several plans are given for sleep quarters concepts.

  4. Intravenous methylphenidate abuse. Prototype for prescription drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Parran, T V; Jasinski, D R

    1991-04-01

    Data are presented from a case series of 22 patients who abused methylphenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin-SR). The abuse pattern and symptoms of toxicity were similar to that seen with cocaine hydrochloride and amphetamine sulfate addiction; yet, the morbidity and mortality seen in this case series were greater than usual for a group of patients involved in intravenous drug abuse. We describe the characteristics of the methylphenidate abuse syndrome in terms of the pharmacology of methylphenidate, the constituents of the Ritalin-SR preparation, and the disease of chemical dependence. We propose solutions to the problem of methylphenidate abuse.

  5. Accommodating Picky Palates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2007-01-01

    Healthy gourmet offerings are fast becoming the norm at college dining halls around the country. At a time when the children of Baby Boomers are hitting higher education in record numbers, college officials have scrambled to accommodate their picky palates and their insistence for healthier meals than were served to past generations. At the same…

  6. Elder Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... mistreatment may be Physical, sexual, or emotional abuse Neglect or abandonment Financial abuse - stealing of money or belongings Possible signs of elder abuse include unexplained bruises, burns, and injuries. There ...

  7. Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... or puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical ...

  8. Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... abuse also plays a role in many major social problems, such as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to homelessness, crime, and missed work or problems with keeping a ...

  9. Breaking the Abuser-Abused Paradigm in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzman, Lois; Strickland, Gloria

    The STOP Abusive Behavior Syndrome (STOP ABS) Project attempts to implement a community-based discipline model for inner-city elementary schools that avoids both physical and emotional abuse by teachers and students, while contributing to the students' overall development. Prevailing disciplinary models either relate to children as objects to be…

  10. Studies in Binocular Accommodation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winn, Barry

    1987-09-01

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. A study of the binocular accommodation response is presented for normal and amblyopic observers to selected stimulus conditions using a binocular infra-red optometer and a commercially-available autorefractor. The work reviews the neural control of the near triad and discusses the historical development of models of mutual interaction between accommodation and convergence, presenting experimental evidence to support or refute each proposition. The basic characteristics of the accommodation response are reviewed along with the influencing factors. A central feature of this work is the evaluation of the correlation present between the eyes for both step -wise changes in target vergence and steady-state viewing. Reaction times for visually normal subjects were found to be similar to those found by previous workers and were independent of both size and direction of the step change. Response times for a mean step size of approximately 2.5D exhibited a marked degree of intersubject variability, particularly for the decreasing response and were step -size dependent. Eye dominancy was not found to be a significant factor in the overall response time. The binocular accommodation responses were found to have a high level of correlation to step-wise changes in target vergence. Assessment of the microfluctuations was necessary. A high degree of correlation between amblyopic eyes and their fellow normal eyes is reported for both reaction and response times. Steady-state viewing shows the microfluctuations to have a high level of coherence. As target luminance decreased, rms values and low frequency drifts increased. Amblyopic eyes show an increase in the magnitude of the low frequency components of the microfluctuations for moderate to high stimulus vergences. The presence of different behaviour to that observed in normals supports a role for the microfluctuations. The response of amblyopic eyes to

  11. The "Discovery" of Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfohl, Stephen J.

    1977-01-01

    Surveys the history of social reaction to child abuse, discusses the cultural values promoting the protection of children, points out how much pediatric radiology benefited from its "discovery" of "the battered child syndrome" in the early sixties, and concludes that the labeling of child abusers as "sick" has shielded them from criminal…

  12. Visual accommodation trainer-tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Randle, R. J., Jr. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    An apparatus for training of the human visual accommodation system is presented, specifically, useful for training a person to volitionally control his focus to his far point (normaly infinity) from a position of myopia due to functional causes. The functional causes could be due, for example, to a behavioral accommodative spasm or the effects of an empty field. The device may also be used to measure accommodation, the accommodation resting position and the near and far points of vision.

  13. [Spasm of accommodation].

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Spasm of accommodation refers to prolonged contraction of the ciliary muscle, most commonly causing pseudomyopia to varying degrees in both eyes by keeping the lens in a state of short sightedness. It may also be manifested as inability to allow the adaptation spasticity prevailing in the ciliary muscle relax without measurable myopia. As a rule, this is a functional ailment triggered by prolonged near work and stress. The most common symptoms include blurring of distance vision, varying visual acuity as well as pains in the orbital region and the head, progressing into a chronic state. Cycloplegic eye drops are used as the treatment.

  14. Folk Remedies and Child Abuse: A Review with Emphasis on Caida de Mollera and Its Relationship to Shaken Baby Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Karen Kirhofer

    1998-01-01

    Reviews a variety of folk remedies such as coining (Southeast Asia), cupping (primarily Russia), and moxibustion (Asia), which may be confused with child abuse. It especially considers the Hispanic folk illness "caida de mollera" (fallen fontanelle) but rejects the idea in the literature that folk treatment can cause the injuries seen in…

  15. Recognizing abuse.

    PubMed

    Davidhizar, R; Newman-Giger, J

    1996-01-01

    After years as a taboo topic, abuse has come "out of the closet" and is being talked about openly in society. Yet, while abuse in the workplace is being confronted, abuse within families still often goes unrecognized by outsiders, including by nurses. Failure of nurses to recognize abuse is unfortunate since frequently they are the first point of contact with the victim of abuse in the emergency room, clinic and home. Understanding and insight into the problem of family violence by nurses is critical in addressing this problem. Knowledge is crucial in planning strategies that will have the long-lasting effect of decreasing the cycle of abuse in families.

  16. "The battered fetus syndrome". Preliminary data on the incidence of the urge to physically abuse the unborn child.

    PubMed

    Condon, J T

    1987-12-01

    Recently published reports of physical assault by women in late pregnancy upon their unborn children have elicited a response of incredulity in many professionals. This response is identical to that which followed the publication of the first cases of child abuse in the 1960s. The present paper attempts a preliminary exploration of the incidence of the urge to "hurt or punish" the unborn child using a sample of 112 normal pregnant women and their male partners. Eight percent of the women and 4% of the men acknowledged experiencing such an urge. The male partner appeared to be aware of the woman's aggressive feelings toward the fetus and the male's reports tend to validate the female findings. Despite some methodological shortcomings, the findings suggest that the urge to physically assault the fetus is not rare. The need for further investigation of the phenomenon is highlighted, as it may well represent the earliest precursor of later physical child abuse.

  17. Retinal Image Quality During Accommodation

    PubMed Central

    López-Gil, N.; Martin, J.; Liu, T.; Bradley, A.; Díaz-Muñoz, D.; Thibos, L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose We asked if retinal image quality is maximum during accommodation, or sub-optimal due to accommodative error, when subjects perform an acuity task. Methods Subjects viewed a monochromatic (552nm), high-contrast letter target placed at various viewing distances. Wavefront aberrations of the accommodating eye were measured near the endpoint of an acuity staircase paradigm. Refractive state, defined as the optimum target vergence for maximising retinal image quality, was computed by through-focus wavefront analysis to find the power of the virtual correcting lens that maximizes visual Strehl ratio. Results Despite changes in ocular aberrations and pupil size during binocular viewing, retinal image quality and visual acuity typically remain high for all target vergences. When accommodative errors lead to sub-optimal retinal image quality, acuity and measured image quality both decline. However, the effect of accommodation errors of on visual acuity are mitigated by pupillary constriction associated with accommodation and binocular convergence and also to binocular summation of dissimilar retinal image blur. Under monocular viewing conditions some subjects displayed significant accommodative lag that reduced visual performance, an effect that was exacerbated by pharmacological dilation of the pupil. Conclusions Spurious measurement of accommodative error can be avoided when the image quality metric used to determine refractive state is compatible with the focusing criteria used by the visual system to control accommodation. Real focusing errors of the accommodating eye do not necessarily produce a reliably measurable loss of image quality or clinically significant loss of visual performance, probably because of increased depth-of-focus due to pupil constriction. When retinal image quality is close to maximum achievable (given the eye’s higher-order aberrations), acuity is also near maximum. A combination of accommodative lag, reduced image quality, and reduced

  18. Physical Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... seniors who are not abused. What are the indicators? Indicators are signs or clues that abuse has ... clusters of indicators that suggest a problem. Physical indicators Sprains, dislocations, fractures, or broken bones Burns from ...

  19. Inhalant Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Who may be abusing inhalants?The most common abusers of inhalants are teenagers, especially those who are ... to your child about the dangers of trying drugs can help him or her make the right ...

  20. Abusive Relationships

    MedlinePlus

    ... relationships and friendships. Emotional abuse (stuff like teasing, bullying, and humiliating others) can be difficult to recognize ... How to Break Up Respectfully Abuse Dealing With Bullying Date Rape Getting Over a Break-Up Posttraumatic ...

  1. The Accommodation Operation. Accommodation Management Module. Operational Management Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Janet

    This module on accommodation operation is intended to help supervisors or managers achieve a balance in the day-to-day running of the premises and plan for a smooth and successful future. Much of the material is concerned with the housekeeping aspects of accommodation management. The material is presented in a self-instructional format in seven…

  2. Adolescent Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman, Susan; Seligman, Linda

    1983-01-01

    Discusses legal and developmental aspects of adolescent abuse, as distinguished from child abuse. The role of the school counselor in identifying and counseling abused adolescents and their families is discussed and several forms of intervention and support services are described. (JAC)

  3. Anthropometric accommodation in USAF cockpits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zehner, Gregory F.

    1994-01-01

    Over the past three years, a new set of methodologies has been developed to specify and evaluate anthropometric accommodation in USAF crewstation designs. These techniques are used to improve the ability of the pilot to reach controls, to safely escape the aircraft, to achieve adequate mobility and comfort, and to assure full access to the visual field both inside and outside the aircraft. This paper summarized commonly encountered aircraft accommodation problems, explains the failure of the traditional 'percentile man' design concept to resolve these difficulties, and suggests an alternative approach for improving cockpit design to better accommodate today's more heterogeneous flying population.

  4. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... for pornography is also sexual abuse. Most sexual abusers know the child they abuse. They may be ... friends, neighbors or babysitters. About one-third of abusers are related to the child. Most abusers are ...

  5. Fetal Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Lindsey; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Five cases of fetal abuse by mothers suffering from depression are discussed. Four of the women had unplanned pregnancies and had considered termination of the pregnancy. Other factors associated with fetal abuse include pregnancy denial, pregnancy ambivalence, previous postpartum depression, and difficulties in relationships. Vigilance for…

  6. Adjudication of Child Sexual Abuse Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, John E. B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses issues in the adjudication of child sexual abuse allegations and reviews research about the believability of child witnesses. It also examines accommodations for children that could assist the child witness and encourage accurate testimony, while continuing to protect the rights of the accused. Criminal, juvenile, and divorce court…

  7. 43 CFR 17.211 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental... that the accommodation would impose an undue hardship on the operation of its program or activity. (b... accommodation would impose an undue hardship on the operation of a recipient's program or activity, factors...

  8. 24 CFR 100.204 - Reasonable accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reasonable accommodations. 100.204... Handicap § 100.204 Reasonable accommodations. (a) It shall be unlawful for any person to refuse to make reasonable accommodations in rules, policies, practices, or services, when such accommodations may...

  9. 24 CFR 100.204 - Reasonable accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reasonable accommodations. 100.204... Handicap § 100.204 Reasonable accommodations. (a) It shall be unlawful for any person to refuse to make reasonable accommodations in rules, policies, practices, or services, when such accommodations may...

  10. Accommodations for Multiple Choice Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trammell, Jack

    2011-01-01

    Students with learning or learning-related disabilities frequently struggle with multiple choice assessments due to difficulty discriminating between items, filtering out distracters, and framing a mental best answer. This Practice Brief suggests accommodations and strategies that disability service providers can utilize in conjunction with…

  11. Reasonable Accommodation in Training Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandoz, Jeff

    A pictograph and icon-driven training program has been specifically designed for educators who are responsible for teaching the developmentally disabled regarding the safe use of hazardous chemicals. In alignment with the Americans with Disabilities Act, it offers "reasonable accommodation" by those who educate and train this special…

  12. Drug abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Weiss RD. Drugs of abuse. In: Goldman L, ... Hospice and Palliative Medicine, Atlanta, GA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the ...

  13. Abusive Relationships

    MedlinePlus

    ... Break Up Respectfully Abuse Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying Love and Romance Getting Over a Break-Up Dealing With Bullying Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Sexual Attraction and Orientation Teens ...

  14. Down syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents and caregivers should learn to help a person with Down syndrome deal with frustration. At the same time, it is important to encourage independence. Teen girls and women with Down syndrome are usually able to get pregnant. There is an increased risk of sexual abuse ...

  15. A physician's perspective: elder abuse and neglect over 25 years.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, James G

    2010-01-01

    Twenty-five years of involvement with elder abuse and neglect has yielded mixed results. The contribution by physicians to elder abuse, in contrast with child abuse, has been very limited. Physicians, despite being in an advantaged position to intervene, lag behind other professionals in reporting. Potential remedies include identification of abuse as a syndrome to allow for reimbursement, increased education and research funding, and a greater advocacy role by physician organizations.

  16. STS payload data collection and accommodations analysis study. Volume 3: Accommodations analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Payload requirements were compared to launch site accommodations and flight accommodations for a number of Spacelab payloads. Experiment computer operating system accommodations were also considered. A summary of accommodations in terms of resources available for payload discretionary use and recommendations for Spacelab/STS accommodation improvements are presented.

  17. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Child Sexual Abuse Public This section is for Veterans, General Public, Family, & Friends Child Sexual Abuse What is child sexual abuse? Child sexual abuse ...

  18. International Space Station payload accommodations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, Daniel W.

    1999-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is a low Earth orbiting facility for conducting research in life science, microgravity, Earth observations, and Engineering Research and Technology. Assembled on-orbit at a nominal altitude of 220 nautical miles, it will provide a shirt-sleeve environment for conducting research in six laboratories: the US Laboratory (US Lab), the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), the European Columbus Orbiting Facility (COF), the Centrifuge Accommodations Module (CAM), and the Russian Research Modules. Supplies will be replenished using the Multi-Purpose Pressurized Logistics Module (MPLM), a conditioned pressurized transport carrier which will also return passive and perishable payload cargo to earth. External Earth observations can be performed by utilizing the payload attachment points on the truss, the Russian Science Power Platform, the JEM Exposed Facility (EF), and the COF backporch. The pressurized and external locations are equipped with a variety of electrical, avionics, fluids, and gas interfaces to support the experiments. ISS solar arrays, thermal radiators, communication system, propulsion, environmental control, and robotic devices provide the infrastructure to support sustained research. This paper, which reflects the design maturity of payload accommodations at the time of its submittal (10/20/98), is primarily based on the assembly complete configuration of the station. As the design matures, ISS Payload Accommodations will be updated to reflect qualification tests of components and associated analyses of the integrated performance.

  19. [Child abuse].

    PubMed

    V Essen, H; Schlickewei, W; Dietz, H-G

    2005-02-01

    Child abuse is most often diagnosed by an emergency doctor on call who sometimes "feels" more than knows what he is confronted with. He should nevertheless always take a medical history and make a physical and radiological examination. X-ray imaging and an ophthalmologic retinal examination are the most important diagnostic steps. Typical findings are multiple and/or dorsal rib fractures, complex skull fractures, physeal fractures, all fractures within the first 12 months, multiple fractures in different localisations and stages of healing, all injuries with uncommon distributions, all patterned bruises, immersion burns, intramural hematoma and every unexplained loss of consciousness. The first step towards victim protection is always the removal of the abused child from its caregivers by admitting it to hospital, as 95% of all cases of reported child abuse take place within the child's family.

  20. Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... bruises, while behavioral indicators are ways victims and abusers act or interact with each other. Some of the indicators listed below can be explained by other causes (e.g. inappropriate or unusual behavior may signal dementia or drug interactions) and no single indicator can be taken ...

  1. Accommodative spasm in siblings: A unique finding

    PubMed Central

    Rutstein, Robert P

    2010-01-01

    Accommodative spasm is a rare condition occurring in children, adolescents, and young adults. A familial tendency for this binocular vision disorder has not been reported. I describe accommodative spasm occurring in a brother and sister. Both children presented on the same day with complaints of headaches and blurred vision. Treatment included cycloplegia drops and bifocals. Siblings of patients having accommodative spasm should receive a detailed eye exam with emphasis on recognition of accommodative spasm. PMID:20534925

  2. Telemedicine for AIDS patients accommodations.

    PubMed

    Kulik, J F; de la Tribonnière, X; Bricon-Souf, N; Beuscart, R J; Mouton, Y

    1997-01-01

    People suffering from AIDS are subject to frequent hospitalisations. In some cases, they cannot go back home after hospitalisations, due to severe illness, family or sociologic problems. This is the reason why some therapeutic flats are at their disposal to make easier their medical follow-up after the hospital's discharge. In these Therapy Accommodation, they are treated by trained GP who often suffer from lack of information and lack of expertise in difficult cases. For this purpose we included these flats in the regional Telemedicine AIDS network to give these physicians free access to the computerised multimedia medical record of their patients and to provide them with synchronous co-operation facilities.

  3. Modal Identification Experiment accommodations review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klich, Phillip J.; Stillwagen, Frederic H.; Mutton, Philip

    1994-01-01

    The Modal Identification Experiment (MIE) will monitor the structure of the Space Station Freedom (SSF), and measure its response to a sequence of induced disturbances. The MIE will determine the frequency, damping, and shape of the important modes during the SSF assembly sequence including the Permanently Manned Configuration. This paper describes the accommodations for the proposed instrumentation, the data processing hardware, and the communications data rates. An overview of the MIE operational modes for measuring SSF acceleration forces with accelerometers is presented. The SSF instrumentation channel allocations and the Data Management System (DMS) services required for MIE are also discussed.

  4. Procedural Guide to Accommodating Adults with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellard, Daryl

    This guide is designed to provide a framework and sequence for working jointly with adult learners to confirm their disability, assess their functional needs, select appropriate accommodations, provide instruction for using accommodations, and monitor accommodation effectiveness. In addition to procedural information, the guide contains instructor…

  5. 22 CFR 142.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 142.12 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations... the accommodation would impose an undue hardship on the operation of the program or activity....

  6. 22 CFR 217.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 217.12 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations... the accommodation would impose an undue hardship on the operation of its program or activity....

  7. 7 CFR 15b.13 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 15b.13 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations of an... accommodation would impose an undue hardship on the operation of its program or activity. (b)...

  8. 22 CFR 142.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 142.12 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations... the accommodation would impose an undue hardship on the operation of the program or activity....

  9. 22 CFR 217.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices § 217.12 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations... the accommodation would impose an undue hardship on the operation of its program or activity....

  10. 14 CFR 1251.201 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1251.201 Section... OF HANDICAP Employment Practices § 1251.201 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations of an otherwise qualified...

  11. 45 CFR 1170.22 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1170.22 Section 1170.22... ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES Employment Practices § 1170.22 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations of an...

  12. 45 CFR 1151.32 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... operation of its program or activity. (b) Reasonable accommodation may include: (1) Making facilities used... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 1151.32 Section 1151.32... Prohibited Employment § 1151.32 Reasonable accommodation. (a) A recipient shall make reasonable...

  13. 46 CFR 169.317 - Accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... separating accommodations from machinery spaces, paint lockers, storerooms, washrooms, and toilet facilities... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accommodations. 169.317 Section 169.317 Shipping COAST... and Arrangement Living Spaces § 169.317 Accommodations. (a) Quarters must have sufficient fresh...

  14. Advanced Solar Observatory (ASO) accommodations requirements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Results of an accommodations analysis for the Advanced Solar Observatory on Space Station Freedom are reported. Concepts for the High Resolution Telescope Cluster, Pinhole/Occulter Facility, and High Energy Cluster were developed which can be accommodated on Space Station Freedom. It is shown that workable accommodations concepts are possible. Areas of emphasis for the next stage of engineering development are identified.

  15. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A...

  16. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A...

  17. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A...

  18. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A...

  19. 46 CFR 108.143 - Accommodation space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accommodation space. 108.143 Section 108.143 Shipping... EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Structural Fire Protection § 108.143 Accommodation space. (a) Each corridor bulkhead in an accommodation space must be an A class or B class bulkhead except if an A...

  20. Soyuz/ACRV accommodation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz, Jonathan; Gould, Marston J.; Dahlstrom, Eric

    1993-01-01

    Included is a set of viewgraphs that present the results of a study conducted at the LaRC Space Station Freedom Office at the request of the Space Station Freedom Level 1 Program Office and the JSC ACRV Project Office to determine the implications of accommodating two Soyuz TM spacecraft as Assured Crew Return Vehicles (ACRV) on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) at the Permanently Crewed Capability (PCC) stage. The study examined operational as well as system issues associated with the accommodation of the Soyuz for several potential configuration options. Operational issues considered include physical hardware clearances, worst case Soyuz departure paths, and impacts to baseline operations such as Pressurized Logistics Module (PLM) exchange, Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) attachment, Extravehicular Activity (EVA), and automatic rendezvous and docking (AR&D). Systems impact analysis included determining differences between Soyuz interface requirements and SSF capabilities for the Electrical Power System (EPS), Thermal Control System (TCS), Communications and Tracking (C&T), Audio-Video Subsystem (A/V), Data Management System (DMS), and Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). Significant findings of this study have indicated that the current AV capability of the Soyuz will need to be increased to provide adequate departure clearances for a worst case escape from an uncontrolled SSF and that an interface element will be required to mate the Soyuz vehicles to station, provide for AR&D structural loads, and to house Soyuz-to-SSF system interfaces.

  1. Soyuz/ACRV accommodation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, Jonathan; Gould, Marston J.; Dahlstrom, Eric

    1993-11-01

    Included is a set of viewgraphs that present the results of a study conducted at the LaRC Space Station Freedom Office at the request of the Space Station Freedom Level 1 Program Office and the JSC ACRV Project Office to determine the implications of accommodating two Soyuz TM spacecraft as Assured Crew Return Vehicles (ACRV) on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) at the Permanently Crewed Capability (PCC) stage. The study examined operational as well as system issues associated with the accommodation of the Soyuz for several potential configuration options. Operational issues considered include physical hardware clearances, worst case Soyuz departure paths, and impacts to baseline operations such as Pressurized Logistics Module (PLM) exchange, Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS) attachment, Extravehicular Activity (EVA), and automatic rendezvous and docking (AR&D). Systems impact analysis included determining differences between Soyuz interface requirements and SSF capabilities for the Electrical Power System (EPS), Thermal Control System (TCS), Communications and Tracking (C&T), Audio-Video Subsystem (A/V), Data Management System (DMS), and Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). Significant findings of this study have indicated that the current AV capability of the Soyuz will need to be increased to provide adequate departure clearances for a worst case escape from an uncontrolled SSF and that an interface element will be required to mate the Soyuz vehicles to station, provide for AR&D structural loads, and to house Soyuz-to-SSF system interfaces.

  2. Balancing Program and Research Integrity in Community Drug Abuse Prevention: Project STAR Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pentz, Mary Ann; And Others

    1986-01-01

    An ongoing multiple community drug abuse prevention project is used to illustrate the process of community-based programming. Program support, quality control, and accommodation of both program and research objectives are emphasized. (Author/MT)

  3. Vestibular-ocular accommodation reflex in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B.; Randle, R. J.; Stewart, J. D.

    1975-01-01

    Stimulation of the vestibular system by angular acceleration produces widespread sensory and motor effects. The present paper studies a motor effect which has not been reported in the literature, i.e., the influence of rotary acceleration of the body on ocular accommodation. The accommodation of 10 young men was recorded before and after a high-level deceleration to zero velocity following 30 sec of rotating. Accommodation was recorded continuously on an infrared optometer for 110 sec under two conditions: while the subjects observed a target set at the far point, and while they viewed the same target through a 0.3-mm pinhole. Stimulation by high-level rotary deceleration produced positive accommodation or a pseudomyopia under both conditions, but the positive accommodation was substantially greater and lasted much longer during fixation through the pinhole. It is hypothesized that this increase in accommodation is a result of a vestibular-ocular accommodation reflex.

  4. Spousal Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Gullattee, Alyce C.

    1979-01-01

    Spouse abuse is being discussed and agonized over more frequently than in past years. Although interpousal and intrafamilial violence have been behaviors of note and considerable consequence, they have been attributable, almost exclusively, to the lower socioeconomic classes. Many hypotheses have been proposed concerning the etiology of violence. The author discusses some of the more general sociopolitical theories of violence and proposes three areas of significant moment to behaviorists. PMID:439165

  5. Newborn Patients of Mothers with Substance Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Albersheim, Susan G.

    1991-01-01

    It is important to identify high-risk women abusing drugs in order to provide good care for them and their babies. These infants require close observation after birth for perinatal complications withdrawal, long-term neurobehavioral abnormalities (even with drug use only early in pregnancy), and sudden infant death syndrome. The degree of withdrawal is not an indicator of outcome. Early involvement of Child Protective Services is important for this group, at risk for abuse and neglect. PMID:21228966

  6. Child Abuse: Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Timothy L.-Y.

    The purpose of this paper was to elaborate on the definitions of child abuse in order to improve the understanding of child abuse. The definitions given by the U.S. House Joint Committee on Child Abuse in the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, and in research by Holden (1984), are cited. These definitions refer to the nature of abusive acts…

  7. Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Whether they're using street drugs or medications, drug abusers often have trouble at school, at home, with ... a short period of time may make a drug abuser aggressive or paranoid. Although stimulant abuse might not ...

  8. [Current progress of the artificial accommodation system].

    PubMed

    Bretthauer, G; Gengenbach, U; Nagel, J A; Beck, C; Fliedner, J; Koker, L; Krug, M; Martin, T; Stachs, O; Guthoff, R F

    2014-12-01

    In case of presbyopia or cataract the "artificial accommodation system" represents one future possibility to durably restore the ability to accommodate. The work presented describes recent progress in the development of the artificial accommodation system. Major advances were achieved in the fields of the actuator system for the active optics, the pupil near reflex sensor, the communication system, the power supply system as well as in system integration. Beside the technical advances, first trials were performed to implant the artificial accommodation system into animals. These trials showed that the new lens shaped design and the C-shaped haptics are beneficial for implantation and secure fixation of the implant inside the capsular bag.

  9. Payload accommodations. Satellite servicing support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Roscoe

    1990-01-01

    The proposed technology studies discussed at the Space Transportation Avionics Symposium in Williamsburg, VA on 7 to 9 November 1989, are discussed. The discussions and findings of the Payload Accommodations Subpanel are also summarized. The major objective of the proposed focused technology development is to develop and demonstrate (ground and flight) autonomous rendezvous, proximity operations, and docking/berthing capabilities to support satellite servicing. It is expected that autonomous rendezvous and docking (AR and D) capabilities will benefit both the users (e.g., satellite developers and operators) and the transportation system developers and operators. AR and D will provide increased availability of rendezvous and docking services by reducing the operational constraints associated with current capabilities. These constraints include specific lighting conditions, continuous space-to-ground communications, and lengthy ground tracking periods. AR and D will provide increased cost efficiency with the potential for reduced propellant expenditures and workloads (flight and/or ground crews). The AR and D operations will be more consistent, allowing more flexibility in the design of the satellite control system and docking/berthing mechanisms.

  10. Methamphetamine abuse.

    PubMed

    Winslow, Bradford T; Voorhees, Kenton I; Pehl, Katherine A

    2007-10-15

    Methamphetamine is a stimulant commonly abused in many parts of the United States. Most methamphetamine users are white men 18 to 25 years of age, but the highest usage rates have been found in native Hawaiians, persons of more than one race, Native Americans, and men who have sex with men. Methamphetamine use produces a rapid, pleasurable rush followed by euphoria, heightened attention, and increased energy. Possible adverse effects include myocardial infarction, stroke, seizures, rhabdomyolysis, cardiomyopathy, psychosis, and death. Chronic methamphetamine use is associated with neurologic and psychiatric symptoms and changes in physical appearance. High-risk sexual activity and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus are also associated with methamphetamine use. Use of methamphetamine in women who are pregnant can cause placental abruption, intrauterine growth retardation, and preterm birth, and there can be adverse consequences in children exposed to the drug. Treatment of methamphetamine intoxication is primarily supportive. Treatment of methamphetamine abuse is behavioral; cognitive behavior therapy, contingency management, and the Matrix Model may be effective. Pharmacologic treatments are under investigation.

  11. Assessment of AIDS Risk among Treatment Seeking Drug Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, John L.; And Others

    Intravenous (IV) drug abusers are at risk for contracting transmittable diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and hepatitis B. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of risk behaviors for acquiring and transmitting AIDS and hepatitis B among treatment-seeking drug abusers (N=168). Subjects participated in a…

  12. Child abuse by drowning.

    PubMed

    Griest, K J; Zumwalt, R E

    1989-01-01

    Drowning as a form of subtle fatal child abuse is difficult to distinguish from accidental immersion or from sudden unexpected natural death when the circumstances of immersion are concealed. Homicidal drownings are unwitnessed, usually occurring in the home, and the victims are young, either infants or toddlers. Accidental drownings are more likely to involve toddlers or older children in public areas such as swimming pools, drainage ditches, lakes, and rivers. This is especially true in rural areas. In cities, bathtubs remain a major site of accidental childhood drownings. Perpetrators of deliberate drownings often fit the sociopathologic profile of a child abuser. Because there is often a survival interval between immersion and death, pathologic findings consistent with postimmersion syndrome suggest the cause of death. Foreign material in the lungs, if immersion was other than in clear tap water, and injuries of the face are other positive correlating factors. A thorough investigation of the circumstances and cooperation between the investigating agency and the pathologist are essential to determine the correct manner of death in these cases.

  13. Religion in child sexual abuse forensic interviews.

    PubMed

    Tishelman, Amy C; Fontes, Lisa A

    2017-01-01

    Religion is an under-studied factor affecting children's sexual victimization and their willingness to discuss such experiences. In this qualitative study, 39 child forensic interviewers and child advocacy center (CAC) directors in the United States discussed religious influences on children's sexual abuse experiences, their relationships to CACs, and their disclosures in the forensic setting. Participants reported both harmonious and dissonant interactions between religiously observant children and families on one hand and child advocacy centers on the other. Themes emerged related to abuse in religious contexts and religious justifications for abuse; clergy and religious supports for disclosures as well as suppression of disclosures; and the ways CACS accommodate religious diversity and forge collaborations with clergy. Participants discussed a wide range of religions. Recommendations for practice and research are included.

  14. 14 CFR 1251.201 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations of an otherwise qualified handicapped... hardship on the operation of its program or activity. (b) Reasonable accommodation may include: (1) Making... recipient's programor activity, factors to be considered include: (1) The overall size of the...

