Science.gov

Sample records for abuse control commission

  1. The Role of Stress in the Commission of Subsequent Acts of Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Dorothy Howze

    1988-01-01

    Examines data from clients reported and treated for child abuse and neglect to determine the role of stress in the commission of subsequent acts of abuse and neglect. Results indicate that stressful events and seriousness of the initial abusive incident had significant effects on commission of subsequent abusive and neglectful acts. (BB)

  2. Archiving Social Policy: The Florida Commission on Mental Health and Substance Abuse Collection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, B. W.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the importance of archiving state commission papers, documenting the formation of public policy, and allowing the public access to an organized collection of the data gathered by the Florida Commission on Mental Health and Substance Abuse. Florida's citizens with mental illnesses or substance abuse disorders face a myriad of…

  3. International nursing leadership related to the drugs phenomenon: a case study of the partnership experience between the Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD) and the University of Alberta--Faculty of Nursing.

    PubMed

    Wright, Maria da Gloria Miotto; Caufield, Catherine; Gray, Genevieve; Olson, Joanne; Ludueña, Alicia del Carmen; Musayon Oblitas, Flor Yesenia; Huaiquian Silva, Julia; David, Helena Maria Scherlowski; Piedra Chavez, Ketty Aracely; Bernal Roldán, Maria Carmen; Cartana, Maria do Horto Fontoura; Allonso Castillo, Maria Magdalena; Pillon, Sandra; Galera, Sueli Aparecida Frari; Randuz, Vera

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the value of international health in advancing the nursing profession through the development of strong leadership in the area of drug demand reduction. Paradigms for nursing leadership are briefly reviewed and linked to the development of the "International Nursing Leadership Institutes" organized by the Inter-American Commission for the Control of Drug Abuse (CICAD). The "International Nursing Leadership Institutes" have facilitated the implementation of Phase III of the CICAD Schools of Nursing Project: a) planning and implementing the first "International Research Capacity-Building Program for Nurses to Study the Drug Phenomenon in Latin America", b) development of Regional and National Strategic Plans for Nursing Professionals in the Area of Demand Reduction in Latin America, and c) preparation of a document that provides guidelines on how to include drug content into undergraduate and graduate nursing curricula. The article also brings reflections directly from several of the participants in the first International Research Capacity-Building Program for Nurses to Study the Drug Phenomenon in the Americas, offered in collaboration with the Faculty of Nursing at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Canada. These reflections demonstrate the multiplicity of ways in which this capacity-building program has made it easier for these members of Latin American Schools of Nursing to show leadership in the area of drug demand reduction.

  4. Final Report of the Commission on Child Abuse. State of Maine, 119th Legislature, Second Regular Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine State Legislature, Augusta. Office of Policy and Legal Analysis.

    This booklet contains the final report of Maine's Commission on Child Abuse. The commission is charged with examining the current policies as well as public and private programs and resources related to physical and sexual abuse of children. The commission's recommendations are discussed in detail. The nine recommendations concern: teacher and…

  5. Controlled prescription drug abuse at epidemic level.

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    In July 2005, The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (CASA) at Columbia University announced the results of a study indicating that the number of Americans who abuse controlled prescription drugs has nearly doubled from 7.8 million to 15.1 million from 1992 to 2003 and abuse among teens has more than tripled during that time. A summary of that study and information about the full report are presented.

  6. Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... people to control their actions. Certain types of personality disorders or mental illness might also interfere with ... self-control. Of course, not everyone with a personality disorder or mental illness becomes abusive. Fortunately, people ...

  7. The Controlled Study of the Ecology of Child Abuse and Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, R. H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The article reports on an ongoing, controlled study of factors related to the occurrence of child abuse, family factors related to heroin addiction, and the overall relationship between child abuse and drug abuse in 240 families. Journal availability: see EC 111 256. (DLS)

  8. Abuse of family physicians by patients seeking controlled substances

    PubMed Central

    Saveland, Christine; Hawker, Leisha; Miedema, Baukje; MacDougall, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine family physicians’ career prevalence and monthly incidence of workplace abuse by controlled substance prescription seekers. Design A 4-page cross-sectional survey. Setting A family medicine continuing medical education event in Halifax, NS. Participants The survey was distributed to 316 family physicians attending the continuing medical education event. Main outcome measures Career prevalence and monthly incidence of workplace abuse related to the act of prescribing controlled substances. Results Fifty-six percent (n = 178) of the 316 surveys were returned completed. Half the study participants were men (49%). Most study participants were in private practice and lived in Nova Scotia, and approximately half (51%) practised in urban settings. On average, the study participants had 20 years of practice experience. The career prevalence of abusive encounters related to controlled substance prescribing was divided into “minor,” “major,” and “severe” incidents. Overall, 95% of study participants reported having experienced at least 1 incident of minor abuse; 48% had experienced at least 1 incident of major abuse; and 17% had experienced at least 1 incident of severe abuse during their careers. Further, 30% reported having been abused in the past month; among those, the average number of abusive encounters was 3. Most (82%) of the abusers were male with a history of addiction (85%) and mental illness (39%). Opioids were the most frequently sought controlled substance. Conclusion Abuse of family physicians by patients seeking controlled substances is substantial. Family physicians who prescribe controlled substances are at risk of being subjected to minor, major, or even severe abuse. Opioids were the most often sought controlled substance. A national discussion to deal with this issue is needed. PMID:24522691

  9. Abuse deterrent formulations and the Controlled Substances Act (CSA).

    PubMed

    Sapienza, Frank L

    2006-06-01

    The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) has reduced the diversion of controlled substances at the manufacturing and distribution levels. Recent increased diversion has occurred at the retail level. Levels of diversion and abuse of controlled substances with similar abuse potential and therapeutic indications often parallel availability for medical use, while rates of diversion and abuse may be influenced by factors related to specific products, including their formulations and risk management plans. Abuse deterrent formulations may reduce abuse and attendant adverse health consequences even if the products are diverted. Their development should consider how, to what extent and by whom products containing the targeted substance are abused. It should take into consideration all potential types of abuse including "as is", multiple doses, alternate routes of administration, physical or chemical separation of the active ingredient, compromised extended release mechanisms and abuse in combination with other substances. Industry incentives for developing abuse-resistant formulations include enhanced corporate image and potentially less restrictive scheduling or risk management plans. Scheduling is substance specific, but the CSA includes products/formulations that are differentially scheduled. Issues to be considered for differential scheduling under the CSA include: (1) whether there is legal authority to do so; (2) application of standard scheduling criteria to individual products; (3) product specific data for "eight factor analyses"; (4) development of predictive data and standards accepted by the scientific and regulatory communities; (5) use of predictive data or post marketing surveillance data; (6) international treaty obligations. These issues must be addressed before differential scheduling can be considered.

  10. Community Involvement In Prevention And Control of Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slawson, Marlene R.; Kopacz, Kenneth

    1972-01-01

    This article emphasizes the need for community involvement in controlling drug abuse. It illustrates the type of New York State legislation that gave rise to the creation of Narcotic Guidance Councils. (Author)

  11. Drug Abuse Prevention: Report of the Temporary State Commission to Evaluate the Drug Laws.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betros, Emeel S.; And Others

    The findings and recommendations of the Temporary State Commission to Evaluate the Drug Laws, set forth in the introduction to this report, are based on questionnaires to prevention experts and professionals responsible for child and adolescent care, on communications with community agencies, and on statewide public hearings. The committee found…

  12. Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... member, a trusted teacher, a doctor, or a school or religious youth counselor. Many teachers and counselors have training in how to recognize and report abuse. Telephone and online directories list local child abuse and family violence hotline numbers that you can call for help. ...

  13. Automated Demand Response Strategies and Commissioning CommercialBuilding Controls

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David; Motegi, Naoya; Kiliccote, Sila; Linkugel, Eric

    2006-05-01

    California electric utilities have been exploring the use of dynamic critical peak pricing (CPP) and other demand response programs to help reduce peaks in customer electric loads. CPP is a new electricity tariff design to promote demand response. This paper begins with a brief review of terminology regarding energy management and demand response, followed by a discussion of DR control strategies and a preliminary overview of a forthcoming guide on DR strategies. The final section discusses experience to date with these strategies, followed by a discussion of the peak electric demand savings from the 2005 Automated CPP program. An important concept identified in the automated DR field tests is that automated DR will be most successful if the building commissioning industry improves the operational effectiveness of building controls. Critical peak pricing and even real time pricing are important trends in electricity pricing that will require new functional tests for building commissioning.

  14. Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Early-Stage Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & Confusion Repetition Sleep Issues & Sundowning Suspicion & Delusions Wandering Abuse Start Here ...

  15. [Child abuse in Tlaxcala: a case-control study].

    PubMed

    Herrada-Huidobro, A; Nazar-Beutelspacher, A; Cassaball-Núñez, M; Vega-Ramos, R; Nava-Cruz, C B

    1992-01-01

    A longitudinal, retrospective and descriptive study about child abuse was carried out in the Hospitals of the Tlaxcala Secretariat of Health, Mexico. The information was obtained from hospitalized children's charts between January first and November 30, 1991. The charts included were those belonging to zero to 14 year old children with injuries, poisoning, and II-III degrees of malnutrition. Four child-abuse criteria were established: physical, sexual, non organic malnutrition and mixed (physical and non organic malnutrition). Two control groups were defined. Different patterns were observed between accidental and non accidental injuries, malnutrition and poisoning among the case and the control groups. The study provides useful information for the integral diagnosis of child abuse in hospitalized children.

  16. Women's Perceptions of Power and Control in Sexual Abuse Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koehn, Corinne V.

    2007-01-01

    Fifty women who were sexually abused as children were interviewed regarding their perceptions of helpful and hindering counseling behaviors. The critical incident technique was the methodology used. One major category that emerged from the data was Approach to Power and Control. This category comprised eight subcategories: (1) flexibility with…

  17. 78 FR 41950 - Certain Video Game Systems and Wireless Controllers and Components Thereof; Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Video Game Systems and Wireless Controllers and Components Thereof; Commission Determination To Review-In-Part a Remand Initial Determination; Schedule for Filing Written Submissions...

  18. 78 FR 57414 - Certain Video Game Systems and Wireless Controllers and Components Thereof, Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Video Game Systems and Wireless Controllers and Components Thereof, Commission Determination Finding No Violation of the Tariff Act of 1930 AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission....

  19. 46 CFR 565.4 - Notification to Commission of change in control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MARITIME PRACTICES CONTROLLED CARRIERS § 565.4 Notification to Commission of change in control. Whenever the operation, control or ownership of an ocean common carrier is transferred resulting in a majority... 46 Shipping 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notification to Commission of change in control....

  20. 46 CFR 565.4 - Notification to Commission of change in control.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... MARITIME PRACTICES CONTROLLED CARRIERS § 565.4 Notification to Commission of change in control. Whenever the operation, control or ownership of an ocean common carrier is transferred resulting in a majority... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Notification to Commission of change in control....

  1. Laboratory support of drug abuse control programs: an overview.

    PubMed

    Decker, W J

    1977-01-01

    Labeling an individual a drug abuser has serious sociologic and legal implications that only laboratory testing can effectively allay. A proper specimen (both qualitatively and quantitatively) must be obtained for analysis. Positive identification of specimen with subject is of paramount importance. The problems of specimen substitution--other people's urine, tap water, apple juice--directly impinge here, as does the possibility of drug degradation by heat, light, and microbial attack and of drug adsorption by the container and urinary sediment. Confirmation of postives indicated by screening tests (thin layer chromatography and immunoassays) by gas chromatography and/or ultraviolet spectrophotometry is, in most situations, mandatory. An effective quality control program is an absolute requirement. Even under ideal circumstances, laboratory results can sometimes wrongly indicate the abuse of drugs; and conversely, drug abuse can take place without detection by the laboratory. As in any clinical situation, laboratory tests are only a part (albeit an important one) of the entire evaluation of the individual involved.

  2. Mathematical model and software for control of commissioning blast furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spirin, N. A.; Onorin, O. P.; Shchipanov, K. A.; Lavrov, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    Blowing-in is a starting period of blast furnace operation after construction or major repair. The current approximation methods of blowing-in burden analysis are based on blowing-in practice of previously commissioned blast furnaces. This area is theoretically underexplored; there are no common scientifically based methods for selection of the burden composition and blast parameters. The purpose of this paper is development and scientific substantiation of the methods for selection of the burden composition and blast parameters in the blast furnace during the blowing-in period. Research methods are based on physical regularities of main processes running in the blast furnace, system analysis, and application of modern principles for development and construction of mathematical models, algorithms and software designed for automated control of complex production processes in metallurgy. As consequence of the research made by the authors the following results have been achieved: 1. A set of mathematical models for analysis of burden arrangement throughout the height of the blast furnace and for selection of optimal blast and gas dynamic parameters has been developed. 2. General principles for selection of the blowing-in burden composition and blast and gas dynamic parameters have been set up. 3. The software for the engineering and process staff of the blast furnace has been developed and introduced in the industry.

  3. Women's perceptions of power and control in sexual abuse counseling.

    PubMed

    Koehn, Corinne V

    2007-01-01

    Fifty women who were sexually abused as children were interviewed regarding their perceptions of helpful and hindering counseling behaviors. The critical incident technique was the methodology used. One major category that emerged from the data was Approach to Power and Control. This category comprised eight subcategories: (1) flexibility with agenda; (2) willingness to offer choices; (3) response to criticism; (4) response to client as an equal or with honor; (5) sexual interest; (6) approach to client's suggestions; (7) expectations regarding forgiveness; and (8) consultation with alter identities. Implications for counseling practice, research, and counselor education are discussed.

  4. Blessed be the Children: A Case-Control Study of Sexual Abusers in the Catholic Church.

    PubMed

    Calkins, Cynthia; Fargo, Jamison; Jeglic, Elizabeth; Terry, Karen

    2015-08-01

    Individuals working in churches and other youth-serving institutions have a unique level of access to children, yet the problem of sexual abuse in institutional settings has received scant research attention. To address this gap, we analyzed data from a large sample of clergy (N = 1,121) and applied a social-ecological model of offending to identify risk factors for sexual abuse perpetration. Using a case-control study design that compared clergy sexual abusers with three control groups of clergy, this study focuses specifically on individual-, relationship-, and community-level factors associated with a higher risk of abuse in professional populations. Findings revealed that clergy sexual abusers tended to have more truncated pre-seminary dating histories, and that their dating and sexual partners were more likely to have been male than female. Self-reported sexual abuse history was associated with a greater likelihood of sexual abuse perpetration among clergy. Clergy abusers tended to be more involved with youth and adolescents in their ministries; however, they were observed to relate less well to youth and adolescents than their clergy counterparts. Given widespread changes in our cultural understanding of abuse as well as more specific changes in the organizational approach to seminary education, these differences underscore the role that youth-serving institutions and society can have in the primary prevention of child sexual abuse.

  5. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-4 - Nuclear Regulatory Commission-controlled materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Nuclear Regulatory...-Special Types of Hazardous Materials and Certain Categories of Property § 101-42.1102-4 Nuclear Regulatory Commission-controlled materials. (a) General. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has exclusive...

  6. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-4 - Nuclear Regulatory Commission-controlled materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2011-07-01 2007-07-01 true Nuclear Regulatory...-Special Types of Hazardous Materials and Certain Categories of Property § 101-42.1102-4 Nuclear Regulatory Commission-controlled materials. (a) General. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has exclusive...

  7. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-4 - Nuclear Regulatory Commission-controlled materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Nuclear Regulatory...-Special Types of Hazardous Materials and Certain Categories of Property § 101-42.1102-4 Nuclear Regulatory Commission-controlled materials. (a) General. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has exclusive...

  8. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-4 - Nuclear Regulatory Commission-controlled materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Nuclear Regulatory...-Special Types of Hazardous Materials and Certain Categories of Property § 101-42.1102-4 Nuclear Regulatory Commission-controlled materials. (a) General. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has exclusive...

  9. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-4 - Nuclear Regulatory Commission-controlled materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Nuclear Regulatory...-Special Types of Hazardous Materials and Certain Categories of Property § 101-42.1102-4 Nuclear Regulatory Commission-controlled materials. (a) General. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has exclusive...

  10. The Papal Commission on Birth Control-revisited.

    PubMed

    Norris, Charles W

    2013-02-01

    The Papal Commission on Population, the Family, and Birth-rate met in Rome from 1963 to 1966. After these years of deliberation a Majority Report, written by Rev. Henri de Riedmatten, O.P., Chairman of the commission, counseled that the received Catholic and magisterial teaching of Casti connubii on the immorality of contraception be changed. Dr. Germain Grisez and Fr. John C. Ford opposed this decision and issued a Minority Report which basically was ignored by the secular press. In 1968, Pope Paul VI issued his most famous encyclical Humanae vitae, reaffirming the traditional magisterial teaching. In 2011, 44 years later, Dr. Grisez released several documents relating to these events. Following an Introduction, the author divides the work into four sections. First, the paper addresses the four part "materials prepared for Cardinal Ottaviani." Next he develops the contribution of Karol Cardinal Wojytla et al. Concerning the principles of conjugal life in 1966. Finally he provides a conclusion as to how the above topics promote natural family planning (NFP) and the constant teaching of the Catholic Church; then an addendum.

  11. Prevalence of illicit drug use in patients without controlled substance abuse in interventional pain management.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Pampati, Vidyasagar; Damron, Kim S; Beyer, Carla D; Barnhill, Renee C

    2003-04-01

    Drug abuse with illicit drugs and licit drugs has been increasing steadily over the past decade. A recent National Household Survey on Drug Abuse found statistically significant increases between 2000 and 2001 in the use of multiple drugs, including marijuana, cocaine, and non-medical use of pain relievers and tranquilizers. Prescription controlled substance abuse is a major issue in chronic pain management. Various means suggested to avoid or monitor abuse in patients in treatment include urine/serum drug screening whenever requested, along with other precautions including one prescribing physician and one designated pharmacy, etc. Based on the present evidence, physicians assume that patients adhering to controlled substance agreements and without obvious dependency behavior do not abuse either illicit or licit drugs. Thus, it is accepted that there is no necessity to perform routine urine/drug testing in this specific group of the patient population. One hundred patients undergoing interventional pain management and receiving controlled substances were randomly selected for evaluation of illicit drug abuse by urine drug testing. They were selected from a total of 250 patients who were identified as non-abusers of prescription drugs. Results showed that illicit drug abuse in patients without history of controlled substance abuse was seen in 16 patients. Thirteen of the 16 patients tested positive for marijuana and 3 patients tested positive for cocaine. Only one patient tested positive for a combined use of both marijuana and cocaine. This study showed that, in an interventional pain management setting, there is significant use of illicit drugs (16%) with 13% use of marijuana and 3% use of cocaine in patients who are considered as non-abusers of prescription controlled substances and those who are adherent to controlled substance agreements. However, if cocaine is considered as a hardcore drug in contrast to marijuana, abuse of hardcore illicit drugs is only 3%.

  12. Beyond "Witnessing": Children's Experiences of Coercive Control in Domestic Violence and Abuse.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Jane E M; Alexander, Joanne H; Sixsmith, Judith; Fellin, Lisa Chiara

    2015-12-10

    Children's experiences and voices are underrepresented in academic literature and professional practice around domestic violence and abuse. The project "Understanding Agency and Resistance Strategies" (UNARS) addresses this absence, through direct engagement with children. We present an analysis from interviews with 21 children in the United Kingdom (12 girls and 9 boys, aged 8-18 years), about their experiences of domestic violence and abuse, and their responses to this violence. These interviews were analyzed using interpretive interactionism. Three themes from this analysis are presented: (a) "Children's experiences of abusive control," which explores children's awareness of controlling behavior by the adult perpetrator, their experience of that control, and its impact on them; (b) "Constraint," which explores how children experience the constraint associated with coercive control in situations of domestic violence; and (c) "Children as agents," which explores children's strategies for managing controlling behavior in their home and in family relationships. The article argues that, in situations where violence and abuse occur between adult intimate partners, children are significantly affected, and can be reasonably described as victims of abusive control. Recognizing children as direct victims of domestic violence and abuse would produce significant changes in the way professionals respond to them, by (a) recognizing children's experience of the impact of domestic violence and abuse; (b) recognizing children's agency, undermining the perception of them as passive "witnesses" or "collateral damage" in adult abusive encounters; and (c) strengthening professional responses to them as direct victims, not as passive witnesses to violence.

  13. 28 CFR 0.177 - Applications for orders under the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. 0.177 Section 0.177 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF... the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. Notwithstanding the delegation of functions... Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970, 84 Stat. 1276, to approve the application of a U.S....

  14. 28 CFR 0.177 - Applications for orders under the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. 0.177 Section 0.177 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF... the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. Notwithstanding the delegation of functions... Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970, 84 Stat. 1276, to approve the application of a U.S....

  15. Perceived Control and Emotional Status in Abusive College Student Relationships: An Exploration of Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Caroline; Ogle, Richard; Sabourin, Caryn

    2005-01-01

    The authors assessed perceived control, dysphoria, hopelessness, self-esteem, and optimism in 280 college students involved in abusive and nonabusive relationships. Women reported higher levels of dysphoria and lower levels of self-esteem and optimism than men. Women in abusive relationships reported more psychological symptoms than men in abusive…

  16. Methodological Issues in Controlled Studies on Effects of Prenatal Exposure to Drug Abuse. Research Monograph 114.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilbey, M. Marlyne, Ed.; Asghar, Khursheed, Ed.

    This monograph presents the proceedings of the first National Institute on Drug Abuse technical review related to the conduct of controlled studies on prenatal exposure to drugs of abuse. Papers in the monograph are categorized by session. The first session (two papers) focused on the detection and quantification of prenatal drug exposure in…

  17. Informal Control by Family and Risk Markers for Alcohol Abuse/Dependence in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Emery, Clifton R; Wu, Shali; Yang, Hyerin; Lee, Hotaek; Kim, Junpyo; Chan, Ko Ling

    2016-05-08

    Although previous research documents a reliable relationship between physical intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and alcoholism, relatively little research has examined new theoretical constructs in IPV research that may increase risk for or help buffer women from alcohol abuse/dependence. The purpose of the present study was to examine informal social control of IPV by family members as a protective factor against and coercive control as a risk factor for alcohol abuse/dependence in a small population sample of married women in Seoul, South Korea. We hypothesized that (a) informal social control by family members would be negatively associated with victim alcohol abuse/dependence and (b) husband's coercive control would be positively associated with victim alcohol abuse/dependence. We measured alcohol abuse/dependence (CAGE scale), IPV and coercive control by husbands, and informal social control of IPV (ISC_IPV) by extended family members in a three-stage random cluster sample of 462 married women in Seoul, South Korea. Both random effects regression and zero-inflated Poisson regression models found that ISC_IPV by extended family members was associated with a significantly lower CAGE scores, and coercive control was associated with significantly higher CAGE scores. Interventions to boost ISC_IPV by extended family members may mitigate some of the risk of alcohol abuse/dependence by victims.

  18. Improving the outcomes of children affected by parental substance abuse: a review of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Calhoun, Stacy; Conner, Emma; Miller, Melodi; Messina, Nena

    2015-01-01

    Substance abuse is a major public health concern that impacts not just the user but also the user’s family. The effect that parental substance abuse has on children has been given substantial attention over the years. Findings from the literature suggest that children of substance-abusing parents have a high risk of developing physical and mental health and behavioral problems. A number of intervention programs have been developed for parents who have a substance abuse problem. There have also been a number of interventions that have been developed for children who have at least one parent with a substance abuse problem. However, it remains unclear how we can best mitigate the negative effects that parental substance abuse has on children due to the scarcity of evaluations that utilize rigorous methodologies such as experimental designs. The purpose of this study is to review randomized controlled trials of intervention programs targeting parents with substance abuse problems and/or children with at least one parent with a substance abuse problem in order to identify programs that show some promise in improving the behavioral and mental health outcomes of children affected by parental substance abuse. Four randomized controlled trials that met our eligibility criteria were identified using major literature search engines. The findings from this review suggest that interventions that focus on improving parenting practices and family functioning may be effective in reducing problems in children affected by parental substance abuse. However, further research utilizing rigorous methodologies are needed in order to identify other successful interventions that can improve the outcomes of these children long after the intervention has ended. PMID:25670915

  19. Results of Dose Control and Measurement Plans Appliedfor SPEAR3 Commissioning Year (FY04)

    SciTech Connect

    Khater, Hesham; Liu, James; Prinz, Alyssa; Allan, Jim; Rokni, Sayed; /SLAC

    2007-02-12

    Dose control and measurement plans for the SPEAR3 Booster and storage ring have taken place during the SPEAR3 commissioning. The initial commissioning period (SPEAR3 start-up) covered the time period from the beginning of November 2003 to the early part of March 2004. The period from the beginning of March to the beginning of August 2004 has been mostly dedicated to the scientific program. The initial commissioning period was characterized with frequent injection and significantly higher losses. In comparison, the scientific program period was characterized with more stable beam operation with limited number of injections per day and lower beam losses. Three types of dose measurements, passive, active and special measurements, were implemented around the SPEAR3 Booster and storage ring. Based on the expected radiation hazards, several dose control measures were adopted at several stages of the commissioning. In the early stages of commissioning, areas within 4.5 m from the walls of the Booster and storage ring were designated as Radiation Areas (RA). Areas outside RA were classified as Radiologically Controlled Area (RCA). Access to these areas required less training than the radiation areas. A monthly review of the accelerator operation conditions and radiation measurement results were used to determine the changes needed for the RA classification status and associated dose control measures.

  20. The LNS computer control system for the commissioning of the superconducting cyclotron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovelli, A.; Cuttone, G.; Giove, D.; Amato, A.; Cavallaro, S.; Pulvirenti, S.

    1996-02-01

    The K = 800 CSC (Catania Superconducting Cyclotron) is now under commissioning at LNS [1]. The accelerator was computer controlled since its first test. The control system has been realized according to a three level architecture. At field level, field-bus networks have been used as interface between the control stations and each device to be controlled. The process level has been implemented using {386}/{486 PCs} as control stations, each one dedicated to an accelerator sub-system according to functional criteria for the intelligence distribution. The control stations communicate with the upper level by means of a local area network. The supervisor level consists of a Vax-Stations Cluster and a modular code, based on Dec Window Motif, has been developed as man-machine interface. Experience and improvements for an efficient commissioning of a fully computer controlled accelerator will be reported together with the performance obtained.

  1. Nuclear Nonproliferation and Arms Control Primer Prepared for the Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Laura S.

    2011-05-25

    To provide a brief overview of key arms control and nonproliferation arrangements for the layperson that may be relevant to the Commission's comprehensive review of policies for managing the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle. Primer would be published by the Commission and made publicly available, probably as an appendix to a larger Commission report.

  2. 75 FR 65651 - In the Matter of Certain DC-DC Controllers and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain DC-DC Controllers and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission..., DC 20436, telephone (202) 708-2532. Copies of non- confidential documents filed in connection with...., Washington, DC 20436, telephone (202) 205-2000. General information concerning the Commission may also...

  3. 75 FR 28283 - In the Matter of: Certain DC-DC Controllers and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of: Certain DC-DC Controllers and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission..., 500 E Street, SW., Washington, DC 20436, telephone (202) 708-2532. Copies of non- confidential... Commission, 500 E Street, SW., Washington, DC 20436, telephone (202) 205-2000. General information...

  4. 75 FR 65655 - In the Matter of Certain DC-DC Controllers and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-26

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain DC-DC Controllers and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission..., DC 20436, telephone (202) 708-2532. Copies of non- confidential documents filed in connection with...., Washington, DC 20436, telephone (202) 205-2000. General information concerning the Commission may also...

  5. 17 CFR 21.01 - Special calls for information on controlled accounts from futures commission merchants, clearing...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special calls for information... CALLS § 21.01 Special calls for information on controlled accounts from futures commission merchants, clearing members and introducing brokers. Upon call by the Commission, each futures commission...

  6. Out of control: A self-control perspective on the link between surface acting and abusive supervision.

    PubMed

    Yam, Kai Chi; Fehr, Ryan; Keng-Highberger, Fong T; Klotz, Anthony C; Reynolds, Scott J

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we examined how leaders' customer interactions influence their tendency to abuse their followers. Specifically, we drew from ego-depletion theory to suggest that surface acting during customer interactions depletes leaders of their self-control resources, resulting in elevated levels of abusive supervision. Furthermore, we hypothesized that the effect of surface acting on abusive supervision is moderated by leaders' trait self-control, such that leaders with high trait self-control will be less affected by the depleting effects of surface acting than their peers. Results from a multiwave, multisource leader-follower dyad study in the service and sales industries provided support for our hypotheses. This research contributes to several literatures, particularly to an emerging area of study--the antecedents of leaders' abusive behaviors.

  7. 48 CFR 352.237-71 - Crime Control Act-reporting of child abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Crime Control Act... Clauses 352.237-71 Crime Control Act—reporting of child abuse. As prescribed in 337.103-70(b), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Crime Control Act of 1990—Reporting of Child...

  8. 48 CFR 352.237-71 - Crime Control Act-reporting of child abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Crime Control Act... Clauses 352.237-71 Crime Control Act—reporting of child abuse. As prescribed in 337.103-70(b), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Crime Control Act of 1990—Reporting of Child...

  9. 48 CFR 352.237-71 - Crime Control Act-reporting of child abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Crime Control Act... Clauses 352.237-71 Crime Control Act—reporting of child abuse. As prescribed in 337.103-70(b), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Crime Control Act of 1990—Reporting of Child...

  10. 48 CFR 352.237-71 - Crime Control Act-reporting of child abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Crime Control Act... Clauses 352.237-71 Crime Control Act—reporting of child abuse. As prescribed in 337.103-70(b), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Crime Control Act of 1990—Reporting of Child...

  11. The Ownership and Control of the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission's EDGAR System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Love, James Packard

    1993-01-01

    Describes the EDGAR (Electronic Data Gathering, Analysis and Retrieval) system developed for the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) for SEC disclosure filings. Ownership and control of the database, hardware, and software is considered; the Information Industry Association position is described; and the need for greater public access to…

  12. DISCIPLINARY PROCEEDINGS AGAINST DOCTORS WHO ABUSE CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Danuta

    2015-09-01

    This study examined 27 reports from disciplinary tribunals throughout Australia (save Tasmania where reports were not accessible) against medical practitioners who abused narcotic analgesics (often combined with other drugs of addiction) between 2010 and 2015. The reports revealed that 12 medical practitioners were in their 40s; five in their 30s; and one person still in their 20s. Although the majority were general practitioners (15 out of 27), other medical specialties were also represented. Self-administered pethidine was the most prevalent opioid (11 out of 27) and was the only drug used alone. Morphine was self-administered by six doctors; the same number used high doses of Panadeine Forte, codeine and codeine phosphate. Fentanyl was abused by five doctors. Surprisingly, fewer medical practitioners appear to use propofol, and similar opiates such as tramadol (Tramol) and/or oxycodone (Endone). The examination of cases suggests lack of consistency in the imposition of professional sanctions and penalties by the relevant tribunals. To remedy this problem, it is suggested that disciplinary tribunals should apply the test of proportionality in the form of "reasonable necessity" when deciding whether to remove or suspend the addicted medical practitioner from the Register.

  13. 75 FR 59290 - In the Matter of Certain Game Controllers; Notice of Commission Determination Not To Review an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Game Controllers; Notice of Commission Determination Not To Review an... importation of certain game controllers by reason of infringement of U.S. Patent Nos. D521,015; D522,011;...

  14. The role of weight control as a motivation for cocaine abuse.

    PubMed

    Cochrane, C; Malcolm, R; Brewerton, T

    1998-01-01

    Heavy use of cocaine and alcohol in female cocaine abusers with eating disorders has been reported, but the prevalence and motivation for concurrent substance use has not been well investigated. This study of 37 female and 40 male cocaine abusers demonstrated that almost half of the women used cocaine and/or alcohol as a weight control measure, and 13% of the males did the same. Thirteen (72%) of 18 females endorsing weight-related use of cocaine had a current diagnosis of an eating disorder. Only two males (5%) had a past history of an eating disorder. Eleven (85%) of those women with a current eating disorder endorsed using alcohol as an appetite suppressant. These findings support the need to evaluate weight control motivation in cocaine users and to provide specific treatment aimed at addressing the interaction between the eating disorder and the substance abuse problem.

  15. The psychosocial consequences of child sexual abuse in Ethiopia: a case-control comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Wondie, Yemataw; Zemene, Workie; Tafesse, Biruk; Reschke, Konrad; Schröder, Harry

    2011-07-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) continues to be a pressing public health concern around the globe. Few existing reports, however, indicate the alarming rate at which the problem is increasing in sub-Saharan Africa. The present study is designed to investigate the psychosocial consequences of sexual abuse among child survivors in Ethiopia who were abused mainly through early marriage, rape, and child prostitution. Data are collected from 318 such CSA survivors-and 318 matched, non-sexually abused, normal controls- using the Children's Impact of Traumatic Events Scale-Revised and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The results reveal the CSA survivors to be significantly more symptomatic than the control group: They demonstrated a lower degree of social support, a lower degree of empowerment, as well as a higher degree of guilt and increased likelihood of viewing the world as dangerous. Finally, these CSA survivors show a lower degree of positive self-worth than their non-sexually abused counterparts. These findings have important implications for the formulation of appropriate preventions and interventions to be undertaken by various stakeholders ranging from family to policy makers.

  16. 28 CFR 0.177 - Applications for orders under the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. 0.177 Section 0.177 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF... the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. Notwithstanding the delegation of functions... authorized to exercise the authority vested in the Attorney General by section 514 of the Comprehensive...

  17. 28 CFR 0.177 - Applications for orders under the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. 0.177 Section 0.177 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF... the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act. Notwithstanding the delegation of functions... authorized to exercise the authority vested in the Attorney General by section 514 of the Comprehensive...

  18. Coercive control and abused women's decisions about their pets when seeking shelter.

    PubMed

    Hardesty, Jennifer L; Khaw, Lyndal; Ridgway, Marcella D; Weber, Cheryl; Miles, Teresa

    2013-09-01

    The importance of pets in families, especially during major life stressors, is well documented. Research suggests links between pet ownership and intimate partner violence (IPV). This study explored abused women's decisions about pets when seeking help from a shelter. Interviews were conducted with 19 women who were pet owners. Using grounded theory methods, two patterns emerged surrounding abusers' treatment of pets, bonds to pets, women's decisions about pets upon seeking shelter, and future plans for pets. The presence of coercive control was central to these patterns. Women also discussed their experiences with and needs from shelter professionals and veterinarians with implications for practice.

  19. Parental Perceptions of Neighborhood Processes, Stress, Personal Control, and Risk for Physical Child Abuse and Neglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guterman, Neil B.; Lee, Shawna J.; Taylor, Catherine A.; Rathouz, Paul J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study set out to examine whether mothers' individual perceptions of their neighborhood social processes predict their risk for physical child abuse and neglect directly and/or indirectly via pathways involving parents' reported stress and sense of personal control in the parenting role. Methods: In-home and phone interview data…

  20. Sexual Abuse, Family Environment, and Psychological Symptoms: On the Validity of Statistical Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briere, John; Elliott, Diana M.

    1993-01-01

    Responds to article in which Nash et al. reported on effects of controlling for family environment when studying sexual abuse sequelae. Considers findings in terms of theoretical and statistical constraints placed on analysis of covariance and other partializing procedures. Questions use of covariate techniques to test hypotheses about causal role…

  1. Authority of compact commission to control import/export for disposal and other purposes

    SciTech Connect

    Poling, R.D.

    1995-12-31

    As operational capabilities for radioactive waste disposal expand and as approaching dates for waste exclusion near, the legal question of the authority of compact commissions to control the import and export of low-level radioactive nuclear waste is a legal issue of significance to many regions. This presentation will review the provisions of various compacts and the federal compact approval legislation, consider the interpretation of the Commerce Clause of the U.S. Constitution, and discuss possible interpretive perspectives relating to the authority of compact commissions. The discussion will focus on whether waste exclusion authority is confined in application to imported waste for permanent disposal or extends to transported and imported waste for processing, treatment, or other purposes.

  2. National drug control policy and prescription drug abuse: facts and fallacies.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah

    2007-05-01

    In a recent press release Joseph A. Califano, Jr., Chairman and President of the National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse at Columbia University called for a major shift in American attitudes about substance abuse and addiction and a top to bottom overhaul in the nation's healthcare, criminal justice, social service, and eduction systems to curtail the rise in illegal drug use and other substance abuse. Califano, in 2005, also noted that while America has been congratulating itself on curbing increases in alcohol and illicit drug use and in the decline in teen smoking, abuse and addition of controlled prescription drugs-opioids, central nervous system depressants and stimulants-have been stealthily, but sharply rising. All the statistics continue to show that prescription drug abuse is escalating with increasing emergency department visits and unintentional deaths due to prescription controlled substances. While the problem of drug prescriptions for controlled substances continues to soar, so are the arguments of undertreatment of pain. The present state of affairs show that there were 6.4 million or 2.6% Americans using prescription-type psychotherapeutic drugs nonmedically in the past month. Of these, 4.7 million used pain relievers. Current nonmedical use of prescription-type drugs among young adults aged 18-25 increased from 5.4% in 2002 to 6.3% in 2005. The past year, nonmedical use of psychotherapeutic drugs has increased to 6.2% in the population of 12 years or older with 15.172 million persons, second only to marijuana use and three times the use of cocaine. Parallel to opioid supply and nonmedical prescription drug use, the epidemic of medical drug use is also escalating with Americans using 80% of world's supply of all opioids and 99% of hydrocodone. Opioids are used extensively despite a lack of evidence of their effectiveness in improving pain or functional status with potential side effects of hyperalgesia, negative hormonal and immune effects

  3. Design and first commissioning results of PLC-based control systems for the Mercator telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessemier, Wim; Deconinck, Geert; Raskin, Gert; Saey, Philippe; Van Winckel, Hans

    2012-09-01

    The 1.2m optical Mercator Telescope (based at the Roque de Los Muchachos Observatory at La Palma) is currently in the commissioning phase of a third permanently installed instrument called MAIA (Mercator Advanced Imager for Asteroseismology), a three-channel frame-transfer imager optimized for rapid photometry. Despite having three cryostats, MAIA is designed as a highly compact and portable instrument by using small Stirling-type cryocoolers, and a single PLC in charge of all temperature control loops, cryocooler interaction, telemetry acquisition and other instrument control related tasks. To accommodate MAIA at the Nasmyth B focal station of the telescope, a new mechanism for the tertiary mirror had to be built since the former mechanism only allowed motor controlled access to the Cassegrain and Nasmyth A focal stations. A second PLC has been installed in order to control the two degrees of freedom of this mirror mechanism by interfacing with its motor controllers, high-precision optical encoders, and limit switches. This PLC is not dedicated to the tertiary mirror control but will serve as a general purpose controller for various tasks related to the telescope and the observatory, as part of a new Telescope Control System primarily based on PLCs and OPC UA communication technology. Due to the central location of the PLC inside the observatory, the position control loops of the mirror mechanism are distributed using EtherCAT as the communication fieldbus. In this paper we present the design and the first commissioning results of both the MAIA instrument control and the tertiary mirror control.

  4. 75 FR 17433 - In the Matter of Certain DC-DC Controllers and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain DC-DC Controllers and Products Containing Same; Notice of Commission... Street, SW., Washington, DC 20436, telephone (202) 708-2532. Copies of non- confidential documents filed..., 500 E Street, SW., Washington, DC 20436, telephone (202) 205-2000. General information concerning...

  5. Substance abuse and control in the United States: ethical and legal issues.

    PubMed

    Newcomb, M D

    1992-08-01

    In 1986, the United States began to wage its most recent War on Drugs. This has involved establishing various policies and making investments to implement these policies and approaches. In general, the U.S. has taken a tough-guy stand to drug abuse and control that emphasizes punishment, restriction, and 'social warfare', as opposed to a public health oriented position. Current policy reflects a 'quick fix' solution to a complex problem, which may partially explain its failure and why we appear to be losing the War on Drugs. In this review I summarize the current debates and controversies surrounding drug abuse in the U.S. regarding the extent of the drug problem, the need for drug control, prevention efforts, legalization controversy, workplace strategies, treatment dilemmas, and maternal drug abuse. I argue that a radically different approach must be taken that is grounded in public health methods and an appreciation of the larger social context in which drug abuse occurs. We must look for a long-term solution to this complex problem that is integrated into society, and which is certainly resistant to the current quick fix approaches.

  6. Abuse potential, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of intranasally administered crushed oxycodone HCl abuse-deterrent controlled-release tablets in recreational opioid users.

    PubMed

    Harris, Stephen C; Perrino, Peter J; Smith, Ira; Shram, Megan J; Colucci, Salvatore V; Bartlett, Cynthia; Sellers, Edward M

    2014-04-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate abuse potential, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety of intranasally administered, crushed reformulated OxyContin® (oxycodone HCl controlled-release) tablets (ORF), relative to crushed original OxyContin® (OC), oxycodone powder (Oxy API), and OC placebo. This randomized, double-blind, positive- and placebo-controlled crossover study enrolled healthy, adult, nonphysically dependent recreational opioid users with recent history of intranasal drug abuse (N = 27). Active treatments contained oxycodone (30 mg). Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics (e.g., Overall Drug Liking [ODL], Take Drug Again [TDA], and High Visual Analog Scales [VAS]; Subjective Drug Value [SDV]; pupillometry; intranasal irritation), and safety (e.g., adverse events, vital signs, laboratory tests) were assessed to 24 hours postdose. Crushed ORF administration yielded reduced oxycodone Cmax and increased Tmax versus crushed OC and Oxy API. Peak effects for pharmacodynamic measures were delayed with ORF (1-2 hours) versus OC and Oxy API (0.5-1 hour). ODL, TDA, High VAS, and SDV Emax values were significantly lower (P ≤ .05) and some intranasal irritation ratings were greater for ORF versus OC and Oxy API. No significant or unexpected safety findings were observed. Compared with OC and Oxy API, intranasally administered ORF was associated with lower and delayed peak plasma concentrations, decreased drug-liking, and decreased intranasal tolerability. This suggests that ORF has a decreased potential for intranasal oxycodone abuse. There were no significant or unexpected safety findings. As is true for all abuse potential studies, epidemiological or other appropriate post-marketing studies are required to assess the impact of the reduction in intranasal oxycodone abuse potential observed in the present study on real-world patterns of ORF misuse, abuse, and diversion.

  7. A systematic review of randomized controlled trials of interventions designed to decrease child abuse in high-risk families.

