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  1. Couples therapy with childhood sexual abuse survivors (CSA) and their partners: establishing a context for witnessing.

    PubMed

    Nasim, Ron; Nadan, Yochay

    2013-09-01

    This article proposes a clinical practice for therapy with couples in which one partner suffered sexual abuse in childhood. Such couples often encounter unique difficulties with physical contact, intimacy, sexuality, communication, and trust, and their relationship dynamic may be marked by reenactments of past traumatic relational patterns. This clinical practice is founded on the assumption that establishing the witnessing lacking during the traumatic event in childhood can break the traumatic reenactments in adulthood, and spur recovery. The suggested practice may facilitate twofold witnessing: the couple's therapist witnesses the reenactments of the trauma in the couple's relationship; and the survivor's partner witnesses the trauma's effect on the survivor's personal life and relationship. Twofold witnessing can help break the cycle of traumatic reenactment and help the survivor integrate the events of her life into a more coherent, continuous narrative. The partner's presence also facilitates acknowledgement of what happened to the survivor, and helps the survivor elaborate on her stories of resistance, survival, and strength. Finally, each of the partners is able to appear more wholly and fully, and together to tell the preferred stories of their life as a couple, replete with the multiple relational patterns they wish to live, which may contradict the characteristics of the original trauma.

  2. Talking Therapy Services for Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse (CSA) in Scotland: Perspectives of Service Users and Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chouliara, Zoe; Karatzias, Thanos; Scott-Brien, Georgia; Macdonald, Anne; MacArthur, Juliet; Frazer, Norman

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to elicit perceptions and experiences of talking therapy services for CSA survivors and professionals utilizing qualitative interviews and analyzing transcripts using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis. Participants included 13 adult survivors and 31 professionals in statutory and voluntary services in Scotland. Main themes…

  3. Resilience in Child Sexual Abuse Survivors: Healing Power of Illusions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himelein, Melissa J.; And Others

    Because research has focused on psychopathology rather than psychological health, little is known about how child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors escape childhood trauma unharmed. This investigation sought to identify cognitive characteristics associated with resilience following a history of CSA. The study sample of 180 women was drawn from a small,…

  4. The Abuse-Related Beliefs Questionnaire for Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginzburg, Karni; Arnow, Bruce; Hart, Stacey; Gardner, William; Koopman, Cheryl; Classen, Catherine C.; Giese-Davis, Janine; Spiegel, David

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the psychometric properties of a new measure, the Abuse-Related Beliefs Questionnaire (ARBQ), designed to assess abuse-related beliefs among adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Study 1 examined the structure of the scale, and Study 2 evaluated its reliability and validity. Method: One hundred and seventy female…

  5. The cycle of healing - dissociation and attachment during treatment of CSA survivors.

    PubMed

    Lahav, Yael; Elklit, Ask

    2016-10-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is an extreme traumatic event associated with numerous long lasting difficulties and symptoms (e.g., Herman, 1992). These include, among other things, the impediment of basic interpersonal structures of attachment (Rumstein-McKean & Hunsley, 2001), as well as impairment of mental integration manifested in dissociation (Van Den Bosch et al., 2003). Theoretically, attachment insecurities and dissociation are closely linked, since dissociation is generated as a way to resolve the conflicted attachment demands faced by the abused child (e.g., Liotti, 1992). Nevertheless, the directionality of association between attachment insecurities and dissociation during treatment of adult CSA survivors remains largely uninvestigated. Filling this gap, the present prospective study assessed female adult survivors of CSA who were outpatients at four treatment centers in Denmark (n=407), at the start of treatment (T1), 6 months after starting treatment (T2) and 12 months after starting treatment (T3). Results indicated that both attachment insecurities and dissociation reduced over time during treatment. Elevated attachment insecurities were associated with elevated dissociation at each of the measurements. Moreover, there was a reciprocal association between attachment avoidance and dissociation during treatment. Low levels of attachment avoidance predicted a decline in dissociation and vice versa. Findings suggest that treatment creates a cycle of healing in which rehabilitation of attachment fosters reintegration, which in turn deepens the restoration of attachment.

  6. Abuse deterrent formulations and the Controlled Substances Act (CSA).

    PubMed

    Sapienza, Frank L

    2006-06-01

    The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) has reduced the diversion of controlled substances at the manufacturing and distribution levels. Recent increased diversion has occurred at the retail level. Levels of diversion and abuse of controlled substances with similar abuse potential and therapeutic indications often parallel availability for medical use, while rates of diversion and abuse may be influenced by factors related to specific products, including their formulations and risk management plans. Abuse deterrent formulations may reduce abuse and attendant adverse health consequences even if the products are diverted. Their development should consider how, to what extent and by whom products containing the targeted substance are abused. It should take into consideration all potential types of abuse including "as is", multiple doses, alternate routes of administration, physical or chemical separation of the active ingredient, compromised extended release mechanisms and abuse in combination with other substances. Industry incentives for developing abuse-resistant formulations include enhanced corporate image and potentially less restrictive scheduling or risk management plans. Scheduling is substance specific, but the CSA includes products/formulations that are differentially scheduled. Issues to be considered for differential scheduling under the CSA include: (1) whether there is legal authority to do so; (2) application of standard scheduling criteria to individual products; (3) product specific data for "eight factor analyses"; (4) development of predictive data and standards accepted by the scientific and regulatory communities; (5) use of predictive data or post marketing surveillance data; (6) international treaty obligations. These issues must be addressed before differential scheduling can be considered.

  7. Assessing the Long-Term Effects of EMDR: Results from an 18-Month Follow-Up Study with Adult Female Survivors of CSA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmond, Tonya; Rubin, Allen

    2004-01-01

    This 18-month follow-up study builds on the findings of a randomized experimental evaluation that found qualified support for the short-term effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) in reducing trauma symptoms among adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). The current study provides preliminary evidence…

  8. Holocaust Child Survivors and Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Amir, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    This study utilized a qualitative analysis of child survivors of the Holocaust who were sexually abused during World War II. The research study aimed to give this specific group of survivors a voice and to explore the impact of multiple extreme traumas, the Holocaust and childhood sexual abuse, on the survivors. Twenty-two child survivors of the…

  9. Care for survivors of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Tidy, H

    1996-07-01

    Childhood sexual abuse affects at least 18% of British women but the true figure may be far higher. Repressed memories may resurface at childbirth. Midwives need to be aware of certain behavioural tendencies which may indicate childhood sexual abuse. There are four recognised labour styles which may be adopted by abuse survivors. Extra sensitivity should be used by midwives when caring for a possible abuse survivor. Disclosure of abuse must always come from the client.

  10. A qualitative cancer screening study with childhood sexual abuse survivors: experiences, perspectives and compassionate care

    PubMed Central

    Gesink, Dionne; Nattel, Lilian

    2015-01-01

    Objective The childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivor population is substantial and survivors have been identified as part of the population who were under-screened or never-screened for breast, cervical and colon cancer. Our objective was to learn CSA survivor perspectives on, and experiences with, breast, cervical and colon cancer screening with the intention of generating recommendations to help healthcare providers improve cancer screening participation. Design A pragmatic constructivist qualitative study involving individual, semistructured, in-depth interviews was conducted in January 2014. Thematic analysis was used to describe CSA survivor perspectives on cancer screening and identify potential facilitators for screening. Participants A diverse purposive sample of adult female CSA survivors was recruited. The inclusion criteria were: being a CSA survivor, being in a stable living situation, where stable meant able to meet one's financial needs independently, able to maintain supportive relationships, having participated in therapy to recover from past abuse, and living in a safe environment. 12 survivors were interviewed whose ages ranged from the early 40s to mid-70s. Descriptive saturation was reached after 10 interviews. Setting Interviews were conducted over the phone or Internet. CSA survivors were primarily from urban and rural Ontario, but some resided elsewhere in Canada and the USA. Results The core concept that emerged was that compassionate care at every level of the healthcare experience could improve cancer screening participation. Main themes included: desire for holistic care; unique needs of patients with dissociative identity disorder; the patient-healthcare provider relationship; appointment interactions; the cancer screening environment; and provider assumptions about patients. Conclusions Compassionate care can be delivered by: building a relationship; practising respect; focusing attention on the patient; not rushing the appointment

  11. Intrapersonal and Familial Effects of Child Sexual Abuse on Female Partners of Male Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Christine M. Anderson; Veach, Patricia McCarthy

    2005-01-01

    Intrapersonal and familial effects of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) were investigated by interviewing 10 female partners of male survivors. Consensual qualitative research analysis (C. Hill, B. Thompson, & E. Nutt Williams, 1997) yielded 13 domains describing male partner, female partner, couple, and family functioning. Findings concerning…

  12. Amelioration of sexual fantasies to sexual abuse cues in an adult survivor of childhood sexual abuse: a case study.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jane E; Wilson, Keith M

    2008-12-01

    Although sexual dysfunction of childhood sexual abuse survivors has received considerable attention, other sexual difficulties experienced by survivors of CSA, such as sexual fantasies to cues of sexual abuse, have received less attention. In this A-B design case study, a young adult female survivor of childhood sexual abuse presented for treatment at a Midwest rape crisis center. After successful treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder, she complained of unwanted sexual fantasies to sexual abuse cues and concomitant guilt and shame. Following baseline data collection, treatment consisted of self-applied aversion therapy to unwanted sexual arousal to sexual abuse cues. Decrease in sexual arousal to these cues was concurrent with the introduction of treatment. A concomitant decrease in guilt and shame occurred while self-ratings of control increased.

  13. A Qualitative Study of Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors in Taiwan: Toward a Transactional and Ecological Model of Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yu-Wei; Heppner, P. Paul

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to explore the experiences of 10 female Taiwanese childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivors (age range = 20-39 years) to broaden our understanding of the post-abuse coping process in a Chinese sociocultural context. This investigation was grounded on a feminist paradigm, and the consensual qualitative research method (Hill et…

  14. Adolescent Survivors of Sexual Abuse: Developmental Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banyard, Victoria L.; Williams, Linda M.

    2007-01-01

    Using an ecological model as a guiding framework, this article reviews key factors which put adolescent survivors of sexual abuse at risk for negative outcomes, as well as resources which might enhance positive outcomes and recovery. Throughout the article, quotes from women who experienced sexual abuse during their youth highlight opportunities…

  15. Effects of Child Sexual Abuse on the Parenting of Male Survivors.

    PubMed

    Wark, Joe; Vis, Jo-Ann

    2016-10-21

    Research shows that child sexual abuse (CSA) can have detrimental effects on adult functioning. While much research regarding the effects of CSA on parenting of mothers is available, there is a dearth of information on how CSA impacts fatherhood. This literature review finds that the parenting experiences of male survivors are characterized by self-perceptions as adequate parents, deficient parenting as measured by standardized instruments, conceptualization of parenting as an intergenerational legacy and potential healing experience, fear of becoming an abuser, and physical and emotional distance from their children. These themes are strongly related to social discourses on intergenerational cycle of violence theories. Fatherhood is not exclusively problematic for male survivors and can be a healing experience and a source of strength for some survivors. Based on literature concerning male survivors who are parents, narrative therapy is recommended as a therapeutic model to explore how fathers who are survivors challenge dominant discourses around legacies of family violence, intergenerational parenting deficiencies, and victimization. Restorying fatherhood as a healing opportunity is essential when working with fathers who are male survivors and their families.

  16. Emotional security in the family system and psychological distress in female survivors of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Cantón-Cortés, David; Cantón, José; Cortés, María Rosario

    2016-01-01

    The Emotional Security Theory (EST) was originally developed to investigate the association between high levels of interparental conflict and child maladaptative outcome. The objective of the present study was to analyze the effects of emotional security in the family system on psychological distress among a sample of young female adult survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA). The role of emotional security was investigated through the interactive effects of a number of factors including the type of abuse, the continuity of abuse, the relationship with the perpetrator and the existence of disclosure for the abuse. Participants were 167 female survivors of CSA. Information about the abuse was obtained from a self-reported questionnaire. Emotional security was assessed with the Security in the Family System (SIFS) Scale, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was used to assess psychological distress. In the total sample, insecurity (preoccupation and disengagement) was correlated with high psychological distress scores, whereas no relationship was found between security and psychological distress. The relationship between emotional insecurity and psychological distress was stronger in cases of continued abuse and non-disclosure, while the relationship between emotional security and distress was stronger in cases of extrafamilial abuse and especially isolated or several incidents and when a disclosure had been made. No interactive effect was found between any of the three emotional variables and the type of abuse committed. The results of the current study suggest that characteristics of CSA such as relationship with the perpetrator and, especially, continuity of abuse and whether or not disclosure had been made, can affect the impact of emotional security on psychological distress of CSA survivors.

  17. Emotional support and adult depression in survivors of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Musliner, Katherine L; Singer, Jonathan B

    2014-08-01

    The goals of this study were to evaluate the effects of emotional support from friends and parents at two time points (adolescence and adulthood) on adult depression in a nationally representative sample of survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and examine whether the associations were moderated by the identity of the perpetrator (parent/caregiver vs. not). Data were taken from Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The study sample included 1,238 Add Health participants with a history of CSA and an equivalently sized comparison group of individuals with no history of CSA. Parental support was measured using four items from each wave that assessed the warmth of participants' relationships with their parents and their satisfaction with those relationships. Friend support in adolescence was measured using participants' perceptions of how much their friends cared about them and in adulthood using participants' self-reported number of close friends. Depression was measured using a 10-item subscale of the CES-D. Logistic regressions showed that support from friends and parents in adulthood were significantly associated with lower odds of adult depression in CSA survivors who reported non-parent/caregiver abuse. Among survivors of parent/caregiver abuse, emotional support was not significantly associated with adult depression regardless of when or by whom it was provided. In conclusion, emotional support in adulthood from friends and parents is associated with reduced odds of adult depression in CSA survivors, but only in cases where the abuse was perpetrated by someone other than a parent or caregiver.

  18. Avoidant and compulsive sexual behaviors in male and female survivors of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Vaillancourt-Morel, Marie-Pier; Godbout, Natacha; Labadie, Chloé; Runtz, Marsha; Lussier, Yvan; Sabourin, Stéphane

    2015-02-01

    The main objectives of this study were to test a theory-based mediation model in which the relation between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and dyadic adjustment is mediated through adult sexual avoidance and sexual compulsivity and to examine the gender-invariance of this model. A sample of 686 adults currently involved in a close relationship completed online self-report computerized questionnaires. Prevalence of CSA was 20% in women and 19% in men. In line with our hypotheses, path analyses and structural equation analyses showed that, for both women and men, CSA was associated with more sexual avoidance and sexual compulsivity, which, in turn, predicted lower couple adjustment. Overall, these findings suggest that both avoidant and compulsive sexuality are relevant intervention targets with couples in which one or both partners are CSA survivors.

  19. Childhood Sexual Abuse. A Booklet for First Nations Adult Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samson, Alana; And Others

    This booklet offers information about sources of help for First Nations adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse, particularly in Canada. It explains the definition of sexual abuse and describes the specifics of the law regarding such abuse. Descriptions of common aspects of childhood sexual abuse include quotes from adult survivors. Long-term…

  20. Sexual self-schemas of female child sexual abuse survivors: relationships with risky sexual behavior and sexual assault in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Niehaus, Ashley F; Jackson, Joan; Davies, Stephanie

    2010-12-01

    Childhood sexual trauma has been demonstrated to increase survivors' risk for engaging in unrestricted sexual behaviors and experiencing adolescent sexual assault. The current study used the sexual self-schema construct to examine cognitive representations of sexuality that might drive these behavioral patterns. In Study 1 (N = 774), we attempted to improve the content validity of the Sexual Self Schema Scale for child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors, introducing a fourth sexual self-schema factor titled the "immoral/irresponsible" factor. In Study 2 (N = 1150), the potential differences in sexual self-views, as assessed by the four sexual self-schema factors, between CSA survivors and non-victims were explored. In addition, Study 2 evaluated how these sexual self-schema differences may contribute to participation in unrestricted sexual behaviors and risk for sexual assault in adolescence. Results indicated that a history of CSA impacted the way women viewed themselves as a sexual person on each of the four factors. CSA survivors were found to view themselves as more open and possessing more immoral/irresponsible cognitions about sexuality as compared to women who did not have a CSA history. In addition, the CSA survivors endorsed less embarrassment and passionate/romantic views of their sexual selves. The interaction of CSA severity and the sexual self-schemas explained variance in adolescent sexual assault experiences above and beyond the severity of CSA history and participation in risky sexual behaviors. The findings suggest that sexual self-views may serve to moderate the relationship between CSA and adolescent sexual assault. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed.

  1. Survivors of sexual abuse allege therapist negligence.

    PubMed

    Regehr, C; Glancy, G

    1997-01-01

    In two recent litigation cases, adult survivors of sexual abuse claimed that their current symptomology was linked to the failure of mental health professionals to provide appropriate treatment. If mental health practitioners are to be held accountable for providing acceptable standards of treatment, these standards must be based on empirical evidence of the efficacy of treatment methodologies. This article provides a review of the professional literature and determines that with the exception of time-limited group treatment, which appears to reduce symptoms in some survivors of sexual abuse, there is an absence of clear evidence of treatment efficacy. Other data point to low consumer satisfaction with treatment, the absence of evidence for a consistent symptom presentation in survivors of sexual abuse that confounds standardizing treatment approaches, and iatrogenic effects of some forms of treatment. The authors conclude that, at this time, there is little empirical data to support the development of standards of practice for treating women who have been sexually abused as children.

  2. Confronting Abusers: The Opinions of Clinicians and Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freshwater, Kate; Ainscough, Carolyn; Toon, Kay

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores direct and symbolic forms of survivors confronting their abusers via a review of the current literature and the self-report of 12 female survivors, post-therapy. Six of the survivors had chosen to directly confront their abusers and six had not. Their experiences and opinions are presented with a discussion of important issues…

  3. Positive Coping Strategies Developed by Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benishek, Lois A.; Morrow, Susan L.

    1995-01-01

    Estimates indicate that 1 in 4 women and 1 in 7 men have been sexually abused as children. These statistics may be underestimated based on anecdotal information relayed by many therapists who specialize in working with survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Effects of childhood sexual abuse have far reaching implications for the survivors' abilities…

  4. Adult Adjustment of Survivors of Institutional Child Abuse in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Alan; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzpatrick, Mark; Flanagan, Edel; Flanagan-Howard, Roisin; Tierney, Kevin; White, Megan; Daly, Margaret; Egan, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To document the adult adjustment of survivors of childhood institutional abuse. Method: Two hundred and forty-seven adult survivors of institutional abuse with a mean age of 60 were interviewed with a protocol that included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, modules from the Structured Clinical Interview for Axis I Disorders of DSM IV…

  5. Enactment and the treatment of abuse survivors.

    PubMed

    Plakun, E M

    1998-01-01

    Regardless of the approach employed, treatment of patients with histories of sexual or other abuse is a formidable challenge. One reason for this is the vulnerability to "enactment" inherent in therapeutic work with such patients. Enactment is a recently elaborated psychoanalytic notion, defined as a pattern of nonverbal interactional behavior between the two parties in a therapeutic situation, with unconscious meaning for both. It involves mutual projective identification between therapist and patient. This paper clarifies the nature of enactment (conceptualized here as involving either refusal or actualization of the transference by the therapist) and its treatment implications. Transference-countertransference enactment paradigms encountered in work with survivors of abuse are presented. The therapeutic consequences of failing to recognize and respond to such enactments in work with these patients are explored. Unrecognized enactments may lead therapists unwittingly to abdicate the therapeutic role by becoming abusive, abused or vicariously traumatized, excessively guilty, seductive, overinvolved, and/or exhortatory or to implant false memories. Ways of utilizing enactment to advance treatment are also described and illustrated.

  6. Family of Origin Environments in Two Clinical Samples of Survivors of Intra-Familial, Extra-Familial, and Both Types of Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, S.N.; Hyman, S.M.; Andres-Hyman, R.C.

    2004-01-01

    e family members, non-family members, or both family and non-family members.Objective:: It has been suggested that survivors of ongoing childhood sexual abuse (CSA) tend to have been reared in ineffective family environments that render them particularly vulnerable to maltreatment and which foster psychological difficulties beyond those accounted…

  7. Exploring Disclosure in Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whisnant, Roberta Ann

    2009-01-01

    Previous research involving adult survivors of CSA (childhood sexual abuse) indicates that approximately 77% of CSA victims did not report the abuse while in childhood. The purpose of this study was to examine CSA disclosure in childhood. Participants for this study were 137 children/adolescents ranging in ages from 2-16 interviewed at a child…

  8. Measuring Economic Abuse in the Lives of Survivors: Revising the Scale of Economic Abuse.

    PubMed

    Postmus, Judy L; Plummer, Sara-Beth; Stylianou, Amanda M

    2016-05-01

    Recent attention has been given by researchers to understanding how abusers use economic abuse strategies. Unfortunately, limited measures are available to accurately understand the prevalence of economic abuse in the lives of survivors. Recently, researchers created the 28-item Scale of Economic Abuse (SEA) but further validation is needed. This article describes the psychometric evaluation of the SEA through confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses using data collected with 120 survivors of abuse. The findings provide evidence for the reliability and validity of the SEA-12 as a shorter instrument to measure economic abuse as a distinct form of abuse.

  9. Child sexual abuse and women's sexual health: the contribution of CSA severity and exposure to multiple forms of childhood victimization.

    PubMed

    Lacelle, Céline; Hébert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E

    2012-01-01

    Research studies have provided increasing evidence for the potential adverse impact of child sexual abuse on women's sexual health. The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse and sexual health while controlling for various forms of childhood victimization. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 889 young women from the province of Quebec. Results suggest that child sexual abuse survivors were more likely to report having experienced other forms of childhood victimization than were women without child sexual abuse. Women with a history of both child sexual abuse and multiple forms of victimization were at greater risk of experiencing more adverse outcomes, including risky sexual behaviors, sexual problems, and negative sexual self-concept. Regression analyses revealed that child sexual abuse was significantly related to indicators of sexual health outcomes even when controlling for the effect of single forms of victimization. Clinically, interventions optimizing sexual health may be particularly helpful for a subgroup of child sexual abuse survivors.

  10. Multi-Informant Assessment of Anxiety regarding Ano-Genital Examinations for Suspected Child Sexual Abuse (CSA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scribano, Philip V.; Hornor, Gail; Rhoda, Dale; Curran, Sherry; Stevens, Jack

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Given the commonly held belief that physical examinations for child sexual abuse (CSA) are very distressing, our primary objective was to evaluate anxiety during these assessments using the Multidimensional Anxiety Score for Children (MASC-10). A second objective was to compare self-reported anxiety to parental report using the MASC-10…

  11. Barriers to Successful Treatment Completion in Child Sexual Abuse Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Paul; Scribano, Philip; Stevens, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) often requires psychological treatment to address the symptoms of victim trauma. Barriers to entry and completion of counseling services can compromise long-term well-being. An integrated medical and mental health evaluation and treatment model of a child advocacy center (CAC) has the potential to reduce barriers to mental…

  12. Counselor Meaning-Making: Working with Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viviani, Anna Michele

    2011-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is a prevalent but taboo topic in society. Conservatively 80,000 new cases are reported each year with many more either unreported or unsubstantiated within the legal system. Survivors of childhood sexual abuse often times seek counseling assistance to manage the variety of short-and long-term emotional issues that may arise…

  13. Child Sexual Abuse Survivors with Dissociative Amnesia: What's the Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Molly R.; Nochajski, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    Although the issue of dissociative amnesia in adult survivors of child sexual abuse has been contentious, many research studies have shown that there is a subset of child sexual abuse survivors who have forgotten their abuse and later remembered it. Child sexual abuse survivors with dissociative amnesia histories have different formative and…

  14. Organized Abuse in Adulthood: Survivor and Professional Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Salter, Michael

    2017-02-23

    This paper reports on the preliminary findings of a qualitative study of Australian women disclosing organized abuse in adulthood and the mental health professionals who treat them. Drawing on interviews with survivors and mental health professionals, the paper analyses the fraught relationship between mental health and physical safety for adults subject to organized abuse. The therapeutic progress of adult organized abuse victims can be disrupted by ongoing threats, stalking, and group violence, which in turn reinforces the dissociative responses and pathological attachments that render them vulnerable to revictimization. The paper argues that breaking this cycle requires intervention from multiple agencies, and describes the responses of police, medical services, and child protection services to adult organized abuse from the perspective of survivors and mental health practitioners. Highlighting systemic failures but also opportunities, the paper calls for a coordinated response to organized abuse in adulthood, including inter-agency partnerships to support safety and bolster the efficacy of therapeutic interventions.