  15. 28 CFR 42.511 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...; POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Nondiscrimination Based on Handicap in Federally Assisted Programs or Activities...) A recipient shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations of an... the operation of its program or activity. (b) Reasonable accommodation may include making...

  16. 45 CFR 1232.10 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL... shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations of an otherwise... accommodation would impose an undue hardship on the operation of its program or activity. (b)...

  17. 45 CFR 1232.10 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL... shall make reasonable accommodation to the known physical or mental limitations of an otherwise... accommodation would impose an undue hardship on the operation of its program or activity. (b)...

  18. 38 CFR 18.412 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... known physical or mental limitations of a handicapped applicant or employee if such accommodation would... that the accommodation would impose an undue hardship on the operation of its program or activity. (b... impose an undue hardship on the operation of a recipient's program or activity, factors to be...

  19. 46 CFR 177.710 - Overnight accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Overnight accommodations. 177.710 Section 177.710 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Crew Spaces § 177.710 Overnight accommodations....

  20. 50 CFR 260.101 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... toilet accommodations, including, but not being limited to, running hot water (135 °F. or more) and cold water, soap, and single service towels, shall be provided. Such accommodations shall be in or near... which provides an adequate flow of water for washing hands. (d) Durable signs shall be...

  1. Accommodation Outcomes and the ICF Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreuer, Naomi

    2009-01-01

    Accommodation of the environment and technology is one of the key mediators of adjustment to disability and participation in community. In this article, accommodations are tested empirically as facilitators of return to work and participation, as defined by the "International Classification of Disability, Function, and Health" (ICF) and…

  2. 45 CFR 605.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 605.12 Section 605.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION...; and (3) The nature and cost of the accommodation needed. (d) A recipient may not deny any...

  3. 45 CFR 605.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 605.12 Section 605.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION...; and (3) The nature and cost of the accommodation needed. (d) A recipient may not deny any...

  4. 45 CFR 605.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 605.12 Section 605.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION...; and (3) The nature and cost of the accommodation needed. (d) A recipient may not deny any...

  5. 45 CFR 605.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 605.12 Section 605.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION...; and (3) The nature and cost of the accommodation needed. (d) A recipient may not deny any...

  6. 45 CFR 605.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 605.12 Section 605.12 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION...; and (3) The nature and cost of the accommodation needed. (d) A recipient may not deny any...

  7. Accommodation Requests: Who Is Asking for What?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Schrader, Sarah; Xu, Xu; Bruyère, Susanne M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Workplace accommodations are central to improving employment outcomes for people with and without disabilities; this study presents national estimates comparing accommodation requests and receipt as reported by individuals with and without disabilities. Method: Estimates are developed from the May 2012 Current Population Survey Disability…

  8. Accommodations: Assisting Students with Disabilities. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beech, Marty

    2010-01-01

    This document updates "Accommodations: Assisting Students with Disabilities. A Guide for Educators," published by the Florida Department of Education (FDOE) in 2003. This document is written to assist school district personnel and parents when making decisions about the use of accommodations by students with disabilities in instructional…

  9. Bearing-Mounting Concept Accommodates Thermal Expansion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nespodzany, Robert; Davis, Toren S.

    1995-01-01

    Pins or splines allow radial expansion without slippage. Design concept for mounting rotary bearing accommodates differential thermal expansion between bearing and any structure(s) to which bearing connected. Prevents buildup of thermal stresses by allowing thermal expansion to occur freely but accommodating expansion in such way not to introduce looseness. Pin-in-slot configuration also maintains concentricity.

  10. 50 CFR 260.101 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... facilities for cleaning and sanitizing utensils and hands, shall be provided. (a) Adequate lavatory and toilet accommodations, including, but not being limited to, running hot water (135 °F. or more) and cold water, soap, and single service towels, shall be provided. Such accommodations shall be in or...

  11. Shaken Baby Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Randell C.; Smith, Wilbur L.

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the history, epidemiology, biomechanics, diagnosis, treatment, outcomes, long-term management, and prevention of shaken baby syndrome. It presents medical-legal issues as well as a discussion of programs aimed at prevention of physical abuse. (Author/DB)

  12. Improving Accommodations Outcomes: Monitoring Instructional and Assessment Accommodations for Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Laurene L.; Thurlow, Martha L.; Wang, Ting

    2009-01-01

    This document presents a five-step process for schools, districts, and states to use in monitoring accommodations for instruction and assessment. This document was designed to be a companion to the "Council of Chief State School Officers' Accommodations Manual: How to Select, Administer, and Evaluate Use of Accommodations for Instruction and…

  13. Consequences of Using Testing Accommodations: Student, Teacher, and Parent Perceptions of and Reactions to Testing Accommodations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Sylvia C.; Kumke, Patrick J.; Ray, Corey E.; Cowell, Erin L.; Elliott, Stephen N.; Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Bolt, Daniel M.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined student, parent, and teacher perceptions of the use of testing accommodations and the relationship between student perceptions of testing accommodations and their disability status and grade level. Students with and without disabilities completed math and reading achievement tests with and without accommodations. Students,…

  14. Exploring the controversy in child abuse pediatrics and false accusations of abuse.

    PubMed

    Gabaeff, Steven C

    2016-01-01

    There is a controversy in child abuse pediatrics between an established corps of child abuse pediatricians aligned with hospital colleagues and law enforcement, and a multi-specialty challenger group of doctors and other medical professionals working with public interest lawyers. The latter group questions the scientific validity of the core beliefs of child abuse pediatricians and believes that there are a substantial number of false accusations of abuse occurring. An unproven primary hypothesis, crafted around 1975 by a small group of pediatricians with an interest in child abuse, lies at the foundation of child abuse pediatrics. With no scientific study, it was hypothesized that subdural hemorrhage (SDH) and retinal hemorrhage (RH) were diagnostic of shaking abuse. That hypothesis became the so-called "shaken baby syndrome." Through the period 1975-1985, in a coordinated manner, these child abuse specialists coalesced under the American Academy of Pediatrics and began working with district attorneys and social workers, informing them of the ways in which their hypothesis could be applied to prosecutions of child abuse and life-altering social service interventions. In a legal context, using then-prevailing evidentiary rules which treated scientific expert testimony as valid if it was "generally accepted" in the field, they represented falsely that there was general acceptance of their hypothesis and therefore it was valid science. As the ability to convict based on this unproven prime hypothesis (SDH and RH equals abuse) increased, some defense attorneys were professionally compelled by their own doubts to reach out to experts from other fields with experience with SDH and RH, trauma, and biomechanics, for second opinions. Medical and legal challenges to the established thinking soon emerged, based on both old and new evidenced-based literature. As the intensity of the controversy increased, the probability of false accusation became more apparent and the need

  15. Effect of Phenylephrine on the Accommodative System

    PubMed Central

    Del Águila-Carrasco, Antonio J.; Bernal-Molina, Paula; Ferrer-Blasco, Teresa; López-Gil, Norberto; Montés-Micó, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Accommodation is controlled by the action of the ciliary muscle and mediated primarily by parasympathetic input through postganglionic fibers that originate from neurons in the ciliary and pterygopalatine ganglia. During accommodation the pupil constricts to increase the depth of focus of the eye and improve retinal image quality. Researchers have traditionally faced the challenge of measuring the accommodative properties of the eye through a small pupil and thus have relied on pharmacological agents to dilate the pupil. Achieving pupil dilation (mydriasis) without affecting the accommodative ability of the eye (cycloplegia) could be useful in many clinical and research contexts. Phenylephrine hydrochloride (PHCl) is a sympathomimetic agent that is used clinically to dilate the pupil. Nevertheless, first investigations suggested some loss of functional accommodation in the human eye after PHCl instillation. Subsequent studies, based on different measurement procedures, obtained contradictory conclusions, causing therefore an unexpected controversy that has been spread almost to the present days. This manuscript reviews and summarizes the main research studies that have been performed to analyze the effect of PHCl on the accommodative system and provides clear conclusions that could help clinicians know the real effects of PHCl on the accommodative system of the human eye. PMID:28053778

  16. Sexual Abuse: Somatic and Emotional Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rimza, Mary Ellen; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Chart reviews and telephone interviews with 72 sexual abuse victims found that 48 of the children had symptoms similar to the "rape trauma" syndrome. Two-thirds of victims commonly had somatic complaints (such as abdominal pain) and emotional/behavioral problems (runaway behavior, suicide attempts). (DB)

  17. Prescription Sedative Misuse and Abuse.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Michael F

    2015-09-01

    Sedatives are widely prescribed for anxiety or insomnia and include benzodiazepines, selective benzodiazepine receptor subtype agonists (z-drugs), and barbiturates. These sedatives are controlled substances due to their potential for misuse and abuse. Misuse is often self-medication (chemical coping) of psychological symptoms in ways unauthorized by the prescriber, usually as dose escalation leading to requests for early refills. Sedatives are abused for euphoric effects, which may have dangerous consequences. Some sedative overdoses can be treated with flumazenil, a reversal agent, along with supportive care. Sedative withdrawal syndrome is treated by tapering the sedative and may require hospitalization. Long-term treatment of sedative addiction requires counseling, often with the help of an addiction-treatment professional.

  18. Anabolic steroid abuse and dependence.

    PubMed

    Brower, Kirk J

    2002-10-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are mainly used to treat androgen deficiency syndromes and, more recently, catabolic states such as AIDS-associated wasting. There is no evidence in the reviewed literature that AAS abuse or dependence develops from the therapeutic use of AAS. Conversely, 165 instances of AAS dependence have been reported among weightlifters and bodybuilders who, as part of their weight training regimens, chronically administered supraphysiologic doses, often including combinations of injected and oral AAS as well as other drugs of abuse. A new model is proposed in which both the "myoactive" and psychoactive effects of AAS contribute to the development of AAS dependence. The adverse consequences of AAS are reviewed, as well as their assessment by means of a history and physical, mental status examination, and laboratory testing. When patients with AAS use disorders are compared with patients with other substance use disorders, both similarities and differences become apparent and have implications for treatment.

  19. Prescription Sedative Misuse and Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Sedatives are widely prescribed for anxiety or insomnia and include benzodiazepines, selective benzodiazepine receptor subtype agonists (z-drugs), and barbiturates. These sedatives are controlled substances due to their potential for misuse and abuse. Misuse is often self-medication (chemical coping) of psychological symptoms in ways unauthorized by the prescriber, usually as dose escalation leading to requests for early refills. Sedatives are abused for euphoric effects, which may have dangerous consequences. Some sedative overdoses can be treated with flumazenil, a reversal agent, along with supportive care. Sedative withdrawal syndrome is treated by tapering the sedative and may require hospitalization. Long-term treatment of sedative addiction requires counseling, often with the help of an addiction-treatment professional. PMID:26339207

  20. 10 CFR 1040.67 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES... known physical or mental limitations of an otherwise qualified handicapped applicant or employee unless... of its program or activity. (b) Reasonable accommodation may include: (1) Making facilities used...

  1. 45 CFR 84.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices... physical or mental limitations of an otherwise qualified handicapped applicant or employee unless the... program or activity. (b) Reasonable accommodation may include: (1) Making facilities used by...

  2. Accommodation of workers with chronic neurologic disorders.

    PubMed

    Bleecker, Margit L; Barnes, Sheryl K

    2015-01-01

    The ability to work is important to those with chronic neurologic disorders (CND) and to the aging workforce. Many signs and symptoms are similar in those with CND and normal aging, but may interfere with the ability to work if not appropriately accommodated. This requires the healthcare provider to recognize the specific features of the CND that interferes with work and how it can be accommodated. Review of the American with Disabilities Act and the subsequent amendment informs the healthcare provider as to what is covered under the law and how the disability can be accommodated. Overall employers want to retain qualified employees and therefore accommodating workers is beneficial to both the employee with CND and the employer.

  3. 50 CFR 260.101 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Fishery Products for Human Consumption Requirements for Plants Operating Under Continuous Inspection on A... water, soap, and single service towels, shall be provided. Such accommodations shall be in or...

  4. 50 CFR 260.101 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Fishery Products for Human Consumption Requirements for Plants Operating Under Continuous Inspection on A... water, soap, and single service towels, shall be provided. Such accommodations shall be in or...

  5. Accommodation dynamics in aging rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Croft, M A; Kaufman, P L; Crawford, K S; Neider, M W; Glasser, A; Bito, L Z

    1998-12-01

    Accommodation, the mechanism by which the eye focuses on near objects, is lost with increasing age in humans and monkeys. This pathophysiology, called presbyopia, is poorly understood. We studied aging-related changes in the dynamics of accommodation in rhesus monkeys aged 4-24 yr after total iridectomy and midbrain implantation of an electrode to permit visualization and stimulation, respectively, of the eye's accommodative apparatus. Real-time video techniques were used to capture and quantify images of the ciliary body and lens. During accommodation in youth, ciliary body movement was biphasic, lens movement was monophasic, and both slowed as the structures approached their new steady-state positions. Disaccommodation occurred more rapidly for both ciliary body and lens, but with longer latent period, and slowed near the end point. With increasing age, the amplitude of lens and ciliary body movement during accommodation declined, as did their velocities. The latent period of lens and ciliary body movements increased, and ciliary body movement became monophasic. The latent period of lens and ciliary body movement during disaccommodation was not significantly correlated with age, but their velocity declined significantly. The age-dependent decline in amplitude and velocity of ciliary body movements during accommodation suggests that ciliary body dysfunction plays a role in presbyopia. The age changes in lens movement could be a consequence of increasing inelasticity or hardening of the lens, or of age changes in ciliary body motility.

  6. Modified method of accommodative facility evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedzia, Boleslaw; Pieczyrak, Danuta; Tondel, Grazyna; Maples, Willis C.

    1998-10-01

    Background: Accommodative facility testing is a common test performed by optometrist to investigate an individuals skill at focusing objects at near and at far. The traditional test however harbors possible confounding variables including individual variance in reaction time, visual acuity, verbal skills and oculomotor function. We have designed a test procedure to control these variables. Methods: Children were evaluated with a traditional accommodative facility test, a test which evaluated reaction time and language skill but without accommodative (plano lenses) and a test which evaluated reaction time, language skill and accommodative facility (+/- 2.00 D lenses). Results: Speed of reaction time was 2.9 sec/cycle for the plano lenses (for dominant eye). Speed of reaction with +/- 2.00 D lenses was 6.6 sec/cycle for dominant eye and the monocular speed of accommodations was calculated to average 3.7 sec/cycle. Normative data reported in the literature was calculated to be 5.5 sec/cycle. Discussion: We found that both our method which controls for confounding variables the traditional method reveal similar findings but that individual subjects would pass one method and fail the other. This is attributed to variation in the reaction time and digit naming skill. Conclusions: Although both methods reap similar results, both methods should be employed to discover, in those who score below the expected finding, to tease out whether or not the fault falls within the reaction time/language area or whether it is a true accommodative facility dysfunction.

  7. Movement disorders and MDMA abuse.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, James Allen; Wilcox, Aidee Herrera

    2009-06-01

    This article present the cases of two young men with chronic MDMA abuse who later developed movement disorders typical of the Parkinson's syndrome. It is worth noting that both men bought the presumed MDMA from the same illicit source. Potential risks of MDMA use and movement disorders are discussed. The risks inherent from contaminants and similar factors associated with illegal drug manufacture are discussed. The authors conclude that as long as nonpharmaceutical-grade MDMA is illicitly produced, health risks will be associated with its use.

  8. [Energy and memory efficient calculation of the accommodation demand in the artificial accommodation system].

    PubMed

    Nagel, J A; Beck, C; Harms, H; Stiller, P; Guth, H; Stachs, O; Bretthauer, G

    2010-12-01

    Presbyopia and cataract are gaining more and more importance in the ageing society. Both age-related complaints are accompanied with a loss of the eye's ability to accommodate. A new approach to restore accommodation is the Artificial Accommodation System, an autonomous micro system, which will be implanted into the capsular bag instead of a rigid intraocular lens. The Artificial Accommodation System will, depending on the actual demand for accommodation, autonomously adapt the refractive power of its integrated optical element. One possibility to measure the demand for accommodation non-intrusively is to analyse eye movements. We present an efficient algorithm, based on the CORDIC technique, to calculate the demand for accommodation from magnetic field sensor data. It can be shown that specialised algorithms significantly shorten calculation time without violating precision requirements. Additionally, a communication strategy for the wireless exchange of sensor data between the implants of the left and right eye is introduced. The strategy allows for a one-sided calculation of the demand for accommodation, resulting in an overall reduction of calculation time by 50 %. The presented methods enable autonomous microsystems, such as the Artificial Accommodation System, to save significant amounts of energy, leading to extended autonomous run-times.

  9. How to Handle Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Is Happening en español Cómo manejar el abuso Grown-ups are usually there to help and ... to understand the different types of abuse: physical, sexual, verbal or emotional, and neglect. Physical abuse: Physical ...

  10. Students and Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todays Educ, 1969

    1969-01-01

    Introduction to "Students and Drug Abuse, prepared by the Public Information Branch and Center for Studies of Narcotic and Drug Abuse, National Institute of Mental Health, in cooperation with the staff of Today's Education.

  11. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  12. Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... from what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that was prescribed for someone else Taking a ... at higher doses or when taken with other medicines. NIH: National Institute on Drug Abuse

  13. Child abuse - physical

    MedlinePlus

    ... way Uses harsh discipline Was abused as a child Alcohol or drug problems Emotional problems or mental illness ... Physical abuse - children References Berkowitz CD, Stewart ST. Child maltreatment. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. ...

  14. Elder Abuse among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauriac, Jesse J.; Scruggs, Natoschia

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of extreme, moderate, and mild forms of elder abuse among African-American women (n=25) and men (n=10) were examined. African-American respondents emphasized physical abuse when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Along with physical abuse, verbal abuse was the most frequently identified form of abuse, and was significantly…

  15. Child Abuse: Educator's Responsibilities. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. Crime Prevention Center.

    This document presents the educator with a guide to child abuse. A section defining child abuse examines the issues of physical abuse, physical neglect, sexual abuse, and emotional maltreatment. Areas discussed for these types of abuse include abuse indicators, location of injury, history, behavioral indicators, and types of injury. Incestuous and…

  16. Overview for Attached Payload Accommodations and Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaffer, Craig; Cook, Gene; Nabizadeh, Rodney; Phillion, James

    2007-01-01

    External payload accommodations are provided at attach sites on the U.S provided ELC, U.S. Truss, the Japanese Experiment Module Exposed Facility (JEM EF) and the Columbus EPF (External Payload Facilities). The Integrated Truss Segment (ITS) provides the backbone structure for the ISS. It attaches the solar and thermal control arrays to the rest of the complex, and houses cable distribution trays Extravehicular Activity (EVA) support equipment such as handholds and lighting; and providing for Extravehicular Robotic (EVR) accommodations using the Mobile Servicing System (MSS). It also provides logistics and maintenance, and payload attachment sites. The attachment sites accommodate logistics and maintenance and payloads carriers, zenith and nadir. The JEM-EF, a back porch-like attachment to the JEM Pressurized Module, accommodates up to eight payloads, which can be serviced by the crew via the JEM PM's airlock and dedicated robotic arm. The Columbus-EPF is another porch-like platform that can accommodate two zenith and two nadir looking payloads.

  17. Elder Abuse Awareness Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Kathleen; Morrow, Marilyn J.

    1985-01-01

    The Elder Abuse Awareness Project was undertaken: (1) to determine the incidence of abuse and neglect in seven Illinois counties; and (2) to develop, produce, and distribute educational materials on elder abuse for the service provider and for senior citizens. Results are presented and discussed. (MT)

  18. Elder Abuse in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arai, Mizuho

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of elder abuse were examined in Japanese women (n =100) and men (n =46). Japanese women and men both emphasized physical aggression, followed by neglect and blaming, when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Physical aggression was also the most frequently mentioned type of moderate elder abuse, followed by neglect, economic…

  19. Elder Abuse Awareness Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Marilyn J.; Doyle, Kathleen

    The Elder Abuse Awareness Project was developed to determine the incidence of abuse and neglect of elderly people in several rural counties in central Illinois. A primary purpose of the study was to survey service providers as to their actual encounters with elder abuse and neglect. Each provider was asked about warning signs or cues that were…

  20. Substance Abuse. Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collaboration for Youth, Washington, DC.

    This paper presents the policy statement on substance abuse from the National Collaboration for Youth (NCY). The policy statement section lists programs and activities supported by the NCY. A section on background includes a statement of the issue of substance abuse. Areas examined in this section include alcohol abuse and drunk driving among…

  1. Bio-inspired accommodating fluidic intraocular lens.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Wen; Johnson, Daniel; Tsai, Frank S; Cho, Sung Hwan; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2009-10-15

    The invention of intraocular lens (IOL), a substitute for crystalline lens, represents a major advancement in cataract surgery. After about sixty years of IOL development, one key remaining problem is its limited accommodation range compared with natural eyes. To overcome this performance limit, we explore bio-inspired fluidic IOL. By mimicking the working principle of natural eyes, a fluidic intraocular lens can achieve an exceedingly large accommodation range. An experiment on fluidic IOL demonstrated a very high tuning range of 12 D. This accommodation range was achieved with a modest amount of force (0.06 N) and equatorial radius change (0.286 mm), in conditions matching well with the characteristics of aged eyes.

  2. Prediction of anthropometric accommodation in aircraft cockpits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zehner, Gregory Franklin

    Designing aircraft cockpits to accommodate the wide range of body sizes existing in the U.S. population has always been a difficult problem for Crewstation Engineers. The approach taken in the design of military aircraft has been to restrict the range of body sizes allowed into flight training, and then to develop standards and specifications to ensure that the majority of the pilots are accommodated. Accommodation in this instance is defined as the ability to: (1) Adequately see, reach, and actuate controls; (2) Have external visual fields so that the pilot can see to land, clear for other aircraft, and perform a wide variety of missions (ground support/attack or air to air combat); and (3) Finally, if problems arise, the pilot has to be able to escape safely. Each of these areas is directly affected by the body size of the pilot. Unfortunately, accommodation problems persist and may get worse. Currently the USAF is considering relaxing body size entrance requirements so that smaller and larger people could become pilots. This will make existing accommodation problems much worse. This dissertation describes a methodology for correcting this problem and demonstrates the method by predicting pilot fit and performance in the USAF T-38A aircraft based on anthropometric data. The methods described can be applied to a variety of design applications where fitting the human operator into a system is a major concern. A systematic approach is described which includes: defining the user population, setting functional requirements that operators must be able to perform, testing the ability of the user population to perform the functional requirements, and developing predictive equations for selecting future users of the system. Also described is a process for the development of new anthropometric design criteria and cockpit design methods that assure body size accommodation is improved in the future.

  3. Experimental investigations of pupil accommodation factors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eui Chul; Lee, Ji Woo; Park, Kang Ryoung

    2011-08-17

    PURPOSE. The contraction and dilation of the iris muscle that controls the amount of light entering the retina causes pupil accommodation. In this study, experiments were performed and two of the three factors that influence pupil accommodation were analyzed: lighting conditions and depth fixations. The psychological benefits were not examined, because they could not be quantified. METHODS. A head-wearable eyeglasses-based, eye-capturing device was designed to measure pupil size. It included a near-infrared (NIR) camera and an NIR light-emitting diode. Twenty-four subjects watched two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) stereoscopic videos of the same content, and the changes in pupil size were measured by using the eye-capturing device and image-processing methods: RESULTS. The pupil size changed with the intensity of the videos and the disparities between the left and right images of a 3D stereoscopic video. There was correlation between the pupil size and average intensity. The pupil diameter could be estimated as being contracted from approximately 5.96 to 4.25 mm as the intensity varied from 0 to 255. Further, from the changes in the depth fixation for the pupil accommodation, it was confirmed that the depth fixation also affected accommodation of pupil size. CONCLUSIONS. It was confirmed that the lighting condition was an even more significant factor in pupil accommodation than was depth fixation (significance ratio: approximately 3.2:1) when watching 3D stereoscopic video. Pupil accommodation was more affected by depth fixation in the real world than was the binocular convergence in the 3D stereoscopic display.

  4. Inhalant Abuse and Dextromethorphan.

    PubMed

    Storck, Michael; Black, Laura; Liddell, Morgan

    2016-07-01

    Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of a volatile substance for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. As an important, yet underrecognized form of substance abuse, inhalant abuse crosses all demographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries, causing significant morbidity and mortality in school-aged and older children. This review presents current perspectives on epidemiology, detection, and clinical challenges of inhalant abuse and offers advice regarding the medical and mental health providers' roles in the prevention and management of this substance abuse problem. Also discussed is the misuse of a specific "over-the-counter" dissociative, dextromethorphan.

  5. Aerobrake assembly with minimum Space Station accommodation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katzberg, Steven J.; Butler, David H.; Doggett, William R.; Russell, James W.; Hurban, Theresa

    1991-01-01

    The minimum Space Station Freedom accommodations required for initial assembly, repair, and refurbishment of the Lunar aerobrake were investigated. Baseline Space Station Freedom support services were assumed, as well as reasonable earth-to-orbit possibilities. A set of three aerobrake configurations representative of the major themes in aerobraking were developed. Structural assembly concepts, along with on-orbit assembly and refurbishment scenarios were created. The scenarios were exercised to identify required Space Station Freedom accommodations. Finally, important areas for follow-on study were also identified.

  6. 46 CFR 92.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 92.20-20 Section 92.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer must be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations...

  7. 46 CFR 92.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 92.20-20 Section 92.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer must be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations...

  8. 46 CFR 72.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 72.20-20 Section 72.20-20... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer shall be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations for...

  9. 46 CFR 72.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 72.20-20 Section 72.20-20... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer shall be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations for...

  10. 28 CFR 36.310 - Transportation provided by public accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... accommodations. 36.310 Section 36.310 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.310 Transportation provided by public accommodations. (a) General. (1) A public accommodation that...

  11. 46 CFR 108.195 - Location of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Location of accommodation spaces. 108.195 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.195 Location of accommodation spaces. (a) On surface type units, accommodation spaces must not be located forward of a...

  12. 46 CFR 108.195 - Location of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Location of accommodation spaces. 108.195 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.195 Location of accommodation spaces. (a) On surface type units, accommodation spaces must not be located forward of a...

  13. 46 CFR 108.195 - Location of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Location of accommodation spaces. 108.195 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.195 Location of accommodation spaces. (a) On surface type units, accommodation spaces must not be located forward of a...

  14. 46 CFR 92.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 92.20-20 Section 92.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer must be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations...

  15. 46 CFR 72.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 72.20-20 Section 72.20-20... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer shall be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations for...

  16. 46 CFR 72.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 72.20-20 Section 72.20-20... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer shall be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations for...

  17. 46 CFR 72.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 72.20-20 Section 72.20-20... ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 72.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer shall be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations for...

  18. 46 CFR 92.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 92.20-20 Section 92.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer must be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations...

  19. 46 CFR 92.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 92.20-20 Section 92.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accommodations for Officers and Crew § 92.20-20 Sleeping accommodations. (a) Where practicable, each licensed officer must be provided with a separate stateroom. (b) Sleeping accommodations...

  20. 46 CFR 108.195 - Location of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Location of accommodation spaces. 108.195 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.195 Location of accommodation spaces. (a) On surface type units, accommodation spaces must not be located forward of a...

  1. 46 CFR 108.195 - Location of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Location of accommodation spaces. 108.195 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.195 Location of accommodation spaces. (a) On surface type units, accommodation spaces must not be located forward of a...

  2. 15 CFR 8b.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... physical or metal limitations of an otherwise qualified handicapped applicant or employee unless the... program or activity. (b) Reasonable accommodation may include: (1) Making the facilities used by the employees in the area where the program or activity is conducted, including common areas used by...

  3. Payload accommodations: Avionics payload support architecture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Technology issues/trade studies; candidate programs; key contacts/facilities: milestones; accomplishments; and major objectives of the payload accommodation are outlined. Topics covered include: avionics payload support architecture; satellite serving; P/L deploy systems and advanced manipulators; advanced telemetry systems; and on-board abort planning. This presentation is represented by viewgraphs only.

  4. Accommodating Workers with Spinal Cord Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowler, Denetta; Batiste, Linda; Whidden, Eddie

    1998-01-01

    Examination of over 1,000 calls to the Job Accommodation Network involving workers with spinal cord injury identified the nature of the industry, job, career progression, and accessibility solutions. The number of calls increased dramatically after passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act. (SK)

  5. Anthropometric Accommodation in Space Suit Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Thaxton, Sherry

    2007-01-01

    Design requirements for next generation hardware are in process at NASA. Anthropometry requirements are given in terms of minimum and maximum sizes for critical dimensions that hardware must accommodate. These dimensions drive vehicle design and suit design, and implicitly have an effect on crew selection and participation. At this stage in the process, stakeholders such as cockpit and suit designers were asked to provide lists of dimensions that will be critical for their design. In addition, they were asked to provide technically feasible minimum and maximum ranges for these dimensions. Using an adjusted 1988 Anthropometric Survey of U.S. Army (ANSUR) database to represent a future astronaut population, the accommodation ranges provided by the suit critical dimensions were calculated. This project involved participation from the Anthropometry and Biomechanics facility (ABF) as well as suit designers, with suit designers providing expertise about feasible hardware dimensions and the ABF providing accommodation analysis. The initial analysis provided the suit design team with the accommodation levels associated with the critical dimensions provided early in the study. Additional outcomes will include a comparison of principal components analysis as an alternate method for anthropometric analysis.

  6. 34 CFR 104.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 104.12 Section 104.12 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education OFFICE FOR CIVIL RIGHTS, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING FEDERAL...

  7. Accommodating Presuppositions Is Inappropriate in Implausible Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Raj; Fedorenko, Evelina; Mahowald, Kyle; Gibson, Edward

    2016-01-01

    According to one view of linguistic information (Karttunen, 1974; Stalnaker, 1974), a speaker can convey contextually new information in one of two ways: (a) by "asserting" the content as new information; or (b) by "presupposing" the content as given information which would then have to be "accommodated." This…

  8. 24 CFR 8.11 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 8.11 Section 8.11 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION BASED ON HANDICAP IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES OF...

  9. 24 CFR 8.11 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 8.11 Section 8.11 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION BASED ON HANDICAP IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES OF...

  10. 24 CFR 8.11 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 8.11 Section 8.11 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION BASED ON HANDICAP IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES OF...

  11. 24 CFR 8.11 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 8.11 Section 8.11 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION BASED ON HANDICAP IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES OF...

  12. 22 CFR 217.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 217.12 Section 217.12 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN..., acquisition or modification of equipment or devices, the provision of readers or interpreters, and...

  13. 24 CFR 8.11 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 8.11 Section 8.11 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION BASED ON HANDICAP IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES OF...

