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Sample records for abuse alcoholism claims

  1. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... the liver, brain, and other organs. Drinking during pregnancy can harm your baby. Alcohol also increases the ...

  2. Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Farrell, Timothy J.; Fals-Stewart, William

    2003-01-01

    We received 38 controlled studies of marital and family therapy (MFT) in alcoholism treatment. We conclude that, when the alcoholic is unwilling to seek help, MFT is effective in helping the family cope better and motivating alcoholics to enter treatment. Specifically, (a) Al-Anon facilitation and referral help family members cope better; (b)…

  3. Geriatric Alcoholism and Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature and presents new data on alcohol and drug problems in older individuals. Drug abusers include users of opiates, inadvertent misusers, and deliberate abusers of nonopiates. Two to 10 percent of the elderly are alcoholic, and these are usually individuals beginning alcohol abuse after age 40. (Author)

  4. Protein biomarkers of alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Torrente, Mariana P; Freeman, Willard M; Vrana, Kent E

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol abuse can lead to a number of health and social issues. Our current inability to accurately assess long-term drinking behaviors is an important obstacle to its diagnosis and treatment. Biomarkers for chronic alcohol consumption have made a number of important advances but have yet to become highly accurate and as accepted as objective tests for other diseases. Thus, there is a crucial need for the development of more sensitive and specific markers of alcohol abuse. Recent advancements in proteomic technologies have greatly increased the potential for alcohol abuse biomarker discovery. Here, the authors review established and novel protein biomarkers for long-term alcohol consumption and the proteomic technologies that have been used in their study. PMID:22967079

  5. The Aging and Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brody, Jacob A.

    Demographic data suggest that alcohol abuse among the elderly will increase in proportion to the population growth of that group. Four factors which may cause the elderly to be a highly susceptible group for alcohol problems are: (1) retirement and its boredom, role changes, and financial problems; (2) increased concern with death and losses of…

  6. Adolescent Depression, Alcohol and Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deykin, Eva Y.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Interviews of 434 college students revealed that prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) was 6.8 percent; of alcohol abuse, 8.2 percent; and of substance abuse, 9.4 percent. Alcohol and substance abuse were associated with MDD. Substance abuse was associated with other psychiatric diagnoses as well. MDD usually preceded alcohol or substance…

  7. Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... Used Drugs in the Past Drug Use Prevention Phone Numbers and Websites Search Share You are here Home » Drugs That People Abuse » Alcohol Facts » Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction Signs of Alcohol Abuse and Addiction Listen ©istock. ...

  8. Preventing Alcohol and Drug Abuse through Programs at the Workplace. WBGH Worksite Wellness Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Diana Chapman; Kelleher, Susan E.

    Alcohol and drug abuse have serious physical, psychological, and social consequences, and employees who abuse alcohol and/or drugs ultimately reduce their companies' profits. Employee substance abuse leads to reduced productivity as well as to increased absenteeism, health care and health insurance costs, and liability claims against employers of…

  9. Suicidal Behavior and Alcohol Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Pompili, Maurizio; Serafini, Gianluca; Innamorati, Marco; Dominici, Giovanni; Ferracuti, Stefano; Kotzalidis, Giorgio D.; Serra, Giulia; Girardi, Paolo; Janiri, Luigi; Tatarelli, Roberto; Sher, Leo; Lester, David

    2010-01-01

    Suicide is an escalating public health problem, and alcohol use has consistently been implicated in the precipitation of suicidal behavior. Alcohol abuse may lead to suicidality through disinhibition, impulsiveness and impaired judgment, but it may also be used as a means to ease the distress associated with committing an act of suicide. We reviewed evidence of the relationship between alcohol use and suicide through a search of MedLine and PsychInfo electronic databases. Multiple genetically-related intermediate phenotypes might influence the relationship between alcohol and suicide. Psychiatric disorders, including psychosis, mood disorders and anxiety disorders, as well as susceptibility to stress, might increase the risk of suicidal behavior, but may also have reciprocal influences with alcohol drinking patterns. Increased suicide risk may be heralded by social withdrawal, breakdown of social bonds, and social marginalization, which are common outcomes of untreated alcohol abuse and dependence. People with alcohol dependence or depression should be screened for other psychiatric symptoms and for suicidality. Programs for suicide prevention must take into account drinking habits and should reinforce healthy behavioral patterns. PMID:20617037

  10. Towards the Prevention of Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Facy, FranCoise; Rabaud, Myriam

    2006-01-01

    Mortality resulting from alcohol abuse in young French people is too high in spite of prevention campaigns for road safety in particular. There are problems in identifying alcohol abuse in young people in preventive medicine or alcohol care services. This study was carried out in alcohol centres; data from patients under 25 are analysed and…

  11. [Suicidality and alcohol abuse].

    PubMed

    Tijdink, Joeri K; Smulders, Yvo M; Biesaart, Monique C H I; Vinkers, Christiaan H

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the role played by a patient's mental competency in the assessment and treatment of patients who are under the influence of alcohol and expressing suicidal thoughts. The factors that should be taken into consideration in the assessment of suicidality are not always clear: somatic complications or possible discharge from the emergency room. The treating physician at the emergency department should evaluate the mental competency. The risk of suicide should also be assessed by a psychiatrist. In order to make the right decisions about treatment and mental competency, the key concepts of proportionality, effectiveness and subsidiarity in the assessment of mental competency are crucial. These concepts require a personalized, multidisciplinary approach and result in unique decisions which may differ from case to case. In the assessment and treatment of patients under the influence of alcohol who are suicidal and do not want to have a proper medical evaluation, communication between the emergency physician, internist and psychiatrist is crucial to optimize both evaluation and treatment. In this context, tasks and responsibilities should be clearly defined in order to minimize the risk of errors and complications.

  12. Critical care aspects of alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Al-Sanouri, Ibrahim; Dikin, Matthew; Soubani, Ayman O

    2005-03-01

    The authors reviewed MEDLINE and references of major articles in the published literature over the last 30 years regarding the complications of alcohol abuse and discuss the critical care aspects of alcohol abuse. This article discusses the severe medical conditions associated with alcohol abuse that lead to admission to the medical intensive care unit. The clinical manifestations, pathophysiology, diagnostic studies, and management of these conditions are discussed in detail.

  13. 76 FR 14980 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute on Drug Abuse; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a... meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and the National Advisory Council.... Name of Committees: National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and National Advisory...

  14. Aging and Alcohol Abuse: Increasing Counselor Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, June M.; Ballard, Mary B.; Alessi, Hunter

    2005-01-01

    Alcohol abuse in older adulthood is a rapidly growing but often hidden problem. The authors provide an overview of the issues related to older adult alcohol abuse through a discussion of physiological, psychological, and social risk factors; an examination of appropriate assessment procedures; and an overview of factors related to treatment.

  15. Alcohol and Drug Abuse in Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galanter, Marc, Ed.

    This book presents the state of the art of American medical education in alcohol and drug abuse, and is the culmination of a four-year collaborative effort among the medical school faculty of the Career Teacher Program in Alcohol and Drug Abuse. The first part contains reports, curricula, and survey data prepared for the medical education…

  16. The economic impact of alcohol abuse and alcoholism.

    PubMed Central

    Burke, T R

    1988-01-01

    The economic effects of alcohol abuse are as damaging to the nation as the health effects, affecting the family, the community, and persons of all ages. Underaged drinking is interfering with children's development, affecting the nation's ability to respond to economic challenge in the future. The college aged may be the most difficult to educate about alcohol abuse because of drinking patterns established at an early age and susceptibility to advertising inducements. Health care costs for families with an alcoholic member are twice those for families without one, and up to half of all emergency room admissions are alcohol related. Fetal alcohol syndrome is one of the top three known causes of birth defects, and is totally preventable. Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are estimated to have cost the nation $117 billion in 1983, while nonalcoholic drug abuse that year cost $60 billion. Costs of alcohol abuse are expected to be $136 billion a year by 1990, mostly from lost productivity and employment. Between 6 and 7 million workers are alcoholic, with an undetermined loss of productivity, profits, and competitiveness of American business. Alcohol abuse contributes to the high health care costs of the elderly beneficiaries of Federal health financing programs. Heavily affected minorities include blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans. Society tends to treat the medical and social consequences of alcohol abuse, rather than its causes. Although our experience with the consequences of alcohol abuse is greater than that for any other drug, public concern for its prevention and treatment is less than for other major illnesses or abuse of other drugs.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3141948

  17. The economic impact of alcohol abuse and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Burke, T R

    1988-01-01

    The economic effects of alcohol abuse are as damaging to the nation as the health effects, affecting the family, the community, and persons of all ages. Underaged drinking is interfering with children's development, affecting the nation's ability to respond to economic challenge in the future. The college aged may be the most difficult to educate about alcohol abuse because of drinking patterns established at an early age and susceptibility to advertising inducements. Health care costs for families with an alcoholic member are twice those for families without one, and up to half of all emergency room admissions are alcohol related. Fetal alcohol syndrome is one of the top three known causes of birth defects, and is totally preventable. Alcohol abuse and alcoholism are estimated to have cost the nation $117 billion in 1983, while nonalcoholic drug abuse that year cost $60 billion. Costs of alcohol abuse are expected to be $136 billion a year by 1990, mostly from lost productivity and employment. Between 6 and 7 million workers are alcoholic, with an undetermined loss of productivity, profits, and competitiveness of American business. Alcohol abuse contributes to the high health care costs of the elderly beneficiaries of Federal health financing programs. Heavily affected minorities include blacks, Hispanics, and Native Americans. Society tends to treat the medical and social consequences of alcohol abuse, rather than its causes. Although our experience with the consequences of alcohol abuse is greater than that for any other drug, public concern for its prevention and treatment is less than for other major illnesses or abuse of other drugs. Alcohol abuse is a problem being given high priority within the Department in an effort to create a national agenda on the issue and to try to impart a greater sense of urgency about the problems. Ways are being explored to integrate alcoholism activities into more Departmental programs. Employee assistance programs for alcohol

  18. 76 FR 17140 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; RFA-AA-11-02 Alcohol Induced Metabolic and Hepatic...: Philippe Marmillot, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism...

  19. Alcoholism, Drug Abuse, and the Homeless.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarty, Dennis; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Reviews policies that address substance abuse among the homeless. Recommends that the changing needs of the homeless require an integration of alcoholism and drug abuse recovery services with programs for various groups, substance-free housing, and psychological knowledge incorporated into programs for those struggling with addiction and…

  20. Acute esophageal necrosis caused by alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Endo, Tetsu; Sakamoto, Juichi; Sato, Ken; Takimoto, Miyako; Shimaya, Koji; Mikami, Tatsuya; Munakata, Akihiro; Shimoyama, Tadashi; Fukuda, Shinsaku

    2005-01-01

    Acute esophageal necrosis (AEN) is extremely rare and the pathogenesis of this is still unknown. We report a case of AEN caused by alcohol abuse. In our case, the main pathogenesis could be accounted for low systemic perfusion caused by severe alcoholic lactic acidosis. After the healing of AEN, balloon dilatation was effective to manage the stricture. PMID:16222758

  1. Substance and Alcohol Abuse Policy for Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dublin Univ. (Ireland). Dept. of Teacher Education.

    This brochure sets forth the policy on drug and alcohol abuse for students of Westminster College of Salt Lake City (Utah). The first section of the booklet contains the school's policy prohibiting the use of illegal drugs and of alcohol except where approval has been granted. This section also describes the counseling, treatment and…

  2. Substance and Alcohol Abuse Policy for Employees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westminster Coll. of Salt Lake City, UT.

    This brochure sets forth the policy on drug and alcohol abuse for employees of Westminster College of Salt Lake City (Utah). The first section of the booklet contains the school's policy prohibiting the use of illegal drugs and prohibiting the use of alcohol except where approval has been granted. This section also describes the counseling,…

  3. 78 FR 73552 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute On Drug Abuse; and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; National Institute On Drug Abuse; and National Cancer Institute; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the...

  4. 32 CFR 634.13 - Alcohol and drug abuse programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Alcohol and drug abuse programs. 634.13 Section... and drug abuse programs. (a) Commanders will refer military personnel suspected of drug or alcohol abuse for evaluation in the following circumstances: (1) Behavior indicative of alcohol or drug abuse...

  5. 32 CFR 634.13 - Alcohol and drug abuse programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Alcohol and drug abuse programs. 634.13 Section... and drug abuse programs. (a) Commanders will refer military personnel suspected of drug or alcohol abuse for evaluation in the following circumstances: (1) Behavior indicative of alcohol or drug abuse...

  6. 32 CFR 634.13 - Alcohol and drug abuse programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Alcohol and drug abuse programs. 634.13 Section... and drug abuse programs. (a) Commanders will refer military personnel suspected of drug or alcohol abuse for evaluation in the following circumstances: (1) Behavior indicative of alcohol or drug abuse...

  7. 32 CFR 634.13 - Alcohol and drug abuse programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Alcohol and drug abuse programs. 634.13 Section... and drug abuse programs. (a) Commanders will refer military personnel suspected of drug or alcohol abuse for evaluation in the following circumstances: (1) Behavior indicative of alcohol or drug abuse...

  8. 32 CFR 634.13 - Alcohol and drug abuse programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Alcohol and drug abuse programs. 634.13 Section... and drug abuse programs. (a) Commanders will refer military personnel suspected of drug or alcohol abuse for evaluation in the following circumstances: (1) Behavior indicative of alcohol or drug abuse...

  9. Tooth decay in alcohol and tobacco abusers

    PubMed Central

    Rooban, Thavarajah; Vidya, KM; Joshua, Elizabeth; Rao, Anita; Ranganathan, Shanthi; Rao, Umadevi K; Ranganathan, K

    2011-01-01

    Background: Alcohol and tobacco abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa had been demonstrated, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. Materials and Methods: We compared 268 alcohol-only abusers with 2426 alcohol and tobacco abusers in chewing and smoking forms to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. Clinical examination, Decay, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) Index and Oral Hygiene Index - Simplified were measured in a predetermined format. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test and one-way ANOVA analysis were done using SPSS Version 16.0. Result: The mean DMFT were 3.31, 3.24, 4.09, 2.89 for alcohol-only abusers, alcohol and chewing tobacco abusers, smoking tobacco and alcohol abusers, and those who abused tobacco in smoke and smokeless forms respectively. There was no significant difference between the oral hygiene care measures between the study groups. Presence of attrition among chewers and those with extrinsic stains experienced less caries than others. Discussion and conclusion: The entire study population exhibited a higher incidence of caries experience. Use of tobacco in any form appears to substantially increase the risk for dental caries. Attrition with use of chewing tobacco and presence of extrinsic stains with tobacco use appear to provide a protective effect from caries. The changes in oral micro-flora owing to tobacco use and alcohol may play a critical role in the initiation and progression of dental caries. PMID:21731272

  10. Magnetic resonance imaging findings in substance abuse: alcohol and alcoholism and syndromes associated with alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Spampinato, M Vittoria; Castillo, Mauricio; Rojas, Rafael; Palacios, Enrique; Frascheri, Laura; Descartes, Fernando

    2005-06-01

    Alcohol abuse is common among the population and results in significant diseases that shorten life span. Ethanol may result in chronic brain changes such as atrophy but may also result in neurologic disease that may be acute or chronic and sometimes life threatening. Accompanying vitamin deficiencies may lead to Wernicke's encephalopathy and changes in serum osmosis may lead to several acute demyelinating disorders. In addition, pregnant women who consume alcohol place their babies at high risk for the fetal alcohol syndrome. In this article we review these disorders and emphasize their imaging features.

  11. 77 FR 64117 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-18

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel. Name of Committee: Date: November 5, 2012. Time: 2:30.... Rippe, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635...

  12. 78 FR 66015 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; AA-2 Deferred Grant Application Review. Date...: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane (Teleconference), Rockville, MD 20852...

  13. 77 FR 54919 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review Group Biomedical Research Review Subcommittee. Date: October... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm 2019, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-443-2861, marmillotp...

  14. 75 FR 46949 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-04

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... intramural programs and projects conducted by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism... Branch, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers...

  15. 75 FR 71711 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review Group; Neuroscience Review Subcommittee. Date: March 8-9, 2011..., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health...

  16. Growing up with Parental Alcohol Abuse: Exposure to Childhood Abuse, Neglect, and Household Dysfunction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dube, Shanta R.; Anda, Robert F.; Felitti, Vincent J.; Croft, Janet B.; Edwards, Valerie J.; Giles, Wayne H.

    2001-01-01

    A study involving 8,629 adults examined the association between parental alcohol abuse and child abuse, neglect, and other household dysfunction. Compared to households without alcohol abuse, the adjusted odds ratio for each category of adverse childhood experience was 2 to 13 times higher if parents abused alcohol. (Contains references.) (CR)

  17. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse - Multiple Languages

    MedlinePlus

    ... Affect the Body - العربية (Arabic) PDF Karen Chemical Dependency Taskforce of Minnesota Strong Family Relationships Can Prevent ... Use Among Teens - العربية (Arabic) PDF Karen Chemical Dependency Taskforce of Minnesota Substance Abuse or Dependence - العربية ( ...

  18. The economics of alcohol abuse and alcohol-control policies.

    PubMed

    Cook, Philip J; Moore, Michael J

    2002-01-01

    Economic research has contributed to the evaluation of alcohol policy through empirical analysis of the effects of alcohol-control measures on alcohol consumption and its consequences. It has also provided an accounting framework for defining and comparing costs and benefits of alcohol consumption and related policy interventions, including excise taxes. The most important finding from the economics literature is that consumers tend to drink less ethanol, and have fewer alcohol-related problems, when alcoholic beverage prices are increased or alcohol availability is restricted. That set of findings is relevant for policy purposes because alcohol abuse imposes large "external" costs on others. Important challenges remain, including developing a better understanding of the effects of drinking on labor-market productivity.

  19. 78 FR 41938 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse..., National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM...

  20. 78 FR 75929 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-13

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, T508, Rockville, MD 20852. Contact Person: Beata Buzas...

  1. 78 FR 65347 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse...: National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane (Teleconference), Rockville, MD 20855...

  2. 78 FR 41940 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse... Officer, National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers...

  3. 78 FR 55088 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse... review and evaluate grant applications. Place: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635...

  4. 78 FR 25755 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-02

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse... Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109...

  5. 77 FR 54919 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-06

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers...

  6. 78 FR 75927 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-13

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, (Teleconference), Rockville, MD 20852. Contact...

  7. 76 FR 44597 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse... Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM 2019...

  8. 76 FR 44596 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM 2081...

  9. 75 FR 10293 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse.... Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health...

  10. 75 FR 24961 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-06

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse... Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2085, Rockville, MD 20852. Name of...

  11. 77 FR 22793 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse... Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635...

  12. 75 FR 69091 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and..., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health...

  13. 76 FR 44599 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse...: Katrina L. Foster, PhD, Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism...

  14. 77 FR 70171 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM 2081...

  15. 76 FR 26308 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse... Institutes On Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism National, Institutes Of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 3037...

  16. 77 FR 70171 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse...., Scientific Review Officer National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism...

  17. 76 FR 44600 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse..., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health...

  18. 76 FR 44600 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse... Person: Richard A. Rippe, PhD, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane...

  19. 75 FR 69090 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2019, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-443-2861, marmillotp...

  20. Alcohol advertising bans and alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Young, D J

    1993-07-01

    Henry Saffer [Saffer (1991) Journal of Health Economics 10, 65-79] concludes that bans on broadcast advertising for alcoholic beverages reduce total alcohol consumption, motor vehicle fatalities, and cirrhosis deaths. A reexamination of his data and procedures reveals a number of flaws. First, there is evidence of reverse causation: countries with low consumption/death rates tend to adopt advertising bans, creating a (spurious) negative correlation between bans and consumption/death rates. Second, even this correlation largely disappears when the estimates are corrected for serial correlation. Third, estimates based on the components of consumption--spirits, beer and wine--mostly indicate that bans are associated with increased consumption.

  1. Avoidable cost of alcohol abuse in Canada.

    PubMed

    Rehm, Jürgen; Patra, Jayadeep; Gnam, William H; Sarnocinska-Hart, Anna; Popova, Svetlana

    2011-01-01

    To estimate avoidable burden and avoidable costs of alcohol abuse in Canada for the year 2002. A policy effectiveness approach was used. The impact of six effective and cost-effective alcohol policy interventions aimed to reduce alcohol consumption was modeled. In addition, the effect of privatized alcohol sales that would increase alcohol consumption and alcohol-attributable costs was also modeled. The effects of these interventions were compared with the baseline (aggregate) costs obtained from the second Canadian Study of Social Costs Attributable to Substance Abuse. It was estimated that by implementing six cost-effective policies from about 900 million to two billion Canadian dollars per year could be saved in Canada. The greatest savings due to the implementation of these interventions would be achieved in the lowering of productivity losses, followed by health care, and criminality. Substantial increases in burden and cost would occur if Canadian provinces were to privatize alcohol sales. The implementation of proven effective population-based interventions would reduce alcohol-attributable burden and its costs in Canada to a considerable degree. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Semantic and Visual Memory After Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donat, Dennis C.

    1986-01-01

    Compared the relative performance of 40 patients with a history of alcohol abuse on tasks of short-term semantic and visual memory. Performance on the visual memory tasks was impaired significantly relative to the semantic memory task in a within-subjects analysis of variance. Semantic memory was unimpaired. (Author/ABB)

  3. 78 FR 38353 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-26

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Review of Applications on HIV- AIDS/Alcohol....273, Alcohol Research Programs; National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: June 19, 2013. Carolyn A...

  4. 76 FR 2129 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis Panel, ``Review of the Prenatal Alcohol in Sudden Infant Death... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers...

  5. 75 FR 10808 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Review of Alcohol Resource Grant Applications. Date: April 6...: Richard A Rippe, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism...

  6. 75 FR 42451 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis Panel, Review of Alcohol Research Centers' Applications. Date: August...: Richard Rippe, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism...

  7. Tooth Decay in Alcohol Abusers Compared to Alcohol and Drug Abusers

    PubMed Central

    Dasanayake, Ananda P.; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Harris, Colin K.; Cooper, Derek J.; Peters, Timothy J.; Gelbier, Stanley

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol and drug abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though we know the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. We compared 363 “alcohol only” abusers to 300 “alcohol and drug” abusers to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. After controlling for the potential confounders, we observe that the “alcohol and drug” group had a 38% higher risk of having decayed teeth compared to the “alcohol only” group (P < .05). As expected, those who belonged to a higher social class (OR = 1.98; 95%  CI = 1.43–2.75) and drank wine (OR = 1.85; 95%  CI = 1.16–2.96) had a higher risk of having more filled teeth. We conclude that the risk of tooth decay among “alcohol only” abusers is significantly lower compared to “alcohol and drug” abusers. PMID:20379366

  8. 78 FR 42529 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse... Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 3037, Rockville, MD 20852, 301...

  9. 75 FR 63494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse...: Ranga Srinivas, PhD, Chief, Extramural Project Review Branch, EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse...

  10. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse.... Contact Person: Katrina L Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse...

  11. 76 FR 44599 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse.... Contact Person: Katrina L. Foster, PhD, Scientific Review officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse...

  12. 77 FR 22794 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse... Person: Katrina L Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Administrator, National Institutes on Alcohol Abuse...

  13. Ocular manifestations of drug and alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Peragallo, Jason; Biousse, Valérie; Newman, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To review commonly encountered adverse ocular effects of illicit drug use. Recent findings Drug and alcohol abuse can produce a variety of ocular and neuro-ophthalmic side effects. Novel, so-called “designer,” drugs of abuse can lead to unusual ocular disorders. Legal substances, when used in manners for which they have not been prescribed, can also have devastating ophthalmic consequences. Summary In this review we will systematically evaluate each part of the visual pathways and discuss how individual drugs may affect them. PMID:24100364

  14. Psychoanalytic Treatment of Psychological Addiction to Alcohol (Alcohol Abuse)

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Brian

    2011-01-01

    The DSM-V Committee plans to abolish the distinction between Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Dependence (dsm5.org). The author presents a case report as a proof of concept that this distinction should be retained. The author has asserted that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological addiction, while Alcohol Dependence involves capture of the ventral tegmental dopaminergic SEEKING system (Johnson, 2003). In psychological addiction the brain can be assumed to function normally, and ordinary psychoanalytic technique can be followed. For the patient described, transference interpretation was the fundamental key to recovery. Alcoholic drinking functioned to prevent this man from remembering overwhelming childhood events; events that were also lived out in his current relationships. Murders that occurred when he was a child were hidden in a screen memory. The patient had an obsessional style of relating where almost all feeling was left out of his associations. After he stopped drinking compulsively, he continued to work compulsively. The maternal transference had to be enacted and then interpreted in order for overwhelming memories to be allowed into conscious thought. After psychoanalysis, the patient resumed drinking and worked a normal schedule that allowed more fulfilling relationships. He had no further symptoms of distress from drinking over a 9-year followup. This case illustrates that Alcohol Abuse is a purely psychological illness, that it does not have the brain changes typical of Alcohol Dependence. Combining epidemiological, neurobiological, longitudinal, and psychoanalytic observations would allow multiple sources of information to be used in creating diagnostic categories. Losing details of human behavior by relying only on epidemiological studies is likely to cause errors in categorization of disorders. In turn, having faulty categories as the basis of further research is likely to impair identification of specific effective treatments. PMID:22144975

  15. 77 FR 43098 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Alcohol Center Grants--Parent Committee. Date: August 10, 2012...

  16. 75 FR 42756 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-22

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Advisory Council on Alcohol... Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2085...

  17. 76 FR 49494 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... evaluation of individual intramural programs and projects conducted by the NATIONAL INSTITUTE ON ALCOHOL... evaluate Laboratory of Neuroimaging. Place: National Institutes of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635...

  18. 76 FR 26311 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel, Review of Program Projects on Alcohol-Related Research. August...

  19. 75 FR 8726 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel, Review of Applications on Case Ascertainment to Estimate the U.S. Prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in Young Children (U01), RFA AA-10-005...

  20. 78 FR 63483 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel NIAAA Member Conflict Applications--Epidemiology and....273, Alcohol Research Programs; National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: October 18, 2013. Carolyn A...

  1. 75 FR 57473 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel, T32 Institutional Training Grants. Date: November 9, 2010. Time... Gunzerath, PhD, MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office...

  2. 75 FR 42450 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group; Epidemiology, Prevention and Behavior Research Review... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities, Extramural Project Review Branch, 5635...

  3. 75 FR 38533 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel ZAA1 HH01--AA3 Member Conflicts. Date: July 30, 2010. Time: 11 a... Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities...

  4. 75 FR 53320 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Alcoholism, Special Emphasis Panel, Review of Resource Grant Applications (R24). Date: November 3, 2010. Time..., PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National...

  5. 77 FR 43603 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel. Date: September 25, 2012. Time: 8:00 a.m. to 6:00 p.m. Agenda... Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers...

  6. 76 FR 50743 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-16

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel, P01 Application Reviews. Date: October 5, 2011. Time: 1 p.m. to..., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2109...

  7. 76 FR 16798 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Alcoholism Initial Review Group; Neuroscience Review Subcommittee. Date: June 9-10, 2011. Time: 8:30 a.m. to..., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health...

  8. 76 FR 15989 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-22

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis Panel, RFA on AIDS Consortium. Date: April 21-22, 2011. Time: 8 a.m..., Extramural Project Review Branch, EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National...

  9. 75 FR 42451 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Initial Review Group, Clinical Treatment and Health Services Research Review... Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2019, Rockville, MD 20852, 301-443-4032...

  10. 75 FR 64733 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Alcoholism, Special Emphasis Panel, NIAAA Member Conflict Applications. Date: October 26, 2010. Time: 11 a.m..., Chief, Extramural Project Review Branch, EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism...

  11. 75 FR 71711 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel NIAAA--R34 & T32 Reviews. Date: December 17, 2010. Time: 11 a.m. to 1 p.m..., Extramural Project Review Branch, EPRB, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National...

  12. 76 FR 59709 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel, NIAAA Member Conflict Application Review. Date: October 26...: Richard A Rippe, PhD, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635...

  13. 75 FR 10807 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis Panel, Member Conflicts SEP. Date: April 22, 2010. Time: 12 p.m. to 2... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Office of Extramural Activities, Extramural Project Review Branch, 5635...

  14. 78 FR 21616 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group Clinical, Treatment and Health Services Research Review... on Alcohol Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 2019, Rockville...

  15. 75 FR 42451 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism, Initial Review Group, Neuroscience Review Subcommittee. Date: November 2-3, 2010. Time..., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health...

  16. 25 CFR 700.545 - Alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses... and drug abuse as serious and treatable illnesses. Excessive absence and poor work performance are two...

  17. 25 CFR 700.545 - Alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses... and drug abuse as serious and treatable illnesses. Excessive absence and poor work performance are two...

  18. 25 CFR 700.545 - Alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses... and drug abuse as serious and treatable illnesses. Excessive absence and poor work performance are two...

  19. 25 CFR 700.545 - Alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses... and drug abuse as serious and treatable illnesses. Excessive absence and poor work performance are two...

  20. 25 CFR 700.545 - Alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses... and drug abuse as serious and treatable illnesses. Excessive absence and poor work performance are two...

  1. Perspectives on the neuroscience of alcohol from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Reilly, Matthew T; Noronha, Antonio; Warren, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Mounting evidence over the last 40 years clearly indicates that alcoholism (alcohol dependence) is a disorder of the brain. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) has taken significant steps to advance research into the neuroscience of alcohol. The Division of Neuroscience and Behavior (DNB) was formed within NIAAA in 2002 to oversee, fund, and direct all research areas that examine the effects of alcohol on the brain, the genetic underpinnings of alcohol dependence, the neuroadaptations resulting from excessive alcohol consumption, advanced behavioral models of the various stages of the addiction cycle, and preclinical medications development. This research portfolio has produced important discoveries in the etiology, treatment, and prevention of alcohol abuse and dependence. Several of these salient discoveries are highlighted and future areas of neuroscience research on alcohol are presented. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Caffeinated Alcoholic Beverages – An Emerging Trend in Alcohol Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Kelle M; Hauser, Sheketha R; Bell, Richard L.; Engleman, Eric A

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders are pervasive in society and their impact affects quality of life, morbidity and mortality, as well as individual productivity. Alcohol has detrimental effects on an individual’s physiology and nervous system, and is associated with disorders of many organ and endocrine systems impacting an individual’s health, behavior, and ability to interact with others. Youth are particularly affected. Unfortunately, adolescent usage also increases the probability for a progression to dependence. Several areas of research indicate that the deleterious effects of alcohol abuse may be exacerbated by mixing caffeine with alcohol. Some behavioral evidence suggests that caffeine increases alcohol drinking and binge drinking episodes, which in turn can foster the development of alcohol dependence. As a relatively new public health concern, the epidemiological focus has been to establish a need for investigating the effects of caffeinated alcohol. While the trend of co-consuming these substances is growing, knowledge of the central mechanisms associated with caffeinated ethanol has been lacking. Research suggests that caffeine and ethanol can have additive or synergistic pharmacological actions and neuroadaptations, with the adenosine and dopamine systems in particular implicated. However, the limited literature on the central effects of caffeinated ethanol provides an impetus to increase our knowledge of the neuroadaptive effects of this combination and their impact on cognition and behavior. Research from our laboratories indicates that an established rodent animal model of alcoholism can be extended to investigate the acute and chronic effects of caffeinated ethanol. PMID:25419478

  3. Alcohol, Substance Abuse, and Violence among North Carolina Prison Admissions, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Ronald D.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Examined claimed substance intoxication at time of crime commission with violent crimes for 1988 admissions to North Carolina Department of Correction. Most frequently abused drug was alcohol. Intoxicated criminals committed no more violent offenses than did sober offenders. Inmates inebriated with illegal drugs committed fewer violent crimes than…

  4. Alcohol abuse as a risk factor for and consequence of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Widom, C S; Hiller-Sturmhöfel, S

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between child abuse and the use or abuse of alcohol has two aspects. First, some findings have indicated that parental alcohol abuse may be associated with the physical or sexual abuse of children. Research findings in this area remain inconsistent, however. Second, the experience of being abused as a child may increase a person's risk for alcohol-related problems as an adult. This relationship has best been demonstrated in women who had been victims of childhood abuse. Several factors most likely contribute to or influence this relationship, including coping skills; antisocial behavior; and psychological problems, such as posttraumatic stress disorder.

  5. Economic issues and public alcohol abuse prevention policies in France

    PubMed

    Spach, Miléna

    2016-10-19

    Objective: To analyse the impact of the alcohol market on the implementation of strong-willed public alcohol abuse prevention policies based on a critical review of the literature. Method: Documentary research and analysis of the alcohol market economic data were performed. An overview of public alcohol abuse prevention policies was conducted from a historical perspective by distinguishing drunkenness control policies, protection of vulnerable populations, and the fight against drink driving and drinking in the workplace. Results: Public alcohol abuse prevention policies are primarily designed to reduce the harmful consequences of alcohol occurring as a result of a drinking episode (motor vehicle accident, highway accidents, etc.), while neglecting the long-term consequences (cancer, cirrhosis, etc.). Moreover, while taxation is one of the major public health tools used to reduce the costs of alcohol-related damage on society, the State exercises legislative and tax protection for alcoholic beverages produced in France. In particular, wine benefits from a lower tax rate than other stronger forms of alcohol (spirits, liquors, etc.). The economic weight of the alcohol market can provide an explanation for these public alcohol abuse prevention policies. Conclusion: In view of the mortality caused by alcohol abuse, France must implement a proactive public policy. An alcohol taxation policy based on the alcohol content, a minimum unit pricing for alcohol, or higher taxes on alcohol are public policies that could be considered in order to reduce alcohol-related mortality.

  6. Forensic aspects of alcohol abuse and homicide.

    PubMed

    Palijan, Tija Zarković; Kovacević, Drazen; Radeljak, Sanja; Kovac, Marina; Mustapić, Jelena

    2009-09-01

    Numerous investigations indicate a close link between violent behavior, homicide (murder) and alcohol intoxication. With increased frequency of drinking and the chronic consummation of alcohol, the risk of the fatal outcome or homicide and victimization caused by violence is more likely to occur. Studies conducted on convicted murderers suggested that about half of them were under the heavy influence of alcohol at the time of perpetration of murder. The sample in this survey consisted of 177 male offenders which committed criminal act of murder in Croatia from the year of 1990 until 2007 (capital murder and attempted murder). All were assigned for the forensic psychiatric evaluation by the Criminal Justice System (Court of Law) at the Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Popovaca, Croatia. For the purpose of this work the sample is divided in two groups of subjects: 1) offenders which were intoxicated at the time of murder and committed offence on intoxicated victim 2) offenders who were sober and committed offence on sober victims. Groups are compared according to the variables of crime and history of alcohol abuse. On the basis of obtained results we can conclude that there are significant differences in relation to the variables and modalities of criminal offence between two groups of offenders and victims. We could conclude that alcohol intoxication in offenders and victims at the time of murder could strongly affect the modalities of murder.

  7. 76 FR 44597 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse... the review and funding cycle. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.271, Alcohol...

  8. 77 FR 39713 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse..., MD 20852, (301) 451-2067, [email protected] . Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol...

  9. 75 FR 62553 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel, November 3, 2010, 2...

  10. 77 FR 72873 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse....gov . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs...

  11. 77 FR 22795 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse... Marmillot, Ph.D. Scientific Review Officer National Institutes of Health, National Institute on Alcohol...

  12. 78 FR 10185 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-13

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse... Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs; National Institutes of Health...

  13. 78 FR 17680 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory Committee... unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and.... 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs; National Institutes of Health, HHS) Dated: March 18, 2013. Carolyn...

  14. 77 FR 39716 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-05

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse... Assistance Program Nos. 93.271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards for Scientists and Clinicians; 93...

  15. 78 FR 63484 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse... Government shutdown of October 2013. (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program No. 93.273, Alcohol...

  16. 75 FR 10291 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-05

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse.... Contact Person: Lorraine Gunzerath, PhD, MBA, Scientific Review Officer, National Institute on Alcohol...

  17. 77 FR 52337 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-29

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group Clinical, Treatment and Health Services Research Review... Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 2019, Rockville, MD 20852, 301...

  18. 76 FR 78014 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group, Epidemiology, Prevention and Behavior Research Review... Abuse & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 3037, Rockville, MD 20852...

  19. 76 FR 22715 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group; Biomedical Research Review Subcommittee. Date: June 14-15, 2011... Abuse and Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, RM 2019, Bethesda, MD 20892, 301-443-2861, [email protected

  20. 75 FR 36660 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA Review of Member Conflict R21 Applications...

  1. 77 FR 61769 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIIAAA Member Conflict Applications: Epidemiology...

  2. 77 FR 14023 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel, March 28, 2012, 4 p...

  3. 76 FR 69746 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-09

    ... Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group, Biomedical Research Review Subcommittee. Date: March 13, 2012... Abuse And Alcoholism, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm 2019, Bethesda, MD 20892, (301) 443-2861, [email protected

  4. 76 FR 51378 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a meeting of the National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, September 12, 2011, 3:30 p.m. to 5:30 p.m...

  5. The Relationship between Prenatal Care, Personal Alcohol Abuse and Alcohol Abuse in the Home Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grekin, Emily R.; Ondersma, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    Aims: Nearly one-fourth of African-American women receive no prenatal care during the first trimester of pregnancy. The aim of the current study is to identify factors that underlie inadequate prenatal care among African-American women. Maternal alcohol abuse has been examined as one risk factor for inadequate prenatal care, but findings have been…

  6. 77 FR 59405 - National Institute On Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-27

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA AA-1 Member Conflict Applications. Date: October 9, 2012..., National Institute [[Page 59406

  7. The relationship between prenatal care, personal alcohol abuse and alcohol abuse in the home environment

    PubMed Central

    GREKIN, EMILY R.; ONDERSMA, STEVEN J.

    2013-01-01

    Aims Nearly one-fourth of African-American women receive no prenatal care during the first trimester of pregnancy. The aim of the current study is to identify factors that underlie inadequate prenatal care among African-American women. Maternal alcohol abuse has been examined as one risk factor for inadequate prenatal care, but findings have been inconsistent, perhaps because (a) alcohol use during pregnancy is substantially under-reported and (b) studies have not considered the wider social network in which maternal alcohol use takes place. The current study attempts to clarify relationships between personal alcohol use, alcohol use in the home environment, and prenatal care in a sample of post-partum women. Methods Participants were 107 low-income, primarily African-American women. All participants completed a computer-based screening which assessed personal and environmental alcohol use, prenatal care and mental health. Findings Environmental alcohol use was related to delayed prenatal care while personal alcohol use was not. More specifically, after controlling for demographic variables, the presence of more than three person-episodes of binge drinking in a woman’s home environment increased the odds of seriously compromized prenatal care by a factor of seven. Conclusions Findings suggest the need to further assess environmental alcohol use and to examine the reliability of personal alcohol use measures. PMID:24391354

  8. Alcoholism and Familial Abuse: Enhancement of Quality Force Programs Using a Companion-Problem Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    physical auc] sexual abuse and spouse abuse) hurt Air Force readiness and mission accomiplishmnent. The Air Force needs better means of problem identi- A...Abuse and Domestic Violence ................... 7 Alcohol Abuse and Child Physical Abuse ............... 9 i Alcohol Abuse and Child Sexual Abuse...abuse (spouse abuse, child phyzical abuse, and child sexual abuse) are serious problems in today’s Air Force. Beyond the moral considerations, they

  9. Attribution of Blame for Wife Abuse by Alcoholics and Nonalcoholics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carducci, Bernardo J.; McNeely, Judith A.

    Several researchers have explored the role of alcohol in domestic violence and attributions of blame. To compare the amount of blame attributed to an incident of wife abuse, alcoholic (N=52) and nonalcoholic (N=159) subjects read an account of wife abuse and distributed a percentage of the blame to the man, the woman, and the situation.…

  10. 77 FR 70171 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse...: Katrina L Foster, Ph.D., Scientific Review Officer, National Institute [[Page 70172

  11. Shortened telomeres in individuals with abuse in alcohol consumption

    PubMed Central

    Pavanello, Sofia; Hoxha, Mirjam; Dioni, Laura; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Snenghi, Rossella; Nalesso, Alessandro; Ferrara, Santo Davide; Montisci, Massimo; Baccarelli, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Alcohol abuse leads to earlier onset of aging-related diseases, including cancer at multiple sites. Shorter telomere length (TL) in peripheral blood leucocytes (PBLs), a marker of biological aging, has been associated with alcohol-related cancer risks. Whether alcohol abusers exhibit accelerated biological aging, as reflected in PBL-TL, has never been examined. To investigated the effect of alcohol abuse on PBL-TL and its interaction with alcohol metabolic genotypes, we examined 200 drunk-driving traffic offenders diagnosed as alcohol abusers as per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [DSM-IV-TR] and enrolled in a probation program, and 257 social drinkers (controls). We assessed alcohol intake using self-reported drink-units/day and conventional alcohol abuse biomarkers (serum γ-glutamyltrasferase [GGT] and mean corpuscular volume of erythrocytes [MCV]). We used multivariable models to compute TL geometric means (GM) adjusted for age, smoking, BMI, diet, job at elevated risk of accident, genotoxic exposures. TL was nearly halved in alcohol abusers compared to controls (GMs 0.42 vs. 0.87 relative T/S ratio; P<0.0001) and decreased in relation with increasing drink-units/day (P-trend=0.003). Individuals drinking >4 drink-units/day had substantially shorter TL than those drinking 4 drink-units/day (GMs 0.48 vs. 0.61 T/S, P=0.002). Carriers of the common ADH1B*1/*1 (rs1229984) genotype were more likely to be abusers (P=0.008), reported higher drink-units/day (P=0.0003), and exhibited shorter TL (P<0.0001). The rs698 ADH1C and rs671 ALDH2 polymorphisms were not associated with TL. The decrease in PBL-TL modulated by the alcohol metabolic genotype ADH1B*1/*1 may represent a novel mechanism potentially related to alcohol carcinogenesis in alcohol abusers. PMID:21351086

  12. Psychiatric Disorders of Children Living with Drug-Abusing, Alcohol-Abusing, and Non-Substance-Abusing Fathers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Michelle L.; Fals-Stewart, William

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined lifetime psychiatric disorders and current emotional and behavioral problems of 8- to 12-year-old children living with drug-abusing (DA) fathers compared to children living in demographically matched homes with alcohol-abusing (AA) or non-substance-abusing fathers. Method: Children's lifetime psychiatric…

  13. Progress and Compliance in Alcohol Abuse Treatment*

    PubMed Central

    Lien, Hsien-Ming; Lu, Mingshan; Ma, Ching-To Albert; McGuire, Thomas G.

    2009-01-01

    Improving patient compliance with physicians’ treatment or prescription recommendations is an important goal in medical practice. We examine the relationship between treatment progress and patient compliance. We hypothesize that patients balance expected benefits and costs during a treatment episode when deciding on compliance; a patient is more likely to comply if doing so results in an expected gain in health benefit. We use a unique data set of outpatient alcohol abuse treatment to identify a relationship between treatment progress and compliance. Treatment progress is measured by the clinician’s comments after each attended visit. Compliance is measured by a client attending a scheduled appointment, and continuing with treatment. We find that a patient who is making progress is less likely to drop out of treatment. We find no evidence that treatment progress raises the likelihood of a patient attending the next scheduled visit. Our results are robust to unobserved patient heterogeneity. PMID:20031241

  14. Alcohol Use and Abuse: Understanding Alcohol Use Across Your Lifespan | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... problems change over a person's lifespan. Understanding how alcohol affects people across different life stages is important in diagnosing, treating, and preventing alcohol abuse, according to research from the NIH's National ...

