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Sample records for abuse child abuse

  1. Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... or puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical ...

  2. [Child abuse].

    PubMed

    V Essen, H; Schlickewei, W; Dietz, H-G

    2005-02-01

    Child abuse is most often diagnosed by an emergency doctor on call who sometimes "feels" more than knows what he is confronted with. He should nevertheless always take a medical history and make a physical and radiological examination. X-ray imaging and an ophthalmologic retinal examination are the most important diagnostic steps. Typical findings are multiple and/or dorsal rib fractures, complex skull fractures, physeal fractures, all fractures within the first 12 months, multiple fractures in different localisations and stages of healing, all injuries with uncommon distributions, all patterned bruises, immersion burns, intramural hematoma and every unexplained loss of consciousness. The first step towards victim protection is always the removal of the abused child from its caregivers by admitting it to hospital, as 95% of all cases of reported child abuse take place within the child's family.

  3. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... for pornography is also sexual abuse. Most sexual abusers know the child they abuse. They may be ... friends, neighbors or babysitters. About one-third of abusers are related to the child. Most abusers are ...

  4. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Child Sexual Abuse Public This section is for Veterans, General Public, Family, & Friends Child Sexual Abuse What is child sexual abuse? Child sexual abuse ...

  5. Child Abuse: Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Timothy L.-Y.

    The purpose of this paper was to elaborate on the definitions of child abuse in order to improve the understanding of child abuse. The definitions given by the U.S. House Joint Committee on Child Abuse in the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, and in research by Holden (1984), are cited. These definitions refer to the nature of abusive acts…

  6. Child abuse - physical

    MedlinePlus

    ... way Uses harsh discipline Was abused as a child Alcohol or drug problems Emotional problems or mental illness ... Physical abuse - children References Berkowitz CD, Stewart ST. Child maltreatment. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. ...

  7. Child Abuse Amendments of 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    The booklet presents the report of the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Education and Labor regarding the 1983 Child Abuse Amendments to the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act and the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment and Adoption Reform Act of 1978. The Amendment expands the definition of child abuse to include abuse by…

  8. Child Abuse: Educator's Responsibilities. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. Crime Prevention Center.

    This document presents the educator with a guide to child abuse. A section defining child abuse examines the issues of physical abuse, physical neglect, sexual abuse, and emotional maltreatment. Areas discussed for these types of abuse include abuse indicators, location of injury, history, behavioral indicators, and types of injury. Incestuous and…

  9. Skin manifestations of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Ermertcan, Aylin Turel; Ertan, Pelin

    2010-01-01

    Child abuse is a major public health problem all over the world. There are four major types of abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. The most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous and their recognition; and differential diagnosis is of great importance. Clinicians, especially dermatologists, should be alert about the skin lesions of child abuse. In the diagnosis and management of child abuse, a multidisciplinary approach with ethical and legal procedures is necessary. In this manuscript, cutaneous manifestations of physical, sexual, emotional abuse and neglect are reviewed and discussed.

  10. Cutaneous manifestations of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Kos, Liborka; Shwayder, Tor

    2006-01-01

    Dermatologists and child abuse are not frequently associated in the minds of most physicians. Yet the most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous. This article reviews cutaneous manifestations of physical abuse, including bruises, lacerations, abrasions, human bites, and burns. It also discusses ways that dermatologists can differentiate abusive injuries from accidental ones as well as from the many dermatologic conditions that can mimic child abuse. Finally, we review what actions the dermatologist should take when suspecting abuse in a patient.

  11. Child Abuse and Mandated Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…

  12. Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... member, a trusted teacher, a doctor, or a school or religious youth counselor. Many teachers and counselors have training in how to recognize and report abuse. Telephone and online directories list local child abuse and family violence hotline numbers that you can call for help. ...

  13. Encountering Child Abuse at Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durall, John K.

    1997-01-01

    Defines child abuse, including the three categories: physical, sexual, and psychological. Presents characteristics and behaviors of each type of abuse, and long-term effects. Discusses how to handle abuse that occurs at camp, and the effects on the camp. Sidebars present abuse statistics, 15 activities that promote psychological wellness, and 8…

  14. Understanding Fatal Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Ralph A.; Gaughan, Daniel C.

    1995-01-01

    Medical, social service, and coroner reports were reviewed for 14 cases of fatal child abuse and neglect identified at a children's hospital from 1988 to 1992. Median age was 6.5 months. Six families had prior protective service involvement (though four of these had involved a sibling). The cause of death in all cases was blunt impact head injury.…

  15. Child Abuse and Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Joann, Ed.; Bartlette, Don

    1992-01-01

    Literature indicating high rates of abuse in this population is reviewed, as is literature indicating high rates of developmental disabilities in child victims of abuse. Problems in data collecting practices are noted. Reasons for these children's greater risk for abuse are identified, including child attributes, stress, parent vulnerabilities,…

  16. Child Abuse Prevention Handbook. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. Crime Prevention Center.

    Intended to heighten public awareness and provide practical information to professionals, this handbook defines and describes child abuse (including sexual abuse) and its associated signs and injuries. The societal and family environments in which child abuse most typically occurs are described, and the California penal code sections pertaining to…

  17. [Skin signs in child abuse].

    PubMed

    Pau-Charles, I; Darwich-Soliva, E; Grimalt, R

    2012-03-01

    Child abuse is far more prevalent today than is generally recognized. Up to 90% of victims suffer physical abuse that can be observed in signs on the skin. Dermatologists are particularly qualified to identify these signs and distinguish them from other conditions that can mimic abuse. This review covers the signs of child abuse that can be observed on the skin. We discuss clues that can help differentiate between lesions caused by abuse and those that are accidental, and we describe the skin conditions that mimic physical abuse.

  18. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse.

    PubMed

    2009-05-01

    The role of imaging in cases of child abuse is to identify the extent of physical injury when abuse is present and to elucidate all imaging findings that point to alternative diagnoses. Effective diagnostic imaging of child abuse rests on high-quality technology as well as a full appreciation of the clinical and pathologic alterations occurring in abused children. This statement is a revision of the previous policy published in 2000.

  19. Abuse and the Special Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Linda; Corte, Suzanne Della

    1987-01-01

    The issue's major feature, on physical and sexual abuse of handicapped children, focuses on education and adult awareness of the problem. It has been well documented that children with handicaps are especially vulnerable to abuse. Parents or other adults who believe that abuse has occurred should first write down exactly what the child has told…

  20. Substance abuse and child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Wells, Kathryn

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  1. Child Abuse: The Educator's Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. School Safety Center.

    Addressing educators and citing the California Penal Code, this booklet discusses the legal responsibilities of persons in child care situations regarding incidents of suspected child abuse. Included are: (1) a definition of child abuse and neglect; (2) reporting procedures including liability of failure to report and immunity of the reporting…

  2. The "Discovery" of Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfohl, Stephen J.

    1977-01-01

    Surveys the history of social reaction to child abuse, discusses the cultural values promoting the protection of children, points out how much pediatric radiology benefited from its "discovery" of "the battered child syndrome" in the early sixties, and concludes that the labeling of child abusers as "sick" has shielded them from criminal…

  3. Incest and Child Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Collins, James L.; Hamlin, Willie T.; Minor, Marie A.; Knasel, Ann Lowe

    1982-01-01

    Child sexual abuse was examined nationally and in the Washington, DC and Howard University Hospital area. In an attempt to describe this widespread problem, two case histories are presented which reflect some of the typical characteristics of child sexual abuse cases seen at Howard University Hospital. Pertinent literature is reviewed citing the prevalence rates and the personality and environmental factors which may contribute to the sexual abuse of children in this country. Finally, the role of the physician in identifying and treating the physical and emotional effects of child abuse are discussed. PMID:7120485

  4. Incest and child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Collins, J L; Hamlin, W T; Minor, M A; Knasel, A L

    1982-06-01

    Child sexual abuse was examined nationally and in the Washington, DC and Howard University Hospital area. In an attempt to describe this widespread problem, two case histories are presented which reflect some of the typical characteristics of child sexual abuse cases seen at Howard University Hospital. Pertinent literature is reviewed citing the prevalence rates and the personality and environmental factors which may contribute to the sexual abuse of children in this country. Finally, the role of the physician in identifying and treating the physical and emotional effects of child abuse are discussed.

  5. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinman, P.K.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides a description for all the known radiological alterations occurring in child abuse. This allows for precise interpretation of findings by radiologists. It also helps eliminate the confusion among both clinicians and non-medical personnel involved in the diagnosis, management, and legal issues related to child abuse. CONTENTS: Introduction; Skeletal trauma: general considerations; Extremity trauma; Bony thoracic trauma; Spinal trauma; Dating fractures; Visceral trauma; Head trauma; Miscellaneous forms of abuse and neglect; The postmortem examination; Differential diagnosis of child abuse; Legal considerations; Psychosocial considerations; Technical considerations and dosimetry.

  6. Child abuse by drowning.

    PubMed

    Griest, K J; Zumwalt, R E

    1989-01-01

    Drowning as a form of subtle fatal child abuse is difficult to distinguish from accidental immersion or from sudden unexpected natural death when the circumstances of immersion are concealed. Homicidal drownings are unwitnessed, usually occurring in the home, and the victims are young, either infants or toddlers. Accidental drownings are more likely to involve toddlers or older children in public areas such as swimming pools, drainage ditches, lakes, and rivers. This is especially true in rural areas. In cities, bathtubs remain a major site of accidental childhood drownings. Perpetrators of deliberate drownings often fit the sociopathologic profile of a child abuser. Because there is often a survival interval between immersion and death, pathologic findings consistent with postimmersion syndrome suggest the cause of death. Foreign material in the lungs, if immersion was other than in clear tap water, and injuries of the face are other positive correlating factors. A thorough investigation of the circumstances and cooperation between the investigating agency and the pathologist are essential to determine the correct manner of death in these cases.

  7. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    MedlinePlus

    ... Frequently Asked Questions: Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Select Free Subscriptions This survey is powered by SurveyGizmo's online survey software . Please take my survey now Children’s Bureau Child ...

  8. Child physical abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Samantha; Christian, Cindy W

    2014-04-01

    This article provides an overview of child physical abuse and neglect, and describes the magnitude of the problem and the triggers and factors that place children at risk for abuse and neglect. After examining the legal and clinical definitions of child abuse and neglect, common clinical outcomes and therapeutic strategies are reviewed, including the lifelong poor physical and mental health of victims and evidence-supported treatment interventions. Mandated reporting laws, and facilitating collaboration among child welfare, judicial, and health care systems are considered. Important tools and resources for addressing child maltreatment in clinical practice are discussed, and future approaches posited.

  9. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research ( ... include: PTSD and anxiety. Depression and thoughts of suicide. Sexual anxiety and disorders, including having too many ...

  10. Child Abuse in Setswana Folktales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malimabe-Ramagoshi, Refilwe M.; Maree, Jacobus G.; Alexander, Daleen; Molepo, Maisha M.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the possible role played by African folk literature, taking Setswana folktales as a case in point, in justifying and perpetuating the abusive behaviour so often witnessed and decried in postmodern society. We found some evidence that certain folktales may depict real-life child abuse by adults (male and female), and, indeed,…

  11. Holocaust Child Survivors and Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Amir, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    This study utilized a qualitative analysis of child survivors of the Holocaust who were sexually abused during World War II. The research study aimed to give this specific group of survivors a voice and to explore the impact of multiple extreme traumas, the Holocaust and childhood sexual abuse, on the survivors. Twenty-two child survivors of the…

  12. A Preventative Child Abuse Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiernan, Bette Unger; And Others

    This article describes the Child Development and Parenting Program (CDP), a preventative child abuse program that assists single women who are pregnant or have preschool children to cope constructively with the problems of single parenting. The short-term goals of the program, i.e., providing education in child development and parenting skills and…

  13. Child Abuse Intervention: Prescriptive Package.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuchter, Arnold

    Written from a criminal justice perspective, the report on child abuse intervention provides a model system that emphasizes prompt medical treatment for the child and due process for both parents and children. The authors recommend that court action take the form of a civil proceeding whenever possible. Part I provides a framework for the…

  14. Child Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  15. Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... people to control their actions. Certain types of personality disorders or mental illness might also interfere with ... self-control. Of course, not everyone with a personality disorder or mental illness becomes abusive. Fortunately, people ...

  16. Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Early-Stage Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & Confusion Repetition Sleep Issues & Sundowning Suspicion & Delusions Wandering Abuse Start Here ...

  17. Parricide: A Window on Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mones, Paul

    1993-01-01

    Examines parricide, the killing of one's parents, and its relationship to a history of child abuse. Presents profiles of parricide, considers the secrecy of child abuse, describes the psychology of parricide, discusses psychological abuse and emotional death, and examines the "child's voice." Stresses need for effective programs to…

  18. What Is Child Abuse and Neglect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Health and Human Services, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Each State provides its own definitions of child abuse and neglect based on minimum standards set by Federal law. This fact sheet provides the answers to the following questions: (1) How is child abuse and neglect defined in Federal law?; and (2) What are the major types of child abuse and neglect? Additional resources are listed. (Contains 2…

  19. What's a Kid To Do about Child Abuse?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hittleman, Margo

    This booklet discusses child abuse, targeting pre-teenagers and teenagers. It describes what child abuse is, why it happens, and what a teenager can do about it. These topics are covered: (1) definition of child abuse and types of child abuse; (2) differentiating between child abuse and discipline; (3) sexual abuse; (4) family types of child…

  20. Forensic odontology, part 5. Child abuse issues.

    PubMed

    Hinchliffe, J

    2011-05-14

    Child abuse, child maltreatment, non-accidental injury and child homicide: all terms that are hard to believe exist in the 21st civilised century, but non-accidental injury of children is a major problem, crossing all socioeconomic, ethnic and educational groups, and is happening all over the world. Available statistics on child abuse and deaths related to abuse are frightening, and as many cases are not reported, actual numbers are likely to be much higher. This paper aims to increase understanding of child abuse issues and encourage the dental team to be alert to the possibility of abuse, recognise the physical injuries and make referrals to the appropriate agency if necessary. In child abuse cases physical injuries to the head and facial area are common while other types of abuse are less visible but are damaging to a vulnerable child in other ways. Keeping children safe is a shared responsibility and a top priority for all of us.

  1. Concealment of Child Sexual Abuse in Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartill, Mike

    2013-01-01

    When the sexual abuse of children is revealed, it is often found that other nonabusing adults were aware of the abuse but failed to act. During the past twenty years or so, the concealment of child sexual abuse (CSA) within organizations has emerged as a key challenge for child protection work. Recent events at Pennsylvania State University (PSU)…

  2. Child Abuse: One Tree in the Forest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burland, J. Alexis; And Others

    1973-01-01

    The records of 28 abused or severely neglected children, as reviewed and analyzed, show the importance of meeting the child's and parent's dependency needs, rather than focusing exclusively on the abuse itself. (Author/CS)

  3. Child Abuse: Betrayal and Disclosure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foynes, Melissa Ming; Freyd, Jennifer J.; DePrince, Anne P.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The current study tested several hypotheses about disclosure of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse derived from Betrayal Trauma Theory [Freyd, J. J. (1996). Betrayal trauma: The logic of forgetting childhood abuse. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press]. We predicted that the duration of time from abuse to its disclosure…

  4. [Domestic accident or child abuse?].

    PubMed

    Rupp, Wolf-Rüdiger; Faller-Marquardt, Maria; Henke, Peter

    2006-01-01

    While playing, a 33/4-year-old girl was hiding in a tumble dryer, which had been running before and started the drying process with rotation of the drum again after the girl had climbed into the machine and shut the door. The child suffered multiple haematomas, especially on the back and the lower arms, as well as second-degree burns on body regions not covered by the clothing. The injury pattern was consistent with the properties of the appliance, and the initial suspicion that the child had been physically abused could not be maintained.

  5. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... For all questions please contact the AACAP Communications & Marketing Coordinator, ext. 154. If you need immediate assistance, please dial 911. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. ... {1} ##LOC[OK]## ##LOC[Cancel]## { ...

  6. Risk Assessment in Child Sexual Abuse Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levenson, Jill S.; Morin, John W.

    2006-01-01

    Despite continuing improvements in risk assessment for child protective services (CPS) and movement toward actuarial prediction of child maltreatment, current models have not adequately addressed child sexual abuse. Sexual abuse cases present unique and ambiguous indicators to the investigating professional, and risk factors differ from those…

  7. Prevent Child Abuse America

    MedlinePlus

    ... corner. Mentor Advocate Donate Parenting Tip of the Week – Know the Protective Factors Last week we wrote about recognizing warning signs of child ... Donate Our Latest Resources Parenting Tip of the Week Parenting Tip of the Week – Knowing the Protective ...

  8. The Impact of Child Abuse Can Last a Lifetime

    MedlinePlus

    ... physical and emotional neglect, such as withholding affection; sexual and physical abuse; emotional abuse; and witnessing partner abuse. Then they examined the associations of child neglect and abuse with adult job absenteeism, unemployment, ...

  9. Neglected child with substance abuse leading to child abuse: a case report.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, E M G; Subhagya, B; Muthu, M S; Sivakumar, N

    2005-06-01

    Child abuse and neglect is any interaction or lack of interaction between a caregiver and a child resulting in nonaccidental harm to the child's physical and developmental state. Substance abuse is ingestion of any drug, which is capable of altering the mental functioning eventually leading to addiction. This paper presents a case report of a 12-year-old neglected girl with substance abuse for which she was physically abused by her mother.

  10. Child Abuse and Neglect in American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischler, Ronald S.

    Child abuse and neglect among American Indians is a political as well as a clinical problem, as the victims belong to one cultural group and health professionls who detect maltreatment generally belong to another. Reluctance to diagnose and report child abuse, although universal, is probably more significant in Indian communities for several…

  11. Child Eyewitness Testimony in Sexual Abuse Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mapes, Bruce E.

    Intended to help in the forensic investigation of child abuse allegations, this book explores several issues related to children's allegations of sexual abuse and subsequent testimony. Chapter 1 presents an overview of: the informational needs of child welfare agencies and the courts; the scope of the forensic assessment; and the standards and…

  12. Child Sexual Abuse in Tanzania and Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalor, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Most research on child abuse in Tanzania and Kenya is unpublished in the international literature. The purpose of this paper is to examine the various commentaries and reports extant, toward an overview of the nature and frequency of child sexual abuse in Tanzania and Kenya. Methods: Contacts were made with academics, government…

  13. Medical Advances in Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Randell A.

    2011-01-01

    This volume is the first of a two-part special issue detailing state of the art practice in medical issues around child sexual abuse. The six articles in this issue explore methods for medical history evaluation, the rationale for when sexual examinations should take place, specific hymenal findings that suggest a child has been sexually abused,…

  14. Outcome and Cost of Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irazuzta, Jose E.; McJunkin, James E.; Danadian, Kapriel; Arnold, Forest; Zhang, Jianliang

    1997-01-01

    A study compared the health care costs, severity of illness (SI), and mortality of child abuse cases (n=13) with other admissions (n=924) in a pediatric intensive care unit. The child abuse patients were younger, had a higher SI, had greater hospitalization charges, and a higher mortality rate than others. (Author/CR)

  15. The Medicalization and Legalization of Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newberger, Eli H.; Bourne, Richard

    The authors propose that theoretical confusion and clinical inadequacy regarding child abuse is due, in part, from medical and legal ambiguity concerning child abuse and from dilemmas surrounding social policy and the professional response toward families and children. The dilemmas of social policy (family autonomy versus coercive intervention)…

  16. Mimics of child abuse: Can choking explain abusive head trauma?

    PubMed

    Edwards, George A

    2015-10-01

    Choking is one of the alternative explanations of abusive head trauma in children that have been offered in courtroom testimony and in the media. Most of these explanations - including choking - are not scientifically supported. This article highlights four points. (1) The origins of choking as an explanation for intracranial and retinal hemorrhages are speculative. (2) Choking has been used in high profile court testimony as an explanation for the death of a child thought to have been abused. (3) A case report that proposes choking as an alternative explanation for the death of a child diagnosed with abusive head trauma includes omissions and misrepresentations of facts. (4) There was a decision by the editor of the journal that published the case report that it was not necessary to include all the facts of the case; moreover, the editor indicated that facts are not required when presenting an alternative explanation. The use of scientifically unsupported alternative explanations for abusive head trauma based on inaccurate and biased information constitutes further victimization of the abused child and represents a travesty of justice.

  17. Emergency department evaluation of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Leetch, Aaron N; Woolridge, Dale

    2013-08-01

    Child abuse presents commonly to emergency departments. Emergency providers are confronted with medical, social, and legal dilemmas with each case. A solid understanding of the definitions and risk factors of victims and perpetrators aids in identifying abuse cases. Forensic examination should be performed only after the child is medically stable. Emergency providers are mandatory reporters of a reasonable suspicion of abuse. The role of the emergency provider is to identify abuse, facilitate a thorough investigation, treat medical needs, protect the patient, provide an unbiased medical consultation to law enforcement, and to provide an ethical testimony if called to court.

  18. Child Sexual Abuse: A School Leadership Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Mark W.

    2010-01-01

    Child Sexual Abuse is a growing epidemic. In the United States, 1 in 6 boys and 1 in 4 girls will be sexually abused before reaching adulthood. From a legal standpoint, inappropriate sexual relations between a faculty/staff member and a student are a growing national concern. In 1991, the Supreme Court heard the Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public…

  19. School-Based Child Abuse Prevention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brassard, Marla R.; Fiorvanti, Christina M.

    2015-01-01

    Child abuse is a leading cause of emotional, behavioral, and health problems across the lifespan. It is also preventable. School-based abuse prevention programs for early childhood and elementary school children have been found to be effective in increasing student knowledge and protective behaviors. The purpose of this article is to help school…

  20. Sport and the Sexually Abused Male Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartill, Mike

    2005-01-01

    Through feminist research in the study of sport, the issue of child sexual abuse has been driven onto the agenda of sports organisations, resulting in considerable practical reform (Brackenridge, 2001). However, the flip-side to this development is that the experience of sexually abused males has been largely ignored. In 1990, Struve claimed, "a…

  1. Stockholm Syndrome and Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julich, Shirley

    2005-01-01

    This article, based on an analysis of unstructured interviews, identifies that the emotional bond between survivors of child sexual abuse and the people who perpetrated the abuse against them is similar to that of the powerful bi-directional relationship central to Stockholm Syndrome as described by Graham (1994). Aspects of Stockholm Syndrome…

  2. The Abusive Environment and the Child's Adaptation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Harold P.

    The biologic and developmental problems of abused children are usually thought of etiologically in relation to the physical trauma which has been suffered. Indeed, physical trauma can cause death, brain damage, developmental delays and deviations in personality development. The environment in which the abused child grows and develops is a most…

  3. Cultural Issues in Disclosures of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Lisa Aronson; Plummer, Carol

    2010-01-01

    Cultural norms affect the likelihood that child sexual abuse will be discovered by an adult or disclosed by a child. Cultural norms also affect whether abused children's families will report child sexual abuse to authorities. This article explores the ways ethnic and religious culture affect child sexual abuse disclosure and reporting, both in the…

  4. Health professionals' responses to disclosure of child sexual abuse history: female child sexual abuse survivors' experiences.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Kim; Jülich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny

    2010-05-01

    This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had not disclosed reported that they would have liked to but were not asked about child sexual abuse. Thirty-five percent of participants suggested routine questioning about child sexual abuse. Most participants related a fear of common medical examination procedures to their experience of child sexual abuse, and 64% said this stopped them from attending regular health checks. The current study suggests the development of guidelines for dealing with possible child sexual abuse survivors would be useful for health professionals.

  5. Macrotheories: child physical punishment, injury and abuse.

    PubMed

    Cousins, Judy

    2005-08-01

    This is the first paper in a series of two that focus on causational factors that contribute to child physical punishment and the continuum between physical punishment, injury and child physical abuse. The papers will explore macro and microtheoretical perspectives, examine their influence on child discipline and child physical abuse and propose a framework to guide and inform professional practice in the field of child physical maltreatment Paper one introduces the reader to the political context of child physical discipline and analyses current definitions. The extent of punishment and injuries sustained is explored and the relationship between macrotheoretical perspectives examined. The paper concludes by highlighting the continuum between child physical punishment and child physical abuse.

  6. Reading about Child Abuse: Fact and Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winfield, Evelyn T.

    1986-01-01

    Selected nonfiction and fiction titles that contain basic information on and insights into child abuse are given. Safety tips for children and suggestions for protecting children from abduction by the non-custodial parent are also offered. (MT)

  7. Child Abuse and Neglect in India.

    PubMed

    Seth, Rajeev

    2015-08-01

    India is home to the largest child population in the world, with almost 41 % of the total population under 18 y of age. The health and security of the country's children is integral to any vision for its progress and development. Doctors and health care professionals are often the first point of contact for abused and neglected children. They play a key role in detecting child abuse and neglect, provide immediate and longer term care and support to children. Despite being important stakeholders, often physicians have a limited understanding on how to protect these vulnerable groups. There is an urgent need for systematic training for physicians to prevent, detect and respond to cases of child abuse and neglect in the clinical setting. The purpose of the present article is to provide an overview of child abuse and neglect from a medical assessment to a socio-legal perspective in India, in order to ensure a prompt and comprehensive multidisciplinary response to victims of child abuse and neglect. During their busy clinical practice, medical professionals can also use the telephone help line (CHILDLINE telephone 1098) to refer cases of child abuse, thus connecting them to socio-legal services. The physicians should be aware of the new legislation, Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, 2012, which requires mandatory reporting of cases of child sexual abuse, failing which they can be penalized. Moreover, doctors and allied medical professionals can help prevent child sexual abuse by delivering the message of personal space and privacy to their young patients and parents.

  8. Three models of child abuse consultations: A qualitative study of inpatient child abuse consultation notes.

    PubMed

    Keenan, Heather T; Campbell, Kristine A

    2015-05-01

    Child abuse pediatricians have multiple roles in caring for abused children, including prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and, when needed, expert legal opinion. The child physical abuse consultation differs from the traditional medical consultation in that it has medical, investigative and legal audiences, all of whom have different information needs. How child abuse pediatricians approach their cases and how they document their initial inpatient consultations that will be used by such a diverse audience is currently unexplored. We used content analysis to examine 37 child physical abuse consultation notes from a national sample of child abuse pediatricians in order to understand physicians' approaches to these consultations. Three commonly used models of child physical abuse consultation were identified in the data that we named the base model, the investigative model, and the family-dynamic model. While model types overlap, each is distinguished by key features including the approach used to gather information, the information recorded, and the language used in documentation. The base model most closely mirrors the traditional medical approach; the investigative model concentrates on triangulation of sources of information; and, the family-dynamic model concentrates on physician perceptions of family relationships. The three models of consultations for child physical abuse mirror the areas of child abuse pediatrics: diagnostic, forensic and therapeutic. These models are considered in relationship to best practice from other medical specialties with forensic components.

  9. Child Abuse Hysteria and the Elementary School Counselor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegel, Lawrence D.

    1988-01-01

    Describes child abuse phenomenon and history of current public hysteria concerning child abuse. Discusses trend of high numbers of false reports of child abuse and neglect and need for counselors to be cognizant of problems of overzealous reporting, professionals looking for abuse in otherwise innocuous situations, and parents using accusations of…

  10. Adjudication of Child Sexual Abuse Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, John E. B.

    1994-01-01

    Discusses issues in the adjudication of child sexual abuse allegations and reviews research about the believability of child witnesses. It also examines accommodations for children that could assist the child witness and encourage accurate testimony, while continuing to protect the rights of the accused. Criminal, juvenile, and divorce court…

  11. Missed cases of multiple forms of child abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Koc, Feyza; Oral, Resmiye; Butteris, Regina

    2014-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect is a public health problem and usually associated with family dysfunction due to multiple psychosocial, individual, and environmental factors. The diagnosis of child abuse may be difficult and require a high index of suspicion on the part of the practitioners encountering the child and the family. System-related factors may also enable abuse or prevent the early recognition of abuse. Child abuse and neglect that goes undiagnosed may give rise to chronic abuse and increased morbidity-mortality. In this report, we present two siblings who missed early diagnosis and we emphasize the importance of systems issues to allow early recognition of child abuse and neglect.

  12. The Specter of Child Abuse in Realistic Fiction for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baggett, Carolyn

    1985-01-01

    Following a brief introduction to the topic of child abuse (why children are abused, who are abused, who are abusers, what forms abuse takes, what sources of help are available), this essay examines 16 children's fiction books and comments on the action of the characters. Five references are included. (EJS)

  13. Financial Fraud and Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Allison Dare

    2014-01-01

    A modern form of abuse of children by parents and foster parents is to use the identity of children in their care for their own financial benefit, such as accessing their unused social security numbers to secure credit. This article reviews examples and implications of this identity theft.

  14. Health Professionals' Responses to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse History: Female Child Sexual Abuse Survivors' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Kim; Julich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had…

  15. Opinions about Child Abuse Survey: An Assessment of Professional Attitudes concerning Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iscoe, Ira; And Others

    Public awareness of the problem of child abuse and public willingness to participate in solving the problem have grown in recent years. To further the success of advocacy efforts, volunteer recruitment, fund-raising, and implementing programs for child abuse prevention and treatment, an understanding of both non-professionals' and professionals'…

  16. Evaluating the Risk of Child Abuse: The Child Abuse Risk Assessment Scale (CARAS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ko Ling

    2012-01-01

    The present study developed the Child Abuse Risk Assessment Scale (CARAS), an actuarial instrument for the assessment of the risk of physical child abuse. Data of 2,363 Chinese parents (47.7% male) living in Hong Kong were used in the analyses. Participants were individually interviewed with a questionnaire assessing their perpetration of child…

  17. The Enough Abuse Campaign: building the movement to prevent child sexual abuse in Massachusetts.

    PubMed

    Schober, Daniel J; Fawcett, Stephen B; Bernier, Jetta

    2012-01-01

    This case study describes the Enough Abuse Campaign, a multidisciplinary, statewide effort to prevent child sexual abuse in Massachusetts. The study uses the Institute of Medicine's Framework for Collaborative Community Action on Health to provide a systematic description of the campaign's process of implementation, which includes: (a) developing a state-level infrastructure for child sexual abuse prevention, (b) assessing child sexual abuse perceptions and public opinion, (c) developing local infrastructures in three communities and implementing training programs focused on preventing perpetration of child sexual abuse, (d) facilitating changes in local communities to child-sexual-abuse-related systems, and (e) inviting Massachusetts residents to join an advocacy-based movement to prevent child sexual abuse. This case study concludes with future directions for the campaign and topics for future research related to child sexual abuse.

  18. Medical advances in child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Randell A

    2011-09-01

    This volume is the first of a two-part special issue detailing state of the art practice in medical issues around child sexual abuse. The six articles in this issue explore methods for medical history evaluation, the rationale for when sexual examinations should take place, specific hymenal findings that suggest a child has been sexually abused, the healing of genital injuries, approaches to interpretation of medical findings, and the neurological harm of sexual abuse. From the initial history to the process of the medical examination, the mechanics of what a genital examination might show, and the neurobiological consequences, it is demonstrated that the harm of sexual abuse is has more effect on the brain than the genital area.

  19. ABC of child abuse. Role of the child psychiatry team.

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    In summary, a child psychiatrist can make an important contribution to the management of child abuse. At least one child psychiatrist in each district should take an interest in this work and should be given the time to do so. As for other professionals, child abuse is an aspect of the work of child psychiatrists that is particularly harrowing and time consuming. Images p452-a PMID:2507011

  20. Medicolegal aspects of child abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Krugman, Richard D; Bross, Donald C

    2002-04-01

    Neurosurgeons that see children and care for those with traumatic injury are highly likely to see cases of child abuse and neglect. That fact makes it inevitable that they will encounter the legal system. It is hoped that this article has demystified the legal process and systems that one encounters in day-to-day practice. Avoiding the diagnosis of abuse because of lack of knowledge or phobia of the legal system is hazardous to the health and well-being of children.

  1. Pattern of burns in child abuse.

    PubMed

    Ojo, Peter; Palmer, John; Garvey, Richard; Atweh, Nabil; Fidler, Philip

    2007-03-01

    Cases of burns from child abuse are low because of under-reporting, low index of suspicion, or lack of verity proof. Although the reported incidence of child abuse by burns is 4 to 39 per cent, less than one-half are substantiated. We retrospectively reviewed all burns in children less than 6 years old admitted to our burn center within an 8-year period (1997-2003). Of the 155 children less than 6 years old admitted with burns within the study period, only six cases (3.8%) were confirmed as occurring from abuse. Scald injury was the most common cause of accidental and abuse burns. Burns by child abuse occur mostly from tap water (50%) and usually in children less than 2 years old. Whenever the extremities were involved, the left side was always included. In extreme cases, however, multiple areas of the body were involved with intervening spared sites. The perpetrator was the mother's boyfriend in all cases. Burns in children less than 2 years old left in the care of the mother's boyfriend, involving the left extremity (or extremities), and caused by tap water should prompt the clinician to more actively confirm or exclude abuse.

  2. The Universality of Emotional Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firestone, Robert W.

    Emotional child abuse is virtually inevitable in the context of the traditional nuclear family and often has a more detrimental effect on children than other, more widely publicized forms of maltreatment. This paper documents clinical, statistical, and empirical evidence showing that "normative" child-rearing practices in our culture have…

  3. Child Abuse and Neglect. Data Snapshot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DC Action for Children, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The number of substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect in the District rose by 27 percent in FY 2009. This dramatic spike came after two consecutive years of decline in the number of substantiated cases reported the D.C. Child and Family Services Agency (CFSA). In FY 2010, the number of closed, substantiated cases dropped back down to 1,691,…

  4. The Intersection of Medical Child Abuse and Medical Complexity.

    PubMed

    Petska, Hillary W; Gordon, John B; Jablonski, Debra; Sheets, Lynn K

    2017-02-01

    Children with medical complexity and victims of medical child abuse may have similar clinical presentations. Atypical or unexplained signs and symptoms due to rare diseases may lead providers to suspect medical child abuse when not present. Conversely, medical child abuse may be the cause of or coexist with medical complexity. Careful consideration of whether or not medical child abuse is present is essential when assessing a child with medical complexity since either diagnosis has significant consequences for children and families.

  5. Child Abuse: Principles and Implications of Current Pediatric Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newberger, Eli H.; Hyde, James N., Jr.

    This paper summarizes data and experience with child abuse pertinent to child health practice. It goal is to foster sound and rational medical management. Because of the complex origins of child abuse, however, and of the institutional and social changes which shall have to accompany excellent practice if child abuse is effectively to be treated…

  6. Child sexual abuse: seven years in practice.

    PubMed

    Bahali, Kayhan; Akçan, Ramazan; Tahiroglu, Aysegul Y; Avci, Ayse

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the socio-demographic characteristics of sexually abused children. The records of 101 cases of child sexual abuse (CSA) were retrospectively evaluated. Socio-demographic characteristics of the victims, type of sexual abuse, and psychiatric diagnosis were studied. Of the victims, 56.4% (n = 57) were female and 43.6% (n = 44) were male. The mean age was 9.57 +/- 3.5, with a range of 4-17 years. Ninety-three (92.1%) of the victims had been admitted as part of the legal process. The majority (66.3%) of the victims had been abused by an acquaintance, while 33.7% had been abused by a stranger. Anal or vaginal penetration was reported in 48.5% of the cases. Post-traumatic stress disorder was the most common (54.5%) psychiatric diagnosis established after sexual abuse. Descriptive data related to the abused children and an understanding of the consequences of CSA will help authorities in planning prevention.

  7. Evil, Child Abuse and the Caring Professions.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Caroline

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the ways in which the concept of evil has been invoked in relation to child abuse. First, the scene is set by juxtaposing professional discourses which have eschewed the concept of evil and public opinion which is affronted by the evil of child abuse. Second, I will discuss the work of some therapists in the USA whose work with perpetrators and survivors has led them to frame the causes and consequences of child abuse in terms of moral evil. Third, I will draw upon case studies of Satanic abuse and spirit possession in the UK to illustrate that some social workers and religious communities have interpreted child abuse as an outcome of or as an antidote to metaphysical evil. Finally, there is a critical appraisal of the merits of referencing moral and metaphysical evil in the discourses of caring professionals, with a suggestion that a mythical-metaphorical conception of evil could be a more flexible and fruitful resource for therapeutic work.

