... puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical ...
... or become violent. An older child may use drugs or alcohol, try to run away or abuse others. Child abuse is a serious problem. If you suspect a child is being abused or neglected, call the police or your local child welfare agency.
Wilson, Timothy L.-Y.
The purpose of this paper was to elaborate on the definitions of child abuse in order to improve the understanding of child abuse. The definitions given by the U.S. House Joint Committee on Child Abuse in the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, and in research by Holden (1984), are cited. These definitions refer to the nature of abusive acts…
Sexual abuse is one form of child abuse. It includes a wide range of actions between a child ... to children or pressuring them for sex is sexual abuse. Using a child for pornography is also sexual ...
Milner, Joel S.; Gold, Ruth G.
Investigated the ability of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory to screen for child abuse in a group of spouse abusers. The completed, valid protocols revealed that 36.5 percent of the spouse abusers had elevated child abuse scores, while only 9.1 percent of the nonabusers had elevated abuse scores. (Author/BL)
Alvy, Kerby T.
Focuses on two major and general approaches to analyzing the problems of child abuse; briefly discusses the prevention implications; deals with the individual physical abuse of children, with particular emphasis on the relationship between theoretical formulations of the causes of individual physical abuse and preventative programs; and, finally,…
Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa
Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…
Pennsylvania State Dept. of Public Welfare, Harrisburg.
As mandated by Pennsylvania's Child Protective Services Law (Act 124), the document presents the Department of Public Welfare's 1979 report on child abuse. Following an introductory section is a brief section on the nature and scope of the problem. Section III outlines the past year's activities of the Department of Public Welfare's Office of…
Okeahialam, T C
Although child abuse occurs in Nigeria, it has received little attention. This is probably due to the emphasis placed on the more prevalent childhood problems of malnutrition and infection. Another possible reason is the general assumption that in every African society the extended family system always provides love, care and protection to all children. Yet there are traditional child rearing practices which adversely affect some children, such as purposeful neglect or abandonment of severely handicapped children, and twins or triplets in some rural areas. With the alteration of society by rapid socioeconomic and political changes, various forms of child abuse have been identified, particularly in the urban areas. These may be considered the outcome of abnormal interactions of the child, parents/ guardians and society. They include abandonment of normal infants by unmarried or very poor mothers in cities, increased child labour and exploitation of children from rural areas in urban elite families, and abuse of children in urban nuclear families by childminders . Preventive measures include provision of infrastructural facilities and employment opportunities in the rural areas in order to prevent drift of the young population to the cities. This would sustain the supportive role of the extended family system which is rapidly being eroded. There is need for more effective legal protection for the handicapped child, and greater awareness of the existence of child abuse in the community by health and social workers. PMID:6232976
... AACAP Facts for Families Guide Skip breadcrumb navigation Child Abuse - The Hidden Bruises Quick Links Facts For Families ... 5; Updated November 2014 The statistics on physical child abuse are alarming. It is estimated hundreds of thousands ...
... victim of prolonged sexual abuse usually develops low self-esteem, a feeling of worthlessness and an abnormal or ... can help abused children regain a sense of self-esteem, cope with feelings of guilt about the abuse, ...
Broadhurst, Diane D.
The booklet provides an overview on the school-related issues involved in child abuse and neglect. Definitions, causes, and effects of abuse and neglect are reviewed in the first chapter; guidelines for identifying physical and sexual abuse, neglect, and emotional maltreatment are offered in chapter 2. Aspects of reporting abuse are noted as are…
Durall, John K.
Defines child abuse, including the three categories: physical, sexual, and psychological. Presents characteristics and behaviors of each type of abuse, and long-term effects. Discusses how to handle abuse that occurs at camp, and the effects on the camp. Sidebars present abuse statistics, 15 activities that promote psychological wellness, and 8…
Wasserman, Nora M.
This paper examines definitions of child abuse and neglect as put forth by the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act and the Child Abuse Amendments of 1984. Four types of child abuse and neglect are identified and briefly described: physical abuse, child neglect, sexual abuse, and mental injury (also referred to as emotional/psychological…
... Clinical Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Child Abuse Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...
Grayson, Joann, Ed.; Bartlette, Don
Literature indicating high rates of abuse in this population is reviewed, as is literature indicating high rates of developmental disabilities in child victims of abuse. Problems in data collecting practices are noted. Reasons for these children's greater risk for abuse are identified, including child attributes, stress, parent vulnerabilities,…
In 1993, the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect declared a child protection emergency. Between 1985 and 1993, there was a 50 percent increase in reported cases of child abuse. Three million cases of child abuse are reported in the United States each year. Treatment of the abuser has had only limited success and child protection agencies are overwhelmed. Recently, efforts have begun to focus on the primary prevention of child abuse. Primary prevention of child abuse is defined as any intervention that prevents child abuse before it occurs. Primary prevention must be implemented on many levels before it can be successful. Strategies on the societal level include increasing the "value" of children, increasing the economic self-sufficiency of families, discouraging corporal punishment and other forms of violence, making health care more accessible and affordable, expanding and improving coordination of social services, improving the identification and treatment of psychologic problems, and alcohol and drug abuse, providing more affordable child care and preventing the birth of unwanted children. Strategies on the familial level include helping parents meet their basic needs, identifying problems of substance abuse and spouse abuse, and educating parents about child behavior, discipline, safety and development. PMID:10193598
Newlands, Mary; Emery, John S.
A search was made of confidential health department records in Great Britain for abused children, or children at risk for abuse, with siblings who had died of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). An association was found between child abuse and about 10 percent of deaths of children diagnosed as SIDS. (BRM)
... depressed, shows bizarre behavior, or uses alcohol or drugs WHAT YOU CAN DO TO HELP If you think a child is in immediate danger because of abuse or neglect, call 911. Call the Childhelp National Child Abuse Hotline (1-800-4-A-CHILD). Know that ...
Pfohl, Stephen J.
Surveys the history of social reaction to child abuse, discusses the cultural values promoting the protection of children, points out how much pediatric radiology benefited from its "discovery" of "the battered child syndrome" in the early sixties, and concludes that the labeling of child abusers as "sick" has shielded them from criminal…
Healey, Jean B.
Peer abuse in the form of bullying is now recognised as an endemic feature of school life and in terms of impact, outcomes and intervention requirements can be equated with other forms of child abuse. It is argued in the light of data presented here that the parallels between peer abuse and more generally accepted forms of child abuse must be…
Dietrich, Dorothee; And Others
Interviews with 73 abusive caretakers were analyzed to determine aspects of the caretakers' situation and the interaction with the abused child that contributed to their belief that the abuse was justified or not. Justification was related to defiance of the child and environmental stressors on the abuser. (Author/JDD)
This book provides a description for all the known radiological alterations occurring in child abuse. This allows for precise interpretation of findings by radiologists. It also helps eliminate the confusion among both clinicians and non-medical personnel involved in the diagnosis, management, and legal issues related to child abuse. CONTENTS: Introduction; Skeletal trauma: general considerations; Extremity trauma; Bony thoracic trauma; Spinal trauma; Dating fractures; Visceral trauma; Head trauma; Miscellaneous forms of abuse and neglect; The postmortem examination; Differential diagnosis of child abuse; Legal considerations; Psychosocial considerations; Technical considerations and dosimetry.
Collins, James L.; Hamlin, Willie T.; Minor, Marie A.; Knasel, Ann Lowe
Child sexual abuse was examined nationally and in the Washington, DC and Howard University Hospital area. In an attempt to describe this widespread problem, two case histories are presented which reflect some of the typical characteristics of child sexual abuse cases seen at Howard University Hospital. Pertinent literature is reviewed citing the prevalence rates and the personality and environmental factors which may contribute to the sexual abuse of children in this country. Finally, the role of the physician in identifying and treating the physical and emotional effects of child abuse are discussed. PMID:7120485
Though the child abuse syndrome is usually considered to have been first described in the middle of the present century, references to child abuse occur throughout history and in the 19th century, detailed descriptions were published in the French medical literature. PMID:3514400
Explains problems with child visiting in cases of domestic abuse. Data on domestic abuse, child care concerns, and child adjustment problems were collected from 25 mothers and 22 fathers at a child visiting program serving separated and abusive families. Psychological abuse of mothers correlated with child adjustment problems. (BB)
Schilling, Samantha; Christian, Cindy W
This article provides an overview of child physical abuse and neglect, and describes the magnitude of the problem and the triggers and factors that place children at risk for abuse and neglect. After examining the legal and clinical definitions of child abuse and neglect, common clinical outcomes and therapeutic strategies are reviewed, including the lifelong poor physical and mental health of victims and evidence-supported treatment interventions. Mandated reporting laws, and facilitating collaboration among child welfare, judicial, and health care systems are considered. Important tools and resources for addressing child maltreatment in clinical practice are discussed, and future approaches posited. PMID:24656582
De Almeida, Helena Nunes; André, Isabel Margarida; De Almeida, Ana Nunes
The objective of this study is to carry out a current survey of the situation of child abuse in the family. It is based on a national survey conducted in 1996, which was addressed to childcare professionals (in the areas of health, education and social services). This survey was based, on the one hand, on a wide-ranging definition of child abuse, including within it not just active forms of physical and psychic violence against the child, but also forms of (both material and affective) privation, omission or negligence which affect the child's growth and development. On the other hand, this study also favoured a contextual approach to child abuse. 1,126 institutions in Portugal were contacted and 755 valid survey responses were received. This report outlines some of the results obtained, namely by providing a description of the sample of the 755 child abuse victims, the respective social and family contexts to which they and the aggressors belong, as well as the types of abuse which have been committed against them; and a typology of forms of abuse and negligence, describing not just the internal aspects that make up child abuse directly, but also its relationship to the child's social and family contexts of belonging. The typology was derived from the statistical handling of the data gathered (factorial analysis of multiple matches, followed by a hierarchical analysis into clusters). A number of key concepts are summarised in the conclusion. Children of all age groups and of both sexes, and from all types of families and social backgrounds, regardless of their place in the phratry, are subject to abuse in Portugal. But different types of abuse and negligence are associated with the contexts to which the children and their families belong. Healthcare professionals are irreplaceable when it comes to detecting the wide variety of types of child abuse, and are an essential look-out post for two types of abuse which often slip through the net of other professionals
... Abuse Cases A recent report from the Indianapolis Star has revealed multiple occasions in which allegations of ... Gymnastics. In many of the cases that the Star investigated, complaint… Read more Who we are Prevent ...
... also may fall prey to strangers who take advantage of their cognitive impairment. Types of abuse Signs ... property) to his or her disadvantage or the advantage of someone else Sexual abuse: touching, fondling or ...
Al Odhayani, Abdulaziz; Watson, William J.; Watson, Lindsay
Abstract Objective To discuss the consequences of abuse on childhood behavioural development, to highlight some behavioural clues that might alert physicians to ongoing child abuse, and to explore the specific role of the family physician in this clinical situation. Sources of information A systematic search was used to review relevant research, clinical review articles, and child protection agency websites. Main message A child’s behaviour is an outward manifestation of inner stability and security. It is a lens through which the family physician can observe the development of the child throughout his or her life. All types of abuse are damaging to children—physically, emotionally, and psychologically—and can cause long-term difficulties with behaviour and mental health development. Family physicians need to be aware of and alert to the indicators of child abuse and neglect so that appropriate interventions can be provided to improve outcomes for those children. Conclusion Child abuse might cause disordered psychological development and behaviour problems. Family physicians have an important role in recognizing behaviour clues that suggest child abuse and in providing help to protect children. PMID:23946022
Bays, Jan; Chadwick, David
This article on medical diagnosis of the sexually abused child summarizes clinical research on physical findings in nonabused children, abused children, and abused children with independent confirmation of abuse. A classification of physical findings is proposed along a continuum of certainty that sexual abuse has occurred. (Author/JDD)
Randolph, Mickey; Nagle, Richard J.
This paper reviews information regarding the incidence, demographic characteristics, family characteristics, and immediate/ongoing characteristics of incest victims. The characteristics reported include behavioral indicators of abuse, such as acting-out behavior, self-destructive behaviors, and provocative and inappropriate sexual behaviors;…
McMillen, Curtis; And Others
Studies adult perceptions of benefit from child sexual abuse in 154 low-income women who were sexually abused as children. Almost half reported some perceived benefit. Benefits fell into four main categories: protecting children from abuse, self-protection, increased knowledge of child sexual abuse, and having a stronger personality. Degree of…
Robboy, Juliet; Anderson, Kristen G
Many studies have investigated the consequences of child sexual abuse (CSA) but few have examined the intergenerational effects of poly- victimization and maladaptive coping. The purpose of this investigation was to examine patterns of maltreatment and maladaptive coping among second-generation CSA survivors. It is hypothesized that: (a) maternal CSA history would be associated with a higher incidence of poly-victimization and maladaptive coping and (b) experiencing more forms of abuse would mediate the relation between maternal CSA history and maladaptive coping behaviors. The method used was a chart review of 139 sexually abused females aged 12 to 17, examining maternal abuse history, maladaptive coping behaviors, and child maltreatment. The results showed that poly-victimization differed as a function of maternal CSA history but maladaptive coping did not. Experiencing more types of abuse was associated with both self-injurious behaviors and substance use. In conclusion, results support the hypothesis that second generation CSA survivors are more likely to experience poly-victimization. Future research should address how intergenerational patterns of abuse might affect presenting symptomatology and treatment outcome. PMID:21602207
... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160478.html Child Abuse May Shorten Some Women's Lives Extreme stress ... 300 middle-aged U.S. adults, female survivors of child abuse were more likely to die over the ...
... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Child Abuse URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Child Abuse - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...
Presents the Child Abuse Storm Scale as a method for assessing the potential for false reports of child abuse resulting in prosecutions. Focuses on the prosecutorial techniques that contribute to false-report errors. Maintains that safeguarding the separation of the responsibilities of protective service workers and therapists from…
Krowchuk, H V
This article reports the results of an investigation of nurses' stereotypes of child abusers. Ninety-four registered nurses completed a questionnaire that measured subjects' knowledge of child abuse; professional contact with perpetrators and victims of abuse; knowledge of the causes of child abuse; and child abuser stereotypes. Results reveal a consensus among the subjects as to the stereotypes associated with child abusers. This study supports the notion that nurses stereotype individuals on the basis of demographic characteristics. This study also raises questions regarding the bias that may result from the use of child abuser stereotypes. Clinical decision-making processes could become compromised if biased judgements are used in planning nursing care for clients diagnosed as child abusers. PMID:2930179
Yell, Mitchell L.
This article reviews federal and state legal mandates to report child abuse. It addresses the issue of immunity from civil suit and criminal prosecution for reporting suspected child abuse or neglect, along with the criminal prosecution that may result if suspected child abuse or neglect is not reported. (CR)
US Department of Health and Human Services, 2006
Each State provides its own definitions of child abuse and neglect based on minimum standards set by Federal law. This fact sheet provides the answers to the following questions: (1) How is child abuse and neglect defined in Federal law?; and (2) What are the major types of child abuse and neglect? Additional resources are listed. (Contains 2…
Robboy, Juliet; Anderson, Kristen G.
Many studies have investigated the consequences of child sexual abuse (CSA) but few have examined the intergenerational effects of poly-victimization and maladaptive coping. The purpose of this investigation was to examine patterns of maltreatment and maladaptive coping among second-generation CSA survivors. It is hypothesized that: (a) maternal…
Higgins, Judith; Davis, Gwendolyn
A variety of books, pamphlets, periodical articles and audiovisual materials on child abuse provide basic information on the problem and different approaches to its solutions. Primary sources are cited for the rental and purchase of films, but the nearest university rental library or regional film center may offer quicker access. (Author/RK)
... Clinical Assistant Professor of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Child Abuse Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. ...
Herzberger, Sharon D.; Tennen, Howard A.
The lack of uniform definition of child abuse has caused researchers and practitioners to center debate on whether abuse should be defined according to the characteristics of the parental act or its consequences to the child. To examine how the situational context and the characteristics of the individual applying the label of abuse affect…
When the sexual abuse of children is revealed, it is often found that other nonabusing adults were aware of the abuse but failed to act. During the past twenty years or so, the concealment of child sexual abuse (CSA) within organizations has emerged as a key challenge for child protection work. Recent events at Pennsylvania State University (PSU)…
Kenny, Maureen C.
A survey of 197 teachers found 73 percent had never made a report of child abuse. Eleven percent reported instances in which they believed abuse may have occurred but failed to report due to such reasons as fear of making an inaccurate report, feeling that child protective services do not help families, and lacking physical signs of abuse.…
Burland, J. Alexis; And Others
The records of 28 abused or severely neglected children, as reviewed and analyzed, show the importance of meeting the child's and parent's dependency needs, rather than focusing exclusively on the abuse itself. (Author/CS)
Fukunaga, T; Tanegashima, A; Yamamoto, H; Saijoh, K
We report the case of a 9-year-old girl who died from sepsis from cellulitis of the neck caused by a right ear injury. The autopsy findings showed severe involution of the thymus and atrophy of lymphoid tissues. The impairment of T- and B-cell functions was demonstrated both histologically and immunohistologically. Thymic involution caused by child abuse might lead to secondary immunodeficiency. PMID:15335522
Cheah, I G; Kasim, M S; Shafie, H M; Khoo, T H
Intracranial haemorrhage is a major cause of severe morbidity and mortality in child abuse cases in developed countries. However, similar data are not available in most developing countries. This study therefore aimed to determine the incidence of intracranial haemorrhage amongst all cases of child physical abuse, the nature of the injuries incurred, and the morbidity and mortality resulting therefrom. Among 369 cases of physical abuse seen over a 4-year period, 41 (11.4%) had intracranial haemorrhage, of whom 37 (90%) were 2 years old or less. A history of trauma was present in only eight (20%), of which only two were compatible with the injuries incurred. Subdural haemorrhages accounted for 80% of the cases, with skull fractures present in only nine cases. Fifty-four per cent of the 37 children aged 2 years of age or less had no external signs of trauma, but 11 of them had retinal haemorrhages. This is in contrast to the children older than 2 years of age who all had external signs of trauma. The overall prognosis was dismal with an early mortality of almost 30% (13 cases) and at least seven cases with severe neurological sequelae. These findings are comparable with studies from developed countries which have established that non-accidental injury must be considered as a cause of intracranial haemorrhage in any young child, despite the absence of external signs of trauma. PMID:7880096
The booklet presents basic facts about child abuse. It is intended for the person who knows very little about the problem but wants to get involved in finding some solutions for the future. Initial sections touch on the nature and scope of abuse. Physical, emotional, sexual, social, and educational types of abuse are examined, and myths related to…
McIntyre, Thomas C.
Results of surveying 440 teachers indicated most teachers believed they had never had an abused or neglected child in class, that they would recognize signs of physical abuse but not sexual abuse, and that they knew their responsibilities under law (though few would report suspected cases if parents or principal objected). (DB)
Rupp, Wolf-Rüdiger; Faller-Marquardt, Maria; Henke, Peter
While playing, a 33/4-year-old girl was hiding in a tumble dryer, which had been running before and started the drying process with rotation of the drum again after the girl had climbed into the machine and shut the door. The child suffered multiple haematomas, especially on the back and the lower arms, as well as second-degree burns on body regions not covered by the clothing. The injury pattern was consistent with the properties of the appliance, and the initial suspicion that the child had been physically abused could not be maintained. PMID:16696230
Foynes, Melissa Ming; Freyd, Jennifer J.; DePrince, Anne P.
Objective: The current study tested several hypotheses about disclosure of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse derived from Betrayal Trauma Theory [Freyd, J. J. (1996). Betrayal trauma: The logic of forgetting childhood abuse. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press]. We predicted that the duration of time from abuse to its disclosure…
Scherer, E A; Scherer, Z A
Assisting abused children may cause discomfort and raise doubts. The present literature review, which includes periodicals, books and the Child's and Adolescent's Statute, was conducted to serve as reference to professionals and researchers involved with the child abuse problem. The authors introduce the subject of abuse, present its legal and ethical implications, the difficulties to diagnose it, its effects, the necessity to understand and treat its perpetrator as well as the role and background of the professionals who assist children victimized by abuse. As final considerations, the authors suggest preventive steps as well as the improvement of formal systematic research on abused children. PMID:11235234
Levenson, Jill S.; Morin, John W.
Despite continuing improvements in risk assessment for child protective services (CPS) and movement toward actuarial prediction of child maltreatment, current models have not adequately addressed child sexual abuse. Sexual abuse cases present unique and ambiguous indicators to the investigating professional, and risk factors differ from those…
Davidson, Howard A.
Examines the developments in child abuse reporting laws and related legislation since the battered child syndrome was first identified in 1962. Discusses statistics and identifies areas in which legislative and judicial reform are necessary. Includes a list of American Bar Association publications dealing with child abuse and neglect. (GEA)
Gellert, George A.
Discusses legal and psychological issues involved in erroneous reporting of child abuse. Addresses whether the child protection field will have the vision and initiative to address the problem proactively from within or whether regulation and restriction of activity will be imposed from without. Explores ideas to make child abuse detection more…
Administration on Children, Youth, and Families (DHHS/ACF), Washington, DC. Children's Bureau.
Child abuse is a national tragedy, taking the lives of three children every day and affecting millions of children and families every year. To mark the 20th anniversary of the first presidential proclamation of Child Abuse Prevention Month, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services' Children's Bureau, Office on Child Abuse and Neglect,…
Afifi, Tracie O.; MacMillan, Harriet L.; Boyle, Michael; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Sareen, Jitender
Background: Nationally representative Canadian data on the prevalence of child abuse and its relation with mental disorders are lacking. We used contemporary, nationally representative data to examine the prevalence of 3 types of child abuse (physical abuse, sexual abuse and exposure to intimate partner violence) and their association with 14 mental conditions, including suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. Methods: We obtained data from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health, collected from the 10 provinces. Respondents aged 18 years and older were asked about child abuse and were selected for the study sample (n = 23 395). The survey had a multistage stratified cluster design (household response rate 79.8%). Results: The prevalence of any child abuse was 32% (individual types ranged from 8% to 26%). All types of child abuse were associated with all mental conditions, including suicidal ideation and suicide attempts, after adjustment for sociodemographic variables (adjusted odds ratios ranged from 1.4 to 7.9). We found a dose–response relation, with increasing number of abuse types experienced corresponding with greater odds of mental conditions. Associations between child abuse and attention deficit disorder, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts showed stronger effects for women than men. Interpretation: We found robust associations between child abuse and mental conditions. Health care providers, especially those assessing patients with mental health problems, need to be aware of the relation between specific types of child abuse and certain mental conditions. Success in preventing child abuse could lead to reductions in the prevalence of mental disorders, suicidal ideation and suicide attempts. PMID:24756625
Christian, Cindy W
Child physical abuse is an important cause of pediatric morbidity and mortality and is associated with major physical and mental health problems that can extend into adulthood. Pediatricians are in a unique position to identify and prevent child abuse, and this clinical report provides guidance to the practitioner regarding indicators and evaluation of suspected physical abuse of children. The role of the physician may include identifying abused children with suspicious injuries who present for care, reporting suspected abuse to the child protection agency for investigation, supporting families who are affected by child abuse, coordinating with other professionals and community agencies to provide immediate and long-term treatment to victimized children, providing court testimony when necessary, providing preventive care and anticipatory guidance in the office, and advocating for policies and programs that support families and protect vulnerable children. PMID:25917988
Wurtele, Sandy K.; Schmitt, Ann
This study examined the knowledgeability of child care workers (n=97) regarding their rights and responsibilities in reporting suspected child sexual abuse. Day care personnel knew significantly less about procedures for reporting suspected abuse and their protection under the law (when compared to child sexual abuse experts). (Author/DB)
Fischler, Ronald S.
Child abuse and neglect among American Indians is a political as well as a clinical problem, as the victims belong to one cultural group and health professionls who detect maltreatment generally belong to another. Reluctance to diagnose and report child abuse, although universal, is probably more significant in Indian communities for several…
Mapes, Bruce E.
Intended to help in the forensic investigation of child abuse allegations, this book explores several issues related to children's allegations of sexual abuse and subsequent testimony. Chapter 1 presents an overview of: the informational needs of child welfare agencies and the courts; the scope of the forensic assessment; and the standards and…
A district attorney of Middlesex County, Massachusetts, argues that prosecution is the most effective and appropriate response to child abuse cases. Two basic premises are advanced. First, anyone who physically abuses, sexually assaults, or rapes a child has committed a serious crime, regardless of the relationship of the victim to the offender.…
Newberger, Eli H.; Bourne, Richard
The authors propose that theoretical confusion and clinical inadequacy regarding child abuse is due, in part, from medical and legal ambiguity concerning child abuse and from dilemmas surrounding social policy and the professional response toward families and children. The dilemmas of social policy (family autonomy versus coercive intervention)…
Objective: Most research on child abuse in Tanzania and Kenya is unpublished in the international literature. The purpose of this paper is to examine the various commentaries and reports extant, toward an overview of the nature and frequency of child sexual abuse in Tanzania and Kenya. Methods: Contacts were made with academics, government…
Bolen, Rebecca M.
Current child sexual abuse prevention programs assume that, by targeting potential victims, they can reduce the prevalence of child sexual abuse. This article presents findings that suggest this assumption is flawed. Suggests instead that potential offenders are more appropriate targets of prevention programs. (Contains 39 references.)
Friedrich, William N.
This paper on the behavioral manifestations of child sexual abuse first reviews previous research concerning child variables, parent/family variables, sexual abuse in combination with other maltreatment, and physiological outcomes. Criteria for future research are offered and specific research needs in the areas of developmental progression,…
Berkowitz, Carol D.
Reviews the research on medical sequelae of child sexual abuse; identifies unanswered questions; and suggests areas of research, including prospective studies of child sexual abuse, follow-up of victims, studies of nonclinic populations, studies of male victims, examination of additional variables (such as regional variation and age), diseases…
Alexander, Randell A.
This volume is the first of a two-part special issue detailing state of the art practice in medical issues around child sexual abuse. The six articles in this issue explore methods for medical history evaluation, the rationale for when sexual examinations should take place, specific hymenal findings that suggest a child has been sexually abused,…
Downing, C. Jerry
Describes the organization and training of a parent support group to prevent child abuse. Initial training assisted group members to become aware of their attitudes toward child abusers. Training also focused on developing listening skills, procedures for making referrals, and the handling of confidential information. (RC)
The monograph considers the role of teachers in child abuse prevention and reporting from the perspective of a New Zealand educator. A 1985 study of the author is summarized in which a training program resulted in commitment by 80% of teachers involved to identify and report child abuse and by 60% of teachers to further educate themselves in child…
The role of the principal in identifying and reporting child abuse and neglect is discussed in this bulletin. Although all 50 states and the District of Columbia have laws that require educators to report cases in which they have knowledge or reasonable cause to suspect child abuse, passage of legislation does not always lead to compliance.…
Fontes, Lisa Aronson; Plummer, Carol
Cultural norms affect the likelihood that child sexual abuse will be discovered by an adult or disclosed by a child. Cultural norms also affect whether abused children's families will report child sexual abuse to authorities. This article explores the ways ethnic and religious culture affect child sexual abuse disclosure and reporting, both in the United States and internationally. Guidelines for culturally sensitive child abuse interviewing are provided to facilitate disclosures of abuse from culturally diverse children in formal settings. PMID:20924908
Warner, S L
Child abuse is one of the difficult social phenomena with which the technologist directly deals as a part of his professional responsibilities. To be able to respond to all of the child's needs, radiologic technologists need to understand not only the physical effects, but also the psychological effects of the child. Understanding also helps the technologist deal with his own feelings when interacting with either the abused child or the child's parents. The Draw-A-Person test (DAP) was utilized in this study to illustrate visually the effect of abuse on the child's self-image. The subsequent personality characteristics of these children include low self-esteem, withdrawal, extreme forms of impulse control, and self-destructive behavior. Using the DAP, the abused child's self-portrait frequently showed body distortion, lack of detailing and poor sexual identification. In addition, the personality pattern of abusing parents was found to have many of the same characteristics as the personalities of abused children, because many times abusing parents were themselves abused as children. PMID:331392
Edwards, George A
Choking is one of the alternative explanations of abusive head trauma in children that have been offered in courtroom testimony and in the media. Most of these explanations - including choking - are not scientifically supported. This article highlights four points. (1) The origins of choking as an explanation for intracranial and retinal hemorrhages are speculative. (2) Choking has been used in high profile court testimony as an explanation for the death of a child thought to have been abused. (3) A case report that proposes choking as an alternative explanation for the death of a child diagnosed with abusive head trauma includes omissions and misrepresentations of facts. (4) There was a decision by the editor of the journal that published the case report that it was not necessary to include all the facts of the case; moreover, the editor indicated that facts are not required when presenting an alternative explanation. The use of scientifically unsupported alternative explanations for abusive head trauma based on inaccurate and biased information constitutes further victimization of the abused child and represents a travesty of justice. PMID:26344456
The literature review examines issues of child abuse and neglect, attempts to define child abuse, and gives information on: incidence figures; symptoms of abuse; characteristics of the abused and their families; knowledge level of educators; and the role of the schools in preventing, detecting, and reporting abuse or neglect. Teachers often do not…
Rayman, Salim; Dincer, Elvir; Almas, Khalid
Child abuse and neglect are prevalent issues that permeate all ethnic, cultural and socioeconomic segments of society. Parents of abused children frequently change physicians in order to prevent detection, but they are more likely to continue to visit the child's dentist. Most states recognize four major types of maltreatment: neglect; physical abuse; psychological maltreatment; and sexual abuse. The American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry defines dental neglect as "the willful failure of parent or guardian to seek and follow through with treatment necessary to ensure a level of oral health essential for adequate function and freedom from pain and infection." The oral health practitioner must uphold his or her legal and ethical responsibility if there is suspicion, record and report the incidence. It may help save a child from further abuse. PMID:24027895
Fontes, Lisa Aronson; Plummer, Carol
Cultural norms affect the likelihood that child sexual abuse will be discovered by an adult or disclosed by a child. Cultural norms also affect whether abused children's families will report child sexual abuse to authorities. This article explores the ways ethnic and religious culture affect child sexual abuse disclosure and reporting, both in the…
Through feminist research in the study of sport, the issue of child sexual abuse has been driven onto the agenda of sports organisations, resulting in considerable practical reform (Brackenridge, 2001). However, the flip-side to this development is that the experience of sexually abused males has been largely ignored. In 1990, Struve claimed, "a…
Brassard, Marla R.; Fiorvanti, Christina M.