  15. 76 FR 36930 - National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and National Advisory Council on Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-23

    ... National Institute on Drug Abuse. The meeting will be open to the public as indicated below, with... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse; Notice of Joint Meeting Pursuant... Alcoholism and National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse. Date: September 12, 2011. Open: September 12, 2011...

  16. 78 FR 42530 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-16

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group; Clinical, Treatment and Health Services Research Review... & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 2019, Rockville, MD 20852, 301-443-4032...

  17. 76 FR 77841 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group, Clinical, Treatment and Health Services Research Review... & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 2019, Rockville, MD 20852, (301) 443-4032...

  18. 76 FR 2128 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group. Epidemiology, Prevention and Behavior Research Review... Alcoholism, Extramural Project Review Branch, 5635 Fishers Lane, Room 2085, Bethesda, MD 20892. 301-451-2067...

  19. 76 FR 26735 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-09

    ... Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Initial Review Group, Clinical, Treatment and Health Services Research Review... & Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Rm. 2019, Rockville, MD 20852, 301-443-4032...

  20. Alcohol and drug abuse and risky sexual behaviours in young adult women.

    PubMed

    Castelo-Branco, Camil; Parera, Nuria; Mendoza, Nicolás; Pérez-Campos, Ezequiel; Lete, Iñaki

    2014-08-01

    To assess alcohol abuse as a predictor of risky sexual behavior among adolescents and young adult women, a high-risk population for unintended pregnancies. Totally 3163 adolescent and young adult women, 18-29 years, were assessed on sociodemographics, alcohol and drug use and risky sexual behaviors. Participants answered a structured questionnaire on their leisure habits, drug and alcohol consumption, contraception and sexual behaviors. Most of the young adult women perceive that sexuality is an important part of their life but not a main concern (77.6%) and that alcohol removes the barriers to have sex (62.3%). Additionally, 77.0% claimed that contraception had "a lot" (53.4%) and "quite" (23.6%) influence on the quality of their sexuality. However, up to a 38.4% of the interviewed women had had sex without using any contraception and 29.6% of them acknowledged that had taken alcohol and of these, 40.7% said that alcohol was responsible for not using contraception. Alcohol abuse predicted an increase in risky sexual behaviours (4.45 CI: 2.01-9.75, p < 0.0001). The effect of alcohol was independent of age. These findings suggest that contraception-related behavioural interventions for young adult women should discuss the link between alcohol and sexual risk behavior.

  1. College Students and Alcohol Abuse: New Resources Can Help

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. College Students and Alcohol Abuse: New Resources Can Help Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table ... to reducing drunk driving, NIH research is developing new intervention tools and techniques to help colleges, students, ...

  2. 77 FR 69869 - National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council on Drug...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Advisory Council on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Advisory Council on Drug Abuse, and National Cancer Advisory Board; Notice of Joint Meeting Pursuant to section 10(a) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, as amended (5 U.S.C. App.), notice is hereby given o...

  3. Association between alcohol abuse during pregnancy and birth weight.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ivelissa da; Quevedo, Luciana de Avila; Silva, Ricardo Azevedo da; Oliveira, Sandro Schreiber de; Pinheiro, Ricardo Tavares

    2011-10-01

    To assess the association between alcohol abuse during gestation and low birth weight. Cross-sectional, population-based nested study from a cohort of 957 pregnant women who received prenatal assistance through Sistema Único de Saúde (National Health System) in the city of Pelotas, Southern Brazil, and delivered their babies between September 2007 and September 2008. The mothers were interviewed at two distinct moments: prenatal and postpartum periods. In order to verify alcohol abuse, the CAGE (Cut down, Annoyed by criticism, Guilty and Eye-opener) scale was used. Bivariate analyses were carried out, as well as multiple logistic regression adjusted by the variables prematurity and alcohol abuse. The level of significance that was adopted was 95%. Of the women who participated in the study, 2.1% abused alcohol during pregnancy and, among these, 26.3% had low birth weight children. There was an association between alcohol abuse and low birth weight (p<0.038). The findings indicate that alcohol abuse during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight.

  4. Associations of adverse childhood experiences with depression and alcohol abuse among Korean college students.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon Ha

    2017-05-01

    This study investigated adverse childhood experiences of Korean college students and the impact such experiences have on students' depression and alcohol abuse. Using an online questionnaire, 939 college students were surveyed regarding their adverse childhood experiences, depressive symptoms and alcohol use habits. About half of the participants claimed to have experienced at least one adversity in their childhood. Eight percent of participants reported experiencing four or more categories of adversity. The correlations between adverse childhood experiences and depressive symptoms, alcohol abusive behaviors, and the comorbid condition of the two outcomes were significant when students' gender, geographical regions, maternal and paternal education, and family incomes were adjusted. Graded associations of cumulated adverse childhood experiences with the outcome variables were evident. These findings strengthen the link between child maltreatment and adult public health issues carrying socioeconomic burdens, two matters that have not been extensively studied in Korean contexts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Alcohol prevention strategies on college campuses and student alcohol abuse and related problems.

    PubMed

    Ringwalt, Christopher L; Paschall, Mallie J; Gitelman, Amy M

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between colleges' alcohol abuse prevention strategies and students' alcohol abuse and related problems. Alcohol prevention coordinators and first year students in 22 colleges reported whether their schools were implementing 48 strategies in six domains, and students (N = 2041) completed another survey concerning their use of alcohol and related consequences. Colleges were most likely to prevent alcohol use in public places on campus and the delivery and use of kegs. Four alcohol prevention domains were inversely associated with at least one of five outcomes related to student alcohol abuse or related consequences, and the alcohol policy and enforcement domain was inversely associated with all outcomes. Colleges should pay particular attention to strategies related to policy and enforcement.

  6. Alcoholic liver disease and pancreatitis: global health problems being addressed by the US National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Warren, Kenneth R; Murray, Margaret M

    2013-08-01

    The review article summarizes the mission of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) with focus on the NIAAA's current and future research version for alcoholic liver disease and alcoholic pancreatitis. © 2013 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  7. Stop the Tears of Drug and Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimon, Jane; Gibson, Terry-Ann; Spear, Caile

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: By participating in this Stop the Tears teaching strategy, students will be able to: (1) analyze how alcohol and drug abuse could affect their lives as well as the lives of their friends and family and, (2) create a media message, such as a poster, pamphlet, poem, or song, in which alcohol and drug prevention is advocated specific to…

  8. A Proactive Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sallett, Alphonse J.

    Anticipating a resident population by 1991, the State University of New York Institute of Technology at Utica/Rome is establishing a proactive alcohol and drug abuse prevention program with links to the surrounding community. According to a recent study, the college student population exceeds national norms for alcohol and drug consumption, and…

  9. 3 R's in the Marital Treatment of Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlesinger, Stephen E.

    Alcohol abuse imposes financial, social, and emotional burdens on drinkers and their families. Couples suffering from alcohol-related problems who seek therapy often have expectations of retribution, restitution, and refuge. Although thoughts of retribution are difficult to elicit in therapy, non-drinking spouses often expect to inflict pain on…

  10. What College Students Are Telling Us about Alcohol Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Jeanne A.; Kile, Marilyn J.

    This paper describes the successful use of student focus groups by the University of Wisconsin--Whitewater Student Health Center to assess marketing strategies for alcohol abuse prevention. The focus group is a group of 13 students who met several times with a facilitator to share perceptions, feelings, and attitudes about alcohol abuse…

  11. Abuse Prevention Policy on Alcohol and Other Drugs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mississippi Univ., University.

    This document presents the University of Mississippi's campus drug and alcohol prevention policy. A four page folder details policy and regulations including: Mississippi law regarding alcohol and other drugs (e.g., penalties for trafficking and possession), university disciplinary sanctions, health risks of drug abuse, and counseling and…

  12. Preventing Abuse of Drugs, Alcohol, and Tobacco by Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falco, Mathea

    From the mid-1960s until 1980, adolescent drug use rose sharply. Although use has declined somewhat since, adolescent cocaine use remains at peak levels, and crack presents a major threat. Treatment for compulsive drug or alcohol use is needed by 5 to 15 percent of the teenagers who experiment with drugs and alcohol. Drug abuse experts now believe…

  13. Cerebrovascular complications of alcohol and sympathomimetic drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Askiel

    2003-01-01

    Alcohol abuse has been linked to intracranial hemorrhage, both intracerebral and subarachnoid. Some studies have found a dose-response relationship, so that increasing levels of abuse are associated with greater risk of hemorrhage. However, alcohol abuse has not been clearly linked to cerebral infarction, and some studies find that mild-to-moderate drinking appears to be associated with a decreased risk of cerebral infarction. Intravenous administration of drugs of abuse predisposes to endocarditis, which may lead to embolic stroke. Associations have been reported between various sympathomimetic drugs and cerebral infarction. A possible mechanism for cerebral infarction is focal arterial vasoconstriction and occasionally cerebral vasculitis. Associations have also been reported between various sympathomimetic drugs and intracranial hemorrhage. A likely mechanism for intracranial hemorrhage is acute arterial hypertension. With the exception of endocarditis, management of stroke related to drug abuse is largely supportive, with emphasis on supportive care to prevent stroke complications, physical and occupational therapy, and aggressive addiction rehabilitation.

  14. Shortened telomeres in individuals with abuse in alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Pavanello, Sofia; Hoxha, Mirjam; Dioni, Laura; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Snenghi, Rossella; Nalesso, Alessandro; Ferrara, Santo Davide; Montisci, Massimo; Baccarelli, Andrea

    2011-08-15

    Alcohol abuse leads to earlier onset of aging-related diseases, including cancer at multiple sites. Shorter telomere length (TL) in peripheral blood leucocytes (PBLs), a marker of biological aging, has been associated with alcohol-related cancer risks. Whether alcohol abusers exhibit accelerated biological aging, as reflected in PBL-TL, has never been examined. To investigated the effect of alcohol abuse on PBL-TL and its interaction with alcohol metabolic genotypes, we examined 200 drunk-driving traffic offenders diagnosed as alcohol abusers as per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [DSM-IV-TR] and enrolled in a probation program, and 257 social drinkers (controls). We assessed alcohol intake using self-reported drink-units/day and conventional alcohol abuse biomarkers (serum γ-glutamyltrasferase [GGT] and mean corpuscular volume of erythrocytes [MCV]). We used multivariable models to compute TL geometric means (GM) adjusted for age, smoking, BMI, diet, job at elevated risk of accident, genotoxic exposures. TL was nearly halved in alcohol abusers compared with controls (GMs 0.42 vs. 0.87 relative T/S ratio; p<0.0001) and decreased in relation with increasing drink-units/day (p-trend=0.003). Individuals drinking >4 drink-units/day had substantially shorter TL than those drinking ≤4 drink-units/day (GMs 0.48 vs. 0.61 T/S, p=0.002). Carriers of the common ADH1B*1/*1 (rs1229984) genotype were more likely to be abusers (p=0.008), reported higher drink-units/day (p=0.0003), and exhibited shorter TL (p<0.0001). The rs698 ADH1C and rs671 ALDH2 polymorphisms were not associated with TL. The decrease in PBL-TL modulated by the alcohol metabolic genotype ADH1B*1/*1 may represent a novel mechanism potentially related to alcohol carcinogenesis in alcohol abusers. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  15. Alcohol Dependence and Domestic Violence as Sequelae of Abuse and Conduct Disorder in Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunitz, Stephen J.; Levy, Jerrold E.; McCloskey, Joanne; Gabriel, K. Ruben

    1998-01-01

    This study compared 204 Navajo men and women for alcohol dependence and domestic violence as sequelae of abuse and conduct disorders in childhood. Both physical and sexual abuse were risk factors for conduct disorder. Physical abuse and conduct disorder were risk factors for alcohol dependence. Alcohol dependence and physical abuse were…

  16. Federalizing Medical Campaigns against Alcoholism and Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Metlay, Grischa

    2013-01-01

    Context The formation of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and the Special Action Office for Drug Abuse Prevention (SAODAP) in the early 1970s dramatically expanded scientific and medical efforts to control alcoholism and drug abuse in the United States. Methods Drawing on a variety of primary, secondary, and archival sources, this article describes the creation and early years of these agencies. Findings I show that while the agencies appeared at roughly the same time, their creation involved separate sets of issues and actors. In addition, I show that SAODAP received more money and resources, even though advocates for alcoholics mobilized a stronger lobbying campaign. Conclusions Two factors explain this discrepancy in money and resources: (1) alcoholism was framed as a public health problem, whereas drug abuse was drawn into broader debates about crime and social decline; and (2) alcohol programs relied on congressional support, whereas drug programs found champions at high levels of the Nixon administration. These political and cultural factors help explain why current programs for illegal drugs receive more federal support, despite alcohol's greater public health burden. PMID:23488713

  17. Federalizing medical campaigns against alcoholism and drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Metlay, Grischa

    2013-03-01

    The formation of the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) and the Special Action Office for Drug Abuse Prevention (SAODAP) in the early 1970s dramatically expanded scientific and medical efforts to control alcoholism and drug abuse in the United States. Drawing on a variety of primary, secondary, and archival sources, this article describes the creation and early years of these agencies. I show that while the agencies appeared at roughly the same time, their creation involved separate sets of issues and actors. In addition, I show that SAODAP received more money and resources, even though advocates for alcoholics mobilized a stronger lobbying campaign. Two factors explain this discrepancy in money and resources: (1) alcoholism was framed as a public health problem, whereas drug abuse was drawn into broader debates about crime and social decline; and (2) alcohol programs relied on congressional support, whereas drug programs found champions at high levels of the Nixon administration. These political and cultural factors help explain why current programs for illegal drugs receive more federal support, despite alcohol's greater public health burden. © 2013 Milbank Memorial Fund.

  18. When abuse primes addiction - automatic activation of alcohol concepts by child maltreatment related cues in emotionally abused alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Potthast, Nadine; Neuner, Frank; Catani, Claudia

    2015-09-01

    Recent research indicates that there is a link between emotional maltreatment and alcohol dependence (AD), but the underlying mechanisms still need to be clarified. There is reason to assume that maltreatment related cues automatically activate an associative memory network comprising cues eliciting craving as well as alcohol-related responses. The current study aimed to examine this network in AD patients who experienced emotional abuse using a priming paradigm. A specific priming effect in emotionally abused AD subjects was hypothesized for maltreatment related words that preceded alcohol related words. 49 AD subjects (n=14 with emotional abuse vs. n=35 without emotional abuse) and 34 control subjects performed a priming task with maltreatment related and neutral prime words combined with alcohol related and neutral target words. Maltreatment related words consisted of socially and physically threatening words. As hypothesized, a specific priming effect for socially threatening and physically threatening cues was found only in AD subjects with emotional abuse. The present data are the first to provide evidence that child maltreatment related cues automatically activate an associative memory network in alcoholics with emotional abuse experiences. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mothers' versus Fathers' Alcohol Abuse and Attachment in Adult Daughters of Alcoholics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Michelle L.; Schroeder, Valarie M.; Cooke, Cathy G.; Gumienny, Leslie; Platter, Amanda Jeffrey; Fals-Stewart, William

    2010-01-01

    Gender of the alcohol-abusing parent was examined in relation to general and romantic attachment (as measured by the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised and the Relationship Scales Questionnaire) in female adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs; as indicated by the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test) as compared to non-ACOAs. As compared to…

  20. 78 FR 13361 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel NIAAA Member Conflict SEP. Date: March 18, 2013. Time: 11:00 a.m...

  1. 77 FR 28889 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Review of RFA AA-12-011. Date: June 8, 2012. Time: 1:00 p.m. to...

  2. 77 FR 14024 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA Member Conflict application reviews Treatment...

  3. 78 FR 37836 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA Member Conflict Applications--Metabolism and Health...

  4. 76 FR 22717 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel. Date: May 25-26, 2011. Time: 8 a.m. to 7 p.m. Agenda: To review...

  5. 78 FR 12072 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA--Member Conflict Applications. Date: March 26, 2013. Time...

  6. 78 FR 37836 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA Member Conflict Applications--Treatment and Prevention (2...

  7. 78 FR 37835 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA Member Conflict applications--Epidemiology, Prevention (1...

  8. 77 FR 26770 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Review of RFA AA-12-008. Date: May 23-24, 2012. Time: 9:00 a.m...

  9. 77 FR 14023 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA Member Conflict application reviews--Biosciences. Date...

  10. 78 FR 37837 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... DEPARTMENT oF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA Member Conflict Applications--Neurosciences. Date: July...

  11. 76 FR 22715 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel. Date: June 6-7, 2011. Time: 8 a.m. to 7 p.m. Agenda: To review...

  12. 75 FR 37818 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel NIAAA Fellowship & Training Member Conflict Applications. Date...

  13. 75 FR 42449 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the Federal Advisory... and Alcoholism, Special Emphasis Panel, Review of RFA AA10-007 & AA10- 008 Gut-Liver-Brain...

  14. Alcohol and substance abuse in solid-organ transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Parker, Richard; Armstrong, Matthew J; Corbett, Chris; Day, Edward J; Neuberger, James M

    2013-12-27

    This review focuses on alcohol and substance abuse in the context of solid-organ transplantation. Alcohol and substance abuse are common and may lead to a need for solid-organ transplantation and may also contribute to significant physical and psychologic problems that impact upon the recipient. Damaging levels of alcohol intake can occur in the absence of dependence. Alcohol or substance abuse after transplantation is associated with poor medication compliance and this may increase risk of graft loss. Intravenous drug use is associated with increased risk of infections (especially secondary to opportunistic organisms-bacterial, viral, protozoal, and others-and such infections may be more severe in the immunosuppressed), but there is only anecdotal evidence that such behavior has a worse outcome in transplant recipients. Whereas previous alcohol excess and drug use in kidney recipients are both associated with a small but statistically significantly increased risk of adverse outcomes (hazard ratio, 1.16-1.56), alcohol use within recommended guidelines after transplantation appears safe and possibly beneficial. Robust data are lacking for other organs, but those available suggest that heart transplantation is safe in individuals with a history of alcohol or substance abuse. Health specialists in drug or alcohol addiction should carefully screen all potential transplant candidates for these conditions, and where there is evidence of dependency or abuse, effective psychologic and physical treatment should be offered. Studies have shown that interventions such as psychologic intervention have improved alcohol behavior in the context of liver transplantation. Although there are no comparable studies with other solid-organ recipients, it is reasonable to expect transferable outcomes.

  15. DOES ALCOHOL OUTLET DENSITY MODERATE THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LEVELS OF ALCOHOL USE AND CHILD PHYSICAL ABUSE?

    PubMed Central

    Freisthler, Bridget; Wolf, Jennifer Price

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Parental alcohol use and alcohol outlet density are both associated with child abuse. Guided by alcohol availability theory, this paper examines whether alcohol outlet density moderates the relationship between parental alcohol use and child physical abuse. Methods A general population telephone survey of 3,023 parents or legal guardians 18 years or older was conducted across 50 California cities, while densities of alcohol outlets were measured for by zip code. Data were analyzed via overdispersed multilevel Poisson models. Results Ex-drinkers, light drinkers, and heavy drinkers use physical abuse more often than lifetime abstainers. Moderate drinking was not related to child physical abuse. Proportion of bars was negatively related to frequency of physical abuse. Moderating relationships between alcohol outlet density and drinking categories were found for all drinking patterns. Conclusion Different types of alcohol outlets may be differentially related to drinking patterns, indicating that the interaction of drinking patterns and the drinking environment may place children at greater risk for being physically abused. PMID:27642071

  16. Alcohol Abuse and Other Psychiatric Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... found that those with a history of alcohol dependence (even former drinkers), had a more than fourfold- ... episode than those without a history of alcohol dependence. It isn’t always clear which comes first: ...

  17. Rodent Models of Genetic Contributions to Motivation to Abuse Alcohol

    PubMed Central

    Crabbe, John C.

    2016-01-01

    The distinction between alcohol use (normative) and abuse (unfortunately common) implies dysregulation of motivation directed toward the drug. Genetic contributions to abuse risk are mediated through personality differences, other predispositions to drink excessively, and differences in sensitivity to the acute and chronic consequences of the drug. How to assess motivation in laboratory animals is not straightforward but risk factors for and consequences of alcohol abuse can be modeled with reasonable fidelity in laboratory rodents. Remarkably few rodent studies focus on the genetic contributions to alcohol’s reinforcing value: almost all examine preferential drinking of unflavored alcohol over water. Such studies will likely never avoid the confounding role of taste preferences and most often yield intake levels insufficient to yield a pharmacologically significant blood alcohol level. Genotypes that avoid alcohol probably do so based on pre-ingestive sensory cues; however, post-ingestive consequences are also important. Thus, the quest for improved measures of reinforcing value continues. We have genetic differences aplenty, but still lack evidence that any genotype will readily self-administer alcohol to the devastating extent that many alcoholics will. Encouraging results that are emerging include improved behavioral methods for elevating alcohol intake and inferring alcohol reinforcement, as well as new genetic animal models. Several ingenious assays to index alcohol’s motivational effects have been used extensively. Alcoholic drinking that attempts to prevent or to alleviate withdrawal symptoms has been modeled. Another characteristic of alcoholic drinking is its persistence despite abundant evidence to the drinker of the damaging effects of the excessive drinking on work, relationships, and/or health. Modeling such persistence in rodents has been uncommon to date. New genetic animal models include lines of mice selectively bred for chronic high drinking

  18. Integrating Substance Abuse Treatment and Child Welfare Services: Findings from the Illinois Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Waiver Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joseph P.; Marsh, Jeanne C.; Testa, Mark F.; Louderman, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol and other drug abuse is a major problem for children and families involved with public child welfare. Substance abuse compromises appropriate parenting practices and increases the risk of child maltreatment. A substantial proportion of substantiated child abuse and neglect reports involve parental substance abuse. Once in the system,…

  19. Creativity, alcohol and drug abuse: the pop icon Jim Morrison.

    PubMed

    Holm-Hadulla, Rainer M; Bertolino, Alina

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol and drug abuse is frequent among performers and pop musicians. Many of them hope that alcohol and drugs will enhance their creativity. Scientific studies are scarce and conclusions limited for methodological reasons. Furthermore, extraordinary creativity can hardly be grasped by empirical-statistical methods. Thus, ideographic studies are necessary to learn from extraordinarily creative persons about the relationship of creativity with alcohol and drugs. The pop icon Jim Morrison can serve as an exemplary case to investigate the interrelation between alcohol and drug abuse and creativity. Morrison's self-assessments in his works and letters as well as the descriptions by others are analyzed under the perspective of creativity research. In the lyrics of Jim Morrison and in biographical descriptions, we can see how Jim Morrison tried to cope with traumatic events, depressive moods and uncontrolled impulses through creative activities. His talent, skill and motivation to write creatively were independent from taking alcohol and drugs. He used alcohol and drugs to transgress restrictive social norms, to broaden his perceptions and to reinforce his struggle for self-actualization. In short, his motivation to create something new and authentic was reinforced by alcohol and drugs. More important was the influence of a supportive group that enabled Morrison's talents to flourish. However, soon the frequent use of high doses of alcohol and drugs weakened his capacity to realize creative motivation. Jim Morrison is an exemplary case showing that heavy drinking and the abuse of LSD, mescaline and amphetamines damages the capacity to realize creative motivation. Jim Morrison is typical of creative personalities like Amy Winehouse, Janis Joplin, Brian Jones and Jimmy Hendrix who burn their creativity in early adulthood through alcohol and drugs. We suppose that the sacrificial ritual of their decay offers some benefits for the excited spectators. One of these is the

  20. Testing a Social Mechanism: Does Alcohol Outlet Density Moderate the Relationship Between Levels of Alcohol Use and Child Physical Abuse?

    PubMed

    Freisthler, Bridget; Wolf, Jennifer Price

    2016-12-01

    Parental alcohol use and alcohol outlet density are both associated with child abuse. Guided by alcohol availability theory, this article examines whether alcohol outlet density moderates the relationship between parental alcohol use and child physical abuse. A general population telephone survey of 3,023 parents or legal guardians 18 years or older was conducted across 50 California cities, whereas densities of alcohol outlets were measured for by zip code. Data were analyzed via overdispersed multilevel Poisson models. Ex-drinkers, light drinkers, and heavy drinkers use physical abuse more often than lifetime abstainers. Moderate drinking was not related to child physical abuse. Proportion of bars was negatively related to frequency of physical abuse. Moderating relationships between alcohol outlet density and drinking categories were found for all drinking patterns. Different types of alcohol outlets may be differentially related to drinking patterns, indicating that the interaction of drinking patterns and the drinking environment may place children at greater risk for being physically abused.

  1. Understanding a Need...Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention for People with Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This booklet provides an overview of alcohol and other drug abuse prevention, disability, and the relationship between the two issues. It cites the incidence of alcohol and other drug abuse among people with disabilities. It looks at alcohol and other drug abuse risk factors that are disability related, such as medication use, chronic pain,…

  2. Changing the Culture of Alcohol Abuse on Campus: Lessons Learned from Secondhand Smoke

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Misch, Donald A.

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is the single greatest public health hazard on American college and university campuses, but the culture of abusive alcohol consumption continues to be highly resistant to change. The author argues that secondhand smoke campaigns can be used as models to change the culture of alcohol abuse on campus. He proposes the implementation of…

  3. Preventing Alcohol Abuse in the Greek System on a Commuter Campus: Prevention Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunnicutt, David M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Provides an overview of alcohol use and abuse on the college campus. Discusses theory behind alcohol abuse prevention contracts. Presents an example of how to use contracts to address alcohol abuse in a commuter university Greek system. Concludes solving the problems associated with college students' drinking is now more critical than ever.…

  4. Genetic moderators and psychiatric mediators of the link between sexual abuse and alcohol dependence.

    PubMed

    Copeland, William E; Magnusson, Asa; Göransson, Mona; Heilig, Markus A

    2011-06-01

    This study used a case-control female sample to test psychiatric mediators and genetic moderators of the effect of sexual abuse on later alcohol dependence. The study also tested differences between alcohol dependent women with or without a history of sexual abuse on variables that might affect treatment planning. A case-control design compared 192 treatment-seeking alcohol dependent women with 177 healthy population controls. All participants were assessed for alcohol-related behaviors, sexual abuse history, psychiatric problems, and personality functioning. Markers were genotyped in the CRHR1, MAO-A and OPRM1 genes. The association of sexual abuse with alcohol dependence was limited to the most severe category of sexual abuse involving anal or vaginal penetration. Of the five psychiatric disorders tested, anxiety, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia met criteria as potential mediators of the abuse-alcohol dependence association. Severe sexual abuse continued to have an independent effect on alcohol dependence status even after accounting for these potential mediators. None of the candidate genetic markers moderated the association between sexual abuse and alcohol dependence. Of alcohol dependent participants, those with a history of severe abuse rated higher on alcoholism severity, and psychiatric comorbidities. Sexual abuse is associated with later alcohol problems directly as well as through its effect on psychiatric problems. Treatment-seeking alcohol dependent women with a history of abuse have distinct features as compared to other alcohol dependent women. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Genetic Moderators and Psychiatric Mediators of the link between Sexual Abuse and Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Copeland, William E.; Magnusson, Åsa; Göransson, Mona; Heilig, Markus A.

    2011-01-01

    Background/Objective This study used a case-control female sample to test psychiatric mediators and genetic moderators of the effect of sexual abuse on later alcohol dependence. The study also tested differences between alcohol dependent women with or without a history of sexual abuse on variables that that might affect treatment planning. Methods A case-control design compared 192 treatment-seeking alcohol dependent women with 177 healthy population controls. All participants were assessed for alcohol-related behaviors, sexual abuse history, psychiatric problems, and personality functioning. Markers were genotyped in the CRHR1, MAO-A and OPRM1 genes. Results The association of sexual abuse with alcohol dependence was limited to the most severe category of sexual abuse involving anal or vaginal penetration. Of the five psychiatric disorders tested, anxiety, anorexia nervosa, and bulimia met criteria as potential mediators of the abuse-alcohol dependence association. Severe sexual abuse continued to have an independent effect on alcohol dependence status even after accounting for these potential mediators. None of the candidate genetic markers moderated the association between sexual abuse and alcohol dependence. Of alcohol dependent participants, those with a history of severe abuse rated higher on alcoholism severity, and psychiatric comorbidities. Conclusion Sexual abuse is associated with later alcohol problems directly as well as through its effect on psychiatric problems. Treatment-seeking alcohol dependent women with a history of abuse have distinct features as compared to other alcohol dependent women. PMID:21193270

  6. The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and alcohol abuse in women--a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Fleming, J; Mullen, P E; Sibthorpe, B; Attewell, R; Bammer, G

    1998-12-01

    The aim of this paper was to examine the association between reporting childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and alcohol abuse in a community sample of women using multivariate analysis which took into account a range of potential confounding variables (such as a family history of alcoholism) and effect modifiers (such as having an alcoholic partner). A two-stage retrospective case-control study was used to investigate the relationship between reporting CSA and alcohol abuse in women. Seven hundred and ten women randomly selected from the Australian federal electoral rolls. The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was used to measure alcohol abuse. A series of questions based on those developed by Wyatt (1985) were used to ascertain the prevalence of CSA. The final model showed that the relationship between a history of CSA and alcohol abuse reflected a complex interaction between CSA and a range of other factors in a woman's background. CSA was not by itself a significant predictor of alcohol abuse (OR = 0.61; 95% CI = 0.31-1.20). However, a history of CSA became significant in combination with co-factors which included: having a mother who was perceived as cold and uncaring; having an alcoholic partner; and believing that alcohol is a sexual disinhibitor. This study indicates that CSA alone is not a causative factor in the development of alcohol abuse among women and highlights the importance of examining the family background of women with alcohol problems.

  7. Alcohol advertising bans and alcohol abuse: an international perspective.

    PubMed

    Saffer, H

    1991-05-01

    This paper examines the effect of banning broadcast advertising of alcoholic beverages. The data used in this study are a pooled time series from 17 countries for the period 1970 to 1983. The empirical results show that countries with bans on spirits advertising have about 16% lower alcohol consumption than countries with no bans and that countries with bans on beer and wine advertising have about 11% lower alcohol consumption than countries with bans only on spirits advertising.

  8. Counselor Trainee Attitudes toward Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Sharon J.; Sneed, Zachery B.; Koch, D. Shane

    2010-01-01

    Using the Counselor Trainee Attitudes Measure (CTAM) to assess student attitudes toward alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA), results indicated that students had more positive attitudes toward AODA when they were in recovery or had a family member in recovery. Furthermore, completion of AODA related courses predicted more positive attitudes toward…

  9. Alcohol Abuse Prevention: A Comprehensive Guide for Youth Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boys' Clubs of America, New York, NY.

    This guide, the culmination of a three year Project TEAM effort by the Boys' Clubs of America, describes numerous strategies for developing an alcohol abuse prevention program. The core of this guide consists of program models developed by the Boys' Club project at seven pilot sites. The models presented cover the following areas: peer leadership,…

  10. Alcohol, Tobacco, and Drugs: Their Use and Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worick, W. Wayne; Schaller, Warren E.

    This text examines some of the problems and concerns surrounding drug use and abuse in society. The central theme is that alcohol, tobacco, and drugs are a part of our society and that our failure to deal with the resultant problems represents a betrayal to society. Education and prevention are stressed as the ultimate answer, but it is recognized…

  11. 78 FR 66023 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Amended Notice of Meeting Notice is hereby given of a change in the meeting of the Clinical, Treatment and Health Services Research Review Subcommittee, October 15, 2013, 08:00...

  12. [Domestic violence, alcohol and substance abuse].

    PubMed

    Zilberman, Monica L; Blume, Sheila B

    2005-10-01

    Domestic violence and substance abuse are common in primary care patients. Although these problems are associated with severe physical and psychological sequelae, they are often undiagnosed. This article provides an overview of the prevalence of these problems, the health-related consequences for adults, children and elderly, as well as the challenges for clinicians in screening, assessment and referral.

  13. Preventing the Consequences of Alcohol Abuse: Identification of Soldiers at High Risk for Fatal and Serious Injuries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    Drug/Alcohol Combo: 1980-1985 1986-1988 303.1 - Alcohol dependence with drug abuse 303.07 - Alcohol dependence syndrome - acute alcohol intoxication...with single drug use 303.10 - Alcohol dependence with drug abuse, unspecified 303.08 - Alcohol dependence syndrome - acute alcohol intoxication, with...multiple drug use 303.11 - Alcohol dependence with drug abuse, 303.97 - Alcohol dependence syndrome - other and continuous/habitual unspecified alcohol

  14. Recent Advances in Nicotinic Receptor Signaling in Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Shafiqur; Engleman, Eric A; Bell, Richard L

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol is the most commonly abused legal substance and alcoholism is a serious public health problem. It is a leading cause of preventable death in the world. The cellular and molecular mechanisms of alcohol reward and addiction are still not well understood. Emerging evidence indicates that unlike other drugs of abuse, such as nicotine, cocaine, or opioids, alcohol targets numerous channel proteins, receptor molecules, and signaling pathways in the brain. Previously, research has identified brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), a heterogeneous family of pentameric ligand-gated cation channels expressed in the mammalian brain, as critical molecular targets for alcohol abuse and dependence. Genetic variations encoding nAChR subunits have been shown to increase the vulnerability to develop alcohol dependence. Here, we review recent insights into the rewarding effects of alcohol, as they pertain to different nAChR subtypes, associated signaling molecules, and pathways that contribute to the molecular mechanisms of alcoholism and/or comorbid brain disorders. Understanding these cellular changes and molecular underpinnings may be useful for the advancement of brain nicotinic-cholinergic mechanisms, and will lead to a better translational and therapeutic outcome for alcoholism and/or comorbid conditions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Education, Alcohol Use and Abuse among Young Adults in Britain. OECD Education Working Papers, No. 50

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    del Carmen Huerta, Maria; Borgonovi, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    In this article we explore the relationship between education and alcohol consumption. We examine whether the probability of abusing alcohol differs across educational groups. We use data from the British Cohort Study, a longitudinal study of one week's birth in Britain in 1970. Measures of alcohol abuse include alcohol consumption above NHS…

  16. Child physical and sexual abuse: a comprehensive look at alcohol consumption patterns, consequences, and dependence from the National Alcohol Survey.

    PubMed

    Lown, E Anne; Nayak, Madhabika B; Korcha, Rachael A; Greenfield, Thomas K

    2011-02-01

    Previous research has documented a relationship between child sexual abuse and alcohol dependence. This paper extends that work by providing a comprehensive description of past year and lifetime alcohol consumption patterns, consequences, and dependence among women reporting either physical and sexual abuse in a national sample. This study used survey data from 3,680 women who participated in the 2005 U.S. National Alcohol Survey. Information on physical and sexual child abuse and its characteristics were assessed in relation to 8 past year and lifetime alcohol consumption measures. Child physical or sexual abuse was significantly associated with past year and lifetime alcohol consumption measures. In multivariate analyses, controlling for age, marital status, employment status, education, ethnicity, and parental alcoholism or problem drinking, women reporting child sexual abuse vs. no abuse were more likely to report past year heavy episodic drinking (OR(adj) = 1.7; 95% CI 1.0 to 2.9), alcohol dependence (OR(adj) = 7.2; 95% CI 3.2 to 16.5), and alcohol consequences (OR(adj) = 3.6; 95% CI 1.8 to 7.3). Sexual abuse (vs. no abuse) was associated with a greater number of past year drinks (124 vs. 74 drinks, respectively, p = 0.002). Sexual child abuse was also associated with lifetime alcohol-related consequences (OR(adj) = 3.5; 95% CI 2.6 to 4.8) and dependence (OR(adj) = 3.7; 95% CI 2.6 to 5.3). Physical child abuse was associated with 4 of 8 alcohol measures in multivariate models. Both physical and sexual child abuse were associated with getting into fights, health, legal, work, and family alcohol-related consequences. Alcohol-related consequences and dependence were more common for women reporting sexual abuse compared to physical abuse, 2 or more physical abuse perpetrators, nonparental and nonfamily physical abuse perpetrators, and women reporting injury related to the abuse. Both child physical and sexual abuse were associated with many alcohol outcomes in

  17. Depression, suicidality and alcohol abuse among medical and business students.

    PubMed

    Curran, T A; Gawley, E; Casey, P; Gill, M; Crumlish, N

    2009-09-01

    We determined the prevalence and correlates of depression, alcohol abuse and suicidal ideation among medical and business students in Trinity College, Dublin and University College, Dublin. We rated depression and suicidal ideation in the past month with the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and alcohol abuse with the CAGE. Of 539 students registered, 338 (62.7%) responded. 47 (13.9%) students were depressed, scoring > or = 10 on the BDI. 83 (24.6%) students had an alcohol use disorder (CAGE > or = 2). Alcohol abuse was more common among business students than medical students (AOR = 2.9; 95% C.I. = 1.7-5.1); there were no other inter-faculty differences. 20 (5.9%) students reported suicidal ideation in the last month. Suicidal ideation correlated positively with stressful life events (AOR = 1.4; 95% C.I.= 1.1-1.7), and negatively with social support (AOR = 0.6; 95/ C.I. =0.5-0.7). These findings suggest that students are a vulnerable group, and underscore the need for mental health education and psychosocial support services in universities.

  18. Serum Proteomic Profiles In Subjects with Heavy Alcohol Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Liangpunsakul, Suthat; Lai, Xianyin; Ringham, Heather N.; Crabb, David W.; Witzmann, Frank A.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives The abuse of alcohol is a major public health problem, and the diagnosis and care of patients with alcohol abuse and dependence is hindered by the lack of tests that can detect dangerous levels of drinking or relapse during therapy. Gastroenterologists and other healthcare providers find it very challenging to obtain an accurate alcohol drinking history. We hypothesized that the effects of ethanol on numerous systems may well be reflected in changes in quantity or qualities of constituent or novel plasma proteins or protein fragments. Organ/tissue-specific proteins may be released into the blood stream when cells are injured by alcohol, or when systemic changes are induced by alcohol, and such proteins would be detected using a proteomic approach. The objective of this pilot study was to determine if there are plasma proteome profiles that correlate with heavy alcohol use. Methods Paired serum samples, before and after intensive alcohol treatment, were obtained from subjects who attended an outpatient alcohol treatment program. Serum proteomic profiles using MALDI –OTOF Mass Spectrometry were compared between pre- and post treatment samples. Results Of 16 subjects who enrolled in the study, 8 were females. The mean age of the study subjects was 49 yrs. The baseline laboratory data showed elevated AST (54 ± 37 IU/L), ALT (37 ± 19 IU/L), and MCV (99 ± 5 fl). Self-reported pre-treatment drinking levels for these subjects averaged 17 ± 7drinks/day and 103 ± 37 drinks/week. Mass spectrometry analyses showed a novel 5.9 kDa protein, a fragment of alpha fibrinogen, isoform 1, that might be might be a new novel marker for abusive alcohol drinking. Conclusions We have shown in this pilot study that several potential protein markers have appeared in mass spectral profiles and that they may be useful clinically to determine the status of alcohol drinking by MALDI –OTOF mass spectrometry, especially a fragment of alpha fibrinogen, isoform 1. However, a

  19. Neighborhood Alcohol Outlet Density and Rates of Child Abuse and Neglect: Moderating Effects of Access to Substance Abuse Services

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Cory M.; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized data from 163 census tracts in Bergen County, New Jersey, on reports of child abuse and neglect, alcohol outlets, substance abuse treatment and prevention facilities, and the United States Census to investigate the linkages between socioeconomic structure, alcohol availability, and access to substance abuse service facilities on rates of child abuse and neglect. Findings indicate areas with a greater concentration of on-premises alcohol outlets (i.e., bars) had higher rates of child neglect, and those with easier access to substance abuse services had lower rates of neglect, controlling for neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic structure. Additionally, the relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet density and rates of child neglect was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. A greater concentration of off-premises outlets (i.e., liquor stores) was associated with lower rates of physical abuse. Findings suggest that the built environment and socioeconomic structure of neighborhoods have important consequences for child well-being. The implications for future research on the structural features of neighborhoods that are associated with child well-being are discussed. PMID:24529493

  20. Validity of Integrity Tests for Predicting Drug and Alcohol Abuse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-31

    Wiinkler and Sheridan (1989) found that employees who entered employee assistance programs for treating drug addiction were more likely be absent...August 31, 1993 Final 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Validity of Integrity Tests for Predicting Drug and Alcohol Abuse C No. N00014-92-J...words) This research used psychometric meta-analysis (Hunter & Schmidt, 1990b) to examine the validity of integrity tests for predicting drug and

  1. 42 CFR 2.2 - Statutory authority for confidentiality of alcohol abuse patient records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... abuse patient records. 2.2 Section 2.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.2 Statutory authority for confidentiality of alcohol abuse patient records. The restrictions of...

  2. 42 CFR 2.2 - Statutory authority for confidentiality of alcohol abuse patient records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... abuse patient records. 2.2 Section 2.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.2 Statutory authority for confidentiality of alcohol abuse patient records. The restrictions of...

  3. 42 CFR 2.2 - Statutory authority for confidentiality of alcohol abuse patient records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... abuse patient records. 2.2 Section 2.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.2 Statutory authority for confidentiality of alcohol abuse patient records. The restrictions of...

  4. 42 CFR 2.2 - Statutory authority for confidentiality of alcohol abuse patient records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... abuse patient records. 2.2 Section 2.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.2 Statutory authority for confidentiality of alcohol abuse patient records. The restrictions of...

  5. 42 CFR 2.2 - Statutory authority for confidentiality of alcohol abuse patient records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... abuse patient records. 2.2 Section 2.2 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Introduction § 2.2 Statutory authority for confidentiality of alcohol abuse patient records. The restrictions of...

  6. 49 CFR 242.115 - Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules... CONDUCTORS Program and Eligibility Requirements § 242.115 Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules... evaluated as not currently affected by a substance abuse disorder or that the person has been evaluated as...

  7. 49 CFR 242.115 - Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules... CONDUCTORS Program and Eligibility Requirements § 242.115 Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules... evaluated as not currently affected by a substance abuse disorder or that the person has been evaluated as...

  8. 49 CFR 242.115 - Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules... CONDUCTORS Program and Eligibility Requirements § 242.115 Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules... evaluated as not currently affected by a substance abuse disorder or that the person has been evaluated as...