  8. Religion in child sexual abuse forensic interviews.

    PubMed

    Tishelman, Amy C; Fontes, Lisa A

    2017-01-01

    Religion is an under-studied factor affecting children's sexual victimization and their willingness to discuss such experiences. In this qualitative study, 39 child forensic interviewers and child advocacy center (CAC) directors in the United States discussed religious influences on children's sexual abuse experiences, their relationships to CACs, and their disclosures in the forensic setting. Participants reported both harmonious and dissonant interactions between religiously observant children and families on one hand and child advocacy centers on the other. Themes emerged related to abuse in religious contexts and religious justifications for abuse; clergy and religious supports for disclosures as well as suppression of disclosures; and the ways CACS accommodate religious diversity and forge collaborations with clergy. Participants discussed a wide range of religions. Recommendations for practice and research are included.

  9. The Role of Race and Severity of Abuse in Teachers' Recognition or Reporting of Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egu, Chizoma Linda; Weiss, David J.

    2003-01-01

    In the United States, reported child abuse rates vary dramatically with race. We employed a scenario methodology to examine whether teachers, whose professional obligations include reporting suspected instances of abuse, exhibit bias in evaluating a possibly abused child. Each teacher (180 White, 180 Black, and 180 Hispanic) read one of six…

  10. The Controlled Study of the Ecology of Child Abuse and Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, R. H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The article reports on an ongoing, controlled study of factors related to the occurrence of child abuse, family factors related to heroin addiction, and the overall relationship between child abuse and drug abuse in 240 families. Journal availability: see EC 111 256. (DLS)

  11. Domestic Violence and Child Abuse: A Selective Bibliography. Bibliography Series Eighteen. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Mary Louise, Comp.

    This bibliography of materials on domestic violence and child abuse available in the Robert E. Kennedy Library at California Polytechnic State University is divided into sections by type of abuse, with sections on family violence, child abuse, emotional child abuse, incest and sexual abuse of children, the child-abusing mother, infant abuse, wife…

  12. Forensic child abuse evaluation: a review.

    PubMed

    Laraque, Danielle; DeMattia, Amy; Low, Christine

    2006-12-01

    This review discusses the forensic medical and psychological assessments of children and adolescents suspected of being victims of sexual or physical abuse/neglect. Evaluation of the whole child and the need to minimize trauma during the investigative and assessment processes are stressed. The forensic medical examination is reviewed, including the specifics of the pediatric anogenital examination. The key components of the forensic medical examination in sexual assault cases are also reviewed, with particular attention to maintaining the integrity of the process. Special emphasis is placed on the forensic interview in child sexual abuse cases, the best evidence available and areas in need of further research.

  13. Child abuse: skin markers and differential diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Gondim, Roberta Marinho Falcão; Muñoz, Daniel Romero; Petri, Valeria

    2011-01-01

    Reports of child abuse have increased significantly. The matter makes most physicians uncomfortable for two reasons: a) Little guidance or no training in recognizing the problem; b - Not understanding its true dimension. The most common form of child violence is physical abuse. The skin is the largest and frequently the most traumatized organ. Bruises and burns are the most visible signs. Physicians (pediatricians, general practitioners and dermatologists) are the first professionals to observe and recognize the signs of intentional injury. Dermatologists particularly, can help distinguish intentional injury from accidental, or from skin diseases that mimic maltreatment.

  14. Child Abuse in South Africa: An Examination of How Child Abuse and Neglect Are Defined

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Lois; Bozalek, Vivienne

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore which of 17 categories of child maltreatment South Africans evaluated as most serious and to determine if those working with abuse and neglect evaluated abuse and neglect differently from those who did not. Method: A revised version of Giovannoni and Becerra's [Giovannoni, J., & Becerra, R.…

  15. Child Abuse in the Eyes of the Beholder: Lay Perceptions of Child Sexual and Physical Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Brian H.; Kaplan, Debra L.; Perry, Andrea R.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose was to explore the effects of victim and perpetrator gender, type of abuse, and victim-perpetrator relationship on university students' and non-students' perceptions of different kinds of child abuse. Method: One hundred and ninety-nine participants (including university students and non-student adults) evaluated each of 24…

  16. Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... abuse also plays a role in many major social problems, such as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to homelessness, crime, and missed work or problems with keeping a ...

  17. Effects of Child Abuse and Neglect on Adult Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Emmanuel Janagan; James, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Child abuse has profound immediate and long-term effects on a child's development. The long-term impact of abuse of a child can be seen in higher rates of psychiatric disorders, increased rates of substance abuse and relationship difficulties [Springer, K. W., Sheridan, J., Kuo, D., & Carnes, M. (2003). "The long-term health outcomes of…

  18. Avoiding False Claims of Child Sexual Abuse: Empty Promises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pezdek, Kathy

    1994-01-01

    Responds to previous article by Fincham, Beach, Moore, and Diener (this issue) on child sexual abuse. Focuses on importance of recognizing that attempts to reduce probability of false claims of child abuse would result in increasing probability of missing true claims of child abuse. Offers hypothesis-testing framework as useful heuristic for…

  19. Innocent Victims: NCJW Manual on Child Abuse and Neglect Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of Jewish Women, New York, NY.

    The manual was written by the National Council of Jewish Women to provide guidelines for volunteer legislative action and community service for individuals in the area of child abuse and neglect. After an overview which details some of the causes of child abuse, information on child abuse and neglect legislation in each state is presented.…

  20. Singaporean Early Childhood Teachers' Responses to Myths about Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Freda; Potter, Gillian K.

    2004-01-01

    Prior to attending seminars on child abuse and domestic violence, 86 kindergarten and 64 special education (early childhood) teachers completed a questionnaire seeking views relating to the accuracy of statements relating to all forms of child abuse. This was designed to identify the accuracy of teachers' knowledge of child abuse and neglect…

  1. Women as Child Abusers: Indicators, Treatment, and Policy Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Donna R.; And Others

    Child abuse is a major problem in the United States. Policy concerning child abuse involves a criminal justice approach, a treatment approach, and a prevention approach. Prevention programs have focused on identifying and serving high-risk groups and on preventive education. A study was conducted to examine issues related to child abuse. Four…

  2. 45 CFR 1357.20 - Child abuse and neglect programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Child abuse and neglect programs. 1357.20 Section... APPLICABLE TO TITLE IV-B § 1357.20 Child abuse and neglect programs. The State agency must assure that, with regard to any child abuse and neglect programs or projects funded under title IV-B of the Act,...

  3. For Their Sake: Recognizing, Responding to, and Reporting Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Becca Cowan

    This guidebook provides specific information about child abuse to recreational staff, camp staff, childcare workers, and others who provide programs and services for minors. Part I describes the prevalence and causes of physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect; outlines physical and behavioral indicators that can alert staff…

  4. Child Abuse among Children with Disabilities: Implications for Special Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearson, Suzanne

    1996-01-01

    This discussion of child abuse in children with disabilities focuses on teachers' rights and responsibilities for reporting abuse and the need to overcome barriers to reporting abuse. Recommendations to protect teachers from unwarranted allegations of abuse are also given, including creating an open classroom environment, distinguishing between…

  5. Characteristics of Child Sexual Abuse Victims According to Perpetrator Gender.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudin, Margaret M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of 87 child abuse victims of lone female perpetrators with 93 victims of lone male perpetrators found that female perpetrators abused children 3.3 years younger than male perpetrators. Both female and male perpetrators abused more girls than boys and did not differ in severity of abuse. (Author/DB)

  6. Physician Knowledge of Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Socolar, Rebecca R. S.

    1996-01-01

    A survey of physicians (n=113) concerning their knowledge about child sexual abuse found several areas of inadequate knowledge, including assessment of chlamydia infection, Tanner staging, and documentation of historical and physical exam findings. Factors associated with better knowledge scores were physician participation in continuing medical…

  7. Child Sexual Abuse: Policies, Procedures, and Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blass, Rosanne J.; And Others

    The legal obligation of Ohio school employees to report situations of suspected child abuse and neglect has generated a need for school districts to adopt a written policy together with guidelines and procedures to assure school personnel are aware of the mandate to report and have a structural procedure to do so. The written policy should: (1)…

  8. Criminal Prosecution of Child Sexual Abuse Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martone, Mary; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This study of police and hospital records for 451 intrafamilial/caretaker child sexual abuse allegations in Chicago, Illinois, found that few children had to appear as witnesses, as 95% of cases were resolved through plea bargaining. Trial resolution took 12 to 16 months. Of 77 felony complaints initiated, 48 ended in convictions, with 43 convicts…

  9. Diagnosing Child Sex Abuse: A Research Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Catrina; Keenan, Mickey; Dillenburger, Karola

    2006-01-01

    Child sex abuse increasingly is recognised as a societal problem that can no longer be ignored. In this paper definitions, prevalence, trends, assessment, and available diagnostic procedures are described and critically evaluated. It is argued that the lack of reliable diagnostic procedures remains one of the main difficulties in dealing…

  10. Urgent Medical Assessment after Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palusci, Vincent J.; Cox, Edward O.; Shatz, Eugene M.; Schultze, Joel M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Immediate medical assessment has been recommended for children after sexual abuse to identify physical injuries, secure forensic evidence, and provide for the safety of the child. However, it is unclear whether young children seen urgently within 72 hours of reported sexual contact would have higher frequencies of interview or…

  11. Risk Factors for Paternal Physical Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Shawna J.; Guterman, Neil B.; Lee, Yookyong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This study uses the developmental-ecological framework to examine a comprehensive set of paternal factors hypothesized to be linked to risk for paternal child abuse (PCA) among a diverse sample of fathers. Attention was given to fathers' marital status and their race/ethnicity (White, African American, and Hispanic). Methods: Interviews…

  12. Containing the Secret of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McElvaney, Rosaleen; Greene, Sheila; Hogan, Diane

    2012-01-01

    This study reports a grounded theory study of the process of how children tell of their experiences of child sexual abuse from the perspectives of young people and their parents. Individual interviews were conducted with 22 young people aged 8 to 18, and 14 parents. A theoretical model was developed that conceptualises the process of disclosure as…

  13. Interdisciplinary Education in Child Abuse and Neglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venters, Maurine; ten Bensel, Robert

    1977-01-01

    A structured graduate interdisciplinary course on child abuse and neglect is offered to students in various types of professional training at the University of Minnesota School of Public Health. It also encourages communication among students from law, medicine, social work, education, and other fields. (Author/LBH)

  14. Future Directions in Preventing Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krugman, Richard D.

    1995-01-01

    Efforts to prevent the abuse and neglect of children requires: professionals and citizens who care to make a difference; development of multidisciplinary units, teams, or organizations to deal with specific parts of the problem; a clear statement of child protection policy; programs that work; commitment to research and program evaluation; and a…

  15. Personality Characteristics of Child Abusing Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flanagan, Clyde; And Others

    A study involving 22 fathers and 21 mothers was conducted to explore several personality characteristics of child abusive parents which may set them apart from nonabusive peers. A social history was taken, and each parent completed both the Motivation Analysis Test (MAT) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). Among findings…

  16. Polarity Analysis in Child Abuse Case Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Joe Brannan; And Others

    1993-01-01

    The use of polarity analysis in child abuse case management provides a way to identify interdependent polar opposites, their positive and negative consequences, and actions to manage them over time, rather than compete for one right solution. An example of polarity analysis is presented with the two poles being parental autonomy and the agency as…

  17. The Impact of Childhood Emotional Abuse: An Extension of the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Angela; Waller, Glenn

    1998-01-01

    A study of 239 British female undergraduates explored the potential of using the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale to measure childhood emotional abuse. The concurrent validity and internal consistency of this new childhood emotional-abuse subscale were found to be at an acceptable level. (Author/CR)

  18. Child Sexual Abuse Myths: Attitudes, Beliefs, and Individual Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; Goldsmith, Rachel E.

    2010-01-01

    Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child…

  19. Child Abuse and Neglect: Knowing when to Intervene

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pass, Susan

    2007-01-01

    If the abuse of a child were at the hands of a schoolyard bully or lurking pedophile, parents most likely would applaud intervention. However, precisely because most cases involve an abusive parent, intervention is almost automatically deemed a dicey proposition. The law, however, now requires teachers to report cases of suspected child abuse or…

  20. 1978 Annual Review of Child Abuse and Neglect Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Mary Porter; Klaus, Susan L.

    The review of research on child abuse and neglect presents brief abstracts of studies collected by the Clearinghouse of the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect. Material is organized into five subject areas (sample subtopics in parentheses): definition of abuse and neglect; incidence (national and selected geographic estimates);…

  1. Bridging the Gap of Teacher Education about Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinanan, Allison N.

    2011-01-01

    School personnel, particularly educators and school psychologists, are a first line of defense in protecting children from abuse. Teachers play an important role in the detection and reporting of child abuse. The relationship established between teachers and their students can facilitate the identification of child abuse. By virtue of their work,…

  2. [The abused and neglected child in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    Tonella, A; Zuppinger, K

    1994-12-27

    Pediatricians form part of children's and young people's most important extra-familial relations. They are thus especially well placed: first, to discover abuse of any kind, and second to put in motion the first years of measures of assistance for the children and their families. The first years of life are decisive for effective prevention of abuse and neglect, and for the development of a healthy personality. In this part of life, pediatricians are virtually the only "social outposts". Nevertheless, in Swiss pediatrics the concept of child protection is still in the initial stages. While we should warmly welcome the fact this problem was at last the main theme of an annual meeting, it must be remembered that this was only the first time. For a long time now no one has doubted that in our, thus far socially privileged country, a frighteningly large number of children and adolescents are victims of abuse. Since the publication of the report "Mauvais traitements des enfants en Suisse" (1992) a representative questionnaire to parents has shown that in this country and now, as before, over a third of parents use corporal punishment on their children. It has been calculated that e.g. 21,800 babies aged between 0 and 2.5 years are beaten, 4800 of them even with implements. There are no data on psychological and sexual maltreatment. Despite this shocking incidence of abuse, only a total of 72 cases (6% of all recorded cases) were reported over one year by pediatric practitioners in the "1989 prospective study". We cannot accept that this reflects a lack of social concern. Many other shortcomings appear to be involved: lack of briefing on the problems of child abuse during medical training, post-graduate and continuing studies, inadequate arrangements for interdisciplinary work, discouragement and early delegation to pseudo-experts, distrust of the efficacy of available aids (but sometimes overestimation of one's own possibilities) and last but not least, a still highly

  3. Child Physical Abuse and Concurrence of Other Types of Child Abuse in Sweden--Associations with Health and Risk Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Annerback, E. M.; Sahlqvist, L.; Svedin, C. G.; Wingren, G.; Gustafsson, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine the associations between child physical abuse executed by a parent or caretaker and self-rated health problems/risk-taking behaviors among teenagers. Further to evaluate concurrence of other types of abuse and how these alone and in addition to child physical abuse were associated with bad health status and risk-taking…

  4. Integrating Substance Abuse Treatment and Child Welfare Services: Findings from the Illinois Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Waiver Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joseph P.; Marsh, Jeanne C.; Testa, Mark F.; Louderman, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Alcohol and other drug abuse is a major problem for children and families involved with public child welfare. Substance abuse compromises appropriate parenting practices and increases the risk of child maltreatment. A substantial proportion of substantiated child abuse and neglect reports involve parental substance abuse. Once in the system,…

  5. Child abuse: multiple foreign bodies in gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Wadhera, Raman; Kalra, Vijay; Gulati, Sat Paul; Ghai, Anju

    2013-02-01

    The incidents of foreign body ingestion in infants and children are usually viewed as accidents, but these events may be a form of child abuse. We are reporting a case of child abuse who presented with multiple foreign bodies in the gastrointestinal tract. Physicians are required to report abuse when they have reason to believe or to suspect that it occurred. The purpose of reporting is not punishment of the perpetrator - it is the protection of the child. It is certainly in the best interest of the child, because child abuse is a recurrent and usually escalating problem that exposes the child to substantial risk.

  6. Child sexual abuse: consequences and implications.

    PubMed

    Hornor, Gail

    2010-01-01

    Sexual abuse is a problem of epidemic proportions in the United States. Given the sheer numbers of sexually abused children, it is vital for pediatric nurse practitioners to understand both short-term and long-term consequences of sexual abuse. Understanding consequences of sexual abuse can assist the pediatric nurse practitioner in anticipating the physical and mental health needs of patients and also may assist in the identification of sexual abuse victims. Sexual abuse typically does not occur in isolation. Implications for practice will be discussed.

  7. Exploring the controversy in child abuse pediatrics and false accusations of abuse.

    PubMed

    Gabaeff, Steven C

    2016-01-01

    There is a controversy in child abuse pediatrics between an established corps of child abuse pediatricians aligned with hospital colleagues and law enforcement, and a multi-specialty challenger group of doctors and other medical professionals working with public interest lawyers. The latter group questions the scientific validity of the core beliefs of child abuse pediatricians and believes that there are a substantial number of false accusations of abuse occurring. An unproven primary hypothesis, crafted around 1975 by a small group of pediatricians with an interest in child abuse, lies at the foundation of child abuse pediatrics. With no scientific study, it was hypothesized that subdural hemorrhage (SDH) and retinal hemorrhage (RH) were diagnostic of shaking abuse. That hypothesis became the so-called "shaken baby syndrome." Through the period 1975-1985, in a coordinated manner, these child abuse specialists coalesced under the American Academy of Pediatrics and began working with district attorneys and social workers, informing them of the ways in which their hypothesis could be applied to prosecutions of child abuse and life-altering social service interventions. In a legal context, using then-prevailing evidentiary rules which treated scientific expert testimony as valid if it was "generally accepted" in the field, they represented falsely that there was general acceptance of their hypothesis and therefore it was valid science. As the ability to convict based on this unproven prime hypothesis (SDH and RH equals abuse) increased, some defense attorneys were professionally compelled by their own doubts to reach out to experts from other fields with experience with SDH and RH, trauma, and biomechanics, for second opinions. Medical and legal challenges to the established thinking soon emerged, based on both old and new evidenced-based literature. As the intensity of the controversy increased, the probability of false accusation became more apparent and the need

  8. Child neglect and psychological abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... hard to please, aggressiveness Trouble sleeping Vague physical complaints CHILD NEGLECT These are examples of child neglect: ... ADAM Health Solutions. About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Get email updates Subscribe to RSS Follow ...

  9. An Investigation of the Relationship Between Substance Abuse and Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Rebecca; Mayer, Joseph

    Research on the role of alcoholism and opiate addiction in child abuse and neglect is reviewed, and a study of the adequacy of child care in families of 200 alcohol or opiate addicted parents is reported. Demographic data is included, and incidence and characteristics of physical and sexual abuse and neglect are reported. Sex of the addicted…

  10. The worst combinations of child abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Ney, P G; Fung, T; Wickett, A R

    1994-09-01

    We have studied the impact of various kinds of abuse and neglect on the child's perception of himself and his future. We found, when considering physical abuse, physical neglect, verbal abuse, emotional neglect, and sexual abuse, that less than 5% of these mistreatments occurred in isolation. Since the vast majority of mistreated children are subject to more than one kind of abuse or neglect, it was important to delineate which combinations have the greatest effect. We found that a combination of physical neglect, physical abuse, and verbal abuse had the greatest impact on children, affecting such things as their enjoyment of living and hopes for the future. An early age of onset for verbal abuse and emotional neglect was significantly associated with greater severity and frequency of mistreatment. Neglect appears to be a precursor to abuse in many cases.

  11. Research on the Long-Term Effects of Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elam, George A.; Kleist, David M.

    1999-01-01

    Explores recent quantitative and qualitative studies of the long-term effects of child abuse, specifically, how abuse in childhood affects adulthood. Many studies associate various forms of abuse experienced in childhood with a wide range of psychological, behavioral, and relational problems in adulthood. Articles reviewed may inform marriage and…

  12. Parental Substance Abuse and the Nature of Child Maltreatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Famularo, Richard; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Randomly selected juvenile court records (n=190) of cases of child maltreatment found that 67 percent involved parents who were substance abusers. Specific associations were found between (1) alcohol abuse and physical maltreatment, and (2) cocaine abuse and sexual maltreatment. (Author/DB)

  13. Evaluation of an innovative tool for child sexual abuse education.

    PubMed

    Davis, Deborah Winders; Pressley-McGruder, Gloria; Jones, V Faye; Potter, Deborah; Rowland, Michael; Currie, Melissa; Gale, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Child sexual abuse poses a serious threat to public health and is often unreported, unrecognized, and untreated. Prevention, early recognition, and treatment are critically important to reduce long-term effects. Little data are available on effective methods of preventing child sexual abuse. The current research demonstrates a unique approach to promoting awareness and stimulating discussion about child sexual abuse. Qualitative methods have rarely been used to study child sexual abuse prevention. Qualitative inductive analyses of interviews from 20 key informants identified both positive and negative assessments with six emergent themes. The themes revealed inherent tensions in using narrative accounts to represent the complex cultural context within which child sexual abuse occurs. More research is needed, but the program shows potential as a methodology to raise awareness of child sexual abuse.

  14. Child Abuse: The Hidden Bruises

    MedlinePlus

    ... For all questions please contact the AACAP Communications & Marketing Coordinator, ext. 154. If you need immediate assistance, please dial 911. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. ... {1} ##LOC[OK]## ##LOC[Cancel]## { ...

  15. Which injuries may indicate child abuse?

    PubMed

    Maguire, S

    2010-12-01

    Making the decision as to whether an injury is a result of child abuse or not is stressful for both the family involved and the clinical team. It is not a decision that is taken lightly, and with an increasing expectation by the investigating agencies, lawyers and the public in general, to ensure that it is based on explicit 'evidence', clinicians need to be up to date with the latest scientific publications in the field. This article aims to summarise the current evidence in relation to all physical injuries except those pertaining to the central nervous system, which will form a separate article. It will examine the pattern of accidental and abusive bruises, fractures, burns, abdominal injuries and oral injuries focusing on discriminating features and necessary investigations.

  16. Teachers' Knowledge and Beliefs About Child Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Márquez-Flores, María Mercedes; Márquez-Hernández, Verónica V; Granados-Gámez, Genoveva

    2016-07-01

    Child sexual abuse is one of the main types of abuse still to be addressed within the field of education, yet the education system itself can serve as a primary tool for its prevention. A better understanding of teachers' knowledge and beliefs about child sexual abuse will allow us to establish key starting points from which to utilize the system for prevention. Four hundred and fifty teachers participated in this study, completing a questionnaire regarding their knowledge and beliefs about child sexual abuse. The study revealed that over half the teachers, 65.3% (n = 294), had never received any type of training in child sexual abuse education and that the majority were not familiar with methods of identifying child sexual abuse, 90.7% (n = 279). Various mistaken beliefs were identified among the participating teachers, such as pathological profiles of abusers, that the vast majority of child sexual abuse implies violent behavior, and that there cannot be abusers the same age as the victim. These results indicate that knowledge deficiencies do exist about child sexual abuse among teachers and highlight the need for training in this field.

  17. Mother-Child Communication about Sexual Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa; Chirio, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Two hundred and twelve Australian mothers completed an online survey examining features of mother-child communication about child sexual abuse prevention. Two-thirds (67.5%) of respondents had discussed child sexual abuse prevention with their children, with proportions varying according to age range (highest for mothers with children aged 5-12…

  18. Psychiatric Diagnoses of Self-Reported Child Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinwiddie, Stephen H.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.

    1993-01-01

    Subjects who self-reported episodes of abusing a child were compared to those without a history of child battery. It was concluded that self-identified child abusers have increased lifetime rates of antisocial personality disorder, alcoholism, and depression. (DB)

  19. Toxic Knowledge: Self-Alteration Through Child Abuse Work.

    PubMed

    Sigad, Laura I; Davidov, Jonathan; Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Eisikovits, Zvi

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the present article is to examine the multiple ways in which the private lives of professionals are affected by involvement with child abuse intervention and prevention. Using a descriptive-phenomenological perspective and 40 in-depth interviews with professionals to present a model based on qualitative data, we studied the ways in which child abuse professionals conceptualize, understand, and integrate their experiences into their personal and family lives. We find that the process of internalizing child abuse knowledge occurs in two domains: One affirms or denies the existence of the phenomenon; the other concerns the strategies used to contend with the effects of working in abuse. Knowledge of child abuse is toxic, in the sense that it serves as a catalyst leading to the alteration of one's self-perception and parental identity. We present a typology of self-alteration resulting from child abuse knowledge and describe the mechanism of this change.

  20. Sexual orientation, child abuse, and intimate partner violence victimization.

    PubMed

    Koeppel, Maria D H; Bouffard, Leana

    2014-01-01

    Research has consistently found rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) in nonheterosexual relationships to be comparable or higher than rates of IPV in heterosexual relationship. Less is understood about the relationship between child abuse, sexual orientation, and IPV victimization. The role of sexual orientation in the relationship between child abuse and IPV victimization is important to consider given research has found higher rates of childhood abuse among nonheterosexual individuals. In addition, the relationship between child abuse victimization and IPV victimization in adulthood has also been documented. This research extends the literature on IPV by comparing child abuse victimization as a predictor for IPV between heterosexual and nonheterosexual IPV victims. Using the National Violence Against Women Survey, this study used logistic regression models to find partial support for the hypothesis that nonheterosexuals who experience child abuse will be more likely to be IPV victims as adults than similarly situated heterosexuals.

  1. Child-abusers face mob justice.

    PubMed

    Sebunya, C

    1996-06-01

    are shown; one concerns the relation of abuser to child, while the other concerns the action taken on abuse cases.

  2. Inhalant Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Who may be abusing inhalants?The most common abusers of inhalants are teenagers, especially those who are ... to your child about the dangers of trying drugs can help him or her make the right ...

  3. Child Abuse and Neglect: The Proceedings of an Interdisciplinary Workshop on Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC.

    Proceedings of a workshop on the need to establish a close working relationship between the medical, legal, and social work professions in the management of child abuse is presented. An introduction by Frank Beal is followed by welcoming remarks by Pennsylvania Governor Milton Shapp. Speeches by Elizabeth Davoren, Eli Newberger, and Vincent…

  4. Neuroimaging of child abuse: a critical review

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Heledd; Rubia, Katya

    2012-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment is a stressor that can lead to the development of behavior problems and affect brain structure and function. This review summarizes the current evidence for the effects of childhood maltreatment on behavior, cognition and the brain in adults and children. Neuropsychological studies suggest an association between child abuse and deficits in IQ, memory, working memory, attention, response inhibition and emotion discrimination. Structural neuroimaging studies provide evidence for deficits in brain volume, gray and white matter of several regions, most prominently the dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex but also hippocampus, amygdala, and corpus callosum (CC). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies show evidence for deficits in structural interregional connectivity between these areas, suggesting neural network abnormalities. Functional imaging studies support this evidence by reporting atypical activation in the same brain regions during response inhibition, working memory, and emotion processing. There are, however, several limitations of the abuse research literature which are discussed, most prominently the lack of control for co-morbid psychiatric disorders, which make it difficult to disentangle which of the above effects are due to maltreatment, the associated psychiatric conditions or a combination or interaction between both. Overall, the better controlled studies that show a direct correlation between childhood abuse and brain measures suggest that the most prominent deficits associated with early childhood abuse are in the function and structure of lateral and ventromedial fronto-limbic brain areas and networks that mediate behavioral and affect control. Future, large scale multimodal neuroimaging studies in medication-naïve subjects, however, are needed that control for psychiatric co-morbidities in order to elucidate the structural and functional brain sequelae that are associated with early environmental adversity

  5. Identifying the sexually abused deaf child: the otolaryngologist's role.

    PubMed

    Brookhouser, P E; Sullivan, P; Scanlan, J M; Garbarino, J

    1986-02-01

    As a primary physician for most deaf children, the otolaryngologist must be able to identify signs and symptoms of sexual abuse. Child sexual abuse is a topic of national concern as epidemiologic data indicate more than 100,000 American children become victims annually. This paper provides an overview of the incidence, demographic characteristics, risk factors, and dynamics of child sexual abuse within both the general handicapped and, specifically, the hearing imparied populations. Strategies for identifying the sexually abused hearing impaired child are delineated including the physical appearance and behavioral manifestations of child victims, as well as the characteristics of abusive caretakers and perpetrators. Case summaries are presented which illustrate these characteristics. A national center specializing in the evaluation and treatment of abused handicapped children is described.

  6. [The dentist's role in the child abuse: diagnosis and report].

    PubMed

    Crespo, Manuela; Andrade, David; Alves, Ana La-Salete; Magalhães, Teresa

    2011-12-01

    Child Abuse is a frequent problem worldwide that surpasses ethnicity, religion, culture, economic and social classes. In the United States of America child protective services account, per year, over one million cases of child abuse or neglect. In Portugal, the incidence of the problem is unknown but each year thousands of abused children are accompanied by the Commissions for the Protection of Children and Youth at Risk. This abuse threatens children's physical, emotional and intellectual development, as well as their dignity, security, well-being and even their own lives. The body regions most frequently affected in physical abuse, are the cranium, neck and orofacial region, in fact, about 50% of the injuries arising from child abuse occur in the orofacial region. These data place the dentist in a privileged position to make the detection, diagnosis and report of child abuse. Therefore, these professionals must be prepared to recognize, diagnose and report their suspicions to the appropriate authorities, which play a key role in victims protection and criminal investigation. This review intends to stress the important role of the dentist in the detection, diagnosis and report of child abuse, systematizing child abuse risk factors and indicators essential to the intervention of these professionals. This problem's approach is multidisciplinary, involving particularly dentists, who must obtain continuing education and training in this area.

  7. Containing the secret of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    McElvaney, Rosaleen; Greene, Sheila; Hogan, Diane

    2012-04-01

    This study reports a grounded theory study of the process of how children tell of their experiences of child sexual abuse from the perspectives of young people and their parents. Individual interviews were conducted with 22 young people aged 8 to 18, and 14 parents. A theoretical model was developed that conceptualises the process of disclosure as one of containing the secret of child sexual abuse. Three key dynamics were identified: the active withholding of the secret on the part of the child, the experience of a 'pressure cooker effect' reflecting a conflict between the wish to tell and the wish to keep the secret, and the confiding itself which often occurs in the context of an intimacy being shared. Children's experiences of disclosure were multidetermined and suggest the need for multifaceted and multisystemic approaches to prevention and intervention. The need for the secret to be contained, individually and interpersonally in appropriate safeguarding and therapeutic contexts needs to be respected in helping children tell.

  8. Understanding the behavioral and emotional consequences of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Stirling, John; Amaya-Jackson, Lisa; Amaya-Jackson, Lisa

    2008-09-01

    Children who have suffered early abuse or neglect may later present with significant behavior problems including emotional instability, depression, and a tendency to be aggressive or violent with others. Troublesome behaviors may persist long after the abusive or neglectful environment has changed or the child has been in foster care placement. Neurobiological research has shown that early abuse results in an altered physiological response to stressful stimuli, a response that deleteriously affects the child's subsequent socialization. Pediatricians can assist caregivers by helping them recognize the abused or neglected child's altered responses, formulate more effective coping strategies, and mobilize available community resources.

  9. The Truth about Abuse? A Comparative Approach to Inquiry Narratives on Historical Institutional Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sköld, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, the history of childhood and history of education have gained status as political concerns through the establishment of numerous truth commissions and inquiries into historical institutional child abuse. This article discusses the methodological and ethical dilemmas that arise when writing the history of abused children with the…

  10. Childhood History of Abuse and Child Abuse Potential in Adolescent Mothers: A Longitudinal Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Paul, Joaquin; Domenech, Leticia

    2000-01-01

    Two matched groups (24 adolescents and 24 adults) of pregnant mothers were followed for 20 months. During pregnancy, memories of child maltreatment were evaluated. Although adolescent and adult mothers showed no differences in memories of childhood physical or emotional abuse, adolescent mothers and physically abused mothers showed higher child…

  11. The Enough Abuse Campaign: Building the Movement to Prevent Child Sexual Abuse in Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Bernier, Jetta

    2012-01-01

    This case study describes the Enough Abuse Campaign, a multidisciplinary, statewide effort to prevent child sexual abuse in Massachusetts. The study uses the Institute of Medicine's Framework for Collaborative Community Action on Health to provide a systematic description of the campaign's process of implementation, which includes: (a) developing…

  12. Authority as coercion:when authority figures abuse their positions to perpetrate child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Karen

    2002-01-01

    ABSTRACT. This article discusses child sexual abuse by a person in a position of authority, such as the child's teacher, guardian, relative, sports coach, or other person with authority over a child because of his/her particular position. The article tracks the recent trend toward recognizing position of authority in both state legislation and judicial precedent. Understanding the confusion and intimidation surrounding a child's experiences as a result of being sexually abused by a person in a position of authority often explains why children often fail to report or delay in reporting such abuse. Thus, existence of a perpetrator's position of authority in a particular case of child sexual abuse should influence a court's rulings on the elements of sexual abuse or assault in particular state statutes, as well as what evidence should be admissible. Ultimately, the author concludes that all states should recognize position of authority in their child abuse statutes, that such statutes should be interpreted broadly by the courts, and, finally, that evidence of the defendant's prior acts of sexual abuse should almost always be admissible at trial.

  13. School Counselors and Child Abuse Reporting: A National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Jill K.

    2009-01-01

    A study was done to investigate school counselors' child abuse reporting behaviors and perceptions regarding the child abuse reporting process. Participants were randomly selected from the American School Counselor Association membership database with 193 school counselors returning questionnaires. Overall, school counselors indicated that they…

  14. A Multilevel Evaluation of a Comprehensive Child Abuse Prevention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Michael A.; Alameda-Lawson, Tania; Byrnes, Edward C.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which participation in a county-wide prevention program leads to improvements in protective factors associated with child abuse prevention (CAP) and whether improvements in measured protective factors relate to decreased odds of child abuse. Method: Using multilevel growth modeling,…

  15. Evaluation of an Innovative Tool for Child Sexual Abuse Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Deborah Winders; Pressley-McGruder, Gloria; Jones, V. Faye; Potter, Deborah; Rowland, Michael; Currie, Melissa; Gale, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Child sexual abuse poses a serious threat to public health and is often unreported, unrecognized, and untreated. Prevention, early recognition, and treatment are critically important to reduce long-term effects. Little data are available on effective methods of preventing child sexual abuse. The current research demonstrates a unique approach to…

  16. Kindergarten Teachers' Experience with Reporting Child Abuse in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Jui-Ying; Huang, Tzu-Yi; Wang, Chi-Jen

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The objectives were to examine factors associated with reporting child abuse among kindergarten teachers in Taiwan based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Method: A stratified quota sampling technique was used to randomly select kindergarten teachers in Taiwan. The Child Abuse Intention Report Scale, which includes demographics,…

  17. Jury Selection in Child Sex Abuse Trials: A Case Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Robert J.; Adams, Desiree D.; Brodsky, Stanley L.

    2009-01-01

    Child sex abuse cases have been the target of considerable psycho-legal research. The present paper offers an analysis of psychological constructs for jury selection in child sex abuse cases from the defense perspective. The authors specifically delineate general and case-specific jury selection variables. General variables include…

  18. The Duke Endowment Child Abuse Prevention Initiative: A Midpoint Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Deborah; Huang, Lee Ann; English, Brianna

    2009-01-01

    The Duke Endowment launched its Child Abuse Prevention Initiative in 2002 by funding two program sites, the Durham Family Initiative in Durham, North Carolina, and Strong Communities in Greenville, South Carolina. Both sites aimed to reduce rates of child abuse, improve parenting practices and behaviors, strengthen community service systems, and…

  19. The Medical Analysis of Child Sexual Abuse Images

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Sharon W.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of child sexual abuse images, commonly referred to as pornography, requires a familiarity with the sexual maturation rating of children and an understanding of growth and development parameters. This article explains barriers that exist in working in this area of child abuse, the differences between subjective and objective analyses,…

  20. 75 FR 17841 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-07

    ... they need our support to thrive and grow into healthy, productive adults. During National Child Abuse..., promoting healthy families, and building a brighter future for all Americans. Every child deserves a nurturing family and a safe environment, free from fear, abuse, and neglect. Tragically, sexual,...