    PubMed

    Levey, Elizabeth J; Gelaye, Bizu; Bain, Paul; Rondon, Marta B; Borba, Christina P C; Henderson, David C; Williams, Michelle A

    2017-03-01

    Child abuse is a global problem, and parents with histories of childhood abuse are at increased risk of abusing their offspring. The objective of this systematic review is to provide a clear overview of the existing literature of randomized controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of interventions to prevent child abuse. PubMed, PsychINFO, Web of Science, Sociological Abstracts, and CINAHL were systematically searched and expanded by hand search. This review includes all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions designed to prevent abuse among mothers identified as high-risk. Of the eight studies identified, only three found statistically significant reductions in abuse by any measure, and only two found reductions in incidents reported to child protective services. While much has been written about child abuse in high-risk families, few RCTs have been performed. Only home visitation has a significant evidence base for reducing child abuse, and the findings vary considerably. Also, data from low- and middle-income countries are limited.

  8. Mental health: use and abuse of control and restraint.

    PubMed

    Tarbuck, P

    The recent report of the inquiry into complaints at Ashworth Hospital (1) recommended that control and restraint techniques, used to contain violent conduct, should be used as a last resort, 'and should be subject to careful scrutiny to determine system failures'. This article, which points out that nurses in many areas are victims of increased levels of violence, defines control and restraint techniques, who should use them and in which situations their use may be sanctioned. The author concludes that although preservation of the patient's rights and dignity is paramount, nurses who have undergone control and restraint training are more confident practitioners when they are confronted with violent situations. In a second article next month, Tarbuck will look at issues of ethics and the human rights of patients.

  9. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... to: What is Elder Abuse? Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse Substance abuse has been identified as the most frequently cited ... victim and/or the perpetrator who has the substance abuse problem. Substance abuse is believed to be a ...

  10. Dynamic Control System Performance during Commissioning of the Space Technology 7-Disturbance Reduction System Experiment of LISA Pathfinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Oscar; Maghami, Peiman; O’Donnell, James R., Jr.; Ziemer, John; Romero-Wolf, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The Space Technology-7 Disturbance Reduction System (DRS) launched aboard the European Space Agencys LISA Pathfinder spacecraft on December 3, 2015, after more than a decade in development. DRS consists of three prima-ry components: an Integrated Avionics Unit (IAU), Colloidal MicroNewton Thrusters, and Dynamic Control System (DCS) algorithms implemented on the IAU. During the portions of the mission in which the DRS was under control, the DCS was responsible for controlling the spacecraft and the free-floating test masses that were part of the LISA Test Package. The commissioning period was originally divided into two periods: before propulsion separation and after pro-pulsion separation. A recommissioning period was added after an anomaly oc-curred in the thruster system. The paper will describe the activities used to com-mission DRS, present results from the commissioning of the DCS and the re-commissioning activities performed after the thruster anomaly.

  11. NRRI summary of Florida Public Service Commission: Fraud control policies of seven major Florida utilities

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The Florida Public Service Commission (PSC) Staff recently completed an audit of fraud control policies and programs at the State`s largest regulated electric and local telephone utilities. The purpose of the audit was to examine the ability of Florida`s largest regulated utilities to deter, detect, and resolve occurrences of fraud. The Staff audited the state`s seven largest regulated electric and local telephone utilities: Florida Power Corporation, Florida Power and Light, Gulf Power Corporation, Tampa Electric Company, GTE-Florida, BellSouth Telecommunications (Southern Bell), and Sprint United/Centel. The audit scope was limited to fraudulent acts committed by employees, contractors, suppliers, or agents of the seven utilities. Information regarding the utilities` fraud control policies and programs was obtained through surveys, document requests, and interviews with managers and officers.

  12. Reinforcement and punishment of substance abuse during ongoing interactions: a conversational test of inconsistent nurturing as control theory.

    PubMed

    Duggan, Ashley P; Dailey, Rene M; Le Poire, Beth A

    2008-01-01

    This study is the first to examine inconsistent nurturing as control (INC) theory during ongoing interpersonal influence episodes between substance-abusive individuals and their romantic partners. This study sought to determine how nonverbal (i.e., kinesic and vocalic) and verbal reinforcement and punishment of substance-abusive behavior during actual interactions influenced substance-abusive individuals' recidivism and perceptions of non-using partners' persuasive effectiveness. The findings reveal that consistent verbal punishment of substance abuse (e.g., threats, nagging) predicted lower relapse, while verbal reinforcement (e.g., telling the partner they are more fun when they use) predicted higher relapse. With regard to nonverbal communication, vocalic punishment and vocalic reinforcement predicted relapse and persuasive effectiveness. Results suggest the combination of behaviors resemble intermittent reinforcement and punishment and should actually strengthen the substance-abusive behavior the partner is trying to curtail.

  13. History of Abuse in Women with Vulvar Pruritus, Vulvodynia and Asymptomatic Controls

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Sacher, Bina; Haefner, Hope K.; Dalton, Vanessa K.; Berger, Mitchell B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Chronic vulvar pruritus and vulvodynia are common vulvar diseases. The aim of this study was to compare gynecological and sexual and physical abuse histories from patients with these diagnoses, and from healthy controls. Materials and Methods Questionnaires were self-completed by patients diagnosed with vulvar itch-scratch (n= 93), vulvodynia (n= 232), and patients presenting for annual gynecological examinations (n= 104) at the University of Michigan Hospitals, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Results Patients who came for annual examinations were less likely to report past gynecological infections (p < 0.05) and indicated higher interest in and more frequent sexual activity than the other two groups (p = 0.003). Vulvodynia patients had the highest scores on the McGill Pain Questionnaire (p < 0.001). Subjects with either vulvar disorder were more likely to self-report a history of gynecologic infections than annual examination controls. Rates of sexual (p = 0.78) and physical abuse (p = 0.12) were similar for all three groups. Conclusions Patients with vulvar pruritus and vulvodynia report similar rates of sexual and physical abuse. PMID:26111040

  14. The Biological Stain Commission's Quality Control Laboratory operations and improved traceability of certified stains.

    PubMed

    Fagan, C L

    2012-01-01

    The Biological Stain Commission (BSC) is a quality control laboratory that certifies biological dyes for staining cells and tissues. Originally, a single lot of a certified dye was sold to histologists. Today, companies frequently change their lot numbers as part of regulatory efforts. When a certified dye undergoes a lot number change, the BSC must re-certify this dye to verify that it is identical to the one certified earlier. The BSC has improved how these lot changes are monitored using a redesigned BSC certification label. Certification labels always have been issued by the BSC and are attached to every bottle of "BSC certified dye" that is sold. The new BSC certification label has added security features and currently bears both the BSC certification number and the manufacturer batch lot number. The result is improved security and traceability of certified dyes.

  15. Over-the-Counter and Out-of-Control: Legal Strategies to Protect Youths From Abusing Products for Weight Control

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Lisa M.; Austin, S. Bryn

    2013-01-01

    Abuse of widely available, over-the-counter drugs and supplements such as laxatives and diet pills for weight control by youths is well documented in the epidemiological literature. Many such products are not medically recommended for healthy weight control or are especially susceptible to abuse, and their misuse can result in serious health consequences. We analyzed the government’s role in regulating these products to protect public health. We examined federal and state regulatory authority, and referred to international examples to inform our analysis. Several legal interventions are indicated to protect youths, including increased warnings and restrictions on access through behind-the-counter placement or age verification. We suggest future directions for governments internationally to address this pervasive public health problem. PMID:23237149

  16. Commissioning results of CERN HIE-ISOLDE and INFN ALPI cryogenic control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inglese, V.; Pezzetti, M.; Calore, A.; Modanese, P.; Pengo, R.

    2017-02-01

    The cryogenic systems of both accelerators, namely HIE ISOLDE (High Intensity and Energy Isotope Separator On Line DEvice) at CERN and ALPI (Acceleratore Lineare Per Ioni) at LNL, have been refurbished. HIE ISOLDE is a major upgrade of the existing ISOLDE facilities, which required the construction of a superconducting linear accelerator consisting of six cryomodules, each containing five superconductive RF cavities and superconducting solenoids. The ALPI linear accelerator, similar to HIE ISOLDE, is located at Legnaro National Laboratories (LNL) and became operational in the early 90’s. It is composed of 74 superconducting RF cavities, assembled inside 22 cryostats. The new control systems are equipped with PLC, developed on the CERN UNICOS framework, which include Schneider and Siemens PLCs and various fieldbuses (Profibus DP and PA, WorldFIP). The control systems were developed in synergy between CERN and LNL in order to build, effectively and with an optimized use of resources, control systems allowing to enhance ease of operation, maintainability, and long-term availability. This paper describes (i) the cryogenic systems, with special focus on the design of the control systems hardware and software, (ii) the strategy adopted in order to achieve a synergic approach, and (iii) the commissioning results after the cool-down to 4.5 K of the cryomodules.

  17. Risk factors for femicide-suicide in abusive relationships: results from a multisite case control study.

    PubMed

    Koziol-McLain, Jane; Webster, Daniel; McFarlane, Judith; Block, Carolyn Rebecca; Ulrich, Yvonne; Glass, Nancy; Campbell, Jacquelyn C

    2006-02-01

    The killing of women by men who then take their own lives (femicide-suicide) is the most common form of homicide-suicide. This study identified femicide-suicide risk factors in an 11-city case-control study of femicide in the United States. Perpetrator, victim, relationship, and incident characteristics were analyzed for femicide-suicide cases (n = 67) and controls (n = 356, women living in the community with nonfatal physical abuse) using logistic regression modeling. Two risk factors emerged that were unique to femicide-suicides cases compared to overall femicide risk analyses: prior perpetrator suicide threats and victims having ever been married to the perpetrator.

  18. Financial Crisis; Department of Defense Spending: How to Control Fraud, Waste, and Abuse in the Military

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-25

    CRISIS; DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPENDING : HOW TO CONTROL FRAUD, WASTE, AND ABUSE IN THE MILITARY SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS...34~-----:~------------ Date: 2.~ KJ.r~\\ "𔃼QI"L 2 Executive Summary Title: Financial Crisis; Department of Defense Spending : How to Control Fraud, Waste... Spending ……………………………….12 Figure 4. Department of Defense Spending FY 2001 - FY 2012……………………….13 LIST OF TABLES Table 1. DoD Base Budget by

  19. Childhood physical abuse predicts stressor-evoked activity within central visceral control regions.

    PubMed

    Banihashemi, Layla; Sheu, Lei K; Midei, Aimee J; Gianaros, Peter J

    2015-04-01

    Early life experience differentially shapes later stress reactivity, as evidenced by both animal and human studies. However, early experience-related changes in the function of central visceral neural circuits that control stress responses have not been well characterized, particularly in humans. The paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), amygdala (Amyg) and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) form a core visceral stress-responsive circuit. The goal of this study is to examine how childhood emotional and physical abuse relates to adulthood stressor-evoked activity within these visceral brain regions. To evoke acute states of mental stress, participants (n = 155) performed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-adapted versions of the multi-source interference task (MSIT) and the Stroop task with simultaneous monitoring of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate. Regression analyses revealed that childhood physical abuse correlated positively with stressor-evoked changes in MAP, and negatively with unbiased, a priori extractions of fMRI blood-oxygen level-dependent signal change values within the sgACC, BNST, PVN and Amyg (n = 138). Abuse-related changes in the function of visceral neural circuits may reflect neurobiological vulnerability to adverse health outcomes conferred by early adversity.

  20. Test and Commissioning of the AST3-1 Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaoyan; Wang, Daxing

    2013-01-01

    The first of three Antarctic Survey Telescopes (AST3-1), a 50/68cm Schmidt-like equatorial-mount telescope, is the first trackable Chinese telescope operating on the Antarctic plateau. It was installed at Dome A (80°22', 77°21'E, 4,093m), the highest place on the Antarctic plateau, in 2012. The telescope is unmanned during night-time operations through the Austral winter. The telescope optics and mechanics, as well as the motors and position sensors, are exposed to a harsh environment. The mechanics is enclosed with a foldable tent-like dome to prevent snow, diamond dust and ice. While the control cabinet containing drive boxes, circuit board boxes, power converters and the Telescope Control Computer (TCC) is located inside the warm instrumental module. In about 15 weeks remote testing and commissioning, from January 24 when the expedition team left there to May 8, when the communication failed, we obtained images with the best FWHM of less than 2''. We also recorded the telescope movement performance and fine-tuned the dynamic properties of the telescope control system. Some experiences and lessons will be disscussed in this paper.

  1. Social exclusion, personal control, self-regulation, and stress among substance abuse treatment clients.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jennifer; Logan, T K; Walker, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship of social exclusion, personal control, and self-regulation to perceived stress among individuals who participated in publicly funded substance abuse treatment. Participants entered treatment between June 2006 and July 2007 and completed a 12-month follow-up survey by telephone (n=787). The results of the OLS regression analysis indicate that individuals with greater social exclusion factors (e.g. greater economic hardship, lower subjective social standing, greater perceived discrimination), lower perceived control of one's life, and lower self-regulation had higher perceived stress. Furthermore, a significant interaction was found suggesting a stress-buffering effect of personal control between subjective social standing and perceived stress. Interestingly, income status was not significantly related to perceived stress, while economic hardship, which assesses participants' inability to meet basic expenses, was significantly associated with perceived stress. Future research should examine how to integrate the AA/NA teaching about powerlessness and its role in recovery with the importance of increased personal control and self-control in decreasing perceived stress. Implications for future research and substance abuse treatment are discussed.

  2. Dynamic Control System Performance during Commissioning of the Space Technology 7-Disturbance Reduction System Experiment of LISA Pathfinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Oscar; Maghami, Peiman; O’Donnell, James R., Jr.; Ziemer, John; Romero-Wolf, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    The Space Technology-7 Disturbance Reduction System (DRS) launched aboard the European Space Agency's LISA Pathfinder spacecraft on December 3, 2015, after more than a decade in development. DRS consists of three primary components: an Integrated Avionics Unit (IAU), Colloidal MicroNewton Thrusters, and Dynamic Control System (DCS) algorithms implemented on the IAU. During the portions of the mission in which the DRS was under control, the DCS was responsible for controlling the spacecraft and the free-floating test masses that were part of the LISA Test Package. The commissioning period was originally divided into two periods: before propulsion separation and after propulsion separation. A recommissioning period was added after an anomaly occurred in the thruster system. The paper will describe the activities used to commission DRS, present results from the commissioning of the DCS and the recommissioning activities per-formed after the thruster anomaly.

  3. Innovations: Alcohol & drug abuse: Narcotics on the net: the availability of Web sites selling controlled substances.

    PubMed

    Forman, Robert F

    2006-01-01

    The Internet is not only a vital medium for communication, entertainment, and commerce, but it is also an outlet for illicit drug sales. Although the U.S. Controlled Substances Act regulates access to certain drugs by requiring prescriptions, unique characteristics of the Internet create significant challenges for the enforcement of U.S. drug policies. In the late 1990s "no prescription Web sites" (NPWs) began to emerge, which allow persons to purchase drugs, such as opiates, without a prescription. Given the likely role of NPWs in increasing prescription drug abuse, health care professionals must develop and disseminate strategies for helping patients who are affected by these Web sites.

  4. 48 CFR 352.237-71 - Crime Control Act-reporting of child abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... appropriate State Child Abuse Hotline, local child protective services (CPS), or law enforcement agency shall... Child Abuse Hotline (1-800-4-A-CHILD) shall be called. Any covered professional failing to make a...

  5. VMAT linear accelerator commissioning and quality assurance: dose control and gantry speed tests.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Michael P; Rowshanfarzad, Pejman; Greer, Peter B

    2016-05-01

    In VMAT treatment delivery the ability of the linear accelerator (linac) to accurately control dose versus gantry angle is critical to delivering the plan correctly. A new VMAT test delivery was developed to specifically test the dose versus gantry angle with the full range of allowed gantry speeds and dose rates. The gantry-mounted IBA MatriXX with attached inclinometer was used in movie mode to measure the instantaneous relative dose versus gantry angle during the plan every 0.54 s. The results were compared to the expected relative dose at each gantry angle calculated from the plan. The same dataset was also used to compare the instantaneous gantry speeds throughout the delivery compared to the expected gantry speeds from the plan. Measurements performed across four linacs generally show agreement between measurement and plan to within 1.5% in the constant dose rate regions and dose rate modulation within 0.1 s of the plan. Instantaneous gantry speed was measured to be within 0.11∘/s of the plan (1 SD). An error in one linac was detected in that the nominal gantry speed was incorrectly calibrated. This test provides a practical method to quality-assure critical aspects of VMAT delivery including dose versus gantry angle and gantry speed control. The method can be performed with any detector that can acquire time-resolved dosimetric information that can be synchronized with a measurement of gantry angle. The test fulfils several of the aims of the recent Netherlands Commission on Radiation Dosimetry (NCS) Report 24, which provides recommendations for comprehensive VMAT quality assurance. PACS number(s): 87.55.Qr.

  6. VMAT linear accelerator commissioning and quality assurance: dose control and gantry speed tests.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Michael P; Rowshanfarzad, Pejman; Greer, Peter B

    2016-05-08

    In VMAT treatment delivery the ability of the linear accelerator (linac) to accurately control dose versus gantry angle is critical to delivering the plan correctly. A new VMAT test delivery was developed to specifically test the dose versus gantry angle with the full range of allowed gantry speeds and dose rates. The gantry-mounted IBA MatriXX with attached inclinometer was used in movie mode to measure the instantaneous relative dose versus gantry angle during the plan every 0.54 s. The results were compared to the expected relative dose at each gantry angle calculated from the plan. The same dataset was also used to compare the instantaneous gan-try speeds throughout the delivery compared to the expected gantry speeds from the plan. Measurements performed across four linacs generally show agreement between measurement and plan to within 1.5% in the constant dose rate regions and dose rate modulation within 0.1 s of the plan. Instantaneous gantry speed was measured to be within 0.11°/s of the plan (1 SD). An error in one linac was detected in that the nominal gantry speed was incorrectly calibrated. This test provides a practical method to quality-assure critical aspects of VMAT delivery including dose versus gantry angle and gantry speed control. The method can be performed with any detector that can acquire time-resolved dosimetric information that can be synchronized with a measurement of gantry angle. The test fulfils several of the aims of the recent Netherlands Commission on Radiation Dosimetry (NCS) Report 24, which provides recommendations for comprehensive VMAT quality assurance.

  7. Cognitive control of drug craving inhibits brain reward regions in cocaine abusers

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.; Wang, G.J.; Telang, F.; Logan, J.; Jayne, M.; Ma, Y.; Pradhan, K.; Wong, C.T.; Swanson, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control over drug taking is considered a hallmark of addiction and is critical in relapse. Dysfunction of frontal brain regions involved with inhibitory control may underlie this behavior. We evaluated whether addicted subjects when instructed to purposefully control their craving responses to drug-conditioned stimuli can inhibit limbic brain regions implicated in drug craving. We used PET and 2-deoxy-2[18F]fluoro-D-glucose to measure brain glucose metabolism (marker of brain function) in 24 cocaine abusers who watched a cocaine-cue video and compared brain activation with and without instructions to cognitively inhibit craving. A third scan was obtained at baseline (without video). Statistical parametric mapping was used for analysis and corroborated with regions of interest. The cocaine-cue video increased craving during the no-inhibition condition (pre 3 {+-} 3, post 6 {+-} 3; p < 0.001) but not when subjects were instructed to inhibit craving (pre 3 {+-} 2, post 3 {+-} 3). Comparisons with baseline showed visual activation for both cocaine-cue conditions and limbic inhibition (accumbens, orbitofrontal, insula, cingulate) when subjects purposefully inhibited craving (p < 0.001). Comparison between cocaine-cue conditions showed lower metabolism with cognitive inhibition in right orbitofrontal cortex and right accumbens (p < 0.005), which was associated with right inferior frontal activation (r = -0.62, p < 0.005). Decreases in metabolism in brain regions that process the predictive (nucleus accumbens) and motivational value (orbitofrontal cortex) of drug-conditioned stimuli were elicited by instruction to inhibit cue-induced craving. This suggests that cocaine abusers may retain some ability to inhibit craving and that strengthening fronto-accumbal regulation may be therapeutically beneficial in addiction.

  8. Smoking, Alcohol, Drug Use, Abuse and Dependence in Narcolepsy and Idiopathic Hypersomnia: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Barateau, Lucie; Jaussent, Isabelle; Lopez, Régis; Boutrel, Benjamin; Leu-Semenescu, Smaranda; Arnulf, Isabelle; Dauvilliers, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Basic experiments support the impact of hypocretin on hyperarousal and motivated state required for increasing drug craving. Our aim was to assess the frequencies of smoking, alcohol and drug use, abuse and dependence in narcolepsy type 1 (NT1, hypocretin-deficient), narcolepsy type 2 (NT2), idiopathic hypersomnia (IH) (non-hypocretin-deficient conditions), in comparison to controls. We hypothesized that NT1 patients would be less vulnerable to drug abuse and addiction compared to other hypersomniac patients and controls from general population. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study in French reference centres for rare hypersomnia diseases and included 450 adult patients (median age 35 years; 41.3% men) with NT1 (n = 243), NT2 (n = 116), IH (n = 91), and 710 adult controls. All participants were evaluated for alcohol consumption, smoking habits, and substance (alcohol and illicit drug) abuse and dependence diagnosis during the past year using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Results: An increased proportion of both tobacco and heavy tobacco smokers was found in NT1 compared to controls and other hypersomniacs, despite adjustments for potential confounders. We reported an increased regular and frequent alcohol drinking habit in NT1 versus controls but not compared to other hypersomniacs in adjusted models. In contrast, heavy drinkers were significantly reduced in NT1 versus controls but not compared to other hypersomniacs. The proportion of patients with excessive drug use (codeine, cocaine, and cannabis), substance dependence, or abuse was low in all subgroups, without significant differences between either hypersomnia disorder categories or compared with controls. Conclusions: We first described a low frequency of illicit drug use, dependence, or abuse in patients with central hypersomnia, whether Hcrt-deficient or not, and whether drug-free or medicated, in the same range as in controls. Conversely, heavy drinkers were

  9. Annual Report for the Year 1983 of the Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control.

    This annual report describes the activities of the House Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control in 1983 and makes recommendations to the House of Representatives to control the worldwide problem of drug abuse and drug trafficking. An initial section of the report describes the jurisdiction, authority, funding, and organization of the…

  10. Inclusion or Control? Commissioning and Contracting Services for People with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Concannon, Liam

    2006-01-01

    The rise of new public management has seen the role of the social worker becoming increasingly administrative and less about face to face contact with service users. When commissioning managers seek to help people with learning disabilities plan their services, who actually makes the decisions? Direct payments are proposed as the answer for people…

  11. WE-AB-201-02: TPS Commissioning and QA: A Process Orientation and Application of Control Charts

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, M.

    2015-06-15

    defects in the future. Finally, the Gamma test has become a popular metric for reporting TPS Commissioning and QA results. It simplifies complex testing into a numerical index, but noisy data and casual application can make it misleading. A brief review of the issues around the use of the Gamma test will be presented. TPS commissioning and QA: A process orientation and application of control charts (Michael Sharpe) A framework for commissioning a treatment planning system will be presented, focusing on preparations, practical aspects of configuration, priorities, specifications, and establishing performance. The complexity of the modern TPS make modular testing of features inadequate, and modern QA tools can provide “too much information” about the performance of techniques like IMRT and VMAT. We have adopted a process orientation and quality tools, like control charts, for ongoing TPS QA and assessment of patient-specific tests. The trending nature of these tools reveals the overall performance of the TPS system, and quantifies the variations that arise from individual plans, discrete calculations, and experimentation based on discrete measurements. Examples demonstrating application of these tools to TPS QA will be presented. TPS commissioning and QA: Incorporating the entire planning process (Sasa Mutic) The TPS and its features do not perform in isolation. Instead, the features and modules are key components in a complex process that begins with CT Simulation and extends to treatment delivery, along with image guidance and verification. Most importantly, the TPS is used by people working in a multi-disciplinary environment. It is very difficult to predict the outcomes of human interactions with software. Therefore, an interdisciplinary approach to training, commissioning and QA will be presented, along with an approach to the physics chart check and end-to-end testing as a tool for TPS QA. The role of standardization and automation in QA will also be discussed

  12. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Pemoline for Attention-Deficit-hyperactivity Disorder in Substance-Abusing Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Paula D.; Hall, Shannon K.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Lohman, Michelle; Kayser, Ashley

    2004-01-01

    Objective: In adolescents with substance use disorder (SUD), comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with greater severity of substance abuse, conduct problems, and worse treatment outcomes. Although many controlled trials have established the efficacy of psychostimulants, including pemoline, for ADHD in children and…

  13. Methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine abuse in substance-abusing adolescents.

    PubMed

    Williams, Robert J; Goodale, Leslie A; Shay-Fiddler, Michele A; Gloster, Susan P; Chang, Samuel Y

    2004-01-01

    The prevalence of methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine misuse and abuse was examined in 450 adolescents referred for substance abuse treatment. Twenty three percent reported nonmedical use of these substances and six percent were diagnosed as methylphenidate or dextroamphetamine abusers. Abuse was more common in individuals who were out of school and had an eating disorder. Methylphenidate and dextroamphetamine abuse appears to be much less common than abuse of most other substances. It does occur, however, and parents and schools need to exert greater control over the dispensing of these medications. Physicians are advised to prescribe non-stimulant medications (eg, bupropion) when treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in substance-abusing individuals.

  14. 77 FR 33619 - Certification of Substance Abuse Experts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 26 Certification of Substance Abuse Experts AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... substance abuse expert. The NRC determined that the issues raised in the PRM are appropriate for... substance abuse expert. The NRC received one comment during the public comment period (ADAMS Accession...

  15. Treating Sexually Abused Children: 1 Year Follow-Up of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, J.A.; Mannarino, A.P.; Knudsen, K.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: To measure the durability of improvement in response to two alternative treatments for sexually abused children. Method:: Eighty-two sexually abused children ages 8-15 years old and their primary caretakers were randomly assigned to trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) or non-directive supportive therapy (NST) delivered…

  16. Family Trauma and Dysfunction in Sexually Abused Female Adolescent Psychiatric Control Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wherry, Jeffrey N.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Differences in family trauma, stressors, and dysfunction among adolescent psychiatric inpatients grouped by sexual abuse self-reports were investigated. Family trauma/dysfunction was determined from a composite score derived from the Traumatic Antecedents Scale. The results indicated that sexually abused adolescents reported more family…

  17. The Role of Perceived Control and the Desirability of Control among Abusive and Nonabusive Husbands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Joni E.; Arias, Ileana

    1994-01-01

    Examined relationship between husbands' (n=72) violence and desired and perceived control. Identified two subgroups of men at high risk for engaging in domestic violence: men low on self-esteem, low on desirability of control, and low on perceived personal control; and men high on self-esteem, high on desirability of control, but low on perceived…

  18. Family-Based Interventions for the Prevention of Substance Abuse and Other Impulse Control Disorders in Girls

    PubMed Central

    Kumpfer, K. L.

    2014-01-01

    Standardized family-based interventions are the most effective way of preventing or treating adolescent substance abuse and delinquency. This paper first reviews the incidence of adolescent substance abuse worldwide emphasizing gender and causes by etiological risk and protective factors. New epigenetic research is included suggesting that nurturing parenting significantly prevents the phenotypic expression of inherited genetic diseases including substance abuse. Evidence-based family interventions are reviewed including family change theories behind their success, principles and types of family-based interventions, research results, cultural adaptation steps for ethnic and international translation, and dissemination issues. The author's Strengthening Family Program is used as an example of how these principles of effective prevention and cultural adaptation can result in highly effective prevention programs not only for substance abuse, but for other impulse control disorders as well. The conclusions include recommendations for more use of computer technologies to cut the high cost of family interventions relative to youth-only prevention programs and increase the public health impact of evidence-based prevention programs. The paper recommends that to reduce health care costs these family-based approaches should be applied to the prevention and treatment of other impulse control disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes, sexually transmitted diseases, and delinquency. PMID:25938121

  19. Federal Drug Strategy--1983. Hearings before the Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, First Session (November 1 and 2, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control.

    This document provides transcripts and prepared testimony from the Congressional hearings on narcotics abuse and control. Opening statements by Committee Chairman Charles Rangel and Congressman Benjamin Gilman are provided. Testimony is presented from Congressional representatives and administrators of substance abuse services and hospital…

  20. Elder Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... mistreatment may be Physical, sexual, or emotional abuse Neglect or abandonment Financial abuse - stealing of money or belongings Possible signs of elder abuse include unexplained bruises, burns, and injuries. There ...

  1. Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... or puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical ...

  2. Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... abuse also plays a role in many major social problems, such as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to homelessness, crime, and missed work or problems with keeping a ...

  3. Use of online safety decision aid by abused women: effect on decisional conflict in randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Eden, Karen B.; Perrin, Nancy A.; Hanson, Ginger C.; Messing, Jill T.; Bloom, Tina L.; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Gielen, Andrea C.; Clough, Amber S.; Barnes-Hoyt, Jamie S.; Glass, Nancy E.

    2014-01-01

    Background An Internet safety decision aid was developed to help abused women understand their risk for repeat and near-lethal intimate partner violence, clarify priorities related to safety, and develop an action plan customized to these priorities. Purpose The overall purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of a safety decision aid compared with usual safety planning (control) delivered through a secure website, using a multi-state randomized controlled trial design. The paper evaluated the effectiveness of the safety decision aid in reducing decisional conflict after a single use by abused women. Design Randomized controlled trial referred to as IRIS, Internet Resource for Intervention and Safety Participants Abused women who spoke English (N = 708) were enrolled in a four-state, randomized controlled trial. Intervention and Control The intervention was an interactive safety decision aid with personalized safety plan; the control condition was usual safety planning resources. Both were delivered to participants through the secure study website. Main Outcome Measures This paper compared women’s decisional conflict about safety: total decisional conflict and the four subscales of this measure (feeling: uninformed, uncertain, unclear about safety priorities; and sensing lack of support) between intervention/control conditions. Data were collected 3/2011–5/2013 and analyzed 1/2014–3/2014. Results Immediately following the first use of the interactive safety decision aid, intervention women had significantly lower total decisional conflict than control women, controlling for baseline value of decisional conflict (p=0.002, effect size=.12). After controlling for baseline values, the safety decision aid group had significantly greater reduction in feeling uncertain (p=0.006, effect size=.07), and in feeling unsupported (p=0.008, effect size=.07) about safety than the usual safety planning group. Conclusions Abused women randomized to the safety

  4. Assembly and Commissioning of a Liquid Argon Detector and Development of a Slow Control System for the COHERENT Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaemingk, Michael; Cooper, Robert; Coherent Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    COHERENT is a collaboration whose goal is to measure coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CEvNS). COHERENT plans to deploy a suite of detectors to measure the expected number-of-neutrons squared dependence of CEvNS at the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. One of these detectors is a liquid argon detector which can measure these low energy nuclear recoil interactions. Ensuring optimal functionality requires the development of a slow control system to monitor and control various aspects, such as the temperature and pressure, of these detectors. Electronics manufactured by Beckhoff, Digilent, and Arduino among others are being used to create these slow control systems. This poster will generally discuss the assembly and commissioning of this CENNS-10 liquid argon detector at Indiana University and will feature work on the slow control systems.

  5. [Personality differences between alcohol abusers and matched controls: Relation to frontal symptoms and subtypes of addicts].

    PubMed

    Pedrero Pérez, Eduardo José; Ruiz Sánchez de León, José María; Olivar Arroyo, Alvaro; Rojo Mota, Gloria; Llanero Luque, Marcos; Puerta García, Carmen

    2011-02-01

    Epidemiological studies usually show a link between personality disorders and addictions. Dimensional models of personality, such as that of Cloninger, are able to diagnose and discriminate between transient dysfunctional behavior styles and relatively more stable traits. Certain brain areas have been proposed, as trait locations, based on their activation. This paper explores differences in personality traits among a sample of alcohol abusers (N= 95) and a control group of non-clinical population (N= 95), matched in sociodemographic variables, using the TCI-R-67 and the FrSBe-Sp. It is hypothesized that such differences are associated with frontal symptomatology. The existence of different subgroups of addicts based on certain combinations of traits is also analyzed. Results showed significant differences in two temperament traits (Novelty Seeking and Harm Avoidance) and a characterial trait (Self-Direction). We also found a correlation with a large effect size between these traits and frontal symptomatology. Cluster analysis classified the participants into several subtypes with different combinations of traits that matched diverse frontal symptomatology. Possible neurobiological explanations of these differences and their importance in the clinical practice are discussed.

  6. Commissioning MMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, Paul; Gramling, Cheryl; Stone, John; Smith, Patrick; Reiter, Jenifer

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses commissioning of NASAs Magnetospheric MultiScale (MMS) Mission. The mission includes four identical spacecraft with a large, complex set of instrumentation. The planning for and execution of commissioning for this mission is described. The paper concludes by discussing lessons learned.

  7. Development of veterinary drug residue controls by the Codex Alimentarius Commission: a review.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Richard L

    2008-12-01

    Within the Codex Alimentarius, transparency is and has been an important consideration with regard to how and why actions and decisions are made in providing stakeholders with sufficient information and clarity on matters of interest and decision-making. This review focuses on the development of analytical methods performance criteria for measuring veterinary drug residues in food-producing animals for the Codex Committee on Residues of Veterinary Drugs in Foods. It describes the initial development as well as the evolution and refinement of analytical method performance criteria as well as method validation criteria from its first meeting to the present. Reference is routinely made to published Codex, Food and Agriculture of the United Nations (FAO) reports, guidance documents and manuals as well as those of other relevant analytical method standard-setting organizations with regard to analytical method performance relevant to Codex Alimentarius food safety standards development. Key Codex decisions that have substantially impacted on analytical methods-related issues are described and the subsequent outcomes. It is a reasoned conclusion that the refinement of analytical method performance criteria and validation is an ongoing process that must continuously adapt to present and future scientific issues and decisions within the Codex Alimentarius Commission and its subsidiary bodies as well as relevant analytical standard-setting organizations.

  8. Public Knowledge and Attitudes on Drug Abuse in New York State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glaser, Daniel; Snow, Mary

    The New York State Narcotic Addiction Control Commission undertook a survey of the state to gather information on community attitudes and knowledge of drugs and drug abuse. An extensive questionnaire (see TM 001 085) was administered to a sample of 6105 persons, representative of the state, who were 13 years old or older. The research findings and…

  9. Joint Commission

    MedlinePlus

    Skip to main content The Joint Commission Log In | Request Guest Access Forgot password? | Log In Help Contact Us | Careers | JCR Web Store | Press Room Search Home Accreditation Accreditation Ambulatory Health ...

  10. Former Abusers of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Exhibit Decreased Testosterone Levels and Hypogonadal Symptoms Years after Cessation: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Selmer, Christian; Østergren, Peter Busch; Pedersen, Karen Boje; Schou, Morten; Gustafsson, Finn; Faber, Jens; Juul, Anders; Kistorp, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Aims Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is highly prevalent among male recreational athletes. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of AAS abuse on reproductive hormone levels and symptoms suggestive of hypogonadism in current and former AAS abusers. Methods This study had a cross-sectional case-control design and involved 37 current AAS abusers, 33 former AAS abusers (mean (95%CI) elapsed duration since AAS cessation: 2.5 (1.7; 3.7) years) and 30 healthy control participants. All participants were aged 18–50 years and were involved in recreational strength training. Reproductive hormones (FSH, LH, testosterone, inhibin B and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH)) were measured using morning blood samples. Symptoms of hypogonadism (depressive symptoms, fatigue, decreased libido and erectile dysfunction) were recorded systematically. Results Former AAS abusers exhibited significantly lower median (25th –75th percentiles) total and free testosterone levels than control participants (total testosterone: 14.4 (11.9–17.7) nmol/l vs. 18.8 (16.6–22.0) nmol/l) (P < 0.01). Overall, 27.2% (13.3; 45.5) of former AAS abusers exhibited plasma total testosterone levels below the lower reference limit (12.1 nmol/l) whereas no control participants exhibited testosterone below this limit (P < 0.01). Gonadotropins were significantly suppressed, and inhibin B and AMH were significantly decreased in current AAS abusers compared with former AAS abusers and control participants (P < 0.01). The group of former AAS abusers had higher proportions of participants with depressive symptoms ((24.2%) (11.1; 42.2)), erectile dysfunction ((27.3%) (13.3; 45.6)) and decreased libido ((40.1%) (23.2; 57.0)) than the other two groups (trend analyses: P < 0.05). Conclusions Former AAS abusers exhibited significantly lower plasma testosterone levels and higher frequencies of symptoms suggestive of hypogonadism than healthy control participants years after AAS cessation

  11. Reduced Metabolsim in Brain 'Control Networks' Following Cocaine-Cues Exposure in Female Cocaine Abusers

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Tomasi, D.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Telang, F.; Goldstein, R.Z.; Alia-Klein, N.; Wong, C.T.

    2011-03-01

    Gender differences in vulnerability for cocaine addiction have been reported. Though the mechanisms are not understood, here we hypothesize that gender differences in reactivity to conditioned-cues, which contributes to relapse, are involved. To test this we compared brain metabolism (using PET and {sup 18}FDG) between female (n = 10) and male (n = 16) active cocaine abusers when they watched a neutral video (nature scenes) versus a cocaine-cues video. Self-reports of craving increased with the cocaine-cue video but responses did not differ between genders. In contrast, changes in whole brain metabolism with cocaine-cues differed by gender (p<0.05); females significantly decreased metabolism (-8.6% {+-} 10) whereas males tended to increase it (+5.5% {+-} 18). SPM analysis (Cocaine-cues vs Neutral) in females revealed decreases in frontal, cingulate and parietal cortices, thalamus and midbrain (p<0.001) whereas males showed increases in right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45) (only at p<0.005). The gender-cue interaction showed greater decrements with Cocaine-cues in females than males (p<0.001) in frontal (BA 8, 9, 10), anterior cingulate (BA 24, 32), posterior cingulate (BA 23, 31), inferior parietal (BA 40) and thalamus (dorsomedial nucleus). Females showed greater brain reactivity to cocaine-cues than males but no differences in craving, suggesting that there may be gender differences in response to cues that are not linked with craving but could affect subsequent drug use. Specifically deactivation of brain regions from 'control networks' (prefrontal, cingulate, inferior parietal, thalamus) in females could increase their vulnerability to relapse since it would interfere with executive function (cognitive inhibition). This highlights the importance of gender tailored interventions for cocaine addiction.

  12. Recognizing abuse.

    PubMed

    Davidhizar, R; Newman-Giger, J

    1996-01-01

    After years as a taboo topic, abuse has come "out of the closet" and is being talked about openly in society. Yet, while abuse in the workplace is being confronted, abuse within families still often goes unrecognized by outsiders, including by nurses. Failure of nurses to recognize abuse is unfortunate since frequently they are the first point of contact with the victim of abuse in the emergency room, clinic and home. Understanding and insight into the problem of family violence by nurses is critical in addressing this problem. Knowledge is crucial in planning strategies that will have the long-lasting effect of decreasing the cycle of abuse in families.

  13. A Multisite, Randomized Controlled Trial for Children with Sexual Abuse-Related PTSD Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Judith A.; Deblinger, Esther; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Steer, Robert A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the differential efficacy of trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy (TF-CBT) and child-centered therapy for treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related emotional and behavioral problems in children who have suffered sexual abuse. Method: Two hundred twenty-nine 8- to 14-year-old children and their primary…

  14. Breaking the Cycle of Drug Abuse. 1993 Interim National Drug Control Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of National Drug Control Policy, Washington, DC.

    This Interim Drug Strategy is intended to give a new sense of direction and to reinvigorate the nation's efforts against drug trafficking and abuse. The preface to the report lists eight new strategies that the Administration will implement: (1) make drug policy a cornerstone of domestic and social policy; (2) target pregnant women, children, and…

  15. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Consensus-Based Child Abuse Case Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldbeck, L.; Laib-Koehnemund, A.; Fegert, J. M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluates the effects of expert-assisted child abuse and neglect case management in the German child welfare and healthcare system as perceived by the case workers themselves. Methods: Case workers with different professions (social workers, counselors, clinic-based and office-based psychotherapists, and physicians)…

  16. Can Control Theory Explain the Link between Parental Physical Abuse and Delinquency? A Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rebellon, Cesar J.; Van Gundy, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Although a growing literature suggests that physical abuse is associated with delinquency, little empirical research has attempted to probe the nature of the mechanism that underlies the apparent relationship. Moreover, because the theoretical literature tends to invoke learning and strain theories as explanations for the apparent relationship,…

  17. Improving Initial Session Attendance of Substance Abusing and Conduct Disordered Adolescents: A Controlled Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, Brad; Azrin, Nathan H.; Lawson, Heather; Friedlander, Josh; Teichner, Gordon; Rindsberg, Jeff

    1998-01-01

    Demonstrates a method of improving first session attendance in a population of conduct-disordered and substance-abusing adolescents. Results indicate that an intensive intervention involving the youth and parent was more effective in improving session attendance than a less intensive intervention that excluded the youth's involvement. Discusses…

  18. Drug Abuse in the New York City Schools. A Report of the Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control, House of Representatives, Ninety-Fifth Congress, Second Session (August 30-September 1, 1978).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC.

    The January 1977 hearing by the U.S. House Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control mandated three days of further hearings in 1978. The focus was upon New York city schools, but reflected many similar situations in other urban school systems according to the committee's judgement. The committee also found that alcohol and marihuana usage…

  19. Abuse of medications that theoretically are without abuse potential.

    PubMed

    Reeves, Roy R; Ladner, Mark E; Perry, Candace L; Burke, Randy S; Laizer, Janet T

    2015-03-01

    The potential for abuse of medications that are controlled substances is well known. Abuse of certain noncontrolled prescription drugs and over-the-counter medications also may occur. To some degree, any medication that exerts psychoactive effects may be abused if taken in high enough doses or by means that result in high serum or cerebrospinal fluid levels. Many clinicians may be unaware of the potential for abuse of these medications. This review examines evidence of the possibility of abuse of several common medications that theoretically do not have abuse potential, including cough and cold preparations, antihistamines, anticholinergics, antipsychotics, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, skeletal muscle relaxants, and antiemetics. Means by which such medications may be abused and biochemical and physiological mechanisms fostering their abuse also are discussed.

  20. Failing to Forget: Prospective Memory Commission Errors Can Result from Spontaneous Retrieval and Impaired Executive Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scullin, Michael K.; Bugg, Julie M.

    2013-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) research typically examines the ability to remember to execute delayed intentions but often ignores the ability to forget finished intentions. We had participants perform (or not perform; control group) a PM task and then instructed them that the PM task was finished. We later (re)presented the PM cue. Approximately 25% of…

  1. Commissioning of a displacement-controlled knee wear simulator and exploration of some issues related to the lubricant.