  9. Understanding Alcohol Abuse among College Students: Contributing Factors and Strategies for Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iconis, Rosemary

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol abuse among college students has become a major public health concern. Individual, environmental, and demographic factors have each been associated with alcohol abuse in that population. In response to the enormous physical, emotional, and legal consequences that occur as a result of the abuse, colleges and universities are developing…

  10. Cognitive impairment associated with cocaine use: The role of co-existent alcohol abuse/dependence.

    PubMed

    Blanco-Presas, Laura; Moreno-Alcázar, Ana; Alonso-Lana, Silvia; Salvador, Raymond; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; McKenna, Peter

    2018-05-29

    Cocaine abuse has been reported as leading to impaired cognitive function. However, cocaine abusers commonly also abuse alcohol, which can itself produce cognitive impairment. This study, therefore, aimed to examine the potential confounding effect of alcohol abuse on neuropsychological test performance in cocaine and alcohol abusing individuals, comparing them with individuals who abused alcohol alone and non-abusing controls. Nineteen cocaine abusers who also met DSM-IV criteria for alcohol abuse/dependence (14 m, 5f; mean age 38.65 ± 3.83) and 20 matched individuals who met criteria for alcohol abuse/dependence alone (12 m, 8f; mean age 38.19 ± 4.82) were administered a battery of neuropsychological tests covering executive function, memory, language and visual/visuospatial function after two to four weeks of abstinence. Nineteen matched healthy controls (8 m, 11f; mean age 37.01 ± 5.98) were also tested. Both the cocaine + alcohol group and the alcohol group performed significantly more poorly than the healthy controls on the executive (ESs 2.13 and 2.57) and memory tests (ESs 0.58 and 1.06). The findings were similar for language (ESs 0.92 and 1.69), where the cocaine + alcohol abusers additionally performed significantly better than the alcohol abusers. Both patient groups were impaired on two of the five tests of visual/visuospatial function, with better performance by the cocaine + alcohol group on one of them. Chronic cocaine abuse does not appear from this study to be associated with cognitive impairment over and above that which can be attributed to co-existent alcohol abuse. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Abuse potential of carisoprodol: a retrospective review of Idaho Medicaid pharmacy and medical claims data.

    PubMed

    Owens, Christopher; Pugmire, Brooke; Salness, Ty; Culbertson, Vaughn; Force, Rex; Cady, Paul; Steiner, Joseph

    2007-10-01

    Carisoprodol is a muscle relaxant indicated as adjunctive therapy in acute, painful musculoskeletal conditions. Case reports of drug-seeking behavior and utilization of carisoprodol in combination with opioids have suggested abuse potential. We undertook a retrospective review of claims data to identify and characterize potential indicators of abuse in long-term users of carisoprodol and to determine any continued use of the drug by former long-term users following prior authorization implementation. The Idaho Medicaid pharmacy and medical claims database was queried from January 1 to December 31, 2005, to identify long-term users of muscle relaxants. Use of concomitant opioids and coded diagnoses relating to past drug abuse were analyzed and compared between patients who used carisoprodol and patients who used other muscle relaxants. Data from 11 of 30 surveys mailed to pharmacies filling prescriptions for long-term users of carisoprodol were also collected to determine the frequency of self-pay-continued use after Medicaid coverage of the drug was discontinued. Long-term users of carisoprodol (n = 340) and other skeletal muscle relaxants (SMRs) (n = 453) were identified from among 130,000 individuals in the Idaho Medicaid pharmacy and medical claims database in calendar year 2005. Patients in both groups were similar in terms of mean age (~47 years) and sex (71.5% female). Patients using carisoprodol used concomitant opioids more frequently (81.5% vs 59.8%; P < 0.01), more commonly had past diagnoses indicating other drug abuse (34.1% vs 21.4%; P < 0.01), and in 80% of reported cases, continued to pay out of pocket for carisoprodol when third-party coverage was discontinued. Taken together, these findings are consistent with published case reports suggesting the abuse potential of carisoprodol. The results from this review suggest that, compared with long-term users of other SMRs, carisoprodol patients utilized concomitant opioids more frequently and concomitant

  12. Improving Fraud and Abuse Detection in General Physician Claims: A Data Mining Study.

    PubMed

    Joudaki, Hossein; Rashidian, Arash; Minaei-Bidgoli, Behrouz; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Geraili, Bijan; Nasiri, Mahdi; Arab, Mohammad

    2015-11-10

    We aimed to identify the indicators of healthcare fraud and abuse in general physicians' drug prescription claims, and to identify a subset of general physicians that were more likely to have committed fraud and abuse. We applied data mining approach to a major health insurance organization dataset of private sector general physicians' prescription claims. It involved 5 steps: clarifying the nature of the problem and objectives, data preparation, indicator identification and selection, cluster analysis to identify suspect physicians, and discriminant analysis to assess the validity of the clustering approach. Thirteen indicators were developed in total. Over half of the general physicians (54%) were 'suspects' of conducting abusive behavior. The results also identified 2% of physicians as suspects of fraud. Discriminant analysis suggested that the indicators demonstrated adequate performance in the detection of physicians who were suspect of perpetrating fraud (98%) and abuse (85%) in a new sample of data. Our data mining approach will help health insurance organizations in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) in streamlining auditing approaches towards the suspect groups rather than routine auditing of all physicians. © 2016 by Kerman University of Medical Sciences.

  13. Improving Fraud and Abuse Detection in General Physician Claims: A Data Mining Study

    PubMed Central

    Joudaki, Hossein; Rashidian, Arash; Minaei-Bidgoli, Behrouz; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Geraili, Bijan; Nasiri, Mahdi; Arab, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: We aimed to identify the indicators of healthcare fraud and abuse in general physicians’ drug prescription claims, and to identify a subset of general physicians that were more likely to have committed fraud and abuse. Methods: We applied data mining approach to a major health insurance organization dataset of private sector general physicians’ prescription claims. It involved 5 steps: clarifying the nature of the problem and objectives, data preparation, indicator identification and selection, cluster analysis to identify suspect physicians, and discriminant analysis to assess the validity of the clustering approach. Results: Thirteen indicators were developed in total. Over half of the general physicians (54%) were ‘suspects’ of conducting abusive behavior. The results also identified 2% of physicians as suspects of fraud. Discriminant analysis suggested that the indicators demonstrated adequate performance in the detection of physicians who were suspect of perpetrating fraud (98%) and abuse (85%) in a new sample of data. Conclusion: Our data mining approach will help health insurance organizations in low-and middle-income countries (LMICs) in streamlining auditing approaches towards the suspect groups rather than routine auditing of all physicians. PMID:26927587

  14. Guidelines for School-Based Alcohol and Drug Abuse Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    This paper contains the revised drug education guidelines for the state of California, which emphasize prevention of alcohol and drug abuse. The materials define school-based alcohol and drug abuse prevention programming as a comprehensive process that not only provides students with accurate information about alcohol and drugs, but also enhances…

  15. Alcohol and drug misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans.

    PubMed

    Hoggatt, Katherine J; Jamison, Andrea L; Lehavot, Keren; Cucciare, Michael A; Timko, Christine; Simpson, Tracy L

    2015-01-01

    We conducted a systematic literature review on substance misuse, abuse, and dependence in women veterans, including National Guard/reserve members. We identified 837 articles published between 1980 and 2013. Of 56 included studies, 32 reported rates of alcohol misuse, binge drinking, or other unhealthy alcohol use not meeting diagnostic criteria for abuse or dependence, and 33 reported rates of drug misuse or diagnosed alcohol or drug use disorders. Rates ranged from 4% to 37% for alcohol misuse and from 7% to 25% for binge drinking; among Veterans Health Administration (VA) health-care system outpatients, rates ranged from 3% to 16% for substance use disorder. Studies comparing women veterans and civilians reported no clear differences in binge or heavy drinking. Substance misuse rates were generally lower among women veterans than men veterans. Substance misuse was associated with higher rates of trauma, psychiatric and medical conditions, and increased mortality and suicide rates. Most studies included only VA patients, and many used only VA medical record data; therefore, the reported substance misuse rates likely do not reflect true prevalence. Rates also varied by assessment method, source of data, and the subgroups studied. Further efforts to develop epidemiologically valid prevalence estimates are needed to capture the true health burden of substance misuse in women veterans, particularly those not using VA care. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  16. Childhood emotional abuse, negative emotion-driven impulsivity, and alcohol use in young adulthood☆

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Sunny H.; Lee, Sungkyu; Jeon, Sae-Mi; Wills, Thomas A.

    2015-01-01

    Childhood emotional abuse has been linked to problematic alcohol use in later life but there is a paucity of empirically based knowledge about the developmental pathways linking emotional abuse and alcohol use in young adulthood. Using a community sample of young individuals aged 18–25 (N = 268; female 52%), we performed structural equation modeling to investigate whether emotional abuse influences alcohol use through urgent personality trait and to determine pathways for these effects in a multivariate context. We also examined variations in these pathways by four different alcohol use outcomes including frequency of alcohol use, binge drinking, alcohol-related problems, and alcohol use disorders (AUD). The present study found that emotional abuse was related to urgency, which in turn influenced four types of alcohol use. Urgency may play a significant role in linking childhood maltreatment to alcohol use in young adulthood. PMID:25743371

  17. Childhood emotional abuse, negative emotion-driven impulsivity, and alcohol use in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sunny H; Lee, Sungkyu; Jeon, Sae-Mi; Wills, Thomas A

    2015-12-01

    Childhood emotional abuse has been linked to problematic alcohol use in later life but there is a paucity of empirically based knowledge about the developmental pathways linking emotional abuse and alcohol use in young adulthood. Using a community sample of young individuals aged 18-25 (N=268; female 52%), we performed structural equation modeling to investigate whether emotional abuse influences alcohol use through urgent personality trait and to determine pathways for these effects in a multivariate context. We also examined variations in these pathways by four different alcohol use outcomes including frequency of alcohol use, binge drinking, alcohol-related problems, and alcohol use disorders (AUD). The present study found that emotional abuse was related to urgency, which in turn influenced four types of alcohol use. Urgency may play a significant role in linking childhood maltreatment to alcohol use in young adulthood. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. 24 CFR 5.857 - When must I prohibit admission of alcohol abusers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Assisted Housing-Denying Admission and Terminating Tenancy for Criminal Activity or Alcohol Abuse Denying... right to peaceful enjoyment of the premises by other residents. Terminating Tenancy ...

  19. 24 CFR 5.860 - When am I specifically authorized to evict alcohol abusers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Federally Assisted Housing-Denying Admission and Terminating Tenancy for Criminal Activity or Alcohol Abuse... of alcohol threatens the health, safety, or right to peaceful enjoyment of the premises by other...

  20. Childhood risk factors for alcohol abuse and psychological distress among adult lesbians.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Tonda L; Johnson, Timothy P; Wilsnack, Sharon C; Szalacha, Laura A

    2007-07-01

    This study examined the relationships between childhood and family background variables, including sexual and physical abuse, and subsequent alcohol abuse and psychological distress in adult lesbians. Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate relationships between childhood sexual and physical abuse and parenting variables and latent measures of lifetime alcohol abuse and psychological distress in a large community-based sample of lesbians. Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) directly predicted lifetime alcohol abuse, and childhood physical abuse (CPA) directly predicted lifetime psychological distress. In addition, CSA indirectly increased the risk of lifetime alcohol abuse through its negative effect on age at first heterosexual intercourse. Childhood physical abuse had only indirect effects on lifetime alcohol abuse through its strong relationship to lifetime psychological distress. Parental drinking problems and parental strictness directly predicted lifetime psychological distress; parental drinking problems indirectly predicted lifetime alcohol abuse through the mediators of age of drinking onset and lifetime psychological distress. White lesbians, younger lesbians, and those with lower levels of education were at greatest risk of psychological distress. While the cross-sectional design precludes causal conclusions, study findings--especially those related to CSA--are consistent with previous research on predominantly heterosexual women in the general population. Lesbians who experienced CSA were at heightened risk of lifetime alcohol abuse and those who experienced CPA were at heightened risk of lifetime psychological distress relative to lesbians without abuse histories. Given the dearth of research on childhood abuse and sexual orientation, studies are needed that examine the similarities and differences between lesbians' and heterosexual women's experiences of, and responses to, childhood abuse.

  1. Neighborhood alcohol outlet density and rates of child abuse and neglect: moderating effects of access to substance abuse services.

    PubMed

    Morton, Cory M; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N Andrew

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized data from 163 census tracts in Bergen County, New Jersey, on reports of child abuse and neglect, alcohol outlets, substance abuse treatment and prevention facilities, and the United States Census to investigate the linkages between socioeconomic structure, alcohol availability, and access to substance abuse service facilities on rates of child abuse and neglect. Findings indicate areas with a greater concentration of on-premises alcohol outlets (i.e., bars) had higher rates of child neglect, and those with easier access to substance abuse services had lower rates of neglect, controlling for neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic structure. Additionally, the relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet density and rates of child neglect was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. A greater concentration of off-premises outlets (i.e., liquor stores) was associated with lower rates of physical abuse. Findings suggest that the built environment and socioeconomic structure of neighborhoods have important consequences for child well-being. The implications for future research on the structural features of neighborhoods that are associated with child well-being are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Identification of alcohol abuse and transition from long-term unemployment to disability pension.

    PubMed

    Nurmela, Kirsti; Heikkinen, Virpi; Hokkanen, Risto; Ylinen, Aarne; Uitti, Jukka; Mattila, Aino; Joukamaa, Matti; Virtanen, Pekka

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the study was to reveal potential gaps and inconsistencies in the identification of alcohol abuse in health care and in employment services and to analyse the granting of disability pensions with respect to the alcohol abuse identification pattern. The material consisted of documentary information on 505 long-term unemployed subjects with low employability sent to the development project entitled 'Eligibility for a Disability Pension' in 2001-2006 in Finland. The dichotomous variables 'Alcohol abuse identified in employment services' and 'Alcohol abuse identified in health care' were cross-tabulated to obtain a four-class variable 'Alcohol abuse identification pattern'. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to ascertain the association of alcohol abuse identification pattern with the granting of disability pensions. Alcohol abuse was detected by both health care and employment services in 47% of those identified as abusers (41% of examinees). Each service systems also identified cases that the other did not. When alcohol abuse was identified in health care only, the OR for a disability pension being granted was 2.8 (95% CI 1.5-5.2) compared with applicants without identified alcohol abuse. The result remained the same and statistically significant after adjusting for confounders. Alcohol abuse identified in health care was positively associated with the granting of a disability pension. Closer co-operation between employment services and health care could help to identify those long-term unemployed individuals with impaired work ability in need of thorough medical examination. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  3. Hidden Disabilities: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This leaflet discusses alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with hidden disabilities such as cancer, epilepsy, diabetes, kidney failure, hemophilia, hypertension, early stages of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), or heart disease. Their increased risk for alcohol and other drug abuse and reasons for increased risk are…

  4. Industrialization Stresses, Alcohol Abuse & Substance Dependence: Differential Gender Effects in a Kenyan Rural Farming Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walt, Lisa C.; Kinoti, Elias; Jason, Leonard A.

    2013-01-01

    Developing countries' industrialization and urbanization attempts have been linked to psychological distress and alcohol abuse. We used Hobfoll's COR theory to examine the relationship between gender, perceived resource loss (an indicator of industrialization stress), and alcohol abuse and dependence in a sample of Kenyan rural village men and…

  5. Buss-Durkee Assessment and Validation with Violent versus Nonviolent Chronic Alcohol Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renson, Gisele J.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Chronic alcohol abusers who had been violent while intoxicated and nonviolent alcohol abusers were administered the Buss-Durkee Inventory. Violence was documented. Violent drinkers scored significantly higher than control subjects on the inventory total hostility score and on subscales measuring assault, irritability, verbal hostility, indirect…

  6. The Prevalence of Alcohol Abuse among Egerton University Students in Njoro-Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boitt, Richard Kimuge

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of higher institutions of learning in Kenya is to provide education and growth experiences for its students but alcohol abuse has continued to be a problem in the university campuses that is slowing down their progress and the Kenya vision 2030 that envisages a healthy population free from the impact of alcohol abuse through the…

  7. Socio-Demographic Factors Associated with Alcohol Abuse among Egerton University Students in Njoro-Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boitt, Richard Kimuge; Boitt, Monicah Lydia; Othieno, Caleb; Obondo, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of higher institutions of learning in Kenya is to provide education and growth experiences for its students but alcohol abuse has continued to be a problem in the university campuses that is slowing down their progress and the Kenya vision 2030 that envisages a healthy population free from the impact of alcohol abuse through the…

  8. Considerations in the Development of a Research to Practice Curriculum for Alcoholism and Substance Abuse Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yalisove, Daniel L.

    2004-01-01

    Most current substance abuse counselor certification education curricula do not include a systematic introduction to alcohol and substance abuse research. I believe that such an introduction would enhance counselor cooperation in research to practice efforts that are currently underway. In this paper I give a brief history of alcoholism and…

  9. Childhood Risk Factors for Alcohol Abuse and Psychological Distress among Adult Lesbians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Tonda L.; Johnson, Timothy P.; Wilsnack, Sharon C.; Szalacha, Laura A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationships between childhood and family background variables, including sexual and physical abuse, and subsequent alcohol abuse and psychological distress in adult lesbians. Methodology: Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate relationships between childhood sexual and physical abuse and parenting…

  10. Alcohol dependence and domestic violence as sequelae of abuse and conduct disorder in childhood.

    PubMed

    Kunitz, S J; Levy, J E; McCloskey, J; Gabriel, K R

    1998-11-01

    To examine in the Navajo population: (1) the importance of childhood abuse as a risk factor for conduct disorder; (2) the importance of each form of abuse and conduct disorder as risk factors for alcohol dependence; and (3) the relative importance of each form of abuse, conduct disorder, and alcohol dependence as risk factors for being a perpetrator and/or victim of domestic violence. The study is based on a case-control design. Cases (204 men and 148 women) between the ages of 21 and 65 were interviewed in alcohol treatment program and matched to community controls. There were two groups of controls: alcohol dependent (374 men, 60 women) and nonalcohol dependent (157 men, 143 women). When adjusted for stratification by age, community of residence, and sex, the combined control groups comprise a representative sample of the Navajo male and female population 21-65 years of age. The prevalence of physical and sexual abuse before age 15 is within limits observed in other populations. Each form of abuse is a risk factor for conduct disorder. Along with conduct disorder, physical abuse is a risk factor for alcohol dependence. Physical abuse and alcohol dependence are independent risk factors for being involved in domestic violence as both perpetrator and victim. There appears to have been no secular trend in the incidence of childhood abuse over the past several generations, but there is suggestive evidence that domestic violence has become more common. Physical abuse is a significant risk factor for alcohol dependence as well as for domestic violence independent of the effects of alcohol abuse. The effects of sexual abuse with regard to both domestic violence and alcohol dependence do not appear to be significant.

  11. 24 CFR 982.553 - Denial of admission and termination of assistance for criminals and alcohol abusers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... that it has reasonable cause to believe that a household member's abuse or pattern of abuse of alcohol... determines that a household member's abuse or pattern of abuse of alcohol may threaten the health, safety, or.... (e) In cases of criminal activity related to domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking, the...

  12. Alcohol and Drug Abuse Among U.S. Veterans: Comparing Associations with Intimate Partner Substance Abuse and Veteran Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mark W.; Reardon, Annemarie F.; Wolf, Erika J.; Prince, Lauren B.; Hein, Christina L.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the relative influences of PTSD, other psychopathology, and intimate partner alcohol and drug use on substance-related problems in U.S. veterans (242 couples, N = 484). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that partner alcohol and drug use severity explained more variance in veteran alcohol use and drug use (20% and 13%, respectively) than did veteran PTSD, adult antisocial behavior, or depression symptoms combined (6% for veteran alcohol use; 7% for veteran drug use). Findings shed new light on the influence of relationship factors on veteran alcohol and drug use and underscore the importance of couples-oriented approaches to treating veterans with comorbid PTSD and substance abuse. PMID:23325433

  13. Stress and PTSD Mechanisms as Targets for Pharmacotherapy of Alcohol Abuse, Addiction, and Relapse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0126 TITLE: Stress and PTSD Mechanisms as Targets for Pharmacotherapy of Alcohol Abuse, Addiction, and Relapse...DATES COVERED 30 Sep 2014 - 29 Sep 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Stress and PTSD Mechanisms as Targets for Pharmacotherapy of Alcohol Abuse, Addiction...demonstrated that alcohol -na"ive rats exhibiting high acoustic startle response (which is associated with increased anxiety-like behavior) develop

  14. Alcohol abuse and traffic safety : a study of fatalities, DWI offenders, alcoholics, and court-related treatment approaches

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1970-06-26

    Author's abstract: Methodology and conclusions on the role of the abusive use of alcohol in traffic safety were developed through three related projects. Project I is a case-history investigation of 616 traffic fatalities from metropolitan Wayne Coun...

  15. Traumas and other adverse life events in adolescents with alcohol abuse and dependence.

    PubMed

    Clark, D B; Lesnick, L; Hegedus, A M

    1997-12-01

    Clinical observation suggests that adolescents with alcohol use disorders often have complex histories that include childhood maltreatment and other traumas. The aim of this study was to determine the relationships among adolescent alcohol use disorders and a broad range of traumas and adverse life events. The subjects were 132 adolescents with alcohol dependence, 51 adolescents with alcohol abuse, and 73 adolescents recruited from the community as a control group. Trauma history was assessed by a semistructured interview and other adverse life events by questionnaire. Traumatic events reflecting interpersonal violence had occurred in many of the adolescents with alcohol dependence and abuse and few of the control adolescents. Adolescents with alcohol abuse or dependence, compared with control subjects, were 6 to 12 times more likely to have a physical abuse history and 18 to 21 times more likely to have a sexual abuse history. Sexual abuse was more common in females, and victimization by other violent acts was more common in males. Many other adverse life events were also significantly more common in the alcohol use disorder groups than in the control group, including having a close friend die, arguments within the family, and legal difficulties. These results demonstrate that trauma and other adverse life events are strongly associated with alcohol use disorders in adolescents. Clinical screening of adolescents with alcohol use disorders for a range of traumatic events is recommended.

  16. Increased ethane exhalation, an in vivo index of lipid peroxidation, in alcohol-abusers.

    PubMed Central

    Lettéron, P; Duchatelle, V; Berson, A; Fromenty, B; Fisch, C; Degott, C; Benhamou, J P; Pessayre, D

    1993-01-01

    Ethane exhalation was measured in 42 control subjects, 52 patients with various non-alcoholic liver diseases, and 89 alcohol abusers who had been admitted to hospital for alcohol withdrawal and assessment of liver disease (six with normal liver tests, 10 with steatosis with or without fibrosis, six with alcoholic hepatitis, 29 with cirrhosis, 34 with both cirrhosis and alcoholic hepatitis, and four with both cirrhosis and a hepatocellular carcinoma). Ethane exhalation was similar in control subjects and in patients with non-alcoholic liver diseases, but was five times higher in alcohol abusers. Ethane exhalation in alcohol abusers was significantly, but very weakly, correlated with the daily ethanol intake before hospital admission, and the histological score for steatosis, but not with the inflammation or alcoholic hepatitis scores. Ethane exhalation was inversely correlated with the duration of abstinence before the test. In nine alcoholic patients, the exhalation of ethane was measured repeatedly, and showed slow improvement during abstinence. Ethane exhalation was significantly but weakly correlated with the Pugh's score in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. It is concluded that the mean ethane exhalation is increased in alcohol abusers. One of the possible mechanisms may be the presence of oxidizable fat in the liver. The weak correlation with the Pugh's score is consistent with the contribution of many other factors in the progression to severe liver disease. PMID:8472992

  17. Group Work as Facilitation of Spiritual Development for Drug and Alcohol Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Richard C.; Berkow, Daniel N.

    1998-01-01

    Describes group work designed to promote spiritual development with drug and alcohol abusers. Provides a definition of spirituality. Discusses research that relates to the spiritual development of members of drug and alcohol groups. Compares the ways that group work and Alcoholics Anonymous promote spiritual development. (Author/MKA)

  18. Relationships between parental alcohol abuse and social support, peer substance abuse risk and social support, and substance abuse risk among South Korean adolescents.

    PubMed

    Park, Sookyung; Kim, Haeryun; Kim, Haesung

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the roles played by parental alcohol abuse and social support, peer substance abuse risk and social support, and substance abuse risk among adolescents in South Korea. Participants were adolescents between the ages of 15 and 22 years (mean, 18), residing in Seoul city and in surrounding Kyung-gi Province. Of 259 participants, 41.3% scored 2 or more on the POSIT scale, which suggested they met the problematic criteria for substance abuse risk. Logistic regression results suggested that the influence of social support on substance abuse risk among adolescents depended on the source of support--parents or peers. These findings need to be considered in the development of intervention programs for adolescents at risk for substance abuse.

  19. [The characteristics of sexual offenders abusing alcohol in view of forensic-psychiatric assessments].

    PubMed

    Juszczak, Dariusz; Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Czupryńska, Katarzyna; Furs, Maciej

    2015-06-01

    The relationship between alcohol consumption and sexual crime appears to be unquestionable. However, the mechanisms that lead to violence and aggression under the influence of alcohol are not entirely understood in this group of offenders. The aim of this paper was to attempt answering the question: what are the features characterizing sexual offenders declaring alcohol abuse. The research material consisted of 180 forensic psychiatric- sexology assessments issued by experts from Outpatient Psychiatric Clinic in 10 Military Hospital Clinic in Bydgoszcz between 2004 to 2012. A specially designed questionnaire titled "Charter of Diagnosis of Factors Determining Criminal Sexual Activity" has been used. Relevant statistical dependences were observed. The obtained results show that, a alcohol abuse has a sexual criminogenic effect especially in the coincidence that there are sustainable personality abnormalities and organic CNS damage. The conducted study prove that the sexual perpetrators who abuse alcohol have a poor level of social functioning and brought up in dysfunction families having alcoholic problems. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  20. Childhood and Adolescent Predictors of Alcohol Abuse and Dependence in Young Adulthood*

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jie; Hawkins, J. David; Hill, Karl G.; Abbott, Robert D

    2007-01-01

    Objective To provide a comprehensive examination of childhood and adolescent predictors of alcohol abuse and dependence at age 21, theoretically guided by the social development model. Method Data were taken from an ethnically diverse urban sample of 808 students [51% male), surveyed at age 10 and followed prospectively to age 21 in 1996. Potential predictors of alcohol abuse and dependence at age 21 were measured at ages 10, 14 and 16. Relationships between these predictors and alcohol abuse and dependence were examined at each age, to assess changes in their patterns of prediction over time. Results Strong bonding to school, close parental monitoring of children and clearly defined family rules for behavior, appropriate parental rewards for good behaviors, high level of refusal skills and strong belief in the moral order predicted a lower risk for alcohol abuse and dependence at age 21. Of these, strong bonding to school consistently predicted lower alcohol abuse and dependence from all three ages (10, 14 and 16). By contrast, youths who had a higher risk of alcohol abuse and dependence at age 21 engaged in more problem behaviors, had more opportunities to be involved with antisocial individuals and spent more time with and were more bonded to those individuals, viewed fewer negative consequences from antisocial behaviors and held more favorable views on alcohol use. Of these, prior problem behaviors and antisocial opportunities and involvements at ages 10, 14 and 16 consistently predicted alcohol abuse and dependence at age 21. Conclusions These important malleable predictors, identifiable as early as age 10, provide potential intervention targets for the prevention of alcohol abuse and dependence in early adulthood. PMID:11838912

  1. Alcohol abuse and involvement in traffic accidents in the Brazilian population, 2013.

    PubMed

    Damacena, Giseli Nogueira; Malta, Deborah Carvalho; Boccolini, Cristiano Siqueira; Souza, Paulo Roberto Borges de; Almeida, Wanessa da Silva de; Ribeiro, Lucas Sisinno; Szwarcwald, Célia Landmann

    2016-12-01

    Abstract This article aims to analyze alcohol abuse and frequent consumption according to sociodemographic characteristics and investigate the risk of greater involvement in traffic accidents, using data from the National Health Survey (PNS), 2013, Brazil. Events investigated were alcohol abuse and frequent consumption and if the individual was involved in a traffic accident and sustained an injury in the last 12 months. We investigated both events according to sociodemographic characteristics and assessed the association among them through multivariate logistic regression. The prevalence of alcohol abuse and frequent consumption was 6.1% for the population aged 18 years and over, 8.9% among men and 3.6% among women. The prevalence of involvement in traffic accidents was 3.1% in the general population and 6.1% among those who reported alcohol abuse. After controlling for sociodemographic factors, alcohol abuse and frequent consumption was significantly associated with traffic accidents. Considering a higher risk of involvement in traffic accidents among individuals who reported alcohol abuse and frequent consumption, monitoring blood alcohol concentration of drivers becomes a strategic possibility of intervention.

  2. Comorbid psychiatric and alcohol abuse/dependence disorders: psychosocial stress, abuse, and personal history factors of those in treatment.

    PubMed

    De Bernardo, Gina L; Newcomb, Michael; Toth, Amanda; Richey, Gary; Mendoza, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Factors related to comorbid versus only substance disorders are essential to understanding and treating these complex problems. Medical records of sixty-nine inpatients at a private rehabilitation hospital in Southern California were reviewed to determine the associations between personal history factors and (1) comorbid psychiatric and substance abuse disorders and (2) participant's self-assessed progress in treatment. Results revealed significant differences between dual diagnosis patients (alcohol abuse/dependence and an affective disorder) and alcohol abuse/dependence only in regard to gender, previous diagnosis, length of illness, suicide attempts, psychotropic medication history, maternal emotional, physical and sexual abuse, paternal abuse, legal difficulties, and psychosocial stressors. No significant differences between substance abusing patients and dually diagnosed patients were found in terms of self-assessment of progress in treatment. Significant correlations were found between self-assessed progress in treatment and major depression (versus bipolar disorder), use of psychotropic medication, and less abuse from mother or primary caretaker. Identification of these personal history factors may be useful in developing and implementing treatment plans.

  3. Alcohol abuse and liver enzymes (AALE): results of an intercompany study of mortality.

    PubMed

    Titcomb, C; Braun, R; Roudebush, B; Mast, J; Woodman, H

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of applicants for life insurance who have elevations of their liver function tests or an increased probability of alcohol abuse has always been difficult for underwriters. This paper reports the results of an intercompany study in which the pooled mortality experience of a group of insureds with evidence of alcohol abuse, an adverse driving record or elevations of the liver transaminases or gamma-glutamyl transferase is summarized.

  4. [Personality variables, psychopathological alterations and personality disorders in alcohol-dependent patients according to Cloninger's typology of alcohol abuse].

    PubMed

    Echeburúa, Enrique; Bravo de Medina, Ricardo; Aizpiri, Javier

    2008-11-01

    In this paper, an evaluation of Cloninger's typology of alcohol abuse in personality, psychopathology and personality disorders is carried out. The sample consisted of 158 alcoholics in treatment (56 Type I alcohol-dependent patients and 102 Type II alcohol-dependent patients). All subjects were assessed with diverse assessment tools related to personality (Impulsiveness Scale, Sensation Seeking Scale and STAI), psychopathology (SCL-90-R, BDI and Inadaptation Scale) and personality disorders (IPDE). The main findings were that Type II alcohol-dependent patients were more impulsive and sensation-seeking and they displayed more hostility and emotional distress than Type I alcohol-dependent patients. Personality disorders were not so prevalent in the case of Type I alcohol-dependent patients. The most specific personality disorders for Type II alcohol-dependent patients were narcissistic and paranoid. The implications of this study for further research are commented on.

  5. 38 CFR 17.80 - Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and nonresidential facilities by contract. 17... of Services of Other Federal Agencies § 17.80 Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and nonresidential facilities by contract. (a) Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse...

  6. Alcohol and Drug Abuse. Policy Guidelines for Boards. Campus Life Policy Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodale, Thomas G.

    1992-01-01

    The guide presents facts and issues concerning drug and alcohol abuse so that college and university administration and governing boards can make informed decisions about programs, policy, and procedures to minimize their occurrence on campus. Chapter 1 examines issues related to substance abuse on campus: risk factors in the campus community; the…

  7. Drug and Alcohol Abuse in Booming and Depressed Communities. Services Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milkman, Raymond H.; And Others

    Boom towns appear to have greater problems of substance abuse associated with economic change indicators than communities suffering from sudden economic declines. A study of 14 communities experiencing sudden economic dislocations revealed a lack of consistent trends, although some depressed communities experienced increases in alcohol abuse. In…

  8. The Vocational Rehabilitation of American Indians Who Have Alcohol or Drug Abuse Disorders. Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schacht, Robert M.; Baldwin, Julie

    Begun in 1993, a 5-year project examined treatment modalities and outcomes and counselor and client attitudes related to American Indian or Alaska Native vocational rehabilitation (VR) clients with alcoholism or substance abuse problems. Specifically, surveys and focus groups examined elements of successful substance abuse treatment and VR…

  9. Economic Costs of Alcohol and Drug Abuse in Texas: 1997 Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Liang Y.

    This report provides an update of the costs of alcohol and drug abuse for 1997. The 1997 costs were estimated by multiplying the percent changes in various socioeconomic factors from 1989 to 1997 by the cost estimates. The adverse health and social consequences of substance abuse extensively increased costs to the state. The total economic costs…

  10. The effects of residential dual diagnosis treatment on alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Schoenthaler, Stephen J; Blum, Kenneth; Fried, Lyle; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Giordano, John; Modestino, Edward J.; Badgaiyan, Rajendra

    2017-01-01

    This multi-center study of dual diagnosis (DD) programs involved 804 residential patients with co-occurring alcohol and mental health disorders. The Addiction Severity Index was administered at admission and at one, six, and 12 months after discharge. Repeated measures analysis showed the intoxication rate per month stabilized between months six and 12 with 68% still in remission and an 88% mean reduction from baseline (F = 519, p < .005). A comparison between patients with and without weekly relapse produced significant differences in hospitalization (odds ratio 11.3:1; 95% C.I., 5.5 to 23.2). Eight ANCOVAs used mean intoxication days per month after discharge as the outcome variable, pre-admission intoxication days per month as a covariate, and eight variables associated with relapse (e.g. depression) as factors. Patients with these factors at admission did not have significantly higher intoxication rates after discharge than patients without them. This suggests that these DD programs successfully integrated treatment of both disorders and explained their effectiveness. Co-occurring DSM IV mood disorders such as anxiety and depression as well as drug abuse involving opioids or cocaine fell between 66 and 95% at months one, six, and twelve. PMID:28868159

  11. Alcohol Use among Abused and Non-Abused Older Persons Aged 60-84 Years: An European Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tredal, Ingrid; Soares, Joaquim J. F.; Sundin, Orjan; Viitasara, Eija; Melchiorre, Maria Gabriella; Torres-Gonzales, Francisco; Stankunas, Mindaugas; Lindert, Jutta; Ioannidi-Kapolou, Elisabeth; Barros, Henrique

    2013-01-01

    Aims: Describing alcohol use by abuse type (e.g. psychological) and considering other factors (e.g. depression). Methods: The respondents were 4467 (2559 women, 57.3%) randomly selected elders (60-84 years) from seven European cities. The cross-sectional data were collected with scales covering various areas and examined with…

  12. Alcohol advertising, consumption and abuse: a covariance-structural modelling look at Strickland's data.

    PubMed

    Adlaf, E M; Kohn, P M

    1989-07-01

    Re-analysis employing covariance-structural models was conducted on Strickland's (1983) survey data on 772 drinking students from Grades 7, 9 and 11. These data bear on the relations among alcohol consumption, alcohol abuse, association with drinking peers and exposure to televised alcohol advertising. Whereas Strickland used a just-identified model which, therefore, could not be tested for goodness of fit, our re-analysis tested several alternative models, which could be contradicted by the data. One model did fit his data particularly well. Its major implications are as follows: (1) Symptomatic consumption, negative consequences and self-rated severity of alcohol-related problems apparently reflect a common underlying factor, namely alcohol abuse. (2) Use of alcohol to relieve distress and frequency of intoxication, however, appear not to reflect abuse, although frequent intoxication contributes substantially to it. (3). Alcohol advertising affects consumption directly and abuse indirectly, although peer association has far greater impact on both consumption and abuse. These findings are interpreted as lending little support to further restrictions on advertising.

  13. Alcohol and Drug Abuse Curriculum Guides for Pediatrics Faculty: Health Professions Education Curriculum Resources Series, Medicine 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milman, Doris H.; And Others

    This document provides two separate curriculum guides for pediatrics faculty to use in teaching medical students. The first section contains the alcohol abuse curriculum guide; the second section contains the drug abuse curriculum guide. The drug abuse guide concentrates on cannabis as a paradigm for all nonalcoholic drugs of abuse. Each guide…

  14. Burnout and Alcohol Abuse/Dependence Among U.S. Medical Students.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Eric R; Shanafelt, Tait D; Hasan, Omar; Satele, Daniel V; Dyrbye, Liselotte N

    2016-09-01

    To explore the relationship between alcohol abuse/dependence with burnout and other forms of distress among a national cohort of medical students. In 2012, the authors completed a national survey of medical students from the American Medical Association's Physician Masterfile containing validated items assessing alcohol abuse/dependence, burnout, depression, suicidality, quality of life (QOL), and fatigue. Descriptive and comparative statistical analyses were computed, including chi-square and multivariate logistic regression, to determine relationships between variables. Of the 12,500 students, 4,402 (35.2%) responded. Of these, 1,411 (32.4%) met diagnostic criteria for alcohol abuse/dependence. Students who were burned out (P = .01), depressed (P = .01), or reported low mental (P =.03) or emotional (P = .016) QOL were more likely to have alcohol abuse/dependence. Emotional exhaustion and depersonalization domains of burnout were strongly associated with alcohol abuse/dependence. On multivariate analysis, burnout (OR 1.20; 95% CI 1.05-1.37; P < .01), having $50,000 to $100,000 (OR 1.21 versus < $50,000; CI 1.02-1.44; P < .05) or > $100,000 (OR 1.27 versus < $50,000; CI 1.08-1.48; P < .01) of educational debt, being unmarried (OR 1.89; CI 1.57-2.27; P < .001), and being younger (for every five years, OR 1.15; CI 1.02-1.28; P = .01) were independently associated with increased risk for alcohol abuse/dependence. Burnout was strongly related to alcohol abuse/dependence among sampled medical students and increased educational debt predicted a higher risk. A multifaceted approach addressing burnout, medical education costs, and alcohol use is needed.

  15. Does comorbid alcohol and substance abuse affect electroconvulsive therapy outcome in the treatment of mood disorders?

    PubMed

    Moss, Lori; Vaidya, Nutan

    2014-03-01

    Antidepressant medications remain the principal agents used to treat patients with mood disorders, although 30% to 40% of these patients do not improve. One of the factors associated with poor medication response is alcohol and substance abuse. Persons with mood disorders are at the greatest risk for suicide, and alcoholism is a significant additional risk factor. Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is shown to be the most effective treatment for major depression especially when associated with psychosis, catatonia, and suicide intent. However, similar to most antidepressant trials, patients with depression and comorbid alcohol and substance abuse are excluded from ECT efficacy studies. Through a retrospective chart review, we compared response to ECT in patients with mood disorder and comorbid alcohol and drug abuse to those with mood disorder only. From 2004 to 2010, 80 patients with mood disorder received ECT. Fifty of these had comorbid alcohol or drug abuse. Using a 10-item psychopathology scale, we compared pre- and post-ECT symptom severity between the 2 groups. Outcome was determined by measuring a decrease in the pre-ECT and post-ECT score using Wilcoxon rank tests, with statistical significance at P = 0.05. There was no difference between the 2 groups in most demographics, ECT medication, or seizure quality. There was no difference in ECT outcome between those with comorbid alcohol abuse and those without based on percent decrease in pre- and post-ECT symptom scores (abuse: mean [SD], 0.89 [0.2] vs nonabuse: mean [SD], 0.93 [0.16]; Wilcoxon, 1332; P = 0.086). When we compared those who met the criteria for alcohol or drug dependence (19 patients) with those with no abuse, there was a trend for the dependence group to not do as well (dependence: mean [SD], 0.83 [0.25] vs nonabuse: mean [SD], 0.93 [0.16]; Wilcoxon, 405; P = 0.053). Those with combined drug and alcohol abuse (18 patients) did have a significantly worse outcome (combined: mean [SD], 0.82 [0

  16. Executive Policy--Administration: E11.201, Illegal Drug and Substance Abuse. Executive Policy E11.203, Illegal Drugs and Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu.

    This document includes two statements of policy for the University of Hawaii's drug and alcohol abuse prevention program. The first, "Illegal Drugs and Substance Abuse," opens with an introduction stating the University's general mission and that mission's incompatibility with substance abuse. A second section details the University's…

  17. Evaluating Community Readiness to Implement Environmental and Policy-Based Alcohol Abuse Prevention Strategies in Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paltzer, Jason; Black, Penny; Moberg, D. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background: Matching evidence-based alcohol prevention strat- egies with a community's readiness to support those strategies is the basis for the Tri-Ethnic Community Readiness Model (CRM). The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the association of a community's readiness to address alcohol abuse in their community with the implementation of…

  18. Women's Social Behavior when Meeting New Men: The Influence of Alcohol and Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Kathleen A.; Hequembourg, Amy L.; Dearing, Ronda L.

    2008-01-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption (Testa & Parks, 1996) and childhood sexual abuse (CSA; Messman-Moore & Long, 2003) have been associated with adult sexual victimization. We examined the social behavior of 42 women under two alcohol conditions (high dose and low dose) in a bar laboratory. Women were videotaped interacting with a man they had just met.…

  19. Comprehensive Substance Abuse Services for Homeless Persons with Alcohol and Other Drug Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Michael W., Jr.; Braucht, G. Nicholas

    Homeless people with alcohol and other drug problems present the traditional substance abuse services delivery provider with special challenges. This paper discusses the optimal designs of comprehensive treatment services for homeless persons with alcohol and other drug problems. Most importantly, the homeless must have immediate access to a safe…

  20. Nearly Half of College Student Treatment Admissions Were for Primary Alcohol Abuse. Data Spotlight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Many students, and the public in general, believe that drinking alcohol is a normal part of the college experience. Unfortunately, students' efforts to "be sociable" or "fit in" can escalate into substance use behavior that puts their health and well-being at risk: One in four full-time college students have experienced past year alcohol abuse or…

  1. Blue Bay: A Tribal Approach to Fighting Alcohol and Drug Abuse. Our Way of Healing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Native American Development Corp., Washington, DC.

    The best means for fighting alcohol abuse in a Native American community is one that has been developed by the community itself. The Blue Bay Healing Center of the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (Flathead Indian Reservation, Montana) is an example of two tribes taking responsibility for alcoholism and its control. In designing and…

  2. Alcohol and drug abuse among U.S. veterans: comparing associations with intimate partner substance abuse and veteran psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Miller, Mark W; Reardon, Annemarie F; Wolf, Erika J; Prince, Lauren B; Hein, Christina L

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the relative influences of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), other psychopathology, and intimate partner alcohol and drug use on substance-related problems in U.S. veterans (242 couples, N = 484). Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that partner alcohol and drug use severity explained more variance in veteran alcohol use and drug use (20% and 13%, respectively) than did veteran PTSD, adult antisocial behavior, or depression symptoms combined (6% for veteran alcohol use; 7% for veteran drug use). Findings shed new light on the influence of relationship factors on veteran alcohol and drug use and underscore the importance of couples-oriented approaches to treating veterans with comorbid PTSD and substance abuse. Published 2013. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. Are therapeutic vaccines an answer to the global problem of drug and alcohol abuse?