  1. Child Sexual Abuse - Multiple Languages: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Sexual Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Sexual Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  2. Developmental Experiences of Child Sexual Abusers and Rapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Dominique A.; Wurtele, Sandy K.; Durham, Robert L.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study is to identify the distinct developmental experiences associated with child sexual abuse and rape. Method: For 269 sexual offenders (137 rapists and 132 child sexual abusers), developmental experiences were recorded from a behavioral checklist, a parental-bonding survey, and a sexual history questionnaire. Offender…

  3. Child Emotional Aggression and Abuse: Definitions and Prevalence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slep, Amy M. Smith; Heyman, Richard E.; Snarr, Jeffery D.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Research on and intervention for child emotional abuse and emotional aggression toward children have been severely hampered because there have been no agreed-upon, clinically usable definitions. Methods: We have (a) proposed and field-tested a set of criteria to operationally define child emotional abuse for clinical settings and (b)…

  4. Filial Dependency and Recantation of Child Sexual Abuse Allegations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Lindsay C.; Lyon, Thomas D.; Quas, Jodi A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Controversy abounds regarding the process by which child sexual abuse victims disclose their experiences, particularly the extent to which and the reasons why some children, once having disclosed abuse, later recant their allegations. This study examined the prevalence and predictors of recantation among 2- to 17-year-old child sexual…

  5. The Educator's Guide to Preventing Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Mary, Ed.; Clark, Kay, Ed.

    This collection of articles was created to give professionals and educators an informed overview of current issues in the field of child sexual abuse prevention. Articles are grouped under the headings of Introduction, Issues in Child Sexual Abuse Prevention, and Guidelines for Prevention Education and include: (1) "Prevention Education in…

  6. Careers in Child Abuse & Neglect: Many Ways to Help.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herner and Co., Arlington, VA.

    The booklet describes careers and requirements in various fields concerned with child abuse and neglect. Each full or half page section includes a description of the field's relation to child abuse and neglect, types of responsibilities involved, and personal/academic qualifications. The following fields are considered: social services, medicine,…

  7. Child Sexual Abuse in Shelby County, Tennessee: A New Epidemic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muram, David; And Others

    1991-01-01

    This study evaluated child sexual abuse statistics since introduction of a child sexual abuse program in 1985 in Shelby County, Tennessee. Findings suggest a highly fluctuating validation rate, higher validation rates for girls than boys, possible underreporting of male victims, and 78 percent of the perpetrators being known to their victims.…

  8. A Review of Recent Literature on Child Abuse and Sequelae.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, John L.

    This paper addresses moderate- to long-term psychological effects of child abuse. It begins by discussing characteristics of effective and ineffective parenting to provide a background of potential contributors to child abuse within the family system. Belsky's (1984) developmental model of determinants of parenting behavior is explained and his…

  9. Contextual Effects on Kindergarten Teachers' Intention to Report Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feng, Jui-Ying; Wu, Yow-Wu B.; Fetzer, Susan; Chang, Hsin-Yi

    2012-01-01

    Child abuse is underreported for children with socioeconomic inequalities. The impact of geographic location combined with sociocultural characteristics on teachers' reports of child abuse remains unclear. A national survey of 572 kindergarten teachers from 79 schools in Taiwan used hierarchical linear modeling to investigate the contribution of…

  10. Qualities and Characteristics of the Child Abusing Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breiner, Sander J.

    Most child abuse has a violent quality. A review of the research on child abusers reveals some interesting psychosocial and historical characteristics. Research has shown violence to be more likely in less stable populations, in persons with poor driving records and histories of severe accidents, and in those who are undereducated and unsuccessful…

  11. Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect in Child Care Settings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-01

    34to make her listen to me." Abuse also may be a pattern of behavior such as incest between parent and child extending over many years or parents...when his or her parents leave. "Today, I heard Jerry telling Sandy, ’Don’t cry, your mom will come back soon!’ I think that’s his way of assuring

  12. Paediatric AIDS: a new child abuse.

    PubMed

    Oletto, S; Giaquinto, C; Seefried, M; Ruga, E; Cozzani, S; Mazza, A; De Manzini, A; D'Elia, R; Zacchello, F

    1994-08-01

    In relation to youth rights, a new view has been created in recent decades that is included in the fundamental law of the child: the recognition of the right to education and the chance to develop a mature personality capable of creativity and liberty. Because of HIV infection it is very important to pay particular attention to the rights of the seropositive child and children born to seropositive mothers, which may be hampered not only in developing countries but also in the industrial world. HIV-affected children and their families are becoming abused and at high risk of becoming abused and this encroaches upon youth rights. As a consequence, in 1991 the Italian Society of Paediatrics issued a "Charter for the rights of seropositive children", which became an important document for all health care and social workers who deal with HIV-affected children. In this paper, we also consider the impact of HIV infection on the three main rights of children: the right to live, the rights of security and the rights of socialization.

  13. Child abuse: discovering the horrifying truth.

    PubMed

    Blair, Lee; Clauss, Eric; Meredith, Mark

    2011-10-01

    EMS is called to the residence of a 2-month-old child who's lethargic and has not eaten well for several days. On arrival, the grandmother of the patient states she's concerned because the child isn't acting right. During your assessment, you notice the child isn't acting age appropriate. Initial vital signs after placing the patient in the ambulance reveal: blood pressure 82/46, pulse 146 bpm, respirations 32 and a blood-glucose level of 134 mg/dL. Further assessment reveals bruising to the pinna of the right ear. On arrival at the emergency department (ED), the child begins to have periods of apnea, and the hospital healthcare providers intubate the patient. A post-intubation chest X-ray reveals multiple acute and sub-acute rib fractures. The ED staff exposed the patient during their assessment and noted bruising to the left ear and the jaw. There's also bruising found in different stages of healing to the anterior and posterior chest wall. The ED staff suspects this patient is a victim of child maltreatment, so the proper authorities are notified. During the investigation, the mother admits to abusing the child.

  14. Child Sexual Abuse--One Victim Is Too Many.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slan, Beverly

    1984-01-01

    Parents are warned about the dangers of child sexual abuse and child pornography. To recognize potential threats, parents should know their children well, take time to communicate with them, and watch for changes in personality patterns. (PP)

  15. Bruising and Hemophilia: Accident or Child Abuse?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Charles F.; Coury, Daniel L.

    1988-01-01

    Two case histories illustrate the difficulty in evaluating abuse/neglect in children with bleeding problems such as hemophilia. Discussed are guidelines for diagnosis and prevention of abuse, including: screening techniques, the need for protection from environmental trauma, parental stress, evaluation of parents' disciplinary methods, and the…

  16. Child sexual abuse--the interface with genitourinary medicine.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, D J; Roberts, R E

    1995-01-01

    Whenever a child is seen in a genitourinary clinic the possibility that the child is the victim of child sexual abuse must be considered. This article considers the definition and postulated prevalence of child sexual abuse in England and Wales. A proposed management plan is then detailed with a review of the significance of the medical findings. Finally consideration is given to the ethical dilemmas which such cases pose. Images PMID:7750955

  17. Adolescent Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman, Susan; Seligman, Linda

    1983-01-01

    Discusses legal and developmental aspects of adolescent abuse, as distinguished from child abuse. The role of the school counselor in identifying and counseling abused adolescents and their families is discussed and several forms of intervention and support services are described. (JAC)

  18. [Occult child abuse (opinions, considerations, personal observations)].

    PubMed

    Paci, A; Migliaccio, P; Paci, G

    1999-01-01

    At the beginning of the statement the authors point out some lesser aspects of child's ill-treatment (previously suggested by them in other occasions) as expressions of very strict educational systems which strongly limit childrens' freedom or impose them several extrascholastic activities (such as: athletics, music with participation in competitive examination, studies of foreign languages, Latin and so on) where the child must excel in (composex of the "leader-child"). Then these authors suggest using the term "abuse" to mean lexically every excessive, undue, arbitrary use and not only "sexual". They point out the seriousness of abuse as far as juvenile exploitation is concerned both in case of manual labour and prostitution. But the pay particularly attention to the problem of sport when it is gone in for too intensively (as athletics). These authors infact sum up the harms that sport can cause when it is gone in for during the age under the stabilized puberty. Physical harms may occur especially during the practice of risky sports such as: Alpine skiing, cycling on the road, swimming combined with diving, fencing, boxing) and during tiring condition, while psychic harms can entail a fall in scholastic performances, irritability, insomnia, anxiety. The authors depreciate the behaviour of those parents who stimulate their children' aggressiveness during competitions and scold them when their performances are insufficient, or give them forbidden stimulants of hormonal anabolic drugs instead of taking care of their children in order to keep away from the arms mentioned above. However, after all these observations and considerations about competitive sports in juvenile age, these authors can firmly state that all this could be meant as an important aspects of the juvenile exploitation that must be taken in great consideration.

  19. Oral and dental signs of child abuse and neglect

    PubMed Central

    COSTACURTA, M.; BENAVOLI, D.; ARCUDI, G.; DOCIMO, R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Aim The aim of this report is to identify the main oral and dental aspects of physical and sexual abuse and dental neglect in childhood, contributing to the precocious identification and diagnosis in a dental practice. Methods The oral and dental manifestations were divided and classified according to the type of child abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect. Physical abuse Several studies in the literature have shown that oral or facial trauma occurs in about 50% of physically abused children; the oral cavity may be a central focus for physical abuse. Oro-facial manifestations of physical abuse include bruising, abrasions or lacerations of tongue, lips, oral mucosa, hard and soft palate, gingiva, alveolar mucosa, frenum; dental fractures, dental dislocations, dental avulsions; maxilla and mandible fractures. Sexual abuse Although the oral cavity is a frequent site of sexual abuse in children, visible oral injuries or infections are rare. Some oral signs may represent significant indications of sexual abuse, as erythema, ulcer, vescicle with purulent drainage or pseudomembranus and condylomatous lesions of lips, tongue, palate and nose-pharynx. Furthermore, if present erythema and petechiae, of unknown etiology, found on soft and hard palates junction or on the floor of the mouth, can be certainly evident proofs of forced oral sex. Dental neglect Oral signs of neglect are easily identifiable and are: poor oral hygiene, halitosis, Early Childhood Caries (ECC), odontogenous infections (recurrent and previous abscesses), periodontal disease, aptha lesions as a consequence of a nutritional deficiency status. Moreover, it is analyzed the assessment of bite marks because often associated with child abuse, the identification and collection of clinical evidence of this type of injury. Conclusion A precocious diagnosis of child abuse, in a dental practice, could considerably contribute in the identification of violence cases and in an early intervention. PMID

  20. Child sexual abuse: who is to blame?

    PubMed

    Broussard, S D; Wagner, W G

    1988-01-01

    This study utilized written descriptions of sexual activity between an adult and a child to examine the impact of victim sex, perpetrator sex, respondent sex, and victim response (i.e., encouraging, passive, resisting) on the attribution of responsibility to the child and the adult perpetrator. A total of 360 college undergraduates (male = 180; female = 180) participated in the study. A main effect for victim response indicated that respondents attributed significantly more responsibility to the child and significantly less responsibility to the perpetrator when the child was described as encouraging the encounter. Children who remained passive were also held significantly more responsible than those who resisted, but there was not a significant difference between resisting and passive conditions in ratings of responsibility to the perpetrator. Several significant interactions affected ratings of responsibility to the perpetrator. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of the need for educational programs to raise public awareness about the helplessness felt by sexual abuse victims and the needs of male victims in particular.

  1. Child Abuse: Implications for Child Development and Psychopathology. Second Edition. Developmental Clinical Psychology and Psychiatry, Volume 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, David A.

    This book examines the role child abuse plays within a victim's individual development from childhood through their adult life. It begins by describing the different types of child abuse, prevalence rates, and risk factors. It also describes four types of child maltreatment that include: physical abuse, neglect, sexual abuse, and emotional abuse.…

  2. Evaluation for bleeding disorders in suspected child abuse.

    PubMed

    Anderst, James D; Carpenter, Shannon L; Abshire, Thomas C

    2013-04-01

    Bruising or bleeding in a child can raise the concern for child abuse. Assessing whether the findings are the result of trauma and/or whether the child has a bleeding disorder is critical. Many bleeding disorders are rare, and not every child with bruising/bleeding concerning for abuse requires an evaluation for bleeding disorders. In some instances, however, bleeding disorders can present in a manner similar to child abuse. The history and clinical evaluation can be used to determine the necessity of an evaluation for a possible bleeding disorder, and prevalence and known clinical presentations of individual bleeding disorders can be used to guide the extent of the laboratory testing. This clinical report provides guidance to pediatricians and other clinicians regarding the evaluation for bleeding disorders when child abuse is suspected.

  3. An Epidemiological Overview of Child Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mannat Mohanjeet; Parsekar, Shradha S.; Nair, Sreekumaran N.

    2014-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a universal problem with grave life-long outcomes. The estimates vary widely depending on the country under study, the definitions used, the type of CSA studied, the extent of coverage, and quality of data. This study intended to assess the magnitude and the issues related to CSA. We searched databases such as PubMed, Google scholar, web (newspaper reports), and government websites. The relevant data was extracted from these sources for gathering evidence on CSA and secondary data analysis was done. The prevalence of CSA was found to be high in India as well as throughout the world. CSA is an extensive problem and even the lowest prevalence includes a huge number of victims. It also has various adverse effects on the psychological, physical, behavioral, and interpersonal well-being of the victim. Hence, stringent measures should be taken for the prevention and control of this hidden public health issue. PMID:25657958

  4. Child Abuse and Mental Disorders in Iranian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pirdehghan, Azar; Vakili, Mahmood; Rajabzadeh, Yavar; Puyandehpour, Mohammad; Aghakoochak, Arezoo

    2016-01-01

    Background Child abuse is a serious social health problem all over the world with important adverse effects. Objectives The aim of this study was to extend our understanding of the relation between mental disorders and child abuse. Materials and Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey on 700 students in secondary schools using multiple cluster sampling in Yazd, Iran in 2013. We applied 2 self reported questionnaires: DASS (depression anxiety stress scales)-42 for assessing mental disorders (anxiety, stress and depression) and a standard self-reported valid and reliable questionnaire for recording child abuse information in neglect, psychological, physical and sexual domains. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS software. P-values < 0.05 were considered as significant. Results There was a statically significant correlation between mental disorder and child abuse score (Spearman rho: 0.2; P-value < 0.001). The highest correlations between mental disorders and child abuse were found in psychological domain, Spearman’s rho coefficients were 0.46, 0.41 and 0.36 for depression, anxiety and stress respectively (P-value < 0.001). Based on the results of logistic regression for mental disorder, females, last born adolescents and subjects with drug or alcohol abuser parents had mental disorder odds of 3, 0.4 and 1.9 times compared to others; and severe psychological abuse, being severely neglected and having sexual abuse had odds 90, 1.6 and 1.5 respectively in another model. Conclusions Programming for mandatory reporting of child abuse by physicians and all health care givers e.g. those attending schools or health centers, in order to prevent or reduce its detrimental effects is useful and success in preventing child abuse could lead to reductions in the prevalence of mental disorders. PMID:27437096

  5. [Fatal child abuse in Japan and Germany. Comparative retrospective study].

    PubMed

    Ohtsuji, M; Ohshima, T; Kondo, T; Godoy, M R; Oehmichen, M

    1998-01-01

    In this study a record for comparative international epidemiological studies on autopsy cases of child abuse is introduced. The form was proved in a retrospective comparative survey of cases of fatal child abuse at the Department of Legal Medicine in Kanazawa (Japan) and Institute of Legal Medicine of Lübeck (Germany). A total of 33 cases were included. The following data were evaluated: age and gender of victims and assailants, relationship between victims and assailants, causes and methods of abuse, chief autopsy findings, and causes of death. The results were leading into two directions between Kanazawa and Lübeck: (1) In the years of 1981-1996 in Kanazawa 23 cases of fatal child abuse were autopsied while during the same period in Lübeck only 10 cases were registered. (2) While sexual abuse was not registered in Kanazawa, it was recorded twice in Lübeck.

  6. A Child in Our Midst: A Study Course on Keeping Children Safe From Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salvation Army. New York, NY.

    This Leader's Guide prepared for the Salvation Army's Home League aims at helping community groups (particularly those which are church related) recognize the symptoms of child abuse and determine their course of action in preventing such abuse. Six forms of child abuse are cited: physical abuse, physical neglect, emotional abuse, emotional…

  7. Reviewing the Association between the History of Parental Substance Abuse and the Rate of Child Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Yaghoubi-Doust, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Background Substance abuse is a social, and health problem in Middle Eastern countries such as Iran. One of its most devastating effects is domestic violence against children. This study examined the association between the history of parental substance abuse, and rate of child abuse in Ahvaz, Iran. Methods This was a case-control study. The study population included all parents with high school children in Ahwaz within the academic year 2012-2013. The sample size was 384 people in two groups; with a history of substance abuse (case group) and no history of substance abuse (control group). Multi-stage cluster random sampling method was used through the Cochran formula. The data collection tools included a Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) (Bernstein, 1995), a demographic questionnaire, Duncan Socioeconomic Index (DSI), and a researcher-made questionnaire for the history of substance abuse. For data analysis, statistical indicators such as percentage, mean, standard deviation, t-test, and correlation and regression analysis were used. Findings Data analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation among parents with a history of substance abuse and domestic violence toward children. Mean and standard deviation of the violence level in families with normal parents were 61.34 ± 16.88, and in families with a history of substance abuse were 98.99 ± 32.07. Therefore, the test results showed that there was a significant difference between normal families and families with history of substance abuse and violence toward children (P < 0.001, t = 8.60). Conclusion Based on the findings, the history of domestic violence and parental substance abuse (physical and emotional abuse, emotional and physical neglect) had a significant positive correlation with their behavior toward their children. After matching the two groups we found that the most common types of violence against children by their parents were, respectively, emotional violence (r = 58

  8. A School Counselor's Guide to Reporting Child Abuse and Neglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikes, April

    2008-01-01

    The process of reporting abuse can be challenging, traumatic, and at times, overwhelming. In order for school counselors to be effective helpers for children, it is essential that they know how to recognize and prevent child abuse and neglect. The purpose of this article is to provide professional school counselors with information they can use to…

  9. Child Sexual Abuse in the Anglican Church of Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkinson, Patrick N.; Oates, R. Kim; Jayakody, Amanda A.

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on a retrospective study of cases of child sexual abuse complaints made against clergy, other employed pastoral staff, and volunteers in the Anglican Church of Australia between 1990 and 2008. There were 191 allegations of sexual abuse made by 180 complainants against 135 individuals. Twenty-seven of those 135 had more than…

  10. American Indian Law: Relationship to Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baurley, Marion E.; Street, Matthew H.

    Designed to provide the reader with general background information in the area of American Indian child abuse and neglect law and to present a framework in which individual abuse or neglect cases may be analyzed, this report is divided into four sections. The first section describes features of the jurisdictional conflicts encountered in American…

  11. Preliminary Validation of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kutsal, Ebru; Pasli, Figen; Isikli, Sedat; Sahin, Figen; Yilmaz, Gokce; Beyazova, Ufuk

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to provide preliminary findings on the validity of Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAP Inventory) on Turkish sample of 23 abuser and 47 nonabuser parents. To investigate validity in two groups, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Psychopathic Deviate (MMPI-PD) scale is also used along with CAP. The results show…

  12. 5 CFR 838.1111 - Amounts subject to child abuse judgment enforcement orders.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amounts subject to child abuse judgment... Under the Child Abuse Accountability Act Availability of Funds § 838.1111 Amounts subject to child abuse... child abuse enforcement orders only if all of the conditions necessary for payment of the...

  13. The International Epidemiology of Child Sexual Abuse: A Continuation of Finkelhor (1994)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pereda, Noemi; Guilera, Georgina; Forns, Maria; Gomez-Benito, Juana

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this paper was to compare the prevalence rates of child sexual abuse reported by [Finkelhor, D. (1994). "The international epidemiology of child sexual abuse." "Child Abuse & Neglect," 18 (5), 409-417] with those found in recent publications in order to confirm the widespread prevalence of child sexual abuse. Methods:…

  14. Child sexual abuse and the media: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Weatherred, Jane Long

    2015-01-01

    The media play an important role in practice, policy, and public perception of child sexual abuse, in part by the way in which news stories are framed. Child sexual abuse media coverage over the past 50 years can be divided into five time periods based on the types of stories that garnered news coverage and the ways in which public policy was changed. This systematic literature review of research on child sexual abuse media coverage across disciplines and geographic boundaries examines 16 studies published in the English language from 1995 to 2012. A seminal work is identified, citation network analysis is applied, and a framework model is developed.

  15. Child abuse: Cross-sectional survey of general dentists

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Harsimran; Chaudhary, Seema; Choudhary, Nidhi; Manuja, Naveen; Chaitra, T.R.; Amit, Sinha Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Background Child abuse continues to be a social menace causing both physical and emotional trauma to benevolent children. Census has shown that nearly 50–75% of child abuse include trauma to mouth, face, and head. Thus, dental professionals are in strategic position to identify physical and emotional manifestations of abuse. Aim A cross-sectional survey was undertaken to assess knowledge and attitude of dental practitioners regarding child abuse and to identify the barriers in reporting the same. Methods With prior consent, a 20-question survey including both multiple choice and dichotomous (Yes/No) questions was mailed to 120 state-registered general dentists, and the data collected were subjected to statistical analysis. Results Overall response rate to the questionnaires was 97%. Lack of knowledge about dentist's role in reporting child abuse accounted to 55% in the reasons for hesitancy to report. Pearson chi-square test did not show any significant difference between male and female regarding reason for hesitancy to report and legal obligation of dentists. Conclusion Although respondent dentists were aware of the diagnosis of child abuse, they were hesitant and unaware of the appropriate authority to report. Increased instruction in the areas of recognition and reporting of child abuse and neglect should be emphasized. PMID:27195209

  16. Child abuse: acute water intoxication in a hyperactive child.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chih-Yang; Tsau, Yong-Kwei

    2005-01-01

    A 4-year-8-month-old boy was brought to our emergency department with coma and seizure. Initial physical examination showed evidence of physical child abuse and sudden body weight gain of 3.4 kg in one day. The laboratory results showed normal renal function with severe hyponatremia and the MRI study showed diffuse brain swelling. All of these findings were compatible with the diagnosis of acute water intoxication. Careful history taking from the boy and his parents separately confirmed the course of chronic polydipsia with acute compulsive water drinking. After clinical assessment and follow-up by psychiatrist, the patient was diagnosed with hyperactivity disorder. We present this case and show the possibility of correlation between compulsive water drinking, child abuse and hyperactivity disorder on acute water intoxication.

  17. Do adolescent child abusers, peer abusers, and non-sex offenders have different personality profiles?

    PubMed

    Glowacz, Fabienne; Born, Michel

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to identify two sub-populations of sex offenders based on the age of the victims and on the age difference between the abuser and the victim (child sexual abusers vs. peer sexual abusers), and to compare the personality characteristics of these two subgroups with those of juvenile non-sex offenders. The group was composed of 67 adolescent offenders aged 13-18 years who were adjudicated for sexual offenses or non-sexual offenses: 20 non-sex offenders (JNSOs), 26 child sexual abusers (CAs), and 21 peer sexual abusers (PAs). The Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) was administered to all participants. The mean scores and clinical cutoffs on the MACI scales were compared across the three samples. Compared with PAs, CAs were more submissive and conforming, and they experienced more anxious feelings. Peer sexual abusers scored higher on the unruly and forceful personality scales, on social insensitivity, and on delinquent predisposition. Peer sexual abusers also reported higher scores on substance-abuse proneness, impulsive propensities, and antisocial functioning than CAs, but their scores were similar to those of JNSOs. Our results show clear similarities between PAs and JNSOs in terms of personality and clinical characteristics, especially with regard to antisocial personality traits. Child sexual abusers did not display the personality characteristics typical of PAs and JNSOs which predisposed them to delinquent activities. These results raise questions as to whether juvenile sex offenders should be treated within the same institutions as non-sex offenders and whether the same treatment programs should be implemented for all types of juvenile sex offenders.

  18. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... to: What is Elder Abuse? Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse Substance abuse has been identified as the most frequently cited ... victim and/or the perpetrator who has the substance abuse problem. Substance abuse is believed to be a ...

  19. Suspect confession of child sexual abuse to investigators.

    PubMed

    Lippert, Tonya; Cross, Theodore P; Jones, Lisa; Walsh, Wendy

    2010-05-01

    Increasing the number of suspects who give true confessions of sexual abuse serves justice and reduces the burden of the criminal justice process on child victims. With data from four communities, this study examined confession rates and predictors of confession of child sexual abuse over the course of criminal investigations (final N = 282). Overall, 30% of suspects confessed partially or fully to the crime. This rate was consistent across the communities and is very similar to the rates of suspect confession of child sexual abuse found by previous research, although lower than that from a study focused on a community with a vigorous practice of polygraph testing. In a multivariate analysis, confession was more likely when suspects were younger and when more evidence of abuse was available, particularly child disclosure and corroborative evidence. These results suggest the difficulty of obtaining confession but also the value of methods that facilitate child disclosure and seek corroborative evidence, for increasing the odds of confession.

  20. Child maltreatment and substance abuse among U.S. Army soldiers.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Deborah A; Martin, Sandra L; Johnson, Ruby E; Rentz, E Danielle; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Hardison, Jennifer

    2008-08-01

    Although substance abuse has consistently been linked to child maltreatment, no study to date has described the extent of substance abuse among child maltreatment offenders within the military. Analysis of U.S. Army data on all substantiated incidents of parental child maltreatment committed between 2000 and 2004 by active duty soldiers found that 13% of offenders were noted to have been abusing alcohol or illicit drugs at the time of their child maltreatment incident. The odds of substance abuse were increased for offenders who committed child neglect or emotional abuse, but were reduced for child physical abuse. The odds of offender substance abuse nearly tripled in child maltreatment incidents that also involved co-occurring spouse abuse. Findings include a lack of association between offender substance abuse and child maltreatment recurrence, possibly because of the increased likelihood of removal of offenders from the home when either substance abuse or spouse abuse were documented.

  1. Criminal prosecution of child sexual abuse cases.

    PubMed

    Martone, M; Jaudes, P K; Cavins, M K

    1996-05-01

    To describe the outcome of prosecuting alleged intrafamilial/caretaker child sexual abuse, the authors evaluated charts for 1986-1988 at La Rabida Children's Hospital and Research Center in Chicago, plus police records for Area V, Chicago for 1986-1987. The state's attorney's office provided data on outcome of legal proceedings. Of 451 allegations, 324 (72%) were formally designated as probable sexual abuse cases, and 269 (83%) alleged perpetrators were identified. Complaints (77 felonies, 29 misdemeanors, and 30 juvenile charges) were initiated by the police for preliminary hearings against 136 (51%) persons. Of the felony charges, 66 (85.7%) resulted in indictments, and 11 (14.3%) in dismissal of charges by judge or grand jury. Thirty-two (48.5%) of those indicted pleaded guilty, 24 (36%) went to trial; 16 (67%) were found guilty, and 8 (12%) had charges dismissed. Therefore, of the 77 felony complaints initiated, 48 (62%) ended in convictions and 29 (38%) in dismissals or not-guilty verdicts. Only 24 (5%) of the original allegations resulted in trials. Although 30% of allegations and 51% of alleged perpetrators ended up in court, only 17% of the original 451 allegations were prosecuted for a felony. For felony indictments, 36% of victims appeared in court. Forty-three of 48 persons found guilty served time (mean sentencing time, 6.8 years). The mean time from initial hearing to final disposition was 321 days and was significantly longer if the accused either went to trial (501 vs. 236 days) or was found guilty or pleaded guilty (353 vs. 254 days for not-guilty verdicts). The authors conclude that very few children (5%) have to appear as witnesses in court, as most cases are resolved by plea bargaining, and that resolution by trial can take 12 to 16 months.

  2. 48 CFR 352.237-71 - Crime Control Act-reporting of child abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... appropriate State Child Abuse Hotline, local child protective services (CPS), or law enforcement agency shall... Child Abuse Hotline (1-800-4-A-CHILD) shall be called. Any covered professional failing to make a...

  3. [Risk factors of child abuse and neglect in childhood].

    PubMed

    Tursz, Anne

    2011-05-01

    Among factors identified as being statistically associated with child abuse, we can broadly distinguish those related to characteristics of the child itself and those related to family characteristics, bearing in mind that parents are the perpetrators of child abuse in the vast majority of cases. Observed among children are: young age (abuse begins very early in life); male sex, as concerns shaken baby syndrome and lethal violence; the presence of mental disability and/or behavioural disorders; and particularly frequently, prematurity, especially if it requires neonatal hospitalisation. In fact, any circumstance that makes early attachment between the newborn and its parents difficult or impossible, such as prematurity or postpartum depression, constitutes a situation of risk for subsequent child abuse. Among parents, psycho-affective factors take precedence over socio-economic factors, which play no role. Child abuse is found in all social classes, as is the transgenerational transmission of violence, with those parents having suffered from abuse as children being more at risk than others of becoming abusive themselves.

  4. Cumulative Environmental Risk in Substance Abusing Women: Early Intervention, Parenting Stress, Child Abuse Potential and Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Susan J.

    2003-01-01

    A study of 161 substance-abusing mothers assessed 10 maternal risk factors: maternal depression; domestic violence; nondomestic violence; family size; incarceration; no significant other at home; negative life events; psychiatric problems; homelessness; and drug use severity. Parenting stress and child abuse potential was higher for women with…

  5. Child physical abuse and adult mental health: a national study.

    PubMed

    Sugaya, Luisa; Hasin, Deborah S; Olfson, Mark; Lin, Keng-Han; Grant, Bridget F; Blanco, Carlos

    2012-08-01

    This study characterizes adults who report being physically abused during childhood, and examines associations of reported type and frequency of abuse with adult mental health. Data were derived from the 2000-2001 and 2004-2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric disorders were computed. Logistic regression models were used to examine the strength of associations between child physical abuse and adult psychiatric disorders adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, other childhood adversities, and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Child physical abuse was reported by 8% of the sample and was frequently accompanied by other childhood adversities. Child physical abuse was associated with significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of a broad range of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders (AOR = 1.16-2.28), especially attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. A dose-response relationship was observed between frequency of abuse and several adult psychiatric disorder groups; higher frequencies of assault were significantly associated with increasing adjusted odds. The long-lasting deleterious effects of child physical abuse underscore the urgency of developing public health policies aimed at early recognition and prevention.

  6. Child pornography: a hidden dimension of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Pierce, R L

    1984-01-01

    In the decade of the 70s, much was learned about abused and neglected children and their families. Public outcry demanded action at the state, regional and national level hoping that the effort would generate more effective methods of identification, intervention and treatment. Consequently, researchers and theoreticians initiated efforts that were aimed at providing a better understanding of why some parents abuse or neglect their children while others do not. In spite of all the energy and time, one form of child abuse continues to flourish relatively unnoticed--child pornography, or as it is more commonly known in the trade, "kiddie" or "chicken" porn. Because of the dearth of information about the subject, this paper addresses five key issues: Who are the children who become the young stars of pornographic films? How many children are estimated to be involved in this activity? What are the presumed effects of such involvement on children? Legal issues related to the control of the pornographic industry; and What is the challenge to social work and other helping professionals?

  7. Child Sexual Abuse Survivors with Dissociative Amnesia: What's the Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Molly R.; Nochajski, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    Although the issue of dissociative amnesia in adult survivors of child sexual abuse has been contentious, many research studies have shown that there is a subset of child sexual abuse survivors who have forgotten their abuse and later remembered it. Child sexual abuse survivors with dissociative amnesia histories have different formative and…

  8. Maternal Perceptions Of And Responses To Child Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Vidovič, Lea

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Several researches indicate that most child victims delay disclosing of sexual abuse for significant periods of time. There are numerous reasons as to why children are avoiding the disclosure of the abuse. The aim of this study was to determine how a mother’s response to a child’s allegations impacts the child’s willingness to disclose sexual abuse. Methods We conducted a retrospective quantitative and qualitative analysis of 73 court-referred cases of child sexual abuse which have been disclosed in Slovenia in the last ten years. All the child victims included in the study were female and the perpetrators adult male persons. The expert opinions were made by the same expert. Results We realized that, at the occurrence of abuse, the child victims were from 4 to 15 years old and their mean age was at 11. 5 years. About two-thirds of children were victims of the intra-familial type (61.6%) and a little more than one third of extra-familial type of sexual abuse (38.4%). The group of victims with the support of their mothers needed about 9 months to disclose the secret, while the delay of the disclosure in the cases without the support of mothers was much longer (M=6.9 years). Conclusion For female child victims of sexual abuse the perceived protective attitude of their mothers is very important. Especially when the sexual abuse happened in the family, the mother’s support can attribute to stop the ongoing abuse, eliminate its immediate effects and decrease its likely negative long-term outcome. PMID:27284381

  9. A Criminological Perspective on the Prenatal Abuse of Substances during Pregnancy and the Link to Child Abuse in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ovens, Michelle

    2009-01-01

    The increase in drug abuse in South Africa has had major social implications in the country. Problems associated with drug dependency are poverty, unemployment, a heavier burden on the health care system, the disintegration of family systems and drug-related crimes. Another area of concern is the link between drug abuse and child abuse. While…

  10. Does Childhood Disability Increase Risk for Child Abuse and Neglect?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeb, Rebecca T.; Bitsko, Rebecca H.; Merrick, Melissa T.; Armour, Brian S.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we review the empirical evidence for the presumptions that children with disabilities are at increased risk for child maltreatment, and parents with disabilities are more likely to perpetrate child abuse and neglect. Challenges to the epidemiological examination of the prevalence of child maltreatment and disabilities are…

  11. Undetected and detected child sexual abuse and child pornography offenders.

    PubMed

    Neutze, Janina; Grundmann, Dorit; Scherner, Gerold; Beier, Klaus Michael

    2012-01-01

    Current knowledge about risk factors for child sexual abuse and child pornography offenses is based on samples of convicted offenders, i.e., detected offenders. Only few studies focus on offenders not detected by the criminal justice system. In this study, a sample of 345 self-referred pedophiles and hebephiles was recruited from the community. All participants met DSM-IV-TR criteria for pedophilia or hebephilia (paraphilia not otherwise specified), were assured of confidentiality, and self-reported lifetime sexual offending against prepubescent and/or pubescent children. Two sets of group comparisons were conducted on self-report data of risk factors for sexual reoffending. Measures of risk factors address the following dimensions identified in samples of convicted offenders: sexual preferences (i.e. co-occurring paraphilias), sexual self-regulation problems, offense-supportive cognitions, diverse socio-affective deficits, and indicators of social functioning (e.g., education, employment). Men who admitted current or previous investigation or conviction by legal authorities (detected offenders) were compared with those who denied any detection for their sexual offenses against children (undetected offenders). Group comparisons (detected vs. undetected) were further conducted for each offense type separately (child pornography only offenders, child sexual abuse only offenders, mixed offenders). Although there were more similarities between undetected and detected offenders, selected measures of sexual-self regulation problems, socio-affective deficits, and social functioning data demonstrated group differences.

  12. The economic effect of child abuse in the burn unit.

    PubMed

    Evasovich, M; Klein, R; Muakkassa, F; Weekley, R

    1998-11-01

    The financial burden imposed on society by abusing children through burn injury is unknown. This study retrospectively evaluates the economic impact and demographics of such abuse on patients and their families treated at Children's Hospital Medical Center of Akron (CHMCA) from four counties over a 5 year period. The inclusive group consisted of all children evaluated during the stated period referred to Social Services for possible child abuse. There were 104 children (55 females and 49 males, 46% black and 56% white) with a mean age of 3.76 years. 71% of the patients came from single parent homes (all single mothers). There were a total of 58 admissions with a mean length of stay of 10.53 days. Total cost for all patients was approximately 1.2 million dollars for health care, of which 65% was government funded. In addition to hospital costs, the perpetrators incurred court costs and jail costs, all of which were the financial responsibility of Summit County. Child abuse through burns imposes a potentially preventable financial burden. This study does not take into account the socioeconomic and psychological impact on the abused victims through life, which is incalculable. By increasing awareness about the demographics and financial burden of child abuse, this paper may serve as a focus for further study and prevention of such abuse.