    PubMed

    Brandt, J-M; Charron, K D J; Zhao, L; MacDonald, S J; Medley, J B

    2011-08-01

    A six-station displacement-controlled knee simulator with separately controlled left (L) and right (R) banks (three wear implants per bank) was commissioned for a total of three million cycles (Mc) following ISO 14243-3. A commissioning protocol was applied to compare the polyethylene wear among the six wear stations by exchanging the implants between wear stations. Changes in lubricant characteristics during wear testing, such as polypeptide degradation, low-molecular-weight polypeptide concentration, and possible microbial contamination were also assessed. The total mean wear rate for the implants was 23.60 +/- 1.96 mm3/Mc and this was of a similar magnitude to the mean wear rate for the same implant tested under similar conditions by DePuy Orthopaedics Inc. (Warsaw, IN). Repeated run-in wear was observed when the implants were exchanged between wear stations, suggesting that implants should be subjected to the same wear station throughout the duration of a wear test. The total polypeptide degradation for the implants measured 30.53 +/- 3.96 percent; the low-molecular-weight polypeptide concentration of the "used" lubricant for implants (0.131 +/- 0.012 g/L) was 3.3 times greater than the mean polypeptide concentration of the fresh, "unused" lubricant (0.039 +/- 0.004 g/L). This increase in low-molecular weight polypeptide concentration was suggested to be attributable to protein shear in the articulation of the implant, the circulation of the lubricant, and some proteolytic activity. Sodium azide was ineffective in maintaining a sterile environment for wear testing as a single, highly motile Gram-negative micro-organism was identified in the lubricant from wear tests.

  2. Physical Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... seniors who are not abused. What are the indicators? Indicators are signs or clues that abuse has ... clusters of indicators that suggest a problem. Physical indicators Sprains, dislocations, fractures, or broken bones Burns from ...

  3. Inhalant Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Who may be abusing inhalants?The most common abusers of inhalants are teenagers, especially those who are ... to your child about the dangers of trying drugs can help him or her make the right ...

  4. Abusive Relationships

    MedlinePlus

    ... relationships and friendships. Emotional abuse (stuff like teasing, bullying, and humiliating others) can be difficult to recognize ... How to Break Up Respectfully Abuse Dealing With Bullying Date Rape Getting Over a Break-Up Posttraumatic ...

  5. Conceptual Design, Implementation and Commissioning of Data Acquisition and Control System for Negative Ion Source at IPR

    SciTech Connect

    Soni, Jignesh; Gahlaut, A.; Bansal, G.; Parmar, K. G.; Pandya, K.; Chakraborty, A.; Yadav, Ratnakar; Singh, M. J.; Bandyopadhyay, M.

    2011-09-26

    acquired by the PXI RT system, through only fiber optics link for signal conditioning, electrical isolation and better noise immunity. Real time and Host application programs are developed in LabVIEW and the data shall be stored with a facility of online display of selected parameters. Mathematical calculations and report generation will take place at the end of each beam shot. The paper describes in detail about the design approach, implementation strategy, program development, commissioning and operational test result of ROBIN through a data acquisition and control system.

  6. Conceptual Design, Implementation and Commissioning of Data Acquisition and Control System for Negative Ion Source at IPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soni, Jignesh; Yadav, Ratnakar; Gahlaut, A.; Bansal, G.; Singh, M. J.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Parmar, K. G.; Pandya, K.; Chakraborty, A.

    2011-09-01

    acquired by the PXI RT system, through only fiber optics link for signal conditioning, electrical isolation and better noise immunity. Real time and Host application programs are developed in LabVIEW and the data shall be stored with a facility of online display of selected parameters. Mathematical calculations and report generation will take place at the end of each beam shot. The paper describes in detail about the design approach, implementation strategy, program development, commissioning and operational test result of ROBIN through a data acquisition and control system.

  7. Commissioning of the control and data acquisition electronics for the CDF Silicon Vertex Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Tkaczyk, S.M.; Turner, K.J.; Nelson, C.A.; Shaw, T.M.; Wesson, T.R.; Bailey, M.W.; Kruse, M.C.; Castro, A.

    1991-11-01

    The SVX data acquisition system includes three components: a Fastbus Sequencer, an SVX Rabbit Crate Controller and a Digitizer. These modules are integrated into the CDF DAQ system and operate the readout chips. The results of the extensive functional tests of the SVX modules are reported. We discuss the stability of the Sequencers, systematic differences between them and methods of synchronization with the Tevatron beam crossings. The Digitizer ADC calibration procedure run on the microsequencer is described. The microsequencer code used for data taking and SVX chip calibration modes is described. Measurements of the SVX data scan time are discussed.

  8. Adolescent Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman, Susan; Seligman, Linda

    1983-01-01

    Discusses legal and developmental aspects of adolescent abuse, as distinguished from child abuse. The role of the school counselor in identifying and counseling abused adolescents and their families is discussed and several forms of intervention and support services are described. (JAC)

  9. SPEAR3 Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Harkay, K.; Sajaev, V.; Boland, M.J.; Tan, Y.E.; Krinsky, S.; Podobedov, B.; Decking, W.; Ropert, A.; Byrd, J.M.; Robin, D.; Scarvie, T.; Steier, C.; Fedurin, M.G.; Jines, P.; Chang, H.-P.; Kuo, C.-C.; Tsai, H.-J.; Yoon, M.H.; Boge, M.; Allison, S.; Bellomo, P.; /SLAC, SSRL /SOLEIL, Saint-Aubin

    2005-05-09

    The successful commissioning of the new SPEAR3 light source at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) will be reviewed. Orbit control, beam-based alignment, and an orbit interlock were commissioned. Orbit motion was characterized as a function of frequency. The linear optics was corrected for ID focusing and coupling errors. The nonlinear optics were investigated with dynamic aperture measurements as a function of energy and tune.

  10. Dextromethorphan Abuse in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Bryner, Jodi K.; Wang, Uerica K.; Hui, Jenny W.; Bedodo, Merilin; MacDougall, Conan; Anderson, Ilene B.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To analyze the trend of dextromethorphan abuse in California and to compare these findings with national trends. Design A 6-year retrospective review. Setting California Poison Control System (CPCS), American Association of Poison Control Centers (AAPCC), and Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) databases from January 1, 1999, to December 31, 2004. Participants All dextromethorphan abuse cases reported to the CPCS, AAPCC, and DAWN. The main exposures of dextromethorphan abuse cases included date of exposure, age, acute vs long-term use, coingestants, product formulation, and clinical outcome. Main Outcome Measure The annual proportion of dextromethorphan abuse cases among all exposures reported to the CPCS, AAPCC, and DAWN databases. Results A total of 1382 CPCS cases were included in the study. A 10-fold increase in CPCS dextromethorphan abuse cases from 1999 (0.23 cases per 1000 calls) to 2004 (2.15 cases per 1000 calls) (odds ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.43–1.54) was identified. Of all CPCS dextromethorphan abuse cases, 74.5% were aged 9 to 17 years; the frequency of cases among this age group increased more than 15-fold during the study (from 0.11 to 1.68 cases per 1000 calls). Similar trends were seen in the AAPCC and DAWN databases. The highest frequency of dextromethorphan abuse occurred among adolescents aged 15 and 16 years. The most commonly abused product was Coricidin HBP Cough & Cold Tablets. Conclusions Our study revealed an increasing trend of dextromethorphan abuse cases reported to the CPCS that is paralleled nationally as reported to the AAPCC and DAWN. This increase was most evident in the adolescent population. PMID:17146018

  11. 18 CFR 3c.3 - Reporting fraud, waste, abuse, and corruption and cooperation with official inquiries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., abuse, and corruption and cooperation with official inquiries. 3c.3 Section 3c.3 Conservation of Power... OF CONDUCT § 3c.3 Reporting fraud, waste, abuse, and corruption and cooperation with official..., abuse, and corruption in Commission programs, including on the part of Commission employees,...

  12. 18 CFR 3c.3 - Reporting fraud, waste, abuse, and corruption and cooperation with official inquiries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., abuse, and corruption and cooperation with official inquiries. 3c.3 Section 3c.3 Conservation of Power... OF CONDUCT § 3c.3 Reporting fraud, waste, abuse, and corruption and cooperation with official..., abuse, and corruption in Commission programs, including on the part of Commission employees,...

  13. Test for abuse under NGPA Section 601(c)(2): Office of Consumers' Counsel v. FERC

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    A review of fraud and abuse challenge against the Natural Gas Policy Act (NGPA) section 601, which allows the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission to control the prices pipeline companies pay. The author explores the statutory background of the case, FERC's authority to interpret provisions of the NGPA in the area of take-or-pay problems, and court opinions. He concludes by outlining approaches for applying the fraud and abuse test, and views the guaranteed pass-through exception of fraud, abuse, or similar grounds as a valuable enforcement tool for FERC. As the terms become better defined, pipelines will be able to structure their business activities to avoid situations likely to lead to fraud or abuse charges. Both FERC and the natural gas industry will benefit from further development of the standard.

  14. Women's Sex-Related Dissociation: The Effects of Alcohol Intoxication, Attentional Control Instructions, and History of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Bird, Elizabeth R; Gilmore, Amanda K; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Heiman, Julia R; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H

    2017-02-17

    This study examined influences of alcohol intoxication, attentional control, and childhood sexual abuse (CSA) severity on sex-related dissociation. Sex-related dissociation is defined here as dissociation (e.g., feeling as if the world is unreal and feeling disconnected from one's body) during sexual activity or in the presence of sexual stimuli. Women (N = 70) were randomized to a 2 (alcohol condition: none,.10% peak breath alcohol concentration) X 2 (attentional control instructions: none, "relax and maximize" sexual arousal) experiment and exposed to sexual stimuli. Alcohol intoxication was positively associated with sex-related dissociation. CSA severity and sex-related dissociation were positively associated in the no-instruction condition but not in the "relax and maximize" condition. For some women, efforts to relax and maximize sexual arousal may buffer the association between CSA and sex-related dissociation.

  15. Neighborhood Crime Rates among Drug Abusing and Non-Drug Abusing Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Norris; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines the relationship between paternal drug abuse status and neighborhood crime rates. Although paternal drug abusing families resided in neighborhoods with higher crime rates than parental non-drug abusing families, when controlling for socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and domicile, drug abuse status was not associated with neighborhood crime…

  16. Private Land Mobile Radio Services; amendment of the commission's rules concerning mobile station, control point and control system authorization procedures for common user systems for a certain MHz frequency--Federal Communications Commission. Final rule.

    PubMed

    1982-05-05

    The Commission is amending its rules and regulations in Part 90--Private Land Mobile Radio Service, by adopting a new temporary licensing procedure for special mobile radio systems (SMRS's) and multiple licensed mobile relay stations operating in the 806-821 and the 851-866 megahertz (MHz) bands. This new system of licensing will benefit radio users by enabling them to begin operations more quickly than in the past, and will not in any way lessen the ability of the Commission to determine whether an applicant is eligible and otherwise possesses the necessary qualifications to be permanently licensed to operate in these bands. This new system is a part of the Commission's on-going program for reviewing its rules and regulations and eliminating unnecessary burdens on licensees to facilitate the administration of the Private Land Mobile Radio Service.

  17. The Truth about Abuse? A Comparative Approach to Inquiry Narratives on Historical Institutional Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sköld, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    In recent decades, the history of childhood and history of education have gained status as political concerns through the establishment of numerous truth commissions and inquiries into historical institutional child abuse. This article discusses the methodological and ethical dilemmas that arise when writing the history of abused children with the…

  18. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... for pornography is also sexual abuse. Most sexual abusers know the child they abuse. They may be ... friends, neighbors or babysitters. About one-third of abusers are related to the child. Most abusers are ...

  19. Fetal Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Lindsey; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Five cases of fetal abuse by mothers suffering from depression are discussed. Four of the women had unplanned pregnancies and had considered termination of the pregnancy. Other factors associated with fetal abuse include pregnancy denial, pregnancy ambivalence, previous postpartum depression, and difficulties in relationships. Vigilance for…

  20. The Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act of 1970: Retrospective Assessments of Disparate Treatment and Consequential Impact.

    PubMed

    Yamatani, Hide; Feit, Marvin; Mann, Aaron

    2017-03-07

    Although the basic paradigm of the U.S. federal drug policy targeting the supply and demand reduction has not changed since its enactment in 1970, there have been seriously undesirable disparate treatments and impacts among various population groups. Although U.S. Congress could not define what is discrimination, it did provide two major criteria for the assessment of discriminatory practices as follows: (a) disparate treatment-basing a key decision on association with any of the five prohibited individual's demographic classifications (race, color, religion, sex, or national origin); and (b) disparate impact-correlation between any of the five prohibited demographic classifications and the key outcomes. In reference to those criteria, this article describes evidence-based indicators of national failure of the Comprehensive Drug Abuse Prevention and Control Act.

  1. The Use of Drugs During Pregnancy; Hearing Before the Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control, House of Representatives, Ninety-Sixth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House.

    This record of the Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control contains testimonies concerning the use of drugs and drug addiction during pregnancy. The physiological and psychological effects of various drugs on a pregnant woman and her developing fetus are discussed. Various programs created to care for pregnant addicts are described by…

  2. Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse as Risk Factors for the Development of Bulimia Nervosa: A Community-Based Case Control Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Sarah L.; Fairburn, Christopher G.

    1996-01-01

    Young women (n=102) with bulimia nervosa were compared with 204 control subjects without an eating disorder and with 102 subjects with other psychiatric disorders. Results suggest that sexual and physical abuse are both risk factors for psychiatric disorders in general, including bulimia nervosa, but are not specific risk factors for bulimia. (DB)

  3. Hypnotizability and Dissociativity in Sexually Abused Girls.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Putnam, Frank W.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study assessed the relationships among hypnotizability, clinical dissociation and traumatic antecedents in 54 sexually abused girls, ages 6 to 15 years, and 51 matched controls. There were no significant differences in hypnotizability between abuse and control subjects. However, in the abuse group, highly hypnotizable subjects were…

  4. Narcotic Drug Control in New York State.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Legislature, Albany.

    This report concentrates on the analysis and evaluation of programs utilized by New York State's Narcotics Addiction Control Commission (NACC) and concerned with control of narcotic drugs and with those individuals who abuse them. The three key premises, basic to the narcotic drug control programs approved by the state legislature, are: (1) there…

  5. Different labour outcomes in primiparous women that have been subjected to childhood sexual abuse or rape in adulthood: a case–control study in a clinical cohort

    PubMed Central

    Nerum, H; Halvorsen, L; Straume, B; Sørlie, T; Øian, P

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the duration and outcome of the first labour in women who have been subjected to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and women who have been raped in adulthood (RA). Design Case–control study in a clinical cohort. Setting University Hospital of North Norway. Sample In all, 373 primiparas: 185 subjected to CSA, 47 to RA and 141 controls without a history of abuse. Methods Data on birth outcomes were retrieved from the patient files. Information on sexual abuse was reported in consultation with specialised midwives in the mental health team. Birth outcomes were analysed by multinominal regression analysis. Main outcome measures Vaginal births, delivery by caesarean section, operative vaginal delivery and duration of labour. Results As compared with controls, the RA group showed a significantly higher risk for caesarean section (adjusted OR 9.9, 95% CI 3.4–29.4) and operative vaginal delivery (adjusted OR 12.2, 95% CI 4.4–33.7). There were no significant differences between the CSA and the control group. The RA group displayed significantly longer duration of labour in all phases as compared with the control and CSA groups. Conclusions There were major differences in the duration of labour and birth outcomes in the two abuse groups. Despite a higher proportion of obstetric risk factors at onset of labour in the CSA group, women subjected to CSA had shorter labours and less risk for caesarean section and operative vaginal deliveries than women subjected to RA. The best care for birthing women subjected to sexual abuse needs to be explored in further studies. PMID:23157417

  6. Body image among victims of sexual and physical abuse.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Inbar; Orbach, Israel; Rosenbloom, Tova

    2013-01-01

    This study tries to understand the differences in body experience between victims of sexual abuse and physical abuse. Ninety-eight women completed questionnaires that measured personal information, body-image aberration, body sensitivity and control, and body investment. Findings indicated that victims of sexual abuse demonstrate less body maintenance and protection in addition to greater injury to body sensitivity and control than victims of physical abuse. Moreover, comparing victims of sexual abuse to physical abuse, findings revealed that only victims of sexual abuse report body-image aberrations. Thus, sexual and physical abuse should be addressed discretely because each has differential effects on bodily attitudes of victims.

  7. Development of the scale of economic abuse.

    PubMed

    Adams, Adrienne E; Sullivan, Cris M; Bybee, Deborah; Greeson, Megan R

    2008-05-01

    Economic abuse is part of the pattern of behaviors used by batterers to maintain power and control over their partners. However, no measure of economic abuse exists. This study describes the development of the Scale of Economic Abuse, which was designed to fill this gap. Interviews were conducted with 103 survivors of domestic abuse, each of whom responded to measures of economic, physical, and psychological abuse as well as economic hardship. Results provide evidence for the reliability and validity of the scale. This study is an important first step toward understanding the extent and impact of economic abuse experienced by survivors.

  8. Drug abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Weiss RD. Drugs of abuse. In: Goldman L, ... Hospice and Palliative Medicine, Atlanta, GA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the ...

  9. Abusive Relationships

    MedlinePlus

    ... Break Up Respectfully Abuse Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying Love and Romance Getting Over a Break-Up Dealing With Bullying Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Sexual Attraction and Orientation Teens ...

  10. 49 CFR 219.102 - Prohibition on abuse of controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Prohibitions § 219... controlled substance at any time, whether on duty or off duty, except as permitted by § 219.103....

  11. 49 CFR 219.102 - Prohibition on abuse of controlled substances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION CONTROL OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG USE Prohibitions § 219... controlled substance at any time, whether on duty or off duty, except as permitted by § 219.103....

  12. 46 CFR 501.5 - Functions of the organizational components of the Federal Maritime Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... internal controls systems that provide accountability for agency funds; administers the Commission's travel... Management (Internal) Controls Official for the Commission under Commission Orders 103 and 106; (x) Is the..., subject to the classification and safekeeping controls administered by the Commission's...

  13. 46 CFR 501.5 - Functions of the organizational components of the Federal Maritime Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... internal controls systems that provide accountability for agency funds; administers the Commission's travel... Management (Internal) Controls Official for the Commission under Commission Orders 103 and 106; (x) Is the..., subject to the classification and safekeeping controls administered by the Commission's...

  14. Child sexual abuse prevention training for childcare professionals: an independent multi-site randomized controlled trial of Stewards of Children.

    PubMed

    Rheingold, Alyssa A; Zajac, Kristyn; Chapman, Jason E; Patton, Meghan; de Arellano, Michael; Saunders, Benjamin; Kilpatrick, Dean

    2015-04-01

    Given the significant rates and deleterious consequences of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), identifying effective primary prevention approaches is a clear priority. There isa growing awareness that childcare professionals (e.g.,teachers, childcare personnel, clergy) are in a unique position to engage in prevention efforts due to high accessibility to children and expertise in child development. However, CSA prevention programs targeting childcare professionals have received insufficient attention. The goal of this study was toc on duct an independent multi-site controlled evaluation of an existing CSA prevention program, Stewards of Children, offered through both in-person and web-based formats. This study included 352 childcare professionals recruited from children’s advocacy centers across three states. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (1) inperson training, (2) web-based training, or (3) waitlist control. Dependent variables included CSA knowledge, CSA attitudes,and self-reported CSA preventive behaviors. Results indicated that Stewards impacted knowledge, attitudes, and preventive behaviors. No differences were found between training modalities (i.e., in-person versus web-based) on knowledge and preventive behaviors. Results indicate that brief trainings for childcare professionals may impact CSA prevention efforts.

  15. TR's Role in Treating Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kunstler, Robin

    1992-01-01

    Therapeutic recreation is important in treating substance abuse problems. It addresses attitudes and behaviors leading to substance abuse (inability to experience pleasure or control). It encourages participation in activities that help abusers cope and obtain enjoyable states, reducing reliance on drugs. The article discusses the theory of flow…

  16. An Evil Hitherto Unchecked: Eugenics and the 1917 Ontario Royal Commission on the Care and Control of the Mentally Defective and Feeble-Minded.

    PubMed

    Koester, C Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    In 1917, the Ontario government appointed the Royal Commission on the Care and Control of the Mentally Defective and Feeble-Minded, headed by Justice Frank Hodgins. Its final report made wide-ranging recommendations regarding the segregation of feeble-minded individuals, restrictions on marriage, the improvement of psychiatric facilities, and the reform of the court system, all matters of great concern to the eugenics movement. At the same time, however, it refrained from using explicitly eugenic vocabulary and ignored the question of sterilization. This article explores the role the commission played in the trajectory of eugenics in Ontario (including the province's failure to pass sterilization legislation) and considers why its recommendations were disregarded.

  17. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Child Sexual Abuse Public This section is for Veterans, General Public, Family, & Friends Child Sexual Abuse What is child sexual abuse? Child sexual abuse ...

  18. Surveillance of poisoning and drug overdose through hospital discharge coding, poison control center reporting, and the Drug Abuse Warning Network.

    PubMed

    Blanc, P D; Jones, M R; Olson, K R

    1993-01-01

    There is no gold standard for determining poisoning incidence. We wished to compare four measures of poisoning incidence: International Classification of Diseases 9th Revision (ICD-9) principal (N-code) and supplemental external cause of injury (E-code) designations, poison control center (PCC) reporting, and detection by the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN). We studied a case series at two urban hospitals. We assigned ICD-9 N-code and E-code classifications, determining whether these matched with medical records. We ascertained PCC and DAWN system reporting. A total of 724 subjects met entry criteria; 533 were studied (74%). We matched poisoning N-codes for 278 patients (52%), E-code by cause in 306 patients (57%), and E-code by intent in 171 patients (32%). A total of 383 patients (72%) received any poisoning N-code or any E-code. We found that PCC and DAWN reporting occurred for 123 of all patients (23%) and 399 of 487 eligible patients (82%), respectively. In multiple logistic regression, factors of age, hospital admission, suicidal intent, principal poisoning or overdose type, and mixed drug overdose were statistically significant predictors of case match or report varying by surveillance measure. Our findings indicate that common surveillance measures of poisoning and drug overdose may systematically undercount morbidity.

  19. [Child abuse].

    PubMed

    V Essen, H; Schlickewei, W; Dietz, H-G

    2005-02-01

    Child abuse is most often diagnosed by an emergency doctor on call who sometimes "feels" more than knows what he is confronted with. He should nevertheless always take a medical history and make a physical and radiological examination. X-ray imaging and an ophthalmologic retinal examination are the most important diagnostic steps. Typical findings are multiple and/or dorsal rib fractures, complex skull fractures, physeal fractures, all fractures within the first 12 months, multiple fractures in different localisations and stages of healing, all injuries with uncommon distributions, all patterned bruises, immersion burns, intramural hematoma and every unexplained loss of consciousness. The first step towards victim protection is always the removal of the abused child from its caregivers by admitting it to hospital, as 95% of all cases of reported child abuse take place within the child's family.

  20. Report: Enhanced Controls Needed to Prevent Further Abuse of Religious Compensatory Time

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #16-P-0333, September 27, 2016. Inadequate controls for Religious Compensatory Time resulted in payouts to employees of $73,514, and may result in additional payouts of up to $81,927. For more information, please click on the link above.

  1. Exploring the Link between Pet Abuse and Controlling Behaviors in Violent Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Catherine A.; Lehmann, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Domestic violence is not as simple as one partner physically harming another. Instead, it consists of a complex range of controlling behaviors including physical, emotional, sexual, and economic maltreatment as well as isolation, male privilege, blaming, intimidation, threats, and minimizing/denying behaviors. In addition to the controlling…

  2. Temperament and character inventory (TCI) personality profile in metamphetamine abusers: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Hosák, Ladislav; Preiss, Marek; Halír, Martin; Cermáková, Eva; Csémy, Ladislav

    2004-06-01

    We applied the temperament and character inventory (TCI) personality questionnaire in 41 inpatients dependent on metamphetamine, and 35 controls. Novelty seeking, harm avoidance and self-transcendence were significantly higher, and persistence, self-directedness and cooperativeness were significantly lower in the patients than in the healthy volunteers. The detected differences may be important for prevention and treatment.

  3. Alprazolam abuse in Texas, 1998-2004.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2006-02-01

    Alprazolam (Xanax) is used in the treatment of anxiety, depression, and panic attacks, and is subject to abuse. The objective of this study was to describe the patterns of alprazolam abuse and drug identification (ID) calls received by several poison control centers. Cases were alprazolam calls received by 6 poison control centers during 1998-2004. Of 25,954 alprazolam calls received, 42% were drug ID calls and 51% were human exposure calls, of which 18% were abuse calls. The number of drug ID calls and the number of abuse calls both increased during the 7-yr period. Male patients accounted for 54% of abuse calls and females for 66% of nonabuse calls. Adolescent patients comprised 43% of abuse calls but only 12% of nonabuse calls. Although the majority of both types of human exposures occurred at the patient's own residence, abuse exposures were more likely than other exposures to occur at school (9% vs. 1%) and public areas (6% vs. 1%). While abuse calls were less likely than nonabuse calls to have no adverse clinical effects (19% vs. 23%), they were more likely to have minor medical outcomes (60% vs. 50%). Alprazolam abuse in Texas appears to be increasing. Alprazolam abusers are more likely to be male and often adolescent. Alprazolam abuse as compared to other exposures is more likely to occur outside of the person's home. Alprazolam abuse is more likely to involve some sort of adverse medical outcome.

  4. Controlling behaviours and technology‐facilitated abuse perpetrated by men receiving substance use treatment in England and Brazil: Prevalence and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Canfield, Martha; Radcliffe, Polly; D'Oliveira, Ana Flavia Pires Lucas

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction and Aims Controlling behaviours are highly prevalent forms of non‐physical intimate partner violence (IPV). The prevalence of perpetrating controlling behaviours and technology‐facilitated abuse (TFA) was compared by men receiving substance use treatment in England (n = 223) and Brazil (n = 280). Factors associated with perpetrating these behaviours towards their current/most recent partner and their association with other types of IPV were explored. Design and Methods Secondary analysis from two cross‐sectional studies was performed. Data on socio‐demographic characteristics, infidelity, IPV perpetration and victimisation, adverse childhood experiences (ACE), attitudes towards gender relations and roles, substance use, depressive symptoms and anger expression were collected. Results Sixty‐four percent (143/223) and 33% (73/223) of participants in England and 65% (184/280) and 20% (57/280) in Brazil reported controlling behaviours and TFA, respectively, during their current/most recent relationship. Excluding IPV victimisation from the multivariate models; perpetrating controlling behaviours was associated with a higher number of ACE, higher anger expression (England) and severe physical IPV perpetration (Brazil), and perpetrating TFA was associated with younger age. Including both IPV victimisation and perpetration in the multivariate models; perpetrating controlling behaviour was associated with experiencing a higher number of ACE, higher anger expression (England), emotional IPV victimisation (England) and experiencing controlling behaviour from a partner (England). The perpetration of TFA was associated with younger age and experiencing TFA from a partner. Conclusions Technological progress provides opportunities for perpetrators to control and abuse their partners. Controlling behaviours and TFA should be addressed to reduce IPV perpetration by males in substance use treatment. [Gilchrist G, Canfield M,Radcliffe P, d

  5. Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... bruises, while behavioral indicators are ways victims and abusers act or interact with each other. Some of the indicators listed below can be explained by other causes (e.g. inappropriate or unusual behavior may signal dementia or drug interactions) and no single indicator can be taken ...

  6. Chronic time abuse.

    PubMed

    Berglas, Steven

    2004-06-01

    Anyone who has ever managed people who abuse time--whether they are chronic procrastinators or individuals who work obsessively to meet deadlines weeks in advance--knows how disruptive they can be to a business's morale and operating efficiency. But lessons in time management will have no impact on these employees. That's because real time abuse results from psychological conflict that neither a workshop nor a manager's cajoling can cure. Indeed, the time abuser's quarrel isn't even with time but rather with a brittle self-esteem and an unconscious fear of being evaluated and found wanting. This article describes four types of time abusers typically encountered in the workplace: Perfectionists are almost physically afraid of receiving feedback. Their work has to be "perfect," so they can increase their likelihood of earning a positive evaluation or at least avoid getting a negative one. Preemptives try to be in control by handing in work far earlier than they need to, making themselves unpopular and unavailable in the process. People pleasers commit to far too much work because they find it impossible to say no. Procrastinators make constant (and often reasonable-sounding) excuses to mask a fear of being found inadequate in their jobs. Managing these four types of people can be challenging, since time abusers respond differently from most other employees to criticism and approval. Praising a procrastinator when he is on time, for instance, will only exacerbate the problem, because he will fear that your expectations are even higher than before. In fact, some time abusers, like the perfectionist, may need professional treatment. This article will give you insight into why they are the way they are--and what can be done to help them manage their problems.

  7. 25 CFR 700.545 - Alcoholism and drug abuse.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alcoholism and drug abuse. 700.545 Section 700.545... Employee Responsibility and Conduct § 700.545 Alcoholism and drug abuse. An employee who habitually uses intoxicants to excess is subject to removal (5 U.S.C. 7352). The Relocation Commission recognizes...

  8. Telling Tales--Cruelty and Abuse in Schooling in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffers, Gerry

    2016-01-01

    The report of the Commission to Inquire into Child Abuse (Government of Ireland, 2009)--the Ryan Report--shocked Ireland and the wider world with its chilling descriptions of abuse that was systemic, pervasive, chronic, excessive, arbitrary and endemic. Subsequent debate has, rightly, centred on the "religious" arena, highlighting the…

  9. Abuse of elderly people by their carers.

    PubMed Central

    Homer, A C; Gilleard, C

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the prevalence of abuse of elderly people by their carers and the characteristics of abusers and the abused. DESIGN--Information on abuse and risk factors was collected over six months from carers and patients. Risk factors were identified in the abused group and compared with those in a non-abused control group. SETTING--Carers were interviewed at home; patients were examined in the wards of Putney and Barnes geriatric hospitals, London. SUBJECTS--All patients referred from any source for respite care to the geriatric services over a six month period and their carers. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Amount of physical and verbal abuse or neglect. Quantification of risk factors and correlation with the presence or absence of abuse. RESULTS--45% Of carers openly admitted to some form of abuse. Few patients admitted abuse. The most significant risk factor for physical abuse was alcohol consumption by the carer (p less than 0.001). Other significant risk factors were a poor pre-morbid relationship and previous abuse over many years. Abuse was often reciprocated and was associated with social dysfunction in many patients. Service delivery, respite care, and level of mental and physical disability were not significantly associated with abuse. CONCLUSION--The high level of abuse found in elderly patients in respite care was particularly associated with alcohol abuse and long term relationships of poor quality, which are difficult to change. Even with increased provision of services, care in the community may not be the best solution for these people. PMID:2271883

  10. [Abuse, dependence and intoxication of substances].

    PubMed

    Wada, Kiyoshi

    2015-09-01

    As for substance-related disorders, there were several differences between ICD-10 and DSM-IV, however, the concept of "dependence" had been essential for both criteria. DSM-5 published in 2013 had erased dependence. This confuses us. It is important to recognize dependence again. "Abuse" is the self-intake behavior of drug against the social norms. Repeated abuse results in dependence. Dependence is a state of loss of control against drug use due to craving. Abuse can produce "acute intoxication", and repeated abuse under dependence can produce "chronic intoxication". It is important to understand abuse, dependence and "intoxication" based on their relationship from the point of time course.

  11. Spousal Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Gullattee, Alyce C.

    1979-01-01

    Spouse abuse is being discussed and agonized over more frequently than in past years. Although interpousal and intrafamilial violence have been behaviors of note and considerable consequence, they have been attributable, almost exclusively, to the lower socioeconomic classes. Many hypotheses have been proposed concerning the etiology of violence. The author discusses some of the more general sociopolitical theories of violence and proposes three areas of significant moment to behaviorists. PMID:439165

  12. A Follow-up Study of a Multisite, Randomized, Controlled Trial for Children with Sexual Abuse-Related PTSD Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deblinger, Esther; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Cohen, Judith A.; Steer, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain whether the differential responses that previously have been found between trauma-focused, cognitive-behavioral therapy (TF-CBT), and child-centered therapy (CCT) for treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related problems in children who had been sexually abused would persist following treatment and to examine…

  13. Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate an Abuse Prevention Curriculum for Women and Men with Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickson, Linda; Khemka, Ishita; Golden, Harriet; Chatzistyli, Aikaterini

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed (a) to assess the impact of the "ESCAPE-DD" curriculum on the decision-making skills of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD) in hypothetical situations of abuse, (b) to examine the role of problem awareness, and (c) to identify factors associated with posttest decision-making performance.…

  14. Child Abuse: Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Timothy L.-Y.

    The purpose of this paper was to elaborate on the definitions of child abuse in order to improve the understanding of child abuse. The definitions given by the U.S. House Joint Committee on Child Abuse in the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, and in research by Holden (1984), are cited. These definitions refer to the nature of abusive acts…

  15. Intranasal administration of crushed ALO-02 (extended-release oxycodone with sequestered naltrexone): A randomized, controlled abuse-potential study in nondependent recreational opioid users.

    PubMed

    Setnik, Beatrice; Bramson, Candace; Bass, Almasa; Levy-Cooperman, Naama; Malhotra, Bimal; Matschke, Kyle; Sommerville, Kenneth W; Wolfram, Gernot; Geoffroy, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    ALO-02 is an abuse-deterrent formulation consisting of capsules filled with pellets of extended-release oxycodone surrounding sequestered naltrexone. This randomized, double-blind, placebo-/active-controlled, 4-way crossover study examined the abuse potential of crushed ALO-02 administered intranasally to healthy, nondependent, recreational opioid users. Following drug discrimination and naloxone challenge, eligible participants (n = 32) entered a 4-way crossover treatment phase: crushed single dose of 1 of 2 placebos, ALO-02 30 mg/3.6 mg (oxycodone/naltrexone) or oxycodone immediate-release (IR) 30 mg. Primary end points were Drug Liking and High, measured on visual analog scales (VAS) summarized as maximum effect (Emax ) and effect occurring over 2 hours postdose (AUE0-2  h ). Crushed ALO-02 resulted in significantly lower scores versus oxycodone IR on Drug Liking (Emax , 60.5 vs 92.8; AUE0-2  h , 105.4 vs 160.0, respectively) and High (Emax , 25.2 vs 86.9; AUE0-2  h , 27.1 vs 136.4, respectively; n = 28; P < .0001). Adverse events occurred most frequently with oxycodone IR, followed by ALO-02, then placebo, and were considered mild and consistent with opioid therapy. Crushed ALO-02 administered intranasally to nondependent recreational opioid users resulted in significantly lower scores on Drug Liking/High VAS and other positive subjective measures versus crushed oxycodone IR, suggesting less abuse potential. Demonstration of actual abuse deterrence in the real world requires further research.

  16. Do formulation differences alter abuse liability of methylphenidate? A placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind, crossover study in recreational drug users.

    PubMed

    Parasrampuria, Dolly A; Schoedel, Kerri A; Schuller, Reinhard; Silber, Steven A; Ciccone, Patrick E; Gu, Joan; Sellers, Edward M

    2007-10-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine if the abuse liability of methylphenidate is governed by formulation differences that affect rates of drug delivery. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, crossover study, subjects with a history of recreational drug use received single oral doses of placebo, 60 mg of immediate-release methylphenidate (IR) and 108 mg of extended-release methylphenidate (osmotic release oral system [OROS]). Over 24 hours after dosing, blood was collected to determine plasma concentrations of methylphenidate, and subjects completed subjective assessments of abuse liability (Addiction Research Center Inventory, Drug Rating Questionnaire-Subject, and Subjective Drug Value). The abuse-related subjective effects of IR and OROS methylphenidate were statistically significantly different from placebo, confirming the overall validity of the study. Although a higher dose of OROS methylphenidate was used compared with IR methylphenidate (108 mg vs 60 mg), subjective effects were consistently lower for OROS compared with IR methylphenidate (statistically significant for 3 of 6 measures of positive effects), particularly at early time points. In general, pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic parameters were correlated from a poor to modest degree, with greater correlations observed for IR methylphenidate. In addition, a post hoc "qualification" method was developed, which demonstrated that pharmacological qualification might improve the assessment of subjective effects. Although requiring epidemiological confirmation, the results suggest that OROS methylphenidate, with its characteristic slow ascending plasma concentration profile, may have lower abuse potential. This conclusion is reflected by lower subjective responses during early hours as compared with the IR formulation with its rapid drug delivery and accompanying greater subjective effects.

  17. Recent trends in drug abuse in China.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yu-xia; Wang, Yan-bo; Shi, Jie; Liu, Zhi-min; Lu, Lin

    2006-02-01

    Drug abuse has spread quickly since reemerging as a national problem in China in the late 1980s. The number of registered drug abusers increased from 70,000 in 1990 to more than one million by the end of 2004. In addition to opioids, abuse of 'new' types of drugs including 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and ketamine has spread since 1997. Illicit drug trafficking and production have swept most of southern China, and throughout the country drug abuse has caused many problems for both abusers and the community. One major drug-related problem is the spread of HIV, which has caused major social and economic damage in China. In response, the Chinese government has begun an anti-drug campaign, including legislative measures to control drug abuse. However, changing the public's attitudes toward drug abusers and breaking the link between drug use and HIV spread are equally important.

  18. Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Whether they're using street drugs or medications, drug abusers often have trouble at school, at home, with ... a short period of time may make a drug abuser aggressive or paranoid. Although stimulant abuse might not ...

  19. Drug abuse and addiction.

    PubMed

    Nessa, A; Latif, S A; Siddiqui, N I; Hussain, M A; Hossain, M A

    2008-07-01

    Among the social and medical ills of the twentieth century, substance abuse ranks as on one of the most devastating and costly. The drug problem today is a major global concern including Bangladesh. Almost all addictive drugs over stimulate the reward system of the brain, flooding it with the neurotransmitter dopamine. That produces euphoria and that heightened pleasure can be so compelling that the brain wants that feeling back again and again. However repetitive exposure induces widespread adaptive changes in the brain. As a consequence drug use may become compulsive. An estimated 4.7% of the global population aged 15 to 64 or 184 million people, consume illicit drug annually. Heroin use alone is responsible for the epidemic number of new cases of HIV/AIDS, Hepatitis and drug addicted infant born each year. Department of narcotic control (DNC) in Bangladesh reported in June 2008 that about 5 million drug addicts in the country & addicts spend at least 17 (Seventeen) billion on drugs per year. Among these drug addicts, 91% are young and adolescents population. Heroin is the most widely abused drugs in Bangladesh. For geographical reason like India, Pakistan and Myanmar; Bangladesh is also an important transit root for internationally trafficking of illicit drug. Drug abuse is responsible for decreased job productivity and attendance increased health care costs, and escalations of domestic violence and violent crimes. Drug addiction is a preventable disease. Through scientific advances we now know much more about how exactly drugs work in the brain, and we also know that drug addiction can be successfully treated to help people stop abusing drugs and resume their productive lives. Most countries have legislation designed to criminalize some drugs. To decrease the prevalence of this problem in our setting; increase awareness, promoting additional research on abused and addictive drugs, and exact implementation of existing laws are strongly recommended. We should

  20. A case study of the Australian Plague Locust Commission and environmental due diligence: why mere legislative compliance is no longer sufficient for environmentally responsible locust control in Australia.

    PubMed

    Story, Paul G; Walker, Paul W; McRae, Heath; Hamilton, John G

    2005-07-01

    The Australian Plague Locust Commission (APLC) manages locust populations across 2 million square kilometers of eastern Australia using the aerial application of chemical and biological control agents to protect agricultural production. This occurs via a preventative control strategy involving ultralow-volume spray equipment to distribute small droplets of control agent over a target area. The economic costs of, and potential gains stemming from, locust control are well documented. The application of insecticides, however, to fragile arid and semiarid ecosystems is a task that brings with it both real and perceived environmental issues. The APLC is proactive in addressing these issues through a combination of targeted environmental operational research, an ISO-14001-aligned Environmental Management System (EMS), and links with environmental regulatory and research institutions. Increasing due diligence components within Australian environmental legislation dictate that mere legislative compliance is no longer sufficient for industries to ensure that they meet their environmental obligations. The development of external research links and the formulation of an EMS for locust control have enabled the APLC to identify environmental issues and trends, quantify objective environmental targets and strategies, and facilitate continuous improvement in its environmental performance, while maintaining stakeholder support. This article outlines the environmental issues faced by the APLC, the research programs in place to address these issues, and the procedures in place to incorporate research findings into the organization's operational structure.

  1. Assessment of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic effects related to abuse potential of a unique oral osmotic-controlled extended-release methylphenidate formulation in humans.

    PubMed

    Parasrampuria, Dolly A; Schoedel, Kerri A; Schuller, Reinhard; Gu, Joan; Ciccone, Patrick; Silber, Steven A; Sellers, Edward M

    2007-12-01

    This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, 5-period crossover study in 49 healthy subjects with a history of light (occasional) recreational stimulant use, to evaluate the abuse-related subjective effects of oral osmotic-controlled extended-release methylphenidate with comparable doses of immediate-release methylphenidate. Healthy subjects with a history of light recreational stimulant use were enrolled in the study if they demonstrated a positive response to a 20-mg dose of d-amphetamine and a negative placebo response. Enrolled subjects received single doses of placebo, 54 and 108 mg osmotic-controlled extended-release methylphenidate, and 50 and 90 mg immediate-release methylphenidate. For each treatment, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and safety were assessed for 24 hours. Subjective data were collected through standard questionnaires and visual analog scales for positive, stimulant, negative, and other effects. Immediate-release and osmotic-controlled extended-release methylphenidate produced expected plasma concentration-time profiles of d-methylphenidate. Both doses of immediate-release methylphenidate (50 and 90 mg) produced statistically significantly higher subjective effects (eg, positive, stimulant) with respect to placebo for all measures. The higher osmotic-controlled extended-release methylphenidate dose of 108 mg also produced statistically significant differences from placebo for most measures. However, the most commonly prescribed therapeutic dose of osmotic-controlled extended-release methylphenidate (54 mg) did not produce significant differences from placebo for most measures. In addition, for comparable dose levels, osmotic-controlled extended-release methylphenidate produced lower positive and stimulant subjective effects than immediate-release methylphenidate, and low-dose immediate-release methylphenidate (50 mg) produced greater subjective effects than high-dose osmotic-controlled extended-release methylphenidate, with

  2. Methamphetamine abuse.

    PubMed

    Winslow, Bradford T; Voorhees, Kenton I; Pehl, Katherine A

    2007-10-15

    Methamphetamine is a stimulant commonly abused in many parts of the United States. Most methamphetamine users are white men 18 to 25 years of age, but the highest usage rates have been found in native Hawaiians, persons of more than one race, Native Americans, and men who have sex with men. Methamphetamine use produces a rapid, pleasurable rush followed by euphoria, heightened attention, and increased energy. Possible adverse effects include myocardial infarction, stroke, seizures, rhabdomyolysis, cardiomyopathy, psychosis, and death. Chronic methamphetamine use is associated with neurologic and psychiatric symptoms and changes in physical appearance. High-risk sexual activity and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus are also associated with methamphetamine use. Use of methamphetamine in women who are pregnant can cause placental abruption, intrauterine growth retardation, and preterm birth, and there can be adverse consequences in children exposed to the drug. Treatment of methamphetamine intoxication is primarily supportive. Treatment of methamphetamine abuse is behavioral; cognitive behavior therapy, contingency management, and the Matrix Model may be effective. Pharmacologic treatments are under investigation.