  15. Utilizing the salutogenic paradigm to investigate well-being among adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse and other adversities.

    PubMed

    Dube, Shanta R; Rishi, Shobhana

    2017-02-26

    The long-term negative consequences of adverse childhood experiences are well documented. However, less is known about salutogenesis (well-being) among adult survivors of childhood adversity. The 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data were analyzed to assess the contribution of four health promoting factors (physical activity, smoking abstinence, educational level, social-emotional support) with positive health-related quality of life (HRQoL), among adults who retrospectively reported childhood abuse or exposure to other childhood toxic stressors (n=12,032) and separately for adults who reported childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Outcomes examined included positive self-rated health (good/very good/excellent); mentally unhealthy days (MUDS) and physically unhealthy days (PUDS) in the past 30 days. After controlling for demographic characteristics and existing health conditions, physical activity (p<.05), smoking abstinence (p<.05), education of high school or greater (p<.05), and social-emotional support (p<.05) were associated with positive HRQoL outcomes among adult survivors of childhood adversity and adult survivors of CSA. Each unit increase of the health promoting factor score (0-4) resulted in adjusted odds ratio of 2.1 (95% CI: 1.3-2.4) for self-rated health and 1.6 (95%CI: 1.1-2.6) for <14 PUDs among male CSA survivors; among female survivors the adjusted odds ratios were 2.4 (95% CI: 1.8-3.2) for self-rated health, 2.3 (95% CI: 1.7-3.1) for <14 MUDs, and 2.2 (95% CI: 1.6-3.0) for <14 PUDs. The study validates that a large proportion of adults survive childhood adversities and underscores the importance of the salutogenic paradigm to identify strategies that may contribute to well-being.

  16. Attributions of Responsibility in a Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) Vignette among Respondents with CSA Histories: The Role of Abuse Similarity to a Hypothetical Victim

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Hilary G.; Zinzow, Heidi M.; Burns, Erin E.; Jackson, Joan L.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research suggests that similarity to a victim may influence attributions of responsibility in hypothetical child sexual abuse scenarios. One aspect of similarity receiving mixed support in the literature is respondent child sexual abuse history. Using a sample of 1,345 college women, the present study examined child sexual abuse history,…

  17. Attributions of responsibility in a child sexual abuse (CSA) vignette among respondents with CSA histories: the role of abuse similarity to a hypothetical victim.

    PubMed

    Harding, Hilary G; Zinzow, Heidi M; Burns, Erin E; Jackson, Joan L

    2010-03-01

    Previous research suggests that similarity to a victim may influence attributions of responsibility in hypothetical child sexual abuse scenarios. One aspect of similarity receiving mixed support in the literature is respondent child sexual abuse history. Using a sample of 1,345 college women, the present study examined child sexual abuse history, similarity to victim, and attributions of responsibility to a hypothetical victim, family member, and perpetrator in a child sexual abuse vignette. Results revealed no group differences in responsibility ratings among respondents with and without child sexual abuse histories. However, among the 133 respondents with child sexual abuse histories, results indicated that similarity to victim moderated the relationship between vignette characteristics, respondent history, and responsibility attributions. Results suggest that similarity to a victim may influence ratings in a self-preserving manner.

  18. Perceptions of Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors: Development and Initial Validation of a New Scale to Measure Stereotypes of Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zafar, Sadia; Ross, Erin C.

    2013-01-01

    The Childhood Sexual Abuse Stereotypes Scale was developed to assess stereotypes of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Scale items were derived from two studies that elicited cultural and personal beliefs about, and emotions experienced towards adult childhood sexual abuse survivors among university undergraduates. Two scales, Emotions and…

  19. The Use of Transpersonal Empathy with Child Abuse Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilewski, Michael J.

    Adult survivors of childhood abuse are some of the more difficult and challenging patients in psychotherapy. This paper applies a transpersonal model of empathy to therapeutic work with these individuals. The transpersonal model of empathy extends traditional humanistic models which strive towards "advanced accurate empathy" to the level…

  20. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN CHILDHOOD SEXUAL ABUSE (CSA) AND ADVERSE PSYCHOLOGICAL OUTCOMES AMONG YOUTH IN TAIPEI

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nan; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Zabin, Laurie S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between a history of CSA and negative psychological consequences in adulthood controlling for family environments and Confucian values. Methods The data used in this study was collected from Taipei. 4084 participants aged 15-24 composed the final analysis sample. Three sets of logistic regression models were fitted to verify the association between CSA and negative psychological outcomes. Socio-demographic variables, household instability and parenting variables, as well as Confucian value variables were controlled in models step by step. The overall prevalence of CSA in our analysis sample was 5.2 %. Results The overall prevalence of depression, anxiety and suicidal ideation among Taipei respondents were 11.8 %, 16.4 % and 16.7 %, respectively, but young people who experienced CSA had significantly higher rates of all three than young adults who had not experienced CSA. After controlled for other covariates, the odds ratios of depression, anxiety and suicidal ideation associated with a history of CSA were 1.78 (95% CI: 1.25-2.54), 1.77 (95% CI: 1.28-2.44) and 2.56 (95% CI: 1.56-4.29), respectively. Conclusion Our findings suggested that CSA is an independent predictor of negative psychological consequences in adulthood. In our analysis, we controlled for household, parenting and Confucian culture factors which provides a better understanding of how they work together to affect adult psychological status. PMID:22340856

  1. Health Professionals' Responses to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse History: Female Child Sexual Abuse Survivors' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Kim; Julich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had…

  2. Health professionals' responses to disclosure of child sexual abuse history: female child sexual abuse survivors' experiences.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Kim; Jülich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny

    2010-05-01

    This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had not disclosed reported that they would have liked to but were not asked about child sexual abuse. Thirty-five percent of participants suggested routine questioning about child sexual abuse. Most participants related a fear of common medical examination procedures to their experience of child sexual abuse, and 64% said this stopped them from attending regular health checks. The current study suggests the development of guidelines for dealing with possible child sexual abuse survivors would be useful for health professionals.

  3. Service Patterns of Adult Survivors of Childhood versus Adult Sexual Assault/Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Susan F.; Lundy, Marta; Bertrand, Cathy; Ortiz, Cynthia; Tomas-Tolentino, Grace; Ritzema, Kim; Matson, Julia

    2009-01-01

    This analysis compared the characteristics and service patterns of adult survivors of childhood sexual assault/abuse and adult survivors of adult sexual assault/abuse. Utilizing data from sexual assault crisis centers serving survivors in a Midwestern state over a six year period and controlling for revictimization, we describe and compare the…

  4. Peritraumatic Tonic Immobility and Trauma-Related Symptoms in Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse: The Role of Post-Trauma Cognitions

    PubMed Central

    Van Buren, Brian R.; Weierich, Mariann R.

    2016-01-01

    Tonic immobility (TI) is a set of involuntary motor responses elicited under conditions of extreme fear and perceived inescapability, and it is one type of peritraumatic distress reported by survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Experiencing TI during CSA is associated with increased risk for developing symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), although less is known about relations between TI and other established risk factors for PTSD. We investigated posttraumatic cognitions as a potential mediator of the relations between peritraumatic fear, perceptions of inescapability, TI, and PTSD symptoms. Specifically, we tested posttraumatic negative beliefs about the self, the world, and self-blame as pathways that might increase risk for PTSD symptoms in CSA survivors who had experienced TI. Forty-six women with a history of unwanted childhood sexual contact completed questionnaires measuring peritraumatic tonic immobility, posttraumatic cognitions, and current posttraumatic stress symptoms. Negative beliefs about the self independently mediated the relation between peritraumatic perceptions of inescapability and PTSD symptoms, but the data did not support similar path model for the physical symptoms of TI and PTSD. We discuss ways in which treatment of survivors and future research on CSA can benefit from attention to the impact of peritraumatic distress on posttraumatic beliefs. PMID:26701284

  5. Adolescent Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse: The Mediating Role of Attachment Style and Coping in Psychological and Interpersonal Functioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Deborah L.; Levendosky, Alytia A.

    1999-01-01

    A study of 80 adolescent females found that attachment style mediates the effects of child sexual abuse (CSA) and child abuse and neglect on coping and psychological distress. The indirect effects of CSA and other abuse through attachment accounted for most of the effects on coping and psychological distress. (Author/CR)

  6. Childhood Sexual Abuse Severity Reconsidered: A Factor Structure of CSA Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, T. Lorraine; Riggs, Matt; Robinson, Jill L.

    2011-01-01

    To address the lack of empirically grounded measures of childhood sexual abuse severity, a survey of self-report items was developed following a thorough review of the childhood sexual abuse literature. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted using data collected from a convenience sample of college students that included 275 females and…

  7. Patterns of Partners' Abusive Behaviors as Reported by Latina and Non-Latina Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Nancy; Perrin, Nancy; Hanson, Ginger; Mankowski, Eric; Bloom, Tina; Campbell, Jacquelyn

    2009-01-01

    This study builds on the existing knowledge of risk factors for lethal intimate partner violence (IPV) and typologies of IPV abusers by exploring patterns of abusive partners' behaviors among known risk factors for intimate partner femicide (i.e., murder of women) and determines if groups of survivors with similar patterns of abusive behaviors…

  8. Abuse and Parental Characteristics, Attributions of Blame, and Psychological Adjustment in Adult Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinzow, Heidi; Seth, Puja; Jackson, Joan; Niehaus, Ashley; Fitzgerald, Monica

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of abuse and parental characteristics on attributional content and determine the relative contribution of different attributions of blame in predicting psychological symptomatology among adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. One hundred eighty-three female undergraduates with a history of…

  9. Dissociative Experiences and Disorders among Women Who Identify Themselves as Sexual Abuse Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Geri; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Interviews with 51 female sexual abuse survivors revealed that over half had a diagnosis of multiple personality disorder, and the vast majority had extensive dissociative symptomatology and related features. (Author/JDD)

  10. Caring for adult survivors of child sexual abuse. Issues for family physicians.

    PubMed

    Bala, M

    1994-05-01

    Traditional medical education has not taught physicians about the long-term effects of child sexual abuse. Family physicians often feel poorly equipped to appreciate the effect of such a childhood history on current health or to recognize and treat survivors. This article links the experience of the sexually abused child to long-term effects and outlines the role of family physicians in screening and caring for survivors.

  11. Relational Challenges and Recovery Processes in Male Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kia-Keating, Maryam; Sorsoli, Lynn; Grossman, Frances K.

    2010-01-01

    Male survivors of childhood sexual abuse face challenges resolving sexual victimization experiences with the ideals of masculinity, often experiencing intimacy problems, emotional discomfort, alienation, and anger. Little attention has been paid to how male survivors learn to develop long-term connections, disclose emotions in relationship…

  12. Practical Ways Psychotherapy Can Support Physical Healthcare Experiences for Male Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovey, Angela; Stalker, Carol A.; Schachter, Candice L.; Teram, Eli; Lasiuk, Gerri

    2011-01-01

    Many survivors of child sexual abuse who engage in psychotherapy also experience physical health problems. This article summarizes the findings of a multiphased qualitative study about survivors' experiences in healthcare settings. The study informed the development of the "Handbook on Sensitive Practice for Health Care Practitioners: Lessons…

  13. Sexual Abuse Survivors' Perceptions of the Effectiveness of EMDR and Eclectic Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmond, Tonya; Sloan, Lacey; McCarty, Dawn

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This article examines survivor perspectives of the effectiveness of two different treatments for trauma symptoms among adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse--Eye movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) and eclectic therapy. Method: Qualitative interviews obtained in the context of a mixed-methods study were conducted…

  14. How ineffective family environments can compound maldevelopment of critical thinking skills in childhood abuse survivors.

    PubMed

    Kostolitz, Alessandra C; Hyman, Scott M; Gold, Steven N

    2014-01-01

    The high stress of childhood abuse is associated with neurobiological detriments to executive function. Child abuse survivors may also be cognitively and relationally disadvantaged as a result of being raised in emotionally impoverished families that lack cohesion, organization, flexibility, self-expression, and moral and ethical values and fail to provide opportunities for effective learning. A review of literature demonstrates how dysfunctional family of origin environments common to child abuse survivors, concomitant with the extreme stress of overt acts of abuse, can act as a barrier to the development of higher-order critical thinking skills. The article concludes by discussing ramifications of critical thinking skill deficits in child abuse survivors and highlights the importance of integrating and prioritizing critical thinking skills training in treatment.

  15. Institutional abuse of children in the Austrian Catholic Church: types of abuse and impact on adult survivors' current mental health.

    PubMed

    Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte; Kantor, Viktoria; Weindl, Dina; Knefel, Matthias; Moy, Yvonne; Butollo, Asisa; Jagsch, Reinhold; Glück, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the nature and dimensions of institutional child abuse (IA) by the Austrian Catholic Church and to investigate the current mental health of adult survivors. Data were collected in two steps. First, documents of 448 adult survivors of IA (M=55.1 years, 75.7% men) who had disclosed their abuse history to a victim protection commission were collected. Different types of abuse, perpetrator characteristics, and family related risk factors were investigated. Second, a sample of 185 adult survivors completed the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL-C) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Participants reported an enormous diversity of acts of violent physical, sexual, and emotional abuse that had occurred in their childhood. The majority of adult survivors (83.3%) experienced emotional abuse. Rates of sexual (68.8%) and physical abuse (68.3%) were almost equally high. The prevalence of PTSD was 48.6% and 84.9% showed clinically relevant symptoms in at least one 1 of 10 symptom dimensions (9 BSI subscales and PTSD). No specific pre-IA influence was found to influence the development of PTSD in later life (e.g. poverty, domestic violence). However, survivors with PTSD reported a significantly higher total number of family related risk factors (d=0.33). We conclude that childhood IA includes a wide spectrum of violent acts, and has a massive negative impact on the current mental health of adult survivors. We address the long-term effects of these traumatic experiences in addition to trauma re-activation in adulthood as both bear great challenges for professionals working with survivors.

  16. Interventions targeting substance abuse among women survivors of intimate partner abuse: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Dawnovise N; Faulkner, Monica

    2011-12-01

    In this article, meta-analytic techniques are used to examine existing intervention studies (n = 11) to determine their effects on substance abuse among female samples of intimate partner abuse (IPA) survivors. This research serves as a starting point for greater attention in research and practice to the implementation of evidence-based, integrated services to address co-occurring substance abuse and IPA victimization among women as major intersecting public health problems. The results show greater effects in three main areas. First, greater effect sizes exist in studies where larger numbers of women experienced current IPA. Second, studies with a lower mean age also showed greater effect sizes than studies with a higher mean age. Lastly, studies with smaller sample sizes have greater effects. This research helps to facilitate cohesion in the knowledge base on this topic, and the findings of this meta-analysis, in particular, contribute needed information to gaps in the literature on the level of promise of existing interventions to impact substance abuse in this underserved population.

  17. "I Keep That Hush-Hush": Male Survivors of Sexual Abuse and the Challenges of Disclosure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorsoli, Lynn; Kia-Keating, Maryam; Grossman, Frances K.

    2008-01-01

    Disclosure is a prominent variable in child sexual abuse research, but little research has examined male disclosure experiences. Sixteen male survivors of childhood sexual abuse were interviewed regarding experiences of disclosure. Analytic techniques included a grounded theory approach to coding and the use of conceptually clustered matrices.…

  18. The Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educator’s Role in Teaching Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Hotelling, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    There is a strong likelihood that at least one participant in any Lamaze childbirth education class has had personal experience with childhood sexual abuse. Using the wisdom of Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educators and respected authors in the field of childhood sexual abuse, this column enlightens the childbirth educator in three ways: understanding the incidence of female and male childhood sexual abuse; understanding the effects of sexual, emotional, physical, and verbal abuse on the pregnant and parenting family; and facilitating classes that are sensitive to the needs of survivors of childhood sexual abuse as well to all expectant parents. PMID:23449947

  19. Relational challenges and recovery processes in male survivors of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Kia-Keating, Maryam; Sorsoli, Lynn; Grossman, Frances K

    2010-04-01

    Male survivors of childhood sexual abuse face challenges resolving sexual victimization experiences with the ideals of masculinity, often experiencing intimacy problems, emotional discomfort, alienation, and anger. Little attention has been paid to how male survivors learn to develop long-term connections, disclose emotions in relationship contexts, and negotiate intimacy. The current qualitative study of 16 adult male survivors of childhood sexual abuse, examined the relational challenges and the processes by which these survivors improved their capacity for seeking and participating in supportive relationships over time. Several mechanisms associated with positive adaptation were identified in their narratives, including engaging in safe relationships; gaining a sense of belonging by locating a community of others with shared experiences; learning healthy ways to manage relationships through setting boundaries, controlling anger, building trust, and developing intimacy; and achieving acceptance. Clinical implications and future directions for research and intervention are presented.

  20. Best Clinical Practices for Male Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse: “Do No Harm”

    PubMed Central

    Gallo-Silver, Les; Anderson, Christopher M; Romo, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The health care literature describes treatment challenges and recommended alterations in practice procedures for female survivors of childhood sexual abuse, a subtype of adverse childhood experiences. Currently, there are no concomitant recommendations for best clinical practices for male survivors of childhood sexual abuse or other adverse clinical experiences. Anecdotal information suggests ways physicians can address the needs of adult male survivors of childhood sexual abuse by changes in communication, locus of control, and consent/permission before and during physical examinations and procedures. The intent of this article is to act as a catalyst for improved patient care and more research focused on the identification and optimal responses to the needs of men with adverse childhood experiences in the health care setting. PMID:25106042

  1. Mexican immigrant survivors of intimate partner violence: conceptualization and descriptions of abuse.

    PubMed

    Kyriakakis, Stavroula; Dawson, Beverly Araujo; Edmond, Tonya

    2012-01-01

    This phenomenological qualitative study examines intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced by a sample of 29 Mexican immigrant women residing in New York and St. Louis. The findings reveal important insights about culturally specific abuse tactics employed by batterers and the forms of abuse that are experienced as most hurtful to the survivors. Ten different abusive tactics emerged: verbal, economic, physical, sexual, and extended family abuse, social isolation, physical abuse of children, stalking and monitoring, stolen bride, and sex trafficking. Cultural values and expectations appear to be inextricably linked to how the participants characterized the severity of each of the abusive tactics as evidenced by which abusive behaviors the participants found most hurtful. The findings will help service providers have a better understanding of the role cultural context plays in the IPV experiences of Mexican immigrant women.

  2. Understanding Economic Abuse in the Lives of Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postmus, Judy L.; Plummer, Sara-Beth; McMahon, Sarah; Murshid, N. Shaanta; Kim, Mi Sung

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) often includes economic abuse as one tactic commonly used by an abuser; unfortunately, there is a lack of empirical understanding of economic abuse. Additionally, research is limited on the predictors of economic self-sufficiency in the lives of women experiencing IPV. This paper furthers our knowledge about…

  3. Effects of Child Abuse and Neglect on Adult Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Emmanuel Janagan; James, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Child abuse has profound immediate and long-term effects on a child's development. The long-term impact of abuse of a child can be seen in higher rates of psychiatric disorders, increased rates of substance abuse and relationship difficulties [Springer, K. W., Sheridan, J., Kuo, D., & Carnes, M. (2003). "The long-term health outcomes of…

  4. Emotional concerns and treatment of male partners of female sexual abuse survivors.

    PubMed

    Chauncey, S

    1994-11-01

    Many men are discovering that they are involved with women who were sexually abused as children. However, male partners of female sexual abuse survivors have thus far received little attention in the literature. As these men increasingly seek treatment with concerns of their own, social workers must become familiar with their emotional experiences and treatment needs. This article outlines the major concerns expressed by 20 male partners of sexual abuse survivors. These concerns included conflicts about expressing needs, frustration with various aspects of their relationships, guilt and shame at having feelings, questions about how to deal with relatives, and sexual issues. The author recommends a treatment approach that combines attention to both the individual's and the couple's concerns and uses insight and the safety of the therapeutic relationship to promote growth. The importance of further outreach to partners of women who were sexually abused as children and the need for increased attention to other partner populations are highlighted.

  5. Mental health, demographic, and risk behavior profiles of pregnant survivors of childhood and adult abuse.

    PubMed

    Seng, Julia S; Sperlich, Mickey; Low, Lisa Kane

    2008-01-01

    Our objective was to address the gap in knowledge about the extent to which perinatal mental health and risk behaviors are associated with childhood and adult experiences of abuse that arises because of barriers to screening and disclosure about past and current abuse. Survey data from an ongoing study of the effects of posttraumatic stress on childbearing were used to describe four groups of nulliparous women: those with no abuse history, adult abuse only, childhood abuse only, and abuse that occurred during both periods. The rates of abuse history disclosure were higher in the research context than in the clinical settings. Mental health morbidity and risk behaviors occurred in a dose-response pattern with cumulative abuse exposure. Rates of current posttraumatic stress disorder ranged from 4.1% among those never abused to 11.4% (adult only), 16.0% (childhood only), and 39.2% (both periods). Women abused during both periods also were more likely to be using tobacco (21.5%) and drugs (16.5%) during pregnancy. We conclude that mental health and behavioral risk sequelae affect a significant portion of both childhood and adult abuse survivors in prenatal care. The integration into the maternity setting of existing evidence-based interventions for the mental health and behavioral sequelae of abuse is needed.

  6. Posttraumatic symptom profiles among adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Steine, Iris M; Winje, Dagfinn; Skogen, Jens Christoffer; Krystal, John H; Milde, Anne Marita; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Nordhus, Inger Hilde; Grønli, Janne; Pallesen, Ståle

    2017-03-16

    In the present study, our aim was to examine longitudinal posttraumatic stress symptom (PTSS) trajectories in a Norwegian sample of adults who had experienced sexual abuse during childhood, and to identify predictors of PTSS-trajectory belongingness. The sample consisted of 138 adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse (96.4% women, mean age=42.9years, mean age at the first abuse=5.9 years), recruited from support centers for sexual abuse survivors. The majority (78.3%) reported penetrative abuse, and a large proportion of the sample reported that the perpetrator was a biological parent (38.4%) or someone they trusted (76.1%), reflecting a high severity level of the abusive experiences. Latent Profile Analyses revealed the best overall fit for a two PTSS-trajectories model; one trajectory characterized by sub-clinical and decreasing level of PTSS (54.9%), and the other by high and slightly decreasing level of PTSS (45.1%). Increased odds for belonging to the trajectory with clinical level symptoms was found among those who reported higher levels of exposure to other types of childhood maltreatment (OR=3.69, p=0.002), sexual abuse enforced by physical violence (OR=3.04, p=0.003) or threats (OR=2.56, p=0.014), very painful sexual abuse (OR=2.73, p=0.007), or who had experienced intense anxiety, helplessness or fear during the abuse (OR=2.97, p=0.044). Those in the trajectory with clinical level PTSS reported lower levels of perceived social support and more relational difficulties compared to those in the sub-clinical PTSS trajectory. In conclusion, different longitudinal PTSS trajectories can be found among adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Significant predictors of PTSS-trajectory belongingness are discussed alongside their potential implications for preventive efforts and clinical interventions.

  7. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Culture, and Coping: A Qualitative Study of Latinas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ligiero, Daniela P.; Fassinger, Ruth; McCauley, Moira; Moore, Jessica; Lyytinen, Nina

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to articulate a model of how Latinas cope with childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and the ways in which personal and cultural variables influence their coping strategies. Nine women who identified as Latina and as survivors of CSA participated in an in-depth interview. The data were analyzed using a grounded theory…

  8. Coping Strategies Used by Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse on the Journey to Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phanichrat, Thanomjit; Townshend, Julia M.