  14. 22 CFR 217.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 217.12 Section 217.12 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN..., acquisition or modification of equipment or devices, the provision of readers or interpreters, and...

  15. 22 CFR 217.12 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 217.12 Section 217.12 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN..., acquisition or modification of equipment or devices, the provision of readers or interpreters, and...

  16. ISS truss attached payload accommodations overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youmans, Janella S.; Olson, Michael F.; Foster, Mark A.; Watkins, Barbara S.

    1999-01-01

    One of the defining features of the International Space Station (ISS) is its capacity to accommodate long-term science in the external environment of space. The large truss structure spanning the vehicle is designed to support core system equipment such as solar arrays, thermal radiators, and the pressurized module structures. In addition to supporting core systems, the truss structure also accommodates four attached payload facilities and two logistics carriers. This paper focuses on the capabilities of the ISS in accommodating externally attached science payloads, defines the locations where experiments can be conducted, explains the environment wherein typical experiments will be performed, and identifies the payload interfaces and access to resources such as power and data. The paper will also summarize the robotic accommodations which will support attached payloads and describes typical procedures for installation of the payloads onto the sites. Finally, the paper will provide a summary description of the attach sites on the NASDA Exposed Facility and the potential for use of alternative attach sites on the ISS.

  17. College Students' Preferences for Test Accommodations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewandowski, Lawrence; Lambert, Tonya L.; Lovett, Benjamin J.; Panahon, Carlos J.; Sytsma, Marcia R.

    2014-01-01

    College students with (n = 137) and without disabilities (n = 475) were surveyed about their perceptions of using various types of test accommodations. Results indicated that extended time was perceived as having a positive effect by the most students (>87% of both groups), followed by separate room testing and extra breaks (>60% of both…

  18. 46 CFR 169.317 - Accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accommodations. 169.317 Section 169.317 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction... and noise. (d) Each person on board must have a separate berth which is of sufficient size...

  19. 46 CFR 169.317 - Accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accommodations. 169.317 Section 169.317 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction... and noise. (d) Each person on board must have a separate berth which is of sufficient size...

  20. 46 CFR 169.317 - Accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accommodations. 169.317 Section 169.317 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction... and noise. (d) Each person on board must have a separate berth which is of sufficient size...

  1. 46 CFR 169.317 - Accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accommodations. 169.317 Section 169.317 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) NAUTICAL SCHOOLS SAILING SCHOOL VESSELS Construction... and noise. (d) Each person on board must have a separate berth which is of sufficient size...

  2. Cultural Accommodation as Method and Metaphor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, Frederick T. L.

    2007-01-01

    The author summarizes the cultural accommodation model (CAM) of cross-cultural psychotherapy (F. T. L. Leong & S. H. Lee, 2006). This summary is divided into 2 parts, with the 1st part describing the theoretical development of the CAM as a method of psychotherapy and the research approach underlying it. This section includes a description of the…

  3. Examination Accommodations for Students with Sensory Defensiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Kieran; Nolan, Clodagh

    2013-01-01

    Traditional examination accommodations include extra time, scribes, and/or separate venues for students with disabilities, which have been proven to be successful for the majority of students. For students with non-apparent disabilities such as sensory defensiveness, where sensitivity to a range of sensory information from the environment can…

  4. 10 CFR 4.123 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reasonable accommodation. 4.123 Section 4.123 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING... composition and structure of the recipient's workforce; and (3) The nature and cost of the...

  5. 50 CFR 260.101 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lavatory accommodations. 260.101 Section 260.101 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC... Fishery Products for Human Consumption Requirements for Plants Operating Under Continuous Inspection on...

  6. Accommodating Student Diversity in Remote Sensing Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammen, John L., III.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the difficulty of teaching computer-based remote sensing to students of varying levels of computer literacy. Suggests an instructional method that accommodates all levels of technical expertise through the use of microcomputers. Presents a curriculum that includes an introduction to remote sensing, digital image processing, and…

  7. Accommodating Faculty Members Who Have Disabilities. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of University Professors, 2012

    2012-01-01

    In recent years the rights and responsibilities of students who have disabilities have received considerable attention. Professors routinely accommodate students with a front-row seat in class or extended time on an examination. Faculty members who have disabilities have received far less attention. This report from a subcommittee of Committee A…

  8. 9 CFR 354.225 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... for cleaning utensils and hands shall be provided. (a) Adequate lavatory and toilet accommodations, including, but not being limited to, running hot water and cold water, soap, and towels, shall be provided... water for washing hands. (d) Durable signs shall be posted conspicuously in each toilet room and...

  9. 9 CFR 354.225 - Lavatory accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... for cleaning utensils and hands shall be provided. (a) Adequate lavatory and toilet accommodations, including, but not being limited to, running hot water and cold water, soap, and towels, shall be provided... water for washing hands. (d) Durable signs shall be posted conspicuously in each toilet room and...

  10. Accommodating Band Students with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Rick Lee

    2012-01-01

    This article offers a discussion about some of the accommodations and modifications used in music instruction. The focus here is on the musical tasks and challenges faced by band students with visual impairments. Research and literature reveal an interest in the topic but a lack of accessible materials for immediate use in the classroom and…

  11. Unflagged SATs: Who Benefits from Special Accommodations?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrams, Samuel J.

    2005-01-01

    When the College Board announced, in the summer of 2002, that it would stop "flagging" the test scores of students who were given special accommodations for the SAT, the gold standard exam for college admission, disability advocates were thrilled. "A triumphant day for millions of people with dyslexia and other disabilities,"…

  12. 29 CFR 32.13 - Reasonable accommodation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... RECEIVING FEDERAL FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE Employment Practices and Employment Related Training Participation... physical or mental limitations of an otherwise qualified handicapped applicant, employee or participant... workforce, and duration and type of training; and (3) The nature and cost of the accommodation needed. (c)...

  13. Water Accommodation on Bare and Coated Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Xiangrui

    2015-04-01

    A good understanding of water accommodation on ice surfaces is essential for quantitatively predicting the evolution of clouds, and therefore influences the effectiveness of climate models. However, the accommodation coefficient is poorly constrained within the literature where reported values vary by up to three orders of magnitude. In addition, the complexity of the chemical composition of the atmosphere plays an important role in ice phase behavior and dynamics. We employ an environmental molecular beam (EMB) technique to investigate molecular water interactions with bare and impurity coated ice at temperatures from 170 K to 200 K. In this work, we summarize results of water accommodation experiments on bare ice (Kong et al., 2014) and on ice coated by methanol (Thomson et al., 2013), butanol (Thomson et al., 2013) and acetic acid (Papagiannakopoulos et al., 2014), and compare those results with analogous experiments using hexanol and nitric acid coatings. Hexanol is chosen as a complementary chain alcohol to methanol and butanol, while nitric acid is a common inorganic compound in the atmosphere. The results show a strong negative temperature dependence of water accommodation on bare ice, which can be quantitatively described by a precursor model. Acidic adlayers tend to enhance water uptake indicating that the system kinetics are thoroughly changed compared to bare ice. Adsorbed alcohols influence the temperature dependence of the accommodation coefficient and water molecules generally spend less time on the surfaces before desorbing, although the measured accommodation coefficients remain high and comparable to bare ice for the investigated systems. We conclude that impurities can either enhance or restrict water uptake in ways that are influenced by several factors including temperature and type of adsorbant, with potential implications for the description of ice particle growth in the atmosphere. This work was supported by the Swedish Research Council and

  14. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome "Chemical Genocide."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asetoyer, Charon

    In the Northern Plains of the United States, 100% of Indian reservations are affected by alcohol related problems. Approximately 90% of Native American adults are currently alcohol users or abusers or are recovering from alcohol abuse. Alcohol consumption has a devastating effect on the unborn. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) is an irreversible birth…

  15. Skin manifestations of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Ermertcan, Aylin Turel; Ertan, Pelin

    2010-01-01

    Child abuse is a major public health problem all over the world. There are four major types of abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. The most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous and their recognition; and differential diagnosis is of great importance. Clinicians, especially dermatologists, should be alert about the skin lesions of child abuse. In the diagnosis and management of child abuse, a multidisciplinary approach with ethical and legal procedures is necessary. In this manuscript, cutaneous manifestations of physical, sexual, emotional abuse and neglect are reviewed and discussed.

  16. Prescription drug misuse/abuse in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Culberson, John W; Ziska, Martin

    2008-09-01

    One quarter of the prescription drugs sold in the United States are used by the elderly, often for problems such as chronic pain, insomnia, and anxiety. The prevalence of abuse may be as high as 11 percent with female gender, social isolation, depression, and history of substance abuse increasing risk. Screening instruments for prescription drug abuse have not been validated in the geriatric population. Benzodiazepines, opiate analgesics, and some skeletal muscle relaxants may result in physical dependence; however, tolerance, withdrawal syndrome, and dose escalation may be less common in the older patient. Lower doses may decrease the risk of abuse and dependence; however, fear of abuse often results in a failure to adequately treat symptoms such as anxiety, pain, and insomnia.

  17. Child Abuse Amendments of 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    The booklet presents the report of the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Education and Labor regarding the 1983 Child Abuse Amendments to the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act and the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment and Adoption Reform Act of 1978. The Amendment expands the definition of child abuse to include abuse by…

  18. Elder abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Muehlbauer, Melissa; Crane, Patricia A

    2006-11-01

    Elder abuse and neglect is a critical health care issue that must be brought to the attention of health care providers and older adults' family members. Adults older than 65 who live at home or in long-term care facilities may be at risk for abuse. Nurses should be aware of the causes, screening questions, symptoms of abuse, and resources in the community. Armed with information and a better understanding about the issue, nurses can minimize the devastating effects of abuse on older adults and their families.

  19. Alternative drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Sutter, M E; Chenoweth, J; Albertson, T E

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations.

  20. Convoluted accommodation structures in folded rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodwell, T. J.; Hunt, G. W.

    2012-10-01

    A simplified variational model for the formation of convoluted accommodation structures, as seen in the hinge zones of larger-scale geological folds, is presented. The model encapsulates some important and intriguing nonlinear features, notably: infinite critical loads, formation of plastic hinges, and buckling on different length-scales. An inextensible elastic beam is forced by uniform overburden pressure and axial load into a V-shaped geometry dictated by formation of a plastic hinge. Using variational methods developed by Dodwell et al., upon which this paper leans heavily, energy minimisation leads to representation as a fourth-order nonlinear differential equation with free boundary conditions. Equilibrium solutions are found using numerical shooting techniques. Under the Maxwell stability criterion, it is recognised that global energy minimisers can exist with convoluted physical shapes. For such solutions, parallels can be drawn with some of the accommodation structures seen in exposed escarpments of real geological folds.

  1. Shear accommodation in dirty grain boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Upmanyu, M.

    2014-04-01

    The effect of solutes (dirt) on the mechanics of crystalline interfaces remains unexplored. Here, we perform atomic-scale simulations to study the effect of carbon segregation on the shear accommodation at select grain boundaries in the classical α-Fe/C system. For shear velocities larger than the solute diffusion rate, we observe a transition from coupled motion to sliding. Below a critical solute excess, the boundaries break away from the solute cloud and exhibit in a coupled motion. At smaller shear velocities, the extrinsic coupled motion is jerky, occurs at relatively small shear stresses, and is aided by fast convective solute diffusion along the boundary. Our studies underscore the combined effect of energetics and kinetics of solutes in modifying the bicrystallography, temperature and rate dependence of shear accommodation at grain boundaries.

  2. Design Principles to Accommodate Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Farage, Miranda A.; Miller, Kenneth W.; Ajayi, Funmi; Hutchins, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The global population is aging. In many industrial countries, almost one in five people are over age 65. As people age, gradual changes ensue in vision, hearing, balance, coordination, and memory. Products, communication materials, and the physical environment must be thoughtfully designed to meet the needs of people of all ages. This article summarizes normal changes in sensory function, mobility, balance, memory, and attention that occur with age. It presents practical guidelines that allow design professionals to accommodate these changes and better meet the needs of older adults. Designing for older adults is inclusive design: it accommodates a range of physical and cognitive abilities and promotes simplicity, flexibility, and ease of use for people of any age. PMID:22980147

  3. Design principles to accommodate older adults.

    PubMed

    Farage, Miranda A; Miller, Kenneth W; Ajayi, Funmi; Hutchins, Deborah

    2012-02-29

    The global population is aging. In many industrial countries, almost one in five people are over age 65. As people age, gradual changes ensue in vision, hearing, balance, coordination, and memory. Products, communication materials, and the physical environment must be thoughtfully designed to meet the needs of people of all ages. This article summarizes normal changes in sensory function, mobility, balance, memory, and attention that occur with age. It presents practical guidelines that allow design professionals to accommodate these changes and better meet the needs of older adults. Designing for older adults is inclusive design: it accommodates a range of physical and cognitive abilities and promotes simplicity, flexibility, and ease of use for people of any age.

  4. Cutaneous manifestations of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Kos, Liborka; Shwayder, Tor

    2006-01-01

    Dermatologists and child abuse are not frequently associated in the minds of most physicians. Yet the most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous. This article reviews cutaneous manifestations of physical abuse, including bruises, lacerations, abrasions, human bites, and burns. It also discusses ways that dermatologists can differentiate abusive injuries from accidental ones as well as from the many dermatologic conditions that can mimic child abuse. Finally, we review what actions the dermatologist should take when suspecting abuse in a patient.

  5. High prevalence of symptoms in a severely abused “non-patient” women population

    PubMed Central

    Pallotta, N; Piacentino, D; Ciccantelli, B; Rivera, M; Golini, N; Spagnoli, A; Vincoli, G; Farchi, S

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this article is to assess the prevalence of somatic symptoms and of gastrointestinal (GI) syndromes in abused “non-patient” women and the association with the time of perpetration, type, and severity of abuse. Methods Sixty-seven women, 18–58 years, receiving shelter in anti-violence associations were invited to fill out an anonymous questionnaire with a medical and an abuse section. The severity of abuse was expressed as the 0–6 Abuse Severity Measure (ASM). The association between abuse characteristics and the number of symptoms, and GI syndromes was assessed by Poisson regression model. Results Most women suffered from childhood and adulthood sexual and physical abuse. They reported a mean of 5.1 GI symptoms (range 0–13; median 5; IQR 6) and of 1.3 extra-GI symptoms (range 0–6; median 1; IQR 2); 30% of women matched the Rome II Criteria for one, 36% for two, and 4.4% for three or more syndromes, respectively. Women with an ASM of 5–6, having suffered from both sexual and physical abuse, reported significantly (p = 0.02) more GI symptoms, but not extra-GI ones (p = 0.07), and met criteria for more GI syndromes than women with an ASM ≤4 and those reporting only one type of abuse. No association was found between the time of perpetration of the abuse and the number of GI and extra-GI symptoms. Conclusions Symptoms in abused “non-patient” women mainly concern the abdomen and the GI tract. A history of severe, combined physical and sexual abuse is associated with a higher number of GI symptoms. PMID:25452847

  6. Substance Abuse Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuzzolino, Robert

    This brochure outlines the substance abuse policy for students at the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine (PCOM/Pennsylvania). Noted are the dangers of substance abuse during the stressful time of medical training and later for the doctor and clients during professional practice. The policy's five goals are briefly stated. Described next…

  7. Alcoholism and Elder Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anetzberger, Georgia J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A comparison group study of abusing and nonabusing caregivers suggested a correlation between alcohol use and violence against elderly parents. Findings reveal that abusers were more likely than nonabusers to drink, to become intoxicated, and to be identified as having a drinking problem. Policy and practice implications are discussed. (Author)

  8. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  9. Antitussives and substance abuse

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Jarrett M; Boyer, Edward W

    2013-01-01

    Abuse of antitussive preparations is a continuing problem in the United States and throughout the world. Illicit, exploratory, or recreational use of dextromethorphan and codeine/promethazine cough syrups is widely described. This review describes the pharmacology, clinical effects, and management of toxicity from commonly abused antitussive formulations. PMID:24648790

  10. Abuse of prescription drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Wilford, B B

    1990-01-01

    An estimated 3% of the United States population deliberately misuse or abuse psychoactive medications, with severe consequences. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, more than half of patients who sought treatment or died of drug-related medical problems in 1989 were abusing prescription drugs. Physicians who contribute to this problem have been described by the American Medical Association as dishonest--willfully misprescribing for purposes of abuse, usually for profit; disabled by personal problems with drugs or alcohol; dated in their knowledge of current pharmacology or therapeutics; or deceived by various patient-initiated fraudulent approaches. Even physicians who do not meet any of these descriptions must guard against contributing to prescription drug abuse through injudicious prescribing, inadequate safeguarding of prescription forms or drug supplies, or acquiescing to the demands or ruses used to obtain drugs for other than medical purposes. PMID:2349801

  11. Parent abuse: a review.

    PubMed

    Kennair, Nicola; Mellor, David

    2007-10-01

    A recent focus of research and clinical practice has been on the issue of abuse of parents by their children (parent abuse). This paper reviews the literature on this phenomenon. While parent abuse falls under the umbrella of family violence, it appears to be qualitatively different from other forms of intra-family abuse. Research has primarily focused on prevalence rates and the characteristics of perpetrators and victims. While various factors such as gender, age, emotional attachment to parents, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, family stress and parenting style and structure have been associated with parent abuse, findings are equivocal. Etiological models are general and untested, and treatment approaches lack empirical support. It is concluded that more rigorous and extensive research is required in order to provide a deeper understanding of this complex issue, and to inform treatment approaches.

  12. Recreational drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Albertson, Timothy E

    2014-02-01

    The use of recreational drugs of abuse continues to expand without limitations to national boundaries, social status, race, or education. Beyond the prevalence of illicit drug use and dependence, their contribution to the global burden of disease and death are large and troubling. All medical providers should be aware of the evolving drugs of abuse and their medical and social consequences. In addition to heroin and stimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine, new designer stimulants called "bath salts" and cannabinoids called "spice," along with the abuse of prescription drugs and volatile substances, are now widely recognized problems in many societies. The wide variety and continuingly expanding clinical manifestations of toxicity of recreational drugs of abuse is not widely appreciated by clinicians. This edition attempts to summarize six major classes of drugs of abuse and their clinical effects with special emphasis on their immunological and respiratory effects.

  13. Hidden Disabilities: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This leaflet discusses alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with hidden disabilities such as cancer, epilepsy, diabetes, kidney failure, hemophilia, hypertension, early stages of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), or heart disease. Their increased risk for alcohol and other drug abuse and reasons for increased risk are…

  14. Dextromethorphan Abuse in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Bryner, Jodi K.; Wang, Uerica K.; Hui, Jenny W.; Bedodo, Merilin; MacDougall, Conan; Anderson, Ilene B.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the trend of dextromethorphan abuse in California and to compare these findings with national trends. Design A 6-year retrospective review. Setting California Poison Control System (CPCS), American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC), and Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) databases from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2004. Participants All dextromethorphan abuse cases reported to the CPCS, AAPCC, and DAWN. The main exposures of dextromethorphan abuse cases included date of exposure, age, acute vs long-term use, coingestants, product formulation, and clinical outcome. Main Outcome Measure The annual proportion of dextromethorphan abuse cases among all exposures reported to the CPCS, AAPCC, and DAWN databases. Results A total of 1382 CPCS cases were included in the study. A 10-fold increase in CPCS dextromethorphan abuse cases from 1999 (0.23 cases per 1000 calls) to 2004 (2.15 cases per 1000 calls) (odds ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.43–1.54) was identified. Of all CPCS dextromethorphan abuse cases, 74.5% were aged 9 to 17 years; the frequency of cases among this age group increased more than 15-fold during the study (from 0.11 to 1.68 cases per 1000 calls). Similar trends were seen in the AAPCC and DAWN databases. The highest frequency of dextromethorphan abuse occurred among adolescents aged 15 and 16 years. The most commonly abused product was Coricidin HBP Cough & Cold Tablets. Conclusions Our study revealed an increasing trend of dextromethorphan abuse cases reported to the CPCS that is paralleled nationally as reported to the AAPCC and DAWN. This increase was most evident in the adolescent population. PMID:17146018

  15. 28 CFR 36.310 - Transportation provided by public accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... public accommodation, customer shuttle bus services operated by private companies and shopping centers, student transportation systems, and transportation provided within recreational facilities such as... readily achievable. (c) Requirements for vehicles and systems. A public accommodation subject to...

  16. 28 CFR 36.310 - Transportation provided by public accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... public accommodation, customer shuttle bus services operated by private companies and shopping centers, student transportation systems, and transportation provided within recreational facilities such as... readily achievable. (c) Requirements for vehicles and systems. A public accommodation subject to...

  17. 28 CFR 36.310 - Transportation provided by public accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... public accommodation, customer shuttle bus services operated by private companies and shopping centers, student transportation systems, and transportation provided within recreational facilities such as... readily achievable. (c) Requirements for vehicles and systems. A public accommodation subject to...

  18. Crystalline lens MTF measurement during simulated accommodation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borja, David; Takeuchi, Gaku; Ziebarth, Noel; Acosta, Ana C.; Manns, Fabrice; Parel, Jean-Marie

    2005-04-01

    Purpose: To design and test an optical system to measure the optical quality of post mortem lenses during simulated accommodation. Methods: An optical bench top system was designed to measure the point spread function and calculate the modulation transfer function (MTF) of monkey and human ex-vivo crystalline lenses. The system consists of a super luminescent diode emitting at 850nm, collimated into a 3mm beam which is focused by the ex-vivo lens under test. The intensity distribution at the focus (point spread function) is re-imaged and magnified onto a beam profiler CCD camera. The optical quality in terms of spatial frequency response (modulation transfer function) is calculated by Fourier transform of the point spread function. The system was used on ex-vivo lenses with attached zonules, ciliary body and sclera. The sclera was glued to 8 separate PMMA segments and stretched radial by 5mm on an accommodation simulating lens stretching device. The point spread function was measured for each lens in the relaxed and stretched state for 5 human (ages 38-86 years) and 5 cynomolgus monkey (ages 53 - 67 months) fresh post mortem crystalline lenses. Results: Stretching induced measurable changes in the MTF. The cutoff frequency increased from 54.4+/-13.6 lp/mm unstretched to 59.5+/-21.4 lp/mm stretched in the post-presbyopic human and from 51.9+/-24.7 lp/mm unstretched to 57.7+/-18.5 lp/mm stretched cynomolgus monkey lenses. Conclusion: The results demonstrate the feasibility of measuring the optical quality of ex-vivo human and cynomolgus monkey lenses during simulated accommodation. Additional experiments are underway to quantify changes in optical quality induced by stretching.

  19. Skylab Workshop experience in experiment accommodation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanlon, W. H.; Hassel, R. R.

    1974-01-01

    This paper examines the experiment support facilities available from the Orbital Workshop (OWS) module of the Skylab. Experiments and associated support provisions have been selected and described to illustrate the various accommodations and degree of complexities involved in the integration of these experiments into the Workshop. The interfaces described start with the simple and proceed to the complex. On the basis of the experience gained in integrating the experiments into the Workshop, conclusions are drawn and suggestions are made on ways to facilitate future experiment operations and at the same time simplify and reduce the cost of integration efforts.

  20. Strain accommodation in inelastic deformation of glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Murali, P.; Ramamurty, U.; Shenoy, Vijay B.

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by recent experiments on metallic glasses, we examine the micromechanisms of strain accommodation including crystallization and void formation during inelastic deformation of glasses by employing molecular statics simulations. Our atomistic simulations with Lennard-Jones-like potentials suggests that a softer short range interaction between atoms favors crystallization. Compressive hydrostatic strain in the presence of a shear strain promotes crystallization whereas a tensile hydrostatic strain is found to induce voids. The deformation subsequent to the onset of crystallization includes partial reamorphization and recrystallization, suggesting important atomistic mechanisms of plastic dissipation in glasses.

  1. Measurement of Gas-Surface Accommodation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trott, W. M.; Rader, D. J.; Castañeda, J. N.; Torczynski, J. R.; Gallis, M. A.

    2008-12-01

    Thermal accommodation coefficients have been determined for a variety of gas-surface combinations using an experimental apparatus developed to measure both the pressure dependence of the conductive heat flux and the variation of gas density between parallel plates separated by a gas-filled gap. Effects of gas composition, surface roughness and surface contamination have been examined with this system, and the behavior of gas mixtures has also been explored. Results are discussed in comparison with previous parallel-plate experimental studies as well as numerical simulations.

  2. Evolution of a polyphenism by genetic accommodation.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yuichiro; Nijhout, H Frederik

    2006-02-03

    Polyphenisms are adaptations in which a genome is associated with discrete alternative phenotypes in different environments. Little is known about the mechanism by which polyphenisms originate. We show that a mutation in the juvenile hormone-regulatory pathway in Manduca sexta enables heat stress to reveal a hidden reaction norm of larval coloration. Selection for increased color change in response to heat stress resulted in the evolution of a larval color polyphenism and a corresponding change in hormonal titers through genetic accommodation. Evidently, mechanisms that regulate developmental hormones can mask genetic variation and act as evolutionary capacitors, facilitating the origin of novel adaptive phenotypes.

  3. Assessment of launch site accommodations versus Spacelab payload requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The Kennedy launch site capability for accommodating spacelab payload operations was assessed. Anomalies between facility accommodations and requirements for the Spacelab III (Strawman), OA Mission 83-2, Dedicated Life Sciences, and Combined Astronomy missions are noted. Recommendations for revision of the accommodations handbook are summarized.

  4. 46 CFR 154.325 - Accommodation, service, and control spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accommodation, service, and control spaces. 154.325... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.325 Accommodation, service, and control spaces. (a) Accommodation, service, and control spaces must be outside the cargo area. (b) If a hold space having a cargo...

  5. 46 CFR 108.211 - Miscellaneous accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. 108.211 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.211 Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. (a) Each unit must have enough facilities for personnel to wash their own...

  6. 46 CFR 108.197 - Construction of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Construction of accommodation spaces. 108.197 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.197 Construction of accommodation spaces. (a) Each sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space that is adjacent to...

  7. 46 CFR 108.211 - Miscellaneous accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. 108.211 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.211 Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. (a) Each unit must have enough facilities for personnel to wash their own...

  8. 46 CFR 108.197 - Construction of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Construction of accommodation spaces. 108.197 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.197 Construction of accommodation spaces. (a) Each sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space that is adjacent to...

  9. 46 CFR 108.197 - Construction of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Construction of accommodation spaces. 108.197 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.197 Construction of accommodation spaces. (a) Each sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space that is adjacent to...

  10. 46 CFR 108.211 - Miscellaneous accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. 108.211 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.211 Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. (a) Each unit must have enough facilities for personnel to wash their own...

  11. 28 CFR 36.310 - Transportation provided by public accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Transportation provided by public... BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Specific Requirements § 36.310 Transportation provided by public accommodations. (a) General. (1) A public accommodation that...

  12. Quick and Easy Adaptations and Accommodations for Early Childhood Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breitfelder, Leisa M.

    2008-01-01

    Research-based information is used to support the idea of the use of adaptations and accommodations for early childhood students who have varying disabilities. Multiple adaptations and accommodations are outlined. A step-by-step plan is provided on how to make specific adaptations and accommodations to fit the specific needs of early childhood…

  13. An Analysis and Rejection of Arguments for Religious Accommodation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kline, Lisa Anne

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation provides a comprehensive critical analysis of six main arguments for religious accommodation, with a specific focus on fundamentalist religious groups and the accommodation of their practices within liberal democratic societies. This analysis reveals that the types of practices that these arguments aim to accommodate primarily…

  14. 46 CFR 154.325 - Accommodation, service, and control spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Accommodation, service, and control spaces. 154.325... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.325 Accommodation, service, and control spaces. (a) Accommodation, service, and control spaces must be outside the cargo area. (b) If a hold space having a cargo...

  15. 46 CFR 108.197 - Construction of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Construction of accommodation spaces. 108.197 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.197 Construction of accommodation spaces. (a) Each sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space that is adjacent to...

  16. 46 CFR 108.211 - Miscellaneous accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. 108.211 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.211 Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. (a) Each unit must have enough facilities for personnel to wash their own...

  17. 46 CFR 154.325 - Accommodation, service, and control spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accommodation, service, and control spaces. 154.325... Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.325 Accommodation, service, and control spaces. (a) Accommodation, service, and control spaces must be outside the cargo area. (b) If a hold space having a cargo...

  18. 46 CFR 108.211 - Miscellaneous accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. 108.211 Section 108... DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.211 Miscellaneous accommodation spaces. (a) Each unit must have enough facilities for personnel to wash their own...

  19. 46 CFR 108.197 - Construction of accommodation spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Construction of accommodation spaces. 108.197 Section... UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Construction and Arrangement Accommodation Spaces § 108.197 Construction of accommodation spaces. (a) Each sleeping, mess, recreational, or hospital space that is adjacent to...

  20. Methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine abuse in substance-abusing adolescents.

    PubMed

    Williams, Robert J; Goodale, Leslie A; Shay-Fiddler, Michele A; Gloster, Susan P; Chang, Samuel Y

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine misuse and abuse was examined in 450 adolescents referred for substance abuse treatment. Twenty three percent reported nonmedical use of these substances and six percent were diagnosed as methylphenidate or dextroamphetamine abusers. Abuse was more common in individuals who were out of school and had an eating disorder. Methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine abuse appears to be much less common than abuse of most other substances. It does occur, however, and parents and schools need to exert greater control over the dispensing of these medications. Physicians are advised to prescribe non-stimulant medications (eg, bupropion) when treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in substance-abusing individuals.

  1. [Dissociated near reflex and accommodative convergence excess].

    PubMed

    Gräf, M; Becker, R; Kloss, S

    2004-10-01

    We report on an 8-year-old boy whose near reflex could be elicited exclusively when the left eye was fixing (LF) but not when the right eye was fixing (RF). With RE +1.25/-1.25/169 degrees and LE +1.0/-0.75/24 degrees, the visual acuity was 1.0 OU at 5 m and RE 0.5, LE 1.0 at 0.3 m improving to 1.0 OU by a near addition of 3.0 D. Stereopsis was 100 degrees (Titmus test). The prism and cover test revealed an esophoria of 4 degrees at 5 m. At 3 m there was an esophoria of 6 degrees (RF) and an esotropia of 28 degrees (LF), compensating to an esophoria of 3 degrees (RF/LF) with a near addition of 3.0 D. Accommodation and the pupillary near reaction (OU) were hardly elicitable during RF. During LF, retinoscopy revealed an accommodation of 8 D (OU) and the pupils constricted normally. Correction by bifocal glasses yielded orthotropia with random dot stereopsis at near.