  3. Commissioning HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schiess, K.

    1995-12-01

    In recent years, commissioning has been viewed as a separate process that had to be specified and implemented by a specialized entity. This article discusses commissioning in the HVAC field and looks at it from an international perspective. The author has worked in Europe, South Africa (British system) and the USA. The differences between the British and the American methods of commissioning are discussed, with examples given where the American way was unsuccessful. It is the design engineer`s job to test and accept (commission) an installation after the contractor has demonstrated the performance to the satisfaction of the design engineer. Once the plant is commissioned, it is put into service.

  4. Methylphenidate abuse in Texas, 1998-2004.

    PubMed

    Forrester, Mathias B

    2006-06-01

    Methylphenidate is a stimulant used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and is subject to abuse. This study describes the patterns of methylphenidate abuse and drug identification (ID) calls received by several poison control centers in Texas. Cases were calls involving methylphenidate received by Texas poison control centers during 1998-2004. Drug ID and drug abuse calls were assessed by call year and geographic location. Drug abuse calls were then compared to all other human exposure (nonabuse) calls with respect to various factors. Of 6798 calls received involving methylphenidate, 35% were drug IDs and 56% human exposures. Of the human exposures, 9% involved abuse. The number of drug ID calls and drug abuse calls received per year both declined during the first part of 7-yr period but then increased. Male patients accounted for approximately 60% of both drug abuse and nonabuse calls. Adolescent patients comprised 55% of drug abuse calls and children less than 13 yr old comprised 62% of nonabuse calls. Although the majority of both types of human exposures occurred at the patient's own residence, drug abuse calls were more likely than non-abuse calls to involve exposures at school (15% vs. 6%) and public areas (3% vs. 0.4%). While drug abuse calls were less likely than nonabuse calls to present with no clinical effects (29% vs. 52%), they were more likely to show more serious medical outcomes. Methylphenidate abusers are more likely to be adolescents. Methylphenidate abuse as compared to other exposures is more likely to occur outside of the person's home and to involve more serious medical outcomes.

  5. Evaluation of KIMS immunoassays on a cobas c 501 analyzer for drugs of abuse and ethyl glucuronide testing in urine for forensic abstinence control.

    PubMed

    Neukamm, Merja A; Bahrami, Arsham; Auwärter, Volker; Mehne, Felix M P; Höss, Eva

    2016-12-26

    For the medico-psychological assessment (MPA) during driving licence re-granting in Germany, abstinence control including urine samples is required. In these programmes, even small amounts of markers for drug or alcohol abuse have to be detected. Thus, the concentrations of the target compounds are very low, and, in consequence, the sensitivity of the applied screening method has to be much higher than for clinical use. Modified drugs of abuse and ethyl glucuronide immunoassays on a Roche cobas c 501 analyzer were evaluated for precision, accuracy, onboard calibration stability, cross reactivity, sensitivity, and specificity using authentic urine samples. Precision (intra-day and inter-day relative standard deviation (RSD) and accuracy (bias) at three concentrations were 12% or lower for all parameters. The calibrations remained stable (deviations <25%) for at least 28 days for all assays except amphetamines (21 days). Satisfactory cross reactivity was determined for the relevant analytes and also for several new psychoactive substances (NPS). The sensitivity was 100% for all parameters except methadone metabolite EDDP (92%) and fully met the sensitivity criteria for MPA urine testing. The presented kinetic interaction of microparticles in a solution (KIMS) immunoassays on a cobas c 501 thus provide a new method to reliably detect drug or alcohol consumption in abstinence control programmes requiring high sensitivity. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Executive Dysfunction and Reward Dysregulation: A High-Density Electrical Mapping Study in Cocaine Abusers

    PubMed Central

    Morie, Kristen P.; De Sanctis, Pierfilippo; Garavan, Hugh; Foxe, John J.

    2015-01-01

    Executive function deficits and reward dysregulation, which mainly manifests as anhedonia, are well documented in drug abusers. We investigated specific aspects of executive function (inhibitory control and cognitive control), as well as anhedonia, in a cohort of current cocaine abusers in order to ascertain to what extent these factors are associated with more severe drug dependence. Participants filled out questionnaires relating to anhedonia and their addiction history. Participants also performed a response inhibition task while high-density event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Electrophysiological responses to successful inhibitions (N2/P3 components) and to commission errors (ERN/Pe components) were compared between 23 current users of cocaine and 27 non-using controls. A regression model was performed to determine the association of our measures of reward dysregulation and executive function with addiction severity. As expected, cocaine users performed more poorly than controls on the inhibitory control task and showed significant electrophysiological differences. They were also generally more anhedonic than controls. Higher levels of anhedonia were associated with more severe substance use, whereas the level of executive dysfunction was not associated with more severe substance use. However, N2 amplitude was associated with duration of drug use. Further, inhibitory control and anhedonia were correlated, but only in controls. These data suggest that while executive dysfunction characterizes drug abuse, it is anhedonia, independent of executive dysfunction, that is most strongly associated with more severe use. PMID:24911989

  7. Federal Trade Commission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Fraud, Waste, Abuse or Mismanagement Whistleblower Protection OIG Audits and Evaluations OIG Investigations OIG Reading Room Notice ... Fora Litigation Status Report Magnuson-Moss Warranty Public Audit Filings Rotational Health Warnings Webb-Pomerene Act Filings ...

  8. Abuse and misuse of antidepressants

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Elizabeth A; Sullivan, Maria A

    2014-01-01

    Background Rates of prescription drug abuse have reached epidemic proportions. Large-scale epidemiologic surveys of this under-recognized clinical problem have not included antidepressants despite their contribution to morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this review is to look specifically at the misuse of antidepressants and how this behavior may fit into the growing crisis of nonmedical use of prescription drugs. Methods We conducted a comprehensive search on PubMed, Medline, and PsycINFO using the search terms “antidepressant”, “abuse”, “misuse”, “nonmedical use”, “dependence”, and “addiction”, as well as individual antidepressant classes (eg, “SSRI”) and individual antidepressants (eg, “fluoxetine”) in various combinations, to identify articles of antidepressant misuse and abuse. Results A small but growing literature on the misuse and abuse of antidepressants consists largely of case reports. Most cases of antidepressant abuse have occurred in individuals with comorbid substance use and mood disorders. The most commonly reported motivation for abuse is to achieve a psychostimulant-like effect. Antidepressants are abused at high doses and via a variety of routes of administration (eg, intranasal, intravenous). Negative consequences vary based upon antidepressant class and pharmacology, but these have included seizures, confusion, and psychotic-like symptoms. Conclusion The majority of individuals prescribed antidepressants do not misuse the medication. However, certain classes of antidepressants do carry abuse potential. Vulnerable patient populations include those with a history of substance abuse and those in controlled environments. Warning signs include the presence of aberrant behaviors. Physicians should include antidepressants when screening for risky prescription medication use. When antidepressant misuse is detected, a thoughtful treatment plan, including referral to an addiction specialist, should be developed and

  9. Predictors and moderators of outcomes of HIV/STD sex risk reduction interventions in substance abuse treatment programs: a pooled analysis of two randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The objective of the current study was to examine predictors and moderators of response to two HIV sexual risk interventions of different content and duration for individuals in substance abuse treatment programs. Methods Participants were recruited from community drug treatment programs participating in the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network (CTN). Data were pooled from two parallel randomized controlled CTN studies (one with men and one with women) each examining the impact of a multi-session motivational and skills training program, in comparison to a single-session HIV education intervention, on the degree of reduction in unprotected sex from baseline to 3- and 6- month follow-ups. The findings were analyzed using a zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) model. Results Severity of drug use (p < .01), gender (p < .001), and age (p < .001) were significant main effect predictors of number of unprotected sexual occasions (USOs) at follow-up in the non-zero portion of the ZINB model (men, younger participants, and those with greater severity of drug/alcohol abuse have more USOs). Monogamous relationship status (p < .001) and race/ethnicity (p < .001) were significant predictors of having at least one USO vs. none (monogamous individuals and African Americans were more likely to have at least one USO). Significant moderators of intervention effectiveness included recent sex under the influence of drugs/alcohol (p < .01 in non-zero portion of model), duration of abuse of primary drug (p < .05 in non-zero portion of model), and Hispanic ethnicity (p < .01 in the zero portion, p < .05 in the non-zero portion of model). Conclusion These predictor and moderator findings point to ways in which patients may be selected for the different HIV sexual risk reduction interventions and suggest potential avenues for further development of the interventions for increasing their effectiveness within certain

  10. 77 FR 70204 - Commission Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Commission Meeting AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Susquehanna River Basin Commission will hold its regular business meeting on December 14, 2012, in...

  11. 78 FR 12412 - Commission Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Commission Meeting AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Susquehanna River Basin Commission will hold its regular business meeting on March 21, 2013, in...

  12. 78 FR 32295 - Commission Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Commission Meeting AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Susquehanna River Basin Commission will hold its regular business meeting on June 20, 2013, in...

  13. Review of Randomized Controlled Trials on Psychological Interventions in Child Sexual Abuse: Current Status and Emerging Needs in the Indian Context

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Vandana; Satapathy, Sujata; Sagar, Rajesh

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a critical, psychologically traumatic and sometimes life-threatening incident often associated with sequel of adverse physical, behavioral, and mental health consequences. Factors such as developmental age of the child, severity of abuse, closeness to the perpetrator, availability of medico-legal-social support network and family care, gender stereotypes in the community complicate the psychological trauma. Although the research on the effects of CSA as well as psychological intervention to reduce the victimization and promote the mental health of the child is in its infancy stage in India, the global research in the past three decades has progressed much ahead. A search was performed using MEDLINE, PubMed, PsycINFO, and Google Scholar from 1984 to 2015 and only 17 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) out of 96 potentially relevant studies were included. While nonspecific therapies covering a wide variety of outcome variables were prominent till 1999s, the trend changed to specific and focused forms of trauma-focused therapies in next one-and-half decades. Novel approaches to psychological interventions have also been witnessed. One intervention (non-RCT) study on effects on general counseling has been reported from India. PMID:27570336

  14. SNS BEAM COMMISSIONING TOOLS AND EXPERIENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Shishlo, Andrei P; Galambos, John D

    2008-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) successfully met the primary construction project completion milestones in April 2006. An important ingredient of this successful commissioning was the development and use of software tools. With the increasing digitalization of beam diagnostics and increasing complexity of Integrated Control Systems of large accelerators, the need for high level software tools is critical for smooth commissioning. At SNS a special Java based infrastructure called XAL was prepared for beam commissioning. XAL provides a hierarchal view of the accelerator, is data base configured, and includes a physics model of the beam. This infrastructure and individual applications development along with a historical time line of the SNS commissioning will be discussed.

  15. Guidelines for residential commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, Craig P.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-01-31

    Currently, houses do not perform optimally or even as many codes and forecasts predict, largely because they are field assembled and there is no consistent process to identify problems or to correct them. Residential commissioning is a solution to this problem. This guide is the culmination of a 30-month project that began in September 1999. The ultimate objective of the project is to increase the number of houses that undergo commissioning, which will improve the quality, comfort, and safety of homes for California citizens. The project goal is to lay the groundwork for a residential commissioning industry in California focused on end-use energy and non-energy issues. As such, we intend this guide to be a beginning and not an end. Our intent is that the guide will lead to the programmatic integration of commissioning with other building industry processes, which in turn will provide more value to a single site visit for people such as home energy auditors and raters, home inspectors, and building performance contractors. Project work to support the development of this guide includes: a literature review and annotated bibliography, which facilitates access to 469 documents related to residential commissioning published over the past 20 years (Wray et al. 2000), an analysis of the potential benefits one can realistically expect from commissioning new and existing California houses (Matson et al. 2002), and an assessment of 107 diagnostic tools for evaluating residential commissioning metrics (Wray et al. 2002). In this guide, we describe the issues that non-experts should consider in developing a commissioning program to achieve the benefits we have identified. We do this by providing specific recommendations about: how to structure the commissioning process, which diagnostics to use, and how to use them to commission new and existing houses. Using examples, we also demonstrate the potential benefits of applying the recommended whole-house commissioning approach to

  16. Childhood and Adolescent Sexual Abuse and Subsequent Sexual Risk Behavior: Evidence from Controlled Studies, Methodological Critique, and Suggestions for Research

    PubMed Central

    Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Vanable, Peter A.

    2008-01-01

    Childhood and adolescent sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with a wide variety of adverse psychological and health outcomes, including negative sexual health outcomes. In this paper, we review the literature investigating the relation between CSA and subsequent sexual risk behaviors among men and women. Previous research has found a relatively consistent association between CSA and higher rates of sexual risk behaviors, particularly sex trading, more sexual partners, and an earlier age of first intercourse. However, there are a number of limitations to this research, including lack of a consistent definition of CSA, failure to investigate gender as a moderator, and possible confounding of the CSA experience with some of the sexual behavior outcome variables. Further, although there appears to be an association between CSA and later sexual risk behavior, researchers have not established whether this association is causal. Suggestions for future research and implications for clinical practice are discussed. PMID:18045760

  17. The Building Commissioning Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinz, John A.; Casault, Rick

    This book discusses building commissioning, which is the process of certifying that a new facility meets the required specifications. As buildings have become more complex, the traditional methods for building start-up and final acceptance have been proven inadequate, and building commissioning has been developed, which often necessitates the use…

  18. LIGO Detector Commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raab, Frederick

    2003-04-01

    The initial LIGO interferometer design was based on more than 20 years of experience with test interferometers, but the increase in scale, new operating environments and extreme technical requirements presented challenges for commissioning. Detector installation began in 1998 with injection optics at Hanford, WA. By 1999, light was resonating in a single 2-km Fabry-Perot arm cavity. Subsequent engineering runs tested stability and analyzed environmental influences, particularly the earth tides and the microseism. By October 2000, the first lock of a kilometer-scale, power recycled Fabry-Perot-Michelson interferometer was obtained, using an automated system to analyze optical signals and reconfigure control loops as the mirrors are drawn into position. The many control loops that minimize length and angle fluctuations of the mirrors relative to the laser light were tuned and noise sources were identified and reduced iteratively as sensitivity improved by several orders of magnitude. Following installation of the last LIGO mirror in 2001, engineering run 7 provided the first triple-coincidence operation of LIGO's interferometers at Hanford and Livingston, LA in early 2002. Clear signals of mirrors recoiling from the Brownian motion of the suspension-wire violin modes first emerged from the noise during science run 1 in September 2002, at approximately the expected amplitude. Detector robustness has steadily improved and uninterrupted locking on a dark fringe for more than a day has been achieved. The support of the US National Science Foundation under Cooperative Agreement No. PHY-0107417 is gratefully acknowledged.

  19. Commissioning of HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Schiess, K.

    1995-06-01

    In recent years various presentation and discussions have taken place which looked at commissioning as a separate process that had to be specified and implemented by a specialized entity in a project. This presentation discusses commissioning in the HVAC field and looks at it from an international perspective. The author has worked in Europe, South Africa (British system) and in the USA. The differences are discussed between the British and the American methods with some examples where the American way of commissioning was unsuccessful. The conclusion is that it is the design engineer`s job to test and accept (commission) an installation after the contractor has demonstrated the performance to the satisfaction of the design engineer. Once the plant is commissioned, it is put into service.

  20. Neglect and abuse of older people in Nepal: a commentary on "A baseline study on reported cases of elder abuse in Nepali press".

    PubMed

    Sharma Bhattarai, Lok P

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about elder abuse in Nepal. To gain further insights, the National Human Rights Commission in association with the Geriatric Center in Nepal published a report that analyzes all cases of older people's abuse published in two daily newspapers in Nepal over a 2-year period. This commentary discusses the main findings of the report, as well as future directions.

  1. Farmworker Substance Abuse: An Action Plan for the Year 2000. Proceedings of the National Farmworker Substance Abuse Prevention Conference (San Diego, California, October 18-20, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Migrant Resource Program, Inc., Austin, TX.

    This proceedings contains commissioned background papers used by conference work groups focusing on nine aspects of farmworker substance abuse, and the action plan developed by the work groups. The keynote address by Felipe G. Castro examines risk factors for substance abuse and addiction among Chicano farmworkers, particularly adolescent and…

  2. Addressing risk factors for child abuse among high risk pregnant women: design of a randomised controlled trial of the nurse family partnership in Dutch preventive health care

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Low socio-economic status combined with other risk factors affects a person's physical and psychosocial health from childhood to adulthood. The societal impact of these problems is huge, and the consequences carry on into the next generation(s). Although several studies show these consequences, only a few actually intervene on these issues. In the United States, the Nurse Family Partnership focuses on high risk pregnant women and their children. The main goal of this program is primary prevention of child abuse. The Netherlands is the first country outside the United States allowed to translate and culturally adapt the Nurse Family Partnership into VoorZorg. The aim of the present study is to assess whether VoorZorg is as effective in the Netherland as in the United States. Methods The study consists of three partly overlapping phases. Phase 1 was the translation and cultural adaptation of Nurse Family Partnership and the design of a two-stage selection procedure. Phase 2 was a pilot study to examine the conditions for implementation. Phase 3 is the randomized controlled trial of VoorZorg compared to the care as usual. Primary outcome measures were smoking cessation during pregnancy and after birth, birth outcomes, child development, child abuse and domestic violence. The secondary outcome measure was the number of risk factors present. Discussion This study shows that the Nurse Family Partnership was successfully translated and culturally adapted into the Dutch health care system and that this program fulfills the needs of high-risk pregnant women. We hypothesize that this program will be effective in addressing risk factors that operate during pregnancy and childhood and compromise fetal and child development. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN16131117 PMID:22017924

  3. 78 FR 21060 - Appeal Proceedings Before the Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ... standards from those required by the Commission's minimum internal control standards contained in part 543... adoption of alternate standards from those required by the Commission's minimum internal control standards... TGRAs' adoption of alternate standards from those required by the Commission's minimum internal...

  4. How to Handle Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Is Happening en español Cómo manejar el abuso Grown-ups are usually there to help and ... to understand the different types of abuse: physical, sexual, verbal or emotional, and neglect. Physical abuse: Physical ...

  5. Students and Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todays Educ, 1969

    1969-01-01

    Introduction to "Students and Drug Abuse, prepared by the Public Information Branch and Center for Studies of Narcotic and Drug Abuse, National Institute of Mental Health, in cooperation with the staff of Today's Education.

  6. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  7. Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... from what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that was prescribed for someone else Taking a ... at higher doses or when taken with other medicines. NIH: National Institute on Drug Abuse

  8. Child abuse - physical

    MedlinePlus

    ... way Uses harsh discipline Was abused as a child Alcohol or drug problems Emotional problems or mental illness ... Physical abuse - children References Berkowitz CD, Stewart ST. Child maltreatment. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. ...

  9. Elder Abuse among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauriac, Jesse J.; Scruggs, Natoschia

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of extreme, moderate, and mild forms of elder abuse among African-American women (n=25) and men (n=10) were examined. African-American respondents emphasized physical abuse when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Along with physical abuse, verbal abuse was the most frequently identified form of abuse, and was significantly…

  10. Child Abuse: Educator's Responsibilities. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. Crime Prevention Center.

    This document presents the educator with a guide to child abuse. A section defining child abuse examines the issues of physical abuse, physical neglect, sexual abuse, and emotional maltreatment. Areas discussed for these types of abuse include abuse indicators, location of injury, history, behavioral indicators, and types of injury. Incestuous and…

  11. ANABOLIC ANDROGENIC STEROID ABUSE: MULTIPLE MECHANISMS OF REGULATION OF GABAERGIC SYNAPSES IN NEUROENDOCRINE CONTROL REGIONS OF THE RODENT FOREBRAIN

    PubMed Central

    Oberlander, Joseph G.; Porter, Donna M.; Penatti, Carlos A. A.; Henderson, Leslie P.

    2011-01-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic derivatives of testosterone originally developed for clinical purposes, but now predominantly taken at suprapharmacological levels as drugs of abuse. To date, nearly 100 different AAS compounds that vary in metabolic fate and physiological effects have been designed and synthesised. While administered for their ability to enhance muscle mass and performance, untoward side effects of AAS use include changes in reproductive and sexual behaviours. Specifically, AAS, depending on the type of compound administered, can delay or advance pubertal onset, lead to irregular oestrous cyclicity, diminished male and female sexual behaviours, and accelerate reproductive senescence. Numerous brains regions and neurotransmitter signalling systems are involved in the generation of these behaviours, and are potential targets for both chronic and acute actions of the AAS. However critical to all of these behaviours is neurotransmission mediated by GABAA receptors within a nexus of interconnected forebrain regions that includes the medial preoptic area (mPOA), the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Here we review how exposure to AAS alters GABAergic transmission and neural activity within these forebrain regions, taking advantage of in vitro systems and both wild-type and genetically altered mouse strains, in order to better understand how these synthetic steroids affect the neural systems that underlie the regulation of reproduction and the expression of sexual behaviours. PMID:21554430

  12. Educating America's Youth against Drugs: Federal Drug Abuse Education Strategy. Hearing before the Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control. House of Representatives, One Hundred First Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control.

    This document presents witness testimony and prepared statements from the Congressional hearing held to review the federal drug abuse education strategy for educating American youth against drugs. Opening statements are included from presiding Congressman Charles Rangel and from Representatives Lawrence Coughlin, James Scheuer, Nita Lowey,…

  13. Childhood physical abuse and differential development of paranormal belief systems.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Stefanie L; Allen, Rhiannon

    2006-05-01

    This study compared paranormal belief systems in individuals with and without childhood physical abuse histories. The Revised Paranormal Belief Scale and the Assessing Environments III Questionnaire were completed by 107 University students. Psi, precognition, and spiritualism, which are thought to provide a sense of personal efficacy and control, were among the most strongly held beliefs in abused subjects, and were significantly higher in abused versus nonabused subjects. Superstition and extraordinary life forms, thought to have an inverse or no relation to felt control, were the least strongly held beliefs in abused subjects, and, along with religious beliefs, did not differ between the two abuse groups. Witchcraft was unexpectedly found to be the most strongly held belief among those with abuse histories. Results suggest that by providing a sense of control, certain paranormal beliefs may offer a powerful emotional refuge to individuals who endured the stress of physical abuse in childhood.

  14. Elder Abuse Awareness Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Kathleen; Morrow, Marilyn J.

    1985-01-01

    The Elder Abuse Awareness Project was undertaken: (1) to determine the incidence of abuse and neglect in seven Illinois counties; and (2) to develop, produce, and distribute educational materials on elder abuse for the service provider and for senior citizens. Results are presented and discussed. (MT)

  15. Elder Abuse in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arai, Mizuho

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of elder abuse were examined in Japanese women (n =100) and men (n =46). Japanese women and men both emphasized physical aggression, followed by neglect and blaming, when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Physical aggression was also the most frequently mentioned type of moderate elder abuse, followed by neglect, economic…

  16. Elder Abuse Awareness Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Marilyn J.; Doyle, Kathleen

    The Elder Abuse Awareness Project was developed to determine the incidence of abuse and neglect of elderly people in several rural counties in central Illinois. A primary purpose of the study was to survey service providers as to their actual encounters with elder abuse and neglect. Each provider was asked about warning signs or cues that were…

  17. Substance Abuse. Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collaboration for Youth, Washington, DC.

    This paper presents the policy statement on substance abuse from the National Collaboration for Youth (NCY). The policy statement section lists programs and activities supported by the NCY. A section on background includes a statement of the issue of substance abuse. Areas examined in this section include alcohol abuse and drunk driving among…

  18. State Emergency Response Commissions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Governor of each state has designated a State Emergency Response Commission (SERC) that is responsible for implementing the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA) provisions within its state.

  19. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    This report includes the issuances received during the specified period from Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (ALJ), the Directors` Decisions (DD), and the Denials of Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM).

  20. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    This report includes the issuances received during the specified period from the Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (ALJ), the Directors Decisions (DD), and the Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM).

  1. Commissioning the LCLS Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Akre, R.; Dowell, D.; Emma, P.; Frisch, J.; Gilevich, S.; Hays, G.; Hering, Ph.; Iverson, R.; Limborg-Deprey, C.; Loos, H.; Miahnahri, A.; Schmerge, J.; Turner, J.; Welch, J.; White, W.; Wu, J.; /SLAC

    2007-11-28

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a SASE x-ray Free-Electron Laser (FEL) project presently under construction at SLAC. The injector section, from drive laser and RF photocathode gun through first bunch compressor chicane, was installed in fall 2006. Initial system commissioning with an electron beam was completed in August 2007, with the goal of a 1.2-micron emittance in a 1-nC bunch clearly demonstrated. The second phase of commissioning, including second bunch compressor and full linac, is planned for 2008, with FEL commissioning in 2009. We report experimental results and experience gained in the first phase of commissioning, including the photo-cathode drive laser, RF gun, photocathode, S-band and X-band RF systems, first bunch compressor, and the various beam diagnostics.

  2. A method for performance evaluation using WeeFIM data collected for the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations' ORYX initiative: The 0.5 band control chart analysis.

    PubMed

    Slomine, Beth S; Brintzenhofeszoc, Karlynn; Salorio, Cynthia F; Warren, Lana; Wieczorek, Beth H; Carney, Joan; Moore, Delores A; Christensen, James R

    2004-03-01

    This article describes the employment of a method of data analysis for detailed internal program evaluation, which we call the 0.5 Band Control Chart Analysis. We describe how the 0.5 Band Control Chart Analysis can be used in conjunction with the data collected and analyzed as part of the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations' ORYX initiative to enhance program evaluation. How this procedure helped identify problems and drove performance improvement at our facility is also discussed.

  3. Fatal abuse of nitrous oxide in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Suruda, A J; McGlothlin, J D

    1990-08-01

    Abuse of nitrous oxide (N2O) while on the job caused at least 11 deaths in 1984 to 1987, as found in investigations by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration and in reports to the Consumer Product Safety Commission. Although nitrous oxide has had a reputation as a "clean and safe" analgesic and anesthetic, the possibility of asphyxiation by inhalation is not widely recognized, and there are no requirements for warning labels on nonmedical sources of N2O. The 11 deaths involved recreational inhalation of N2O by young male employees from tanks or cylinders normally used for legitimate business purposes. In six cases, the victims worked in food serving establishments and inhaled N2O that was used to power whipped cream dispensers. Commercial users of N2O, particularly in the restaurant industry, should be aware of this hazard. Warning labels for N2O sources and tighter control over supplies are warranted.

  4. [The dentist's role in the child abuse: diagnosis and report].

    PubMed

    Crespo, Manuela; Andrade, David; Alves, Ana La-Salete; Magalhães, Teresa

    2011-12-01

    Child Abuse is a frequent problem worldwide that surpasses ethnicity, religion, culture, economic and social classes. In the United States of America child protective services account, per year, over one million cases of child abuse or neglect. In Portugal, the incidence of the problem is unknown but each year thousands of abused children are accompanied by the Commissions for the Protection of Children and Youth at Risk. This abuse threatens children's physical, emotional and intellectual development, as well as their dignity, security, well-being and even their own lives. The body regions most frequently affected in physical abuse, are the cranium, neck and orofacial region, in fact, about 50% of the injuries arising from child abuse occur in the orofacial region. These data place the dentist in a privileged position to make the detection, diagnosis and report of child abuse. Therefore, these professionals must be prepared to recognize, diagnose and report their suspicions to the appropriate authorities, which play a key role in victims protection and criminal investigation. This review intends to stress the important role of the dentist in the detection, diagnosis and report of child abuse, systematizing child abuse risk factors and indicators essential to the intervention of these professionals. This problem's approach is multidisciplinary, involving particularly dentists, who must obtain continuing education and training in this area.

  5. Commission 51: Bioastronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, William; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Boss, Alan; Cosmovici, Cristiano; Kwok, Sun; Levasseur-Regourd, Anny-Chantal; Morrison, David; Udry, Stephane

    2010-05-01

    Commission 51 met on August 12, 2009. Outgoing President Alan Boss chaired the meeting, and there were several dozen members present, including incoming President William Irvine, incoming Vice President Pascale Ehrenfreund, and outgoing Past President Karen Meech. Commission 51 (C51) was re-authorized for a term of six more years at the 2006 Prague General Assembly of the IAU, and hence comes up for renewal at the 2012 IAU General Assembly in Beijing, China.

  6. Prescription drug abuse in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Martin, Caren McHenry

    2008-12-01

    The increased use of prescription drugs has brought pain relief too many and often improved the quality of life of elderly patients. But the increase in use and availability of prescription medications-especially controlled substances-brings with it an increased potential for abuse. Studies have shown that intentional abuse of prescription drugs is increasing among all age groups. As the number of persons 65 years of age and older skyrockets with the aging of the baby boomers, experts predict that prescription drug abuse among the elderly also will rise significantly. Efforts to increase awareness of drug abuse among elderly patients, caregivers, and health care practitioners, as well as research into how best to prevent and treat the elderly drug abuser, will be necessary to thwart what could become a significant public health problem.

  7. Exposure to peer deviance during childhood and risk for drug abuse: a Swedish national co-relative control study

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, K. S.; Ohlsson, H.; Mezuk, B.; Sundquist, K.; Sundquist, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Peer deviance (PD) is associated with risk for drug abuse (DA). Is this association causal? Method DA was recorded in official records. PD was defined as the percentage of peers residing in small communities with future DA registrations. We examined offspring in families whose community PD changed when the offspring was 0–15 years of age and then examined families where cousins or siblings differed in their years of exposure to low or high PD communities. Results The duration of exposure to PD was strongly associated with future DA. Co-relative analyses for families whose exposure to PD declined suggested that the PD–DA association was largely non-causal. Within full-sibling pairs in such families, the length of exposure to low PD environments was unrelated to risk for DA. By contrast, co-relative analyses in families where exposure to PD increased over time indicated that the PD–DA association was largely causal. In such families, siblings who differed in the duration of their exposure to high PD differed in their risk for subsequent DA. These results were replicated in families whose PD changed because they moved or because of changes in the community in which they resided. Conclusions Within families whose social environment is improving over time, the association between PD exposure and offspring DA outcomes is not causal but is due to familial confounding. Within families whose social environment is deteriorating, the PD–DA association seems to be largely causal. Our measure of PD may also reflect broader aspects of the community environment beyond peers. PMID:25229163

  8. Inhalant Abuse and Dextromethorphan.

    PubMed

    Storck, Michael; Black, Laura; Liddell, Morgan

    2016-07-01

    Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of a volatile substance for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. As an important, yet underrecognized form of substance abuse, inhalant abuse crosses all demographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries, causing significant morbidity and mortality in school-aged and older children. This review presents current perspectives on epidemiology, detection, and clinical challenges of inhalant abuse and offers advice regarding the medical and mental health providers' roles in the prevention and management of this substance abuse problem. Also discussed is the misuse of a specific "over-the-counter" dissociative, dextromethorphan.

  9. Acceptability of Positive and Punitive Discipline Methods: Comparisons among Abusive, Potentially Abusive, and Nonabusive Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Mary Lou; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Abusive, potentially abusive, and control group parents (N=62) were presented with vignettes describing a child with either mild or severe behavior problems and asked to rate the acceptability of four discipline procedures (positive reinforcement, timeout, timeout with spanking, and spanking). Overall, parents rated positive reinforcement as more…

  10. Commissioning Experience of SNS

    SciTech Connect

    Plum, Michael A

    2007-07-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source accelerator complex consists of a 2.5 MeV H{sup -} front-end injector system, a 186 MeV normal-conducting linear accelerator, a 1 GeV superconducting linear accelerator, an accumulator ring, and associated beam transport lines. The linac was commissioned in five discrete runs, starting in 2002 and completed in 2005. The accumulator ring and associated beam transport lines were commissioned in two runs in January-February and April 2006. With the completed commissioning of the SNS accelerator, the facility has begun initial low-power operations. In the course of beam commissioning, most beam performance parameters and beam intensity goals have been achieved at low duty factor. A number of beam dynamics measurements have been performed, including emittance evolution, transverse coupling in the ring, beam instability thresholds, and beam distributions on the target. The commissioning results, achieved beam performance and initial operating experience of the SNS linac will be presented.

  11. 78 FR 16843 - Commission Information Collection Activities; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-19

    ... Commission (Commission or FERC) is submitting the information collection, FERC-730 (Report of Transmission... Commission, identified by the Docket No. IC13-9-000, by either of the following methods: eFiling at... of Transmission Investment Activity. OMB Control No.: 1902-0239 Type of Request: Three-year...

  12. Thymus and adrenal glands in elder abuse.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Takahito; Bunai, Yasuo; Ago, Kazutoshi; Ago, Mihoko; Ogata, Mamoru

    2011-12-01

    Endogenous glucocorticoid-induced thymic involution is generally considered to be an important finding for determining child abuse. The present study investigated the weight of the thymus and the adrenal glands in elder abuse cases to identify a potential marker for elder abuse. There was no significant difference in the thymus and the adrenal weight between elder abuse and control cases. However, the elder abuse cases in which the duration of abuse was less than 3 months showed a significant increase in the adrenal weight in comparison to control cases. In such cases, histopathological findings showed a loss of intracellular light granules from the zona fasciculata, which might indicate a loss of cholesterol due to the overproduction of glucocorticoid. These results might imply that the elderly, who were maltreated for less than 3 months, were in the early phase of a long-term stress state during which stress-induced overproduction of glucocorticoid was observed in adrenal glands as indicated by Selye. Our results suggest that an increase in adrenal weight may be a potential marker for elder abuse of relatively short periods, especially less than a few months.

  13. ATF2 Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Seryi, A.; Christian, G.; Parker, B.; Schulte, D.; Delahaye, J.-P.; Tomas, R.; Zimmermann, F.; Wolski, A.; Elsen, E.; Sanuki, T.; Gianfelice-Wendt, E.; Ross, M.; Wendt, M.; Takahashi, T.; Bai, S.; Gao, J.; Bolzon, B.; Geffroy, N.; Jeremie, A.; Apsimon, R.; Burrows, P.; /Oxford U., JAI /Kyoto U., Inst. Chem. Res. /Kyungpook Natl. U. /Orsay, LAL /Phang Accelerator Lab /Royal Holloway, U. of London /SLAC /Daresbury /University Coll. London /Manchester U. /Univ. of Tokyo U.

    2009-10-30

    ATF2 is a final-focus test beam line that aims to focus the low-emittance beam from the ATF damping ring to a beam size of about 37 nm, and at the same time to demonstrate nm beam stability, using numerous advanced beam diagnostics and feedback tools. The construction has been finished at the end of 2008 and the beam commissioning of ATF2 has started in December of 2008. ATF2 is constructed and commissioned by ATF international collaborations with strong US, Asian and European participation.

  14. Nuclear Regulatory Commission: more aggressive leadership needed

    SciTech Connect

    Staats, E.B.

    1980-01-15

    The Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 which established the Nuclear Regulatory Commission required GAO to evaluate the Commission's performance by January 18, 1980. This report responds to that requirement. GAO concluded that, although improvements have been made, the Commission's nuclear regulatory performance can be characterized best as slow, indecisive, cautious - in a word, complacent. This has largely resulted from a lack of aggressive leadership as evidenced by the Commissioners' failure to establish regulatory goals, control policymaking, and most importantly, clearly define their roles in nuclear regulation.

  15. Reviewing the Association between the History of Parental Substance Abuse and the Rate of Child Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Yaghoubi-Doust, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Background Substance abuse is a social, and health problem in Middle Eastern countries such as Iran. One of its most devastating effects is domestic violence against children. This study examined the association between the history of parental substance abuse, and rate of child abuse in Ahvaz, Iran. Methods This was a case-control study. The study population included all parents with high school children in Ahwaz within the academic year 2012-2013. The sample size was 384 people in two groups; with a history of substance abuse (case group) and no history of substance abuse (control group). Multi-stage cluster random sampling method was used through the Cochran formula. The data collection tools included a Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) (Bernstein, 1995), a demographic questionnaire, Duncan Socioeconomic Index (DSI), and a researcher-made questionnaire for the history of substance abuse. For data analysis, statistical indicators such as percentage, mean, standard deviation, t-test, and correlation and regression analysis were used. Findings Data analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation among parents with a history of substance abuse and domestic violence toward children. Mean and standard deviation of the violence level in families with normal parents were 61.34 ± 16.88, and in families with a history of substance abuse were 98.99 ± 32.07. Therefore, the test results showed that there was a significant difference between normal families and families with history of substance abuse and violence toward children (P < 0.001, t = 8.60). Conclusion Based on the findings, the history of domestic violence and parental substance abuse (physical and emotional abuse, emotional and physical neglect) had a significant positive correlation with their behavior toward their children. After matching the two groups we found that the most common types of violence against children by their parents were, respectively, emotional violence (r = 58

  16. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission fiscal year 1997 annual financial statements

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-24

    This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Federal Energy Regulatory commission`s statements of financial position, and the related statements of operations and changes in net position. The auditors` work was conducted in accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards. An independent public accounting firm conducted the audit. The auditors` reports on the Commission`s internal control structure and compliance with laws and regulations disclosed no reportable conditions or instances of noncompliance.

  17. An Initial Test of Inconsistent Nurturing as Control Theory: How Partners of Drug Abusers Assist Their Partners' Sobriety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Poire, Beth A.; Hallett, Jennifer S.; Erlandson, Karen T.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses how inconsistent nurturing as control theory asserts that because of competing goals of nurturing and controlling, partners of drug-dependent individuals will unintentionally encourage the very behavior they are trying to extinguish through inconsistent manifestations of reinforcement and punishment. Finds that partners of substance…

  18. Skin manifestations of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Ermertcan, Aylin Turel; Ertan, Pelin

    2010-01-01

    Child abuse is a major public health problem all over the world. There are four major types of abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. The most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous and their recognition; and differential diagnosis is of great importance. Clinicians, especially dermatologists, should be alert about the skin lesions of child abuse. In the diagnosis and management of child abuse, a multidisciplinary approach with ethical and legal procedures is necessary. In this manuscript, cutaneous manifestations of physical, sexual, emotional abuse and neglect are reviewed and discussed.

  19. Parenting Behavior and Emotional Status of Physically Abusive Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Compared eight lower socioeconomic status abusive mothers with eight matched controls and eight middle class controls on three measures of emotional and somatic distress. Abusive mothers showed far greater depression and physical distress than controls and used more physical punishment. (BH)

  20. Child Abuse Amendments of 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    The booklet presents the report of the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Education and Labor regarding the 1983 Child Abuse Amendments to the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act and the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment and Adoption Reform Act of 1978. The Amendment expands the definition of child abuse to include abuse by…

  1. 77 FR 28420 - Commission Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Commission Meeting AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Susquehanna River Basin Commission will hold its regular business meeting on June 7, 2012, in Binghamton,...

  2. Commission on Liberal Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazzard, George W.

    1976-01-01

    Study emphasis within the Commission on Liberal Learning during the year was on the role of liberal education in the society of the future. The relationship of undergraduate liberal education to the world macro-problem--population growth, industrial production, food, materials and energy scarcities, pollution and environmental degradation--was…

  3. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    This report includes the issuances received during the specified period from the Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (ALJ), the Directors` Decisions (DD), and the Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM). The summaries and headnotes preceding the opinions reported herein are not to be deemed a part of those opinions or have any independent legal significance.

  4. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    This report includes the issuances received during the specified period from the Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (ALJ), the Directors Decisions (DD), and the Denials of Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM). The summaries and headnotes preceding the opinions reported herein are not to be deemed a part of those opinions or have any independent legal significance.

  5. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This report includes the issuances received during the specified period from the Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (ALJ), the Directors` Decisions (DD), and the Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM). The summaries and headnotes preceding the opinions reported herein are not to be deemed a part of those opinions or have any independent legal significance.

  6. Legal Commission Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Indian Journal, 1977

    1977-01-01

    The Legal Commission of the International Non-Governmental Organizations Conference on Discrimination Against Indigenous Populations adopted the following agenda: legal status of indigenous populations; the land question; indigenous laws and courts; discrimination against indigenous peoples in existing laws and their application; and creation of…

  7. 10 CFR 26.187 - Substance abuse expert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Determining Fitness-for-Duty Policy Violations and Determining Fitness § 26.187 Substance abuse expert. (a) Implementation. By March 31, 2010, any SAEs on whom licensees and other entities rely to make determinations of fitness under this part shall meet...

  8. 10 CFR 26.187 - Substance abuse expert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Determining Fitness-for-Duty Policy Violations and Determining Fitness § 26.187 Substance abuse expert. (a) Implementation. By March 31, 2010, any SAEs on whom licensees and other entities rely to make determinations of fitness under this part shall meet...

  9. 10 CFR 26.187 - Substance abuse expert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Determining Fitness-for-Duty Policy Violations and Determining Fitness § 26.187 Substance abuse expert. (a) Implementation. By March 31, 2010, any SAEs on whom licensees and other entities rely to make determinations of fitness under this part shall meet...

  10. 10 CFR 26.187 - Substance abuse expert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Determining Fitness-for-Duty Policy Violations and Determining Fitness § 26.187 Substance abuse expert. (a) Implementation. By March 31, 2010, any SAEs on whom licensees and other entities rely to make determinations of fitness under this part shall meet...

  11. 10 CFR 26.187 - Substance abuse expert.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Determining Fitness-for-Duty Policy Violations and Determining Fitness § 26.187 Substance abuse expert. (a) Implementation. By March 31, 2010, any SAEs on whom licensees and other entities rely to make determinations of fitness under this part shall meet...

  12. Elder abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Muehlbauer, Melissa; Crane, Patricia A

    2006-11-01

    Elder abuse and neglect is a critical health care issue that must be brought to the attention of health care providers and older adults' family members. Adults older than 65 who live at home or in long-term care facilities may be at risk for abuse. Nurses should be aware of the causes, screening questions, symptoms of abuse, and resources in the community. Armed with information and a better understanding about the issue, nurses can minimize the devastating effects of abuse on older adults and their families.