  13. The Effect of Severe Child Sexual Abuse and Disclosure on Mental Health during Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, Patrick; Coohey, Carol; Easton, Scott D.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationship among severe child sexual abuse, disclosure, and mental health symptoms during adulthood. The sample consisted of 172 adults who were sexually abused in childhood. The multivariate model showed that respondents in their 30s and 40s who were abused by more than one abuser, who were injured by their abusers, who…

  14. A child sexual abuse research project: a brief endnote.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Susan; Vanstone, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    There is a dearth of research on sexual abuse perpetrated by educators. Although the problem is receiving increasing attention, little emphasis has been placed on abuse directed at younger schoolchildren and on offenders' accounts of this form of abuse. Here, we attempt to address this gap in knowledge by exploring the narratives of five convicted, imprisoned male child sexual abusers, each of whom worked with children in educational settings in the United Kingdom. We draw on four themes that emerged from detailed interviews with offenders, namely: the power of reputation, authority and control, the "front of invulnerability," and disclosure of abuse. We conclude by considering the implications of our work for policy and practice.

  15. Child Abuse and Deafness: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebald, Ann M.

    2008-01-01

    The professional literature contains research and anecdotal information on various maltreatments affecting children and youth with and without disabilities. Unfortunately, little information exists on abused children with hearing loss. Reasons relate to a lack of quantity and quality in research on this population; challenges in conducting…

  16. Nine Years after Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanston, Heather Y.; Plunkett, Angela M.; O'Toole, Brian I.; Shrimpton, Sandra; Parkinson, Patrick N.; Oates, R. Kim

    2003-01-01

    A follow-up study of 103 Australian individuals (Ages 14-25) who were sexually abused, found they performed more poorly than controls on measures of depression, self-esteem, anxiety, behavior, and despair. They were also more likely to have a history of bingeing, smoking, and using amphetamines. Potential risk factors are discussed. (Contains…

  17. Suspected child abuse: communicating with a child and her mother.

    PubMed

    Reid, Bernadette; Long, Ann

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this article is to explore and examine how the value judgments of the health professionals involved affected the interaction between themselves and a mother with her injured child who presented at an accident and emergency department. The interaction is depicted by means of a classroom role-play in which the "actors" are nurses. Analysis of the interaction demonstrates clearly how the perspectives of health professionals may be enshrouded by a miasma of suspicion. Indeed, by focusing on the actions of the mother rather than the needs of the child, suspicion gained momentum and finally entered the public domain. Encouraging health professionals to listen to what the child has to say goes some way to challenging the suspicion of abuse. Nonetheless, in the role-play analyzed, the mounting suspicion so antagonized the mother that an angry confrontation with the doctor ensued, the doctor being forced to make an embarrassing apology. Yet the interaction is so irredeemably prejudiced that it remains impossible either to confirm or reject the suspicion of abuse. Analysis of the interaction attempted to unravel some of the knots in which we, as health professionals, unfailingly tie ourselves when communicating with patients-knots of suspicion, labeling, conflict, embarrassment, and power that fail to anchor the humanity of "self" or others.

  18. Prospective Study in Child Abuse: The Child Study Program. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cadol, Roger V.; And Others

    Presented is the final report of the Child Study Program, in which the following objectives were investigated with 140 abused children (from birth to 72-months-old) -- whether abused children are developmentally different from non-abused children, whether there are differences between children who sustained non-accidental trauma (NAT) and children…

  19. Neighborhood alcohol outlet density and rates of child abuse and neglect: moderating effects of access to substance abuse services.

    PubMed

    Morton, Cory M; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N Andrew

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized data from 163 census tracts in Bergen County, New Jersey, on reports of child abuse and neglect, alcohol outlets, substance abuse treatment and prevention facilities, and the United States Census to investigate the linkages between socioeconomic structure, alcohol availability, and access to substance abuse service facilities on rates of child abuse and neglect. Findings indicate areas with a greater concentration of on-premises alcohol outlets (i.e., bars) had higher rates of child neglect, and those with easier access to substance abuse services had lower rates of neglect, controlling for neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic structure. Additionally, the relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet density and rates of child neglect was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. A greater concentration of off-premises outlets (i.e., liquor stores) was associated with lower rates of physical abuse. Findings suggest that the built environment and socioeconomic structure of neighborhoods have important consequences for child well-being. The implications for future research on the structural features of neighborhoods that are associated with child well-being are discussed.

  20. Child abuse by burning--an index of suspicion.

    PubMed

    Purdue, G F; Hunt, J L; Prescott, P R

    1988-02-01

    Although general awareness of child abuse is increasing, abuse by burning is often unrecognized. Seventy-one consecutive children admitted with inflicted burns were studied. Mean age was 1.8 yrs and mean burn size was 13.5%. Mean length of stay was 18.9 days. Scalds (83% from tap water) were the most frequent cause of injury. An immersion pattern was present in 59%; six patients had a classic forced immersion injury. Fourteen children had nonburn trauma. Four patients died: all had tap water immersion burns. Inflicted burns are usually manifested by characteristic patterns of injury, which must be correlated with the given history. When compared with accidentally burned children, abused children were significantly younger, had longer hospital stays, and had a higher mortality. A team approach to child abuse with the addition of a specially trained group is important to insure prompt recognition, more objective appraisals, and further followup.

  1. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: Do They Decrease the Occurrence of Child Sexual Abuse?.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Laura E.; Leitenberg, Harold

    2000-01-01

    A survey of 825 female undergraduates found 62 percent participated in a "good touch-bad touch" sexual abuse prevention program in school. Eight percent who reported ever having had a prevention program also reported having been subsequently sexually abused, compared to 14 percent who did not ever have a prevention program. (Contains references.)…

  2. Abuse in the investigation and treatment of intrafamilial child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Tyler, A H

    1984-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of current practice in the investigation and treatment of documented incest abusers on the offenders and families involved. Fifteen offenders attending the Utah Parents United group completed a questionnaire on the sequence of events in the investigation and prosecution of their cases and the concomitant results of the investigation on their job status, living and financial situations, family and social relationships, and media reporting of the abuse. Results indicate that there is great variability in the investigation and prosecution of incest cases and the public announcement of abuse convictions. The consequences of the abuse investigation are devastating for offender and his family in terms of job loss; need for public assistance; family disbandonment through removal of the offender, victim, or both from the family, marital separation, and foster care for nonabused siblings; changes of residence, and the public announcement of the abuse in the media. Results also show that offenders receive little, if any, social support from family or friends. Changes in the current approach to the investigation and prosecution of incest offenders are proposed and include the following: banning the publication of convictions for child abuse; streamlining the legal process so that it is consistent from case to case; and developing diversion programs as alternatives to prison for offenders. Suggested are self-help, court-ordered therapeutic programs, such as Parents United, that are designed for the treatment of families involved in child sexual abuse and incest. The desired outcomes of such a diversion program are low offender recidivism, avoidance of the offender's family being placed on welfare, less reliance on foster care placement for the offender's children, involvement of the offender's family in moving toward reunion when feasible, and the use of existing half-way houses in lieu of incarceration when necessary.

  3. Does Parent-Child Interaction Therapy Reduce Future Physical Abuse? A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Stephanie C.; Kim, Johnny S.; Tripodi, Stephen J.; Brown, Samantha M.; Gowdy, Grace

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To use meta-analytic techniques to evaluating the effectiveness of parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) at reducing future physical abuse among physically abusive families. Methods: A systematic search identified six eligible studies. Outcomes of interest were physical abuse recurrence, child abuse potential, and parenting stress.…

  4. Do Trauma Symptoms Mediate the Relationship between Childhood Physical Abuse and Adult Child Abuse Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Joel S.; Thomsen, Cynthia J.; Crouch, Julie L.; Rabenhorst, Mandy M.; Martens, Patricia M.; Dyslin, Christopher W.; Guimond, Jennifer M.; Stander, Valerie A.; Merrill, Lex L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Although the intergenerational transmission of family violence has been well documented, the mechanisms responsible for this effect have not been fully determined. The present study examined whether trauma symptoms mediate the relationship between a childhood history of child physical abuse (CPA) and adult CPA risk, and whether any such…

  5. Child Care and the Child Abuse Index. A Report from the California Children's Council.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sale, June Solnit; And Others

    In California, the desire to do something about child abuse, fanned by repeated and often sensational media coverage, has led to an understandable but counterproductive overreaction on the part of professionals and citizens reporting suspected child abuse. Child protective agencies receive an average of one report a minute. There are over 300,000…

  6. [Child maltreatment due to alcohol abuse].

    PubMed

    Abuná Salcedo, Lucia Julieta; Carvalho, Ana Maria Pimenta

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the occurrence of maltreatment in children abused by alcohol users. Authors looked at the records of children hospitalized from 2000 to 2003 at the Children Hospital "Dr. Ovidio Aliga Uria". Findings showed that among the total of hospitalizations, 0.62% were due to maltreatment. Considering them, 57.9% involved alcohol users. Approximately 12.9% of them died as a consequence of brain trauma. The characterization of the aggressors showed that they are abusive drinkers with no dependence; with age varying from 20 to 30 years, are members of the children's family; finished primary school, do not have a job and are drug users. Although the low percentage of cases, there is a need to take care of this situation aiming at protecting the children and respecting their rights as well as at providing care to the adult that also experiences stressing conditions.

  7. Characteristics of Sexually Abused Children and Their Nonoffending Mothers Followed by Child Welfare Services: The Role of a Maternal History of Child Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Baril, Karine; Tourigny, Marc; Paillé, Pierre; Pauzé, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Considering the importance of mother's support in the adaptation of a sexually abused child, it is relevant to determine if the mothers and children involved in an intergenerational cycle of child sexual victimization differ from dyads in which only the child has been abused. The purpose of this study was to compare mother-child dyads with sexually abused children according to whether the mother had herself been victim of child sexual abuse. The sample included 87 dyads with sexually abused children aged 3-18 years old and their mothers (44 reporting maternal and child abuse), followed by social welfare services of the province of Quebec (Canada). The two groups of mothers were compared on their past family abuse experiences and past family relations, their mental health history, their current psychological distress, their parenting behaviors, and their current levels of family functioning. Children were compared on their adaptation. Multivariate analyses indicated that mothers reporting child sexual abuse were more likely to report more other maltreatments in their childhood and greater prevalence of lifetime history of alcohol abuse disorders, dysthymia, and panic disorder compared with mothers who had not experienced CSA. Compared to children whose mothers had not experienced CSA, those whose mothers had experienced CSA showed higher rates of problems behaviors and were more likely to report having been sexually abused by a trusted person. These results highlight the specific clinical needs for the assessment and treatment for sexually abused children whose mothers experienced child sexual abuse.

  8. Child Abuse Mimic: Avulsion Injury in a Child With Penoscrotal Webbing.

    PubMed

    Deutsch, Stephanie Anne; Long, Christopher J; Srinivasan, Arun K; Wood, Joanne N

    2017-04-01

    Sexual abuse of children is prevalent in today's society. In 2012, approximately 686,000 children (9.2 per 1000) in the United States were determined to be victims of substantiated child abuse and neglect, according to national data compiled by child protective service agencies; victimization rates were highest for children younger than 1 year. Nearly 9.3% of maltreated children were victims of sexual abuse, this finding was reported by US Department of Health and Human Services (http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/cb/research-data-technology/statistics-research/child-maltreatment). Previous research has shown that as many as 1 in 3 girls and 1 in 7 boys will be sexually abused during childhood (Child Abuse Negl. 2003;27:1205-1222). Although sexual abuse seems to be less common in boys than girls, this may be partly due to underdiagnosis and underreporting of sexual abuse in boys (Arch Dis Child. 2007;92:328-331). Clinicians should therefore consider the possibility of sexual abuse when boys present with genital injuries, because failing to recognize and diagnose sexual abuse can pose an ongoing safety risk to a child. However, an erroneous diagnosis of sexual abuse can have equally hazardous repercussions, including removal of a child from their caregivers or prosecution of an innocent individual. A number of medical conditions can mimic child sexual abuse injuries, including anal fissures, failure of midline fusion, perianal streptococcal dermatitis, and straddle injury (J Pediatr Health Care. 2009;23:283-288 and Acta Paediatr. 2011;100:590-593). The following case involves a 5-week-old male infant who presented to the pediatric emergency department with an avulsion injury to his penis concerning for sexual abuse. He was ultimately diagnosed with a relatively rare anatomic variant of the genitalia and determined to have sustained an accidental injury whose appearance mimicked abuse.

  9. Public Attitudes and Behaviors with Respect to Child Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Deborah; Gelles, Richard J.

    1992-01-01

    Examines public attitudes toward parental discipline practices, incidences of parental practices, the public's support for and involvement in child abuse prevention efforts, and the public's perceptions of causes of child maltreatment. Found that most persons view physical punishment and repeated yelling and swearing at children as harmful.…

  10. Barriers to Successful Treatment Completion in Child Sexual Abuse Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Paul; Scribano, Philip; Stevens, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) often requires psychological treatment to address the symptoms of victim trauma. Barriers to entry and completion of counseling services can compromise long-term well-being. An integrated medical and mental health evaluation and treatment model of a child advocacy center (CAC) has the potential to reduce barriers to mental…

  11. Comprehensive Child Abuse Prevention: Working with Staff, Parents, and Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phyfe-Perkins, Elizabeth; Birtwell, Nancy

    University Child Care at the University of Massachusetts in Amherst uses written policies, a personal safety curriculum, and parent-teacher dialogues to prevent child sexual abuse. This paper discusses aspects of these three components. Discussion of written policies focuses on the mandated reporter status of caregivers, state laws, procedures for…

  12. Child Abuse and Neglect Fatalities: Statistics and Interventions

    MedlinePlus

    ... interventions. Table of Contents Introduction How many children die each year from child abuse or neglect? What groups of children are most vulnerable? How do these deaths occur? Who are the perpetrators? How do communities respond to child fatalities? How can these fatalities be prevented? ...

  13. Evaluating Multidisciplinary Child Abuse and Neglect Teams: A Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalayants, Marina; Epstein, Irwin

    2005-01-01

    A review of child welfare research literature reveals that although multidisciplinary teams are increasingly used to investigate and intervene in child abuse and neglect cases, the field does not know enough about their structural variations, implementation processes, or effectiveness. Moreover, although articles advocating multidisciplinary teams…

  14. Child Abuse and Neglect: Training Needs of Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Bronagh E.; Dillenburger, Karola

    2009-01-01

    Increasing awareness of child abuse and neglect (CAN) raises questions about how well teachers are prepared for their role in child protection. This paper assesses and differentiates training needs of first-year students (n = 216) in Northern Ireland. Multiple-choice tests were used to assess knowledge of CAN statistics; recognising and reporting;…

  15. A Sociological Perspective on Implementing Child Abuse Legislation in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, George E.; Lake, Donald E.

    1983-01-01

    This paper examines how child protection legislation has affected educational systems and school personnel in Canada and the United States and draws general conclusions about the adequacy of legislation concerning child abuse reporting requirements. Vagueness in the laws leads to problems with their implementation. (PP)

  16. Guidelines for Identifying Child Abuse & Neglect in Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Indian Child Abuse and Neglect Resource Center, Tulsa, OK.

    In 1978 the Indian Child Welfare Act was passed which implemented new regulations regarding the removal of Indian children from their parents and their placement in residential and foster care or adoptive families or institutions. The 7-page information sheet provides guidelines in prevention of institutional child abuse and neglect of American…

  17. 45 CFR 1357.20 - Child abuse and neglect programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Child abuse and neglect programs. 1357.20 Section... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES...

  18. 45 CFR 1357.20 - Child abuse and neglect programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Child abuse and neglect programs. 1357.20 Section... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES...

  19. 45 CFR 1357.20 - Child abuse and neglect programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child abuse and neglect programs. 1357.20 Section... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES...

  20. 45 CFR 1357.20 - Child abuse and neglect programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Child abuse and neglect programs. 1357.20 Section... SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION ON CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES...

  1. Child Sexual Abuse Fact Sheet for Parents, Teachers, and Other Caregivers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is any interaction between a child and an adult (or another child) in which the child is used for the sexual stimulation of the perpetrator or an observer. Children of all ages, races, ethnicities, and economic backgrounds are vulnerable to sexual abuse. Children who have been sexually abused may display a range of emotional and…

  2. Child abuse: behavioral aspects and other associated problems.

    PubMed

    Gushurst, Colette A

    2003-08-01

    Although researchers in psychology and the social sciences will need to continue to identify the behavioral consequences of abuse and treatment strategies, pediatricians may still be the first line professionals to suspect and intercept victims. Remember that, especially in cases where there have been threats or falsification of illness, it is wise to enlist integrated multidisciplinary services to ensure the safety of the child before confronting any potential perpetrators. Physicians have become better trained to be more vigilant in detecting signs of physical abuse, but it seems that psychologic and sexual maltreatment may cause more long-term problems but are more difficult to detect. Although a book by Everett and Gallop is written for mental health professionals, the chapters on why a history of childhood trauma is often missed, recognizing signs and symptoms, and asking about abuse, are all helpful for pediatricians and other health care professionals. In certain situations, physicians should attempt to talk to children privately, so that those who are old enough might have an opportunity to relate events that are traumatic, and so that abusive parents will not have an opportunity to interrupt, instill additional fear in the child, or abruptly change providers. Children need someone to ask them directly about their experiences and act on any suspicions. Asking once may not be enough, because a frightened child may initially deny physical or sexual abuse, but be ready to tell at another time. A vocal adult survivor of Munchausen syndrome by proxy and severe physical abuse explains: The dilemma is how to be loved and accepted. Even once a child recognizes that it is wrong, victims may be afraid to speak up for fear of anger and more abuse at the hand of the abuser. By the time I reached eleven, I was angry enough at what my mother had gotten away with, I would have been more truthful. It would have been a relief to have someone else voice their own suspicions

  3. [Child abuse in Tlaxcala: a case-control study].

    PubMed

    Herrada-Huidobro, A; Nazar-Beutelspacher, A; Cassaball-Núñez, M; Vega-Ramos, R; Nava-Cruz, C B

    1992-01-01

    A longitudinal, retrospective and descriptive study about child abuse was carried out in the Hospitals of the Tlaxcala Secretariat of Health, Mexico. The information was obtained from hospitalized children's charts between January first and November 30, 1991. The charts included were those belonging to zero to 14 year old children with injuries, poisoning, and II-III degrees of malnutrition. Four child-abuse criteria were established: physical, sexual, non organic malnutrition and mixed (physical and non organic malnutrition). Two control groups were defined. Different patterns were observed between accidental and non accidental injuries, malnutrition and poisoning among the case and the control groups. The study provides useful information for the integral diagnosis of child abuse in hospitalized children.

  4. The medical analysis of child sexual abuse images.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Sharon W

    2011-11-01

    Analysis of child sexual abuse images, commonly referred to as pornography, requires a familiarity with the sexual maturation rating of children and an understanding of growth and development parameters. This article explains barriers that exist in working in this area of child abuse, the differences between subjective and objective analyses, methods used in working with this form of contraband, and recommendations that analysts document their findings in a format that allows for verbal descriptions of the images so that the content will be reflected in legal proceedings should there exist an aversion to visual review. Child sexual abuse images are a digital crime scene, and analysis requires a careful approach to assure that all victims may be identified.

  5. Community characteristics, conservative ideology, and child abuse rates.

    PubMed

    Breyer, Rebekah J; MacPhee, David

    2015-03-01

    Authoritarian ideology, including religious conservativism, endorses obedience to authority and physical punishment of children. Although this association has been studied at the level of the family, little research has been conducted on whether conservativism in the broader community context correlates with the mistreatment of children. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this relation between conservativism and physical punishment of children extends to child abuse rates at the community level. Predictors included county-level religious and political conservativism and demographic variables. Political and religious conservativism covaried, and both were inversely related to child abuse rates. Population density was strongly related to rates of maltreatment and with demographic factors controlled, religious conservativism but not political conservativism continued to predict rates of child abuse. The results suggest that community factors related to social disorganization may be more important than religious or political affiliation in putting children at risk for maltreatment.

  6. Origins and consequences of child neglect in substance abuse families.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Marija G; Tarter, Ralph E; Mezzich, Ada C; Vanyukov, Michael; Kirisci, Levent; Kirillova, Galina

    2002-09-01

    The empirical literature pertaining to the prevalence, origins, and consequences of neglectful parenting as it relates to substance abuse is critically reviewed. Available evidence indicates that children who experience parental neglect, with or without parental alcohol or drug abuse, are at high risk for substance use disorder (SUD). The effects of parental substance abuse on substance abuse outcome of their children appear to be partly mediated by their neglectful parenting. The discussion concludes with presentation of a developmental multifactorial model in which neglect, in conjunction with other individual and environmental factors, can be integratively investigated to quantify the child's overall liability across successive stages of development as well as to map the trajectory toward good and poor outcomes.

  7. [Child abuse in Cameroon: evaluation of a training course on awareness, detection, and reporting of child abuse].

    PubMed

    Menick, D Mbassa; Ngoh, F

    2005-01-01

    The twofold purpose of this study was to promote and facilitate awareness, detection and reporting of child abuse by improving the diagnostic ability of a group of pediatric care providers working in pediatric emergency rooms and to evaluate the impact of training on awareness, detection and reporting of child abuse. This study was conducted in three phases. In the first phase data were retrospectively collected for a three-month period prior to the study (May, June, and July 1996). In the second phase a training seminar about awareness, detection, and reporting of child abuse was organized from April 29 to 30, 1997 for pediatric care providers working in the pediatric emergency rooms of several facilities in Yaoundé, Cameroon. Trainees included pediatricians, general practitioners, nurses, and social workers. An oral presentation using 137-slides (visual diagnosis of physical abuse) from the American Academy of Paediatrics (1994) was used as a teaching aid. In the third phase the same data as in the first phase was prospectively collected on the same three-month period after the seminar (May, June and July 1997). As in the first phase data was collected by the same person from emergency room registers according to the WHO protocol (1994) (study of interpersonal physical abuse of children). During the first phase 39 cases of physical abuse were reported in a population 1269 consulting patients, i.e. 3.1% of the cohort. In the third phase prospective analysis of reporting following the training seminar showed that 161 cases of physical abuse were reported in a population of 1425 consulting patients, i.e., 11.3% of the cohort. The victim group (n=161) in the third phase was four-fold larger than the victim group in the first phase (n = 39). These findings suggest that the seminar achieved its main goals, i.e., to improve the diagnostic ability of the trainees and to increase detection and screening of physical abuse of children.

  8. The effects of beer taxes on physical child abuse.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, S; Grossman, M

    2000-03-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of alcohol regulation on physical child abuse. Given the positive relationship between alcohol consumption and violence, and the negative relationship between consumption and price, the principal hypothesis to be tested is that an increase in the price of alcohol will lead to a reduction in the incidence of violence. We also examine the effects of illegal drug prices and alcohol availability on the incidence of child abuse. Equations are estimated separately for mothers and fathers, and include state fixed effects. Results indicate that increases in the beer tax may decrease the incidence of violence committed by females but not by males.

  9. Imaging in suspected child abuse: necessity or radiation hazard?

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Monika; Offiah, Amaka C

    2015-12-01

    Imaging has many uses, but in cases of suspected child abuse, radiographs and CT scans are vital in identifying fractures and head injury that may not be clinically obvious. There are growing concerns about the small but potential adverse effects of radiation, including cancer, in the paediatric population as a result of imaging. The vast majority of general paediatricians undertaking child abuse assessments request skeletal surveys and CT scans, subjecting children to significant amounts of radiation. Informed consent must be taken from parents for these procedures and therefore this paper aims to look at evidence of the dangers of radiation in children and raise awareness among paediatricians.

  10. Fatal Child Abuse: A Study of 13 Cases of Continuous Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Vanamo, Tuija; Karkola, Kari; Merikanto, Juhani

    2012-01-01

    A parent who continuously physically abuses her/his child doesn’t aim to kill the child but commits an accidental filicide in a more violent outburst of anger. Fatal abuse deaths are prevented by recognition of signs of battering in time. Out of 200 examined intra-familial filicides, 23 (12%) were caused by child battering and 13 (7%) by continuous battering. The medical and court records of the victim and the perpetrator were examined. The perpetrator was the biological mother and the victim was male in 69 per cent of the cases. The abused children were either younger than one year or from two-and-a-half to four years old. Risk factors of the victim (being unwanted, premature birth, separation from the parent caused by hospitalization or custodial care, being ill and crying a lot) and the perpetrator (personality disorder, low socioeconomic status, chaotic family conditions, domestic violence, isolation, alcohol abuse) were common. The injuries caused by previous battering were mostly soft tissue injuries in head and limbs and head traumas and the battering lasted for days or even an year. The final assault was more violent and occurred when the parent was more anxious, frustrated or left alone with the child. The perpetrating parent was diagnosed as having a personality disorder (borderline, narcissistic or dependent) and often substance dependence (31%). None of them were psychotic. Authorities and community members should pay attention to the change in child’s behavior and inexplicable injuries or absence from daycare. Furthermore if the parent is immature, alcohol dependent, have a personality disorder and is unable to cope with the demands the small child entails in the parent’s life, the child may be in danger. PMID:25478105

  11. Correlates of joint child protection and police child sexual abuse investigations: results from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect–2008

    PubMed Central

    Tonmyr, L.; Gonzalez, A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Our study examines the frequency of joint investigations by child protection workers and the police in sexual abuse investigations compared to other maltreatment types and the association of child-, caregiver-, maltreatment- and investigation-related characteristics in joint investigations, focussing specifically on investigations involving sexual abuse. Methods: We analyzed data from the Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect–2008 using logistic regression. Results: The data suggest that sexual abuse (55%), and then physical abuse, neglect and emotional maltreatment, are most often co-investigated. Substantiation of maltreatment, severity of maltreatment, placement in out-of-home care, child welfare court involvement and referral of a family member to specialized services was more likely when the police were involved in an investigation. Conclusion: This study adds to the limited information on correlates of joint child protection agency and police investigations. Further research is needed to determine the effectiveness of these joint investigations. PMID:26605560

  12. Child abuse followed by fatal systemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection.

    PubMed

    Senati, Massimo; Polacco, Matteo; Grassi, Vincenzo M; Carbone, Arnaldo; De-Giorgio, Fabio

    2013-01-01

    Child abuse has become an increasingly serious diagnostic challenge for physicians. The clinical manifestations include malnutrition and sometimes infection. In fact, stress in children has been reported to increase corticosteroid levels. As a consequence, the thymus begins an involution process, producing a severe impairment in cellular and humoral immunity. Here, we report the case of a 7-year-old child who suffered a prolonged history of abuse and died from a systemic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. An initial local chronic infection propagated to the pelvic lymph nodes in an immunologically weak body and evolved into abscesses/phlegmons of the pelvic tissue, sepsis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, multiple organ failure and finally, death. Abused children have to be considered as potentially immunologically impaired patients; therefore, it is very important to screen them for opportunistic infections. Moreover, a history of unusual or recurring infections may indicate abuse, especially neglect or malnutrition. In these cases, further investigations should be conducted to determine if a protective service case should be opened. Thus, there is a need for multidisciplinary cooperation to ensure the early identification and prevention of child abuse.

  13. Are Teachers Prepared? Predictors of Teachers' Readiness to Serve as Mandated Reporters of Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greytak, Emily A.

    2009-01-01

    The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (1974) requires that states receiving U.S. federal funds directed at child abuse implement mandated reporting laws. As a result, all states have adopted legislation requiring teachers and other professionals who deal with children to report suspicions of child abuse. The federal mandate for such…

  14. Socio-Praxis Preferences in Teacher Preparation for Child Sexual Abuse and Its Mandatory Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Grimbeek, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect, particularly child sexual abuse, is a pastoral care issue that deeply concerns all education professionals. The literature strongly supports specific training for pre-service teachers about child sexual abuse and its mandatory reporting, although few studies identify how such training should be academically structured.…

  15. Interpretation of child sexual abuse from the viewpoint of women's studies.

    PubMed

    Naito, K

    1995-04-01

    Child sexual abuse is interpreted as a triple infringement upon personal rights, and the nature of the problem of child sexual abuse is considered with regard to each of these three aspects, namely violence against women, child abuse and sexual assault.

  16. Information on Child Abuse: A Selected Bibliography of Federal Government Publications. Research Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Timothy

    The overall topic of this annotated bibliography, directed to users of the Auburn University libraries, is child abuse. It contains 63 federal government publications in 4 major areas: (1) definitions and prevalence of child abuse, including child pornography and pedophilia, family violence, abductions, and emotional abuse; (2) recent legislation,…

  17. Common skin and bleeding disorders that can potentially masquerade as child abuse.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhavita; Butterfield, Rebecca

    2015-12-01

    Child abuse and neglect remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children worldwide. Over the last few decades, there has been growing research in the field of Child Abuse Pediatrics with greater recognition and research into potential diagnostic mimics of inflicted injury. This paper reviews some common skin findings and bleeding disorders that have features in common with child abuse.

  18. A community program to fight child abuse: the Fort Wayne Children's Foundation and Kids' Law.

    PubMed

    Cox, James M; Webber, Beth; Joachim, George

    2007-10-01

    This paper offers a brief review of child abuse in the United States and describes an example of a community program in Fort Wayne, Ind, to stop and reverse the adverse effects of child abuse. This commentary aims to offer resources, raise awareness, and stimulate research into child abuse incidence, type, and prevention.

  19. Parents' Views about Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Robyn; Walsh, Kerryann

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a systematic review of literature on the topic of parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education. It describes: i) what parents know about child sexual abuse prevention education; ii) what child sexual abuse prevention messages parents provide to their children and what topics they discuss; iii)…

  20. Child Abuse Services at a Children's Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argent, Andrew C.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    All child abuse-related patients (n=503) seen at 1 Cape Town (South Africa) hospital over a 1-year period were reviewed. Abuse was confirmed in 389 cases (160 physical abuse and 229 sexual abuse). Most (81 percent) of the young children were seen by residents with minimal pediatric training. Lack of staff speaking Xhosa (spoken by 134 of the…

  1. Exploring Taboos: Comparing Male- and Female-Perpetrated Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peter, Tracey

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this article is to compare male- and female-perpetrated sexual abuse in terms of victim and abuser characteristics, type of abuse, family structure, and worker information. Bivariate tests of significance were performed on the 1998 Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect, which included 308 male and 37 female…

  2. The Role of Stress in the Commission of Subsequent Acts of Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Dorothy Howze

    1988-01-01

    Examines data from clients reported and treated for child abuse and neglect to determine the role of stress in the commission of subsequent acts of abuse and neglect. Results indicate that stressful events and seriousness of the initial abusive incident had significant effects on commission of subsequent abusive and neglectful acts. (BB)

  3. The impact of child, family, and child protective services factors on reports of child sexual abuse recurrence.

    PubMed

    Sinanan, Allison N

    2011-11-01

    This study identified selected child factors (e.g., age, gender, race/ethnicity, disabilities, prior victimization, and relationship to perpetrator of abuse), family risk factors (e.g., substance abuse, domestic violence, inadequate housing, and financial problems), and services provided by child protective services that likely increased reports of child sexual abuse recurrence by type of reporter. Survival analysis was conducted using the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System data set of 2002-2004. Child disability, being a prior victim, having a perpetrator as a caregiver, family financial problems, and receiving family supportive services increased the likelihood for reports of child sexual abuse by mandated reporters. Being Hispanic, having a disability, having a perpetrator as a caregiver, financial problems, and receiving family preservation services statistically decreased the likelihood for reports of child sexual abuse recurrence.

  4. Childhood experiences of incarcerated male child sexual abusers.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Linda H

    2010-10-01

    While numerous efforts have been made to understand the impact of child sexual abuse, little has been done to examine the childhood experiences of those who abuse children. Child sexual abusers have been studied from quantitative perspectives using behavioral checklists, parental-bonding surveys, and sexual history questionnaires. The purpose of this study was to explore incarcerated child sexual abusers' recollections of their childhood experiences using the descriptive existential lens of phenomenology. Eight incarcerated male child sexual abusers described their childhood from existential perspectives of lived space, lived other, lived body, and lived time via face-to-face semi-structured interviews. Analysis was accomplished through the qualitative, descriptive method of Max van Manen. Rich descriptions of the participants' insights into their daily childhood life experiences that shaped their self-concepts and contributed to their adult behaviors were gathered. Four major themes were identified: (1) failure to root, (2) what you see is what you learn, (3) stupid is as stupid does, and (4) life's moments. Data from this study suggest that the experiences of childhood significantly contribute to an adult self-concept that can be distorted by the lack of a secure home space, maladaptive relationships, internalization of inappropriate behavior, and a lack of significant family development. This study explores the psychosocial and behavioral consequences of early childhood experiences. The findings support the need for family and psychological mental health nurse practitioners to be more aware of early home environments; improve their assessment of children's developing self-concept and the potential for abusive relationships.

  5. Aspects of abuse: recognizing and responding to child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Allison M; Kissoon, Natalie; Greene, Christian

    2015-03-01

    Child maltreatment is a public health problem and toxic stress impacting at least 1 in 8 children by the age of 18 years. Maltreatment can take the form of physical and sexual abuse, neglect, and emotional maltreatment. While some children may experience only one form of maltreatment, others may survive multiple forms, and in some cases particularly complex forms of maltreatment such as torture and medical child abuse. When considering maltreatment, providers should be adept at obtaining a thorough history not only from the parent but when appropriate also from the patient. The most common form of child maltreatment is neglect, which encompasses nutritional and medical neglect, as well as other forms such as physical and emotional neglect. Talking with caregivers about stressors and barriers to care may give insight into the etiology for neglect and is an opportunity for the provider to offer or refer for needed assistance. Familiarity with injury patterns and distribution in the context of developmental milestones and injury mechanisms is critical to the recognition of physical abuse. While most anogenital exam results of child victims of sexual abuse are normal, knowing the normal variations for the female genitalia, and thereby recognizing abnormal findings, is important not only forensically but also more importantly for patient care. Pattern recognition does not only apply to specific injuries or constellation of injuries but also applies to patterns of behavior. Harmful patterns of behavior include psychological maltreatment and medical child abuse, both of which cause significant harm to patients. As health professionals serving children and families, pediatric providers are in a unique position to identify suspected maltreatment and intervene through the health care system in order to manage the physical and psychological consequences of maltreatment and to promote the safety and well-being of children and youth by making referrals to child protective

  6. Resilience in Child Sexual Abuse Survivors: Healing Power of Illusions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himelein, Melissa J.; And Others

    Because research has focused on psychopathology rather than psychological health, little is known about how child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors escape childhood trauma unharmed. This investigation sought to identify cognitive characteristics associated with resilience following a history of CSA. The study sample of 180 women was drawn from a small,…

  7. Child Sexual Abuse Suspicions: Treatment Considerations during Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehnle, Kathryn; Connell, Mary

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses what, if any, psychotherapeutic interventions should be provided to meet the emotional and clinical needs of alleged child victims of sexual abuse while they await judicial determinations from the family, dependency, or criminal courts. The discussion emphasizes that to minimize iatrogenic outcomes, professionals involved in…

  8. Methamphetamine Abuse and Manufacture: The Child Welfare Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohman, Melinda; Oliver, Rhonda; Wright, Wendy

    2004-01-01

    Methamphetamine abuse is on the rise, particularly by women of child-bearing age. This article describes the history and effects of methamphetamine use. The authors examine the ways exposure to the manufacture of this drug affects clients and social workers in the course of their work. Because children are frequently found at the scene of a…

  9. Intimate Partner Violence during Pregnancy and Mothers' Child Abuse Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casanueva, Cecilia E.; Martin, Sandra L.

    2007-01-01

    This research examines whether women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy have a higher child abuse potential than women who have not experienced IPV. Data were analyzed from a longitudinal investigation of IPV during pregnancy. This study recruited 88 pregnant women during prenatal care and followed them for 1 1/2…

  10. How Childcare Providers Interpret "Reasonable Suspicion" of Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levi, Benjamin H.; Crowell, Kathryn; Walsh, Kerryann; Dellasega, Cheryl

    2015-01-01

    Background: Childcare providers are often "first responders" for suspected child abuse, and how they understand the concept of "reasonable suspicion" will influence their decisions regarding which warning signs warrant reporting. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate how childcare providers interpret the…

  11. School Help Professionals' Ideas on Child Abuse and Neglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Usakli, Hakan

    2012-01-01

    Method: In this study, a qualitative research has been carried out; there were interviews with 50 school counselors working in Sinop; they stated their ideas on child abuse and neglect. Analysis: Data collected via semi constructed interviews have been subjected to descriptive and content analysis.The participant counselors were asked three…

  12. [Anogenital warts and suspicion of child sexual abuse].