    2010-01-01

    This interpretative phenomenological analysis study explored seven adult survivors' experiences of coping with childhood sexual abuse and identified their coping strategies on the road to recovery. Data for the analysis was collected using semistructured interviews. The analytical process yielded two key theme clusters: avoidant coping strategies…

  9. Exploring Childhood Memories with Adult Survivors of Sexual Abuse: Concrete Reconstruction and Visualization Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roland, Catherine B.

    1993-01-01

    Describes two memory-enhancing techniques, visualization and concrete reconstruction, that have been successful in counseling adult survivors of sexual abuse. Includes suggested implementations, case examples, and implications for incorporating memory techniques into counseling process. Describes various risk factors involved in using these…

  10. Group Therapy for Survivors of Severe Childhood Abuse: Repairing the Social Contract.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Wayne

    1999-01-01

    Presents a model for conducting time-limited group therapy with adult survivors of severe childhood abuse who were diagnosed with complex post-traumatic and dissociative disorders. Group sessions are organized around verbal promises that encourage the client's active, attentive engagement. Gentle confrontation of dissociative defenses is integral…

  11. A Psychosynthesis Approach to the Use of Mental Imagery with Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Michael H.

    1997-01-01

    States that the techniques of mental imagery can help adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse access the inner wisdom necessary to identify, understand, and creatively address issues from the past and develop new and healthier patterns of thinking and behaving. Documents the innovative ways psychosynthesis uses mental imagery with this client…

  12. Towards malecentric communication: sensitizing health professionals to the realities of male childhood sexual abuse survivors.

    PubMed

    Teram, Eli; Stalker, Carol; Hovey, Angela; Schachter, Candice; Lasiuk, Gerri

    2006-06-01

    This article extends earlier reports of an ongoing qualitative inquiry on childhood sexual abuse survivors' experiences with health professionals. In this paper, we aim to enhance understanding of male survivors' experience. While male and female participants express similar anxieties and fears about their encounters with health professionals, there are gender-based differences related to the perceptions of victimhood and manhood; guilt and shame; homophobia; disclosure of abuse; and the expression of vulnerability. The implications of these differences for sensitive health care practice are analyzed within the context of gender relationships and the differential socialization of men. Malecentric communication is proposed as a method for addressing the specific experiences of male survivors in their encounters with health professionals.

  13. The psychological impact of sexual abuse: content analysis of interviews with male survivors.

    PubMed

    Lisak, D

    1994-10-01

    Autobiographical interviews with 26 adult male survivors of childhood sexual abuse were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and content analyzed to identify common psychological themes. Approximately equal numbers of men were abused by male and female perpetrators, almost half came from disrupted or violent homes and a majority had a history of substance abuse. Fifteen psychological themes were identified: Anger, Betrayal, Fear, Homosexuality Issues, Helplessness, Isolation and Alienation, Legitimacy, Loss, Masculinity Issues, Negative Childhood Peer Relations, Negative Schemas about People, Negative Schemas about the Self, Problems with Sexuality, Self Blame/Guilt and Shame/Humiliation. The themes are discussed and illustrated with examples drawn from the transcripts.

  14. Child Sexual Abuse and Women's Sexual Health: The Contribution of CSA Severity and Exposure to Multiple Forms of Childhood Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacelle, Celine; Hebert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    Research studies have provided increasing evidence for the potential adverse impact of child sexual abuse on women's sexual health. The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse and sexual health while controlling for various forms of childhood victimization. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 889 young women…

  15. The effects of perpetrator age and abuse disclosure on the relationship between feelings provoked by child sexual abuse and posttraumatic stress.

    PubMed

    Cantón-Cortés, David; Cortés, María Rosario; Cantón, José; Justicia, Fernando

    2011-07-01

    The present study examined the relationship between feelings provoked by child sexual abuse (CSA) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom scores in a sample of 163 female survivors of CSA. Finkelhor and Browne's traumagenic dynamics model was applied. The interactive effects of provoked feelings with perpetrator age and the existence of abuse disclosure were also studied. Results showed an overall relationship between feelings provoked by CSA and PTSD symptom scores. Feelings of stigma, betrayal, and powerlessness as a result of CSA were associated with PTSD symptom score when the entire group of CSA victims was analyzed. The role of traumatic sexualization was relevant only when analyzed in interaction with the age of the perpetrator and disclosure. The relationship between traumatic sexualization and PTSD symptom scores was only significant when the abuse was committed by an adult perpetrator and when a disclosure was made during the time of abuse, or a short time after the abuse had occurred.

  16. Impact of traumatic events on posttraumatic stress disorder among Danish survivors of sexual abuse in childhood.

    PubMed

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M; Palic, Sabina; Karsberg, Sidsel; Eriksen, Sara Bek

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse can be extremely traumatic and lead to lifelong symptomatology. The present study examined the impact of several demographic, abuse, and psychosocial variables on posttraumatic stress disorder severity among a consecutive sample of treatment-seeking, adult child sexual abuse survivors (N = 480). The child sexual abuse sample was characterized by severe trauma exposure, insecure attachment, and significant traumatization, with an estimated 77% suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder, more than twice the level of the comparison group. Regression analyses revealed risk factors associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder in which the strongest predictors being additional traumas, negative affectivity, and somatization. The findings add to existing research confirming the stressful nature of child sexual abuse and the variables that contribute to the development and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder.

  17. ''A Burden in Your Heart'': Lessons of Disclosure from Female Preadolescent and Adolescent Survivors of Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staller, Karen M.; Nelson-Gardell, Debra

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To enhance understanding of the sexual abuse disclosure process from the perspective of preteen and teenage survivors. To reconsider prominent models of the disclosure process in light of our findings. Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from four focus groups in which 34 preadolescent and adolescent female survivors of…

  18. Exploring the feasibility of email-mediated interaction in survivors of abuse.

    PubMed

    Constantino, R; Crane, P A; Noll, B S; Doswell, W M; Braxter, B

    2007-05-01

    There is a growing use of email-based provision of information, development of health-related skills and interventions; however, use of email to assist women and children experiencing abuse after receiving Protection from Abuse (PFA) court order has not been explored. The specific aim of this research was to test the feasibility of an email device called MIVO for use in interacting with women and children after receiving PFA. This qualitative design used a three-step recruitment, screening and email interaction with mothers and their adolescent child after obtaining informed consent and training in the use of an email device. Sample included six pairs of mother and child (n = 12) who have received a PFA within the past 6 months. Demographic data were gathered using the sociodemographic questionnaire. Qualitative data were gathered using email messages from mother and child pairs. Results showed that email interaction is a feasible and acceptable way of providing support and information to survivors of abuse after their PFA. The following themes in their order and rank of appearance were found in the email interaction between the nurse and survivors: (1) safety issues; (2) job-related issues; (3) school-related issues; (4) parenting-related issues; and (5) health-related issues. Themes identified for the children were school work and friends. Privacy, confidentiality and respect for individual rights are paramount in email interactions. Email interaction is useful in education, screening, safety instructions and follow-up care. Technological devices such as MIVO may have usefulness as an email interaction device among women, their child and a nurse to reduce their risk for further interpersonal violence/abuse and to increase disclosure of abuse. Healthcare providers need to identify technological developments, and through evidence-based research examine their feasibility and adaptability for translation into practice specifically, in caring for survivors of abuse.

  19. Female survivors of child sexual abuse: finding voice through research participation.

    PubMed

    McClain, Natalie; Amar, Angela Frederick

    2013-07-01

    It is unclear whether survivors of trauma are at risk of emotional or psychological distress when they participate in research because there is little data on the subjective experience of research study participants and how they make meaning from their participation in research. This qualitative descriptive study explored the experience of research participation by survivors of childhood sexual abuse. We interviewed 12 female survivors and identified themes. Participants noted both positive personal and societal benefits of study participation and reported no harm due to their research participation. Study findings can help researchers understand the perspectives of participants regarding the benefits of taking part in violence research and can help allay concerns over causing participants undue psychological distress.

  20. Coping strategies used by survivors of childhood sexual abuse on the journey to recovery.

    PubMed

    Phanichrat, Thanomjit; Townshend, Julia M

    2010-01-01

    This interpretative phenomenological analysis study explored seven adult survivors' experiences of coping with childhood sexual abuse and identified their coping strategies on the road to recovery. Data for the analysis was collected using semistructured interviews. The analytical process yielded two key theme clusters: avoidant coping strategies and problem-focused coping strategies. The participants journeyed through similar gradual and dynamic coping processes by initially adopting avoidant strategies before turning to problem-focused ones. A healthy process of coping with sexual abuse involved seeking support, cognitive engagement, optimistic thinking, self-acceptance, and seeking meaning strategies. This study suggests that problem-focused coping strategies should be promoted as part of therapeutic intervention.

  1. Meta-analysis of psychological treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder in adult survivors of childhood abuse.

    PubMed

    Ehring, Thomas; Welboren, Renate; Morina, Nexhmedin; Wicherts, Jelte M; Freitag, Janina; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2014-12-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly prevalent in adult survivors of childhood sexual and/or physical abuse. However, intervention studies focusing on this group of patients are underrepresented in earlier meta-analyses on the efficacy of PTSD treatments. The current meta-analysis exclusively focused on studies evaluating the efficacy of psychological interventions for PTSD in adult survivors of childhood abuse. Sixteen randomized controlled trials meeting inclusion criteria could be identified that were subdivided into trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), non-trauma-focused CBT, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, and other treatments (interpersonal, emotion-focused). Results showed that psychological interventions are efficacious for PTSD in adult survivors of childhood abuse, with an aggregated uncontrolled effect size of g=1.24 (pre- vs. post-treatment), and aggregated controlled effect sizes of g=0.72 (post-treatment, comparison to waitlist control conditions) and g=0.50 (post-treatment, comparison with TAU/placebo control conditions), respectively. Effect sizes remained stable at follow-up. As the heterogeneity between studies was large, we examined the influence of two a priori specified moderator variables on treatment efficacy. Results showed that trauma-focused treatments were more efficacious than non-trauma-focused interventions, and that treatments including individual sessions yielded larger effect sizes than pure group treatments. As a whole, the findings are in line with earlier meta-analyses showing that the best effects can be achieved with individual trauma-focused treatments.

  2. Breaking down barriers: exploring the potential for social care practice with trans survivors of domestic abuse.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that domestic abuse takes place outside the heteronormative paradigm of social life. This paper presents a discussion of the findings of doctoral research which explores trans people's experiences of domestic abuse, their social care needs and whether these are met by domestic abuse agencies. This paper foregrounds debate on the intersections of domestic abuse, trans communities and social care provision as this research, and previous studies, suggests that trans survivors do not seek out or benefit from social care intervention. Qualitative data, collected via narrative interviews, were collected during 2012 from participants mainly located in the United Kingdom (two participants were based in the United States). A total of 24 interviews were undertaken with trans people (n = 15) and social care practitioners (n = 9). Data were examined using a voice-centred relational technique. The findings reveal that barriers are multiple and complex but work could be undertaken to encourage help-seeking behaviours. Barriers include expectations of a transphobic response and 'Othering' practices; lack of entitlement felt by trans people; lack of knowledge/misunderstandings about trans social care needs; heteronormative bias of existing services; and practitioner attitudes fixed to notions about gender as binary. The paper ends by proposing a framework for practice with trans survivors which incorporates a person-centred, narrative approach.

  3. How Do Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse Experience Formally Delivered Talking Therapy? A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Parry, Sarah; Simpson, Jane

    2016-10-01

    This systematic review explored how adult survivors of child sexual abuse experienced nonspecific and trauma-focused talking therapies. Following extensive systematic searches of academic databases, 23 qualitative empirical studies were chosen for review. Using a line-by-line thematic synthesis, four analytical themes developed. These themes were: The Therapeutic Process as a Means for Forming Connections, which discusses therapeutic relationships; Developing a Sense of Self Through the Therapeutic Processes, which identifies stages of developmental recovery; Therapeutic Lights and Black Holes in the Shadows of child sexual abuse, which reflects on how a history of child sexual abuse influenced experiences of therapy; and Healing or Harrowing: Connecting With Others and First-time Experiences, which explores what was helpful, hindering, and new throughout the therapeutic journey. Findings related to participants developing new options for interpersonal relationships through the experience of authentic trust and the experiential learning of control and choice. Recommendations are discussed in relation to developing therapeutic practice and future research.

  4. The Relationship of Child Maltreatment and Self-Capacities with Distress when Telling One's Story of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palesh, Oxana Gronskaya; Classen, Catherine C.; Field, Nigel; Kraemer, Helena C.; Spiegel, David

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the impact of telling one's story of childhood sexual abuse and its relationship with the survivor's self-capacities and history of other child maltreatment. The baseline data were collected from 134 female CSA survivors who were participating in a large intervention study. Participants were given 10 minutes to describe their…

  5. Esuba: a psychoeducation group for incarcerated survivors of abuse.

    PubMed

    Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique E; Bedard, Laura E; Pate, Kerensa N; Hedberg, E C

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the effects associated with a trauma and abuse-focused psychoeducation group for incarcerated women on decreasing trauma symptoms. A total of 320 women participated in 34 groups in five prisons that followed a manualized intervention. A one-group pretest-posttest design was used to examine changes on 10 Trauma Symptom Inventory subscales (Anxious Arousal, Depression, Anger/Irritability, Intrusive Experiences, Defensive Avoidance, Dissociation, Sexual Concerns, Dysfunctional Sexual Behavior, Impaired Self-Reference, and Tension Reduction Behavior). Analyses indicated significant improvement on all 10 trauma subscales. Small effect sizes were found on all of the subscales. The findings of this study are encouraging and are the first step toward more rigorous evaluation of this pilot program. These findings provide initial support for the use of group psychoeducation intervention to address traumatic stress symptoms with incarcerated women.

  6. Family environment and adult attachment as predictors of psychopathology and personality dysfunction among inpatient abuse survivors.

    PubMed

    Riggs, Shelley A; Sahl, Gayla; Greenwald, Ellen; Atkison, Heather; Paulson, Adrienne; Ross, Colin A

    2007-01-01

    The current study explored the role of early family environment and adult attachment style in explaining long-term outcomes among child abuse survivors. Adult patients (N = 80) in a trauma treatment program were assessed for clinical diagnosis and administered a multiscale questionnaire. Hierarchical regression analyses were significant for dissociative identity disorder (DID), substance abuse, anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress, somatization, and six personality disorder dimensions. Adult attachment styles were significant predictors of most outcome variables. Of particular note was the strong contribution of attachment avoidance to DID. Five family environment scales (Independence, Organization, Control, Conflict, Expressiveness) also contributed to various psychopathological outcomes. Evidence emerged supporting a mediating role for attachment style in the link between family independence and five personality disorder dimensions.

  7. When Wife-Beating Is Not Necessarily Abuse: A Feminist and Cross-Cultural Analysis of the Concept of Abuse as Expressed by Tibetan Survivors of Domestic Violence.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Hamsa

    2016-11-20

    This article describes the views of Tibetan women who have experienced physical violence from male intimate partners. How they conceptualise abuse, their views on acceptable versus unacceptable hitting, and the acts besides hitting which they felt to be unacceptable or abusive, are explored. Views of survivors' relatives/friends and men who have hit their wives are also included. Western-based domestic violence theory is shown to be incommensurate with abuse in particular socio-cultural settings. As feminist scholars emphasize listening deeply to voices of women in the global South, this article demonstrates how such listening might be undertaken when the views expressed by women diverge from feminism.

  8. Literacy Learning Care: Exploring the Roles of Care in Literacy Learning with Survivors of Abuse in Irish Industrial Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feely, Maggie

    2010-01-01

    The links between literacy and care have received little attention. A general neglect of the affective domain in the academe is strongly echoed in traditional analyses of unmet adult literacy needs where economic causes and consequences dominate debates. The findings from a study of people who are survivors of institutional abuse and neglect…

  9. Resilience and mental health in adult survivors of child abuse associated with the institution of the Austrian Catholic Church.

    PubMed

    Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte; Weindl, Dina; Kantor, Viktoria; Knefel, Matthias; Glück, Tobias; Moy, Yvonne; Butollo, Asisa; Jagsch, Reinhold

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, reports of institutional abuse within the Catholic Church have emerged and research on the consequences on mental health is in its beginnings. In this study, we report findings on current mental health and resilience in a sample of adult survivors of institutional abuse (N = 185). We compared 3 groups of survivors that differed regarding their current mental health to investigate aspects of resilience, coping, and disclosure. The majority of the sample was male (76.2%), the mean age was 56.28 (SD = 9.46) years, and more than 50.0% of the sample was cohabiting/married. Most of the survivors reported severe mental health problems. Known protective factors (education, social support, age) were not associated with mental health in our sample. Our findings corroborate that institutional abuse has long-term effects on mental health. We found that fewer emotional reactions during disclosure, task-oriented coping, and optimism were associated with better mental health. The study was limited by a cross-sectional design, but we conclude that the kind of institutional abuse reported is especially adverse, and thus typical protective factors for mental health do not apply. Future research should focus on intrapersonal factors and institutional dynamics to improve treatment for persons affected by institutional abuse.

  10. The psychosocial consequences of child sexual abuse in Ethiopia: a case-control comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Wondie, Yemataw; Zemene, Workie; Tafesse, Biruk; Reschke, Konrad; Schröder, Harry

    2011-07-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) continues to be a pressing public health concern around the globe. Few existing reports, however, indicate the alarming rate at which the problem is increasing in sub-Saharan Africa. The present study is designed to investigate the psychosocial consequences of sexual abuse among child survivors in Ethiopia who were abused mainly through early marriage, rape, and child prostitution. Data are collected from 318 such CSA survivors-and 318 matched, non-sexually abused, normal controls- using the Children's Impact of Traumatic Events Scale-Revised and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The results reveal the CSA survivors to be significantly more symptomatic than the control group: They demonstrated a lower degree of social support, a lower degree of empowerment, as well as a higher degree of guilt and increased likelihood of viewing the world as dangerous. Finally, these CSA survivors show a lower degree of positive self-worth than their non-sexually abused counterparts. These findings have important implications for the formulation of appropriate preventions and interventions to be undertaken by various stakeholders ranging from family to policy makers.

  11. Mental health indicators fifty years later: A population-based study of men with histories of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Easton, Scott D; Kong, Jooyoung

    2017-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a widely acknowledged trauma that affects a substantial number of boys/men and has the potential to undermine mental health across the lifespan. Despite the topic's importance, few studies have examined the long-term effects of CSA on mental health in middle and late life for men. Most empirical studies on the effects of CSA have been conducted with women, non-probability samples, and samples of young or emerging adults with inadequate control variables. Based on complex trauma theory, the current study investigated: a) the effect of CSA on mental health outcomes (depressive symptoms, somatic symptom severity, hostility) in late life for men, and b) the moderating effects of childhood adversities and masculine norms in the relationship between CSA and the three mental health outcomes. Using a population-based sample from the 2004-2005 Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, multivariate analyses found that CSA was positively related to both depressive and somatic symptoms and increased the likelihood of hostility for men who reported a history of CSA. Both childhood adversities and masculine norms were positively related to the three outcomes for the entire sample. Among CSA survivors, childhood adversities exerted a moderating effect in terms of depressive symptoms. Mental health practitioners should include CSA and childhood adversities in assessment and treatment with men. To more fully understand the effects of CSA, future studies are needed that use longitudinal designs, compare male and female survivors, and examine protective mechanisms such as social support.

  12. Women's History of Sexual Abuse, Their Sexuality, and Sexual Self-Schemas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meston, Cindy M.; Rellini, Alessandra H.; Heiman, Julia R.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors assessed 48 female survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA) and 71 female control participants using measures of adult sexual function, psychological function (i.e., depression and anxiety), and sexual self-schemas. The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether differences existed between women with and without a…

  13. "I Will Never Know the Person Who I Could Have Become": Perceived Changes in Self-Identity Among Adult Survivors of Clergy-Perpetrated Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Easton, Scott D; Leone-Sheehan, Danielle M; O'Leary, Patrick J

    2016-05-25

    Clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse (CPSA) during childhood represents a tragic betrayal of trust that inflicts damage on the survivor, the family, and the parish community. Survivors often report CPSA has a disturbing impact on their self-identity. Despite intense media coverage of clergy abuse globally in the Catholic Church (and other faith communities) over several decades, relatively few empirical studies have been conducted with survivors. Beyond clinical observations and advocacy group reports, very little is known about survivors' perceptions of how the abuse impacted their long-term self-identity. Using data collected during the 2010 Health and Well-Being Survey, this qualitative analysis represents one of the first large-scale studies with a non-clinical sample of adult male survivors of CPSA from childhood (N = 205). The negative effects of the sexual abuse on participants were expressed across six domains of self-identity: (a) total self, (b) psychological self, (c) relational self, (d) gendered self, (e) aspirational self, and (f) spiritual self. These findings highlight the range and depth of self-suffering inflicted by this pernicious form of sexual violence. The findings are useful for developing clinical services for survivors, shaping public and institutional policies to address clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse, and guiding future research with this population.

  14. Issues inherent in the multicultural feminist couple treatment of African-American, same-gender loving female adult survivors of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Parks, C W; Cutts, R N; Woodson, K M; Flarity-White, L

    2001-01-01

    This manuscript focuses on four potential stumbling blocks in the multicultural feminist couple treatment of African-American, same-gender loving female adult child sexual abuse survivors: (1) gender roles; (2) "coming out" to self, family, and the community; (3) lesbian couple relationships; and (4) the expression of lesbian sexuality. These four potential barriers to therapeutic outcome within the context of multicultural feminist couple treatment needs to be systematically addressed during the provision of culturally-informed clinical services to African-American, same-gender loving female adult child sexual abuse survivors. The nature and impact of feminism on the family, as an institution, served as the framework for this discussion.

  15. Family characteristics and long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Suchitra; Winter, David; Messer, David; Metcalfe, Chris

    2011-11-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study investigated the role of family variables in the development of psychological problems in childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivors, contributing to the debate between the 'abuse related' perspective, which assumes a direct causal link between abuse and later problems, and the 'family dysfunction' perspective, which assumes that these problems are caused by the dysfunctional nature of families in which abuse occurs. The two questions of central concern were: (1) whether maladaptive family dynamics and CSA were each associated with later adjustment; and (2) whether these associations acted independently of one another. DESIGN. A retrospective cohort study comparing sexually abused and non-abused participants matched one-to-one on demographic variables. METHODS. The 64 clinical participants were recruited by sending questionnaires to clients on a psychological therapy waiting list, and 44 students were recruited from questionnaires made available at University Health Centres. Participants completed measures of psychological and sexual adjustment, family functioning, and construing. Multiple linear regression models investigated overall and independent associations between abuse, family circumstances, and adjustment in adulthood. RESULTS. There was only weak evidence for the influence of CSA, independently of family environment, on later psychological distress and sexual adjustment, but strong evidence for the influence of aspects of family environment, independent of abuse, on later psychological distress, sexual adjustment, self-esteem, body image, and sexual attitude. CONCLUSIONS. The findings provide support for the 'family dysfunction' perspective on the long-term effects of CSA.