    PubMed

    Brashier, Dick B S; Sharma, Ashok Kumar; Akhoon, Neha

    2016-01-01

    Drug Abuse has become a major challenging problem for the society. It effects people of all countries economical strata's and all ages. According. Monetary loss all over the world regarding drug abuse is in million dollars, it not only has an impact on human productivity and healthcare cost but also on cost of crimes conducted by these drugs and alcohol abuse. Therapeutic vaccine has come as new approach to deal with this problem, after failures in search for a pharmaceutical agent to deal with drug of abuse and alcohol. Research in field of nicotine abuse has gone a way ahead with number of vaccines being tried clinically followed by cocaine, opioids, methamphetamine, phencyclidine and alcohol. All of them have a common mechanism of action by antibody production whereas alcohol acts by genetic intervention. None have being approved yet due to poor results in phase II trials, possibly due to not able to trigger an adequate immunological response. But still quest is on for cracking the ice by developing first successful vaccine against drug of abuse, that would follow for other drugs too. It would be great step in field of therapeutic vaccines for drug abuse after similar successful vaccines being approved for other diseases like cancer.

  4. Alcohol Detoxification Completion, Acceptance of Referral to Substance Abuse Treatment, and Entry into Substance Abuse Treatment Among Alaska Native People

    PubMed Central

    Bear, Ursula Running; Beals, Janette; Novins, Douglas K.; Manson, Spero M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about factors associated with detoxification treatment completion and the transition to substance abuse treatment following detoxification among Alaska Native people. This study examined 3 critical points on the substance abuse continuum of care (alcohol detoxification completion, acceptance of referral to substance abuse treatment, entry into substance abuse treatment following detoxification). Methods The retrospective cohort included 383 adult Alaska Native patients admitted to a tribally owned and managed inpatient detoxification unit. Three multiple logistic regression models estimated the adjusted associations of each outcome separately with demographic/psychosocial characteristics, clinical characteristics, use related behaviors, and health care utilization. Results Seventy-five percent completed detoxification treatment. Higher global assessment functioning scores, longer lengths of stay, and older ages of first alcohol use were associated with completing detoxification. A secondary drug diagnosis was associated with not completing detoxification. Thirty-six percent accepted a referral to substance abuse treatment following detoxification. Men, those with legal problems, and those with a longer length of stay were more likely to accept a referral to substance abuse treatment. Fifty-eight percent had a confirmed entry into a substance abuse treatment program at discharge. Length of stay was the only variable associated with substance abuse treatment entry. Conclusions Services like motivational interviewing, counseling, development of therapeutic alliance, monetary incentives, and contingency management are effective in linking patients to services after detoxification. These should be considered, along with the factors associated with each point on the continuum of care when linking patients to follow-up services. PMID:27705843

  5. The relation of personality to alcohol abuse/dependence in a high-risk sample.

    PubMed

    Loukas, A; Krull, J L; Chassin, L; Carle, A C

    2000-12-01

    The current study had two goals. The first goal was to test the mediational role of young adult personality in the relation between parental alcoholism and young adult alcoholism. The second was to examine the associations between personality and alcohol use motives and reasons to limit drinking in order to explore possible mechanisms by which personality may influence alcohol abuse/dependence. Multilevel modeling techniques were used to analyze data obtained from a community sample of young adult children of alcoholics and demographically matched controls. Results revealed that young adult neuroticism and agreeableness each, in part, mediated the effect of parental alcoholism on young adult alcoholism. Moreover, individuals high in neuloticism reported stronger coping motives to use alcohol, individuals low in agreeableness reported stronger coping motives and weaker upbringing reasons to limit drinking, and individuals low in conscientiousness reported stronger coping and enhancement motives to use alcohol, and weaker performance reasons to limit drinking.

  6. Comorbid mental disorders among the patients with alcohol abuse and dependence in Korea.

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Maeng Je; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Suh, Tongwoo; Suh, Guk-Hee; Cho, Seong-Jin; Lee, Chung Kyoon

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the patterns of alcohol disorder comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders, using Korean nationwide epidemiological data. By two-stage cluster sampling, 5,176 adult household residents of Korea were interviewed using the Korean version of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Psychiatric disorders strongly associated with alcohol disorders were, other drug abuse or dependence, major depression, simple phobia, antisocial personality disorder, tobacco dependence, and pathological gambling. Male alcoholics had a tendency to begin with tobacco dependence, and some male pathological gamblers first had alcohol disorders. The presence of comorbid psychiatric disorders was associated with a more severe form and the later onset of alcohol disorders, and associated with help-seeking for alcohol abuse/dependence. PMID:11961310

  7. Drug and alcohol abuse: The pattern and magnitude of the problem

    SciTech Connect

    Ajayi, P.A.

    In the last 12 months, many more cases of alcohol and drug (substance) abuse in the workplace were seen in the Escravos operations of Chevron Nigeria Limited than in previous years. This called the attention to the rising prevalence of drug and alcohol abuse in contradistinction to reports from similar organizations in other parts of the world. Chevron Nigeria has a written Drug and Alcohol Policy which has been dormant for some time because of the apparent rarity of the problem of substance abuse in the workplace. This Policy is being reviewed to broaden its scope and make it moremore » effective. A total of 30 employees were tested for drugs and alcohol .6 exceeded the legal limits of Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) and 5 tested positive for drugs. Tests were mainly post-accident, reasonable cause and random. The common substances abused were alcohol, cannabis, cocaine and morphine in that order. The findings are compared with those of similar organizations in UK and USA. Efforts to control substance abuse in the workplace are being put into place.« less

  8. Iudicium: An Educational Intervention for addressing Risk Perception of Alcohol Abuse in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Bajac, Héctor; Feliu-Soler, Albert; Meerhoff, Diana; Latorre, Laura; Elices, Matilde

    2016-03-02

    Negative consequences of alcohol abuse during adolescence have been extensively described. Consequently, different interventions have been developed to address this issue. This article describes the implementation and evaluation of Iudicium, an educational drama-based intervention designed to increase risk perception of alcohol abuse. In this activity, high school students judge a case in which alcohol consumption had negative consequences (e.g., fights, unwanted pregnancy, and car accident). A trial is simulated and after that, a debriefing takes place during which the activity is discussed and informational materials on the effects of alcohol is provided and commented. A total of 318 students (55.7% females and 44.3% males) from five high schools participated in the study. Data regarding risk perception of alcohol abuse and adequacy of the activity was collected before and after the intervention. Results suggest that Iudicium was effective in increasing risk perception of abusive drinking, reaching a 34% of increase regarding risk perception. Participants highlighted the experiential component of Iudicium as a strength. The intervention was well-accepted, easy to understand and apparently an effective tool for increasing risk perception of alcohol abuse amongst high school students.

  9. Alcohol abuse in deceased liver donors: impact on post-transplant outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mangus, Richard S; Kubal, Chandrashekhar A; Fridell, Jonathan A; Pena, Jose M; Frost, Evan M; Joseph Tector, A

    2015-01-01

    Many deceased liver donors with a history of alcohol abuse are excluded based upon medical history alone. This paper summarizes the transplant outcomes for a large number of deceased liver donors with a documented history of alcohol abuse. The records for 1478 consecutive deceased liver donors were reviewed (2001-2012). As per the United Network for Organ Sharing criteria, heavy alcohol use by an organ donor is defined as chronic intake of two or more drinks per day. Donors with a documented history of alcohol abuse were divided into three groups according to duration of abuse (<10 years, 10-24 years and 25 + years). Reperfusion biopsies are reported. Outcomes include biopsy appearance, early graft function and early and late graft survival. There were 161 donors with alcohol abuse: <10 years (29%); 10-24 years (42%); and ≥25 years (29%). Risk of 90-day graft loss for these three groups was: 0%, 3% and 2%, compared to 3% for all other donors (P = 0.62). Graft survival at 1 year for donor grafts with and without alcohol abuse was 89% and 87% (P = 0.52). There was no difference in early graft function. Cox proportional hazards modelling for graft survival demonstrates no statistically significant difference in survival up to 10 years post-transplant. This study demonstrates successful transplantation of a large number of deceased donor liver grafts from donors with a documented history of alcohol abuse (n = 161; 11% of all grafts). These extended criteria donor allografts may, therefore, be utilized successfully with similar outcomes. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Emotional traits and affective temperaments in alcohol users, abusers and dependents in a national sample.

    PubMed

    Leite, Leticia; Machado, Leonardo N; Lara, Diogo R

    2014-07-01

    It is unclear how temperament is related to alcohol-related behavior in large population studies. We have used the Affective and Emotional Composite Temperament Scale (AFECTS) model to evaluate how emotional traits and affective temperaments are associated with alcohol use, abuse, and dependence in the general population. Data from 10,603 subjects (mean age=28.0±7.8 years, 70.3% females) was collected anonymously by the Internet in Brazil using the AFECTS model and the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST). Alcohol use was stratified into control, low use, abuse, and dependence groups. The analysis of dimensional traits showed that Volition and Coping were lower, and Sensitivity was higher, in the abuse and dependence groups, with no differences between the Control and the Low Use groups. Alcohol consumption was also associated with lower Control, Stability, and Caution, and higher with Anger, Anxiety, and Desire, with significant differences between all groups. Regarding affective temperament types, alcohol abuse and dependence were associated with euphoric and cyclothymic temperaments in both genders, which was mirrored by a lower frequency of both euthymic and hyperthymic types. Only hyperthymics were overrepresented in the Control group for both genders. Data was collected by Internet only. A global dysfunction of emotional traits and a predominance of cyclothymic and euphoric temperaments were associated with alcohol-related behavior. Prevention and treatment strategies may be developed more effectively if these traits are taken into account. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The influence of parental divorce and alcohol abuse on adult offspring risk of lifetime suicide attempt in the United States.

    PubMed

    Alonzo, Dana; Thompson, Ronald G; Stohl, Mahlki; Hasin, Deborah

    2014-05-01

    The influences of parental divorce and alcohol abuse on adult offspring lifetime suicide attempt have not been examined in national data. This study analyzed data from the 2001-2002 NESARC to estimate main and interaction effects of parental divorce and alcohol abuse on lifetime suicide attempt. Adjusted for controls, parental divorce and parental alcohol abuse independently increased odds of lifetime suicide attempt. The effect of parental divorce was not significantly moderated by parental alcohol abuse. Further research is needed to examine whether additional parental and offspring psychiatric and substance use covariates attenuate the association between parental divorce and lifetime suicide attempt. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved

  12. Alcohol and drug abuse in men who sustain intimate partner violence

    PubMed Central

    Hines, Denise A.; Douglas, Emily M.

    2011-01-01

    Extensive work has documented an association between sustaining intimate partner violence (IPV) and alcohol/drug abuse among women, yet little research has documented the same association in men, even though men comprise 25%–50% of all IPV victims in a given year. The present study investigates the associations among sustaining IPV and alcohol/drug abuse among both a clinical and community sample of men. The clinical sample is comprised of 302 men who sustained intimate terrorism -- a form of IPV that is characterized by much violence and controlling behavior -- from their female partners and sought help. The community sample is comprised of 520 men, 16% of whom sustained common couple violence, a lower level of more minor, reciprocal IPV. Analyses showed that among both groups of men who sustained IPV, the prevalence and frequency of alcohol/drug abuse was significantly higher than in men who did not sustain IPV. However, a dose-response relationship between sustaining IPV and alcohol/drug abuse was found only among men in the community sample. Path modeling showed that for the community sample, the best fitting models were ones that showed that the alcohol/drug abuse predicted IPV victimization, an association that was fully mediated by their use of IPV. PMID:22028251

  13. Alcohol and drug abuse in men who sustain intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Hines, Denise A; Douglas, Emily M

    2012-01-01

    Extensive work has documented an association between sustaining intimate partner violence (IPV) and alcohol/drug abuse among women, yet little research has documented the same association in men, even though men comprise 25-50% of all IPV victims in a given year. This study investigates the associations among sustaining IPV and alcohol/drug abuse among both a clinical and community sample of men. The clinical sample is comprised of 302 men who sustained intimate terrorism-a form of IPV that is characterized by much violence and controlling behavior-from their female partners and sought help. The community sample is composed of 520 men, 16% of whom sustained common couple violence, a lower level of more minor reciprocal IPV. Analyses showed that among both groups of men who sustained IPV, the prevalence and frequency of alcohol/drug abuse was significantly higher than in men who did not sustain IPV. However, a dose-response relationship between sustaining IPV and alcohol/drug abuse was found only among men in the community sample. Path modeling showed that, for the community sample, the best fitting models were ones that showed that the alcohol/drug abuse predicted IPV victimization, an association that was fully mediated by their use of IPV. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. [The characteristics of offenders abusing alcohol in view of forensic-psychiatric assessments].

    PubMed

    Juszczak, Dariusz; Talarowska, Monika

    2009-09-01

    The relationship between alcohol consumption and crime appears to be unquestionable. However, the mechanisms that lead to violence and aggression under the influence of alcohol are not entirely understood. To attempt answering the question: what are the features characterizing offenders declaring alcohol abuse. The research material consisted of 581 forensic-psychiatric assessments issued by experts from Psychiatric Ward of 107 Military Hospital in Walcz between 1990 and 2000. A specially designed questionnaire titled "Charter of Diagnosis of Factors Determining Criminal Activity" has been used. Results. Relevant statistical dependencies were observed. (1) Alcohol consumption has a criminogenic effect and is characteristic for offences against life and health and family. (2) Alcohol abuse is a trigger mechanism for psychiatric disturbances, particularly those with underlying organic damage to CNS.

  15. Alcohol Use and Abuse on an Urban Commuter Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunnicut, David M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Findings from 470 students at 1 urban commuter university revealed that sizable percentage of respondents reported consuming alcohol 10 or more times within last 30 days, drinking to intoxication 3 or more times within last 2 weeks, having family history of alcoholism, driving while using alcohol, missing class because of drinking, and receiving…

  16. Abusive alcohol consumption among adolescents: a predictive model for maximizing early detection and responses.

    PubMed

    de Freitas Ferreira, M; de Moraes, C L; Braga, J U; Reichenheim, M E; da Veiga, G V

    2018-06-01

    To present a predictive model of alcohol abuse among adolescents based on prevalence projections in various population subgroups. Cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 785 adolescents enrolled in the second year of high school in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Alcohol consumption was assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. Socio-economic, demographic, family, individuals, and school-related variables were examined as potential predictors. The logit model was used to estimate the prevalence projections. Model fitting was examined in relation to the observed data set, and in a subset, that was generated from 200 subsamples of individuals via a bootstrap process using general fit estimators, discrimination, and calibration measures. About 25.5% of the adolescents were classified as positive for alcohol abuse. Being male, being 17-19 years old, not living with mothers, presenting symptoms suggestive of binge eating, having used a strategy of weight reduction in the last 3 months, and, especially, being a victim of family violence were important predictors of abusive consumption of alcohol. While the model's prevalence projection in the absence of these features was 8%, it reaches 68% in the presence of all predictors. Knowledge of predictive characteristics of alcohol abuse is essential for screening, early detection of positive cases, and establishing interventions to reduce consumption among adolescents. Copyright © 2018 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Increased plasma pancreatic polypeptide in chronic alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Fink, R S; Adrian, T E; Margot, D H; Bloom, S R

    1983-04-01

    Post-prandial plasma gastrointestinal hormone profiles were measured in nine chronic alcoholics, one and fourteen days after complete alcohol withdrawal. Basal plasma pancreatic polypeptide concentration (PP--mean +/- SE mean) was significantly greater in alcoholics (control, 28 +/- 5 pmol/l; alcoholics, post-withdrawal day 1, 62 +/- 14 pmol/l, P less than 0.05; and post-withdrawal day 14, 89 +/- 17 pmol/1, P less than 0.005). The total integrated (TIR) PP response following a test breakfast was similarly elevated (control, 442 +/- 63 units; alcoholics, day 1, 1310 +/- 231 units, P less than 0.005; day 14,1066 +/- 66, P less than 0.005). Basal and TIR values for gastrin, gastric inhibitory peptide, insulin and glucagon were similar in alcoholics and controls. As PP has been shown to inhibit pancreatic exocrine enzyme secretion, these findings may help explain the abnormal pancreatic function seen frequently in alcoholics.

  18. Workplace Discrimination Is Associated With Alcohol Abuse Among Ethnically Diverse Hospital Staff.

    PubMed

    Thrasher, Angela D; Wells, Anita M; Spencer, S Melinda; Cofie, Leslie; Yen, Irene H

    2016-05-01

    Research suggests that workplace discrimination plays a role in absenteeism, productivity, and turnover. A link among workplace discrimination, mental health, and health disparities may also exist. The purpose of this study was to determine whether self-reported workplace discrimination is associated with alcohol abuse among hospital workers. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data collected from a prospective cohort study of workers in two healthcare institutions (n = 664) was conducted. Workplace discrimination in the previous 12 months was reported by 14% (n = 91) of participants who were four times more likely to score higher on likely alcohol abuse than their peers. White participants who reported any discrimination were more likely to score higher on likely alcohol abuse than racial/ethnic minority participants who reported any discrimination. Given a diversifying workforce, further research is needed on how workplace discrimination contributes to stress and maladaptive coping, and ultimately health disparities. © 2016 The Author(s).

  19. Intermittent ethanol access schedule in rats as a preclinical model of alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Carnicella, Sebastien; Ron, Dorit; Barak, Segev

    2014-01-01

    One of the major challenges in preclinical studies of alcohol abuse and dependence remains the development of paradigms that will elicit high ethanol intake and mimic the progressive transition from low or moderate social drinking to excessive alcohol consumption. Exposure of outbred rats to repeated cycles of free-choice ethanol intake and withdrawal with the use of intermittent access to 20% ethanol in a 2-bottle choice procedure (IA2BC) has been shown to induce a gradual escalation of voluntary ethanol intake and preference, eventually reaching ethanol consumption levels of 5–6 g/kg/24 h, and inducing pharmacologically relevant blood ethanol concentrations (BECs). This procedure has recently been gaining popularity due to its simplicity, high validity, and reliable outcomes. Here we review experimental and methodological data related to IA2BC, and discuss the usefulness and advantages of this procedure as a valuable pre-training method for initiating operant ethanol self-administration of high ethanol intake, as well as conditioned place preference (CPP). Despite some limitations, we provide evidence that IA2BC and related operant procedures provide the possibility to operationalize multiple aspects of alcohol abuse and addiction in a rat model, including transition from social-like drinking to excessive alcohol consumption, binge drinking, alcohol seeking, relapse, and neuroadaptations related to excessive alcohol intake. Hence, IA2BC appears to be a useful and relevant procedure for preclinical evaluation of potential therapeutic approaches against alcohol abuse disorders. PMID:24721195

  20. Assessment of classification instruments designed to detect alcohol abuse

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1988-12-01

    The report summarizes an effort to identify and evaluate instruments currently in use to assess substance abuse problems in driving while impaired (DWI) offenders. The results of a national survey of DWI assessment practices in the United States are ...

  1. Patterns of alcohol, cigarette, and caffeine and other drug use in two drug abusing populations.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, L T; Henningfield, J E; Keenan, R M; Lei, H; Leigh, G; Jelinek, L C; Pope, M A; Haertzen, C A

    1993-01-01

    Relationships were explored among the frequencies of use of various drugs by a sample of drug-abusing clients of the Addiction Research Foundation (ARF) in Toronto and by drug abusers volunteering to participate in research at the Addiction Research Center (ARC) in Baltimore. The two groups of drug-abusing individuals differed in a number of characteristics. Those from ARF were admitted primarily for diagnosis and possible treatment for alcohol and non-opioid drug problems, whereas those from the ARC were admitted for participation in research on other drugs of abuse, primarily involving opioids. Patterns of use of certain drugs tended to covary in both groups. Of particular interest was the finding that severity of alcoholism was directly related to various measures of tobacco and caffeinated beverage use. In contrast, there was little correlation between the frequency of use among other drugs of abuse (e.g., heroin, cannabis, glue) and the use of tobacco and caffeine. These findings suggest that dependence on nicotine, caffeine, and alcohol may be governed by the same factors and possibly should be considered jointly in the treatment of alcoholic persons. Frequency of use of other drugs examined may be controlled by other factors than those which determine level of use of tobacco and caffeine.

  2. Health risks of alcohol use

    MedlinePlus

    Alcoholism - risks; Alcohol abuse - risks; Alcohol dependence - risks; Risky drinking ... pubmed/23698791 . National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism website. Alcohol use disorder. www.niaaa.nih.gov/ ...

  3. Should a psychiatrist report a bus driver's alcohol and drug abuse? An ethical dilemma.

    PubMed

    Leeman, C P; Cohen, M A; Parkas, V

    2001-01-01

    Denial of alcohol or drug abuse, and of its possible consequences, can complicate medical and psychiatric care. We present the case of an HIV-positive bus driver with substance abuse who initially denied ongoing use of alcohol and of other drugs, but later admitted to both. The psychiatrist's duty to protect the patient's confidentiality, coupled with concerns about public safety, created an ethical dilemma. In discussing this dilemma we stress the importance of preserving confidentiality, both to facilitate treatment and also to further the safety of others.

  4. 38 CFR 17.83 - Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation. 17.83 Section 17.83 Pensions... Agencies § 17.83 Limitations on payment for alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and...

  5. Design and Evaluation of an Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention Program for High Risk Families with Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Stephen; And Others

    In fall, 1991, La Frontera Center, the Tucson Council for Alcohol and Drug Dependence, and the Community Organization for Drug Abuse Control were funded to carry out an educational program to reduce alcohol and other drug abuse in the Tucson, Arizona area. The resulting project, Pasos Adelante (Steps Forward), is an early intervention…

  6. Predicting Vocational Rehabilitation Outcomes for People with Alcohol Abuse/Dependence: An Application of Chi-Squared Automatic Interaction Detector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brickham, Dana M.

    2012-01-01

    People with alcohol abuse/dependence disabilities are often faced with a complex recovery process due to the exacerbating and chronic aspects of their condition. Vocational rehabilitation for people with alcohol abuse/dependence can help individuals access and maintain employment, and through employment can enhance physical and psychological…

  7. Workplace harassment/abuse and alcohol-related outcomes: the mediating role of psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Richman, Judith A; Shinsako, Stephanie A; Rospenda, Kathleen M; Flaherty, Joseph A; Freels, Sally

    2002-07-01

    This article embraces a tension-reduction or self-medication perspective on alcohol use and misuse. It empirically addresses the role that psychological distress plays in mediating the relationships between harassing and abusive interpersonal experiences in the workplace and altered alcohol use and misuse. A mail survey was completed by 2,038 university employees (1,098 women and 940 men) at two points in time. Specific hypotheses were tested involving (1) the extent to which the onset and chronicity of harassment and abuse predicted varied Wave-2 drinking outcomes, (2) the extent to which the onset and chronicity of harassment and abuse predicted three forms of Wave-2 psychological distress, (3) the associations between Wave-2 psychological distress and drinking outcomes and (4) the extent to which the associations between harassment/abuse and drinking outcomes disappeared when the salient forms of symptomatic distress functioned as control variables. The data showed that harassment and abuse predicted drinking outcomes and psychological distress, and that the associations between harassment/abuse and drinking outcomes were partially mediated by distress. The findings lend support to the tension-reduction perspective and have important implications for intervention and prevention involving workplace harassment and abuse.

  8. Alcohol and Drug Abuse Curriculum Guide for Psychiatry Faculty. Medicine 2. Health Professions Education Curriculum Resource Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallant, Donald S.

    This guide, one of a series of publications written for medical school faculty to use in designing substance abuse instruction, focuses on curriculum content for drug and alcohol abuse instruction. Following a brief introduction, discussions of positive attitude development toward substance abuse patients, and the psychological, cultural, and…

  9. 49 CFR 240.119 - Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Process § 240.119 Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules.... (b) Fitness requirement. (1) A person who has an active substance abuse disorder shall not be... certified engineer who is determined to have an active substance abuse disorder shall be suspended from...

  10. 49 CFR 240.119 - Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Process § 240.119 Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules.... (b) Fitness requirement. (1) A person who has an active substance abuse disorder shall not be... certified engineer who is determined to have an active substance abuse disorder shall be suspended from...

  11. 49 CFR 240.119 - Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Process § 240.119 Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules.... (b) Fitness requirement. (1) A person who has an active substance abuse disorder shall not be... certified engineer who is determined to have an active substance abuse disorder shall be suspended from...

  12. 49 CFR 240.119 - Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Process § 240.119 Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules.... (b) Fitness requirement. (1) A person who has an active substance abuse disorder shall not be... certified engineer who is determined to have an active substance abuse disorder shall be suspended from...

  13. 49 CFR 240.119 - Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Process § 240.119 Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules.... (b) Fitness requirement. (1) A person who has an active substance abuse disorder shall not be... certified engineer who is determined to have an active substance abuse disorder shall be suspended from...

  14. Patterns of alcohol use and abuse among aging Civil War veterans, 1865-1920.

    PubMed Central

    Achenbaum, W. A.; Howell, J. D.; Parker, M.

    1993-01-01

    Given the extent of alcoholism among elderly people, it is remarkable how little is known about the biomedical and social dimensions of alcohol use and abuse in late life. In the absence of compelling longitudinal data drawn from contemporary sources, a historical perspective may help to illuminate the incidence and consequences of alcohol abuse among the elderly. Based on a study of 370 case histories drawn from the National Military Home in Dayton, Ohio, which around the turn of the century was the nation's largest old-age home, it appears that alcohol's social ramifications were more important than its pathological or physiological manifestations in late 19th-century America. Drinking habits among aging Civil War veterans varied considerably: moderate consumption was acceptable; too much of a good thing caused problems. PMID:8472039

  15. Drug and alcohol abuse: the bases for employee assistance programs in the nuclear-utility industry

    SciTech Connect

    Radford, L.R.; Rankin, W.L.; Barnes, V.

    This report describes the nature, prevalence, and trends of drug and alcohol abuse among members of the US adult population and among personnel in non-nuclear industries. Analogous data specific to the nuclear utility industry are not available, so these data were gathered in order to provide a basis for regulatory planning. The nature, prevalence, and trend inforamtion was gathered using a computerized literature, telephone discussions with experts, and interviews with employee assistance program representatives from the Seattle area. This report also evaluates the possible impacts that drugs and alcohol might have on nuclear-related job performance, based on currently available nuclearmore » utility job descriptions and on the scientific literature regarding the impairing effects of drugs and alcohol on human performance. Employee assistance programs, which can be used to minimize or eliminate job performance decrements resulting from drug or alcohol abuse, are also discussed.« less

  16. Stress and PTSD Mechanisms as Targets for Pharmacotherapy of Alcohol Abuse, Addiction and Relapse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    4 . TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0126 Stress and PTSD Mechanisms as Targets for Pharmacotherapy of Alcohol Abuse, Sb. GRANT...rats received either 10 seconds of inescapable footshock (traumatic shock; TS) or no shock (NS) followed by 4 weekly contextual reminders (R) of...the TS or NS (but no further application of TS or NS). The rats were then provided 4 weeks of intermittent alcohol access (IAA, 24 h/day free choice

  17. Pathological Gambling and Associated Drug and Alcohol Abuse, Emotion Regulation, and Anxious-Depressive Symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Jauregui, Paula; Estévez, Ana; Urbiola, Irache

    2016-06-01

    Background and aims Pathological gambling is associated with comorbid disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and drug and alcohol abuse. Difficulties of emotion regulation may be one of the factors related to the presence of addictive disorders, along with comorbid symptomatology in pathological gamblers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the difficulties of emotion regulation, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology in pathological gamblers, and the mediating role of difficulties of emotion regulation between anxiety and pathological gambling. Methods The study sample included 167 male pathological gamblers (mean age = 39.29 years) and 107 non-gamblers (mean age = 33.43 years). Pathological gambling (SOGS), difficulties of emotion regulation (DERS), drug and alcohol abuse (MUTICAGE CAD-4), and anxious and depressive symptomatology (SA-45) were measured. Student's t, Pearson's r, stepwise multiple linear regression and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. The study was approved by an Investigational Review Board. Results Relative to non-gamblers, pathological gamblers exhibited greater difficulties of emotion regulation, as well as more anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Moreover, pathological gambling correlated with emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Besides, emotion regulation difficulties correlated with and predicted pathological gambling, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology. Finally, emotion regulation difficulties mediated the relationship between anxiety and pathological gambling controlling the effect of age, both when controlling and not controlling for the effect of other abuses. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that difficulties of emotion regulation may provide new keys to understanding and treating pathological gambling and comorbid disorders.

  18. Pathological Gambling and Associated Drug and Alcohol Abuse, Emotion Regulation, and Anxious-Depressive Symptomatology

    PubMed Central

    Jauregui, Paula; Estévez, Ana; Urbiola, Irache

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Pathological gambling is associated with comorbid disorders, such as anxiety, depression, and drug and alcohol abuse. Difficulties of emotion regulation may be one of the factors related to the presence of addictive disorders, along with comorbid symptomatology in pathological gamblers. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the difficulties of emotion regulation, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology in pathological gamblers, and the mediating role of difficulties of emotion regulation between anxiety and pathological gambling. Methods The study sample included 167 male pathological gamblers (mean age = 39.29 years) and 107 non-gamblers (mean age = 33.43 years). Pathological gambling (SOGS), difficulties of emotion regulation (DERS), drug and alcohol abuse (MUTICAGE CAD-4), and anxious and depressive symptomatology (SA-45) were measured. Student’s t, Pearson’s r, stepwise multiple linear regression and multiple mediation analyses were conducted. The study was approved by an Investigational Review Board. Results Relative to non-gamblers, pathological gamblers exhibited greater difficulties of emotion regulation, as well as more anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Moreover, pathological gambling correlated with emotion regulation difficulties, anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Besides, emotion regulation difficulties correlated with and predicted pathological gambling, drug and alcohol abuse, and anxious and depressive symptomatology. Finally, emotion regulation difficulties mediated the relationship between anxiety and pathological gambling controlling the effect of age, both when controlling and not controlling for the effect of other abuses. Discussion and conclusions These results suggest that difficulties of emotion regulation may provide new keys to understanding and treating pathological gambling and comorbid disorders. PMID:27348555

  19. Women's Softball Players' Attitudes toward Alcohol Use & Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gooding, Shirley A.; Schell, Robert E.

    In some communities, alcohol becomes a part of socialization early in life. In one such community, softball for women has become a popular pastime. Twenty-seven of 48 teams in the community were sponsored by local taverns, bars, or restaurants where alcohol was served. Teams sponsored by taverns were encouraged to meet at the taverns before or…

  20. Alcohol Use and Abuse in a Rural School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agnello-Linden, Mary Frances

    Student responses were elicited in classroom discussions about alcohol use in their own rural community. Teachers and parents responded to questionnaires and interviews concerning various aspects of alcohol consumption as part of the local lifestyle. Students gave reasons for drinking such as ethnic and religious acceptance in the local community,…

  1. [Prevalence of Alcohol Abuse and Dependence in Adults With Social Phobia in Medellin].

    PubMed

    Peña-Salas, Gabriel Felipe; Bareño, José; Berbesi Fernández, Dedsy Yajaira; Gaviria, Silvia L

    2014-01-01

    Having a social phobia may lead to consuming alcohol for greater social assertiveness, running the risk of leading to an abuse disorder or alcohol dependence. The aim of the study was to estimate prevalence of pathological comorbidity between social phobia and alcohol consumption in adults of the city of Medellin, and the behavior of comorbidity by gender, age, presence of a father figure in childhood, and education. Secondary analysis of the database of the first Mental Health Population Survey conducted in the city of Medellin in 2011 and 2012 based on the methodology of the World Mental Health Survey guidelines and coordinated by WHO-HARVARD. The lifetime prevalence of abuse and dependence in people with social phobia was 24.1% and 11.2%, respectively. For people with social phobia the prevalence was 13% for abuse and 4.4% for dependence (OR=2.11 for abuse, OR=2.46 for dependence). Annual prevalence of people with social phobia who abused or were dependent on alcohol was 7.8% and 5.9%, respectively, compared to those who do not suffer from this disorder, with a prevalence of 3.4% and 1.7%, respectively (OR=2.39 for abuse and OR=3.57 for dependence). There was significant correlation in the annual and lifetime prevalence between social phobia and the pathological consumption of alcohol. Statistically significant relationships were found for the variables associated with social phobia, however, more work is needed to confirm or refute these associations. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Operant self-administration of alcohol and nicotine in a preclinical model of co-abuse

    PubMed Central

    Lê, A.D.; Funk, Douglas; Lo, Steven; Coen, Kathleen

    2017-01-01

    Rationale and objectives Alcohol and nicotine are often taken together. In humans, intake of nicotine, via smoked tobacco, increases alcohol drinking, and alcohol increases smoking. Chronic nicotine treatment increases alcohol self-administration (SA) in laboratory animals; the reverse relationship is less clear. Most animal work modeling this has used passive administration, which lacks relevance to human co-abuse. Here, we describe a model based on sequential operant SA of alcohol and nicotine. Methods Animals are first trained on alcohol SA (0.19 ml of 12% w/v/delivery) and then receive separate alcohol (8% w/v) and nicotine (15 μg/kg/infusion) SA sessions on the same day (“daily dual access”). Animals then receive access to alcohol and then to nicotine (or in the reverse order) in alternating 5 min periods in 2h sessions (“alternating access”). We then determine if alternating access modifies the effects of naltrexone on responding for alcohol and nicotine. Results We found that with daily dual access, nicotine significantly increased alcohol SA when alcohol access occurred prior to nicotine access, and that nicotine SA significantly decreased when the alcohol SA session preceded it. During alternating access, nicotine also significantly increased alcohol intake. Naltrexone (0.3 or 1 mg/kg) significantly reduced alcohol SA during these alternating access sessions in animals that also received nicotine SA, but had minimal effects on animals receiving alcohol SA alone. Naltrexone did not affect nicotine SA under any condition. Conclusions This sequential access procedure effectively models the effects of nicotine on alcohol intake noted in humans. PMID:24696081

  3. Alcohol Abuse and Suicide Attempt in Iran: A Case-Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Ghanbari, Behrooz; Malakouti, Seyed Kazem; Nojomi, Marzieh; Leo, Diego De; Saeed, Khalid

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol use and its disorders are associated with increased risk of suicidal behaviors Research has shown that 6-8% of those who use alcohol have a history of suicide attempt. Given the prohibition of alcohol use legally, the increased alcohol consumption, and the lack of strong evidence in favor of its use associated with suicide in Iran, this study was conducted to determine the link between suicide attempt and alcohol abuse. The case-crossover method was used in this research. Out of 305 referrals to the emergency room due to a suicide attempt, 100 reported drinking alcohol up to six hours before their attempt. Paired Matching and Usual Frequency were employed to analyze the data with STATA 12.0. The probability of attempting suicide up to six hours after drinking alcohol appeared increased by 27 times (95% CI: 8.1-60.4). Separate analysis for each of these hours from the first to the sixth hour after alcohol use was also performed. Fifty percent of attempted suicides happened one hour after alcohol use. Relative risk for the first and second hour was 10% and 5% respectively. Alcohol use is a strong proximal risk factor for attempted suicide among Iranian subjects. Prevention of alcohol use should be considered in setting up of the national Suicide attempt prevention program. PMID:26925903

  4. Corporal Punishment of Adolescents by Parents: A Risk Factor in the Epidemiology of Depression, Suicide, Alcohol Abuse, Child Abuse, and Wife Beating.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straus, Murray A.; Kantor, Glenda Kaufman

    1994-01-01

    Studied large national sample of U.S. adults, finding that almost one-half recalled having been corporally punished during adolescence. Data analysis revealed that children who experienced corporal punishment in adolescence had increased risk later in life of depressive symptoms, suicidal thoughts, alcohol abuse, physical abuse of children, and…

  5. Alcohol Abuse Increases Rebleeding Risk and Mortality in Patients with Non-variceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Kärkkäinen, Jussi M; Miilunpohja, Sami; Rantanen, Tuomo; Koskela, Jenni M; Jyrkkä, Johanna; Hartikainen, Juha; Paajanen, Hannu

    2015-12-01

    No current data are available on rebleeding and mortality risk in patients who use alcohol excessively and are admitted for non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB). This information could help in planning interventions and follow-up protocols for these patients. This study provides contemporary data on the long-term outcome after first-time NVUGIB in alcohol abusers (AAs) compared to non-abusers (NAs). Consecutive patients hospitalized for their first acute gastrointestinal bleeding from 2009 through 2011 were retrospectively recorded and categorized as AA or NA. Risk factors for one-year mortality and rebleeding were identified, and patients were further monitored for long-term mortality until 2015. Alcohol abuse was identified in 19.7% of patients with NVUGIB (n = 518). The one-year rebleeding rate was 16.7% in AAs versus 9.1% in NAs (P = 0.027). Alcohol abuse was associated with a twofold increase in rebleeding risk (P = 0.025); the risk especially increased 6 months after the initial bleeding. The study groups did not differ significantly in 30-day (6.0%) or one-year mortality rates (20.5%). However, there was a tendency for higher overall mortality in AAs than NAs after adjustment of comorbidities. AAs with NVUGIB are at high risk of rebleeding, and mortality is increased in AA patients. A close follow-up strategy and long-term proton pump inhibitor therapy are recommended for AA patients with peptic ulcer or esophagitis.

  6. New Technology Tools: Using Social Media for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to using social media technology for alcohol, drug abuse, and violence prevention, Thomas Workman, at Baylor College of Medicine's John M. Eisenberg Center for Clinical Decisions and Communications Science, points out that social media is interactive. This means that a person is entering a conversation rather than a declaration, and…

  7. Childhood Sexual Abuse in Males and Subsequent Risky Sexual Behavior: A Potential Alcohol-Use Pathway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H.; Norris, Jeanette

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among boys has been associated with a variety of subsequent maladaptive behaviors. This study explored a potential connection between CSA and an increased likelihood of risky sexual behavior in adulthood. Further, the study examined whether or not alcohol use may contribute to this relationship. Method: As…

  8. Assessment of Navy Alcohol and Drug Abuse Education and Training Curricula, Revision Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-01

    include the following: Introduction to Psychology Adolescent Psychology Maslow’s Hierarchy Abnormal Psychology Defense Mechanisms Anxiety... abnormal psychological development and behavior, techniques of psychological assessment and treatment, and the application of these skills in a variety...block number) The Chief of Naval Operations has taken a firm, constructive approach to drug and alcohol abuse problems in the Navy. Navy policy

  9. Catalog of Selected Federal Publications on Illegal Drug and Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information (DHHS), Rockville, MD.

    A concise collection of federal publications in the area of illegal drug and alcohol abuse, this catalog begins with a listing of seven federal clearinghouse, with information on services, user audience, and a contact provided for each. The main part of the document provides briefly annotated information on federal publications organized into the…

  10. Driving after drug or alcohol use : findings from the 1996 national household survey on drug abuse

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1998-12-01

    Author's abstract: This report contains findings from questions included in the 1996 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (NHSDA). The data presented describe the prevalence and patterns of driving following drug use and/or alcohol use by 11,847 N...

  11. Recurrent Disruptions of Rituals and Routines in Families with Paternal Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haugland, Bente Storm Mowatt

    2005-01-01

    Changes in rituals and routines between drinking and sobriety were examined in families in treatment due to paternal alcohol abuse. Information was gathered through a semistructured family interview. Recurrent disruptions of rituals and routines were found between different phases in the drinking cycle. Disruptions were found typically with regard…

  12. Background and Opinions of Nevada School Counselors on Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David Lawson; Gribble, Carole

    In the fall of 1990 the Nevada Department of Education responded to the concern regarding school counselors' training in alcohol and other drug abuse by conducting a survey of all identified elementary and secondary school counselors in Nevada. All 349 school counselors identified by the Department of Education were contacted; 276 school…

  13. Saginaw Drug and Alcohol Abuse Education and Training Program: Product Evaluation, 1990-1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saginaw Public Schools, MI. Dept. of Evaluation Services.

    This report evaluates the Saginaw Drug and Alcohol Abuse Education Training Program conducted in 1990-1991, which provided in-depth training for 94 professionals including 63 teachers and 7 counselors through a workshop lasting 5 days and containing 6 hours of instruction per day. The workshops addressed the identification of both drug abuse…

  14. Summary of Outcome Data for Youth Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Connie

    The purpose of this report is to summarize steps taken in evaluating outcomes for the prevention of youth alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA) for selected AODA prevention programs and projects as reported to Wisconsin's Department of Health and Family Services by grantees. A study by Wisconsin's Legislative Audit Bureau evaluated 6 projects, which…

  15. Invisibility, Difference, and Disparity: Alcohol and Substance Abuse on Two-Year College Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eren, Colleen; Keeton, André

    2015-01-01

    The impact of alcohol and substance abuse on college students' behavior has become a ripe area of focus and research. However, interest and research has primarily been focused on traditional four- year college students. Thus, the four-year college experience is taken as the default against which two-year colleges are compared. Nearly 12 million…

  16. Community College Presidents' Role in Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention. Prevention Updates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeJong, William

    2006-01-01

    This publication is designed to guide presidents of community colleges and their administrative staff as they focus on alcohol and other drug (AOD) abuse prevention. The first section reviews the challenges facing community colleges in reducing student substance use and the strengths the colleges draw on in addressing it. The second section…

  17. Americans with Disabilities: A Look at Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VSA Educational Services, Washington, DC. Resource Center on Substance Abuse Prevention and Disability.

    This guide to alcohol and other drug abuse prevention for individuals with disabilities begins with a discussion of Congressional intent in enacting the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA), the stressful demands experienced by Americans with disabilities, and the ways in which these stresses may predispose people with disabilities to…

  18. Drug Abuse and Alcoholism Teaching in U.S. Medical and Osteopathic Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pokorny, Alex; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Findings from a national survey show that required teaching activities during all four years of medical school averaged 25.7 hours, with a range from 0 to 126. Schools differed widely in the number and type of electives offered in drug abuse and alcoholism, as well as in the number of clinical assignments available. (Author/LBH)

  19. Alternative Funding Resources Manual for Drug Abuse and Alcohol Treatment and Rehabilitation Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertagnoli, Cliff

    The purpose of this manual is to guide and assist alcohol and other drug abuse treatment programs to maximize cost recovery from third party reimbursements. It is intended to be a guide for planning and decision making rather than a resource manual. The text is based on the experiences of agencies in six states participating in a demonstration…

  20. Screening for Drug Abuse Among College Students: Modification of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannell, M. Barry; Favazza, Armando R.

    1978-01-01

    Modified version of the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test was anonymously given to 245 college students on two Midwestern university campuses. Cutoff score for suspected drug abuse was set at five points. The percent of students scoring five or more points was 25 and 22 from campuses A and B respectively. (Author)

  1. Training Needs of Rehabilitation Counselors concerning Alcohol and Other Drugs Abuse Assessment and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Lee Za; Cardoso, Elizabeth; Chan, Fong; Chronister, Julie; Chou, Chih Chin

    2007-01-01

    Forty-two rehabilitation counselors participated in a study regarding perceived training needs concerning alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA) treatment and assessment. Participants reported that 85% of consumers with whom they worked had AODA issues, yet over half rated their graduate training in AODA treatment and assessment as poor, and their…

  2. Resource Manual for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Education in Emergency Medicine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Coll. of Emergency Physicians, Dallas, TX.

    The curriculum guide and bibliography identifies the minimum skills, knowledge, and attitudes that emergency physicians should have relative to drug and alcohol abuse and identifies appropriate educational materials and strategies for medical schools to include in their training programs. Objectives were based on 73 survey responses from medical…

  3. Minimum Knowledge and Skills Objectives for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychiatric Association, Hartford, CT.

    This publication brings together statements concerning the minimum knowledge and skills objectives in alcohol and other drug abuse determined by the professional organizations of six medical specialties: pediatrics; emergency medicine; obstetrics and gynecology; psychiatry; general internal medicine; and family medicine for undergraduate,…

  4. Draft Model Curriculum in Nursing Education for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naegle, Madeline A.; Burns, Elizabeth M.