  2. The OEOP Duties of Reasonable Accommodation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coppedge, Angela

    1995-01-01

    I was fortunate enough to be assigned two assignments during my ten weeks here at NASA's Langley Research Center, in the Office of Equal Opportunity Programs (OEOP). One of my projects gave me the chance to gain experience in developing calculation formulas for the EXCEL computer system, while my second project gave me the chance to put my research skills and legal knowledge to use. The function of the OEOP is to ensure the adherence to personnel policy and practices in the employment, development, advancement and treatment of Federal employees and applicants for employment. This includes veterans and disabled as well. My initial project involved the research of hiring and promotion among the different minorities and females employed here at Langley. The objective of my first project was to develop graphs that showed the number of promotions during the past five years for each minority group here on the Center. I also had to show the average number of years it took for each promotion. The objective of my second and main research project was to find and research cases regarding the reasonable accommodation of disabled workers. The research of these cases is to ensure that individuals with disabilities are provided the necessary accommodations that are essential to the function of their job.

  3. Manned Mars mission accommodation: Sprint mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirillo, William M.; Kaszubowski, Martin J.; Ayers, J. Kirk; Llewellyn, Charles P.; Weidman, Deene J.; Meredith, Barry D.

    1988-04-01

    The results of a study conducted at the NASA-LaRC to assess the impacts on the Phase 2 Space Station of Accommodating a Manned Mission to Mars are documented. In addition, several candidate transportation node configurations are presented to accommodate the assembly and verification of the Mars Mission vehicles. This study includes an identification of a life science research program that would need to be completed, on-orbit, prior to mission departure and an assessment of the necessary orbital technology development and demonstration program needed to accomplish the mission. Also included is an analysis of the configuration mass properties and a preliminary analysis of the Space Station control system sizing that would be required to control the station. Results of the study indicate the Phase 2 Space Station can support a manned mission to Mars with the addition of a supporting infrastructure that includes a propellant depot, assembly hanger, and a heavy lift launch vehicle to support the large launch requirements.

  4. Manned Mars mission accommodation: Sprint mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cirillo, William M.; Kaszubowski, Martin J.; Ayers, J. Kirk; Llewellyn, Charles P.; Weidman, Deene J.; Meredith, Barry D.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a study conducted at the NASA-LaRC to assess the impacts on the Phase 2 Space Station of Accommodating a Manned Mission to Mars are documented. In addition, several candidate transportation node configurations are presented to accommodate the assembly and verification of the Mars Mission vehicles. This study includes an identification of a life science research program that would need to be completed, on-orbit, prior to mission departure and an assessment of the necessary orbital technology development and demonstration program needed to accomplish the mission. Also included is an analysis of the configuration mass properties and a preliminary analysis of the Space Station control system sizing that would be required to control the station. Results of the study indicate the Phase 2 Space Station can support a manned mission to Mars with the addition of a supporting infrastructure that includes a propellant depot, assembly hangar, and a heavy lift launch vehicle to support the large launch requirements.

  5. Encountering Child Abuse at Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durall, John K.

    1997-01-01

    Defines child abuse, including the three categories: physical, sexual, and psychological. Presents characteristics and behaviors of each type of abuse, and long-term effects. Discusses how to handle abuse that occurs at camp, and the effects on the camp. Sidebars present abuse statistics, 15 activities that promote psychological wellness, and 8…

  6. Child Abuse and Mandated Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…

  7. Neurologic aspects of drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Goforth, Harold W; Murtaugh, Reed; Fernandez, Francisco

    2010-02-01

    Neurologic aspects of drug abuse vary. This article explains the general nature of drug abuse, identifies the physiologic effects of certain drugs, and briefly describes the neurobiology of addiction. This article also reviews available treatment options for those addicted to substances of abuse, and clarifies common misconceptions, including the differences between tolerance, abuse, and addiction.

  8. Accommodative lag and fluctuations when optical aberrations are manipulated.

    PubMed

    Gambra, Enrique; Sawides, Lucie; Dorronsoro, Carlos; Marcos, Susana

    2009-06-09

    We evaluated the accommodative response to a stimulus moving from 0 to 6 D following a staircase function under natural, corrected, and induced optical aberrations, using an adaptive-optics (AO) electromagnetic deformable mirror. The accommodative response of the eye (through the mirror) and the change of aberrations were measured on 5 subjects using a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor operating at 12.8 Hz. Five conditions were tested: (1) natural aberrations, (2) AO correction of the unaccommodated state and induction (over 6-mm pupils) of (3) +1 microm and (4) -1 microm of spherical aberration and (5) -2 microm of vertical coma. Four subjects showed a better accommodative response with AO correction than with their natural aberrations. The induction of negative spherical aberration also produced a better accommodative response in the same subjects. Accommodative lag increased in all subjects when positive spherical aberration and coma were induced. Fluctuations of the accommodative response (computed during each 1-D period of steady accommodation) increased with accommodative response when high-order aberrations were induced. The largest fluctuations occurred for induced negative spherical aberration and the smallest for natural and corrected aberrations. The study demonstrates that aberrations influence accommodative lag and fluctuations of accommodation and that correcting aberrations improves rather than compromises the accommodative response.

  9. ADAPT: Attention Deficit Accommodation Plan for Teaching. Teacher Accommodation Planbook [and] Student Planbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Harvey C.

    This student workbook and accompanying teacher's guide are designed to help children with attention deficit disorders (ADD). The Attention Deficit Accommodation Plan for Teaching (ADAPT) teacher planbook guides the teacher in evaluating the students' areas of difficulty. This evaluation is the basis for the design and implementation of classroom…

  10. Accommodating Your Data: The Use and Misuse of Accommodation Theory in Sociolinguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyerhoff, Miriam

    1998-01-01

    Argues for a more rigorous application of accommodation theory in sociolinguistics, presenting an example of how such rigor might be pursued in an analysis of conversational Bislama, a creole spoken in the Republic of Vanuatu. Focus is on the link between speakers' identities and their linguistic behavior. (MSE)

  11. Accommodation Hell, or, To Hell with Accommodation: The ADA and the Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, William L.

    This material is designed to help faculty understand the requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA). A brief overview notes three key considerations: the definition of disability, reasonable accommodation, and undue hardship, and then discusses faculty liability and responsibility for discriminatory acts. The balance of the…

  12. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research ( ... include: PTSD and anxiety. Depression and thoughts of suicide. Sexual anxiety and disorders, including having too many ...

  13. Sexual Abuse of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csapo, Marg

    1988-01-01

    Canadian reports and legislation are reviewed to highlight the school's role in prevention and reporting of suspicions of child sexual abuse. The vulnerability of handicapped children and child pornography are two areas of victimization emphasized. (Author/DB)

  14. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth > For Teens > Cough & Cold ... Someone Quit? Avoiding DXM Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ...

  15. Opioid Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... oxycodone, hydrocodone, fentanyl, and tramadol. The illegal drug heroin is also an opioid. Some opioids are made ... NAS). Opioid abuse may sometimes also lead to heroin use, because some people switch from prescription opioids ...

  16. Synthetic cathinone abuse

    PubMed Central

    Capriola, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The abuse of synthetic cathinones, widely known as bath salts, has been increasing since the mid-2000s. These substances are derivatives of the naturally occurring compound cathinone, which is the primary psychoactive component of khat. The toxicity of synthetic cathinones includes significant sympathomimetic effects, as well as psychosis, agitation, aggression, and sometimes violent and bizarre behavior. Mephedrone and methylenedioxypyrovalerone are currently the predominantly abused synthetic cathinones. PMID:23869180

  17. [Risk factors of child abuse and neglect in childhood].

    PubMed

    Tursz, Anne

    2011-05-01

    Among factors identified as being statistically associated with child abuse, we can broadly distinguish those related to characteristics of the child itself and those related to family characteristics, bearing in mind that parents are the perpetrators of child abuse in the vast majority of cases. Observed among children are: young age (abuse begins very early in life); male sex, as concerns shaken baby syndrome and lethal violence; the presence of mental disability and/or behavioural disorders; and particularly frequently, prematurity, especially if it requires neonatal hospitalisation. In fact, any circumstance that makes early attachment between the newborn and its parents difficult or impossible, such as prematurity or postpartum depression, constitutes a situation of risk for subsequent child abuse. Among parents, psycho-affective factors take precedence over socio-economic factors, which play no role. Child abuse is found in all social classes, as is the transgenerational transmission of violence, with those parents having suffered from abuse as children being more at risk than others of becoming abusive themselves.

  18. [Mental disorders in children after the sexual abuse].

    PubMed

    Proselkova, M E; Kozlovskaia, G V; Platonova, N V

    2006-01-01

    Consequences of intrafamily noncontact abuse (40 children aged from 3 to 13 years) and out-of-family contact abuse (15 children aged from 7 to 15 years) have been studied. The intrafamily abuse was long-term and demanded from a child the immersion into situation of "secrecy". The out-of-family abuse had a character of the extreme influence upon a victim. Independently of the abuse character, border-line mental disorders were found in all children. A character of these disorders was determined by the specifics of psychogenic factor, its duration and child's age. A decreased mood, different levels of autism and disturbances of cognitive function were common features of border-line disorders. In cases of intrafamily abuse, uncontrolled drives, sexual character of games and fantasies, elements of depersonalization and age-specific transformation of affective disorders from depressiveness to dysphoric aggressive reactions were observed. In the out-of-family contact abuse, especially in teenagers, the main appearances approached to posttraumatic stress syndrome. In all cases, there was a trend to stronger differentiation of affective disorders, intensification of drives and formation of characteristic pathologic changes as children get older.

  19. Adaptive Accommodation Control Method for Complex Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Sungchul; Kim, Munsang; Park, Shinsuk

    Robotic systems have been used to automate assembly tasks in manufacturing and in teleoperation. Conventional robotic systems, however, have been ineffective in controlling contact force in multiple contact states of complex assemblythat involves interactions between complex-shaped parts. Unlike robots, humans excel at complex assembly tasks by utilizing their intrinsic impedance, forces and torque sensation, and tactile contact clues. By examining the human behavior in assembling complex parts, this study proposes a novel geometry-independent control method for robotic assembly using adaptive accommodation (or damping) algorithm. Two important conditions for complex assembly, target approachability and bounded contact force, can be met by the proposed control scheme. It generates target approachable motion that leads the object to move closer to a desired target position, while contact force is kept under a predetermined value. Experimental results from complex assembly tests have confirmed the feasibility and applicability of the proposed method.

  20. Astrophysical payload accommodation on the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, B. P.

    1985-01-01

    Surveys of potential space station astrophysics payload requirements and existing point mount design concepts were performed to identify potential design approaches for accommodating astrophysics instruments from space station. Most existing instrument pointing systems were designed for operation from the space shuttle and it is unlikely that they will sustain their performance requirements when exposed to the space station disturbance environment. The technology exists or is becoming available so that precision pointing can be provided from the space station manned core. Development of a disturbance insensitive pointing mount is the key to providing a generic system for space station. It is recommended that the MSFC Suspended Experiment Mount concept be investigated for use as part of a generic pointing mount for space station. Availability of a shirtsleeve module for instrument change out, maintenance and repair is desirable from the user's point of view. Addition of a shirtsleeve module on space station would require a major program commitment.

  1. FDI and Accommodation Using NN Based Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Ramon Ferreiro; de Miguel Catoira, Alberto; Sanz, Beatriz Ferreiro

    Massive application of dynamic backpropagation neural networks is used on closed loop control FDI (fault detection and isolation) tasks. The process dynamics is mapped by means of a trained backpropagation NN to be applied on residual generation. Process supervision is then applied to discriminate faults on process sensors, and process plant parameters. A rule based expert system is used to implement the decision making task and the corresponding solution in terms of faults accommodation and/or reconfiguration. Results show an efficient and robust FDI system which could be used as the core of an SCADA or alternatively as a complement supervision tool operating in parallel with the SCADA when applied on a heat exchanger.

  2. Renal amyloidosis in a drug abuser.

    PubMed

    Tan, A U; Cohen, A H; Levine, B S

    1995-03-01

    Drug abusers, particularly those who inject drugs s.c. ("skin popping"), may develop amyloidosis. Chronic infections are thought to play a pathogenetic role in this setting. A patient is presented who had a history of "skin popping" cocaine and heroin and developed nephrotic syndrome, with an elevated serum creatinine and a creatinine clearance of 61 mL/min. Renal biopsy demonstrated amyloidosis. Treatment with colchicine was initiated, and proteinuria decreased to near normal levels after 12 months. Concomitant with the decrease in proteinuria, creatinine clearance improved, although a repeat renal biopsy failed to show any significant improvement in amyloid burden. These observations suggest that colchicine may be a useful treatment in reversing the proteinuria of renal amyloidosis associated with drug abuse. Furthermore, clinical improvement may occur before any demonstrable regression in the amyloidosis.

  3. The effects of Qi-Qong ocular exercise on accommodation.

    PubMed

    Shih, Y F; Lin, L L; Hwang, C Y; Huang, J K; Hung, P T; Hou, P K

    1995-01-01

    Visual-training methods in management of myopia are suggested as possibly leading to normal vision or an improvement in the refractive state. The purpose of this work was to investigate the hypothesis that a Qi-Qong ocular exercise improves visual function by training the accommodation bias. Variations of pupil size, accommodative amplitude, latency and speed of accommodative response and accommodative adaptation were evaluated objectively. The accommodative state was monitored with an objective infrared refractometer (Nidek AA-2000). Subjects were divided into two groups: experimental (n = 9), and control (n = 8). Subjects of the experimental group undertook the Qi-Qong ocular exercise for at least three years, and were able to perform the exercise smoothly and gently. Subjects of the control group had no knowledge of the Qi-Qong ocular exercise, but were given the same testing procedures as the experimental group. Results showed that Qi-Qong ocular exercise can improve the accommodative amplitude and accelerate the accommodative response slightly, but there was no effect on the latency of accommodative response. Furthermore, the level of accommodative adaptation was elevated, and the pupil became slight miotic. Therefore, the mechanism of visual improvement may undergo a great accommodative adaptation and produce a pinhole effect by miosis of the pupil. Methods of visual training can produce a false image of visual improvement from an enhanced parasympathetic response to a task, but this effect may be a factor that induces progression of myopia.

  4. Abusive Head Trauma (Shaken Baby Syndrome)

    MedlinePlus

    ... bruises around the head, neck, or chest The Child's Development and Education What makes AHT so devastating is ... able to learn through observation, which decreases the child's overall ability to learn. The development of language, vision, balance, and motor coordination, all ...

  5. Abusive Head Trauma (Shaken Baby Syndrome)

    MedlinePlus

    ... and provide little support for their heads. This violent movement pitches the infant's brain back and forth ... severity of the child's injuries. In the most violent cases, children may arrive at the emergency room ...

  6. [Skin signs in child abuse].

    PubMed

    Pau-Charles, I; Darwich-Soliva, E; Grimalt, R

    2012-03-01

    Child abuse is far more prevalent today than is generally recognized. Up to 90% of victims suffer physical abuse that can be observed in signs on the skin. Dermatologists are particularly qualified to identify these signs and distinguish them from other conditions that can mimic abuse. This review covers the signs of child abuse that can be observed on the skin. We discuss clues that can help differentiate between lesions caused by abuse and those that are accidental, and we describe the skin conditions that mimic physical abuse.

  7. Regional Sign Language Varieties in Contact: Investigating Patterns of Accommodation.

    PubMed

    Stamp, Rose; Schembri, Adam; Evans, Bronwen G; Cormier, Kearsy

    2016-01-01

    Short-term linguistic accommodation has been observed in a number of spoken language studies. The first of its kind in sign language research, this study aims to investigate the effects of regional varieties in contact and lexical accommodation in British Sign Language (BSL). Twenty-five participants were recruited from Belfast, Glasgow, Manchester, and Newcastle and paired with the same conversational partner. Participants completed a "spot-the-difference" task which elicited a considerable amount of contrasting regionally specific sign data in the participant-confederate dyads. Accommodation was observed during the task with younger signers accommodating more than older signers. The results are interpreted with reference to the relationship between language contact and lexical accommodation in BSL, and address how further studies could help us better understand how contact and accommodation contribute to language change more generally.

  8. Abuse of medications that theoretically are without abuse potential.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Roy R; Ladner, Mark E; Perry, Candace L; Burke, Randy S; Laizer, Janet T

    2015-03-01

    The potential for abuse of medications that are controlled substances is well known. Abuse of certain noncontrolled prescription drugs and over-the-counter medications also may occur. To some degree, any medication that exerts psychoactive effects may be abused if taken in high enough doses or by means that result in high serum or cerebrospinal fluid levels. Many clinicians may be unaware of the potential for abuse of these medications. This review examines evidence of the possibility of abuse of several common medications that theoretically do not have abuse potential, including cough and cold preparations, antihistamines, anticholinergics, antipsychotics, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, skeletal muscle relaxants, and antiemetics. Means by which such medications may be abused and biochemical and physiological mechanisms fostering their abuse also are discussed.

  9. Accommodation in Astigmatic Children During Visual Task Performance

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Erin M.; Miller, Joseph M.; Apple, Howard P.; Parashar, Pavan; Twelker, J. Daniel; Crescioni, Mabel; Davis, Amy L.; Leonard-Green, Tina K.; Campus, Irene; Sherrill, Duane L.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To determine the accuracy and stability of accommodation in uncorrected children during visual task performance. Methods. Subjects were second- to seventh-grade children from a highly astigmatic population. Measurements of noncycloplegic right eye spherical equivalent (Mnc) were obtained while uncorrected subjects performed three visual tasks at near (40 cm) and distance (2 m). Tasks included reading sentences with stimulus letter size near acuity threshold and an age-appropriate letter size (high task demands) and viewing a video (low task demand). Repeated measures ANOVA assessed the influence of astigmatism, task demand, and accommodative demand on accuracy (mean Mnc) and variability (mean SD of Mnc) of accommodation. Results. For near and distance analyses, respectively, sample size was 321 and 247, mean age was 10.37 (SD 1.77) and 10.30 (SD 1.74) years, mean cycloplegic M was 0.48 (SD 1.10) and 0.79 diopters (D) (SD 1.00), and mean astigmatism was 0.99 (SD 1.15) and 0.75 D (SD 0.96). Poor accommodative accuracy was associated with high astigmatism, low task demand (video viewing), and high accommodative demand. The negative effect of accommodative demand on accuracy increased with increasing astigmatism, with the poorest accommodative accuracy observed in high astigmats (≥3.00 D) with high accommodative demand/high hyperopia (1.53 D and 2.05 D of underaccommodation for near and distant stimuli, respectively). Accommodative variability was greatest in high astigmats and was uniformly high across task condition. No/low and moderate astigmats showed higher variability for the video task than the reading tasks. Conclusions. Accuracy of accommodation is reduced in uncorrected children with high astigmatism and high accommodative demand/high hyperopia, but improves with increased visual task demand (reading). High astigmats showed the greatest variability in accommodation. PMID:25103265

  10. Emerging drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Michael E; Bryant, Sean M; Aks, Steven E

    2014-02-01

    Many new emerging drugs of abuse are marketed as legal highs despite being labeled "not for human consumption" to avoid regulation. The availability of these substances over the Internet and in "head shops" has lead to a multitude of emergency department visits with severe complications including deaths worldwide. Despite recent media attention, many of the newer drugs of abuse are still largely unknown by health care providers. Slight alterations of the basic chemical structure of substances create an entirely new drug no longer regulated by current laws and an ever-changing landscape of clinical effects. The purity of each substance with exact pharmacokinetic and toxicity profiles is largely unknown. Many of these substances can be grouped by the class of drug and includes synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, phenethylamines, as well as piperazine derivatives. Resultant effects generally include psychoactive and sympathomimetic-like symptoms. Additionally, prescription medications, performance enhancing medications, and herbal supplements are also becoming more commonly abused. Most new drugs of abuse have no specific antidote and management largely involves symptom based goal directed supportive care with benzodiazepines as a useful adjunct. This paper will focus on the history, epidemiology, clinical effects, laboratory analysis, and management strategy for many of these emerging drugs of abuse.

  11. Research centrifuge accommodations on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arno, Roger D.; Horkachuk, Michael J.

    1990-01-01

    Life sciences research using plants and animals on the Space Station Freedom requires the ability to maintain live subjects in a safe and low stress environment for long durations at microgravity and at one g. The need for a centrifuge to achieve these accelerations is evident. Programmatic, technical, and cost considerations currently favor a 2.5 meter diameter centrifuge located either in the end cone of a Space Station Freedom node or in a separate module. A centrifuge facility could support a mix of rodent, plant, and small primate habitats. An automated cage extractor could be used to remove modular habitats in pairs without stopping the main rotor, minimizing the disruption to experiment protocols. The accommodation of such a centrifuge facility on the Space Station represents a significant demand on the crew time, power, data, volume, and logistics capability. It will contribute to a better understanding of the effects of space flight on humans, an understanding of plant growth in space for the eventual production of food, and an understanding of the role of gravity in biological processes.

  12. Accommodating Actuator Failures in Flight Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. A.; Siwakosit, W.; Chung, J.

    1998-01-01

    A technique for the design of flight control systems that can accommodate a set of actuator failures is presented. As employed herein, an actuator failure is defined as any change in the parametric model of the actuator which can adversely affect actuator performance. The technique is based upon the formulation of a fixed feedback topology which ensures at least stability in the presence of the failures in the set. The fixed compensation is obtained from a loop-shaping design procedure similar to Quantitative Feedback Theory and provides stability robustness in the presence of uncertainty in the vehicle dynamics caused by the failures. System adaptation to improve performance after actuator failure(s) occurs through a static gain adjustment in the compensator followed by modification of the system prefilter. Precise identification of the vehicle dynamics is unnecessary. Application to a single-input, single-output design using a simplified model of the longitudinal dynamics of the NASA High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle is discussed. Non-real time simulations of the system including a model of the pilot demonstrate the effectiveness and limitations of the approach.

  13. How Do People with Intellectual Disabilities View Abuse and Abusers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northway, Ruth; Melsome, Melissa; Flood, Samantha; Bennett, Davey; Howarth, Joyce; Thomas, Becki

    2013-01-01

    People with intellectual disabilities have a higher risk of being abused than other people, but to date research has not explored their views regarding abuse. This article reports the findings relating to one question within a participatory research study concerning the abuse of people with intellectual disabilities. This question asked what…

  14. Substance abuse and child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Wells, Kathryn

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  15. An Autoethnographic Story of Abuse: Healing and Finding Hope Through a Sexual Health Promotion Project for Adolescents With Developmental Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Murray, B Lee

    This case report is the story of my son's alleged abuse, told from my perspective. At the time, Jordan, a boy with Down syndrome, was 14 years old when his disclosure of sexual abuse by a school employee occurred. As part of the healing process, I use autoethnography to tell the story. I also describe and discuss a school-based program, which I developed and deliver, to provide sexual health promotion and sexual abuse prevention to adolescents with developmental disabilities.

  16. Chronic time abuse.

    PubMed

    Berglas, Steven

    2004-06-01

    Anyone who has ever managed people who abuse time--whether they are chronic procrastinators or individuals who work obsessively to meet deadlines weeks in advance--knows how disruptive they can be to a business's morale and operating efficiency. But lessons in time management will have no impact on these employees. That's because real time abuse results from psychological conflict that neither a workshop nor a manager's cajoling can cure. Indeed, the time abuser's quarrel isn't even with time but rather with a brittle self-esteem and an unconscious fear of being evaluated and found wanting. This article describes four types of time abusers typically encountered in the workplace: Perfectionists are almost physically afraid of receiving feedback. Their work has to be "perfect," so they can increase their likelihood of earning a positive evaluation or at least avoid getting a negative one. Preemptives try to be in control by handing in work far earlier than they need to, making themselves unpopular and unavailable in the process. People pleasers commit to far too much work because they find it impossible to say no. Procrastinators make constant (and often reasonable-sounding) excuses to mask a fear of being found inadequate in their jobs. Managing these four types of people can be challenging, since time abusers respond differently from most other employees to criticism and approval. Praising a procrastinator when he is on time, for instance, will only exacerbate the problem, because he will fear that your expectations are even higher than before. In fact, some time abusers, like the perfectionist, may need professional treatment. This article will give you insight into why they are the way they are--and what can be done to help them manage their problems.

  17. Vaccines against drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Shen, X Y; Orson, F M; Kosten, T R

    2012-01-01

    The currently available medications for the treatment of drug abuse have had only limited success. Anti-addiction vaccines, aimed at eliciting antibodies that block the pharmacological effects of drugs, have great potential for treating drug abuse. We review the status of two vaccines that are undergoing clinical trials (for cocaine and nicotine addiction) and two that are still in preclinical development (for methamphetamine and heroin addiction). We also outline the challenges and ethical concerns associated with the development of anti-addiction vaccines and their use as future therapeutics.

  18. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse.

    PubMed

    2009-05-01

    The role of imaging in cases of child abuse is to identify the extent of physical injury when abuse is present and to elucidate all imaging findings that point to alternative diagnoses. Effective diagnostic imaging of child abuse rests on high-quality technology as well as a full appreciation of the clinical and pathologic alterations occurring in abused children. This statement is a revision of the previous policy published in 2000.

  19. Effect of Vision Therapy on Accommodation in Myopic Chinese Children

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Martin Ming-Leung; Scheiman, Mitchell; Su, Cuiyun

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. We evaluated the effectiveness of office-based accommodative/vergence therapy (OBAVT) with home reinforcement to improve accommodative function in myopic children with poor accommodative response. Methods. This was a prospective unmasked pilot study. 14 Chinese myopic children aged 8 to 12 years with at least 1 D of lag of accommodation were enrolled. All subjects received 12 weeks of 60-minute office-based accommodative/vergence therapy (OBAVT) with home reinforcement. Primary outcome measure was the change in monocular lag of accommodation from baseline visit to 12-week visit measured by Shinnipon open-field autorefractor. Secondary outcome measures were the changes in accommodative amplitude and monocular accommodative facility. Results. All participants completed the study. The lag of accommodation at baseline visit was 1.29 ± 0.21 D and it was reduced to 0.84 ± 0.19 D at 12-week visit. This difference (−0.46 ± 0.22 D; 95% confidence interval: −0.33 to −0.58 D) is statistically significant (p < 0.0001). OBAVT also increased the amplitude and facility by 3.66 ± 3.36 D (p = 0.0013; 95% confidence interval: 1.72 to 5.60 D) and 10.9 ± 4.8 cpm (p < 0.0001; 95% confidence interval: 8.1 to 13.6 cpm), respectively. Conclusion. Standardized 12 weeks of OBAVT with home reinforcement is able to significantly reduce monocular lag of accommodation and increase monocular accommodative amplitude and facility. A randomized clinical trial designed to investigate the effect of vision therapy on myopia progression is warranted. PMID:28097018

  20. Israeli Perspectives on Elder Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabi, Keren

    2006-01-01

    Despite the prevailing agreement among researchers that the increasing rate of elder abuse in Israel is relatively understudied, not sufficiently identified, and not appropriately addressed, literature on elderly abuse in the Israeli society remains limited. The common discourse on aging, eldercare, and elder abuse and neglect, mainly revolves…

  1. Child Abuse: Betrayal and Disclosure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foynes, Melissa Ming; Freyd, Jennifer J.; DePrince, Anne P.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The current study tested several hypotheses about disclosure of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse derived from Betrayal Trauma Theory [Freyd, J. J. (1996). Betrayal trauma: The logic of forgetting childhood abuse. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press]. We predicted that the duration of time from abuse to its disclosure…

  2. Literature Review of Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePanfilis, Diane

    This document provides a review of recent, state-of-the-art literature concerning the nature, extent, dynamics, and effects of child sexual abuse and examines America's preventive intervention and treatment efforts for child sexual abuse. After an extensive presentation of the problems of defining terms in sexual abuse, these topics are discussed:…

  3. Child Abuse and Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Joann, Ed.; Bartlette, Don

    1992-01-01

    Literature indicating high rates of abuse in this population is reviewed, as is literature indicating high rates of developmental disabilities in child victims of abuse. Problems in data collecting practices are noted. Reasons for these children's greater risk for abuse are identified, including child attributes, stress, parent vulnerabilities,…

  4. Abuse and the Special Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Linda; Corte, Suzanne Della

    1987-01-01

    The issue's major feature, on physical and sexual abuse of handicapped children, focuses on education and adult awareness of the problem. It has been well documented that children with handicaps are especially vulnerable to abuse. Parents or other adults who believe that abuse has occurred should first write down exactly what the child has told…

  5. Child Abuse Prevention Handbook. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. Crime Prevention Center.

    Intended to heighten public awareness and provide practical information to professionals, this handbook defines and describes child abuse (including sexual abuse) and its associated signs and injuries. The societal and family environments in which child abuse most typically occurs are described, and the California penal code sections pertaining to…

  6. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abuse: Research, Treatment, & Program Innovations for Victims, Survivors, & Offenders, 14(4), 1-24. doi: 10.1300/J070v14n04_ ... 1996). Childhood sexual abuse and psychiatric disorder in young adulthood: Psychiatric outcomes of childhood sexual abuse. Journal ...

  7. Geriatric Alcoholism and Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature and presents new data on alcohol and drug problems in older individuals. Drug abusers include users of opiates, inadvertent misusers, and deliberate abusers of nonopiates. Two to 10 percent of the elderly are alcoholic, and these are usually individuals beginning alcohol abuse after age 40. (Author)

  8. Drug Abuse in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorzelli, James F.

    This report examines the incidence of drug abuse and the methods of treatment and prevention of drug abuse used in Southeast Asia. Countries studied include Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Because of Malaysia's intensive effort to eliminate its drug abuse problem, emphasis is placed on this country's treatment and…

  9. Recognizing the adolescent drug abuser.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, R G; Jacobs, E A

    1987-03-01

    Adolescents are at high risk for using and abusing illicit drugs. Guidelines for recognizing drug abusers are presented as well as a staging process for progression of drug use. The family physician is in an ideal position to identify young users/abusers and to assist them and their families in obtaining much needed assistance.

  10. The Drug-Abuse Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferneau, E.; Mueller, S.

    The drug-abuse questionnaire used to survey college student attitudes on the subject is provided. It is identical to the alcoholism questionnaire except for word changes appropriate to the subject matter. The questionnaire consists of 40 statements about drug abuse and drug abusers, with 7 possible responses: (1) completely disagree; (2) mostly…

  11. The Revictimization of Adult Women With Histories of Childhood Abuse

    PubMed Central

    CHU, JAMES A.

    1992-01-01

    Both clinical experience and recent research statistics support the observation that childhood abuse survivors are vulnerable to revictimization as adults. The responsibility for revictimization, such as physical or sexual assault, belongs to the perpetrators. However, the factors that make abuse survivors more vulnerable to exploitation need to be examined and understood in order to provide adequate treatment and protection. This discussion integrates an understanding of three powerful forces—the repetition compulsion, post-traumatic syndromes, and profound relational disturbances—that permit the process of revictimization to occur. PMID:22700102

  12. ATHENA: system studies and optics accommodation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayre, M.; Bavdaz, M.; Ferreira, I.; Wille, E.; Fransen, S.; Stefanescu, A.; Linder, M.