  16. Female Survivors' Perceptions of Lifelong Impact on Their Education of Child Abuse Suffered in Orphanages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Bode, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Many children raised in orphanages suffered ongoing child abuse and neglect including sexual abuse, and nearly all were denied an adequate education. This paper explores adult females' perceptions of the impacts on their education of child sexual abuse they suffered while living in orphanages in Australia. In-depth qualitative and anonymous…

  17. Prolonged Exposure for Treating PTSD Among Female Methadone Patients Who Were Survivors of Sexual Abuse in Israel.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Miriam; Nacasch, Nitsa; Levit, Shabtay; Katz, Noam; Foa, Edna B

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this pilot study were: (a) to test the feasibility of prolonged exposure (PE) therapy conducted by a social worker staff on female patients in methadone program clinics who were survivors of child sexual abuse or rape and (b) to examine preliminary outcomes of PE on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and illicit drug use at pre- and posttreatment, and up to 12-month follow-ups. Twelve female methadone patients who were survivors of child sexual abuse or rape diagnosed with PTSD were enrolled in 13-19 weekly individual PE sessions. Assessments were conducted at pre-, mid-, and posttreatment, as well as at 3, 6, and 12-month follow-ups. The treatment outcomes measures included PTSD symptoms, depressive symptoms, and illicit drug use. Ten of the 12 study patients completed treatment. PTSD and depressive symptoms showed significant reduction. No relapse to illicit drug use was detected. These preliminary results suggest that PE may be delivered by methadone social workers with successful outcomes. Further research should test the efficacy of PE among methadone patients in a randomized control trial with standard care as the control condition.

  18. Survivors' Perspectives on the Impact of Clergy Sexual Abuse on Families of Origin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wind, Leslie H.; Sullivan, James M.; Levins, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse rose to public attention in 2002 through the disclosure of abuse by Catholic priests within the Archdiocese of Boston and a simultaneous cover-up by church hierarchy. Similar patterns have since been described in other Catholic dioceses and in other faith denominations. While recent studies have examined the impact…

  19. Physiological stress responses predict sexual functioning and satisfaction differently in women who have and have not been sexually abused in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Meston, Cindy M.; Lorenz, Tierney A.

    2012-01-01

    Physiological responses to sexual stimuli may contribute to the increased rate of sexual problems seen in women with childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories. We compared two physiological stress responses as predictors of sexual function and satisfaction, sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation and cortisol in women with (CSA, N = 136) and without CSA histories (NSA, N = 102). In CSA survivors, cortisol response to sexual stimuli did not significantly predict sexual functioning; however, in NSA women, cortisol increases were associated with poorer sexual functioning, and decreases with higher functioning. For women with CSA histories, lower SNS activity was associated with poorer sexual functioning. For CSA survivors with low lifetime trauma, lower SNS activity was associated with higher sexual satisfaction; for women with high lifetime trauma, the reverse was true. Decreased SNS activity during sexual stimuli predicted higher sexual functioning in NSA women with low lifetime exposure to traumatic events, but lower sexual functioning in those with high exposure. Differences between women with and without CSA histories in the association between cortisol and SNS response and sexual functioning and satisfaction suggests that CSA causes disruptions in both short and long-term stress responses to sexual stimuli that perpetuate into adulthood. PMID:24748915

  20. The perinatal self-care index: development of an evidence-based assessment tool for use with child sexual abuse survivors.

    PubMed

    Roller, Cyndi Gale

    2012-01-01

    Every ninth woman presenting for prenatal care reports having experienced childhood sexual abuse. Many develop mental health disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). In response to PTSD, pregnant women survivors of childhood sexual abuse engage in negative perinatal self-care behaviors that can lead to adverse perinatal outcomes. Currently, promotion of perinatal self-care does not consider childhood sexual abuse or PTSD. This study aimed to develop a Perinatal Self-Care Index, determine sensitivity of the index to differences in behaviors of childhood sexual abuse survivors (PTSD-affected and PTSD-resilient), and validate usefulness in relation to birth weight. Secondary analysis was conducted using data from a prospective cohort study of the effects of PTSD on pregnancy outcomes. The index explained 6.5% of variance in birth weight. Prediction improved to 9.4% once PTSD and socioeconomic status were considered. The index is sensitive to differences in PTSD-affected versus PTSD-resilient survivors of childhood sexual abuse and a useful predictor of birth weight in this analysis.

  1. Couples therapy for women survivors of child sexual abuse who are in addictions recovery: a comparative case study of treatment process and outcome.

    PubMed

    Trute, B; Docking, B; Hiebert-Murphy, D

    2001-01-01

    Treatment for women who are survivors of child sexual abuse and who have a history of substance abuse has largely involved gender-specific interventions. This study examines the use of conjoint couple therapy with a cohort of women who were survivors of child sexual abuse and who are in addiction recovery and with their partners. A comparative case study analysis incorporated standardized clinical measures with client and therapist interviews. Brief conjoint therapy was found to assist couples in the specific relationship skill areas of communication and mutual problem solving. Further, substantive gains were found in the realm of affective relations. The women reported an increase in support from their male partners, and the men reported a decrease in negative emotional atmosphere in the relationship.

  2. Mentoring Undergraduate University Women Survivors of Childhood Abuse and Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Rosemary C.; D'Amico, Miranda

    2011-01-01

    This inquiry describes the role of mentoring for undergraduate women survivors of trauma. It employed a comparative case approach. Interviews elicited stories from participants reflecting the role mentors have played in their life course and educational experiences. Four major themes emerged: Fantasy mentors, mentor as mirror, mentor as nurturer…

  3. Tonic Immobility in Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors and Its Relationship to Posttraumatic Stress Symptomatology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Sauder, Colin L.; Martin, Elaine K.; Marx, Brian P.

    2010-01-01

    Past research has shown that 37% to 52% of sexual assault survivors report experiencing a set of peritraumatic responses, which include gross motor inhibition, analgesia, and fixed or unfocused staring. This response set closely resembles a set of unconditioned responses, collectively known as Tonic Immobility (TI). This study examined TI among…

  4. An evaluation of ICD-11 PTSD and complex PTSD criteria in a sample of adult survivors of childhood institutional abuse

    PubMed Central

    Knefel, Matthias; Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Background The WHO recently launched the proposal for the 11th version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) that also includes two diagnoses related to traumatic stress. In contrast to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), ICD-11 will probably, in addition to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), also define a new diagnosis termed “complex posttraumatic stress disorder” (CPTSD). Objective We aimed to apply the proposed ICD-11 criteria for PTSD and CPTSD and to compare their prevalence to the ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases [10th revision]) PTSD prevalence. In addition, we compiled a list of symptoms for CPTSD based on subthreshold PTSD so as to include a wider group of individuals. Methods To evaluate the appropriateness of the WHO ICD-11 proposal compared to the criteria of ICD-10, we applied the newly introduced criteria for PTSD and CPTSD deriving from the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist – Civilian Version (PCL-C) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) scales, to a sample of adult survivors (N=229) of childhood institutional abuse. We evaluated the construct validity of CPTSD using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Results More individuals fulfilled the criteria for PTSD according to ICD-10 (52.8%) than the ICD-11 proposal (17% for PTSD only; 38.4% if combined with complex PTSD). The new version of PTSD neutralized the gender effects. The prevalence of CPTSD was 21.4%, and women had a significantly higher rate of CPTSD than men (40.4 and 15.8%, respectively). Those survivors who were diagnosed with CPTSD experienced institutional abuse for a longer time. CFA showed a strong model fit. Conclusion CPTSD is a highly relevant classification for individuals with complex trauma history, but surprisingly, effects of gender were apparent. Further research should thus address gender effects. PMID:24312721

  5. Self-definition as a survivor of childhood sexual abuse among navy recruits.

    PubMed

    Stander, Valerie A; Olson, Cheryl B; Merrill, Lex L

    2002-04-01

    This study explored how specific childhood sexual experiences (CSEs) might be related to self-identification as a victim of sexual abuse and to gender differences in self-defined victimization. Hierarchical logistic regression was used to estimate the relationship of demographic and CSE characteristics with self-definitions. The characteristics most strongly associated were threats-force, incest, and younger age at the time of the experience. Men were less likely than were women to acknowledge abuse and to report CSE characteristics indicative of abuse. Women were more likely to identify themselves as victims the more CSEs they reported involving sexual penetration. Finally, in an analysis of familial abuse, men were more likely to define themselves as victims if the perpetrator was also male.

  6. Elevated Salivary Alpha Amylase in Adolescent Sexual Abuse Survivors with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Strawn, Jeffrey R.; Out, Dorothee; Granger, Douglas A.; Putnam, Frank W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Little is known regarding neuroendocrine responses in adolescent girls with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who have experienced sexual abuse. Therefore, we collected saliva samples three times daily for 3 days to assess concentrations of salivary alpha amylase (sAA) – a surrogate marker for autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity and, in particular, sympathetic activity – in sexually abused adolescent girls. Methods: Twenty-four girls (mean age: 15±1.4 years) who had experienced recent sexual abuse (i.e., sexual abuse occurred 1–6 months prior to study enrollment) and 12 healthy comparison subjects (mean age: 14.8±1.3 years) completed a structured interview and assessments to ascertain symptoms of posttraumatic stress, then collected saliva at home upon awakening, 30 minutes after waking, and at 5 p.m. on three consecutive school days. Results: For sexually abused girls, total PTSD symptoms were associated with higher overall morning levels of sAA (r[20]=0.51, p=0.02), a finding driven by intrusive symptoms (r[20]=0.43, p<0.05) and hyperarousal symptoms (r[20]=0.58, p=0.01). There were no significant differences in diurnal sAA secretion between the sexually abused girls and healthy comparison adolescents. Conclusions: Overall morning concentrations of sAA in sexually abused girls are associated with overall PTSD severity as well as symptoms of hyperarousal and intrusive symptoms, possibly reflecting symptom-linked increases in ANS tone. These data raise the possibility that alterations in ANS activity are related to the pathophysiology of sexual abuse-related PTSD in adolescent girls, and may inform therapeutic interventions (e.g., antiadrenergic medications). PMID:25803321

  7. Exploring Mexican-origin intimate partner abuse survivors' help-seeking within their sociocultural contexts.

    PubMed

    Brabeck, Kalina M; Guzmán, Michele R

    2009-01-01

    Women's responses to partner abuse are shaped by their particular sociocultural contexts. In this study, quantitative data were collected from 75 Mexican-origin women who survived intimate partner abuse, to identify variables associated with help-seeking to survive relationship abuse. Help-seeking was defined as use of formal (e.g., shelter) and informal (e.g., family) sources. Variables included two cultural variables: machismo (i.e., adherence to traditional gender roles) and familismo (i.e., valuing family cohesion and reciprocity), and four sociostructural variables: income, education, English proficiency, and immigrant status. Results indicated participants with higher levels of familismo sought informal help more frequently than those with lower levels. Women with grade school education, no English proficiency, and undocumented status sought formal help less frequently than those not constrained by these barriers.

  8. Perpetrator Methodology as a Predictor of Traumatic Symptomatology in Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, Trisha; Pretty, Grace; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2004-01-01

    This retrospective study explores, through quantitative and qualitative methods, the relationship of two variables (perpetrator relationship and perpetrator methodology) to posttraumatic and dissociative symptomatology. The quantitative sample comprised a nonpsychiatric group (N = 39) of Australian adults reporting sexual abuse histories. A MANOVA…

  9. Efficacy of a Group Intervention for Adult Women Survivors of Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Martine; Bergeron, Manon

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of a group intervention for women sexually abused in childhood or adulthood. The sample consisted of 41 women involved in a group intervention based on a feminist approach offered by help centers for sexual assault victims in Quebec and 11 women in a wait-list comparison group. Results reveal that the group…

  10. Her Body Speaks: The Experience of Dance Therapy for Women Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Letty J.; Daniluk, Judith C.

    2002-01-01

    This qualitative, phenomenological study explores the experiences of dance therapy for 5 women who had been sexually abused as children. Using in-depth, largely unstructured interviews, the women reflect on their dance therapy experiences: and on their perceptions of the role of these experiences in their psychological healing. (Contains 46…

  11. A Developmental Framework for Enhancing Resiliency in Adult Survivors of Childhood Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orbke, Samantha; Smith, Heather L.

    2013-01-01

    Roughly one third of children subjected to abusive environments grow into healthy and capable adults, demonstrating remarkable resiliency, despite risks for developing maladaptive self-structures and destructive behaviors (Werner, "American Journal of Orthopsychiatry" 59:72-81 1989; Kendall-Tackett "et al.", "Psychological Bulletin" 113:164-180…

  12. Disclosure of child sexual abuse by adolescents: a qualitative in-depth study.

    PubMed

    Schönbucher, Verena; Maier, Thomas; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Schnyder, Ulrich; Landolt, Markus A

    2012-11-01

    This qualitative study aimed to study the process of disclosure by examining adolescents from the general population who had experienced child sexual abuse (CSA). Twenty-six sexually victimized adolescents (23 girls, 3 boys; age: 15-18 years) participated in a qualitative face-to-face in-depth interview on different aspects of disclosure. A qualitative content analysis was conducted following Mayring and using the qualitative data analysis program Atlas.ti. In addition, quantitative correlation analyses were calculated to identify factors associated with disclosure. Less than one third of participants immediately disclosed CSA to another person. In most cases, recipients of both immediate and delayed disclosure were peers. More than one third of participants had never disclosed the abuse to a parent. Main motives for nondisclosure to parents were lack of trust or not wanting to burden the parents. Factors that correlated positively with disclosure were extrafamilial CSA, single CSA, age of victim at CSA, and having parents who were still living together. Negative associations with disclosure were found for feelings of guilt and shame and the perpetrator's age. Many adolescent survivors of CSA have serious concerns about disclosure to their parents and consider friends as more reliable confidants. These findings have two main implications for prevention: (1) In order to facilitate disclosure to parents, the strengthening of the child-parent relationship should be given specific attention in prevention programs, and (2) prevention programs should aim at teaching adolescents how they can help a victim if they become a recipient of disclosure.

  13. Exploring the longitudinal offending pathways of child sexual abuse victims: A preliminary analysis using latent variable modeling.

    PubMed

    Papalia, Nina L; Luebbers, Stefan; Ogloff, James R P; Cutajar, Margaret; Mullen, Paul E

    2017-01-16

    Very little research has been conducted to show the way in which criminal behavior unfolds over the life-course in children who have been sexually abused, and whether it differs from the 'age-crime' patterns consistently documented in the criminology literature. This study investigated the temporal pathways of criminal offending between the ages of 10-25 years among medically confirmed cases of child sexual abuse (CSA), and considered whether abuse variables, offense variables, and the presence of other adverse outcomes, were associated with heterogeneity in offending pathways among CSA survivors. This study utilized data gathered as part of a large-scale study involving the linkage of forensic examinations on 2759 cases of medically ascertained CSA between 1964 and 1995, to criminal justice and public psychiatric databases 13-44 years following abuse, together with a matched comparison sample of 2677 individuals. We used the subsample of 283 offending individuals (191 victims; 92 comparisons) for whom complete offending data were available. We compared the aggregate age-crime curves for CSA victims and comparisons, and applied longitudinal latent class analysis to identify distinct subgroups of offending pathways between ages 10-25 years within the abuse sample. Four latent pathways emerged among sexually abused offenders, labeled: Early-Onset/High-Risk/Adolescence-Limited; Intermediate-Onset/Low-Risk/Adolescence-Limited; Late-Onset/Low-Risk/Slow-Declining; and Early-Onset/High-Risk/Persistent offenders. Age at abuse, the nature and frequency of offending, and mental health problems, were associated with the offending pathway followed by CSA victims. Consistent with criminological literature, findings indicate considerable heterogeneity in the longitudinal offending patterns of offenders exposed to CSA. Implications for clinical practice and directions for research are highlighted.

  14. Masculine norms, disclosure, and childhood adversities predict long-term mental distress among men with histories of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Easton, Scott D

    2014-02-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) can have a profound effect on the long-term mental health of boys/men. However, not all men with histories of CSA experience psychopathology. To improve prevention and intervention services, more research is needed to understand why some male survivors experience mental health problems and others do not. The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to mental distress among a large, non-clinical sample of men with histories of CSA (N=487). Using a cross-sectional design with purposive sampling from three national survivor organizations, data were collected through an anonymous Internet-based survey. Multivariate analyses found that only one of the four CSA severity variables-use of physical force by the abuser-was related to mental distress. Additional factors that were related to mental distress included the number of other childhood adversities, years until disclosure, overall response to disclosure, and conformity to masculine norms. Overall, the final model predicted 36% of the variance in the number of mental health symptoms. Mental health practitioners should include masculine norms, disclosure history, and childhood adversities in assessments and intervention planning with male survivors. To more fully explicate risk factors for psychopathology in this population, future studies with probability samples of men that focus on mediational processes and use longitudinal designs are needed.

  15. A preliminary mapping of individual, relational, and social factors that impede disclosure of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Collin-Vézina, Delphine; De La Sablonnière-Griffin, Mireille; Palmer, Andrea M; Milne, Lise

    2015-05-01

    Uncovering the pathways to disclosures of child sexual abuse (CSA) and the factors influencing the willingness of victims to talk about the abuse is paramount to the development of powerful practice and policy initiatives. Framed as a long interview method utilizing a grounded theory approach to analyze data, the objective of the current study was to provide a preliminary mapping of the barriers to CSA disclosures through an ecological systemic lens, from a sample of 67 male and female CSA adult survivors, all of whom had recently received counselling services. The current project led to the identification of three broad categories of barriers that were each comprised of several subthemes, namely: Barriers from Within (internalized victim-blaming, mechanisms to protect oneself, and immature development at time of abuse); Barriers in Relation to Others (violence and dysfunction in the family, power dynamics, awareness of the impact of telling, and fragile social network); and Barriers in Relation to the Social World (labelling, taboo of sexuality, lack of services available, and culture or time period). This study points to the importance of using a broad ecological framework to understand the factors that inhibit disclosure of CSA, as barriers to disclosure do not constrain solely the victims. Results are discussed in light of their implications for research, prevention and intervention programs, and social policies and media campaigns, as the burden is on the larger community to create a climate of safety and transparency that makes the telling of CSA possible.

  16. Rape and child sexual abuse: what beliefs persist about motives, perpetrators, and survivors?

    PubMed

    McGee, Hannah; O'Higgins, Madeleine; Garavan, Rebecca; Conroy, Ronán

    2011-11-01

    Rape myths are prejudicial and stereotyped beliefs about rape which persist in society. They may have a significant impact on those affected by rape as well as the performance of legal and public participants in the justice system. Rape myths may differ over time and within different societies and cultural settings. Awareness of contemporary and local rape myths is necessary if they are to be successfully challenged through public campaigns and other means. This study sought to assess the prevalence of myths concerning rape and sexual abuse in a national population survey.

  17. Prevalence and predictors of Axis I disorders in a large sample of treatment-seeking victims of sexual abuse and incest

    PubMed Central

    McElroy, Eoin; Shevlin, Mark; Elklit, Ask; Hyland, Philip; Murphy, Siobhan; Murphy, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a common occurrence and a robust, yet non-specific, predictor of adult psychopathology. While many demographic and abuse factors have been shown to impact this relationship, their common and specific effects remain poorly understood. Objective This study sought to assess the prevalence of Axis I disorders in a large sample of help-seeking victims of sexual trauma, and to examine the common and specific effects of demographic and abuse characteristics across these different diagnoses. Method The participants were attendees at four treatment centres in Denmark that provide psychological therapy for victims of CSA (N=434). Axis I disorders were assessed using the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between CSA characteristics (age of onset, duration, number of abusers, number of abusive acts) and 10 adult clinical syndromes. Results There was significant variation in the prevalence of disorders and the abuse characteristics were differentially associated with the outcome variables. Having experienced sexual abuse from more than one perpetrator was the strongest predictor of psychopathology. Conclusions The relationship between CSA and adult psychopathology is complex. Abuse characteristics have both unique and shared effects across different diagnoses. Highlights of the article The prevalence of Axis I disorders were assessed in a large sample of sexual abuse and incest survivors. The impact of demographic and abuse characteristics were also examined. There was significant variation in the prevalence of disorders. Abuse characteristics were differentially associated with the disorders. Abuse from multiple perpetrators was the strongest overall predictor of psychopathology. PMID:27064976

  18. Impact of childhood sexual abuse on the emotions and behaviours of adult men from three ethnic groups in the USA.

    PubMed

    Payne, Jennifer Shepard; Galvan, Frank H; Williams, John K; Prusinski, Missy; Zhang, Muyu; Wyatt, Gail E; Myers, Hector F

    2014-01-06

    Adult men of different ethnic backgrounds who experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may vary in their reports of the psychological and behavioural impact of CSA on their lives. Empirical studies rarely examine the impact of race/ethnicity or cultural context on the psychological and behavioural struggles of adult male CSA survivors. This study utilised qualitative content analysis to examine the reported CSA-related psychological and behavioural challenges of 150 US men, with equal numbers of Blacks, Latinos and non-Latino Whites. Interview data revealed some ethnic differences: Black men more frequently denied having present day adverse effects than other groups. However, Black men who did report negative consequences of CSA discussed difficulties with substance use and hyper-sexualised behaviour more often than other ethnicities. Latino men reported anger, anxiety, hyper-vigilance, flashbacks and communication problems more often than the other two groups. Black and Latino men also discussed guilt/shame issues and sexual identity concerns more often than Whites did. In contrast, White men more frequently discussed issues related to low self-esteem, loneliness and isolation. These findings suggest that ethnically diverse men may respond differently to CSA experiences and that considerations need to be taken into account when providing healthcare to men with CSA histories.

  19. Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse on the Emotions and Behaviours of Adult Men from Three Ethnic Groups in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Galvan, Frank H.; Williams, John K.; Prusinski, Missy; Zhang, Muyu; Wyatt, Gail E.; Myers, Hector F.

    2014-01-01

    Adult men of different ethnic backgrounds who experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may vary in their reports of the psychological and behavioural impact of CSA on their lives. Empirical studies rarely examine the impact of race/ethnicity or cultural context on the psychological and behavioural struggles of adult male CSA survivors. This study utilised qualitative content analysis to examine the reported CSA-related psychological and behavioural challenges of 150 U.S. men, with equal numbers of Blacks, Latinos, and non-Latino Whites. Interview data revealed some ethnic differences: Black men more frequently denied having present day adverse effects than other groups. However, Black men who did report negative consequences of CSA discussed difficulties with substance use and hyper-sexualised behaviour more often than other ethnicities. Latino men reported anger, anxiety, hyper-vigilance, flashbacks and communication problems more often than the other two groups. Black and Latino men also discussed guilt/shame issues and sexual identity concerns more often than Whites did. In contrast, White men more frequently discussed issues related to low self-esteem, loneliness and isolation. These findings suggest that ethnically diverse men may respond differently to CSA experiences and that considerations need to be taken into account when providing health care to men with CSA histories. PMID:24393013

  20. Patterns of Childhood Sexual Abuse Characteristics and Their Relationships to Other Childhood Abuse and Adult Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulme, Polly A.; Agrawal, Sangeeta

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was twofold: (a) to cluster women who experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) according to their shared patterns of CSA characteristics and (b) to examine differences across clusters on measures of other childhood abuse and adult health. Seven CSA characteristic variables were used for cluster analysis. The seven-cluster…

  1. CSA/ASC Press Briefing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Nicole Gignac, Senior Communications Advisor Canadian Space Agency (CSA), introduces the panel for this CSA/ASC press briefing. The panel consist of: Dr. Steve Maclean, CSA astronaut; Dr. Paul Cooper, Deputy General Manager, MacDonald, Dettwiler and Associates Ltd. (MDA); and Dr. Iain Christie, Director of Research and Development from NEPTEC. Maclean will fly on the STS-115 Mission in February of 2006. He presents pictures and talks about the crewmembers of the Space Shuttle Columbia and Space Shuttle Discovery. Maclean also discusses entry risks as it pertains to the leading edge wing of Discovery. Paul Cooper explains and shows a video presentation of Canadarm robotics. The briefing ends with Dr Christie explaining the sensitive three dimensional inspections are performed in space that looks for cracks in the leading edge wing of the Space Shuttle Discovery.