    This document contains three model curricula in nursing education for alcohol and other drug abuse, one graduate and one baccalaureate level from New York University's (NYU) Division of Nursing, and the third combining graduate and undergraduate level curricula for Ohio State University (OSU). The NYU undergraduate curriculum contains a pilot test…

  5. Student Drug and Alcohol Abuse. How Schools Can Help Combat Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Towers, Richard L.

    This book was written to help school personnel combat drug and alcohol abuse among students. It gives readers a basic understanding of drugs and their effects on the mind and body. The stages of chemical dependency and the vocabulary of the drug scene are reviewed and reasons that children and adolescents take drugs are discussed. Signs of student…

  6. Experiencing Shame: Collegiate Alcohol Abuse, Religiosity, and Spirituality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prosek, Elizabeth A.; Giordano, Amanda L.; Holm, Jessica M.; Bevly, Cynthia M.; Sender, Kristy M.; Ramsey, Zachary B.; Abernathy, Meagan R.

    2017-01-01

    Previous researchers have established the relationship between substance abuse and shame and religiosity/spirituality and shame. This study investigated the associations among shame, religiosity, spirituality, and drinking behavior in a college student sample (N = 310). Participants classified as hazardous drinkers reported higher levels of shame…

  7. Blackhawk Technical College Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runnells, Julie

    This document describes the Blackhawk Technical College, Wisconsin, drug abuse program provided primarily by an intervention specialist and available to students and employees. Section I outlines the program model (resources, program of services, immediate results and outcomes) in a chart form. Section II describes the services provided by an…

  8. [Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, facilitating alcohol and drug abuse in an adult].

    PubMed

    Durst, R; Rebaudengo-Rosca, P

    1997-05-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been considered a mental and behavioral disorder of childhood and adolescence. It is being increasingly recognized in adults, who may have psychiatric co-morbidity with secondary depression, or a tendency to drug and alcohol abuse. We describe a 32-year-old woman known for years as suffering from borderline personality disorder and drug dependence (including hashish, marijuana, LSD and "ecstasy") and alcohol abuse that did not respond to treatment. Only when correctly diagnosed as ADHD and appropriately treated with the psychotropic stimulant, methylphenidate (Ritalin), was there significant improvement. She succeeded academically, which had not been possible previously, the craving for drugs diminished and a drug-free state was reached. Although administration of psychostimulants to drug abusers is controversial, as they are addictive, in cases of ADHD they have promoted drug abstinence.

  9. Evaluating Community Readiness to Implement Environmental and Policy-Based Alcohol Abuse Prevention Strategies in Wisconsin

    PubMed Central

    Paltzer, Jason; Black, Penny; Moberg, D. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Background Matching evidence-based alcohol prevention strategies with a community’s readiness to support those strategies is the basis for the Tri-Ethnic Community Readiness Model (CRM). The purpose of this evaluation was to assess the association of a community’s readiness to address alcohol abuse in their community with the implementation of environmental and policy-based strategies. Methods Twenty-one substance abuse prevention coalitions in Wisconsin participated in a pre-post intervention group-only evaluation using the CRM. As part of a Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) grant, all grantees were obligated by the Wisconsin Department of Health Services to implement environmental and policy-based strategies focused on one of three priority areas: young adult binge drinking, underage drinking, and alcohol-related motor-vehicle injuries and fatalities. Results At baseline, all communities (n=21) scored at or below a Stage 4 (on a scale of 1–9) readiness level (“preparedness”). The mean change in community readiness over the three-year period (2009–2011) was significant, but was less than one complete CRM stage (0.77, p=<0.001; 95% CI: 0.49, 1.05). Conclusion These findings suggest that implementation of environmental and policy-based strategies may improve a community’s progression in perceived readiness to address alcohol abuse regardless of the community’s baseline level of readiness to address alcohol abuse. Recommendation An assessment specific for measuring community readiness for policy-related strategies should be developed. The assessment would include community-level factors (e.g. community climate) for implementing policy-related prevention strategies, and not assume a linear readiness model. PMID:25346555

  10. Meconium indicators of maternal alcohol abuse during pregnancy and association with patient characteristics.

    PubMed

    Goecke, Tamme W; Burger, Pascal; Fasching, Peter A; Bakdash, Abdulsallam; Engel, Anne; Häberle, Lothar; Voigt, Franziska; Faschingbauer, Florian; Raabe, Eva; Maass, Nicolai; Rothe, Michael; Beckmann, Matthias W; Pragst, Fritz; Kornhuber, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Identification of women with moderate alcohol abuse during pregnancy is difficult. We correlated self-reported alcohol consumption during pregnancy and patient characteristics with objective alcohol indicators measured in fetal meconium. A total of 557 women singleton births and available psychological tests, obstetric data and meconium samples were included in statistical analysis. Alcohol metabolites (fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) and ethyl glucuronide (EtG)), were determined from meconium and correlated with patient characteristics. We found that 21.2% of the 557 participants admitted low-to-moderate alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Of the parameters analyzed from meconium, only EtG showed an association with alcohol history (P < 0.01). This association was inverse in cases with EtG value above 120 ng/g. These values indicate women with most severe alcohol consumption, who obviously denied having consumed alcohol during pregnancy. No other associations between socioeconomic or psychological characteristics and the drinking status (via meconium alcohol metabolites) could be found. Women who drink higher doses of ethanol during pregnancy, according to metabolite measures in meconium, might be less likely to admit alcohol consumption. No profile of socioeconomic or psychological characteristics of those women positively tested via meconium could be established.

  11. Cardiovascular manifestations of substance abuse: part 2: alcohol, amphetamines, heroin, cannabis, and caffeine.

    PubMed

    Frishman, William H; Del Vecchio, Alexander; Sanal, Shirin; Ismail, Anjum

    2003-01-01

    The abuse of alcohol is associated with chronic cardiomyopathy, hypertension, and arrhythmia. Abstinence or using alcohol in moderation can reverse these cardiovascular problems. Alcohol is also distinguished among the substances of abuse by having possible protective effects against coronary artery disease and stroke when used in moderate amounts. Amphetamines (eg, speed, ice, ecstasy) have many of the cardiovascular toxicities seen with cocaine, including acute and chronic cardiovascular diseases. Heroin and other opiates can cause arrhythmias and noncardiac pulmonary edema, and may reduce cardiac output. Cardiovascular problems are less common with cannabis (marijuana) than with opiates, but major cognitive disorders may be seen with its chronic use. It is still controversial whether caffeine can cause hypertension and coronary artery disease, and questions have been raised about its safety in patients with heart failure and arrhythmia.

  12. Traumatic brain injury and alcohol/substance abuse: A Bayesian meta-analysis comparing the outcomes of people with and without a history of abuse.

    PubMed

    Unsworth, David J; Mathias, Jane L

    2017-08-01

    Alcohol and substance (drugs and/or alcohol) abuse are major risk factors for traumatic brain injury (TBI); however, it remains unclear whether outcomes differ for those with and without a history of preinjury abuse. A meta-analysis was performed to examine this issue. The PubMed, Embase, and PsycINFO databases were searched for research that compared the neuroradiological, cognitive, or psychological outcomes of adults with and without a documented history of alcohol and/or substance abuse who sustained nonpenetrating TBIs. Data from 22 studies were analyzed using a random-effects model: Hedges's g effect sizes measured the mean difference in outcomes of individuals with/without a history of preinjury abuse, and Bayes factors assessed the probability that the outcomes differed. Patients with a history of alcohol and/or substance abuse had poorer neuroradiological outcomes, including reduced hippocampal (g = -0.82) and gray matter volumes (g = -0.46 to -0.82), and enlarged cerebral ventricles (g = -0.73 to -0.80). There were limited differences in cognitive outcomes: Executive functioning (g = -0.51) and memory (g = -0.39 to -0.43) were moderately affected, but attention and reasoning were not. The findings for fine motor ability, construction, perception, general cognition, and language were inconclusive. Postinjury substance and alcohol use (g = -0.97 to -1.07) and emotional functioning (g = -0.29 to -0.44) were worse in those with a history of alcohol and/or substance abuse (psychological outcomes). This study highlighted the type and extent of post-TBI differences between persons with and without a history of alcohol or substance abuse, many of which may hamper recovery. However, variation in the criteria for premorbid abuse, limited information regarding the history of abuse, and an absence of preinjury baseline data prevented an assessment of whether the differences predated the TBI, occurred as a result of ongoing alcohol/substance abuse, or

  13. Employing and Accommodating Individuals with Histories of Alcohol and Drug Abuse. Implementing the Americans with Disabilities Act Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Ellen M.

    One of a series of bulletins on implementing the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), this bulletin discusses protections for individuals with histories of alcohol and drug abuse. The material explains: (1) the ADA prohibits employment discrimination of individuals with past drug and alcohol problems and those who currently have alcohol problems…

  14. Motivational Interviewing in the Prevention of Alcohol Abuse

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    4591 46 0 Kunsan 2549 93 0 Little Rock 4917 68 0 MacDill 3714 64 0 McChord 4024 108 0 Mildenhall 4424 123 0 Minot 4691 83 0 Whiteman 3548...Mikel Jon Wilson, Karen Wolf, Susi S Zoucha, Bill J Key Research Accomplishments - Developed a training manual for MI specific to AF ADAPT...motivational interviewing (MI) among highly motivated and skilled substance abuse counselors. Little is known, however, about the translational

  15. Personality disorders among alcohol-dependent patients manifesting or not manifesting cocaine abuse: a comparative pilot study.

    PubMed

    Echeburúa, Enrique; De Medina, Ricardo Bravo; Aizpiri, Javier

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed personality disorders (PDs) in 158 alcohol-dependent outpatients (62 manifesting cocaine abuse and 96 without cocaine abuse) with the International Personality Disorders Examination interview between 2003 and 2006. Thirty-nine alcohol-dependent/cocaine abusers (62.9% of this group) and 51 only alcohol-dependent patients (53.1% of this group) manifested at least one PD. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in the overall prevalence rate of PDs. The most prevalent PDs, among the alcohol-dependent/cocaine abusers, were antisocial (21%), narcissistic (14.5%), and borderline (11.3%) PDs. The most frequently diagnosed PDs among the only alcohol-dependent patients were obsessive-compulsive (20.8%), paranoid (10.4%), and dependent (9.4%) PDs. There were significant differences between the groups. The study limitations are discussed.

  16. Alcohol use, alcohol-related aggression and intimate partner abuse: A cross-sectional survey of convicted versus general population men in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, Elizabeth Allison; Ireland, Lana; Forsyth, Alasdair; Godwin, Jon; Laxton, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Scotland has a particular problem with alcohol, and the links between intimate partner abuse (IPA) and alcohol appear stronger here than elsewhere across Europe. This study explored differences in alcohol use, related aggression and relationship conflict across a number of groups: men convicted for intimate partner abuse, men convicted of general offences and men recruited from community sports teams. Participants (n = 64) completed three questionnaires exploring their experiences of alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, AUDIT); alcohol and aggression (Alcohol Related Aggression Questionnaire, ARAQ-28), and relationship conflict (Revised Conflict Tactics Scale, CTS-2). There were significant differences across the groups in terms of AUDIT and ARAQ-28 scores, IPA and general offenders scored higher than the community sample. CTS-2 scores showed significant differences: both offender groups reported more use of negotiation and psychological abuse, than the community men, and IPA offenders reported causing more physical harm than either general offenders or the community sample. ARAQ-28 scores correlated with psychological abuse for general offenders. Alcohol use was very high across all groups, but the community group did not endorse an aggression-precipitating view of alcohol and did not report high IPA. Discussed is the need for cross-cultural research to explore putative mediators and moderators in the relationship between alcohol, aggressiveness and IPA. [Gilchrist EA, Ireland L, Forsyth A, Godwin J, Laxton T. Alcohol use, alcohol-related aggression and intimate partner abuse: A cross-sectional survey of convicted versus general population men in Scotland. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:20-23]. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  17. Socio-economic status and problem alcohol use: the positive relationship between income and the DSM-IV alcohol abuse diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Keyes, Katherine M; Hasin, Deborah S

    2008-07-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates a positive relationship between income and the prevalence of alcohol abuse in the general population, but an inverse relationship between income and alcohol dependence. Among those with a diagnosis of alcohol abuse, the most prevalent criterion is hazardous use, which commonly requires sufficient resources to own or access a car. The present study investigated whether the association between income and the prevalence of current alcohol abuse is accounted for by the hazardous use criterion; specifically, the drinking and driving symptoms of the hazardous use criterion. Face-to-face survey conducted in the 2001-02 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, interviewed with the Alcohol Use Disorders and Associated Disabilities Interview 4th edition (AUDADIS-IV). The United States and District of Columbia, including Alaska and Hawaii. Household and group-quarters residents aged >18 years. Life-time dependence cases were excluded (n = 4781). Income was defined as past-year personal income. Outcomes were specific alcohol abuse criteria and symptom questions. Logistic regressions were performed controlling for demographics. The relationship between alcohol abuse severity indicators and income was modeled using polytomous regression. Findings Among the alcohol abuse criteria, hazardous use is the most prevalent and the only criterion to have a significant positive relationship with income (F = 20.3, df = 3, P < 0.0001). Among the hazardous use symptoms, driving after drinking (F = 13.0, df = 3, P < 0.0001) and driving while drinking (F = 9.2, df = 3, P < 0.0001) were related positively to income. Because hazardous use is the most commonly endorsed criterion of alcohol abuse, the link with income raises questions about whether the current alcohol abuse diagnosis can capture the full range of alcohol abusers in every socio-economic class. While many psychiatric disorders exhibit an inverse relationship with socio

  18. Multimethod Personality Profile Assessment Methodology: Alcohol Abusers versus Nonalcoholic Controls.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    following: oral fixation with passive, dependent features; psychopathy ; low frustration tolerance; low perseverance; guilt and anxiety; egocentricity...research findings of elevated scale 4 with alcoholic samples, the psychopathy /sociopathy personality domain, as tapped by the MMPI/Pd items, warranted

  19. Symbolic Policy and Alcohol Abuse Prevention in Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogenchuk, Marcella

    2009-01-01

    In Canada, the prevalence of alcohol use among school-age students has emerged as a leading public health issue. Though governments at all levels have called for inter-organizational collaboration to address the issue, the representation of youth interests by key community groups is critical to the efficacy of those initiatives. This article…

  20. Adolescents, Alcohol, and Substance Abuse: Reaching Teens through Brief Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monti, Peter M., Ed.; Colby, Suzanne M., Ed.; O'Leary, Tracy A., Ed.

    This publication reviews a variety of empirically supported approaches to dealing with alcohol and drug problems in adolescents. Its focus is to provide motivationally based brief interventions that can be delivered in a variety of contexts address key developmental considerations and draw on the latest knowledge about the processes of addictive…

  1. Using Motivational Interviewing to Address College Client Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholl, Mark B.; Schmitt, Dorothy M.

    2009-01-01

    Motivational Interviewing (MI; W. R. Miller & S. Rollnick, 2002) is presented as a potentially effective counseling strategy for assisting traditionally aged college students in reducing their problematic, heavy alcohol use. MI's congruence with two developmental theories--Self-Determination Theory (R. M. Ryan & E. L. Deci, 2000) and…

  2. Community Perspectives on Communication Strategies for Alcohol Abuse Prevention in Rural Central Kenya.

    PubMed

    Muturi, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    The current study explores community perspectives on alcohol abuse prevention strategies in rural Kenya. Data from focus group discussions with members of community organizations and in-depth interviews with a snowball sample of key informants revealed that rural communities view national alcohol abuse prevention interventions as ineffective and messages as unpersuasive in changing this high-risk behavior. The use of ethnic languages, stronger fear appeals, and visual aids were recommended for alcohol prevention messages aimed at communities with low literacy. Community members favored narratives and entertainment-education strategies, which are more engaging, and print media for their educational value. Health activism, although common, was viewed as less effective in motivating individuals to change drinking behavior but more effective in advocacy campaigns to pressure the government to enforce alcohol regulations. This study suggests further empirical research to inform evidence-based prevention campaigns and to understand how to communicate about alcohol-related health risks within communities that embrace alcohol consumption as a cultural norm.

  3. Intermittent ethanol access schedule in rats as a preclinical model of alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Carnicella, Sebastien; Ron, Dorit; Barak, Segev

    2014-05-01

    One of the major challenges in preclinical studies of alcohol abuse and dependence remains the development of paradigms that will elicit high ethanol intake and mimic the progressive transition from low or moderate social drinking to excessive alcohol consumption. Exposure of outbred rats to repeated cycles of free-choice ethanol intake and withdrawal with the use of intermittent access to 20% ethanol in a 2-bottle choice procedure (IA2BC) has been shown to induce a gradual escalation of voluntary ethanol intake and preference, eventually reaching ethanol consumption levels of 5-6 g/kg/24 h, and inducing pharmacologically relevant blood ethanol concentrations (BECs). This procedure has recently been gaining popularity due to its simplicity, high validity, and reliable outcomes. Here we review experimental and methodological data related to IA2BC, and discuss the usefulness and advantages of this procedure as a valuable pre-training method for initiating operant ethanol self-administration of high ethanol intake, as well as conditioned place preference (CPP). Despite some limitations, we provide evidence that IA2BC and related operant procedures provide the possibility to operationalize multiple aspects of alcohol abuse and addiction in a rat model, including transition from social-like drinking to excessive alcohol consumption, binge drinking, alcohol seeking, relapse, and neuroadaptations related to excessive alcohol intake. Hence, IA2BC appears to be a useful and relevant procedure for preclinical evaluation of potential therapeutic approaches against alcohol abuse disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of intimate exposure to alcohol abuse on the acquisition of knowledge about drinking.

    PubMed

    Rainer, J P

    1994-01-01

    This study explored how an alcohol education program might be structured to effectively educate college students about the consequences of alcohol use. The primary hypothesis tested stated that individuals would vary significantly in the amount of knowledge learned from a structured alcohol education workshop, based on the degree of familial or social exposure s/he has had to alcohol abuse. Social learning variables of locus of control, dogmatism, and expectancy for risk were tested for interaction with degree of exposure, to determine their influence on learning. A pretest-posttest control group was employed with a sample of 66 undergraduate college students. A four hour alcohol education program was administered to teach cognitive information and fact about alcohol, with a goal of facilitating responsible use/nonuse of alcohol. The Student Drinking Questionnaire measured acquisition of knowledge. The Adult Nowicki-Strickland Internal/External Scale measured locus of control, and Schultze's Short Dogmatism Scale measured dogmatism. The researcher developed an instrument for expectancy for risk. Multiple regression analyses yielded prediction equations for the variables under study. For the sample group, results demonstrated that a significant portion of the variance in the residualized posttest scores was accounted for by level of exposure and dogmatism. When the sample was blocked according to intimate or social exposure, dogmatism was the only construct entering the regression equation at a significant level for the intimate exposure group. None of the constructs were able to predict any of the residualized posttest scores for the social exposure group. It was concluded that: (1) Students in the sample learned differentially based on the degree of intimate exposure of alcohol; (2) Dogmatism is a moderating variable with acquisition of knowledge for those intimately exposed to alcohol abuse, but locus of control and expectancy for risk are not; and (3) Further

  5. Alcohol abuse as the strongest risk factor for violent offending in patients with paranoid schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kudumija Slijepcevic, Marija; Jukic, Vlado; Novalic, Darko; Zarkovic-Palijan, Tija; Milosevic, Milan; Rosenzweig, Ivana

    2014-04-01

    To determine predictive risk factors for violent offending in patients with paranoid schizophrenia in Croatia. The cross-sectional study including male in-patients with paranoid schizophrenia with (N=104) and without (N=102) history of physical violence and violent offending was conducted simultaneously in several hospitals in Croatia during one-year period (2010-2011). Data on their sociodemographic characteristics, duration of untreated illness phase (DUP), alcohol abuse, suicidal behavior, personality features, and insight into illness were collected and compared between groups. Binary logistic regression model was used to determine the predictors of violent offending. Predictors of violent offending were older age, DUP before first contact with psychiatric services, and alcohol abuse. Regression model showed that the strongest positive predictive factor was harmful alcohol use, as determined by AUDIT test (odds ratio 37.01; 95% confidence interval 5.20-263.24). Psychopathy, emotional stability, and conscientiousness were significant positive predictive factors, while extroversion, pleasantness, and intellect were significant negative predictive factors for violent offending. This study found an association between alcohol abuse and the risk for violent offending in paranoid schizophrenia. We hope that this finding will help improve public and mental health prevention strategies in this vulnerable patient group.

  6. A protective factors model for alcohol abuse and suicide prevention among Alaska Native youth.

    PubMed

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Burkett, Rebekah

    2014-09-01

    This study provides an empirical test of a culturally grounded theoretical model for prevention of alcohol abuse and suicide risk with Alaska Native youth, using a promising set of culturally appropriate measures for the study of the process of change and outcome. This model is derived from qualitative work that generated an heuristic model of protective factors from alcohol (Allen et al. in J Prev Interv Commun 32:41-59, 2006; Mohatt et al. in Am J Commun Psychol 33:263-273, 2004a; Harm Reduct 1, 2004b). Participants included 413 rural Alaska Native youth ages 12-18 who assisted in testing a predictive model of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes about alcohol abuse consequences as co-occurring outcomes. Specific individual, family, peer, and community level protective factor variables predicted these outcomes. Results suggest prominent roles for these predictor variables as intermediate prevention strategy target variables in a theoretical model for a multilevel intervention. The model guides understanding of underlying change processes in an intervention to increase the ultimate outcome variables of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes regarding the consequences of alcohol abuse.

  7. Personality traits in alcohol-dependent individuals in the context of childhood abuse.

    PubMed

    Gerhant, Aneta; Olajossy, Marcin

    2016-10-31

    The aim of this study was to identify groups of alcohol-dependent individuals differing in the severity of childhood physical, emotional and sexual abuse and to find the personality variables that discriminate between those groups. The study included 90 individuals dependent on alcohol. The following questionnaires were used: the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), the Coping Inventory (COPE), the Buss and Perry Aggression Questionnaire (BPAQ), Cattell's IPAT Anxiety Scale, and the Early Trauma Inventory (ETI). Two groups of subjects addicted to alcohol were identified: group 1 with high and group 2 with low childhood physical, emotional and sexual abuse indices. The subjects in Group 1 had significantly higher scores than the subjects in Group 2 on the TCI Temperament scales of NS and HA and lower scores on the TCI character scales of SD, C2 and C4. Group 1 subjects were significantly more likely than those from Group 2 to use avoidant coping strategies; they were also less likely to use problem-focused strategies and had significantly higher scores on general anxiety, overt anxiety, latent anxiety, level of aggression, physical aggression, hostility and anger. The higher severity of childhood physical, emotional and sexual abuse in alcoholics is associated with those personality traits that seem to be crucial for maintaining abstinence and the quality of cooperation in therapy.

  8. Association of the HTR2A Gene with Alcohol and Heroin Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Jian; Liu, Xiangtao; Han, Shizhong; Zhang, Clarence K.; Liu, Zongzhi; Li, Dawei

    2014-01-01

    Positive genetic associations of rs6313 (102T/C at exon 1) and rs6311 (-1438A/G) on the 5-hydroxytryptamine (serotonin) 2A receptor gene (HTR2A or 5-HT2A) were reported for alcohol and drug abuse, however, other association studies failed to produce consistent results supporting the susceptibility of the two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). To clarify the associations of the HTR2A gene with substance use disorders, we performed a meta-analysis based on the genotypes from the available candidate gene association studies of the two SNPs with alcohol and drug abuse from multiple populations. Evidence of association was found for HTR2A rs6313 in all the combined studies (e.g., allelic P = 0.0048 and OR = 0.86, 95% CI 0.77 – 0.95) and also in the combined studies of alcohol dependence (abuse) (e.g., allelic P = 0.0001 and OR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.59 – 0.85). The same association trend was also observed in the SAGE (Study of Addiction: Genetics and Environment) datasets. The meta-analysis supports a contribution of the HTR2A gene to the susceptibility to substance use disorders, particularly alcohol dependence. PMID:24178752

  9. A Protective Factors Model for Alcohol Abuse and Suicide Prevention among Alaska Native Youth

    PubMed Central

    Allen, James; Mohatt, Gerald V.; Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Henry, David; Burkett, Rebekah

    2014-01-01

    This study provides an empirical test of a culturally grounded theoretical model for prevention of alcohol abuse and suicide risk with Alaska Native youth, using a promising set of culturally appropriate measures for the study of the process of change and outcome. This model is derived from qualitative work that generated an heuristic model of protective factors from alcohol (Allen at al., 2006; Mohatt, Hazel et al., 2004; Mohatt, Rasmus et al., 2004). Participants included 413 rural Alaska Native youth ages 12-18 who assisted in testing a predictive model of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes about alcohol abuse consequences as co-occurring outcomes. Specific individual, family, peer, and community level protective factor variables predicted these outcomes. Results suggest prominent roles for these predictor variables as intermediate prevention strategy target variables in a theoretical model for a multilevel intervention. The model guides understanding of underlying change processes in an intervention to increase the ultimate outcome variables of Reasons for Life and Reflective Processes regarding the consequences of alcohol abuse. PMID:24952249

  10. Animal models for medications development targeting alcohol abuse using selectively bred rat lines: Neurobiological and pharmacological validity

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Richard L.; Sable, Helen J.K.; Colombo, Giancarlo; Hyytia, Petri; Rodd, Zachary A.; Lumeng, Lawrence

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this review paper is to present evidence that rat animal models of alcoholism provide an ideal platform for developing and screening medications that target alcohol abuse and dependence. The focus is on the 5 oldest international rat lines that have been selectively bred for a high alcohol-consumption phenotype. The behavioral and neurochemical phenotypes of these rat lines are reviewed and placed in the context of the clinical literature. The paper presents behavioral models for assessing the efficacy of pharmaceuticals for the treatment of alcohol abuse and dependence in rodents, with particular emphasis on rats. Drugs that have been tested for their effectiveness in reducing alcohol/ethanol consumption and/or self-administration by these rat lines and their putative site of action are summarized. The paper also presents some current and future directions for developing pharmacological treatments targeting alcohol abuse and dependence. PMID:22841890

  11. Mechanisms of Association between Paternal Alcoholism and Abuse of Alcohol and Other Illicit Drugs among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleg-Oren, Neta; Hospital, Michelle; Morris, Staci Leon; Wagner, Eric F.

    2013-01-01

    The current study examines the effect of paternal alcohol problems on adolescent use of alcohol and other illicit drugs as a function of maternal communication, as well as adolescent social and coping skills (N = 145). Structural equation modeling (SEM) analyses indicated that adolescents with a paternal history of alcohol problems reported higher…

  12. The Dawn of Awareness: Women's Claiming of Self in Couple Relationship with Substance Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naylor, Mavis E.; Lee, Bonnie K.

    2011-01-01

    This phenomenological study aimed at understanding the experiences of women living with intimate partners with substance abuse problems. Findings show that the five participants' family-of-origin experiences centrally influenced their degree of awareness of their responses to their intimate partners' addictive behaviors. Experiences leading to…

  13. DoD Alcohol and Substance Abuse Consortium Award

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-10-01

    opiate use disorder (OUD) also has developed significant clinical importance due to prolonged pain treatments with opiates. FDA approved...2) behaviors other than amount of alcohol consumed will be examined, such as anxiety-like behavior, sensitivity to pain and avoidance of an...The prospectus will be reviewed by the entire SRPP Committee and a subset of applications will be approved to develop a 10- to 20-page mini -protocol

  14. Adolescent-onset alcohol abuse exacerbates the influence of childhood conduct disorder on late adolescent and early adult antisocial behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Richard; Finn, Peter; Jose, Paul; Gallagher, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that adolescent-onset alcohol abuse (AOAA) would both mediate and moderate the effect of childhood conduct disorder on antisocial behaviour in late adolescence and early adulthood. A sample comprising 504 young men and women strategically recruited from the community were grouped using the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV, American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: APA), as follows: neither childhood conduct disorder (CCD) nor alcohol abuse/dependence; CCD but no alcohol abuse or dependence; alcohol abuse/dependence but no CCD; both CCD and alcohol abuse/dependence. The outcome measure was the sum of positive responses to 55 interview items capturing a variety of antisocial behaviours engaged in since age 15. Severity of lifetime alcohol-related and CCD problems served as predictor variables in regression analysis. Antisocial behaviour problems were greatest in individuals with a history of co-occurring conduct disorder (CD) and alcohol abuse/dependence. While CCD was strongly predictive of adult antisocial behaviour, this effect was both mediated and moderated (exacerbated) by AOAA. PMID:23459369

  15. Adolescent-onset alcohol abuse exacerbates the influence of childhood conduct disorder on late adolescent and early adult antisocial behaviour.

    PubMed

    Howard, Richard; Finn, Peter; Jose, Paul; Gallagher, Jennifer

    2011-12-16

    This study tested the hypothesis that adolescent-onset alcohol abuse (AOAA) would both mediate and moderate the effect of childhood conduct disorder on antisocial behaviour in late adolescence and early adulthood. A sample comprising 504 young men and women strategically recruited from the community were grouped using the criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV, American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: APA), as follows: neither childhood conduct disorder (CCD) nor alcohol abuse/dependence; CCD but no alcohol abuse or dependence; alcohol abuse/dependence but no CCD; both CCD and alcohol abuse/dependence. The outcome measure was the sum of positive responses to 55 interview items capturing a variety of antisocial behaviours engaged in since age 15. Severity of lifetime alcohol-related and CCD problems served as predictor variables in regression analysis. Antisocial behaviour problems were greatest in individuals with a history of co-occurring conduct disorder (CD) and alcohol abuse/dependence. While CCD was strongly predictive of adult antisocial behaviour, this effect was both mediated and moderated (exacerbated) by AOAA.

  16. Friends, Family, and Alcohol Abuse: An Examination of General and Alcohol-Specific Social Support

    PubMed Central

    Groh, David R.; Jason, Leonard A.; Davis, Margaret I.; Olson, Bradley D.; Ferrari, Joseph R.

    2010-01-01

    Social support may be considered from several different dimensions. While general social support promotes well-being, specific social support is tied to particular functions, such as alcohol use. Not only may the form of social support vary, but also the source (ie, friends vs. family). This study investigated the impact of general and specific support for alcohol use from family versus friends on alcohol use among 897 U.S. residents of abstinent communal-living settings (Oxford Houses). Results indicated that general support from friends and length of stay in Oxford House significantly predicted less alcohol use. Implications for alcohol recovery are discussed. PMID:17364422

  17. 38 CFR 17.82 - Contracts for outpatient services for veterans with alcohol or drug dependence or abuse...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... inspection at the Department of Veterans Affairs, Office of Regulations Management (02D), Room 1154, 810... for sobriety (alcohol/drug abuse-free life style). (x) Opportunities for learning, testing, and...

  18. Prevention of alcohol and drug abuse: what works?

    PubMed

    Kumpfer, Karol L

    2002-09-01

    There is no single "best" prevention program, and no one program or approach will stop all drug use. There are many effective research-based programs; the best approach for any particular population requires selecting the best intervention for the target population on the basis of a knowledge of the risk and protective factors in that population. Unfortunately, the most highly marketed school or family programs are generally not those programs with the best outcomes. The best approach to prevention is to begin early to reduce emerging behavioral and emotional problems in youth. Longer-lasting effects should accrue from changing school, community, and family environmental conditions that promote and maintain drug problems in youth. More and more prevention specialists are considering moving from a focus on the individual to changes in total systems or the environmental contexts that promote or hinder drug use. On the basis of economic considerations, the "whole family" systems-change approach of family skills training classes is becoming popular even in the managed care environment. The greatest challenge facing the drug abuse prevention field is to get information out to practitioners and communities about the best prevention programs, approaches, and principles of effectiveness. Researchers and funding agencies must learn how to effectively market the most successful programs to bridge the gap between research and practice. We must become as effective at marketing drug prevention programs as drug dealers are at promoting and selling drugs. Communities need health care professionals who are knowledgeable about substance abuse prevention and who can advocate the implementation and ongoing improvement of prevention programs with known effectiveness.

  19. Exploring family and community involvement to protect Thai youths from alcohol and illegal drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Wongtongkam, Nualnong; Ward, Paul Russell; Day, Andrew; Winefield, Anthony Harold

    2015-01-01

    Youth substance abuse is widely recognized as a major public health issue in Thailand. This study explores family and community risk and protective factors relevant to alcohol and illegal drug misuse in 1,778 Thai teenagers. Strong family attachment and a family history of antisocial behaviors were strongly associated with nearly all forms of substance abuse, with adjusted odds ratios ranging from 5.05 to 8.45. Community disorganization was strongly associated with self-reported substance use, although involvement in prosocial activities acted as a protective factor. The findings suggest that interventions that promote family cohesion and encourage community involvement may have considerable benefits in reducing substance abuse in Thai adolescents.

  20. 38 CFR 17.80 - Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... other community-based treatment facilities, when considered to be medically advantageous and cost... dependence or abuse treatment and rehabilitation in residential and nonresidential facilities by contract. 17... rehabilitation in residential and nonresidential facilities by contract. (a) Alcohol and drug dependence or abuse...

  1. Alcohol and Drug Abuse Teaching Methodology Guide for Medical Faculty. Medicine 1. Health Professions Education Curriculum Resource Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostetler, Jeptha R.

    This guide, one of a series of publications written for medical faculty to use in designing substance abuse instruction, focuses on the teaching of alcohol and drug abuse intervention in medical and osteopathic schools. Following a brief introducton to the booklet, the career teacher program, which is supported by federal grants, is explained.…

  2. Mood disorder, anxiety, and suicide risk among subjects with alcohol abuse and/or dependence: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Wiener, Carolina D; Moreira, Fernanda P; Zago, Alethea; Souza, Luciano M; Branco, Jeronimo C; Oliveira, Jacqueline F de; Silva, Ricardo A da; Portela, Luis V; Lara, Diogo R; Jansen, Karen; Oses, Jean P

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of alcohol abuse and/or dependence in a population-based sample of young adults and assess the prevalence of comorbid mood disorders, anxiety, and suicide risk in this population. This cross-sectional, population-based study enrolled 1,953 young adults aged 18-35 years. The CAGE questionnaire was used to screen for alcohol abuse and/or dependence, with CAGE scores ≥ 2 considered positive. Psychiatric disorders were investigated through the structured Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI). Alcohol abuse and/or dependence was identified in 187 (9.60%) individuals (5.10% among women and 15.20% among men). Alcohol abuse and/or dependence were more prevalent among men than women, as well as among those who used tobacco, illicit drugs or presented with anxiety disorder, mood disorder, and suicide risk. These findings suggest that alcohol abuse and/or dependence are consistently associated with a higher prevalence of psychiatric comorbidities, could be considered important predictors of other psychiatric disorders, and deserve greater public heath attention, pointing to the need for alcohol abuse prevention programs.

  3. The Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS): The association between birthplace, acculturation and alcohol abuse and dependence across Hispanic national groups

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Raul; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Rodriguez, Lori A.

    2009-01-01

    Hispanics are heterogeneous in national origin, evidenced by wide ranges of alcohol abuse and dependence rates across different Hispanic national groups. This paper examines associations between 12-month rates of DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence with birthplace and acculturation. The 2006 Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey, using a multistage cluster sample design, interviewed 5,224 adults (18+ years) in five selected U.S. metropolitan areas: Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston, and Los Angeles. Comprehensive data on drinking behavior were collected and the analyses include bivariate and multivariate regression techniques. Alcohol abuse and dependence rates were higher among U.S.-born Puerto Ricans and South/Central Americans compared to their foreign-born counterparts, while no such differences were found for Cuban and Mexican Americans. Overall, those with higher acculturation report higher rates of abuse and dependence (statistically significant only for abuse among Puerto Ricans). Risk factors for abuse include being male and being in the high acculturation group. Risk factors for dependence include being male, being Puerto Rican or Mexican American, having less than a college education, and being U.S.-born. Hispanics were found to share several common risk factors with the larger U.S. population for abuse and dependence, such as male gender, lower education, and lower income. PMID:18945554

  4. The Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS): the association between birthplace, acculturation and alcohol abuse and dependence across Hispanic national groups.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Raul; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Rodriguez, Lori A

    2009-01-01

    Hispanics are heterogeneous in national origin, evidenced by wide ranges of alcohol abuse and dependence rates across different Hispanic national groups. This paper examines associations between 12-month rates of DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence with birthplace and acculturation. The 2006 Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey, using a multistage cluster sample design, interviewed 5224 adults (18+ years) in five selected U.S. metropolitan areas: Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston, and Los Angeles. Comprehensive data on drinking behavior were collected and the analyses include bivariate and multivariate regression techniques. Alcohol abuse and dependence rates were higher among U.S.-born Puerto Ricans and South/Central Americans compared to their foreign-born counterparts, while no such differences were found for Cuban and Mexican Americans. Overall, those with higher acculturation report higher rates of abuse and dependence (statistically significant only for abuse among Puerto Ricans). Risk factors for abuse include being male and being in the high acculturation group. Risk factors for dependence include being male, being Puerto Rican or Mexican American, having less than a college education, and being U.S.-born. Hispanics were found to share several common risk factors with the larger U.S. population for abuse and dependence, such as male gender, lower education, and lower income.

  5. MAOA genotype, family relations and sexual abuse in relation to adolescent alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Kent W; Comasco, Erika; Åslund, Cecilia; Nordquist, Niklas; Leppert, Jerzy; Oreland, Lars

    2011-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate MAOA gene-environment (G*E) interactions in relation to adolescent alcohol consumption. In the county of Västmanland, Sweden, all 17-18-year-old students were asked to complete an anonymous questionnaire and provide a saliva sample during class hours. A total of 2263 students completed the questionnaire (77.4%) and a saliva sample was provided by 2131 participants. Failed MAOA u-variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) genotype analyses and internal non-responses left 851 boys and 735 girls (total n=1586) to be investigated. Alcohol use disorder identification test was used to measure hazardous alcohol consumption. MAOA u-VNTR was used to measure biological risk in interaction with poor family relations and experience of sexual abuse. The model was also adjusted for non-independent socioeconomic variables, separated parents, type of housing and parental unemployment. Results showed that the MAOA u-VNTR, in interaction with psychosocial risk factors, such as the quality of family relations and sexual abuse, was related to high alcohol consumption among adolescents. Girls, carrying the long MAOA u-VNTR variant showed a higher risk of being high alcohol consumers, whereas among boys, the short allele was related to higher alcohol consumption. The present study supports the hypothesis that there is a relation between MAOA u-VNTR and alcohol consumption and that this relation is modulated by environmental factors. Furthermore, the present study also supports the hypothesis that there is a sex difference in the G*E interaction. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  6. Alcohol and drug abusers' reasons for seeking treatment.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, J A; Sobell, L C; Sobell, M B; Gaskin, J

    1994-01-01

    Clients at two different treatment facilities were asked at assessment how influential each of 10 possible reasons were in their decision to change their alcohol or drug use. Clients at both facilities most often endorsed "weighing the pros and cons of drinking or drug use" and a "warning from spouse." Client's reasons for seeking treatment were also examined in relation to treatment compliance. Three reasons--"weighing the pros and cons," "hitting rock bottom," and experiencing a "major lifestyle change"--were predictive of treatment compliance. Clients who rated any of these reasons as influential were more likely to enter and complete treatment. Although more research is needed, knowledge of clients' reasons for seeking treatment might be useful in treatment matching.

  7. Exploring the Role of Self-Esteem and Parenting Patterns on Alcohol Use and Abuse Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Glozah, Franklin N.

    2014-01-01

    The type of parental child-rearing practices used by parents and guardians substantially influence children’s self-esteem and consequently their decision to engage in alcohol use, its abuse. The aim of this study was to explore the role of self-esteem and parenting patterns on alcohol use and abuse among adolescents. Three hundred and sixteen boys and girls in Senior High Schools completed self-report questionnaires assessing self-esteem, parenting patterns and alcohol use and abuse. The results showed that while girls reported lesser self-esteem than boys, boys reported higher levels of alcohol use and abuse than girls. Also, authoritative parenting pattern had a positive effect on self-esteem and a negative effect on alcohol use. On the other hand, authoritarian and permissive parenting patterns had negative effects on self-esteem and positive effects on alcohol use, with slight variations. These results provide valuable information regarding strategies aimed at fostering parent-child relationship and rapport with the ultimate aim of bolstering the self-esteem of adolescents to subsequently eschew insalubrious behaviour, particularly alcohol use and abuse. PMID:26973951

  8. Exploring the Role of Self-Esteem and Parenting Patterns on Alcohol Use and Abuse Among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Glozah, Franklin N

    2014-11-06

    The type of parental child-rearing practices used by parents and guardians substantially influence children's self-esteem and consequently their decision to engage in alcohol use, its abuse. The aim of this study was to explore the role of self-esteem and parenting patterns on alcohol use and abuse among adolescents. Three hundred and sixteen boys and girls in Senior High Schools completed self-report questionnaires assessing self-esteem, parenting patterns and alcohol use and abuse. The results showed that while girls reported lesser self-esteem than boys, boys reported higher levels of alcohol use and abuse than girls. Also, authoritative parenting pattern had a positive effect on self-esteem and a negative effect on alcohol use. On the other hand, authoritarian and permissive parenting patterns had negative effects on self-esteem and positive effects on alcohol use, with slight variations. These results provide valuable information regarding strategies aimed at fostering parent-child relationship and rapport with the ultimate aim of bolstering the self-esteem of adolescents to subsequently eschew insalubrious behaviour, particularly alcohol use and abuse.

  9. 77 FR 33477 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... concerning individuals associated with the grant applications, the disclosure of which would constitute a... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; RFA-AA-12-007--Translational Research in Alcoholic Hepatitis (U01). Date: July 17-18, 2012. Time: 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant...