Child abuse is a leading cause of emotional, behavioral, and health problems across the lifespan. It is also preventable. School-based abuse prevention programs for early childhood and elementary school children have been found to be effective in increasing student knowledge and protective behaviors. The purpose of this article is to help school…
Schloesser, Patricia; And Others
Birth and death certificates were correlated with information in the state Child Abuse and Neglect Registry on 104 abuse-related fatalities. Significant findings included young age of parents at first pregnancy; high rate of single parenthood; and lower educational achievement among mothers. A model for data collection is discussed. (Author/BRM)
Mitchell, Mark W.
Child Sexual Abuse is a growing epidemic. In the United States, 1 in 6 boys and 1 in 4 girls will be sexually abused before reaching adulthood. From a legal standpoint, inappropriate sexual relations between a faculty/staff member and a student are a growing national concern. In 1991, the Supreme Court heard the Franklin v. Gwinnett County Public…
Martin, Harold P.
The biologic and developmental problems of abused children are usually thought of etiologically in relation to the physical trauma which has been suffered. Indeed, physical trauma can cause death, brain damage, developmental delays and deviations in personality development. The environment in which the abused child grows and develops is a most…
Spinetta, John J.
Demonstrated that abusing parents differ from nonabusing parents in personality variables. Mothers differed in relationship to one's parents, tendency to become upset, tendency toward loneliness, expectations of one's children, inability to separate parental and child feelings, and fear of external threat. Abusers scored at the highest risk levels…
Green, A H
Child abuse, a problem that has plagued societies for centuries, has been largely ignored by psychiatrists, the author asserts. He traces the relatively recent interest in the problem of other medical specialists such as pediatricians and radiologists and maintains that it is time for psychiatrists to become more involved. He explains how problems of confidentiality, the patient's lack of motivation for treatment, and other factors have discouraged many psychiatrists from treating child abusers. He demonstrates ways psychiatrists can treat both the abused child and his family if they are willing to use non-traditional services such as home intervention. PMID:90001
Lynch, Margaret A.
Reviews the prognosis for abused children in terms of death, re-injury, permanent physical damage, growth failure, intellectual retardation, and personality and behavior problems. Discusses problems of collecting data and inadequacies of intervention treatments. (JB)
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India is home to the largest child population in the world, with almost 41 % of the total population under 18 y of age. The health and security of the country's children is integral to any vision for its progress and development. Doctors and health care professionals are often the first point of contact for abused and neglected children. They play a key role in detecting child abuse and neglect, provide immediate and longer term care and support to children. Despite being important stakeholders, often physicians have a limited understanding on how to protect these vulnerable groups. There is an urgent need for systematic training for physicians to prevent, detect and respond to cases of child abuse and neglect in the clinical setting. The purpose of the present article is to provide an overview of child abuse and neglect from a medical assessment to a socio-legal perspective in India, in order to ensure a prompt and comprehensive multidisciplinary response to victims of child abuse and neglect. During their busy clinical practice, medical professionals can also use the telephone help line (CHILDLINE telephone 1098) to refer cases of child abuse, thus connecting them to socio-legal services. The physicians should be aware of the new legislation, Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, 2012, which requires mandatory reporting of cases of child sexual abuse, failing which they can be penalized. Moreover, doctors and allied medical professionals can help prevent child sexual abuse by delivering the message of personal space and privacy to their young patients and parents. PMID:25465678
Spiegel, Lawrence D.
Describes child abuse phenomenon and history of current public hysteria concerning child abuse. Discusses trend of high numbers of false reports of child abuse and neglect and need for counselors to be cognizant of problems of overzealous reporting, professionals looking for abuse in otherwise innocuous situations, and parents using accusations of…
Child Care Law Center, San Francisco, CA.
This booklet provides answers to 12 questions about the rights and responsibilities of child care providers in California concerning the issue of child abuse. The questions are (1) Who is a "Child Care Custodian?" (2) How do I decide whether or not to report? (3) How do I recognize 'abuse' and 'neglect'? (4) How and when should I tell the parent…
Koc, Feyza; Oral, Resmiye; Butteris, Regina
Child abuse and neglect is a public health problem and usually associated with family dysfunction due to multiple psychosocial, individual, and environmental factors. The diagnosis of child abuse may be difficult and require a high index of suspicion on the part of the practitioners encountering the child and the family. System-related factors may also enable abuse or prevent the early recognition of abuse. Child abuse and neglect that goes undiagnosed may give rise to chronic abuse and increased morbidity-mortality. In this report, we present two siblings who missed early diagnosis and we emphasize the importance of systems issues to allow early recognition of child abuse and neglect. PMID:25084799
Csorba, Roland; Lampé, Rudolf; Póka, Róbert
The evaluation of a child presenting with an anogenital complaint or lesion can be challenging for both the clinician and the patient. The doctor met the real possibility that a diagnosis of a condition caused by sexual abuse will affect significantly the child and the family. A misdiagnosis of abuse or failure to recognize a treatable condition can also have detrimental consequences. Most primary care physicians are not trained to recognize the variety of systemic and dermatologic problems that affect the anogenital area. Dermatologists and other specialists often do not appreciate the possibility of sexual abuse. In this article we present a systematic approach to the child with anogenital complaints which may mimic sexual abuse. PMID:19939783
Lau, Joseph T. F.; Liu, Joseph L. Y.; Yu, Aaron; Wong, C. K.
A survey of 1,001 Hong Kong adults found a discrepancy between perceived prevalence and the ability to name different child abuse types without prompting. Only about 40 percent would report abuse cases to authorities. Those who would not report abuse were less likely to classify abuse situations as abusive. (Author/CR)
Myers, John E. B.
Discusses issues in the adjudication of child sexual abuse allegations and reviews research about the believability of child witnesses. It also examines accommodations for children that could assist the child witness and encourage accurate testimony, while continuing to protect the rights of the accused. Criminal, juvenile, and divorce court…
... Child Abuse and Neglect Fatalities 2014: Statistics and Interventions Series Title: Numbers and Trends Author(s): Child Welfare ... Child Abuse and Neglect Fatalities 2014: Statistics and Interventions Series: Numbers and Trends Year Published: 2016 https:// ...
Ben-Amitay, Galit; Kimchi, Nir; Wolmer, Leo; Toren, Paz
Sexual abuse has physiological and emotional implications. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the neurobiological sequels of childhood sexual trauma by monitoring physiological variables among sexually abused girls and women compared to controls. We assessed posttrauma and traumatic life events of 35 females sexually abused in their childhood (age range 7-51 years) and 25 control females (age range 7-54 years). Electroencephalography, frontalis electromyography, electrodermal activity, and heart rate parameters were recorded while watching sets of pictures representing neutral and trauma-suggestive stimuli. A minority of participants met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder. Abused females displayed significant elevations in heart rate, electromyography, and electroencephalography while viewing allusive stimuli and elevated heart rate while viewing neutral stimuli. The dysfunctional regulation of the physiological stress system associated with child sexual abuse may endanger the victims with various stress and anxiety disorders. PMID:26934544
Chan, Ko Ling
The present study developed the Child Abuse Risk Assessment Scale (CARAS), an actuarial instrument for the assessment of the risk of physical child abuse. Data of 2,363 Chinese parents (47.7% male) living in Hong Kong were used in the analyses. Participants were individually interviewed with a questionnaire assessing their perpetration of child…
McGregor, Kim; Julich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny
This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had…
Little, Allison Dare
A modern form of abuse of children by parents and foster parents is to use the identity of children in their care for their own financial benefit, such as accessing their unused social security numbers to secure credit. This article reviews examples and implications of this identity theft.
Alaggia, Ramona; Turton, Jennifer V.
Although the co-occurrence of woman abuse and child sexual abuse is high little research exists exploring the impact of woman abuse on maternal response to child sexual abuse (CSA). Findings from two qualitative studies indicate the form of woman abuse to have differential impact on maternal response. Mothers who were abused in non-physical ways,…
Alexander, Randell A
This volume is the first of a two-part special issue detailing state of the art practice in medical issues around child sexual abuse. The six articles in this issue explore methods for medical history evaluation, the rationale for when sexual examinations should take place, specific hymenal findings that suggest a child has been sexually abused, the healing of genital injuries, approaches to interpretation of medical findings, and the neurological harm of sexual abuse. From the initial history to the process of the medical examination, the mechanics of what a genital examination might show, and the neurobiological consequences, it is demonstrated that the harm of sexual abuse is has more effect on the brain than the genital area. PMID:21970641
Dhooper, Surjit Singh; And Others
A survey of 742 Kentucky adults revealed that they had a good understanding of the characteristics of abused children and child abusers, but a majority considered abusers as abnormal and intractable. Only a third of those aware of instances of child abuse actually reported it to authorities. (Author/JDD)
Texas Child Care, 2002
Delineates signs of physical abuse, neglect, and sexual abuse in young children for child caregivers, and provides suggestions for recognizing abusive adults. Describes the law and procedures for reporting suspected abuse or neglect in Texas. Discusses the types of response from police or child protective services and how to continue working with…
Randolph, M. K.; Gold, C. A.
Evaluates teacher-training programs on child-sexual-abuse prevention developed by Hazzard, Kleemeir, Pohl, and Webb (1986). Trained teachers demonstrated significant increase in knowledge about child sexual abuse, attitudes regarding prevention, identifying behavioral indicators of abuse, and appropriate intervention in potential abuse cases.…
Martindale, Jennifer; Swenson, Alice; Coffman, Jamye; Newton, Alice W; Lindberg, Daniel M
Physically abused children may be repeatedly reported to child protection services and undergo multiple medical evaluations. Less is known about recurrent evaluations by hospital-based child abuse teams for possible abuse. The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of repeated consultations by child abuse teams and to describe this cohort in terms of injury pattern, perceived likelihood of abuse, disposition plan, and factors related to repeat consultation. This was a prospectively planned, secondary analysis of data from the Examining Siblings to Recognize Abuse (ExSTRA) research network. Subjects included children younger than 10 years of age who were referred to child abuse subspecialty teams at one of 20 U.S. academic centers. Repeat consultations occurred in 101 (3.5%; 95% CI 2.9-4.2%) of 2890 subjects. The incidence of death was 4% (95% CI 1-9%) in subjects with repeated consults and 3% (95% CI 2-3%) in subjects with single consults. Perceived likelihood of abuse from initial to repeat visit remained low in 33% of subjects, remained high in 24.2% of subjects, went from low to high in 16.5%, and high to low in 26.4% of subjects. Themes identified among the subset of patients suspected of repeated abuse include return to the same environment, failure to comply with a safety plan, and abuse in foster care. Repeated consultation by child abuse specialists occurs for a minority of children. This group of children may be at higher risk of subsequent abuse and may represent an opportunity for quality improvement. PMID:24726050
Newberger, Eli H.; Hyde, James N., Jr.
This paper summarizes data and experience with child abuse pertinent to child health practice. It goal is to foster sound and rational medical management. Because of the complex origins of child abuse, however, and of the institutional and social changes which shall have to accompany excellent practice if child abuse is effectively to be treated…
Lehto, Neil J.
The article examines the Landeros decision (which ruled that a doctor who fails to report a child abuse victim can be held liable for subsequent injuries inflicted on the child) and discusses three theories of proving civil liability for the failure to report child abuse victims. Addressed are the following topics: the problem of child abuse and…
DC Action for Children, 2011
The number of substantiated cases of child abuse and neglect in the District rose by 27 percent in FY 2009. This dramatic spike came after two consecutive years of decline in the number of substantiated cases reported the D.C. Child and Family Services Agency (CFSA). In FY 2010, the number of closed, substantiated cases dropped back down to 1,691,…
Firestone, Robert W.
Emotional child abuse is virtually inevitable in the context of the traditional nuclear family and often has a more detrimental effect on children than other, more widely publicized forms of maltreatment. This paper documents clinical, statistical, and empirical evidence showing that "normative" child-rearing practices in our culture have…
Needleman, H L
The dental profession has a legal, ethical and moral responsibility to report suspected cases of abuse and neglect. The risk to the child is significant. In non-fatal cases of abuse, 35 percent will be abused again within one year. To this end, dentists should discuss child abuse and neglect at staff meetings and establish office procedures if a case is identified. Encourage staff to discuss concerns they have regarding possible abuse they suspect in the office. Keep the child abuse hotline number or local agency responsible for receiving reports in the office rolodex. Abuse and neglect is a real problem in all neighborhoods and dentistry can make a difference. PMID:8051332
Widom, C S
Using a prospective cohorts design, a large sample of physical and sexual abuse cases was compared to a matched control group. Overall, abused and neglected subjects had higher rates than did controls for adult criminality and arrests for violent offenses, but not for adult arrests for child abuse or neglect. Findings are discussed in the context of intergenerational transmission of violence, and directions for future research are suggested. PMID:2764070
Bahali, Kayhan; Akçan, Ramazan; Tahiroglu, Aysegul Y; Avci, Ayse
The purpose of this study was to determine the socio-demographic characteristics of sexually abused children. The records of 101 cases of child sexual abuse (CSA) were retrospectively evaluated. Socio-demographic characteristics of the victims, type of sexual abuse, and psychiatric diagnosis were studied. Of the victims, 56.4% (n = 57) were female and 43.6% (n = 44) were male. The mean age was 9.57 +/- 3.5, with a range of 4-17 years. Ninety-three (92.1%) of the victims had been admitted as part of the legal process. The majority (66.3%) of the victims had been abused by an acquaintance, while 33.7% had been abused by a stranger. Anal or vaginal penetration was reported in 48.5% of the cases. Post-traumatic stress disorder was the most common (54.5%) psychiatric diagnosis established after sexual abuse. Descriptive data related to the abused children and an understanding of the consequences of CSA will help authorities in planning prevention. PMID:20345776
The aim of this paper is to explore the ways in which the concept of evil has been invoked in relation to child abuse. First, the scene is set by juxtaposing professional discourses which have eschewed the concept of evil and public opinion which is affronted by the evil of child abuse. Second, I will discuss the work of some therapists in the USA whose work with perpetrators and survivors has led them to frame the causes and consequences of child abuse in terms of moral evil. Third, I will draw upon case studies of Satanic abuse and spirit possession in the UK to illustrate that some social workers and religious communities have interpreted child abuse as an outcome of or as an antidote to metaphysical evil. Finally, there is a critical appraisal of the merits of referencing moral and metaphysical evil in the discourses of caring professionals, with a suggestion that a mythical-metaphorical conception of evil could be a more flexible and fruitful resource for therapeutic work. PMID:24908583
Egu, Chizoma Linda; Weiss, David J.
In the United States, reported child abuse rates vary dramatically with race. We employed a scenario methodology to examine whether teachers, whose professional obligations include reporting suspected instances of abuse, exhibit bias in evaluating a possibly abused child. Each teacher (180 White, 180 Black, and 180 Hispanic) read one of six…
Starr, R. H., Jr.
The article reports on an ongoing, controlled study of factors related to the occurrence of child abuse, family factors related to heroin addiction, and the overall relationship between child abuse and drug abuse in 240 families. Journal availability: see EC 111 256. (DLS)
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Pierce, Lois; Bozalek, Vivienne
Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore which of 17 categories of child maltreatment South Africans evaluated as most serious and to determine if those working with abuse and neglect evaluated abuse and neglect differently from those who did not. Method: A revised version of Giovannoni and Becerra's [Giovannoni, J., & Becerra, R.…
Bornstein, Brian H.; Kaplan, Debra L.; Perry, Andrea R.
Objective: The purpose was to explore the effects of victim and perpetrator gender, type of abuse, and victim-perpetrator relationship on university students' and non-students' perceptions of different kinds of child abuse. Method: One hundred and ninety-nine participants (including university students and non-student adults) evaluated each of 24…
Clauß, D; Richter, C; Klohs, G; Heide, S
Medical child protection includes besides interdisciplinary diagnostics and treatment of physical and psychological symptoms also a discussion that looks at the ensuing legal consequences.This study analyses 21 criminally investigated cases of suspected child abuse from a 2 year study period and compares severity of injury to legal outcome.7 of those 21 criminal proceedings were already dropped by the prosecution and never went to trial. 4 of the 8 cases that led to a trial ended with a conviction. In all of the 4 cases that resulted in an acquittal the judges had been convinced that the child had been abused but found themselves unable to exactly identify the perpetrator. Our study's cases did not show a positive correlation between severity of injury and legal outcome.Diagnosing and treating children and minors within the context of medical child protection should always also include the ques-tion of possible legal consequences. The judicial process in cases of serious child abuse requires high medical expertise. Such expertise particularly includes the ability to determine the time of injury as exactly as possible and to provide precise written documentation of any medical findings. However, our study also shows that medical assessment is only one of many aspects in the legal response to child abuse. PMID:23975849
Kairys, Steven; Ricci, Laurence; Finkel, Martin A
This article delineates the current fiscal management and reimbursement for child abuse examinations. These financial issues are high priority for child abuse programs because most programs lack the revenues to meet the demands for service, education, advocacy and research. Programs may share medical protocols and standards but have yet to share management solutions. The authors present the administrative details of 75 child abuse evaluation programs and highlight innovative approaches to increase funding and stabilize the funding for the programs. They present information on billing, contracts, costs of care, and state-based initiatives that can be reproduced by other programs and states. PMID:16595851
Mullins, J B
This article discusses the relationship of child abuse, including neglect and sexual abuse, to the presence of handicapping conditions, both physical and psychological. Child abuse can cause physical and psychological disabilities in children who otherwise would have been normal. Studies show that children who are handicapped, or otherwise perceived as different by potentially abusive parents, are at high risk for abuse. Evidence also indicates that the handicaps of some children who were diagnosed originally as disabled are exacerbated by abuse. While cause and effect are not easily determined in specific cases, researchers agree that a pervasive relationship exists between handicapping conditions and abuse. Abused children are overrepresented in special education classes and handicapped children are overrepresented in the abused population. Many abused children become abusers as adults. Several suggestions concerning the problem are offered for school personnel. PMID:2937963
Di Giacomo, Ester; Alamia, Alberto; Cicolari, Federica; Cimolai, Valentina; Clerici, Massimo
The aim of this review was to provide the state of art of child sexual abuse and its psychophysical consequences. We assessed the evidence-based literature derived from PubMed, Embase, Medline, PsychINFO databases, including a thorough analysis of what has been published in the last 5 years, not neglecting previous publications essential to the argument for their scientific validity (methodological accuracy, recruited survey). Child sexual abuse is ubiquitous both regarding victims' gender and socio-economic conditions. The important consequences linked to what they suffered--either immediately or with adolescent or adult onset--are mediated by age and family support to trauma reprocessing as well as by the frequency of repetition of the abuse or familiarity with the abuser. These factors appear to be of primary importance--both at a physical and psychic level--and may be expressed in multiple manifestations, hence it is of utmost importance to pay timely attention to possible alarm signals revealing suspected abuse suffered by any underage person. Special emphasis is addressed towards some of the consequences for which child sexual abuse is considered to be a primary cause (e.g. post-traumatic stress disorder) and the perpetuation of such abuse, both short-term as well as long-term. Poor training, regarding this field, of various professionals (pediatricians, teachers, etc.) who each day work with minors, as well as the paucity of available treatment options point to an urgent need for prevention (including in-depth diagnosis/therapy) and early intervention. PMID:24056826
Briggs, Freda; Potter, Gillian K.
Prior to attending seminars on child abuse and domestic violence, 86 kindergarten and 64 special education (early childhood) teachers completed a questionnaire seeking views relating to the accuracy of statements relating to all forms of child abuse. This was designed to identify the accuracy of teachers' knowledge of child abuse and neglect…
National Council of Jewish Women, New York, NY.
The manual was written by the National Council of Jewish Women to provide guidelines for volunteer legislative action and community service for individuals in the area of child abuse and neglect. After an overview which details some of the causes of child abuse, information on child abuse and neglect legislation in each state is presented.…
DeMaria, Michael B.
Uses case vignettes to explore poetry as phenomenological access point to the world of the abused child, serving a threefold function: (1) a window into the child's world; (2) a way to track the abused child's progress along the recovery process; and (3) a tool for transforming abused children's worlds, by allowing them to find their own unique…
Kemp, Donna R.; And Others
Child abuse is a major problem in the United States. Policy concerning child abuse involves a criminal justice approach, a treatment approach, and a prevention approach. Prevention programs have focused on identifying and serving high-risk groups and on preventive education. A study was conducted to examine issues related to child abuse. Four…
Johnson, Becca Cowan
This guidebook provides specific information about child abuse to recreational staff, camp staff, childcare workers, and others who provide programs and services for minors. Part I describes the prevalence and causes of physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect; outlines physical and behavioral indicators that can alert staff…
Ullman, Sarah E.; Filipas, Henrietta H.
This research examines the understudied issue of race/ethnicity in relation to child sexual abuse experiences (CSA) in a cross-sectional convenience sample of 461 female college students completing a survey. Comparisons of students' abuse experiences revealed ethnic differences in sexual abuse prevalence, severity of abuse, the victim-offender…
Rudin, Margaret M.; And Others
Comparison of 87 child abuse victims of lone female perpetrators with 93 victims of lone male perpetrators found that female perpetrators abused children 3.3 years younger than male perpetrators. Both female and male perpetrators abused more girls than boys and did not differ in severity of abuse. (Author/DB)
Martone, Mary; And Others
This study of police and hospital records for 451 intrafamilial/caretaker child sexual abuse allegations in Chicago, Illinois, found that few children had to appear as witnesses, as 95% of cases were resolved through plea bargaining. Trial resolution took 12 to 16 months. Of 77 felony complaints initiated, 48 ended in convictions, with 43 convicts…
Flanagan, Clyde; And Others
A study involving 22 fathers and 21 mothers was conducted to explore several personality characteristics of child abusive parents which may set them apart from nonabusive peers. A social history was taken, and each parent completed both the Motivation Analysis Test (MAT) and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). Among findings…
Blass, Rosanne J.; And Others
The legal obligation of Ohio school employees to report situations of suspected child abuse and neglect has generated a need for school districts to adopt a written policy together with guidelines and procedures to assure school personnel are aware of the mandate to report and have a structural procedure to do so. The written policy should: (1)…
McElvaney, Rosaleen; Greene, Sheila; Hogan, Diane
This study reports a grounded theory study of the process of how children tell of their experiences of child sexual abuse from the perspectives of young people and their parents. Individual interviews were conducted with 22 young people aged 8 to 18, and 14 parents. A theoretical model was developed that conceptualises the process of disclosure as…
Herner and Co., Washington, DC.
The thesaurus contains approximately 4,000 terms used in indexing material for the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect. It is explained that the descriptor compilation was first developed in 1975 from existing thesauri and dictionaries. Descriptors are arranged in alphabetic, permuted and group displays, and listings include references to…
Krugman, Richard D.
Efforts to prevent the abuse and neglect of children requires: professionals and citizens who care to make a difference; development of multidisciplinary units, teams, or organizations to deal with specific parts of the problem; a clear statement of child protection policy; programs that work; commitment to research and program evaluation; and a…
Socolar, Rebecca R. S.
A survey of physicians (n=113) concerning their knowledge about child sexual abuse found several areas of inadequate knowledge, including assessment of chlamydia infection, Tanner staging, and documentation of historical and physical exam findings. Factors associated with better knowledge scores were physician participation in continuing medical…
Lee, Shawna J.; Guterman, Neil B.; Lee, Yookyong
Objective: This study uses the developmental-ecological framework to examine a comprehensive set of paternal factors hypothesized to be linked to risk for paternal child abuse (PCA) among a diverse sample of fathers. Attention was given to fathers' marital status and their race/ethnicity (White, African American, and Hispanic). Methods: Interviews…
Newberger, Eli H.; Bourne, Richard
Presented in part at the Second World Conference of the International Society on Family Law in 1977, the article discusses child abuse management from a critical sociological point of view, focusing on some of the professional conflicts between the medical and legal perspectives. (DLS)
Duffy, Catrina; Keenan, Mickey; Dillenburger, Karola
Child sex abuse increasingly is recognised as a societal problem that can no longer be ignored. In this paper definitions, prevalence, trends, assessment, and available diagnostic procedures are described and critically evaluated. It is argued that the lack of reliable diagnostic procedures remains one of the main difficulties in dealing…
Land, Helen M.
Assesses the relationship between treatment intensity and rehabilitation of 89 child abusers whose MMPI (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory) profiles revealed high levels of psychological distress. The relationship was positive and statistically significant. The client receiving intense weekly treatment for longer durations was assessed…
Kratcoski, Peter C.
An Ohio study found that a significant percentage of adolescents arrested for violent crimes had been victims of severe child abuse and were likely to behave violently toward family members and caretakers. Findings are discussed in relation to the culture of violence, learning, and stress theories of delinquency. (Author/MP)
Palusci, Vincent J.; Cox, Edward O.; Shatz, Eugene M.; Schultze, Joel M.
Background: Immediate medical assessment has been recommended for children after sexual abuse to identify physical injuries, secure forensic evidence, and provide for the safety of the child. However, it is unclear whether young children seen urgently within 72 hours of reported sexual contact would have higher frequencies of interview or…
Singh Kocher, Mininder; Dichtel, Laura
The differential diagnosis of child abuse includes osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). Mild phenotypes of OI may be misdiagnosed as child abuse. The purpose of this study was to review the experience of families in which OI was misdiagnosed as child abuse. Sixty-one potential cases of misdiagnosis were identified from a lay support organization. Upon review of the medical records, 33 cases were identified with a confirmed diagnosis of OI (skin biopsy or DNA blood test). Questionnaires were given to families to describe their condition and experiences. There were 19 male and 14 female children. Mean age at presentation was 7.1 months (range: 1-23 months). All patients had fractures and the presenting symptoms included pain (n=14), swelling (n=7), decreased limb movement (n=5), or unusual limb position (n=2). Abnormal radiograph findings consistent with OI were found in 19 of 33 patients (58%), clinical findings of OI were present in 23 of 33 patients (70%), and a family history that could be supportive of OI was present in 18 of 33 families (55%). Children were removed from the family in 70% of cases and older siblings were removed from the family in 62% of cases. The mean age at the time of diagnosis of OI was 10.5 months (range: 3-35 months). The consequences of misdiagnosis of OI as child abuse are devastating to the family. OI should be considered in all cases of suspected child abuse. In children with any clinical, radiographic, or family history features of OI, early involvement of a bone specialist and performance of laboratory testing should be considered to establish a timely and accurate diagnosis. PMID:21716141
If the abuse of a child were at the hands of a schoolyard bully or lurking pedophile, parents most likely would applaud intervention. However, precisely because most cases involve an abusive parent, intervention is almost automatically deemed a dicey proposition. The law, however, now requires teachers to report cases of suspected child abuse or…
National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (DHHS/OHDS), Washington, DC.
The purpose of this publication is to help the reader understand the problems of child abuse and neglect and become familiar with prevention and intervention efforts. Introductory pages define child abuse and neglect, suggest the scope of the problem, delineate reasons for its occurrence, and explain how to recognize abuse or neglect. This section…
Jason, Janine M.