  2. Predicting Long-Term Outcomes for Women Sexually Abused in Childhood: Contribution of Abuse Severity Versus Family Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fassler, I.R.; Amodeo, M.; Griffin, M.L.; Clay, C.M.; Ellis, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: Child sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with adverse adult psychosocial outcomes, although some reports describe minimal long-term effects. The search for explanations for the heterogeneous outcomes in women with CSA has led to an examination of a range of CSA-related factors, from the severity of individual CSA incidents to the…

  3. Cumulative childhood maltreatment and its dose-response relation with adult symptomatology: Findings in a sample of adult survivors of sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Steine, Iris M; Winje, Dagfinn; Krystal, John H; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Milde, Anne Marita; Grønli, Janne; Nordhus, Inger Hilde; Pallesen, Ståle

    2017-03-01

    In the present study, we examined the role of cumulative childhood maltreatment experiences for several health related outcomes in adulthood, including symptoms of psychological distress as well as perceived social support and hardiness. The sample comprised adult survivors of sexual abuse (N=278, 95.3% women, mean age at first abusive incident=6.4 years). One-way ANOVAs revealed a statistically significant dose-response relation between cumulative childhood maltreatment scores and self-reported symptoms of posttraumatic stress (PTSS), anxiety, depression, eating disorders, dissociation, insomnia, nightmare related distress, physical pain, emotional pain, relational problems, self-harm behaviors as well as on a measure of symptom complexity. Cumulative childhood maltreatment was also associated with lower levels of work functioning. An inverse dose-response relation was found for perceived social support and hardiness. Using a Bonferroni corrected alpha level, cumulative childhood maltreatment remained significantly associated with all outcome measures with the exception of eating disorder symptoms after controlling for abuse-related independent variables in hierarchical regression analyses. Results add to previous literature by showing that dose-response relation between cumulative childhood adversities and adult symptom outcomes could also be identified in a sample characterized by high exposure to adversities, and lends support to the notion put forth by previous authors that cumulative childhood adversities seem to be related to the severity of adult health outcomes in a rule-governed way.

  4. Beyond "Survivor": How Childhood Sexual Abuse Informs the Identity of Adult Women at the End of the Therapeutic Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Alexis; Daniluk, Judith C.

    2004-01-01

    A qualitative method was used to explore how adult women experienced their identity after extensive therapy to deal with childhood sexual abuse. Seven women shared their healing journeys and their perceptions of the role of the abuse in their current life and self-perceptions. Phenomenological analysis of the interview data revealed 5 common…

  5. Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... member, a trusted teacher, a doctor, or a school or religious youth counselor. Many teachers and counselors have training in how to recognize and report abuse. Telephone and online directories list local child abuse and family violence hotline numbers that you can call for help. ...

  6. Recovering from childhood sexual abuse: a theoretical framework for practice and research.

    PubMed

    Chouliara, Z; Karatzias, T; Gullone, A

    2014-02-01

    Research on survivors' experiences of recovering from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been limited and focused on those with severe mental health difficulties. This study elicited experiences of recovery from CSA in male and female survivors who have/have not utilized mental health services. The tangible end-point was to propose a theoretical model of personally meaningful recovery. This is a qualitative study, which utilized semi-structured individual interviews following the critical incident technique. Transcripts were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis to identify recurrent themes. A total 22 adult survivors of CSA. Main themes identified were: The Affected Self, Factors Hindering Recovery, Factors Enhancing Recovery, The Hurdles of Recovery and the Recovering Self. The affected self included: lack of boundary awareness and self-blame, over self-reliance, over-vigilance and guilt, shame, aloneness and social stigma. The recovering self was characterized by increasing confidence, assertiveness, ability to self-care and self-acceptance, and by embracing vulnerability. These findings have potentially major implications for clinical practice, service provision, policy development and professional training in this field. The importance of disclosure in the healing process seemed paramount and can have major implications for current service protocols.

  7. Reducing symbolic-violence in the research encounter: collaborating with a survivor of domestic abuse in a qualitative study in UK primary care.

    PubMed

    Malpass, Alice; Sales, Kim; Feder, Gene

    2016-03-01

    This paper explores ideas of symbolic violence inherent in the research encounter (Bourdieu 1999). After defining symbolic violence and how the concept enters into domestic violence and abuse (DVA) research, we discuss the challenges arising from a (DVA) survivor taking on the role of interviewer in a qualitative study nested within a UK primary care based trial: IRIS (Identification and Referral to Improve Safety). KS, a survivor of DVA, conducted interviews with 12 women who had been referred to a domestic violence agency by primary care clinicians taking part in the IRIS trial in two UK cities (Bristol and east London) during 2009. Field notes were kept during all of the research meetings with KS and these were included in analysis. Our analysis maps the research pathway of 'non-violent communication' and discusses the role of social symmetry and proximity in the research encounter. We conclude that while a welcoming disposition, empathy and active listening are all generic skills to qualitative research; if a researcher can enter fieldwork with a claim of social proximity and symmetry, their use of these generic skills is enhanced through a process of shared objectification and empowerment talk. We explore the limitations of social proximity, its relationship to feminist and anthropological theories of 'insider' research and its relevance to primary care research.

  8. Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... people to control their actions. Certain types of personality disorders or mental illness might also interfere with ... self-control. Of course, not everyone with a personality disorder or mental illness becomes abusive. Fortunately, people ...

  9. Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stages Early-Stage Caregiving Middle-Stage Caregiving Late-Stage Caregiving Behaviors Aggression & Anger Anxiety & Agitation Depression Hallucinations Memory Loss & Confusion Repetition Sleep Issues & Sundowning Suspicion & Delusions Wandering Abuse Start Here ...

  10. The Development of a Sexual Abuse Severity Score: Characteristics of Childhood Sexual Abuse Associated with Trauma Symptomatology, Somatization, and Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zink, Therese; Klesges, Lisa; Stevens, Susanna; Decker, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is common and is associated with both mental and physical health problems in adulthood. Using data from an age- and sex-stratified population survey of 600 Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents, a Sexual Abuse Severity Score was developed. The abuse characteristics of 156 CSA respondents were associated with…

  11. Child Sexual Abuse, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Substance Use: Predictors of Revictimization in Adult Sexual Assault Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.; Filipas, Henrietta H.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the unique effects of child sexual abuse simultaneously with post-traumatic stress disorder symptom clusters, problem drinking, and illicit drug use in relation to sexual revictimization in a community sample of female adult sexual assault victims. Participants (N = 555) completed two surveys a year apart. Child sexual abuse…

  12. Women of Courage: A Personal Account of a Wilderness-Based Experiential Group for Survivors of Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Virginia A.

    2006-01-01

    Adventure-based therapy has grown in both scope and popularity. These groups are frequently utilized in the treatment of adolescents with behavioral or substance abuse issues. Less evident is the use of this modality with other populations. Described here is a personal account of the author's participation in a wilderness-based group for women.…

  13. Randomized Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Adult Female Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonagh, Annmarie; Friedman, Matthew; McHugo, Gregory; Ford, Julian; Sengupta, Anjana; Mueser, Kim; Demment, Christine Carney; Fournier, Debra; Schnurr, Paula P.

    2005-01-01

    The authors conducted a randomized clinical trial of individual psychotherapy for women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to childhood sexual abuse (n = 74), comparing cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with a problem-solving therapy (present-centered therapy; PCT) and to a wait-list (WL). The authors hypothesized that CBT would be…

  14. Shame, guilt, and posttraumatic stress disorder in adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse at risk for human immunodeficiency virus: outcomes of a randomized clinical trial of group psychotherapy treatment.

    PubMed

    Ginzburg, Karni; Butler, Lisa D; Giese-Davis, Janine; Cavanaugh, Courtenay E; Neri, Eric; Koopman, Cheryl; Classen, Catherine C; Spiegel, David

    2009-07-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of group psychotherapy in reducing levels of shame and guilt in adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse at risk for HIV, and whether such reductions would mediate the effects of treatment on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. One hundred sixty-six women were randomized into 3 conditions: a trauma-focused group, a present-focused group, and a waitlist group. Women received 6 months of treatment and were assessed at pretreatment (T1), immediately posttreatment (T2), and 6 months posttreatment (T3). Both treatment conditions resulted in reduced shame and guilt. The treatment effect on PTSD symptoms was mediated by changes in shame, but it was not associated with changes in guilt. These findings suggest that, when treating childhood sexual abuse survivors' PTSD, it is important to address the negative self-appraisals, such as shame, that commonly accompany such symptoms.

  15. Household Risk and Child Sexual Abuse in a Low Income, Urban Sample of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowland, David L.; Zabin, Laurie S.; Emerson, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Explored the impact of household environment and childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on psychosocial development. Data on low-income, urban CSA victims, and non-CSA women indicated that household conditions indicative of parental dysfunction, antisocial behavior, and instability set the stage for CSA by interfering with parental protection. Victims'…

  16. Boys and CSA Prevention: Issues Surrounding Gender and Approaches for Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholes, Laura; Jones, Christian; Nagel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Freda Briggs (2007), a leader in the field of child protection in Australia continues to raise concerns about the vulnerability and victimisation of boys that she believes is substantially under-recognised. She argues that boys have not been well supported by child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programs with child protection curriculum not yet…

  17. Clinical Characteristics of Adults Reporting Repressed, Recovered, or Continuous Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNally, Richard J.; Perlman, Carol A.; Ristuccia, Carel S.; Clancy, Susan A.

    2006-01-01

    The authors assessed women and men who either reported continuous memories of their childhood sexual abuse (CSA, n = 92), reported recovering memories of CSA (n = 38), reported believing they harbored repressed memories of CSA (n = 42), or reported never having been sexually abused (n = 36). Men and women were indistinguishable on all clinical and…

  18. Childhood Sexual Abuse: Impact on a Community's Mental Health Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Kathryn D.

    1992-01-01

    This study examined the impact of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on the mental health status of the Los Angeles Epidemiologic Catchment Area. A history of CSA was found to significantly increase an individual's odds of developing eight psychiatric disorders in adulthood. CSA's effect on the community level was also found to be substantial.…

  19. The Role of Narcissistic Vulnerability in Predicting Adult Posttraumatic Symptoms from Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Bachar, Eytan; Canetti, Laura; Hadar, Hilit; Baruch, Julia; Dor, Yehuda; Freedman, Sara

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine whether narcissistic vulnerability can aid in clarifying the debate regarding the relationship between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adulthood adjustment to traumatic events. 157 survivors (mean age = 31.1, SD = 10.9) of a traumatic event (war activities and road and work accidents) were assessed 1 week, 1, and 4 months following the event. Of the 157 participants, 15 reported experiencing CSA, and 26 reported experiencing childhood physical abuse (CPA). In the first-week assessment, patients were administered the Narcissistic Vulnerability Scale (NVS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). In the follow-up assessments, subjects were interviewed on the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. Narcissistic vulnerability was found, both in 1- and 4-month follow-ups, to increase the likelihood of participants who experienced CSA to develop PTSD symptoms later in their adult life, when exposed to other additional trauma. Narcissistic vulnerability, in both follow-ups, did not increase the likelihood of participants who experienced CPA to develop PTSD symptoms later in their life when exposed to other additional trauma. The NVS predicted the development of PTSD symptoms in the whole sample, both in the 1- and 4-month follow-ups, above and beyond the prediction of the BDI. In other words, narcissistic vulnerability can add additional information above and beyond general negative emotionality. In conclusion, it is recommended to take into consideration the interplay between CSA and the individual's narcissistic vulnerability when assessing the long term effects of CSA such as acute or chronic PTSD.

  20. The development of a sexual abuse severity score: characteristics of childhood sexual abuse associated with trauma symptomatology, somatization, and alcohol abuse.

    PubMed

    Zink, Therese; Klesges, Lisa; Stevens, Susanna; Decker, Paul

    2009-03-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is common and is associated with both mental and physical health problems in adulthood. Using data from an age- and sex-stratified population survey of 600 Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents, a Sexual Abuse Severity Score was developed. The abuse characteristics of 156 CSA respondents were associated with self-reported trauma, somatization, and alcohol use. Characteristics included age of first sexual abuse, more than one perpetrator, degree of coercion, severity of abuse (i.e., attempted intercourse is more severe than fondling), and the number of occurrences. This is one of the few reports to develop a risk summary that quantifies the severity of CSA.

  1. Egocentric virtual maze learning in adult survivors of childhood abuse with dissociative disorders: evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Weniger, Godehard; Siemerkus, Jakob; Barke, Antonia; Lange, Claudia; Ruhleder, Mirjana; Sachsse, Ulrich; Schmidt-Samoa, Carsten; Dechent, Peter; Irle, Eva

    2013-05-30

    Present neuroimaging findings suggest two subtypes of trauma response, one characterized predominantly by hyperarousal and intrusions, and the other primarily by dissociative symptoms. The neural underpinnings of these two subtypes need to be better defined. Fourteen women with childhood abuse and the current diagnosis of dissociative amnesia or dissociative identity disorder but without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 14 matched healthy comparison subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while finding their way in a virtual maze. The virtual maze presented a first-person view (egocentric), lacked any topographical landmarks and could be learned only by using egocentric navigation strategies. Participants with dissociative disorders (DD) were not impaired in learning the virtual maze when compared with controls, and showed a similar, although weaker, pattern of activity changes during egocentric learning when compared with controls. Stronger dissociative disorder severity of participants with DD was related to better virtual maze performance, and to stronger activity increase within the cingulate gyrus and the precuneus. Our results add to the present knowledge of preserved attentional and visuospatial mnemonic functioning in individuals with DD.

  2. Symptom Trajectories Among Child Survivors of Maltreatment: Findings from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN).

    PubMed

    Lauterbach, Dean; Armour, Cherie

    2016-02-01

    Very few studies have investigated the longitudinal trajectory of depression and anxiety related symptomatology among child victims of maltreatment or among those at risk for maltreatment. The current study examined latent class trajectories of anxiety/depression symptoms in a sample of 1354 (n = 657 boys, n = 697 girls) victimized or at risk children using data collected from the Longtitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). Four trajectory groups were identified labeled low-stable, moderate-stable, moderate-increasing, and high-decreasing. This study also sought to investigate predictors of group membership. Relative to the low-stable group, membership in the three more pathological groups (i.e., moderate-stable, moderate-increasing, and high-decreasing) was predicted by a greater number of maltreatment allegations, more visits to a primary care physician for psychological issues, less perceived support by primary maternal caregiver, and lower rated popularity of the child. Implications for early identification of child maltreatment victims in primary health care settings was discussed.

  3. An Ecological Analysis of Child Sexual Abuse Disclosure: Considerations for Child and Adolescent Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Alaggia, Ramona

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Research continues to indicate a concerning number of children and youth, between 60–80%, withhold disclosure until adulthood suggesting that many children endure prolonged victimization or never receive necessary intervention. The study aim was to qualitatively identify factors that impede or promote child sexual abuse (CSA) disclosure. Methods: Using a phenomenological design, forty adult survivors of CSA were interviewed about their disclosure experiences to provide retrospective accounts of their childhood and adolescent abuse experiences, disclosure attempts, and meaning-making of these experiences. Results: Findings show that disclosure is multiply determined by a complex interplay of factors related to child characteristics, family environment, community influences, and cultural and societal attitudes. An ecological analysis is offered to understand these complexities. Unless barriers to disclosure are eradicated, negative effects of CSA can persist manifesting in serious mental health issues. Conclusions: Practitioners can expect to work with children, adolescents and adults who have withheld disclosure or attempted to tell over time having experienced a wide range of responses. Multi-level intervention is recommended at the individual, community and macro-levels. Future investigations should focus on how to identify and measure the impact of community and macro level factors on disclosure, aspects that have received much less attention. PMID:20119565

  4. Pain in Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Glare, Paul A.; Davies, Pamela S.; Finlay, Esmé; Gulati, Amitabh; Lemanne, Dawn; Moryl, Natalie; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Paice, Judith A.; Stubblefield, Michael D.; Syrjala, Karen L.

    2014-01-01

    Pain is a common problem in cancer survivors, especially in the first few years after treatment. In the longer term, approximately 5% to 10% of survivors have chronic severe pain that interferes with functioning. The prevalence is much higher in certain subpopulations, such as breast cancer survivors. All cancer treatment modalities have the potential to cause pain. Currently, the approach to managing pain in cancer survivors is similar to that for chronic cancer-related pain, pharmacotherapy being the principal treatment modality. Although it may be appropriate to continue strong opioids in survivors with moderate to severe pain, most pain problems in cancer survivors will not require them. Moreover, because more than 40% of cancer survivors now live longer than 10 years, there is growing concern about the long-term adverse effects of opioids and the risks of misuse, abuse, and overdose in the nonpatient population. As with chronic nonmalignant pain, multimodal interventions that incorporate nonpharmacologic therapies should be part of the treatment strategy for pain in cancer survivors, prescribed with the aim of restoring functionality, not just providing comfort. For patients with complex pain issues, multidisciplinary programs should be used, if available. New or worsening pain in a cancer survivor must be evaluated to determine whether the cause is recurrent disease or a second malignancy. This article focuses on patients with a history of cancer who are beyond the acute diagnosis and treatment phase and on common treatment-related pain etiologies. The benefits and harms of the various pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic options for pain management in this setting are reviewed. PMID:24799477

  5. Abuse-Specific Self-Schemas and Self-Functioning: A Prospective Study of Sexually Abused Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiring, Candice; Cleland, Charles M.; Simon, Valerie A.

    2010-01-01

    Potential pathways from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to negative self-schemas to subsequent dissociative symptoms and low global self-esteem were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 160 ethnically diverse youth with confirmed CSA histories. Participants were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery, when they were 8 to 15 years of…

  6. The Relationship of Exposure to Childhood Sexual Abuse to Other Forms of Abuse, Neglect, and Household Dysfunction during Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Maxia; Anda, Robert F.; Dube, Shanta R.; Giles, Wayne H.; Felitti, Vincent J.

    2003-01-01

    This retrospective cohort study assessed the relationship of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to other categories of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs), such as childhood abuse, neglect, and parental separation/divorce. Adults reporting CSA experienced a 1.6- to 3.4-fold greater likelihood of experience each category of ACE. The ACE score was also…

  7. Recovering from Opioid Overdose: Resources for Overdose Survivors & Family Members

    MedlinePlus

    ... survivors and their families can be found at: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA)  National Helpline ... treatment/ physician- program- data/ treatment- physician- locator  State Substance Abuse Agencies: https: / / findtreatment. samhsa. gov/ TreatmentLocator/ faces/ about. ...

  8. An Evidence-Based Education Program for Adults about Child Sexual Abuse (“Prevent It!”) That Significantly Improves Attitudes, Knowledge, and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Erin K.; Silverstone, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe the development of an evidence-based education program for adults about childhood sexual abuse (CSA), called Prevent It! Uniquely, the primary goal of this program was to change the behavior of participants, as well as to increase knowledge about CSA and positive attitudes toward it. A comprehensive review shows no previous similar approach. The program includes a detailed manual to allow standardized administration by trained facilitators, as well as multiple video segments from CSA survivors and professionals. A total of 23 program workshops were run, with 366 adults participating. Of these, 312 (85%) agreed to take part in the study. All completed baseline ratings prior to the program and 195 (63% of study sample) completed follow-up assessments at 3-months. There were no significant differences between the demographic make-up of the baseline group and the follow-up group. Assessments included demographic data, knowledge, attitudes, and several measures of behavior (our primary outcome variable). Behavioral questions asked individuals to select behaviors used in the previous 3-months from a list of options. Questions also included asking “how many times in the previous 3-months” have you “talked about healthy sexual development or Child sexual abuse (CSA) with a child you know”; “suspected a child was sexually abused”; “taken steps to protect a child”; or “reported suspected sexual abuse to police or child welfare”? The majority of attendees were women, with the commonest age group being between 30 and 39 years old. Approximately 33% had experienced CSA themselves. At 3-month follow-up there were highly statistically significant improvements in several aspects of behavior and knowledge, and attitudes regarding CSA. For example, the number of subjects actively looking for evidence of CSA increased from 46% at baseline to 81% at follow-up, while the number of subjects who actively took steps to protect children increased from

  9. Sexual desire and linguistic analysis: a comparison of sexually-abused and non-abused women.

    PubMed

    Rellini, Alessandra H; Meston, Cindy M

    2007-02-01

    Although studies have identified a relationship between a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) and problems with hypoactive sexual desire, little is known about the potential cognitive and affective mechanisms involved in the sexual desire of women with a history of CSA. In this study, 27 women with a history of CSA and 22 women with no history of abuse were asked to write about sexual and non sexual topics. The Linguistic Inquiry Word Count software program was used to compute the percentage of words that fell into positive emotions, negative emotions, body, and sex categories. As expected, women with a history of CSA used more negative emotions words when writing about sexual topics, but not non-sexual topics, compared to non-abused women. Women with a history of CSA also used more sex words when writing about the non-sexual topics compared to non-abused women. Frequencies of body and sex words used in the sexual texts were positively linked to levels of sexual desire function. This association was not different between women with and without a history of CSA. A history of CSA remained an independent predictor of levels of sexual desire dysfunction even when taking into consideration the language used in the sexual texts, indicating that there may be aspects of the sexual desire experienced by women with a history of CSA that differ from non-abused women that remain unexplored.

  10. The Cycle of Abuse: When Victims Become Offenders.

    PubMed

    Plummer, Malory; Cossins, Annie

    2016-07-19

    Various psychological theories exist in the literature to explain the behavior of men who commit child sex offences, including the belief that child sexual abuse (CSA) is a predisposing factor for the transition from victim to offender. These theories are, however, unable to explain the fact that while most victims of CSA are female, most perpetrators of CSA are male. The sex specificity of CSA in terms of victims and offenders suggests that the experience of CSA and its psychosocial effects may be different for boys, compared to girls. We hypothesize that CSA experiences may involve risk factors that affect the development of sexually abusive behavior for boys, rather than girls. Our aim was to determine whether the literature provides evidence of a cycle of abuse from victim to offender, and, if so, to document its characteristics. We undertook a comprehensive literature review of studies on both victims and offenders, including studies which revealed the following: age of onset of CSA, duration of abuse, gender of the abuser, the relationship between victim and abuser, grooming behaviors, the types and severity of abuse, and disclosure of abuse. While we found no evidence for the existence of a cycle of abuse for female CSA victims, we discovered evidence to support the existence of a cycle of abuse for male CSA victims who had experienced particular abuse characteristics. As an original contribution to the literature, we identified four factors that may be associated with a boy's transition from victim to offender as well as the methodological issues to be addressed in future research. Based on criminological theories, we argue that these four factors share a common theme, that is, that they represent experiences of power (for the abuser) and powerlessness (for the victim).

  11. Concealment of Child Sexual Abuse in Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartill, Mike

    2013-01-01

    When the sexual abuse of children is revealed, it is often found that other nonabusing adults were aware of the abuse but failed to act. During the past twenty years or so, the concealment of child sexual abuse (CSA) within organizations has emerged as a key challenge for child protection work. Recent events at Pennsylvania State University (PSU)…

  12. Childhood sexual abuse in adult patients with borderline personality disorder

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Preethi; Chaudhari, Bhushan; Saldanha, Daniel; Devabhaktuni, Spandana; Bhattacharya, Labanya

    2016-01-01

    Background: Researchers have found elevated rates of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in borderline personality disorder (BPD) patients. They have also implicated the role of CSA later in BPD. However, there has been a scarcity of studies regarding this in Indian population. Objectives: To profile the occurrence of CSA and its parameters in BPD patients and to document symptomatology of BPD associated with CSA. Materials and Methods: Thirty-six consecutive patients with BPD were administered with a two-staged semi-structured interview by different interviewers with the first stage for collecting sociodemographic details and confirming BPD diagnosis and the second stage for collecting information about CSA. Results: Of 36 BPD patients, 16 (44.44%) reported a history of definite CSA. The majority of CSA associated with BPD were having characteristics of onset at 7–12 years, <10 occasions of abuse, perpetrator being a close relative or a close acquaintance and genital type of CSA. Identity disturbances (P = 0.0354), recurrent suicidal/self-harm behavior (P = 0.0177), and stress-related paranoid/dissociative symptoms (P = 0.0177) were significantly associated with the presence of CSA while unstable interpersonal relationships (P = 0.001) were significantly associated with the absence of CSA. Conclusion: Significant proportion of BPD patients reported CSA. The specific symptom profile of BPD patients can be used to predict the presence of CSA in these patients, which has a direct implication in the treatment of these patients. PMID:28163415

  13. Survivors' Voices Breaking the Silence: Owning the Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Carol L.

    For the adult survivor of incest, the evolution from victim to survivor occurs in complex and creative ways. Often journal writing can be a means of exposing and exploring past abuse. The process of journal writing is special in that it allows the adult survivor to break the silence and shame imposed by the perpetrator while remaining essentially…

  14. Factors Related to Childhood Sexual Abuse among Gay/Bisexual Male Internet Escorts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Bimbi, David S.; Koken, Juline A.; Halkitis, Perry N.