    PubMed

    Mouesca, Juan Pablo; Indart de Arza, Miguel Javier; Stabilito, Luis

    2012-10-01

    This article deals with anogenital warts (AGW) injuries caused by human papiloma virus (HPV) in children. Diagnosis, epidemiology, modes of transmission, differential diagnosis, relationship between AGW and cancer are descript. Also, it remarks the presence of AGW as indicator of child sexual abuse. Finally, it includes suggestions for the management of patients and their families by the paediatrician.

  13. Social Reactions to Child Sexual Abuse Disclosures: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Sarah E.

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies have examined disclosure of child sexual abuse to determine the correlates and consequences of telling others about this form of victimization. The present article reviews the current empirical literature on disclosure and reactions to adult survivors to assess what is known about the process of disclosure and whether telling others…

  14. A Call for Action on the Child Abuse Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Vivian Gunn; Taneja-Jaisinghani, Vijay

    1976-01-01

    In order to reduce the incidence of child abuse and neglect, communities must implement comprehensive programs that include identification of the problem, prevention, rehabilitation, education, and research. As professional home economists, we must demonstrate our concern, involvement, and commitment to the remediation and prevention of child…

  15. Child Abuse and Neglect: The Myth of Classlessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelton, Leroy H.

    1978-01-01

    The article argues that the widespread belief that child abuse and neglect are unrelated to socioeconomic class is not supported by the evidence, and that it consequently serves to divert attention from the true nature of the problem involved. (Author/DLS)

  16. Magazine Coverage of Child Sexual Abuse, 1992-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheit, Ross E.; Shavit, Yael; Reiss-Davis, Zachary

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes trends in the coverage of child sexual abuse in popular magazines since the early 1990s. The article employs systematic analysis to identify and analyze articles in four popular magazines. Articles are analyzed by subject, length, and publication. The results affirm established theories of newsworthiness related to the…

  17. Prenatal Child Abuse Risk Assessment: A Preliminary Validation Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weberling, Lara Cady; Forgays, Deborah Kirby; Crain-Thoreson, Catherine; Hyman, Ira

    2003-01-01

    Tested the validity of the Brigid Collins Risk Screener (BCRS) to assess child abuse risk in a sample of 49 expectant mothers. Found that at 3 months postpartum, high-risk mothers scored significantly lower on the quality of infants' physical, social, and emotional environments than moderate or low-risk mothers. Concluded that the BCRS appears to…

  18. Prosecuting Child Sexual Abuse: The Importance of Evidence Type

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Wendy A.; Jones, Lisa M.; Cross, Theodore P.; Lippert, Tonya

    2010-01-01

    Corroborating evidence has been associated with a decrease in children's distress during the court process, yet few studies have empirically examined the impact of evidence type on prosecution rates. This study examined the types of evidence and whether charges were filed in a sample of child sexual abuse cases (n = 329). Cases with a child…

  19. Child Abuse and Depression in Iranian Students: An Empirical Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mousavi, Mahnaz Nowroozi; Rogers, James R.

    Child abuse and neglect (CA&N), as a social and psychological phenomenon, represents a major area of concern internationally. This study examined the prevalence and self-reported effects of CA&N in Iran through a descriptive investigation of high school students' experiences. A sample consisting of 2,240 high school students representing 5…

  20. Child Sexual Abuse: Community Concerns in Urban Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kisanga, Felix; Nystrom, Lennarth; Hogan, Nora; Emmelin, Maria

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore community perceptions about child sexual abuse in Tanzania. Thirteen focus group discussions were conducted with adult community members. The core category, "children's rights challenged by lack of agency", was supported by eight categories. "Aware but distressed" portrayed feelings of…

  1. Child Sexual Abuse: A Case Study in Community Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faller, Kathleen Coulborn; Henry, James

    2000-01-01

    A study investigated the effectiveness of a collaborative approach to the case management of child sexual abuse. Data from 323 criminal court files found a sex offense confession rate of 64 percent and plea rate of 70 percent. Fifteen cases went to trial and in six the offender was convicted. (Contains references.) (Author/CR)

  2. Child Abuse & Neglect in the Mexican American Community. Course Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camacho, Rosie Lee

    Consisting of three units, the course model aims to prepare students to address the problem of abuse and/or neglect in the Mexican American community. Unit one focuses on the two major parts of the informal helping system in the Mexican American community, the barrio and the family. Unit two concentrates on the traditional child welfare system and…

  3. A Practice Regimen for Diagnosis and Treatment of Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Frederick

    1975-01-01

    Describes the system developed by the Quincy District Office of the Illinois Department of Children and Family Service for the identification of child abuse cases and the delivery of the services and treatment required by the parents and their children. (Author/SDH)

  4. Role of Natural Helpers in Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballew, Julius R.

    1985-01-01

    Examines social isolation and the use of informal helping networks of families (N=130) at risk for child abuse or neglect. Preventive service workers' (N=13) responses to a natural helper survey revealed that friends, relatives, and neighbors are potential helpers for such families and are effective in resolving problems they address. (NRB)

  5. Indian Culture and Its Relationship to Child Abuse & Neglect. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Indian Child Abuse and Neglect Resource Center, Tulsa, OK.

    The six-page information sheet addresses the elements in Indian history, culture, psycho-dynamics, and socio-economics that have an impact on Indian child abuse and neglect. Discussion is presented on two myths that Whites have developed in time about Indians: racial superiority which has caused difficulty for the Indian and the necessity for…

  6. Ethnic Diversity and the Potential for Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Medora, Nilufer P.; And Others

    This study compared the potential for child abuse among three ethnic groups, when age, educational attainment, and marital status were controlled for in a sample of ethnically diverse, low-income mothers residing in a large metropolitan area. Participants (n=195) were between 15 and 45 years and were enrolled in the Women, Infants, and Children…

  7. The Psychiatric Consequences of Child and Adolescent Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    YÜCE, Murat; KARABEKİROĞLU, Koray; YILDIRIM, Zeynep; ŞAHİN, Serkan; SAPMAZ, Dicle; BABADAĞI, Zehra; TURLA, Ahmet; AYDIN, Berna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychiatric consequences of sexual abuse and its associated factors in children and adolescents referred to our child and adolescent psychiatry clinic from official medico–legal units. Methods All victims of sexual abuse (n=590) aged 1–18 (mean: 13.56±3.38) referred from forensic units to Ondokuz Mayis University Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic over a period of 2 years [boys: 83 (14.1%); girls: 507 (85.9%)] were included. Child and adolescent psychiatry and forensic medicine specialists evaluated all the cases. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised Form (WISC-R) and the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version-Turkish Version (K-SADS-PL-T) were applied. Results Abuse-related psychiatric diagnoses (of which 45.9% were major depressive disorder and 31.7% were post-traumatic stress disorder cases) were made in 75.2% of the cases. In 80.3% of the cases, the perpetrators were known to their victims [incest, n=91 (15.1%)], and intercourse took place in 48.8%. Although gender and age were not significantly associated with the appearance of any psychiatric disorders, severity of abuse (e.g., intercourse; p=.006), additional physical assault (p<.001), and incest (p<.001) had a significant correlation with psychiatric disorders. To explore the predictive value of multiple factors in the appearance of any sexual assault-related psychiatric disorder, a logistic regression model was used to determine the best linear combination of age, gender, abuse severity, incest, involvement of any other victim, additional physical assault, and length of time from first abuse to first psychiatric evaluation. This combination of variables (occurrence of incest, additional physical assault, and a long duration from first abuse to first psychiatric evaluation) significantly predicted the appearance of a psychiatric disorder of any kind (χ2

  8. Child protection medical service demonstration centers in approaching child abuse and neglect in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yu-Ching; Huang, Jing-Long; Hsia, Shao-Hsuan; Lin, Kuang-Lin; Lee, En-Pei; Chou, I-Jun; Hsin, Yi-Chen; Lo, Fu-Song; Wu, Chang-Teng; Chiu, Cheng-Hsun; Wu, Han-Ping

    2016-11-01

    Child abuse includes all forms of physical and emotional ill treatment, sexual abuse, neglect, and exploitation that results in actual or potential harm to the child's health, development, or dignity. In Taiwan, the Child Protection Medical Service Demonstration Center (CPMSDC) was established to protect children from abuse and neglect. We further analyzed and compared the trends and clinical characteristics of cases reported by CPMSDC to evaluate the function of CPMSDC in approaching child abuse and neglect in Taiwan. We prospectively recorded children with reported child abuse and neglect in a CPMSDC in a tertiary medical center from 2014 to 2015. Furthermore, we analyzed and compared age, gender, scene, identifying settings, time of visits, injury type, injury severity, hospital admission, hospitalization duration, and outcomes based on the different types of abuse and the different settings in which the abuse or neglect were identified. Of 361 child abuse cases (mean age 4.8 ± 5.36 years), the incidence was highest in 1- to 6-year-old children (n = 198, 54.85%). Physical abuse and neglect were predominant in males, while sexual abuse was predominant in females (P < 0.001). Neglect was most common (n = 279, 75.85%), followed by physical (n = 56, 15.51%) and sexual abuse (n = 26, 7.2%). The most common identifying setting was the emergency department (n = 320, 88.64%), with neglect being most commonly reported. Head, neck, and facial injuries were more common in physically abused children than in neglected and sexual abused children (P < 0.005), leading to longer hospitalization (P = 0.042) and a higher Injury Severity Score (P = 0.043). There were more skin injuries in neglect (P < 0.001). The mortality rate was 2.49% (n = 9). The CPMSDC could enhance the ability, alertness, and inclination of professionals to identify suspected cases of child abuse, and to increase the rate of registry. Cases of physical abuse

  9. Characteristics of Child Sexual Abuse in the United States Air Force.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    were active in seeking sexual reforms, such as greater availability of contraceptives, improved sex education, and increased 16 permissiveness regarding...contribute to the substantiation of child sexual abuse. There is physical evidence of abuse in relatively small percentages of child sex abuse cases. a...gender, age, military status, and rank if engaged in active duty.) The labeling perspective suggests that certain 103 child sex abuser (by having

  10. Child abuse: A classic case report with literature review.

    PubMed

    Kemoli, Arthur M; Mavindu, Mildred

    2014-04-01

    Child abuse and neglect are serious global problems and can be in the form of physical, sexual, emotional or just neglect in providing for the child's needs. These factors can leave the child with serious, long-lasting psychological damage. In the present case report, a 12-year-old orphaned boy was physically abused by a close relative who caused actual bodily and emotional trauma to the boy. After satisfactorily managing the trauma and emotional effects to the patient, in addition to the counseling services provided to the caregiver, the patient made a steady recovery. He was also referred to a child support group for social support, and prepare him together with his siblings for placement in a children's home in view of the hostile environment in which they were living.

  11. Differentiating single and multiple victim child sexual abuse cases: a research note considering social disorganization theory.

    PubMed

    Mustaine, Elizabeth Ehrhardt; Tewksbury, Richard; Corzine, Jay; Huff-Corzine, Lin

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the utility of social disorganization theory as an explanation for child sexual abuse with a focus on differentiating single and multiple victim cases. Drawing on 1,172 child sexual abuse cases (including 159 cases with multiple victims) in Orange County, Florida, from 2004 to 2006, the present study considered case characteristics and elements of social disorganization as potential predictors of child sexual abuse cases involving single and multiple victims. We found that social disorganization theory does not successfully predict the locations of multiple victim child sexual abuse incidents and is not useful for distinguishing between child sexual abuse incidents with single or multiple victims.

  12. Assessment of child sexual abuse: clinical use of fables.

    PubMed

    Miller, T W; Veltkamp, L J

    1989-01-01

    Examined is the clinical use of fables in the evaluation of child sexual abuse. A review of projective assessment, the use of human figure drawings, anatomically correct dolls and projective apperception testing is presented within the context of clinical assessment of child trauma. The efficacy of the fable assessment technique is discussed, as are issues in the use of projective assessment with children. Issues and import for the clinician are explored.

  13. Child Maltreatment and Perceived Family Environment as Risk Factors for Adult Rape: Is Child Sexual Abuse the Most Salient Experience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messman-Moore, T.L.; Brown, A.L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective:: Child maltreatment and family functioning were examined as predictors of adult rape in a sample of 925 college women. Method:: Information was obtained from retrospective self-report questionnaires. Child sexual abuse (CSA) was assessed with the Life Experiences Questionnaire, child emotional abuse (CEA) and physical abuse (CPA) were…

  14. Child Abuse and Aggression among Seriously Emotionally Disturbed Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Julian D.; Fraleigh, Lisa A.; Connor, Daniel F.

    2010-01-01

    Abused children may be at risk for problems with aggression. In a sample of 397 seriously emotionally disturbed children, reactive aggression was associated with documented history of physical abuse but not sexual abuse. Girls were equally likely to be classified as reactively aggressive regardless of physical abuse history, but boys with physical…

  15. Professionals' criteria for detecting and reporting child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    González Ortega, Eva; Orgaz Baz, Begoña; López Sánchez, Félix

    2012-11-01

    Professionals who are likely to come into contact with children play an essential role in the protection of children, thus we aimed to study the criteria they use to identify and report child sexual abuse cases. Based on the Factorial Survey design, we presented 974 Spanish (90%) and Latin American professionals from six fields (Psychology, Social Services, Education, Health, Law and Security) with hypothetical situations of sexual interaction with minors (systematically varying the type of sexual act, the child's and the other person's sex and age, the use of coercion and the type of strategy employed to involve the child), in order to examine their perception of abuse and willingness to report. According to results, the factors or criteria that most impact assessments are age asymmetry and use of coercion. Specifically, professionals are significantly more likely to perceive abuse and intend to report it if the other person involved in the interaction is much older than the minor and/or uses a coercive strategy, especially force, drugs or blackmail. Another relevant criterion is the type of sexual act, since acts involving intercourse, digital penetration or oral sex are significantly more likely to be deemed as abuse and reported.

  16. Attributions of Responsibility in a Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) Vignette among Respondents with CSA Histories: The Role of Abuse Similarity to a Hypothetical Victim

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Hilary G.; Zinzow, Heidi M.; Burns, Erin E.; Jackson, Joan L.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research suggests that similarity to a victim may influence attributions of responsibility in hypothetical child sexual abuse scenarios. One aspect of similarity receiving mixed support in the literature is respondent child sexual abuse history. Using a sample of 1,345 college women, the present study examined child sexual abuse history,…

  17. Nurses' intention to report child abuse in Taiwan: a test of the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jui-Ying; Wu, Yow-Wu B

    2005-08-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify factors associated with nurses' intention to report suspected child abuse in Taiwan, and to determine the empirical adequacy of the extended theory of planned behavior (TPB) to explain nurses' intention to report child abuse. A stratified quota sampling technique was used to select registered nurses in emergency rooms, psychiatric units, and pediatric units in Taiwan. A total of 1,362 questionnaires from 1,617 nurses were used for the analyses. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that nurses' attitudes toward reporting child abuse, perceived behavioral control, subjective norms, and knowledge of the child abuse and reporting law explained 85% to 91% of the variance in nurses' intention to report child abuse for the less severe and severe child abuse cases in vignettes, respectively. The findings support the use of the extended TPB in identifying factors associated with nurses' intention to report child abuse in Taiwan.

  18. Barriers to physician identification and reporting of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, Emalee G; Sege, Robert

    2005-05-01

    Physicians systematically underidentify and underreport cases of child abuse. These medical errors may result in continued abuse, leading to potentially severe consequences. We have reviewed a number of studies that attempt to explain the reasons for these errors. The findings of these various studies suggest several priorities for improving the identification and reporting of child maltreatment: Improve continuing education about child maltreatment. Continuing education should focus not only on the identification of maltreatment but also on management and outcomes. This education should include an explanation of the role of CPS investigator and the physician's role in an investigation. The education should provide physicians with a better understanding of the overall outcome for children reported to CPS to help physicians gain perspective on the small number of maltreated children they may care for in their practice. This education should emphasize that the majority of maltreated children will benefit from CPS involvement. New York is the only state that mandates all physicians, as well as certain other professionals, take a 2-hour course called Identification and Reporting of Child Abuse and Maltreatment prior to licensing. Cited studies in this article suggest that such a mandate might be expected to improve identification and reporting, thereby encouraging other states to adopt similar regulations. Give physicians the opportunity to debrief with a trained professional after detecting and reporting child abuse. The concept of child abuse and the gravity of the decision to report can be troubling to the reporter. The debriefing could include discussions of uncomfortable feelings physicians may experience related to their own countertransference reactions. Provide resources to assist physicians in making the difficult determination of suspected maltreatment. The role of accessible telephone consultation should be evaluated, along with formalized collaborations

  19. Domestic Violence and Child Abuse: A Selective Bibliography. Bibliography Series Eight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Mary Louise, Comp.

    This selective bibliography contains information on material dealing with domestic violence in the home with a special emphasis on child abuse, that may be obtained in the Robert E. Kennedy Library at California Polytechnic University. The bibliography is divided according to different forms of abuse, e.g., emotional child abuse, incest/sexual…

  20. Child Abuse: Where Do We Go From Here? Conference Proceedings, February 18 - 20, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arshack, Susan, Ed.

    The document presents the proceedings of the conference on "Child Abuse: Where Do We Go From Here?" held at the Children's Hospital National Medical Center in 1977. Six chapters focus on corporal punishment, etiology of child abuse, sex abuse, treatment modalities, court reform, and parental rights and civil liberties. Among the entries are the…

  1. News Coverage of Child Sexual Abuse and Prevention, 2007-2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mejia, Pamela; Cheyne, Andrew; Dorfman, Lori

    2012-01-01

    News media coverage of child sexual abuse can help policymakers and the public understand what must be done to prevent future abuse, but coverage tends to focus on extreme cases. This article presents an analysis of newspaper coverage from 2007 to 2009 to describe how the daily news presents and frames day-to-day stories about child sexual abuse.…

  2. Teacher Education to Meet the Challenges Posed by Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Ben

    2011-01-01

    The phenomenon of child sexual abuse has significant implications for teachers' pre-service training and professional development. Teachers have a pedagogical role in dealing with abused children, and a legal and professional duty to report suspected child sexual abuse. Teachers require support and training to develop the specialised knowledge and…

  3. Hiding behind the Cloth: Child Sexual Abuse and the Catholic Church

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Kathryn A.; Alpert, Judith L.

    2007-01-01

    The existence of child sexual abuse within the Catholic Church has shocked many. In this article, the authors review the history of child sexual abuse in the church, the recent events that brought this tragedy into societal consciousness, and the efforts by the church to conceal the abuse. Two sources of empirical literature, the general…

  4. Externalizing Behavior among Adopted Boys with Preadoptive Histories of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nalavany, Blace Arthur; Ryan, Scott D.; Hinterlong, Jim

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the severity of externalizing symptomology among adopted boys with preadoptive histories of child sexual abuse, physical abuse, neglect/abandonment, or no abuse. The study was based on data collected across a three-year period from parents who adopted children from Florida's child welfare system. The sample consisted of 1,136…

  5. Do Parents Blame or Doubt Their Child More when Sexually Abused by Adolescents versus Adults?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Wendy A.; Cross, Theodore P.; Jones, Lisa M.

    2012-01-01

    Although the importance of parental support for child sexual abuse victims is well documented, the nature of parental support for victims sexually abused by adolescents is less understood. In this exploratory study, we examine whether parents differ in their levels of blame or doubt for their child when sexually abused by adolescents versus…

  6. Parental Expectations and Attitudes About Childrearing in High Risk Vs. Low Risk Child Abusing Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenblatt, Gary C.

    This book presents a critical and integrative review of extant literature on child abuse, and the methodology and results of a study investigating relationships among types of abusing parents (disciplinarian parents and inadequate parents), parental attitudes about childrearing and perceptions of their children, and severity of child abuse.…

  7. Child Abuse, Early Maladaptive Schemas, and Risky Sexual Behavior in College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual,…

  8. Utility of Follow-Up Skeletal Surveys in Suspected Child Physical Abuse Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmerman, Stephanie; Makoroff, Kathi; Care, Marguerite; Thomas, Amy; Shapiro, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the utility of a follow-up skeletal survey in suspected child physical abuse evaluations. Methods: In this prospective study, follow-up skeletal surveys were recommended for 74 children who, after an initial skeletal survey and evaluation by the Child Abuse Team, were suspected victims of physical abuse. The number and…

  9. Female Survivors' Perceptions of Lifelong Impact on Their Education of Child Abuse Suffered in Orphanages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Bode, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Many children raised in orphanages suffered ongoing child abuse and neglect including sexual abuse, and nearly all were denied an adequate education. This paper explores adult females' perceptions of the impacts on their education of child sexual abuse they suffered while living in orphanages in Australia. In-depth qualitative and anonymous…

  10. Child Abuse Prevention: A Job Half Done. Chapin Hall Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    This brief discusses the findings of the Fourth Federal National Incidence Study on Child Maltreatment (NIS 4), which reports a significant reduction in the overall rate of child maltreatment since the 1993 NIS. The study reflects substantial drops in the rates of sexual abuse, physical abuse, and emotional abuse. However, no significant changes…

  11. Child Abuse and Chronic Pain in a Community Survey of Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Christine A.; Jamieson, Ellen; MacMillan, Harriet; Boyle, Michael

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between a self-reported history of child physical and sexual abuse and chronic pain among women (N = 3381) in a provincewide community sample. Chronic pain was significantly associated with physical abuse, education, and age of the respondents and was unrelated to child sexual abuse alone or in combination with…

  12. Intersection of child abuse and children's exposure to domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Herrenkohl, Todd I; Sousa, Cynthia; Tajima, Emiko A; Herrenkohl, Roy C; Moylan, Carrie A

    2008-04-01

    This review addresses research on the overlap in physical child abuse and domestic violence, the prediction of child outcomes, and resilience in children exposed to family violence. The authors explore current findings on the intersection of physical child abuse and domestic violence within the context of other risk factors, including community violence and related family and environmental stressors. Evidence from the studies reviewed suggests considerable overlap, compounding effects, and possible gender differences in outcomes of violence exposure. The data indicate a need to apply a broad conceptualization of risk to the study of family violence and its effects on children. Further testing of competing theoretical models will advance understanding of the pathways through which exposure leads to later problems in youth, as well as protective factors and processes through which resilience unfolds.

  13. Social determinants of child abuse: evidence of factors associated with maternal abuse from the Egypt demographic and health survey

    PubMed Central

    Antai, Diddy; Braithwaite, Patrick; Clerk., George

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Child abuse or maltreatment is a significant global public health problem of unknown global prevalence. About 40 million children aged 0 - 14 years require health and social care globally. The prevalence, determinants, and trends of national or global rates of child abuse and maltreatment are largely unknown. Methods: Data for this retrospective cross-sectional study were derived from the 2005 Egyptian Demographic and Health Survey (2005 EDHS), and included 19474 women aged 15-49 years. Multivariate logistic regression analyses by stepwise regression, backward method were used to determine the independent contribution of the possible social determinants of child abuse, with the direction and magnitude of associations expressed as odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confident interval levels (95% CI). Results: Identified determinants of child abuse included exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV), justifying wife beating, exposure to generational IPV, and such factors as younger age of the women, male sex, partners’ lower education, poverty, residence in urban areas, younger children, and residence in households with 3 - 5 children. Conclusions: Experience of IPV, mothers’ justification of wife beating, and generational IPV were associated with elevated odds of child abuse. Findings indicate possible high levels of unmet child protection needs, and stress the need for professionals working with children to employ culturally-sensitive methods in investigating social determinants of child abuse. PMID:26401957

  14. Differential Patterns of Disclosure of Child Abuse among Boys and Girls: Implications for Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monaco, Nanci M.; Gaier, Eugene L.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the differential incidence of male versus female reports of sexual abuse through hotlines and solicited reports. Reports occurred after the institution of a child abuse prevention program for 1,920 children K-12. (RJC)

  15. Relationship between child abuse exposure and reported contact with child protection organizations: results from the Canadian Community Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Afifi, Tracie O; MacMillan, Harriet L; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Turner, Sarah; Tonmyr, Lil; Hovdestad, Wendy

    2015-08-01

    Much of what is known about child abuse in Canada has come from reported cases of child abuse and at-risk samples, which likely represent the most severe cases of child abuse in the country. The objective of the current study is to examine the prevalence of a broad range of child abuse experiences (physical abuse, sexual abuse, and exposure to IPV) and investigate how such experiences and sociodemographic variables are related to contact with child protection organizations in Canada using a representative general population sample. Data were drawn from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health collected from the 10 provinces using a multistage stratified cluster design (n=23,395; household response rate=79.8%; aged 18 years and older). Physical abuse only (16.8%) was the most prevalent child abuse experience reported with the exposure to specific combinations of two or more types of child abuse ranging from 0.4% to 3.7%. Only 7.6% of the adult population with a history of child abuse reported having had contact with child protection organizations. Experiencing all three types of child abuse was associated with the greatest odds of contact with child protection organizations (AOR=15.8; 95% CI=10.1 to 24.6). Physical abuse only was associated with one of the lowest odds of contact with child protection organizations. Preventing child abuse is widely acknowledged as an important, but challenging public health goal. Strategies to increase reporting of child abuse may help to protect children and to connect families with necessary services. One obvious priority would be physical abuse.

  16. Maladaptive Schemas as Mediators in the Relationship Between Child Sexual Abuse and Displaced Aggression.

    PubMed

    Estévez, Ana; Ozerinjauregi, Nagore; Herrero-Fernández, David

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is one of the most serious forms of abuse due to the psychological consequences that persist even into adulthood. Expressions of anger among child sexual abuse survivors remain common even years after the event. While child sexual abuse has been extensively studied, the expression of displaced aggression has been studied less. Some factors, such as the maladaptive early schemas, might account for this deficiency. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationships between child sexual abuse, displaced aggression, and these schemas according to gender and determine if these early schemas mediate the relationship between child sexual abuse and displaced aggression. A total of 168 Spanish subjects who were victims of child sexual abuse completed measures of childhood trauma, displaced aggression, and early maladaptive schemas. The results depict the relationship between child sexual abuse, displaced aggression, and early maladaptive schemas. Women scored higher than men in child sexual abuse, emotional abuse, disconnection or rejection and impaired autonomy. Mediational analysis found a significant mediation effect of disconnection or rejection on the relationship between child sexual abuse and displaced aggression; however, impaired autonomy did not mediate significantly.

  17. Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome mimicking child abuse by burning.

    PubMed

    Porzionato, Andrea; Aprile, Anna

    2007-05-03

    Child abuse by burning comprises 6-20% of all child abuse cases, but misdiagnosis may arise in cases of some medical conditions. We present two cases of suspected inflicted burns, later diagnosed as staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS). In case 1, a 6-month-old girl was referred to hospital for small round ulcerations on the face and abdomen, resembling cigarette burns. Because of the inconsistency of the mother's report (insect bites) with the injury pattern and an unstable family history, hospitalization was decided. The following day, new bullous lesions were visible on the neck and nose, indicating the natural origin of the findings, finally diagnosed as SSSS. In case 2, a 2-month-old boy was hospitalized for erythema, with bullous lesions on the abdomen. He was transferred to another hospital, with suspected congenital or autoimmune skin disorder but negative searches led to a diagnosis of inflicted scalds: a report was sent to the judicial authorities, and the child was entrusted to his grandparents. In fact, a review of the clinical documentation showed that, in the second hospitalization, new erythematous and bullous lesions had been described, which could not be ascribed to inflicted injuries. Child abuse was finally ruled out, and SSSS was diagnosed. In cases of suspected inflicted child burns, observation during hospitalization may reveal changes in lesions, ascribed to the evolution of medical conditions. SSSS diagnosis is mainly based on clinical grounds but, if the suspicion of abuse remains, isolation and phage typing of Staphylococcus aureus from nasal, pharyngeal or cutaneous swabs may confirm the diagnosis.

  18. Elder Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... mistreatment may be Physical, sexual, or emotional abuse Neglect or abandonment Financial abuse - stealing of money or belongings Possible signs of elder abuse include unexplained bruises, burns, and injuries. There ...

  19. Multidisciplinary Teams in Child Abuse and Neglect Programs. A Special Report from the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect, August, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herner and Co., Washington, DC.

    The monograph examines the rationale and scope of multidisciplinary teams in child abuse and neglect cases; and reviews operation of hospital-based, interagency, and state-mandated multidisciplinary team programs. The bulk of the document is composed of two appendixes: a directory of child abuse and neglect programs which use a multidisciplinary…

  20. A review of the ethics in research on child abuse.

    PubMed

    Veena, A S; Chandra, Prabha S

    2007-01-01

    Research on violence and abuse, particularly involving vulnerable groups such as women and children, has many ethical ramifications. There are few published reports in India on ethical guidelines and standards in this area. This paper reviews Child Abuse: India 2007, a study conducted by the ministry of women and child development, government of India. The review highlights the need for conducting an ethical inquiry in this area. Certain concerns about the conduct of the study are raised. Core ethical issues pertaining to consent and refusal, risk and benefit, effects of the study process on the researcher and the researched and the reporting of adverse events are discussed. The ethical implications of the study and ethical responsibilities of the researcher are emphasised.

  1. Evaluating for suspected child abuse: conditions that predispose to bleeding.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Shannon L; Abshire, Thomas C; Anderst, James D

    2013-04-01

    Child abuse might be suspected when children present with cutaneous bruising, intracranial hemorrhage, or other manifestations of bleeding. In these cases, it is necessary to consider medical conditions that predispose to easy bleeding/bruising. When evaluating for the possibility of bleeding disorders and other conditions that predispose to hemorrhage, the pediatrician must consider the child's presenting history, medical history, and physical examination findings before initiating a laboratory investigation. Many medical conditions can predispose to easy bleeding. Before ordering laboratory tests for a disease, it is useful to understand the biochemical basis and clinical presentation of the disorder, condition prevalence, and test characteristics. This technical report reviews the major medical conditions that predispose to bruising/bleeding and should be considered when evaluating for abusive injury.

  2. [Burns in children: child abuse or another cause?].

    PubMed

    van Ewijk, Roelof; op de Coul, Moniek E; Teeuw, A H Rian; Wolf, Bart H M

    2012-01-01

    Burns are common in children but it is not always clear whether the burn is accidental or not. Child abuse should always be considered. We present two children in which the diagnosis only became clear after admission and further investigation. Patient A, a 15-month-old boy, had a burn on his left shoulder. The burn was assumed suspect in view of the unclear history given by the parents and a possible delay in their seeking help. The patient was ultimately diagnosed with impetigo bullosa and successfully treated with antibiotics. Patient B, a 24-month-old girl, had burns on both feet and her right hand, which were infected as a result of the delay in seeking help. The burns were identified as abuse-related. The child was removed from her mother's care and sent to a foster home. A well-defined work-up should be followed in case of burns in children.

  3. 3 CFR 8949 - Proclamation 8949 of March 29, 2013. National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2013

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... more about ending child abuse and how to get involved, visit www.ChildWelfare.gov/Preventing. NOW... 3 The President 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Proclamation 8949 of March 29, 2013. National Child... 8949 of March 29, 2013 Proc. 8949 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2013By the President of...

  4. Child abuse and neglect in complex dissociative disorder, abuse-related chronic PTSD, and mixed psychiatric samples.

    PubMed

    Dorahy, Martin J; Middleton, Warwick; Seager, Lenaire; Williams, Mary; Chambers, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Only a select number of studies have examined different forms of child maltreatment in complex dissociative disorders (DDs) in comparison to other groups. Few of these have used child abuse-related chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (C-PTSD) and mixed psychiatric (MP) patients with maltreatment as comparison groups. This study examined child sexual, physical, and emotional abuse as well as physical and emotional neglect in DD (n = 39), C-PTSD (n = 13), and MP (n = 21) samples, all with abuse and neglect histories. The predictive capacity of these different forms of maltreatment across the 3 groups was assessed for pathological dissociation, shame, guilt, relationship esteem, relationship anxiety, relationship depression, and fear of relationships. All forms of maltreatment differentiated the DD from the MP group, and sexual abuse differentiated the DD sample from the C-PTSD group. Childhood sexual abuse was the only predictor of pathological dissociation. Emotional abuse predicted shame, guilt, relationship anxiety, and fear of relationships. Emotional neglect predicted relationship anxiety and relationship depression. Physical neglect was associated with less relationship anxiety. Different forms of abuse and neglect are associated with different symptom clusters in psychiatric patients with maltreatment histories.

  5. The Impact of Child, Family, and Child Protective Services Factors on Reports of Child Sexual Abuse Recurrence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinanan, Allison N.

    2011-01-01

    This study identified selected child factors (e.g., age, gender, race/ethnicity, disabilities, prior victimization, and relationship to perpetrator of abuse), family risk factors (e.g., substance abuse, domestic violence, inadequate housing, and financial problems), and services provided by child protective services that likely increased reports…

  6. Change Trajectories for Parent-Child Interaction Sequences during Parent-Child Interaction Therapy for Child Physical Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakman, Melissa; Chaffin, Mark; Funderburk, Beverly; Silovsky, Jane F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) has been found to reduce future child abuse reports among physically abusive parents. Reductions in observed negative parenting behaviors mediated this benefit. The current study examined session-by-session interaction sequences in order to identify when during treatment these changes occur and…

  7. Follow-up skeletal survey use by child abuse pediatricians.

    PubMed

    Harper, Nancy S; Lewis, Terri; Eddleman, Sonja; Lindberg, Daniel M

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal survey is frequently used to identify occult fractures in young children with concern for physical abuse. Because skeletal survey is relatively insensitive for some abusive fractures, a follow-up skeletal survey (FUSS) may be undertaken at least 10-14 days after the initial skeletal survey to improve sensitivity for healing fractures. This was a prospectively planned secondary analysis of a prospective, observational study of 2,890 children who underwent subspecialty evaluation for suspected child physical abuse at 1 of 19 centers. Our objective was to determine variability between sites in rates of FUSS recommendation, completion and fracture identification among the 2,049 participants who had an initial SS. Among children with an initial skeletal survey, the rate of FUSS recommendation for sites ranged from 20% to 97%; the rate of FUSS completion ranged from 10% to 100%. Among sites completing at least 10 FUSS, rates of new fracture identification ranged from 8% to 28%. Among completed FUSS, new fractures were more likely to be identified in younger children, children with higher initial level of concern for abuse, and those with a fracture or cutaneous injury identified in the initial evaluation. The current variability in FUSS utilization is not explained by variability in occult fracture prevalence. Specific guidelines for FUSS utilization are needed.

  8. [Child sex abuse: pretext to a return of sexual repression].

    PubMed

    Marneffe, C

    1995-01-01

    This article is based on observations and thoughts during intensive psychotherapeutic work with 997 sexually abused children and their parents after they had been reported to the Confidential Doctor Center Kind in Nood of the VUB (between 1986 and 1994). Without denying the existence of sexual abuse of children, it is important not to exaggerate this phenomena, which can be described as the Child Sexual Abuse Panic Syndrome. Doing this only gives way to denial and indignation or scandalization and revenge, and certainly does not lead to a clear analysis of the problem. Accurate observation enables some existing myths to become unravelled: abusive fathers are seldom power robots, mothers are not always warm-hearted, innocent creatures and children are not black boxes without feeling and sexual desires. The underlying message is about the bitter fight against modernization of sexuality, which seems again experienced as dangerous. However it is fear for a free, adult sexuality that is at the core of sexual exploitation of children, which should encourage caution in professional answers to this delicate issue.

  9. Behind the cycle of violence, beyond abuse history: a brief report on the association of parental attachment to physical child abuse potential.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Christina M; Tucker, Meagan C

    2011-01-01

    Although the concept of a cycle of violence presumes that the transmission of violence is expressed directly across generations, the role of the overall quality of the parent-child relationship may ultimately be more influential in later parenting behavior. This study investigated whether mothers' poorer attachment to their parents was associated with their current increased child abuse potential and dysfunctional disciplinary style independent of a personal history of child abuse. A sample of 73 at-risk mothers raising children with behavior problems reported on their parental attachment, abuse potential, dysfunctional parenting style, and personal abuse history. An at-risk sample, rather than a sample of identified abuse victims or perpetrators, was studied to better examine the potential continuity or discontinuity from history of abuse to current abuse risk, allowing consideration of those who may break the cycle versus those who potentially initiate abuse in the absence of a personal history. Findings indicate that poor attachment significantly predicted both dysfunctional parenting practices and elevated child abuse potential, controlling for personal child abuse history. Such results highlight the importance of the overall quality of the relationship between the parent and child in potentially shaping future abuse risk. Findings are discussed in terms of continuity or discontinuity in the cycle of violence and future directions for research on attachment in relation to the development of later child abuse risk.