    2016-07-01

    ATHENA is currently in Phase A, with a view to adoption upon a successful Mission Adoption Review in 2019/2020. After a brief presentation of the reference spacecraft (SC) design, this paper will focus on the functional and environmental requirements, the thermo-mechanical design and the Assembly, Integration, Verification & Test (AIVT) considerations related to housing the Silicon Pore Optics (SPO) Mirror Modules (MM) in the very large Mirror Assembly Module (MAM). Initially functional requirements on the MM accommodation are presented, with the Effective Area and Half Energy Width (HEW) requirements leading to a MAM comprising (depending on final mirror size selected) between 700-1000 MMs, co-aligned with exquisite accuracy to provide a common focus. A preliminary HEW budget allocated across the main error-contributors is presented, and this is then used as a reference to derive subsequent requirements and engineering considerations, including: The procedures and technologies for MM-integration into the Mirror Structure (MS) to achieve the required alignment accuracies in a timely manner; stiffness requirements and handling scheme required to constrain deformation under gravity during x-ray testing; temperature control to constrain thermo-elastic deformation during flight; and the role of the Instrument Switching Mechanism (ISM) in constraining HEW and Effective Area errors. Next, we present the key environmental requirements of the MMs, and the need to minimise shock-loading of the MMs is stressed. Methods to achieve this Ø are presented, including: Selection of a large clamp-band launch vehicle interface (LV I/F); lengthening of the shock-path from the LV I/F to the MAM I/F; modal-tuning of the MAM to act as a low-pass filter during launch shock events; use of low-shock HDRMs for the MAM; and the possibility to deploy a passive vibration solution at the LV I/F to reduce loads.

  13. Accommodation to an Unlikely Episodic State

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Charles; Frazier, Lyn

    2015-01-01

    Mini-discourses like (ia) seem slightly odd compared to their counterparts containing a conjunction (ib). (i) a. Speaker A: John or Bill left. Speaker B: Sam did too. b. Speaker A: John and Bill left. Speaker B: Sam did too. One possibility is that or in Speaker A's utterance in (ia) raises the potential Question Under Discussion (QUD) whether it was John or Bill who left and Speaker B's reply fails to address this QUD. A different possibility is that the epistemic state of the speaker of (ia) is somewhat unlikely or uneven: the speaker knows that someone left, and that it was John or Bill, but doesn't know which one. The results of four acceptability judgment studies confirmed that (ia) is less good or coherent than (ib) (Experiment 1), but not due to failure to address the QUD implicitly introduced by the disjunction because the penalty for disjunction persisted even in the presence of a different overt QUD (Experiment 2) and even when there was no reply to Speaker A (Experiment 3). The hypothesis that accommodating an unusual epistemic state might underlie the lower acceptability of disjunction was supported by the fact that the disjunction penalty is larger in past tense discourses than in future discourses, where partial knowledge of events is the norm (Experiment 4). The results of an eye tracking study revealed a penalty for disjunction relative to conjunction that was significantly smaller when a lead in (I wonder if it was…) explicitly introduced the disjunction. This interaction (connective X lead in) appeared in early measures on the disjunctive phrase itself, suggesting that the input is related to an inferred epistemic state of the speaker in a rapid and ongoing fashion. PMID:26568651

  14. Cognitive and Emotional Differences between Abusive and Non-Abusive Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Karen J.; Wolfe, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Abusive fathers perpetrate a substantial portion of child physical abuse. Despite this, little is known about how they differ from non-abusive fathers. This study compared a broad range of cognitive and affective factors between physically abusive and non-abusive fathers. Methods: Abusive (n = 24) and non-abusive (n = 25) fathers…

  15. Children of substance abusers: overview of research findings.

    PubMed

    Johnson, J L; Leff, M

    1999-05-01

    A relationship between parental substance abuse and subsequent alcohol problems in their children has been documented extensively. Children of alcoholics (COAs) are considered to be at high risk because there is a greater likelihood that they will develop alcoholism compared with a randomly selected child from the same community. COAs and children of other drug-abusing parents are especially vulnerable to the risk for maladaptive behavior because they have combinations of many risk factors present in their lives. The single most potent risk factor is their parent's substance-abusing behavior. This single risk factor can place children of substance abusers at biologic, psychologic, and environmental risk. Since the turn of the century, many reports have described the deleterious influence of parental alcoholism on their children. A series of studies measured mortality, physiology, and general health in the offspring of alcoholic parents and concluded that when mothers stopped drinking during gestation, their children were healthier. Today, research on COAs can be classified into studies of fetal alcohol syndrome, the transmission of alcoholism, psychobiologic markers of vulnerability, and psychosocial characteristics. Each of these studies hypothesizes that differences between COAs and children of nonalcoholics influence maladaptive behaviors later in life, such as academic failure or alcoholism. This research supports the belief that COAs are at risk for a variety of problems that may include behavioral, psychologic, cognitive, or neuropsychologic deficits. The vast literature on COAs far outweighs the literature on children of other drug abusers. Relatively little is known about children of heroin addicts, cocaine abusers, or polydrug abusers. Nonetheless, many researchers suggest that the children of addicted parents are at greater risk for later dysfunctional behaviors and that they, too, deserve significant attention to prevent intergenerational transmission of

  16. 46 CFR 127.260 - Ventilation for accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... vessel of 100 or more gross tons must be provided with a mechanical ventilation system unless the... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ventilation for accommodations. 127.260 Section 127.260... ARRANGEMENTS Particular Construction and Arrangements § 127.260 Ventilation for accommodations. (a)...

  17. 46 CFR 190.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 190.20-20 Section 190.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accomodations for Officers, Crew, and Scientific Personnel § 190.20-20 Sleeping...) Sleeping accommodations for the crew must be divided into rooms, no one of which must berth more than...

  18. 46 CFR 190.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 190.20-20 Section 190.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accomodations for Officers, Crew, and Scientific Personnel § 190.20-20 Sleeping...) Sleeping accommodations for the crew must be divided into rooms, no one of which must berth more than...

  19. 36 CFR 910.34 - Accommodations for the physically handicapped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accommodations for the... § 910.34 Accommodations for the physically handicapped. (a) Every development shall incorporate features... Standard Specifications for Making Buildings and Facilities Accessible to, and Usable by the...

  20. Religious Observance Accommodation in Ontario Universities. Discussion Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Carole Ann

    This paper highlights the religious accommodations that Ontario (Canada) universities have undertaken to create an inclusive, supportive learning community for all students, faculty, and staff. It outlines the demographic changes and public policy surrounding religious accommodation issues in Canada and in Ontario in particular, focusing on the…

  1. 46 CFR 127.260 - Ventilation for accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Ventilation for accommodations. 127.260 Section 127.260... ARRANGEMENTS Particular Construction and Arrangements § 127.260 Ventilation for accommodations. (a) Each... vessel of 100 or more gross tons must be provided with a mechanical ventilation system unless...

  2. 46 CFR 127.260 - Ventilation for accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Ventilation for accommodations. 127.260 Section 127.260... ARRANGEMENTS Particular Construction and Arrangements § 127.260 Ventilation for accommodations. (a) Each... vessel of 100 or more gross tons must be provided with a mechanical ventilation system unless...

  3. 46 CFR 127.260 - Ventilation for accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Ventilation for accommodations. 127.260 Section 127.260... ARRANGEMENTS Particular Construction and Arrangements § 127.260 Ventilation for accommodations. (a) Each... vessel of 100 or more gross tons must be provided with a mechanical ventilation system unless...

  4. 46 CFR 127.270 - Location of accommodations and pilothouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... accommodations and chain lockers, cargo spaces, or machinery spaces. (f) No sounding tubes, or vents from fuel-oil or cargo-oil tanks may open into accommodations for crew members or offshore workers, except that sounding tubes may open into passageways. (g) No access openings from fuel-oil or cargo-oil tanks may...

  5. 46 CFR 127.270 - Location of accommodations and pilothouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... accommodations and chain lockers, cargo spaces, or machinery spaces. (f) No sounding tubes, or vents from fuel-oil or cargo-oil tanks may open into accommodations for crew members or offshore workers, except that sounding tubes may open into passageways. (g) No access openings from fuel-oil or cargo-oil tanks may...

  6. 46 CFR 127.270 - Location of accommodations and pilothouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... accommodations and chain lockers, cargo spaces, or machinery spaces. (f) No sounding tubes, or vents from fuel-oil or cargo-oil tanks may open into accommodations for crew members or offshore workers, except that sounding tubes may open into passageways. (g) No access openings from fuel-oil or cargo-oil tanks may...

  7. 46 CFR 127.270 - Location of accommodations and pilothouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... accommodations and chain lockers, cargo spaces, or machinery spaces. (f) No sounding tubes, or vents from fuel-oil or cargo-oil tanks may open into accommodations for crew members or offshore workers, except that sounding tubes may open into passageways. (g) No access openings from fuel-oil or cargo-oil tanks may...

  8. 46 CFR 154.325 - Accommodation, service, and control spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accommodation, service, and control spaces. 154.325 Section 154.325 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS... system, required by this part to have a secondary barrier, is separated from any accommodation,...

  9. Evaluating Computer-Based Test Accommodations for English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roohr, Katrina Crotts; Sireci, Stephen G.

    2017-01-01

    Test accommodations for English learners (ELs) are intended to reduce the language barrier and level the playing field, allowing ELs to better demonstrate their true proficiencies. Computer-based accommodations for ELs show promising results for leveling that field while also providing us with additional data to more closely investigate the…

  10. 46 CFR 127.270 - Location of accommodations and pilothouse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Section 127.270 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS... waterline. (d) No hawse pipe or chain pipe may pass through accommodations for crew members or offshore... accommodations and chain lockers, cargo spaces, or machinery spaces. (f) No sounding tubes, or vents from...

  11. 24 CFR 966.7 - Accommodation of persons with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accommodation of persons with disabilities. 966.7 Section 966.7 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... Requirements § 966.7 Accommodation of persons with disabilities. (a) For all aspects of the lease and...

  12. Family Accommodation in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Geffken, Gary R.; Merlo, Lisa J.; Jacob, Marni L.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Larson, Michael J.; Fernandez, Melanie; Grabill, Kristen

    2007-01-01

    Despite the importance of the family in the treatment of pediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), relatively little empirical attention has been directed to family accommodation of symptoms. This study examined the relations among family accommodation, OCD symptom severity, functional impairment, and internalizing and externalizing behavior…

  13. 46 CFR 190.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 190.20-20 Section 190.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accomodations for Officers, Crew, and Scientific Personnel § 190.20-20 Sleeping...) Sleeping accommodations for the crew must be divided into rooms, no one of which must berth more than...

  14. 46 CFR 190.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 190.20-20 Section 190.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accomodations for Officers, Crew, and Scientific Personnel § 190.20-20 Sleeping...) Sleeping accommodations for the crew must be divided into rooms, no one of which must berth more than...

  15. 46 CFR 190.20-20 - Sleeping accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Sleeping accommodations. 190.20-20 Section 190.20-20... CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Accomodations for Officers, Crew, and Scientific Personnel § 190.20-20 Sleeping...) Sleeping accommodations for the crew must be divided into rooms, no one of which must berth more than...

  16. Regional Sign Language Varieties in Contact: Investigating Patterns of Accommodation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stamp, Rose; Schembri, Adam; Evans, Bronwen G.; Cormier, Kearsy

    2016-01-01

    Short-term linguistic accommodation has been observed in a number of spoken language studies. The first of its kind in sign language research, this study aims to investigate the effects of regional varieties in contact and lexical accommodation in British Sign Language (BSL). Twenty-five participants were recruited from Belfast, Glasgow,…

  17. Accommodating World Englishes in Developing EFL Learners' Oral Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukminatien, Nur

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to discuss issues of World Englishes (WEs) and the implications in ELT. It explores the extent to which WEs are taken into account as emerging English varieties different from inner circle varieties, how WEs should be accommodated by English teachers, and which standard to adopt to accommodate learner's linguistic needs for…

  18. School Boarding Accommodation. A Design Guide. Building Bulletin 84.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Jeremy; Lloyd-Jones, Liz; Carden, Tom; Daniels, Richard; Fitzgerald, Brian; Maddick, Jenny

    This bulletin contains on-statutory guidance describing good practice and its implications for boarding accommodation to assist those responsible for briefing and designing boarding accommodations across all school sectors. It offers practical advice and illustrates examples that reflect changes in provision which are thought to be acceptable and…

  19. Examining Student Factors in Sources of Setting Accommodation DIF

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Yu-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated potential sources of setting accommodation resulting in differential item functioning (DIF) on math and reading assessments for examinees with varied learning characteristics. The examinees were those who participated in large-scale assessments and were tested in either standardized or accommodated testing…

  20. Effects of Learning Style Accommodation on Achievement of Second Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Carol Bugg; Halpin, Gerald; Halpin, Glennelle

    1996-01-01

    Whether grades earned in reading, mathematics, and language by 158 second graders when learning environmental accommodations were made in the areas of light, sound, temperature, design, and mobility differed from grades of control group students without these accommodations was studied. Control group students had higher mathematics and language…

  1. Effects of Learning Style Accommodation on Achievement of Second Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Carol Bugg

    The purpose of this study was to devise an instructional model accommodating students' learning styles in the following areas: sound, light, temperature, design, and mobility. Specifically, this study determined if students in an experimental group with environmental accommodations to their preferred modes of learning differed from students in a…

  2. Transition to Postsecondary: New Documentation Guidance for Access to Accommodations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klotz, Mary Beth

    2012-01-01

    The Association on Higher Education and Disability (AHEAD) recently developed a conceptual framework that substantially revises its guidance for disability documentation for accommodations in higher education settings. This new document, "Supporting Accommodation Requests: Guidance on Documentation Practices," was written in response to the…

  3. Impact of Workstation Accommodation on Fatigue and Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    this study. The present research focuses on the biodynamic impact of anthropometric accommodation of a dual- monitor computer workstation on an...Biometric Response Cognitive Response Good Anthropometric Accommodation Sustainable & Optimal Muscular...Activity, Low Levels of Subjective Discomfort Sustainable & Optimal Levels of Cerebral Oxygenation & Cognitive Performance Poor Anthropometric

  4. 14 CFR 1204.1510 - Efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns. 1204.1510 Section 1204.1510 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION... Programs and Activities § 1204.1510 Efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns. (a) If a...

  5. An Accommodations Model for the Secondary Inclusive Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, David; Baker, Diana

    2012-01-01

    Despite expectations for accommodations in inclusive classrooms, little guidance for effective practice is available. Most accommodations policies and evidence-based practices address assessments. High school regular and special educators collaborated in focus groups to articulate a model based on their practices and perceptions of best practice.…

  6. 24 CFR 966.7 - Accommodation of persons with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Accommodation of persons with disabilities. 966.7 Section 966.7 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... Requirements § 966.7 Accommodation of persons with disabilities. (a) For all aspects of the lease and...

  7. 24 CFR 966.7 - Accommodation of persons with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Accommodation of persons with disabilities. 966.7 Section 966.7 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... Requirements § 966.7 Accommodation of persons with disabilities. (a) For all aspects of the lease and...

  8. 24 CFR 966.7 - Accommodation of persons with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Accommodation of persons with disabilities. 966.7 Section 966.7 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... Requirements § 966.7 Accommodation of persons with disabilities. (a) For all aspects of the lease and...

  9. 24 CFR 966.7 - Accommodation of persons with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Accommodation of persons with disabilities. 966.7 Section 966.7 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... Requirements § 966.7 Accommodation of persons with disabilities. (a) For all aspects of the lease and...

  10. Abuse Characteristics and Psychiatric Consequences Associated with Online Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Say, Gökçe Nur; Babadağı, Zehra; Karabekiroğlu, Koray; Yüce, Murat; Akbaş, Seher

    2015-06-01

    The current study examined the rate and psychiatric correlates of sexual abuse involving the use of digital technologies by the offender in a wide sample of juvenile victims. Sociodemographic, abuse, and psychiatric characteristics of 662 sexually abused children and adolescents were evaluated. Of these, 93 reported that digital devices were used by the offender in several ways to facilitate the sexual abuse. The offender-victim relationship was initiated through the Internet in 39 victims. Involvement of digital technologies in sexual abuse was significantly associated with penetrative and recurrent form of sexual abuse commited by multiple offenders with coexisting violence. Additionally, victims of sexual abuse with a digital component were 4.21 times more likely to develop any psychopathology, 3.77 times more likely to have depression, and 2.14 times more likely to have post-traumatic stress disorder as a result of sexual abuse. These results indicated that the offender's use of digital technology may aid the initiation and facilitation of the sexual abuse of youths and may relate to more severe outcomes. This study revealed the importance of raising the awareness of professionals and the community about the potential risks associated with digital technologies and sexual abuse. Mental health professionals should consider this additional form of victimization, especially when dealing with sexual abuse victims.

  11. Cultural value orientations, internalized homophobia, and accommodation in romantic relationships.

    PubMed

    Gaines, Stanley O; Henderson, Michael C; Kim, Mary; Gilstrap, Samuel; Yi, Jennifer; Rusbult, Caryl E; Hardin, Deletha P; Gaertner, Lowell

    2005-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the impact of cultural value orientations (i.e., the personally oriented value of individualism, and the socially oriented values of collectivism, familism, romanticism, and spiritualism) on accommodation (i.e., voice and loyalty, rather than exit and neglect, responses to partners' anger or criticism) in heterosexual and gay relationships; and we examined the impact of internalized homophobia (i.e., attitudes toward self, other, and disclosure) on accommodation specifically in gay relationships. A total of 262 heterosexuals (102 men and 162 women) and 857 gays (474 men and 383 women) participated in the present study. Consistent with hypotheses, among heterosexuals and gays, socially oriented values were significantly and positively related to accommodation (whereas the personally oriented value of individualism was unrelated to accommodation); and among gays in particular, internalized homophobia was significantly and negatively related to accommodation. Implications for the study of heterosexual and gay relationships are discussed.

  12. Educating against Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This book is a compilation of drug education and drug abuse prevention materials collected by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) along with example of activities carried out by various countries. It opens with four introductory papers by separate authors: (1) "Prevention of Drug Dependence: A Utopian…

  13. Drug and Substance Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adults Making Your Wishes Known Home & Community Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Drug and Substance Abuse Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Basic Facts & Information Causes & Symptoms Diagnosis & Tests Care & Treatment Lifestyle & Management Other Resources Caregiving How ...

  14. Substance Abuse and Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Amos, Ed.

    This book focuses on the identification of practical knowledge and skills needed for counseling individuals with substance abuse problems. It is a resource for practitioners, students, and faculty in school counseling, rehabilitation counseling, mental health counseling, school psychology, or social work in recognizing, preventing, and treating…

  15. Handbook On Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupont, Robert I.; And Others

    A decade of professional research on drug abuse has produced both an abundance of materials and a vocabulary that is not shared by planners, clinicians, and policy makers. This handbook compiles the major developments of the period and their treatment and research implications in a style intended to be understood by all three types of…

  16. Abused and Traumatized Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    This document is a class presentation designed to present a history of child abuse and interventions for the beginning play therapist. Attempts to understand child behavior are traced back to their roots in the fields of mental retardation and special education as early as 1799 and followed through the mental health and child guidance movements of…

  17. New drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Rech, Megan A; Donahey, Elisabeth; Cappiello Dziedzic, Jacqueline M; Oh, Laura; Greenhalgh, Elizabeth

    2015-02-01

    Drug abuse is a common problem and growing concern in the United States, and over the past decade, novel or atypical drugs have emerged and have become increasingly popular. Recognition and treatment of new drugs of abuse pose many challenges for health care providers due to lack of quantitative reporting and routine surveillance, and the difficulty of detection in routine blood and urine analyses. Furthermore, street manufacturers are able to rapidly adapt and develop new synthetic isolates of older drugs as soon as law enforcement agencies render them illegal. In this article, we describe the clinical and adverse effects and purported pharmacology of several new classes of drugs of abuse including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, salvia, desomorphine, and kratom. Because many of these substances can have severe or life-threatening adverse effects, knowledge of general toxicology is key in recognizing acute intoxication and overdose; however, typical toxidromes (e.g., cholinergic, sympathomimetic, opioid, etc.) are not precipitated by many of these agents. Medical management of patients who abuse or overdose on these drugs largely consists of supportive care, although naloxone may be used as an antidote for desomorphine overdose. Symptoms of aggression and psychosis may be treated with sedation (benzodiazepines, propofol) and antipsychotics (haloperidol or atypical agents such as quetiapine or ziprasidone). Other facets of management to consider include treatment for withdrawal or addiction, nutrition support, and potential for transmission of infectious diseases.

  18. How to Handle Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... hurting or harming someone) might have frightened the boy or girl into staying quiet. No matter what the abuser ... suit or underwear: breasts, vagina, and bottom for girls, and penis and bottom for boys. If an adult or another kid touches a ...

  19. Understanding Fatal Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Ralph A.; Gaughan, Daniel C.

    1995-01-01

    Medical, social service, and coroner reports were reviewed for 14 cases of fatal child abuse and neglect identified at a children's hospital from 1988 to 1992. Median age was 6.5 months. Six families had prior protective service involvement (though four of these had involved a sibling). The cause of death in all cases was blunt impact head injury.…

  20. Drug abuse and addiction.

    PubMed

    Nessa, A; Latif, S A; Siddiqui, N I; Hussain, M A; Hossain, M A

    2008-07-01

    Among the social and medical ills of the twentieth century, substance abuse ranks as on one of the most devastating and costly. The drug problem today is a major global concern including Bangladesh. Almost all addictive drugs over stimulate the reward system of the brain, flooding it with the neurotransmitter dopamine. That produces euphoria and that heightened pleasure can be so compelling that the brain wants that feeling back again and again. However repetitive exposure induces widespread adaptive changes in the brain. As a consequence drug use may become compulsive. An estimated 4.7% of the global population aged 15 to 64 or 184 million people, consume illicit drug annually. Heroin use alone is responsible for the epidemic number of new cases of HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis and drug addicted infant born each year. Department of narcotic control (DNC) in Bangladesh reported in June 2008 that about 5 million drug addicts in the country & addicts spend at least 17 (Seventeen) billion on drugs per year. Among these drug addicts, 91% are young and adolescents population. Heroin is the most widely abused drugs in Bangladesh. For geographical reason like India, Pakistan and Myanmar; Bangladesh is also an important transit root for internationally trafficking of illicit drug. Drug abuse is responsible for decreased job productivity and attendance increased health care costs, and escalations of domestic violence and violent crimes. Drug addiction is a preventable disease. Through scientific advances we now know much more about how exactly drugs work in the brain, and we also know that drug addiction can be successfully treated to help people stop abusing drugs and resume their productive lives. Most countries have legislation designed to criminalize some drugs. To decrease the prevalence of this problem in our setting; increase awareness, promoting additional research on abused and addictive drugs, and exact implementation of existing laws are strongly recommended. We should

  1. Restoration of accommodation: surgical options for correction of presbyopia

    PubMed Central

    Glasser, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    Accommodation is a dioptric change in the power of the eye to see clearly at near. Ciliary muscle contraction causes a release in zonular tension at the lens equator, which permits the elastic capsule to mould the young lens into an accommodated form. Presbyopia, the gradual age-related loss of accommodation, occurs primarily through a gradual age-related stiffening of the lens. While there are many possible options for relieving the symptoms of presbyopia, only relatively recently has consideration been given to surgical restoration of accommodation to the presbyopic eye. To understand how this might be achieved, it is necessary to understand the accommodative anatomy, the mechanism of accommodation and the causes of presbyopia. A variety of different kinds of surgical procedures has been considered for restoring accommodation to the presbyopic eye, including surgical expansion of the sclera, using femtosecond lasers to treat the lens or with so-called accommodative intraocular lenses (IOLs). Evidence suggests that scleral expansion cannot and does not restore accommodation. Laser treatments of the lens are in their early infancy. Development and testing of accommodative IOLs are proliferating. They are designed to produce a myopic refractive change in the eye in response to ciliary muscle contraction either through a movement of an optic or through a change in surface curvature. Three general design principles are being considered. These are single optic IOLs that rely on a forward shift of the optic, dual optic IOLs that rely on an increased separation between the two optics, or IOLs that permit a change in surface curvature to produce an increase in optical power in response to ciliary muscle contraction. Several of these different IOLs are available and being used clinically, while many are still in research and development. PMID:18399800

  2. Accommodating electric propulsion on SMART-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kugelberg, Joakim; Bodin, Per; Persson, Staffan; Rathsman, Peter

    2004-07-01

    how the problems related to the accommodation of electric propulsion have been solved during design and planning of the project.

  3. Child-abusers face mob justice.

    PubMed

    Sebunya, C

    1996-06-01

    In Uganda, before the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, rape or sexual abuse of children was not considered a serious offense by the public, although the maximum criminal offense for rape was death. Because so many young girls are testing positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and due to the efforts of women's groups, public opinion is changing. According to the United Nations International Children's Fund (UNICEF), girls aged 9-15 years are five times more likely to be infected with HIV than boys of the same age. Adults, who fear their peers may be infected with HIV, turn to children; some AIDS patients believe sleeping with a virgin girl will cure their illness. Uganda is targeting a $15 million project to protect children 5-15 years of age. A study commissioned by the Uganda National Council for Women and Children in 1994 found that in Kabale district 31% of girls and 15% of boys had been abused, many by teachers. In Masaka district, the Council found that 30% of women had been coerced into sex; bosses abuse their maids, and customers abuse alcohol sellers. According to police, rape is the second most common crime in Uganda. Victims are reluctant to come forward to testify; rape victims can be shunned in their communities and may be considered ineligible for marriage. Cases which make it to court rarely get a fair hearing, according to the Council of Women, because the men handling the cases often favor the culprits. FIDA, an association of women lawyers, Action for Development (ACFODE), and the National Association of Women's Organisations in Uganda (NAWOU) are lobbying for tougher laws on rape and closed courts. They are pressuring newspapers to not disclose the names of victims. Although many expect the Ministry of Women to take the lead in this area, it has been unable to do so, because of a lack of funds; it received two-thirds of its budget for 1994-95, an indication, perhaps, of the Ugandan government's intentions. Two figures

  4. Substance abuse, HIV-1 and hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Parikh, Nirzari; Nonnemacher, Michael R; Pirrone, Vanessa; Block, Timothy; Mehta, Anand; Wigdahl, Brian

    2012-10-01

    During the course of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) disease, the virus has been shown to effectively escape the immune response with the subsequent establishment of latent viral reservoirs in specific cell populations within the peripheral blood (PB) and associated lymphoid tissues, bone marrow (BM), brain, and potentially other end organs. HIV-1, along with hepatitis B and C viruses (HBV and HCV), are known to share similar routes of transmission, including intravenous drug use, blood transfusions, sexual intercourse, and perinatal exposure. Substance abuse, including the use of opioids and cocaine, is a significant risk factor for exposure to HIV-1 and the development of acquired immune deficiency syndrome, as well as HBV and HCV exposure, infection, and disease. Thus, coinfection with HIV-1 and HBV or HCV is common and may be impacted by chronic substance abuse during the course of disease. HIV- 1 impacts the natural course of HBV and HCV infection by accelerating the progression of HBV/HCV-associated liver disease toward end-stage cirrhosis and quantitative depletion of the CD4+ T-cell compartment. HBV or HCV coinfection with HIV-1 is also associated with increased mortality when compared to either infection alone. This review focuses on the impact of substance abuse and coinfection with HBV and HCV in the PB, BM, and brain on the HIV-1 pathogenic process as it relates to viral pathogenesis, disease progression, and the associated immune response during the course of this complex interplay. The impact of HIV-1 and substance abuse on hepatitis virus-induced disease is also a focal point.

  5. Human immunodeficiency virus and the substance abuser: public policy considerations.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, P; Fernandez, F

    1994-05-01

    Until recently, the abuse of intravenous drugs was perceived as a problem of the United States, and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic was seen mainly as a sexually transmitted disease that tended to affect homosexuals from industrialized nations. However, these perceptions are no longer valid. At present, the abuse of intravenous drugs constitutes the second most common cause of AIDS in the United States and in Europe. This trend has led to a review of the current strategies in the fight against infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We analyzed the current epidemiologic trends regarding infection with HIV; we examined the behavioral manifestations of intravenous drug users, particularly from a sexual point of view; and finally, we reviewed the most relevant governmental public policy positions related to drug abuse, specially that focusing on "damage control."

  6. Microgravity Flight: Accommodating Non-Human Primates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Bonnie P.; Searby, Nancy; Ostrach, Louis

    1995-01-01

    thermoregulation, muscular, and cardiac responses to weightlessness. In contrast, the five completed Cosmos/Bion flights, lacked the metabolic samples and behavioral task monitoring, but did facilitate studies of the neurovestibular system during several of the flights. The RRF accommodated two adult 8-11 kg rhesus monkeys, while the Russian experiments and hardware were configured for a younger animal in the 44 kg range. Both the American and Russian hardware maintained a controlled environmental system, specifically temperature, humidity, a timed lighting cycle, and had means for providing food and fluids to the animal(s). Crew availability during a Shuttle mission was to be an optimal condition for retrieval and refrigeration of the animal urine samples along with a manual calcein injection which could lead to greater understanding of bone calcium incorporation. A special portable bioisolation glove box was under development to support this aspect of the experiment profile along with the capability of any contingency human intervention. As a result of recent U.S./Russian negotiations, funding for Space Station, and a series of other events, the SLS-3 mission was cancelled and applicable Rhesus Project experiments incorporated into the Russian Bion 11 and 12 missions. A presentation of the RRF and COSMOS/Bion rhesus hardware is presented along with current plans for the hardware.

  7. Microgravity Flight - Accommodating Non-Human Primates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, Bonnie P.; Searby, Nancy; Ostrach, Louis

    1994-01-01

    thermoregulation, muscular, and cardiac responses to weightlessness. In contrast, the five completed Cosmos/Bion flights, lacked the metabolic samples and behavioral task monitoring, but did facilitate studies of the neurovestibular system during several of the flights. The RRF accommodated two adult 8-11 kg rhesus monkeys, while the Russian experiments and hardware were configured for a younger animal in the 44 kg range. Both the American and Russian hardware maintained a controlled environmental system, specifically temperature, humidity, a timed lighting cycle, and had means for providing food and fluids to the animal(s). Crew availability during a Shuttle mission was to be an optimal condition for retrieval and refrigeration of the animal urine samples along with a manual calcein injection which could lead to greater understanding of bone calcium incorporation. A special portable bioisolation glove box was under development to support this aspect of the experiment profile along with the capability of any contingency human intervention. As a result of recent U.S./Russian negotiations, funding for Space Station, and a series of other events, the SLS-3 mission was cancelled and applicable Rhesus Project experiments incorporated into the Russian Bion 11 and 12 missions. A presentation of the RRF and COSMOS/Bion rhesus hardware is presented along with current plans for the hardware.