  13. Alternative drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Sutter, M E; Chenoweth, J; Albertson, T E

    2014-02-01

    The incidence of drug abuse with alternative agents is increasing. The term "alternative drugs of abuse" is a catch-all term for abused chemicals that do not fit into one of the classic categories of drugs of abuse. The most common age group abusing these agents range from 17 to 25 years old and are often associated with group settings. Due to their diverse pharmacological nature, legislative efforts to classify these chemicals as a schedule I drug have lagged behind the development of new alternative agents. The potential reason for abuse of these agents is their hallucinogenic, dissociative, stimulant, anti-muscarinic, or sedative properties. Some of these drugs are easily obtainable such as Datura stramonium (Jimson Weed) or Lophophora williamsii (Peyote) because they are natural plants indigenous to certain regions. The diverse pharmacology and clinical effects of these agents are so broad that they do not produce a universal constellation of signs and symptoms. Detailed physical exams are essential for identifying clues leading one to suspect an alternative drug of abuse. Testing for the presence of these agents is often limited, and even when available, the results do not return in a timely fashion. Intoxications from these agents pose unique challenges for health care providers. Physician knowledge of the physiological effects of these alternative agents and the local patterns of drug of abuse are important for the accurate diagnosis and optimal care of poisoned patients. This review summarizes the current knowledge of alternative drugs of abuse and highlights their clinical presentations.

  14. Investigation of the persistence of new building commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, Amanda; Friedman, Hannah; Haasl, Tudi; Claridge, David

    2002-03-17

    Commissioning is gaining increasing recognition as a cost-effective strategy for reducing commercial building energy use. Although the success and cost-effectiveness of commissioning projects depends on how well the benefits of commissioning persist over time, this aspect of commissioning is not well understood. The persistence of commissioning benefits was recently studied in a PIER project evaluating ten buildings that were commissioned at building start-up at least two years ago. The researchers examined the commissioning reports, control algorithms, EMCS point measurements, and energy use data, and conducted operator and commissioning provider interviews to investigate the persistence of commissioning benefits. In addition, they conducted site visits in a sample of the buildings. A set of commissioning measures was selected for each building to compare the persistence of benefits. Persistence was measured both qualitatively through a discussion of occupant comfort and decreased maintenance and quantitatively through estimations of energy savings. This paper reports the results of the study. The discussion includes how well the benefits of commissioning persisted over time, reasons for declining performance, and methods for improving persistence. The results provide valuable insight into how to estimate the persistence of commissioning information central to the cost benefit analyses routinely performed for commissioning measures.

  15. The Temporal Association Between Traditional and Cyber Dating Abuse Among Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Temple, Jeff R; Choi, Hye Jeong; Brem, Meagan; Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Stuart, Gregory L; Peskin, Melissa Fleschler; Elmquist, JoAnna

    2016-02-01

    While research has explored adolescents' use of technology to perpetrate dating violence, little is known about how traditional in-person and cyber abuse are linked, and no studies have examined their relationship over time. Using our sample of 780 diverse adolescents (58 % female), we found that traditional and cyber abuse were positively associated, and cyber abuse perpetration and victimization were correlated at each time point. Cyber abuse perpetration in the previous year (spring 2013) predicted cyber abuse perpetration 1 year later (spring 2014), while controlling for traditional abuse and demographic variables. In addition, physical violence victimization and cyber abuse perpetration and victimization predicted cyber abuse victimization the following year. These findings highlight the reciprocal nature of cyber abuse and suggest that victims may experience abuse in multiple contexts.

  16. The Temporal Association between Traditional and Cyber Dating Abuse among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Temple, Jeff R.; Choi, Hye Jeong; Brem, Meagan; Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Stuart, Gregory L.; Peskin, Melissa Fleschler; Elmquist, JoAnna

    2015-01-01

    While research has explored adolescents’ use of technology to perpetrate dating violence, little is known about how traditional in-person and cyber abuse are linked, and no studies have examined their relationship over time. Using our sample of 780 diverse adolescents (58% female), we found that traditional and cyber abuse were positively associated, and cyber abuse perpetration and victimization were correlated at each time point. Cyber abuse perpetration in the previous year (spring 2013) predicted cyber abuse perpetration one year later (spring 2014), while controlling for traditional abuse and demographic variables. In addition, physical violence victimization and cyber abuse perpetration and victimization predicted cyber abuse victimization the following year. These findings highlight the reciprocal nature of cyber abuse and suggest that victims may experience abuse in multiple contexts. PMID:26525389

  17. Compensatory Weight Control Behaviors of Women in Emerging Adulthood: Associations between Childhood Abuse Experiences and Adult Relationship Avoidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bankoff, Sarah M.; Valentine, Sarah E.; Jackson, Michelle A.; Schacht, Rebecca L.; Pantalone, David W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine correlates of compensatory weight control behaviors among women in transition between adolescence and adulthood. Participants: The authors recruited a sample of undergraduate women ("N" = 759) at a large northwestern university during the 2009-2010 academic year. Methods: Logistic regression was used to assess…

  18. Primary Prevention of Parent-Child Conflict and Abuse in Iranian Mothers: A Randomized-Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oveisi, Sonia; Ardabili, Hassan Eftekhare; Dadds, Mark R.; Majdzadeh, Reza; Mohammadkhani, Parvaneh; Rad, Javad Alaqband; Shahrivar, Zahra

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess whether primary health care settings can be used to engage and provide a preventive intervention to mothers of young children. Methods: Two hundred and twenty-four mothers who had come to the health centers were randomly assigned to either control group (CG: n=116) or intervention group (IG: n = 108).…

  19. Cutaneous manifestations of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Kos, Liborka; Shwayder, Tor

    2006-01-01

    Dermatologists and child abuse are not frequently associated in the minds of most physicians. Yet the most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous. This article reviews cutaneous manifestations of physical abuse, including bruises, lacerations, abrasions, human bites, and burns. It also discusses ways that dermatologists can differentiate abusive injuries from accidental ones as well as from the many dermatologic conditions that can mimic child abuse. Finally, we review what actions the dermatologist should take when suspecting abuse in a patient.

  20. An Analysis of the Relationship Between Control Discrimination Accuracy and Alcohol Abuse in the United States Air Force.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    Gestalt therapy . New York: Julian Press. Polich, J. M., & Orvis, B. R. (1979). Alcohol problems: Patterns and prevalence in the U. S. Air Force. Santa...process of therapy involves helping the patient discriminate causal relationships between behavior and subsequent events. Therefore, it may be that...in general, an important goal of therapy is the development of a sense of internal control in the patient. It would therefore seem reasonable for

  1. The causal nature of the association between neighborhood deprivation and drug abuse: a prospective national Swedish co-relative control study

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, K. S.; Ohlsson, H.; Sundquist, K.; Sundquist, J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Risk for drug abuse (DA) is strongly associated with neighborhood social deprivation (SD). However, the causal nature of this relationship is unclear. Method Three Swedish population-based cohorts were followed up over 5 years for incident registration of DA in medical, legal or pharmacy records. In each cohort, we examined the SD–DA association, controlling carefully for individual socio-economic status (SES) with multiple measures, in the entire sample and among pairs of first cousins, paternal and maternal half-siblings, full siblings and monozygotic (MZ) twins discordant for SD exposure. The number of informative relative pairs ranged from 6366 to 166208. Results In all cohorts, SD was prospectively related to risk for incident DA. In relative pairs discordant for SD exposure, the SD–DA association was similar to that seen in the entire population in cousins, half-siblings, full siblings and MZ twins. Eliminating subjects who were residentially unstable or had DA in the first two follow-up years did not alter this pattern. When divided by age, in the youngest groups, the SD–DA association was weaker in siblings than in the entire population. Conclusions Across three cohorts, controlling for individual SES and confounding familial factors, SD prospectively predicted risk for incident DA registration. These results support the hypothesis that the SD–DA association is in part causal and unlikely to result entirely from personal attributes, which both increase risk for DA and cause selection into high SD environments. At least part of the SD–DA association arises because exposure to SD causes an increased risk of DA. PMID:25055172

  2. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    This report includes the issuances received during the April 1996 reporting period from the Commission, the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards, the Administrative Law Judges, the Directors` Decisions, and the Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking. Included are issuances pertaining to: (1) Yankee Nuclear Power Station, (2) Georgia Tech Research Reactor, (3) River Bend Station, (4) Millstone Unit 1, (5) Thermo-Lag fire barrier material, and (6) Louisiana Energy Services.

  3. Commission 42: Close Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rucinski, Slavek M.; Ribas, Ignasi; Giménez, Alvaro; Harmanec, Petr; Hilditch, Ronald W.; Kaluzny, Janusz; Niarchos, Panayiotis; Nordström, Birgitta; Oláh, Katalin; Richards, Mercedes T.; Scarfe, Colin D.; Sion, Edward M.; Torres, Guillermo; Vrielmann, Sonja

    2010-05-01

    During the commission business session, the past President presented the new Organizing Committee which was selected by the OC through a e-mail vote conducted during the months before the Rio de Janeiro General Assembly. The new OC will consist of Ignasi Ribas (President), Mercedes Richards (Vice President), and Slavek Rucinski (Past President) with the members: David Bradstreet, Petr Harmanec, Janusz Kaluzny, Joanna Mikolajewska, Ulisse Munari, Panos Niarchos, Katalin Olah, Theo Pribulla, Colin Scarfe and Guillermo Torres.

  4. Substance Abuse Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuzzolino, Robert

    This brochure outlines the substance abuse policy for students at the Philadelphia College of Osteopathic Medicine (PCOM/Pennsylvania). Noted are the dangers of substance abuse during the stressful time of medical training and later for the doctor and clients during professional practice. The policy's five goals are briefly stated. Described next…

  5. Alcoholism and Elder Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anetzberger, Georgia J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A comparison group study of abusing and nonabusing caregivers suggested a correlation between alcohol use and violence against elderly parents. Findings reveal that abusers were more likely than nonabusers to drink, to become intoxicated, and to be identified as having a drinking problem. Policy and practice implications are discussed. (Author)

  6. Adolescent Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorne, Craig R.; DeBlassie, Richard R.

    1985-01-01

    Cummings (1979), citing evidence from the National Institute of Drug Abuse, reports that one of every eleven adult Americans suffers from a severe addictive problem. Drug addiction is epidemic among teenagers; one of every six teenagers suffers from a severe addictive problem. This paper focuses on adolescent drug/substance abuse. (Author)

  7. Antitussives and substance abuse

    PubMed Central

    Burns, Jarrett M; Boyer, Edward W

    2013-01-01

    Abuse of antitussive preparations is a continuing problem in the United States and throughout the world. Illicit, exploratory, or recreational use of dextromethorphan and codeine/promethazine cough syrups is widely described. This review describes the pharmacology, clinical effects, and management of toxicity from commonly abused antitussive formulations. PMID:24648790

  8. Federal Strategy for Drug Abuse and Drug Traffic Prevention 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strategy Council on Drug Abuse, Washington, DC.

    This represents an approach to the Nation's drug abuse problem and reflects the views of departments and agencies involved in the federal drug control and prevention effort, public interest groups and members of Congress. It describes a comprehensive strategy for federal activities relating to drug abuse prevention and control. Major topics…

  9. Psychological profile of male and female animal abusers.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Rebecca L; Fremouw, William; Schenk, Allison; Ragatz, Laurie L

    2012-03-01

    This study had three purposes: to explore psychological characteristics of animal abusers (criminal thinking styles, empathy, and personality traits), to replicate previously reported results (past illegal actions, bullying behavior), and to examine potential gender differences. The self-reported animal abuser group was 29 college students who reported two or more incidents of animal abuse; controls were 29 college students matched on age and gender. Participants completed self-report measures of criminal thinking, illegal behaviors, bullying, empathy, and the five-factor personality traits. Results indicated animal abusers had more previous criminal behaviors, were more likely to bully, and had the highest scores on the power orientation criminal thinking scale. Abuser by gender interactions were detected; female animal abusers scored significantly higher on several measures of criminal thinking, were found to be more likely to bully, and exhibited lower scores on measures of perspective taking and empathy compared to female controls.

  10. Abuse of prescription drugs.

    PubMed Central

    Wilford, B B

    1990-01-01

    An estimated 3% of the United States population deliberately misuse or abuse psychoactive medications, with severe consequences. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, more than half of patients who sought treatment or died of drug-related medical problems in 1989 were abusing prescription drugs. Physicians who contribute to this problem have been described by the American Medical Association as dishonest--willfully misprescribing for purposes of abuse, usually for profit; disabled by personal problems with drugs or alcohol; dated in their knowledge of current pharmacology or therapeutics; or deceived by various patient-initiated fraudulent approaches. Even physicians who do not meet any of these descriptions must guard against contributing to prescription drug abuse through injudicious prescribing, inadequate safeguarding of prescription forms or drug supplies, or acquiescing to the demands or ruses used to obtain drugs for other than medical purposes. PMID:2349801

  11. Parent abuse: a review.

    PubMed

    Kennair, Nicola; Mellor, David

    2007-10-01

    A recent focus of research and clinical practice has been on the issue of abuse of parents by their children (parent abuse). This paper reviews the literature on this phenomenon. While parent abuse falls under the umbrella of family violence, it appears to be qualitatively different from other forms of intra-family abuse. Research has primarily focused on prevalence rates and the characteristics of perpetrators and victims. While various factors such as gender, age, emotional attachment to parents, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, family stress and parenting style and structure have been associated with parent abuse, findings are equivocal. Etiological models are general and untested, and treatment approaches lack empirical support. It is concluded that more rigorous and extensive research is required in order to provide a deeper understanding of this complex issue, and to inform treatment approaches.

  12. Recreational drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Albertson, Timothy E

    2014-02-01

    The use of recreational drugs of abuse continues to expand without limitations to national boundaries, social status, race, or education. Beyond the prevalence of illicit drug use and dependence, their contribution to the global burden of disease and death are large and troubling. All medical providers should be aware of the evolving drugs of abuse and their medical and social consequences. In addition to heroin and stimulants such as cocaine and methamphetamine, new designer stimulants called "bath salts" and cannabinoids called "spice," along with the abuse of prescription drugs and volatile substances, are now widely recognized problems in many societies. The wide variety and continuingly expanding clinical manifestations of toxicity of recreational drugs of abuse is not widely appreciated by clinicians. This edition attempts to summarize six major classes of drugs of abuse and their clinical effects with special emphasis on their immunological and respiratory effects.

  13. Prescription Sedative Misuse and Abuse.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Michael F

    2015-09-01

    Sedatives are widely prescribed for anxiety or insomnia and include benzodiazepines, selective benzodiazepine receptor subtype agonists (z-drugs), and barbiturates. These sedatives are controlled substances due to their potential for misuse and abuse. Misuse is often self-medication (chemical coping) of psychological symptoms in ways unauthorized by the prescriber, usually as dose escalation leading to requests for early refills. Sedatives are abused for euphoric effects, which may have dangerous consequences. Some sedative overdoses can be treated with flumazenil, a reversal agent, along with supportive care. Sedative withdrawal syndrome is treated by tapering the sedative and may require hospitalization. Long-term treatment of sedative addiction requires counseling, often with the help of an addiction-treatment professional.

  14. Prescription Sedative Misuse and Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Sedatives are widely prescribed for anxiety or insomnia and include benzodiazepines, selective benzodiazepine receptor subtype agonists (z-drugs), and barbiturates. These sedatives are controlled substances due to their potential for misuse and abuse. Misuse is often self-medication (chemical coping) of psychological symptoms in ways unauthorized by the prescriber, usually as dose escalation leading to requests for early refills. Sedatives are abused for euphoric effects, which may have dangerous consequences. Some sedative overdoses can be treated with flumazenil, a reversal agent, along with supportive care. Sedative withdrawal syndrome is treated by tapering the sedative and may require hospitalization. Long-term treatment of sedative addiction requires counseling, often with the help of an addiction-treatment professional. PMID:26339207

  15. Malaise, Motivation and Motherhood: Predictors of Engagement in Behavioral Interventions from a Randomized Controlled Trial for HIV+ Women in Drug Abuse Recovery

    PubMed Central

    Feaster, Daniel J.; Weiss-Laxer, Nomi S.; McCabe, Brian E.

    2011-01-01

    Drug abuse has serious consequences for the wellbeing of persons with HIV/AIDS but suboptimal rates of client engagement limit the efficacy of interventions. The present study examines and compares client characteristics that predicted engagement (defined as attendance at two or more sessions) in a family intervention (SET) and a group intervention within a randomized trial aimed at preventing relapse and improving medication adherence for 126 predominantly African American HIV+ women in drug abuse recovery. Intervention engagement (60% overall) was not significantly different across the two interventions. Fewer physical and mental symptoms (malaise) (P < 0.05), living independently (P < 0.05), living with children (P < 0.05), and readiness to change (P < 0.05) were associated with engagement across the two interventions. Results from this study can be used to inform outreach and engagement approaches for women dually affected by drug abuse and HIV/AIDS. PMID:20512409

  16. Automated Demand Response and Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Motegi, Naoya; Bourassa, Norman

    2005-04-01

    This paper describes the results from the second season of research to develop and evaluate the performance of new Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) hardware and software technology in large facilities. Demand Response (DR) is a set of activities to reduce or shift electricity use to improve the electric grid reliability and manage electricity costs. Fully-Automated Demand Response does not involve human intervention, but is initiated at a home, building, or facility through receipt of an external communications signal. We refer to this as Auto-DR. The evaluation of the control and communications must be properly configured and pass through a set of test stages: Readiness, Approval, Price Client/Price Server Communication, Internet Gateway/Internet Relay Communication, Control of Equipment, and DR Shed Effectiveness. New commissioning tests are needed for such systems to improve connecting demand responsive building systems to the electric grid demand response systems.

  17. Responses of Abused and Disadvantaged Toddlers to Distress in Agemates: A Study in the Day Care Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Main, Mary; George, Carol

    1985-01-01

    Observed in group day care settings, responses to distress in peers were examined in 10 abused toddlers and 10 matched controls from families experiencing stress. Early development of "abusive" behavior patterns in toddlers who have been subjected to physical abuse and later behavior of abused individuals as parents are discussed in relation to…

  18. A Guide to Building Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, Michael C.

    2011-09-01

    Commissioning is the process of verifying that a building's heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) and lighting systems perform correctly and efficiently. Without commissioning, system and equipment problems can result in higher than necessary utility bills and unexpected and costly equipment repairs. This report reviews the benefits of commissioning, why it is a requirement for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification, and why building codes are gradually adopting commissioning activities into code.

  19. Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1990-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission information digest provides summary information regarding the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, its regulatory responsibilities, and areas licensed by the commission. This is an annual publication for the general use of the NRC Staff and is available to the public. The digest is divided into two parts: the first presents an overview of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the second provides data on NRC commercial nuclear reactor licensees and commercial nuclear power reactors worldwide.

  20. SNS Cryogenic Systems Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    D. Hatfield; F. Casagrande; I. Campisi; P. Gurd; M. Howell; D. Stout; H. Strong; D. Arenius; J. Creel; K. Dixon; V. Ganni; and P. Knudsen

    2005-08-29

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is under construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The cold section of the Linac consists of 81 superconducting radio frequency cavities cooled to 2.1K by a 2400 watt cryogenic refrigeration system. The major cryogenic system components include warm helium compressors with associated oil removal and gas management, 4.5K cold box, 7000L liquid helium dewar, 2.1K cold box (consisting of 4 stages of cold compressors), gaseous helium storage, helium purification and gas impurity monitoring system, liquid nitrogen storage and the cryogenic distribution transfer line system. The overall system commissioning and future plans will be presented.

  1. Commission 31: Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Defraigne, Pascale; Manchester, Richard; Matsakis, Demetrios; Petit, Gerard; Hosokawa, Mizuhiko; Leschiutta, Sigfrid; Zhai, Zao-Cheng

    2010-05-01

    Dr R. N. Manchester and Dr M. Hosokawa have been elected as, respectively, the new President and Vice-President of the Commission for the next term, 2009-2012. Concerning the Organizing Committee (OC) Members, we welcome as new members: Felicitas Aris (BIPM, France), Philip Tuckey (LNE-SYRTE, France), Vladimir Zharov (MSU, Russia), and Shougang Zhang (NTSC, China) and we acknowledge the outgoing members: Demetrios Matsakis, Gerard Petit, Mizuhiko Hosokawa, Sigfrid Leschiutta and Zao-Cheng Zhai. P. Defraigne remains on the OC as immediate Past-President.

  2. The SNS RFQ Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Ratti, A.; Ayers, J.; Doolittle, L.; DiGennaro, R.; Gough, R.A.; Hoff, M.; Keller, R.; MacGill, J.; Staples, J.; Thomae, R.; Virostek, S.; Yourd, R.; Aleksandrov, A.

    2002-08-16

    LBNL has built for the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) project a 402.5 MHz RFQ that is designed to accelerate up to 60 mA H{sup -} from 65 keV to 2.5 MeV [1]. A one millisecond pulse length at 60 Hz provides a 6% duty factor. The RFQ has now been built, conditioned at full duty factor and tested with beam. This paper will present results from the final installation, tuning and beam commissioning. Beam measurements include acceleration and transport efficiencies and transverse emittances. The LEBT optics were tuned for best results. Performance testing of the RF power distribution is also discussed here.

  3. SNS Cryogenic Systems Commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatfield, D.; Casagrande, F.; Campisi, I.; Gurd, P.; Howell, M.; Stout, D.; Strong, H.; Arenius, D.; Creel, J.; Dixon, K.; Ganni, V.; Knudsen, P.

    2006-04-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is under construction at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The cold section of the Linac consists of 81 superconducting radio frequency cavities cooled to 2.1K by a 2400 watt cryogenic refrigeration system. The major cryogenic system components include warm helium compressors with associated oil removal and gas management, 4.5K cold box, 7000L liquid helium dewar, 2.1K cold box (consisting of 4 stages of cold compressors), gaseous helium storage, helium purification and gas impurity monitoring system, liquid nitrogen storage and the cryogenic distribution transfer line system. The overall system commissioning and future plans will be presented.

  4. Perspectives on marijuana use and abuse and recommendations for preventing abuse.

    PubMed

    Carroll, J F

    1981-01-01

    Survey research on levels of use and attitudes toward marijuana by youth indicate a consistently favorable attitude toward occasional, moderate use. Use of marijuana is contrasted with the use of alcohol and tobacco by youth. Research findings re the dangers of marijuana use are summarized. The inability of legislators and law enforcement personnel to control access to and use of marijuana, coupled with the high cost of our present legal response to the marijuana challenge, leads to recommending legalization of marijuana, as well as, developing a generic primary prevention program for marijuana abuse which features distinguishing "responsible use" from "abuse." Criteria for judging marijuana abuse are provided.

  5. Encountering Child Abuse at Camp.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durall, John K.

    1997-01-01

    Defines child abuse, including the three categories: physical, sexual, and psychological. Presents characteristics and behaviors of each type of abuse, and long-term effects. Discusses how to handle abuse that occurs at camp, and the effects on the camp. Sidebars present abuse statistics, 15 activities that promote psychological wellness, and 8…

  6. Child Abuse and Mandated Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woika, Shirley; Bowersox, Carissa

    2013-01-01

    Teachers and teachers-in-training are mandated reporters; they are legally required to report any suspected child abuse or neglect. This article describes: (1) How to file a report; (2) How prevalent child abuse is; (3) What abuse is; (4) What it means to be a mandated reporter; (5) When the report should be made; and (6) What to do if abuse is…

  7. Neurologic aspects of drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Goforth, Harold W; Murtaugh, Reed; Fernandez, Francisco

    2010-02-01

    Neurologic aspects of drug abuse vary. This article explains the general nature of drug abuse, identifies the physiologic effects of certain drugs, and briefly describes the neurobiology of addiction. This article also reviews available treatment options for those addicted to substances of abuse, and clarifies common misconceptions, including the differences between tolerance, abuse, and addiction.

  8. Effects of chronic cocaine abuse on postsynaptic dopamine receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Fowler, J.S.; Wolf, A.P.; Schlyer, D.; Shiue, C.Y.; Alpert, R.; Dewey, S.L.; Logan, J.; Bendriem, B.; Christman, D. )

    1990-06-01

    To assess the effects of chronic cocaine intoxication on dopamine receptors in human subjects, the authors evaluated ({sup 18}F)N-methylspiroperidol binding using positron emission tomography in 10 cocaine abusers and 10 normal control subjects. Cocaine abusers who had been detoxified for 1 week or less showed significantly lower values for uptake of ({sup 18}F)N-methylspiroperidol in striatum than the normal subjects, whereas the cocaine abusers who had been detoxified for 1 month showed values comparable to those obtained from normal subjects. The authors conclude that postsynaptic dopamine receptor availability decreases with chronic cocaine abuse but may recover after a drug-free interval.

  9. Update of 1983-84 Field Hearings. Hearing before the Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control.

    This document presents testimony and prepared statements from the Congressional hearings held to summarize information from field hearings which were held in five states to examine the resources and support given by the federal government to local law enforcement officers to fight the problems of illegal drug use and abuse. Testimony and prepared…

  10. Neurofunctional Abnormalities during Sustained Attention in Severe Childhood Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Mitul A.; Simmons, Andrew; Mirza, Kah; Rubia, Katya

    2016-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment is associated with adverse affective and cognitive consequences including impaired emotion processing, inhibition and attention. However, the majority of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies in childhood maltreatment have examined emotion processing, while very few studies have tested the neurofunctional substrates of cognitive functions and none of attention. This study investigated the association between severe childhood abuse and fMRI brain activation during a parametric sustained attention task with a progressively increasing load of sustained attention in 21 medication-naïve, drug-free young people with a history of childhood abuse controlling for psychiatric comorbidities by including 19 psychiatric controls matched for psychiatric diagnoses, and 27 healthy controls. Behaviorally, the participants exposed to childhood abuse showed increased omission errors in the task which correlated positively trend-wise with the duration of their abuse. Neurofunctionally, the participants with a history of childhood abuse, but not the psychiatric controls, displayed significantly reduced activation relative to the healthy controls during the most challenging attention condition only in typical attention regions including left inferior and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, insula and temporal areas. We therefore show for the first time that severe childhood abuse is associated with neurofunctional abnormalities in key ventral frontal-temporal sustained attention regions. The findings represent a first step towards the delineation of abuse-related neurofunctional abnormalities in sustained attention, which may help in the development of effective treatments for victims of childhood abuse. PMID:27832090

  11. Therapeutic use, abuse, and nonmedical use of opioids: a ten-year perspective.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Fellows, Bert; Ailinani, Hary; Pampati, Vidyasagar

    2010-01-01

    The treatment of chronic pain, therapeutic opioid use and abuse, and the nonmedical use of prescription drugs have been topics of intense focus and debate. After the liberalization of laws governing opioid prescribing for the treatment of chronic non-cancer pain by state medical boards in the late 1990s, and with the introduction of new pain management standards implemented by the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) in 2000, opioids, in general, and the most potent forms of opioids including Schedule II drugs, in particular, have dramatically increased. Despite the escalating use and abuse of therapeutic opioids, nearly 15 to 20 years later the scientific evidence for the effectiveness of opioids for chronic non-cancer pain remains unclear. Concerns continue regarding efficacy; problematic physiologic effects such as hyperalgesia, hypogonadism and sexual dysfunction; and adverse side effects - especially the potential for misuse and abuse - and the increase in opioid-related deaths. Americans, constituting only 4.6% of the world's population, have been consuming 80% of the global opioid supply, and 99% of the global hydrocodone supply, as well as two-thirds of the world's illegal drugs. Retail sales of commonly used opioid medications (including methadone, oxycodone, fentanyl base, hydromorphone, hydrocodone, morphine, meperidine, and codeine) have increased from a total of 50.7 million grams in 1997 to 126.5 million grams in 2007. This is an overall increase of 149% with increases ranging from 222% for morphine, 280% for hydrocodone, 319% for hydromorphone, 525% for fentanyl base, 866% for oxycodone, to 1,293% for methadone. Average sales of opioids per person have increased from 74 milligrams in 1997 to 369 milligrams in 2007, a 402% increase. Surveys of nonprescription drug abuse, emergency department visits for prescription controlled drugs, unintentional deaths due to prescription controlled substances, therapeutic use of

  12. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Z) Hepatitis HIV Mental Health Mental Health Home Suicide Prevention Substance Abuse Military Sexual Trauma PTSD Research ( ... include: PTSD and anxiety. Depression and thoughts of suicide. Sexual anxiety and disorders, including having too many ...

  13. Sexual Abuse of Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csapo, Marg

    1988-01-01

    Canadian reports and legislation are reviewed to highlight the school's role in prevention and reporting of suspicions of child sexual abuse. The vulnerability of handicapped children and child pornography are two areas of victimization emphasized. (Author/DB)

  14. Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cough & Cold Medicine Abuse KidsHealth > For Teens > Cough & Cold ... Someone Quit? Avoiding DXM Why Do People Use Cough and Cold Medicines to Get High? There's an ...

  15. Opioid Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... oxycodone, hydrocodone, fentanyl, and tramadol. The illegal drug heroin is also an opioid. Some opioids are made ... NAS). Opioid abuse may sometimes also lead to heroin use, because some people switch from prescription opioids ...

  16. Drug Abuse & Alcoholism Control Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1971-09-01

    therapeutic program within the halfway house qnd " RAP " center programs. j. Casual Supplier: One who furnishes illegally, wrongfully or improperly to another...34 RAP " Center. f. To meet as often as required, but once a month as a minium. S. ORGANIZATION. a. The AMIIC should be chaired by a senior combat arms...with health and welfare agencies and alcohol and drug prevention programs in the civilian community. b. Halfway House - RAP Center should: (1) Serve

  17. Synthetic cathinone abuse

    PubMed Central

    Capriola, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The abuse of synthetic cathinones, widely known as bath salts, has been increasing since the mid-2000s. These substances are derivatives of the naturally occurring compound cathinone, which is the primary psychoactive component of khat. The toxicity of synthetic cathinones includes significant sympathomimetic effects, as well as psychosis, agitation, aggression, and sometimes violent and bizarre behavior. Mephedrone and methylenedioxypyrovalerone are currently the predominantly abused synthetic cathinones. PMID:23869180

  18. Commission 10: Solar Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia; Schrijver, Carolus J.; Klimchuk, James A.; Charbonneau, Paul; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Hasan, S. Sirajul; Hudson, Hugh S.; Kusano, Kanya; Mandrini, Cristina H.; Peter, Hardi; Vršnak, Bojan; Yan, Yihua

    2012-04-01

    Commission 10 of the International Astronomical Union has more than 650 members who study a wide range of activity phenomena produced by our nearest star, the Sun. Solar activity is intrinsically related to solar magnetic fields and encompasses events from the smallest energy releases (nano- or even picoflares) to the largest eruptions in the Solar System, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), which propagate into the Heliosphere reaching the Earth and beyond. Solar activity is manifested in the appearance of sunspot groups or active regions, which are the principal sources of activity phenomena from the emergence of their magnetic flux through their dispersion and decay. The period 2008-2009 saw an unanticipated extended solar cycle minimum and unprecedentedly weak polar-cap and heliospheric field. Associated with that was the 2009 historical maximum in galactic cosmic rays flux since measurements begun in the middle of the 20th Century. Since then Cycle 24 has re-started solar activity producing some spectacular eruptions observed with a fleet of spacecraft and ground-based facilities. In the last triennium major advances in our knowledge and understanding of solar activity were due to continuing success of space missions as SOHO, Hinode, RHESSI and the twin STEREO spacecraft, further enriched by the breathtaking images of the solar atmosphere produced by the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO) launched on 11 February 2010 in the framework of NASA's Living with a Star program. In August 2012, at the time of the IAU General Assembly in Beijing when the mandate of this Commission ends, we will be in the unique position to have for the first time a full 3-D view of the Sun and solar activity phenomena provided by the twin STEREO missions about 120 degrees behind and ahead of Earth and other spacecraft around the Earth and ground-based observatories. These new observational insights are continuously posing new questions, inspiring and advancing theoretical analysis and

  19. Commission 45: Spectral Classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giridhar, Sunetra; Gray, Richard O.; Corbally, Christopher J.; Bailer-Jones, Coryn A. L.; Eyer, Laurent; Irwin, Michael J.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Majewski, Steven; Minniti, Dante; Nordström, Birgitta

    This report gives an update of developments (since the last General Assembly at Prague) in the areas that are of relevance to the commission. In addition to numerous papers, a new monograph entitled Stellar Spectral Classification with Richard Gray and Chris Corbally as leading authors will be published by Princeton University Press as part of their Princeton Series in Astrophysics in April 2009. This book is an up-to-date and encyclopedic review of stellar spectral classification across the H-R diagram, including the traditional MK system in the blue-violet, recent extensions into the ultraviolet and infrared, the newly defined L-type and T-type spectral classes, as well as spectral classification of carbon stars, S-type stars, white dwarfs, novae, supernovae and Wolf-Rayet stars.

  20. Why Are Recovering Substance Abuse Counselors Paid Less?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmstead, Todd A.; Johnson, J. Aaron; Roman, Paul M.; Sindelar, Jody L.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study is to determine why recovering substance abuse counselors are paid less, on average and controlling for other factors, than nonrecovering substance abuse counselors. The data come from the 2002-2003 wave of the National Treatment Center Study and consist of 1,487 full-time counselors from nationally representative samples of…

  1. National Household Survey on Drug Abuse Main Findings 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office of Applied Studies.

    This survey, monitoring levels of substance abuse in the United States, serves as a tool for researchers and policymakers to better understand and control substance abuse problems. It provides information on 25,500 participants' use of illicit drugs, alcohol, and tobacco among the civilian, noninstutionalized population. Trends for the years,…

  2. Developmentally adapted cognitive processing therapy for adolescents and young adults with PTSD symptoms after physical and sexual abuse: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although childhood sexual and/or physical abuse (CSA/CPA) is known to have severe psychopathological consequences, there is little evidence on psychotherapeutic interventions for adolescents and young adults suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Equally sparse are data on moderators of treatment response on PTSD-related epigenetic changes, health care costs and loss of productivity, alterations in cognitive processing, and on how successful interventions affect all of these factors. Early treatment may prevent later (co)morbidity. In this paper, we present a study protocol for the evaluation of a newly developed psychotherapeutic manual for PTSD after CSA/CPA in adolescents and young adults – the Developmentally Adapted Cognitive Processing Therapy (D-CPT). Methods/design In a multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT) D-CPT is compared to treatment as usual (TAU). A sample of 90 adolescent outpatients aged 14 to 21 years will be randomized to one of these conditions. Four assessments will be carried out at baseline, at end of treatment, and 3 and 6 months after end of therapy. Each time, patients will be assessed via clinical interviews and a wide range of questionnaires. In addition to PTSD symptoms and comorbidities, we will evaluate moderators of treatment response, epigenetic profiles, direct and indirect costs of this disorder, and neurophysiological processing of threat cues in PTSD and their respective changes in the course of these two treatments (D-CPT and TAU). Discussion The study will provide new insights in the understudied field of PTSD in adolescents and young adults. A newly developed intervention will be evaluated in this therapeutically underserved population. Results will provide data on treatment efficacy, direct and indirect treatment costs, as well as on associations of treatment outcome and PTSD intensity both to epigenetic profiles and to the neurobiological processing of threat cues. Besides, they will

  3. The ecology of adolescent maltreatment: a multilevel examination of adolescent physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect.

    PubMed

    Williamson, J M; Borduin, C M; Howe, B A

    1991-06-01

    This study examined the individual characteristics, family relations, and stress/social support of 50 maltreated adolescents and their mothers. Dyads were divided into 4 demographically similar groups: neglect, physical abuse, sexual abuse, and nonmaltreatment control. Results show that adolescent neglect was primarily associated with extrafamilial difficulties and social isolation. Adolescent physical abuse was linked more with rigidity in family relations, poorer maternal understanding of child developmental skills, and adolescent externalizing behaviors. In contrast, adolescent sexual abuse was related to maternal emotional problems and adolescent internalizing behaviors. In general, each group of maltreated adolescents experienced lower levels of family cohesion, more attention problems, and more daily stress than did their nonmaltreated counterparts. Findings are consistent with an ecological model of adolescent maltreatment.

  4. The Impact of Child Sexual Abuse on Attitudes toward God and the Catholic Church.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossetti, Stephen J.

    1995-01-01

    This study explored effects of child sexual abuse by priests and other perpetrators on victims' trust in the Catholic Church, priesthood, and their relationship with God. Subjects were adult Catholics who had been sexually abused but not by a priest (n=307) or sexually abused by a priest (n=40) and 1,376 nonabused controls. Results highlight the…

  5. A Multivariate Examination of Explanations for the Occurrence of Elder Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litwin, Howard; Zoabi, Sameer

    2004-01-01

    The goal of the study was to determine the relative strength of four major explanations for the rise of elder abuse among a population in transition from traditional to modern culture. The study compared a sample of 120 abused elderly Arab Israelis with a control group of 120 nonabused older adults from the same background. The abuse status…

  6. The Relationship of Animal Abuse to Violence and Other Forms of Antisocial Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arluke, Arnold; Levin, Jack; Luke, Carter; Ascione, Frank

    1999-01-01

    Criminal records of 153 animal abusers and 153 control participants were tracked and compared. Animal abusers were more likely to commit property offenses, drug offenses, and public disorder offenses. Thus, results show an association between animal abuse and a variety of antisocial behavior, but not violence alone. Implications of these findings…

  7. Intracranial Self-Stimulation to Evaluate Abuse Potential of Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Laurence L.

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) is a behavioral procedure in which operant responding is maintained by pulses of electrical brain stimulation. In research to study abuse-related drug effects, ICSS relies on electrode placements that target the medial forebrain bundle at the level of the lateral hypothalamus, and experimental sessions manipulate frequency or amplitude of stimulation to engender a wide range of baseline response rates or response probabilities. Under these conditions, drug-induced increases in low rates/probabilities of responding maintained by low frequencies/amplitudes of stimulation are interpreted as an abuse-related effect. Conversely, drug-induced decreases in high rates/probabilities of responding maintained by high frequencies/amplitudes of stimulation can be interpreted as an abuse-limiting effect. Overall abuse potential can be inferred from the relative expression of abuse-related and abuse-limiting effects. The sensitivity and selectivity of ICSS to detect abuse potential of many classes of abused drugs is similar to the sensitivity and selectivity of drug self-administration procedures. Moreover, similar to progressive-ratio drug self-administration procedures, ICSS data can be used to rank the relative abuse potential of different drugs. Strengths of ICSS in comparison with drug self-administration include 1) potential for simultaneous evaluation of both abuse-related and abuse-limiting effects, 2) flexibility for use with various routes of drug administration or drug vehicles, 3) utility for studies in drug-naive subjects as well as in subjects with controlled levels of prior drug exposure, and 4) utility for studies of drug time course. Taken together, these considerations suggest that ICSS can make significant contributions to the practice of abuse potential testing. PMID:24973197

  8. Solar Dynamics Observatory Launch and Commissioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Donnell, James R., Jr.; Kristin, D.; Bourkland, L.; Hsu, Oscar C.; Liu, Kuo-Chia; Mason, Paul A. C.; Morgenstern, Wendy M.; Russo, Angela M.; Starin, Scott R.; Vess, Melissa F.

    2011-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) was launched on February 11, 2010. Over the next three months, the spacecraft was raised from its launch orbit into its final geosynchronous orbit and its systems and instruments were tested and calibrated in preparation for its desired ten year science mission studying the Sun. A great deal of activity during this time involved the spacecraft attitude control system (ACS); testing control modes, calibrating sensors and actuators, and using the ACS to help commission the spacecraft instruments and to control the propulsion system as the spacecraft was maneuvered into its final orbit. This paper will discuss the chronology of the SDO launch and commissioning, showing the ACS analysis work performed to diagnose propellant slosh transient and attitude oscillation anomalies that were seen during commissioning, and to determine how to overcome them. The simulations and tests devised to demonstrate correct operation of all onboard ACS modes and the activities in support of instrument calibration will be discussed and the final maneuver plan performed to bring SDO on station will be shown. In addition to detailing these commissioning and anomaly resolution activities, the unique set of tests performed to characterize SDO's on-orbit jitter performance will be discussed.

  9. Attention problems among children with a positive family history of alcohol abuse or dependence and controls. Prevalence and course for the period from preteen to early teen years.

    PubMed

    Barnow, Sven; Schuckit, Marc; Smith, Tom; Spitzer, Carsten; Freyberger, Harald-J

    2007-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the scope and course of attention problems over a period of time from preteen (ages 7-12 years) to early teen years (ages 13-17 years). We compared symptoms in subjects with and without a family history (FH) of alcohol abuse or dependence from among families without evidence of antisocial personality disorder. Evaluations of attention problems for the offspring were based on the Child Behavior Checklist and a validated semistructured interview carried out with the mother. The findings indicate no higher risk for attention problems and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-like symptoms in the children of families with an alcohol use disorder. Regarding the course of problems, the ADHD symptom count tended to decrease over time, especially for children without a FH of alcohol abuse or dependence. Further research will be needed to determine whether results can be replicated with families from different social strata and including subjects with the antisocial personality disorder.

  10. Model Commissioning Plan and Guide Specifications

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The objectives of Model Commissioning Plan and Guide Specifications are to ensure that the design team applies commissioning concepts to the design and prepares commissioning specifications and a commission plan for inclusion in the bid construction documents.

  11. [Skin signs in child abuse].

    PubMed

    Pau-Charles, I; Darwich-Soliva, E; Grimalt, R

    2012-03-01

    Child abuse is far more prevalent today than is generally recognized. Up to 90% of victims suffer physical abuse that can be observed in signs on the skin. Dermatologists are particularly qualified to identify these signs and distinguish them from other conditions that can mimic abuse. This review covers the signs of child abuse that can be observed on the skin. We discuss clues that can help differentiate between lesions caused by abuse and those that are accidental, and we describe the skin conditions that mimic physical abuse.

  12. Commissioning of NSLS-II

    SciTech Connect

    Willeke, F.

    2015-05-03

    NSLS-II, the new 3rd generation light source at BNL was designed for a brightness of 1022 photons s-1mm-2mrad-2 (0.1%BW)-1. It was constructed between 2009 and 2014. The storage ring was commissioned in April 2014 which was followed by insertion device and beamline commissioning in the fall of 2014. All ambitious design parameters of the facility have already been achieved except for commissioning the full beam intensity of 500mA which requires more RF installation. This paper reports on the results of commissioning.