  10. Reported child sexual abuse in Bahrain: 2000-2009

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mahroos, Fadheela; Al-Amer, Eshraq

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a common problem with severe short and long-term consequences to the abused child, the family and to society. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of CSA, and demographic and other characteristics of the abused and their families. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective and descriptive study based on a review of medical records of CSA cases from 2000-2009 at Sulmaniya Medical Complex, the main secondary and tertiary medical care facility in Bahrain. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The review included demographic data, child and family characteristics, manifestations and interventions. RESULTS: The 440 children diagnosed with CSA had a mean age of 8 years (range, 9 months to 17 years); 222 were males (50.5%) and 218 were females (49.5%). There was a steady increase in cases from 31 per year in 2000 to 77 cases in 2009. Children disclosed abuse in 26% of cases, while health sector professionals recognized 53% of the cases. Genital touching and fondling (62.5%) were the most common form of CSA, followed by sodomy in 39%. Gonorrhea was documented in 2% of the cases and pregnancy in 4% of the females. The illiteracy rate among the fathers and mothers was 9% and 12%, respectively, which is higher than the rate among the adult general population. Children came from all socio-economic classes. There was referral to police in 56%, public prosecution in 31% of the cases, but only 8% reached the court. CONCLUSION: During ten years there has been a 2.5% increase in reported cases of CSA. Improving the skill of professionals in identifying CSA indicators and a mandatory reporting law might be needed to improve the rate of recognition and referral of CSA cases. Further general population-based surveys are needed to determine more accurately the scope of CSA and the risk and protective factors in the family and community. PMID:21808114

  11. Child Sexual Abuse and Adolescent Prostitution: A Comparative Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seng, Magnus J.

    1989-01-01

    Explored relationship between sexual abuse and adolescent prostitution by comparing 70 sexually abused children with 35 prostitution-involved children on 22 variables. Findings suggest that relationship is not direct, but involves runaway behavior as intervening variable. Concludes that it is not so much sexual abuse that leads to prostitution, as…

  12. After Abuse: Child Coping Patterns and Social Work Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timberlake, Elizabeth M.

    The hypothesis that abused children develop a life style of overt expression of aggression and depression was examined in a study of 56 physically abused first grade children who were placed in foster care due to parental physical abuse. As no test instrument existed, the Childhood Social Functioning Inventory was developed, pretested, and used to…

  13. [Problems in placing the abused child in foster home care].

    PubMed

    Holá, M

    1995-05-31

    Children for whom foster parents are found include also abused and battered children. Is such a child able to establish a satisfactory emotional relationship with the foster parents or adoptive parents? The case of a boy repeatedly exposed to cruel corporal punishment in the original family. Attempts of the law court to return the child from a children's home to the original family. Finally complete refusal of the boy by his own parents. Placement of the boy in a new family and his successful adaptation in the new environment.

  14. Child Maltreatment and Adult Substance Abuse: The Role of Memory.

    PubMed

    Elwyn, Laura; Smith, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a risk factor for substance abuse in adulthood. This study examines whether memory of maltreatment is a necessary link in the path leading from prospectively measured childhood maltreatment to adult substance use problems. Official Child Protective Services reports and adult retrospective recall of childhood maltreatment were used to predict illegal drug use and alcohol problems in adulthood controlling for covariates. Memory was a necessary link in the path between prospective reports of maltreatment and alcohol problems, and an important link in the path between prospective reports and illegal drug use. Implications for prevention and treatment are discussed.

  15. Child Maltreatment and Adult Substance Abuse: The Role of Memory

    PubMed Central

    ELWYN, LAURA; SMITH, CAROLYN

    2013-01-01

    Child maltreatment is a risk factor for substance abuse in adulthood. This study examines whether memory of maltreatment is a necessary link in the path leading from prospectively measured childhood maltreatment to adult substance use problems. Official Child Protective Services reports and adult retrospective recall of childhood maltreatment were used to predict illegal drug use and alcohol problems in adulthood controlling for covariates. Memory was a necessary link in the path between prospective reports of maltreatment and alcohol problems, and an important link in the path between prospective reports and illegal drug use. Implications for prevention and treatment are discussed. PMID:24319347

  16. Adult Female Victims of Child Sexual Abuse: Multitype Maltreatment and Disclosure Characteristics Related to Subjective Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonzon, Eva; Lindblad, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the impact of child sexual abuse and disclosure characteristics on adult psychological and psychosomatic symptoms. Data on abuse characteristics, disclosure-related events, and subjective health were collected through semistructured interviews and questionnaires from 123 adult women reporting having been sexually abused in…

  17. The Impact of Child Sexual Abuse on Attitudes toward God and the Catholic Church.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossetti, Stephen J.

    1995-01-01

    This study explored effects of child sexual abuse by priests and other perpetrators on victims' trust in the Catholic Church, priesthood, and their relationship with God. Subjects were adult Catholics who had been sexually abused but not by a priest (n=307) or sexually abused by a priest (n=40) and 1,376 nonabused controls. Results highlight the…

  18. The Impact of Child Sexual Abuse--A Study of a Random Sample of Norwegian Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bendixen, Mons; And Others

    1994-01-01

    In a survey of 510 female and 486 male Norwegian college students, almost 12% reported child sexual abuse. Abuse was associated with health problems such as genital pain/infections and headache/abdominal/muscular pain as well as psychological disorders such as anxiety and suicidal ideation. A relationship was demonstrated between abuse severity…

  19. Sh-h-h-h: Representations of Perpetrators of Sexual Child Abuse in Picturebooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampert, Jo

    2012-01-01

    Children's picturebooks dealing with the topic of child sexual abuse first appeared in the early 1980s with the aim of addressing the need for age-appropriate texts to teach sexual abuse prevention concepts and to provide support for young children who may be at risk of or have already experienced sexual abuse. Despite the apparent potential of…

  20. Linkages between Child Abuse and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Girls: Behavioral and Social Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe-Smith, Allison M.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The objectives of this study were to examine whether girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk of having histories of abuse and to assess whether the presence of an abuse history may constitute a distinct subgroup of youth with ADHD. Method: We examined rates and correlates of child abuse in an…

  1. Parental Substance Abuse and Child Well-Being: A Consideration of Parents' Gender and Coresidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Cynthia; Berger, Lawrence M.

    2009-01-01

    Parental substance abuse is associated with adverse health and developmental outcomes for children. Existing research, however, has not fully explored the relative magnitude of the associations between maternal, paternal, and both parents' substance abuse and child outcomes, nor has it examined these associations in regard to substance abuse among…

  2. Social Support in Child Abuse and Neglect: Support Functions, Sources, and Contexts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albarracin, Dolores; And Others

    1997-01-01

    A study of 101 Argentinean mothers of children who were hospitalized or attended an outpatient medical clinic examined the social support functions, sources, and temporal contexts of the mothers in relation to child abuse and neglect. Low-abuse/neglect mothers were found to have a stronger kin network than high-abuse/neglect mothers. (CR)

  3. Child (Sexual) Abuse: A Universal Problem, and Sri Lanka Is No Exception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamers-Winkelman, Francien

    2002-01-01

    Presents a response to de Zoysa's article "Child Sexual Abuse in Sri Lanka: The Current State of Affairs and Recommendations for the Future" (this issue). Discusses the many historic and socio-cultural factors that contribute to the sexual abuse of young children and discusses how Sri Lanka has made a major effort to combat such abuse.…

  4. Child Sexual and Physical Abuse among College Students in Singapore and the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Back, Sudie E.; Jackson, Joan L.; Fitzgerald, Monica; Shaffer, Anne; Salstrom, Seoka; Osman, Mohamad Maliki

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore differences in rates and characteristics of child sexual and physical abuse experiences among women in Singapore and the US. Method: Participants (N=153) completed an anonymous questionnaire which assessed experiences of childhood sexual and physical abuse, abuse characteristics (e.g.,…

  5. The Prevalence and Nature of Child Sexual Abuse in Queensland, Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Padayachi, Usha K.

    1997-01-01

    A survey of undergraduates (N=427) in Queensland (Australia) found child sexual abuse prevalence rates of 19% for males and 45% for females, with incestuous abuse reported by 9% of males and 19% of females. Other findings addressed age at onset of abuse, gender, types of unwanted sexual experiences, and media exposure. (DB)

  6. How Schools Can Help Combat Child Abuse and Neglect. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tower, Cynthia Crosson

    The book provides information to teachers and other school personnel regarding the detection and reporting of child abuse. Eleven chapters address the following topics: (1) "How to Recognize Physical and Emotional Abuse and Neglect"; (2) "How to Recognize Sexual Abuse"; (3) "The Reporting Process" (state reporting laws, school reporting policy,…

  7. Hiding behind the cloth:child sexual abuse and the Catholic Church.

    PubMed

    Dale, Kathryn A; Alpert, Judith L

    2007-01-01

    The existence of child sexual abuse within the Catholic Church has shocked many. In this article, the authors review the history of child sexual abuse in the church, the recent events that brought this tragedy into societal consciousness, and the efforts by the church to conceal the abuse. Two sources of empirical literature, the general psychological writing on priest sex abuse and the psychoanalytic literature, on child sexual abuse are compared. Both sources of literature seek explanation for priests' child sexual abuse within the structure and culture of the church rather than viewing the priest as a "typical" sex predator. The authors argue that, in fact, the guilty priests are child predators who differ little from other child predators.

  8. Child Abuse, Child Development, and Social Policy. Advances in Applied Developmental Psychology: Volume 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cicchetti, Dante, Ed.; Toth, Sheree L., Ed.

    This book is devoted to the problems of family violence, child abuse, and child maltreatment, including the legal, social, psychological, and community issues. Articles contained in this volume are as follows: (1) "Child Maltreatment Research and Social Policy: The Neglected Nexus" (D. Cicchetti and S. Toth); (2) "Defining Child…

  9. Individual Psychotherapy for the Sexually Abused Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David P. H.

    1986-01-01

    One approach to individual psychotherapy includes a five-part conceptualization of the traumatic experience: trauma, threat to ontogeny, neglect and emotional unavailability by the caregiver, child's feeling of exploitation, and the child's adaptation. Some common problems which occur are guilt, loss and anger, as well as alterations in the…

  10. Parent-child aggression: association with child abuse potential and parenting styles.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Christina M

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation predicted that greater use of corporal punishment as well as physical maltreatment would be associated with child abuse potential and selected parenting styles. Three independent studies were examined, two with community samples and a third with a clinical at-risk sample of parents. Parents across all studies anonymously completed the Child Abuse Potential Inventory, the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale to assess physical discipline and maltreatment, as well as the Parenting Scale to measure dysfunctional parenting styles. Findings support that overall parent-child aggression, as well as physical maltreatment behaviors specifically, were associated with child abuse potential. Parent-child aggression was also related to dysfunctional parenting styles, particularly an overreactive, authoritarian parenting style. Permissive parenting was also identified as potentially associated with physical maltreatment, although the findings regarding such lax parenting styles are less clear. Intriguing findings emerged regarding the connection of psychological aggression to both child abuse potential and dysfunctional parenting style. Child abuse potential was also associated with dysfunctional parenting style, particularly harsh, overreactive approaches. Recommendations for future study with at-risk samples and additional research on permissive parenting and psychological aggression are discussed.

  11. Emotional functioning, attachment style, and attributions as predictors of child abuse potential in domestic violence victims.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Christina M

    2006-04-01

    To explore cognitive and emotional factors that may exacerbate child-abuse potential among domestic violence victims, 80 participants reported on their depression, hopelessness, anxiety, and anger as well as their attachment style and attributional style. Increased emotional difficulties as well as insecure attachment styles were significantly positively correlated with child abuse potential, although depression and anxiety were the strongest predictors. Externalizing blame for the spousal abuse was not associated with abuse risk. Women residing in shelters demonstrated significantly greater abuse risk than those in transitional housing programs, suggesting that greater temporal proximity to the spousal abuse may in part account for the increased abuse potential. Depression and hopelessness, however, appeared particularly relevant to increased abuse risk in domestic violence victims in the transitional housing system. Implications of these findings for working with battered women in terms of their emotional functioning and attachment style are discussed.

  12. Women and children at risk: a feminist perspective on child abuse.

    PubMed

    Stark, E; Flitcraft, A H

    1988-01-01

    Viewing child abuse through the prism of woman battering reveals that both problems originate in conflicts over gender identity and male authority. Data indicate that men, not women, typically commit serious child abuse. A study of the mothers of child abuse victims shows that battering is the most common context for child abuse, that the battering male is the typical child abuser, that the battered mothers have no distinctive pathology in their backgrounds, and that clinicians respond punitively to the battered mothers. The child abuse establishment assigns responsibility for abuse to mothers regardless of who assaults the child, and responds punitively to women, withholding vital resources and often removing the child to foster care, if women are battered or otherwise fail to meet expectations of "good mothering." The combination of male control, misleading psychological knowledge about women's propensity for "bonding," and sanctions used to enforce gender stereotypes of motherhood combine to increase the entrapment and inequality from which battering and child abuse originate, a process termed "patriarchal mothering." The best way to prevent child abuse is through "female empowerment."

  13. Development of the System on the Internet for Pre-Assessment of Child Abuse Prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honma, Satoru; Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi; Ueda, Reiko

    Some assessments have been applied to find possible factors that might lead to child abuse. PACAP is a new method proposed by Ueda and others as a pre-assessment of the concerning child abuse, which reduces its false-positive misclassification. The Internet PACAP is developed to reduce the laborious work of nurses and health care workers for the necessary processing and classifying the scores of the pre-assessment. The present system is expected to prevent the child abuse more effectively.

  14. [Evaluation of school-based child sexual abuse prevention program].

    PubMed

    del Campo Sánchez, Amaia; López Sánchez, Félix

    2006-02-01

    The aim of the present work is to evaluate the efficacy of a program entitled "Prevention of child sexual abuse" the first structured program in Spain designed to prevent such risks. With this purpose, we carried out a study of 382 minors with ages ranging between 8 and 12 years. The result s show that the program has a very positive impact, increasing the awareness of the minors about this type of risk and improving their skills for coping with a possible event of sexual abuse. The efficacy of the program is also apparent, at the level of secondary prevention, in that it increased the likelihood that the children would reveal such events. Finally, exploration of the possible adverse effects of the program showed that the negative effects observed by parents and educators are negligible.

  15. Prevention of child sexual abuse: a survey of 87 programs.

    PubMed

    Plummer, C A

    2001-10-01

    In the past, child sexual abuse prevention programs have been examined for changes in children's knowledge, attitude and skills about preventing sexual abuse. Although many studies challenge prevention programs to incorporate a variety of methods, including parent education and community awareness efforts, little is known about how prevention programs actually function in their community contexts. This exploratory study reports data from 87 programs as provided by program leaders and advocates. Variables considered include: funding, types of materials and approaches utilized, barriers encountered, length of program existence, demographics of target populations, and demographics of those spearheading local prevention programs. Prevention leaders indicated that program continuance is affected by factors such as adequate and secure funding, community level of denial, competing agendas, and community collaboration. This study also documents that programs are responding to challenges in the literature to improve prevention program components, although one-time programs for children are still the norm.

  16. Neurobiological and psychiatric consequences of child abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Heim, Christine; Shugart, Margaret; Craighead, W Edward; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2010-11-01

    The effects of early-life trauma and its consequences for the treatment of depression are reviewed. The prevalence and clinical sequelae of early sexual and physical abuse, neglect and parental loss are described. An overview of preclinical studies that help guide clinical research and practice is presented. Human clinical studies on the neurobiological consequences of early trauma are summarized. Moderating factors, such as genetic variation and sex differences, are discussed. The few current treatment outcome studies relevant to this research area are described. Guidance for the management of patients with depression and a history of child abuse and neglect are provided. Most patients who have experienced early traumatic experiences are likely best treated with a combination of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy. This review is dedicated to the memory of Seymour Levine who pioneered the field of early experience research and to a considerable extent inspired the clinical studies described in this review.

  17. Differences in Perceptions of Child Sexual Abuse Based on Perpetrator Age and Respondent Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giglio, Jessie J.; Wolfteich, Paula M.; Gabrenya, William K.; Sohn, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    Child sexual abuse changes the lives of countless children. Child sexual abuse victims experience short and long term negative outcomes that affect their daily functioning. In this study, undergraduate students' perceptions of CSA were obtained using vignettes with an adult or child perpetrator and a general questionnaire. Results indicated…

  18. Australian Undergraduate Primary School Student-Teachers' Responses to Child Sexual Abuse and Its Mandatory Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to understand how primary school teachers, as mandatory reporters of child sexual abuse, are responding to child sexual abuse and its mandatory reporting, even though many teachers do not receive a compulsory course in Child Protection and its legal requirements in their pre-service university training. A cohort of 81 Australian…

  19. Mothers in Substance Abuse Treatment: Differences in Characteristics Based on Involvement with Child Welfare Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grella, Christine E.; Hser, Yih-Ing; Huang; Yu-Chuang

    2006-01-01

    Problem: Greater awareness of the role of parental substance abuse in child maltreatment makes it imperative that the substance abuse treatment and child welfare systems coordinate services for these parents. Yet little is known about the characteristics of child-welfare involved parents (primarily mothers) who enter into substance abuse…

  20. Systematic Touch Exploration as a Screening Procedure for Child Abuse: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Sandra K.; Arrowood, Alice A.

    1994-01-01

    Presents a systematic touch exploration format for screening child abuse. The technique involves simple drawings with child participation that review forms of touching in a child's life and screens for physical and emotional abuse as well. Comparisons between screening outcomes and completed case conclusions indicate a bias toward underreporting…

  1. Addressing substance abuse treatment needs of parents involved with the child welfare system.

    PubMed

    Oliveros, Arazais; Kaufman, Joan

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to synthesize available data to help guide policy and programmatic initiatives for families with substance abuse problems who are involved with the child welfare system, and identify gaps in the research base preventing further refinement of practices in this area. To date, Family Treatment Drug Court and newly developed home-based substance abuse treatment interventions appear the most effective at improving substance abuse treatment initiation and completion in child welfare populations. Research is needed to compare the efficacy of these two approaches, and examine cost and child well-being indicators in addition to substance abuse treatment and child welfare outcomes.

  2. Child Sexual Abuse, Sexual Anxiety, and Sexual Satisfaction: The Role of Self-Capacities.

    PubMed

    Bigras, Noémie; Godbout, Natacha; Briere, John

    2015-01-01

    Research indicates that child sexual abuse produces lasting alterations in interpersonal relatedness, identity, and affect regulation, often referred to as self-capacity disturbance. Child sexual abuse also has been shown to negatively impact sexual functioning. This study examined the role of altered self-capacities in mediating the relationship between child sexual abuse and sexual responses. Path analysis revealed that child sexual abuse was related to sexual anxiety and decreased sexual satisfaction through its association with reduced self-awareness and a propensity to be involved in difficult interpersonal relationships.

  3. Language competence in forensic interviews for suspected child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Fontes, Lisa A; Tishelman, Amy C

    2016-08-01

    Forensic interviews with children for suspected child sexual abuse require meeting children "where they are" in terms of their developmental level, readiness to disclose, culture, and language. The field lacks research indicating how to accommodate children's diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds. This article focuses on language competence, defined here as the ability of an organization and its personnel (in this case, Child Advocacy Centers and forensic interviewers) to communicate effectively with clients regardless of their preferred language(s). In this qualitative study, 39 U.S. child forensic interviewers and child advocacy center directors discussed their experiences, practices, and opinions regarding interviews with children and families who are not native speakers of English. Topics include the importance of interviewing children in their preferred language, problems in interpreted interviews, bilingual interviews, and current and recommended procedures. Recommendations for practice and further research are included.

  4. Issues in the application of Bayes' Theorem to child abuse decision making.

    PubMed

    Proeve, Michael

    2009-02-01

    Proposals for the application of Bayes' Theorem as an aid to child abuse decision making are discussed critically. Subsequently, two examples of the application of research findings concerning signs of child abuse to decision making are demonstrated, using data from research studies of signs of physical abuse and sexual abuse. The calculation of the probability of the presence of abuse using Bayes' Theorem is described, given prevalence information and specific indicators of abuse. In addition, a method for describing the degree of imprecision in estimates of the probability of abuse is discussed. Specific issues that affect the valid application of research findings within Bayes' Theorem are discussed, including estimates of the prevalence or base rate of child abuse, sensitivity and specificity of diagnostic signs, and the independence of information that is combined in Bayes' Theorem. Recommendations for addressing these issues when Bayes' Theorem is applied to child abuse decision making are discussed, including assessment of the independence of indicators that are combined in Bayes' Theorem, suitable bases for estimating the prevalence of abuse, and the calculation of imprecision in probability estimates of abuse.

  5. Child abuse and suicidal ideation among adolescents in China.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Sylvia Y C L; Chai, Wenyu; He, Xuesong

    2013-11-01

    The present study examined the relationship among physical abuse, psychological abuse, perceived family functioning and adolescent suicidal ideation in Shanghai, China. Perceived family functioning was investigated as a possible moderator between physical abuse, psychological abuse and suicidal ideation. A cross sectional survey using convenience sampling was conducted. A total of 560 valid self-administered questionnaires were completed by the students aged from 12 to 17 in Shanghai. Descriptive statistical analyses, Pearson correlations analyses, and hierarchical regression analyses were adopted as methods of data analyses. Results indicated that physical abuse was significantly associated with greater adolescent suicidal ideation, while a higher level of perceived family functioning was significantly associated with lower suicidal ideation. However, psychological abuse was not associated with suicidal ideation. Perceived family functioning was shown to be a moderator between physical abuse and suicidal ideation. Specifically, mutuality and family communication moderated the relationship between physical abuse and suicidal ideation. To decrease adolescent suicidal ideation, measures are suggested to prevent physical abuse and enhance family functioning. First, it is important to increase the parents' awareness of the meaning and boundaries of physical abuse, as well as the role it plays in contributing to adolescent suicidal ideation. Second, parents should be taught appropriate parenting skills and knowledge and be guided to treat the children as individuals with their unique personality, rights and privileges. Third, it is important to promote family harmony, effective communication as well as mutual trust, concern and understanding among family members.

  6. "It's Going to Stop in This Generation": Women with a History of Child Abuse Resolving to Raise Their Children without Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sioux

    2011-01-01

    In this article, Sioux Hall promotes using a strengths-based approach to examine the interruption of the intergenerational cycle of child abuse and explores the strategies that women who were abused by a parent as children used to raise their children without abuse. She documents the mothers' uses of strategies such as vowing to protect and…

  7. Attributions of responsibility in a child sexual abuse (CSA) vignette among respondents with CSA histories: the role of abuse similarity to a hypothetical victim.

    PubMed

    Harding, Hilary G; Zinzow, Heidi M; Burns, Erin E; Jackson, Joan L

    2010-03-01

    Previous research suggests that similarity to a victim may influence attributions of responsibility in hypothetical child sexual abuse scenarios. One aspect of similarity receiving mixed support in the literature is respondent child sexual abuse history. Using a sample of 1,345 college women, the present study examined child sexual abuse history, similarity to victim, and attributions of responsibility to a hypothetical victim, family member, and perpetrator in a child sexual abuse vignette. Results revealed no group differences in responsibility ratings among respondents with and without child sexual abuse histories. However, among the 133 respondents with child sexual abuse histories, results indicated that similarity to victim moderated the relationship between vignette characteristics, respondent history, and responsibility attributions. Results suggest that similarity to a victim may influence ratings in a self-preserving manner.

  8. Exploring the context of child sexual abuse in Jamaica: addressing the deficits.

    PubMed

    Samms, Kimika M; Cholewa, Blaire E

    2014-01-01

    Jamaican media sources have recently noted the prevalence of child sexual abuse within the country. While research has continually noted the mental health impact of child sexual abuse, there is a dearth of literature on the relationship between the two in Jamaica. The purpose of this article is to provide the context of child sexual abuse in Jamaica, including the cultural considerations, current legislation, government created agencies, and modes of treatment. Moreover, recommendations are given for public health educators, school personnel, and mental health service providers in order to improve the psychological well-being of sexually abuse children.

  9. Two cases of sublingual hematoma as a manifestation of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Muneesh; Chiesa, Antonia E; Sirotnak, Andrew P

    2015-12-01

    Common intraoral manifestations of child abuse include tears of the frenula, burns, and pharyngeal perforations. Sublingual hematomas can also occur as a result of trauma, but to the best of our knowledge, only 1 case has been previously described in the context of child abuse. We report 2 new cases of sublingual hematoma in infants that were the result of physical abuse. Cases of sublingual hematoma in infants and children without a clear and legitimate explanation of the cause should prompt consideration of child abuse.

  10. Contextual Predictive Factors of Child Sexual Abuse: The Role of Parent-Child Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramirez, Clemencia; Pinzon-Rondon, Angela Maria; Botero, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of child sexual abuse in the Colombian coasts, as well as to assess the role of parent-child interactions on its occurrence and to identify factors from different environmental levels that predict it. Methods: This cross-sectional study explores the results of 1,089 household interviews responded by mothers.…

  11. Child Protection and Justice Systems Processing of Serious Child Abuse and Neglect Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedlak, Andrea J.; Schultz, Dana; Wells, Susan J.; Lyons, Peter; Doueck, Howard J.; Gragg, Frances

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the trajectory of cases through four systems: child protection, law enforcement, the dependency courts, and the criminal courts. Method: This study focused on a county selected from a 41-county telephone survey conducted for the National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect (NIS-3). For this…

  12. Child Abuse, Child Protection, and Defensive "Touch" in PE Teaching and Sports Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Heather; Garratt, Dean; Taylor, Bill

    2013-01-01

    This text introduces recently completed research on "no touch" sports coaching, by placing it in a broader social context which problematises the way child abuse and child protection (or safeguarding) are conceived and discussed in terms of policy and practice. It also provides a brief indicative summary of the research findings and…

  13. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect: Parent-Provider Partnerships in Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seibel, Nancy; Britt, Donna; Gillespie, Linda Groves; Parlakian, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    This book is an innovative approach to the primary prevention of child maltreatment. It focuses on the impact that child care providers can make in helping to reduce the risk of abuse and neglect in families with very young children. This research- and practice-based curriculum offers concepts, information, strategies, and practices focused on…

  14. Is Child Sexual Abuse Declining in Canada? An Analysis of Child Welfare Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collin-Vezina, Delphine; Helie, Sonia; Trocme, Nico

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Canadian victimization surveys and police databases suggest that, overall, no decline in sexual crimes in Canada had occurred lately. We aimed at reviewing the existing data from Canadian child protection services to further explore whether a decline in the number of substantiated child sexual abuse (CSA) cases has occurred during the…

  15. Child Physical and Sexual Abuse in a Community Sample of Young Adults: Results from the Ontario Child Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacMillan, Harriet L.; Tanaka, Masako; Duku, Eric; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Boyle, Michael H.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Exposure to child maltreatment is associated with physical, emotional, and social impairment, yet in Canada there is a paucity of community-based information about the extent of this problem and its determinants. We examined the prevalence of child physical and sexual abuse and the associations of child abuse with early contextual,…

  16. The Association of Maternal Depressive Symptoms with Child Externalizing Problems: The Role of Maternal Support Following Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Aaron; Smith, Daniel; Begle, Angela M.; Ayer, Lynsay

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the role of abuse-specific maternal support in the association between parent depressive symptoms and child externalizing problems in a sample of children with a history of sexual abuse. In total, 106 mother-child dyads were studied. The association between maternal depressive symptoms and child delinquency behaviors was found…

  17. School factors as moderators of the relationship between physical child abuse and pathways of antisocial behavior.

    PubMed

    Klika, J Bart; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Lee, Jungeun Olivia

    2013-03-01

    Physical child abuse is a predictor of antisocial behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Few studies have investigated factors that moderate the risk of physical child abuse for later occurring outcomes, including antisocial behavior. This analysis uses data from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study to investigate the prediction of antisocial behavior from physical child abuse and the buffering role of 3 school-related factors (i.e., school commitment, school dropout, and IQ), which are hypothesized to change the course of antisocial behavior from childhood into the adult years. Results show an association between physical child abuse and early antisocial behavior. Early antisocial behavior predicts antisocial behavior in adolescence, and that, in turn, predicts antisocial behavior in adulthood. Child IQ moderated the relationship between child physical abuse and antisocial behavior in childhood. However, no other moderation effects were observed. Limitations and implications for future research and prevention are discussed.

  18. Recognizing abuse.

    PubMed

    Davidhizar, R; Newman-Giger, J

    1996-01-01

    After years as a taboo topic, abuse has come "out of the closet" and is being talked about openly in society. Yet, while abuse in the workplace is being confronted, abuse within families still often goes unrecognized by outsiders, including by nurses. Failure of nurses to recognize abuse is unfortunate since frequently they are the first point of contact with the victim of abuse in the emergency room, clinic and home. Understanding and insight into the problem of family violence by nurses is critical in addressing this problem. Knowledge is crucial in planning strategies that will have the long-lasting effect of decreasing the cycle of abuse in families.

  19. Gender and age differences in prevalence and incidence of child sexual abuse in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Ajduković, Marina; Sušac, Nika; Rajter, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Aim To examine age and gender differences in the prevalence and incidence of child sexual abuse, the level of acquaintance of the child and the perpetrator, and correlations between experiencing family violence and sexual abuse on a nationally representative sample of 11, 13, and 16 years old children. Method A probabilistic stratified cluster sample included 2.62% of the overall population of children aged 11 (n = 1223), 13 (n = 1188), and 16 (n = 1233) from 40 primary and 29 secondary schools. A modified version of ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool – Children's Version was used. Five items referred to child sexual abuse (CSA) for all age groups. Results In Croatia, 10.8% of children experienced some form of sexual abuse (4.8% to 16.5%, depending on the age group) during childhood and 7.7% of children experienced it during the previous year (3.7% to 11.1%, depending on the age group). Gender comparison showed no difference in the prevalence of contact sexual abuse, whereas more girls than boys experienced non-contact sexual abuse. Correlations between sexual abuse and physical and psychological abuse in the family were small, but significant. Conclusion Comparisons with international studies show that Croatia is a country with a low prevalence of CSA. The fact that the majority of perpetrators of sexual abuse are male and female peers indicates the urgent need to address risks of sexual victimization in the health education of children. PMID:24170726

  20. Exploratory Factor Analysis and Psychometric Evaluation of the Teacher Reporting Attitude Scale for Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kerryann; Rassafiani, Mehdi; Mathews, Ben; Farrell, Ann; Butler, Des

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of an instrument to measure teachers' attitudes toward reporting child sexual abuse and discusses the instrument's merit for research into reporting practice. Based on responses from 444 Australian teachers, the Teachers' Reporting Attitude Scale for Child Sexual Abuse was evaluated using exploratory factor…

  1. Cultural Factors in Decision-Making about Child Physical Abuse: Identifying Reporter Characteristics Influencing Reporting Tendencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibanez, Elizabeth S.; Borrego, Joaquin, Jr.; Pemberton, Joy R.; Terao, Sherri

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study examined cultural factors that may influence child physical abuse reporting. Relevant cultural factors such as the respondents' ethnic identity and corporal punishment acceptability were investigated as proximal variables of ethnicity that affect child physical abuse reporting tendencies. Method: Participants consisted of 378…

  2. Reducing Child Abuse 20% by 1990: Preliminary Assessment. Working Paper Number 843.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Deborah; And Others

    In October 1985, the Board of the National Committee for the Prevention of Child Abuse (NCPCA) adopted a goal and extablished a plan to reduce child abuse 20 percent by 1990. With data collected through March 1990, this document reports progress made toward realizing objectives articulated in the NCPCA's 5-year plan. After an overview in Section…

  3. Innovative Approaches to Preventing Child Abuse: Volunteers in Action. Prevention Focus Working Paper 015.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse, Chicago, IL.

    Collected in this working paper are summary descriptions of 17 innovative community action programs designed to prevent child abuse. These programs were developed by individuals, community groups, hospitals, and/or state chapters of the National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse, as well as by other groups and organizations. Located in…

  4. Characteristics of Child Abuse Homicides in the State of Kansas from 1994 to 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kajese, Tanyaradzwa M.; Nguyen, Linh T.; Pham, Giao Q.; Pham, Van K.; Melhorn, Katherine; Kallail, K. James

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study described the epidemiology of child abuse homicides in the state of Kansas from 1994 to 2007. It focused on obtaining significant details on all recorded child abuse homicides in Kansas during this time frame to provide critical information that can be used for future preventive measures. Methods: A retrospective case review…

  5. Child Sexual Abuse at Preschools--A Research Review of a Complex Issue for Preschool Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergström, Helena; Eidevald, Christian; Westberg-Broström, Anna

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this research review is to synthesize research published between 2000 and 2015 regarding child sexual abuse, preschool and preschool teachers. The review identifies themes relevant for the preschool teacher profession: child sexual abuse at preschools, suspicions and consequences for the preschool sector, preventing techniques and…

  6. An Empirical Case Study of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Initiative in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Thigpen, Sally; Curtis, Anna; Wright, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This empirical case study describes Prevent Child Abuse Georgia's effort to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by educating communities throughout the state on supporting preventive behaviour. The initiative consisted of three major components: (1) dissemination of CSA prevention messages and materials; (2) a statewide helpline that…

  7. Knowledge of Child Abuse and Reporting Practices among Early Care and Education Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinehart, Laura; Kenny, Maureen C.

    2015-01-01

    This study sought to assess child abuse knowledge and reporting practices of a diverse sample of early care and education (ECE) practitioners. One hundred and thirty-seven practitioners in the state of Florida completed the "Early Childhood Educators Child Abuse Questionnaire." Results revealed that only a minority of participants have…

  8. A Model Linking Diverse Women's Child Sexual Abuse History with Sexual Risk Taking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Laurel B.; Matheny, Kenneth B.; Gagne, Phill; Brack, Greg; Ancis, Julie R.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to examine the role that child sexual abuse may play in body surveillance and sexual risk behaviors among undergraduate women. First, a measured variable path analysis was conducted, which assessed the relations among a history of child sexual abuse, body surveillance, and sexual risk behaviors. Furthermore, body…

  9. Utilizing Online Training for Child Sexual Abuse Prevention: Benefits and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paranal, Rechelle; Thomas, Kiona Washington; Derrick, Christina

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of child sexual abuse demands innovative approaches to prevent further victimization. The online environment provides new opportunities to expand existing child sexual abuse prevention trainings that target adult gatekeepers and allow for large scale interventions that are fiscally viable. This article discusses the benefits and…

  10. Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education: A review of School Policy and Curriculum Provision in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kerryann; Berthelsen, Donna; Nicholson, Jan M.; Brandon, Leisa; Stevens, Judyann; Rachele, Jerome N.

    2013-01-01

    The past four decades have seen increasing public and professional awareness of child sexual abuse. Congruent with public health approaches to prevention, efforts to eliminate child sexual abuse have inspired the emergence of prevention initiatives which can be provided to all children as part of their standard school curriculum. However,…

  11. School Factors as Moderators of the Relationship between Physical Child Abuse and Pathways of Antisocial Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Lee, Jungeun Olivia

    2013-01-01

    Physical child abuse is a predictor of antisocial behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Few studies have investigated factors that moderate the risk of physical child abuse for later occurring outcomes, including antisocial behavior. This analysis uses data from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study to investigate the prediction of antisocial behavior…

  12. Interpersonal difficulties mediate the relationship between child sexual abuse and depression symptoms.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Laura C; Scarpa, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the influence of interpersonal functioning as a mediator in the relationship between child sexual abuse and depression symptoms, after accounting for the influence of child physical abuse. The research questions build on the existing knowledge base by examining mechanisms of adult adjustment among child sexual abuse survivors. In the current study, 2,892 young adult women (18-29 years old; M = 19.06) reported on child sexual and physical abuse, 5 domains of interpersonal functioning, and depression symptoms. The results supported aggression, sensitivity, ambivalence, and lack of sociability as mediators in the relationship between child sexual abuse and depression symptoms. These results suggest that interpersonal difficulties related to hostility, emotional reactivity, inability to collaborate, and isolation may be of particular interest when understanding depression in child sexual abuse survivors. The findings support interpersonal problems as a key mechanism of depression symptoms following child sexual abuse and is even demonstrated when examining long-term outcomes and controlling for child physical abuse. The hypotheses and findings are discussed in the context of interpersonal psychotherapy for depression.