  10. PTSD symptom presentation among people with alcohol and drug use disorders: Comparisons by substance of abuse.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, Emily R; Wanklyn, Sonya; Stasiewicz, Paul R; Coffey, Scott F

    2018-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and substance use disorders (SUDs) commonly co-occur, and there is some evidence to suggest that PTSD symptom clusters are differentially related to various substances of abuse. However, few studies to date have compared PTSD symptom patterns across people with different types of SUDs, and fewer still have accounted for the presence of comorbidity across types of SUDs in understanding symptom patterns. Thus, in the current study, we use a treatment-seeking sample of people with elevated symptoms of PTSD and problem alcohol use to explore differential associations between past-year SUDs with active use and PTSD symptoms, while accounting for the presence of multiple SUDs. When comparing alcohol and drug use disorders, avoidance symptoms were elevated in those with alcohol use disorder, and hyperarousal symptoms were elevated in those who had a drug use disorder. In the subsample with alcohol use disorder, hyperarousal symptoms were elevated in people with co-occurring cocaine use disorders and numbing symptoms were elevated in people with co-occurring sedative/hypnotic/anxiolytic use disorder. These findings provide evidence for different symptom cluster patterns between PTSD and various types of SUDs and highlight the importance of examining the functional relationship between specific substances of abuse when understanding the interplay between PTSD and SUDs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Harm Reduction as “Continuum Care” in Alcohol Abuse Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Maremmani, Icro; Cibin, Mauro; Pani, Pier Paolo; Rossi, Alessandro; Turchetti, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is one of the most important risk factors for health and is a major cause of death and morbidity. Despite this, only about one-tenth of individuals with alcohol abuse disorders receive therapeutic intervention and specific rehabilitation. Among the various dichotomies that limit an effective approach to the problem of alcohol use disorder treatment, one of the most prominent is integrated treatment versus harm reduction. For years, these two divergent strategies have been considered to be opposite poles of different philosophies of intervention. One is bound to the search for methods that aim to lead the subject to complete abstinence; the other prioritizes a progressive decline in substance use, with maximum reduction in the damage that is correlated with curtailing that use. Reduction of alcohol intake does not require any particular setting, but does require close collaboration between the general practitioner, specialized services for addiction, alcohology services and psychiatry. In patients who reach that target, significant savings in terms of health and social costs can be achieved. Harm reduction is a desirable target, even from an economic point of view. At the present state of neuroscientific knowledge, it is possible to go one step further in the logic that led to the integration of psychosocial and pharmacological approaches, by attempting to remove the shadows of social judgment that, at present, are aiming for a course of treatment that is directed towards absolute abstention. PMID:26610535

  12. Pathophysiology of the Effects of Alcohol Abuse on the Endocrine System.

    PubMed

    Rachdaoui, Nadia; Sarkar, Dipak K

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol can permeate virtually every organ and tissue in the body, resulting in tissue injury and organ dysfunction. Considerable evidence indicates that alcohol abuse results in clinical abnormalities of one of the body's most important systems, the endocrine system. This system ensures proper communication between various organs, also interfacing with the immune and nervous systems, and is essential for maintaining a constant internal environment. The endocrine system includes the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis, and the hypothalamic-posterior pituitary axis, as well as other sources of hormones, such as the endocrine pancreas and endocrine adipose tissue. Alcohol abuse disrupts all of these systems and causes hormonal disturbances that may result in various disorders, such as stress intolerance, reproductive dysfunction, thyroid problems, immune abnormalities, and psychological and behavioral disorders. Studies in both humans and animal models have helped shed light on alcohol's effects on various components of the endocrine system and their consequences.

  13. Alcoholism and drug abuse--some legal issues for employers.

    PubMed

    Howard, G

    1990-05-01

    Three specific areas of the law concern employers faced with problems of addiction at the workplace. At common law an employer may be guilty of negligence where a person has suffered personal injuries or economic loss as a result of an act of negligence committed in the course of employment by an employee. An example would be an employee with a serious addiction to alcohol or drugs who caused an accident in the company car whilst on company business. Employers may also be guilty of a criminal offence for breach of a statutory duty. One such duty is to have a 'safe system of work'. Other statutory rights guarantee employees a right not to be unfairly dismissed and this includes employees with addiction problems. Lastly, employers must be careful not to break the contract of employment if, for example, an employee with an addiction problem were to be suspended from duty or have his company car withdrawn, even if this was a temporary measure only.

  14. Paternal and maternal alcohol abuse and offspring mental distress in the general population: the Nord-Trøndelag health study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The degree to which parental alcohol abuse is a risk factor for offspring mental distress is unclear, due to conflicting results of previous research. The inconsistencies in previous findings may be related to sample characteristics and lack of control of confounding or moderating factors. One such factor may be the gender of the abusing parent. Also, other factors, such as parental mental health, divorce, adolescent social network, school functioning or self-esteem, may impact the outcome. This study examines the impact of maternal and paternal alcohol abuse on adolescent mental distress, including potentially confounding, mediating or moderating effects of various variables. Methods Data from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study (HUNT), a Norwegian population based health survey, from 4012 offspring and their parents were analyzed. Parental alcohol abuse was measured by numerical consumption indicators and CAGE, whereas offspring mental distress was measured by SCL-5, an abbreviated instrument tapping symptoms of anxiety and depression. Statistical method was analysis of variance. Results Maternal alcohol abuse was related to offspring mental distress, whereas no effect could be shown of paternal alcohol abuse. Effects of maternal alcohol abuse was partly mediated by parental mental distress, offspring social network and school functioning. However, all effects were relatively small. Conclusions The results indicate graver consequences for offspring of alcohol abusing mothers compared to offspring of alcohol abusing fathers. However, small effect sizes suggest that adolescent offspring of alcohol abusing parents in general manage quite well. PMID:22708789

  15. The influences of parental divorce and maternal-versus-paternal alcohol abuse on offspring lifetime suicide attempt.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Ronald G; Alonzo, Dana; Hu, Mei-Chen; Hasin, Deborah S

    2017-05-01

    Research indicates that parental divorce and parental alcohol abuse independently increase likelihood of offspring lifetime suicide attempt. However, when experienced together, only parental alcohol abuse significantly increased odds of suicide attempt. It is unclear to what extent differences in the effect of maternal versus paternal alcohol use exist on adult offspring lifetime suicide attempt risk. This study examined the influences of parental divorce and maternal-paternal histories of alcohol problems on adult offspring lifetime suicide attempt. The sample consisted of participants from the 2001-2002 National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. The simultaneous effect of childhood or adolescent parental divorce and maternal and paternal history of alcohol problems on offspring lifetime suicide attempt was estimated using a logistic regression model with an interaction term for demographics and parental history of other emotional and behavioural problems. Parental divorce and maternal-paternal alcohol problems interacted to differentially influence the likelihood of offspring lifetime suicide attempt. Experiencing parental divorce and either maternal or paternal alcohol problems nearly doubled the likelihood of suicide attempt. Divorce and history of alcohol problems for both parents tripled the likelihood. Individuals who experienced parental divorce as children or adolescents and who have a parent who abuses alcohol are at elevated risk for lifetime suicide attempt. These problem areas should become a routine part of assessment to better identify those at risk for lifetime suicide attempt and to implement early and targeted intervention to decrease such risk. [Thompson RG Jr,Alonzo D, Hu M-C, Hasin DS. The influences of parental divorce and maternal-versus-paternal alcohol abuse on offspringlifetime suicide attempt. Drug Alcohol Rev 2017;36:408-414]. © 2016 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  16. Siblings, Parents, and Peers: A Longitudinal Study of Social Influences in Adolescent Risk for Alcohol Use and Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conger, Rand D.; Reuter, Martha A.

    1996-01-01

    Early adolescent alcohol use and abuse has become a public health issue. Research studies indicate that early adolescent drinking may lead to emotional, social, and academic impairments, health and developmental problems, and even death. This study emphasized the need to better understand the predisposing triggers of adolescent alcohol use…

  17. Dissecting the Role of Disturbed ER-Golgi Trafficking in Antivirals and Alcohol Abuse-Induced Pathogenesis of Liver Disorders.

    PubMed

    Ji, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    Antiviral drugs and alcohol abuse-induced organelle stresses have been linked to many disorders and the underlying molecular mechanisms are under intense investigations. This brief review communicates emerging evidence and research trends on how certain antivirals and alcohol affect ER-Golgi trafficking, which potentially impacts the function and integrity of the Golgi apparatus contributing to endoplasmic reticulum stress and cellular injury.

  18. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Acute Alcohol Effects on Men’s Sexual Aggression Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Kiekel, Preston A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Although research has established childhood sexual abuse (CSA) as a risk factor for men’s perpetration of sexual aggression, there has been little investigation of the factors undergirding this association. This study represents one of the first to use a laboratory-based sexual aggression analogue coupled with an alcohol administration protocol to investigate the pathways through which CSA and alcohol influence men’s self-reported sexual aggression intentions. Method After completing background questionnaires, male social drinkers (N = 220) were randomly assigned to a control, placebo, low alcohol dose or high alcohol dose condition. Following beverage consumption, participants read a sexual scenario in which the female partner refused to have unprotected sexual intercourse, after which they completed dependent measures. Results Path analysis indicated that men with a CSA history and intoxicated men perceived the female character as more sexually aroused and reported stronger sexual entitlement cognitions, both of which were in turn associated with greater condom use resistance and higher sexual aggression intentions. Exploratory analyses revealed that intoxication moderated the effects of CSA history on sexual entitlement cognitions, such that sexual entitlement cognitions were highest for men who had a CSA history and consumed alcohol. Conclusions Findings suggest that CSA history may facilitate sexual assault perpetration through its effects on in-the-moment cognitions, and that these effects may be exacerbated by alcohol intoxication. PMID:22754720

  19. Subpopulations of Older Foster Youths With Differential Risk of Diagnosis for Alcohol Abuse or Dependence*

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Thomas E.; Blakeslee, Jennifer E.; Lemon, Stephenie C.; Courtney, Mark E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Distinctive combinations of factors are likely to be associated with serious alcohol problems among adolescents about to emancipate from the foster care system and face the difficult transition to independent adulthood. This study identifies particular subpopulations of older foster youths that differ markedly in the probability of a lifetime diagnosis for alcohol abuse or dependence. Method: Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was applied to a large, representative sample (N = 732) of individuals, 17 years of age or older, placed in the child welfare system for more than 1 year. CART evaluated two exploratory sets of variables for optimal splits into groups distinguished from each other on the criterion of lifetime alcohol-use disorder diagnosis. Results: Each classification tree yielded four terminal groups with different rates of lifetime alcohol-use disorder diagnosis. Notable groups in the first tree included one characterized by high levels of both delinquency and violence exposure (53% diagnosed) and another that featured lower delinquency but an independent-living placement (21% diagnosed). Notable groups in the second tree included African American adolescents (only 8% diagnosed), White adolescents not close to caregivers (40% diagnosed), and White adolescents closer to caregivers but with a history of psychological abuse (36% diagnosed). Conclusions: Analyses incorporating variables that could be comorbid with or symptomatic of alcohol problems, such as delinquency, yielded classifications potentially useful for assessment and service planning. Analyses without such variables identified other factors, such as quality of caregiving relationships and maltreatment, associated with serious alcohol problems, suggesting opportunities for prevention or intervention. PMID:20946738

  20. 76 FR 59708 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel, Systems Biology of HIV/AIDS and Substance Use--RFA DA12-009..., PhD, Chief, Extramural Project Review Branch, EPRB, NIAAA, National Institutes of Health, 5365...

  1. 76 FR 32978 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; NIAAA Member Conflict Applications--Epidemiology and Behavioral Sciences. Date: June 14, 2011. Time: 11 a.m. to 1 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate grant applications...

  2. Identifying effective components of alcohol abuse prevention programs: effects of fear appeals, message style, and source expertise.

    PubMed

    Stainback, R D; Rogers, R W

    1983-04-01

    Despite the importance of alcohol abuse prevention programs, the effectiveness of many components of these programs has not been demonstrated empirically. An experiment tested the efficacy of three components of many prevention programs: fear appeals, one- versus two-sided message style, and the expertise of the source. The persuasive impact of this information was examined on 113 ninth-grade students' intentions to abstain from drinking alcohol while they are teenagers. The results reveal that fear appeals are successful in strengthening students' intentions to refrain from drinking. Implications are discussed for implementing these principles and for designing future investigations of alcohol abuse prevention programs.

  3. The Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS): rates and predictors of alcohol abuse and dependence across Hispanic national groups.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Raul; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Rodriguez, Lori A

    2008-05-01

    The primary purpose of this article is to report 12-month prevalence rates and predictors of alcohol abuse and dependence among Mexican Americans, Cuban Americans, Puerto Ricans, and South/Central Americans living in the United States. Using a multistage cluster sample design, a total of 5,224 individuals 18 years of age and older were selected from the household population in five metropolitan areas of the United States: Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston, and Los Angeles. The survey weighted response rate was 76%. Personal interviews lasting an average of 1 hour were conducted in respondents' homes either in English or Spanish. There is considerable heterogeneity in rates of abuse and dependence across these national groups, with Mexican American and Puerto Rican men having higher rates than Cuban American and South/Central American men. The rates of dependence for Mexican American and Puerto Rican men are also higher than those for men in the U.S. general population. Further, although the highest rates of abuse and dependence are among those in their 20s, the rate decline with age is not as strong as in the U.S. population. Thus, Hispanics at older ages (40-49, 50-59) are at considerably more risk of dependence and its health consequences than the U.S. general population. This is particularly true of Puerto Rican and Mexican American men. Future analysis must take this heterogeneity into consideration by conducting national group-specific analysis. Prevention efforts must also be guided by these findings, which suggest that Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans are at higher risk for abuse, dependence, and the associated consequences than the other two groups of U.S. Hispanics.

  4. The Hispanic Americans Baseline Alcohol Survey (HABLAS): Rates and Predictors of Alcohol Abuse and Dependence Across Hispanic National Groups*

    PubMed Central

    CAETANO, RAUL; RAMISETTY-MIKLER, SUHASINI; RODRIGUEZ, LORI A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective The primary purpose of this article is to report 12-month prevalence rates and predictors of alcohol abuse and dependence among Mexican Americans, Cuban Americans, Puerto Ricans, and South/Central Americans living in the United States. Method Using a multistage cluster sample design, a total of 5,224 individuals 18 years of age and older were selected from the household population in five metropolitan areas of the United States: Miami, New York, Philadelphia, Houston, and Los Angeles. The survey weighted response rate was 76%. Personal interviews lasting an average of 1 hour were conducted in respondents’ homes either in English or Spanish. Results There is considerable heterogeneity in rates of abuse and dependence across these national groups, with Mexican American and Puerto Rican men having higher rates than Cuban American and South/Central American men. The rates of dependence for Mexican American and Puerto Rican men are also higher than those for men in the U.S. general population. Further, although the highest rates of abuse and dependence are among those in their 20s, the rate decline with age is not as strong as in the U.S. population. Thus, Hispanics at older ages (40–49, 50–59) are at considerably more risk of dependence and its health consequences than the U.S. general population. This is particularly true of Puerto Rican and Mexican American men. Conclusions Future analysis must take this heterogeneity into consideration by conducting national group-specific analysis. Prevention efforts must also be guided by these findings, which suggest that Puerto Ricans and Mexican Americans are at higher risk for abuse, dependence, and the associated consequences than the other two groups of U.S. Hispanics. PMID:18432387

  5. [Gender and accessibility barriers to treatment in alcohol abuse patients in the Autonomous Region of Valencia].

    PubMed

    Tomás-Dols, Sofía; Valderrama-Zurián, Juan Carlos; Vidal-Infer, Antonio; Samper-Gras, Teresa; Hernández-Martínez, Ma Carmen; Torrijo-Rodrigo, Ma José

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the factors that contribute to delaying the access of alcohol abuse patients to specific treatment centres in the Autonomous Region of Valencia (Spain). 563 patients from Addictive Behaviours Units (UCA) and Alcohology Units (UA) were interviewed. A survey was conducted which included items on previous requested treatment in other centres and on barriers of accessibility to treatment in specific ambulatory centres. A descriptive analysis and t-student and ANOVA with Scheffé post-hoc tests were carried out. 59.7% of respondents said they had requested previous treatment in non-specific resources due to physical or psychical trouble that they now relate to their alcohol use although they did not do so at the time, in addition to being motivated by their own alcohol abuse (42.8%). The most attended resources were Primary Care and Specialist Unit Care. Women showed a higher demand for treatment in Mental Health Services (p < 0,05). The most important treatment barriers were included in the axis "unawareness of illness and related problems" (2.2; dt = 0,6). Women obtained higher scores in the axes "stigmatisation and environment response" and "treatment intrinsic factors". gender differences in barriers that delay access to treatment do exist. It is necessary to build gender-adapted intervention guidelines to be used in Primary Care and Mental Health services to reduce the accessibility barriers to treatment.

  6. Pathophysiology of the Effects of Alcohol Abuse on the Endocrine System

    PubMed Central

    Rachdaoui, Nadia; Sarkar, Dipak K.

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol can permeate virtually every organ and tissue in the body, resulting in tissue injury and organ dysfunction. Considerable evidence indicates that alcohol abuse results in clinical abnormalities of one of the body’s most important systems, the endocrine system. This system ensures proper communication between various organs, also interfacing with the immune and nervous systems, and is essential for maintaining a constant internal environment. The endocrine system includes the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis, the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis, the hypothalamic–pituitary–growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis, and the hypothalamic–posterior pituitary axis, as well as other sources of hormones, such as the endocrine pancreas and endocrine adipose tissue. Alcohol abuse disrupts all of these systems and causes hormonal disturbances that may result in various disorders, such as stress intolerance, reproductive dysfunction, thyroid problems, immune abnormalities, and psychological and behavioral disorders. Studies in both humans and animal models have helped shed light on alcohol’s effects on various components of the endocrine system and their consequences. PMID:28988577

  7. Predictors of alcohol abusers' inconsistent self-reports of their drinking and life events.

    PubMed

    Toneatto, T; Sobell, L C; Sobell, M B

    1992-06-01

    Although considerable research supports the veridicality of alcohol abusers' self-reports, all studies find that some proportion of self-reports are inaccurate. Recently, a few studies have examined variables predictive of inaccurate self-reports and found considerable intersubject variability. The present study examined predictors of alcohol abusers' inconsistent reports of life events and drinking using test-retest reliability data from two questionnaires. Results indicated that inconsistent self-reports were associated with the type (i.e., objective versus subjective) and amount (i.e., more drinking involvement at the first interview was associated with greater discrepant reports at the second interview) of information to be recalled. It appears that the nature of the questions asked may be as much or more of a contributing factor to inaccurate self-reports as subject or setting factors, especially for individuals who report high levels of alcohol use, for whom special efforts may be necessary to gather valid self-report data.

  8. Correlates of probable alcohol abuse among women working in nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Tómasson, Kristinn; Gunnarsdóttir, Hólmfríethur; Rafnsdóttir, Guethbjörg; Helgadóttir, Berglind

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this nationwide study was to assess the prevalence of probable alcohol abuse (PAA) among women working in geriatric care, and to study its demographics, medical and work-related correlates. The employees of geriatric nursing homes and geriatric hospital wards in Iceland with 10 patients or more were invited to participate in this cross-sectional study. The response rate was 80% (n=1515), with 96% being women (n=1432). Men were consequently omitted from the study. Questions were included on demographics, psychosocial factors, workplace environment, health behavior, and medical history. PAA was defined as (a) having been given such a diagnosis by a physician, (b) having missed work because of drinking, or (c) if alcohol use was considered a problem by the employee herself, her family, friends, or the employer. A total of 4.8% of the employees fulfilled the criteria for PAA. These women were younger (41 vs. 45 years of age), more often single (25% vs. 15%) or divorced (13% vs. 9%), and less satisfied with work than the other women. Odds ratios for asthma, fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue, pain syndromes, mental disorders, and work-related accidents were elevated. Despite this, no differences were found concerning amount of sick leave. Their psychosocial work environment was worse but the physical work environment was the same. Women with probable alcohol abuse working in nursing homes have significant medical problems and psychosocial morbidity that is not reflected in more sick leave.

  9. Alcohol use and abuse in young adulthood: do self-control and parents' perceptions of friends during adolescence modify peer influence? The TRAILS study.

    PubMed

    Visser, Leenke; de Winter, Andrea F; Veenstra, René; Verhulst, Frank C; Reijneveld, Sijmen A

    2013-12-01

    To assess the influence of peer alcohol use during adolescence on young adults' alcohol use and abuse, and to assess to what extent parents' perception of their adolescent child's friends and adolescent's self-control modify this influence. We analyzed data from the first, third, and fourth wave of a population-based prospective cohort study of 2230 adolescents conducted between 2001 and 2010 (mean ages: 11.1, 16.3, and 19.1, respectively). Alcohol use and abuse were measured at T4 by self-report questionnaires and by the Composite International Diagnostics Interview (CIDI), respectively. Peer alcohol use, self-control, and parents' perception of their adolescent child's friends were measured at T3. We adjusted for gender, age, socioeconomic-status, parental alcohol use, and adolescent baseline alcohol use. Peer alcohol use during adolescence was related to young adults' alcohol use and abuse [odds ratio (95% confidence interval): 1.31 (1.11-1.54) and 1.50 (1.20-1.87), respectively]. Neither parents' perception of their adolescent child's friends nor self-control modified this relationship. Alcohol abusers were more likely to have low self-control than alcohol users. No differences were found between alcohol users and abusers regarding their parents' perception of their friends and peer alcohol use. Peer alcohol use during adolescence affects young adults' alcohol use and abuse. We found that self-control was only related to alcohol abuse. Peer influence was not modified by parents' perception of peers or by self-control. Peer alcohol use and self-control should thus be separate targets in the prevention of alcohol use/abuse. © 2013.

  10. Alcohol Myopia and Sexual Abdication among Women: Examining the Moderating Effect of Child Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Staples, Jennifer M.; George, William H.; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia

    2014-01-01

    HIV and other STIs are major public health concerns for women, and risky sexual behaviors increase the risk of transmission. Risky sexual behaviors include sexual abdication, that is, willingness to let a partner decide how far to go sexually. Alcohol intoxication is a risk factor for risky sexual behavior, and the Inhibition Conflict Model of Alcohol Myopia may help explain this relationship (Steele et al., 1985). This model suggests that in order for intoxication to influence behavior there must be high conflict, meaning the strength of the instigatory cues and inhibitory cues are both high. Recent research indicates that the degree to which cues are experienced as high in instigation or inhibition is subject to individual difference factors. One individual difference factor associated with alcohol-related sexual risk taking is child sexual abuse (CSA) history. The current study examined the influence of acute alcohol intoxication, CSA, and inhibition conflict on sexual abdication with 131 women (mean age 25) randomized into a 2 (alcohol, control) x 2 (high conflict, low conflict) experimental design. Regression analyses yielded a significant 3-way interaction, F (1,122) = 8.15, R2 = .14, p <.01. When there was high conflict, intoxicated CSA women were more likely to abdicate than sober CSA women, however, sober CSA women were less likely to abdicate than sober NSA women. When there was low conflict, CSA history and alcohol intoxication had no influence on abdication. These results may help explain the association between alcohol and risky sexual decision making among women with CSA. PMID:25310825

  11. Alcohol myopia and sexual abdication among women: examining the moderating effect of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Staples, Jennifer M; George, William H; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia R

    2015-02-01

    HIV and other STIs are major public health concerns for women, and risky sexual behaviors increase the risk of transmission. Risky sexual behaviors include sexual abdication, that is, willingness to let a partner decide how far to go sexually. Alcohol intoxication is a risk factor for risky sexual behavior, and the Inhibition Conflict Model of Alcohol Myopia may help explain this relationship. This model suggests that in order for intoxication to influence behavior there must be high conflict, meaning the strength of the instigatory cues and inhibitory cues are both high. Recent research indicates that the degree to which cues are experienced as high in instigation or inhibition is subject to individual difference factors. One individual difference factor associated with alcohol-related sexual risk taking is child sexual abuse (CSA) history. The current study examined the influence of acute alcohol intoxication, CSA, and inhibition conflict on sexual abdication with 131 women (mean age 25) randomized into a 2 (alcohol, control)×2 (high conflict, low conflict) experimental design. Regression analyses yielded a significant 3-way interaction, F (1,122)=8.15, R(2)=.14, p<.01. When there was high conflict, intoxicated CSA women were more likely to abdicate than sober CSA women, however, sober CSA women were less likely to abdicate than sober NSA women, when there was low conflict, CSA history and alcohol intoxication had no influence on abdication. These results may help explain the association between alcohol and risky sexual decision making among women with CSA. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 77 FR 16246 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute on... and Alcoholism Special Emphasis Panel; Longitudinal Studies on the Impact of Adolescent Drinking on the Adolescent Brain. Date: April 16-17, 2012 Time: 8 a.m. to 8 p.m. Agenda: To review and evaluate...

  13. 77 FR 43604 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... attendance limited to space available. Individuals who plan to attend and need special assistance, such as... and the discussions could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as.... (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs; 93.701, ARRA...

  14. 76 FR 78015 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-15

    ... attendance limited to space available. Individuals who plan to attend and need special assistance, such as... applications and the discussions could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as... . (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards for...

  15. 75 FR 47819 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... attendance limited to space available. Individuals who plan to attend and need special assistance, such as... applications and the discussions could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as... Domestic Assistance Program Nos.: 93.271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards for Scientists and...

  16. 77 FR 24726 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ... attendance limited to space available. Individuals who plan to attend and need special assistance, such as... applications and the discussions could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as... Assistance Program Nos. 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs; 93.701, ARRA Related Biomedical Research and...

  17. 78 FR 45541 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... attendance limited to space available. Individuals who plan to attend and need special assistance, such as... applications and the discussions could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as.... (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.273, Alcohol Research Programs, National Institutes...

  18. 76 FR 39406 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... attendance limited to space available. Individuals who plan to attend and need special assistance, such as... applications and the discussions could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as.... (Catalogue of Federal Domestic Assistance Program Nos. 93.271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards for...

  19. 75 FR 80511 - National Institute on Alcohol Abuse And Alcoholism; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... attendance limited to space available. Individuals who plan to attend and need special assistance, such as... applications and the discussions could disclose confidential trade secrets or commercial property such as... Domestic Assistance Program Nos.: 93.271, Alcohol Research Career Development Awards for Scientists and...

  20. Lights! Camera! Action Projects! Engaging Psychopharmacology Students in Service-based Action Projects Focusing on Student Alcohol Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol abuse continues to be an issue of major concern for the health and well-being of college students. Estimates are that over 80% of college students are involved in the campus “alcohol culture.” Annually, close to 2000 students die in the United States due to alcohol-related accidents, with another 600,000 sustaining injury due to alcohol-related incidents (NIAAA, 2013). Students enrolled in a Psychopharmacology course engaged in action projects (community outreach) focused on alcohol abuse on our campus. Research has indicated that these types of projects can increase student engagement in course material and foster important skills, including working with peers and developing involvement in one’s community. This paper describes the structure and requirements of five student outreach projects and the final projects designed by the students, summarizes the grading and assessment of the projects, and discusses the rewards and challenges of incorporating such projects into a course. PMID:27385923

  1. Lights! Camera! Action Projects! Engaging Psychopharmacology Students in Service-based Action Projects Focusing on Student Alcohol Abuse.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol abuse continues to be an issue of major concern for the health and well-being of college students. Estimates are that over 80% of college students are involved in the campus "alcohol culture." Annually, close to 2000 students die in the United States due to alcohol-related accidents, with another 600,000 sustaining injury due to alcohol-related incidents (NIAAA, 2013). Students enrolled in a Psychopharmacology course engaged in action projects (community outreach) focused on alcohol abuse on our campus. Research has indicated that these types of projects can increase student engagement in course material and foster important skills, including working with peers and developing involvement in one's community. This paper describes the structure and requirements of five student outreach projects and the final projects designed by the students, summarizes the grading and assessment of the projects, and discusses the rewards and challenges of incorporating such projects into a course.

  2. Interaction between a functional MAOA locus and childhood sexual abuse predicts alcoholism and antisocial personality disorder in adult women.

    PubMed

    Ducci, F; Enoch, M-A; Hodgkinson, C; Xu, K; Catena, M; Robin, R W; Goldman, D

    2008-03-01

    Women who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have an increased risk of alcoholism and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD). Among male subjects, a functional polymorphism (MAOA-LPR, monoamine oxidase A linked polymorphic region) in the promoter region of the monoamine oxidase A gene (MAOA) appears to moderate the effect of childhood maltreatment on antisocial behavior. Our aim was to test whether MAOA-LPR influences the impact of CSA on alcoholism and ASPD in a sample of 291 women, 50% of whom have experienced CSA; we also tested whether haplotypes covering the region where both MAOA and monoamine oxidase B (MAOB) genes are located predict risk of alcoholism and ASPD better than the MAOA-LPR locus alone. Participants included 168 alcoholics (39 with ASPD (antisocial alcoholics) and 123 controls (no alcoholics, no ASPD). Antisocial behavior was also modeled as a continuous trait: ASPD symptoms count. The MAOA-LPR low activity allele was associated with alcoholism (P=0.005), particularly antisocial alcoholism (P=0.00009), only among sexually abused subjects. Sexually abused women who were homozygous for the low activity allele had higher rates of alcoholism and ASPD, and more ASPD symptoms, than abused women homozygous for the high activity allele. Heterozygous women displayed an intermediate risk pattern. In contrast, there was no relationship between alcoholism/antisocial behavior and MAOA-LPR genotype among non-abused women. The MAOA-LPR low activity allele was found on three different haplotypes. The most abundant MAOA haplotype containing the MAOA-LPR low activity allele was found in excess among alcoholics (P=0.008) and antisocial alcoholics (P=0.001). Finally, a MAOB haplotype, which we termed haplotype C, was significantly associated with alcoholism (P=0.006), and to a lesser extent with antisocial alcoholism (P=0.03). In conclusions, MAOA seems to moderate the impact of childhood trauma on adult psychopathology in female subjects in the same way

  3. The Impact of Alcoholics Anonymous on other substance abuse related Twelve Step programs

    PubMed Central

    Laudet, Alexandre B.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter explores the influence of the AA model on self-help fellowships addressing problems of drug dependence. Fellowships that have adapted the 12-step recovery model to other substances of abuse are reviewed; next similarities and differences between AA and drug-recovery 12-step organizations are examined; finally, we present empirical findings on patterns of attendance and perceptions of AA and Narcotics Anonymous (NA) among polydrug dependent populations, many of whom are cross-addicted to alcohol. Future directions in 12-step research are noted in closing. PMID:19115764

  4. Tobacco cessation with patients recovering from alcohol and other substance abuse.

    PubMed

    McIlvain, H E; Bobo, J K

    1999-09-01

    This article focuses on the problem of tobacco cessation in the patient recovering from alcohol or other substance abuse. The authors review the epidemiology of the problem, specific health risks to this population from continued tobacco use, and recent research findings that address previous treatment concerns. Recommendations for counseling by physicians are made. These include an algorithm for determining the patient's stage of readiness for making a quit attempt, specific counseling tasks based on the patients stage, and motivational counseling strategies aimed at increasing the patients motivation to quit.

  5. [Diagnostics and treatment of Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome patients with an alcohol abuse].

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Maria; Sonne, Charlotte

    2013-04-01

    Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome is a condition with high morbidity and mortality and occurs as a consequence of thiamine deficiency. Clinical symptoms are often ambiguous and post-mortem examinations show that the syndrome is underdiagnosed and probably undertreated. There is sparse clinical evidence concerning optimal dosage and duration of treatment. This article reviews the current literature and concludes that all patients with a history of alcohol abuse should be treated with high dosage IV thiamine for an extended period of time, albeit further research is needed.

  6. The effects of paracetamol (acetaminophen) on hepatic tests in patients who chronically abuse alcohol - a randomized study.

    PubMed

    Dart, R C; Green, J L; Kuffner, E K; Heard, K; Sproule, B; Brands, B

    2010-08-01

    Retrospective accounts suggest that therapeutic doses of paracetamol can produce severe hepatic injury in patients with putative high-risk conditions, including alcoholism and infectious hepatitis. Metabolism of paracetamol to its hepatotoxic metabolite is enhanced in patients who abuse alcohol, who also have compromised liver defences from depressed hepatic glutathione. To determine the effect of paracetamol on serum liver tests of newly abstinent subjects who abuse alcohol, including subjects with hepatitis C infection. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Adult alcohol abusers with a current drinking episode longer than 7 days received either placebo or paracetamol 4 g/day for 5 days. Of 142 subjects enrolled, 74 received paracetamol and 68 received placebo. Mean ALT activity during treatment increased from 48 to 62 IU/L in the paracetamol group and from 47 to 49 IU/L in the placebo group. Maximum ALT was 238 and 249 IU/L in the paracetamol and control groups respectively. The INR remained unchanged and serum bilirubin decreased in both groups. Subgroup analyses for subjects with alcoholic hepatitis, hepatitis C virus antibody and other subgroups showed no statistical difference between groups. Administration of paracetamol 4 g/day appears safe in newly abstinent patients who abuse alcohol.

  7. Alcohol involvement in opioid pain reliever and benzodiazepine drug abuse-related emergency department visits and drug-related deaths - United States, 2010.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher M; Paulozzi, Leonard J; Mack, Karin A

    2014-10-10

    The abuse of prescription drugs has led to a significant increase in emergency department (ED) visits and drug-related deaths over the past decade. Opioid pain relievers (OPRs) and benzodiazepines are the prescription drugs most commonly involved in these events. Excessive alcohol consumption also accounts for a significant health burden and is common among groups that report high rates of prescription drug abuse. When taken with OPRs or benzodiazepines, alcohol increases central nervous system depression and the risk for overdose. Data describing alcohol involvement in OPR or benzodiazepine abuse are limited. To quantify alcohol involvement in OPR and benzodiazepine abuse and drug-related deaths and to inform prevention efforts, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and CDC analyzed 2010 data for drug abuse-related ED visits in the United States and drug-related deaths that involved OPRs and alcohol or benzodiazepines and alcohol in 13 states. The analyses showed alcohol was involved in 18.5% of OPR and 27.2% of benzodiazepine drug abuse-related ED visits and 22.1% of OPR and 21.4% of benzodiazepine drug-related deaths. These findings indicate that alcohol plays a significant role in OPR and benzodiazepine abuse. Interventions to reduce the abuse of alcohol and these drugs alone and in combination are needed.

  8. The 5-HT7 receptor as a potential target for treating drug and alcohol abuse

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Sheketha R.; Hedlund, Peter B.; Roberts, Amanda J.; Sari, Youssef; Bell, Richard L.; Engleman, Eric A.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol and drug abuse take a large toll on society and affected individuals. However, very few effective treatments are currently available to treat alcohol and drug addiction. Basic and clinical research has begun to provide some insights into the underlying neurobiological systems involved in the addiction process. Several neurotransmitter pathways have been implicated and distinct reward neurocircuitry have been proposed—including the mesocorticolimbic dopamine (MCL-DA) system and the extended amygdala. The serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmitter system is of particular interest and multiple 5-HT receptors are thought to play significant roles in alcohol and drug self-administration and the development of drug dependence. Among the 5-HT receptors, the 5-HT7 receptor is currently undergoing characterization as a potential target for the treatment of several psychiatric disorders. Although this receptor has received only limited research regarding addictive behaviors, aspects of its neuroanatomical, biochemical, physiological, pharmacological, and behavioral profiles suggest that it could play a key role in the addiction process. For instance, genomic studies in humans have suggested a link between variants in the gene encoding the 5-HT7 receptor and alcoholism. Recent behavioral testing using high-affinity antagonists in mice and preliminary tests with alcohol-preferring rats suggest that this receptor could mediate alcohol consumption and/or reinforcement and play a role in seeking/craving behavior. Interest in the development of new and more selective pharmacological agents for this receptor will aid in examining the 5-HT7 receptor as a novel target for treating addiction. PMID:25628528

  9. 12-Step Treatment for Alcohol and Substance Abuse Revisited: Best Available Evidence Suggests Lack of Effectiveness or Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, John Clark

    2008-01-01

    Approaches incorporating 12-Step beliefs and practices have dominated substance abuse treatment despite a lack of empirical support. Recent claims for effectiveness relying on results from a large, multisite research project in the U.S. were re-evaluated based on critical analysis of design, methodology, and construction of outcome measures.…

  10. Heroin and cocaine abusers have higher discount rates for delayed rewards than alcoholics or non-drug-using controls.

    PubMed

    Kirby, Kris N; Petry, Nancy M

    2004-04-01

    To test a prediction of the discounting model of impulsiveness that discount rates would be positively associated with addiction. The delay-discount rate refers to the rate of reduction in the present value of a future reward as the delay to that reward increases. We estimated participants' discount rates on the basis of their pattern of choices between smaller immediate rewards ($11-80) and larger, delayed rewards ($25-85; at delays from 1 week to 6 months) in a questionnaire format. Participants had a one-in-six chance of winning a reward that they chose on one randomly selected trial. Heroin (n = 27), cocaine (n = 41) and alcohol (n = 33) abusers and non-drug-using controls (n = 44) were recruited from advertisements. They were tested in a drug abuse research clinic at a medical school. On average, the cocaine and heroin groups had higher rates than controls (both P < 0.001), but alcoholics did not (P = 0.44). Abstinence was associated with lower rates for heroin abusers (P = 0.03), but not for cocaine or alcohol abusers (both P > 0.50). These data suggest that discount rates vary with the preferred drug of abuse, and that high discount rates should be considered in the development of substance abuse prevention and treatment efforts.

  11. Socio-demographic characteristics associated with cigarettes smoking, drug abuse and alcohol drinking among male medical university students in Iran.

    PubMed

    Jalilian, Farzad; Karami Matin, Behzad; Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Ataee, Mari; Ahmadi Jouybari, Touraj; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Mirzaei Alavijeh, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Substance abuse is one of the most complicated social problems. Understanding socio-demographic characteristics of those who abuse substances could help deal with this problem more efficiently. The main objective of this study was to determine socio-demographic characteristics associated with alcohol drinking, cigarettes smoking and drug abuse among a sample of male medical university students in Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted in 2014 among 425 male medical college students randomly selected with the proportional to size among different faculties in Isfahan and Kermanshah medical universities in Iran. A self-report written questionnaire was applied to collect data. Data were analyzed by the SPSS-20. Mean age of the respondents was 19.9 yr (ranging from 18 to 22 yr). About 19.4%, 3.9%, and 10.1% of the respondents had history of cigarette smoking, drug use, and alcohol drinking during the past three months, respectively. Logistic regression showed that mother's educational level, living place, economic status, and parents' divorce were the most influential predictive factors on substance abuse. Considering the high prevalence of substance abuse (especially smoking and alcohol drinking), it seems essential to design educational interventions to prevent substance abuse, paying attention to predictive factors mentioned above, among college students.

  12. Prevention of Alcohol Abuse in American Families. Hearing before the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

    This document is the text of a Congressional hearing called to examine prevention of alcohol abuse in American families. In her opening statement, Representative Lindy Boggs states that alcohol abuse is related to many problems confronting families including divorce, violence, and behavioral emotional problems and that the purpose of this hearing…

  13. Adolescent Friend Similarity on Alcohol Abuse as a Function of Participation in Romantic Relationships: Sometimes a New Love Comes between Old Friends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan

    2016-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that adolescents with romantic partners are less similar to their friends on rates of alcohol abuse than adolescents without romantic partners. Participants (662 girls, 574 boys) ranging in age from 12 to 19 years nominated friends and romantic partners, and completed a measure of alcohol abuse. In hierarchical…

  14. Liver Transplantation and Abuse of Drugs and Alcohol: A Correlation Between Scales of the MMPI-2.

    PubMed

    Rocco, M; Prinzi, G; Campagna, E; Battaglia, T; Barucco, T; Polchi, S; Kisialiou, A; Colasanti, M; Felli, E; Lepiane, P; Santoro, R; Vennarecci, G; Ettorre, G M

    2016-03-01

    Clinical practice requires an accurate psychological assessment of subjects with clinical history of alcohol abuse and/or substance abuse (abuse history [AH]) for therapeutic choice. This study aims to identify significant correlations between the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)-2 scales in patients awaiting liver transplantation. We evaluated a personality questionnaire containing MMPI-2 scales in the sample of 308 patients (81.8% males and 18.2% females) awaiting liver transplantation. The AH group composed 44.49% of patients and in the abuse free (AF) group, 55.51%. Scales were compared using Shapiro-Wilk test and Mann-Whitney U test. Interrelationships were examined using Spearman's correlation. This analysis found 27 scales of the MMPI-2 that were statistically different between 2 groups (AF and AH). In the AH group, we found a significant correlation between the following pairs of scales: Schizophrenia Scale (Sc) with the Addictions Potential Scale, Social Introversion scale (Si) with the Psychopathic Deviate scale (Pd), and Social Discomfort scale with Pd; the ES scale was negatively correlated with the Sc and Si scales. This interim study showed that the understanding of these indicators is crucial both for the assessment accuracy and for a prediction of the degree of therapy compliance after the transplantation. The scales of the MMPI-2 indicated a marked tendency to emotional rigidity, a lack of self-esteem and susceptibility judgment. Social introversion and social discomfort trends lead to impulsive behavior and deviant actions that combine poorly with good compliance with treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Genome wide analysis of rare copy number variations in alcohol abuse or dependence.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-López, Julio; Flórez, Gerardo; Blanco, Vanessa; Pereiro, César; Fernández, José Manuel; Fariñas, Emilio; Estévez, Valentín; Gómez-Trigo, Jesús; Gurriarán, Xaquín; Calvo, Raquel; Sáiz, Pilar; Vázquez, Fernando Lino; Arrojo, Manuel; Costas, Javier

    2018-06-02

    Genetics plays an important role in alcohol abuse/dependence. Its heritability has been estimated as 45-65%. Rare copy number variations (CNVs) have been confirmed as relevant genetic factors in other neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders, schizophrenia, epilepsy, or Tourette syndrome. In the present study, we analyzed the role of rare CNVs affecting exons of coding genes in a sample from Northwest Spain genotyped using the Illumina Infinium PsychArray Beadchip. After rigorous genotyping quality control procedure, 712 patients with alcohol abuse or dependence and 804 controls were used for CNV detection. CNV calling was performed using PennCNV and cnvPartition, and analyses were restricted to CNVs of at least 100 kb and including at least 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms. Logistic regression was used to test for the effect of CNV as well as number of genes affected by CNVs on case/control status, after adjustment for demographic and experimental covariates. We have found an excess of deletions (p = 0.008) and genes affected by deletions (p = 0.017) in cases. This effect was restricted to the 14.8% of affected genes that are intolerant to loss-of-function mutations (gene count p = 0.009). The importance of this subset of genes is emerging in other psychiatric disorders of neurodevelopmental origin, suggesting that disturbance in neurodevelopment mediated by genetic alterations may be a risk factor for alcohol use disorder. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse and Social Network Patterns on Social Media: Associations With Alcohol Use and Problems Among Young Adult Women

    PubMed Central

    Oshri, Assaf; Himelboim, Itai; Kwon, Josephine A.; Sutton, Tara E.; Mackillop, James

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the present study was to examine the links between severities of child abuse (physical vs. sexual), and alcohol use versus problems via social media (Facebook) peer connection structures. Method: A total of 318 undergraduate female students at a public university in the United States reported severity of child abuse experiences and current alcohol use and problems. Social network data were obtained directly from the individuals’ Facebook network. Results: Severity of childhood physical abuse was positively linked to alcohol use and problems via eigenvector centrality, whereas severity of childhood sexual abuse was negatively linked to alcohol use and problems via clustering coefficient. Conclusions: Childhood physical and sexual abuse were linked positively and negatively, respectively, to online social network patterns associated with alcohol use and problems. The study suggests the potential utility of these online network patterns as risk indices and ultimately using social media as a platform for targeted preventive interventions. PMID:26562592

  17. Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse and Social Network Patterns on Social Media: Associations With Alcohol Use and Problems Among Young Adult Women.

    PubMed

    Oshri, Assaf; Himelboim, Itai; Kwon, Josephine A; Sutton, Tara E; Mackillop, James

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the links between severities of child abuse (physical vs. sexual), and alcohol use versus problems via social media (Facebook) peer connection structures. A total of 318 undergraduate female students at a public university in the United States reported severity of child abuse experiences and current alcohol use and problems. Social network data were obtained directly from the individuals' Facebook network. Severity of childhood physical abuse was positively linked to alcohol use and problems via eigenvector centrality, whereas severity of childhood sexual abuse was negatively linked to alcohol use and problems via clustering coefficient. Childhood physical and sexual abuse were linked positively and negatively, respectively, to online social network patterns associated with alcohol use and problems. The study suggests the potential utility of these online network patterns as risk indices and ultimately using social media as a platform for targeted preventive interventions.