  13. National Knowledge Commission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitroda, Sam

    2007-04-01

    India's National Knowledge Commission (NKC) established by the prime minister is focused on building institutions and infrastructure in Education, Science and Technology, Innovation etc. to meet the challenges of the knowledge economy in the 21st century and increase India's competitive advantage in the global market. India today stands poised to reap the benefits of a rapidly growing economy and a major demographic advantage, with 550 million young people below the age of 25 years, the largest in the world. The NKC is focused on five critical areas of knowledge related to access, concepts, creation, applications and services. This includes a variety of subject areas such as language, translations, libraries, networks, portals, affirmative action, distance learning, intellectual property, Entrepreneurship, application in Agriculture, health, small and medium scale industries, e-governance etc. One of the keys to this effort is to build a national broadband gigabit of networks of 500 nodes to connect universities, Libraries, Laboratories, Hospitals, Agriculture institutions etc. to share resources and collaborate on multidisciplinary activities. This presentation will introduce the NKC, discuss methodology, subject areas, specific recommendation and outline a plan to build knowledge networks and specifics on network architecture, applications, and utilities.

  14. Commissioning the SNO+ detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Descamps, Freija; SNO+ Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The SNO+ experiment is the successor to the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO), in which SNO's heavy water is replaced by approximately 780T of liquid scintillator (LAB). The combination of the 2km underground location, the use of ultra-clean materials and the high light-yield of the liquid scintillator means that a low background level and a low energy threshold can be achieved. This creates a new multipurpose neutrino detector with the potential to address a diverse set of physics goals, including the detection of reactor, solar, geo- and supernova neutrinos. A main physics goal of SNO+ is the search for neutrinoless double beta decay. By loading the liquid scintillator with 0.5% of natural Tellurium, resulting in about 1300kg of 130Te (isotopic abundance is slightly over 34%), a competitive sensitivity to the effective neutrino mass can be reached. This talk will present the status of the SNO+ detector, specifically the results and status of the detector commissioning with water.

  15. Paradoxical neurobehavioral rescue by memories of early-life abuse: the safety signal value of odors learned during abusive attachment.

    PubMed

    Raineki, Charlis; Sarro, Emma; Rincón-Cortés, Millie; Perry, Rosemarie; Boggs, Joy; Holman, Colin J; Wilson, Donald A; Sullivan, Regina M

    2015-03-01

    Caregiver-associated cues, including those learned in abusive attachment, provide a sense of safety and security to the child. Here, we explore how cues associated with abusive attachment, such as maternal odor, can modify the enduring neurobehavioral effects of early-life abuse. Two early-life abuse models were used: a naturalistic paradigm, where rat pups were reared by an abusive mother; and a more controlled paradigm, where pups underwent peppermint odor-shock conditioning that produces an artificial maternal odor through engagement of the attachment circuit. Animals were tested for maternal odor preference in infancy, forced swim test (FST), social behavior, and sexual motivation in adulthood-in the presence or absence of maternal odors (natural or peppermint). Amygdala odor-evoked local field potentials (LFPs) via wireless electrodes were also examined in response to the maternal odors in adulthood. Both early-life abuse models induced preference for the maternal odors in infancy. In adulthood, these early-life abuse models produced FST deficits and decreased social behavior, but did not change sexual motivation. Presentation of the maternal odors rescued FST and social behavior deficits induced by early-life abuse and enhanced sexual motivation in all animals. In addition, amygdala LFPs from both abuse animal models showed unique activation within the gamma frequency (70-90 Hz) bands in response to the specific maternal odor present during early-life abuse. These results suggest that attachment-related cues learned during infancy have a profound ability to rescue neurobehavioral dysregulation caused by early-life abuse. Paradoxically, abuse-associated cues seem to acquire powerful and enduring antidepressive properties and alter amygdala modulation.

  16. Neighborhood alcohol outlet density and rates of child abuse and neglect: moderating effects of access to substance abuse services.

    PubMed

    Morton, Cory M; Simmel, Cassandra; Peterson, N Andrew

    2014-05-01

    This study investigates the relationship between concentrations of on- and off-premises alcohol outlets and rates of child abuse and neglect. Additionally, the study seeks to locate protective features of a neighborhood's built environment by investigating the potentially moderating role that access to substance abuse treatment and prevention services plays in the relationship between alcohol outlet density and child maltreatment. Using a cross-sectional design, this ecological study utilized data from 163 census tracts in Bergen County, New Jersey, on reports of child abuse and neglect, alcohol outlets, substance abuse treatment and prevention facilities, and the United States Census to investigate the linkages between socioeconomic structure, alcohol availability, and access to substance abuse service facilities on rates of child abuse and neglect. Findings indicate areas with a greater concentration of on-premises alcohol outlets (i.e., bars) had higher rates of child neglect, and those with easier access to substance abuse services had lower rates of neglect, controlling for neighborhood demographic and socioeconomic structure. Additionally, the relationship between on-premises alcohol outlet density and rates of child neglect was moderated by the presence of substance abuse service facilities. A greater concentration of off-premises outlets (i.e., liquor stores) was associated with lower rates of physical abuse. Findings suggest that the built environment and socioeconomic structure of neighborhoods have important consequences for child well-being. The implications for future research on the structural features of neighborhoods that are associated with child well-being are discussed.

  17. Emerging drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Michael E; Bryant, Sean M; Aks, Steven E

    2014-02-01

    Many new emerging drugs of abuse are marketed as legal highs despite being labeled "not for human consumption" to avoid regulation. The availability of these substances over the Internet and in "head shops" has lead to a multitude of emergency department visits with severe complications including deaths worldwide. Despite recent media attention, many of the newer drugs of abuse are still largely unknown by health care providers. Slight alterations of the basic chemical structure of substances create an entirely new drug no longer regulated by current laws and an ever-changing landscape of clinical effects. The purity of each substance with exact pharmacokinetic and toxicity profiles is largely unknown. Many of these substances can be grouped by the class of drug and includes synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, phenethylamines, as well as piperazine derivatives. Resultant effects generally include psychoactive and sympathomimetic-like symptoms. Additionally, prescription medications, performance enhancing medications, and herbal supplements are also becoming more commonly abused. Most new drugs of abuse have no specific antidote and management largely involves symptom based goal directed supportive care with benzodiazepines as a useful adjunct. This paper will focus on the history, epidemiology, clinical effects, laboratory analysis, and management strategy for many of these emerging drugs of abuse.

  18. Looking forward in records of youth abused as children: risks for homicidal, violent, and delinquent offenses.

    PubMed

    Hughes, John Russell; Zagar, Robert John; Busch, Kenneth G; Grove, William M; Arbit, Jack

    2009-02-01

    To study risks of abuse, violence, and homicide, 181 Abused Children (M age = 12.85 yr., SD = 2.74; 58 girls, 123 boys) were matched with 181 clinic-referred Controls. Data analysis was Shao's bootstrapped logistic regression with area under curve (AUC) and odds ratios (OR). Predictors of abused status were court contacts (OR = 2.04e+22) and poorer executive function (OR = .81; AUC = .99; 95% CI = .97-.99). Groups were tracked forward in records for 9 years (M = 8.78 yr., SD = 1.41). Looking forward, youth (M age = 21.63 yr., SD = 2.07) were classified into Abused Children Later Homicidal (5%, n = 10), Abused Children Later Violent (23%, n = 41), Abused Children Later Delinquent (28%, n = 50), Abused Children Later Nondelinquent (44%, n = 80), and Controls (n = 181). Data were analyzed with two more logistic regressions. Predictors of Abused Children Later Homicidal compared with Controls were number of court contacts (OR = 50,398.78) and poorer executive function (OR = 79.72; AUC = .91; 95% CI = .80-.95). The predictor of Abused Children Later Homicidal contrasted with Abused Children Later Nondelinquent was court contacts (OR = 2,077,089,352; AUC = .87; 95% CI = .65-.95). The common predictor for Abused Children and Abused Children Later Homicidal groups was court contacts.

  19. Behind the cycle of violence, beyond abuse history: a brief report on the association of parental attachment to physical child abuse potential.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Christina M; Tucker, Meagan C

    2011-01-01

    Although the concept of a cycle of violence presumes that the transmission of violence is expressed directly across generations, the role of the overall quality of the parent-child relationship may ultimately be more influential in later parenting behavior. This study investigated whether mothers' poorer attachment to their parents was associated with their current increased child abuse potential and dysfunctional disciplinary style independent of a personal history of child abuse. A sample of 73 at-risk mothers raising children with behavior problems reported on their parental attachment, abuse potential, dysfunctional parenting style, and personal abuse history. An at-risk sample, rather than a sample of identified abuse victims or perpetrators, was studied to better examine the potential continuity or discontinuity from history of abuse to current abuse risk, allowing consideration of those who may break the cycle versus those who potentially initiate abuse in the absence of a personal history. Findings indicate that poor attachment significantly predicted both dysfunctional parenting practices and elevated child abuse potential, controlling for personal child abuse history. Such results highlight the importance of the overall quality of the relationship between the parent and child in potentially shaping future abuse risk. Findings are discussed in terms of continuity or discontinuity in the cycle of violence and future directions for research on attachment in relation to the development of later child abuse risk.

  20. How Do People with Intellectual Disabilities View Abuse and Abusers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northway, Ruth; Melsome, Melissa; Flood, Samantha; Bennett, Davey; Howarth, Joyce; Thomas, Becki

    2013-01-01

    People with intellectual disabilities have a higher risk of being abused than other people, but to date research has not explored their views regarding abuse. This article reports the findings relating to one question within a participatory research study concerning the abuse of people with intellectual disabilities. This question asked what…

  1. Recommendations of the DNA Commission of the International Society for Forensic Genetics (ISFG) on quality control of autosomal Short Tandem Repeat allele frequency databasing (STRidER).

    PubMed

    Bodner, Martin; Bastisch, Ingo; Butler, John M; Fimmers, Rolf; Gill, Peter; Gusmão, Leonor; Morling, Niels; Phillips, Christopher; Prinz, Mechthild; Schneider, Peter M; Parson, Walther

    2016-09-01

    The statistical evaluation of autosomal Short Tandem Repeat (STR) genotypes is based on allele frequencies. These are empirically determined from sets of randomly selected human samples, compiled into STR databases that have been established in the course of population genetic studies. There is currently no agreed procedure of performing quality control of STR allele frequency databases, and the reliability and accuracy of the data are largely based on the responsibility of the individual contributing research groups. It has been demonstrated with databases of haploid markers (EMPOP for mitochondrial mtDNA, and YHRD for Y-chromosomal loci) that centralized quality control and data curation is essential to minimize error. The concepts employed for quality control involve software-aided likelihood-of-genotype, phylogenetic, and population genetic checks that allow the researchers to compare novel data to established datasets and, thus, maintain the high quality required in forensic genetics. Here, we present STRidER (http://strider.online), a publicly available, centrally curated online allele frequency database and quality control platform for autosomal STRs. STRidER expands on the previously established ENFSI DNA WG STRbASE and applies standard concepts established for haploid and autosomal markers as well as novel tools to reduce error and increase the quality of autosomal STR data. The platform constitutes a significant improvement and innovation for the scientific community, offering autosomal STR data quality control and reliable STR genotype estimates.

  2. Neural Correlates of Craving in Methamphetamine Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Shahmohammadi, Fanak; Golesorkhi, Mehrshad; Riahi Kashani, Mohammad Mansour; Sangi, Mehrdad; Yoonessi, Ahmad; Yoonessi, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Methamphetamine is a powerful psychostimulant that causes significant neurological impairments with long-lasting effects and has provoked serious international concerns about public health. Denial of drug abuse and drug craving are two important factors that make the diagnosis and treatment extremely challenging. Here, we present a novel and rapid noninvasive method with potential application for differentiation and monitoring methamphetamine abuse. Methods: Visual stimuli comprised a series of images with neutral and methamphetamine-related content. A total of 10 methamphetamine abusers and 10 age-gender matched controls participated in the experiments. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded and compared using a time window analysis method. The ERPs were divided into 19 time windows of 100 ms with 50 ms overlaps. The area of positive sections below each window was calculated to measure the differences between the two groups. Results: Significant differences between two groups were observed from 250 to 500 ms (P300) in response to methamphetamine-related visual stimuli and 600 to 800 ms in response to neutral stimuli. Conclusion: This study presented a novel and noninvasive method based on neural correlates to discriminate healthy individuals from methamphetamine drug abusers. This method can be employed in treatment and monitoring of the methamphetamine abuse. PMID:27563415

  3. Childhood abuse, personality traits, and depressive symptoms in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Ah; Song, Rira

    2017-03-01

    This study examined associations among childhood abuse, personality traits, and depressive symptoms in adulthood, and whether and how the effects of childhood abuse on depressive symptoms are mediated by the Big Five personality traits (i.e., extraversion, conscientiousness, emotional stability, agreeableness, and openness). The data were drawn from the 2012 Korean General Social Survey, a nationally representative survey using a multistage area proportional probability sampling method. Random effects regression and the Sobel test were used. Random effects models showed that physical and emotional abuse in childhood significantly increased depressive symptoms in adulthood, even after controlling for personality traits and socio-demographic factors. The coefficients of childhood abuse slightly decreased when personality traits were controlled, suggesting that personality traits mediated the relationship between childhood abuse and depressive symptoms. Among the personality traits, extraversion and emotional stability were negatively associated with depressive symptoms whereas agreeableness was positively associated with depressive symptoms. The results of the Sobel test showed that only emotional stability significantly mediated the effects of childhood abuse on depressive symptoms. Those who were exposed to childhood abuse had lower levels of emotional stability, which, in turn, led to depressive symptoms in adulthood. The findings suggest that childhood abuse may have a long lasting effect on mental health over the life course by influencing the formation of personality traits through developmental periods.

  4. Clinical and psychological characteristics of propofol abusers in Korea: a survey of propofol abuse in 38, non-healthcare professionals

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun-Jung; Kim, Seon-Hwa; Hyun, Yang-Jin; Noh, Yeon-Keun; Jung, Ho-Sang; Han, Soon-Young; Park, Chan-hye; Choi, Byung Moon

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to investigate the characteristics of propofol abuse based on the results of a survey analysis of abusers among non-healthcare professionals in Korea. Methods Thirty-eight propofol abusers were questioned between October and December 2010, and were enrolled and voluntarily participated in a structured survey consisting of an interview and completing a previously prepared questionnaire. The questionnaire was divided into three distinct parts: part 1 dealt with the history of propofol abuse; part 2 highlighted the problems caused by propofol abuse; and part 3 enquired regarding demographics of abusers. Results Thirty-one (81.6%) of the 38 interviewees abused propofol for more than one year. During the last 12 months, 34 (89.0%) received propofol at two or three times a week. The minimum and maximum amounts of propofol (median, range) administered each time were 500 (100, 1000) and 2000 (500, 4000) mg, respectively. Stress relief and the maintenance of a sense of well-being were quoted the most important reasons for the first-time administration of propofol and its subsequent abuse, respectively. The majority of abusers (36.0, 97.3%) reported a sense of pleasure or euphoria at the time of their propofol injection. Withdrawal symptoms occurred in five abusers (13.2%). Thirteen (36.1%) reported disruptions in their work life. None of the respondents had previously admitted to and or reported abuse of any other controlled substances. Conclusions These results provided reference data for the regulation of propofol in Korea as a controlled substance and may also be of interest to international agencies in other countries. PMID:26634083

  5. Nine Years after Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanston, Heather Y.; Plunkett, Angela M.; O'Toole, Brian I.; Shrimpton, Sandra; Parkinson, Patrick N.; Oates, R. Kim

    2003-01-01

    A follow-up study of 103 Australian individuals (Ages 14-25) who were sexually abused, found they performed more poorly than controls on measures of depression, self-esteem, anxiety, behavior, and despair. They were also more likely to have a history of bingeing, smoking, and using amphetamines. Potential risk factors are discussed. (Contains…

  6. Reflections on the Gordon Commission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haertel, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Background:This brief reflection on the work of the Gordon Commission calls out significant themes and implications found in the various papers authored by the commissioners and other scholars, especially those included in this special issue of Teachers College Record. Purpose: The forward-looking vision of the Gordon Commission is contrasted with…

  7. Vermont Technical Education Commission Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermont State Technical Education Commission, Montpelier.

    A 1968 New England Regional Commission grant to the Vermont Department of Administration financed a feasibility study for a technical college at the postsecondary level. The commission undertook two specific studies: an examination of ultimate career destinations of Vermont secondary students and a survey of Vermont industry to determine immediate…

  8. Substance abuse and child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Wells, Kathryn

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  9. The experience of abuse and mental health in the young Thai population

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Martin; Harpham, Trudy

    2007-01-01

    Objectives The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence of child abuse exposure among Thai people in a suburban community and to describe the association of abuse experiences with common mental disorders (CMD), alcohol use disorders and substance use. Methods A population-based cross-sectional survey was conducted in Northern Bangkok on a representative sample of 202 young residents, aged 16–25 years. Results Thirty eight percent of the respondents reported experiencing some form of abuse during childhood, with 5.8% having been subjected to sexual penetration, 11.7% having been physically abused and 31.8% emotionally abused. A graded relationship was found between the extent of exposure to abuse during childhood and mental problems. After controlling for potential confounders, CMD remained significantly associated with emotional abuse, and alcohol use disorders remained associated with sexual abuse. Strong but non-significant trends were present for associations between CMD and sexual abuse and all forms of abuse with substance use. Conclusion Child abuse experiences were common among the respondents. Childhood abuse, particularly sexual abuse, has a potentially devastating impact on adult mental health. PMID:16328752

  10. Vaccines against drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Shen, X Y; Orson, F M; Kosten, T R

    2012-01-01

    The currently available medications for the treatment of drug abuse have had only limited success. Anti-addiction vaccines, aimed at eliciting antibodies that block the pharmacological effects of drugs, have great potential for treating drug abuse. We review the status of two vaccines that are undergoing clinical trials (for cocaine and nicotine addiction) and two that are still in preclinical development (for methamphetamine and heroin addiction). We also outline the challenges and ethical concerns associated with the development of anti-addiction vaccines and their use as future therapeutics.

  11. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse.

    PubMed

    2009-05-01

    The role of imaging in cases of child abuse is to identify the extent of physical injury when abuse is present and to elucidate all imaging findings that point to alternative diagnoses. Effective diagnostic imaging of child abuse rests on high-quality technology as well as a full appreciation of the clinical and pathologic alterations occurring in abused children. This statement is a revision of the previous policy published in 2000.

  12. Child-abusers face mob justice.

    PubMed

    Sebunya, C

    1996-06-01

    In Uganda, before the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, rape or sexual abuse of children was not considered a serious offense by the public, although the maximum criminal offense for rape was death. Because so many young girls are testing positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and due to the efforts of women's groups, public opinion is changing. According to the United Nations International Children's Fund (UNICEF), girls aged 9-15 years are five times more likely to be infected with HIV than boys of the same age. Adults, who fear their peers may be infected with HIV, turn to children; some AIDS patients believe sleeping with a virgin girl will cure their illness. Uganda is targeting a $15 million project to protect children 5-15 years of age. A study commissioned by the Uganda National Council for Women and Children in 1994 found that in Kabale district 31% of girls and 15% of boys had been abused, many by teachers. In Masaka district, the Council found that 30% of women had been coerced into sex; bosses abuse their maids, and customers abuse alcohol sellers. According to police, rape is the second most common crime in Uganda. Victims are reluctant to come forward to testify; rape victims can be shunned in their communities and may be considered ineligible for marriage. Cases which make it to court rarely get a fair hearing, according to the Council of Women, because the men handling the cases often favor the culprits. FIDA, an association of women lawyers, Action for Development (ACFODE), and the National Association of Women's Organisations in Uganda (NAWOU) are lobbying for tougher laws on rape and closed courts. They are pressuring newspapers to not disclose the names of victims. Although many expect the Ministry of Women to take the lead in this area, it has been unable to do so, because of a lack of funds; it received two-thirds of its budget for 1994-95, an indication, perhaps, of the Ugandan government's intentions. Two figures

  13. Decreased dopamine activity predicts relapse in methamphetamine abusers

    SciTech Connect

    Wang G. J.; Wang, G.-J.; Smith, L.; Volkow, N.D.; Telang, F.; Logan, J.; Tomasi, D.; Wong, C.T.; Hoffman, W.; Jayne, M.; Alia-Klein, N.; Thanos, P.; Fowler, J.S.

    2011-01-20

    Studies in methamphetamine (METH) abusers showed that the decreases in brain dopamine (DA) function might recover with protracted detoxification. However, the extent to which striatal DA function in METH predicts recovery has not been evaluated. Here we assessed whether striatal DA activity in METH abusers is associated with clinical outcomes. Brain DA D2 receptor (D2R) availability was measured with positron emission tomography and [{sup 11}C]raclopride in 16 METH abusers, both after placebo and after challenge with 60 mg oral methylphenidate (MPH) (to measure DA release) to assess whether it predicted clinical outcomes. For this purpose, METH abusers were tested within 6 months of last METH use and then followed up for 9 months of abstinence. In parallel, 15 healthy controls were tested. METH abusers had lower D2R availability in caudate than in controls. Both METH abusers and controls showed decreased striatal D2R availability after MPH and these decreases were smaller in METH than in controls in left putamen. The six METH abusers who relapsed during the follow-up period had lower D2R availability in dorsal striatum than in controls, and had no D2R changes after MPH challenge. The 10 METH abusers who completed detoxification did not differ from controls neither in striatal D2R availability nor in MPH-induced striatal DA changes. These results provide preliminary evidence that low striatal DA function in METH abusers is associated with a greater likelihood of relapse during treatment. Detection of the extent of DA dysfunction may be helpful in predicting therapeutic outcomes.

  14. Enhanced regional brain metabolic responses to benzodiazepines in cocaine abusers

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.J.; Fowler, J.S.

    1997-05-01

    While dopamine (DA) appears to be crucial for cocaine reinforcement, its involvement in cocaine addiction is much less clear. Using PET we have shown persistent reductions in striatal DA D2 receptors (which arc predominantly located on GABA cells) in cocaine abusers. This finding coupled to GABA`s role as an effector for DA led us to investigate if there were GABAergic abnormalities in cocaine abusers. In this study we measured regional brain metabolic responses to lorazepam, to indirectly assess GABA function (benzodiazepines facilitate GABAergic neurotransmission). Methods: The experimental subjects consisted of 12 active cocaine abusers and 32 age matched controls. Each subject underwent two PET FDG scans obtained within 1 week of each other. The first FDG scan was obtained after administration of placebo (3 cc of saline solution) given 40-50 minutes prior to FDG; and the second after administration of lorazepam (30 {mu}g/kg) given 40-50 minutes prior to FDG. The subjects were blind to the drugs received. Results: Lorazepam-induced sleepiness was significantly greater in abusers than in controls (p<0.001). Lorazepam-induced decreases in brain glucose metabolism were significantly larger in cocaine abusers than in controls. Whereas in controls whole brain metabolism decreased 13{+-}7 %, in cocaine abusers it decreased 21{+-}13 % (p < 0.05). Lorazepam-induced decrements in regional metabolism were significantly larger in striatum (p < 0.0 1), thalamus (p < 0.01) and cerebellum (p < 0.005) of cocaine abusers than of controls (ANOVA diagnosis by condition (placebo versus lorazepam) interaction effect). The only brain region for which the absolute metabolic changes-induced by lorazepam in cocaine abusers were equivalent to those in controls was the orbitofrontal cortex. These results document an accentuated sensitivity to benzodiazepines in cocaine abusers which is compatible with disrupted GABAergic function in these patients.

  15. Israeli Perspectives on Elder Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabi, Keren

    2006-01-01

    Despite the prevailing agreement among researchers that the increasing rate of elder abuse in Israel is relatively understudied, not sufficiently identified, and not appropriately addressed, literature on elderly abuse in the Israeli society remains limited. The common discourse on aging, eldercare, and elder abuse and neglect, mainly revolves…

  16. Child Abuse: Betrayal and Disclosure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foynes, Melissa Ming; Freyd, Jennifer J.; DePrince, Anne P.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The current study tested several hypotheses about disclosure of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse derived from Betrayal Trauma Theory [Freyd, J. J. (1996). Betrayal trauma: The logic of forgetting childhood abuse. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press]. We predicted that the duration of time from abuse to its disclosure…

  17. Literature Review of Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePanfilis, Diane

    This document provides a review of recent, state-of-the-art literature concerning the nature, extent, dynamics, and effects of child sexual abuse and examines America's preventive intervention and treatment efforts for child sexual abuse. After an extensive presentation of the problems of defining terms in sexual abuse, these topics are discussed:…

  18. Child Abuse and Developmental Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, Joann, Ed.; Bartlette, Don

    1992-01-01

    Literature indicating high rates of abuse in this population is reviewed, as is literature indicating high rates of developmental disabilities in child victims of abuse. Problems in data collecting practices are noted. Reasons for these children's greater risk for abuse are identified, including child attributes, stress, parent vulnerabilities,…

  19. Abuse and the Special Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Linda; Corte, Suzanne Della

    1987-01-01

    The issue's major feature, on physical and sexual abuse of handicapped children, focuses on education and adult awareness of the problem. It has been well documented that children with handicaps are especially vulnerable to abuse. Parents or other adults who believe that abuse has occurred should first write down exactly what the child has told…

  20. Child Abuse Prevention Handbook. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. Crime Prevention Center.

    Intended to heighten public awareness and provide practical information to professionals, this handbook defines and describes child abuse (including sexual abuse) and its associated signs and injuries. The societal and family environments in which child abuse most typically occurs are described, and the California penal code sections pertaining to…

  1. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abuse: Research, Treatment, & Program Innovations for Victims, Survivors, & Offenders, 14(4), 1-24. doi: 10.1300/J070v14n04_ ... 1996). Childhood sexual abuse and psychiatric disorder in young adulthood: Psychiatric outcomes of childhood sexual abuse. Journal ...

  2. Geriatric Alcoholism and Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuckit, Marc A.

    1977-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature and presents new data on alcohol and drug problems in older individuals. Drug abusers include users of opiates, inadvertent misusers, and deliberate abusers of nonopiates. Two to 10 percent of the elderly are alcoholic, and these are usually individuals beginning alcohol abuse after age 40. (Author)

  3. Drug Abuse in Southeast Asia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scorzelli, James F.

    This report examines the incidence of drug abuse and the methods of treatment and prevention of drug abuse used in Southeast Asia. Countries studied include Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Because of Malaysia's intensive effort to eliminate its drug abuse problem, emphasis is placed on this country's treatment and…

  4. Recognizing the adolescent drug abuser.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie, R G; Jacobs, E A

    1987-03-01

    Adolescents are at high risk for using and abusing illicit drugs. Guidelines for recognizing drug abusers are presented as well as a staging process for progression of drug use. The family physician is in an ideal position to identify young users/abusers and to assist them and their families in obtaining much needed assistance.

  5. The Drug-Abuse Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferneau, E.; Mueller, S.

    The drug-abuse questionnaire used to survey college student attitudes on the subject is provided. It is identical to the alcoholism questionnaire except for word changes appropriate to the subject matter. The questionnaire consists of 40 statements about drug abuse and drug abusers, with 7 possible responses: (1) completely disagree; (2) mostly…

  6. Commission 31: Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsakis, Demetrios; Defraigne, Pascale; Hosokawa, M.; Leschiutta, S.; Petit, G.; Zhai, Z.-C.

    2007-03-01

    The most intensely discussed and controversial issue in time keeping has been the proposal before the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) to redefine Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) so as to replace leap seconds by leap hours. Should this proposal be adopted, the practice of inserting leap seconds would cease after a specific date. Should the Earth's rotation continue to de-accelerate at its historical rate, the next discontinuity in UTC would be an hour inserted several centuries from now. Advocates of this proposal cite the need to synchronize satellite and other systems, such as GPS, Galileo, and GLONASS, which did not exist and were not envisioned when the current system was adopted. They note that leap second insertions can be and have been incorrectly implemented or accounted for. Such errors have to date had localized impact, but they could cause serious mishaps involving loss of life. For example, some GPS receivers have been known to fail simply because there was no leap second after a long enough interval, other GPS receivers failed because the leap second information was broadcast more than three months in advance, and some commercial software used for internet time-transfer Network Time Protocol (NTP) could either discard all data received after a leap second or interpret it as a frequency change. The ambiguity associated with the extra second could also disrupt financial accounting and certain forms of encryption. Those opposed to the proposal question the need for a change, and also point out the costs of adjusting to the proposed change and its inconvenience to amateur astronomers and others who rely upon astronomical calculations published in advance. Reports have been circulated that the cost of checking and correcting software to accommodate the new definition of UTC would be many millions of dollars for some systems. In October 2005 American Astronomical Society asked the ITU for a year's time to study the issue. This commission has

  7. Intravenous methylphenidate abuse. Prototype for prescription drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Parran, T V; Jasinski, D R

    1991-04-01

    Data are presented from a case series of 22 patients who abused methylphenidate hydrochloride (Ritalin-SR). The abuse pattern and symptoms of toxicity were similar to that seen with cocaine hydrochloride and amphetamine sulfate addiction; yet, the morbidity and mortality seen in this case series were greater than usual for a group of patients involved in intravenous drug abuse. We describe the characteristics of the methylphenidate abuse syndrome in terms of the pharmacology of methylphenidate, the constituents of the Ritalin-SR preparation, and the disease of chemical dependence. We propose solutions to the problem of methylphenidate abuse.

  8. Cognitive and Emotional Differences between Abusive and Non-Abusive Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Karen J.; Wolfe, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Abusive fathers perpetrate a substantial portion of child physical abuse. Despite this, little is known about how they differ from non-abusive fathers. This study compared a broad range of cognitive and affective factors between physically abusive and non-abusive fathers. Methods: Abusive (n = 24) and non-abusive (n = 25) fathers…

  9. Abuse Characteristics and Psychiatric Consequences Associated with Online Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Say, Gökçe Nur; Babadağı, Zehra; Karabekiroğlu, Koray; Yüce, Murat; Akbaş, Seher

    2015-06-01

    The current study examined the rate and psychiatric correlates of sexual abuse involving the use of digital technologies by the offender in a wide sample of juvenile victims. Sociodemographic, abuse, and psychiatric characteristics of 662 sexually abused children and adolescents were evaluated. Of these, 93 reported that digital devices were used by the offender in several ways to facilitate the sexual abuse. The offender-victim relationship was initiated through the Internet in 39 victims. Involvement of digital technologies in sexual abuse was significantly associated with penetrative and recurrent form of sexual abuse commited by multiple offenders with coexisting violence. Additionally, victims of sexual abuse with a digital component were 4.21 times more likely to develop any psychopathology, 3.77 times more likely to have depression, and 2.14 times more likely to have post-traumatic stress disorder as a result of sexual abuse. These results indicated that the offender's use of digital technology may aid the initiation and facilitation of the sexual abuse of youths and may relate to more severe outcomes. This study revealed the importance of raising the awareness of professionals and the community about the potential risks associated with digital technologies and sexual abuse. Mental health professionals should consider this additional form of victimization, especially when dealing with sexual abuse victims.

  10. A child sexual abuse research project: a brief endnote.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Susan; Vanstone, Maurice

    2014-01-01

    There is a dearth of research on sexual abuse perpetrated by educators. Although the problem is receiving increasing attention, little emphasis has been placed on abuse directed at younger schoolchildren and on offenders' accounts of this form of abuse. Here, we attempt to address this gap in knowledge by exploring the narratives of five convicted, imprisoned male child sexual abusers, each of whom worked with children in educational settings in the United Kingdom. We draw on four themes that emerged from detailed interviews with offenders, namely: the power of reputation, authority and control, the "front of invulnerability," and disclosure of abuse. We conclude by considering the implications of our work for policy and practice.

  11. Educating against Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This book is a compilation of drug education and drug abuse prevention materials collected by United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) along with example of activities carried out by various countries. It opens with four introductory papers by separate authors: (1) "Prevention of Drug Dependence: A Utopian…

  12. Drug and Substance Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adults Making Your Wishes Known Home & Community Home › Aging & Health A to Z › Drug and Substance Abuse Font size A A A Print Share Glossary Basic Facts & Information Causes & Symptoms Diagnosis & Tests Care & Treatment Lifestyle & Management Other Resources Caregiving How ...

  13. Substance Abuse and Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sales, Amos, Ed.

    This book focuses on the identification of practical knowledge and skills needed for counseling individuals with substance abuse problems. It is a resource for practitioners, students, and faculty in school counseling, rehabilitation counseling, mental health counseling, school psychology, or social work in recognizing, preventing, and treating…

  14. Handbook On Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dupont, Robert I.; And Others

    A decade of professional research on drug abuse has produced both an abundance of materials and a vocabulary that is not shared by planners, clinicians, and policy makers. This handbook compiles the major developments of the period and their treatment and research implications in a style intended to be understood by all three types of…

  15. Abused and Traumatized Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmichael, Karla D.

    This document is a class presentation designed to present a history of child abuse and interventions for the beginning play therapist. Attempts to understand child behavior are traced back to their roots in the fields of mental retardation and special education as early as 1799 and followed through the mental health and child guidance movements of…

  16. New drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Rech, Megan A; Donahey, Elisabeth; Cappiello Dziedzic, Jacqueline M; Oh, Laura; Greenhalgh, Elizabeth

    2015-02-01

    Drug abuse is a common problem and growing concern in the United States, and over the past decade, novel or atypical drugs have emerged and have become increasingly popular. Recognition and treatment of new drugs of abuse pose many challenges for health care providers due to lack of quantitative reporting and routine surveillance, and the difficulty of detection in routine blood and urine analyses. Furthermore, street manufacturers are able to rapidly adapt and develop new synthetic isolates of older drugs as soon as law enforcement agencies render them illegal. In this article, we describe the clinical and adverse effects and purported pharmacology of several new classes of drugs of abuse including synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, salvia, desomorphine, and kratom. Because many of these substances can have severe or life-threatening adverse effects, knowledge of general toxicology is key in recognizing acute intoxication and overdose; however, typical toxidromes (e.g., cholinergic, sympathomimetic, opioid, etc.) are not precipitated by many of these agents. Medical management of patients who abuse or overdose on these drugs largely consists of supportive care, although naloxone may be used as an antidote for desomorphine overdose. Symptoms of aggression and psychosis may be treated with sedation (benzodiazepines, propofol) and antipsychotics (haloperidol or atypical agents such as quetiapine or ziprasidone). Other facets of management to consider include treatment for withdrawal or addiction, nutrition support, and potential for transmission of infectious diseases.

  17. How to Handle Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... hurting or harming someone) might have frightened the boy or girl into staying quiet. No matter what the abuser ... suit or underwear: breasts, vagina, and bottom for girls, and penis and bottom for boys. If an adult or another kid touches a ...

  18. Understanding Fatal Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hicks, Ralph A.; Gaughan, Daniel C.

    1995-01-01

    Medical, social service, and coroner reports were reviewed for 14 cases of fatal child abuse and neglect identified at a children's hospital from 1988 to 1992. Median age was 6.5 months. Six families had prior protective service involvement (though four of these had involved a sibling). The cause of death in all cases was blunt impact head injury.…

  19. The controversy surrounding OxyContin abuse: issues and solutions.

    PubMed

    Jayawant, Sujata S; Balkrishnan, Rajesh

    2005-06-01

    This paper overviews the controversies surrounding the abuse of prescription analgesic OxyContin((R)) (oxycodone hydrochloride; Purdue Pharma, Stamford, CT, USA). It discusses solutions to this medication-related issue, which has been touted as reaching epidemic proportions. Relevant literature from 1990 to 2004 was identified through a MEDLINE search, and a thorough internet-based search was conducted to obtain the latest updates and government reports. OxyContin became popular as a street drug through its ability to induce a quick heroin-like euphoria. The media hype surrounding OxyContin abuse and the "black box" warning on its label may have added to the abuse and diversion. The US Food and Drug Administration took steps by writing letters to Purdue Pharma, the manufacturers of OxyContin. Purdue Pharma developed a database to identify OxyContin abusers throughout the nation and also launched campaigns to educate patients through the internet. Further suggestions to managing the abuse of OxyContin include: community pharmacists' assessment of behavioral risk factors that could lead to patient medication abuse; medication abuse risk management courses for physicians; development of a national database linking all pharmacies specifically designed to identify abusers; and tamper-resistant prescription pads for controlled substances, which seems the most plausible and immediate solution to this problem.

  20. 76 FR 60829 - Information Collection Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... information collection is essential to controlling potential interference to radio communications. (a... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Information Collection Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications Commission AGENCY:...

  1. 77 FR 52027 - Information Collection Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications Commission Under Delegated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... information disclosed is essential to ensuring that interference to radio communications is controlled... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Information Collection Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications Commission Under...

  2. 78 FR 30920 - Information Collection Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ... to radio communications is controlled; and (c) To investigate complaints of harmful interference or... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION Information Collection Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications Commission AGENCY:...

  3. Amelioration of sexual fantasies to sexual abuse cues in an adult survivor of childhood sexual abuse: a case study.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jane E; Wilson, Keith M

    2008-12-01

    Although sexual dysfunction of childhood sexual abuse survivors has received considerable attention, other sexual difficulties experienced by survivors of CSA, such as sexual fantasies to cues of sexual abuse, have received less attention. In this A-B design case study, a young adult female survivor of childhood sexual abuse presented for treatment at a Midwest rape crisis center. After successful treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder, she complained of unwanted sexual fantasies to sexual abuse cues and concomitant guilt and shame. Following baseline data collection, treatment consisted of self-applied aversion therapy to unwanted sexual arousal to sexual abuse cues. Decrease in sexual arousal to these cues was concurrent with the introduction of treatment. A concomitant decrease in guilt and shame occurred while self-ratings of control increased.

  4. Aminorex poisoning in cocaine abusers.

    PubMed

    Karch, Steven B; Mari, Francesco; Bartolini, Viola; Bertol, Elisabetta

    2012-07-26

    Levamisole is found in more than 80% of illicit cocaine seized within United States borders. Percentages are somewhat lower in Europe. In 2009, controlled in vivo studies demonstrated that horses metabolize levamisole to aminorex. Earlier this year our laboratory demonstrated that the same conversion occurs in man. Levamisole itself causes aplastic anemia and numerous reports have begun to appear in the literature, but the conversion of levamisole to aminorex is of much more concern. Aminorex ingestion was responsible for a five-year epidemic (1967-1972) of idiopathic pulmonary hypertension (IPH) confined to Switzerland, Austria, and Germany, the only countries where aminorex had been marketed as an anorectic. The incidence of IPH reverted to normal levels as soon as aminorex was withdrawn. In most cases onset of symptoms in IPH began after six to nine months of aminorex use, with average dosage ranges of 10 to 40 mg per day. The outcome was almost uniformly fatal. The conversion rate of levamisole to aminorex has not been established, but given the high daily intake of cocaine by many abusers, it seems likely that many of them will have ingested enough contaminated cocaine to ultimately cause IPH. Until the disease is well established, the symptoms of IHP are vague, and existing drug registries specifically exclude drug abusers, making it difficult to track these cases. This review is intended to draw attention to what may be a slowly emerging new epidemic.

  5. A prospective investigation of borderline personality disorder in abused and neglected children followed up into adulthood.

    PubMed

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally J; Paris, Joel

    2009-10-01

    Child abuse has been implicated as a risk factor for borderline personality disorder (BPD), yet few prospective longitudinal studies exist. The current study examined whether 500 individuals with documented cases of childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect were at elevated risk of BPD in adulthood, compared to 396 demographically similar control children. Results indicated that significantly more abused and/or neglected children overall met criteria for BPD as adults, compared to controls, as did physically abused and neglected children. Having a parent with alcohol/drug problems and not being employed full-time, not being a high school graduate, and having a diagnosis of drug abuse, major depressive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder were predictors of BPD and mediated the relationship between childhood abuse/neglect and adult BPD. These results call attention to a heightened risk of BPD in physically abused and neglected children and the need to consider multiple pathways to BPD.

  6. 47 CFR 0.1 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The Commission. 0.1 Section 0.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION Organization General § 0.1 The Commission. The Federal Communications Commission is composed of five (5) members who are appointed by...

  7. 11 CFR 9032.3 - Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commission. 9032.3 Section 9032.3 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: PRESIDENTIAL PRIMARY MATCHING FUND DEFINITIONS § 9032.3 Commission. Commission means the Federal Election Commission, 999 E Street...

  8. 11 CFR 9002.3 - Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 11 Federal Elections 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commission. 9002.3 Section 9002.3 Federal Elections FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION PRESIDENTIAL ELECTION CAMPAIGN FUND: GENERAL ELECTION FINANCING DEFINITIONS § 9002.3 Commission. Commission means the Federal Election Commission, 999 E Street,...

  9. 17 CFR 140.10 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false The Commission. 140.10 Section 140.10 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, FUNCTIONS, AND PROCEDURES OF THE COMMISSION Functions § 140.10 The Commission. The Commission is composed of...

  10. 18 CFR 375.101 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false The Commission. 375.101... OF ENERGY REVISED GENERAL RULES THE COMMISSION General Provisions § 375.101 The Commission. (a) Establishment. The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission is an independent regulatory commission within...

  11. 47 CFR 0.1 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false The Commission. 0.1 Section 0.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION Organization General § 0.1 The Commission. The Federal Communications Commission is composed of five (5) members who are appointed by...

  12. 47 CFR 0.1 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false The Commission. 0.1 Section 0.1 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL COMMISSION ORGANIZATION Organization General § 0.1 The Commission. The Federal Communications Commission is composed of five (5) members who are appointed by...

  13. Wisconsin SRF Electron Gun Commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Bisognano, Joseph J.; Bissen, M.; Bosch, R.; Efremov, M.; Eisert, D.; Fisher, M.; Green, M.; Jacobs, K.; Keil, R.; Kleman, K.; Rogers, G.; Severson, M.; Yavuz, D. D.; Legg, Robert A.; Bachimanchi, Ramakrishna; Hovater, J. Curtis; Plawski, Tomasz; Powers, Thomas J.

    2013-12-01

    The University of Wisconsin has completed fabrication and commissioning of a low frequency (199.6 MHz) superconducting electron gun based on a quarter wave resonator (QWR) cavity. Its concept was optimized to be the source for a CW free electron laser facility. The gun design includes active tuning and a high temperature superconducting solenoid. We will report on the status of the Wisconsin SRF electron gun program, including commissioning experience and first beam measurements.

  14. NSF commission holds first meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Richard M.

    There has been considerable discussion in Washington science policy circles over the past few weeks about the newly established National Science Board Commission on the Future of the National Science Foundation. The commission, chaired by William Danforth, chancellor of Washington University, and Robert Galvin, former chief executive officer of Motorola, held its first meeting on September 17. Unfortunately, this meeting offered few indications of what changes might result from this exercise.