  8. Circadian rhythms of visual accommodation responses and physiological correlations.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, M. R.; Randle, R. J.; Williams, B. A.

    1972-01-01

    Use of a recently developed servocontrolled infrared optometer to continuously record the state of monocular focus while subjects viewed a visual target for which the stimulus to focus was systematically varied. Calculated parameters form recorded data - e.g., speeds of accommodation to approaching and receding targets, magnitude of accommodation to step changes in target distance, and amplitude and phase lag of response to sinusoidally varying stimuli were submitted to periodicity analyses. Ear canal temperature (ECT) and heart rate (HR) rhythms were also recorded for physiological correlation with accommodation rhythms. HR demonstrated a 24-hr rhythm, but ECT data did not.

  9. The accessibility of substance abuse treatment facilities in the United States for persons with disabilities.

    PubMed

    West, Steven L

    2007-07-01

    This study assessed the accessibility of a nationally representative sample of substance abuse treatment facilities in the United States for persons with disabilities (PWDs). A stratified random sample of 159 substance abuse treatment facilities in 40 states completed a survey regarding physical accessibility and the provision of services that could enhance the ability to serve individuals with disabilities. Most responding facilities self-reported a variety of barriers to physical accessibility, as well as the lack of services and physical accommodations for persons with sensory limitations. Such widespread inaccessibility may be a factor that promotes the low representation of PWDs in the treatment population.

  10. Abuse Tolerance Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Orendorff, Christopher J.; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle R.; Allcorn, Eric

    2015-10-01

    As lithium-ion battery technologies mature, the size and energy of these systems continues to increase (> 50 kWh for EVs); making safety and reliability of these high energy systems increasingly important. While most material advances for lithium-ion chemistries are directed toward improving cell performance (capacity, energy, cycle life, etc.), there are a variety of materials advancements that can be made to improve lithium-ion battery safety. Issues including energetic thermal runaway, electrolyte decomposition and flammability, anode SEI stability, and cell-level abuse tolerance continue to be critical safety concerns. This report highlights work with our collaborators to develop advanced materials to improve lithium-ion battery safety and abuse tolerance and to perform cell-level characterization of new materials.

  11. Drug abuse and stroke.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Ana Catarina; Ferro, José M

    2013-02-01

    Cerebrovascular disorders contribute to the morbidity and disability associated with illicit drug use. Drug abusers have an increased risk of both hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke. In geographic areas with a high prevalence of illicit drug use, drug abuse is a frequent cause of stroke in the young adult. The illicit drugs more commonly associated with stroke are psychomotor stimulants, such as amphetamine and cocaine. Less commonly implicated are opioids and psychotomimetic drugs, including cannabis. Toxicology screening for illicit drugs should be done in young patients with stroke with no obvious cause, or if suggested by history or examination. Although in some patients the mechanism of stroke is identified using neuroimaging and other modern diagnostic tools, in a sizeable fraction of cases the mechanism of stroke remains unclear. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of hemodynamic and immunologic mechanisms in these cases.

  12. Substance Abuse and Trauma.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Shannon; Suárez, Liza

    2016-10-01

    There is a strong, bidirectional link between substance abuse and traumatic experiences. Teens with cooccurring substance use disorders (SUDs) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have significant functional and psychosocial impairment. Common neurobiological foundations point to the reinforcing cycle of trauma symptoms, substance withdrawal, and substance use. Treatment of teens with these issues should include a systemic and integrated approach to both the SUD and the PTSD.

  13. Aspergillosis of the cerebral ventricles in a heroin abuser. Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Morrow, R; Wong, B; Finkelstein, W E; Sternberg, S S; Armstrong, D

    1983-01-01

    Aspergillosis of the cerebral ventricles developed in a 36-year-old heroin abuser who died during the sixth week of illness. The diagnosis was not made during life. A review of our case and of four previous cases from the literature indicates that aspergillosis should be considered in parenteral drug abusers with the syndrome of chronic meningitis or ventriculitis. The diagnosis is difficult to establish, but serologic tests may be helpful. This form of CNS aspergillosis can be cured with antifungal drugs.

  14. Medical treatment of the adolescent drug abuser. An opportunity for rehabilitative intervention.

    PubMed

    Schonberg, S K

    1976-03-01

    Illnesses related to both the pharmacologic properties of abused substances and their methods of administration often bring the teenager to medical attention and may provide sufficient motivation for the adolescent to seek help beyond the acute problem. Successful treatment of an overdose reaction, an abstinence syndrome, or any other medical complication of drug abuse may give the physician a unique opportunity to begine further evalution for future care.

  15. Drug abuse in athletes

    PubMed Central

    Reardon, Claudia L; Creado, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. PMID:25187752

  16. Delusions and hallucinations of cocaine abusers and paranoid schizophrenics: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, J; Vierkant, A D

    1991-05-01

    We compared delusions and hallucinations of 100 cocaine abusers and 100 paranoid schizophrenic subjects admitted to an East Texas state psychiatric hospital. Subjects in both groups feared that individuals or organized groups might harm them in some way, but delusions of the paranoid schizophrenic subjects were more often bizarre than those of the cocaine abuse subjects. "Cocaine bugs" (parasitosis) were more often found in the cocaine abuse subjects. Command hallucinations were found in both groups, but the commands of the schizophrenic group more often related to harming or killing others. Cocaine abusers had a greater frequency of visual hallucinations (47 to 7), distinguished by shadows, flashing lights ("snow lights"), objects moving and bugs crawling on the arm. Finally, the most distinguishing characteristics were identity delusions, possession delusions, grandiose delusions (other than identities and possessions), and delusions that their families were imposters (Capgras Syndrome) reported by paranoid schizophrenics. No such delusions were reported by the cocaine abusers.

  17. Child abuse-related homicides in New Mexico: a 6-year retrospective review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Carol K; Lathrop, Sarah L

    2010-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed autopsy records at a statewide medical examiner's office in order to identify and characterize deaths due to child abuse. In a 6-year period in New Mexico, the medical examiner investigated 45 deaths determined to be child abuse-related. Decedents were predominantly male (68.9%), Hispanic White (53.3%), and all were 5 years of age or younger, with a median age of 1 year. Head injuries were the most common cause of death (44.4%), followed by battered baby syndrome (15.6%). Relatives were involved as alleged perpetrators in 80% of the cases, with the father most often implicated (36.1% of cases), and 88.9% of child abuse injuries resulting in death occurred in the family's residence. Toxicology was positive in 26.7% of cases, but only two cases had substances of abuse present. Information on risk factors such as prematurity, parental age, and history of abuse was also collected.

  18. The relationship between instructional and assessment accommodations in an inclusive state accountability system.

    PubMed

    Ysseldyke, J; Thurlow, M; Bielinski, J; House, A; Moody, M; Haigh, J

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the kinds of instructional and assessment accommodations students with disabilities receive, and the extent to which instructional accommodations match assessment accommodations. Most students who had IEPs in specific content areas received instructional accommodations in those areas, and there were no differences by disability type. We provide data on the specific types of accommodations used. Overall, students' assessment accommodations matched their instructional accommodations, though many students received testing accommodations that had not been received in instruction. Implications are discussed for IEP teams who make decisions about instructional and assessment accommodations.

  19. Visual Accommodation, the Mandelbaum Effect, and Apparent Size.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-11-01

    monkeys were awakened, accommodation immediately went to a far distance, followed by accurate accommodation to the - ambient stimuli. Similarly... ambient stimulation is present. Morgan (1957) proposes - two possible conditions in which visual stimuli are reduced to the minimum--in complete darkness...oj Physiology, 1941, 12, 720-733. Otero, J. M. and Duran, Continuacion del estudio de la miopia nocturna. Anales de i y Quimica , 1942, 38, 236-248

  20. Caffeine intake is associated with pupil dilation and enhanced accommodation.

    PubMed

    Abokyi, S; Owusu-Mensah, J; Osei, K A

    2017-04-01

    PurposeIt is purported that caffeine, an autonomic stimulant, affects visual performance. This study sought to assess whether caffeine intake was associated with changes in pupil size and/or amplitude of accommodation.Patients and methodsA double-masked, crossover study was conducted in 50 healthy subjects of age range 19 to 25 years. Subjects were randomized to treatments such that subjects consumed either 250 mg caffeine drink or vehicle on separate days. Amplitude of accommodation was measured by the push-up technique, and pupil size using a millimeter ruler fixed to a slit lamp biomicroscope in dim illumination (5 lux). Amplitude of accommodation and pupil size were taken at baseline, and at 30, 60 and 90 min time points post treatment. Repeated measures one-way ANOVA and paired t-test were used in analyzing data.ResultsAmplitude of accommodation and pupil size after caffeine intake were significantly greater than vehicle (P<0.001) at each time point. Consumption of the caffeine beverage was associated with significant increases in amplitude of accommodation and pupil size with time (P<0.001). Amplitude of accommodation rose from 12.4 (±2.2 D) at baseline to 15.8(±2.6 D) at 90 min. Similarly, pupil size increased from 3.4 (±0.4 mm) at baseline to 4.5 (±0.72 mm) at 90 min. Consumption of vehicle was not associated with increase in amplitude of accommodation or pupil size with time.ConclusionPupil size and accommodation are affected after ingestion of caffeine. This study suggests caffeine may have some influence on visual functions.

  1. [Substance abuse and the emergency department: a current problem].

    PubMed

    Amigó Tadín, Montserrat

    2005-09-01

    Alcohol, tobacco, heroin, cocaine and benzodiazepines, in that order, are the most common substance addictions in Spain. The medical problems caused both by chronic medical pathologies associated with their consumption and by overdoses and withdrawal syndromes, are frequently seen in emergency departments. Knowledge of substance abuse and addiction--how it is caused, the behaviour and pathology it produces--are essential to enable nurses to determine the attitudes to adopt the skills necessary to manage patients with problems of substance.

  2. Giant J (Osborn) Wave due to Bonsai Abuse: Comments on Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Yalçın, Murat; Aparcı, Mustafa; Eroğlu, Murat; Işılak, Zafer; Özmen, Namık

    2017-01-01

    Background: Osborn wave, typically associated with hypothermia, is currently referred to as one of the J wave syndromes due to its clinical potential to develop lethal cardiac arrhythmia; it may rarely be observed in a non-hypothermic setting such as cannabis abuse. Case Report: In this paper, we presented two young cases who presented to the emergency services with unconsciousness, drowsiness, and hypoxia, and also J wave on electrocardiography (ECG) due to Bonsai abuse. Conclusion: Osborn wave may be a significant criterion to initiate close monitoring in a coronary care unit, with supportive treatment and mechanical ventilation as necessary in those patients who abuse Bonsai. PMID:28251030

  3. Accommodation of Symptoms in Anorexia Nervosa: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Fox, John R E; Whittlesea, Anna

    2016-06-17

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) continues to remain poorly understood within eating disorders. Recent research and theory have moved away from understanding its aetiological causes, addressing instead potential maintaining factors. This study is focused on interpersonal maintenance factors: the response of close others. Relatives of those with AN typically carry the main burden of care, and research has found high levels of carer distress and unmet needs. Recent theories have proposed this emotional impact to contribute to expressed emotion and other unhelpful caregiver interactions which inadvertently maintain AN. One such understudied response is accommodation, described as a 'process' whereby caregivers 'assist or participate' in symptomatic behaviours of the cared for individual. There is a dearth of research relating to accommodation within eating disorders, particularly qualitative accounts. This study utilized a grounded theory methodology to explore caregivers' responses to managing AN, focusing particularly on carers' experience of accommodation. Eight participants with experience of caring for an individual diagnosed with AN were interviewed. Participants were recruited from a national eating disorder charity and regional eating disorder service. A number of themes emerged, including the importance of caregivers' emotional resources in mediating accommodation responses. Low-perceived efficacy over AN contributed to caregiver burnout. Decreased emotional resources influenced a shift in caregiving aims conducive with accommodation. Nevertheless, carers perceived accommodation as counterproductive to recovery and consequently experienced internal conflict (cognitive dissonance). Dissonance was reduced using a number of cognitive and behavioural strategies. The implications of these findings are discussed with reference to existing literature. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Development of seating accommodation models for soldiers in vehicles.

    PubMed

    Zerehsaz, Yaser; Jin, Jionghua Judy; Ebert, Sheila M; Reed, Matthew P

    2017-04-01

    Data from a previous study of soldier driving postures and seating positions were analysed to develop statistical models for defining accommodation of driver seating positions in military vehicles. Regression models were created for seating accommodation applicable to driver positions with a fixed heel point and a range of steering wheel locations in typical tactical vehicles. The models predict the driver-selected seat position as a function of population anthropometry and vehicle layout. These models are the first driver accommodation models considering the effects of body armor and body-borne gear. The obtained results can benefit the design of military vehicles, and the methods can also be extended to be utilised in the development of seating accommodation models for other driving environments where protective equipment affects driver seating posture, such as vehicles used by law-enforcement officers and firefighters. Practitioner Summary: A large-scale laboratory study of soldier driving posture and seating position was designed to focus on tactical vehicle (truck) designs. Regression techniques are utilised to develop accommodation models suitable for tactical vehicles. These are the first seating accommodation models based on soldier data to consider the effects of personal protective equipment and body-borne gear.

  5. Child abuse followed by fatal systemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.

    PubMed

    Senati, Massimo; Polacco, Matteo; Grassi, Vincenzo M; Carbone, Arnaldo; De-Giorgio, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    Child abuse has become an increasingly serious diagnostic challenge for physicians. The clinical manifestations include malnutrition and sometimes infection. In fact, stress in children has been reported to increase corticosteroid levels. As a consequence, the thymus begins an involution process, producing a severe impairment in cellular and humoral immunity. Here, we report the case of a 7-year-old child who suffered a prolonged history of abuse and died from a systemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. An initial local chronic infection propagated to the pelvic lymph nodes in an immunologically weak body and evolved into abscesses/phlegmons of the pelvic tissue, sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, multiple organ failure and finally, death. Abused children have to be considered as potentially immunologically impaired patients; therefore, it is very important to screen them for opportunistic infections. Moreover, a history of unusual or recurring infections may indicate abuse, especially neglect or malnutrition. In these cases, further investigations should be conducted to determine if a protective service case should be opened. Thus, there is a need for multidisciplinary cooperation to ensure the early identification and prevention of child abuse.

  6. Genetic differentials of child abuse: Is your case rare or real?

    PubMed

    Shur, Natasha; Carey, John C

    2015-12-01

    The clinical geneticist can be called upon to play a role in the medical evaluation of children with clinical findings concerning for child abuse. This Introduction describes a case of suspected child abuse in an 8-month-old baby referred to clinical genetics to exclude osteogenesis imperfecta. The experience from this case raised medical and ethical considerations and prompted consideration of the role of the clinical geneticist in distinguishing rare mimics of child abuse from real cases. From this single case, and a discussion regarding similar cases, arose the idea of this issue in Seminars in Medical Genetics, Genetic Differentials of Child Abuse: Is Your Case Rare or Real? In thinking about child abuse from a clinical genetics perspective, we categorize clinical presentations into fractures, skin lesions, hemorrhage, growth disturbances, and concern for caregiver-fabricated illness (previously known as Munchausen syndrome by proxy). In this Introduction, we also discuss recent questions regarding Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and infantile fractures and concerns about caregiver-fabricated illness in the context of mitochondrial or other rare diseases. The goal is that this issue on child abuse and genetics will serve as a resource to help distinguish the rare causes from the real cases of child abuse, and those critical distinctions and correct diagnoses may be life-saving for some infants and children.

  7. Acute Subdural Hematoma in Infants with Abusive Head Trauma: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    KARIBE, Hiroshi; KAMEYAMA, Motonobu; HAYASHI, Toshiaki; NARISAWA, Ayumi; TOMINAGA, Teiji

    2016-01-01

    The number of cases with child abuse is increasing in Japan, and abusive head trauma (AHT) is a major cause of death in abused children. Child abuse has been recognized by the late 19th century, and widely accepted as battered child syndrome in the middle of the 20th century. As terms, there had been considerable mechanistic controversies between shaken-baby and -impact syndrome until the beginning of the 21st century. In recent years, AHT has been utilized as a less mechanistic term. Most of the characteristics of AHT in Japan have been similar to those in the United States as follows: infant is the most common victim, acute subdural hematoma (SDH) is the most common intracranial lesion, and retinal hemorrhage is often complicated. On the other hand, several characteristics have been different as follows: mother is the most common perpetrators, impact is a more common mechanism of trauma than shaking, and external trauma is more common reflecting the existence of impact. Since AHT as well as child abuse is a social pathological phenomenon influenced by victims, perpetrators, socioeconomic circumstances, and so on, various aspects of AHT as well as child abuse can be changed with times. Actually, a recent paper suggests such changes in infants with acute SDH due to AHT. In this review article, AHT, abusive infantile acute SDH in particular, are reviewed from the aspect of neurosurgical perspectives, including its mechanisms of trauma, biomechanics, clinical features, management, and prognosis, to update the trend in Japan. PMID:26960448

  8. Incest and Child Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Collins, James L.; Hamlin, Willie T.; Minor, Marie A.; Knasel, Ann Lowe

    1982-01-01

    Child sexual abuse was examined nationally and in the Washington, DC and Howard University Hospital area. In an attempt to describe this widespread problem, two case histories are presented which reflect some of the typical characteristics of child sexual abuse cases seen at Howard University Hospital. Pertinent literature is reviewed citing the prevalence rates and the personality and environmental factors which may contribute to the sexual abuse of children in this country. Finally, the role of the physician in identifying and treating the physical and emotional effects of child abuse are discussed. PMID:7120485

  9. Incest and child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Collins, J L; Hamlin, W T; Minor, M A; Knasel, A L

    1982-06-01

    Child sexual abuse was examined nationally and in the Washington, DC and Howard University Hospital area. In an attempt to describe this widespread problem, two case histories are presented which reflect some of the typical characteristics of child sexual abuse cases seen at Howard University Hospital. Pertinent literature is reviewed citing the prevalence rates and the personality and environmental factors which may contribute to the sexual abuse of children in this country. Finally, the role of the physician in identifying and treating the physical and emotional effects of child abuse are discussed.

  10. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinman, P.K.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides a description for all the known radiological alterations occurring in child abuse. This allows for precise interpretation of findings by radiologists. It also helps eliminate the confusion among both clinicians and non-medical personnel involved in the diagnosis, management, and legal issues related to child abuse. CONTENTS: Introduction; Skeletal trauma: general considerations; Extremity trauma; Bony thoracic trauma; Spinal trauma; Dating fractures; Visceral trauma; Head trauma; Miscellaneous forms of abuse and neglect; The postmortem examination; Differential diagnosis of child abuse; Legal considerations; Psychosocial considerations; Technical considerations and dosimetry.

  11. Institutional Policy and Its Abuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogue, E. G.; Riggs, R. O.

    1974-01-01

    Reviews the role of institutional policy, cites frequent abuses of institutional policy, and delineates several principles of policy management (development, communication, execution and evaluation). (Author/PG)

  12. Child abuse: behavioral aspects and other associated problems.

    PubMed

    Gushurst, Colette A

    2003-08-01

    Although researchers in psychology and the social sciences will need to continue to identify the behavioral consequences of abuse and treatment strategies, pediatricians may still be the first line professionals to suspect and intercept victims. Remember that, especially in cases where there have been threats or falsification of illness, it is wise to enlist integrated multidisciplinary services to ensure the safety of the child before confronting any potential perpetrators. Physicians have become better trained to be more vigilant in detecting signs of physical abuse, but it seems that psychologic and sexual maltreatment may cause more long-term problems but are more difficult to detect. Although a book by Everett and Gallop is written for mental health professionals, the chapters on why a history of childhood trauma is often missed, recognizing signs and symptoms, and asking about abuse, are all helpful for pediatricians and other health care professionals. In certain situations, physicians should attempt to talk to children privately, so that those who are old enough might have an opportunity to relate events that are traumatic, and so that abusive parents will not have an opportunity to interrupt, instill additional fear in the child, or abruptly change providers. Children need someone to ask them directly about their experiences and act on any suspicions. Asking once may not be enough, because a frightened child may initially deny physical or sexual abuse, but be ready to tell at another time. A vocal adult survivor of Munchausen syndrome by proxy and severe physical abuse explains: The dilemma is how to be loved and accepted. Even once a child recognizes that it is wrong, victims may be afraid to speak up for fear of anger and more abuse at the hand of the abuser. By the time I reached eleven, I was angry enough at what my mother had gotten away with, I would have been more truthful. It would have been a relief to have someone else voice their own suspicions

  13. Reciprocal Abuse: Elder Neglect and Abuse by Primary Caregivers and Caregiver Burden and Abuse in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Neslihan Keser; Boyacıoğlu, Nur Elçin; Sertçelik, Elmas

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the neglect and abuse that older people were exposed to by their primary caregivers and the experiences of caregivers' burden and abuse by their charges. This descriptive, cross-sectional and correlational study was conducted with 186 individuals over the age of 65 and 136 caregivers. The data were collected using questionnaires to determine neglect and abuse experienced by both older people and caregivers, and the Zarit Burden Scale. Abuse rate of the older people and their caregivers is both high and similar. This study is to make psychiatric nursing professionals aware of the problem of elder abuse and neglect. For researchers, educators, practitioners, and policymakers in the fields of aging, health, and mental health this study provides important data about elder abuse and neglect.

  14. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zubaran, C; Fernandes, J G; Rodnight, R

    1997-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is one of the most serious problems in public health and the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is one of the gravest consequences of alcoholism. The pathology is often undiagnosed in its less evident presentations, therefore an accurate diagnostic approach is a critical step in treatment planning. Treatment is based on restoration of thiamine, although this is insufficient to prevent the psychological decline of a great number of patients. The cognitive impact of the pathology is derived from the interaction of alcoholic neurotoxicity, thiamine deficiency and personal susceptibility. In this article, the literature concerning Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is reviewed.

  15. Shaken baby syndrome.

    PubMed

    Altimier, Leslie

    2008-01-01

    Non-accidental head trauma in infants is the leading cause of infant death from injury. Clinical features that suggest head trauma (also known as shaken baby syndrome or shaken impact syndrome) include the triad consisting of retinal hemorrhage, subdural, and/or subarachnoid hemorrhage in an infant with little signs of external trauma. Abusive head injuries are among the most common causes of serious and lethal injuries in children. These injuries may result from impact or shaking or a combination of these mechanisms. These mechanisms cause the child's head to undergo acceleration/ deceleration movements, which may create inertial movement of the brain within the cranial compartment.

  16. Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Zubaran, C.; Fernandes, J. G.; Rodnight, R.

    1997-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is one of the most serious problems in public health and the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is one of the gravest consequences of alcoholism. The pathology is often undiagnosed in its less evident presentations, therefore an accurate diagnostic approach is a critical step in treatment planning. Treatment is based on restoration of thiamine, although this is insufficient to prevent the psychological decline of a great number of patients. The cognitive impact of the pathology is derived from the interaction of alcoholic neurotoxicity, thiamine deficiency and personal susceptibility. In this article, the literature concerning Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is reviewed. Images p31-a PMID:9039406

  17. Legal and social service responses to child sexual abuse: a primer and discussion of relevant research.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Tisha R A

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a broad overview of legal and social service responses to child sexual abuse, the overarching legal framework provided by federal legislation, and funding mandates and the unique and shared investigative concerns of law enforcement and child protective service entities. Relevant psychological research is highlighted throughout, including research on investigator training, forensic interviewing techniques, children's suggestibility, jurors' perceptions of child witnesses, and courtroom accommodations for child witnesses.

  18. Ongoing incestuous abuse during adulthood.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Warwick

    2013-01-01

    Individual cases of adult incestuous abuse have surfaced repeatedly in the lay and professional literature of the past 1.5 centuries without it occasioning systematic investigation, such as the reporting of a case series of individuals subjected to such extreme abuse. Yet substantial numbers of patients with dissociative identity disorder at the time of presentation report incestuous abuse continuing into the adult years, and for many the abuse is ongoing. Data relating to a series of 10 such incestuously abused women are presented. These patients were sexually abused from a very early age (typically from before age 3), with the manipulation of their sexual response a key component in conditioning an enduring sexualized attachment. Shame and fear were also used to ensure compliance and silence. The women, when able to speak of it, describe the induction by their paternal abuser of orgasm at an early age, typically around the age of 6. The women have high indices of self-harm and suicidality and are prone to placing themselves in dangerous reenactment scenarios. The average duration of incestuous abuse for this group of women was 31 years, and the average estimate of total episodes of sexual abuse was 3,320. Most women do not feel that they own their body and experience being "fused" to their father. Their mother was reported as an active participant in the sexual abuse or as having done nothing to protect their daughter despite seeing obvious evidence of incest. The fathers, despite a propensity to use or threaten violence, were generally outwardly productively employed, financially comfortable, and stably married and half had close church involvement. However, suicide and murder occurred within the 1st- or 2nd-degree relatives of these women at a high frequency. All 10 had been sexually abused by various groupings of individuals connected to their fathers.

  19. Accommodation in young adults wearing aspheric multifocal soft contact lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindskoog Pettersson, Anna; Wahlberg Ramsay, Marika; Lundström, Linda; Rosén, Robert; Nilsson, Maria; Unsbo, Peter; Brautaset, Rune

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the present project was to investigate accommodative behavior in young adults and adolescents fitted with an aspheric multifocal (center distance) contact lens with focus on evaluating whether these lenses can be an alternative treatment for subjects in which a reduced level of blur and thereby accommodation in near vision is aimed at. Twenty normal subjects aged between 21 and 35 years participated in the study. Aberrometry was perfomed using a Zywave™ aberrometer, first on the uncorrected eyes of all subjects, and again while the subjects wore a multifocal contact lens with a +1.00 add. A Shin-Nippon N Vision-K 5001 Autoref-Keratometer was used to measure accommodative response with two different refractive corrections: (1) habitual spectacle correction only, and (2) habitual correction and a aspheric multifocal (center distance) contact lens. Four hours of adaptation to the lens was allowed. The lag when wearing only the habitual spectacles was compared with the lag while wearing both the habitual spectacles and the aspheric multifocal contact lens. The mean lag of accommodation for the subject group was 0.85 D (±0.57 SD) and 0.75 D (±0.52 SD) without and with the multifocal lens, respectively. Statistical analyses showed no difference in lag (t = 0.8479, p = 0.407) with and without the lens. In conclusion, young normal subjects do not relax accommodation when fitted with aspheric multifocal center distance lenses when the addition is +1.00. It is therefore unlikely that subjects with accommodative ability, in whom the treatment purpose is to reduce blur and thereby accommodation, can be effectively treated with such lenses.

  20. Tilidine abuse and dependence.

    PubMed

    Trojan, A; Beil, H W

    1978-11-01

    Tilidine (Valoron) is a new strong analgesic which was introduced into the market in West Germany in 1970. In February 1978 tilidine was placed under the regulations of the German Narcotics Act because it had rapidly become an easily acquired substitute for opiates on the drug scene. Cases have become known where tilidine dependence developed during the treatment of pain in patients without any preceding addiction to other drugs. The relevant literature on tilidine is reviewed in regard to pharmacological, epidemiological and clinical aspects of tilidine dependence and abuse.

  1. Breastfeeding and substance abuse.

    PubMed

    D'Apolito, Karen

    2013-03-01

    Breastfeeding is the recommended feeding method for infants. The decision to allow women to breastfeed while consuming alcohol and other drugs postpartum presents a problem for the health care provider. This article discusses the biochemical properties of various drugs as they relate to breastfeeding. Women in a methadone treatment program should be allowed to breast feed; however, more research is needed to determine the efficacy of breastfeeding when women are receiving buprenorphine. Breastfeeding should not be recommended in women who abuse heroin recreationally until more information is known about the actual amount of morphine present in the breast milk.

  2. A review of the short-term effects of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Beitchman, J H; Zucker, K J; Hood, J E; daCosta, G A; Akman, D

    1991-01-01

    This is the first of a two-part report that critically evaluates empirical studies on the short- and long-term effects of child sexual abuse. With the exception of sexualized behavior, the majority of short-term effects noted in the literature are symptoms that characterize child clinical samples in general. Among adolescents, commonly reported sequelae include sexual dissatisfaction, promiscuity, homosexuality, and an increased risk for revictimization. Depression and suicidal ideation or behavior also appear to be more common among victims of sexual abuse compared to normal and psychiatric nonabused controls. Frequency and duration of abuse, abuse involving penetration, force, or violence, and a close relationship to the perpetrator appear to be the most harmful in terms of long-lasting effects on the child. The high prevalence of marital breakdown and psychopathology among parents of children who are sexually abused makes it difficult to determine the specific impact of sexual abuse over and above the effects of a disturbed home environment. Given the broad range of outcome among sexual abuse victims, as well as the methodological weaknesses present in many of the studies reviewed, it is not possible at this time to postulate the existence of a "post-sexual-abuse-syndrome" with a specific course or outcome.

  3. A World of Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horan, John J.; And Others

    This third chapter in "Elementary School Counseling in a Changing World" contains five journal articles which focus on substance abuse prevention. "Perspectives on Substance Abuse Prevention" by John Horan, Andres Kerns, and Christine Olson emphasizes how important it is for children to be able to say "no" to drugs and provides a review of…

  4. Female Perpetrators of Intimate Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Donald G.; Nicholls, Tonia L.; Spidel, Alicia

    2005-01-01

    A review is made of female intimate abuse. It is concluded that females are as abusive as males in intimate relationships according to survey and epidemiological studies. This is especially so for younger "cohort" community samples followed longitudinally. Predictors of intimate violence with women appear to be similar to those of men; including…

  5. Bringing attention to domestic abuse.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lynne

    2014-06-03

    Nursing skills are vital to the roles of those working with victims of domestic abuse in Nottinghamshire. Specialist nurses at Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust are involved in referring patients on to further support services and training hospital staff to identify and respond to signs of abuse.

  6. Amnesia Affecting Some Opioid Abusers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health, or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. More Health News on: Memory Opioid Abuse and Addiction Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Memory Opioid Abuse and Addiction ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated ...