  18. Amphetamine Dependence and Co-Morbid Alcohol Abuse: Associations to Brain Cortical Thickness

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Long-term amphetamine and methamphetamine dependence has been linked to cerebral blood perfusion, metabolic, and white matter abnormalities. Several studies have linked methamphetamine abuse to cortical grey matter reduction, though with divergent findings. Few publications investigate unmethylated amphetamine's potential effects on cortical grey matter. This work investigated if amphetamine dependent patients showed reduced cortical grey matter thickness. Subjects were 40 amphetamine dependent subjects and 40 healthy controls. While all subjects were recruited to be free of alcohol dependence, structured clinical interviews revealed significant patterns of alcohol use in the patients. Structural magnetic resonance brain images were obtained from the subjects using a 1.5 Tesla GE Signa machine. Brain cortical thickness was measured with submillimeter precision at multiple finely spaced cortical locations using semi-automated post-processing (FreeSurfer). Contrast analysis of a general linear model was used to test for differences between the two groups at each cortical location. In addition to contrasting patients with controls, a number of analyses sought to identify possible confounding effects from alcohol. Results No significant cortical thickness differences were observed between the full patient group and controls, nor between non-drinking patients and controls. Patients with a history of co-morbid heavy alcohol use (n = 29) showed reductions in the superior-frontal right hemisphere and pre-central left hemisphere when compared to healthy controls (n = 40). Conclusions Amphetamine usage was associated with reduced cortical thickness only in patients co-morbid for heavy alcohol use. Since cortical thickness is but one measure of brain structure and does not capture brain function, further studies of brain structure and function in amphetamine dependence are warranted. PMID:20487539

  19. Alcohol abuse management in primary care: an e-learning course.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Celina Andrade; Wen, Chao Lung; Tavares, Hermano

    2015-03-01

    The mental health knowledge gap challenges public health. The Alcohol Abuse Management in Primary Care (AAMPC) is an e-learning course designed to cover alcohol-related problems from the primary care perspective. The goal of this study was to verify if the AAMPC was able to enhance healthcare professionals' alcohol-related problems knowledge. One hundred subscriptions for the AAMPC were offered through the federal telehealth program. The course was instructor-led and had nine weekly classes, delivered synchronously or asynchronously, at the students' convenience, using a varied array of learning tools. At the beginning, students took a test that provided a positive score, related to critical knowledge for clinical management, and a negative score, related to misconceptions about alcohol-related problems. The test was repeated 2 months after course completion. Thirty-three students completed the course. The positive score improved significantly (p<0.001), but not the negative score. Students with previous experience with e-courses presented greater improvement on the positive score (p<0.036). Eighty-percent of the students thought the course excelled in meeting its objectives. Web conferences and video and audio recordings were the most appreciated learning tools. Course satisfaction was negatively related to frequency of Internet access (Spearman's rho=-0.455, p=0.022). E-learning was highly appreciated as a learning tool, especially by students with the least frequency of Internet use. Nonetheless, it worked better for those previously familiar with e-courses. The AAMPC e-course provided effective knowledge transmission and retention. Complementary strategies to reduce misconceptions about alcohol-related problems must be developed for the training of primary care staff.

  20. Managed alcohol as a harm reduction intervention for alcohol addiction in populations at high risk for substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Muckle, Wendy; Muckle, Jamie; Welch, Vivian; Tugwell, Peter

    2012-12-12

    at high risk for alcohol abuse attending MAP, defined as a structured programme that provided clients with controlled amounts of alcohol on a daily schedule, comparing no treatment, moderate drinking, brief intervention or 12-step variants. All study citations were collated into a single database. Two review author independently screened titles and abstracts and selected references potentially relevant to the review. Differences between selection lists were resolved by discussion. Two review authors independently evaluated whether studies should be included or excluded according to the eligibility criteria. In the event of a disagreement, a third author was consulted. No studies were included in the review. This systematic review was intended to assess the effectiveness of a brief MAP on the reduction of incidence of harmful behaviour; however, no evidence was available to make this comparison; 22 articles were considered possibly relevant and all were excluded. Most articles were excluded because they failed to compare or consider managed alcohol as the experimental or control intervention, as well as one study (Baker 2010), which was also excluded because study participants were under 18 years of age. No study reviewed offered an intervention that was compared with managed alcohol or considered it as the intervention of interest, providing insufficient evidence to address the objectives of the review. Four studies (Aalto 2001; Baker 2010; Bertholet 2005; Tracy 2007) considered alcohol reduction as an outcome of interest, while four engaged interventions in a shelter setting or targeted vulnerable people (Baker 2010; Bradford 2005; Lapham 1993; McGlynn 1993); only one study (Kidd 2011) offered a qualitative assessment of a participant being admitted to MAP, but offered no analysis of the programme itself. These results accurately reflect the use of MAPs in current practice as existing programmes are ongoing only in a small number of sample pilot projects that target

  1. Decreased IGF-I bioavailability after ethanol abuse in alcoholics: partial restitution after short-term abstinence.

    PubMed

    Röjdmark, S; Brismar, K

    2001-01-01

    IGF-I stimulates protein synthesis, lowers blood glucose, and affects cell differentiation. The main production site of IGF-I is the liver. One of its binding proteins, IGFBP-1, is also produced by the liver. It is well known that ethanol affects the function of the human liver. Long-term alcohol abuse may therefore not only cause considerable IGF-I and IGFBP-1 production changes, but also changes in IGF-I bioavailability, which at least in part is determined by the IGF-I/IGFBP-1 ratio. Not much is known about how the bioavailability of IGF-I is changed in alcohol abusers. Therefore, the objective of this investigation was to study that matter, and to elucidate how abstinence affects IGF-I bioavailability in man. Three study groups were formed: group N including normal non-addicted subjects, group E ethanol abusers without gross liver insufficiency, and group C alcohol abusers with liver cirrhosis and ascites. Serum concentrations of insulin, GH, IGF-1, and IGFBP-1 were determined in the morning in all participants, and the IGF-I/IGFBP-1 ratios were calculated. These values were compared in the three study groups. In group E comparison was also made between values recorded in the ethanol intoxicated and in the detoxicated states. Patients in group C had low IGF-I levels, high IGFBP-1 levels, and low IGF-I bioavailability as reflected by the IGF-I/IGFBP-1 ratios, which were several-fold reduced compared with subjects in group N (0.6+/-0.2 vs 10.2+/-2.3; p<0.001). Patients in group E had also a low IGF-I/IGFBP-1 ratio in the acute ethanol intoxicated state, which increased after detoxication (from 1.5+/-0.4 to 5.6+/-1.2; p<0.01). It is concluded that alcohol abuse lowers the hepatic production of IGF-I and increases the production of IGFBP-1. This results in a reduced IGF-I bioavailability. However, in patients with not yet clinically apparent liver damage the IGF-I bioavailability increases if the alcohol abuse is stopped. These findings could reflect an important

  2. An Examination of Problems and Solutions Related to the Chronic "Revolving Door" Alcohol Abuser. DHSS Planning Guideline #1, Task Assignment #1.11. Long-Term Support, Chronic Alcoholism and Other Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick, John W.; Houden, Dorothy

    This report contains recommendations of a Wisconsin Task Assignment Steering Committee created to explore solutions to some significant problems facing adult chronic "revolving-detox-door" alcohol abusers (CRA's), persons with repeated admissions for detoxification services; and to examine the system that serves and funds them. This…

  3. Early Predictors of Alcohol Abuse: A Study of the Relationships Between Interests, Values and Personality Variables From the 1960 TALENT Data Base and Alcohol Abuse in Later Life. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Richard A.

    In 1960, Project TALENT gathered demographic, cognitive, and socio-pyschological data from a nationwide sample of high school students. In addition, responses from a saturation sample of 16,000 cases in Knox County, Tennessee were collected. The relationships between attitudes, personality traits, and subsequent alcohol abuse (as shown by Knox…

  4. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism and the study of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. The International Consortium.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, Faye; Attilia, Maria Luisa; Spagnolo, Primavera Alessandra; Rotondo, Claudia; Mancinelli, Rosanna; Ceccanti, Mauro

    2006-01-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a large and rapidly increasing public health problem worldwide. Aside the full-blown FAS, multiple terms are used to describe the continuum of effects that result from prenatal exposure to alcohol, including the whole fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). The revised Institute of Medicine (IOM) Diagnostic Classification System and the diagnostic criteria for FAS and FASD are reported, as well as the formation of the four-state FAS International Consortium and its aims, as the development of an information base that systematizes data collection that helps to determine at-high-risk populations, and to implement and test a scientific-based prevention/intervention model for at risk women. The Consortium was further enlarged, with the inclusion of some more states (including Italy), leading to the formation of the International Consortium for the Investigation of FASD. The objectives of the Consortium are reported, as well as its previous activities, the South Africa and Italy Projects (active case ascertainment initiatives), and its future activities.

  5. Patterns of Alcohol Abuse, Depression, and Intimate Partner Violence Among Township Mothers in South Africa Over 5 Years.

    PubMed

    Davis, Emily C; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Weichle, Thomas W; Rezai, Roxana; Tomlinson, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Alcohol is a major contributor to the global burden of disease. In South Africa, alcohol abuse is hypothesized to correlate with women's HIV status, mental health, and partner relationships over time. All pregnant women in 12 urban, low-income, Cape Town neighborhoods were interviewed at baseline, post-birth, and at 6, 12, 36, and 60 months following delivery with retention rates from 82.5 to 94%. Women were assessed for any alcohol use, problematic drinking, depression, intimate partner violence, and HIV status. Prior to pregnancy discovery and 5 years after giving birth, alcohol use was 25.8 and 24.7%, respectively. Most women decreased their alcohol use during pregnancy. Twenty-one percent reported alcohol use on two or more assessments, and only 15% of the mothers drinking alcohol at 5 years were also drinking at baseline. Mothers with depression had a higher likelihood of drinking alcohol compared to mothers who were not depressed only at baseline and 6 months post-birth. Mothers who experienced IPV had more than twice the likelihood of drinking alcohol compared to non-IPV mothers at all assessments. HIV positive mothers were more likely to drink alcohol compared to mothers without HIV prior to pregnancy discovery and at 5 years post-birth. These longitudinal trends in alcohol use among young women in South Africa represent a large economic, social, and health burden and must be addressed in a comprehensive manner.

  6. Are Outness and Community Involvement Risk or Protective Factors for Alcohol and Drug Abuse Among Sexual Minority Women?

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Brian A; Dyar, Christina; London, Bonita

    2017-07-01

    Sexual minority women (SMW) are at increased risk for substance abuse compared to heterosexual women. Two psychosocial factors that have been implicated in SMW's substance abuse are outness and LGBT community involvement, but findings have been mixed as to whether these are risk or protective factors. One possible explanation is that they may have different consequences for subgroups of SMW (lesbians, bisexual women, and queer women). While being open about one's sexual orientation and involved in the community may be protective for lesbians, discrimination against bisexual women may lead these same factors to contribute to substance abuse for bisexual women. It is unclear how these associations will operate for queer women, given limited research on this subpopulation. The current study examined whether sexual identity moderated the associations between outness and community involvement with alcohol and drug abuse. We also examined whether perceived discrimination would help explain why these associations may be different for subgroups of SMW. A sample of 288 self-identified SMW (113 lesbians, 106 bisexual women, and 69 queer women) completed an online survey. Higher outness was associated with higher alcohol and drug abuse for bisexual women, but not for lesbians or queer women. Similarly, higher community involvement was associated with higher drug abuse for bisexual women, but not for lesbians or queer women. Among bisexual women, the association between community involvement and drug abuse was mediated by perceived discrimination. Further, the association between outness and drug abuse was mediated by both community involvement and perceived discrimination. Findings demonstrate that outness and community involvement function as risk factors for substance abuse for bisexual women, in part due to their associations with discrimination.

  7. Validation of key behaviourally based mental health diagnoses in administrative data: suicide attempt, alcohol abuse, illicit drug abuse and tobacco use.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyungjin Myra; Smith, Eric G; Stano, Claire M; Ganoczy, Dara; Zivin, Kara; Walters, Heather; Valenstein, Marcia

    2012-01-23

    Observational research frequently uses administrative codes for mental health or substance use diagnoses and for important behaviours such as suicide attempts. We sought to validate codes (International Classification of Diseases, 9th edition, clinical modification diagnostic and E-codes) entered in Veterans Health Administration administrative data for patients with depression versus a gold standard of electronic medical record text ("chart notation"). Three random samples of patients were selected, each stratified by geographic region, gender, and year of cohort entry, from a VHA depression treatment cohort from April 1, 1999 to September 30, 2004. The first sample was selected from patients who died by suicide, the second from patients who remained alive on the date of death of suicide cases, and the third from patients with a new start of a commonly used antidepressant medication. Four variables were assessed using administrative codes in the year prior to the index date: suicide attempt, alcohol abuse/dependence, drug abuse/dependence and tobacco use. Specificity was high (≥ 90%) for all four administrative codes, regardless of the sample. Sensitivity was ≤75% and was particularly low for suicide attempt (≤ 17%). Positive predictive values for alcohol dependence/abuse and tobacco use were high, but barely better than flipping a coin for illicit drug abuse/dependence. Sensitivity differed across the three samples, but was highest in the suicide death sample. Administrative data-based diagnoses among VHA records have high specificity, but low sensitivity. The accuracy level varies by different diagnosis and by different patient subgroup.

  8. Association between alcohol, cannabis, and other illicit substance abuse and risk of developing schizophrenia: a nationwide population based register study.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, S M; Toftdahl, N G; Nordentoft, M; Hjorthøj, C

    2017-07-01

    Several studies have examined whether use of substances can cause schizophrenia. However, due to methodological limitations in the existing literature (e.g. selection bias and lack of adjustment of co-abuse) uncertainties still remain. We aimed to investigate whether substance abuse increases the risk of developing schizophrenia, addressing some of these limitations. The longitudinal, nationwide Danish registers were linked to establish a cohort of 3 133 968 individuals (105 178 673 person-years at risk), identifying 204 505 individuals diagnosed with substance abuse and 21 305 diagnosed with schizophrenia. Information regarding substance abuse was extracted from several registers and did not include psychotic symptoms caused by substance abuse in the definition. This resulted in a large, generalizable sample of exposed individuals. The data was analysed using Cox regression analyses, and adjusted for calendar year, gender, urbanicity, co-abuse, other psychiatric diagnosis, parental substance abuse, psychiatric history, immigration and socioeconomic status. A diagnosis of substance abuse increased the overall risk of developing schizophrenia [hazard ratio (HR) 6.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.84-6.26]. Cannabis (HR 5.20, 95% CI 4.86-5.57) and alcohol (HR 3.38, 95% CI 3.24-3.53) presented the strongest associations. Abuse of hallucinogens (HR 1.86, 95% CI 1.43-2.41), sedatives (HR 1.68, 95% CI 1.49-1.90), and other substances (HR 2.85, 95% CI 2.58-3.15) also increased the risk significantly. The risk was found to be significant even 10-15 years subsequent to a diagnosis of substance abuse. Our results illustrate robust associations between almost any type of substance abuse and an increased risk of developing schizophrenia later in life.

  9. [Alcohol].

    PubMed

    Zima, T

    1996-07-14

    Alcohol is one of the most widely used addictive substances. It can be assumed that everybody encounters alcohol--ethanol in various forms and concentrations in the course of their lives. A global and social problem of our civilization is alcohol consumption which has a rising trend. Since 1989 the consumption of alcoholic beverages is rising and the mean annual consumption of concentrated ethanol per head is cea 10 litres. In ethanol abuse the organism is damaged not only by ethanol alone but in particular by substances formed during its metabolism. Its detailed knowledge is essential for the knowledge and investigations of the metabolic and toxic effect of ethanol on the organism. Ingested alcohol is in 90-98% eliminated from the organism by three known metabolic pathways: 1-alcohol dehydrogenase, 2-the microsomal ethanol oxidizing system and 3-catalase. Alcohol is a frequent important risk factor of serious "diseases of civilization" such as IHD, hypertension, osteoporosis, neoplastic diseases. Cirrhosis of the liver and chronic pancreatitis are the well known diseases associated with alcohol ingestion and also their most frequent cause. It is impossible to list all organs and diseases which develop as a result of alcohol consumption. It is important to realize that regular and "relatively" small amounts in the long run damage the organism and may be even fatal.

  10. Health claims and other health-related statements in the labeling and advertising of alcohol beverages (99R-199P). Final rule, Treasury decision.

    PubMed

    2003-03-03

    TTB is amending the regulations to prohibit the appearance on labels or in advertisements of any health-related statement, including a specific health claim, that is untrue in any particular or tends to create a misleading impression. A specific health claim on a label or in an advertisement is considered misleading unless the claim is truthful and adequately substantiated by scientific evidence; properly detailed and qualified with respect to the categories of individuals to whom the claim applies; adequately discloses the health risks associated with both moderate and heavier levels of alcohol consumption; and outlines the categories of individuals for whom any levels of alcohol consumption may cause health risks. In addition, TTB will consult with the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), as needed, on the use of specific health claims on labels. If FDA determines that a specific health claim is a drug claim that is not in compliance with the requirements of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, TTB will not approve the use of such statement on a label. Health-related statements that are not specific health claims or health-related directional statements will be evaluated on a case-by-case basis to determine if they tend to mislead consumers. The final rule provides that health-related directional statements (statements that direct or refer consumers to a third party or other source for information regarding the effects on health of alcohol consumption) will be presumed misleading unless those statements include a brief disclaimer advising consumers that the statement should not encourage consumption of alcohol for health reasons, or some other appropriate disclaimer to avoid misleading consumers. TTB believes that the final regulations will ensure that labels and advertisements do not contain statements or claims that would tend to mislead the consumer about the significant health consequences of alcohol consumption.

  11. A Self-Evaluation Report of Wisconsin Public Schools, 1991-92: Comprehensive Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    This publication reports the progress Wisconsin school districts have made toward providing programs that address alcohol and other drug abuse. It begins with an explanation of the problem and a description of Wisconsin's model for addressing the problem. Progress within districts is measured using the model as a standard. Results are presented…

  12. HIV-TB Coinfection among 57 Million Pregnant Women, Obstetric Complications, Alcohol Use, Drug Abuse, and Depression.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Dorian; Salami, Imoleayo; Davis, Janelle; Mbah, Florence; Kazeem, Aisha; Ash, Abreah; Babino, Justin; Carter, Laquiesha; Salemi, Jason L; Spooner, Kiara K; Olaleye, Omonike A; Salihu, Hamisu M

    2018-01-01

    HIV and tuberculosis represent diseases of major public health importance worldwide. Very little is known about HIV-TB coinfection among pregnant women, especially from industrialized settings. In this study, we examined the association between TB, HIV, and HIV-TB coinfection among pregnant mothers and obstetric complications, alcohol use, drug abuse, and depression. We examined inpatient hospital discharges in the United States from January 1, 2002, through December 31, 2014. We employed multivariable survey logistic regression to generate adjusted estimates for the association between infection status and study outcomes. We analyzed approximately 57 million records of pregnant women and their delivery information. HIV-TB coinfection was associated with the highest risks for several obstetric complications, alcohol use, and drug abuse. The risk for alcohol abuse was more than twice as high among HIV-monoinfected as compared to TB-monoinfected mothers. That risk gap more than doubled with HIV-TB coinfection. Both HIV-monoinfected and HIV-TB coinfected mothers experienced similarly increased risks for depression. Mothers with HIV-TB coinfection experienced relatively heightened risks for obstetric complications, alcohol use, and drug abuse. The findings of this study underscore the importance of augmenting and enhancing social and structural support systems for HIV-TB coinfected pregnant women.

  13. Biological Maturation in Adolescence and the Development of Drinking Habits and Alcohol Abuse among Young Males: A Prospective Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersson, Tommy; Magnusson, David

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between biological maturation, as evidenced by skeletal growth, during adolescence and the development of drinking habits and alcohol abuse was studied for a representative group of Swedish males (N=88). Early and late maturers had more advanced drinking habits at age 14 years than did normally maturing subjects. (TJH)

  14. Perspectives on Research in Alcohol and Drug Abuse As It Relates to Special Education and Personnel Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Robert E.

    This paper reports on group discussion by 11 leaders in special education and related disciplines on research in alcohol and drug abuse, in relationship to the preparation of special education personnel. Five main themes emerged from the discussion: (1) prevention and drug education must be put into high gears; (2) systems change efforts,…

  15. College Student Alcohol Use and Abuse: Social Norms, Health Beliefs, and Selected Socio-Demographic Variables as Explanatory Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Champion, Denisha A.; Lewis, Todd F.; Myers, Jane E.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Surgeon General described college alcohol abuse as the most significant public health concern on university campuses (DHHS, 2007). Social norms have been identified as a strong predictor of college drinking and yet programs based on norms have had limited effectiveness in changing drinking behavior. Other theoretical explanations, such as…

  16. When Parents Have Problems: A Book for Teens and Older Children with an Abusive, Alcoholic, or Mentally Ill Parent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Susan B.

    This book was written for teenagers and older children who have abusive, alcoholic, or mentally ill parents. Emphasis is placed on young people in such situations using their intelligence, understanding that parents are fallible, viewing the future with optimism, facing reality, and seeing the good in other people rather than assuming everyone…

  17. "Helping Communities To Help Themselves." Twenty 1989 Exemplary Prevention Programs for Preventing Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse. Project Summaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors, Inc.

    Twenty exemplary substance abuse prevention programs are presented in this document. These programs are included: (1) Tuba City, Arizona, Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) Prevention Program; (2) Chemical Addiction Course, University of Arkansas; (3) "Teens Are Concerned" of Arkansas; (4) "Dare to be You of Colorado"; (5) Winyan…

  18. Are Some Individuals Diagnosed with ADHD Prone to Alcohol Abuse?: Consideration of Two Possible Mediating Factors for this Susceptibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Allison

    2013-01-01

    Some studies conducted on ADHD have found a statistically significant relationship between those diagnosed with the disorder and a higher susceptibility to abuse alcohol. However, other studies have found no such correlation, or have found this to be true of only a nonstatistically significant subset of the population of individuals with ADHD.…

  19. Alcohol and Drug Use, Abuse, and Dependence in Urban Areas and Colonias of the Texas-Mexico Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallisch, Lynn S.; Spence, Richard T.

    2006-01-01

    This study describes the prevalence of alcohol and drug use, abuse, and dependence among adults on the Texas-Mexico border in 2002-2003. The findings are based on survey responses from a random sample of 1,200 adults living in households in three communities: El Paso, a densely populated city in west Texas; the less dense urbanized areas of the…

  20. A Survey of Vocational Rehabilitation Counselors Concerning American Indian and Alaska Native Clients with Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schacht, Robert M.; Gaseoma, Lee

    1997-01-01

    Survey of 124 vocational rehabilitation (VR) counselors in 14 states examined characteristics of American Indian and Alaska Native VR clients with alcoholism or drug abuse problems, aspects of the counselor-client relationship, VR services provided, minimum period of sobriety required, counselor training and training needs, and ratings of…

  1. Network Directory. The Network of Colleges and Universities Committed to the Elimination of Drug and Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Vonnie

    This directory lists the over 1,500 members of the Network of Colleges and Universities Committed to the Elimination of Drug and Alcohol Abuse. The member colleges and universities are listed by state and within each state section listed alphabetically by institution. The listings show addresses, institution presidents, and contact persons with…

  2. Project Application Guidelines for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Program Funding. Student Services, Prevention, and Wellness Team. Bulletin No. 95202.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison. Bureau for Pupil Services.

    This publication provides information and application forms for alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA) funding. The contents include the following: Framework for Student Services, Prevention and Wellness; Abstracts of AODA Grants; Timetable for Grants; Criteria Applicable to all State AODA Grants; Criteria Specific to Aoda Program Grant; AODA…

  3. Introduction to Student Assistance Programs August, 1988. Alcohol and Drug Defense Program Substance Abuse Intervention 10-Hour Training Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    A complete outline is presented of a 2-day, 10-hour training program for establishing a student assistance program dealing with the problems of alcohol and drug abuse. The sessions are presented in the following sequence: (1) registration and introductions; (2) presentation of the problem; (3) clarification of expectations and establishment of a…

  4. The Effect of Alcohol Abuse and Dependence and School Experiences on Depression: A National Study of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merianos, Ashley L.; King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Hardee, Angelica M.

    2016-01-01

    The study purpose was to examine the effect alcohol abuse/dependence and school experiences have on depression among a nationwide sample of adolescents. A secondary analysis of the 2013 National Survey on Drug Use and Health was conducted. The results of the final multivariable logistic regression model revealed that adolescents who reported…

  5. Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse as Coexisting Disabilities: Considerations for Counselors Serving Individuals Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, D. Shane; Nelipovich, Michael; Sneed, Zach

    2002-01-01

    This article identifies the potential affect of alcohol and other drug abuse (AODA) on people who are blind or visually impaired, the barriers to providing effective AODA services for those people, and strategies for improving services for people with coexisting blindness or visual impairments and AODA. (Contains references.) (CR)

  6. 34 CFR 86.1 - What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What is the purpose of the Drug and Alcohol Abuse Prevention regulations? 86.1 Section 86.1 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education DRUG AND... the Drug-Free Schools and Communities Act Amendments of 1989, which added section 1213 to the Higher...

  7. The Development of a Sexual Abuse Severity Score: Characteristics of Childhood Sexual Abuse Associated with Trauma Symptomatology, Somatization, and Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zink, Therese; Klesges, Lisa; Stevens, Susanna; Decker, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is common and is associated with both mental and physical health problems in adulthood. Using data from an age- and sex-stratified population survey of 600 Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents, a Sexual Abuse Severity Score was developed. The abuse characteristics of 156 CSA respondents were associated with…

  8. Child sexual abuse, harmful alcohol use and age as determinants of sexual risk behaviours among freshmen in a Nigerian university.

    PubMed

    Olley, B O

    2008-08-01

    In Nigeria, freshmen constitute a risk group of adolescents and young adults capable of engaging in unsafe sexual practices. This study documents the associated factors to sexual risk behaviours practices of University of Ibadan, Nigeria freshmen. Eight hundred and forty one (841), freshmen who attended a routine orientation program were asked to respond to a questionnaire. Results showed that 30.8% were sexually active and 47% did not use condom in their last sexual episode. Associated with sexual risk behaviours include: being a male freshman increasing age; lower tendency for violence; increase sexual compulsivity; alcohol abuse; history of rape and a history of Child Sexual Abuse (CSA). Three variables: alcohol abuse; history of CSA and increasing age remained significant in a multiple regression analysis. The paper presents the first evidence of vulnerability of freshmen to sexual risk practices in a Nigerian University.

  9. Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) and Alcohol Abuse among South Carolina Adults.

    PubMed

    Crouch, Elizabeth; Radcliff, Elizabeth; Strompolis, Melissa; Wilson, Abygail

    2018-06-07

    Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) have been associated with negative adult health outcomes, including alcohol misuse. The impact of ACEs on alcohol use may vary by gender, with ACEs impacting women more than men in coping with adulthood stressors. The objective of this study is to examine the gender-specific relationships between ACEs and self-reported binge drinking and heavy drinking in adulthood among South Carolina residents. This study analyzed a sample of 8492 respondents who completed the 2014 or 2015 South Carolina Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey. Logistic regression was used to examine the impact of types and the number of ACEs on binge drinking and heaving drinking in adulthood. Thirty-seven percent of men and 22.8% of women survey respondents reported binge drinking and 12.2% of men and 4.1% of women reported heavy drinking. Almost all categories of ACE were associated with increased odds of reporting binge and heavy drinking; household mental illness had the greatest odds for men (aOR 1.31, 95% CI 1.30-1.33) and emotional abuse had the greatest odds for women (aOR 1.42, 95% CI 1.40-1.43). Men and women with four or more ACEs had greater odds of reporting binge and heavy drinking compared to their counterparts. Conclusions/Importance: Given the potential for negative outcomes associated with alcohol misuse and transmission of risky alcohol-related behaviors from parent to child, strategies that utilize a multigenerational approach could have a large impact on population health.

  10. Mothers with substance and alcohol abuse-support through pregnancy and early infancy.

    PubMed

    Nordenfors, Monica; Höjer, Ingrid

    2017-01-01

    This article is about the support given to pregnant women and mothers, at an antenatal and child welfare team in Gothenburg (Sweden), specialised on working with mothers who abuse alcohol and/or other substances. The study consists of interviews with 17 women. The aim of the article is to account for how the women experienced the support they got and how they perceived the impact. The results show the importance for the staff of finding the balance between control and support and of creating a non-judgmental attitude in order to build trusting relationships with the women. The organization of the MBHV-team is a prerequisite for the staff to be able to design support based on an assessment of the mother's whole situation.

  11. WHERE THE INDIVIDUAL MEETS THE ECOLOGICAL: A STUDY OF PARENT DRINKING PATTERNS, ALCOHOL OUTLETS AND CHILD PHYSICAL ABUSE

    PubMed Central

    Freisthler, Bridget; Gruenewald, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite well-known associations between heavy drinking and child physical abuse, little is known about specific risks related to drinking different amounts of alcohol in different drinking venues. This study uses a context specific dose-response model to examine how drinking in various venues (e.g., at bars or parties) are related to physically abusive parenting practices while controlling for individual and psychosocial characteristics. Methods Data were collected via a telephone survey of parents in 50 cities in California resulting in 2,163 respondents who reported drinking in the past year. Child physical abuse and corporal punishment were measured using the Conflict Tactics Scale, Parent Child version. Drinking behaviors were measured using continued drinking measures. Data were analyzed using zero inflated Poisson models. Results Drinking at homes, parties or bars more frequently was related to greater frequencies of physically abusive parenting practices. The use of greater amounts of alcohol in association with drinking at bars appeared to increase risks for corporal punishment, a dose-response effect. Dose-response relationships were not found for drinking at homes or parties or drinking at bars for physical abuse nor for drinking at home and parties for corporal punishment. Conclusion Frequencies of using drinking venues, particularly bars and home or parties, are associated with greater use of abusive parenting practices. These findings suggest that a parent’s routine drinking activities place children at different risks for being physically abused. They also suggest that interventions that take into account parents’ alcohol use at drinking venues are an important avenue for secondary prevention efforts. PMID:23316780

  12. Suicide risk and alcohol and drug abuse in outpatients with HIV infection and Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Patrícia M; Passos, Sonia R; Calvet, Guilherme A; Hökerberg, Yara H; Lessa, José L; Andrade, Carlos A de

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate psychiatric comorbidities in outpatients receiving care for HIV and Chagas disease at Instituto de Pesquisa Clínica Evandro Chagas (IPEC), Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Cross-sectional study with a consecutive sample of 125 patients referred to an outpatient psychiatric clinic from February to December 2010. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was used. Factors associated with more frequent mental disorders were estimated by odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) by multiple logistic regression. Seventy-six (60.8%) patients with HIV, 40 (32%) patients with Chagas disease, and nine (7.2%) patients with human T-lymphotropic virus were interviewed. The majority were women (64%), with up to 8 years of formal education (56%), and unemployed (81.6%). The median age was 49 years. Suicide risk (n=71) (56%), agoraphobia (n=65) (52%), major depressive episode (n=56) (44.8%), and alcohol/drug abuse (n=43) (34.4%) predominated, the latter being directly associated with lower family income (OR = 2.64; 95%CI 1.03-6.75) and HIV infection (OR = 5.24; 95%CI 1.56-17.61). Suicide risk was associated with non-white skin color (OR = 2.21; 95%CI 1.03-4.75), unemployment (OR = 2.72; 95%CI 1.01-7.34), and diagnosis of major depression (OR = 3.34; 95%CI 1.54-7.44). Measures targeting adverse socioeconomic conditions and psychiatric and psychological monitoring and care should be encouraged in this population, considering the association with abuse of alcohol/other psychoactive drugs and suicide risk.

  13. Qualitative analysis of high-risk drug and alcohol use situations among severely mentally ill substance abusers.

    PubMed

    Bradizza, Clara M; Stasiewicz, Paul R

    2003-01-01

    Situational factors have been found to influence relapse to alcohol and drug use in general samples of substance abusers. However, little research exists examining the influence of interpersonal and intrapersonal determinants in samples of individuals dually diagnosed with a severe mental illness (SMI) and a substance use disorder (SUD). This study assessed high-risk alcohol and drug use situations in dually diagnosed individuals using focus group methodology. Qualitative data analysis yielded 10 themes that encompassed 33 high-risk situations: Psychological symptoms, positive and negative affect, reminders of substance use, being around people who use drugs and alcohol, interpersonal conflict, offers of drugs or alcohol, experiencing loss, receiving money, loss of appetite, and being abstinent. These results suggest that individuals with an SMI and SUD experience a number of unique high-risk situations that differ from those reported by non-SMI substance abusers. This study provides the basis for future quantitative studies assessing the prevalence of these situations in representative samples of SMI alcohol and drug abusers. This information allows for the development of relapse assessment instruments and treatment strategies appropriate for this population. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  14. Association of Physical Activity with Alcohol Abuse and Dependence in a Nationally-Representative U.S. Sample.

    PubMed

    Damian, April Joy; Mendelson, Tamar

    2017-11-10

    Alcohol use is a pervasive and costly public health problem in the United States. Relapse rates from alcohol use disorders are high. Although exercise has been proposed as a strategy to prevent relapse, lifestyle modification is the least studied aspect of relapse prevention programs, especially among racial/ethnic minority populations. The current study assessed whether being physically active was associated with remission from alcohol abuse or dependence among Black (African American and Afro Caribbean) adults in the U.S. We utilized data on Black adult participants (n = 4,828) from the nationally representative National Survey of American Life (NSAL) conducted in 2001-2003. Logistic regression models were estimated to assess the odds of being in 12-month remission or currently meeting DSM-IV criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence based on level of physical activity, adjusting for socio-demographic and neighborhood characteristics. People who endorsed being physically active had higher odds of being in 12-month remission from alcohol use problems (OR: 1.67, 95% CI: 1.28, 2.17) than people who were physically inactive, adjusting for individual- and neighborhood-level characteristics. People who were physically active did not differ significantly from those who were inactive with respect to odds of currently meeting DSM-IV criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence. Conclusions/Importance: Physical activity was positively associated with being in 12-month remission from alcohol use problems. Longitudinal studies are needed to establish temporal ordering and to explore exercise as a potential relapse prevention strategy for alcohol use problems.

  15. Pathway from child sexual and physical abuse to risky sex among emerging adults: the role of trauma-related intrusions and alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kate; Latzman, Natasha E; Latzman, Robert D

    2014-04-01

    Some evidence suggests that risk reduction programming for sexual risk behaviors (SRB) has been minimally effective, which emphasized the need for research on etiological and mechanistic factors that can be addressed in prevention and intervention programming. Childhood sexual and physical abuse have been linked with SRB among older adolescents and emerging adults; however, pathways to SRB remain unclear. This study adds to the literature by testing a model specifying that traumatic intrusions after early abuse may increase risk for alcohol problems, which in turn may increase the likelihood of engaging in various types of SRB. Participants were 1,169 racially diverse college students (72.9% female, 37.6% black/African-American, and 33.6% white) who completed anonymous questionnaires assessing child abuse, traumatic intrusions, alcohol problems, and sexual risk behavior. The hypothesized path model specifying that traumatic intrusions and alcohol problems account for associations between child abuse and several aspects of SRB was a good fit for the data; however, for men, stronger associations emerged between physical abuse and traumatic intrusions and between traumatic intrusions and alcohol problems, whereas for women, alcohol problems were more strongly associated with intent to engage in risky sex. Findings highlight the role of traumatic intrusions and alcohol problems in explaining paths from childhood abuse to SRB in emerging adulthood, and suggest that risk reduction programs may benefit from an integrated focus on traumatic intrusions, alcohol problems, and SRB for individuals with abuse experiences. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  16. Smoking, Alcohol, Drug Use, Abuse and Dependence in Narcolepsy and Idiopathic Hypersomnia: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Barateau, Lucie; Jaussent, Isabelle; Lopez, Régis; Boutrel, Benjamin; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Basic experiments support the impact of hypocretin on hyperarousal and motivated state required for increasing drug craving. Our aim was to assess the frequencies of smoking, alcohol and drug use, abuse and dependence in narcolepsy type 1 (NT1, hypocretin-deficient), narcolepsy type 2 (NT2), idiopathic hypersomnia (IH) (non-hypocretin-deficient conditions), in comparison to controls. We hypothesized that NT1 patients would be less vulnerable to drug abuse and addiction compared to other hypersomniac patients and controls from general population. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study in French reference centres for rare hypersomnia diseases and included 450 adult patients (median age 35 years; 41.3% men) with NT1 (n = 243), NT2 (n = 116), IH (n = 91), and 710 adult controls. All participants were evaluated for alcohol consumption, smoking habits, and substance (alcohol and illicit drug) abuse and dependence diagnosis during the past year using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Results: An increased proportion of both tobacco and heavy tobacco smokers was found in NT1 compared to controls and other hypersomniacs, despite adjustments for potential confounders. We reported an increased regular and frequent alcohol drinking habit in NT1 versus controls but not compared to other hypersomniacs in adjusted models. In contrast, heavy drinkers were significantly reduced in NT1 versus controls but not compared to other hypersomniacs. The proportion of patients with excessive drug use (codeine, cocaine, and cannabis), substance dependence, or abuse was low in all subgroups, without significant differences between either hypersomnia disorder categories or compared with controls. Conclusions: We first described a low frequency of illicit drug use, dependence, or abuse in patients with central hypersomnia, whether Hcrt-deficient or not, and whether drug-free or medicated, in the same range as in controls. Conversely, heavy drinkers were

  17. Counselor Substance Abuse History, Client Fellowship, and Alcoholism Treatment Outcome. Brief Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machell, David F.

    There is an ongoing debate as to whether alcoholism counselors who are non-alcoholics can be as effective with alcoholic clients as counselors who are themselves recovering from alcoholism. This study compared the impact of the recovering alcoholic counselor and the non-alcoholic counselor on alcoholic clients' perceived belongingness with…

  18. Thiamine for prevention and treatment of Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome in people who abuse alcohol.

    PubMed

    Day, Ed; Bentham, Peter W; Callaghan, Rhiannon; Kuruvilla, Tarun; George, Sanju

    2013-07-01

    Autopsy studies suggest that Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (WKS) is not a rare disorder, particularly in individuals who abuse alcohol. Thiamine has been established as the treatment of choice for over 50 years, but uncertainty remains about appropriate dosage and duration. Current practice guidelines are based on case reports and clinical experience. This is an update of a review first published in 2004 and last updated in 2008. • To assess the efficacy of thiamine in preventing and treating the manifestations of WKS due to excess alcohol consumption. • To determine the optimum form, dose and duration of thiamine treatment for this indication. ALOIS, the Specialized Register of the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group (CDCIG), The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and LILACS were searched on 6 September 2012 using the term thiamine OR aneurine. ALOIS contains records from all major health care databases (The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, LILACS) as well as from many trial databases and grey literature sources. Any randomised trials comparing thiamine with alternative interventions or comparing different thiamine regimens (varying in formulation, dose or duration of administration). All abstracts were independently inspected by two reviewers (ED and PWB), and relevant articles were retrieved and assessed for methodological quality using criteria provided in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Two studies were identified that met the inclusion criteria, but only one contained sufficient data for quantitative analysis. Ambrose (2001) randomly assigned participants (n = 107) to one of five doses of intramuscular thiamine and measured outcomes after 2 days of treatment. We compared the lowest dose (5 mg/day) with each of the other four doses. A significant difference favoured 200 mg/day compared with the 5-mg/day dose in determining the number of trials needed to meet inclusion criteria

  19. Alcohol outlets and child physical abuse and neglect: applying routine activities theory to the study of child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Freisthler, Bridget; Midanik, Lorraine T; Gruenewald, Paul J

    2004-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine whether or not alcohol access in neighborhood areas is differentially related to substantiated reports of child physical abuse and neglect. This cross-sectional ecological study uses spatial regression procedures to examine the relationship between the number of bars, restaurants and off-premise outlets per population and rates of child physical abuse and neglect in 940 census tracts in California, while controlling for levels of social disorganization, population density and county of residence. The number of off-premise outlets per population was positively associated with rates of child physical abuse (b = 3.34, SE = 1.14), and the number of bars per population was positively related to rates of child neglect (b = 1.89, SE = 0.59). These results suggest that alcohol access is differentially related to type of child maltreatment, with higher densities of bars being related to higher rates of child neglect, and higher rates of off-premise outlets related to higher rates of child physical abuse. The findings suggest there is a spatial dynamic of neighborhoods that can result in child maltreatment and underscore the importance of examining the alcohol environment when developing programs to prevent child maltreatment.

  20. Central American mothers report family history of depression and alcohol abuse as a predictor of teenage health risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Maradiegue, Ann

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships of family history of depression and alcohol abuse as a predictor of health risk behaviors among Central American teenagers. Demographic data were collected from a convenience sample of 101 Central American mothers with a teenage daughter ages 12-17 years who were living in Northern Virginia. The research questions assessed the family history of depression, alcohol abuse, and maternal depression. Scores were calculated to predict risk of teenage health risk behaviors. The Hispanic mothers in this study reported that their teenagers had significant health risk behaviors, including school dropout and expulsion, alcohol and substance use, pregnancy, and gang membership. Family history of depression and alcohol abuse in a first degree relative predicted teenage risk behavior 71% of the time. There is no consensus on a standard screening approach for depression in teenagers. Developing a standardized approach to gathering information from teenagers that includes genetic family traits may have significant effects on interventions for teenage health risk behavior and ways to provide the best services for vulnerable teenagers. The results of this study have implications for nurse practitioners caring for teenagers. ©2010 The Author(s) Journal compilation ©2010 American Academy of Nurse Practitioners.

  1. Self-reported alcohol abuse in HIV-HCV co-infected patients: a better predictor of HIV virological rebound than physician's perceptions (HEPAVIH ARNS CO13 cohort).