  15. Recommendations for the elder abuse, health, and justice fields about medical forensic issues related to elder abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Stiegel, Lori

    2006-01-01

    Increased interest in pursuing criminal and civil actions against alleged perpetrators of elder abuse and neglect has revealed that efforts to assist victims and hold perpetrators accountable are often hampered by the lack of knowledge about the detection and diagnosis of elder abuse and neglect and by the lack of resources for development of research and assistance in these matters. This report sets forth recommendations for the elder abuse, health, and justice fields about medical forensic issues related to elder abuse and neglect. The recommendations were developed by a "working group" of experts representing an array of disciplines that address the problem of elder abuse and neglect pursuant to a grant project funded by the National Institute of Justice (NIJ), the research, development, and evaluation agency of the U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ). The project was conducted by the American Bar Association Commission on Law and Aging, with the assistance of the University of California, Irvine School of Medicine. This was the final project report submitted to NIJ; it has been updated to include information about the availability of reports and products from other grant projects that are discussed in the report.

  16. Abuse against elderly in India – The role of education

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Abuse against the elderly is recognized as an important challenge to elderly health, but its determinants are not yet well understood. We present findings from a new dataset which covers a representative sample of the population aged 60 years and above from seven Indian states across India – all of which have a higher proportion aged 60 plus compared to the national average. Earlier studies suggest that schooling levels can be relevant in determining the level of abuse against seniors. This study focuses on the role of education on the prevalence of elderly abuse in India. Methods We conduct an analysis of cross sectional primary data that contains information on elderly abuse. The households in the sample were randomly selected from the seven demographically oldest states in India. These states are Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal. A total of 9852 elderly from 8329 households were interviewed. The statistical analysis is based on logistic regression to understand the independent relation of education with abuse against the elderly. Results Our findings reveal that 11% of 60+ year olds have experienced at least one type of elderly abuse (Physical 5.3%, Verbal 10.2%, Economic 5.4%, Disrespect 6%, Neglect 5.2%). The most common perpetrator is the son, who is reported to be responsible for the abuse among 41% of male victims and 43% of female victims. Formal education among elderly beyond a certain level (8 years) has a strong relation with reduced violence against elderly. Conclusions Our findings suggest that level of schooling among elderly is strongly negatively related to abuse against them. More members in the household reduces the chance of abuse while having a greater number of children increases the chance of abuse (neglect and verbal abuse). We find that education even after controlling for wealth and other relevant variables is the factor that most consistently lowers elderly abuse. However

  17. 76 FR 4369 - Special Law Enforcement Commissions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Special Law Enforcement Commissions AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces the online publication of the Interim Special Law Enforcement Commission Policy, Rules and Procedures, the Interim Special Law Enforcement Commission...

  18. Abuse Tolerance Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Orendorff, Christopher J.; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle R.; Allcorn, Eric

    2015-10-01

    As lithium-ion battery technologies mature, the size and energy of these systems continues to increase (> 50 kWh for EVs); making safety and reliability of these high energy systems increasingly important. While most material advances for lithium-ion chemistries are directed toward improving cell performance (capacity, energy, cycle life, etc.), there are a variety of materials advancements that can be made to improve lithium-ion battery safety. Issues including energetic thermal runaway, electrolyte decomposition and flammability, anode SEI stability, and cell-level abuse tolerance continue to be critical safety concerns. This report highlights work with our collaborators to develop advanced materials to improve lithium-ion battery safety and abuse tolerance and to perform cell-level characterization of new materials.

  19. Drug abuse and stroke.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Ana Catarina; Ferro, José M

    2013-02-01

    Cerebrovascular disorders contribute to the morbidity and disability associated with illicit drug use. Drug abusers have an increased risk of both hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke. In geographic areas with a high prevalence of illicit drug use, drug abuse is a frequent cause of stroke in the young adult. The illicit drugs more commonly associated with stroke are psychomotor stimulants, such as amphetamine and cocaine. Less commonly implicated are opioids and psychotomimetic drugs, including cannabis. Toxicology screening for illicit drugs should be done in young patients with stroke with no obvious cause, or if suggested by history or examination. Although in some patients the mechanism of stroke is identified using neuroimaging and other modern diagnostic tools, in a sizeable fraction of cases the mechanism of stroke remains unclear. Further studies are needed to elucidate the role of hemodynamic and immunologic mechanisms in these cases.

  20. Substance Abuse and Trauma.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Shannon; Suárez, Liza

    2016-10-01

    There is a strong, bidirectional link between substance abuse and traumatic experiences. Teens with cooccurring substance use disorders (SUDs) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have significant functional and psychosocial impairment. Common neurobiological foundations point to the reinforcing cycle of trauma symptoms, substance withdrawal, and substance use. Treatment of teens with these issues should include a systemic and integrated approach to both the SUD and the PTSD.

  1. Gran Telescopio Canarias Commissioning Instrument Optomechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espejo, Carlos; Cuevas, Salvador; Sanchez, Beatriz; Flores, Ruben; Lara, Gerardo; Farah, Alejandro; Godoy, Javier; Bringas, Vicente; Chavoya, Armando; Dorantes, Ariel; Manuel Montoya, Juan; Rangel, Juan Carlos; Devaney, Nicholas; Castro, Javier; Cavaller, Luis

    2003-02-01

    Under a contract with the GRANTECAN, the Commissioning Instrument is a project developed by a team of Mexican scientists and engineers from the Instrumentation Department of the Astronomy Institute at the UNAM and the CIDESI Engineering Center. This paper will discuss in some detail the final Commissioning Instrument (CI) mechanical design and fabrication. We will also explain the error budget and the barrels design as well as their thermal compensation. The optical design and the control system are discussed in other papers. The CI will just act as a diagnostic tool for image quality verification during the GTC Commissioning Phase. This phase is a quality control process for achieving, verifying, and documenting the performance of each GTC sub-systems. This is a very important step for the telescope life. It will begin on starting day and will last for a year. The CI project started in December 2000. The critical design phase was reviewed in July 2001. The CI manufacturing is currently in progress and most parts are finished. We are now approaching the factory acceptance stage.

  2. "Paper abuse": when all else fails, batterers use procedural stalking.

    PubMed

    Miller, Susan L; Smolter, Nicole L

    2011-05-01

    Using data from in-depth interviews with women who have exited violent relationships, attorneys, and practitioners/policy specialists, this research note explores the continuation of control as women encounter "paper abuse." The barrage of men's frivolous lawsuits, false reports of child abuse, and other system-related manipulations exerts power, forces contact, and financially burdens their ex-partners. Although these acts are not new, the significance of this continuing abuse has not been fully explored by researchers. Yet attorneys and practitioners recognize the need for better documentation to strengthen protections for women still forced to contend with their former batterers.

  3. The association between cannabis abuse and dependence and childhood physical and sexual abuse: Evidence from an offspring of twins design

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Alexis E.; Sartor, Carolyn E.; Scherrer, Jeffrey F.; Grant, Julia D.; Heath, Andrew C.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Jacob, Theodore; Bucholz, Kathleen Keenan

    2009-01-01

    Aims This study examines the association between childhood physical abuse (CPA) and sexual abuse (CSA) and the development of cannabis abuse and dependence among adolescents and young adults while controlling for genetic and environmental risk factors. Design To control for familial risk differences related to paternal drug dependence that might confound the relationship between CSA and CPA and cannabis abuse/dependence, we created four groups based on father’s and uncle’s substance use dependence (SUD) status reflecting different degrees of genetic and environmental risks to offspring: 1) high genetic, high environmental risk; 2) high genetic, low environmental risk, 3) medium genetic, low environmental risk; and 4) low genetic, low environmental risk. Participants Adolescent and young adult offspring of monozygotic and dizygotic US military veteran twin fathers (n= 819). Measurements Data on CPA and CSA, DSM-IV offspring cannabis abuse/dependence, other SUD and psychopathology, and maternal and paternal SUD and psychopathology were collected via semi-structured telephone interview. Findings Twenty-three percent of the offspring sample met lifetime criteria for cannabis abuse/dependence, 8.55% and 12.82% reported CSA and CPA, respectively. Offspring exposed to CSA, but not CPA, were at significantly greater risk of developing cannabis abuse/dependence compared to those who had not experienced CSA (HR=2.16; 95% CI=1.48–3.16) after controlling for genetic and familial environmental risk and offspring gender, alcohol abuse and dependence and conduct disorder. Conclusions These results indicate that there are effects of CSA on development of cannabis abuse/dependence in addition to the genetic and familial environmental risk imparted by having a drug dependent father. PMID:18482422

  4. Drug abuse in athletes

    PubMed Central

    Reardon, Claudia L; Creado, Shane

    2014-01-01

    Drug abuse occurs in all sports and at most levels of competition. Athletic life may lead to drug abuse for a number of reasons, including for performance enhancement, to self-treat otherwise untreated mental illness, and to deal with stressors, such as pressure to perform, injuries, physical pain, and retirement from sport. This review examines the history of doping in athletes, the effects of different classes of substances used for doping, side effects of doping, the role of anti-doping organizations, and treatment of affected athletes. Doping goes back to ancient times, prior to the development of organized sports. Performance-enhancing drugs have continued to evolve, with “advances” in doping strategies driven by improved drug testing detection methods and advances in scientific research that can lead to the discovery and use of substances that may later be banned. Many sports organizations have come to ban the use of performance-enhancing drugs and have very strict consequences for people caught using them. There is variable evidence for the performance-enhancing effects and side effects of the various substances that are used for doping. Drug abuse in athletes should be addressed with preventive measures, education, motivational interviewing, and, when indicated, pharmacologic interventions. PMID:25187752

  5. Glial dysfunction in abstinent methamphetamine abusers.

    PubMed

    Sailasuta, Napapon; Abulseoud, Osama; Harris, Kent C; Ross, Brian D

    2010-05-01

    Persistent neurochemical abnormalities in frontal brain structures are believed to result from methamphetamine use. We developed a localized (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) assay on a conventional MR scanner, to quantify selectively glial metabolic flux rate in frontal brain of normal subjects and a cohort of recovering abstinent methamphetamine abusers. Steady-state bicarbonate concentrations were similar, between 11 and 15 mmol/L in mixed gray-white matter of frontal brain of normal volunteers and recovering methamphetamine-abusing subjects (P>0.1). However, glial (13)C-bicarbonate production rate from [1-(13)C]acetate, equating with glial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle rate, was significantly reduced in frontal brain of abstinent methamphetamine-addicted women (methamphetamine 0.04 micromol/g per min (N=5) versus controls 0.11 micromol/g per min (N=5), P=0.001). This is equivalent to 36% of the normal glial TCA cycle rate. Severe reduction in glial TCA cycle rate that normally comprises 10% of total cerebral metabolic rate may impact operation of the neuronal glial glutamate cycle and result in accumulation of frontal brain glutamate, as observed in these recovering methamphetamine abusers. Although these are the first studies to define directly an abnormality in glial metabolism in human methamphetamine abuse, sequential studies using analogous (13)C MRS methods may determine 'cause and effect' between glial failure and neuronal injury.

  6. Impact of cocaine abuse on HIV pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Sabyasachi; Balasubramaniam, Muthukumar; Villalta, Fernando; Dash, Chandravanu; Pandhare, Jui

    2015-01-01

    Over 1.2 million people in the United States are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). Tremendous progress has been made over the past three decades on many fronts in the prevention and treatment of HIV-1 disease. However, HIV-1 infection is incurable and antiretroviral drugs continue to remain the only effective treatment option for HIV infected patients. Unfortunately, only three out of ten HIV-1 infected individuals in the US have the virus under control. Thus, majority of HIV-1 infected individuals in the US are either unaware of their infection status or not connected/retained to care or are non-adherent to antiretroviral therapy (ART). This national public health crisis, as well as the ongoing global HIV/AIDS pandemic, is further exacerbated by substance abuse, which serves as a powerful cofactor at every stage of HIV/AIDS including transmission, diagnosis, pathogenesis, and treatment. Clinical studies indicate that substance abuse may increase viral load, accelerate disease progression and worsen AIDS-related mortality even among ART-adherent patients. However, confirming a direct causal link between substance abuse and HIV/AIDS in human patients remains a highly challenging endeavor. In this review we will discuss the recent and past developments in clinical and basic science research on the effects of cocaine abuse on HIV-1 pathogenesis. PMID:26539167

  7. Tooth decay in alcohol abusers compared to alcohol and drug abusers.

    PubMed

    Dasanayake, Ananda P; Warnakulasuriya, Saman; Harris, Colin K; Cooper, Derek J; Peters, Timothy J; Gelbier, Stanley

    2010-01-01

    Alcohol and drug abuse are detrimental to general and oral health. Though we know the effects of these harmful habits on oral mucosa, their independent and combined effect on the dental caries experience is unknown and worthy of investigation. We compared 363 "alcohol only" abusers to 300 "alcohol and drug" abusers to test the hypothesis that various components of their dental caries experience are significantly different due to plausible sociobiological explanations. After controlling for the potential confounders, we observe that the "alcohol and drug" group had a 38% higher risk of having decayed teeth compared to the "alcohol only" group (P < .05). As expected, those who belonged to a higher social class (OR = 1.98; 95% CI = 1.43-2.75) and drank wine (OR = 1.85; 95% CI = 1.16-2.96) had a higher risk of having more filled teeth. We conclude that the risk of tooth decay among "alcohol only" abusers is significantly lower compared to "alcohol and drug" abusers.

  8. Neuropsychological performance of recently abstinent alcoholics and cocaine abusers.

    PubMed

    Beatty, W W; Katzung, V M; Moreland, V J; Nixon, S J

    1995-03-01

    To examine possible influences of premorbid and comorbid factors on the neuropsychological test performance of recently abstinent (3-5 weeks) drug abusers, we studied 24 alcoholics, 23 cocaine abusers, and 22 healthy controls of comparable age and education. Both alcoholics and cocaine abusers performed significantly more poorly than controls on most measures of learning and memory, problem solving and abstraction and perceptual-motor speed, but the groups did not differ on the measure of sustained attention. Correlational analyses revealed no significant relationships between measures of childhood and residual hyperactivity and neuropsychological performance; scores on the Beck Depression Inventory were related only to performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test. The findings indicate that abuse of cocaine or alcohol is associated with deficits on neuropsychological tests which cannot be attributed to specific premorbid or comorbid factors such as depression or childhood or residual attention deficit disorder.

  9. Nurses' intention to report child abuse in Taiwan: a test of the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jui-Ying; Wu, Yow-Wu B

    2005-08-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify factors associated with nurses' intention to report suspected child abuse in Taiwan, and to determine the empirical adequacy of the extended theory of planned behavior (TPB) to explain nurses' intention to report child abuse. A stratified quota sampling technique was used to select registered nurses in emergency rooms, psychiatric units, and pediatric units in Taiwan. A total of 1,362 questionnaires from 1,617 nurses were used for the analyses. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that nurses' attitudes toward reporting child abuse, perceived behavioral control, subjective norms, and knowledge of the child abuse and reporting law explained 85% to 91% of the variance in nurses' intention to report child abuse for the less severe and severe child abuse cases in vignettes, respectively. The findings support the use of the extended TPB in identifying factors associated with nurses' intention to report child abuse in Taiwan.

  10. The nature of victimization among youths with hearing loss in substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Titus, Janet C

    2010-01-01

    The author profiles the prevalence, severity, and characteristics of victimization among a group of youths with hearing loss presenting to substance abuse treatment. Intake data on 111 deaf and hard of hearing youths (42% female) were analyzed and compared with data from a weighted, gender-matched sample of hearing youths. After gender is controlled, results indicate that the hearing loss group reported more widespread, more severe abuse than that reported by their hearing peers. Physical abuse and weapon attacks were significantly more prevalent among the deaf and hard of hearing youths, while no differences in sexual or emotional abuse were observed. Youths with hearing loss also reported increased rates of abuse by a trusted person and abuse that made them fear for their lives. Substance abuse treatment of deaf and hard of hearing youths should include routine assessment of victimization and trauma-informed methods.

  11. Evidence of the Construct Validity of the Scale of Economic Abuse.

    PubMed

    Adams, Adrienne E; Beeble, Marisa L; Gregory, Katie A

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the construct validity of the Scale of Economic Abuse (SEA). Evidence of construct validity was assessed by examining the relationship between the SEA and an economic outcome, financial resources, as perceived by participants. A sample of 93 women with abusive partners were recruited from a domestic violence organization and interviewed 3 times over a period of 4 months. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to examine the relationship between economic abuse and financial resources over time, controlling for the effects of physical and psychological abuse. The findings indicate that baseline economic abuse was significantly related to baseline financial resources, and within-woman change in economic abuse was significantly predicted change in financial resources over time. The findings suggest that the SEA measures what it is intended to measure: an economic dimension of intimate partner abuse that has damaging economic consequences.

  12. Do Single Experiences of Childhood Abuse Increase Psychopathology Symptoms in Adulthood?

    PubMed

    Rehan, Wail; Antfolk, Jan; Johansson, Ada; Santtila, Pekka

    2016-05-03

    Experiencing emotional, physical, and/or sexual abuse in childhood increases the risk (compared with baseline) of developing psychopathological symptoms in adulthood. In the present study, we explored the effects of experiencing only a single abusive event on adulthood psychopathology, and compared this with the risk in individuals with no abusive experiences and with the risk in individuals with several abusive experiences. We used a Finnish population-based sample of 10,980 adult participants (3,766 male and 7,214 female twins and their siblings). The participants reported abuse experiences using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and current psychopathology symptoms using the depression and anxiety scales of the Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18). We found that in both men and women even single experiences of emotional and sexual abuse were associated with increased psychopathology symptoms compared with no abuse experiences. Single experiences of physical abuse did not, however, increase the risk in either women or men. As expected, experiences of repeated abuse (of all abuse types) increased the risk of psychopathology symptoms compared with experiences of single abuse. When we isolated individuals who only had a single experience of any type of abuse (i.e., emotional, physical, or sexual) to control for possible co-morbidity, no increased risk was found. This study shows that individuals who report experiencing single events of abuse of a specific abuse type have an increased risk of displaying psychopathology symptoms in adulthood. This increase is, however, mainly due to co-morbidity of abuse types.

  13. Intentional Recreational Abuse of Quetiapine Compared to Other Second-generation Antipsychotics

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Lauren; Bangh, Stacey; Cole, Jon B.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Case reports and poison center data have demonstrated that the second-generation antipsychotic quetiapine is being obtained and used for recreational abuse. The purpose of this study was to describe the relative rates of single-substance abuse for different atypical antipsychotics and compare their demographic and clinical features. Methods We conducted a 10-year retrospective analysis of the National Poison Data System (NPDS) database (2003 – 2013). Trained nurses and pharmacists with specialty training in toxicology prospectively collect all NPDS data at poison control centers around the United States. We queried the NPDS for all cases of single-substance second-generation antipsychotic exposures coded as “intentional abuse.” The data provided by the NPDS regarding rates and clinical features of quetiapine abuse and the abuse of all other second-generation antipsychotics were compared and described descriptively. Results During the study period, 2,118 cases of quetiapine abuse and 1,379 cases of other second-generation antipsychotic abuse were identified. Quetiapine abuse was more common than the abuse of other second-generation antipsychotics, compromising 60.6% of all abuse cases during the study period. After quetiapine, the next most frequently abused medications were risperidone (530 cases, 15.2%) and olanzapine (246 cases, 7.0%). For all second-generation antipsychotics including quetiapine, central nervous system clinical effects were most common, including drowsiness, confusion, and agitation. Other serious clinical effects observed with second-generation antipsychotic abuse included hypotension, respiratory depression, and seizures. Conclusion Quetiapine abuse is relatively common, and is abused far more often than any other second-generation antipsychotic. Emergency physicians should be aware of the clinical effects that may occur after second-generation antipsychotic abuse. PMID:28210359

  14. Screening for substance abuse in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Jimerson, Steven D; Musick, Sarah

    2013-04-01

    Several states have proposed laws that urine drug screening be performed as a part of qualifying for public assistance. At least one state (Florida) has passed such a law, and several other states are considering similar laws. The Oklahoma Commission on Children and Youth created a committee to study laws and policies regarding the use of illegal drugs while pregnant. To get a better understanding of drug screening and pregnancy, 151 consecutive obstetrical patients receiving Medicaid were screened at their initial obstetrical visit by verbal and written questionnaire's concerning the use of alcohol, nicotine, and other illicit\\dangerous drugs; in addition a urine drug screen for the use of illicit or dangerous drugs was performed. The patient histories regarding the use of dangerous or illicit substances was reviewed and compared with the urine drug screens performed at the same visit. The authors note that when studied the incidence of substance abuse has been similar in patient population receiving public assistance and patient populations with traditional insurance. Oklahoma is one of 13 states with laws requiring mandatory reporting of substance abuse in pregnancy or the exposure of the newborn to illicit substances.

  15. 18 CFR 3c.3 - Reporting fraud, waste, abuse, and corruption and cooperation with official inquiries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reporting fraud, waste, abuse, and corruption and cooperation with official inquiries. 3c.3 Section 3c.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES...

  16. 18 CFR 3c.3 - Reporting fraud, waste, abuse, and corruption and cooperation with official inquiries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Reporting fraud, waste, abuse, and corruption and cooperation with official inquiries. 3c.3 Section 3c.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES...

  17. 18 CFR 3c.3 - Reporting fraud, waste, abuse, and corruption and cooperation with official inquiries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Reporting fraud, waste, abuse, and corruption and cooperation with official inquiries. 3c.3 Section 3c.3 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES...

  18. 8 CFR 204.2 - Petitions for relatives, widows and widowers, and abused spouses and children.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the alien have been convicted of, or even prosecuted for, the attempt or conspiracy, the evidence of... results or threatens to result in physical or mental injury. Psychological or sexual abuse or exploitation... not been convicted of an offense or offenses but admits to the commission of an act or acts that...

  19. The Rate of Cyber Dating Abuse among Teens and How It Relates to Other Forms of Teen Dating Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zweig, Janine M.; Dank, Meredith; Yahner, Jennifer; Lachman, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    To date, little research has documented how teens might misuse technology to harass, control, and abuse their dating partners. This study examined the extent of cyber dating abuse--abuse via technology and new media--in youth relationships and how it relates to other forms of teen dating violence. A total of 5,647 youth from ten schools in three…

  20. 75 FR 56516 - Federal Advisory Committee; Military Leadership Diversity Commission (MLDC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ... of the Secretary Federal Advisory Committee; Military Leadership Diversity Commission (MLDC) AGENCY... Defense announces that the Military Leadership Diversity Commission (MLDC) will meet September 27-29, 2010... control of the Military Leadership Diversity Commission or its Designated Federal Officer, the...

  1. 76 FR 30551 - Commission's Ex Parte Rules and Other Procedural Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-26

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 1 Commission's Ex Parte Rules and Other Procedural Rules AGENCY: Federal... Order, Amendment of the Commission's Ex Parte Rules and Other Procedural Rules. DATES: The amendments to... rules and other procedural rules contained in information collection OMB Control No: 3060-0430,...

  2. 22 CFR 91.3 - Assistance to Customs and Tariff Commission representatives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Assistance to Customs and Tariff Commission... CONTROLS § 91.3 Assistance to Customs and Tariff Commission representatives. Consular officers shall render all proper assistance to Customs and Tariff Commission representatives abroad to aid them in...

  3. 78 FR 68505 - Enhancing Protections Afforded Customers and Customer Funds Held by Futures Commission Merchants...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ...The Commodity Futures Trading Commission (``Commission'' or ``CFTC'') is adopting new regulations and amending existing regulations to require enhanced customer protections, risk management programs, internal monitoring and controls, capital and liquidity standards, customer disclosures, and auditing and examination programs for futures commission merchants (``FCMs''). The regulations also......

  4. Commission 41: History of Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurshtein, Alexander A.; Nha, Il-Seong; Ruggles, Clive L. N.; DeVorkin, David H.; Dick, Wolfgang R.; Kochhar, Rajesh; Nakamura, Tsuko; Pigatto, Luisa; Stephenson, F. Richard; Warner, Brian

    2007-12-01

    On Tuesday 22 August 2006 approximately 40 people attended the Commission 41 History of Astronomy Business Meeting at the IAU XXVI General Assembly in Prague. Commission president Alex Gurshtein opened the meeting, welcoming the commission members and calling for a moment of silence for those members who passed away in the last triennium. David DeVorkin was appointed recording secretary for the meeting, with Steven Dick as the scruitineer of the ballot. A moment of silence was then observed in the memory of members departed over the last triennium, including: Jerzy Dobrzycki (Poland), Robert Duncan (Australia), Mohammad Edalati (Iran), Philip Morrison (USA), John Perdix (Australia), Neil Porter (Ireland), Gibson Reaves (USA), Brian Robinson (Australia), and Raymond E. White (USA).

  5. Incest and Child Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Collins, James L.; Hamlin, Willie T.; Minor, Marie A.; Knasel, Ann Lowe

    1982-01-01

    Child sexual abuse was examined nationally and in the Washington, DC and Howard University Hospital area. In an attempt to describe this widespread problem, two case histories are presented which reflect some of the typical characteristics of child sexual abuse cases seen at Howard University Hospital. Pertinent literature is reviewed citing the prevalence rates and the personality and environmental factors which may contribute to the sexual abuse of children in this country. Finally, the role of the physician in identifying and treating the physical and emotional effects of child abuse are discussed. PMID:7120485

  6. Incest and child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Collins, J L; Hamlin, W T; Minor, M A; Knasel, A L

    1982-06-01

    Child sexual abuse was examined nationally and in the Washington, DC and Howard University Hospital area. In an attempt to describe this widespread problem, two case histories are presented which reflect some of the typical characteristics of child sexual abuse cases seen at Howard University Hospital. Pertinent literature is reviewed citing the prevalence rates and the personality and environmental factors which may contribute to the sexual abuse of children in this country. Finally, the role of the physician in identifying and treating the physical and emotional effects of child abuse are discussed.

  7. Diagnostic imaging of child abuse

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinman, P.K.

    1987-01-01

    This book provides a description for all the known radiological alterations occurring in child abuse. This allows for precise interpretation of findings by radiologists. It also helps eliminate the confusion among both clinicians and non-medical personnel involved in the diagnosis, management, and legal issues related to child abuse. CONTENTS: Introduction; Skeletal trauma: general considerations; Extremity trauma; Bony thoracic trauma; Spinal trauma; Dating fractures; Visceral trauma; Head trauma; Miscellaneous forms of abuse and neglect; The postmortem examination; Differential diagnosis of child abuse; Legal considerations; Psychosocial considerations; Technical considerations and dosimetry.

  8. Institutional Policy and Its Abuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogue, E. G.; Riggs, R. O.

    1974-01-01

    Reviews the role of institutional policy, cites frequent abuses of institutional policy, and delineates several principles of policy management (development, communication, execution and evaluation). (Author/PG)

  9. Identification and management of prescription drug abuse in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Worley, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse is a growing problem in the United States and many other countries. Estimates of prescription drug abuse rates during pregnancy range from 5% to 20%. The primary prescription drugs designated as controlled drugs with abuse potential in pregnancy are opiates prescribed for pain, benzodiazepines prescribed for anxiety, and stimulants prescribed for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Prescription drugs are obtained for abuse through diversion methods, such as purchasing them from others or by doctor shopping. The use of prescription drugs puts both the mother and the fetus at high risk during pregnancy. Identification of women who are abusing prescription drugs is important so that treatment can be ensured. It is crucial for healthcare professionals to use a multidisciplinary approach and be supportive and maintain a good rapport with pregnant women who abuse prescription drugs. Management includes inpatient hospitalization for detoxification and withdrawal symptoms, and in the case of opiate abuse, opiate maintenance is recommended for pregnant women for the duration of their pregnancy to reduce relapse rates and improve maternal and fetal outcomes. Other recommendations include referral for support groups and supportive housing.

  10. Statement of Stephen S. Trott, Associate Attorney General, United States Department of Justice before the Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control. House of Representatives concerning the Federal Government's Present and Future Efforts in Eradication, Interdiction, Law Enforcement, Education and Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Justice, Washington, DC.

    Testimony of Associate Attorney General Stephen S. Trott on the federal government's present and future efforts in drug law enforcement before the Congressional Select Committee on Narcotics Abuse and Control is presented in this document. Three topic areas are included in the testimony. The first topic of management initiatives discusses…

  11. History of physical and sexual abuse in women with chronic pelvic pain.

    PubMed

    Rapkin, A J; Kames, L D; Darke, L L; Stampler, F M; Naliboff, B D

    1990-07-01

    The history of physical and sexual abuse in childhood and adulthood was assessed in 31 women with chronic pelvic pain, 142 women with chronic pain in other locations, and 32 controls. Thirty-nine percent of patients with chronic pelvic pain had been physically abused in childhood. This percentage was significantly greater than that observed in other chronic-pain patients (18.4%) or controls (9.4%), though the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse did not differ among the groups (19.4, 16.3, and 12.5%, respectively). Abuse in adulthood was less common and was not significantly more likely to have occurred in patients with chronic pelvic pain than in other chronic-pain patients or controls. These data suggest that pelvic pain is unlikely to be specifically and psychodynamically related to sexual abuse but that the pernicious nature of abuse, whether physical or sexual, may promote the chronicity of painful conditions.

  12. Law sets up oceans commission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    In an anticipated move, U.S. President Bill Clinton on August 7 signed into law the Oceans Act of 2000.The bipartisan legislation, which takes effect on January 20,2001, establishes a commission on ocean policy to examine federal ocean policy and environmental and economic trends affecting oceans and coasts.The act—which grew out of a call issued by Clinton at the National Oceans Conference in Monterey, California in 1998—requires the commission to submit recommendations to Congress and the president within 18 months of its appointment, and for the President to submit proposals to Congress about the use and stewardship of ocean and coastal resources.

  13. The role of the World Trade Organization and the 'three sisters' (the World Organisation for Animal Health, the International Plant Protection Convention and the Codex Alimentarius Commission) in the control of invasive alien species and the preservation of biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Kahn, S; Pelgrim, W

    2010-08-01

    The missions of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) include the design of surveillance and control methods for infectious transboundary animal diseases (including zoonoses), the provision of guarantees concerning animal health and animal production food safety, and the setting of standards for, and promotion of, animal welfare. The OIE role in setting standards for the sanitary safety of international trade in animals and animal products is formally recognised in the World Trade Organization (WTO) Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement). While the primary focus of the OIE is on animal diseases and zoonoses, the OIE has also been working within the WTO framework to examine possible contributions the organisation can make to achieving the goals of the Convention on Biological Diversity, particularly to preventing the global spread of invasive alien species (IAS). However, at the present time, setting standards for invasive species (other than those connected to the cause and distribution of diseases listed by the OIE) is outside the OIE mandate. Any future expansion of the OIE mandate would need to be decided by its Members and resources (expertise and financial contributions) for an extended standard-setting work programme secured. The other international standard-setting organisations referenced by the SPS Agreement are the International Plant Protection Convention (IPPC) and the Codex Alimentarius Commission (CAC). The IPPC mandate and work programme address IAS and the protection of biodiversity. The CAC is not involved in this field.

  14. Blitzing Athletic Abuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, John B.

    After noting recent discoveries of falsified transcripts and other collegiate athletics scandals, this paper discusses the need to maintain academic integrity in athletic programs and defends rules established by the California Commission on Athletics (COA) against charges that they are unfair to community college students. The paper first warns…

  15. Reciprocal Abuse: Elder Neglect and Abuse by Primary Caregivers and Caregiver Burden and Abuse in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Özcan, Neslihan Keser; Boyacıoğlu, Nur Elçin; Sertçelik, Elmas

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the relationship between the neglect and abuse that older people were exposed to by their primary caregivers and the experiences of caregivers' burden and abuse by their charges. This descriptive, cross-sectional and correlational study was conducted with 186 individuals over the age of 65 and 136 caregivers. The data were collected using questionnaires to determine neglect and abuse experienced by both older people and caregivers, and the Zarit Burden Scale. Abuse rate of the older people and their caregivers is both high and similar. This study is to make psychiatric nursing professionals aware of the problem of elder abuse and neglect. For researchers, educators, practitioners, and policymakers in the fields of aging, health, and mental health this study provides important data about elder abuse and neglect.

  16. Neurobiological underpinnings of sensation seeking trait in heroin abusers.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Gordon L F; Liu, Yu-Pin; Chan, Chetwyn C H; So, Kwok-Fai; Zeng, Hong; Lee, Tatia M C

    2015-11-01

    Neurobiological investigation of heroin revealed that abusers of this highly addictive substance show dysregulation in brain circuits for reward processing and cognitive control. Psychologically, personality traits related to reward processing and cognitive control differed between heroin abusers and non-abusers. Yet, there is no direct evidence on the relationship between these neurobiological and psychological findings on heroin abusers, and whether such relationship is altered in these abusers. The present study filled this research gap by integrating findings obtained via magnetic resonance imaging (structural volume and resting-state functional connectivity) and self-reported personality trait measures (Zuckerman׳s Sensation Seeking Scale and Barratt Impulsivity Scale) on 33 abstinent heroin users and 30 matched healthy controls. The key finding is a negative relationship between high sensation seeking tendency and midbrain structural volume in the heroin users. Importantly, there was stronger coupling between the midbrain and ventromedial prefrontal cortex and weaker coupling between the midbrain and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex in heroin users. Our findings offer significant insight into the neural underpinning of sensation seeking in heroin users. Importantly, the data shed light on a novel relationship between the mesolimbic-prefrontal pathway of the reward system and the high sensation seeking personality trait in heroin abusers.

  17. Sexual abuse in patients with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Tice, L; Hall, R C; Beresford, T P; Quinones, J; Hall, A K

    1989-01-01

    The incidence of sexual abuse in eating disorder patients appears significant. Fifty percent of both our anorectic and bulimic patients reported a history of sexual abuse while only 28% of a non-anorexic, non-bulimic control population reported similar problems (p less than 0.01). Several patterns of behavior seemed related to previous sexual assault. In one, the eating disorder was used to change the body image of the patient and therefore to provide a defense to future abuse. Other behaviors which occurred more specifically in bulimic women dealt with a projection of repressed anger toward male authority figures. Forty six percent of the bulimic women seen in our study exhibited some promiscuous behavior, using sex either as a gauge of their own self worth or as a means of punishing men. It is essential that sexual issues be addressed early in the treatment of patients with eating disorders. Disclosure is often difficult particularly in outpatient situations where the patient lives at home with her family. It usually does not occur in such cases until the later stages of therapy, or until the patient is hospitalized. Rape is the exception since our data suggests that it is usually revealed early in the course of treatment (p less than 0.001). Once disclosure occurs, a dramatic change is usually seen in the patient and treatment becomes more effective. As the patient deals with the issues of sexual abuse, they no longer need to deny their sexuality or punish themselves or others. Issues of guilt, depression, repressed anger, low self-esteem, social isolation and inadequacy are important and need to be addressed during the course of therapy with sexually abused patients.

  18. Breaking the Abuser-Abused Paradigm in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holzman, Lois; Strickland, Gloria

    The STOP Abusive Behavior Syndrome (STOP ABS) Project attempts to implement a community-based discipline model for inner-city elementary schools that avoids both physical and emotional abuse by teachers and students, while contributing to the students' overall development. Prevailing disciplinary models either relate to children as objects to be…

  19. Neuroimaging of child abuse: a critical review

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Heledd; Rubia, Katya

    2012-01-01

    Childhood maltreatment is a stressor that can lead to the development of behavior problems and affect brain structure and function. This review summarizes the current evidence for the effects of childhood maltreatment on behavior, cognition and the brain in adults and children. Neuropsychological studies suggest an association between child abuse and deficits in IQ, memory, working memory, attention, response inhibition and emotion discrimination. Structural neuroimaging studies provide evidence for deficits in brain volume, gray and white matter of several regions, most prominently the dorsolateral and ventromedial prefrontal cortex but also hippocampus, amygdala, and corpus callosum (CC). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies show evidence for deficits in structural interregional connectivity between these areas, suggesting neural network abnormalities. Functional imaging studies support this evidence by reporting atypical activation in the same brain regions during response inhibition, working memory, and emotion processing. There are, however, several limitations of the abuse research literature which are discussed, most prominently the lack of control for co-morbid psychiatric disorders, which make it difficult to disentangle which of the above effects are due to maltreatment, the associated psychiatric conditions or a combination or interaction between both. Overall, the better controlled studies that show a direct correlation between childhood abuse and brain measures suggest that the most prominent deficits associated with early childhood abuse are in the function and structure of lateral and ventromedial fronto-limbic brain areas and networks that mediate behavioral and affect control. Future, large scale multimodal neuroimaging studies in medication-naïve subjects, however, are needed that control for psychiatric co-morbidities in order to elucidate the structural and functional brain sequelae that are associated with early environmental adversity

  20. Ongoing incestuous abuse during adulthood.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Warwick

    2013-01-01

    Individual cases of adult incestuous abuse have surfaced repeatedly in the lay and professional literature of the past 1.5 centuries without it occasioning systematic investigation, such as the reporting of a case series of individuals subjected to such extreme abuse. Yet substantial numbers of patients with dissociative identity disorder at the time of presentation report incestuous abuse continuing into the adult years, and for many the abuse is ongoing. Data relating to a series of 10 such incestuously abused women are presented. These patients were sexually abused from a very early age (typically from before age 3), with the manipulation of their sexual response a key component in conditioning an enduring sexualized attachment. Shame and fear were also used to ensure compliance and silence. The women, when able to speak of it, describe the induction by their paternal abuser of orgasm at an early age, typically around the age of 6. The women have high indices of self-harm and suicidality and are prone to placing themselves in dangerous reenactment scenarios. The average duration of incestuous abuse for this group of women was 31 years, and the average estimate of total episodes of sexual abuse was 3,320. Most women do not feel that they own their body and experience being "fused" to their father. Their mother was reported as an active participant in the sexual abuse or as having done nothing to protect their daughter despite seeing obvious evidence of incest. The fathers, despite a propensity to use or threaten violence, were generally outwardly productively employed, financially comfortable, and stably married and half had close church involvement. However, suicide and murder occurred within the 1st- or 2nd-degree relatives of these women at a high frequency. All 10 had been sexually abused by various groupings of individuals connected to their fathers.

  1. 16 CFR 0.1 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The Commission. 0.1 Section 0.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.1 The Commission. The Federal Trade Commission is an independent administrative agency which was organized in...

  2. 17 CFR 140.10 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The Commission. 140.10 Section..., AND PROCEDURES OF THE COMMISSION Functions § 140.10 The Commission. The Commission is composed of a Chairman and four other Commissioners, not more than three of whom may be members of the same...

  3. 10 CFR 1.11 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The Commission. 1.11 Section 1.11 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters § 1.11 The Commission. (a) The Nuclear Regulatory Commission, composed of five members, one of whom is designated by...

  4. 45 CFR 702.18 - Commission reports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Commission reports. 702.18 Section 702.18 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) COMMISSION ON CIVIL RIGHTS RULES ON HEARINGS, REPORTS, AND MEETINGS OF THE COMMISSION Hearings and Reports § 702.18 Commission reports. (a) If...

  5. Federal Communications Commission Semiannual Regulatory Agenda

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ... Part XVIII Federal Communications Commission Semiannual Regulatory Agenda ] FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (FCC) FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Ch. I Unified Agenda of Federal Regulatory and Deregulatory Actions AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Semiannual regulatory agenda. SUMMARY: Twice a year, in spring and...

  6. 45 CFR 2101.10 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false The Commission. 2101.10 Section 2101.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) COMMISSION OF FINE ARTS FUNCTIONS AND ORGANIZATION General Organization § 2101.10 The Commission. The Commission is composed of seven members,...

  7. 17 CFR 140.10 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false The Commission. 140.10 Section..., AND PROCEDURES OF THE COMMISSION Functions § 140.10 The Commission. The Commission is composed of a Chairman and four other Commissioners, not more than three of whom may be members of the same...

  8. 16 CFR 0.1 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false The Commission. 0.1 Section 0.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.1 The Commission. The Federal Trade Commission is an independent administrative agency which was organized in...

  9. 16 CFR 0.1 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false The Commission. 0.1 Section 0.1 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION ORGANIZATION, PROCEDURES AND RULES OF PRACTICE ORGANIZATION § 0.1 The Commission. The Federal Trade Commission is an independent administrative agency which was organized in...

  10. 10 CFR 1.11 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false The Commission. 1.11 Section 1.11 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters § 1.11 The Commission. (a) The Nuclear Regulatory Commission, composed of five members, one of whom is designated by...

  11. 10 CFR 110.91 - Commission consultations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commission consultations. 110.91 Section 110.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) EXPORT AND IMPORT OF NUCLEAR EQUIPMENT AND MATERIAL Public Participation Procedures Concerning License Applications § 110.91 Commission consultations. The Commission...

  12. Design, fabrication, hookup, and commissioning of North Cormorant topside facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Cloughley, T.M.G.

    1985-01-01

    The North Cormorant platform in the North Sea was built and commissioned within budget and ahead of schedule to a high standard of quality. Some of the factors relating to the topside facilities that helped achieve this successful result are described for each of the design, procurement, fabrication, hookup, and commissioning phases. Of key importance was careful attention to the project objective and to planning, control, organization, people, and contracting methods. Some recommended improvements for a future project also are addressed.

  13. Tilidine abuse and dependence.

    PubMed

    Trojan, A; Beil, H W

    1978-11-01

    Tilidine (Valoron) is a new strong analgesic which was introduced into the market in West Germany in 1970. In February 1978 tilidine was placed under the regulations of the German Narcotics Act because it had rapidly become an easily acquired substitute for opiates on the drug scene. Cases have become known where tilidine dependence developed during the treatment of pain in patients without any preceding addiction to other drugs. The relevant literature on tilidine is reviewed in regard to pharmacological, epidemiological and clinical aspects of tilidine dependence and abuse.

  14. Breastfeeding and substance abuse.

    PubMed

    D'Apolito, Karen

    2013-03-01

    Breastfeeding is the recommended feeding method for infants. The decision to allow women to breastfeed while consuming alcohol and other drugs postpartum presents a problem for the health care provider. This article discusses the biochemical properties of various drugs as they relate to breastfeeding. Women in a methadone treatment program should be allowed to breast feed; however, more research is needed to determine the efficacy of breastfeeding when women are receiving buprenorphine. Breastfeeding should not be recommended in women who abuse heroin recreationally until more information is known about the actual amount of morphine present in the breast milk.

  15. Houston READ Commission Success Stories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston READ Commission, TX.