The effect of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic on child abuse prevention is considered on two levels: its indirect effect as resources for child abuse prevention are diverted to meet increased demands for health care, social service, and public assistance systems; and direct effects in terms of abuse and neglect of HIV-infected…
Sinanan, Allison N.
School personnel, particularly educators and school psychologists, are a first line of defense in protecting children from abuse. Teachers play an important role in the detection and reporting of child abuse. The relationship established between teachers and their students can facilitate the identification of child abuse. By virtue of their work,…
Cromer, Lisa DeMarni; Goldsmith, Rachel E.
Child sexual abuse myths comprise incorrect beliefs regarding sexual abuse, victims, and perpetrators. Relations among myth acceptance, responses to disclosure, legal decisions, and victims' subsequent psychological and health outcomes underscore the importance of understanding child sexual abuse myths. Despite accurate knowledge regarding child…
Martin, Mary Porter; Klaus, Susan L.
The review of research on child abuse and neglect presents brief abstracts of studies collected by the Clearinghouse of the National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect. Material is organized into five subject areas (sample subtopics in parentheses): definition of abuse and neglect; incidence (national and selected geographic estimates);…
Semidei, Joseph; Radel, Laura Feig; Nolan, Catherine
Examines the prevalence of substance abuse among families involved with the child welfare system and the impact of substance abuse on child welfare practice. Discusses how both the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997 and welfare reform legislation intensify the need to address parental substance abuse effectively. Considers strategies for…
Aspects of elementary school teachers' work that are problematic in identifying child abuse were studied in Ontario (Canada). Interviews with 10 teachers and questionnaires completed by 500 teachers and 100 principals show that abuse detection is affected by concern with academic learning and lack of information about child abuse. (SLD)
Kenny, Maureen C.
Fifty-six recently trained physicians and teachers were compared on rates and knowledge of child abuse reporting and responses to vignettes of sexual abuse. Results demonstrated differences between the groups with physicians making significantly more reports and assisting in child abuse reporting more often than teachers. Physicians reported…
Kleemeier, Carol; And Others
The effectiveness of a six-hour teacher training workshop on child sexual abuse prevention was evaluated. Findings indicated that trained teachers demonstrated significant increases in knowledge about child sexual abuse and pro-intervention opinions. Trained teachers were better able to identify behavioral indicators of abuse and suggest…
... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157492.html Paid Family Leave Tied to Decline in Child Abuse California ... 2016 FRIDAY, Feb. 26, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Paid family leave might lead to reduced risk of abuse- ...
Dombrowski, Stefan C.; Ahia, C. Emmanuel; McQuillan, Kathleen
Explains legal reporting requirements for child abuse and neglect. Describes legal standards for reasonable suspicion and indicators of various types of abuse. Details what should be included in a report and discusses implications for school personnel. (Contains 49 references.) (SK)
Romero-Martínez, A; Figueiredo, B; Moya-Albiol, L
It has been suggested that being physically abused leads to someone becoming a perpetrator of abuse which could be associated to parents' gender, timing of the physical abuse and specific socio-demographic variables. This study aims to investigate the role the parents' gender, timing of childhood abuse and socio-demographic variables on the relationship between parents' history of childhood physical abuse and current risk for children. The sample consisted of 920 parents (414 fathers, 506 mothers) from the Portuguese National Representative Study of Psychosocial Context of Child Abuse and Neglect who completed the Childhood History Questionnaire and the Child Abuse Potential Inventory. The results showed that fathers had lower current potential risk of becoming physical abuse perpetrators with their children than mothers although they did not differed in their physical victimization history. Moreover, the risk was higher in parents (both genders) with continuous history of victimization than in parents without victimization. Prediction models showed that for fathers and mothers separately similar socio-demographic variables (family income, number of children at home, employment status and marital status) predicted the potential risk of becoming physical abuses perpetrators. Nevertheless, the timing of victimization was different for fathers (before 13 years old) and mothers (after 13 years old). Then our study targets specific variables (timing of physical abuse, parents' gender and specific socio-demographic variables), which may enable professionals to select groups of parents at greater need of participating in abuse prevention programs. PMID:24269330
Tonella, A; Zuppinger, K
Pediatricians form part of children's and young people's most important extra-familial relations. They are thus especially well placed: first, to discover abuse of any kind, and second to put in motion the first years of measures of assistance for the children and their families. The first years of life are decisive for effective prevention of abuse and neglect, and for the development of a healthy personality. In this part of life, pediatricians are virtually the only "social outposts". Nevertheless, in Swiss pediatrics the concept of child protection is still in the initial stages. While we should warmly welcome the fact this problem was at last the main theme of an annual meeting, it must be remembered that this was only the first time. For a long time now no one has doubted that in our, thus far socially privileged country, a frighteningly large number of children and adolescents are victims of abuse. Since the publication of the report "Mauvais traitements des enfants en Suisse" (1992) a representative questionnaire to parents has shown that in this country and now, as before, over a third of parents use corporal punishment on their children. It has been calculated that e.g. 21,800 babies aged between 0 and 2.5 years are beaten, 4800 of them even with implements. There are no data on psychological and sexual maltreatment. Despite this shocking incidence of abuse, only a total of 72 cases (6% of all recorded cases) were reported over one year by pediatric practitioners in the "1989 prospective study". We cannot accept that this reflects a lack of social concern. Many other shortcomings appear to be involved: lack of briefing on the problems of child abuse during medical training, post-graduate and continuing studies, inadequate arrangements for interdisciplinary work, discouragement and early delegation to pseudo-experts, distrust of the efficacy of available aids (but sometimes overestimation of one's own possibilities) and last but not least, a still highly
Annerback, E. M.; Sahlqvist, L.; Svedin, C. G.; Wingren, G.; Gustafsson, P. A.
Objective: To examine the associations between child physical abuse executed by a parent or caretaker and self-rated health problems/risk-taking behaviors among teenagers. Further to evaluate concurrence of other types of abuse and how these alone and in addition to child physical abuse were associated with bad health status and risk-taking…
Ryan, Joseph P.; Marsh, Jeanne C.; Testa, Mark F.; Louderman, Richard
Alcohol and other drug abuse is a major problem for children and families involved with public child welfare. Substance abuse compromises appropriate parenting practices and increases the risk of child maltreatment. A substantial proportion of substantiated child abuse and neglect reports involve parental substance abuse. Once in the system,…
Wadhera, Raman; Kalra, Vijay; Gulati, Sat Paul; Ghai, Anju
The incidents of foreign body ingestion in infants and children are usually viewed as accidents, but these events may be a form of child abuse. We are reporting a case of child abuse who presented with multiple foreign bodies in the gastrointestinal tract. Physicians are required to report abuse when they have reason to believe or to suspect that it occurred. The purpose of reporting is not punishment of the perpetrator - it is the protection of the child. It is certainly in the best interest of the child, because child abuse is a recurrent and usually escalating problem that exposes the child to substantial risk. PMID:23164499
Coxe, Ray; Holmes, William
This study of 147 sex offenders on probation explores whether there is support for the cycle of abuse theory among child molesters. Results indicate that being abused as a child is related to being a child molester. It was also found that the MMPI-2 did not predict the status of the subjects in regard to being abused as a child and having a victim…
Abtahi-Naeini, Bahareh; Shapouri, Javad; Masjedi, Mohsen; Saffaei, Ali; Pourazizi, Mohsen
Context: Child abuse is a serious problem, and its physical manifestations can be mimicked by certain diseases and conditions. These conditions can include genetic, congenital and other disorders that may result in poor weight gain, bone fractures or skin lesions that look like bruises or burns. Case Report: This paper reports the case of a seven-year-old girl with Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS), which was misdiagnosed as child abuse. This child was referred to us for treatment of an unexplained facial scar that was alleged to be the result of child abuse. Conclusion: When unusual skin presentations are observed, dermatologists should consider the possibility of child abuse to protect the child. Furthermore, they should be aware of the cutaneous abnormalities that mimic injuries associated with abuse to avoid the unnecessary reporting of child abuse. PMID:25535610
Gabaeff, Steven C
There is a controversy in child abuse pediatrics between an established corps of child abuse pediatricians aligned with hospital colleagues and law enforcement, and a multi-specialty challenger group of doctors and other medical professionals working with public interest lawyers. The latter group questions the scientific validity of the core beliefs of child abuse pediatricians and believes that there are a substantial number of false accusations of abuse occurring. An unproven primary hypothesis, crafted around 1975 by a small group of pediatricians with an interest in child abuse, lies at the foundation of child abuse pediatrics. With no scientific study, it was hypothesized that subdural hemorrhage (SDH) and retinal hemorrhage (RH) were diagnostic of shaking abuse. That hypothesis became the so-called "shaken baby syndrome." Through the period 1975-1985, in a coordinated manner, these child abuse specialists coalesced under the American Academy of Pediatrics and began working with district attorneys and social workers, informing them of the ways in which their hypothesis could be applied to prosecutions of child abuse and life-altering social service interventions. In a legal context, using then-prevailing evidentiary rules which treated scientific expert testimony as valid if it was "generally accepted" in the field, they represented falsely that there was general acceptance of their hypothesis and therefore it was valid science. As the ability to convict based on this unproven prime hypothesis (SDH and RH equals abuse) increased, some defense attorneys were professionally compelled by their own doubts to reach out to experts from other fields with experience with SDH and RH, trauma, and biomechanics, for second opinions. Medical and legal challenges to the established thinking soon emerged, based on both old and new evidenced-based literature. As the intensity of the controversy increased, the probability of false accusation became more apparent and the need
Davis, Deborah Winders; Pressley-McGruder, Gloria; Jones, V Faye; Potter, Deborah; Rowland, Michael; Currie, Melissa; Gale, Bruce
Child sexual abuse poses a serious threat to public health and is often unreported, unrecognized, and untreated. Prevention, early recognition, and treatment are critically important to reduce long-term effects. Little data are available on effective methods of preventing child sexual abuse. The current research demonstrates a unique approach to promoting awareness and stimulating discussion about child sexual abuse. Qualitative methods have rarely been used to study child sexual abuse prevention. Qualitative inductive analyses of interviews from 20 key informants identified both positive and negative assessments with six emergent themes. The themes revealed inherent tensions in using narrative accounts to represent the complex cultural context within which child sexual abuse occurs. More research is needed, but the program shows potential as a methodology to raise awareness of child sexual abuse. PMID:23682765
Diamond, Linda J.; Jaudes, Paula K.
Of 86 cerebral-palsied children (six months-eight years old) in one care center, 17 had been abused. Eight of these children's cerebral palsy was a result of abuse. Findings suggest a high incidence of child abuse among children with cerebral palsy. Journal Availability: See DC 152 470. (Author/CL)
Schonberg, Ila J.
Child sexual abuse continues to be a problem despite efforts towards prevention. The burden of protecting children still falls mainly on women, yet society's general attitudes take away from women the tools they need to do this job. Mothers of sexually abused children have been blamed for their daughters' abuse because of their emotional…
Vernon, Irene S.; Bubar, Roe
Victims of child abuse are at risk for contracting sexually transmitted diseases, including AIDS, not only directly through sexual abuse, but also because they engage in more high-risk behaviors. Because American Indian youth experience higher rates of sexual abuse and have less access to treatment and counseling, they are especially at risk.…
Elam, George A.; Kleist, David M.
Explores recent quantitative and qualitative studies of the long-term effects of child abuse, specifically, how abuse in childhood affects adulthood. Many studies associate various forms of abuse experienced in childhood with a wide range of psychological, behavioral, and relational problems in adulthood. Articles reviewed may inform marriage and…
Oates, R. Kim; Donnelly, Anne Cohn
Child protection professionals (N=242) were surveyed regarding their picks for the best papers or book chapters in the field. A citation search was also conducted. Eight papers appeared in the top 15 of both the professional survey and the citation search, with "The Battered Child Syndrome" (Kempe, et al., 1962) appearing at the top of both lists.…
Márquez-Flores, María Mercedes; Márquez-Hernández, Verónica V; Granados-Gámez, Genoveva
Child sexual abuse is one of the main types of abuse still to be addressed within the field of education, yet the education system itself can serve as a primary tool for its prevention. A better understanding of teachers' knowledge and beliefs about child sexual abuse will allow us to establish key starting points from which to utilize the system for prevention. Four hundred and fifty teachers participated in this study, completing a questionnaire regarding their knowledge and beliefs about child sexual abuse. The study revealed that over half the teachers, 65.3% (n = 294), had never received any type of training in child sexual abuse education and that the majority were not familiar with methods of identifying child sexual abuse, 90.7% (n = 279). Various mistaken beliefs were identified among the participating teachers, such as pathological profiles of abusers, that the vast majority of child sexual abuse implies violent behavior, and that there cannot be abusers the same age as the victim. These results indicate that knowledge deficiencies do exist about child sexual abuse among teachers and highlight the need for training in this field. PMID:27472508
Walsh, Kerryann; Brandon, Leisa; Chirio, Lisa
Two hundred and twelve Australian mothers completed an online survey examining features of mother-child communication about child sexual abuse prevention. Two-thirds (67.5%) of respondents had discussed child sexual abuse prevention with their children, with proportions varying according to age range (highest for mothers with children aged 5-12…
Dinwiddie, Stephen H.; Bucholz, Kathleen K.
Subjects who self-reported episodes of abusing a child were compared to those without a history of child battery. It was concluded that self-identified child abusers have increased lifetime rates of antisocial personality disorder, alcoholism, and depression. (DB)
Feng, Jui-Ying; Jezewski, Mary Ann; Hsu, Tsung-Wei
The purpose of this study was to explore nurses' experiences and perspectives regarding child abuse in Taiwan. Semistructured interviews with Taiwanese nurses were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim for this descriptive study. The method of category development proposed by the grounded theory method was used to develop categorical themes that reflected the nurses' experiences and perspectives. From the 18 registered nurses interviewed, four major categorical themes emerged that were integral to nurses' experiences working with abused children: the meaning of child abuse, conflict, feeling frustrated, and nurses' roles. Findings provide a base for understanding child abuse from the perspectives of nurses and a beginning understanding of interventions needed to improve identification and reporting of child abuse in Taiwan. Although nurses have considerable awareness and concern about child abuse, additional education related to this issue is needed. PMID:15764637
Sigad, Laura I; Davidov, Jonathan; Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Eisikovits, Zvi
The purpose of the present article is to examine the multiple ways in which the private lives of professionals are affected by involvement with child abuse intervention and prevention. Using a descriptive-phenomenological perspective and 40 in-depth interviews with professionals to present a model based on qualitative data, we studied the ways in which child abuse professionals conceptualize, understand, and integrate their experiences into their personal and family lives. We find that the process of internalizing child abuse knowledge occurs in two domains: One affirms or denies the existence of the phenomenon; the other concerns the strategies used to contend with the effects of working in abuse. Knowledge of child abuse is toxic, in the sense that it serves as a catalyst leading to the alteration of one's self-perception and parental identity. We present a typology of self-alteration resulting from child abuse knowledge and describe the mechanism of this change. PMID:25381277
Kline, Donald F.; Hopper, Mark A.
Reviewed in terms of a concept analysis is the literature on child abuse, and presented is an annotated bibliography of approximately 550 journal articles, 18 books, 6 dissertations, and 40 pamphlets on child abuse. Briefly reviewed is the historical context of child abuse. A concept analysis of child abuse is offered which suggests that any…
Gambrill, E D
The range of factors identified as related to child maltreatment has expanded over the years. The literature clearly calls for an ecological approach in which individual, family, community, and societal factors are considered. The behavioral literature to date reflects an unevenness in terms of acceptance of such an approach. Studies are also uneven concerning the faithfulness with which hallmarks of a behavioral approach have been applied. These include individually tailored assessment and intervention based on empirical data and planning for generalization and maintenance. Most intervention programs do attend to positive as well as negative parent behaviors. Little attention is devoted to environmental characteristics, such as poverty level incomes and impoverished social support systems that may contribute to maltreatment. Lack of comprehensive assessment and intervention programs is no doubt responsible for the modest changes described in many reports. Behavioral studies suffer from uncritical acceptance of the term "abuse" or "at risk" in a number of ways, one of which is a failure to clearly describe the nature of the alleged maltreatment and the immediate situational context. Another is in the assumption that one particular factor is responsible for the maltreatment, such as ineffective parenting skills. Too often a label identifies only one characteristic of a person, ignoring other attributes and related factors. Like all deviant labels, the poor and minority groups are more likely to receive negative labels (Newberger et al., 1976). Investigaters have not taken advantage of relevant literature in the area of child welfare. Familiarity with this material would be helpful in avoiding myths in the field to which many have fallen prey, such as the myth of classlessness of child maltreatment. Acceptance of this myth interferes with the development of programs that deal with difficult environmental problems. Reports suggest that a behavioral approach is
are shown; one concerns the relation of abuser to child, while the other concerns the action taken on abuse cases. PMID:12291112
Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, Washington, DC.
Proceedings of a workshop on the need to establish a close working relationship between the medical, legal, and social work professions in the management of child abuse is presented. An introduction by Frank Beal is followed by welcoming remarks by Pennsylvania Governor Milton Shapp. Speeches by Elizabeth Davoren, Eli Newberger, and Vincent…
Crespo, Manuela; Andrade, David; Alves, Ana La-Salete; Magalhães, Teresa
Child Abuse is a frequent problem worldwide that surpasses ethnicity, religion, culture, economic and social classes. In the United States of America child protective services account, per year, over one million cases of child abuse or neglect. In Portugal, the incidence of the problem is unknown but each year thousands of abused children are accompanied by the Commissions for the Protection of Children and Youth at Risk. This abuse threatens children's physical, emotional and intellectual development, as well as their dignity, security, well-being and even their own lives. The body regions most frequently affected in physical abuse, are the cranium, neck and orofacial region, in fact, about 50% of the injuries arising from child abuse occur in the orofacial region. These data place the dentist in a privileged position to make the detection, diagnosis and report of child abuse. Therefore, these professionals must be prepared to recognize, diagnose and report their suspicions to the appropriate authorities, which play a key role in victims protection and criminal investigation. This review intends to stress the important role of the dentist in the detection, diagnosis and report of child abuse, systematizing child abuse risk factors and indicators essential to the intervention of these professionals. This problem's approach is multidisciplinary, involving particularly dentists, who must obtain continuing education and training in this area. PMID:22863503
Stirling, John; Amaya-Jackson, Lisa; Amaya-Jackson, Lisa
Children who have suffered early abuse or neglect may later present with significant behavior problems including emotional instability, depression, and a tendency to be aggressive or violent with others. Troublesome behaviors may persist long after the abusive or neglectful environment has changed or the child has been in foster care placement. Neurobiological research has shown that early abuse results in an altered physiological response to stressful stimuli, a response that deleteriously affects the child's subsequent socialization. Pediatricians can assist caregivers by helping them recognize the abused or neglected child's altered responses, formulate more effective coping strategies, and mobilize available community resources. PMID:18762538
Hart, Heledd; Rubia, Katya
Childhood maltreatment is a stressor that can lead to the development of behavior problems and affect brain structure and function. This review summarizes the current evidence for the effects of childhood maltreatment on behavior, cognition and the brain in adults and children. Neuropsychological studies suggest an association between child abuse and deficits in IQ, memory, working memory, attention, response inhibition and emotion discrimination. Structural neuroimaging studies provide evidence for deficits in brain volume, gray and white matter of several regions, most prominently the dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex but also hippocampus, amygdala, and corpus callosum (CC). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies show evidence for deficits in structural interregional connectivity between these areas, suggesting neural network abnormalities. Functional imaging studies support this evidence by reporting atypical activation in the same brain regions during response inhibition, working memory, and emotion processing. There are, however, several limitations of the abuse research literature which are discussed, most prominently the lack of control for co-morbid psychiatric disorders, which make it difficult to disentangle which of the above effects are due to maltreatment, the associated psychiatric conditions or a combination or interaction between both. Overall, the better controlled studies that show a direct correlation between childhood abuse and brain measures suggest that the most prominent deficits associated with early childhood abuse are in the function and structure of lateral and ventromedial fronto-limbic brain areas and networks that mediate behavioral and affect control. Future, large scale multimodal neuroimaging studies in medication-naïve subjects, however, are needed that control for psychiatric co-morbidities in order to elucidate the structural and functional brain sequelae that are associated with early environmental adversity
Cahill, L T; Kaminer, R K; Johnson, P G
There is growing interest in the neurologic, behavioral, and cognitive effects of child abuse and neglect. This article explores the literature on the short and long term sequelae of physically and sexually abused and neglected children, along with controversies generated by the studies themselves. Recommendations are made for swift and ongoing intervention in cases of child abuse to protect young victims from potentially devastating effects. PMID:10553206
Several research questions raises when physicians are confronted with a possible case of child abuse. First, there is a problem of professional secrecy. In most European countries, physicians have the right to speak when confronted with a state of emergency. In other countries, physicians have a duty to speak and alert the police when the life or physical integrity of a person is at stake. A second topic to be discussed involves the possible liability of physicians who do not report child abuse. By not reporting a case of possible child abuse, the physician is respecting the family life of the parents, even though the child might continue to suffer damages. Third and essentially, I analyse the possible liability of physicians who do inform the prosecutor ofa suspected child abuse. Specific criteria are elaborated to establish negligence when physicians report child abuse to the prosecutor. PMID:23984493
de Paul, Joaquin; Domenech, Leticia
Two matched groups (24 adolescents and 24 adults) of pregnant mothers were followed for 20 months. During pregnancy, memories of child maltreatment were evaluated. Although adolescent and adult mothers showed no differences in memories of childhood physical or emotional abuse, adolescent mothers and physically abused mothers showed higher child…
In recent decades, the history of childhood and history of education have gained status as political concerns through the establishment of numerous truth commissions and inquiries into historical institutional child abuse. This article discusses the methodological and ethical dilemmas that arise when writing the history of abused children with the…
Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Bernier, Jetta
This case study describes the Enough Abuse Campaign, a multidisciplinary, statewide effort to prevent child sexual abuse in Massachusetts. The study uses the Institute of Medicine's Framework for Collaborative Community Action on Health to provide a systematic description of the campaign's process of implementation, which includes: (a) developing…
Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Zhitova, Aren C.; Capone, Margery E.
Objective: Child abuse is a risk factor for developing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and subsequent Substance Use Disorder (SUD). The purpose of this review is to summarize current knowledge about effective treatments for adolescent abuse-related PTSD, SUD, and the co-occurrence of these conditions. Method: The literature on empirical…
ABSTRACT. This article discusses child sexual abuse by a person in a position of authority, such as the child's teacher, guardian, relative, sports coach, or other person with authority over a child because of his/her particular position. The article tracks the recent trend toward recognizing position of authority in both state legislation and judicial precedent. Understanding the confusion and intimidation surrounding a child's experiences as a result of being sexually abused by a person in a position of authority often explains why children often fail to report or delay in reporting such abuse. Thus, existence of a perpetrator's position of authority in a particular case of child sexual abuse should influence a court's rulings on the elements of sexual abuse or assault in particular state statutes, as well as what evidence should be admissible. Ultimately, the author concludes that all states should recognize position of authority in their child abuse statutes, that such statutes should be interpreted broadly by the courts, and, finally, that evidence of the defendant's prior acts of sexual abuse should almost always be admissible at trial. PMID:16221632
Briere, John N.; Elliott, Diana M.
Summarizes what is currently known about the potential, immediate, and long-term impact of child sexual abuse. The various problems and symptoms described in the literature on child sexual abuse are reviewed in a series of broad categories including posttraumatic stress, cognitive distortions, emotional pain, avoidance, an impaired sense of self,…
... Ask these questions to find out if preventing child sexual abuse is a priority for your child’s youth-sports ... Does staff receive training on recognizing and reporting child sexual abuse? How often? Is there a staff code of ...
Kotch, Jonathan B.
Analysis of 92 cases of fatally assaulted and 393 cases of intentionally injured children in New Zealand indicates that fatal child abuse is substantially underdiagnosed in official sources of mortality data and that there is an association between the race of the victim and whether the intentional injury is labeled child abuse. (Author/JDD)
Kline, Donald F.
Intended for such school personnel as teachers, administrators, school board members, school bus drivers, cafeteria workers, and parent-teacher organizations, the volume provides basic information on child abuse and neglect. Sections cover the following topics: child abuse and neglect as an historical phenomenon, causes (including characteristics…
Children's Hospital of the District of Columbia, Washington, DC.
Presented are key addresses and workshop summaries of the National Conference on Child Abuse (1973). Stressed by key speakers was the need for a coordinated, multidisciplinary effort at federal, state, and local levels in the areas of prevention, identification, and treatment of child abuse and neglect. Considered in the workshop summaries were…
Trocme, Nico; And Others
Discusses the Ontario Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (OIS), which is based on a survey of child protection workers involved in 2,447 abuse and neglect investigations. OIS found an incidence rate of reported maltreatment of 21 per 1,000 children and a 27% substantiation rate. Includes comparisons with incidence rates for the…
Slep, Amy M. Smith; Heyman, Richard E.; Snarr, Jeffery D.
Objective: Research on and intervention for child emotional abuse and emotional aggression toward children have been severely hampered because there have been no agreed-upon, clinically usable definitions. Methods: We have (a) proposed and field-tested a set of criteria to operationally define child emotional abuse for clinical settings and (b)…
Feng, Jui-Ying; Huang, Tzu-Yi; Wang, Chi-Jen
Objective: The objectives were to examine factors associated with reporting child abuse among kindergarten teachers in Taiwan based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Method: A stratified quota sampling technique was used to randomly select kindergarten teachers in Taiwan. The Child Abuse Intention Report Scale, which includes demographics,…
Cooper, Sharon W.
Analysis of child sexual abuse images, commonly referred to as pornography, requires a familiarity with the sexual maturation rating of children and an understanding of growth and development parameters. This article explains barriers that exist in working in this area of child abuse, the differences between subjective and objective analyses,…
Lawson, Michael A.; Alameda-Lawson, Tania; Byrnes, Edward C.
Objectives: The purpose of this study is to examine the extent to which participation in a county-wide prevention program leads to improvements in protective factors associated with child abuse prevention (CAP) and whether improvements in measured protective factors relate to decreased odds of child abuse. Method: Using multilevel growth modeling,…
Bryant, Jill K.
A study was done to investigate school counselors' child abuse reporting behaviors and perceptions regarding the child abuse reporting process. Participants were randomly selected from the American School Counselor Association membership database with 193 school counselors returning questionnaires. Overall, school counselors indicated that they…
Davis, Deborah Winders; Pressley-McGruder, Gloria; Jones, V. Faye; Potter, Deborah; Rowland, Michael; Currie, Melissa; Gale, Bruce
Child sexual abuse poses a serious threat to public health and is often unreported, unrecognized, and untreated. Prevention, early recognition, and treatment are critically important to reduce long-term effects. Little data are available on effective methods of preventing child sexual abuse. The current research demonstrates a unique approach to…
Feng, Jui-Ying; Wu, Yow-Wu B.; Fetzer, Susan; Chang, Hsin-Yi
Child abuse is underreported for children with socioeconomic inequalities. The impact of geographic location combined with sociocultural characteristics on teachers' reports of child abuse remains unclear. A national survey of 572 kindergarten teachers from 79 schools in Taiwan used hierarchical linear modeling to investigate the contribution of…
Child abuse is largely recognized as a significant issue within the school system and the larger society. In the schools, incidents of child abuse can take any of physical, sexual and psychological forms. This paper would restrict itself to bullying, by more specifically providing a clearer understanding of the concept of bullying, its prevalence,…
Malloy, Lindsay C.; Lyon, Thomas D.; Quas, Jodi A.
Objective: Controversy abounds regarding the process by which child sexual abuse victims disclose their experiences, particularly the extent to which and the reasons why some children, once having disclosed abuse, later recant their allegations. This study examined the prevalence and predictors of recantation among 2- to 17-year-old child sexual…
Nelson, Mary, Ed.; Clark, Kay, Ed.
This collection of articles was created to give professionals and educators an informed overview of current issues in the field of child sexual abuse prevention. Articles are grouped under the headings of Introduction, Issues in Child Sexual Abuse Prevention, and Guidelines for Prevention Education and include: (1) "Prevention Education in…
Simons, Dominique A.; Wurtele, Sandy K.; Durham, Robert L.
Objective: The aim of this study is to identify the distinct developmental experiences associated with child sexual abuse and rape. Method: For 269 sexual offenders (137 rapists and 132 child sexual abusers), developmental experiences were recorded from a behavioral checklist, a parental-bonding survey, and a sexual history questionnaire. Offender…
Breiner, Sander J.