    PubMed

    Marcellin, Fabienne; Lions, Caroline; Winnock, Maria; Salmon, Dominique; Durant, Jacques; Spire, Bruno; Mora, Marion; Loko, Marc-Arthur; Dabis, François; Dominguez, Stéphanie; Roux, Perrine; Carrieri, Maria Patrizia

    2013-07-01

    Studying alcohol abuse impact, as measured by physicians' perceptions and patients' self-reports, on HIV virological rebound among patients chronically co-infected with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Cohort study. Seventeen French hospitals. Five hundred and twelve patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) with an undetectable initial HIV viral load and at least two viral load measures during follow-up. Medical records and self-administered questionnaires. HIV virological rebound defined as HIV viral load above the limit of detection of the given hospital's laboratory test. Alcohol abuse defined as reporting to have drunk regularly at least 4 (for men) or 3 (for women) alcohol units per day during the previous 6 months. Correlates of time to HIV virological rebound identified using Cox proportional hazards models. At enrolment, 9% of patients reported alcohol abuse. Physicians considered 14.8% of all participants as alcohol abusers. Self-reported alcohol abuse was associated independently with HIV virological rebound [hazard ratio (95% confidence interval): 2.04 (1.13-3.67); P = 0.02], after adjustment for CD4 count, time since ART initiation and hospital HIV caseload. No significant relationship was observed between physician-reported alcohol abuse and virological rebound (P = 0.87). In France, the assessment of alcohol abuse in patients co-infected with HIV and hepatitis C virus should be based on patients' self-reports, rather than physicians' perceptions. Baseline screening of self-reported alcohol abuse may help identify co-infected patients at risk of subsequent HIV virological rebound. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  2. Alcohol Abuse Among U.S. Navy Recruits Who Were Maltreated in Childhood

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-28

    adolescents. Child Abuse and Neglect 20, 1219–1231. Clark, D. B., Lesnick, L. and Hegedus, A. M. (1997) Traumas and other adverse life events in...A. and Beebe, T. J. (1997) Multiple substance use among adolescent physical and sexual abuse victims. Child Abuse and Neglect 21, 529–539. Hernandez...Robertson, K. R. and Rogers, D. L. (1990) Childhood history of abuse and adult child abuse potential. Journal of Family Violence 5, 15–35. Rosen, L. N

  3. State of the art in hair analysis for detection of drug and alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Pragst, Fritz; Balikova, Marie A

    2006-08-01

    Hair differs from other materials used for toxicological analysis because of its unique ability to serve as a long-term storage of foreign substances with respect to the temporal appearance in blood. Over the last 20 years, hair testing has gained increasing attention and recognition for the retrospective investigation of chronic drug abuse as well as intentional or unintentional poisoning. In this paper, we review the physiological basics of hair growth, mechanisms of substance incorporation, analytical methods, result interpretation and practical applications of hair analysis for drugs and other organic substances. Improved chromatographic-mass spectrometric techniques with increased selectivity and sensitivity and new methods of sample preparation have improved detection limits from the ng/mg range to below pg/mg. These technical advances have substantially enhanced the ability to detect numerous drugs and other poisons in hair. For example, it was possible to detect previous administration of a single very low dose in drug-facilitated crimes. In addition to its potential application in large scale workplace drug testing and driving ability examination, hair analysis is also used for detection of gestational drug exposure, cases of criminal liability of drug addicts, diagnosis of chronic intoxication and in postmortem toxicology. Hair has only limited relevance in therapy compliance control. Fatty acid ethyl esters and ethyl glucuronide in hair have proven to be suitable markers for alcohol abuse. Hair analysis for drugs is, however, not a simple routine procedure and needs substantial guidelines throughout the testing process, i.e., from sample collection to results interpretation.

  4. Relationship between blood and urine alcohol concentrations in apprehended drivers who claimed consumption of alcohol after driving with and without supporting evidence.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alan Wayne; Kugelberg, Fredrik C

    2010-01-30

    For various reasons, many people suspected of driving under the influence of alcohol (DUIA) are not apprehended sitting behind the wheel, but some time after the driving. This gives them the opportunity to claim they drank alcohol after the time of driving or after they were involved in a road-traffic crash. Alleged post-offence drinking is not easy for the prosecution to disprove, which often means that the DUIA charge is dropped or the person is acquitted if the case goes to trial. The routine practice of sampling and measuring the concentration of alcohol in blood (BAC) and urine (UAC) and calculating urine/blood ratios (UAC/BAC) and the changes in UAC between two successive voids furnishes useful information to support or challenge alleged drinking after driving. We present here a retrospective case series of DUIA offenders (N=40) in half of which there was supporting evidence of an after-drink (eye witness or police reports) and in the other half no such evidence existed apart from the suspect's admission. When there was supporting evidence of an after-drink, the UAC/BAC ratio for the first void was close to or less than unity (mean 1.04, median 1.08, range 0.54-1.21) and the UAC increased by 0.21 g/L (range 0.02-0.57) between the two voids. Without any supporting evidence of post-offence drinking the mean UAC/BAC ratio was 1.46 (range 1.35-1.93) for the first void, verifying that absorption and distribution of alcohol in all body fluids and tissues was complete. In these cases, the UAC between successive voids decreased by 0.25 g/L on average (range 0.10-0.49), indicating the post-absorptive phase of the BAC curve. Long experience from investigating claims of post-offence drinking leads us to conclude that in the vast majority of cases this lacks any substance and is simply a last resort by DUIA offenders to evade justice. Unless supporting evidence exists (eye witness, police reports, etc.) of post-offence drinking the courts are encouraged to ignore this

  5. Adolescent Friend Similarity on Alcohol Abuse as a Function of Participation in Romantic Relationships: Sometimes a New Love Comes Between Old Friends

    PubMed Central

    DeLay, Dawn; Laursen, Brett; Bukowski, William M.; Kerr, Margaret; Stattin, Håkan

    2015-01-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that adolescents with romantic partners are less similar to their friend on rates of alcohol abuse than adolescents without romantic partners. Participants (662 girls, 574 boys) ranging in age from 12 to 19 years, nominated friends and romantic partners, and completed a measure of alcohol abuse. In hierarchical linear models, friends with romantic partners were less similar on rates of alcohol abuse than friends without romantic partners, especially if they were older and less accepted. Follow-up longitudinal analyses were conducted on a subsample (266 boys, 374 girls) of adolescents who reported friendships that were stable across two consecutive years. Associations between friend reports of alcohol abuse declined after adolescents became involved in a romantic relationship, to the point where they became more similar to their romantic partners than to their friends. PMID:26595356

  6. Diagnostic orphans: comparing self-report lifetime course to groups with DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence.

    PubMed

    McBride, Orla; Adamson, Gary; Bunting, Brendan; McCann, Siobhan

    2009-01-01

    Research has highlighted the significant alcohol symptoms and mental health problems experienced by diagnostic orphans - individuals who experience 1-2 criteria of DSM-IV alcohol dependence but do not meet the criteria for a DSM-IV alcohol use disorder. This study used a sub-sample (n=34827) from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), and formed mutually exclusive groups to compare the self-report retrospective course of diagnostic orphans to individuals with DSM-IV abuse and dependence. Multinomial logistic regressions were conducted to examine the associations between the groups and a range of demographic and clinical variables. Collectively, the findings demonstrate that diagnostic orphans shared similar characteristics to the abuse and dependence groups, but appeared to experience specific comorbid mental health problems. Orphan status has the potential to be a persistent condition and may result in significant dysfunction. In conclusion, diagnostic orphans represent a distinct group that may benefit from cost-effective treatment or intervention, designed to prevent the escalation of alcohol symptoms.

  7. Influence of alcohol and other substances of abuse at the time of injury among patients in a Norwegian emergency department.

    PubMed

    Bakke, Eirin; Bogstrand, Stig Tore; Normann, Per Trygve; Ekeberg, Øivind; Bachs, Liliana

    2016-06-08

    The presence of alcohol or other substances of abuse in blood or urine from injured patients is often used as a proxy for substance influence at the time of injury. The aim of this study was to obtain an estimate of substance influence at the time of injury based on blood concentrations of alcohol and other substances of abuse, and to explore the relationship between the substance prevalence at the time of admittance to the hospital and the actual influence at the time of the injury. The study included all adult patients admitted to the emergency department of a university hospital during 1 year (n = 996). Quantification in blood was done by an enzymatic method for alcohol, and by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for 28 other substances of abuse. Concentrations of alcohol and other substances in blood at the time of injury were calculated. The degree of influence was assessed on the basis of the calculated blood concentrations, with a threshold of influence set at a blood alcohol concentration (BAC) of 0.05 %, or a substance concentration leading to an influence similar to that of a BAC of 0.05 %. A total of 324 patients (32.5 %) were determined to be under the influence at the time of injury. In comparison, 394 patients (39.6 %) had one or more substances above the cut-off limit in blood at the time of admittance to the hospital. Alcohol was the most prevalent substance causing influence at 25.9 %. Among patients with violence-related injuries, almost 75 % were under the influence of alcohol and/or substances. Patients under the influence were younger, and men were more often under the influence than women. More patients were under the influence at nighttime and during weekends than at daytime and on weekdays. About one third of the injured patients were determined to be under the influence at the time of injury, with alcohol being the most prevalent substance causing influence. Approximately 98 % of the

  8. Mental health and migration: depression, alcohol abuse, and access to health care among migrants in Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Ismayilova, Leyla; Lee, Hae Nim; Shaw, Stacey; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Terlikbayeva, Assel; Rozental, Yelena

    2014-12-01

    One-fifth of Kazakhstan's population is labor migrants working in poor conditions with limited legal rights. This paper examines self-rated health, mental health and access to health care among migrant workers. Using geo-mapping, a random sample of internal and external migrant market workers was selected in Almaty (N = 450). We used survey logistic regression adjusted for clustering of workers within stalls. Almost half of participants described their health as fair or poor and reported not seeing a doctor when needed, 6.2% had clinical depression and 8.7% met criteria for alcohol abuse. Female external migrants were at higher risk for poor health and underutilization of health services. High mobility was associated with depression among internal migrants and with alcohol abuse among female migrant workers. This study demonstrates the urgent need to address health and mental health needs and improve access to health care among labor migrants in Central Asia.

  9. Smoking, Alcohol, Drug Use, Abuse and Dependence in Narcolepsy and Idiopathic Hypersomnia: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Barateau, Lucie; Jaussent, Isabelle; Lopez, Régis; Boutrel, Benjamin; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2016-03-01

    Basic experiments support the impact of hypocretin on hyperarousal and motivated state required for increasing drug craving. Our aim was to assess the frequencies of smoking, alcohol and drug use, abuse and dependence in narcolepsy type 1 (NT1, hypocretin-deficient), narcolepsy type 2 (NT2), idiopathic hypersomnia (IH) (non-hypocretin-deficient conditions), in comparison to controls. We hypothesized that NT1 patients would be less vulnerable to drug abuse and addiction compared to other hypersomniac patients and controls from general population. We performed a cross-sectional study in French reference centres for rare hypersomnia diseases and included 450 adult patients (median age 35 years; 41.3% men) with NT1 (n = 243), NT2 (n = 116), IH (n = 91), and 710 adult controls. All participants were evaluated for alcohol consumption, smoking habits, and substance (alcohol and illicit drug) abuse and dependence diagnosis during the past year using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. An increased proportion of both tobacco and heavy tobacco smokers was found in NT1 compared to controls and other hypersomniacs, despite adjustments for potential confounders. We reported an increased regular and frequent alcohol drinking habit in NT1 versus controls but not compared to other hypersomniacs in adjusted models. In contrast, heavy drinkers were significantly reduced in NT1 versus controls but not compared to other hypersomniacs. The proportion of patients with excessive drug use (codeine, cocaine, and cannabis), substance dependence, or abuse was low in all subgroups, without significant differences between either hypersomnia disorder categories or compared with controls. We first described a low frequency of illicit drug use, dependence, or abuse in patients with central hypersomnia, whether Hcrt-deficient or not, and whether drug-free or medicated, in the same range as in controls. Conversely, heavy drinkers were rare in NT1 compared to controls but not to other

  10. Tests of causal links between alcohol abuse or dependence and major depression.

    PubMed

    Fergusson, David M; Boden, Joseph M; Horwood, L John

    2009-03-01

    There has been a great deal of research on the comorbidity between alcohol abuse or dependence (AAD) and major depression (MD). However, it is unclear whether AAD increases the risk of MD or vice versa. To examine the associations between AAD and MD using fixed-effects modeling to control for confounding and using structural equation models to ascertain the direction of causality. Data were gathered during the course of the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a 25-year longitudinal study of a birth cohort of children from New Zealand (635 boys, 630 girls). General community sample. The analysis was based on a sample of 1055 participants with available data on AAD and MD at ages 17 to 18, 20 to 21, and 24 to 25 years. Symptom criteria for AAD and MD from the DSM-IV at ages 17 to 18, 20 to 21, and 24 to 25 years as well as measures of life stress, cannabis use, other illicit drug use, affiliation with deviant peers, unemployment, partner substance use, and partner criminality at ages 17 to 18, 20 to 21, and 24 to 25 years. There were significant (P < .001) pooled associations between AAD and MD. Controlling for confounding factors using conditional fixed-effects models and time-dynamic covariate factors reduced the magnitude of these associations, but they remained statistically significant. Structural equation modeling suggested that the best-fitting causal model was one in which AAD led to increased risk of MD. The findings suggest that the associations between AAD and MD were best explained by a causal model in which problems with alcohol led to increased risk of MD as opposed to a self-medication model in which MD led to increased risk of AAD.

  11. Using PANDA (Preventing the Abuse of Tobacco, Narcotics, Drugs, and Alcohol) in a Baltimore City Head Start Setting: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, Harolyn M. E.; Lockhart, Paula J.; Perkins-Parks, Susan; McNally, Margaret

    2000-01-01

    Describes an evaluation of a substance abuse prevention curriculum, Preventing the Abuse of Tobacco, Narcotics, Drugs, and Alcohol (PANDA), taught to African American Head Start preschool students, examining changes in children's self-concept following participation. Overall, students demonstrated significantly improved self-concept, and PANDA…

  12. Cultural Competence for Evaluators: A Guide for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Prevention Practitioners Working with Ethnic/Racial Communities. OSAP Cultural Competence Series 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orlandi, Mario A., Ed.; And Others

    As an introduction to a series on the array of issues in the implementation and evaluation of substance abuse prevention programs, this volume attempts to integrate two types of competence for alcohol and other drug abuse prevention program practitioners: program evaluation competence and cultural competence. The chapters in this document provide…

  13. Trends in sociodemographic and drug abuse variables in patients with alcohol and drug use disorders in a Nigerian treatment facility.

    PubMed

    Adamson, T A; Onifade, P O; Ogunwale, A

    2010-01-01

    Globally, patterns of the use of psychoactive substances have been changing. To evaluate the trend in two five year periods, 1992 to 1997 versus 2002 to 2007, of alcohol and substance use disorders and associated variables in patients admitted to a drug abuse treatment facility. This was a comparative cross-sectional study involving all patients admitted into Drug Abuse Treatment, Education, and Research (DATER), Unit of the Neuropsychiatric Hospital, Aro, Nigeria within the study period. All subjects had a structured psychiatric interview, a physical examination, laboratory investigations and DATER Questionnaire protocols that elicited socio-demographic, drug and family variables. The patients in 2002 to 2007 versus those of 1992 to 1997 were younger (chi squared 13.29; p,0.01). More last borns were using drugs by 2002 to 2007 (chi squared, 11.37; p,0.01). Cannabis was the most abused drug in 2002 to 2007 (53.5%) as compared to cocaine (44%) in 1992 to 1997 (chi squared 35.5; p,0.001). Polydrug abuse was high in the two periods but significantly the drug combination changed to cannabis in combination with alcohol in 2002 to 2007 as against cocaine in combination with opiates in 1992 to 1997 chi squared 45.3, p 0.001). More patients had co-morbid psychiatric disorders in 2000 to 2007 (67.6% as against 38.5% in 1992 to 1999 chi squared 28.32, p,0.001). In both periods, co-morbidity associated with cannabis use rather than any other drug of abuse as the odds ratio was greater than one. The findings in the trend in the two five year periods underscore the imperatives of continuous evaluation of the drug abuse patient population in treatment which may help drive changes in treatment inputs.

  14. The association between an abusive father-son relationship, quantity of alcohol consumption, and male-to-male alcohol-related aggression.

    PubMed

    Miller, Peter; Hargreaves, Jessica; Curtis, Ashlee; Zinkiewicz, Lucy

    2013-09-01

    While alcohol consumption and heavy episodic (binge) drinking are well-established predictors of male-to-male alcohol-related aggression (MMARA), the role of the father-son relationship in MMARA has yet to be explored. This study therefore examined whether fathering by the biological father rather than another father figure, negative fathering, and gender role modeled by the father figure were significant predictors of involvement in MMARA, once drinking frequency and quantity and heavy episodic drinking were controlled for. A total of 121 university students aged 18 to 25 years (M = 20.63, SD = 1.77 years) voluntarily completed the online questionnaire. The only significant predictors of perpetration of MMARA were a more abusive paternal relationship and drinking quantity (number of standard drinks usually consumed when drinking). Negative father-son relationships may play a role in fostering young men's perpetration of MMARA in the barroom context. Copyright © 2013 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  15. Neuropsychology of perpetrators of domestic violence: the role of traumatic brain injury and alcohol abuse and/or dependence.

    PubMed

    Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2013-12-01

    Neuropsychological impairments of the executive functions, memory, attention, intelligence quotient, and empathy have been found in perpetrators of domestic violence (intimate partner violence). These impairments could be partially explained by alcohol abuse, dependence, or traumatic brain injuries. This study reviews the neuropsychological deficits of perpetrators of intimate partner violence. At the same it seeks to integrate and relate these main points with their neuroanatomical correlates. We have also established the relationship between alcohol abuse, dependence, brain damage (including traumatic brain injuries) and those deficits. Scientific literature has been reviewed by means of Google Scholar, PsycINFO, PubMed, Medline and ISI Web of Knowledge. Perpetrators of domestic violence present high mental rigidity, as well as low levels of inhibition, processing speed, verbal and attention skills, and abstract reasoning. Additionally, perpetrators show working and long play memory impairments. Moreover, those deficits could be impaired by traumatic brain injuries and alcohol abuse and/or dependence. Nonetheless, these both variables are not enough to explain the deficits. Functional abnormalities on the prefrontal and occipital cortex, fusiform gyrus, posterior cingulate gyrus, hippocampus, thalamus and amygdala could be associated with these impairments. An analysis of these mechanisms may assist in the development of neuropsychological rehabilitation programmes that could help improve current therapies.

  16. An explorative, population-based study of female disability pensioners: the role of childhood conditions and alcohol abuse/dependence.

    PubMed

    Upmark, Marianne; Thundal, Kajsa-Lena

    2002-01-01

    This study investigates the association in women between conditions during childhood and adolescence and alcohol dependence or abuse in adulthood on the one hand, and disability pensions and long-term sickness absence on the other. A stratified population-based sample of women in Göteborg was interviewed. For analyses in this study the following variables were selected from the interview protocol: childhood and adolescence, education, employment, social class, self-rated physical health and alcohol dependence or abuse (ADA), with diagnoses assessed according to DSM-III-R. Information on disability pension and sickness absence was obtained from the local Social Insurance Office. Unfavourable conditions during childhood and adolescence and school difficulties as well as early deviant behaviours predicted disability pension and long-term sickness absence in adulthood. For most risk factors ADA could explain only a minor part of the odds ratios found in crude and age-adjusted analyses. It is concluded that conditions early in life are predictors in women of disability pension and long-term incapacity to work. There are similarities in the pattern of early risk factors for later alcohol dependence or abuse and for disability pension/long-term sickness absence.

  17. The mediating role of parent-child bonding to prevent adolescent alcohol abuse among Asian American families.

    PubMed

    Wang, Meme; Kviz, Frederick J; Miller, Arlene M

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe unique culturally-based factors that may increase the vulnerability of Asian American adolescents to engage in alcohol use and abuse and the role of parent-child bonding as a protective factor. In particular, this paper addresses the interactions among acculturation, alcohol use, and parent-child bonding and the challenges Asian American families face in strengthening parent-child bonds. We begin by examining likely causes for alienation that occur as a result of immigration to the United States. We then present the cultural context of Asian American families that can also serve to create distance between parent and child, including the contrasting cultural orientations of individualism and collectivism, Asian traditional values, differences in Eastern and Western parenting styles, and intergenerational cultural dissonance. Next, we present a review of the research that has examined acculturation as a risk factor for alcohol use and abuse among Asian American adolescents, with special attention to the mediating role of parent-child bonding. Finally, we conclude with recommendations for future research on the risk and protective factors for adolescent substance abuse, as well as other risky health behaviors among the growing population of Asian Americans in the United States.

  18. [Clinical Practice Guide for Early Detection, Diagnosis and Treatment of the Acute Intoxication Phase in Patients with Alcohol Abuse or Dependence: Part I: Screening, Early Detection and Risk Factors in Patients with Alcohol Abuse or Dependence].

    PubMed

    de la Espriella Guerrero, Ricardo; de la Hoz Bradford, Ana María; Gómez-Restrepo, Carlos; Zárate, Alina Uribe-Holguín; Menéndez, Miguel Cote; Barré, Michelle Cortés; Rentería, Ana María Cano; Hernández, Delia Cristina

    2012-12-01

    Worldwide, alcohol is the second most-used psychotropic substance and the third risk factor for early death and disability. Its noxious use is a world public health problem given its personal, labor, family, economic and social impact. 70 % of people under risk of having alcohol problems go undetected in medical practice, a fact that underlines the need for specific screening measures allowing early detection leading to timely treatment. This article presents evidence gathered by alcohol abuse and dependence screening as well as by risk factor identification and screening. It also presents evidence concerning withdrawal symptoms, delirium tremens and Wernicke's encephalopathy in order to promote early detection and timely treatment. Systematic revision of the evidence available together with an evaluation of pertinent guidelines found in literature so as to decide whether to adopt or adapt the existing recommendation for each question or to develop de novo recommendations. For de novo recommendations as well as those adapted, it was carried out an evidence synthesis, together with evidence tables and formulation of recommendations based on the evidence. Evidence was found and recommendations were made for the pertinent screening and search of risk factors, in order to perform a diagnosis and carry out a timely management of alcohol abuse, dependence and ensuing complications: withdrawal syndrome, delirium tremens and Wernicke's encephalopathy. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  19. From Knowledge to Action: How Harvard's College Alcohol Study Can Help Your Campus Design a Campaign against Student Alcohol Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wechsler, Henry; Nelson, Toben; Weitzman, Elissa

    2000-01-01

    Reports findings from the College Alcohol Study to help institutions develop intervention campaigns with binge drinking. Findings address the prevalence of binge drinking, the inadequacy of alcohol education alone, student support for tougher policies, the value of marginalizing the heaviest drinkers, the easy availability of low cost alcohol, the…

  20. 14 CFR 120.223 - Alcohol misuse information, training, and substance abuse professionals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... substance abuse professionals. 120.223 Section 120.223 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... misuse information, training, and substance abuse professionals. (a) Employer obligation to promulgate a... misuse. (c) Substance abuse professional (SAP) duties. The SAP must perform the functions set forth in 49...

  1. 14 CFR 120.223 - Alcohol misuse information, training, and substance abuse professionals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... substance abuse professionals. 120.223 Section 120.223 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... misuse information, training, and substance abuse professionals. (a) Employer obligation to promulgate a... misuse. (c) Substance abuse professional (SAP) duties. The SAP must perform the functions set forth in 49...

  2. 14 CFR 120.223 - Alcohol misuse information, training, and substance abuse professionals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... substance abuse professionals. 120.223 Section 120.223 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... misuse information, training, and substance abuse professionals. (a) Employer obligation to promulgate a... misuse. (c) Substance abuse professional (SAP) duties. The SAP must perform the functions set forth in 49...

  3. 14 CFR 120.223 - Alcohol misuse information, training, and substance abuse professionals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... substance abuse professionals. 120.223 Section 120.223 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... misuse information, training, and substance abuse professionals. (a) Employer obligation to promulgate a... misuse. (c) Substance abuse professional (SAP) duties. The SAP must perform the functions set forth in 49...

  4. 14 CFR 120.223 - Alcohol misuse information, training, and substance abuse professionals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... substance abuse professionals. 120.223 Section 120.223 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... misuse information, training, and substance abuse professionals. (a) Employer obligation to promulgate a... misuse. (c) Substance abuse professional (SAP) duties. The SAP must perform the functions set forth in 49...

  5. NCADI's 1995 National Directory of Drug Abuse and Alcoholism Treatment and Prevention Programs That Have a Special Program for American Indians/Alaska Natives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderbilt, Rebecca, Comp.; Schacht, Robert M., Comp.

    This state-by-state directory lists over 500 alcohol and drug abuse treatment and prevention services that target American Indians and Alaska Natives. The directory was compiled from the website of the National Clearinghouse for Alcohol and Drug Information (NCADI). Their home page on the Internet is located at http://www.health.org/index.htm. The…

  6. The dark side of social support: understanding the role of social support, drinking behaviors and alcohol outlets for child physical abuse.

    PubMed

    Freisthler, Bridget; Holmes, Megan R; Wolf, Jennifer Price

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine how parental drinking behavior, drinking locations, alcohol outlet density, and types of social support (tangible, emotional, and social companionship) may place children at greater risk for physical abuse. Data on use of physical abuse, drinking behaviors, types of social support, social networks, and demographic information were collected via telephone interviews with 3,023 parent respondents in 50 cities in California. Data on alcohol outlet density were obtained by the California Department of Alcoholic Beverage Control. Multilevel Poisson models were used to analyze data for the drinking levels in the entire sample and dose-response drinking models for drinkers. Social companionship support was related to more frequent use of physical abuse. Having a higher percentage of social companionship support network living within the neighborhood was related to more frequent physical abuse in the full sample. This relationship was moderated by on-premise alcohol outlet density. With regards to drinking behaviors, drinking behaviors from ex-drinkers to frequent heavy drinkers used physically abusive parenting practices more often than lifetime abstainers. The dose-response models show that each additional drinking event at a bar or home/party was related to more frequent use of physical abuse. Practitioners working with parents who abuse their children should be aware that not all social support is beneficial. Findings build evidence that child maltreatment is influenced by the interaction between individual and ecological factors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Toward DSM-V: an item response theory analysis of the diagnostic process for DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gelhorn, Heather; Hartman, Christie; Sakai, Joseph; Stallings, Michael; Young, Susan; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Corley, Robin; Hewitt, John; Hopfer, Christian; Crowley, Thomas

    2008-11-01

    Item response theory analyses were used to examine alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms and diagnoses in adolescents. Previous research suggests that the DSM-IV alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms in adolescents may be characterized by a single dimension. The present study extends prior research with a larger and more comprehensive sample and an examination of an alternative diagnostic algorithm for AUDs. Approximately 5,587 adolescents between the ages of 12 and 18 years from adjudicated, clinical, and community samples were administered structured clinical interviews. Analyses were conducted to examine the severity of alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms and the severity of alcohol use problems (AUDs) within the diagnostic categories created by the DSM-IV. Although the DSM-IV diagnostic categories differ in severity of AUDs, there is substantial overlap and inconsistency in AUD severity of persons across these categories. Item Response Theory-based AUD severity estimates suggest that many persons diagnosed with abuse have AUD severity greater than persons with dependence. Similarly, many persons who endorse some symptoms but do not qualify for a diagnosis (i.e., diagnostic orphans) have more severe AUDs than persons with an abuse diagnosis. Additionally, two dependence items, "tolerance" and "larger/longer," show differences in severity between samples. The distinction between DSM-IV abuse and dependence based on severity can be improved using an alternative diagnostic algorithm that considers all of the alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms conjointly.

  8. History of Childhood Abuse, Drinking Motives, Alcohol Use, and Sexual Risk Behavior Among STD Clinic Patients in St. Petersburg, Russia: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Abdala, Nadia; Li, Fangyong; Shaboltas, Alla V; Skochilov, Roman V; Krasnoselskikh, Tatiana V

    2016-03-01

    The relationship between level of childhood abuse (physical and emotional) and sexual risk behavior of sexually transmitted disease clinic patients in St. Petersburg, Russia was examined through path analyses. Mediating variables investigated were: Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), drinking motives (for social interaction, to enhance mood, to facilitate sexual encounters), intimate partner violence (IPV), anxiety, and depression symptoms. Results showed a significant indirect effect of childhood abuse on women's sexual risk behavior: higher level of childhood abuse was associated with a greater likelihood of IPV, motivations to drink, leading to higher AUDIT scores and correlated to higher likelihood of having multiple, new or casual sexual partner(s). No significant effect was identified in paths to condom use. Among men, childhood abuse had no significant effect on sexual risk behavior. Reduction in alcohol-related sexual risk behavior may be achieved by addressing the effects of childhood abuse among female participants.

  9. History of Childhood Abuse, Drinking Motives, Alcohol Use, and Sexual Risk Behavior among STD clinic patients in St. Petersburg, Russia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Abdala, Nadia; Li, Fangyong; Shaboltas, Alla V.; Skochilov, Roman V.; Krasnoselskikh, Tatiana V.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between level of childhood abuse (physical and emotional) and sexual risk behavior of sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic patients in St. Petersburg, Russia was examined through path analyses. Mediating variables investigated were: Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT), drinking motives (for social interaction, to enhance mood, to facilitate sexual encounters), intimate partner violence (IPV), anxiety, and depression symptoms. Results showed a significant indirect effect of childhood abuse on women’s sexual risk behavior: higher level of childhood abuse was associated with a greater likelihood of IPV, motivations to drink, leading to higher AUDIT scores and correlated to higher likelihood of having multiple, new or casual sexual partner(s). No significant effect was identified in paths to condom use. Among men, childhood abuse had no significant effect on sexual risk behavior. Reduction in alcohol-related sexual risk behavior may be achieved by addressing the effects of childhood abuse among female participants. PMID:25801476

  10. Assessing Whether Religious Behaviors and Positive and Negative Affect are Associated with Alcohol Use and Abuse Among a Sample of College Students Living in the Midwest.

    PubMed

    Carmack, Chakema C; Lewis, Rhonda K

    2016-06-01

    Alcohol use and abuse are a problem on college campuses. Religious behaviors (religious attendance, prayer, and importance) have been shown to be a protective factor against alcohol use among college students. This study examined the role religious behaviors and positive and negative affect had on drinking (alcohol use and alcohol to intoxication). College students (765) completed an online survey. The results showed that college students who attended religious services were less likely to use alcohol than those who did not attend religious services. The results have important implications for college administrators and policy makers. Limitations and future research will be discussed.

  11. Gene-environment interplay in alcoholism and other substance abuse disorders: expressions of heritability and factors influencing vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Palomo, Tomas; Kostrzewa, R M; Beninger, R J; Archer, T

    2004-01-01

    Factors that confer predisposition and vulnerability for alcoholism and other substance abuse disorders may be described usefully within the gene-environment interplay framework. Thus, it is postulated that heritability provides a major contribution not only to alcohol but also to other substances of abuse. Studies of evoked potential amplitude reduction have provided a highly suitable and testable method for the assessment of both environmentally-determined and heritable characteristics pertaining to substance use and dependence. The different personal attributes that may co-exist with parental influence or exist in a shared, monozygotic relationship contribute to the final expression of addiction. In this connection, it appears that personality disorders are highly prevalent co-morbid conditions among addicted individuals, and, this co-morbidity is likely to be accounted for by multiple complex etiological relationships, not least in adolescent individuals. Co-morbidity associated with deficient executive functioning may be observed too in alcohol-related aggressiveness and crimes of violence. The successful intervention into alcohol dependence and craving brought about by baclofen in both human and animal studies elucidates glutamatergic mechanisms in alcoholism whereas the role of the dopamine transporter, in conjunction with both the noradrenergic and serotonergic transporters, are implicated in cocaine dependence and craving. The role of the cannabinoids in ontogeny through an influence upon the expression of key genes for the development of neurotransmitter systems must be considered. Finally, the particular form of behaviour/characteristic outcome due to childhood circumstance may lie with biological, gene-based determinants, for example individual characteristics of monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity levels, thereby rendering simple predictive measures both redundant and misguiding.

  12. Cost-Effectiveness of Peer-Delivered Interventions for Cocaine and Alcohol Abuse among Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Prah Ruger, Jennifer; Abdallah, Arbi Ben; Luekens, Craig; Cottler, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Aims To determine whether the additional interventions to standard care are cost-effective in addressing cocaine and alcohol abuse at 4 months (4 M) and 12 months (12 M) from baseline. Method We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of a randomized controlled trial with three arms: (1) NIDA's Standard intervention (SI); (2) SI plus a Well Woman Exam (WWE); and, (3) SI, WWE, plus four Educational Sessions (4ES). Results To obtain an additional cocaine abstainer, WWE compared to SI cost $7,223 at 4 M and $3,611 at 12 M. Per additional alcohol abstainer, WWE compared to SI cost $3,611 and $7,223 at 4 M and 12 M, respectively. At 12 M, 4ES was dominated (more costly and less effective) by WWE for abstinence outcomes. Conclusions To our knowledge, this is the first cost-effectiveness analysis simultaneously examining cocaine and alcohol abuse in women. Depending on primary outcomes sought and priorities of policy makers, peer-delivered interventions can be a cost-effective way to address the needs of this growing, underserved population. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01235091 PMID:22448255

  13. Mechanisms and genetic factors underlying co-use of nicotine and alcohol or other drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Cross, Sarah J; Lotfipour, Shahrdad; Leslie, Frances M

    2017-03-01

    Concurrent use of tobacco and alcohol or psychostimulants represents a major public health concern, with use of one substance influencing consumption of the other. Co-abuse of these drugs leads to substantial negative health outcomes, reduced cessation, and high economic costs, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Epidemiological data suggest that tobacco use during adolescence plays a particularly significant role. Adolescence is a sensitive period of development marked by major neurobiological maturation of brain regions critical for reward processing, learning and memory, and executive function. Nicotine exposure during this time produces a unique and long-lasting vulnerability to subsequent substance use, likely via actions at cholinergic, dopaminergic, and serotonergic systems. In this review, we discuss recent clinical and preclinical data examining the genetic factors and mechanisms underlying co-use of nicotine and alcohol or cocaine and amphetamines. We evaluate the critical role of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors throughout, and emphasize the dearth of preclinical studies assessing concurrent drug exposure. We stress important age and sex differences in drug responses, and highlight a brief, low-dose nicotine exposure paradigm that may better model early use of tobacco products. The escalating use of e-cigarettes among youth necessitates a closer look at the consequences of early adolescent nicotine exposure on subsequent alcohol and drug abuse.

  14. An Item Response Theory Modeling of Alcohol and Marijuana Dependences: A National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network Study*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Pan, Jeng-Jong; Blazer, Dan G.; Tai, Betty; Stitzer, Maxine L.; Brooner, Robert K.; Woody, George E.; Patkar, Ashwin A.; Blaine, Jack D.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine psychometric properties of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), diagnostics criteria for alcohol and marijuana dependences among 462 alcohol users and 311 marijuana users enrolled in two multisite trials of the National Drug Abuse Treatment Clinical Trials Network. Method: Diagnostic questions were assessed by the DSM-IV checklist. Data were analyzed by the item response theory and the multiple indicators–multiple causes method procedures. Results: Criterion symptoms of alcohol and marijuana dependences exhibited a high level of internal consistency. All individual symptoms showed good discrimination in distinguishing alcohol or marijuana users between high and low severity levels of the continuum. In both groups, “withdrawal” appeared to measure the most severe symptom of the dependence continuum. There was little evidence of measurement nonequivalence in assessing symptoms of dependence by gender, age, race/ethnicity, and educational level. Conclusions: These findings highlight the clinical utility of the DSM-IV checklist in assessing alcohol- and marijuana-dependence syndromes among treatment-seeking substance users. PMID:19371493

  15. Seeking mental health care from private health practitioners among individuals with alcohol dependence/abuse; results from a study in the French general population.

    PubMed

    Constant, Aymery; Sherlaw, William; Kovess-Masfety, Viviane

    2017-03-01

    Better knowledge of the factors that have an impact on pathways to mental health care may contribute greatly to organizing optimum health-care delivery. However, surveillance systems concerning alcohol problems in the French general population are suboptimal. The objectives of this study were to investigate: 1) the prevalence of mental health-care seeking in individuals with alcohol abuse/dependence in France, 2) which category of medical practitioner was consulted, and 3) psychological and socio-environmental factors associated with mental health-care seeking. A total sample of 22,138 individuals was interviewed in a telephone survey. Individual data on alcohol dependence/abuse and other mental health disorders were collected using the Composite International Diagnosis Interview - short form. Mental health-care seeking was assessed, together with data on living conditions, deprivation, and self-reported drinking problems. Only respondents meeting criteria for alcohol dependence/abuse were included in analyses. Less than half of the 722 respondents with alcohol abuse/dependence had sought mental health care in the preceding 12 months, of whom 90.5% consulted their general practitioner (GP) (56.1%), or both a general practitioner and a psychiatrist (34.4%). Mental health-care seeking was associated with female sex, previous alcohol discussion with a doctor, and the presence of psychiatric comorbidities arising in the preceding 12 months. Living environment, socio-economic status, or self-reported drinking problems had no influence. A minority of people with alcohol abuse/dependence sought mental health care, mainly in relation to psychiatric comorbidities. In addition, most people consulting a GP were not referred to a psychiatrist. However, social deprivation and living in rural areas did not hinder mental health-care seeking among respondents. Adequate protocols to treat alcohol disorders could be implemented among private health-care providers to improve

  16. Evaluation of direct and indirect ethanol biomarkers using a likelihood ratio approach to identify chronic alcohol abusers for forensic purposes.

    PubMed

    Alladio, Eugenio; Martyna, Agnieszka; Salomone, Alberto; Pirro, Valentina; Vincenti, Marco; Zadora, Grzegorz

    2017-02-01

    The detection of direct ethanol metabolites, such as ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs), in scalp hair is considered the optimal strategy to effectively recognize chronic alcohol misuses by means of specific cut-offs suggested by the Society of Hair Testing. However, several factors (e.g. hair treatments) may alter the correlation between alcohol intake and biomarkers concentrations, possibly introducing bias in the interpretative process and conclusions. 125 subjects with various drinking habits were subjected to blood and hair sampling to determine indirect (e.g. CDT) and direct alcohol biomarkers. The overall data were investigated using several multivariate statistical methods. A likelihood ratio (LR) approach was used for the first time to provide predictive models for the diagnosis of alcohol abuse, based on different combinations of direct and indirect alcohol biomarkers. LR strategies provide a more robust outcome than the plain comparison with cut-off values, where tiny changes in the analytical results can lead to dramatic divergence in the way they are interpreted. An LR model combining EtG and FAEEs hair concentrations proved to discriminate non-chronic from chronic consumers with ideal correct classification rates, whereas the contribution of indirect biomarkers proved to be negligible. Optimal results were observed using a novel approach that associates LR methods with multivariate statistics. In particular, the combination of LR approach with either Principal Component Analysis (PCA) or Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) proved successful in discriminating chronic from non-chronic alcohol drinkers. These LR models were subsequently tested on an independent dataset of 43 individuals, which confirmed their high efficiency. These models proved to be less prone to bias than EtG and FAEEs independently considered. In conclusion, LR models may represent an efficient strategy to sustain the diagnosis of chronic alcohol consumption

  17. Usefulness of hair analysis and psychological tests for identification of alcohol and drugs of abuse consumption in driving license regranting.

    PubMed

    Lendoiro, Elena; de Castro, Ana; Jiménez-Morigosa, Cristian; Gomez-Fraguela, Xosé A; López-Rivadulla, Manuel; Cruz, Angelines

    2018-05-01

    The implementation of the points-based driving license helps to change the drivers' behavior and is related to a reduction of traffic accidents and fatalities. In Spain, when a driver loses all points, the driving license is revoked, so the driver must enroll on a Driver Awareness and Re-education (DARE) course. However, at the moment offenders are not submitted to any test to confirm absence of alcohol or drugs of abuse consumption, even when 9% of Spanish drivers lose their driving license for driving under the influence (DUI). The objective of this pilot study was the comparison of the usefulness of psychological tests and hair analysis to identify those individuals with a chronic consumption of alcohol and drugs of abuse among drivers performing DARE courses. Volunteers were submitted to the AUDIT and DAST-10 tests. Also a hair sample was collected and analyzed for ethylglucuronide (EtG) (LOQ 5pg/mg) and 35 licit and illicit drugs (LOQ 5-50pg/mg) by LC-MS/MS. Sixty-one participants with a mean age of 37.2±11.6years, and mainly men (90.2%), were recruited and performed AUDIT and DAST-10 tests. All hair samples were analyzed for EtG and 17 samples for licit and illicit drugs. Mean AUDIT score was 9.6 (SD=7.5), showing a value ≥8 (indicator of hazardous and harmful alcohol use) in 52.4% of cases. Mean DAST-10 score was 2.9 (SD=3.3), but a score ≥6 was detected in 21.3% of cases (indicating drug abuse or dependence). Twenty-two samples were positive for EtG, 8 for drugs of abuse (8 cocaine, 2 opioids, 1 amphetamines, 1 cannabis), and 3 for medicines. EtG concentration (20.7-1254.1pg/mg) was higher than the Society of Hair Testing (SoHT) cut-off for chronic alcohol consumption (≥30pg/mg) in 21 cases. All positive cases for methadone and cannabis, and half of positive cases for opioids and cocaine presented higher concentrations than SoHT cut-offs for chronic consumption. Higher AUDIT score and higher EtG concentration in hair were statistically associated

  18. Corporal punishment of adolescents by parents: a risk factor in the epidemiology of depression, suicide, alcohol abuse, child abuse, and wife beating.

    PubMed

    Straus, M A; Kantor, G K

    1994-01-01

    Over 90% of parents of toddlers spank or use other forms of corporal punishment. Although the rate declines each year from about age five, this study of a large national sample of U.S. adults found that almost half recalled having been corporally punished during their teen years. This high prevalence indicates a need to investigate the possibility that corporal punishment puts adolescents at increased risk of developing mental health and social relationship problems later in life. The analysis, which controlled for a number of possible confounding risk factors such as low socioeconomic status, found that children who experienced corporal punishment in adolescence had an increased risk later in life of depressive symptoms, suicidal thoughts, alcohol abuse, physical abuse of children, and wife beating. The consistent association of corporal punishment with major adult problem behavior, together with the fact that at least half of all adolescents are victims of corporal punishment by their parents, indicates a need to replicate the study using longitudinal data. If the findings are confirmed, it suggests that a major step in primary prevention of violence and mental health problems can be achieved by a national effort to reduce or eliminate all use of corporal punishment.

  19. Does gender contribute to heterogeneity in criteria for cannabis abuse and dependence? Results from the national epidemiological survey on alcohol and related conditions.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Arpana; Lynskey, Michael T

    2007-05-11

    Previous research has noted that a unidimensional latent construct underlies criteria for cannabis abuse and dependence. However, no study to date has explored whether gender contributes to heterogeneity in the latent abuse and dependence construct and furthermore, whether after accounting for differences in the mean scores of abuse and dependence across genders, there is any evidence for heterogeneity in the individual abuse and dependence criteria. The present study utilizes data on criteria for cannabis abuse and dependence from a large, nationally representative sample (National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions) of 8172 lifetime cannabis users to investigate whether gender contributes to heterogeneity in the underlying construct of cannabis abuse and dependence, and in each individual criterion as well. Analyses, all of which were conducted in MPlus, included factor analysis, as well as MIMIC and multiple-group models for an examination of dimensionality and gender heterogeneity, respectively. Results favor a unidimensional construct for cannabis abuse/dependence, as seen in prior research. We also identify two abuse (legal and hazard) and two dependence (quit and problems) criteria, which show significant gender heterogeneity with the abuse criteria exhibiting higher thresholds in women and the dependence criteria in men. We conclude that the criteria that serve as indicators of DSM-IV cannabis abuse and dependence do not function identically in men and women and that certain criteria (e.g. hazardous use) require further refinement.

  20. Occupational Alcoholism Programs Under Federal Contracts, 1978; Joint Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse of the Committee on Human Resources and the Subcommittee on Federal Spending Practices and Open Government of the Committee on Governmental Affairs, United States Senate, Ninety-Fifth Congress, Second Session on S. 2525.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Human Resources.

    These hearings, representing the testimony before the Subcommittee on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse in August, 1978, sought to require government contractors to establish and operate alcohol abuse and alcoholism programs and services, or to arrange for referral to such services. Statements are included from witnesses representing such agencies as the…