  7. Child Abuse: The Educator's Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. School Safety Center.

    Addressing educators and citing the California Penal Code, this booklet discusses the legal responsibilities of persons in child care situations regarding incidents of suspected child abuse. Included are: (1) a definition of child abuse and neglect; (2) reporting procedures including liability of failure to report and immunity of the reporting…

  8. Suicide Attempts among Drug Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrsi, Rachel; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The relationship between substance abuse and suicide is indicated by high rate of attempted suicide among alcoholics and drug abusers, as well as increased likelihood of repeated attempts in these populations. This study reports on psychological characteristics of male drug suicide attempters who are in treatment for their addiction problem.…

  9. Counseling with the Drug Abuser.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demos, George D.

    Counselors, in the past few years, have had to work with a great many drug abusers. While successes are difficult to evaluate, the failures are glaringly evident. In a search for a more effective method of working with drug abusers, 12 questions were devised. These are self-evaluative and directed at the counselor. If a counselor can openly and…

  10. Child Abuse in Setswana Folktales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malimabe-Ramagoshi, Refilwe M.; Maree, Jacobus G.; Alexander, Daleen; Molepo, Maisha M.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the possible role played by African folk literature, taking Setswana folktales as a case in point, in justifying and perpetuating the abusive behaviour so often witnessed and decried in postmodern society. We found some evidence that certain folktales may depict real-life child abuse by adults (male and female), and, indeed,…

  11. Accommodation and pupil responses to random-dot stereograms.

    PubMed

    Suryakumar, Rajaraman; Allison, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the dynamics of accommodative and pupillary responses to random-dot stereograms presented in crossed and uncrossed disparity in six visually normal young adult subjects (mean age=25.8±3.1 years). Accommodation and pupil measures were monitored monocularly with a custom built photorefraction system while subjects fixated at the center of a random-dot stereogram. On each trial, the stereogram initially depicted a flat plane and then changed to depict a sinusoidal corrugation in depth while fixation remained constant. Increase in disparity specified depth resulted in pupil constriction during both crossed and uncrossed disparity presentations. The change in pupil size between crossed and uncrossed disparity conditions was not significantly different (p>0.05). The change in pupil size was also accompanied by a small concomitant increase in accommodation. In addition, the dynamic properties of pupil responses varied as a function of their initial (starting) diameter. The finding that accommodation and pupil responses increased with disparity regardless of the sign of retinal disparity suggests that these responses were driven by apparent depth rather than shifts in mean simulated distance of the stimulus. Presumably the need for the increased depth of focus when viewing stimuli extended in depth results in pupil constriction which also results in a concomitant change in accommodation. Starting position effects in pupil response confirm the non-linearity in the operating range of the pupil.

  12. Short-term induction of assimilation and accommodation.

    PubMed

    Leipold, Bernhard; Bermeitinger, Christina; Greve, Werner; Meyer, Birgit; Arnold, Manuel; Pielniok, Marianna

    2014-01-01

    The dual-process model of developmental regulation distinguishes two processes of self-regulation (assimilation = tenacious goal pursuit, and accommodation = flexible goal adjustment) that depend on differing conditions, but both contribute to successful development. Four experiments were conducted to investigate whether assimilation and accommodation can be induced or at least shifted by sensorimotor and cognitive manipulations. Experiment 1 investigated the relation between body manipulation and self-regulation. It was shown that assimilation could be triggered when participants were asked to hold on to golf balls as compared to being asked to drop them. Experiment 2 showed that a semantic priming of "let go" or "hold on" via instructions influenced the processes of self-regulation. Experiment 3 and Experiment 4 investigated the role of cognitive sets (divergent thinking) and motivational processes (thinking about one's action resources) in enhancing accommodation or assimilation. As expected, accommodation was triggered by an intervention activating divergent thought, and participants were more assimilative when they thought about their action resources. In sum, the results indicate that assimilation and accommodation can be induced experimentally; they were systematically dependent on physical, cognitive, and motivational states. The implications of the findings were discussed in the light of the dual-process model.

  13. [Inhalant abusers and psychiatric symptoms].

    PubMed

    Okudaira, K; Yabana, T; Takahashi, H; Iizuka, H; Nakajima, K; Saito, A

    1996-01-01

    There are different opinions about the cause of chronic psychiatric symptoms observed in drug abusers between Japanese and foreign psychiatrists. The Japanese seem to recognize the chronic psychosis as the result of drug abuse. In the other hand, foreigners diagnose these cases as dual diagnosis of drug abuse and psychosis. Authors studied the problem in this research. One of the authors has examined 120 inhalant abusers of all, in- and out-patients in Kanagawa Prefectural Center of Psychiatry, Serigaya Hospital from 1991 to 1995. These patients were classified into three groups: psychosis group (23 patients), dependence group (51 patients) and abuse group (46 patients) according to their clinical courses and psychiatric symptoms. The psychosis group consists of patients who showed psychiatric symptoms such as hallucination, delusion and thought disturbance for long time after detoxification. The dependence group contains patients whose inhalant dependence was severe and met DSM-4 Diagnostic Criteria for Substance Dependence, but manifested no chronic psychiatric symptoms after detoxification. The patients belonging to abuse group were at the earlier stages of inhalant abuse and had no chronic psychiatric symptoms. The average age of the first inhalant abuse was 14.7 years old in the psychosis group, 14.8 years in the dependence group and 14.7 years in the abuse group. The average years of abuse was 9.0 years in the psychosis group, and 8.5 years in the dependence group. There was little difference between these two groups. The psychosis patients manifested chronic symptoms 5.7 years on average after the first abuse of inhalants. About one forth (26.1%) of the psychosis patients and only 5.9% of the dependence patients had family history of schizophrenia. The difference was statistically significant. These results suggest that chronic psychiatric symptoms are caused not only by inhalant abuse, but also by the genetic factors of psychosis of each patient. There have

  14. Methamphetamine abuse and dentistry.

    PubMed

    Hamamoto, D T; Rhodus, N L

    2009-01-01

    Methamphetamine is a highly addictive powerful stimulant that increases wakefulness and physical activity and produces other effects including cardiac dysrhythmias, hypertension, hallucinations, and violent behavior. The prevalence of methamphetamine use is estimated at 35 million people worldwide and 10.4 million people in the United States. In the United States, the prevalence of methamphetamine use is beginning to decline but methamphetamine trafficking and use are still significant problems. Dental patients who abuse methamphetamine can present with poor oral hygiene, xerostomia, rampant caries ('Meth mouth'), and excessive tooth wear. Dental management of methamphetamine users requires obtaining a thorough medical history and performing a careful oral examination. The most important factor in treating the oral effects of methamphetamine is for the patient to stop using the drug. Continued abuse will make it difficult to increase salivary flow and hinder the patient's ability to improve nutrition and oral hygiene. Local anesthetics with vasoconstrictors should be used with care in patients taking methamphetamine because they may result in cardiac dysrhythmias, myocardial infarction, and cerebrovascular accidents. Thus, dental management of patients who use methamphetamine can be challenging. Dentists need to be aware of the clinical presentation and medical risks presented by these patients.

  15. [Difficult Diagnosis of Non-strabismic Binocular and Accommodative Disorders].

    PubMed

    Kříž, P

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to inform about the current approach to the diagnosis of non-strabismic binocular and accommodative disorders. A large number of studies quote high occurrence of them in both clinical and nonclinical populations. They also point out the presence of a diagnosis deficiency or insufficient diagnosis within the optometric and ophthalmological practice. The representation in population depends not only on race and age, but also on the methodology of diagnostic tests, and the chosen diagnostic criteria in particular. For the purpose of division of binocular and accommodative disorders there are several classification systems. The widespread classification facilitates a better understanding of a great spectrum of symptoms, assignment of the characteristic signs, and decision about appropriateness and choice of treatment types.Key words: heteroforie, binocular disorders, accommodative disorders, fusional vergence, convergence insufficiency, convergence excess.

  16. Magnitude of visual accommodation to a head-up display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leitner, E. F.; Haines, R. F.

    1981-01-01

    The virtual image symbology of head-up displays (HUDs) is presented at optical infinity to the pilot. This design feature is intended to help pilots maintain visual focus distance at optical infinity. However, the accommodation response could be nearer than optical infinity, due to an individual's dark focus response. Accommodation responses were measured of two age groups of airline pilots to: (1) static symbology on a HUD; (2) a landing site background at optical infinity; (3) the combination of the HUD symbology and the landing site background; and (4) complete darkness. Results indicate that magnitude of accommodation to HUD symbology, with and without the background, is not significantly different from an infinity focus response for either age group. The dark focus response is significantly closer than optical infinity for the younger pilots, but not the older pilots, a finding consistent with previous research.

  17. Accommodative response and cortical activity during sustained attention.

    PubMed

    Poltavski, Dmitri V; Biberdorf, David; Petros, Thomas V

    2012-06-15

    Greater accommodative lag and vergence deficits have been linked to attentional deficits similar to those observed in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of accommodative-vergence stress on a measure of sustained attention (Conners CPT) used in the diagnosis of ADHD. Twenty-seven normal non-ADHD adults completed the Conners CPT twice: wearing -2.00 D lenses and normally (without the -2.00 D lenses) in a counterbalanced order with at least 24 h between the sessions. Simultaneous recording of participants' dynamic accommodative responses was performed from the right eye using the Grand Seiko WAM-5500 auto-refractor and electroencephalographic activity (EEG) in the left prefrontal region using the Neurosky Mindset headset. The results demonstrated a significantly greater accommodative lag in the -2.00 D stress condition and a significantly poorer performance on the Conners CPT as indexed by slower reaction time, greater standard error of hit reaction time, grater response variability, poorer stimulus detectability and a greater number of perseverations. No differences were observed on measures of EEG in the theta (4-7 Hz), alpha (8-12 Hz), and beta (12-20 Hz) bands. Moreover, when directly juxtaposed with each EEG band in multiple linear regression analyses, greater accommodative lag in the stress condition was significantly associated with a greater probability of clinical classification on the Conners CPT, and was also marginally predictive of the number of omissions recorded in the stress condition. The results demonstrated that sustained attention can be influenced by such factors as accommodative-vergence stress and suggest that bottom-up processes can contribute to and potentially exacerbate attentional problems in individuals with ADHD. The study also showed that cortical dysfunction (while sufficient) may not be a necessary condition for attentional deficits.

  18. Immunity-Based Accommodation of Aircraft Subsystem Failures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togayev, Adil

    This thesis presents the design, development, and flight-simulation testing of an artificial immune system (AIS) based approach for accommodation of different aircraft subsystem failures. Failure accommodation is considered as part of a complex integrated AIS scheme that contains four major components: failure detection, identification, evaluation, and accommodation. The accommodation part consists of providing compensatory commands to the aircraft under specific abnormal conditions based on previous experience. In this research effort, the possibility of building an AIS allowing the extraction of pilot commands is investigated. The proposed approach is based on structuring the self (nominal conditions) and the non-self (abnormal conditions) within the AIS paradigm, as sets of artificial memory cells (mimicking behavior of T-cells, B-cells, and antibodies) consisting of measurement strings, over pre-defined time windows. Each string is a set of features values at each sample time of the flight including pilot inputs, system states, and other variables. The accommodation algorithm relies on identifying the memory cell that is the most similar to the in-coming measurements. Once the best match is found, control commands corresponding to this match will be extracted from the memory and used for control purposes. The proposed methodology is illustrated through simulation of simple maneuvers at nominal flight conditions, different actuators, and sensor failure conditions. Data for development and demonstration have been collected from West Virginia University 6-degrees-of-freedom motion-based flight simulator. The aircraft model used for this research represents a supersonic fighter which includes model following adaptive control laws based on non-linear dynamic inversion and artificial neural network augmentation. The simulation results demonstrate the possibility of extracting pilot compensatory commands from the self/non-self structure and the capability of the AIS

  19. Space Station accommodation engineering for Life Sciences Research Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilchey, J.; Gustan, E.; Rudiger, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    Exploratory studies conducted by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and several contractors in connection with defining the design requirements, parameters, and tradeoffs of the Life Sciences Research Facilities for nonhuman test subjects aboard the Space Station are reviewed. The major system discriminators which determine the size of the accommodation system are identified, along with a number of mission options. Moreover, characteristics of several vivarium concepts are summarized, focusing on the cost, size, variable-g capability, and the number of specimens accommodated. Finally, the objectives of the phase B studies of the Space Station Laboratory, which are planned for FY85, are described.

  20. Analysis on the accommodation of renewable energy in northeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jinfang; Tian, Feng; Mi, Zhe

    2017-01-01

    The accommodation and curtailment of renewable energy in northeast China have attracted much attention with the rapid growth of wind and solar power generation. Large amount of wind power has been curtailed or abandoned in northeast China due to several reasons, such as, the redundancy of power supplies, inadequate power demands, imperfect power structure with less flexibility and limited cross-regional transmission capacity. In this paper, we use multi-area production simulation to analyse the accommodation of renewable energy in northeast China by 2020. Furthermore, we suggest the measures that could be adopted in generation, grid and load side to reduce curtailment of renewables.

  1. Pupil movements to light and accommodative stimulation - A comparative study.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Semmlow, J.; Stark, L.

    1973-01-01

    Isolation and definition of specific response components in pupil reflexes through comparison of the dynamic features of light-induced and accommodation-induced pupil movements. A quantitative analysis of the behavior of the complex nonlinear pupil responses reveals the presence of two independent nonlinear characteristics: a range-dependent gain and a direction dependence or movement asymmetry. These nonlinear properties are attributed to motor processes because they are observable in pupil responses to both light and accommodation stimuli. The possible mechanisms and consequences of these pupil response characteristics are quantitatively defined and discussed.

  2. Adapting your teaching to accommodate the net generation of learners.

    PubMed

    Skiba, Diane J; Barton, Amy J

    2006-05-31

    Educators are faced with the challenge of adapting their teaching styles to accommodate a new generation of learners. The Net Generation or Millennials, who are now entering colleges and universities, have learning expectations, styles, and needs different from past students. This article assists educators in teaching the Net Generation by highlighting the characteristics of the Net Generation and providing examples of how to adapt teaching strategies to accommodate the Net Generation, in light of their preferences for digital literacy, experiential learning, interactivity, and immediacy.

  3. Tic-related school problems: impact on functioning, accommodations, and interventions.

    PubMed

    Packer, Leslie E

    2005-11-01

    Children with Tourette's syndrome (TS) are statistically overrepresented in special education classes; however, the extent to which tics contribute to such placement is unclear. In this article, the results of a survey of parents or guardians of 71 children and adolescents with TS are described within the broader context of discussing the impact of tics and educational practices. One half of the respondents reported moderate to significant tic-related academic impact, and 48% reported moderate to significant tic-related peer problems. Peer education and in-school counseling were generally not offered nor provided. In the minority of cases where behavioral interventions for tics were reported, contingent aversive consequences were reported to be ineffective or counterproductive, while positive reinforcement for modifying tics reportedly produced some successful results. The identification of research-validated academic accommodations and increased involvement of school psychologists are suggested as necessary and potentially helpful supports for students with TS and their teachers.

  4. Designing Opioids That Deter Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Raffa, Robert B.; Pergolizzi, Joseph V.; Muñiz, Edmundo; Taylor, Robert; Pergolizzi, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Prescription opioid formulations designed to resist or deter abuse are an important step in reducing opioid abuse. In creating these new formulations, the paradigm of drug development target should be introduced. Biological targets relating to the nature of addiction may pose insurmountable hurdles based on our current knowledge and technology, but products that use behavioral targets seem logical and feasible. The population of opioid abusers is large and diverse so behavioral targets are more challenging than they appear at first glance. Furthermore, we need to find ways to correlate behavioral observations of drug liking to actual use and abuse patterns. This may involve revisiting some pharmacodynamic concepts in light of drug effect rather than peak concentration. In this paper we present several new opioid analgesic agents designed to resist or deter abuse using physical barriers, the inclusion of an opioid agonist or antagonist, an aversive agent, and a prodrug formulation. Further, this paper also provides insight into the challenges facing drug discovery in this field. Designing and screening for opioids intended to resist or deter abuse is an important step to meet the public health challenge of burgeoning prescription opioid abuse. PMID:23213510

  5. Against the accommodation of subjective healthcare provider beliefs in medicine: counteracting supporters of conscientious objector accommodation arguments.

    PubMed

    Smalling, Ricardo; Schuklenk, Udo

    2017-04-01

    We respond in this paper to various counter arguments advanced against our stance on conscientious objection accommodation. Contra Maclure and Dumont, we show that it is impossible to develop reliable tests for conscientious objectors' claims with regard to the reasonableness of the ideological basis of their convictions, and, indeed, with regard to whether they actually hold they views they claim to hold. We demonstrate furthermore that, within the Canadian legal context, the refusal to accommodate conscientious objectors would not constitute undue hardship for such objectors. We reject concerns that refusing to accommodate conscientious objectors would limit the equality of opportunity for budding professionals holding particular ideological positions. We also clarify various misrepresentations of our views by respondents Symons, Glick and Jotkowitz, and Lyus.

  6. Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Galli, Jonathan A.; Sawaya, Ronald Andari; Friedenberg, Frank K.

    2013-01-01

    Coinciding with the increasing rates of cannabis abuse has been the recognition of a new clinical condition known as Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome. Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome is characterized by chronic cannabis use, cyclic episodes of nausea and vomiting, and frequent hot bathing. Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome occurs by an unknown mechanism. Despite the well-established anti-emetic properties of marijuana, there is increasing evidence of its paradoxical effects on the gastrointestinal tract and CNS. Tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol, and cannabigerol are three cannabinoids found in the cannabis plant with opposing effects on the emesis response. The clinical course of Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome may be divided into three phases: prodromal, hyperemetic, and recovery phase. The hyperemetic phase usually ceases within 48 hours, and treatment involves supportive therapy with fluid resuscitation and anti-emetic medications. Patients often demonstrate the learned behavior of frequent hot bathing, which produces temporary cessation of nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain. The broad differential diagnosis of nausea and vomiting often leads to delay in the diagnosis of Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome. Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome shares several similarities with CHS and the two conditions are often confused. Knowledge of the epidemiology, pathophysiology, and natural course of Cannabinoid Hyperemesis Syndrome is limited and requires further investigation. PMID:22150623

  7. Family of Origin Violence and Courtship Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Linda L.; Rose, Patricia

    1988-01-01

    Responses from 336 undergraduates revealed 75 percent of respondents had expressed threats or actual violence and 64 percent had received abuse in intimate relationship. In the sample, 30 percent had parents who abused each other; less often the mother or father had been sole abuser. Multiple regression indicated being abused as child predicted…

  8. Adolescent Depression, Alcohol and Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deykin, Eva Y.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Interviews of 434 college students revealed that prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) was 6.8 percent; of alcohol abuse, 8.2 percent; and of substance abuse, 9.4 percent. Alcohol and substance abuse were associated with MDD. Substance abuse was associated with other psychiatric diagnoses as well. MDD usually preceded alcohol or substance…

  9. Elder Abuse: The Status of Current Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrick-Cornell, Claire; Gelles, Richard J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses problems of definition of elderly abuse. Examines data and research on the rates of elderly abuse and factors found related to elderly abuse. Critiques theories developed to explain the abuse of the elderly. Presents recommendations for research and practice. (RC)

  10. Caveats of bisphosphonate abuse

    PubMed Central

    Agarwala, Sanjay; Agashe, Vikas M; Shetty, Vivek; Mohrir, Ganesh; Moonot, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bisphosphonates (BPs) are the common drugs used for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Short term benefits of the BPs are well known. However, there are concerns regarding their long term use. The aim of the study was to analyze the association between atypical femoral fractures and BP misuse/abuse as well as study the outcome of management of these fractures. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of a prospectively studied patients who presented with atypical femoral fractures between January 2010 and August 2012 and were followed up upto June 2014. The cohort consisted of nine female patients (12 fractures) with an average age of 71 years (range 58-85 years). Analysis was done for the indications, duration of BP use, configuration of associated fractures and method of treatment. Results: The mean duration of BP use was 6.6 years (range 4-10 years). BP treatment was initiated without sufficient indication and continued without proper review and followup in most cases. Most patients did not followup and continued to consume BPs without any review by the doctors. All patients had prodromal thigh pain of various duration, which was inadequately investigated and managed before the presentation. Two cases with an incomplete fracture and no thigh pain were managed successfully with conservative treatment. The rest were treated by surgery with intramedullary nailing. The average union time was longer and two fractures went into nonunion which required further surgical intervention. Conclusion: Atypical femoral fractures appear to be strongly related to abuse of BPs. Great care is to be exercised at initiation as well as the continuation of BP therapy, and regular review is required. There is a need for improved awareness among physicians about the possibility of such fractures, and interpretation of thigh pain and radiological findings, especially if the patient has been on BPs therapy. Internal fixation for complete fractures and for

  11. Self-Esteem and Attitudes toward Love in Abused and Non-Abused Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambliss, Catherine; And Others

    This study sought to identify personality differences in abused versus non-abused women. Abused women (N=25) were from several centers for abused women and non-abused women (N=39) were students in evening psychology classes. All subjects completed Rubin's Love Scale, the abbreviated Dominance and Romanticism Scale, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale,…

  12. Women and Drugs: The Heroin Abuser and the Prescription Drug Abuser.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierres, Sara E.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reviewed the literature on female drug use/abuse and derived descriptions of the female heroin abuser and the female prescription drug abuser. Researchers suggest that problems of female drug abusers should be viewed in terms of the feminine role as well as the role of drug abuser. (BH)

  13. Child physical abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Samantha; Christian, Cindy W

    2014-04-01

    This article provides an overview of child physical abuse and neglect, and describes the magnitude of the problem and the triggers and factors that place children at risk for abuse and neglect. After examining the legal and clinical definitions of child abuse and neglect, common clinical outcomes and therapeutic strategies are reviewed, including the lifelong poor physical and mental health of victims and evidence-supported treatment interventions. Mandated reporting laws, and facilitating collaboration among child welfare, judicial, and health care systems are considered. Important tools and resources for addressing child maltreatment in clinical practice are discussed, and future approaches posited.

  14. Leading the Way to Appropriate Selection, Implementation, and Evaluation of the Read-Aloud Accommodation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurlow, Martha L.; Lazarus, Sheryl S.; Hodgson, Jennifer R.

    2012-01-01

    The read-aloud accommodation is one of the most frequently used accommodations. Many educators need training to more confidently select, implement, and evaluate the use of the read-aloud accommodation. Planning by special education leaders can help ensure that test day goes smoothly for students who need the read-aloud accommodation.

  15. Success in baccalaureate nursing programs: a matter of accommodation?

    PubMed

    Haislett, J; Hughes, R B; Atkinson, G; Williams, C L

    1993-02-01

    This article explores student learning styles as an important variable in four-year baccalaureate nursing programs. Student learning styles were assessed by Kolb's Learning Style Inventory-1985 (LSI-1985), which identifies the accommodator, diverger, assimilator, and converger learning styles. The authors examined the relationship between learning style and academic performance as measured by grade-point ratio (GPR) and studied behaviors and attitudes as measured by Brown and Holtzman's (1964) Survey of Study Habits and Attitudes. Analysis indicated that this sample (N = 100) included mainly assimilators and divergers, making reflective observation the most common mode of learning. Compared to the accommodator/converger group, the assimilator/diverger group earned a significantly higher GPR, significantly better scores on the study habits variable of Work Methods (WM), and moderately better scores on the study attitude variable of Educational Acceptance (EA). Accommodators were identified as the most at-risk learning style group, and specific interventions were suggested to assist accommodators in adapting to the academic rigors of a nursing curriculum.

  16. The accommodative ciliary muscle function is preserved in older humans

    PubMed Central

    Tabernero, Juan; Chirre, Emmanuel; Hervella, Lucia; Prieto, Pedro; Artal, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Presbyopia, the loss of the eye’s accommodation capability, affects all humans aged above 45–50 years old. The two main reasons for this to happen are a hardening of the crystalline lens and a reduction of the ciliary muscle functionality with age. While there seems to be at least some partial accommodating functionality of the ciliary muscle at early presbyopic ages, it is not yet clear whether the muscle is still active at more advanced ages. Previous techniques used to visualize the accommodation mechanism of the ciliary muscle are complicated to apply in the older subjects, as they typically require fixation stability during long measurement times and/or to have an ultrasound probe directly in contact with the eye. Instead, we used our own developed method based on high-speed recording of lens wobbling to study the ciliary muscle activity in a small group of pseudophakic subjects (around 80 years old). There was a significant activity of the muscle, clearly able to contract under binocular stimulation of accommodation. This supports a purely lenticular-based theory of presbyopia and it might stimulate the search for new solutions to presbyopia by making use of the remaining contraction force still presented in the aging eye. PMID:27151778

  17. View north of inside machine shop 36; shop floor accommodates ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View north of inside machine shop 36; shop floor accommodates lathes capable of machining a cylinder 60 inches in diameter and 75 feet long; other equipment includes horizontal and vertical jig borders, hydraulic tube straighteners and other equipment for precision machining of large ship components. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, Structure Shop, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. Student Accommodation Projects: A Guide to PFI Contracts. Good Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Pinsent

    This guide is intended for higher education institutions in England that are about to embark on student residential accommodation projects. It focuses on procurements under the Private Financial Initiative (PFI), a form of Public Private Partnership in the United Kingdom, but other approaches are considered. The guide draws on good practices from…

  19. The accommodative ciliary muscle function is preserved in older humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabernero, Juan; Chirre, Emmanuel; Hervella, Lucia; Prieto, Pedro; Artal, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    Presbyopia, the loss of the eye’s accommodation capability, affects all humans aged above 45–50 years old. The two main reasons for this to happen are a hardening of the crystalline lens and a reduction of the ciliary muscle functionality with age. While there seems to be at least some partial accommodating functionality of the ciliary muscle at early presbyopic ages, it is not yet clear whether the muscle is still active at more advanced ages. Previous techniques used to visualize the accommodation mechanism of the ciliary muscle are complicated to apply in the older subjects, as they typically require fixation stability during long measurement times and/or to have an ultrasound probe directly in contact with the eye. Instead, we used our own developed method based on high-speed recording of lens wobbling to study the ciliary muscle activity in a small group of pseudophakic subjects (around 80 years old). There was a significant activity of the muscle, clearly able to contract under binocular stimulation of accommodation. This supports a purely lenticular-based theory of presbyopia and it might stimulate the search for new solutions to presbyopia by making use of the remaining contraction force still presented in the aging eye.

  20. Accommodating Students' Sensory Learning Modalities in Online Formats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allison, Barbara N.; Rehm, Marsha L.

    2016-01-01

    Online classes have become a popular and viable method of educating students in both K-12 settings and higher education, including in family and consumer sciences (FCS) programs. Online learning dramatically affects the way students learn. This article addresses how online learning can accommodate the sensory learning modalities (sight, hearing,…

  1. Mechanically implementable accommodation matrices for passive force control

    SciTech Connect

    Goswami, A.; Peshkin, M.

    1999-08-01

    Robot force control implemented by means of passive mechanical devices has inherent advantages over active implementations with regard to stability, response rapidity, and physical robustness. The class of devices considered in this paper consists of a Stewart platform-type mechanism interconnected with a network of adjustable mechanical elements such as springs and dampers. The control law repertoire of such a device, imagined as a robot wrist, is given by the range of admittance matrices that it may be programmed to possess. This paper focuses on wrists incorporating damper networks for which the admittance matrices reduce to accommodation or inverse-damping matrices. The authors show that a hydraulic network of fully adjustable damper elements may attain any diagonally dominant accommodation matrix. They describe the technique of selecting the individual damping coefficients to design a desired matrix. They identify the set of dominant matrices as a polyhedral convex cone in the space of matrix entries, and show that each dominant matrix can be composed of a positive linear combination of a fixed set of basis matrices. The overall wrist-accommodation matrix is obtained by projecting the accommodation matrix of the damper network through the wrist kinematics. The linear combination of the dominant basis matrices projected through the wrist kinematics generates the entire space of mechanically implementable force-control laws. The authors quantify the versatility of mechanically implementable force-control laws by comparing this space to the space of all matrices.

  2. The Effect of Intensified Language Exposure on Accommodating Talker Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antoniou, Mark; Wong, Patrick C. M.; Wang, Suiping

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study systematically examined the role of intensified exposure to a second language on accommodating talker variability. Method: English native listeners (n = 37) were compared with Mandarin listeners who had either lived in the United States for an extended period of time (n = 33) or had lived only in China (n = 44). Listeners…

  3. Understanding and Accommodating Students with Depression in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crundwell, R. Marc; Killu, Kim

    2007-01-01

    Depression and mood disorders present a significant challenge in the classroom; resulting symptoms can impact memory, recall, motivation, problem solving, task completion, physical and motor skills, and social interactions. Little information is available on practical instructional accommodations and modifications for use by the classroom teacher.…

  4. Manifold gasket accommodating differential movement of fuel cell stack

    DOEpatents

    Kelley, Dana A.; Farooque, Mohammad

    2007-11-13

    A gasket for use in a fuel cell system having at least one externally manifolded fuel cell stack, for sealing the manifold edge and the stack face. In accordance with the present invention, the gasket accommodates differential movement between the stack and manifold by promoting slippage at interfaces between the gasket and the dielectric and between the gasket and the stack face.

  5. Disability Accommodations in Online Courses: The Graduate Student Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terras, Katherine; Leggio, Joseph; Phillips, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Research is beginning to demonstrate that online learning may afford students with disabilities enhanced opportunities for academic success. In this study, the authors interviewed 11 graduate students to determine their experiences with disability accommodations in online courses and their perceptions of the relationship between those…

  6. Promoting Independence for Wheelchair Users: The Role of Home Accommodations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Susan; Resnik, Linda; Roy, Jason

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this research is to investigate whether home accommodations influence the amount of human help provided to a nationally representative sample of adults who use wheelchairs. Design and Methods: We analyzed data from the Adult Disability Follow-back Survey (DFS), Phase II, of the Disability Supplement to the 1994-1995…

  7. Accommodating College Students with Learning Disabilities: ADD, ADHD, and Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickers, Melana Zyla

    2010-01-01

    Universities are providing extra time on tests, quiet exam rooms, in-class note-takers, and other assistance to college students with modest learning disabilities. But these policies are shrouded in secrecy. This paper, "Accommodating College Students with Learning Disabilities: ADD, ADHD, and Dyslexia," by Melana Zyla Vickers, examines…

  8. Language Shift and Language Accommodation across Family Generations in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandel, Todd L.; Chao, Wen-Yu; Liang, Chung-Hui

    2006-01-01

    This study explored language shift and accommodation among bilingual Mandarin and Tai-gi (also called Hokkien, Holo, Tai-gu, Taiwan Min, Taiwanese) families in Taiwan. From the 1940s until the 1980s the Chinese Nationalist Party (KMT) on Taiwan promoted Mandarin Chinese. Recent years have witnessed a shift in policy: since 2001 elementary schools…

  9. Coworker Informal Work Accommodations to Family: Scale Development and Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mesmer-Magnus, Jessica; Murase, Toshio; DeChurch, Leslie A.; Jimenez, Miliani

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on research regarding the utility of coworker support in mitigating work/family conflict, the authors developed a scale to measure Coworker-enacted Informal Work Accommodations to Family (C-IWAF). C-IWAF differs from coworker support in that it describes actual behaviors coworkers engage in to help one another deal with incompatible work…

  10. View of button board which accommodates the 1200 button switches ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of button board which accommodates the 1200 button switches which manually control the indicating pilot lights on the model board. Not all switches are active, some switches were installed for a planned, but never constructed, system expansion. - Thirtieth Street Station, Load Dispatch Center, Thirtieth & Market Streets, Railroad Station, Amtrak (formerly Pennsylvania Railroad Station), Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. 13 CFR 112.6 - Discrimination in accommodations or services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discrimination in accommodations or services. 112.6 Section 112.6 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF...