Most child abuse has a violent quality. A review of the research on child abusers reveals some interesting psychosocial and historical characteristics. Research has shown violence to be more likely in less stable populations, in persons with poor driving records and histories of severe accidents, and in those who are undereducated and unsuccessful…
Daro, Deborah; Huang, Lee Ann; English, Brianna
The Duke Endowment launched its Child Abuse Prevention Initiative in 2002 by funding two program sites, the Durham Family Initiative in Durham, North Carolina, and Strong Communities in Greenville, South Carolina. Both sites aimed to reduce rates of child abuse, improve parenting practices and behaviors, strengthen community service systems, and…
This article talks about a model child abuse prevention approach called, "Supporting Teachers, Strengthening Families." It is NAEYC's professional development initiative to help early childhood educators play leading roles in preventing child abuse and neglect through family strengthening efforts. It focuses on six strategies that high-quality…
Dorman, Rebekah L.; Moore, Douglas J.; Schaerfl, Caroline A.
Preventing child abuse is an endeavor that requires equal parts of caring, optimism, and pragmatism. Drawing on the experiences of more than 100 child abuse prevention projects, this field-tested manual integrates the abstract principles of program development and prevention with the real world experiences and challenges faced by prevention…
The article 'Help in raising concerns about child abuse' (features April 27) focuses on escalation processes at the expense of providing practical advice about how professionals should respond in the event of a child disclosing an allegation of abuse. PMID:27206196
Cramer, Robert J.; Adams, Desiree D.; Brodsky, Stanley L.
Child sex abuse cases have been the target of considerable psycho-legal research. The present paper offers an analysis of psychological constructs for jury selection in child sex abuse cases from the defense perspective. The authors specifically delineate general and case-specific jury selection variables. General variables include…
Jones, Karyn Dayle
Many counselors attend graduate courses and seminars on the treatment of child abuse and neglect. Educators and trainers need to focus on the feelings and reactions elicited from exposure to the content of these courses. This article provides information on the impact of learning about the trauma of child abuse. (Author)
Burns, John L.
This paper addresses moderate- to long-term psychological effects of child abuse. It begins by discussing characteristics of effective and ineffective parenting to provide a background of potential contributors to child abuse within the family system. Belsky's (1984) developmental model of determinants of parenting behavior is explained and his…
National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (DHHS/OHDS), Washington, DC.
This publication provides basic information on the nature of child abuse and neglect, including chapters on: (1) the definition of relevant terms (physical abuse, neglect, emotional abuse, and sexual abuse); (2) the scope and magnitude of the problem of child abuse and neglect; (3) the causes of child maltreatment and the most common…
Parents are warned about the dangers of child sexual abuse and child pornography. To recognize potential threats, parents should know their children well, take time to communicate with them, and watch for changes in personality patterns. (PP)
Buckingham, E Taylor; Daniolos, Peter
Childhood abuse and neglect (child maltreatment) represent a common and significant public health burden. The consequences of maltreatment can be seen immediately, in the short term and in the long term. Determination of the exact prevalence of childhood maltreatment is difficult, as many cases go unreported; however in reported cases there is an estimated $124 billion annual burden on the US health-care system. The evaluation of potential maltreatment is difficult as many of the initial symptoms are subtle and can be explained with alternative illnesses or injuries. Potential immediate and short-term effects include brain injury, shaken baby syndrome and behavioral regression. The potential long-term sequelae of child maltreatment are explored in detail here and include increased risks of the development of mental health disorders, substance use disorders and chronic physical complaints during development and adulthood. Lastly, the review provides an overview of current treatment approaches for victims of childhood maltreatment. PMID:23307564
Rogers, D J; Roberts, R E
Whenever a child is seen in a genitourinary clinic the possibility that the child is the victim of child sexual abuse must be considered. This article considers the definition and postulated prevalence of child sexual abuse in England and Wales. A proposed management plan is then detailed with a review of the significance of the medical findings. Finally consideration is given to the ethical dilemmas which such cases pose. Images PMID:7750955
Johnson, Charles F.; Coury, Daniel L.
Two case histories illustrate the difficulty in evaluating abuse/neglect in children with bleeding problems such as hemophilia. Discussed are guidelines for diagnosis and prevention of abuse, including: screening techniques, the need for protection from environmental trauma, parental stress, evaluation of parents' disciplinary methods, and the…
Barnes, Peter M; Norton, Catherine M; Dunstan, Frank D; Kemp, Alison M; Yates, David W; Sibert, Jonathan R
Diagnosis of abuse in children with internal abdominal injury is difficult because of limited published work. We aimed to ascertain the incidence of abdominal injury due to abuse in children age 0-14 years. 20 children (identified via the British Paediatric Surveillance Unit) had abdominal injuries due to abuse and 164 (identified via the Trauma Audit and Research Network) had injuries to the abdomen due to accident (112 by road-traffic accidents, 52 by falls). 16 abused children were younger than 5 years. Incidence of abdominal injury due to abuse was 2.33 cases per million children per year (95% CI 1.43-3.78) in children younger than 5 years. Six abused children died. 11 abused children had an injury to the gut (ten small bowel) compared with five (all age >5 years) who were injured by a fall (relative risk 5.72 [95% CI 2.27-14.4]; p=0.0002). We have shown that small-bowel injuries can arise accidentally as a result of falls and road-traffic accidents but they are significantly more common in abused children. Therefore, injuries to the small bowel in young children need special consideration, particularly if a minor fall is the explanation. PMID:16023514
Medical child abuse or its better known name, Munchausen's Syndrome by Proxy, is a form of child maltreatment combining physical and emotional abuse as well as child neglect. As in other forms of child abuse and neglect that pediatricians encounter, the diagnosis is medical and is based on the existence of actual or potential harm to the child. A high index of suspicion is necessary when the medical team is faced with inexplicable findings as well as repeated treatment failure. There is extensive variability in the manifestation of this syndrome as well as a wide range of severity including the risk to the patient's life. In this article we describe medical child abuse and the means of diagnosing the syndrome. It is also stressed that, as in the case of any other form of child maltreatment, reporting is mandatory. PMID:19899249
... as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to homelessness, crime, and missed work or problems with keeping a job. It harms unborn babies and destroys families. There are different types of treatment for drug abuse. But the best is to prevent drug ...
COSTACURTA, M.; BENAVOLI, D.; ARCUDI, G.; DOCIMO, R.
SUMMARY Aim The aim of this report is to identify the main oral and dental aspects of physical and sexual abuse and dental neglect in childhood, contributing to the precocious identification and diagnosis in a dental practice. Methods The oral and dental manifestations were divided and classified according to the type of child abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect. Physical abuse Several studies in the literature have shown that oral or facial trauma occurs in about 50% of physically abused children; the oral cavity may be a central focus for physical abuse. Oro-facial manifestations of physical abuse include bruising, abrasions or lacerations of tongue, lips, oral mucosa, hard and soft palate, gingiva, alveolar mucosa, frenum; dental fractures, dental dislocations, dental avulsions; maxilla and mandible fractures. Sexual abuse Although the oral cavity is a frequent site of sexual abuse in children, visible oral injuries or infections are rare. Some oral signs may represent significant indications of sexual abuse, as erythema, ulcer, vescicle with purulent drainage or pseudomembranus and condylomatous lesions of lips, tongue, palate and nose-pharynx. Furthermore, if present erythema and petechiae, of unknown etiology, found on soft and hard palates junction or on the floor of the mouth, can be certainly evident proofs of forced oral sex. Dental neglect Oral signs of neglect are easily identifiable and are: poor oral hygiene, halitosis, Early Childhood Caries (ECC), odontogenous infections (recurrent and previous abscesses), periodontal disease, aptha lesions as a consequence of a nutritional deficiency status. Moreover, it is analyzed the assessment of bite marks because often associated with child abuse, the identification and collection of clinical evidence of this type of injury. Conclusion A precocious diagnosis of child abuse, in a dental practice, could considerably contribute in the identification of violence cases and in an early intervention. PMID
Wolfe, David A.
This book examines the role child abuse plays within a victim's individual development from childhood through their adult life. It begins by describing the different types of child abuse, prevalence rates, and risk factors. It also describes four types of child maltreatment that include: physical abuse, neglect, sexual abuse, and emotional abuse.…
Paci, A; Migliaccio, P; Paci, G
At the beginning of the statement the authors point out some lesser aspects of child's ill-treatment (previously suggested by them in other occasions) as expressions of very strict educational systems which strongly limit childrens' freedom or impose them several extrascholastic activities (such as: athletics, music with participation in competitive examination, studies of foreign languages, Latin and so on) where the child must excel in (composex of the "leader-child"). Then these authors suggest using the term "abuse" to mean lexically every excessive, undue, arbitrary use and not only "sexual". They point out the seriousness of abuse as far as juvenile exploitation is concerned both in case of manual labour and prostitution. But the pay particularly attention to the problem of sport when it is gone in for too intensively (as athletics). These authors infact sum up the harms that sport can cause when it is gone in for during the age under the stabilized puberty. Physical harms may occur especially during the practice of risky sports such as: Alpine skiing, cycling on the road, swimming combined with diving, fencing, boxing) and during tiring condition, while psychic harms can entail a fall in scholastic performances, irritability, insomnia, anxiety. The authors depreciate the behaviour of those parents who stimulate their children' aggressiveness during competitions and scold them when their performances are insufficient, or give them forbidden stimulants of hormonal anabolic drugs instead of taking care of their children in order to keep away from the arms mentioned above. However, after all these observations and considerations about competitive sports in juvenile age, these authors can firmly state that all this could be meant as an important aspects of the juvenile exploitation that must be taken in great consideration. PMID:11293144
A long-term study on child abuse and neglect in Greece is being carried out at the Institute of Child Health, Athens. A multidisciplinary team is investigating the nature of the problem in Greece, is trying a system of therapeutic intervention to families, is evaluating the adequacy of child protection as it is used in child abuse and neglect, and is examining the efficacy of the law. During a one year period, 5 children cared for in institutions were referred to the program. All were boys. All were children with minor or major handicaps. Two of died from the abusive incident. A study of the circumstances of the injury, and of the conditions in Greek institutions, supports the idea that institutional and family child abuse share many common characteristics. Special mention is made of the Greek circumstances pertaining to child protection and the law. PMID:6226340
Fegert, J M; Hoffmann, U; Spröber, N; Liebhardt, H
The article provides an overview of the research on sexual abuse and the current political developments in Germany. First, the terminology of sexual child abuse is discussed, followed by the presentation of epidemiological data. The section on diagnostics and therapy shows that--because of mostly nonspecific indicators--the diagnosis of child sexual abuse is very difficult to define. Child sexual abuse is discussed as a traumatic experience for children and adolescents with different psychiatric and physical diseases. Current studies have shown that especially cognitive behavioral therapeutic-oriented approaches are effective in curing posttraumatic stress disorders. Based on the new German Child Protection Act, the focus lies on the clarification of confidentiality for medical professionals and their right to consulting services for child protection. In conclusion, guidelines and minimum standards for a child prevention and protection model are presented as well as institutional recommendations addressed to all institutions (also clinical) that take care of or treat children and adolescents. PMID:23361204
Mapp, Susan C.
Objective: The potential path from sexual abuse as a child to the current risk of physical abuse by mothers was assessed. Ontogenic variables including the experience of the parent's sexual abuse as a child and current depression or substance abuse were expected to have a greater impact on the risk of child abuse than microsystem and exosystem…
Isaacs, C D
Child abuse has probably existed as a social problem as long as parents and children have lived under the same roof, and in recent years it has received tremendous attention. Most of the research has focused on etiology rather than treatment, leaving large gaps in our knowledge about remediating abuse. Behavioral scientists have only begun to formulate a conceptual framework from which to work. Many theoretical questions are yet unanswered, particularly the question of what constitutes abuse. Burgess (1978) believes that conceptual problems exist because abuse falls along a continuum of parent-child relationships--a continuum that at one end might include verbal punishment (e.g., threats, ridicule) or milder forms of physical punishment (e.g., slap on the hand, spanking), and at the other end include extreme forms of physical punishment that exceed community mores (for example, hitting a child with a closed fist, scalding a child in hot water, torturing or killing a child). Thus, the question-- where does discipline stop and abuse begin?-- faces every researcher who must operationally define abuse. Identifying the consequences of abuse in a child's development is another area of inquiry that remains untreated. Most of the literature is filled with the subjective impressions of professionals speculating that abused children become the juvenile delinquents and the child abusers of the future; however, as yet no longitudinal studies have been conducted that compare the developmental outcomes of abused and non-abused children from early childhood to later adulthood. What if there were no differences? How might this influence our approaches to the treatment of abuse? Answers to these and other questions will take years of study. Increased awareness of the problem of child abuse has led to greater efforts to remediate the problem. Treatment efforts with abusive families are still in the initial stages, but, undoubtedly, information from these early programs can be the
Pirdehghan, Azar; Vakili, Mahmood; Rajabzadeh, Yavar; Puyandehpour, Mohammad; Aghakoochak, Arezoo
Background Child abuse is a serious social health problem all over the world with important adverse effects. Objectives The aim of this study was to extend our understanding of the relation between mental disorders and child abuse. Materials and Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey on 700 students in secondary schools using multiple cluster sampling in Yazd, Iran in 2013. We applied 2 self reported questionnaires: DASS (depression anxiety stress scales)-42 for assessing mental disorders (anxiety, stress and depression) and a standard self-reported valid and reliable questionnaire for recording child abuse information in neglect, psychological, physical and sexual domains. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS software. P-values < 0.05 were considered as significant. Results There was a statically significant correlation between mental disorder and child abuse score (Spearman rho: 0.2; P-value < 0.001). The highest correlations between mental disorders and child abuse were found in psychological domain, Spearman’s rho coefficients were 0.46, 0.41 and 0.36 for depression, anxiety and stress respectively (P-value < 0.001). Based on the results of logistic regression for mental disorder, females, last born adolescents and subjects with drug or alcohol abuser parents had mental disorder odds of 3, 0.4 and 1.9 times compared to others; and severe psychological abuse, being severely neglected and having sexual abuse had odds 90, 1.6 and 1.5 respectively in another model. Conclusions Programming for mandatory reporting of child abuse by physicians and all health care givers e.g. those attending schools or health centers, in order to prevent or reduce its detrimental effects is useful and success in preventing child abuse could lead to reductions in the prevalence of mental disorders. PMID:27437096
Salvation Army. New York, NY.
This Leader's Guide prepared for the Salvation Army's Home League aims at helping community groups (particularly those which are church related) recognize the symptoms of child abuse and determine their course of action in preventing such abuse. Six forms of child abuse are cited: physical abuse, physical neglect, emotional abuse, emotional…
This guide for Colorado educators and other school personnel is intended to help define child abuse and neglect and develop appropriate policy and training programs. Sections address the following topics: identifying child abuse and neglect; identifying physical abuse; identifying neglect and emotional abuse; identifying sexual abuse; responding…
Singh, Mannat Mohanjeet; Parsekar, Shradha S.; Nair, Sreekumaran N.
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a universal problem with grave life-long outcomes. The estimates vary widely depending on the country under study, the definitions used, the type of CSA studied, the extent of coverage, and quality of data. This study intended to assess the magnitude and the issues related to CSA. We searched databases such as PubMed, Google scholar, web (newspaper reports), and government websites. The relevant data was extracted from these sources for gathering evidence on CSA and secondary data analysis was done. The prevalence of CSA was found to be high in India as well as throughout the world. CSA is an extensive problem and even the lowest prevalence includes a huge number of victims. It also has various adverse effects on the psychological, physical, behavioral, and interpersonal well-being of the victim. Hence, stringent measures should be taken for the prevention and control of this hidden public health issue. PMID:25657958
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Amounts subject to child abuse judgment... Under the Child Abuse Accountability Act Availability of Funds § 838.1111 Amounts subject to child abuse... child abuse enforcement orders only if all of the conditions necessary for payment of the...
Pereda, Noemi; Guilera, Georgina; Forns, Maria; Gomez-Benito, Juana
Objective: The purpose of this paper was to compare the prevalence rates of child sexual abuse reported by [Finkelhor, D. (1994). "The international epidemiology of child sexual abuse." "Child Abuse & Neglect," 18 (5), 409-417] with those found in recent publications in order to confirm the widespread prevalence of child sexual abuse. Methods:…
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Amounts subject to child abuse judgment... Under the Child Abuse Accountability Act Availability of Funds § 838.1111 Amounts subject to child abuse... child abuse enforcement orders only if all of the conditions necessary for payment of the...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Amounts subject to child abuse judgment... Under the Child Abuse Accountability Act Availability of Funds § 838.1111 Amounts subject to child abuse... child abuse enforcement orders only if all of the conditions necessary for payment of the...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Amounts subject to child abuse judgment... Under the Child Abuse Accountability Act Availability of Funds § 838.1111 Amounts subject to child abuse... child abuse enforcement orders only if all of the conditions necessary for payment of the...
Himelein, Melissa J.; McElrath, Jo Ann V.
Two studies examined coping strategies associated with resilience in a nonclinical sample of young adult child sexual abuse survivors. Survivors were likely to engage in positive illusions or such cognitive strategies as disclosing and discussing the abuse, minimization, positive reframing, and refusing to dwell on the experience. Results support…
As a result of the recent publicity given problems of physical and sexual child abuse, society now expects teachers to be fully informed, to educate both children and parents, and to actively intercede in abuse cases. Guidelines are given to help middle level teachers cope with these and related developments. (DCS)
Baurley, Marion E.; Street, Matthew H.
Designed to provide the reader with general background information in the area of American Indian child abuse and neglect law and to present a framework in which individual abuse or neglect cases may be analyzed, this report is divided into four sections. The first section describes features of the jurisdictional conflicts encountered in American…
Underwager, Ralph; Wakefield, Hollida
The investigation and adjudication of cases of alleged sexual abuse of children can cause as much or more trauma to a child as the sexual abuse itself. Such secondary victimization may occur when children are subjected to repeated interviews, questionable techniques, intrusive physical examinations, inappropriate reactions and overreactions by…
Kutsal, Ebru; Pasli, Figen; Isikli, Sedat; Sahin, Figen; Yilmaz, Gokce; Beyazova, Ufuk
This study aims to provide preliminary findings on the validity of Child Abuse Potential Inventory (CAP Inventory) on Turkish sample of 23 abuser and 47 nonabuser parents. To investigate validity in two groups, Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) Psychopathic Deviate (MMPI-PD) scale is also used along with CAP. The results show…
Saunders, Daniel G.
Reviews literature comparing risk that battered women and men who batter will physically abuse their children. Challenges several tenets of social work practice lore and cautions practitioners about use of psychological tests and profiles to judge child abuse potential and parenting ability. Discusses hazards of mediation and joint custody and…
Duty, Diane Scott
Sexual abuse of children has been recognized as a major problem. Attempts have been made to elicit descriptions of the abuse of children. A variety of interview methods for obtaining descriptions have been used. Methods of interviewing depend on the age of the child, the purpose of the interview, and the training and philosophy of the interviewer.…
The process of reporting abuse can be challenging, traumatic, and at times, overwhelming. In order for school counselors to be effective helpers for children, it is essential that they know how to recognize and prevent child abuse and neglect. The purpose of this article is to provide professional school counselors with information they can use to…
Osborne, Sandy; Seibel, Donnie
Analysis of data from 138 women, infants, children participants who completed Child Abuse Potential Inventory showed mothers with higher educational attainment appeared less likely to be abusive regardless of such factors as low income, single parenthood, or large family size. Mothers who did not complete high school were at greater risk for…
Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Roberts, Jennifer A.
Identifies major issues in current research on child sexual-abuse prevention including the effectiveness of assessment methods, potential side-effects of prevention programs, the developmental appropriateness of programs, the differential effectiveness of presenters of prevention materials, parental involvement in sexual-abuse prevention efforts,…
Parkinson, Patrick N.; Oates, R. Kim; Jayakody, Amanda A.
This article reports on a retrospective study of cases of child sexual abuse complaints made against clergy, other employed pastoral staff, and volunteers in the Anglican Church of Australia between 1990 and 2008. There were 191 allegations of sexual abuse made by 180 complainants against 135 individuals. Twenty-seven of those 135 had more than…
Haz, Ana Maria; Ramirez, Valeria
The validity of the Child Abuse Potential (CAP) Inventory was tested with a sample of 134 Chilean adults. The scale was able to discriminate between abusing and nonabusing individuals. The items which had the greatest discriminating power were related to feelings of depression, loneliness, anxiety, and family problems. (CR)
Weatherred, Jane Long
The media play an important role in practice, policy, and public perception of child sexual abuse, in part by the way in which news stories are framed. Child sexual abuse media coverage over the past 50 years can be divided into five time periods based on the types of stories that garnered news coverage and the ways in which public policy was changed. This systematic literature review of research on child sexual abuse media coverage across disciplines and geographic boundaries examines 16 studies published in the English language from 1995 to 2012. A seminal work is identified, citation network analysis is applied, and a framework model is developed. PMID:25635896
Kenny, Maureen C; Abreu, Roberto L
Given the incidence of child sexual abuse in the United States, mental health professionals need training to detect, assess, and treat victims and should possess a clear understanding of the process of victimization. However, many mental health professionals who work with children and families have not been exposed to any training in child sexual abuse during their formal education. This article will examine the need for such training, suggest critical components of child sexual abuse training, and describe various methods of training (e.g., in person, Web-based, and community resources). PMID:26301441
Kaur, Harsimran; Chaudhary, Seema; Choudhary, Nidhi; Manuja, Naveen; Chaitra, T.R.; Amit, Sinha Ashish
Background Child abuse continues to be a social menace causing both physical and emotional trauma to benevolent children. Census has shown that nearly 50–75% of child abuse include trauma to mouth, face, and head. Thus, dental professionals are in strategic position to identify physical and emotional manifestations of abuse. Aim A cross-sectional survey was undertaken to assess knowledge and attitude of dental practitioners regarding child abuse and to identify the barriers in reporting the same. Methods With prior consent, a 20-question survey including both multiple choice and dichotomous (Yes/No) questions was mailed to 120 state-registered general dentists, and the data collected were subjected to statistical analysis. Results Overall response rate to the questionnaires was 97%. Lack of knowledge about dentist's role in reporting child abuse accounted to 55% in the reasons for hesitancy to report. Pearson chi-square test did not show any significant difference between male and female regarding reason for hesitancy to report and legal obligation of dentists. Conclusion Although respondent dentists were aware of the diagnosis of child abuse, they were hesitant and unaware of the appropriate authority to report. Increased instruction in the areas of recognition and reporting of child abuse and neglect should be emphasized. PMID:27195209
Background Substance abuse is a social, and health problem in Middle Eastern countries such as Iran. One of its most devastating effects is domestic violence against children. This study examined the association between the history of parental substance abuse, and rate of child abuse in Ahvaz, Iran. Methods This was a case-control study. The study population included all parents with high school children in Ahwaz within the academic year 2012-2013. The sample size was 384 people in two groups; with a history of substance abuse (case group) and no history of substance abuse (control group). Multi-stage cluster random sampling method was used through the Cochran formula. The data collection tools included a Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) (Bernstein, 1995), a demographic questionnaire, Duncan Socioeconomic Index (DSI), and a researcher-made questionnaire for the history of substance abuse. For data analysis, statistical indicators such as percentage, mean, standard deviation, t-test, and correlation and regression analysis were used. Findings Data analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation among parents with a history of substance abuse and domestic violence toward children. Mean and standard deviation of the violence level in families with normal parents were 61.34 ± 16.88, and in families with a history of substance abuse were 98.99 ± 32.07. Therefore, the test results showed that there was a significant difference between normal families and families with history of substance abuse and violence toward children (P < 0.001, t = 8.60). Conclusion Based on the findings, the history of domestic violence and parental substance abuse (physical and emotional abuse, emotional and physical neglect) had a significant positive correlation with their behavior toward their children. After matching the two groups we found that the most common types of violence against children by their parents were, respectively, emotional violence (r = 58
Cantón-Cortés, David; Cortés, María Rosario; Cantón, José
The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of secure, avoidant, and anxious attachment styles on depressive symptomatology in child sexual abuse (CSA) among young female adult victims. The role of attachment style was studied by considering possible interactive effects with the type of abuse, the relationship with the perpetrator, and the continuity of abuse. Participants were 168 female victims of CSA. Information about the abuse was obtained from a self-reported questionnaire. Attachment style was assessed with the Attachment Style Measure (ASM), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to assess depressive symptomatology. Secure and anxious attachment styles were correlated with low and high depression scores respectively. The effects of attachment style were stronger in cases where the abuse consisted of oral sex/penetration, a non-family member as perpetrator, and in isolated, compared with continued, abuse. These results confirm that characteristics of CSA (type of abuse, relationship with the perpetrator, and continuity of abuse) can affect the impact of attachment style on depressive symptomatology. PMID:24958133
Glowacz, Fabienne; Born, Michel
The aim of this study was to identify two sub-populations of sex offenders based on the age of the victims and on the age difference between the abuser and the victim (child sexual abusers vs. peer sexual abusers), and to compare the personality characteristics of these two subgroups with those of juvenile non-sex offenders. The group was composed of 67 adolescent offenders aged 13-18 years who were adjudicated for sexual offenses or non-sexual offenses: 20 non-sex offenders (JNSOs), 26 child sexual abusers (CAs), and 21 peer sexual abusers (PAs). The Millon Adolescent Clinical Inventory (MACI) was administered to all participants. The mean scores and clinical cutoffs on the MACI scales were compared across the three samples. Compared with PAs, CAs were more submissive and conforming, and they experienced more anxious feelings. Peer sexual abusers scored higher on the unruly and forceful personality scales, on social insensitivity, and on delinquent predisposition. Peer sexual abusers also reported higher scores on substance-abuse proneness, impulsive propensities, and antisocial functioning than CAs, but their scores were similar to those of JNSOs. Our results show clear similarities between PAs and JNSOs in terms of personality and clinical characteristics, especially with regard to antisocial personality traits. Child sexual abusers did not display the personality characteristics typical of PAs and JNSOs which predisposed them to delinquent activities. These results raise questions as to whether juvenile sex offenders should be treated within the same institutions as non-sex offenders and whether the same treatment programs should be implemented for all types of juvenile sex offenders. PMID:23064997
Zuravin, Susan J.; And Others
Examined reports of one physically abused child from each of 789 families. Results of ordinal probit regression analysis identified that model with four predictors (perpetrator identity, reporter identity, severity of allegations, and season report was made) and two interaction terms (child's age by mother's age and child's age by child's gender)…
Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for Victims ...
Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for Victims ...
Kelley, Susan J.
A study of 161 substance-abusing mothers assessed 10 maternal risk factors: maternal depression; domestic violence; nondomestic violence; family size; incarceration; no significant other at home; negative life events; psychiatric problems; homelessness; and drug use severity. Parenting stress and child abuse potential was higher for women with…
Deblinger, Esther; And Others
Compares nonoffending mothers with and without a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) to the sexual abuse allegations concerning their children. Nonoffending mothers with a history of CSA exhibited more distress and reported greater feelings of aloneness in facing the crisis. However, maternal history of CSA did not differentiate the groups with…
Kleemeier, C; Webb, C; Hazzard, A; Pohl, J
Teachers are potentially helpful resource persons for large numbers of sexually abused children who may have difficulty disclosing abuse, particularly to family members. In the present study, the effectiveness of a 6-hour teacher training workshop on child sexual abuse prevention was evaluated. Responses of 26 female elementary teachers who participated in the workshop were compared to responses of 19 control teachers on several pre-, post-, and follow-up measures. Relative to controls, trained teachers demonstrated significant increases from pre- to post-testing in knowledge about child sexual abuse and pro-prevention opinions. On a post-only vignettes measure, trained teachers were better able than control teachers to identify behavioral indicators of abuse and suggest appropriate interventions for hypothetical sexually abused children. Over a 6-week follow-up period, trained teachers read more about child abuse than control teachers but did not differ on other behavioral dimensions such as reporting suspected abuse cases. Further research will examine the effects of additional teacher training over an extended follow-up period. PMID:3233520
Koerin, Beverly B.
Overviews the development of social responses to the problems of child abuse and neglect. Focuses on history, social values and attitudes, public awareness and policy, laws, and the evolution of social services. (Author/RH)
Discusses criteria for identification of six types of physical maltreatment of children. The typology represents a broad framework which is used to differentiate between milder and more severe forms of physical child abuse. (NH)
... 8949 of March 29, 2013 Proc. 8949 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2013By the President of the... experienced abuse or neglect, it is a promise that goes tragically unfulfilled. National Child Abuse... addressing child abuse a priority. Since I took office, we have advocated for responsible parenting...
Wolf, Molly R.; Nochajski, Thomas H.