  13. The Duke Endowment Child Abuse Prevention Initiative: Durham Family Initiative Implementation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Deborah; Huang, Lee Ann; English, Brianna

    2009-01-01

    The Durham Family Initiative (DFI) is one of two community-based child abuse prevention efforts that comprise The Duke Endowment's Child Abuse Prevention Initiative. Beginning in 2002, the Endowment provided support to the Durham Family Initiative (DFI) in North Carolina and Strong Communities in South Carolina to develop a comprehensive approach…

  14. Child Abuse and Neglect in Japan: Coin-Operated-Locker Babies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kouno, Akihisa; Johnson, Charles F.

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews Japan's child abuse/neglect history, including the incidence of "coin-operated-locker babies," where murdered infants are hidden in railway and airport lockers, and actions taken to reduce this problem. The incidence of child abuse in Japan and the United States is compared, and social influences on the number of…

  15. Two Tragic Forms of Child Sexual Abuse: Are They Often Overlooked?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemmey, Dorothy E.; Tice, Pamela Paradis

    2002-01-01

    The persistence and pervasiveness of two forms of child sexual abuse in particular, pornography and prostitution, undoubtedly lie in the perpetuation of societal norms that unwittingly support such tragic behaviors. Argues that the overall problem of child sexual abuse must be reconceptualized, and in-depth, long-term investigations of both child…

  16. Dispositional Empathy in Neglectful Mothers and Mothers at High Risk for Child Physical Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Paul, Joaquin; Perez-Albeniz, Alicia; Guibert, Maria; Asla, Nagore; Ormaechea, Amaia

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates whether mothers who are neglectful and at high risk for child physical abuse present a deficit in empathy. Participants were neglectful mothers (n = 37), mothers at high risk for child physical abuse (n = 22), and nonmaltreating mothers (n = 37). The Interpersonal Reactivity Index, a self-report measure assessing specific…

  17. Adult Sexual Experiences as a Mediator Between Child Abuse and Current Secretory Immunoglobulin A Levels.

    PubMed

    Waldron, Jonathan C; Scarpa, Angela; Kim-Spoon, Jungmeen; Coe, Christopher L

    2016-03-01

    The current study investigated whether a history of child abuse is a predictor of adult immune status, with unwanted adult sexual experiences as a proximal mediator. Participants included 89 young adult women (M(age) = 19.24) who were classified as having experienced no child abuse, child physical abuse, or child sexual abuse, based upon self-reported victimization history before 14 years of age. Participants also reported on unwanted sexual experiences in young adulthood and provided four saliva samples, which were collected over two consecutive days to determine secretory immunoglobulin A (sIgA). Age and negative life events were considered as covariates. The results indicated that adult sexual victimization partially mediated the relationship between child abuse (physical and sexual) and sIgA. Specifically, child abuse experiences predicted more adult sexual victimization experiences, which in turn predicted lower sIgA levels. These findings support long-term health effects of victimization, and suggest that the influence of child abuse on sIgA may be perpetuated through adult victimization. Prevention efforts should aim to empower child maltreatment survivors with skills to prevent adult re-victimization. By thwarting future unwanted sexual experiences in adulthood, individuals will be better protected from the health impairments associated with early abuse experiences.

  18. Historical Child Sexual Abuse in England and Wales: The Role of Historians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bingham, Adrian; Delap, Lucy; Jackson, Louise; Settle, Louise

    2016-01-01

    This article reflects on methodological and ethical issues that have shaped a collaborative project which aims to chart social, legal and political responses to child sexual abuse in England and Wales across the twentieth century. The etymological problem of searching for child sexual abuse in the historical archive is discussed, given that the…

  19. School-Based Interventions with Child and Adolescent Victims of Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beasley, Carol; Christenberry, Nola J.

    The harmful effects of sexual abuse on children are no longer debatable, yet adequate legal action and protective services often are not provided for child and adolescent victims. With the rate of confirmed child sexual abuse victims escalating to more than 350,000 cases per year, the role of schools in meeting the specific needs of these children…

  20. General Population Norms about Child Abuse and Neglect and Associations with Childhood Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bensley, L.; Ruggles, D.; Simmons, K.W.; Harris, C.; Williams, K.; Putvin, T.; Allen, M.

    2004-01-01

    Background:: A variety of definitions of child abuse and neglect exist. However, little is known about norms in the general population as to what constitutes child abuse and neglect or how perceived norms may be related to personal experiences. Methods:: We conducted a random-digit-dialed telephone survey of 504 Washington State adults.…

  1. Child Sexual Abuse Reporting Behaviour by School Counsellors and Their Need for Further Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Padayachi, Usha K.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To examine a statewide sample of school counsellors' reporting behaviour of suspected cases of child sexual abuse, and their need for further education in this area. Design: A questionnaire using four hypothetical vignettes on child sexual abuse requested information on the degree of suspicion, reporting behaviour and familiarity with…

  2. Education about Child Sexual Abuse on Interactive Multimedia CD-Rom for Undergraduate Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Torrisi-Steele, Geraldine

    2004-01-01

    In many countries, one aspect of health education, namely child sexual abuse, has become an important issue for teachers in pre-schools, primary schools and high schools to address. In Australia, many states now have mandatory reporting of child sexual abuse by teachers to their Principals then to the police or the Department of Families.…

  3. State Part C Agency Practices and the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Sutton, Danielle Thorp; Fox, Lise; Leslie, Laurel K.

    2008-01-01

    Each year nearly 900,000 cases of child abuse and neglect are substantiated in the United States, with the highest rates of maltreatment occurring among infants and toddlers. Children exposed to maltreatment are at increased risk of developmental delay. The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act specifies that children under age 3 with…

  4. Emotion Recognition in Fathers and Mothers at High-Risk for Child Physical Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asla, Nagore; de Paul, Joaquin; Perez-Albeniz, Alicia

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to determine whether parents at high risk for physical child abuse, in comparison with parents at low risk, show deficits in emotion recognition, as well as to examine the moderator effect of gender and stress on the relationship between risk for physical child abuse and emotion recognition. Methods: Based…

  5. Child Abuse and Neglect: The Problem and Its Management. Volume 1: An Overview of the Problem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (DHEW/OHD), Washington, DC.

    This booklet, first of a three-volume series, presents an overview of the problems of child abuse and neglect. Discussions focus on child maltreatment from various perspectives, including characteristics of the parents and children, effects of abuse and neglect, a phychiatrist's view of the problem, and a discussion of state reporting laws. The…

  6. A phenomenological exploration of reflections on lived space by child sexual abusers.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Linda H

    2010-12-01

    Child sexual abusers may be better understood by phenomenological exploration of reflections on childhood lived space. Child sexual abusers often suffer from child sexual abuse, physical abuse, and neglect in their childhood lived space. These experiences may be considered a limitation or deformation of the child's lived space, resulting in a distorted self view that contributes to adult behavior. Child sexual abuse is not a new phenomenon; it is a problem that has existed throughout history but has rarely enjoyed the publicity and concern of recent times. Child sexual abusers' reflections on their lived space during childhood were explored by interviewing eight incarcerated child sexual abusers in a US correctional center. Van Manen's descriptive-interpretive theoretical process was used to guide abusers' existential reflections on their childhood lived space. van Manen's phenomenological method is dynamic and was used to organize and analyze data into essential categorical themes, one of which is "failure to root." While the viewpoint is retrospective, participants in this study provided unique perspectives on childhood reflections on lived space. These experiences, as reported by the participants, could be used to assist child victims to cope and to guide nursing practice, education, and future research related to Healthy People 2010's Goal 15 (Healthy People 2010, n.d.).

  7. Parenting and Family Stress as Mediators of the Long-Term Effects of Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wind, Tiffany Weissmann; Silvern, Louise

    1994-01-01

    Data on child physical/sexual abuse, family stress histories, perceived parental warmth, and current psychological functioning were gathered from 259 working women. Multiple regression analyses showed that parental warmth strongly influenced or mediated the relationship of intrafamilial child abuse to depression and self-esteem levels. However,…

  8. Male Victims of Sexual Abuse: A Case Review within a Child Protective Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roane, Thomas H.

    1992-01-01

    A retrospective review of 77 cases of sexual abuse of boys who were assessed by a multidisciplinary child protection team in Florida provided data on age at time of referral, findings of medical examinations, the relationship of offender to child, and type of abuse. (BB)

  9. The Contested Terrain of Teachers Detecting and Reporting Child Abuse and Neglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kerryann; Farrell, Ann; Bridgstock, Ruth; Schweitzer, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This article establishes the important role of early childhood teachers in child abuse and neglect and argues for empirical research into their practice of detecting, and reporting, known or suspected child abuse and neglect in a State with new and unique reporting obligations for teachers. It emphasizes the practical value of such research for…

  10. The Role of Home-Visiting Programs in Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Kimberly S.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-01-01

    Kimberly Howard and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn examine home visiting, an increasingly popular method for delivering services for families, as a strategy for preventing child abuse and neglect. They focus on early interventions because infants are at greater risk for child abuse and neglect than are older children. In their article, Howard and Brooks-Gunn…

  11. The Educator's Role in the Prevention and Treatment of Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadhurst, Diane D.

    The manual delineates the roles of the educator in child abuse and neglect identification, treatment, and prevention. Chapter I addresses the nature, extent, causes, and effects of child abuse and neglect. Chapter II explains why educators should be involved with discussion of legal and ethical issues relating to the problem. A third chapter…

  12. Children--New York's Greatest Resource: The School's Role in Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Office of General Education.

    This publication is intended to assist school personnel to expand their professional understanding of the problem of child abuse and neglect, improve their reporting procedures, and deal with prevention and support activities within the school and community. The nature, causes, extent, and effects of child abuse and neglect are treated briefly in…

  13. Risk Factors for the Perpetration of Child Sexual Abuse: A Review and Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Daniel J.; Le, Brenda; Hanson, R. Karl; Baker, Charlene K.; McMahon, Pam M.; Ryan, Gail; Klein, Alisa; Rice, Deborah Donovan

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: Since the late 1980s, there has been a strong theoretical focus on psychological and social influences of perpetration of child sexual abuse. This paper presents the results of a review and meta-analysis of studies examining risk factors for perpetration of child sexual abuse published since 1990. Method: Eighty-nine studies published…

  14. An Alternative Approach to the Prevention of Child Abuse: Pre-Service Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Paula M.; Burns, George E.

    1986-01-01

    Child abuse prevention expertise is sufficiently important to warrant its acquisition during pre-service teacher education training. Teacher training can address primary abuse prevention in the context of child growth and development or parenting courses. Such studies would lead to and necessitate the creation of non-punitive methods of classroom…

  15. The Pennsylvania State University Child Sexual Abuse Scandal: An Analysis of Institutional Factors Affecting Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Alice R.

    2015-01-01

    The outcomes of The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) child sexual abuse scandal have left many scholars and individuals questioning the university's collective identity. The goal of this research was to uncover the dominant themes that describe a problematic institutional response to the child sexual abuse incidents in order to provide…

  16. The Neglected and Abused Child: New Roles and Responsibilities for the School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Luleen S.; Griffin, Carol L.

    1981-01-01

    Outlines the experience of a school system in Quincy, Massachusetts to meet the state's mandated responsibility relating to child abuse. The program includes: provision of clear-cut, systemwide guidelines; availability of a resource person; opportunities for staff communication relating to child abuse experiences; and establishing ties to involved…

  17. Genitalia in human figure drawings: childrearing practices and child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Hibbard, R A; Hartman, G

    1990-05-01

    To replicate and explore the associations of drawing genitalia on a human figure, child-rearing practices, and a history of alleged sexual abuse, we designed a cross-sectional study of 109 alleged child sexual abuse victims, ages 3 through 8 years, and a group of 109 comparison children matched for age, sex, race, and socioeconomic status but with no history of abuse. A standardized format was used to collect drawings, administer the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, and gather background data on medical, developmental, and child-rearing issues. Seven alleged sexual abuse victims and one comparison child spontaneously drew genitalia (p = 0.02, one-tailed Fisher Exact Test, estimated relative risk 7.96). No differences in drawing maturity (Draw-A-Man score) were identified, although Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test scores were higher in comparison children (82.1 vs. 91.0, p less than 0.01). Neither drawing genitalia nor history of alleged sexual abuse were significantly associated with histories of medical problems, enuresis, encopresis, urinary tract infection, or child-rearing practices related to sleeping, nudity, bathing, sexual abuse education, or exposure to sexually explicit materials. The similar patterns of child-rearing practices in both samples should make professionals cautious in attributing allegations of abuse to specific child-rearing practices. This study confirms our previous report that the presence of genitalia spontaneously drawn on a child's drawing of a human figure is associated with alleged sexual abuse.

  18. In the Name of God: A Profile of Religion-Related Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, Bette L.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines cases of religion-related child abuse reported to mental health professionals nationwide and statistically describes cases involving the withholding of medical care, the expulsion of evil in a child, and abuse by persons holding religious authority. The authors argue that society should protect children's rights and welfare whenever they…

  19. True and False Allegations of Child Sexual Abuse: Assessment and Case Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ney, Tara, Ed.

    This book addresses the clinical, legal, and ethical issues arising in child sexual abuse cases; the assessment and case management of allegations; research issues; and practice recommendations. Chapter titles are as follows: "Assessing Allegations in Child Sexual Abuse: An Overview" (Tara Ney); "The Nature of Allegations of Child…

  20. A criminal careers typology of child sexual abusers.

    PubMed

    Wortley, Richard; Smallbone, Stephen

    2014-12-01

    We present a criminal careers typology of child sexual abusers constructed in terms of their offending persistence (persistent vs. limited) and versatility (specialized vs. versatile). Analyses were conducted on the official records of 362 convicted offenders, 213 of whom also provided confidential self-report data on their personal and offending histories. Forty-one percent of the sample were currently serving sentences for their first sexual offense conviction(s) but had at least one prior conviction for a nonsexual offense (limited/versatile); 36.4% had no previous convictions of any kind (limited/specialized); 17.8% had prior convictions for sexual and nonsexual offenses (persistent/versatile); and 4.8% had prior convictions for sexual offenses only (persistent/specialized). These four groups differed on a range of personal and offense-related variables, including abuse histories, sexual orientation, age at first sexual contact with a child, number of victims, duration of sexual involvement with victims, victim gender, and whether victims were familial or nonfamilial. These differences suggest the need to adopt different treatment and prevention strategies that target the specific characteristics of each group.

  1. Physical Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... seniors who are not abused. What are the indicators? Indicators are signs or clues that abuse has ... clusters of indicators that suggest a problem. Physical indicators Sprains, dislocations, fractures, or broken bones Burns from ...

  2. Abusive Relationships

    MedlinePlus

    ... relationships and friendships. Emotional abuse (stuff like teasing, bullying, and humiliating others) can be difficult to recognize ... How to Break Up Respectfully Abuse Dealing With Bullying Date Rape Getting Over a Break-Up Posttraumatic ...

  3. Does Having Children Moderate the Effect of Child Sexual Abuse on Depression?

    PubMed

    Zeglin, Robert J; DeRaedt, Mary R; Lanthier, Richard P

    2015-01-01

    Nearly 1 in 5 girls and 1 in 20 boys under the age of 18 will be the victim of child sexual abuse. As adults, these individuals are more likely to report myriad mental illnesses including depression. Testing the hypothesis that having children would moderate the depressive effects of child sexual abuse, the authors used public-use data of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health Wave IV (n = 5,114; mean age = 29.00 years; SD = 1.78). Results indicate that having children significantly moderates the relationship between child sexual abuse and depression for females. Though the risk of depression is increased for all females with a child sexual abuse history, this increase is less dramatic for mothers. Two potential explanations of this effect are presented: biological and psychosocial. The possible implications for mental health professionals working with mothers with a child sexual abuse history include highlighting the role of their children as possible support.

  4. Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of dentists regarding child physical abuse in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Mogaddam, Meaad; Kamal, Iman; Merdad, Leena; Alamoudi, Najlaa

    2016-04-01

    A large proportion of child physical abuse cases go undocumented and unreported. Dentists can play an important role in identifying and reporting these cases, but little has been reported about this issue in Saudi Arabia. The aims of the study were to (1) assess dentists' knowledge of child physical abuse, (2) assess dentists' attitudes towards child physical abuse, and (3) assess the behaviors of dentists in identifying and reporting child physical abuse. A cross-sectional survey of pediatric dentists, pediatric dentistry residents, and dental interns practicing at all of the dental schools in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia was conducted using an anonymous, self-administered questionnaire. The participants in current study demonstrated insufficient knowledge of the signs and symptoms of child physical abuse, actions that should be taken in suspected cases, circumstances in which to report such cases, and the legal authorities to which they should be reported. The attitudes of participants towards detecting and reporting cases were generally positive. Only 11% of the participants had suspected a case of child abuse, and only 3% of them reported it. Lack of knowledge about referral procedures and fear of anger from family members were the main causes of underreporting. In conclusion, this study showed that dentists have insufficient knowledge about child physical abuse but positive attitudes towards their role in detecting and reporting it. This topic should be covered and emphasized in dental schools' curricula, and healthcare and academic institutes must have a clear protocol to be followed if a case of abuse is suspected.

  5. Conceptual Framework for Child Abuse in Latino Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schensul, Jean J.

    Puerto Rican children are vulnerable to abuse because environmental and intrafamilial stresses are coupled with the stresses associated with migration from Puerto Rico to the United States. The percentage of abused Puerto Rican children is likely to be higher than in other Hispanic or non-Hispanic populations. This document reviews the following…

  6. Sexual identity group differences in child abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Alvy, Lisa M; Hughes, Tonda L; Kristjanson, Arlinda F; Wilsnack, Sharon C

    2013-07-01

    Childhood abuse and neglect are pervasive problems among girls and young women that have numerous health consequences. Research suggests that sexual minority women are more likely than heterosexual women to report childhood abuse and neglect, but little is known about which sexual minority women are at greatest risk for these early adverse experiences. Using data from a pooled sample of women in a national probability study and in a large community-based study of sexual minority women designed to replicate the national study's methodology (pooled n = 953), we investigated rates and characteristics of childhood sexual abuse, physical abuse, and neglect among women from five sexual identity groups. As predicted, heterosexual women reported significantly less childhood abuse and neglect than did women who identified as mostly heterosexual, bisexual, mostly lesbian, or lesbian. We found considerable variability across the sexual minority subgroups, including severity of abuse, highlighting the need for research that distinguishes among these groups. To the extent that differences reported by women in the sample reflect the actual prevalence and severity of abuse experiences, sexual identity group differences in childhood abuse have important clinical and public health implications.

  7. Adult Adjustment of Survivors of Institutional Child Abuse in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Alan; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzpatrick, Mark; Flanagan, Edel; Flanagan-Howard, Roisin; Tierney, Kevin; White, Megan; Daly, Margaret; Egan, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To document the adult adjustment of survivors of childhood institutional abuse. Method: Two hundred and forty-seven adult survivors of institutional abuse with a mean age of 60 were interviewed with a protocol that included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, modules from the Structured Clinical Interview for Axis I Disorders of DSM IV…

  8. Children's Responses to the Medical Evaluation for Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubowitz, Howard

    1998-01-01

    Addresses three issues: (1) how children respond to the medical evaluation for sexual abuse; (2) how the trauma of the evaluation experienced by some children can be minimized and the benefits maximized; and (3) how children's responses to the medical evaluation for sexual abuse can be interpreted. (DB)

  9. An investigation of preschool teachers' recognition of possible child abuse and neglect in Izmir, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Karadag, Sevinç Çırak; Sönmez, Sibel; Dereobalı, Nilay

    2015-03-01

    Child abuse and neglect have a potentially deleterious impact on children's physical, social, and psychological development. Preschool teachers may play a crucial role in the protection, early detection, and the intervention of child abuse and neglect, as they have the opportunity to establish a close contact with the families and to observe day-to-day changes in pupils' behavior. The main purpose of this study is to investigate preschool teachers' experiences and characteristics in relation to their awareness of possible child abuse and neglect signs. A questionnaire survey was designed and administered to 197 preschool teachers who work for the public preschools in the Izmir province of Turkey. In addition to the questionnaire items, a 34-item Likert-type scale measuring the level of familiarity with possible signs of child abuse and neglect was developed. This scale had an internal consistency of 0.94. The results revealed that 10.65% of preschool teachers had training regarding violence against children and 2.03% of them had training in child abuse and neglect. Overall, 35% of all teachers reported that they had prior experience with pupils who were exposed to child abuse and neglect. Moreover, statistical analyses indicated that being a parent and having training in child abuse and neglect, having experience with maltreated children, and having higher job status were significant factors in preschool teachers' ability to recognize the possible signs of child abuse and neglect. Our results support that teacher training in child abuse and neglect can play an important role in preschool teachers' awareness of the possible signs of child abuse and neglect.

  10. Maternal Child Sexual Abuse Is Associated With Lower Maternal Warmth Toward Daughters but Not Sons

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Dorthie; Kim, Ye Ji; Vance, L. Alexander; Robinson, Gabriella; Jovanovic, Tanja; Bradley, Bekh

    2017-01-01

    Mothers with a history of child sexual abuse report less warmth toward their children, but whether this association differs by child gender is unknown. We examined the association of maternal child sexual abuse and warmth across child gender, accounting for depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and child physical abuse. We verbally administered self-report measures to a cross-sectional sample of 154 mothers with a child between 8 and 12 years old. Eighty-five mothers based warmth responses on a son, and 69 on a daughter. We conducted a hierarchical multiple regression, including child gender, maternal child sexual abuse, child physical abuse, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and 4 two-way interaction terms with child gender. Maternal depression predicted decreased warmth, regardless of child gender, and maternal child sexual abuse predicted decreased warmth, but only toward daughters. Given previous research suggesting that maternal warmth predicts child well-being, the current finding may represent an important avenue of intergenerational transmission of risk in girls. PMID:27874726

  11. Maternal Child Sexual Abuse Is Associated With Lower Maternal Warmth Toward Daughters but Not Sons.

    PubMed

    Cross, Dorthie; Kim, Ye Ji; Vance, L Alexander; Robinson, Gabriella; Jovanovic, Tanja; Bradley, Bekh

    2016-01-01

    Mothers with a history of child sexual abuse report less warmth toward their children, but whether this association differs by child gender is unknown. We examined the association of maternal child sexual abuse and warmth across child gender, accounting for depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and child physical abuse. We verbally administered self-report measures to a cross-sectional sample of 154 mothers with a child between 8 and 12 years old. Eighty-five mothers based warmth responses on a son, and 69 on a daughter. We conducted a hierarchical multiple regression, including child gender, maternal child sexual abuse, child physical abuse, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and 4 two-way interaction terms with child gender. Maternal depression predicted decreased warmth, regardless of child gender, and maternal child sexual abuse predicted decreased warmth, but only toward daughters. Given previous research suggesting that maternal warmth predicts child well-being, the current finding may represent an important avenue of intergenerational transmission of risk in girls.

  12. Forensic, Cultural, and Systems Issues in Child Sexual Abuse Cases--Part 2: Research and Practitioner Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tishelman, Amy C.; Geffner, Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces the second issue of the special double issue focusing on forensic, cultural, and systems issues in child sexual abuse cases. We briefly review the articles, which include a discussion of child sexual abuse myths, an empirical analysis of extended child sexual abuse evaluations, an article on the role of the medical provider…

  13. The Cause of Child Abuse and Neglect and Their Effects on the Development of Children in Samaru Zaria, Nigeria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amdi, Veronica

    1990-01-01

    Initial discussion of the definition, types, causes, and effects of child abuse and neglect is followed by a description of a study of child abuse in Samaru Village of Nigeria and the effects of such abuse on the development of the child. (BG)

  14. Radiological and forensic medicine aspects of traumatic injuries in child abuse.

    PubMed

    Solarino, M; De Filippi, C; Solarino, B

    2009-12-01

    Child abuse is a topical issue in modern society and has social and medical implications which directly concern the doctor, both as a private citizen and as a health professional. Abuse injuries can be of very different types, e.g. physical, psychological or sexual. Hence they require a multidisciplinary and multispecialty approach, which must begin with an accurate medical examination, conducted in compliance with the lege artis principles and with respect for the victim's dignity. Diagnostic imaging becomes essential, together with epicrisis, which is useful to distinguish between accidental and abusive injuries. This paper describes the radiologist's key role in identifying physical injuries due to child abuse, in accordance with current regulations.

  15. Factors Influencing School Counselors' Suspecting and Reporting of Childhood Physical Abuse: Investigating Child, Parent, School, and Abuse Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillman, Kathleen S.; Prazak, Michael D.; Burrier, Lauren; Miller, Sadie; Benezra, Max; Lynch, Lori

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to explore possible child abuse reporting problems for children, including both disparities among school counselors. The participants in this study were elementary school counselors (N = 398) from across the United States. Each participant read a series of vignettes and completed a survey regarding their inclinations about…

  16. At-Risk Youth in Crisis: A Handbook for Collaboration between Schools and Social Services, Volume 3: Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn-Benton Education Services District, Albany, OR.

    After defining numerous terms related to physical and mental child abuse and neglect and presenting information on the prevalence and causes of abuse, this document explains areas of immediate concern for schools: (1) identification; (2) communicating with the student about possible abuse; (3) reporting suspected abuse; (4) assisting the abused…

  17. Child sexual abuse among adolescents in southeast Nigeria: A concealed public health behavioral issue

    PubMed Central

    C, Manyike Pius; M, Chinawa Josephat; Elias, Aniwada; I, Odutola Odetunde; Awoere, Chinawa T.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective: Child sexual abuse among adolescents is an often overlooked issue in pediatrics, yet it is a major cause of low self esteem and stigmatization in adolescents. The objective of this study was to determine the socioeconomic determinant and pattern of child sexual abuse among adolescent attending secondary schools in South East Nigeria. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that was carried out among children in three secondary schools in Enugu and Ebonyi states of Nigeria. Five hundred and six adolescents who met inclusion criteria were consecutively recruited into our prospective study between June and October, 2014. Results: One hundred and ninety nine (40 %) of the respondents had been abused and the commonest form of abuse was to look at pornographic pictures, drawings, films, videotapes or magazine 93(18.4%). Fifty eight (11.5%) adolescents stated that they were abused once with age at first exposure being 7-12 years 57 (11.4%). When grouped together, family members and relatives are perpetrators of child sexual abuse. There was significant difference in sex abuse between males and females (p=0.014) while there were no significant difference for age (p=0.157) and social class (p=0.233). Conclusion: Overall prevalence and one time prevalence rates of sexual abuse among adolescents in south east Nigeria was 40% and 11.5% respectively with male perpetrators. There is no link between socioeconomic class, age and child sexual abuse among adolescents. PMID:26430412

  18. Understanding the Interplay Between Neighborhood Structural Factors, Social Processes, and Alcohol Outlets on Child Physical Abuse.

    PubMed

    Freisthler, Bridget; Maguire-Jack, Kathryn

    2015-11-01

    This article seeks to understand the relative influence of neighborhood structural characteristics (e.g., disadvantage) and social processes (e.g., interactions between residents) on child physical abuse. Using multilevel modeling in a sample of 3,023 parents in 194 zip codes, structural characteristics of factor scores representing residential stability and foreign-born Latino males were negatively related to child physical abuse. High proportions of naturalized and Asian/Pacific Islander families were positively related to the frequency of physical abuse. Higher levels of neighborhood social disorder were related to more frequent physical abuse, while higher levels of collective efficacy were related to less frequent physical abuse. Programs designed to alleviate disorder and increase neighborly interactions may be effective at reducing physical abuse. By understanding the relative importance of the demographic characteristics of neighborhoods and the actions and interactions of residents within the neighborhoods, policy and practice can be tailored more effectively to prevent maltreatment.

  19. Child abuse. An update on surgical management in 256 cases.

    PubMed Central

    Caniano, D A; Beaver, B L; Boles, E T

    1986-01-01

    In the period January 1982-July 1984, 1512 cases of suspected child abuse were evaluated in the emergency department of a major children's hospital, of which 256 (17%) required hospitalization. Failure-to-thrive with caloric malnutrition was present in 66 (26%), burns in 56 (22%), central nervous system injury in 53 (22%), soft tissue trauma in 21 (8%), ingestions in 20 (8%), skeletal injury in 15 (6%), neglect of an underlying disease in 10 (4%), sexual abuse in nine (3%), near-drowning in four (1%), and abdominal trauma in two (1%). Two-thirds of the children required surgical care and one-third of the surgical group needed operations. The majority of the patients were toddlers between 18 and 36 months of age. A long hospitalization occurred with a mean stay of 9.3 days. Mortality was 7% for the entire group, but children with central nervous system injury had a much higher mortality (26%) and morbidity (21%). PMID:3947158

  20. [Long-term consequences of child abuse and neglect].

    PubMed

    Dumaret, Annick Camille; Tursz, Anne

    2011-05-01

    In the international scientific literature, data from birth cohorts clearly show the statistical relationships existing between abuse experienced in childhood and disorders in adulthood, in particular somatic, psychological (depression, suicide, anti-social behaviour, addiction, etc.), and cognitive problems, as well as difficulties in social integration. When abused children are cared for by Child Protective Services, the success or failure of placements is conditioned by a web of factors in which the severity of the initial trauma becomes intertwined with characteristics of the care given. Autonomy in adulthood is more likely to be achieved when placement is continuous and long-term, includes siblings and allows the creation of new bonds of attachment and identification with adult role models. Only these characteristics can attenuate the deleterious effects of the violence suffered in the past, one of the most disturbing consequences of which is the trans-generational transmission of violence. It is therefore important that physicians (general practitioners and paediatricians) who see foster children for vaccinations or childhood diseases are aware of their situation, enquire about the quality of care and know how to establish partnerships with those responsible for the education of these children (foster families, special educators).

  1. Family profile of victims of child abuse and neglect in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Almuneef, Maha A.; Alghamdi, Linah A.; Saleheen, Hassan N.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the family profile of child abuse and neglect (CAN) subjects in Saudi Arabia. Methods: Data were collected retrospectively between July 2009 and December 2013 from patients’ files, which were obtained from the Child Protection Centre (CPC) based in King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Four main sets of variables were examined: demographics of victim, family profile, parental information, and information on perpetrator and forms of abuse. Results: The charts of 220 CAN cases were retrospectively reviewed. Physical abuse was the most common form of abuse (42%), followed by neglect (39%), sexual abuse (14%), and emotional abuse (4%). Children with unemployed fathers were 2.8 times as likely to experience physical abuse. Children living in single/step-parent households were 4 times as likely to experience physical abuse. Regarding neglect children living in larger households (≥6) were 1.5 times as likely to be neglected by their parents as were children living in smaller households (<6). Regarding sexual abuse, male children were 2.9 times as likely to be abused as were female children. Conclusions: The recent acknowledgment of CAN as a public health problem in Saudi Arabia suggests that time will be needed to employ effective and culturally sensitive prevention strategies based on family risk factors. PMID:27464866

  2. Analyses of Child Sex Abuse Cases in Turkey: A Provincial Case.

    PubMed

    Kucuk, Sibel

    2016-04-01

    Sexual abuse is a significant problem, especially for children, but only a limited number of sexual abuse cases involving children are reported to the relevant authorities. One hundred and fifty files recorded in the National Judiciary Information System between 2006-2012 relating to cases of child sexual abuse and considered to be within the scope of Offences Against Sexual Integrity pertaining to Turkish Penal Code were analyzed for this research. Statements of the victims, defendants, and witnesses, together with the minutes issued by law enforcement officers, hospital or forensic reports, and arrest warrants were used to collect data. The average values and percentage test analysis were used to assess data. A large portion of the sexually abused children were determined to be between 14 and 17 years of age, female, and had been abused before, while a majority of the abusers were between 19 and 25 years of age, and all of the abusers identified as male. Most of the cases of abuse were planned and carried out under threat, and a certain number of such crimes resulted in pregnancy, were repeated systematically, and became evident when the mothers of the abused children found out or when a pregnant child was referred to a hospital for childbirth. The sexual abuse of children is a significant problem for Turkish society, just as it is for other societies, and it is recommended that further research be conducted with a broader scope in order to present this issue more clearly and to develop solutions.

  3. Autobiographical Memory Specificity in Child Sexual Abuse Victims

    PubMed Central

    Ogle, Christin M.; Block, Stephanie D.; Harris, LaTonya S.; Goodman, Gail S.; Pineda, Annarheen; Timmer, Susan; Urquiza, Anthony; Saywitz, Karen J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the specificity of autobiographical memory in adolescents and adults with versus without child sexual abuse (CSA) histories. Eighty-five participants, approximately half of whom per age group had experienced CSA, were tested on the Autobiographical Memory Interview. Individual difference measures, including for trauma-related psychopathology, were also administered. Findings revealed developmental differences in the relation between autobiographical memory specificity and CSA. Even with depression statistically controlled, reduced memory specificity in CSA victims relative to controls was observed among adolescents but not among adults. A higher number of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder criteria met predicted more specific childhood memories in participants who reported CSA as their most traumatic life event. These findings contribute to the scientific understanding of childhood trauma and autobiographical memory functioning and underscore the importance of considering the role of age and degree of traumatization within the study of autobiographical memory. PMID:23627947

  4. Esophageal foreign bodies as child abuse. Potential fatal mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Nolte, K B

    1993-12-01

    Foreign bodies being forced into the esophagus as a form of fatal child abuse is rare. A 4.5-month-old female infant presented to clinicians with respiratory distress. Several coins were recovered from the esophagus. One month later, she was found dead in her crib. At autopsy, there were three coins in the esophagus. In addition, there were cutaneous contusions of various ages, acute and partially healed fractures of the extremities, old aspirated foreign material in the lungs, and pulmonary fat emboli. Although the fat emboli may have contributed to the death, several potentially fatal mechanisms from the esophageal foreign bodies deserve consideration. These include vagal stimulation from esophageal distention, aspiration of swallowed fluids after esophageal obstruction, compression of the trachea or the heart by the coins, and cardiac compression or airway occlusion by the introducing finger.

  5. Genetic differentials of child abuse: Is your case rare or real?

    PubMed

    Shur, Natasha; Carey, John C

    2015-12-01

    The clinical geneticist can be called upon to play a role in the medical evaluation of children with clinical findings concerning for child abuse. This Introduction describes a case of suspected child abuse in an 8-month-old baby referred to clinical genetics to exclude osteogenesis imperfecta. The experience from this case raised medical and ethical considerations and prompted consideration of the role of the clinical geneticist in distinguishing rare mimics of child abuse from real cases. From this single case, and a discussion regarding similar cases, arose the idea of this issue in Seminars in Medical Genetics, Genetic Differentials of Child Abuse: Is Your Case Rare or Real? In thinking about child abuse from a clinical genetics perspective, we categorize clinical presentations into fractures, skin lesions, hemorrhage, growth disturbances, and concern for caregiver-fabricated illness (previously known as Munchausen syndrome by proxy). In this Introduction, we also discuss recent questions regarding Ehlers-Danlos syndrome and infantile fractures and concerns about caregiver-fabricated illness in the context of mitochondrial or other rare diseases. The goal is that this issue on child abuse and genetics will serve as a resource to help distinguish the rare causes from the real cases of child abuse, and those critical distinctions and correct diagnoses may be life-saving for some infants and children.