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory investigation examined the relationship between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and related psychosocial characteristics and sexual behaviors among 46 gay/bisexual male escorts who advertise via the Internet. More than a quarter of men (28.3%) reported some history of CSA. Men reporting CSA were more likely to be from an ethnic…

  15. The mediating role of secrecy in the development of psychopathology in sexually abused children.

    PubMed

    van Delft, Ivanka; Finkenauer, Catrin; Clasien De Schipper, J; Lamers-Winkelman, Francien; Visser, Margreet M

    2015-08-01

    Although child sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with psychopathology, limited research examined mechanisms through which CSA leads to psychopathology in children. It is generally assumed that CSA is associated with secrecy among children, to our knowledge this assumption has not yet been empirically tested. This gap in our understanding of the aftermath of CSA is surprising in light of abundant evidence linking secrecy to psychopathology among children. The current study examined whether, as compared to children who have not experienced CSA, CSA victims have a greater tendency for secrecy as reported by mothers and children, and whether psychopathology in CSA victims may be explained by their tendency to keep secrets. Sixty-three non-offending mothers and their sexually abused children (68.3% female; M age=10.89) and 48 mothers and their non-abused children (62.5% female; M age=11.17) completed questionnaires on secrecy and psychopathology (i.e., internalizing and externalizing behavior problems). Mothers of abused children perceived higher levels of secrecy and psychopathology in their children as compared to mothers of non-abused children. There were no differences in child-reported secrecy between abused and non-abused children. Mediation analyses revealed that mother-reported secrecy mediated the association between CSA and psychopathology. These findings suggest that secrecy is a potential mechanism underlying psychopathology associated with CSA, which has important implications for treatment of abused children.

  16. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Suicide

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abuse: Research, Treatment, & Program Innovations for Victims, Survivors, & Offenders, 14(4), 1-24. doi: 10.1300/J070v14n04_ ... 1996). Childhood sexual abuse and psychiatric disorder in young adulthood: Psychiatric outcomes of childhood sexual abuse. Journal ...

  17. Space astronomy and astrophysics program by CSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurin, Denis; Ouellet, Alain; Dupuis, Jean; Chicoine, Ruth-Ann

    2014-07-01

    Canada became actively engaged in space astronomy in the 1990s by contributing two fine guidance sensors to the FUSE Far-UV mission (NASA 1999-2008). In the same period, Canada contributed to ODIN's infrared instrument (ESA 2001-2006) and correlators for VSOP (JAXA 1997-2005). In early 2000, Canada developed its own space telescope, Micro-variability and Observations of STars (MOST), a 15-cm telescope on a microsatellite, operating since 2003, and more recently contributed to the realization of the BRITE nanosatellites constellation. Canada also provided hardware to the European Space Agency's Herschel HIFI instrument and simulators to the SPIRE instrument and data analysis tools for Planck. More recently the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) delivered detector units for the UVIT instrument on board the Indian Space Research Organisation's (ISRO) ASTROSAT. The CSA's most important contribution to a space astronomy mission to date is the Fine Guidance Senor (FGS) and Near Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS) instrument to NASA's James Webb Space Telescope. The CSA is currently building the laser metrology system for JAXA's ASTRO-H hard X-ray telescope. Canadian astronomers contributed to several high profile stratospheric balloon projects investigating the CMB and the CSA recently established a balloon launch facility. As expressed in Canada's new Space Policy Framework announced in February 2014, Canada remains committed to future space exploration endeavors. The policy aims at ensure that Canada is a sought-after partner in the international space exploration missions that serve Canada's national interests; and continuing to invest in the development of Canadian contributions in the form of advanced systems and optical instruments. In the longer term, through consultations and in keeping the Canadian astronomical community's proposed Long Range Plan, the CSA is exploring possibilities to contributions to important missions such as WFIRST, SPICA and Athena

  18. An Epidemiological Overview of Child Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mannat Mohanjeet; Parsekar, Shradha S.; Nair, Sreekumaran N.

    2014-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a universal problem with grave life-long outcomes. The estimates vary widely depending on the country under study, the definitions used, the type of CSA studied, the extent of coverage, and quality of data. This study intended to assess the magnitude and the issues related to CSA. We searched databases such as PubMed, Google scholar, web (newspaper reports), and government websites. The relevant data was extracted from these sources for gathering evidence on CSA and secondary data analysis was done. The prevalence of CSA was found to be high in India as well as throughout the world. CSA is an extensive problem and even the lowest prevalence includes a huge number of victims. It also has various adverse effects on the psychological, physical, behavioral, and interpersonal well-being of the victim. Hence, stringent measures should be taken for the prevention and control of this hidden public health issue. PMID:25657958

  19. The Voices of Survivors Documentary

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaidis, Christina

    2002-01-01

    This article describes a method of developing physician education materials using analysis of domestic violence patient experiences and patients' descriptions of their experiences. The process began with interviews of 21 domestic violence survivors, focusing on what they wanted to teach physicians. Qualitative analysis of these interviews identified 4 main themes regarding what survivors wanted physicians to understand about life in an abusive relationship: that domestic violence is universal, that it is more than just physical assaults, that it is all about power and control, and that it affects the entire family. Because what survivors wanted from physicians differed depending on where they were in their abusive relationships, recommendations were developed for each of 5 common situations: when a patient may not yet recognize the abuse, when s/he may not be ready or able to disclose the abuse, when s/he chooses to remain in an abusive relationship, when s/he is seeking care for an acute assault, and when s/he has left the relationship but not yet healed. Interview excerpts representing each of the identified themes are used to create a 30-minute educational documentary. A written companion guide covers the traditional aspects of domestic violence education. In teaching about domestic violence or other health problems where it is difficult for physicians to understand their patients intuitively, an educator's most important role may be to direct learners to listen to the experience and wisdom of patients. PMID:11841527

  20. Growing Opportunities: CSA Members, CSA Farmers, and Informal Learning in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everson, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Community-supported agriculture (CSA) began as a loosely formalised, vaguely socialistic agreement between consumers and farmers through which the consumers were provided with fresh produce from the farms. When the institution became more structured, education gained a near-equal footing with the nutritional offerings. My research indicated that…

  1. An Empirical Case Study of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Initiative in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Thigpen, Sally; Curtis, Anna; Wright, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This empirical case study describes Prevent Child Abuse Georgia's effort to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by educating communities throughout the state on supporting preventive behaviour. The initiative consisted of three major components: (1) dissemination of CSA prevention messages and materials; (2) a statewide helpline that…

  2. Exposure to Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse and Adjustment in Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergusson, David M.; Boden, Joseph M.; Horwood, L. John

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This research examined linkages between exposure to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and childhood physical punishment/abuse (CPA) and mental health issues in early adulthood. Method: The investigation analyzed data from a birth cohort of over 1,000 New Zealand young adults studied to the age of 25. Results: Exposure to CSA and CPA was…

  3. Potential Pathways from Stigmatization and Externalizing Behavior to Anger and Dating Aggression in Sexually Abused Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A.; Cleland, Charles M.; Barrett, Ellen P.

    2013-01-01

    Although experiencing childhood sexual abuse (CSA) puts youth at risk for involvement in relationship violence, research is limited on the potential pathways from CSA to subsequent dating aggression. The current study examined prospective pathways from externalizing behavior problems and stigmatization (abuse-specific shame and self-blame…

  4. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Women with a History of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katerndahl, David A.; Burge, Sandra; Kellogg, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with the development of numerous adult mental disorders. Women with a history of CSA were surveyed concerning their abuse experience and prevalence of DSM-IV mental disorders. The 63 women in the low morbidity cluster had a mean of 1.02 disorders. The 11 women in the moderate morbidity cluster had a mean…

  5. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sexual Risk Behavior among Men and Women Attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Vanable, Peter A.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite A.

    2006-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with a wide range of negative outcomes. The authors investigated the relation between CSA and sexual risk behavior in 827 patients recruited from a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. Overall, CSA was reported by 53% of women and 49% of men and was associated with greater sexual risk behavior,…

  6. Update to an evaluation of ICD-11 PTSD and complex PTSD criteria in a sample of adult survivors of childhood institutional abuse by Knefel & Lueger-Schuster (2013): a latent profile analysis

    PubMed Central

    Knefel, Matthias; Garvert, Donn W.; Cloitre, Marylene; Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) International Classification of Diseases, 11th version (ICD-11), has proposed a trauma-related diagnosis of complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD) separate and distinct from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Objective To determine whether the symptoms endorsed by individuals who had experienced childhood institutional abuse form classes that are consistent with diagnostic criteria for ICD-11 CPTSD as distinct from PTSD. Methods A latent profile analysis (LPA) was conducted on 229 adult survivors of institutional abuse using the Brief Symptom Inventory and the PTSD Checklist—Civilian Version to assess current psychopathological symptoms. Results The LPA revealed four classes of individuals: (1) a class with elevated symptoms of CPTSD (PTSD symptoms and disturbances in self-organization); (2) a class with elevated symptoms of PTSD and low disturbances in self-organization; (3) a class with elevated disturbances in self-organization symptoms and some elevated PTSD symptoms; and (4) a class with low symptoms. Conclusions The results support the existence of a distinct group in our sample, that could be described by the proposed diagnostic category termed CPTSD more precisely than by normal PTSD. In addition, there seems to be a group of persons that do not fulfill the criteria for a trauma-related disorder but yet suffer from psychopathological symptoms. PMID:25557561

  7. Development of the scale of economic abuse.

    PubMed

    Adams, Adrienne E; Sullivan, Cris M; Bybee, Deborah; Greeson, Megan R

    2008-05-01

    Economic abuse is part of the pattern of behaviors used by batterers to maintain power and control over their partners. However, no measure of economic abuse exists. This study describes the development of the Scale of Economic Abuse, which was designed to fill this gap. Interviews were conducted with 103 survivors of domestic abuse, each of whom responded to measures of economic, physical, and psychological abuse as well as economic hardship. Results provide evidence for the reliability and validity of the scale. This study is an important first step toward understanding the extent and impact of economic abuse experienced by survivors.

  8. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Abuse-Specific Attributions of Blame over 6 Years Following Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiring, Candice; Cleland, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of change in attributions for childhood sexual abuse (CSA) over a 6-year period and whether such patterns were related to abuse severity, age, gender, and subsequent symptoms of depression and PTSD. Methodology: One-hundred and sixty children, 8-15 years old, were interviewed within 8…

  9. Suicide Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, David H.

    1975-01-01

    Interviews with seven of ten known survivors of jumps from the Golden Gate and San Francisco-Oakland Bay bridges showed a unique association between the Golden Gate Bridge and suicide. The study went beyond exploring the nature of suicidal jumps and shed new light on the experience of nearly dying. All the survivors described this experience as tranquil and peaceful. None of them experienced life events or distant memories passing through their minds or before their eyes. However, all of them experienced transcendence and spiritual rebirth phenomena. Suggestions for preventing suicides from the Golden Gate Bridge are discussed, including the construction of a suicide barrier. PMID:1171558

  10. Changes in the Prevalence of Child Sexual Abuse, Its Risk Factors, and Their Associations as a Function of Age Cohort in a Finnish Population Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laaksonen, Toni; Sariola, Heikki; Johansson, Ada; Jern, Patrick; Varjonen, Markus; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Sandnabba, N. Kenneth; Santtila, Pekka

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We examined (1) the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) experiences as a function of cohort and gender, (2) the prevalence of factors associated with CSA as a function of cohort and whether the association of these factors with CSA remained the same irrespective of cohort, and (3) whether any cohort differences could be…

  11. Desert Survivors!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Jessica; Friedenstab, Steve

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a special third-grade classroom unit based on the reality show "Survivor." The goal of this engaging and interactive unit was to teach students about physical and behavioral adaptations that help animals survive in various desert biomes. The activity combines research, argument, and puppet play over one week of…

  12. The association between cannabis abuse and dependence and childhood physical and sexual abuse: Evidence from an offspring of twins design

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Alexis E.; Sartor, Carolyn E.; Scherrer, Jeffrey F.; Grant, Julia D.; Heath, Andrew C.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Jacob, Theodore; Bucholz, Kathleen Keenan

    2009-01-01

    Aims This study examines the association between childhood physical abuse (CPA) and sexual abuse (CSA) and the development of cannabis abuse and dependence among adolescents and young adults while controlling for genetic and environmental risk factors. Design To control for familial risk differences related to paternal drug dependence that might confound the relationship between CSA and CPA and cannabis abuse/dependence, we created four groups based on father’s and uncle’s substance use dependence (SUD) status reflecting different degrees of genetic and environmental risks to offspring: 1) high genetic, high environmental risk; 2) high genetic, low environmental risk, 3) medium genetic, low environmental risk; and 4) low genetic, low environmental risk. Participants Adolescent and young adult offspring of monozygotic and dizygotic US military veteran twin fathers (n= 819). Measurements Data on CPA and CSA, DSM-IV offspring cannabis abuse/dependence, other SUD and psychopathology, and maternal and paternal SUD and psychopathology were collected via semi-structured telephone interview. Findings Twenty-three percent of the offspring sample met lifetime criteria for cannabis abuse/dependence, 8.55% and 12.82% reported CSA and CPA, respectively. Offspring exposed to CSA, but not CPA, were at significantly greater risk of developing cannabis abuse/dependence compared to those who had not experienced CSA (HR=2.16; 95% CI=1.48–3.16) after controlling for genetic and familial environmental risk and offspring gender, alcohol abuse and dependence and conduct disorder. Conclusions These results indicate that there are effects of CSA on development of cannabis abuse/dependence in addition to the genetic and familial environmental risk imparted by having a drug dependent father. PMID:18482422

  13. Children Seeking Refuge: A Review of the Escalating Humanitarian Crisis of Child Sexual Abuse and HIV/AIDS in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Clifton P; Veenema, Tener Goodwin

    2015-01-01

    Early identification and intervention for victims of child sexual abuse (CSA) is essential to halting the spread of HIV in Latino populations because children who are sexually abused are at an increased risk of contracting HIV. The recent influx of unaccompanied children into the United States exposed histories of victimization, vulnerability to CSA, and suggested an epidemic of CSA in Latin America. CSA has been identified as a contributory event to HIV infection. The aim of our research was to identify factors associated with CSA and Latin Americans. A systematic review and a document search were conducted on factors associated with CSA in Latin America. Victimization was associated with lifelong risk factors for HIV. Males were consistently underrepresented in the published CSA literature and machismo attitudes may contribute to abuses of sexual power by males and contribute to males not reporting or under-reporting victimization.

  14. CSA: comprehensive comparison of pairwise protein structure alignments

    PubMed Central

    Wohlers, Inken; Malod-Dognin, Noël; Andonov, Rumen; Klau, Gunnar W.

    2012-01-01

    CSA is a web server for the computation, evaluation and comprehensive comparison of pairwise protein structure alignments. Its exact alignment engine computes either optimal, top-scoring alignments or heuristic alignments with quality guarantee for the inter-residue distance-based scorings of contact map overlap, PAUL, DALI and MATRAS. These and additional, uploaded alignments are compared using a number of quality measures and intuitive visualizations. CSA brings new insight into the structural relationship of the protein pairs under investigation and is a valuable tool for studying structural similarities. It is available at http://csa.project.cwi.nl. PMID:22553365

  15. CSA: comprehensive comparison of pairwise protein structure alignments.

    PubMed

    Wohlers, Inken; Malod-Dognin, Noël; Andonov, Rumen; Klau, Gunnar W

    2012-07-01

    CSA is a web server for the computation, evaluation and comprehensive comparison of pairwise protein structure alignments. Its exact alignment engine computes either optimal, top-scoring alignments or heuristic alignments with quality guarantee for the inter-residue distance-based scorings of contact map overlap, PAUL, DALI and MATRAS. These and additional, uploaded alignments are compared using a number of quality measures and intuitive visualizations. CSA brings new insight into the structural relationship of the protein pairs under investigation and is a valuable tool for studying structural similarities. It is available at http://csa.project.cwi.nl.

  16. Design of novel CSA analogues as potential safeners and fungicides.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yang; Liu, Bin; Gou, Zhaopin; Li, Yao; Zhang, Xiao; Wang, Yanqing; Yu, Shujing; Li, Yonghong; Sun, Dequn

    2015-02-15

    Study of safeners has been seldom reported in literature. In this work, a series of novel acylsulfamoylbenzamide analogues was designed and synthesized with newly developed safener cyprosulfamide (CSA) as the leading compound. The activity assay against the herbicide thiencarbazone-methyl (TCM) on maize revealed that fifteen compounds showed better protective effect than CSA on the fresh weight of aerial parts, twelve compounds exhibited better activity on the dry weight of aerial parts. Remarkably, two compounds (6Ih, 7II) had protective effect on the four aspects of TCM treated maize. Further antifungal assay showed their excellent activity against Physollospora piricola. The structure-activity relationships of CSA analogues as safeners and fungicides were discussed and it might be valuable for further molecular modification of new CSA analogues.

  17. How Much Child Sexual Abuse is “Below the Surface,” and Can We Help Adults Identify it Early?

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Erin K.; Silverstone, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) occurs frequently in society to children aged between 2 and 17. It is significantly more common in girls than boys, with the peak age for CSA occurring when girls are aged 13–17. Many children experience multiple episodes of CSA, as well as having high rates of other victimizations (such as physical assaults). One of the problems for current research in CSA is different definitions of what this means, and no recent review has clearly differentiated more severe forms of CSA, and how commonly this is disclosed. In general we suggest there are four types of behavior that should be included as CSA, namely (1) non-contact, (2) genital touching, (3) attempted vaginal and anal penetrative acts, and (4) vaginal and anal penetrative acts. Evidence suggests that CSA involving types (2), (3), and (4) is more likely to have significant long-term outcomes, and thus can be considered has having higher-impact. From the research to date approximately 15% of girls aged 2–17 experience higher-impact CSA (with most studies suggesting that between 12 and 18% of girls experience higher-impact CSA). Approximately 6% of boys experience higher-impact CSA (with most studies suggesting that between 5 and 8% experience higher-impact CSA). The data also suggests that in over 95% of cases the CSA is never disclosed to authorities. Thus, CSA is frequent but often not identified, and occurs “below the surface” in the vast majority of higher-impact cases. Helping adults to understand “below the surface” CSA might help them to recognize it early, but there are very few indicators specific to CSA, making this a challenging goal to achieve. Nonetheless, given that CSA frequently occurs with other types of abuse, a training program that focuses on both CSA and other abuse may offer a method to allow both early recognition and prevention by adults in the general population. PMID:23874306

  18. CSA doped polypyrrole-zinc oxide thin film sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chougule, M. A.; Jundale, D. M.; Raut, B. T.; Sen, Shashwati; Patil, V. B.

    2013-02-01

    The polypyrrole-zinc oxide (PPy-ZnO) hybrid sensor doped with different weight ratios of camphor sulphonic acid (CSA) were prepared by spin coating technique. These CSA doped PPy-ZnO hybrids were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) which proved the formation of polypyrrole, PPy-ZnO and the interaction between polypyrrole - ZnO (PPy-ZnO) hybrid with CSA doping. The gas sensing properties of the PPy-ZnO hybrid films doped with CSA have been studied for oxidizing (NO2) as well as reducing (H2S, NH3, CH4OH and CH3OH) gases at room temperature. We demonstrate that CSA doped PPy-ZnO hybrid films are highly selective to NO2 along with high-sensitivity at low concentration (80% to 100 ppm) and better stability, which suggested that the CSA doped PPy-ZnO hybrid films are potential candidate for NO2 detection at room temperature.

  19. Exploring Posttraumatic Outcomes as a Function of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; de Dassel, Therese

    2009-01-01

    There is sparse systematic examination of the potential for growth as well as distress that may occur for some adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. The presented study explored posttraumatic growth and its relationship with negative posttrauma outcomes within the specific population of survivors of childhood sexual abuse (N = 40). Results…

  20. Coping with Child Sexual Abuse among College Students and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: The Role of Continuity of Abuse and Relationship with the Perpetrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canton-Cortes, David; Canton, Jose

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of child sexual abuse (CSA) on the use of coping strategies and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) scores in young adults, as well as the role of avoidance and approach coping strategies in those PTSD scores in CSA victims. The role of coping strategies was studied by considering…

  1. Existential Well-Being as a Factor in the Adjustment of Adults Sexually Abused as Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinauer, Leslie; Middleton, Kenneth C.; Hilton, Gil H.

    2003-01-01

    Study seeks to determine if existential well-being has a positive impact on survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Findings reveal that severity of abuse was associated with the level of existential well-being present in the survivor. The relationship between abuse and existential well-being is unclear. (Contains 23 references and 3 tables.) (GCP)

  2. The Impact of Clergy-Perpetrated Sexual Abuse: The Role of Gender, Development, and Posttraumatic Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogler, Jason M.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Clarke, Stephanie; Jensen, Jennifer; Rowe, Erin

    2008-01-01

    The literature on clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse suggests that there are two modal populations of survivors: boys and adult women. We review what is known about trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder following sexual abuse and explore the different treatment needs for these two survivor groups. For children, clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse can…

  3. Trauma: memories of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Marriott, Stephanie

    2012-02-01

    Childhood sexual abuse can have big implications for a woman both physically and psychologically during childbearing. There are aspects of midwifery practice such as vaginal examinations which can have devastating effects for survivors of childhood abuse because of their similarities to sexual abuse. There are steps which can be taken by student midwives and midwives alike to not only prevent the re-traumatisation of the survivors of childhood sexual abuse but empower them through their pregnancy and birthing experience. This article is based on a presentation to fellow students in which Stephanie Marriott examined the issues.

  4. Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy with Incest Survivors: Transference and Countertransference Paradigms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saakvitne, Karen W.

    Over the past decade, there has developed a steadily growing literature on the identification and treatment of survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Much of the literature has focused on the incidence and psychological impact of the abuse, and on techniques and stages of treatment. Less attention has been given thus far to the details and nuances…

  5. Reported child sexual abuse in Bahrain: 2000-2009

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mahroos, Fadheela; Al-Amer, Eshraq

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a common problem with severe short and long-term consequences to the abused child, the family and to society. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of CSA, and demographic and other characteristics of the abused and their families. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective and descriptive study based on a review of medical records of CSA cases from 2000-2009 at Sulmaniya Medical Complex, the main secondary and tertiary medical care facility in Bahrain. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The review included demographic data, child and family characteristics, manifestations and interventions. RESULTS: The 440 children diagnosed with CSA had a mean age of 8 years (range, 9 months to 17 years); 222 were males (50.5%) and 218 were females (49.5%). There was a steady increase in cases from 31 per year in 2000 to 77 cases in 2009. Children disclosed abuse in 26% of cases, while health sector professionals recognized 53% of the cases. Genital touching and fondling (62.5%) were the most common form of CSA, followed by sodomy in 39%. Gonorrhea was documented in 2% of the cases and pregnancy in 4% of the females. The illiteracy rate among the fathers and mothers was 9% and 12%, respectively, which is higher than the rate among the adult general population. Children came from all socio-economic classes. There was referral to police in 56%, public prosecution in 31% of the cases, but only 8% reached the court. CONCLUSION: During ten years there has been a 2.5% increase in reported cases of CSA. Improving the skill of professionals in identifying CSA indicators and a mandatory reporting law might be needed to improve the rate of recognition and referral of CSA cases. Further general population-based surveys are needed to determine more accurately the scope of CSA and the risk and protective factors in the family and community. PMID:21808114

  6. Acute and Chronic Dissociation and Somatized Anxiety as Related to Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynes, Lynn C.; Feinauer, Leslie L.