Although the issue of dissociative amnesia in adult survivors of child sexual abuse has been contentious, many research studies have shown that there is a subset of child sexual abuse survivors who have forgotten their abuse and later remembered it. Child sexual abuse survivors with dissociative amnesia histories have different formative and…
Sugaya, Luisa; Hasin, Deborah S.; Olfson, Mark; Lin, Keng-Han; Grant, Bridget F.; Blanco, Carlos
This study characterizes adults who report being physically abused during childhood, and examines associations of reported type and frequency of abuse with adult mental health. Data were derived from the 2000–2001 and 2004–2005 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, a large cross-sectional survey of a representative sample (N = 43,093) of the U.S. population. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric disorders were computed. Logistic regression models were used to examine the strength of associations between child physical abuse and adult psychiatric disorders adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, other childhood adversities, and comorbid psychiatric disorders. Child physical abuse was reported by 8% of the sample and was frequently accompanied by other childhood adversities. Child physical abuse was associated with significantly increased adjusted odds ratios (AORs) of a broad range of DSM-IV psychiatric disorders (AOR = 1.16–2.28), especially attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. A dose-response relationship was observed between frequency of abuse and several adult psychiatric disorder groups; higher frequencies of assault were significantly associated with increasing adjusted odds. The long-lasting deleterious effects of child physical abuse underscore the urgency of developing public health policies aimed at early recognition and prevention. PMID:22806701
Pierce, R L
In the decade of the 70s, much was learned about abused and neglected children and their families. Public outcry demanded action at the state, regional and national level hoping that the effort would generate more effective methods of identification, intervention and treatment. Consequently, researchers and theoreticians initiated efforts that were aimed at providing a better understanding of why some parents abuse or neglect their children while others do not. In spite of all the energy and time, one form of child abuse continues to flourish relatively unnoticed--child pornography, or as it is more commonly known in the trade, "kiddie" or "chicken" porn. Because of the dearth of information about the subject, this paper addresses five key issues: Who are the children who become the young stars of pornographic films? How many children are estimated to be involved in this activity? What are the presumed effects of such involvement on children? Legal issues related to the control of the pornographic industry; and What is the challenge to social work and other helping professionals? PMID:6542820
... them. Another word for hurting someone is "abuse." Child abuse (say: ah-BYOOS) can affect all kinds of ... a babysitter, teacher, coach, or a bigger kid. Child abuse can happen anywhere — at home, school, childcare, or ...
Abstract Background Several researches indicate that most child victims delay disclosing of sexual abuse for significant periods of time. There are numerous reasons as to why children are avoiding the disclosure of the abuse. The aim of this study was to determine how a mother’s response to a child’s allegations impacts the child’s willingness to disclose sexual abuse. Methods We conducted a retrospective quantitative and qualitative analysis of 73 court-referred cases of child sexual abuse which have been disclosed in Slovenia in the last ten years. All the child victims included in the study were female and the perpetrators adult male persons. The expert opinions were made by the same expert. Results We realized that, at the occurrence of abuse, the child victims were from 4 to 15 years old and their mean age was at 11. 5 years. About two-thirds of children were victims of the intra-familial type (61.6%) and a little more than one third of extra-familial type of sexual abuse (38.4%). The group of victims with the support of their mothers needed about 9 months to disclose the secret, while the delay of the disclosure in the cases without the support of mothers was much longer (M=6.9 years). Conclusion For female child victims of sexual abuse the perceived protective attitude of their mothers is very important. Especially when the sexual abuse happened in the family, the mother’s support can attribute to stop the ongoing abuse, eliminate its immediate effects and decrease its likely negative long-term outcome. PMID:27284381
The increase in drug abuse in South Africa has had major social implications in the country. Problems associated with drug dependency are poverty, unemployment, a heavier burden on the health care system, the disintegration of family systems and drug-related crimes. Another area of concern is the link between drug abuse and child abuse. While…
Kapoor, Reena; Zonana, Howard
Statutes requiring physicians to report suspected cases of child abuse create a potential conflict for psychiatrists working in the forensic setting. What happens in the case in which a forensic psychiatrist, during the course of an evaluation requested by a defense attorney, learns about child abuse perpetrated by the evaluee? A complicated legal, ethics-related, and interpersonal dilemma emerges. Reporting the abuse may contribute directly to further legal harm to the evaluee and place a strain on the relationship with the attorney. However, not reporting the abuse potentially involves ignoring a legal mandate and risking further harm to a child. This article first reviews mandated reporting statutes across the states. Next, the arguments for and against reporting are outlined. Existing solutions to the problem are reviewed, and several alternative solutions are explored. Finally, an approach to negotiating the dilemma that can be used by forensic psychiatrists in practice is suggested. PMID:20305075
Batchelor, Ervin S.; And Others
Examined incidence of child sexual abuse (CSA) reports to school psychologists and perceived quality of services to child victims and surveyed usage of CSA prevention and screening programs. Subjects included 171 school psychologists who reported 498 CSA cases. Results suggest need for training school psychologists in assessment of child sexual…
Leeb, Rebecca T.; Bitsko, Rebecca H.; Merrick, Melissa T.; Armour, Brian S.
In this article we review the empirical evidence for the presumptions that children with disabilities are at increased risk for child maltreatment, and parents with disabilities are more likely to perpetrate child abuse and neglect. Challenges to the epidemiological examination of the prevalence of child maltreatment and disabilities are…
Neutze, Janina; Grundmann, Dorit; Scherner, Gerold; Beier, Klaus Michael
Current knowledge about risk factors for child sexual abuse and child pornography offenses is based on samples of convicted offenders, i.e., detected offenders. Only few studies focus on offenders not detected by the criminal justice system. In this study, a sample of 345 self-referred pedophiles and hebephiles was recruited from the community. All participants met DSM-IV-TR criteria for pedophilia or hebephilia (paraphilia not otherwise specified), were assured of confidentiality, and self-reported lifetime sexual offending against prepubescent and/or pubescent children. Two sets of group comparisons were conducted on self-report data of risk factors for sexual reoffending. Measures of risk factors address the following dimensions identified in samples of convicted offenders: sexual preferences (i.e. co-occurring paraphilias), sexual self-regulation problems, offense-supportive cognitions, diverse socio-affective deficits, and indicators of social functioning (e.g., education, employment). Men who admitted current or previous investigation or conviction by legal authorities (detected offenders) were compared with those who denied any detection for their sexual offenses against children (undetected offenders). Group comparisons (detected vs. undetected) were further conducted for each offense type separately (child pornography only offenders, child sexual abuse only offenders, mixed offenders). Although there were more similarities between undetected and detected offenders, selected measures of sexual-self regulation problems, socio-affective deficits, and social functioning data demonstrated group differences. PMID:22420934
Evasovich, M; Klein, R; Muakkassa, F; Weekley, R
The financial burden imposed on society by abusing children through burn injury is unknown. This study retrospectively evaluates the economic impact and demographics of such abuse on patients and their families treated at Children's Hospital Medical Center of Akron (CHMCA) from four counties over a 5 year period. The inclusive group consisted of all children evaluated during the stated period referred to Social Services for possible child abuse. There were 104 children (55 females and 49 males, 46% black and 56% white) with a mean age of 3.76 years. 71% of the patients came from single parent homes (all single mothers). There were a total of 58 admissions with a mean length of stay of 10.53 days. Total cost for all patients was approximately 1.2 million dollars for health care, of which 65% was government funded. In addition to hospital costs, the perpetrators incurred court costs and jail costs, all of which were the financial responsibility of Summit County. Child abuse through burns imposes a potentially preventable financial burden. This study does not take into account the socioeconomic and psychological impact on the abused victims through life, which is incalculable. By increasing awareness about the demographics and financial burden of child abuse, this paper may serve as a focus for further study and prevention of such abuse. PMID:9882063
Newton, Jeremy W; Hobbs, Sue D
The current study investigated effects of simulated memory impairment on recall of child sexual abuse (CSA) information. A total of 144 adults were tested for memory of a written CSA scenario in which they role-played as the victim. There were four experimental groups and two testing sessions. During Session 1, participants read a CSA story and recalled it truthfully (Genuine group), omitted CSA information (Omission group), exaggerated CSA information (Commission group), or did not recall the story at all (No Rehearsal group). One week later, at Session 2, all participants were told to recount the scenario truthfully, and their memory was then tested using free recall and cued recall questions. The Session 1 manipulation affected memory accuracy during Session 2. Specifically, compared with the Genuine group's performance, the Omission, Commission, or No Rehearsal groups' performance was characterized by increased omission and commission errors and decreased reporting of correct details. Victim blame ratings (i.e., victim responsibility and provocativeness) and participant gender predicted increased error and decreased accuracy, whereas perpetrator blame ratings predicted decreased error and increased accuracy. Findings are discussed in relation to factors that may affect memory for CSA information. PMID:26294381
Roberts, Susan; Vanstone, Maurice
There is a dearth of research on sexual abuse perpetrated by educators. Although the problem is receiving increasing attention, little emphasis has been placed on abuse directed at younger schoolchildren and on offenders' accounts of this form of abuse. Here, we attempt to address this gap in knowledge by exploring the narratives of five convicted, imprisoned male child sexual abusers, each of whom worked with children in educational settings in the United Kingdom. We draw on four themes that emerged from detailed interviews with offenders, namely: the power of reputation, authority and control, the "front of invulnerability," and disclosure of abuse. We conclude by considering the implications of our work for policy and practice. PMID:24945659
Parkinson, Patrick N; Oates, R Kim; Jayakody, Amanda A
This article reports on a retrospective study of cases of child sexual abuse complaints made against clergy, other employed pastoral staff, and volunteers in the Anglican Church of Australia between 1990 and 2008. There were 191 allegations of sexual abuse made by 180 complainants against 135 individuals. Twenty-seven of those 135 had more than one complaint made against them. Three-quarters of all complainants were male. The most likely explanation for the large proportion of abused males is that the church gives many more opportunities for abusers to be alone with boys than with girls. Prevention strategies need to focus on reducing the opportunities for abuse to occur as well strategies concerning the recruitment of professional staff and volunteers. PMID:22994693
Romeo, Lucia; Gibelli, Daniele; Giannotta, Federica; Zocchi, Maria T; Rossi, Roberto C; Kustermann, Alessandra; Cattaneo, Cristina
The introduction of the concept of child abuse has radically changed the mode of interaction between pediatricians and children, but also the practice of sanitary personnel in primary care centers, who are often the first to see victims of maltreatment. This study aims at illustrating the results of a questionnaire sent to family doctors, pediatricians and hospitals in Milan and surrounding areas concerning child abuse. Among all the operators, 273 returned the questionnaires. The results show scarce knowledge on how to report to judicial authority in cases of child abuse (51.5%), mainly because of lack of basilar information concerning the manner of reporting. For what concerns specific training, almost half the subjects recruited for the study admitted not to have attended any congress or meeting concerning child maltreatment in the last three years. In the same time span, more than one third has not read any scientific articles concerning child abuse. In addition, 75.6% admit to not ever having attended any professional training course concerning child maltreatment. This study highlights the scarce knowledge on the behalf of pediatricians and general practitioners regarding how to deal with child abuse and the importance of proper training programs. PMID:27176667
Swanston, Heather Y.; Plunkett, Angela M.; O'Toole, Brian I.; Shrimpton, Sandra; Parkinson, Patrick N.; Oates, R. Kim
A follow-up study of 103 Australian individuals (Ages 14-25) who were sexually abused, found they performed more poorly than controls on measures of depression, self-esteem, anxiety, behavior, and despair. They were also more likely to have a history of bingeing, smoking, and using amphetamines. Potential risk factors are discussed. (Contains…
Sebald, Ann M.
The professional literature contains research and anecdotal information on various maltreatments affecting children and youth with and without disabilities. Unfortunately, little information exists on abused children with hearing loss. Reasons relate to a lack of quantity and quality in research on this population; challenges in conducting…
Reviews the literature on children's retraction of their disclosure of having been sexually abused. The evidence indicates that very few lied originally. The circumstances that underlie recantation, including false allegations, secrecy, denial, lack of support, pressure to recant, societal attitudes, and intervening events, are discussed, and…
Cadol, Roger V.; And Others
Presented is the final report of the Child Study Program, in which the following objectives were investigated with 140 abused children (from birth to 72-months-old) -- whether abused children are developmentally different from non-abused children, whether there are differences between children who sustained non-accidental trauma (NAT) and children…
Sivan, A B
Allegations of mistreatment by adults made by children of preschool age are often dismissed as fictitious with the suggestion that children of this age are prone to fantasy and unable to discriminate fact from fiction. This paper is intended to familiarize those with a general concern about child abuse with the research and theories in child development. Specifically, it reviews those aspects of normal child development which have direct relevance to the question of the veracity of reports made by children ages 2 to 5 years. Examination of the research on children's thought and language, memory and learning, fears, fantasy, and play, as well as the research on the influence of television on children of this age, led to the conclusion that preschoolers base their play on the reality of their experience. PMID:1959080
Reid, Bernadette; Long, Ann
The purpose of this article is to explore and examine how the value judgments of the health professionals involved affected the interaction between themselves and a mother with her injured child who presented at an accident and emergency department. The interaction is depicted by means of a classroom role-play in which the "actors" are nurses. Analysis of the interaction demonstrates clearly how the perspectives of health professionals may be enshrouded by a miasma of suspicion. Indeed, by focusing on the actions of the mother rather than the needs of the child, suspicion gained momentum and finally entered the public domain. Encouraging health professionals to listen to what the child has to say goes some way to challenging the suspicion of abuse. Nonetheless, in the role-play analyzed, the mounting suspicion so antagonized the mother that an angry confrontation with the doctor ensued, the doctor being forced to make an embarrassing apology. Yet the interaction is so irredeemably prejudiced that it remains impossible either to confirm or reject the suspicion of abuse. Analysis of the interaction attempted to unravel some of the knots in which we, as health professionals, unfailingly tie ourselves when communicating with patients-knots of suspicion, labeling, conflict, embarrassment, and power that fail to anchor the humanity of "self" or others. PMID:12094365
Vitale, Melissa A; Squires, Janet; Zuckerbraun, Noel S; Berger, Rachel P
Current theories suggest that all children in a home are at risk for physical abuse, when one child is abused. However, little evidence exists to guide decisions regarding the medical management of siblings of physically abused children (contact children [CC]). This study sought to compare child protective services (CPS) caseworkers' and child abuse physicians' (CAP) recommendations regarding the need for medical evaluation of CC in case scenarios of unequivocal physical abuse. In all cases, caseworkers and physicians disagreed on which CC warranted a medical evaluation. In addition, 25% of caseworkers did not think that physicians should make recommendations on the need for medical evaluation of CC. The findings of the authors suggest that the home visit is a critical part of the decision-making process for caseworkers and that it often acts as a substitute for a medical evaluation. Caseworkers indicated that visible injury to the contact child and severity of injury to the index child were among the most important factors in deciding which CC need a medical evaluation. Although caseworkers and physicians disagree on certain issues related to the evaluation of CC, it is clear that limited resources should be directed at CC at highest risk for physical abuse. PMID:20147344
Kennedy, Stephanie C.; Kim, Johnny S.; Tripodi, Stephen J.; Brown, Samantha M.; Gowdy, Grace
Objective: To use meta-analytic techniques to evaluating the effectiveness of parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) at reducing future physical abuse among physically abusive families. Methods: A systematic search identified six eligible studies. Outcomes of interest were physical abuse recurrence, child abuse potential, and parenting stress.…
Beitchman, Joseph H.; And Others
This review of the short-term effects of child sexual abuse examines age and sex of child, relationship to offender, frequency and duration of abuse, type of sexual act and use of force, and family functioning. Frequency/duration of abuse, abuse involving force, and close relationship to the perpetrator were related to more severe outcomes.…
Baker, J N; Tanis, H J; Rice, J B
Siblings are often not included in treatment programs for children who have been sexually abused. This article describes the necessity of including siblings in the treatment of victims of child sexual abuse. Including siblings in treatment permits families to realize the maximum benefits of therapy for the victim as well as each family member. Theoretical and practical reasons to include siblings in treatment are discussed (i.e., preventing future abuse, providing support for siblings, teaching siblings to refrain from victim-blaming). Case examples using a particular intervention approach at The Family Learning Program and results of client satisfaction surveys are described. PMID:17521997
... Additional Resources Return to: What is Elder Abuse? Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse Substance abuse has been identified ... the most frequently cited risk factor associated with elder abuse and neglect. It may be the victim and/ ...
Sale, June Solnit; And Others
In California, the desire to do something about child abuse, fanned by repeated and often sensational media coverage, has led to an understandable but counterproductive overreaction on the part of professionals and citizens reporting suspected child abuse. Child protective agencies receive an average of one report a minute. There are over 300,000…
Milner, Joel S.; Thomsen, Cynthia J.; Crouch, Julie L.; Rabenhorst, Mandy M.; Martens, Patricia M.; Dyslin, Christopher W.; Guimond, Jennifer M.; Stander, Valerie A.; Merrill, Lex L.
Objective: Although the intergenerational transmission of family violence has been well documented, the mechanisms responsible for this effect have not been fully determined. The present study examined whether trauma symptoms mediate the relationship between a childhood history of child physical abuse (CPA) and adult CPA risk, and whether any such…
Baril, Karine; Tourigny, Marc; Paillé, Pierre; Pauzé, Robert
Considering the importance of mother's support in the adaptation of a sexually abused child, it is relevant to determine if the mothers and children involved in an intergenerational cycle of child sexual victimization differ from dyads in which only the child has been abused. The purpose of this study was to compare mother-child dyads with sexually abused children according to whether the mother had herself been victim of child sexual abuse. The sample included 87 dyads with sexually abused children aged 3-18 years old and their mothers (44 reporting maternal and child abuse), followed by social welfare services of the province of Quebec (Canada). The two groups of mothers were compared on their past family abuse experiences and past family relations, their mental health history, their current psychological distress, their parenting behaviors, and their current levels of family functioning. Children were compared on their adaptation. Multivariate analyses indicated that mothers reporting child sexual abuse were more likely to report more other maltreatments in their childhood and greater prevalence of lifetime history of alcohol abuse disorders, dysthymia, and panic disorder compared with mothers who had not experienced CSA. Compared to children whose mothers had not experienced CSA, those whose mothers had experienced CSA showed higher rates of problems behaviors and were more likely to report having been sexually abused by a trusted person. These results highlight the specific clinical needs for the assessment and treatment for sexually abused children whose mothers experienced child sexual abuse. PMID:27472507
Anderst, James; Kellogg, Nancy; Jung, Inkyung
Objectives: To characterize the changes regarding the diagnosis of physical abuse provided to Child Protective Services (CPS) when CPS asks a Child Abuse Pediatrics (CAP) specialty group for a second opinion and works in concert with that CAP group. Methods: Subjects were reported to CPS for suspected physical abuse and were first evaluated by a…
National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2009
Child sexual abuse is any interaction between a child and an adult (or another child) in which the child is used for the sexual stimulation of the perpetrator or an observer. Children of all ages, races, ethnicities, and economic backgrounds are vulnerable to sexual abuse. Children who have been sexually abused may display a range of emotional and…
Adams, Joyce A.
The medical evaluation of children with suspected sexual abuse includes more than just the physical examination of the child. The importance of taking a detailed medical history from the parents and a history from the child about physical sensations following sexual contact has been emphasized in other articles in the medical literature. The…
Lalayants, Marina; Epstein, Irwin
A review of child welfare research literature reveals that although multidisciplinary teams are increasingly used to investigate and intervene in child abuse and neglect cases, the field does not know enough about their structural variations, implementation processes, or effectiveness. Moreover, although articles advocating multidisciplinary teams…
McKee, Bronagh E.; Dillenburger, Karola
Increasing awareness of child abuse and neglect (CAN) raises questions about how well teachers are prepared for their role in child protection. This paper assesses and differentiates training needs of first-year students (n = 216) in Northern Ireland. Multiple-choice tests were used to assess knowledge of CAN statistics; recognising and reporting;…
National Indian Child Abuse and Neglect Resource Center, Tulsa, OK.
In 1978 the Indian Child Welfare Act was passed which implemented new regulations regarding the removal of Indian children from their parents and their placement in residential and foster care or adoptive families or institutions. The 7-page information sheet provides guidelines in prevention of institutional child abuse and neglect of American…
Daro, Deborah; Gelles, Richard J.
Examines public attitudes toward parental discipline practices, incidences of parental practices, the public's support for and involvement in child abuse prevention efforts, and the public's perceptions of causes of child maltreatment. Found that most persons view physical punishment and repeated yelling and swearing at children as harmful.…
NCANDS collects data on child maltreatment from the States. It was developed in response to the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (Public Law 93-247), as amended, which called for the creation of a coordinated national data collection and analysis program, both universal a...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Child abuse and neglect programs. 1357.20 Section 1357.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT..., FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Child abuse and neglect programs. 1357.20 Section 1357.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT..., FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Child abuse and neglect programs. 1357.20 Section 1357.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT..., FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Child abuse and neglect programs. 1357.20 Section 1357.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT..., FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES...
... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Child abuse and neglect programs. 1357.20 Section 1357.20 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT..., FOSTER CARE MAINTENANCE PAYMENTS, ADOPTION ASSISTANCE, AND CHILD AND FAMILY SERVICES...
Eisenberg, N.; And Others
Results of surveying 299 professionals concerning their knowledge and attitudes about child sexual abuse and incest showed that the type of sexual activity involved influenced responses; the type of relationship between adult and child, less so. Estimates of incest were low but incest was considered to be harmful to the victim. (Author/DB)
McPherson, Paul; Scribano, Philip; Stevens, Jack
Child sexual abuse (CSA) often requires psychological treatment to address the symptoms of victim trauma. Barriers to entry and completion of counseling services can compromise long-term well-being. An integrated medical and mental health evaluation and treatment model of a child advocacy center (CAC) has the potential to reduce barriers to mental…
Dunstan, Frank; Harrison, Sara; Morris, Susan; Mann, Mala; Rolfe, Kim; Datta, Shalini; Thomas, D Phillip; Sibert, Jonathan R; Maguire, Sabine
Objectives To systematically review published studies to identify the characteristics that distinguish fractures in children resulting from abuse and those not resulting from abuse, and to calculate a probability of abuse for individual fracture types. Design Systematic review. Data sources All language literature search of Medline, Medline in Process, Embase, Assia, Caredata, Child Data, CINAHL, ISI Proceedings, Sciences Citation, Social Science Citation Index, SIGLE, Scopus, TRIP, and Social Care Online for original study articles, references, textbooks, and conference abstracts until May 2007. Study selection Comparative studies of fracture at different bony sites, sustained in physical abuse and from other causes in children <18 years old were included. Review articles, expert opinion, postmortem studies, and studies in adults were excluded. Data extraction and synthesis Each study had two independent reviews (three if disputed) by specialist reviewers including paediatricians, paediatric radiologists, orthopaedic surgeons, and named nurses in child protection. Each study was critically appraised by using data extraction sheets, critical appraisal forms, and evidence sheets based on NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination guidance. Meta-analysis was done where possible. A random effects model was fitted to account for the heterogeneity between studies. Results In total, 32 studies were included. Fractures resulting from abuse were recorded throughout the skeletal system, most commonly in infants (<1 year) and toddlers (between 1 and 3 years old). Multiple fractures were more common in cases of abuse. Once major trauma was excluded, rib fractures had the highest probability for abuse (0.71, 95% confidence interval 0.42 to 0.91). The probability of abuse given a humeral fracture lay between 0.48 (0.06 to 0.94) and 0.54 (0.20 to 0.88), depending on the definition of abuse used. Analysis of fracture type showed that supracondylar humeral fractures were less likely
Lewark, Carol A.
Records (1972-1982) showing documentation of abuse or neglect in 95 developmentally disabled children were examined. Information was gathered on the children's functioning level, family income, involvement of communiy services, sibling abuse, and family's general lifestyle. Results indicated that in almost every case, the families experienced…
Gushurst, Colette A
Although researchers in psychology and the social sciences will need to continue to identify the behavioral consequences of abuse and treatment strategies, pediatricians may still be the first line professionals to suspect and intercept victims. Remember that, especially in cases where there have been threats or falsification of illness, it is wise to enlist integrated multidisciplinary services to ensure the safety of the child before confronting any potential perpetrators. Physicians have become better trained to be more vigilant in detecting signs of physical abuse, but it seems that psychologic and sexual maltreatment may cause more long-term problems but are more difficult to detect. Although a book by Everett and Gallop is written for mental health professionals, the chapters on why a history of childhood trauma is often missed, recognizing signs and symptoms, and asking about abuse, are all helpful for pediatricians and other health care professionals. In certain situations, physicians should attempt to talk to children privately, so that those who are old enough might have an opportunity to relate events that are traumatic, and so that abusive parents will not have an opportunity to interrupt, instill additional fear in the child, or abruptly change providers. Children need someone to ask them directly about their experiences and act on any suspicions. Asking once may not be enough, because a frightened child may initially deny physical or sexual abuse, but be ready to tell at another time. A vocal adult survivor of Munchausen syndrome by proxy and severe physical abuse explains: The dilemma is how to be loved and accepted. Even once a child recognizes that it is wrong, victims may be afraid to speak up for fear of anger and more abuse at the hand of the abuser. By the time I reached eleven, I was angry enough at what my mother had gotten away with, I would have been more truthful. It would have been a relief to have someone else voice their own suspicions
Herrada-Huidobro, A; Nazar-Beutelspacher, A; Cassaball-Núñez, M; Vega-Ramos, R; Nava-Cruz, C B
A longitudinal, retrospective and descriptive study about child abuse was carried out in the Hospitals of the Tlaxcala Secretariat of Health, Mexico. The information was obtained from hospitalized children's charts between January first and November 30, 1991. The charts included were those belonging to zero to 14 year old children with injuries, poisoning, and II-III degrees of malnutrition. Four child-abuse criteria were established: physical, sexual, non organic malnutrition and mixed (physical and non organic malnutrition). Two control groups were defined. Different patterns were observed between accidental and non accidental injuries, malnutrition and poisoning among the case and the control groups. The study provides useful information for the integral diagnosis of child abuse in hospitalized children. PMID:1475698
Breyer, Rebekah J; MacPhee, David
Authoritarian ideology, including religious conservativism, endorses obedience to authority and physical punishment of children. Although this association has been studied at the level of the family, little research has been conducted on whether conservativism in the broader community context correlates with the mistreatment of children. The purpose of this study was to determine whether this relation between conservativism and physical punishment of children extends to child abuse rates at the community level. Predictors included county-level religious and political conservativism and demographic variables. Political and religious conservativism covaried, and both were inversely related to child abuse rates. Population density was strongly related to rates of maltreatment and with demographic factors controlled, religious conservativism but not political conservativism continued to predict rates of child abuse. The results suggest that community factors related to social disorganization may be more important than religious or political affiliation in putting children at risk for maltreatment. PMID:25524270
Goldman, Jill; Salus, Marsha K.; Wolcott, Deborah; Kennedy, Kristie Y.
Child abuse and neglect is a community concern. Each community has a legal and moral obligation to promote the safety, permanency, and well-being of children, which includes responding effectively to child maltreatment. At the State and local levels, professionals assume various roles and responsibilities ranging from prevention, identification,…
Kauppi, Anne Leena Marika; Vanamo, Tuija; Karkola, Kari; Merikanto, Juhani
A parent who continuously physically abuses her/his child doesn't aim to kill the child but commits an accidental filicide in a more violent outburst of anger. Fatal abuse deaths are prevented by recognition of signs of battering in time. Out of 200 examined intra-familial filicides, 23 (12%) were caused by child battering and 13 (7%) by continuous battering. The medical and court records of the victim and the perpetrator were examined. The perpetrator was the biological mother and the victim was male in 69 per cent of the cases. The abused children were either younger than one year or from two-and-a-half to four years old. Risk factors of the victim (being unwanted, premature birth, separation from the parent caused by hospitalization or custodial care, being ill and crying a lot) and the perpetrator (personality disorder, low socioeconomic status, chaotic family conditions, domestic violence, isolation, alcohol abuse) were common. The injuries caused by previous battering were mostly soft tissue injuries in head and limbs and head traumas and the battering lasted for days or even an year. The final assault was more violent and occurred when the parent was more anxious, frustrated or left alone with the child. The perpetrating parent was diagnosed as having a personality disorder (borderline, narcissistic or dependent) and often substance dependence (31%). None of them were psychotic. Authorities and community members should pay attention to the change in child's behavior and inexplicable injuries or absence from daycare. Furthermore if the parent is immature, alcohol dependent, have a personality disorder and is unable to cope with the demands the small child entails in the parent's life, the child may be in danger. PMID:25478105
Besharov, Douglas J.
Presents highlights from the Third International Congress on Child Abuse and Neglect. The topic of child sexual abuse dominated the Congress; other topics included malnutrition, research problems, and concerns of Third World countries. Recommendations of the Congress are summarized.