  12. Accommodating Students with Disabilities: A Practical Guide for the Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Moon K.; And Others

    This guide is designed to assist university professors in making decisions on their instructional planning and delivery by expanding and refining their repertoire of accommodations for their students with visual and hearing impairments, physical disabilities, and learning disabilities. Part 1 suggests a five-step procedure for making decisions on…

  13. Accommodating Students with Disabilities: A Guide for School Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Moon K.; And Others

    This guide is designed as a resource to assist teachers in making decisions on their instructional planning and delivery by expanding and refining their repertoire of ways and means of making accommodations for students with learning disabilities and visual, hearing, and physical impairments. Part 1 presents ways of providing accommodations…

  14. Pharmacologically Stimulated Pupil and Accommodative Changes in Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Ostrin, Lisa A.; Garcia, Mariana B.; Choh, Vivian; Wildsoet, Christine F.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. The guinea pig is being used increasingly as a model of human myopia. As accommodation may influence the effects of manipulations used in experimental myopia models, understanding the accommodative ability of guinea pigs is important. Here, nonselective muscarinic agonists were used as pharmacological tools to study guinea pig accommodation. Methods. Measurements were made on 15 pigmented guinea pigs. For in vivo testing, animals were anesthetized and, following baseline measurements, 2% pilocarpine was applied topically. Measurements included A-scan ultrasonography, optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging, corneal topography, and refraction. In vitro lens scanning experiments were performed using anterior segment preparations, with measurements before and during exposure to carbachol. Anterior segment structures were examined histologically and immunohistochemistry was done to characterize the muscarinic receptor subtypes present. Results. In vivo, pilocarpine induced a myopic shift in refractive error coupled to a small, but consistent decrease in anterior chamber depth (ACD), a smaller and more variable increase in lens thickness, and a decrease in pupil size. Lens thickness increases were short-lived (10 minutes), while ACD and pupil size decreased over 20 minutes. Corneal curvature was not significantly affected. Carbachol tested on anterior segment preparations in vitro was without effect on lens back vertex distance, but did stimulate pupil constriction. Immunohistochemistry indicated the presence of muscarinic receptor subtypes 1 to 5 in the iris and ciliary body. Conclusions. The observed pilocarpine-induced changes in ACD, lens thickness, and refraction are consistent with active accommodation in the guinea pig, through cholinergic muscarinic stimulation. PMID:25097245

  15. Science Language Accommodation in Elementary School Read-Alouds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Rory; Oliveira, Alandeom W.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the pedagogical functions of accommodation (i.e. provision of simplified science speech) in science read-aloud sessions facilitated by five elementary teachers. We conceive of read-alouds as communicative events wherein teachers, faced with the task of orally delivering a science text of relatively high linguistic complexity,…

  16. Accommodating the Spectrum of Individual Abilities. Clearinghouse Publication 81.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Civil Rights, Washington, DC.

    The monograph addresses legal issues involving discrimination against handicapped persons and the key legal requirement of reasonable accommodation. Four chapters in Part I examine background issues, including definitions and statistical overviews of handicaps; historical attitudes toward handicapped persons and an analysis of the extent of…

  17. Accommodating the Special Learner in Secondary General Music Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanWeelden, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    It can be challenging to know which accommodations for special learners can be used within the various secondary general music class settings. Fortunately, there have been several recent music education and therapy articles based on special education practices that have addressed techniques for working with students with special needs in music.…

  18. Analysis and applications of accommodative lenses for vision corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jui-Teng; Jiang, Minshan; Chang, Chun-Lin; Hong, Yu-Ling; Ren, Qiushi

    2011-01-01

    Analysis and applications of vision correction via accommodating intraocular lens (AIOL) are presented. By Gaussian optics, analytic formulas for the accommodation rate function (M) for two-optics and three-optics systems are derived and compared with the exact numerical results. In a single-optics AIOL, typical value of M is (0.5-1.5) D/mm, for an IOL power of (10-20) diopter. For a given IOL power, higher M is achieved in positive-IOL than negative-IOL. In the dual-optics AIOL, maximum accommodation is predicted when the front positive-optics moves toward the corneal plan and the back negative-optics moves backward. Our analytic formulas predict that greater accommodative rate may be achieved by using a positive-powered front optics, a general feature when either front or back optics is mobile. The M function is used to find the piggy-back IOL power for customized design based on the individual ocular parameters. Many of the new features demonstrated in this study can be easily realized by our analytic formulas, but not by raytracing method.

  19. The Nonverbal Accommodation Analysis System (NAAS): Initial application and evaluation

    PubMed Central

    D'Agostino, Thomas A.; Bylund, Carma L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe the development, initial application, and evaluation of the Nonverbal Accommodation Analysis System (NAAS). Grounded in Communication Accommodation Theory, this coding system provides a method for analyzing physician and patient nonverbal accommodation behaviors within medical consultations. Methods Video recordings of 45 new visit consultations at a comprehensive cancer center were coded using the NAAS. Inter-rater and intra-rater reliability were assessed. For validation purposes, two independent coders rated all consultations for theoretically-related constructs. Results The NAAS demonstrated high levels of reliability. Statistically significant correlations were observed across all 10 behavior categories for both inter-rater and intra-rater reliability. Evidence of content and construct validity was also observed. Conclusion The current study presents the initial application and evaluation of a coding system meant for analysis of the nonverbal behavior of physicians and patients within medical consultations. The results of this initial trial and psychometric evaluation provide evidence of the NAAS as a valid and reliable nonverbal accommodation coding system. PMID:20851559

  20. Maximising Occupancy. Accommodation Management Module. Operational Management Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Julia

    This module on maximizing occupancy is intended to cover the basic framework for analysis of occupancy in accommodations and for identification of ways to improve it on both a long-term and day-to-day basis. The material is presented in a self-instructional format in seven sections. At the beginning of each section is a statement of the objectives…

  1. Accommodation, Cafes and Restaurants. Industry Training Monograph No. 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumbrell, Tom

    Australia's accommodation, cafes, and restaurants industry represents more than half of the nation's total tourism and hospitality employment. It accounts for roughly 4.5% of all jobs in Australia (400,000 workers). Since 1987, the number of jobs in the sector has risen from about 257,000 to about 372,000. Approximately 57% of employees are…

  2. Accommodations in Homeschool Settings for Children with Special Education Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoudt, Patricia Koelsch

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study was designed to examine how homeschooling parents in Pennsylvania make the determination to engage with public school districts to accommodate the special education needs (SEN) of their children. This phenomenological study used direct interviews with 30 Pennsylvania families who are homeschooling children with SEN. Data…

  3. 13 CFR 112.6 - Discrimination in accommodations or services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discrimination in accommodations or services. 112.6 Section 112.6 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NONDISCRIMINATION IN FEDERALLY ASSISTED PROGRAMS OF SBA-EFFECTUATION OF TITLE VI OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF...

  4. Sequential strategies of accommodation: a new method in courtroom.

    PubMed

    Gnisci, Augusto

    2005-12-01

    The aim of this research is to show the fruitfulness of a sequential analysis approach applied to the study of the dynamic and sequential character of accommodation strategies proposed by communication accommodation theory (CAT). It was applied to the convergence, divergence, maintenance, and control strategies undertaken in the courtroom during 47 hostile examinations from a single criminal case. Each of the 1,850 question-answer exchanges was classified for the content aspects (types of questions and of answers) and for the modalities of turn taking (interrupting, latching, and pausing) by both lawyer and witness. Log-linear analyses were performed. The main results show that the lawyer and the witness used both accommodation and maintenance strategies, even if the latter are used more by the lawyer. Both participants made use of unimodal and bimodal strategies and tended to reciprocate the behaviour of the interlocutor. The conclusions emphasize the advantage of using the sequential analysis approach to the accommodation strategies of CAT: studying multiple behaviours, identifying the direction and the modalities of the strategies even if they act simultaneously, and providing a means to evaluate the weight of the strategies on the whole and in detail.

  5. Development of the Reasonable Accommodation Factor Survey: Results and Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Shengli; MacDonald-Wilson, Kim L.; Fabian, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was (a) to explore the latent factors in the "Reasonable Accommodation Factor Survey" (RAFS) instrument and (b) to compare scores on the latent factors of the RAFS by participant's role. Eight latent factors were identified through an exploratory factor analysis with orthogonal rotation. The reliability tests…

  6. 23 CFR 645.211 - State transportation department accommodation policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false State transportation department accommodation policies... highway and utility construction and maintenance. (c) The State transportation department's standards for... highway design standards or other measures which the State transportation department deems necessary...

  7. 23 CFR 645.211 - State transportation department accommodation policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false State transportation department accommodation policies... highway and utility construction and maintenance. (c) The State transportation department's standards for... highway design standards or other measures which the State transportation department deems necessary...

  8. 23 CFR 645.211 - State transportation department accommodation policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false State transportation department accommodation policies... highway and utility construction and maintenance. (c) The State transportation department's standards for... highway design standards or other measures which the State transportation department deems necessary...

  9. 23 CFR 645.211 - State transportation department accommodation policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false State transportation department accommodation policies... highway and utility construction and maintenance. (c) The State transportation department's standards for... highway design standards or other measures which the State transportation department deems necessary...

  10. Accommodating Students with Disabilities in Soil Science Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langley-Turnbaugh, S. J.; Murphy, Kate; Levin, E.

    2004-01-01

    Soil science education is lacking in terms of accommodations for persons with disabilities. Individuals with disabilities are often excluded from soil science activities in school, and from soil science careers. GLOBE (Global Learning Observations to Benefit the Environment) is a worldwide, hands-on primary and secondary school-based education and…

  11. The Contribution of University Accommodation to International Student Security

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paltridge, Toby; Mayson, Susan; Schapper, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we argue that living in university accommodation is a possible means of improving the security of international students. Our argument is supported by a qualitative case study of a single Hall of Residence on Monash University's Clayton campus. Data were collected primarily from interviews with three groups of participants--six…

  12. 23 CFR 645.211 - State transportation department accommodation policies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Guide for Accommodating Utilities Within Highway Right-of-Way” and “Roadside Design Guide” to assist in... highway and utility construction and maintenance. (c) The State transportation department's standards for... highway design standards or other measures which the State transportation department deems necessary...

  13. Translation Accommodations Framework for Testing English Language Learners in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solano-Flores, Guillermo

    2012-01-01

    The present framework is developed under contract with the Smarter Balanced Assessment Consortium (SBAC) as a conceptual and methodological tool for guiding the reasonings and actions of contractors in charge of developing and providing test translation accommodations for English language learners. The framework addresses important challenges in…

  14. Teaching Disability Employment Discrimination Law: Accommodating Physical and Mental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulow, Marianne DelPo

    2012-01-01

    Disability employment discrimination is often treated summarily in legal environment courses. This is actually a topic with significant practical application in the workplace since managers are often those who are confronted with accommodation requests. It is therefore desirable to include a class with hands-on exercises for students to begin to…

  15. The alteration of profile analysis to accommodate testing functions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, R. H.

    1979-01-01

    The development of a methodology was studied for testing differences among several pilot functions, where the data points represent averages at various frequencies. Topics discussed include: basic assumptions, hypothesis, profile analysis, alteration of profile analysis to accommodate testing functions, test and procedures, and power of tests.

  16. Speech Accommodation without Priming: The Case of Pitch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gijssels, Tom; Casasanto, Laura Staum; Jasmin, Kyle; Hagoort, Peter; Casasanto, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    People often accommodate to each other's speech by aligning their linguistic production with their partner's. According to an influential theory, the Interactive Alignment Model, alignment is the result of priming. When people perceive an utterance, the corresponding linguistic representations are primed and become easier to produce. Here we…

  17. Treatment or Accommodation for Adults with Challenging Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses the difficulties some individuals with developmental disabilities have in responding to behavioral treatment and suggests an alternative to traditional behavioral treatment programs. It describes the use of the accommodation approach in which an individual's environment is rearranged to prevent or lower the occurrence of…

  18. 46 CFR 127.260 - Ventilation for accommodations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Ventilation for accommodations. 127.260 Section 127.260 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND... cognizant OCMI is satisfied that a natural system, such as opening windows, portholes, or doors,...

  19. Design Criteria for Public School Plants Accommodating the Physically Disabled.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri State Dept. of Education, Jefferson City. School Building Services.

    Criteria are presented for implementation in the design and construction of school buildings and facilities so as to obviate hazards to individuals with physical disabilities. Accommodations for the physically handicapped are considered for the following--(1) public walks, (2) parking lots, (3) ramps with gradients and handrails, (4) entrances,…

  20. Drug abuse and illicit drug use in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed Central

    Canino, G; Anthony, J C; Freeman, D H; Shrout, P; Rubio-Stipec, M

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. Based on an epidemiologic field survey of community households in Puerto Rico, this study estimates the frequency of illicit drug use and clinically defined drug abuse and/or dependence syndromes. Results are compared with those from surveys on the United States mainland. Suspected risk factors are studied as well, with a special focus on childhood misbehavior. METHODS. Trained lay interviewers administered a Spanish Diagnostic Interview Schedule to 912 respondents aged 17 to 68 years who were selected by multistage probability sampling of island households. RESULTS. An estimated 8.2% of the population had a history of illicit drug use and 1.2% qualified for a standardized lifetime diagnosis of drug abuse, dependence, or both. An estimated 18.4% of the male drug users and 7.7% of the female drug users met criteria for drug abuse and/or dependence. A history of drug use was related to the diagnoses of alcohol abuse and/or dependence and antisocial personality, but few persons who had used illicit drugs at least once in their lifetime reported a history of receiving treatment for alcohol, drug, or mental health problems. CONCLUSIONS. The data were consistent with a suspected association between level of childhood misbehavior and occurrence of illicit drug use, even after statistical control for potentially confounding variables. PMID:8427322

  1. [Child sex abuse: pretext to a return of sexual repression].

    PubMed

    Marneffe, C

    1995-01-01

    This article is based on observations and thoughts during intensive psychotherapeutic work with 997 sexually abused children and their parents after they had been reported to the Confidential Doctor Center Kind in Nood of the VUB (between 1986 and 1994). Without denying the existence of sexual abuse of children, it is important not to exaggerate this phenomena, which can be described as the Child Sexual Abuse Panic Syndrome. Doing this only gives way to denial and indignation or scandalization and revenge, and certainly does not lead to a clear analysis of the problem. Accurate observation enables some existing myths to become unravelled: abusive fathers are seldom power robots, mothers are not always warm-hearted, innocent creatures and children are not black boxes without feeling and sexual desires. The underlying message is about the bitter fight against modernization of sexuality, which seems again experienced as dangerous. However it is fear for a free, adult sexuality that is at the core of sexual exploitation of children, which should encourage caution in professional answers to this delicate issue.

  2. Care for survivors of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Tidy, H

    1996-07-01

    Childhood sexual abuse affects at least 18% of British women but the true figure may be far higher. Repressed memories may resurface at childbirth. Midwives need to be aware of certain behavioural tendencies which may indicate childhood sexual abuse. There are four recognised labour styles which may be adopted by abuse survivors. Extra sensitivity should be used by midwives when caring for a possible abuse survivor. Disclosure of abuse must always come from the client.

  3. Ethical issues in paying for long-distance travel and accommodation expenses of oocyte donors.

    PubMed

    Heng, Boon Chin

    2005-11-01

    In many countries where the sale and purchase of donor oocytes is banned, a legal loophole often exploited is the use of free air tickets and hotel stay to entice prospective oocyte donors, in lieu of monetary payment. Such a means of procuring much-needed donor oocytes is ethically unsound. There is a lack of transparency and the personal motivation of the oocyte donor may be clouded by the desire for a 'free' holiday. Moreover, such a system is open to abuse by medical professionals. Private fertility clinics may source for oocyte donors to attract patients. The oocyte donor is paid nothing (except free travel and hotel stay), while the medical professional makes a handsome profit from treating infertile patients, which is not equitable. Medical professionals can also easily make a profit by marking up the price of air tickets and hotel stay to the patient (oocyte recipient). This would be thoroughly unprofessional, since the money earned is not directly related to the medical skills and expertise of the fertility specialist. Hence, it is imperative that various regulatory authorities should critically re-examine the giving of free travel and accommodation to oocyte donors, instead of monetary compensation.

  4. Accommodations Manual: How to Select, Administer, and Evaluate Use of Accommodations for Instruction and Assessment of Students with Disabilities. Third Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, L.; Carver, W.; VanDeZande, J.; Lazarus, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Council of Chief State School Officers' "Accommodations Manual: How to Select, Administer, and Evaluate the Use of Accommodations for Instruction and Assessment of Students with Disabilities" was first developed to establish guidelines for states to use for the selection, administration, and evaluation of accommodations for…

  5. Mechanism for accommodation to cadmium exposure in Escherichia coli B

    SciTech Connect

    Kitchen, J.R. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    All organisms possess, to varying degrees, the ability to adapt to changes in their environment. The extent of this capability can be the determining factor in whether or not an organism survives. The adaptation of the enteric microorganism, Escherichia coli, to the heavy metal cadmium is not the result of a beneficial mutation, and has been termed accommodation. A protein was found that binds to, and appears to be induced by cadmium. The work presented in this thesis is directed at (1) determining the mechanism of accommodation of E.coli to cadmium, and (2) determining the potential role of a putative cadmium binding-protein in accomplishing this accommodation. The presence of three chemically related cadmium-binding proteins, possessing molecular weights of 150,000, 67,000, and 38,000, respectively, was demonstrated. The cadmium-protein bond in the 150 and 67 kDa proteins was stable when boiled in sodium dodecyl sulfate, but was lost in the presence of reducing agents. Evidence was obtained which supported the assertion that the lower molecular weight cadmium-binding proteins were proteolytic or oxidative breakdown products of the larger cadmium-binding proteins. The loss of cadmium-binding activity was time dependent, and appeared to be accelerated by the presence of high salt. To determine if the process of accommodation involved the sequestration of cadmium in the outer cell surface, subcellular fractionation experiments were performed under a variety of post-exposure conditions. The possibility that the cell surface was rendered impermeable to cadmium ions during its recovery was also examined. Neither of these processes was found to be involved in the accommodative response. Indeed, the results of these studies support the concept that E.coli circumvents the presence of internal cadmium by converting it to a form that is no longer toxic to the cell.

  6. Accommodating environmental variation in population models: metaphysiological biomass loss accounting.

    PubMed

    Owen-Smith, Norman

    2011-07-01

    1. There is a pressing need for population models that can reliably predict responses to changing environmental conditions and diagnose the causes of variation in abundance in space as well as through time. In this 'how to' article, it is outlined how standard population models can be modified to accommodate environmental variation in a heuristically conducive way. This approach is based on metaphysiological modelling concepts linking populations within food web contexts and underlying behaviour governing resource selection. Using population biomass as the currency, population changes can be considered at fine temporal scales taking into account seasonal variation. Density feedbacks are generated through the seasonal depression of resources even in the absence of interference competition. 2. Examples described include (i) metaphysiological modifications of Lotka-Volterra equations for coupled consumer-resource dynamics, accommodating seasonal variation in resource quality as well as availability, resource-dependent mortality and additive predation, (ii) spatial variation in habitat suitability evident from the population abundance attained, taking into account resource heterogeneity and consumer choice using empirical data, (iii) accommodating population structure through the variable sensitivity of life-history stages to resource deficiencies, affecting susceptibility to oscillatory dynamics and (iv) expansion of density-dependent equations to accommodate various biomass losses reducing population growth rate below its potential, including reductions in reproductive outputs. Supporting computational code and parameter values are provided. 3. The essential features of metaphysiological population models include (i) the biomass currency enabling within-year dynamics to be represented appropriately, (ii) distinguishing various processes reducing population growth below its potential, (iii) structural consistency in the representation of interacting populations and

  7. Eating disorders and sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Molinari, E

    2001-06-01

    This review examines the current debate on the role that sexual and physical abuse may play in predisposing to eating disorders in women. Despite some discordant opinions, clinicians agree that the experience of abuse in early childhood may be important for understanding the complex genesis of the eating disorders of some women. Three groups of studies are presented: those in which no connections emerge between sexual abuse and eating disorders, those in which a strong link is present and those in which the results refer to a multifactorial interpretative model. Some of the main symptoms, such as reactualization of the trauma, dissociation, personality disorders, pathological relationship with food, distortion of body image, suicide attempts and self-inflicted punishment that victims of abuse and eating disordered subjects share are examined.

  8. Substance Abuse in the Military

    MedlinePlus

    ... Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine ... Drugs Anabolic Steroids Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Cocaine Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Electronic Cigarettes (e- ...

  9. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    MedlinePlus

    ... Frequently Asked Questions: Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Select Free Subscriptions This survey is powered by SurveyGizmo's online survey software . Please take my survey now Children’s Bureau Child ...

  10. Substance Abuse in Rural Areas

    MedlinePlus

    ... physical appearance and grooming Association with known substance abusers Need for money and stealing money Persistent dishonesty ... can be done to discourage youth from using drugs and alcohol? Everyone can help educate children and ...

  11. Abuse and toxicity of methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Klein-Schwartz, Wendy

    2002-04-01

    The therapeutic use of methylphenidate for the management of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children is increasing. As therapeutic use increases, the risk increases of unintentional overdoses, medication errors, and intentional overdoses caused by abuse, misuse, or suicide gestures and attempts. Side effects during therapy, which include nervousness, headache, insomnia, anorexia, and tachycardia, increase linearly with dose. Clinical manifestations of overdoses include agitation, hallucinations, psychosis, lethargy, seizures, tachycardia, dysrhythmias, hypertension, and hyperthermia. Methylphenidate tablets can be abused orally, or they can be crushed and the powder injected or snorted. Despite its abuse potential, there is disagreement regarding the extent to which methylphenidate is being diverted from legitimate use to abuse in preteens and adolescents.

  12. Linkages: Texas Higher Education Drug Abuse Prevention Digest. Vol I, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varenhorst, Deanne, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This is the first issue of a newsletter for those in Texas higher education who are interested in the prevention of alcohol and other drug abuse within higher education. The lead article, based on an unpublished study, addresses Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, in particular the link between drug and alcohol use and sexual behavior. A section…

  13. College Students' Hypothetical Responses to Suicidal Individuals Who Are HIV Positive, Substance Abusing, Depressed, or Anxious.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neal, Steven E.; Range, Lillian M.

    1993-01-01

    Undergraduates (n=141) read vignette about suicidal person with either Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, depression, drug abuse, anxiety, or adjustment problems. Found that suicidal person who was human immunodeficiency virus-positive engendered significantly less helpful responses from students than did suicidal person who had panic attacks.…

  14. The prescription drug abuse epidemic.

    PubMed

    Yu, Hoi-Ying Elsie

    2012-09-01

    In the United States, the nonmedical use of prescription drugs is the second most common illicit drug use, behind only marijuana. This article discusses the abuse issues with three of the most widely abused prescription drugs: opioids, central nervous system (CNS) depressants (eg, benzodiazepines), and stimulants (eg, amphetamine-dextroamphetamine and methylphenideate) in the United States. Efforts to deal with the problem are described as well.

  15. Methamphetamine abuse and "meth mouth".

    PubMed

    Rhodus, Nelson L; Little, James W

    2005-01-01

    Dental management for the patient who abuses drugs is always a challenge. The number of patients abusing methamphetamines appears to be increasing. The dentist needs to be aware of the clinical presentation and medical risks presented by these patients and to attempt to get the patient to seek professional help. Additionally, special attention will be necessary for the high prevalence and severity of oral manifestations including rampant caries, enamel erosion, xerostomia, bruxism, and muscle trismus.

  16. Abuse and misuse of antidepressants

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Elizabeth A; Sullivan, Maria A

    2014-01-01

    Background Rates of prescription drug abuse have reached epidemic proportions. Large-scale epidemiologic surveys of this under-recognized clinical problem have not included antidepressants despite their contribution to morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this review is to look specifically at the misuse of antidepressants and how this behavior may fit into the growing crisis of nonmedical use of prescription drugs. Methods We conducted a comprehensive search on PubMed, Medline, and PsycINFO using the search terms “antidepressant”, “abuse”, “misuse”, “nonmedical use”, “dependence”, and “addiction”, as well as individual antidepressant classes (eg, “SSRI”) and individual antidepressants (eg, “fluoxetine”) in various combinations, to identify articles of antidepressant misuse and abuse. Results A small but growing literature on the misuse and abuse of antidepressants consists largely of case reports. Most cases of antidepressant abuse have occurred in individuals with comorbid substance use and mood disorders. The most commonly reported motivation for abuse is to achieve a psychostimulant-like effect. Antidepressants are abused at high doses and via a variety of routes of administration (eg, intranasal, intravenous). Negative consequences vary based upon antidepressant class and pharmacology, but these have included seizures, confusion, and psychotic-like symptoms. Conclusion The majority of individuals prescribed antidepressants do not misuse the medication. However, certain classes of antidepressants do carry abuse potential. Vulnerable patient populations include those with a history of substance abuse and those in controlled environments. Warning signs include the presence of aberrant behaviors. Physicians should include antidepressants when screening for risky prescription medication use. When antidepressant misuse is detected, a thoughtful treatment plan, including referral to an addiction specialist, should be developed and

  17. Abuse liability of flupirtine revisited: implications of spontaneous reports of adverse drug reactions.

    PubMed

    Gahr, Maximilian; Freudenmann, Roland W; Connemann, Bernhard J; Hiemke, Christoph; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos

    2013-12-01

    Early studies suggested that the centrally acting non-opioid and non-steroidal analgesic flupirtine (FLP) has no potential for abuse. However, FLP's agonistic effects at the GABAA receptor might prime addictive behaviors, and literature provides some anecdotal reports on FLP abuse/dependence. To shed more light on this topic we acquired and evaluated data obtained from a national German pharmacovigilance database. We analyzed all reports of FLP abuse/dependence that were recorded in the database of the German Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices (BfArM). A total of n = 48 reports of FLP abuse/dependence could be identified (mean age 45 years, 62.5% female). First reports were submitted to BfArM in 1991 with increasing numbers of annual reports from the year 2006 on. Mean daily FLP dosage was 805 mg (range 200-3,000 mg). Current or previous substance abuse/dependence was reported in 21% and 17%, respectively. Mean duration of FLP abuse/dependence until report to BfArM was 23 months (range 1-84 months). Withdrawal syndromes after discontinuation of FLP were reported in n = 9 (19%). Our findings strengthen the hypothesis that FLP features a potential to cause addictive behaviors. Female sex, age >40 years, and long-term FLP-treatment may be possible risk factors for the development of FLP abuse/dependence.

  18. Drug abuse in slum population

    PubMed Central

    Ghulam, Ram; Verma, Kamal; Sharma, Pankaj; Razdan, Monica; Razdan, Rahul Anand

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse is an important health problem throughout the world including India, but prevalence and pattern of abuse varies from country to country and in different types of population. Slums have their own social and economic problems so that substance abuse may be different in this population and might be related with these problems. The aim of the present study was to study the prevalence and pattern substances in slum population. Prakash Chandra Sethi Nagar slum area of Indore district was selected for the purpose of this study. In first phase of the study, first a camp was organized to sensitize local leaders, key persons, and local inhabitants about drug abuse at Chandra Prakash Sethi Nagar. After that basic information was gathered with the key persons in Chandra Prakash Sethi Nagar. In second phase by house-to-house survey, all members of the family were interviewed in detail and information was recorded on semi-structured proforma. We observed prevalence rate of 560/1000 populations, 78.2% were males, 28.2% were females, and two-third abusers were laborers (72%). In order of frequency, tobacco was the most common substance abused in 53.9% population followed by gutka (nontobacco pan masala). Other drugs in order of frequency were alcohol 46.5%, cannabis 8.9%, opiates 4.9%, sedative and hypnotic 2.0%, solvents 1.0%, and cocaine in 0.1%. Slum population has higher prevalence rates than general population. PMID:26985110

  19. Long-Term Psychiatric and Medical Consequences of Anabolic-Androgenic Steroid Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Kanayama, Gen; Hudson, James I.; Pope, Harrison G.

    2008-01-01

    Background The problem of anabolic-androgenic steroid (AAS) abuse has recently generated widespread public and media attention. Most AAS abusers, however, are not elite athletes like those portrayed in the media, and many are not competitive athletes at all. This larger but less visible population of ordinary AAS users began to emerge in about 1980. The senior members of this population are now entering middle age; they represent the leading wave of a new type of aging former substance abusers, with specific medical and psychiatric risks. Methods We reviewed the evolving literature on long-term psychiatric and medical consequences of AAS abuse. Results Long-term use of supraphysiologic doses of AAS may cause irreversible cardiovascular toxicity, especially atherosclerotic effects and cardiomyopathy. In other organ systems, evidence of persistent toxicity is more modest, and interestingly, there is little evidence for an increased risk of prostate cancer. High concentrations of AAS, comparable to those likely sustained by many AAS abusers, produce apoptotic effects on various cell types, including neuronal cells - raising the specter of possibly irreversible neuropsychiatric toxicity. Finally, AAS abuse appears to be associated with a range of potentially prolonged psychiatric effects, including dependence syndromes, mood syndromes, and progression to other forms of substance abuse. However, the prevalence and severity of these various effects remains poorly understood. Conclusions As the first large wave of former AAS users now moves into middle age, it will be important to obtain more systematic data on the long-term psychiatric and medical consequences of this form of substance abuse. PMID:18599224

  20. Parenting and children's externalizing problems in substance-abusing families.

    PubMed

    Stanger, Catherine; Dumenci, Levent; Kamon, Jody; Burstein, Marcy

    2004-09-01

    This study tested associations in path models among positive and negative parenting and children's rule-breaking behavior, aggressive and oppositional behavior, and attention problems for families with a drug-dependent parent. A structural model tested relations between parenting and children's externalizing problems for 251 families with 399 children between the ages of 6 and 18, controlling for nonindependence of ratings at the family level. The model also tested potential moderators, including child age, gender, and ethnicity (White vs. other), and caregiver gender (families with a female substance-abusing caregiver vs. families with a male substance-abusing caregiver). Results indicated that caregiver ratings of monitoring predicted rule-breaking behavior and use of inconsistent discipline predicted ratings of all 3 externalizing syndromes, after controlling parenting and externalizing problems for the effects of the moderators and after controlling significant relations among types of parenting and types of externalizing problems.