    1994-01-01

    Examined relationship between effects of four sexual abuse variables (identity of perpetrator, frequency of abuse, duration of abuse experiences, and severity of sexual abuse) and survivor symptomatology of acute dissociation, chronic dissociation, and somatized anxiety. Data from 226 respondents showed that severity of sexual abuse experience was…

  7. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... to: What is Elder Abuse? Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse Substance abuse has been identified as the most frequently cited ... victim and/or the perpetrator who has the substance abuse problem. Substance abuse is believed to be a ...

  8. Prevalence and Predictors of Dating Violence among Adolescent Female Victims of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre; Wright, John

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to advance knowledge of dating violence behaviors among adolescent victims of child sexual abuse (CSA), first, by determining the prevalence of psychological and physical dating violence and the reciprocity of violence, and second, by investigating the influence of certain CSA characteristics to dating violence.…

  9. An Exploration of the Connection between Child Sexual Abuse and Gambling in Aboriginal Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dion, Jacinthe; Collin-Vezina, Delphine; De La Sablonniere, Mireille; Philippe-Labbe, Marie-Pierre; Giffard, Tania

    2010-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) lead to short-term sequelae and long-lasting pervasive outcomes. Research has started addressing CSA as a potential risk factor for later addictions, including pathological gambling. Among Aboriginal peoples, it is plausible that the legacy of residential schooling and other historical traumas have led to unresolved grief…

  10. Child Sexual Abuse in China: A Study of Adolescents in Four Provinces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, J.; Dunne, M.P.; Han, P.

    2004-01-01

    Objective:: Little is known about Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) in Chinese societies. This study examined CSA experiences and associations with demographic factors, self-reported health and risky behaviors among senior high school students in four provinces in central and northern China. Method:: Students in four schools in Hubei, Henan, Hebei, and…

  11. Outcomes of Child Sexual Abuse as Predictors of Later Sexual Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese-Weber, Marla; Smith, Dana M.

    2011-01-01

    The association between a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) and specific negative outcomes (attachment, feelings of power, and self-esteem) was explored as was the relationship between those negative outcomes and sexual victimization during the first semester of college. Two groups of freshman college women (67 who had experienced CSA and 55 who…

  12. Exposure to Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse and Subsequent Educational Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boden, Joseph M.; Horwood, L. John; Fergusson, David M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This paper examined the relationship between exposure to sexual and physical abuse (CSA and CPA) in childhood and later educational achievement outcomes in late adolescence and early adulthood in a birth cohort of over 1,000 children studied to age 25. Method: Retrospective data on CSA and CPA were gathered at ages 18 and 21 and used to…

  13. The Perils and Possibilities in Disclosing Childhood Sexual Abuse to a Romantic Partner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Castillo, Darren; O'Dougherty Wright, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to understand the long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in adulthood by interviewing seven women about their experiences of disclosing CSA to romantic partners. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, an in-depth, qualitative research approach, was used to analyze the transcripts. The analysis produced 10 themes…

  14. Sexual Dysfunctions: Relationship to Childhood Sexual Abuse and Early Family Experiences in a Nonclinical Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinzl, Johann F.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study evaluated 202 female university students for early familial experience and childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in relation to adult sexual disorders: (1) victims of multiple CSA more frequently reported sexual desire disorders; and (2) single-incident victims and nonvictims reported no significantly different rates of sexual dysfunction.…

  15. Caregiver Perceptions of Sexual Abuse and Its Effect on Management after a Disclosure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker-Descartes, Ingrid; Sealy, Yvette M.; Laraque, Danielle; Rojas, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to examine caregiver management strategies for child sexual abuse (CSA) when presented with hypothetical scenarios that vary in physical invasiveness. Methods: One hundred fifty three caregivers were given 3 scenarios of CSA with 7 management strategies presented in the 21-item Taking Action Strategies (TAS)…

  16. Childhood Sexual Abuse Moderates the Association between Sexual Functioning and Sexual Distress in Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Kyle R.; Hughan, Corey P.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the degree to which a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) moderates the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in women. Method: Women with (n = 105, M age = 33.71, 66.1% Caucasian) and without (n = 71, M age = 32.63, 74.7% Caucasian) a history of CSA taking part in a larger clinical trial completed…

  17. Practitioner Review: The Victims and Juvenile Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse -- Assessment and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vizard, Eileen

    2013-01-01

    Background: The assessment of victims of child sexual abuse (CSA) is now a recognized aspect of clinical work for both CAMH and adult services. As juvenile perpetrators of CSA are responsible for a significant minority of the sexual assaults on other children, CAMH services are increasingly approached to assess these oversexualized younger…

  18. Serious Games for Learning: Games-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholes, Laura; Jones, Christian; Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Rolfe, Ben

    2014-01-01

    In spite of research demonstrating conceptual weakness in many child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programmes and outdated modes of delivery, students continue to participate in a diversity of initiatives. Referring to the development of a games-based approach to CSA prevention in Australia, this paper examines empirically based attributes of…

  19. Relationships with Mothers and Peers Moderate the Association between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Ryan E.; Bukowski, William M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the current study was to assess whether relationships with mothers and peers moderate the association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and anxiety disorders. That is, positive and supportive experiences were expected to minimize the effects of CSA whereas nonsupportive experiences were expected to magnify them.…

  20. Childhood Sexual Abuse in Males and Subsequent Risky Sexual Behavior: A Potential Alcohol-Use Pathway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H.; Norris, Jeanette

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among boys has been associated with a variety of subsequent maladaptive behaviors. This study explored a potential connection between CSA and an increased likelihood of risky sexual behavior in adulthood. Further, the study examined whether or not alcohol use may contribute to this relationship. Method: As…

  1. Associations among Childhood Sexual Abuse, Language Use, and Adult Sexual Functioning and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenz, Tierney Ahrold; Meston, Cindy May

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To better understand the link between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction, we examined cognitive differences between women with (N = 128) and without (NSA, N = 99) CSA histories. Methods: We used the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count, a computerized text analysis program, to investigate language…

  2. Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse on College Student Development: A Seven-Vectors Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Daniel B.

    2016-01-01

    The application of theory in this article expanded on Chickering and Reisser's ([Chickering, A. W., 1993]) 7-vectors framework by considering the effects of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on the normal experience of student development in higher education. The article includes an overview of the prevalence and effects of CSA and a case study of a…

  3. School-Based Childhood Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: An Integrative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fryda, Candice M.; Hulme, Polly A.

    2015-01-01

    One prevention strategy for childhood sexual abuse (CSA) involves educational programs delivered to children in the school environment. The purpose of this integrative literature review was to determine the state of the science on school-based CSA prevention programs. The authors extracted data from 26 articles that fit inclusion criteria to…

  4. Abuse-Specific Self-Schemas and Self-Functioning: A Prospective Study of Sexually Abused Youth

    PubMed Central

    Feiring, Candice; Cleland, Charles M.; Simon, Valerie A.

    2009-01-01

    Potential pathways from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to negative self-schemas to subsequent dissociative symptoms and low global self-esteem were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 160 ethnically diverse youth with confirmed CSA histories. Participants were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery, when they were 8-15 years of age, and again 1- and 6- years later. Abuse-specific indicators of stigmatization, in particular the combination of shame and self-blame, more than general self-blame attributions for everyday events, explained which youth with CSA histories experienced more dissociative symptoms and clinically significant levels of dissociation. Abuse-specific stigmatization was found to operate as a prospective mechanism for subsequent dissociative symptoms but not self-esteem. PMID:20390797

  5. Group treatment of adult male inpatients abused as children.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, L Y

    1994-10-01

    Recent research indicates that childhood abuse experiences characterize a large subset of psychiatric inpatients. This paper presents a time-limited pilot group developed for adult male abuse survivors in an inpatient setting using: (1) techniques adapted from the existing literature on treatment of abuse survivors; and (2) approaches deriving from the interface of theory and current manifestations of distress. The eclectic therapeutic approach incorporated psychoeducational, cognitive, behavioral, and art therapy techniques presented below in a session-by-session format.

  6. Autobiographical Memory Specificity in Child Sexual Abuse Victims

    PubMed Central

    Ogle, Christin M.; Block, Stephanie D.; Harris, LaTonya S.; Goodman, Gail S.; Pineda, Annarheen; Timmer, Susan; Urquiza, Anthony; Saywitz, Karen J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the specificity of autobiographical memory in adolescents and adults with versus without child sexual abuse (CSA) histories. Eighty-five participants, approximately half of whom per age group had experienced CSA, were tested on the Autobiographical Memory Interview. Individual difference measures, including for trauma-related psychopathology, were also administered. Findings revealed developmental differences in the relation between autobiographical memory specificity and CSA. Even with depression statistically controlled, reduced memory specificity in CSA victims relative to controls was observed among adolescents but not among adults. A higher number of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder criteria met predicted more specific childhood memories in participants who reported CSA as their most traumatic life event. These findings contribute to the scientific understanding of childhood trauma and autobiographical memory functioning and underscore the importance of considering the role of age and degree of traumatization within the study of autobiographical memory. PMID:23627947

  7. Reactions to research participation in victims of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Massey, Christina; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2013-10-01

    We examined whether adults with a documented or self-reported history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) report more emotional reactions and negative responses to research participation and whether psychiatric symptoms play a moderating role in their reactions. Using a prospective cohort design, individuals with documented histories of CSA and non-abused matched controls were followed up and interviewed in adulthood (n = 460). Reactions to research participation were measured with a brief questionnaire. Concurrent symptoms of depression, anxiety, and PTSD were assessed via standardized measures. Results showed that those with a history of CSA, documented or self-reported, experienced similar reactions compared to controls. Psychiatric symptoms predicted stronger emotional reactions and more negative responses, but also greater personal benefit, regardless of CSA history.

  8. Does Sexual Orientation Precede Childhood Sexual Abuse? Childhood Gender Nonconformity as a Risk Factor and Instrumental Variable Analysis.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yin; Zheng, Yong

    2015-11-29

    Research suggests that there is a relation between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adulthood nonheterosexual orientation. To explore whether nonheterosexual orientation increases the risk of CSA, we recruited a large sample, added the variable of childhood gender nonconformity (CGNC), and applied the instrumental variable method. We found that heterosexual and nonheterosexual men who were more gender nonconforming in childhood were significantly more likely to report having a history of CSA than their gender-conforming counterparts. There was no relation between CSA and CGNC for heterosexual and nonheterosexual women. The instrumental variable analysis revealed that the increased prevalence of CSA experienced by nonheterosexuals compared with heterosexuals may be due to the influence of sexual orientation on CSA. In sum, the results suggest that nonheterosexuality may increase the risk of childhood sexual abuse.

  9. Childhood sexual abuse and health risk behaviors in patients with HIV and a history of injection drug use.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, Sarah M; O'Cleirigh, Conall; Hendriksen, Ellen S; Bullis, Jacqueline R; Stein, Michael; Safren, Steven A

    2011-10-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is related to poorer health outcomes, associated with increased risk for HIV acquisition, and prevalent among HIV risk groups. Links between CSA and health behavior are an important health concern. We examined the relationship between CSA and transmission risk behavior and medication adherence in 119 HIV-infected individuals with an injection drug use history. 47% reported CSA, with no gender difference. Individuals who experienced CSA were more likely to report sexual HIV transmission risk behavior in the past 6 months, more sexual partners, use of heroin in the past 30 days, and worse adherence to HIV medication than those who did not. These findings confirm that rates of CSA are high in this population, and suggest that a history of CSA may place people managing both HIV and opioid dependence at increased risk for HIV transmission, poor adherence to medication, and vulnerability to substance use relapse.

  10. Stockholm Syndrome and Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julich, Shirley

    2005-01-01

    This article, based on an analysis of unstructured interviews, identifies that the emotional bond between survivors of child sexual abuse and the people who perpetrated the abuse against them is similar to that of the powerful bi-directional relationship central to Stockholm Syndrome as described by Graham (1994). Aspects of Stockholm Syndrome…

  11. Sexual abuse history, alcohol intoxication, and women's sexual risk behavior.

    PubMed

    Schacht, Rebecca L; George, William H; Davis, Kelly Cue; Heiman, Julia R; Norris, Jeanette; Stoner, Susan A; Kajumulo, Kelly F

    2010-08-01

    We examined potential differences in women's likelihood of sexual risk taking in a laboratory setting based on alcohol intoxication and sexual abuse history. Participants (n = 64) were classified as non-sexually abused (NSA) or as having experienced sexual abuse in childhood only (CSA) or adulthood only (ASA) and randomly assigned to consume alcoholic (.06, .08, or .10% target blood alcohol content) or non-alcoholic drinks, after which participants read and responded to a risky sex vignette. Dependent measures included vaginal pulse amplitude, self-reported sexual arousal, likelihood of engaging in condom use and risky sexual behaviors described in the vignette, and mood. NSA and ASA women did not differ significantly on any dependent measures. CSA women reported significantly lower likelihood of condom use and unprotected intercourse relative to NSA and ASA women. Intoxicated women reported significantly greater sexual arousal, positive mood, and likelihood of risky sex relative to sober women. Intoxicated CSA women reported significantly more likelihood of unprotected oral sex and less likelihood of condom use relative to intoxicated NSA and ASA and sober CSA women. CSA women's increased risk of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) may be driven by non-condom use and behavioral changes while intoxicated. These findings provide preliminary insight into situational influences affecting CSA women's increased STI risk.

  12. Young children's knowledge and skills related to sexual abuse prevention: a pilot study in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjing; Chen, Jingqi; Feng, Yanan; Li, Jingyi; Zhao, Xiaoxia; Luo, Xiaoling

    2013-09-01

    To examine the level of knowledge and skills related to prevention of child sexual abuse (CSA) in a sample of Chinese preschoolers in Beijing and to explore the associations between children's scores on the knowledge and skills and their parents' reports on the knowledge and communication with children about CSA prevention. One hundred and thirty-six preschoolers were interviewed by researchers using the Chinese versions of Personal Safety Questionnaire and the "What If" Situation Test, and one parent of each child was invited to complete an anonymous questionnaire regarding parental knowledge and parent-child communication about CSA prevention. Less than half children knew that strangers were not the only perpetrators and only 16% thought that children should report secret touching. In 3 inappropriate touching requests, less than 30% of the children were aware of using verbal response to definitely refuse the inappropriate touching and less than 20% of the children were aware of definitely removing themselves from the abusive situations. Parent-child communication about CSA and parental educational level were the significant factors for children's self-protection skills. Preschool children lack CSA prevention knowledge and related self-protection skills. Culturally relevant primary CSA prevention programs in China need to be developed and parental education should be a part of CSA prevention. Parents need to be informed about CSA knowledge concepts and need to be encouraged to communicate with their children about sexual abuse prevention.

  13. Lessons learned from child sexual abuse research: prevalence, outcomes, and preventive strategies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Although child sexual abuse (CSA) is recognized as a serious violation of human well-being and of the law, no community has yet developed mechanisms that ensure that none of their youth will be sexually abused. CSA is, sadly, an international problem of great magnitude that can affect children of all ages, sexes, races, ethnicities, and socioeconomic classes. Upon invitation, this current publication aims at providing a brief overview of a few lessons we have learned from CSA scholarly research as to heighten awareness of mental health professionals on this utmost important and widespread social problem. This overview will focus on the prevalence of CSA, the associated mental health outcomes, and the preventive strategies to prevent CSA from happening in the first place. PMID:23866106

  14. Mediators of the relation between childhood sexual abuse and women's sexual risk behavior: a comparison of two theoretical frameworks.

    PubMed

    Senn, Theresa E; Carey, Michael P; Coury-Doniger, Patricia

    2012-12-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood, but little research has investigated processes that might mediate this relation. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether constructs suggested by the traumagenic dynamics (TD) model (a theory of the effects of CSA) or constructs suggested by the information-motivation-behavioral skills (IMB) model (a theory of the antecedents of sexual risk behavior) better mediated the relation between CSA and sexual risk behavior in adulthood. Participants were 481 women attending a sexually transmitted infection clinic (66% African American) who completed a computerized survey as well as behavioral simulations assessing condom application and sexual assertiveness skills. Forty-five percent of the sample met criteria for CSA and CSA was associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood. In multiple mediator models, the TD constructs mediated the relation between CSA and the number of sexual partners whereas the IMB constructs mediated the relation between CSA and unprotected sex. In addition, the TD constructs better mediated the relation between CSA and the number of sexual partners; the TD and IMB constructs did not differ in their ability to mediate the relation between CSA and unprotected sex. Sexual risk reduction interventions for women who were sexually abused should target not only the constructs from health behavior models (e.g., motivation and skills to reduce sexual risk), but also constructs that are specific to sexual abuse (e.g., traumatic sexualization and guilt).

  15. Associations Between Child Sexual Abuse and Negative Sexual Experiences and Revictimization Among Women: Does Measuring Severity Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Loeb, Tamra B.; Gaines, Tommi; Wyatt, Gail E.; Zhang, Muyu; Liu, Honghu

    2011-01-01

    Women with histories of child sexual abuse (CSA) are more likely than those without such experiences to report a variety of negative sexual outcomes. This study examines the explanatory power of a CSA summed composite versus dichotomous (presence/absence) measurement in predicting a comprehensive negative sexual behavior outcome. Study participants were obtained from a community based sample examining women’s sexual decision-making. The continuous CSA measurement reflects cumulative histories of CSA through a composite score capturing abuse specific characteristics. Using a cross-validation approach, the sample (n = 835) was randomly split and the explanatory power of each measure was examined through a series of multiple linear regressions comparing model fit indexes and performing a formal likelihood ratio test of one model against another. All CSA measures explained a similar percentage of variance but overall the CSA summed composite explained the data significantly better in terms predicting negative sexual experiences and revictimization than a binary measure as demonstrated with the likelihood ratio test. The results were replicated by cross-validating the predictive power of the CSA composite score between the split samples. Consistency of CSA regression estimates for the summed composite between training and validation samples were also confirmed. Given the superiority of the CSA summed composites over the binary variable, we recommend using this measure when examining associations between CSA histories and negative sexual experiences and revictimization. PMID:22078081

  16. Awareness of child sexual abuse prevention education among parents of Grade 3 elementary school pupils in Fuxin City, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing Qi; Chen, Da Guang

    2005-10-01

    Several recent studies on child sexual abuse (CSA) in Chinese society have shown that the problem is not uncommon, and is associated with poor mental health and health-related risk behaviors of abused youth. It is very important to understand and improve public awareness of CSA prevention, especially for the parents. However, there are few published reports on the problem of parents' awareness. To fill this gap, knowledge, attitudes and practice of CSA prevention education were explored in 385 parents of Grade 3 pupils from four schools in Fuxin City of Liaoning Province in the northeast part of China by self-administered anonymous questionnaires. Among this sample, more than 80% of parents approved of school CSA prevention education. However, at the same time, 47.3% of parents expressed some concern that this education may induce the children to learn too much about 'sex'. Overall, about 60% of parents had told their children that their 'private parts' should not be touched by others and discussed strategies of 'Say "No!", Leave and Tell' in dealing with CSA situations or the situations that may lead to CSA. Only 4.2% of parents had provided books or other material about CSA prevention for their children. The parents' CSA prevention knowledge was inadequate. The findings from this research will be useful in developing CSA prevention education programs in schools and communities, designed to improve parents' knowledge and practice of CSA prevention.

  17. Childhood sexual abuse in advanced cancer patients in the palliative care setting.

    PubMed

    Wygant, Carmella; Hui, David; Bruera, Eduardo

    2011-08-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a common, distressing, yet rarely discussed topic in palliative care. The long-term effects of CSA can have a significant impact on patients' quality of life, particularly at the end of life. In this article, we aim to initiate a discussion regarding the need to address CSA in the palliative care setting, using the example of an advanced cancer patient and her caregiver sister who revealed their common past. Specifically, we will be discussing 1) the comorbidities, psychological distress, and family distress associated with CSA, 2) its impact on health care delivery, 3) an approach to initiating conversations regarding CSA, and 4) various management strategies. Successful management of CSA necessitates an interprofessional team approach and may help to improve the quality of life of patients and their families.

  18. The Prevalence of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adolescent Unwanted Sexual Contact among Boys and Girls Living in Victoria, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Elya E.; Romaniuk, Helena; Olsson, Craig A.; Jayasinghe, Yasmin; Carlin, John B.; Patton, George C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with both short- and long-term adverse mental and physical health consequences, yet there remains considerable controversy about the prevalence of CSA in the general population. There is also little prospective data on unwanted sexual contact (USC) collected during adolescence. Methods: Data…

  19. Associations between Child Sexual Abuse and Negative Sexual Experiences and Revictimization among Women: Does Measuring Severity Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeb, Tamra B.; Gaines, Tommi; Wyatt, Gail E.; Zhang, Muyu; Liu, Honghu

    2011-01-01

    Women with histories of child sexual abuse (CSA) are more likely than those without such experiences to report a variety of negative sexual outcomes. This study examines the explanatory power of a CSA summed composite versus dichotomous (presence/absence) measurement in predicting a comprehensive negative sexual behavior outcome. Study…

  20. Men's and Women's Childhood Sexual Abuse and Victimization in Adult Partner Relationships: A Study of Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daigneault, Isabelle; Hebert, Martine; McDuff, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: (1) Document the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), childhood physical assault, psychological, physical and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) in a nationally representative sample. (2) Assess the predictive value of CSA and other characteristics of the respondents and their current partners as potential risk factors for…

  1. Examining the Relationship between a Childhood History of Sexual Abuse and Later Dissociation, Breast-Feeding Practices, and Parenting Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Katherine Gail; Ryberg, Jacalyn Wickline; Becker, Heather

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare Mexican American adolescent mothers with and without childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories to examine the influence of CSA on dissociation, selection of infant feeding method, and intimate parenting anxiety. Participants are 78 English-speaking adolescents between 15 and 19 years of age and recruited from…

  2. Linking Childhood Sexual Abuse and Early Adolescent Risk Behavior: The Intervening Role of Internalizing and Externalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Deborah J.; Lewis, Terri; Litrownik, Alan; Thompson, Richard; Proctor, Laura J.; Isbell, Patricia; Dubowitz, Howard; English, Diana; Jones, Bobby; Nagin, Daniel; Runyan, Desmond

    2013-01-01

    A robust literature links childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to later substance use and sexual risk behavior; yet, relatively little empirical attention has been devoted to identifying the mechanisms linking CSA to risky behavior among youth, with even less work examining such processes in boys. With the aim of addressing this gap in the literature, the…

  3. Childhood Sexual Abuse Associated with Dating Partner Violence and Suicidal Ideation in a Representative Household Sample in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ko Ling; Yan, Elsie; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Y. T.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and impact of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on future intimate partner violence (IPV) in dating relationship in Hong Kong, China. A total of 1,154 Chinese adult respondents engaged in dating relationships were interviewed face-to-face about their CSA histories, childhood witnessing of parental violence, adult…

  4. Child Sexual Abuse and Persistence of Risky Sexual Behaviors and Negative Sexual Outcomes over Adulthood: Findings from a Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Roode, Thea; Dickson, Nigel; Herbison, Peter; Paul, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the impact of child sexual abuse (CSA) on adult sexual behaviors and outcomes over three age periods. Methods: A longitudinal study of a birth cohort born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972/1973 was used. Information on CSA was sought at age 26, and on sexual behaviors and outcomes at ages 21, 26, and 32. Comparisons were…

  5. Characteristics of Sexually Abused Children and Their Nonoffending Mothers Followed by Child Welfare Services: The Role of a Maternal History of Child Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Baril, Karine; Tourigny, Marc; Paillé, Pierre; Pauzé, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Considering the importance of mother's support in the adaptation of a sexually abused child, it is relevant to determine if the mothers and children involved in an intergenerational cycle of child sexual victimization differ from dyads in which only the child has been abused. The purpose of this study was to compare mother-child dyads with sexually abused children according to whether the mother had herself been victim of child sexual abuse. The sample included 87 dyads with sexually abused children aged 3-18 years old and their mothers (44 reporting maternal and child abuse), followed by social welfare services of the province of Quebec (Canada). The two groups of mothers were compared on their past family abuse experiences and past family relations, their mental health history, their current psychological distress, their parenting behaviors, and their current levels of family functioning. Children were compared on their adaptation. Multivariate analyses indicated that mothers reporting child sexual abuse were more likely to report more other maltreatments in their childhood and greater prevalence of lifetime history of alcohol abuse disorders, dysthymia, and panic disorder compared with mothers who had not experienced CSA. Compared to children whose mothers had not experienced CSA, those whose mothers had experienced CSA showed higher rates of problems behaviors and were more likely to report having been sexually abused by a trusted person. These results highlight the specific clinical needs for the assessment and treatment for sexually abused children whose mothers experienced child sexual abuse.