Tener, Dafna; Murphy, Sharon B
Victims of childhood sexual abuse carry the experience of abuse into adulthood. One of the dilemmas victims face during adulthood is the decision to disclose or conceal the abuse. Although adult disclosure may be affected by former disclosure during childhood, adult survivors face new challenges and dilemmas, such as to whom, when, and how to tell. The purpose of this article is to review the domains found in the literature on survivors' experiences regarding disclosure of child sexual abuse during adulthood, all of which were published between 1980 and 2013. Domains include decisions to disclose during adulthood, barriers and facilitators to disclosure and potential recipients of the disclosure, as well as the process of telling and its impact on survivors' well-being. The authors present implications for policy, practice, and research. PMID:24903400
Aydin, Berna; Akbas, Seher; Turla, Ahmet; Dundar, Cihad; Yuce, Murat; Karabekiroglu, Koray
This study investigated the characteristics of abuse suffered by children, the dimensions of the psychiatric effects associated with abuse, and the factors affecting these. One thousand two cases aged under 18, exposed to sexual abuse, and referred over a 7-year period were assessed. Girls represented 80.8% of cases, and the numbers rose with age. The aggressors were all male, and 88.2% were known to their victim. Approximately half the children were exposed to sexual abuse involving penetration. Psychological pathology was identified in 62.1%. Female gender, the presence of penetration, physical violence, and incest significantly increased the development of psychological pathology. Levels of awareness in people close to and trusted by the child must be raised to minimize the adverse effects of trauma in the long term, preventive measures must be taken, and medical and social support units from which victims can receive assistance need to be established. PMID:25066376
Background To identify facilitators of, and barriers to, screening for child abuse in emergency departments (ED) through interviews with ED staff, members of the hospital Board, and related experts. Methods This qualitative study is based on semi-structured interviews with 27 professionals from seven Dutch hospitals (i.e. seven pediatricians, two surgeons, six ED nurses, six ED managers and six hospital Board members). The resulting list of facilitators/barriers was subsequently discussed with five experts in child abuse and one implementation expert. The results are ordered using the Child Abuse Framework of the Dutch Health Care Inspectorate that legally requires screening for child abuse. Results Lack of knowledge of child abuse, communication with parents in the case of suspected abuse, and lack of time for development of policy and cases are barriers for ED staff to screen for child abuse. For Board members, lack of means and time, and a high turnover of ED staff are impediments to improving their child abuse policy. Screening can be promoted by training ED staff to better recognize child abuse, improving communication skills, appointing an attendant specifically for child abuse, explicit support of the screening policy by management, and by national implementation of an approved protocol and validated screening instrument. Conclusions ED staff are motivated to work according to the Dutch Health Care Inspectorate requirements but experiences many barriers, particularly communication with parents of children suspected of being abused. Introduction of a national child abuse protocol can improve screening on child abuse at EDs. PMID:23092228
Texas Univ., Austin. Region VI Resource Center on Child Abuse and Neglect.
A study conducted to determine the characteristics and circumstances of child deaths related to abuse and neglect in Texas during 1975-77 is the subject of this document. Following an introduction providing study background and a review of related literature, the second section provides a brief description of the Child Abuse and Neglect Reprint…
Sharma, B R; Gupta, Manisha
Few abuses of human rights are so universally condemned but at the same time so universally practiced as child abuse. Over the centuries, children have been subjected to physical, sexual and emotional abuse as well as neglect. By any objective measures, this issue should rank high on the global agenda but in practice it is surrounded by a wall of silence and perpetuated by ignorance. Child sexual abuse is a dark reality that routinely inflicts our daily lives but in a majority of cases it goes unnoticed and unreported on account of the innocence of the victim, stigma attached to the act, callousness and insensitivity of the investigating and the law enforcement agencies, etc. A child who has been sexually abused is traumatized for life but it is only much later in life when the emotional and psychological trauma aggravates that such people seek medical help. There is an urgent need to take up the problem as a larger social issue where the society has a responsibility to help the victims overcome their trauma and move on with life as normally as possible. We report a retrospective review of children (age<16 years) referred for medicolegal examination, an autopsy in Chandigarh, India, between 2000 and 2003. PMID:15489177
The overall topic of this annotated bibliography, directed to users of the Auburn University libraries, is child abuse. It contains 63 federal government publications in 4 major areas: (1) definitions and prevalence of child abuse, including child pornography and pedophilia, family violence, abductions, and emotional abuse; (2) recent legislation,…
Romano, Nicole; And Others
A national survey assessed principals' attitudes, beliefs, and practices concerning child abuse and its prevention. Of particular interest were principals': (1) attitudes concerning the amount and quality of child abuse education in schools; (2) responses to suspected cases of child abuse and neglect; (3) perceptions of possible barriers to…
Hunt, Robyn; Walsh, Kerryann
This paper presents the results of a systematic review of literature on the topic of parents' views about child sexual abuse prevention education. It describes: i) what parents know about child sexual abuse prevention education; ii) what child sexual abuse prevention messages parents provide to their children and what topics they discuss; iii)…
... 8355 of April 1, 2009 Proc. 8355 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2009By the President of the... they are our future. National Child Abuse Prevention Month provides the opportunity to underscore our commitment to preventing and responding appropriately to child abuse. This month, we emphasize the...
... 8791 of April 2, 2012 Proc. 8791 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2012By the President of the... Child Abuse Prevention Month, we renew our commitment to break the cycle of violence, strengthen support... unit is the surest defense against child abuse, and parents and caregivers who have...
Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Grimbeek, Peter
Child abuse and neglect, particularly child sexual abuse, is a pastoral care issue that deeply concerns all education professionals. The literature strongly supports specific training for pre-service teachers about child sexual abuse and its mandatory reporting, although few studies identify how such training should be academically structured.…
... 8645 of March 31, 2011 Proc. 8645 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2011By the President of the... them is one of our greatest responsibilities. During National Child Abuse Prevention Month, we renew our commitment to preventing child abuse and neglect by promoting healthy families,...
Greytak, Emily A.
The Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (1974) requires that states receiving U.S. federal funds directed at child abuse implement mandated reporting laws. As a result, all states have adopted legislation requiring teachers and other professionals who deal with children to report suspicions of child abuse. The federal mandate for such…
Ney, Tara, Ed.
This book addresses the clinical, legal, and ethical issues arising in child sexual abuse cases; the assessment and case management of allegations; research issues; and practice recommendations. Chapter titles are as follows: "Assessing Allegations in Child Sexual Abuse: An Overview" (Tara Ney); "The Nature of Allegations of Child Sexual Abuse"…
Hildreth, Gladys J.; And Others
This paper explores the concept of child abuse. The analysis begins by explaining the problems evident in defining child abuse, and presents the historical development of child abuse prevention. A theoretical discussion on personality development is also included. The second section of the paper describes results of a research project designed to…
Tobin, Pnina; Kessner, Sue Levinson
The material in this book is intended to provide a review of information regarding child abuse prevention. It is divided into two sections. Part 1, The Facilitator's Guide, contains background information on child sexual abuse, with a particular emphasis on the dynamics of incest and other sexual abuse and their effects on the child. It presents a…
The objective of this article is to compare male- and female-perpetrated sexual abuse in terms of victim and abuser characteristics, type of abuse, family structure, and worker information. Bivariate tests of significance were performed on the 1998 Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect, which included 308 male and 37 female…
... agencies to receive reports of child abuse. 81.2 Section 81.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CHILD ABUSE AND CHILD PORNOGRAPHY REPORTING DESIGNATIONS AND PROCEDURES § 81.2 Submission of reports; designation of agencies to receive reports of child abuse. Reports of child abuse required by...
... agencies to receive reports of child abuse. 81.2 Section 81.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CHILD ABUSE AND CHILD PORNOGRAPHY REPORTING DESIGNATIONS AND PROCEDURES § 81.2 Submission of reports; designation of agencies to receive reports of child abuse. Reports of child abuse required by...
... agencies to receive reports of child abuse. 81.2 Section 81.2 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) CHILD ABUSE AND CHILD PORNOGRAPHY REPORTING DESIGNATIONS AND PROCEDURES § 81.2 Submission of reports; designation of agencies to receive reports of child abuse. Reports of child abuse required by...
Cramer, Robert J; Adams, Desiree D; Brodsky, Stanley L
Child sex abuse cases have been the target of considerable psycho-legal research. The present paper offers an analysis of psychological constructs for jury selection in child sex abuse cases from the defense perspective. The authors specifically delineate general and case-specific jury selection variables. General variables include authoritarianism, dogmatism, need for cognition, pretrial knowledge, and race/socioeconomic status. Case-specific variables include sexual attitudes, homonegativity, juror abuse history, and beliefs about children. The paper also provides a factual background of a representative case, incorporates relevant case law, identifies sources for voir dire and juror questionnaire items, and discusses lessons from the primary author's first experience as a trial consultant for the defense. PMID:19306206
Sexual abuse - children ... abused before they turn 18. Sexual abuse of children is any activity that the abuser does to get sexually aroused, including: Touching a child's genitals Rubbing the abuser's genitals against a child's ...
Schuler, Maureen E.; Black, Maureen M.; Kettinger, Laurie; Harrington, Donna
Objective To assess the relationship between cumulative environmental risks and early intervention, parenting attitudes, potential for child abuse and child development in substance abusing mothers. Method We studied 161 substance-abusing women, from a randomized longitudinal study of a home based early intervention, who had custody of their children through 18 months. The intervention group received weekly home visits in the first 6 months and biweekly visits from 6 to 18 months. Parenting stress and child abuse potential were assessed at 6 and 18 months postpartum. Children’s mental and motor development (Bayley MDI and PDI) and language development (REEL) were assessed at 6, 12, and 18 months postpartum. Ten maternal risk factors were assessed: maternal depression, domestic violence, nondomestic violence, family size, incarceration, no significant other in home, negative life events, psychiatric problems, homelessness, and severity of drug use. Level of risk was recoded into four categories (2 or less, 3, 4, and 5 or more), which had adequate cell sizes for repeated measures analysis. Data analysis Repeated measures analyses were run to examine how level of risk and group (intervention or control) were related to parenting stress, child abuse potential, and children’s mental, motor and language development over time. Results Parenting stress and child abuse potential were higher for women with five risks or more compared with women who had four or fewer risks; children’s mental, motor, and language development were not related to level of risk. Children in the intervention group had significantly higher scores on the PDI at 6 and 18 months (107.4 vs. 103.6 and 101.1 vs. 97.2) and had marginally better scores on the MDI at 6 and 12 months (107.7 vs. 104.2 and 103.6 vs. 100.1), compared to the control group. Conclusion Compared to drug-abusing women with fewer than five risks, women with five or more risks found parenting more stressful and indicated greater
Jackson, Allison M; Kissoon, Natalie; Greene, Christian
Child maltreatment is a public health problem and toxic stress impacting at least 1 in 8 children by the age of 18 years. Maltreatment can take the form of physical and sexual abuse, neglect, and emotional maltreatment. While some children may experience only one form of maltreatment, others may survive multiple forms, and in some cases particularly complex forms of maltreatment such as torture and medical child abuse. When considering maltreatment, providers should be adept at obtaining a thorough history not only from the parent but when appropriate also from the patient. The most common form of child maltreatment is neglect, which encompasses nutritional and medical neglect, as well as other forms such as physical and emotional neglect. Talking with caregivers about stressors and barriers to care may give insight into the etiology for neglect and is an opportunity for the provider to offer or refer for needed assistance. Familiarity with injury patterns and distribution in the context of developmental milestones and injury mechanisms is critical to the recognition of physical abuse. While most anogenital exam results of child victims of sexual abuse are normal, knowing the normal variations for the female genitalia, and thereby recognizing abnormal findings, is important not only forensically but also more importantly for patient care. Pattern recognition does not only apply to specific injuries or constellation of injuries but also applies to patterns of behavior. Harmful patterns of behavior include psychological maltreatment and medical child abuse, both of which cause significant harm to patients. As health professionals serving children and families, pediatric providers are in a unique position to identify suspected maltreatment and intervene through the health care system in order to manage the physical and psychological consequences of maltreatment and to promote the safety and well-being of children and youth by making referrals to child protective
Mouesca, Juan Pablo; Indart de Arza, Miguel Javier; Stabilito, Luis
This article deals with anogenital warts (AGW) injuries caused by human papiloma virus (HPV) in children. Diagnosis, epidemiology, modes of transmission, differential diagnosis, relationship between AGW and cancer are descript. Also, it remarks the presence of AGW as indicator of child sexual abuse. Finally, it includes suggestions for the management of patients and their families by the paediatrician. PMID:23070187
Cheit, Ross E.; Shavit, Yael; Reiss-Davis, Zachary
This article analyzes trends in the coverage of child sexual abuse in popular magazines since the early 1990s. The article employs systematic analysis to identify and analyze articles in four popular magazines. Articles are analyzed by subject, length, and publication. The results affirm established theories of newsworthiness related to the…
Hendricks, Melany Leonie
Legislation concerning mandatory reporting of child abuse in South Africa has been in effect since 2010, with the promulgation of amendment 41 of 2007 to the Children's Act of 2005. This article explores mandatory reporting legislation in an attempt to improve the reporting practices of healthcare professionals in South Africa. PMID:25213842
Feldman, Kenneth W.; And Others
A retrospective review of medical charts for 34 children with a diagnosis of child abuse, who had cranial computed tomography scans performed, revealed that some scans initially interpreted as normal were subsequently reinterpreted as abnormal, and some children's repeat scannings were interpreted as abnormal, modifying the medical and legal…
Mousavi, Mahnaz Nowroozi; Rogers, James R.
Child abuse and neglect (CA&N), as a social and psychological phenomenon, represents a major area of concern internationally. This study examined the prevalence and self-reported effects of CA&N in Iran through a descriptive investigation of high school students' experiences. A sample consisting of 2,240 high school students representing 5…
Harrington, Robert G.
To provide training in issues of child abuse and neglect, steps followed to develop a training module for preservice and inservice school psychologists are logically analyzed to present a prototype training module which can be modified to accommodate a particular school's objectives and its staff's existing skills and training. (MM)
Kuehnle, Kathryn; Connell, Mary
This article addresses what, if any, psychotherapeutic interventions should be provided to meet the emotional and clinical needs of alleged child victims of sexual abuse while they await judicial determinations from the family, dependency, or criminal courts. The discussion emphasizes that to minimize iatrogenic outcomes, professionals involved in…
Holmes, Monica B.
Presented are detailed reports of eight child abuse and neglect programs, and a synthesis of the information obtained through onsite visits to programs and a review of the literature. Provided in Part I are the descriptive case studies of two hospital-based programs (Children's Trauma Center, Children's Hospital Medical Center, Oakland,…
Camacho, Rosie Lee
Consisting of three units, the course model aims to prepare students to address the problem of abuse and/or neglect in the Mexican American community. Unit one focuses on the two major parts of the informal helping system in the Mexican American community, the barrio and the family. Unit two concentrates on the traditional child welfare system and…
... hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-8382 Filed 4-5-11; 11:15 am] Billing code 3195... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8645 of March 31, 2011 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Our Nation's children are our hope for the...
... thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-8022 Filed 4-6-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W0-P ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8490 of April 1, 2010 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Our children are our most valuable resource,...
... America the two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-8318 Filed 4-4-12; 8:45 am... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8791 of April 2, 2012 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2012 By the... work of raising our children stands among our greatest responsibilities and our most profound...
... hundred and thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-07920 Filed 4-3-13; 8:45 am] Billing code... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8949 of March 29, 2013 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2013 By the... to pursue our own measure of happiness and live free from fear. But for the millions of children...
Casanueva, Cecilia E.; Martin, Sandra L.
This research examines whether women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy have a higher child abuse potential than women who have not experienced IPV. Data were analyzed from a longitudinal investigation of IPV during pregnancy. This study recruited 88 pregnant women during prenatal care and followed them for 1 1/2…
Method: In this study, a qualitative research has been carried out; there were interviews with 50 school counselors working in Sinop; they stated their ideas on child abuse and neglect. Analysis: Data collected via semi constructed interviews have been subjected to descriptive and content analysis.The participant counselors were asked three…
Levi, Benjamin H.; Crowell, Kathryn; Walsh, Kerryann; Dellasega, Cheryl
Background: Childcare providers are often "first responders" for suspected child abuse, and how they understand the concept of "reasonable suspicion" will influence their decisions regarding which warning signs warrant reporting. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate how childcare providers interpret the…
Baker, Juanita N.; Tanis, Heyley J.; Rice, Jennifer B.
Describes the necessity of including siblings in the treatment of victims of child sexual abuse. Theoretical and practical reasons to include siblings in treatment are discussed. Case examples using a particular intervention approach and results of client satisfaction surveys are described. (Contains 18 references.) (GCP)
This paper compares the results of different models of police intervention in child sexual abuse cases in New South Wales, Australia. Data suggest that specialist police units in which police manage the full investigation provide a more comprehensive service than those where the police response is fragmented among units within the police force.…
Norris, Thomas L.
This paper describes a four-phase therapeutic approach that has proven useful to adult female and male survivors of child sexual abuse. The methods described are primarily used in individual therapy, although the context is within the family therapy realm and relies heavily upon Structural Family Systems Theory. The four phases which a victim…
Jessee, S A
Dentists, as a group, have participated in the recognition and reporting of child maltreatment to a lesser degree than other health professionals, being either unaware of their legal responsibility to report or, when abuse or neglect is suspected, reluctant to do so. PMID:10337332
Examines factors associated with abuse of children in residential child care institutions including: failings in staff recruitment, training, and supervision; ineffective management and accountability; development of inappropriate institutional cultures; public ambivalence toward children in care; slow response to threats posed to children in…
This self-study manual, for use by individuals or groups, was developed for social work practitioners, and focuses on total family assessment to determine prevention and treatment intervention in cases of child sexual abuse and neglect. The introduction presents the philosophy of continuing education on which the manual is based, an overview of…
Wightman, Barbara; Whitaker, Kate; Traylor, Diane; Yeider, Sheri; Hyden, Vivian C.; Weigand, Barbara
The contributors to this article reflect on the process and value of participating together in a monthly reflective supervision group for supervisors in a child abuse prevention program. Some of them joined the group with considerable interest in and experience with reflective supervision. For others this was an entirely new experience that they…
The Clinton administration prioritized the issue of improving the lives of maltreated children. Critical programs administered by the Administration on Children and Families included the Adoption and Safe Families Act, Children's Justice Act programs, and Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act research and demonstration projects. Projects serve…
Lanning, Beth; Robinson, James III; Ballard, Danny J.
Assessed the elementary-school child-sexual-abuse-prevention programs in 89 large Texas public school districts. Surveys examined types of programs, training available, evaluation used, involvement of local agencies, and funding. Results indicated that 58 districts addressed the issue formally, and most districts trained their presenters.…
Finkel, Martin A.
Reviews the technical conduct of the child-sexual-abuse medical examination and offers a research agenda. Introduction of the colposcope in the early 1980s is noted, as are other technological advances, such as the videocolposcopy and linkage with computer technology. Achievement highlights in the last 20 years of research are identified, along…
Tan, Gerdean G.; And Others
Discusses environmental stress within ecosystem framework as predictor of migrant farm child abuse and neglect. Reviews relationship among individual, family, community, and cultural elements as primary etiologic factor in maltreatment of migrant children. Points to need for strengthening family and neighborhood systems through changes in…
Hohman, Melinda; Oliver, Rhonda; Wright, Wendy
Methamphetamine abuse is on the rise, particularly by women of child-bearing age. This article describes the history and effects of methamphetamine use. The authors examine the ways exposure to the manufacture of this drug affects clients and social workers in the course of their work. Because children are frequently found at the scene of a…
Johnson, Clara L.
Presented is an analysis of 1172 reported cases of child abuse in the eight southeastern States in Region IV (Georgia, Alabama, Florida, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Kentucky, and Mississippi). Described in Chapter 1 is the methodology of the study including aims, sampling procedure, and data collection and processing. In Chapter 2,…
Kisanga, Felix; Nystrom, Lennarth; Hogan, Nora; Emmelin, Maria
The aim of this study was to explore community perceptions about child sexual abuse in Tanzania. Thirteen focus group discussions were conducted with adult community members. The core category, "children's rights challenged by lack of agency", was supported by eight categories. "Aware but distressed" portrayed feelings of hopelessness, "lack of…
Saunders, B. E.; Berliner, L.; Hanson, R. F.
Helping child abuse victims receive the mental health treatment they need is an important component of victim advocacy with children, and benefits both the children and the criminal justice system. As part of this work, the National Crime Victims Research and Treatment Center at the Medical University of South Carolina and the Center for Sexual…
Walsh, Wendy A.; Jones, Lisa M.; Cross, Theodore P.; Lippert, Tonya
Corroborating evidence has been associated with a decrease in children's distress during the court process, yet few studies have empirically examined the impact of evidence type on prosecution rates. This study examined the types of evidence and whether charges were filed in a sample of child sexual abuse cases (n = 329). Cases with a child…
Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.
This teacher resource manual complements the optional Child Abuse Prevention Unit of the Elementary Health Program for schools in Alberta, Canada. The activities and suggestions contained in the manual are intended to be supportive, not prescriptive. The stated goal of this unit is to enable all children to develop the knowledge, skills, and…
McGrath, Patrick; And Others
Because teachers lack knowledge of the law, of school board policies, and of issues regarding child abuse and neglect, a professional development workshop was developed and presented to all teachers in the Ottawa Public Schools. Evaluation by a randomized controlled trial showed the workshop effective in increasing and maintaining knowledge.…
Mustaine, Elizabeth Ehrhardt; Tewksbury, Richard; Corzine, Jay; Huff-Corzine, Lin
This study examined the utility of social disorganization theory as an explanation for child sexual abuse with a focus on differentiating single and multiple victim cases. Drawing on 1,172 child sexual abuse cases (including 159 cases with multiple victims) in Orange County, Florida, from 2004 to 2006, the present study considered case characteristics and elements of social disorganization as potential predictors of child sexual abuse cases involving single and multiple victims. We found that social disorganization theory does not successfully predict the locations of multiple victim child sexual abuse incidents and is not useful for distinguishing between child sexual abuse incidents with single or multiple victims. PMID:24393089
Kemoli, Arthur M.; Mavindu, Mildred
Child abuse and neglect are serious global problems and can be in the form of physical, sexual, emotional or just neglect in providing for the child's needs. These factors can leave the child with serious, long-lasting psychological damage. In the present case report, a 12-year-old orphaned boy was physically abused by a close relative who caused actual bodily and emotional trauma to the boy. After satisfactorily managing the trauma and emotional effects to the patient, in addition to the counseling services provided to the caregiver, the patient made a steady recovery. He was also referred to a child support group for social support, and prepare him together with his siblings for placement in a children's home in view of the hostile environment in which they were living. PMID:24963259
Pérez-Fuentes, Gabriela; Olfson, Mark; Villegas, Laura; Morcillo, Carmen; Wang, Shuai; Blanco, Carlos
Background This study examines the prevalence, correlates, and psychiatric disorders of adults with history of child sexual abuse (CSA). Methods Data were derived from a large national sample of the U.S. population. More that 34,000 adults aged 18 years and older residing in households were face-to-face interviewed in a survey conducted during the 2004–2005 period. Diagnoses were based on the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV version. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric disorders were computed. Logistic regression models were used to examine the strength of associations between child sexual abuse and psychiatric disorders, adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, risk factors and other axis I psychiatric disorders. Results The prevalence of child sexual abuse was 10.14% (24.8% in men, and 75.2% in women). Child physical abuse, maltreatment, and neglect was more prevalent among individuals with CSA than among those without it. Adults with child sexual abuse history had significantly higher rates of any Axis I disorder and suicide attempts. The frequency, type and number of CSA were significantly correlated with psychopathology. Conclusions The high correlation rates of CSA with psychopathology and increased risk for suicide attempts in adulthood suggest the need for a systematic assessment of psychiatric disorders and suicide risk in these individuals. The risk factors for CSA emphasize the need for health care initiatives geared towards increasing recognition and development of treatment approaches for the emotional sequelae CSA as well as early preventive approaches. PMID:22854279
Turner, Daniel; Rettenberger, Martin; Yoon, Dahlnym; Klein, Verena; Eher, Reinhard; Briken, Peer
Child sexual abuse occurring in a child- or youth-serving institution or organization has attracted great public and scientific attention. In light of the particular personal and offense-related characteristics of men who have abused children within such an institution or organization, it is of special importance to evaluate the predictive performance of currently applied risk assessment instruments in this offender population. Therefore, the present study assessed the risk ratings and predictive performance of four risk assessment instruments and one instrument assessing protective factors concerning any, violent and sexual recidivism in child sexual abusers working with children (CSA-W) in comparison with extra-familial child sexual abusers (CSA-E) and intra-familial child sexual abusers (CSA-I). The results indicate that CSA-W mostly recidivate with a sexual offense. Although all included risk measures seem to function with CSA-W, the Static-99 seems to be the instrument that performs best in predicting sexual recidivism in CSA-W. CSA-W had the most protective factors measured with the Structured Assessment of PROtective Factors (SAPROF). While the SAPROF could not predict desistance from recidivism in CSA-W, it predicted desistance from any recidivism in all CSA. As CSA-W frequently hold many indicators for pedophilic sexual interests but only a few for antisocial tendencies, it can be suggested that CSA-W are at an increased risk for sexual recidivism and thus risk measures especially designed for sexual recidivism work best in CSA-W. Nevertheless, CSA-W also hold many protective factors; however, their impact on CSA-W is not clear yet and needs further study. PMID:25527631
Rhoden, N K; Arras, J D
Questions surrounding withholding treatment from severely impaired newborns have elicited three significantly different substantive and procedural responses: from the Reagan administration's Department of Health and Human Services through the Carter President's Commission on Ethical Problems, and subsequent congressional legislation on child abuse. Movement from a rigid and simplistic application of medical imperatives to ambiguous and abstract criteria of the child's "best interest" represented limited progress. A new legislative compromise principle is an imperfect but practical accommodation to moral and medical realities. PMID:3158840
van Toledo, Annik; Seymour, Fred
Caregiver support is vital in improving outcomes for child sexual abuse victims; however, the disclosure can significantly affect caregivers, thus impacting their ability to meet their children's needs. To maximize the support from caregivers, their own needs following disclosure need to be met. This study investigated the impact of child sexual abuse disclosure and associated needs as identified by caregivers. Sixty needs assessment forms were collected from families who accessed a parenting support pilot program run in New Zealand. These forms were completed by nonoffending caregivers during an assessment session with their counselor and consisted of both open-ended and Likert scale questions focusing on both the needs of the child and the family. Caregivers identified a range of impacts of the disclosure on their children, themselves, and other families members and the related support that may be needed. In particular, caregivers identified that they needed support with child behavior management and with their own coping. The findings suggest that interventions with caregivers following disclosure of child sexual abuse may be a valuable adjunct to therapy provided directly to the child. PMID:27266536
Thompson-Cooper, I; Fugère, R; Cormier, B M
A central issue in the development of family law and child protection in this country has been the right of the state to intervene in family life. The reporting laws, which were developed in the 1960s, made it mandatory for any citizen, including professionals, to report child abuse (physical and sexual) to the authorities. These laws have fundamentally altered the relationship between the clinician and families in need of help and have resulted in a dramatic increase in the number of cases assessed and treated by child welfare agencies. Because of the emphasis on case-finding, the limited resources have been stretched to the point where families with serious problems of child abuse do not get the services they require. Apparently, at least 60% of all reports turn out to be unfounded. Other criticisms of the current system include ineffective intervention, over-intervention and ignoring parents' rights. The legalization and bureaucratization of the child protection process has profoundly affected the relationship between troubled families and social workers who now must "investigate" them as well as help them. This role conflict is exacerbated even further in cases of alleged child sexual abuse, where social workers are often expected to inform the police of the allegations. The authors argue that the reporting laws have been useful in that society is aware of the problem, and they suggest that it may be more beneficial now to dispose of them.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8242531
Ford, Julian D.; Fraleigh, Lisa A.; Connor, Daniel F.