    This document highlights some of the success stories resulting from the activities of the Houston READ Commission (HRC), a nonprofit urban literacy coalition created by the Mayor and City Council of the Greater Houston area. It relates the stories of "those who are the future," lists gifts which support HRC programs, and donors and…

  16. Principles of assessment of abuse liability: US legal framework and regulatory environment.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Beatriz A

    2013-09-01

    Identifying the abuse potential of drug products in the premarketing and postmarketing environment has been a critical component in the implementation of drug abuse control laws worldwide. In the US, the Controlled Substances Act of 1970 (CSA) is a comprehensive federal law enacted to prevent the abuse or diversion of substances with abuse liability or addiction potential (for present purposes, these terms are used interchangeably). Under the jurisdiction of the Drug Enforcement Administration, the law applies to the manufacture and distribution of narcotics and other drug substances with potential of abuse. The CSA classifies substances with abuse potential into schedules I-V based on the substance's risk of diversion or abuse, and thus provides a legal framework for the assessment of abuse liability of New Molecular Entities. When the Food and Drug Administration reviews the safety and efficacy of a New Drug Application it also determines whether the drug has potential for abuse, and if so, will begin the process to schedule the drug under the CSA. As the assessment of abuse potential is a critical component of a marketing application, pharmaceutical companies (sponsors) bear the responsibility of generating a comprehensive preclinical and clinical data package for regulators to review and make decisions on labeling and the corresponding postmarketing surveillance. Recent regulatory guidelines adopted in the European Union (EU) (2006), Canada (2007), and USA (2010) provide recommendations to sponsors on preclinical and clinical methodologies for the assessment of abuse potential. This paper reviews the legal framework of the assessment of abuse liability and scheduling of controlled substances in the USA and describes the current global regulatory environment and the challenges that sponsors and regulators face when assessing abuse liability of New Molecular Entities, from the early stages of development through the late stages, review, and approval.

  17. Institutional abuse of children in the Austrian Catholic Church: types of abuse and impact on adult survivors' current mental health.

    PubMed

    Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte; Kantor, Viktoria; Weindl, Dina; Knefel, Matthias; Moy, Yvonne; Butollo, Asisa; Jagsch, Reinhold; Glück, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the nature and dimensions of institutional child abuse (IA) by the Austrian Catholic Church and to investigate the current mental health of adult survivors. Data were collected in two steps. First, documents of 448 adult survivors of IA (M=55.1 years, 75.7% men) who had disclosed their abuse history to a victim protection commission were collected. Different types of abuse, perpetrator characteristics, and family related risk factors were investigated. Second, a sample of 185 adult survivors completed the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL-C) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Participants reported an enormous diversity of acts of violent physical, sexual, and emotional abuse that had occurred in their childhood. The majority of adult survivors (83.3%) experienced emotional abuse. Rates of sexual (68.8%) and physical abuse (68.3%) were almost equally high. The prevalence of PTSD was 48.6% and 84.9% showed clinically relevant symptoms in at least one 1 of 10 symptom dimensions (9 BSI subscales and PTSD). No specific pre-IA influence was found to influence the development of PTSD in later life (e.g. poverty, domestic violence). However, survivors with PTSD reported a significantly higher total number of family related risk factors (d=0.33). We conclude that childhood IA includes a wide spectrum of violent acts, and has a massive negative impact on the current mental health of adult survivors. We address the long-term effects of these traumatic experiences in addition to trauma re-activation in adulthood as both bear great challenges for professionals working with survivors.

  18. ''Fraud, abuse, or similar grounds'' exception under Section 601(c)(2) of the NGPA

    SciTech Connect

    Puckett, K.T.

    1985-01-01

    The determination of what constitutes ''fraud, abuse, or similar grounds'' under the Natural Gas Policy Act has been the subject of extensive litigation before the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC). Although FERC has consistently held that these grounds do not include imprudence, it has also held that ''the same type of actions of a pipeline can be imprudent or abusive.'' A finding of abuse will result in denial of the pipeline's pass through of gas costs to the extent they are excess due to abuse, and a finding of imprudence may result in denial of the pipeline's recovery of fixed costs. The author analyzes the development of FERC's position, and shows that it may be difficult in some cases for an interstate pipeline to be certain it is in compliance with FERC standards.

  19. Emotional abuse in childhood and suicidality: The mediating roles of re-victimization and depressive symptoms in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min-Ah

    2015-06-01

    This study examined the effects of emotional abuse in childhood, along with physical and sexual abuse, on suicidality in adulthood, and whether and how emotional abuse and depressive symptoms in adulthood mediate the association between the childhood emotional abuse and suicidality. The data were drawn from the 2012 Korean General Social Survey, a nationally representative survey with a multistage area proportional probability sampling method. Random effects regression and the Sobel test were used to analyze the relationships between childhood emotional abuse and suicidality and the mediating effects. Random effects models showed that emotional abuse in childhood was positively associated with suicidality in adulthood, even after controlling for physical and sexual abuse in childhood. Emotional abuse and depressive symptoms in adulthood mediated the association between emotional abuse in childhood and suicidality. Depressive symptoms also mediated between emotional abuse in adulthood and suicidality. These findings suggest that emotional abuse in childhood has indirect harmful effects on suicidality in adulthood. It increases suicidality through higher occurrences of re-victimization and depressive symptoms in adulthood. Practitioners and policy makers should recognize that experiences of emotional abuse in childhood may result in re-victimization in adulthood, which, in turn, lead to suicidality. Early intervention programs to reduce the likelihood of experiencing re-victimization may be critical for people exposed to emotional abuse in childhood.

  20. 76 FR 7695 - Iranian Human Rights Abuses Sanctions Regulations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control 31 CFR Part 562 Iranian Human Rights Abuses Sanctions Regulations AGENCY.... The Department of the Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control is issuing the Iranian Human Rights... Foreign Assets Control adds part 562 to 31 CFR Chapter V to read as follows: PART 562--IRANIAN...

  1. A World of Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horan, John J.; And Others

    This third chapter in "Elementary School Counseling in a Changing World" contains five journal articles which focus on substance abuse prevention. "Perspectives on Substance Abuse Prevention" by John Horan, Andres Kerns, and Christine Olson emphasizes how important it is for children to be able to say "no" to drugs and provides a review of…

  2. Female Perpetrators of Intimate Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dutton, Donald G.; Nicholls, Tonia L.; Spidel, Alicia

    2005-01-01

    A review is made of female intimate abuse. It is concluded that females are as abusive as males in intimate relationships according to survey and epidemiological studies. This is especially so for younger "cohort" community samples followed longitudinally. Predictors of intimate violence with women appear to be similar to those of men; including…

  3. Bringing attention to domestic abuse.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Lynne

    2014-06-03

    Nursing skills are vital to the roles of those working with victims of domestic abuse in Nottinghamshire. Specialist nurses at Nottingham University Hospitals NHS Trust are involved in referring patients on to further support services and training hospital staff to identify and respond to signs of abuse.

  4. Amnesia Affecting Some Opioid Abusers

    MedlinePlus

    ... Health, or the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. More Health News on: Memory Opioid Abuse and Addiction Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Memory Opioid Abuse and Addiction ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated ...

  5. Child Abuse: The Educator's Responsibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. School Safety Center.

    Addressing educators and citing the California Penal Code, this booklet discusses the legal responsibilities of persons in child care situations regarding incidents of suspected child abuse. Included are: (1) a definition of child abuse and neglect; (2) reporting procedures including liability of failure to report and immunity of the reporting…

  6. The "Discovery" of Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfohl, Stephen J.

    1977-01-01

    Surveys the history of social reaction to child abuse, discusses the cultural values promoting the protection of children, points out how much pediatric radiology benefited from its "discovery" of "the battered child syndrome" in the early sixties, and concludes that the labeling of child abusers as "sick" has shielded them from criminal…

  7. Suicide Attempts among Drug Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrsi, Rachel; And Others

    1979-01-01

    The relationship between substance abuse and suicide is indicated by high rate of attempted suicide among alcoholics and drug abusers, as well as increased likelihood of repeated attempts in these populations. This study reports on psychological characteristics of male drug suicide attempters who are in treatment for their addiction problem.…

  8. Counseling with the Drug Abuser.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demos, George D.

    Counselors, in the past few years, have had to work with a great many drug abusers. While successes are difficult to evaluate, the failures are glaringly evident. In a search for a more effective method of working with drug abusers, 12 questions were devised. These are self-evaluative and directed at the counselor. If a counselor can openly and…

  9. Child Abuse in Setswana Folktales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malimabe-Ramagoshi, Refilwe M.; Maree, Jacobus G.; Alexander, Daleen; Molepo, Maisha M.

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the possible role played by African folk literature, taking Setswana folktales as a case in point, in justifying and perpetuating the abusive behaviour so often witnessed and decried in postmodern society. We found some evidence that certain folktales may depict real-life child abuse by adults (male and female), and, indeed,…

  10. I-E Scores of Drug-Abusing Offenders: The Influence of Social Desirability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBridge, Kevin J.

    1982-01-01

    Tests the relationship between locus of control and drug abuse and the influence of test instructions and social desirability. Results of research with incarcerated offenders indicated test instructions aimed at heightening social desirability artificially inflated locus of control scores. Found no significant differences between drug abusers and…

  11. Delinquent Risks of Parental Abuse at the Age of 11 Years among At-Risk Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheung, Chau-kiu

    2014-01-01

    Parental abuse is supposedly objectionable because it is the instigation of the child's delinquency. This instigation is likely to stem from the impairment of parental control arising from parental abuse, with respect to social control theory. For the substantiation of this likelihood, the present study surveyed 229 users of youth social work…

  12. [Inhalant abusers and psychiatric symptoms].

    PubMed

    Okudaira, K; Yabana, T; Takahashi, H; Iizuka, H; Nakajima, K; Saito, A

    1996-01-01

    There are different opinions about the cause of chronic psychiatric symptoms observed in drug abusers between Japanese and foreign psychiatrists. The Japanese seem to recognize the chronic psychosis as the result of drug abuse. In the other hand, foreigners diagnose these cases as dual diagnosis of drug abuse and psychosis. Authors studied the problem in this research. One of the authors has examined 120 inhalant abusers of all, in- and out-patients in Kanagawa Prefectural Center of Psychiatry, Serigaya Hospital from 1991 to 1995. These patients were classified into three groups: psychosis group (23 patients), dependence group (51 patients) and abuse group (46 patients) according to their clinical courses and psychiatric symptoms. The psychosis group consists of patients who showed psychiatric symptoms such as hallucination, delusion and thought disturbance for long time after detoxification. The dependence group contains patients whose inhalant dependence was severe and met DSM-4 Diagnostic Criteria for Substance Dependence, but manifested no chronic psychiatric symptoms after detoxification. The patients belonging to abuse group were at the earlier stages of inhalant abuse and had no chronic psychiatric symptoms. The average age of the first inhalant abuse was 14.7 years old in the psychosis group, 14.8 years in the dependence group and 14.7 years in the abuse group. The average years of abuse was 9.0 years in the psychosis group, and 8.5 years in the dependence group. There was little difference between these two groups. The psychosis patients manifested chronic symptoms 5.7 years on average after the first abuse of inhalants. About one forth (26.1%) of the psychosis patients and only 5.9% of the dependence patients had family history of schizophrenia. The difference was statistically significant. These results suggest that chronic psychiatric symptoms are caused not only by inhalant abuse, but also by the genetic factors of psychosis of each patient. There have

  13. Methamphetamine abuse and dentistry.

    PubMed

    Hamamoto, D T; Rhodus, N L

    2009-01-01

    Methamphetamine is a highly addictive powerful stimulant that increases wakefulness and physical activity and produces other effects including cardiac dysrhythmias, hypertension, hallucinations, and violent behavior. The prevalence of methamphetamine use is estimated at 35 million people worldwide and 10.4 million people in the United States. In the United States, the prevalence of methamphetamine use is beginning to decline but methamphetamine trafficking and use are still significant problems. Dental patients who abuse methamphetamine can present with poor oral hygiene, xerostomia, rampant caries ('Meth mouth'), and excessive tooth wear. Dental management of methamphetamine users requires obtaining a thorough medical history and performing a careful oral examination. The most important factor in treating the oral effects of methamphetamine is for the patient to stop using the drug. Continued abuse will make it difficult to increase salivary flow and hinder the patient's ability to improve nutrition and oral hygiene. Local anesthetics with vasoconstrictors should be used with care in patients taking methamphetamine because they may result in cardiac dysrhythmias, myocardial infarction, and cerebrovascular accidents. Thus, dental management of patients who use methamphetamine can be challenging. Dentists need to be aware of the clinical presentation and medical risks presented by these patients.

  14. Child abuse by drowning.

    PubMed

    Griest, K J; Zumwalt, R E

    1989-01-01

    Drowning as a form of subtle fatal child abuse is difficult to distinguish from accidental immersion or from sudden unexpected natural death when the circumstances of immersion are concealed. Homicidal drownings are unwitnessed, usually occurring in the home, and the victims are young, either infants or toddlers. Accidental drownings are more likely to involve toddlers or older children in public areas such as swimming pools, drainage ditches, lakes, and rivers. This is especially true in rural areas. In cities, bathtubs remain a major site of accidental childhood drownings. Perpetrators of deliberate drownings often fit the sociopathologic profile of a child abuser. Because there is often a survival interval between immersion and death, pathologic findings consistent with postimmersion syndrome suggest the cause of death. Foreign material in the lungs, if immersion was other than in clear tap water, and injuries of the face are other positive correlating factors. A thorough investigation of the circumstances and cooperation between the investigating agency and the pathologist are essential to determine the correct manner of death in these cases.

  15. Indirect Abuse Involving Children During the Separation Process.

    PubMed

    Hayes, Brittany E

    2015-07-27

    Separation is believed to be an antidote to risk abusers pose to their partners and children and underlines many interventions in family, juvenile, and criminal court proceedings. Countering this belief is the claim that many abusers respond to the felt loss of power and control occasioned by separation by changing or escalating abusive tactics. This study complements research on post-separation by asking whether separation is associated with an increase in threats of indirect abuse, which relies on third parties to manipulate the victim. Children, and threats made against them, can be used as a proxy to control or intimidate the victim. Using data from the Chicago Women Health Risk Study (N = 339), the current study examined whether mothers who were separated were at greater risk of abuse through threats against the children when compared with mothers who were still in a relationship with their abuser. Results indicated that separated mothers were four times more likely to report threats to take and threats to harm the children, Exp(B) = 4.05, p < .05; Exp(B) = 3.93, p < .05, than non-separated mothers. Findings can be used to inform child custody procedures and the design of Family Justice Centers.

  16. Brainwashing and battering fatigue. Psychological abuse in domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Mega, L T; Mega, J L; Mega, B T; Harris, B M

    2000-01-01

    Intimate partner violence occurs often in the United States; it involves an interrelated combination of physical, sexual, and psychological abuse, usually directed against women. The psychological aspect deserves special attention because victims who lose their independence, self-esteem, and dignity tend to remain in abusive situations. The abuse is perpetrated by a domestic partner to maintain power and control in the relationship. To assert control, the abuser uses "brainwashing tactics" similar to those used on prisoners of war, hostages, or members of a cult. Common features of brainwashing include isolation, humiliation, accusation, and unpredictable attacks. The abusive environment produces real and anticipated fear, which contributes to the battered woman's belief that her situation is hopeless and that she must depend on her abuser. She develops coping strategies to deal with her oppressive environment, but eventually exhibits symptoms of "battering fatigue," similar to the battle fatigue of soldiers in combat who, like battered women, live in fear of being killed or severely injured. Recognizing the state of mind of these women can help us understand why it is difficult for them to flee their traumatic environment and why they may resort to suicide or homicide. For healthcare providers to screen and treat their patients adequately, it is imperative that they appreciate the complex and devastating psychological aspects of domestic violence.

  17. 75 FR 11166 - Joint Meeting of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-10

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Joint Meeting of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission; Notice of Joint Meeting of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the... the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) will hold a joint meeting on Tuesday, March 16, 2010 at...

  18. Commissioning of the LCLS LINAC

    SciTech Connect

    Loos, H.; Akre, R.; Brachmann, A.; Decker, F.-J.; Ding, Y.; Dowell, D.; Emma, P.; Frisch, J.; Gilevich, S.; Hays, G.; Hering, Ph.; Huang, Z.; Iverson, R.; Limborg-Deprey, C.; Miahnahri, A.; Molloy, S.; Nuhn, H.-D.; Turner, J.; Welch, J.; White, W.; Wu, J.; /SLAC /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.

    2010-06-11

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) X-ray free electron laser project is currently under construction at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). A new injector and upgrades to the existing accelerator were installed in two phases in 2006 and 2007. We report on the commissioning of the injector, the two new bunch compressors at 250MeV and 4.3 GeV, and transverse and longitudinal beam diagnostics up to the end of the existing linac at 13.6 GeV. The commissioning of the new transfer line from the end of the linac to the undulator is scheduled to start in November 2008 and for the undulator in March 2009 with first light to be expected in July 2009.

  19. Abuse of Amphetamines and Structural Abnormalities in Brain

    PubMed Central

    Berman, Steven; O’Neill, Joseph; Fears, Scott; Bartzokis, George; London, Edythe D.

    2009-01-01

    We review evidence that structural brain abnormalities are associated with abuse of amphetamines. A brief history of amphetamine use/abuse, and evidence for toxicity is followed by a summary of findings from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of human subjects who had abused amphetamines and children who were exposed to amphetamines in utero. Evidence comes from studies that used a variety of techniques that include manual tracing, pattern matching, voxel-based, tensor-based, or cortical thickness mapping, quantification of white matter signal hyperintensities, and diffusion tensor imaging. Ten studies compared controls to individuals who were exposed to methamphetamine. Three studies assessed individuals exposed to 3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Brain structural abnormalities were consistently reported in amphetamine abusers, as compared to control subjects. These included lower cortical gray matter volume and higher striatal volume than control subjects. These differences might reflect brain features that could predispose to substance dependence. High striatal volumes might also reflect compensation for toxicity in the dopamine-rich basal ganglia. Prenatal exposure was associated with striatal volume that was below control values, suggesting that such compensation might not occur in utero. Several forms of white matter abnormality are also common, and may involve gliosis. Many of the limitations and inconsistencies in the literature relate to techniques and cross-sectional designs, which cannot infer causality. Potential confounding influences include effects of pre-existing risk/protective factors, development, gender, severity of amphetamine abuse, abuse of other drugs, abstinence, and differences in lifestyle. Longitudinal designs in which multimodal datasets are acquired and are subjected to multivariate analyses would enhance our ability to provide general conclusions regarding the associations between amphetamine abuse and brain

  20. Abuse of amphetamines and structural abnormalities in the brain.

    PubMed

    Berman, Steven; O'Neill, Joseph; Fears, Scott; Bartzokis, George; London, Edythe D

    2008-10-01

    We review evidence that structural brain abnormalities are associated with abuse of amphetamines. A brief history of amphetamine use/abuse and evidence for toxicity is followed by a summary of findings from structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of human subjects who had abused amphetamines and children who were exposed to amphetamines in utero. Evidence comes from studies that used a variety of techniques including manual tracing, pattern matching, voxel-based, tensor-based, or cortical thickness mapping, quantification of white matter signal hyperintensities, and diffusion tensor imaging. Ten studies compared controls to individuals who were exposed to methamphetamine. Three studies assessed individuals exposed to 3-4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA). Brain structural abnormalities were consistently reported in amphetamine abusers, as compared to control subjects. These included lower cortical gray matter volume and higher striatal volume than control subjects. These differences might reflect brain features that could predispose to substance dependence. High striatal volumes might also reflect compensation for toxicity in the dopamine-rich basal ganglia. Prenatal exposure was associated with striatal volume that was below control values, suggesting that such compensation might not occur in utero. Several forms of white matter abnormality are also common and may involve gliosis. Many of the limitations and inconsistencies in the literature relate to techniques and cross-sectional designs, which cannot infer causality. Potential confounding influences include effects of pre existing risk/protective factors, development, gender, severity of amphetamine abuse, abuse of other drugs, abstinence, and differences in lifestyle. Longitudinal designs in which multimodal datasets are acquired and are subjected to multivariate analyses would enhance our ability to provide general conclusions regarding the associations between amphetamine abuse and brain

  1. Designing Opioids That Deter Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Raffa, Robert B.; Pergolizzi, Joseph V.; Muñiz, Edmundo; Taylor, Robert; Pergolizzi, Jason

    2012-01-01

    Prescription opioid formulations designed to resist or deter abuse are an important step in reducing opioid abuse. In creating these new formulations, the paradigm of drug development target should be introduced. Biological targets relating to the nature of addiction may pose insurmountable hurdles based on our current knowledge and technology, but products that use behavioral targets seem logical and feasible. The population of opioid abusers is large and diverse so behavioral targets are more challenging than they appear at first glance. Furthermore, we need to find ways to correlate behavioral observations of drug liking to actual use and abuse patterns. This may involve revisiting some pharmacodynamic concepts in light of drug effect rather than peak concentration. In this paper we present several new opioid analgesic agents designed to resist or deter abuse using physical barriers, the inclusion of an opioid agonist or antagonist, an aversive agent, and a prodrug formulation. Further, this paper also provides insight into the challenges facing drug discovery in this field. Designing and screening for opioids intended to resist or deter abuse is an important step to meet the public health challenge of burgeoning prescription opioid abuse. PMID:23213510

  2. The prevention of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Finkelhor, David

    2009-01-01

    David Finkelhor examines initiatives to prevent child sexual abuse, which have focused on two primary strategies--offender management and school-based educational programs. Recent major offender managment initiatives have included registering sex offenders, notifying communities about their presence, conducting background employment checks, controlling where offenders can live, and imposing longer prison sentences. Although these initiatives win approval from both the public and policy makers, little evidence exists that they are effective in preventing sexual abuse. Moreover, these initiatives, cautions Finkelhor, are based on an overly stereotyped characterization of sexual abusers as pedophiles, guileful strangers who prey on children in public and other easy-access environments and who are at high risk to re-offend once caught. In reality the population is much more diverse. Most sexual abusers are not strangers or pedophiles; many (about a third) are themselves juveniles. Many have relatively low risks for re-offending once caught. Perhaps the most serious shortcoming to offender management as a prevention strategy, Finkelhor argues, is that only a small percentage of new offenders have a prior sex offense record that would have involved them in the management system. He recommends using law enforcement resources to catch more undetected offenders and concentrating intensive management efforts on those at highest risk to re-offend. Finkelhor explains that school-based educational programs teach children such skills as how to identify dangerous situations, refuse an abuser's approach, break off an interaction, and summon help. The programs also aim to promote disclosure, reduce self-blame, and mobilize bystanders. Considerable evaluation research exists about these programs, suggesting that they achieve certain of their goals. Research shows, for example, that young people can and do acquire the concepts. The programs may promote disclosure and help children

  3. The Grace Commission's View of Federal Research and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aines, Andrew A.

    1984-01-01

    Focuses on the information aspects of the Grace Commission's (President's Private Sector Survey on Cost Control) findings and recommendations contained in the report on federal research and development. Research project reporting and redundancy, database provided by National Technical Information Service, cost controls, and measuring research and…

  4. 78 FR 57818 - Commission Participation and Commission Employee Involvement in Voluntary Standards Activities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY... Standards Activities AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety Commission. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (Commission or CPSC) is issuing a...

  5. Family of Origin Violence and Courtship Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Linda L.; Rose, Patricia

    1988-01-01

    Responses from 336 undergraduates revealed 75 percent of respondents had expressed threats or actual violence and 64 percent had received abuse in intimate relationship. In the sample, 30 percent had parents who abused each other; less often the mother or father had been sole abuser. Multiple regression indicated being abused as child predicted…

  6. Adolescent Depression, Alcohol and Drug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deykin, Eva Y.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Interviews of 434 college students revealed that prevalence of major depressive disorder (MDD) was 6.8 percent; of alcohol abuse, 8.2 percent; and of substance abuse, 9.4 percent. Alcohol and substance abuse were associated with MDD. Substance abuse was associated with other psychiatric diagnoses as well. MDD usually preceded alcohol or substance…

  7. Elder Abuse: The Status of Current Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrick-Cornell, Claire; Gelles, Richard J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses problems of definition of elderly abuse. Examines data and research on the rates of elderly abuse and factors found related to elderly abuse. Critiques theories developed to explain the abuse of the elderly. Presents recommendations for research and practice. (RC)

  8. Caveats of bisphosphonate abuse

    PubMed Central

    Agarwala, Sanjay; Agashe, Vikas M; Shetty, Vivek; Mohrir, Ganesh; Moonot, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Background: Bisphosphonates (BPs) are the common drugs used for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Short term benefits of the BPs are well known. However, there are concerns regarding their long term use. The aim of the study was to analyze the association between atypical femoral fractures and BP misuse/abuse as well as study the outcome of management of these fractures. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study of a prospectively studied patients who presented with atypical femoral fractures between January 2010 and August 2012 and were followed up upto June 2014. The cohort consisted of nine female patients (12 fractures) with an average age of 71 years (range 58-85 years). Analysis was done for the indications, duration of BP use, configuration of associated fractures and method of treatment. Results: The mean duration of BP use was 6.6 years (range 4-10 years). BP treatment was initiated without sufficient indication and continued without proper review and followup in most cases. Most patients did not followup and continued to consume BPs without any review by the doctors. All patients had prodromal thigh pain of various duration, which was inadequately investigated and managed before the presentation. Two cases with an incomplete fracture and no thigh pain were managed successfully with conservative treatment. The rest were treated by surgery with intramedullary nailing. The average union time was longer and two fractures went into nonunion which required further surgical intervention. Conclusion: Atypical femoral fractures appear to be strongly related to abuse of BPs. Great care is to be exercised at initiation as well as the continuation of BP therapy, and regular review is required. There is a need for improved awareness among physicians about the possibility of such fractures, and interpretation of thigh pain and radiological findings, especially if the patient has been on BPs therapy. Internal fixation for complete fractures and for

  9. Self-Esteem and Attitudes toward Love in Abused and Non-Abused Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambliss, Catherine; And Others

    This study sought to identify personality differences in abused versus non-abused women. Abused women (N=25) were from several centers for abused women and non-abused women (N=39) were students in evening psychology classes. All subjects completed Rubin's Love Scale, the abbreviated Dominance and Romanticism Scale, Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale,…

  10. Women and Drugs: The Heroin Abuser and the Prescription Drug Abuser.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutierres, Sara E.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Reviewed the literature on female drug use/abuse and derived descriptions of the female heroin abuser and the female prescription drug abuser. Researchers suggest that problems of female drug abusers should be viewed in terms of the feminine role as well as the role of drug abuser. (BH)

  11. How do nursing students perceive substance abusing nurses?

    PubMed

    Boulton, Martha A; Nosek, Laura J

    2014-02-01

    Substance abuse among nurses was recognized by nurse leaders and professional nursing organizations as a growing threat to patient safety and to the health of the abusing nurse more than 30years ago. Although numerous studies on nurse impairment were published in the 1980s and 1990s, there was minimal focus on student nurses' perceptions about impaired nurses and less research has been published more recently, despite a growing rate of substance abuse. A quasi-experimental study to explore the perceptions of student nurses toward nurses who are chemically dependent was conducted using a two-group, pretest-posttest design. The Perception of Nurse Impairment Inventory (PNII) was completed by student nurses at the beginning of their junior course work, prior to formal education about substance abuse. The PNII was repeated after the students received substance abuse education. The PNII was also completed by a control group of sophomore student nurses who did not receive the formal substance abuse education. A repeated measures analysis of variance was used to measure the differences between the two groups of students. Students who received the education chose more compassionate responses on the PNII and were more likely to respond that an impaired nurse's supervisor is responsible for supporting and guiding the impaired nurse to access professional care. Discrepancies in study findings about the efficacy of education for effecting positive attitudes of student nurses toward impaired nurses may be related to the length and type of the education.

  12. Child physical abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Samantha; Christian, Cindy W

    2014-04-01

    This article provides an overview of child physical abuse and neglect, and describes the magnitude of the problem and the triggers and factors that place children at risk for abuse and neglect. After examining the legal and clinical definitions of child abuse and neglect, common clinical outcomes and therapeutic strategies are reviewed, including the lifelong poor physical and mental health of victims and evidence-supported treatment interventions. Mandated reporting laws, and facilitating collaboration among child welfare, judicial, and health care systems are considered. Important tools and resources for addressing child maltreatment in clinical practice are discussed, and future approaches posited.

  13. Child sexual abuse and women's sexual health: the contribution of CSA severity and exposure to multiple forms of childhood victimization.

    PubMed

    Lacelle, Céline; Hébert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E

    2012-01-01

    Research studies have provided increasing evidence for the potential adverse impact of child sexual abuse on women's sexual health. The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse and sexual health while controlling for various forms of childhood victimization. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 889 young women from the province of Quebec. Results suggest that child sexual abuse survivors were more likely to report having experienced other forms of childhood victimization than were women without child sexual abuse. Women with a history of both child sexual abuse and multiple forms of victimization were at greater risk of experiencing more adverse outcomes, including risky sexual behaviors, sexual problems, and negative sexual self-concept. Regression analyses revealed that child sexual abuse was significantly related to indicators of sexual health outcomes even when controlling for the effect of single forms of victimization. Clinically, interventions optimizing sexual health may be particularly helpful for a subgroup of child sexual abuse survivors.

  14. 76 FR 9630 - Notice of Public Hearing and Commission Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION Notice of Public Hearing and Commission Meeting AGENCY: Susquehanna River Basin Commission. ACTION: Notice of public hearing and commission meeting. SUMMARY: The Susquehanna River Basin Commission...

  15. Assessment for self-blame and trauma symptoms during the medical evaluation of suspected sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Melville, John D; Kellogg, Nancy D; Perez, Nadia; Lukefahr, James L

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe behavioural and emotional symptoms and to examine the effect of abuse-related factors, family responses to disclosure, and child self-blame on these symptoms in children presenting for medical evaluations after disclosure of sexual abuse. A retrospective review was conducted of 501 children ages 8-17. Trauma symptoms were determined by two sets of qualitative measures. Abstracted data included gender, ethnicity, and age; severity of abuse and abuser relationship to child; child responses regarding difficulty with sleep, school, appetite/weight, sadness, or self-harm, parent belief in abuse disclosure, and abuse-specific self-blame; responses to the Trauma Symptom Checklist in Children-Alternate; and the parent's degree of belief in the child's sexual abuse disclosure. Overall, 83% of the children had at least one trauma symptom; 60% had difficulty sleeping and one-third had thoughts of self-harm. Child age and abuse severity were associated with 3 of 12 trauma symptoms, and abuse-specific self-blame was associated with 10 trauma symptoms, after controlling for other variables. The children of parents who did not completely believe the initial disclosure of abuse were twice as likely to endorse self-blame as children of parents who completely believed the initial disclosure. Screening for behavioural and emotional problems during the medical assessment of suspected sexual abuse should include assessment of self-blame and family responses to the child's disclosures. In addition, parents should be informed of the importance of believing their child during the initial disclosure of abuse and of the impact this has on the child's emotional response to the abuse.

  16. Care for survivors of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Tidy, H

    1996-07-01

    Childhood sexual abuse affects at least 18% of British women but the true figure may be far higher. Repressed memories may resurface at childbirth. Midwives need to be aware of certain behavioural tendencies which may indicate childhood sexual abuse. There are four recognised labour styles which may be adopted by abuse survivors. Extra sensitivity should be used by midwives when caring for a possible abuse survivor. Disclosure of abuse must always come from the client.

  17. Blue Ribbon Commission Tour of Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Paul Saueressig

    2010-07-14

    The Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future toured the Department of Energy's Hanford Site on July 14, 2010. Commission members, invited guests, and members of the public visited facilities that store high-level, radioactive waste.

  18. Blue Ribbon Commission Tour of Hanford Site

    ScienceCinema

    Paul Saueressig

    2016-07-12

    The Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future toured the Department of Energy's Hanford Site on July 14, 2010. Commission members, invited guests, and members of the public visited facilities that store high-level, radioactive waste.

  19. Dating violence victimization across the teen years: Abuse frequency, number of abusive partners, and age at first occurrence

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prior longitudinal studies have shown high cumulative dating violence exposure rates among U.S adolescents, with 36 percent of males and 44 percent to 88 percent of females experiencing victimization across adolescence/young adulthood. Despite promising information characterizing adolescents’ dating violence experiences longitudinally, prior studies tended to concentrate on physical and sexual types of violence only, and did not report information on the number of times dating violence was experienced across multiple abusive partners. We used a method similar to the timeline follow-back interview to query adolescents about dating violence victimization from age 13 to 19—including dating violence types (physical, sexual, and psychological), frequency, age at first occurrence, and number of abusive partners. Methods A total of 730 subjects were randomly sampled from university registrar records and invited to complete an online survey, which utilized methods similar to the timeline follow-back interview, to retrospectively assess relationship histories and dating violence victimization from age 13 to 19 (eight questions adapted from widely-used surveys covering physical, sexual, and psychological abuse). Then, for each dating violence type, we asked about the number of occurrences, number of abusive partners, and age at first occurrence. Of 341 subjects who completed the survey, we included 297 (64 percent females; 36 percent males) who had a dating partner from age 13 to 19. Results Fully 64.7 percent of females and 61.7 percent of males reported dating violence victimization between age 13 and 19, with most experiencing multiple occurrences. More than one-third of abused females had two or more abusive partners: controlling behavior (35.6 percent); put downs/name calling (37.0); pressured sex (42.9); insults (44.3); slapped/hit (50.0); and threats (62.5). Males also had two or more abusive partners, as follows: controlling behavior (42.1 percent

  20. Maternal abuse history and self-regulation difficulties in preadolescence.

    PubMed

    Delker, Brianna C; Noll, Laura K; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A

    2014-12-01

    Although poor parenting is known to be closely linked to self-regulation difficulties in early childhood, comparatively little is understood about the role of other risk factors in the early caregiving environment (such as a parent's own experiences of childhood abuse) in developmental pathways of self-regulation into adolescence. Using a longitudinal design, this study aimed to examine how a mother's history of abuse in childhood relates to her offspring's self-regulation difficulties in preadolescence. Maternal controlling parenting and exposure to intimate partner aggression in the child's first 24-36 months were examined as important early social and environmental influences that may explain the proposed connection between maternal abuse history and preadolescent self-regulation. An ethnically diverse sample of mothers (N=488) who were identified as at-risk for child maltreatment was recruited at the time of their children's birth. Mothers and their children were assessed annually from the child's birth through 36 months, and at age 9-11 years. Structural equation modeling and bootstrap tests of indirect effects were conducted to address the study aims. Findings indicated that maternal abuse history indirectly predicted their children's self-regulation difficulties in preadolescence mainly through maternal controlling parenting in early childhood, but not through maternal exposure to aggression by an intimate partner. Maternal history of childhood abuse and maternal controlling parenting in her child's early life may have long-term developmental implications for child self-regulation.

  1. Nuclear Regulatory Commission 1989 Information Digest

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1989-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission 1989 Information Digest provides summary information regarding the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, its regulatory responsibilities, and areas licensed by the Commission. This is the first of an annual publication for the general use of the NRC staff and is available to the public. The Digest is divided into two parts: the first presents an overview of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the second provides data on NRC commercial nuclear reactor licensees and commercial nuclear power reactors worldwide.

  2. Bioethics commission to review gene patenting

    SciTech Connect

    Rothenburg, L.

    1995-12-01

    In October, in an unexpected development, U.S. President Bill Clinton created a national ethics advisory board, the National Bioethics Advisory Commission (NBAC, Washington, DC), to study both research ethics and the management and use of genetic information. Of particular interest to biotechnology companies and researchers is the fact that the commission`s brief encompasses issues about human gene patenting, a subject not contained in earlier proposals for the commission.

  3. Eating disorders and sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Molinari, E

    2001-06-01

    This review examines the current debate on the role that sexual and physical abuse may play in predisposing to eating disorders in women. Despite some discordant opinions, clinicians agree that the experience of abuse in early childhood may be important for understanding the complex genesis of the eating disorders of some women. Three groups of studies are presented: those in which no connections emerge between sexual abuse and eating disorders, those in which a strong link is present and those in which the results refer to a multifactorial interpretative model. Some of the main symptoms, such as reactualization of the trauma, dissociation, personality disorders, pathological relationship with food, distortion of body image, suicide attempts and self-inflicted punishment that victims of abuse and eating disordered subjects share are examined.

  4. Substance Abuse in the Military

    MedlinePlus

    ... Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine ... Drugs Anabolic Steroids Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products Cocaine Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse Electronic Cigarettes (e- ...

  5. Preventing Child Abuse and Neglect

    MedlinePlus

    ... Frequently Asked Questions: Preventing Child Abuse & Neglect Select Free Subscriptions This survey is powered by SurveyGizmo's online survey software . Please take my survey now Children’s Bureau Child ...

  6. Substance Abuse in Rural Areas

    MedlinePlus

    ... physical appearance and grooming Association with known substance abusers Need for money and stealing money Persistent dishonesty ... can be done to discourage youth from using drugs and alcohol? Everyone can help educate children and ...

  7. Abuse and toxicity of methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Klein-Schwartz, Wendy

    2002-04-01

    The therapeutic use of methylphenidate for the management of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children is increasing. As therapeutic use increases, the risk increases of unintentional overdoses, medication errors, and intentional overdoses caused by abuse, misuse, or suicide gestures and attempts. Side effects during therapy, which include nervousness, headache, insomnia, anorexia, and tachycardia, increase linearly with dose. Clinical manifestations of overdoses include agitation, hallucinations, psychosis, lethargy, seizures, tachycardia, dysrhythmias, hypertension, and hyperthermia. Methylphenidate tablets can be abused orally, or they can be crushed and the powder injected or snorted. Despite its abuse potential, there is disagreement regarding the extent to which methylphenidate is being diverted from legitimate use to abuse in preteens and adolescents.

  8. 78 FR 53789 - Technology Innovations for Substance Abuse and Mental Health Treatment Conference & Related...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... CONTROL POLICY Technology Innovations for Substance Abuse and Mental Health Treatment Conference & Related Health Information Technology (HIT) Meeting AGENCY: Office of National Drug Control Policy. ACTION: Notice. Location: Eisenhower Executive Office Building, South Court Auditorium. DATES: Monday,...

  9. Commissioning Instrument for the GTC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuevas, S.; Sánchez, B.; Bringas, V.; Espejo, C.; Flores, R.; Chapa, O.; Lara, G.; Chavolla, A.; Anguiano, G.; Arciniega, S.; Dorantes, A.; González, J. L.; Montoya, J. M.; Toral, R.; Hernández, H.; Nava, R.; Devaney, N.; Castro, J.; Cavaller-Marqués, L.

    2005-12-01

    During the GTC integration phase, the Commissioning Instrument (CI) will be a diagnostic tool for performance verification. The CI features four operation modes: imaging, pupil imaging, Curvature WFS, and high resolution Shack-Hartmann WFS. This instrument was built by the Instituto de Astronomía UNAM and the Centro de Ingeniería y Desarrollo Industrial (CIDESI) under GRANTECAN contract after a public bid. In this paper we made a general instrument overview and we show some of the performance final results obtained when the Factory Acceptance tests previous to its transport to La Palma.

  10. Spectroscopic commissioning results from MINERVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastman, Jason D.; Johnson, Samson; Wang, Sharon; Sliski, David; Wilson, Maurice; Johnson, John A.; McCrady, Nate; Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Wright, Jason; Plavchan, Peter; Blake, Cullen; Beatty, Thomas G.

    2017-01-01

    MINERVA is a robotic observatory with four 0.7 meter telescopes at Mt. Hopkins, Arizona, dedicated to precise photometry and radial velocity observations of bright, nearby stars for the discovery and characterization of small exoplanets. Here we present the first radial velocity results from MINERVA during commissioning at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory in Arizona, demonstrating m/s precision over month-long timescales. These results show that MINERVA is capable of achieving its primary science goal of finding super-Earths around the nearest, brightest stars.

  11. Photometric commissioning results from MINERVA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastman, Jason D.; Swift, Jonathan; Beatty, Thomas G.; Bottom, Michael; Johnson, John; Wright, Jason; McCrady, Nate; Wittenmyer, Robert A.; Riddle, Reed L.; Plavchan, Peter; Muirhead, Philip Steven; Blake, Cullen; Zhao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    MINERVA is a robotic observatory with four 0.7 meter telescopes at Mt. Hopkins, Arizona, dedicated to precise photometry and radial velocity observations of bright, nearby stars for the discovery and characterization of small exoplanets. Here we present the first photometric results from MINERVA during commissioning at our test facility in Pasadena, California, demonstrating sub-millimag precision on 3-5 minute timescales over several hours. These results show that MINERVA is well-equipped to address its secondary science goal of searching for transits of known and newly discovered super-Earth exoplanets detected by radial velocity, including potential detections from the MINERVA spectrograph.

  12. 45 CFR 2101.10 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false The Commission. 2101.10 Section 2101.10 Public... ORGANIZATION General Organization § 2101.10 The Commission. The Commission is composed of seven members, each of whom is appointed by the President and serves for a period of four years or until his or...

  13. 17 CFR 200.10 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false The Commission. 200.10 Section... The Commission. The Commission is composed of five members, not more than three of whom may be members of the same political party. The members are appointed by the President, with the advice and...

  14. 16 CFR 1000.1 - The Commission.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The Commission. 1000.1 Section 1000.1....1 The Commission. (a) The Consumer Product Safety Commission is an independent regulatory agency formed on May 14, 1973, under the provisions of the Consumer Product Safety Act (Pub. L. 92-573, 86...

  15. 76 FR 6774 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ...This notice sets forth the schedule and proposed agenda of an upcoming meeting of the Equity and Excellence Commission (Commission). The notice also describes the functions of the Commission. Notice of this meeting is required by section 10(a)(2) of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA) and is intended to notify the public of their opportunity to...

  16. 43 CFR 10010.41 - Commission responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... environmental document may be prepared by the Commission, a joint-lead agency, a contractor selected or approved... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Commission responsibility. 10010.41... MITIGATION AND CONSERVATION COMMISSION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTING THE NATIONAL...

  17. Commissioning services and Primary Health Networks.

    PubMed

    Booth, Mark; Boxall, Anne-Marie

    2016-01-01

    Commissioning is set to become a stronger feature in the Australian health system as Primary Health Networks embrace it as a tool for improving population health outcomes. International experience shows that developing into a commissioning organisation is not always easy. Drawing on international experiences of commissioning, as well as those from the Australian hospital sector, will help smooth the path for Primary Health Networks.

  18. 16 CFR 1101.51 - Commission interpretation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commission interpretation. 1101.51 Section 1101.51 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INFORMATION DISCLOSURE UNDER SECTION 6(b) OF THE CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT Retraction § 1101.51 Commission interpretation. (a)...

  19. 77 FR 39560 - International Joint Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... International Joint Commission International Joint Commission Invites Public Comment on Upper Great Lakes Report The International Joint Commission (IJC) announced today that it is inviting public comment on the final report of its International Upper Great Lakes Study Board, Lake Superior Regulation:...

  20. 77 FR 29621 - Equity and Excellence Commission

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    .... ADDRESSES: The Commission will meet in Washington, DC at the United States Department of Education at 400... Doc No: 2012-12144] DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Equity and Excellence Commission AGENCY: U.S. Department..., Designated Federal Official, Equity and Excellence Commission, U.S. Department of Education, 400...