  6. Child Abuse and the Eye in an African Population

    PubMed Central

    Adebayo, Modupe

    2017-01-01

    Purpose There is a paucity of data on child abuse and the eye in West Africa. Therefore, a need exists to determine the causes and circumstances surrounding these occurrences and their effects on the eye and vision in a pediatric population. Methods A 3-year study of consecutive cases of ocular features that presented to an eye clinic following a history suggestive of child abuse along with any associated eye injury was carried out. Socio-demographic characteristics were obtained, as were the presenting and posttreatment visual acuity, and a full clinical eye examination was also done. Results Fifty-six children with 56 affected eyes were examined. The male to female ratio was 1.8 : 1; the mean age was 8.25 ± 3.5 years; and the subjects were predominately primary school children 30 (53.6%). The most common ocular disorders were conjunctiva hyperemia (46.4%), corneal abrasion/ulcer (25.4%), hyphema/uveitis (42.9%), retinal detachment (7.1%), sclera rupture (7.1%), and globe perforation (21.4%). The intraocular pressure was raised in 17.9% of participants. Presenting versus posttreatment visual acuities showed normal vision in four (7.1%) vs. eighteen (32.1%), visual impairment in 12 (21.4%) vs. six (10.7%), severe visual impairment in 20 (35.7%) vs. 12 (21.4%), and blindness in 12 (21.4%) vs. 14 (25%), p < 0.001. The most common injurious agents were canes (25.0%) and sticks (17.9%). The people who inflicted the injuries were parents/relatives (uncles) in 35.7% of cases and the children themselves (accidents) in 21.4% of cases. Circumstances predisposing participants to eye injuries were child labor in 39.3% and beatings in 25.0%. Complications were cataracts (25.0%), corneal opacity (39.3%), and retinal detachment (7.1%). Conclusions Injuries commonly resulted from canes and sticks used during beatings, as well as from child labor, corporal punishment, accidents, and assaults. Legislation and laws need to be enacted to prevent negative psychosocial and economic

  7. Coping Strategies and Depression Among College Students Following Child Sexual Abuse in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz Irmak, Türkan; Aksel, Şeyda; Thompson, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between type of coping style and depression in college students with child sexual abuse experience. A total of 1,055 college students completed self-report measures to assess depressive symptoms, coping strategies, and child sexual abuse history. This study was conducted with a subset of 125 college students who reported that they had been sexually abused in childhood. They were divided into depressive and nondepressive groups according to their depressive symptoms. Data was collected with the Childhood Sexual Abuse Measurement, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Coping Styles of Stress Scale. Family characteristics were measured with a demographic questionnaire. Analyses involved multiple regression to test for predictive effects. Among college students with child sexual abuse histories, parental education level and both problem-focused and emotion-focused strategies significantly explained depression scores.

  8. Child abuse, early maladaptive schemas, and risky sexual behavior in college women.

    PubMed

    Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L

    2011-05-01

    Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual, physical, and emotional, and assessed early maladaptive schemas within two domains: Disconnection/rejection and Other-Directedness. Disconnection/rejection schemas fully mediated the relation between child emotional abuse and number of sexual partners and partially mediated the relationship for sexual and physical abuse. However, when frequency of specific risky sexual acts (e.g., sex without contraception) was examined in the previous six months, only abandonment was a partial mediator. Implications for intervention and future research are discussed.

  9. [False allegations of child sexual abuse and paranoid disorder: a report of 2 cases].

    PubMed

    Karanfil, Ramazan; Akçan, Ramazan; Orhan, F Özlem

    2011-01-01

    Allegations of child sexual abuse have considerable consequences for individuals and society. Herein, we report 2 cases of false allegations of child sexual abuse by mothers diagnosed as paranoid disorder. Case 1, a 31-year-old mother accused her husband of sexually abusing her 3 daughters, aged 2, 4, and 6 years. Case 2 is a 30-year-old mother that went to the public prosecutor with allegations of sexual abuse of her 6-year-old daughter by a nursery teacher and a stranger. Examination of both alleged victims did not reveal objective findings of sexual abuse. Based on psychiatric examinations, both mothers were diagnosed with paranoid disorder. Consequently, the public prosecutor decided not to prosecute. Considering the possibility of false allegations in such cases, psychiatric examination of the complainant should be performed in order to provide accurate information necessary for legal proceedings and to protect the child.

  10. Child abuse-related homicides in New Mexico: a 6-year retrospective review.

    PubMed

    Lee, Carol K; Lathrop, Sarah L

    2010-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed autopsy records at a statewide medical examiner's office in order to identify and characterize deaths due to child abuse. In a 6-year period in New Mexico, the medical examiner investigated 45 deaths determined to be child abuse-related. Decedents were predominantly male (68.9%), Hispanic White (53.3%), and all were 5 years of age or younger, with a median age of 1 year. Head injuries were the most common cause of death (44.4%), followed by battered baby syndrome (15.6%). Relatives were involved as alleged perpetrators in 80% of the cases, with the father most often implicated (36.1% of cases), and 88.9% of child abuse injuries resulting in death occurred in the family's residence. Toxicology was positive in 26.7% of cases, but only two cases had substances of abuse present. Information on risk factors such as prematurity, parental age, and history of abuse was also collected.

  11. How do public child healthcare professionals and primary school teachers identify and handle child abuse cases? A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Public child healthcare doctors and nurses, and primary school teachers play a pivotal role in the detection and reporting of child abuse, because they encounter almost all children in the population during their daily work. However, they report relatively few cases of suspected child abuse to child protective agencies. The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate Dutch frontline workers’ child abuse detection and reporting behaviors. Methods Focus group interviews were held among 16 primary school teachers and 17 public health nurses and physicians. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed, and thematically analyzed according to factors of the Integrated Change model, such as knowledge, attitude, self-efficacy, skills, social influences and barriers influencing detection and reporting of child abuse. Results Findings showed that although both groups of professionals are aware of child abuse signs and risks, they are also lacking specific knowledge. The most salient differences between the two professional groups are related to attitude and (communication) skills. Conclusion The results suggest that frontline workers are in need of supportive tools in the child abuse detection and reporting process. On the basis of our findings, directions for improvement of child abuse detection and reporting are discussed. PMID:24007516

  12. Does the impact of child sexual abuse differ from maltreated but non-sexually abused children? A prospective examination of the impact of child sexual abuse on internalizing and externalizing behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Terri; McElroy, Erika; Harlaar, Nicole; Runyan, Desmond

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) continues to be a significant problem with significant short and long term consequences. However, extant literature is limited by the reliance on retrospective recall of adult samples, single-time assessments, and lack of longitudinal data during the childhood and adolescent years. The purpose of this study was to compare internalizing and externalizing behavior problems of those with a history of sexual abuse to those with a history of maltreatment, but not sexual abuse. We examined whether gender moderated problems over time. Data were drawn from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) at ages 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 (N=977). The Child Behavior Checklist was used to assess internalizing and externalizing problems. Maltreatment history and types were obtained from official Child Protective Services (CPS) records. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to assess behavior problems over time by maltreatment group. Findings indicated significantly more problems in the CSA group than the maltreated group without CSA over time. Internalizing problems were higher for sexually abused boys compared to girls. For sexually abused girls internalizing problems, but not externalizing problems increased with age relative to boys. This pattern was similar among maltreated but not sexually abused youth. Further efforts are needed to examine the psychological effects of maltreatment, particularly CSA longitudinally as well as better understand possible gender differences in order to best guide treatment efforts.

  13. The conversation: interacting with parents when child abuse is suspected.

    PubMed

    Stirling, John

    2014-10-01

    This article reviews some of the challenges and pitfalls in communicating with families when abuse is part of the differential diagnosis and offers some suggestions for improving communication with parents and children in these challenging clinical settings.

  14. Child sexual abuse and women's sexual health: the contribution of CSA severity and exposure to multiple forms of childhood victimization.

    PubMed

    Lacelle, Céline; Hébert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E

    2012-01-01

    Research studies have provided increasing evidence for the potential adverse impact of child sexual abuse on women's sexual health. The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse and sexual health while controlling for various forms of childhood victimization. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 889 young women from the province of Quebec. Results suggest that child sexual abuse survivors were more likely to report having experienced other forms of childhood victimization than were women without child sexual abuse. Women with a history of both child sexual abuse and multiple forms of victimization were at greater risk of experiencing more adverse outcomes, including risky sexual behaviors, sexual problems, and negative sexual self-concept. Regression analyses revealed that child sexual abuse was significantly related to indicators of sexual health outcomes even when controlling for the effect of single forms of victimization. Clinically, interventions optimizing sexual health may be particularly helpful for a subgroup of child sexual abuse survivors.

  15. Physical Child Abuse and Teacher Harassment and Their Effects on Mental Health Problems Amongst Adolescent Bully-Victims in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yen, Cheng-Fang; Ko, Chih-Hung; Liu, Tai-Ling; Hu, Huei-Fan

    2015-10-01

    This study compared physical child abuse and teacher harassment of bully-victims with other groups and examined their associations with mental health problems in bully-victims. For 6,160 adolescents, experiences of physical child abuse, teacher harassment, peer bullying, and six mental health problem indicators were assessed. Adolescents that had experienced physical child abuse and teacher harassment were more likely to be bully-victims but not neutral or pure victims. Adolescents who reported physical child abuse were more likely to be bully-victims but not pure bullies. Bully-victims that had experienced teacher harassment exhibited more severe depression and insomnia than did those without teacher harassment. Gender had moderating effects on the difference in physical child abuse between bully-victims and neutrals and on the association between physical child abuse and suicidality in bully-victims. Physical child abuse and teacher harassment should be considered when preventive and intervention programs are developed for adolescents.

  16. The Limitations of a Prospective Study of Memories for Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheit, Ross E.

    2003-01-01

    Prospective studies have been held out as a kind of Holy Grail in research about remembering or forgetting child sexual abuse. They seem to hold the perfect answer to the verification problems that plague retrospective self-reports in the clinical literature. Prospective studies begin with verified cases of abuse. Then they require detective work…

  17. Working with Counselor Trainees in the Area of Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Shirley

    Child sexual abuse is being reported more often than ever before and counselors need to be prepared to serve victims of such abuse. In offering course materials and activities in master's level counselor education programs, instructors may notice a reluctance by some of the students to deal with these issues. This reluctance may be due to the fact…

  18. Factors Associated with the Development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Child Victims of Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, David A.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Of 69 girls and 21 boys who had been sexually abused, approximately half were diagnosed as having posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). PTSD symptoms were related to the nature of the abusive experiences and exacerbated by feelings of guilt. Findings indicate that the impact of the trauma may be mediated (positively or negatively) by the child's…

  19. Rural-Urban Disparities in Child Abuse Management Resources in the Emergency Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choo, Esther K.; Spiro, David M.; Lowe, Robert A.; Newgard, Craig D.; Hall, Michael Kennedy; McConnell, Kenneth John

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize differences in child abuse management resources between urban and rural emergency departments (EDs). Methods: We surveyed ED directors and nurse managers at hospitals in Oregon to gain information about available abuse-related resources. Chi-square analysis was used to test differences between urban and rural EDs.…

  20. The Trial of the Expert Witness: Negotiating Credibility in Child Abuse Correspondence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schryer, Catherine F.; Afros, Elena; Mian, Marcellina; Spafford, Marlee; Lingard, Lorelei

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on forensic letters written by physicians specializing in identifying children who have experienced maltreatment. These writers face an extraordinary exigence in that they must provide an opinion as to whether a child has experienced abuse without specifically diagnosing abuse and thus crossing into a legal domain. Their…

  1. Child Abuse and Neglect: Social Service Reader I [and] Reader II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ambrose, Bernadette, Ed.

    Intended to provide new caseworkers with an introduction to child abuse and neglect, the two part document presents information from a multidisciplinary perspective. Twenty-three articles in the first book and seven in the second are included on the social worker's role, assessment and counseling of abusive and neglecting parents, the impact of…

  2. Child Abuse and Autonomic Nervous System Hyporesponsivity among Psychiatrically Impaired Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Julian D.; Fraleigh, Lisa A.; Albert, David B.; Connor, Daniel F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Sexually or physically abused children are at risk for neurobiological dysregulation as well as for internalizing and disruptive behavior disorders. Stress-related autonomic nervous system (ANS) down-regulation has been proposed as a sequela of abuse and was investigated in the present study. Methods: Child Protective Services…

  3. Incorporating Health and Behavioral Consequences of Child Abuse in Prevention Programs Targeting Female Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzi, Ruth S.; Weinman, Maxine L.; Smith, Peggy B.

    1998-01-01

    Examined the health and behavioral consequences of child abuse, comparing parenting and never-pregnant teens. Both groups identified major consequences of suicide, prostitution, school drop-out, crime, and substance abuse. Parenting teens expressed interest in prevention programs that would address these consequences. Recommendations for child…

  4. Identification and Reporting of Child Sexual Abuse: The Role of Elementary School Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinkelman, Lisa; Bruno, Michelle

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to summarize aspects of theory and research on child sexual abuse that suggest best practices for identifying and addressing abuse involving elementary school children. Teachers and school counselors often have the most interaction with children this age, yet they may feel inadequately prepared to intervene…

  5. The Representation of Psychology in the Child Sexual Abuse Literature: An Analysis and Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurkjian, Jayne A.; Scotti, Joseph R.

    It has been estimated that 20 to 38% of females and 10% of males have been sexually abused prior to age 18. This study reviewed the treatment literature to determine any differential interests in the topic of child sexual abuse across the disciplines of social work, psychology, psychiatry, and medicine. Ten professional journals, considered…

  6. Child Sexual Abuse in Sub-Saharan Africa: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lalor, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This article reviews the English-language literature on child sexual abuse in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The focus is on the sexual abuse of children in the home/community, as opposed to the commercial sexual exploitation of children. Methods: English language, peer-reviewed papers cited in the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) are…

  7. Preschool Teachers' Perceptions about and Experience with Child Abuse and Neglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toros, Karmen; Tiirik, Riine

    2016-01-01

    This study reflects Estonian preschool teachers' perceptions about and experience related to children in need in the context of neglect and abuse. Using quantitative and qualitative data, it was determined that, in general, teachers understand the meaning of "child in need" and abuse, and they have had experience with such children in…

  8. Crossing the Line from Physical Discipline to Child Abuse: How Much Is Too Much?.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whipple, Ellen E.; Richey, Cheryl A.

    1997-01-01

    A search of the literature to differentiate among definitions of physical discipline, corporal punishment, and physical child abuse identified five studies which revealed that abusive parents spanked their children more often than did nonabusive parents. Aggregated data from nonabusive parents suggested a "normal range" of daily spanking…

  9. Understanding Child Sexual Abuse by Catholic Priests from a Situational Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Karen J.; Freilich, Joshua D.

    2012-01-01

    Most sexual offense research focuses on offender motivation and individual risk factors rather than the criminal events themselves. This article provides an analysis of data from two studies on child sexual abuse by Catholic priests to help understand the opportunities clergy had or created to abuse youth. Findings show that situational factors…

  10. Child Sexual Abuse in Sri Lanka: The Current State of Affairs and Recommendations for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Zoysa, Piyanjali

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the background of child sexual abuse in Sri Lanka and its current status, and brings to light various cultural dimensions that serve to call attention to the issue of sexual abuse of children in Sri Lanka. Elucidates the main issues and barriers in Sri Lanka that need to be surmounted in order to have integrated service delivery.…

  11. Who Spares the Rod? Religious Orientation, Social Conformity, and Child Abuse Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Christina M.; Henderson, Ryan C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Relatively little research has investigated the connection between religiosity and physical child abuse risk. Certain aspects, such as specific religious orientation or beliefs, and cognitive schema, such as socially conformist beliefs, may account for the connection that some have claimed increase religious parents' abuse potential.…

  12. Child Sexual Abuse and the Multidisciplinary Team Approach: Contradictions in Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Maxine

    2001-01-01

    Explores the ways in which shifting meanings of childhood and constructions of sexually abused children and the structuring of team practice pose problems for multidisciplinary team members. Argues that understanding child sexual abuse and developing community-based practice approaches must be informed by broader perspectives. Suggests a model of…

  13. Social and Emotional Outcomes of Child Sexual Abuse: A Clinical Sample in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozbaran, Burcu; Erermis, Serpil; Bukusoglu, Nagehan; Bildik, Tezan; Tamar, Muge; Ercan, Eyyup Sabri; Aydin, Cahide; Cetin, Saniye Korkmaz

    2009-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is a traumatic life event that may cause psychiatric disorders such as posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. During 2003-2004, 20 sexually abused children were referred to the Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Clinic of Ege University in Izmir, Turkey. Two years later, the psychological adjustment of these children (M…

  14. Teachers' Reporting of Suspected Child Abuse and Neglect: Behaviour and Determinants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goebbels, A. F. G.; Nicholson, J. M.; Walsh, K.; De Vries, H.

    2008-01-01

    By reporting suspected child abuse and neglect, teachers can make an important contribution to the early detection and prevention of abuse. However, teachers are sometimes reluctant to report their suspicions. This study investigated the determinants of teachers' reporting behaviour using concepts from the Integrated Change Model. Self-report data…

  15. The Murder of Children by Fathers in the Context of Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Kate; Dobash, R. Emerson; Dobash, Russell P.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the backgrounds of fathers who fatally abuse their children and the contexts within which these homicides occur. The type of relationship between victim, perpetrator, and the victim's mother was a particular interest. Methods: Data were gathered from 26 cases of fatal child abuse perpetrated by fathers derived from…

  16. Domestic Abuse and Child Contact: Positioning Children in the Decision-Making Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on a three-year Irish research study, this paper focuses on the decision-making process in child contact, specifically the assessment and management of risk of continuing abuse to young people previously exposed to domestic abuse. A mixed methodological approach involved the completion of survey questionnaires by 219 mothers and the…

  17. The Relationship between Parental Substance Abuse and Child Maltreatment: Findings from the Ontario Health Supplement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Christine; MacMillan, Harriet L.; Jamieson, Ellen

    2003-01-01

    Objective: This study examined the relationship between reported exposure to child abuse and a history of parental substance abuse (alcohol and drugs) in a community sample in Ontario, Canada. Method: The sample consisted of 8,472 respondents to the Ontario Mental Health Supplement (OHSUP), a comprehensive population survey of mental health. The…

  18. Modern History of Child Sexual Abuse Awareness: Cycles of Discovery and Suppression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olafson, Erna; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Over 150 years, public and professional awareness of child sexual abuse has emerged and been suppressed repeatedly. Research now indicates the prevalence of sexual abuse and its injurious impact on human development, but in the contemporary mental health professions, courts, and media, a backlash has emerged against the latest discovery of child…

  19. Reporting Child Abuse & Neglect in Alaska. Information for Medical and Health Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Library, Juneau.

    Alaska law requires that medical and health personnel report known and suspected child abuse and neglect. No one is more likely to see indicators of abuse and neglect than medical and other health-related personnel. Such indicators can include broken bones, bruises, malnutrition and other effects of neglect, infections, and other signs of sexual…

  20. Child Sexual Abuse Consequences in Community Samples of Latino and European American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcomb, Michael D.; Munoz, David T.; Carmona, Jennifer Vargas

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Research investigating the impact of child sexual abuse (CSA) in community samples of adolescents has been limited. This study aims to identify sexual abuse among ethnically diverse high school adolescents of both genders and evaluate their psycho-emotional consequences. Method: Through the use of self-report instruments, a sample of…

  1. Does Typography of Substance Abuse and Dependence Differ as a Function of Exposure to Child Maltreatment?

    PubMed

    Danielson, Carla Kmett; Amstadter, Ananda; Dangelmaier, Ruth E; Resnick, Heidi S; Saunders, Benjamin E; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the link between child maltreatment, including child sexual assault (CSA) and child physical assault (CPA), and addiction-related symptomatology in a subsample of adolescents from the National Survey of Adolescents, all of whom met DSM-IV criteria for substance abuse or dependence (n=281). Over 60% of the sample reported a history of CSA and/or CPA. Results indicated significant differences in typography of substance abuse and dependence symptoms and rates of comorbid lifetime PTSD based on assault history, specific assault incident characteristics, and sex. Clinical implications for substance abusing youth with maltreatment histories are discussed.

  2. Epidemiologic Evaluation of Child Abuse and Neglect in School-Aged Children of Qazvin Province, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mahram, Manoochehr; Hosseinkhani, Zahra; Nedjat, Saharnaz; Aflatouni, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study was carried out to detect the prevalence of child abuse in three domains of physical, psychological and neglect among elementary school aged children of Qazvin Province, Iran. Methods In this descriptive-analytic and cross-sectional study, 1028 elementary school aged children of Qazvin Province selected through multistage cluster sampling were assessed for child abuse in all domains, except for sexual abuse through a researcher-made questionnaire. The questionnaire was standardized for validity and reliability. Gathered data was statistically analyzed and P-value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Findings Out of 1028 studied children, including 540 (52.5%) boys and 488 (47.5%) girls 679 (66.05%) cases declared at least one type of child abuse. The number of positive cases for each domain of emotional, physical and neglect was 618 (60.1%), 360 (35%) and 394 (38.3%) respectively. No significance was seen regarding the gender and/or regions of living in any of the domains and total prevalence. Conclusion Regarding the results of this study which showed a prevalence rate of 66% for child abuse; and since there are strong association between child maltreatment and its impacts in juvenile and adulthood periods in the forms of offending, mental health concerns such as suicide and homicide, substance abuse, school failure, employment difficulties, teenage pregnancy, adult attachment difficulties, family violence, intergenerational violence and so on, appropriate education to the parents, and the punishment laws for child abuse is recommended. PMID:23724176

  3. The management of child abuse and neglect cases in schools: the Toronto model.

    PubMed

    McClare, G

    1983-01-01

    School staffs have a major role in the prevention, identification and referral of cases of child abuse and neglect. School administrators, teachers and school support staffs require knowledge about abuse and neglect, as well as a clear set of guidelines and procedures for dealing with it if they are to carry out these responsibilities effectively. The Toronto Board of Education has developed a program that has involved superintendents, principals, teachers, pupil personnel staff, caretakers, secretaries and community resources in an educational program oriented to the management of child abuse cases in their schools. The Board's Child Abuse Committee has developed a document which outlines employees' responsibilities under the legislation, provides assistance in the identification of child abuse and neglect cases, and outlines procedures for referral both internally and to the community. The document was used as the base for an extensive staff development program during the school year 1979-80, in which all of the system's 6,000 school based employees participated. The Toronto Board's Child Abuse Program incorporated the establishment of the position "Resource Person, Child Abuse" for the purpose of consultation with school staffs, as well as the ongoing provision of resource material and staff training. The paper outlines the development of the program, includes guidelines and procedures for school staffs, the legislation under which it operates, the content of the training program, and an evaluation of the program with suggestions for replication.

  4. The Spectrum of Child Abuse: Assessment, Treatment, and Prevention. Brunner/Mazel Basic Principles into Practice Series, Volume 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates, R. Kim

    This book is intended to provide an overview of current knowledge about child abuse rather than a focus on one particular professional viewpoint or facet of the problem. Introductory and concluding chapters address the definition of child abuse and neglect, why it occurs, and what happens to abused children. Chapters 3, 4, and 5 explore physical…

  5. Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect: An Evaluation of a Home Visitation Parent Aide Program Using Recidivism Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harder, Jeanette

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this research was to examine the secondary and tertiary prevention of child abuse and neglect through an evaluation of the Parent Aide Program at the Child Abuse Prevention Center in Dallas, Texas. Method: Using a quasi-experimental, retrospective research design, this project compared abuse recidivism rates for those…

  6. Beyond Munchausen syndrome by proxy: identification and treatment of child abuse in a medical setting.

    PubMed

    Stirling, John

    2007-05-01

    The condition widely known as Munchausen syndrome by proxy comprises both physical abuse and medical neglect and is also a form of psychological maltreatment. Although it is a relatively rare form of child abuse, pediatricians need to have a high index of suspicion when faced with seemingly inexplicable findings or treatment failures. The fabrication of a pediatric illness is a form of child abuse and not merely a mental health disorder, and there is a possibility of an extremely poor prognosis if the child is left in the home. In this statement, factors are identified that may help the physician recognize this insidious type of child abuse that occurs in a medical setting, and recommendations are provided for physicians regarding when to report a case to their state's child protective service agency.

  7. Professional attitudes regarding the sexual abuse of children: comparing police, child welfare and community mental health.

    PubMed

    Trute, B; Adkins, E; MacDonald, G

    1992-01-01

    A survey was completed involving three of the key professional groups engaged in the investigation and treatment of child sexual abuse. Police, child welfare and community mental health in a large, rural geographic area in Canada completed attitudinal items relating to professional response to child sexual abuse. An empirical scale was created which was comprised of three orthogonal factors, each with acceptable levels of internal consistency: 1) Beliefs in regard to the extensiveness and seriousness of the issue; 2) treatment versus punishment priority; and 3) view regarding identity of those who perpetrate child sexual abuse. Important gender differences were found across professional groupings in attitude toward sexual abuse. Greatest difference in attitude between service sectors was tied to emphasis placed on treatment versus punishment as a primary aspect of professional intervention. Significant differences were found between child welfare and police, the two service sectors most needing a coordinated approach during the "investigative phase" of professional intervention.

  8. Conflict Resolution Styles as Mediators of Female Child Sexual Abuse Experience and Heterosexual Couple Relationship Satisfaction and Stability in Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Ashlee E; Knapp, Darin J; Brown, Cameron C; Larson, Jeffry H

    2017-01-01

    Trauma from female incestuous child sexual abuse may result in negative psychological consequences affecting adult relationships. This study explored relational consequences of incestuous child sexual abuse, focusing on conflict resolution styles, relationship satisfaction, and relationship stability. Using the RELATionship Evaluation dataset, 457 heterosexual couples in which female partners experienced incestuous child sexual abuse were compared to a group of 1,827 couples with no sexual abuse history. Analyses tested differences in the frequencies of reported conflict resolution styles for incestuous child sexual abuse and non-incestuous child sexual abuse groups, the mediating effects of conflict resolution styles on the relationship between incestuous child sexual abuse, and self- and partner-reported relationship satisfaction and stability. Significant differences in the reports of types of conflict resolution styles were found for incestuous child sexual abuse versus non-incestuous child sexual abuse groups. Incestuous child sexual abuse and conflict resolution styles were negatively related to relationship satisfaction and stability and there was a significant indirect effect between female incestuous child sexual abuse, female volatility, and relationship instability. Clinical applications for couple relationships are discussed.

  9. Cognitive and Emotional Differences between Abusive and Non-Abusive Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Karen J.; Wolfe, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Abusive fathers perpetrate a substantial portion of child physical abuse. Despite this, little is known about how they differ from non-abusive fathers. This study compared a broad range of cognitive and affective factors between physically abusive and non-abusive fathers. Methods: Abusive (n = 24) and non-abusive (n = 25) fathers…

  10. Intergenerational transmission of child abuse and neglect: real or detection bias?

    PubMed

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally J; DuMont, Kimberly A

    2015-03-27

    The literature has been contradictory regarding whether parents who were abused as children have a greater tendency to abuse their own children. A prospective 30-year follow-up study interviewed individuals with documented histories of childhood abuse and neglect and matched comparisons and a subset of their children. The study assessed maltreatment based on child protective service (CPS) agency records and reports by parents, nonparents, and offspring. The extent of the intergenerational transmission of abuse and neglect depended in large part on the source of the information used. Individuals with histories of childhood abuse and neglect have higher rates of being reported to CPS for child maltreatment but do not self-report more physical and sexual abuse than matched comparisons. Offspring of parents with histories of childhood abuse and neglect are more likely to report sexual abuse and neglect and that CPS was concerned about them at some point in their lives. The strongest evidence for the intergenerational transmission of maltreatment indicates that offspring are at risk for childhood neglect and sexual abuse, but detection or surveillance bias may account for the greater likelihood of CPS reports.

  11. Juror perceptions of child eyewitness testimony in a sexual abuse trial.

    PubMed

    Holcomb, Matthew J; Jacquin, Kristine M

    2007-01-01

    A mock child sexual abuse trial was used to study juror perceptions of child eyewitnesses. The child's age (5, 11, or 16) and level of involvement (victim or bystander) were varied across conditions in order to test their impact on juror perceptions and verdict. Results indicated a significant effect of level of involvement on the verdict; defendants in trials involving a bystander witness received higher guilt ratings than defendants in trials with a victim-witness. In addition, jurors perceived the child's eyewitness testimony to be more believable when the child was younger. Implications for the impact of these findings on real-life child sexual abuse cases are discussed.

  12. Burns as child abuse: risk factors and legal issues in West Texas and Eastern New Mexico.

    PubMed

    Dissanaike, Sharmila; Wishnew, Jenna; Rahimi, Maham; Zhang, Yan; Hester, Cynthia; Griswold, John

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study were to describe risk factors for child abuse from burns and examine prosecution and conviction rates after case discussions at a multidisciplinary conference Retrospective cohort study of all pediatric burns admitted between 2001 and 2006 was performed. Registry data on age, sex, mechanism, location, and size of burn were recorded. Registry data were verified against nursing documentation for accuracy. All cases were reviewed at the multidisciplinary "care conference" to gather insight from various perspectives to make a final determination of abuse or neglect. Bivariate and multivariate analysis was used to identify factors associated with child abuse. Prosecution rates were determined by contacting child protective services and district attorney's offices. A total of 457 children were included in the analysis. Most of the children were boys (70%) and were of Hispanic origin (57%), with 30% white and 10% black. Hundred cases were suspicious for abuse after review at care conference. Younger age was a significant risk factor (OR: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.65-0.82), with the mean age of abused children being 1 (3/4) years compared with 5 (1/2) years for accidental injuries. Girls were at higher risk for abuse (OR: 1.76, 95% CI: 1.06-2.91).Torso injuries were significantly more common in abused children, an unusual finding possibly reflecting a different abuse pattern in infants compared with toddlers. Suspected abuse resulted in longer hospital stays (OR: 1.03, 95% CI: 1.01-1.07). Prosecution rates and conviction rates in the authors region are low, at only 26 and 11% of suspicious cases, respectively. Young age and female sex were positively correlated with child abuse. Prosecution and conviction rates are remarkably low, despite using a multidisciplinary care conference to review all cases and obtaining early involvement of child protective services and law enforcement.

  13. Mediating and moderating effects of social support in the study of child abuse and adult physical and mental health.

    PubMed

    Herrenkohl, Todd I; Jung, Hyunzee; Klika, J Bart; Mason, W Alex; Brown, Eric C; Leeb, Rebecca T; Herrenkohl, Roy C

    2016-01-01

    A number of cross-sectional and a few longitudinal studies have shown a developmental relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Published findings also suggest that social support can lessen the risk of adverse outcomes for some abused children. However, few studies have investigated whether social support mediates or moderates the relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Structural equation modeling was used to examine data on these topics from a longitudinal study of more than 30 years. While a latent construct of physical and emotional child abuse did not predict adult health outcomes directly, child abuse did predict outcomes indirectly through social support. A test of variable moderation for child abuse and social support was nonsignificant. Results suggest that social support may help explain the association between child abuse and health outcomes at midlife. Implications of the findings for prevention and treatment are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Mediating and Moderating Effects of Social Support in the Study of Child Abuse and Adult Physical and Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Jung, Hyunzee; Klika, J. Bart; Mason, W. Alex; Brown, Eric C.; Leeb, Rebecca T.; Herrenkohl, Roy. C.

    2016-01-01

    A number of cross-sectional and a few longitudinal studies have shown a developmental relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Published findings also suggest that social support can lessen the risk of adverse outcomes for some abused children. However, few studies have investigated whether social support mediates or moderates the relationship between child abuse and adult physical and mental health. Structural equation modeling was used to examine data on these topics from a longitudinal study of more than 30 years. While a latent construct of physical and emotional child abuse did not predict adult health outcomes directly, child abuse did predict outcomes indirectly through social support. A test of variable moderation for child abuse and social support was nonsignificant. Results suggest that social support may help explain the association between child abuse and health outcomes at midlife. Implications of the findings for prevention and treatment are discussed. PMID:26845043

  15. Child abuse and neglect in Japan: coin-operated-locker babies.

    PubMed

    Kouno, A; Johnson, C F

    1995-01-01

    The coin-operated-locker baby is a type of child abuse that may be unique to Japan. The term refers to newborns who are placed, while alive or dead, in coin-operated lockers. This practice has been decreased by specific measures. It is likely that social and economic variables in Japan account for differences in the frequency and types of child abuse cases when compared to American or European societies as social conditions in Japan change the reported incidence of child abuse may increase in the future. Recently, the government of Osaka organized a group specifically designed to deal with the detection and protection of abused and neglected children. In 1993, they published a manual on how to deal with child abuse, but the Japanese judicial administration still uses old laws for abuse cases. The development of new laws is occurring in parts of the country now. This paper introduces the present status of coping with child abuse and neglect in Japan.

  16. Sexual Abuse of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csapo, Marg

    1988-01-01

    Canadian reports and legislation are reviewed to highlight the school's role in prevention and reporting of suspicions of child sexual abuse. The vulnerability of handicapped children and child pornography are two areas of victimization emphasized. (Author/DB)

  17. A review of the short-term effects of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Beitchman, J H; Zucker, K J; Hood, J E; daCosta, G A; Akman, D

    1991-01-01

    This is the first of a two-part report that critically evaluates empirical studies on the short- and long-term effects of child sexual abuse. With the exception of sexualized behavior, the majority of short-term effects noted in the literature are symptoms that characterize child clinical samples in general. Among adolescents, commonly reported sequelae include sexual dissatisfaction, promiscuity, homosexuality, and an increased risk for revictimization. Depression and suicidal ideation or behavior also appear to be more common among victims of sexual abuse compared to normal and psychiatric nonabused controls. Frequency and duration of abuse, abuse involving penetration, force, or violence, and a close relationship to the perpetrator appear to be the most harmful in terms of long-lasting effects on the child. The high prevalence of marital breakdown and psychopathology among parents of children who are sexually abused makes it difficult to determine the specific impact of sexual abuse over and above the effects of a disturbed home environment. Given the broad range of outcome among sexual abuse victims, as well as the methodological weaknesses present in many of the studies reviewed, it is not possible at this time to postulate the existence of a "post-sexual-abuse-syndrome" with a specific course or outcome.

  18. Child sexual abuse: the perception of mothers concerning their daughters' sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Quitéria Clarice Magalhães; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz; Cardoso, Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão

    2009-01-01

    Domestic violence affects all members in a family and children are considered the main victims. This qualitative study aimed to grasp the perception of mothers whose daughters were sexually abused. Data were collected between February and March 2007 in a governmental facility in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil through semi-structured interviews with ten mothers of sexually abused children. Data were submitted to the Collective Subject Discourse Technique from which three themes emerged: Guilt is rooted in the motherhood myth, unhealable pain and despair as a consequence of a feeling of powerlessness. Results evidenced that mothers experience a range of feelings in which pain, revulsion and powerlessness are highlighted. Society should be engaged in the subject and interested in understanding violence, its magnitude and the whole affected chain, otherwise, only good intentions will remain, lost in the void from the lack of action.

  19. Caregiver perceptions about mental health services after child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Fong, Hiu-fai; Bennett, Colleen E; Mondestin, Valerie; Scribano, Philip V; Mollen, Cynthia; Wood, Joanne N

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe caregiver perceptions about mental health services (MHS) after child sexual abuse (CSA) and to explore factors that affected whether their children linked to services. We conducted semi-structured, in-person interviews with 22 non-offending caregivers of suspected CSA victims<13 years old seen at a child advocacy center in Philadelphia. Purposive sampling was used to recruit caregivers who had (n=12) and had not (n=10) linked their children to MHS. Guided by the Health Belief Model framework, interviews assessed perceptions about: CSA severity, the child's susceptibility for adverse outcomes, the benefits of MHS, and the facilitators and barriers to MHS. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed using modified grounded theory. Recruitment ended when thematic saturation was reached. Caregivers expressed strong reactions to CSA and multiple concerns about adverse child outcomes. Most caregivers reported that MHS were generally necessary for children after CSA. Caregivers who had not linked to MHS, however, believed MHS were not necessary for their children, most commonly because they were not exhibiting behavioral symptoms. Caregivers described multiple access barriers to MHS, but caregivers who had not linked reported that they could have overcome these barriers if they believed MHS were necessary for their children. Caregivers who had not linked to services also expressed concerns about MHS being re-traumatizing and stigmatizing. Interventions to increase MHS linkage should focus on improving communication with caregivers about the specific benefits of MHS for their children and proactively addressing caregiver concerns about MHS.

  20. ELECTRICA: ELEctronic knowledge base for Clinical care, Teaching and Research In Child Abuse.

    PubMed

    Offiah, Amaka; Hume, Jessica; Bamsey, Ian; Jenkinson, Howard; Lings, Brian

    2011-11-01

    Child abuse is a highly significant public health issue with 4-16% of children being physically abused. The diagnosis is sensitive and challenging, with many radiologists dissatisfied with current levels of training and support. The literature shows a lack of prospective scientific research in this complex field. An ELEctronic knowledge base for Clinical care, Teaching and Research In Child Abuse (ELECTRICA) should solve many current problems. ELECTRICA will be populated with clinical information, radiographs and radiographic findings in children younger than 3 years of age presenting with injury (accidental or suspected abuse), to form a unique resource. This web-based tool will unify the investigative protocol in suspected abuse and support training and allow multicentre national and international collaborative research and provide robust evidence to support the legal process.