Abused children may be at risk for problems with aggression. In a sample of 397 seriously emotionally disturbed children, reactive aggression was associated with documented history of physical abuse but not sexual abuse. Girls were equally likely to be classified as reactively aggressive regardless of physical abuse history, but boys with physical…
Schneider, Renee; Baumrind, Nikki; Kimerling, Rachel
Risk for adult mental health problems associated with child sexual, physical, or emotional abuse and multiple types of child abuse was examined. Logistic regression analyses were used to test study hypotheses in a population-based sample of women (N = 3,936). As expected, child sexual, physical, and emotional abuse were independently associated with increased risk for mental health problems. History of multiple types of child abuse was also associated with elevated risk for mental health problems. In particular, exposure to all three types of child abuse was linked to a 23-fold increase in risk for probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Findings underscore relations between child emotional abuse and adult mental health problems and highlight the need for mental health services for survivors of multiple types of child abuse. PMID:18064973
Fujimoto, Masaki; Hirose, Taiko; Nakayama, Takeo; Okawa, Hiroji; Takigawa, Itsurou
Background The Child Abuse Blame Scale – Physical Abuse (CABS-PA) was translated into Japanese and its subscale items modified by the authors according to the Japanese cultural context. The aim of the current study was to investigate the appropriateness, reliability, and clinical applicability of the CABS-PA Japanese version (CABS-PA-J). Modifications were made to enable the determination of child abuse recognition in a Japanese cultural setting and early clinical intervention in child abuse cases. Methods The CABS-PA text was translated into Japanese, then back translated. The appropriateness of scale item translations was verified based on e-mail discussions with the original CABS-PA author. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed to examine the validity of CABS-PA-J responses and to confirm the validity of factor structure. Criterion-related validity was also confirmed. The Japanese scale was used to examine the characteristic differences between mothers of premature infants (< 1500 g) and those of other infants (≧ 1500 g). Results Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses found the factor structure to be similar between the original scale and the translated CABS-PA-J, suggesting adequate factor validity. There was a statistically significant correlation between social support from a spouse or third party and the abuse score on a subscale, partially demonstrating criterion-referenced validity. Similarities and differences were found in the stress reactions of the mothers of premature infants (< 1500 g) and those of other infants (≧ 1500 g). Conclusion CABS-PA-J was shown to be appropriate and reliable. It is an effective tool for determining the recognition of child abuse among Japanese mothers. PMID:17623078
González Ortega, Eva; Orgaz Baz, Begoña; López Sánchez, Félix
Professionals who are likely to come into contact with children play an essential role in the protection of children, thus we aimed to study the criteria they use to identify and report child sexual abuse cases. Based on the Factorial Survey design, we presented 974 Spanish (90%) and Latin American professionals from six fields (Psychology, Social Services, Education, Health, Law and Security) with hypothetical situations of sexual interaction with minors (systematically varying the type of sexual act, the child's and the other person's sex and age, the use of coercion and the type of strategy employed to involve the child), in order to examine their perception of abuse and willingness to report. According to results, the factors or criteria that most impact assessments are age asymmetry and use of coercion. Specifically, professionals are significantly more likely to perceive abuse and intend to report it if the other person involved in the interaction is much older than the minor and/or uses a coercive strategy, especially force, drugs or blackmail. Another relevant criterion is the type of sexual act, since acts involving intercourse, digital penetration or oral sex are significantly more likely to be deemed as abuse and reported. PMID:23156936
Harding, Hilary G.; Zinzow, Heidi M.; Burns, Erin E.; Jackson, Joan L.
Previous research suggests that similarity to a victim may influence attributions of responsibility in hypothetical child sexual abuse scenarios. One aspect of similarity receiving mixed support in the literature is respondent child sexual abuse history. Using a sample of 1,345 college women, the present study examined child sexual abuse history,…
Xiao, Hong; Smith-Prince, Jaynina
A number of factors influence the disclosure of child sexual abuse by survivors. While the influence of race and ethnicity on disclosure patterns is getting more attention, little has been written on abused children of Pacific Islanders, due in part to both lack of relevant data and a relatively small Pacific Islander population in the United States. Drawing on interviews with Pacific Islander women who were sexually abused in childhood and who delayed revealing their victimization, we explore the reasons for delayed disclosure. Findings suggest that cultural norms and family dynamics affect disclosure decisions. Concerns for the family and self-blame were the most common reasons for delay and lack of disclosure. We discuss implications of the findings and make policy recommendations. PMID:26061022
This study explored the relationship between illegitimate birth and cognitive development among 513 boys on probation. Prior research has shown that being part of a single-parent household leads to diminished verbal capacities and often puts a child in greater danger of abuse and neglect. Frequent abuse is thought to lead to the enhancement of visual and spatial skills relative to verbal skills through a process of "frozen watchfulness". I hypothesized that illegitimate boys from one-parent homes would have greater verbal-performance discrepancy scores than would boys from other combinations of birth status and family structure. These boys had the lowest verbal IQ and highest performance IQ scores and, hence, the largest discrepancy. These boys also suffered the highest degree of abuse and neglect of all four birth status/family structure combinations studied. PMID:2266355
Arshack, Susan, Ed.
The document presents the proceedings of the conference on "Child Abuse: Where Do We Go From Here?" held at the Children's Hospital National Medical Center in 1977. Six chapters focus on corporal punishment, etiology of child abuse, sex abuse, treatment modalities, court reform, and parental rights and civil liberties. Among the entries are the…
Rosenblatt, Gary C.
This book presents a critical and integrative review of extant literature on child abuse, and the methodology and results of a study investigating relationships among types of abusing parents (disciplinarian parents and inadequate parents), parental attitudes about childrearing and perceptions of their children, and severity of child abuse.…
Nalavany, Blace Arthur; Ryan, Scott D.; Hinterlong, Jim
This study examined the severity of externalizing symptomology among adopted boys with preadoptive histories of child sexual abuse, physical abuse, neglect/abandonment, or no abuse. The study was based on data collected across a three-year period from parents who adopted children from Florida's child welfare system. The sample consisted of 1,136…
Walsh, Christine A.; Jamieson, Ellen; MacMillan, Harriet; Boyle, Michael
This study examined the relationship between a self-reported history of child physical and sexual abuse and chronic pain among women (N = 3381) in a provincewide community sample. Chronic pain was significantly associated with physical abuse, education, and age of the respondents and was unrelated to child sexual abuse alone or in combination with…
This document provides an annotated bibliography of 24 empirical studies of child abuse and a summary of the findings. Annotations are organized in three sections covering effects of child abuse on children's cognitive, emotional, and social development. A 5-page summary of research findings generally indicated that abused children possessed…
Mejia, Pamela; Cheyne, Andrew; Dorfman, Lori
News media coverage of child sexual abuse can help policymakers and the public understand what must be done to prevent future abuse, but coverage tends to focus on extreme cases. This article presents an analysis of newspaper coverage from 2007 to 2009 to describe how the daily news presents and frames day-to-day stories about child sexual abuse.…
The phenomenon of child sexual abuse has significant implications for teachers' pre-service training and professional development. Teachers have a pedagogical role in dealing with abused children, and a legal and professional duty to report suspected child sexual abuse. Teachers require support and training to develop the specialised knowledge and…
Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L.
Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual,…
Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Bode, Andrew
Many children raised in orphanages suffered ongoing child abuse and neglect including sexual abuse, and nearly all were denied an adequate education. This paper explores adult females' perceptions of the impacts on their education of child sexual abuse they suffered while living in orphanages in Australia. In-depth qualitative and anonymous…
Zimmerman, Stephanie; Makoroff, Kathi; Care, Marguerite; Thomas, Amy; Shapiro, Robert
Objective: To evaluate the utility of a follow-up skeletal survey in suspected child physical abuse evaluations. Methods: In this prospective study, follow-up skeletal surveys were recommended for 74 children who, after an initial skeletal survey and evaluation by the Child Abuse Team, were suspected victims of physical abuse. The number and…
Brady, Mary Louise, Comp.
This selective bibliography contains information on material dealing with domestic violence in the home with a special emphasis on child abuse, that may be obtained in the Robert E. Kennedy Library at California Polytechnic University. The bibliography is divided according to different forms of abuse, e.g., emotional child abuse, incest/sexual…
Lundahl, Brad W.; Nimer, Janelle; Parsons, Bruce
Objective: A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the ability of parent training programs to reduce parents' risk of abusing a child. Method: A total of 23 studies were submitted to a meta-analysis. Outcomes of interest included parents' attitudes toward abuse, emotional adjustment, child-rearing skills, and actual abuse. Conclusions:…
Dale, Kathryn A.; Alpert, Judith L.
The existence of child sexual abuse within the Catholic Church has shocked many. In this article, the authors review the history of child sexual abuse in the church, the recent events that brought this tragedy into societal consciousness, and the efforts by the church to conceal the abuse. Two sources of empirical literature, the general…
Blazi, Sherry P., Ed.; Grimes, Linda J., Ed.
This guidebook was designed to help concerned citizens identify and prevent child abuse. The guidebook provides information about the extent of child abuse in the United States generally and within Oklahoma specifically, and stresses that under Oklahoma state law every adult has the responsibility to report suspected abuse. Programs and services…
This brief discusses the findings of the Fourth Federal National Incidence Study on Child Maltreatment (NIS 4), which reports a significant reduction in the overall rate of child maltreatment since the 1993 NIS. The study reflects substantial drops in the rates of sexual abuse, physical abuse, and emotional abuse. However, no significant changes…
Tutty, Leslie M.
This evaluation of a child abuse prevention program with 200 children (Grades K, 1, 3, and 6) 5 months after a child abuse prevention program found participating children scored significantly higher on the Children's Knowledge of Abuse Questionnaire than did controls. Age was a critical factor. All participants maintained their level of knowledge…
Bromberg, Daniel S.; Johnson, Blair T.
Reviews the literature on sexual victimization of minors and the role of school psychologists in assessing and intervening with sexually abused minors. Although estimates of child sexual abuse prevalence differ widely owing to disclosure biases and the researcher definitions, it is clear that child sexual abuse is a serious public problem.…
Illinois State Dept. of Children and Family Services, Springfield.
Data on child abuse and neglect in Illinois during fiscal year 1986 are collected in this report. Statistical highlights indicate that in 1986 a total of 70,422 Illinois children were reported as victims of child abuse or neglect: a rate of 21.7 alleged victims per 1,000 children. Credible evidence indicated that 33,959 children were abused or…
Walsh, Wendy A.; Cross, Theodore P.; Jones, Lisa M.
Although the importance of parental support for child sexual abuse victims is well documented, the nature of parental support for victims sexually abused by adolescents is less understood. In this exploratory study, we examine whether parents differ in their levels of blame or doubt for their child when sexually abused by adolescents versus…
Riggs, Richard S.; Evans, Dale W.
An instrument was administered to 104 elementary education majors. Findings include that subjects: (1) recognize that the problem of child abuse exists; (2) believe most teachers are not equipped to deal with child abuse, but expect victims of abuse in their classrooms; and (3) lack a clear understanding of referrals. (Author)
Flaherty, Emalee G; Sege, Robert
Physicians systematically underidentify and underreport cases of child abuse. These medical errors may result in continued abuse, leading to potentially severe consequences. We have reviewed a number of studies that attempt to explain the reasons for these errors. The findings of these various studies suggest several priorities for improving the identification and reporting of child maltreatment: Improve continuing education about child maltreatment. Continuing education should focus not only on the identification of maltreatment but also on management and outcomes. This education should include an explanation of the role of CPS investigator and the physician's role in an investigation. The education should provide physicians with a better understanding of the overall outcome for children reported to CPS to help physicians gain perspective on the small number of maltreated children they may care for in their practice. This education should emphasize that the majority of maltreated children will benefit from CPS involvement. New York is the only state that mandates all physicians, as well as certain other professionals, take a 2-hour course called Identification and Reporting of Child Abuse and Maltreatment prior to licensing. Cited studies in this article suggest that such a mandate might be expected to improve identification and reporting, thereby encouraging other states to adopt similar regulations. Give physicians the opportunity to debrief with a trained professional after detecting and reporting child abuse. The concept of child abuse and the gravity of the decision to report can be troubling to the reporter. The debriefing could include discussions of uncomfortable feelings physicians may experience related to their own countertransference reactions. Provide resources to assist physicians in making the difficult determination of suspected maltreatment. The role of accessible telephone consultation should be evaluated, along with formalized collaborations
Herschell, Amy D.; McNeil, Cheryl B.
Children who experience physical abuse often suffer numerous negative short- and long-term difficulties in comparison to non-abused children. Considerable effort has been invested in developing and identifying treatment interventions to attenuate these negative outcomes. Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT), originally developed for the…
Emery, Clifton R; Eremina, Tatiana; Yang, Hye Lin; Yoo, Changgeun; Yoo, Jieun; Jang, Ja Kyung
Previous findings on the relationship between neighborhood informal social control and child abuse have been mixed. We implemented a scale created by Emery, Trung, and Wu to study protective informal social control of child maltreatment (ISC_CM) by neighbors in a three-stage random cluster sample of 541 families in Seoul, South Korea. Random-effects regression models found that protective ISC_CM significantly moderated the relationship between very severe abuse and child injuries. Very severe abuse was associated with fewer injuries when levels of protective ISC_CM were higher. Implications are discussed. PMID:25392376
Kraizer, Sherryll; And Others
Describes a school-based child abuse prevention program. The program's effectiveness is evaluated in terms of prevention of sexual abuse, the age of maximum receptivity to prevention education, and implications of the evaluation for early childhood educators. (RJC)
Afifi, Tracie O; MacMillan, Harriet L; Taillieu, Tamara; Cheung, Kristene; Turner, Sarah; Tonmyr, Lil; Hovdestad, Wendy
Much of what is known about child abuse in Canada has come from reported cases of child abuse and at-risk samples, which likely represent the most severe cases of child abuse in the country. The objective of the current study is to examine the prevalence of a broad range of child abuse experiences (physical abuse, sexual abuse, and exposure to IPV) and investigate how such experiences and sociodemographic variables are related to contact with child protection organizations in Canada using a representative general population sample. Data were drawn from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey: Mental Health collected from the 10 provinces using a multistage stratified cluster design (n=23,395; household response rate=79.8%; aged 18 years and older). Physical abuse only (16.8%) was the most prevalent child abuse experience reported with the exposure to specific combinations of two or more types of child abuse ranging from 0.4% to 3.7%. Only 7.6% of the adult population with a history of child abuse reported having had contact with child protection organizations. Experiencing all three types of child abuse was associated with the greatest odds of contact with child protection organizations (AOR=15.8; 95% CI=10.1 to 24.6). Physical abuse only was associated with one of the lowest odds of contact with child protection organizations. Preventing child abuse is widely acknowledged as an important, but challenging public health goal. Strategies to increase reporting of child abuse may help to protect children and to connect families with necessary services. One obvious priority would be physical abuse. PMID:26002601
Antai, Diddy; Braithwaite, Patrick; Clerk., George
Abstract: Background: Child abuse or maltreatment is a significant global public health problem of unknown global prevalence. About 40 million children aged 0 - 14 years require health and social care globally. The prevalence, determinants, and trends of national or global rates of child abuse and maltreatment are largely unknown. Methods: Data for this retrospective cross-sectional study were derived from the 2005 Egyptian Demographic and Health Survey (2005 EDHS), and included 19474 women aged 15-49 years. Multivariate logistic regression analyses by stepwise regression, backward method were used to determine the independent contribution of the possible social determinants of child abuse, with the direction and magnitude of associations expressed as odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confident interval levels (95% CI). Results: Identified determinants of child abuse included exposure to intimate partner violence (IPV), justifying wife beating, exposure to generational IPV, and such factors as younger age of the women, male sex, partners’ lower education, poverty, residence in urban areas, younger children, and residence in households with 3 - 5 children. Conclusions: Experience of IPV, mothers’ justification of wife beating, and generational IPV were associated with elevated odds of child abuse. Findings indicate possible high levels of unmet child protection needs, and stress the need for professionals working with children to employ culturally-sensitive methods in investigating social determinants of child abuse. PMID:26401957
Estévez, Ana; Ozerinjauregi, Nagore; Herrero-Fernández, David
Child sexual abuse is one of the most serious forms of abuse due to the psychological consequences that persist even into adulthood. Expressions of anger among child sexual abuse survivors remain common even years after the event. While child sexual abuse has been extensively studied, the expression of displaced aggression has been studied less. Some factors, such as the maladaptive early schemas, might account for this deficiency. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationships between child sexual abuse, displaced aggression, and these schemas according to gender and determine if these early schemas mediate the relationship between child sexual abuse and displaced aggression. A total of 168 Spanish subjects who were victims of child sexual abuse completed measures of childhood trauma, displaced aggression, and early maladaptive schemas. The results depict the relationship between child sexual abuse, displaced aggression, and early maladaptive schemas. Women scored higher than men in child sexual abuse, emotional abuse, disconnection or rejection and impaired autonomy. Mediational analysis found a significant mediation effect of disconnection or rejection on the relationship between child sexual abuse and displaced aggression; however, impaired autonomy did not mediate significantly. PMID:27266539
O'Leary, Patrick; Coohey, Carol; Easton, Scott D
This study examined the relationship among severe child sexual abuse, disclosure, and mental health symptoms during adulthood. The sample consisted of 172 adults who were sexually abused in childhood. The multivariate model showed that respondents in their 30s and 40s who were abused by more than one abuser, who were injured by their abusers, who were abused by a biological relative, who told someone about the abuse when it occurred, and who did not discuss their abuse in depth within one year of the abuse had a greater number of mental health symptoms. Abuse severity and disclosure history should be assessed by professionals to identify clients who are at higher risk of mental health symptoms and to focus therapy. PMID:20509077
The objective of this article is to compare male- and female-perpetrated sexual abuse in terms of victim and abuser characteristics, type of abuse, family structure, and worker information. Bivariate tests of significance were performed on the 1998 Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect, which included 308 male and 37 female abusers. Results show a prevalence rate of 10.7% for female-perpetrated sexual abuse. Girls were more likely to be victimized for both male- and female-perpetrated sexual violence and females tended to abuse younger children. The majority of children came from families with lower socioeconomic status although one in five victims of female-perpetrated sexual abuse came from middle-class homes. Referrals to child welfare agencies were more likely to be made by nonprofessionals when females abused. PMID:18701747
Sorensen, Erik; And Others
This study of 60 contested custody cases in Florida found that judges appeared responsive to allegations of abuse with regard to awards of the children's primary physical residence but not with regard to shared custody. Reports of parental substance abuse had no apparent impact on judicial decision making. (Author/JDD)
Given a lack of standardised procedures for preventing child abuse, what can be done in terms of thinking and action about the prevention of physical child abuse in health visiting and community practice? This paper reflects on knowledge gained while undertaking case series research into non-accidental head injury (NAHI), qualitative research with health visitors and mothers and fathers into the feasibility of preventing NAHI, and work as a team member of the Welsh Child Protection Systematic Review Group. Prevention is an abstract term, with dimensions of an ethical nature, and requires prompt and timely action. To identify when preventive action is required, an understanding is needed of where there is risk, and what benefit or outcome may follow interventions. However, the knowledge in this field is limited, which means that it is wise to be cautious in claiming effectiveness of prevention activity. Nonetheless, if prevention is not seen to be practised, the development of skills and the means to evaluate interventions will not become embedded in the routine care of families with small children, and physical child abuse will not be prevented. PMID:18672856
Pasalich, Dave S; Cyr, Maeve; Zheng, Yao; McMahon, Robert J; Spieker, Susan J
This study examined whether child abuse history in teen mothers impacts offspring externalizing problems indirectly, through its influence on attachment and maternal hostility. In a longitudinal sample of 112 teen mother-child dyads, mothers reported on their own abuse experiences, attachment and maternal hostility were assessed via direct observations, and externalizing problems were measured using maternal reports. Compared with mothers with no abuse history, mothers with a history of sexual and physical abuse were more likely to have an insecurely attached infant, which predicted higher externalizing problems in preschool, which in turn predicted subsequent increases in externalizing problems in Grade 3. Furthermore, relative to the no abuse history group, mothers with a history of sexual and physical abuse showed more hostility toward their child at preschool, which in turn predicted elevated externalizing problems in Grade 3. Mothers' history of either sexual or physical abuse alone did not have significant indirect effects on externalizing problems. Fostering secure attachment and reducing risk for maternal hostility might be important intervention goals for prevention programs involving at-risk mothers with abuse histories. PMID:27174770
United States Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect, Washington, DC.
The U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect was established under the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA). In its annual reports, the Board is charged with evaluating the nation's efforts to accomplish the purpose of CAPTA and to propose recommendations about ways those efforts can be improved. Noting that every day, five young…
Van Haeringen, Alison R.; Dadds, Mark; Armstrong, Kenneth L.
A survey of pediatricians (N=124) and general practitioners (N=100) in Queensland (Australia) assessed physician attitudes toward reporting of possible child abuse and/or neglect. Overall, 43% of doctors had at some time suspected child abuse or neglect, but decided not to report despite the legal mandate. Reasons for not reporting centered on…
Sinanan, Allison N.
This study identified selected child factors (e.g., age, gender, race/ethnicity, disabilities, prior victimization, and relationship to perpetrator of abuse), family risk factors (e.g., substance abuse, domestic violence, inadequate housing, and financial problems), and services provided by child protective services that likely increased reports…
Hakman, Melissa; Chaffin, Mark; Funderburk, Beverly; Silovsky, Jane F.
Objective: Parent-child interaction therapy (PCIT) has been found to reduce future child abuse reports among physically abusive parents. Reductions in observed negative parenting behaviors mediated this benefit. The current study examined session-by-session interaction sequences in order to identify when during treatment these changes occur and…
Adams, Joyce A
The medical evaluation of children with suspected sexual abuse includes more than just the physical examination of the child. The importance of taking a detailed medical history from the parents and a history from the child about physical sensations following sexual contact has been emphasized in other articles in the medical literature. The examination is important, however, and medical providers who examine children need to be aware of published research on findings in nonabused children, studies of healing of injuries, and studies documenting the association between sexual contact and the diagnosis of sexually transmissible infections in children. This article reviews the current approach to interpreting findings in children who may have been sexually abused and why additional research is needed. PMID:21970647
McGrath, P; Cappelli, M; Wiseman, D; Khalil, N; Allan, B
Teachers have a significant role in preventing, detecting and reporting child abuse and neglect. They are hindered in fulfilling this role by a serious lack of knowledge of the law, of school board policies, and of maltreatment. A comprehensive professional development workshop was developed and presented to elementary school teachers. The package was evaluated by means of a randomized controlled trial. The workshop proved to be effective in increasing and maintaining knowledge. PMID:3828866
Daniel, Jessica H.; And Others
The predictive value of a child abuse screening instrument on unselected populations is illustrated for varying hypothesized levels of child abuse prevalence to demonstrate outcome of a hypothetical national screening program. At any level of application, the prediction of false positives (nonabusing families labeled as abusing or potentially…
Dorahy, Martin J; Middleton, Warwick; Seager, Lenaire; Williams, Mary; Chambers, Ron
Only a select number of studies have examined different forms of child maltreatment in complex dissociative disorders (DDs) in comparison to other groups. Few of these have used child abuse-related chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (C-PTSD) and mixed psychiatric (MP) patients with maltreatment as comparison groups. This study examined child sexual, physical, and emotional abuse as well as physical and emotional neglect in DD (n = 39), C-PTSD (n = 13), and MP (n = 21) samples, all with abuse and neglect histories. The predictive capacity of these different forms of maltreatment across the 3 groups was assessed for pathological dissociation, shame, guilt, relationship esteem, relationship anxiety, relationship depression, and fear of relationships. All forms of maltreatment differentiated the DD from the MP group, and sexual abuse differentiated the DD sample from the C-PTSD group. Childhood sexual abuse was the only predictor of pathological dissociation. Emotional abuse predicted shame, guilt, relationship anxiety, and fear of relationships. Emotional neglect predicted relationship anxiety and relationship depression. Physical neglect was associated with less relationship anxiety. Different forms of abuse and neglect are associated with different symptom clusters in psychiatric patients with maltreatment histories. PMID:26275087
... Physical, sexual, or emotional abuse Neglect or abandonment Financial abuse - stealing of money or belongings Possible signs ... may be a sudden change in the person's financial situation. Elder abuse will not stop on its ...
... facilities or nursing homes. The mistreatment may be Physical, sexual, or emotional abuse Neglect or abandonment Financial abuse - stealing of money or belongings Possible signs of elder abuse include unexplained bruises, burns, ...
Harper, Nancy S; Lewis, Terri; Eddleman, Sonja; Lindberg, Daniel M
Skeletal survey is frequently used to identify occult fractures in young children with concern for physical abuse. Because skeletal survey is relatively insensitive for some abusive fractures, a follow-up skeletal survey (FUSS) may be undertaken at least 10-14 days after the initial skeletal survey to improve sensitivity for healing fractures. This was a prospectively planned secondary analysis of a prospective, observational study of 2,890 children who underwent subspecialty evaluation for suspected child physical abuse at 1 of 19 centers. Our objective was to determine variability between sites in rates of FUSS recommendation, completion and fracture identification among the 2,049 participants who had an initial SS. Among children with an initial skeletal survey, the rate of FUSS recommendation for sites ranged from 20% to 97%; the rate of FUSS completion ranged from 10% to 100%. Among sites completing at least 10 FUSS, rates of new fracture identification ranged from 8% to 28%. Among completed FUSS, new fractures were more likely to be identified in younger children, children with higher initial level of concern for abuse, and those with a fracture or cutaneous injury identified in the initial evaluation. The current variability in FUSS utilization is not explained by variability in occult fracture prevalence. Specific guidelines for FUSS utilization are needed. PMID:26342432
This article is based on observations and thoughts during intensive psychotherapeutic work with 997 sexually abused children and their parents after they had been reported to the Confidential Doctor Center Kind in Nood of the VUB (between 1986 and 1994). Without denying the existence of sexual abuse of children, it is important not to exaggerate this phenomena, which can be described as the Child Sexual Abuse Panic Syndrome. Doing this only gives way to denial and indignation or scandalization and revenge, and certainly does not lead to a clear analysis of the problem. Accurate observation enables some existing myths to become unravelled: abusive fathers are seldom power robots, mothers are not always warm-hearted, innocent creatures and children are not black boxes without feeling and sexual desires. The underlying message is about the bitter fight against modernization of sexuality, which seems again experienced as dangerous. However it is fear for a free, adult sexuality that is at the core of sexual exploitation of children, which should encourage caution in professional answers to this delicate issue. PMID:8669307
Abrahams, N; Casey, K; Daro, D
In considering the great responsibility placed upon teachers to involve themselves in child abuse prevention, education, and detection, the National Committee for Prevention of Child Abuse (NCPCA) conducted a nationwide survey of teachers from 40 school districts in 29 randomly selected counties. The survey explores teachers knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about child abuse and its prevention. Five hundred and sixty-eight teachers responded, revealing that while the majority of teachers confront child abuse among their students, they are provided insufficient education on how to address it. Other findings are reported with respect to teachers' reporting behavior, potential barriers to reporting, child assault prevention programs, and corporal punishment in schools. PMID:1559171
Brown, G W
Change in social customs and institutions is usually a slow process. This seems particularly true in attitudes about child abuse. Two key elements for change are being utilized for child protection in a rural area of Alaska with a predominantly Caucasian population. First, application of an old church custom of "constructive gossip" by volunteers is changing this rural community attitude about children. Second, use of an innovative federal government health care delivery program has established this community's first obstetric and pediatric service. With the oil boom in Alaska, widespread family disruption with frequent child abuse and neglect has become commonplace. Despite the oil tax wealth, State of Alaska Child Protection Services are strained to keep up with family and community violence. Deliberate cooperation with local community, church and service organization leaders is helping keep up with child protection needs. The obstetric and pediatric specialists of the National Health Service Corps non-profit practice were co-leaders, along with community leaders, in starting a lay volunteer service called "Friends of Families." Working cooperatively with the state child protection office, 24 families have received assistance from parent aides of Friends of Families. The influence of these two key elements of change on rural community attitudes and institutions are described. PMID:4052845
... abuse References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Weiss RD. Drugs of abuse. In: Goldman ...
There is considerable controversy about the role of child sexual abuse in the etiology of anxiety disorders. Although a growing number of research studies have been published, these have produced inconsistent results and conclusions regarding the nature of the associations between child sexual abuse and the various forms of anxiety problems as well as the potential effects of third variables, such as moderators, mediators, or confounders. This article provides a systematic review of the several reviews that have investigated the literature on the role of child sexual abuse in the etiology of anxiety disorders. Seven databases were searched, supplemented with hand search of reference lists from retrieved papers. Four meta-analyses, including 3,214,482 subjects from 171 studies, were analyzed. There is evidence that child sexual abuse is a significant, although general and nonspecific, risk factor for anxiety disorders, especially posttraumatic stress disorder, regardless of gender of the victim and severity of abuse. Additional biological or psychosocial risk factors (such as alterations in brain structure or function, information processing biases, parental anxiety disorders, family dysfunction, and other forms of child abuse) may interact with child sexual abuse or act independently to cause anxiety disorders in victims in abuse survivors. However, child sexual abuse may sometimes confer additional risk of developing anxiety disorders either as a distal and indirect cause or as a proximal and direct cause. Child sexual abuse should be considered one of the several risk factors for anxiety disorders and included in multifactorial etiological models for anxiety disorders. PMID:23262751
Al-Mahroos, Fadheela; Al-Amer, Eshraq
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a common problem with severe short and long-term consequences to the abused child, the family and to society. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of CSA, and demographic and other characteristics of the abused and their families. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective and descriptive study based on a review of medical records of CSA cases from 2000-2009 at Sulmaniya Medical Complex, the main secondary and tertiary medical care facility in Bahrain. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The review included demographic data, child and family characteristics, manifestations and interventions. RESULTS: The 440 children diagnosed with CSA had a mean age of 8 years (range, 9 months to 17 years); 222 were males (50.5%) and 218 were females (49.5%). There was a steady increase in cases from 31 per year in 2000 to 77 cases in 2009. Children disclosed abuse in 26% of cases, while health sector professionals recognized 53% of the cases. Genital touching and fondling (62.5%) were the most common form of CSA, followed by sodomy in 39%. Gonorrhea was documented in 2% of the cases and pregnancy in 4% of the females. The illiteracy rate among the fathers and mothers was 9% and 12%, respectively, which is higher than the rate among the adult general population. Children came from all socio-economic classes. There was referral to police in 56%, public prosecution in 31% of the cases, but only 8% reached the court. CONCLUSION: During ten years there has been a 2.5% increase in reported cases of CSA. Improving the skill of professionals in identifying CSA indicators and a mandatory reporting law might be needed to improve the rate of recognition and referral of CSA cases. Further general population-based surveys are needed to determine more accurately the scope of CSA and the risk and protective factors in the family and community. PMID:21808114
Ross, Helen Warren; Stauss, Jay
A detailed ecological model is used to develop a framework for assessing the incidence of child abuse among American Indians. Macro, exo, and micro levels of analysis are extended by the inclusion of mediating and potentiating factors that may either contribute to or ameliorate maltreatment or abuse. Abuse and its consequences are considered in…
Briscoe-Smith, Allison M.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.
Objective: The objectives of this study were to examine whether girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk of having histories of abuse and to assess whether the presence of an abuse history may constitute a distinct subgroup of youth with ADHD. Method: We examined rates and correlates of child abuse in an…
De Paul, Joaquin; And Others
Comparison of a Basque (Spain) sample with a similar U.S. sample found similar overall rates of physical child abuse, though rates of physical abuse sequelae were lower in the Basque sample and sexual abuse of Basque males was twice that reported for U.S. males. Level of father support was important in both groups. (Author/DB)
Evans, Alan L.
The purpose of this study was to investigate personality characteristics of child abusers, utilizing the results of the Melnick-Hurley (1969) study. Subjects were 40 mothers receiving Aid to Dependent Children in Ingham County, Michigan. Each of the 20 "abusive" mothers had abused at least one of her children within six months prior to testing. To…
Children's picturebooks dealing with the topic of child sexual abuse first appeared in the early 1980s with the aim of addressing the need for age-appropriate texts to teach sexual abuse prevention concepts and to provide support for young children who may be at risk of or have already experienced sexual abuse. Despite the apparent potential of…
Salzinger, Suzanne; And Others
Results of a study of physically abused elementary school children in the four urban boroughs of New York City are reported. The study recruited 106 families with a physically abused child between the ages of 8 and 12 years. A matched control sample was recruited from classmates. The abuse sample was highly representative of the New York City…
Back, Sudie E.; Jackson, Joan L.; Fitzgerald, Monica; Shaffer, Anne; Salstrom, Seoka; Osman, Mohamad Maliki
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to explore differences in rates and characteristics of child sexual and physical abuse experiences among women in Singapore and the US. Method: Participants (N=153) completed an anonymous questionnaire which assessed experiences of childhood sexual and physical abuse, abuse characteristics (e.g.,…
Osborne, Cynthia; Berger, Lawrence M.
Parental substance abuse is associated with adverse health and developmental outcomes for children. Existing research, however, has not fully explored the relative magnitude of the associations between maternal, paternal, and both parents' substance abuse and child outcomes, nor has it examined these associations in regard to substance abuse among…
Jonzon, Eva; Lindblad, Frank
This study examined the impact of child sexual abuse and disclosure characteristics on adult psychological and psychosomatic symptoms. Data on abuse characteristics, disclosure-related events, and subjective health were collected through semistructured interviews and questionnaires from 123 adult women reporting having been sexually abused in…
Reiniger, Anne; And Others
A survey was conducted of 1,368 professionals in a course on identifying and reporting child abuse and maltreatment. Substantial numbers of professionals had limited knowledge of indicators of abuse and even less knowledge about legal obligations and procedures for reporting. Teachers were no more knowledgeable about indicators of abuse than were…
Rodriguez, Christina M
The present investigation predicted that greater use of corporal punishment as well as physical maltreatment would be associated with child abuse potential and selected parenting styles. Three independent studies were examined, two with community samples and a third with a clinical at-risk sample of parents. Parents across all studies anonymously completed the Child Abuse Potential Inventory, the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale to assess physical discipline and maltreatment, as well as the Parenting Scale to measure dysfunctional parenting styles. Findings support that overall parent-child aggression, as well as physical maltreatment behaviors specifically, were associated with child abuse potential. Parent-child aggression was also related to dysfunctional parenting styles, particularly an overreactive, authoritarian parenting style. Permissive parenting was also identified as potentially associated with physical maltreatment, although the findings regarding such lax parenting styles are less clear. Intriguing findings emerged regarding the connection of psychological aggression to both child abuse potential and dysfunctional parenting style. Child abuse potential was also associated with dysfunctional parenting style, particularly harsh, overreactive approaches. Recommendations for future study with at-risk samples and additional research on permissive parenting and psychological aggression are discussed. PMID:21287963
Gindesgaard, Christian Banner; Møller, Troels Reinholdt
Munchausen syndrome by proxy (MSBP) is a complex, multifaceted form of child abuse that presents a challenge to all health-care providers. Diagnosis is difficult in cases of MSBP, and it is imperative to recognise the clinical features of MSBP in both the child and the perpetrator. All members of the health-care team must stay objective in the interactions with families where MSBP is suspected and make referrals to the proper agencies. A case is presented to explain the medical and social complexities associated with nursing and diagnosing MSBP. This article also provides a brief review of the definition of MSBP. PMID:21958485
ELWYN, LAURA; SMITH, CAROLYN
Child maltreatment is a risk factor for substance abuse in adulthood. This study examines whether memory of maltreatment is a necessary link in the path leading from prospectively measured childhood maltreatment to adult substance use problems. Official Child Protective Services reports and adult retrospective recall of childhood maltreatment were used to predict illegal drug use and alcohol problems in adulthood controlling for covariates. Memory was a necessary link in the path between prospective reports of maltreatment and alcohol problems, and an important link in the path between prospective reports and illegal drug use. Implications for prevention and treatment are discussed. PMID:24319347
Seng, Magnus J.
Explored relationship between sexual abuse and adolescent prostitution by comparing 70 sexually abused children with 35 prostitution-involved children on 22 variables. Findings suggest that relationship is not direct, but involves runaway behavior as intervening variable. Concludes that it is not so much sexual abuse that leads to prostitution, as…
Alert-Dancer, Claire; Halley, Nancy; Hamate, Maryam; Bernard-Bonnie, Anne-Claude
Medical evaluation of 316 children, mean age 6 years, found 39 perpetrators of sexual abuse were less than 16 years old and 15 were between 16 and 19. Young aggressors were more likely to abuse older female children. Adolescent aggressors appeared to engage in more genital/genital and genital/anal sexual abuse than older aggressors. (Author/DB)
Timberlake, Elizabeth M.
The hypothesis that abused children develop a life style of overt expression of aggression and depression was examined in a study of 56 physically abused first grade children who were placed in foster care due to parental physical abuse. As no test instrument existed, the Childhood Social Functioning Inventory was developed, pretested, and used to…
Honma, Satoru; Wakamatsu, Hidetoshi; Ueda, Reiko
Some assessments have been applied to find possible factors that might lead to child abuse. PACAP is a new method proposed by Ueda and others as a pre-assessment of the concerning child abuse, which reduces its false-positive misclassification. The Internet PACAP is developed to reduce the laborious work of nurses and health care workers for the necessary processing and classifying the scores of the pre-assessment. The present system is expected to prevent the child abuse more effectively.
Mouden, L D
Dentistry must become more aware of its moral, legal, and ethical responsibilities in recognizing and reporting child abuse and neglect. All dental professionals must be aware of the seriousness of the problems of child maltreatment, and understand that children do not just get hurt in abuse and neglect, they often die as a direct result of their maltreatment. Unfortunately, victims of child abuse and neglect fall into only two categories--those who lived through it and those who did not. PMID:9573768
Valanne, Leena; Föhr, Anna
Injuries associated with child abuse involve typical imaging findings that should be recognized by every radiologist, because a radiologist may be the first person to raise doubts about abuse. Subdural and subarachnoid hemorrhages in the vicinity of the longitudinal cerebral fissure are characteristic of a brain injury resulting from shaking. Magnetic resonance imaging is the most recommendable method of imaging. At the acute stage, computed tomography is sufficient for the detection of conditions requiring immediate neurosurgical treatment, if magnetic resonance imaging is not possible. Ultrasonography is not sensitive enough for this purpose. Fractures in a child under the age of one year are always suspicious, especially rib fractures. Injuries of the liver, pancreas and intestine are often found in the abdominal region. Contrast-enhanced CT scan is the best investigation in injuries of the lungs and the abdominal region. If a suspicion of physical abuse is raised upon imaging studies, it is important to bring this to the notice of the attending physician and note the issue also in the report. PMID:26237881
National Association of Secondary School Principals, Reston, VA.
According to this memorandum, from 1963-1967 all 50 states adopted laws that required certain groups of people to notify public authorities of suspected child maltreatment. In all but a few states, a child is defined as anyone under the age of 18. By May of 1980, all states but Vermont had reporting statutes that mandate reporting by teachers,…
Behere, Prakash Balkrishna; Mulmule, Akshata Nandu
We have reporting herein two cases of victims of sexual abuse, both 8 years old girls, both presented with symptoms of irritability, withdrawn behavior, fearfulness, anxiety, and abusive language toward family members. These symptoms appeared following sexual abuse. We are highlighting early identifications of child sex abuse and discussed the legal aspects of child abuse and “protection of children from sexual offences act” 2012. Finally, we have discussed how to prevent such incidences including incorporating school awareness programs in targeted girls’ group. PMID:24049233
Behere, Prakash Balkrishna; Mulmule, Akshata Nandu
We have reporting herein two cases of victims of sexual abuse, both 8 years old girls, both presented with symptoms of irritability, withdrawn behavior, fearfulness, anxiety, and abusive language toward family members. These symptoms appeared following sexual abuse. We are highlighting early identifications of child sex abuse and discussed the legal aspects of child abuse and "protection of children from sexual offences act" 2012. Finally, we have discussed how to prevent such incidences including incorporating school awareness programs in targeted girls' group. PMID:24049233
Goldman, Juliette D. G.
This study aims to understand how primary school teachers, as mandatory reporters of child sexual abuse, are responding to child sexual abuse and its mandatory reporting, even though many teachers do not receive a compulsory course in Child Protection and its legal requirements in their pre-service university training. A cohort of 81 Australian…
Hewitt, Sandra K.; Arrowood, Alice A.
Presents a systematic touch exploration format for screening child abuse. The technique involves simple drawings with child participation that review forms of touching in a child's life and screens for physical and emotional abuse as well. Comparisons between screening outcomes and completed case conclusions indicate a bias toward underreporting…
... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Proclamation 8490 of April 1, 2010. National Child... 8490 of April 1, 2010 Proc. 8490 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2010By the President of the... support to thrive and grow into healthy, productive adults. During National Child Abuse Prevention...
...-reporting of child abuse. 352.237-71 Section 352.237-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND... Clauses 352.237-71 Crime Control Act—reporting of child abuse. As prescribed in 337.103-70(b), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Crime Control Act of 1990—Reporting of Child...
...-reporting of child abuse. 352.237-71 Section 352.237-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND... Clauses 352.237-71 Crime Control Act—reporting of child abuse. As prescribed in 337.103-70(b), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Crime Control Act of 1990—Reporting of Child...
...-reporting of child abuse. 352.237-71 Section 352.237-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND... Clauses 352.237-71 Crime Control Act—reporting of child abuse. As prescribed in 337.103-70(b), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Crime Control Act of 1990—Reporting of Child...
Giglio, Jessie J.; Wolfteich, Paula M.; Gabrenya, William K.; Sohn, Mary L.
Child sexual abuse changes the lives of countless children. Child sexual abuse victims experience short and long term negative outcomes that affect their daily functioning. In this study, undergraduate students' perceptions of CSA were obtained using vignettes with an adult or child perpetrator and a general questionnaire. Results indicated…
Duggan, Anne; McFarlane, Elizabeth; Fuddy, Loretta; Burrell, Lori; Higman, Susan M.; Windham, Amy; Sia, Calvin
Objectives: To assess the impact of home visiting in preventing child abuse and neglect in the first 3 years of life in families identified as at-risk of child abuse through population-based screening at the child's birth. Methods: This experimental study focused on Hawaii Healthy Start Program (HSP) sites operated by three community-based…
Grella, Christine E.; Hser, Yih-Ing; Huang; Yu-Chuang
Problem: Greater awareness of the role of parental substance abuse in child maltreatment makes it imperative that the substance abuse treatment and child welfare systems coordinate services for these parents. Yet little is known about the characteristics of child-welfare involved parents (primarily mothers) who enter into substance abuse…
Thomas, Mason P., Jr.
North Carolina's Child Abuse Reporting Law makes all citizens legally responsible for reporting incidents of child abuse and neglect. Professionals, such as doctors and teachers, must also give their professional opinions as to the nature, extent, and causes of the damaged child's condition. The basic purpose of the law is to identify children at…
This handbook on child abuse and neglect was written to assist school personnel, including administrators, teachers, counselors, school nurses, and school social workers in defining abuse and neglect and in developing policy and training programs to best address the abuse issue. Topics addressed include: (1) understanding child abuse and neglect;…
Fontes, Lisa A; Tishelman, Amy C
Forensic interviews with children for suspected child sexual abuse require meeting children "where they are" in terms of their developmental level, readiness to disclose, culture, and language. The field lacks research indicating how to accommodate children's diverse cultural and linguistic backgrounds. This article focuses on language competence, defined here as the ability of an organization and its personnel (in this case, Child Advocacy Centers and forensic interviewers) to communicate effectively with clients regardless of their preferred language(s). In this qualitative study, 39 U.S. child forensic interviewers and child advocacy center directors discussed their experiences, practices, and opinions regarding interviews with children and families who are not native speakers of English. Topics include the importance of interviewing children in their preferred language, problems in interpreted interviews, bilingual interviews, and current and recommended procedures. Recommendations for practice and further research are included. PMID:27348799
Mathoma, Anikie M; Maripe-Perera, Dorcas B; Khumalo, Lindiwe P; Mbayi, Bagele L; Seloilwe, Esther S
This study sought to explore the phenomenon of child sexual abuse by investigating the knowledge and perceptions of parents regarding this problem in Botswana and Swaziland. Although there are no published studies on child sexual abuse in Botswana and Swaziland, literature elsewhere has indicated that child abuse and prostitution prevail in Southern African Development Community countries and that children still continue to be rape victims within and outside the family structure [Muwanigwa, V. (1996). Child Abuse Demands More Preventive Measures. Harare: Zimbabwe. (Southern Africa News Features Southern African Research and Documentation Center)]. In Botswana in 1998, there were 300 cases of child abuse reported, of which 33 were sexual abuse cases. The same year in Swaziland, >50% of child abuse cases were sexual abuse related. In addition, the same year in Swaziland, >50% of sexual abuse case patients reporting for counseling were children younger than 21 years. Respondents of the study included 8 men (1 from Swaziland and 7 from Botswana) and 10 women (3 from Swaziland and 7 from Botswana) who were parents aged between 26 and 70 years; they were determined by way of purposive sampling. A focused interview guide with open-ended questions was used to collect data, and measures to ensure trustworthiness and ethical considerations were adhered to. Analysis of data was facilitated by categorization of themes and concepts and coding systems. The results of the study showed that the respondents acknowledged the prevalence of child sexual abuse in Botswana and Swaziland and further demonstrated their knowledge of the predisposing factors, perpetrators of the problem, and effects of sexual abuse on children. They placed major emphases on community involvement in fighting against the problem; appropriate education of children, parents, families, and community members about child sexual abuse; and improvement on the laws that protect children against sexual abuse to
Gillham, Bill; Tanner, Gary; Cheyne, Bill; Freeman, Isobel; Rooney, Martin; Lambie, Allan
This study evaluated referrals (N=5,551) and registered cases (N=1,450) of child abuse and neglect in Glasgow, Scotland, from 1991 through 1993. The largest correlation found was between physical abuse and rates of male unemployment, accounting for two-thirds of the variance in total abuse and neglect rates. (Author/DB)
New York State Commission on Quality of Care for the Mentally Disabled, Albany.
The pilot study reported in this document reviewed existing child abuse and neglect reports in mental health and mental retardation residential facilities in the state of New York. The study found that the annual reporting rate of abuse and neglect in these facilities was more than two times higher than for the state as a whole; it also found…
Kwok, Sylvia Y C L; Chai, Wenyu; He, Xuesong
The present study examined the relationship among physical abuse, psychological abuse, perceived family functioning and adolescent suicidal ideation in Shanghai, China. Perceived family functioning was investigated as a possible moderator between physical abuse, psychological abuse and suicidal ideation. A cross sectional survey using convenience sampling was conducted. A total of 560 valid self-administered questionnaires were completed by the students aged from 12 to 17 in Shanghai. Descriptive statistical analyses, Pearson correlations analyses, and hierarchical regression analyses were adopted as methods of data analyses. Results indicated that physical abuse was significantly associated with greater adolescent suicidal ideation, while a higher level of perceived family functioning was significantly associated with lower suicidal ideation. However, psychological abuse was not associated with suicidal ideation. Perceived family functioning was shown to be a moderator between physical abuse and suicidal ideation. Specifically, mutuality and family communication moderated the relationship between physical abuse and suicidal ideation. To decrease adolescent suicidal ideation, measures are suggested to prevent physical abuse and enhance family functioning. First, it is important to increase the parents' awareness of the meaning and boundaries of physical abuse, as well as the role it plays in contributing to adolescent suicidal ideation. Second, parents should be taught appropriate parenting skills and knowledge and be guided to treat the children as individuals with their unique personality, rights and privileges. Third, it is important to promote family harmony, effective communication as well as mutual trust, concern and understanding among family members. PMID:23899534
Harding, Hilary G; Zinzow, Heidi M; Burns, Erin E; Jackson, Joan L
Previous research suggests that similarity to a victim may influence attributions of responsibility in hypothetical child sexual abuse scenarios. One aspect of similarity receiving mixed support in the literature is respondent child sexual abuse history. Using a sample of 1,345 college women, the present study examined child sexual abuse history, similarity to victim, and attributions of responsibility to a hypothetical victim, family member, and perpetrator in a child sexual abuse vignette. Results revealed no group differences in responsibility ratings among respondents with and without child sexual abuse histories. However, among the 133 respondents with child sexual abuse histories, results indicated that similarity to victim moderated the relationship between vignette characteristics, respondent history, and responsibility attributions. Results suggest that similarity to a victim may influence ratings in a self-preserving manner. PMID:20390786
In this article, Sioux Hall promotes using a strengths-based approach to examine the interruption of the intergenerational cycle of child abuse and explores the strategies that women who were abused by a parent as children used to raise their children without abuse. She documents the mothers' uses of strategies such as vowing to protect and…
MacMillan, Harriet L.; Tanaka, Masako; Duku, Eric; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Boyle, Michael H.
Objectives: Exposure to child maltreatment is associated with physical, emotional, and social impairment, yet in Canada there is a paucity of community-based information about the extent of this problem and its determinants. We examined the prevalence of child physical and sexual abuse and the associations of child abuse with early contextual,…
The child sexual abuse knowledge base has developed within a highly charged political and social context. As such, early theories of sexual abuse were susceptible to biases that reflected the larger sociocultural context. The purpose of this paper is to consider whether attachment theory as it is applied to child sexual abuse might also be susceptible to such biases. Although this paper concludes that attachment theory can potentially add an important dimension to the conceptualization of child sexual abuse and its dynamics, it is also suggested that attachment theory may remain at risk for becoming a vehicle for transmitting political and ideological agendas. PMID:16221635
Samms, Kimika M; Cholewa, Blaire E
Jamaican media sources have recently noted the prevalence of child sexual abuse within the country. While research has continually noted the mental health impact of child sexual abuse, there is a dearth of literature on the relationship between the two in Jamaica. The purpose of this article is to provide the context of child sexual abuse in Jamaica, including the cultural considerations, current legislation, government created agencies, and modes of treatment. Moreover, recommendations are given for public health educators, school personnel, and mental health service providers in order to improve the psychological well-being of sexually abuse children. PMID:24512432
Child sexual abuse is a global issue that nurses must be aware of and knowledgeable about as they care for children in various care settings. This article focuses on the prevalence, potential risk factors, and possible signs and symptoms of child sexual abuse. It also provides information about what nurses can do should they suspect that a child has been or is being abused. Because consequences can be far reaching and exist for many years after the abuse, this article also addresses the possible long-term issues faced by survivors and provides resources that nurses can share with patients. PMID:26871893
Collin-Vezina, Delphine; Helie, Sonia; Trocme, Nico
Objective: Canadian victimization surveys and police databases suggest that, overall, no decline in sexual crimes in Canada had occurred lately. We aimed at reviewing the existing data from Canadian child protection services to further explore whether a decline in the number of substantiated child sexual abuse (CSA) cases has occurred during the…
Lau, Anna S.; Valeri, Sylvia M.; McCarty, Carolyn A.; Weisz, John R.
Purpose: We evaluated the hypothesis that abusive parents' reports may exaggerate rates of child behavior problems in a clinical sample. Method: The association between parental ratings of behavior problems and independent observations of child behaviors was examined in a sample of 205 clinic-referred families, 58 of which had a reported history…
Ramirez, Clemencia; Pinzon-Rondon, Angela Maria; Botero, Juan Carlos
Objectives: To determine the prevalence of child sexual abuse in the Colombian coasts, as well as to assess the role of parent-child interactions on its occurrence and to identify factors from different environmental levels that predict it. Methods: This cross-sectional study explores the results of 1,089 household interviews responded by mothers.…
Piper, Heather; Garratt, Dean; Taylor, Bill
This text introduces recently completed research on "no touch" sports coaching, by placing it in a broader social context which problematises the way child abuse and child protection (or safeguarding) are conceived and discussed in terms of policy and practice. It also provides a brief indicative summary of the research findings and…
Seibel, Nancy; Britt, Donna; Gillespie, Linda Groves; Parlakian, Rebecca
This book is an innovative approach to the primary prevention of child maltreatment. It focuses on the impact that child care providers can make in helping to reduce the risk of abuse and neglect in families with very young children. This research- and practice-based curriculum offers concepts, information, strategies, and practices focused on…
Sedlak, Andrea J.; Schultz, Dana; Wells, Susan J.; Lyons, Peter; Doueck, Howard J.; Gragg, Frances
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the trajectory of cases through four systems: child protection, law enforcement, the dependency courts, and the criminal courts. Method: This study focused on a county selected from a 41-county telephone survey conducted for the National Incidence Study of Child Abuse and Neglect (NIS-3). For this…
Casanova, Gisele M.; And Others
This study investigated changes in heart rate and skin conductance in response to four types of non-child-related stressors in mothers at risk and at low risk for physical child abuse. At-risk mothers had greater and more prolonged sympathetic activation during the most stressful presentations, supporting the view of such responses as mediators of…
Cavanaugh, Courtenay E; Harper, Bianca; Classen, Catherine C; Palesh, Oxana; Koopman, Cheryl; Spiegel, David
Child sexual abuse has been associated with a number of problems affecting women over their lifespan, including difficulties with parenting. However, there is a modest number of qualitative studies examining the impact of child sexual abuse on survivors who are mothers. There is a particular need for qualitative investigations that ask survivors who are mothers general questions about the impact of child sexual abuse on their lives rather than those that specifically ask about the impact of child sexual abuse on parenting. The former approach would allow survivors to describe effects that may impact parenting but that survivors do not consciously link to affecting their parenting. Such information may inform interventions to assist this population of survivors. This secondary data analysis examined themes revealed in interviews with 44 survivors of child sexual abuse who were mothers. Participants were seeking treatment for their child sexual abuse and completed an in-person interview in which they were asked open-ended questions about the sexual abuse they experienced as a child and how their abuse affects them now as adults. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded using thematic analysis. The following six themes emerged from the narratives: (a) being a parent, (b) family of origin dysfunction, (c) the impact of abuse, (d) the abuse history and response to abuse, (e) coping, and (f) hopes and desires for the future. This study highlights several ways in which child sexual abuse impacts survivors who are mothers, areas for further study, and the need for interventions to assist this population in meeting the challenges they face as mothers. PMID:26301437
Klika, J Bart; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Lee, Jungeun Olivia
Physical child abuse is a predictor of antisocial behavior in adolescence and adulthood. Few studies have investigated factors that moderate the risk of physical child abuse for later occurring outcomes, including antisocial behavior. This analysis uses data from the Lehigh Longitudinal Study to investigate the prediction of antisocial behavior from physical child abuse and the buffering role of 3 school-related factors (i.e., school commitment, school dropout, and IQ), which are hypothesized to change the course of antisocial behavior from childhood into the adult years. Results show an association between physical child abuse and early antisocial behavior. Early antisocial behavior predicts antisocial behavior in adolescence, and that, in turn, predicts antisocial behavior in adulthood. Child IQ moderated the relationship between child physical abuse and antisocial behavior in childhood. However, no other moderation effects were observed. Limitations and implications for future research and prevention are discussed. PMID:22929340
Ajduković, Marina; Sušac, Nika; Rajter, Miroslav
Aim To examine age and gender differences in the prevalence and incidence of child sexual abuse, the level of acquaintance of the child and the perpetrator, and correlations between experiencing family violence and sexual abuse on a nationally representative sample of 11, 13, and 16 years old children. Method A probabilistic stratified cluster sample included 2.62% of the overall population of children aged 11 (n = 1223), 13 (n = 1188), and 16 (n = 1233) from 40 primary and 29 secondary schools. A modified version of ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool – Children's Version was used. Five items referred to child sexual abuse (CSA) for all age groups. Results In Croatia, 10.8% of children experienced some form of sexual abuse (4.8% to 16.5%, depending on the age group) during childhood and 7.7% of children experienced it during the previous year (3.7% to 11.1%, depending on the age group). Gender comparison showed no difference in the prevalence of contact sexual abuse, whereas more girls than boys experienced non-contact sexual abuse. Correlations between sexual abuse and physical and psychological abuse in the family were small, but significant. Conclusion Comparisons with international studies show that Croatia is a country with a low prevalence of CSA. The fact that the majority of perpetrators of sexual abuse are male and female peers indicates the urgent need to address risks of sexual victimization in the health education of children. PMID:24170726
Lambie, Glenn W.
Child abuse and neglect is a pervasive problem. Often professional school counselors (PSCs) express feelings of anxiety at the prospect of working with such cases. Indeed, one of educators' greatest fears is dealing with child abuse and neglect cases (Wilson, Ireton, & Wood, 1997). Rarely do ethical dilemmas confronting professional school…
Howard, Kimberly S.; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne
Kimberly Howard and Jeanne Brooks-Gunn examine home visiting, an increasingly popular method for delivering services for families, as a strategy for preventing child abuse and neglect. They focus on early interventions because infants are at greater risk for child abuse and neglect than are older children. In their article, Howard and Brooks-Gunn…
Walsh, Kerryann; Farrell, Ann; Bridgstock, Ruth; Schweitzer, Robert
This article establishes the important role of early childhood teachers in child abuse and neglect and argues for empirical research into their practice of detecting, and reporting, known or suspected child abuse and neglect in a State with new and unique reporting obligations for teachers. It emphasizes the practical value of such research for…
Whitaker, Daniel J.; Le, Brenda; Hanson, R. Karl; Baker, Charlene K.; McMahon, Pam M.; Ryan, Gail; Klein, Alisa; Rice, Deborah Donovan
Objectives: Since the late 1980s, there has been a strong theoretical focus on psychological and social influences of perpetration of child sexual abuse. This paper presents the results of a review and meta-analysis of studies examining risk factors for perpetration of child sexual abuse published since 1990. Method: Eighty-nine studies published…