  6. Child Maltreatment and Perceived Family Environment as Risk Factors for Adult Rape: Is Child Sexual Abuse the Most Salient Experience?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messman-Moore, T.L.; Brown, A.L.

    2004-01-01

    Objective:: Child maltreatment and family functioning were examined as predictors of adult rape in a sample of 925 college women. Method:: Information was obtained from retrospective self-report questionnaires. Child sexual abuse (CSA) was assessed with the Life Experiences Questionnaire, child emotional abuse (CEA) and physical abuse (CPA) were…

  7. Child sexual abuse, coping responses, self-blame, posttraumatic stress disorder, and adult sexual revictimization.

    PubMed

    Filipas, Henrietta H; Ullman, Sarah E

    2006-05-01

    The present study examined the psychological sequelae of child sexual abuse (CSA) and the factors that contributed to revictimization in the form of adult sexual assault (ASA) using a survey of 577 female college students. CSA characteristics, maladaptive coping in response to CSA, degree of self-blame at the time of the abuse and currently, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were examined as predictors of revictimization. Results indicated that individuals who reported both CSA and ASA had more PTSD symptoms, were more likely to use drugs or alcohol to cope, act out sexually, withdraw from people, and seek therapy services. In addition, the revictimized group reported more self-blame at the time of the abuse and currently. The only factor that predicted revictimization in this study was the number of maladaptive coping strategies used. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  8. Sexual Abuse and Sexual Functioning in a Chronic Pelvic Pain Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Mary E.; Reddy, Diane M.

    2006-01-01

    Sexual abuse, particularly childhood sexual abuse, has been linked to chronic pelvic pain and to sexual dysfunction, though the sexual functioning of survivors of sexual abuse has not been studied in a chronic pain population. Sixty-three women with chronic pelvic pain completed measures of sexual function, sexual abuse, and pain. Using an index…

  9. Sporicidal activity of ceragenin CSA-13 against Bacillus subtilis

    PubMed Central

    Piktel, Ewelina; Pogoda, Katarzyna; Roman, Maciej; Niemirowicz, Katarzyna; Tokajuk, Grażyna; Wróblewska, Marta; Szynaka, Beata; Kwiatek, Wojciech M.; Savage, Paul B.; Bucki, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Spore-forming bacteria are a class of microorganisms that possess the ability to survive in extreme environmental conditions. Morphological features of spores assure their resistance to stress factors such as high temperature, radiation, disinfectants, and drying. Consequently, spore elimination in industrial and medical environments is very challenging. Ceragenins are a new class of cationic lipids characterized by a broad spectrum of bactericidal activity resulting from amphipathic nature and membrane-permeabilizing properties. To assess the impact of ceragenin CSA-13 on spores formed by Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6051), we performed the series of experiments confirming that amphipathic and membrane-permeabilizing properties of CSA-13 are sufficient to disrupt the structure of B. subtilis spores resulting in decreased viability. Raman spectroscopy analysis provided evidence that upon CSA-13 treatment the number of CaDPA-positive spores was clearly diminished. As a consequence, a loss of impermeability of the inner membranes of spores, accompanied by a decrease in spore resistance and killing take place. In addition to their broad antimicrobial spectrum, ceragenins possess great potential for development as new sporicidal agents. PMID:28294162

  10. Sporicidal activity of ceragenin CSA-13 against Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Piktel, Ewelina; Pogoda, Katarzyna; Roman, Maciej; Niemirowicz, Katarzyna; Tokajuk, Grażyna; Wróblewska, Marta; Szynaka, Beata; Kwiatek, Wojciech M; Savage, Paul B; Bucki, Robert

    2017-03-15

    Spore-forming bacteria are a class of microorganisms that possess the ability to survive in extreme environmental conditions. Morphological features of spores assure their resistance to stress factors such as high temperature, radiation, disinfectants, and drying. Consequently, spore elimination in industrial and medical environments is very challenging. Ceragenins are a new class of cationic lipids characterized by a broad spectrum of bactericidal activity resulting from amphipathic nature and membrane-permeabilizing properties. To assess the impact of ceragenin CSA-13 on spores formed by Bacillus subtilis (ATCC 6051), we performed the series of experiments confirming that amphipathic and membrane-permeabilizing properties of CSA-13 are sufficient to disrupt the structure of B. subtilis spores resulting in decreased viability. Raman spectroscopy analysis provided evidence that upon CSA-13 treatment the number of CaDPA-positive spores was clearly diminished. As a consequence, a loss of impermeability of the inner membranes of spores, accompanied by a decrease in spore resistance and killing take place. In addition to their broad antimicrobial spectrum, ceragenins possess great potential for development as new sporicidal agents.

  11. Child sexual abuse: seven years in practice.

    PubMed

    Bahali, Kayhan; Akçan, Ramazan; Tahiroglu, Aysegul Y; Avci, Ayse

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the socio-demographic characteristics of sexually abused children. The records of 101 cases of child sexual abuse (CSA) were retrospectively evaluated. Socio-demographic characteristics of the victims, type of sexual abuse, and psychiatric diagnosis were studied. Of the victims, 56.4% (n = 57) were female and 43.6% (n = 44) were male. The mean age was 9.57 +/- 3.5, with a range of 4-17 years. Ninety-three (92.1%) of the victims had been admitted as part of the legal process. The majority (66.3%) of the victims had been abused by an acquaintance, while 33.7% had been abused by a stranger. Anal or vaginal penetration was reported in 48.5% of the cases. Post-traumatic stress disorder was the most common (54.5%) psychiatric diagnosis established after sexual abuse. Descriptive data related to the abused children and an understanding of the consequences of CSA will help authorities in planning prevention.

  12. A theoretical foundation for understanding clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Fogler, Jason M; Shipherd, Jillian C; Rowe, Erin; Jensen, Jennifer; Clarke, Stephanie

    2008-01-01

    Incorporating elements from broadband theories of psychological adaptation to extreme adversity, including Summit's (1983) Child Sexual Abuse Accommodation Syndrome, Finkelhor and Browne's (1986) Traumagenic Dynamics Model of sexual abuse, and Pyszczynski and colleagues' (1997) Terror Management Theory, this paper proposes a unified theoretical model of clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse for future research. The model conceptualizes clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse as the convergence of interactive processes between the clergy-perpetrator, the parishioner-survivor, and the religious community.

  13. Does the impact of child sexual abuse differ from maltreated but non-sexually abused children? A prospective examination of the impact of child sexual abuse on internalizing and externalizing behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Terri; McElroy, Erika; Harlaar, Nicole; Runyan, Desmond

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) continues to be a significant problem with significant short and long term consequences. However, extant literature is limited by the reliance on retrospective recall of adult samples, single-time assessments, and lack of longitudinal data during the childhood and adolescent years. The purpose of this study was to compare internalizing and externalizing behavior problems of those with a history of sexual abuse to those with a history of maltreatment, but not sexual abuse. We examined whether gender moderated problems over time. Data were drawn from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) at ages 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 (N=977). The Child Behavior Checklist was used to assess internalizing and externalizing problems. Maltreatment history and types were obtained from official Child Protective Services (CPS) records. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to assess behavior problems over time by maltreatment group. Findings indicated significantly more problems in the CSA group than the maltreated group without CSA over time. Internalizing problems were higher for sexually abused boys compared to girls. For sexually abused girls internalizing problems, but not externalizing problems increased with age relative to boys. This pattern was similar among maltreated but not sexually abused youth. Further efforts are needed to examine the psychological effects of maltreatment, particularly CSA longitudinally as well as better understand possible gender differences in order to best guide treatment efforts.

  14. Empowering Abused Women through Equine Assisted Career Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froeschle, Janet

    2009-01-01

    Female survivors of domestic violence may experience symptoms of low self-esteem, insecurity, difficulty with problem solving, low self-efficacy, and high anxiety with regard to their economic future. Creative methods are needed to help abuse survivors overcome these factors so they are able to set and attain career goals. Equine assisted therapy…

  15. Effective Cyber Situation Awareness (CSA) Assessment and Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    Awareness (CSA)Assessment and Training Final Report The views, opinions and/or findings contained in this report are those of the author( s ) and should...MONITORING AGENCY NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS (ES) U.S. Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 Final Technical Report REPORT...DOCUMENTATION PAGE 11. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S REPORT NUMBER( S ) 10. SPONSOR/MONITOR’S ACRONYM( S ) ARO 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 19a

  16. Differences in Perceptions of Child Sexual Abuse Based on Perpetrator Age and Respondent Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giglio, Jessie J.; Wolfteich, Paula M.; Gabrenya, William K.; Sohn, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    Child sexual abuse changes the lives of countless children. Child sexual abuse victims experience short and long term negative outcomes that affect their daily functioning. In this study, undergraduate students' perceptions of CSA were obtained using vignettes with an adult or child perpetrator and a general questionnaire. Results indicated…

  17. Number of Childhood Abuse Perpetrators and the Occurrence of Depressive Episodes in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Richard T.; Jager-Hyman, Shari; Wagner, Clara A.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Gibb, Brandon E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although past research has documented a link between adverse childhood experiences--particularly childhood emotional (CEA), physical (CPA), and sexual abuse (CSA)--and depression, relatively few studies have examined the unique impact of each of these highly co-occurring abuse types. Moreover, relatively little is known about the…

  18. The Connections between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: Implications for Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarakeshwar, Nalini; Fox, Ashley; Ferro, Carol; Khawaja, Shazia; Kochman, Arlene; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2005-01-01

    A qualitative study was conducted with 28 women who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in order to examine (1) the challenges generated by the experience of sexual abuse and related coping strategies, (2) the impact of the HIV diagnosis on their coping strategies, and (3) the links…

  19. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Attachment, and Trauma Symptoms in College Females: The Moderating Role of Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspelmeier, Jeffery E.; Elliott, Ann N.; Smith, Christopher H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The present study tests a model linking attachment, childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and adult psychological functioning. It expands on previous work by assessing the degree to which attachment security moderates the relationship between a history of child sexual abuse and trauma-related symptoms in college females. Method: Self-reports of…

  20. Child Sexual Abuse Consequences in Community Samples of Latino and European American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcomb, Michael D.; Munoz, David T.; Carmona, Jennifer Vargas

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Research investigating the impact of child sexual abuse (CSA) in community samples of adolescents has been limited. This study aims to identify sexual abuse among ethnically diverse high school adolescents of both genders and evaluate their psycho-emotional consequences. Method: Through the use of self-report instruments, a sample of…

  1. Examining the relationship between a childhood history of sexual abuse and later dissociation, breast-feeding practices, and parenting anxiety.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Katherine Gail; Ryberg, Jacalyn Wickline; Becker, Heather

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare Mexican American adolescent mothers with and without childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories to examine the influence of CSA on dissociation, selection of infant feeding method, and intimate parenting anxiety. Participants are 78 English-speaking adolescents between 15 and 19 years of age and recruited from the southwestern United States. Nearly one third of the sample ( n = 24, 30.77%) reports CSA histories. There is no correlation between CSA history and intimate parenting anxiety, no difference between breast-feeding and formula-feeding mothers in CSA severity, and intimate parenting anxiety does not predict dissociation. These findings are inconsistent with previous research. Supportive resources may explain the inconsistency and play a role in adolescent mothers' responses to CSA. Further research is necessary to explore these possibilities.

  2. Childhood and Adolescent Sexual Abuse and Subsequent Sexual Risk Behavior: Evidence from Controlled Studies, Methodological Critique, and Suggestions for Research

    PubMed Central

    Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Vanable, Peter A.

    2008-01-01

    Childhood and adolescent sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with a wide variety of adverse psychological and health outcomes, including negative sexual health outcomes. In this paper, we review the literature investigating the relation between CSA and subsequent sexual risk behaviors among men and women. Previous research has found a relatively consistent association between CSA and higher rates of sexual risk behaviors, particularly sex trading, more sexual partners, and an earlier age of first intercourse. However, there are a number of limitations to this research, including lack of a consistent definition of CSA, failure to investigate gender as a moderator, and possible confounding of the CSA experience with some of the sexual behavior outcome variables. Further, although there appears to be an association between CSA and later sexual risk behavior, researchers have not established whether this association is causal. Suggestions for future research and implications for clinical practice are discussed. PMID:18045760

  3. Does Typography of Substance Abuse and Dependence Differ as a Function of Exposure to Child Maltreatment?

    PubMed

    Danielson, Carla Kmett; Amstadter, Ananda; Dangelmaier, Ruth E; Resnick, Heidi S; Saunders, Benjamin E; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the link between child maltreatment, including child sexual assault (CSA) and child physical assault (CPA), and addiction-related symptomatology in a subsample of adolescents from the National Survey of Adolescents, all of whom met DSM-IV criteria for substance abuse or dependence (n=281). Over 60% of the sample reported a history of CSA and/or CPA. Results indicated significant differences in typography of substance abuse and dependence symptoms and rates of comorbid lifetime PTSD based on assault history, specific assault incident characteristics, and sex. Clinical implications for substance abusing youth with maltreatment histories are discussed.

  4. Exploring the Role of Child Sexual Abuse and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Gay and Bisexual Men Reporting Compulsive Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blain, Leah M.; Muench, Fred; Morgenstern, Jon; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) is an impairing yet understudied clinical phenomenon. The experience of child sexual abuse (CSA) has been implicated as an etiological factor in the development of some cases of CSB (Kuzma & Black, 2008); however, research regarding the role of CSA and related psychopathology in CSB symptomatology has…

  5. The Relative Influence of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Other Family Background Risk Factors on Adult Adversities in Female Outpatients Treated for Anxiety Disorders and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleikis, Dawn E.; Mykletun, Arnstein; Dahl, Alv A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study from Norway examines the relative influence of child sexual abuse (CSA) and family background risk factors (FBRF) on the risk for current mental disorders and the quality of current intimate relationships in women with CSA treated for anxiety disorders and/or depression. Women with these disorders frequently seek treatment,…

  6. The interactive effect of blame attribution with characteristics of child sexual abuse on posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Cantón-Cortés, David; Cantón, José; Cortés, María Rosario

    2012-04-01

    The present study examined the role of attributions of blame for child sexual abuse (CSA) in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The interactive effects of attribution of blame with characteristics of abuse on PTSD were studied. A sample of 151 female victims of CSA participated in the study. Self-blame and family blame were related to higher PTSD scores, whereas perpetrator blame was not related to PTSD. The strength of the relationship between blame and PTSD score was higher in cases of more severe, isolated, and extrafamilial abuse. The findings suggest that diminishing self-blame attributions may be particularly advantageous in cases of isolated and extrafamilial CSA, whereas diminishing family blame would be more advantageous in cases of severe abuse.

  7. Adult Attachment and Longterm Effects in Survivors of Incest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Pamela C.; Anderson, Catherine L.; Brand, Bethany; Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Grelling, Barbara Z.; Kretz, Lisa

    1998-01-01

    Ninety-two adult female incest survivors were interviewed and completed measures of current functioning. Hierarchical regression analyses suggested that adult attachment behavior was significantly associated with personality structure, depression, and distress; and abuse severity was associated with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and…

  8. Evaluation of a Spiritually Focused Intervention with Older Trauma Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowland, Sharon; Edmond, Tonya; Fallot, Roger D.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of an 11-session, spiritually focused group intervention with older women survivors (age 55 years and older) of interpersonal trauma (child abuse, sexual assault, or domestic violence) in reducing trauma-related depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress, and anxiety. Forty-three community-dwelling women…

  9. Social disorganization and history of child sexual abuse against girls in sub-Saharan Africa: a multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a considerable public health problem. Less focus has been paid to the role of community level factors associated with CSA. The aim of this study was to examine the association between neighbourhood-level measures of social disorganization and CSA. Methods We applied multiple multilevel logistic regression analysis on Demographic and Health Survey data for 6,351 adolescents from six countries in sub-Saharan Africa between 2006 and 2008. Results The percentage of adolescents that had experienced CSA ranged from 1.04% to 5.84%. There was a significant variation in the odds of reporting CSA across the communities, suggesting 18% of the variation in CSA could be attributed to community level factors. Respondents currently employed were more likely to have reported CSA than those who were unemployed (odds ratio [OR] = 2.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.48 to 2.83). Respondents from communities with a high family disruption rate were 57% more likely to have reported CSA (OR=1.57, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.16). Conclusion We found that exposure to CSA was associated with high community level of family disruption, thus suggesting that neighbourhoods may indeed have significant important effects on exposure to CSA. Further studies are needed to explore pathways that connect the individual and neighbourhood levels, that is, means through which deleterious neighbourhood effects are transmitted to individuals. PMID:23924347

  10. The prevalence of child sexual abuse in out-of-home care: a comparison between abuse in residential and in foster care.

    PubMed

    Euser, Saskia; Alink, Lenneke R A; Tharner, Anne; van Ijzendoorn, Marinus H; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2013-11-01

    We investigated the 2010 year prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in residential and foster care and compared it with prevalence rates in the general population. We used two approaches to estimate the prevalence of CSA. First, 264 professionals working in residential or foster care (sentinels) reported CSA for the children they worked with (N = 6,281). Second, 329 adolescents staying in residential or foster care reported on their own experiences with CSA. Sentinels and adolescents were randomly selected from 82 Dutch out-of-home care facilities. We found that 3.5 per 1,000 children had been victims of CSA based on sentinel reports. In addition, 58 per 1,000 adolescents reported having experienced CSA. Results based on both sentinel report and self-report revealed higher prevalence rates in out-of-home care than in the general population, with the highest prevalence in residential care. Prevalence rates in foster care did not differ from the general population. According to our findings, children and adolescents in residential care are at increased risk of CSA compared to children in foster care. Unfortunately, foster care does not fully protect children against sexual abuse either, and thus its quality needs to be further improved.

  11. Elder Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... mistreatment may be Physical, sexual, or emotional abuse Neglect or abandonment Financial abuse - stealing of money or belongings Possible signs of elder abuse include unexplained bruises, burns, and injuries. There ...

  12. Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... or puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical ...

  13. Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... abuse also plays a role in many major social problems, such as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to homelessness, crime, and missed work or problems with keeping a ...

  14. The Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse in Anorexia Nervosa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Jacqueline C.; Bewell, Carmen; Blackmore, Elizabeth; Woodside, D. Blake

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the impact of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on clinical characteristics and premature termination of treatment in anorexia nervosa (AN). Method: The participants were 77 consecutive patients with AN admitted to an inpatient eating disorders unit. The patients were assessed in terms of eating disorder…

  15. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Impulsive Personality Traits: Mixed Evidence for Moderation by DRD4 Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Harden, K. Paige; Carlson, Marie D.; Kretsch, Natalie; Corbin, William R.; Fromme, Kim

    2015-01-01

    This project examines associations between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and two dimensions of impulsivity (sensation seeking and premeditation), and tests whether CSA-personality associations are moderated by the DRD4 exon III VNTR polymorphism. Sample 1 is from a longitudinal study of university students measured at 10 waves over ages 18–24 years (n = 500). Sample 2 is from a national sample of young adult sibling pairs, ages 18–24, from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 2,559). In both samples, CSA was associated with elevated sensation seeking. In Sample 1, the association between CSA and sensation seeking was moderated by DRD4 genotype; this gene × environment interaction effect, however, was not replicated in Sample 2. Results suggest new avenues for research on CSA in the area of normal-range personality variation. PMID:25642000

  16. Prevention of child sexual abuse: evaluation of a community media campaign.

    PubMed

    Rheingold, Alyssa A; Campbell, Carole; Self-Brown, Shannon; de Arellano, Michael; Resnick, Heidi; Kilpatrick, Dean

    2007-11-01

    Given that mass media techniques have been an effective tool within the public health field for affecting behavioral change, these strategies may prove successful for the primary prevention of child sexual abuse (CSA). This study was an independent evaluation of a CSA media campaign. Two hundred parents were recruited from eight sites across the United States. Results indicated that the combined mass media campaign affected knowledge about CSA at the time of intervention compared to no intervention. No significant differences were found in regards to CSA attitudes. A significant positive impact on primary prevention response behaviors assessed using hypothetical vignettes was found; however, no significant findings were noted for several other behavioral responses. Knowledge and behavioral gains were not maintained at the one-month follow-up. Small sample size at follow-up may have affected findings. Results of this study imply that media campaigns alone may not significantly affect primary prevention of CSA.

  17. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Impulsive Personality Traits: Mixed Evidence for Moderation by DRD4 Genotype.

    PubMed

    Harden, K Paige; Carlson, Marie D; Kretsch, Natalie; Corbin, William R; Fromme, Kim

    2015-04-01

    This project examines associations between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and two dimensions of impulsivity (sensation seeking and premeditation), and tests whether CSA-personality associations are moderated by the DRD4 exon III VNTR polymorphism. Sample 1 is from a longitudinal study of university students measured at 10 waves over ages 18-24 years (n = 500). Sample 2 is from a national sample of young adult sibling pairs, ages 18-24, from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 2,559). In both samples, CSA was associated with elevated sensation seeking. In Sample 1, the association between CSA and sensation seeking was moderated by DRD4 genotype; this gene × environment interaction effect, however, was not replicated in Sample 2. Results suggest new avenues for research on CSA in the area of normal-range personality variation.

  18. Urogenital tract disorders in children suspected of being sexually abused

    PubMed Central

    Wojciechowska, Joanna; Krefft, Maja; Hirnle, Lidia; Kołodziej, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Child sexual abuse (CSA) is generally defined as child exploitation that leads to achievement of sexual satisfaction. According to data from European countries, sexual abuse of children affects 10–40% of girls and 5–20% of boys. Material and methods The Medline, and Web of Science databases were searched with no date limitation on May 2015 using the terms ‘child abuse’ in conjunction with ‘urinary tract’, ‘urologist’, ‘urological dysfunction’, ‘urologic symptoms’, ‘LUTS’ or ‘urinary infection’. Results Awareness of the CSA problem among paediatricians and urologists is very important, because they are often the only physicians who are able to recognize the problem. CSA diagnosis is possible only through the proper collection of a medical history and a thorough physical examination. Urologists have to remember that children exposed to sexual abuse rarely exhibit abnormal genital findings. In fact, absence of genital findings is the rule rather than the exception. In most cases, the final diagnosis of sexual abuse is based on the child's history and behavior, along with the onset and exacerbation of urologic symptoms. Conclusions In this article, we present a review of studies and literature concerning urinary symptoms in sexually abused children to clarify the problem for a broad group of urologists. We present common symptoms and premises that can point to the right diagnosis and basic guidelines of proceeding after suspicion of abuse. PMID:27123337

  19. An Epidemiologic Study of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adult Sleep Disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Lind, Mackenzie J.; Aggen, Steven H.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; York, Timothy P.; Amstadter, Ananda B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is linked to negative consequences, including insomnia. Few studies have examined enduring effects of CSA on adult insomnia. Given the relationship between sleep and poor health, a better understanding of these effects has clinical implications. Method We used a representative sample of adult twins. Both men and women were assessed with a broad variable representative of CSA, while a subset of females (n=424) were given additional items that captured escalating physical contact and abuse characteristics. A sum score of past month insomnia symptoms was calculated from the shortened version of the SCL-90. Logistic regression was used to estimate the effects of CSA on insomnia symptoms, as well as the effects of physical contact and incident characteristics. Results Of the full sample (n=8184), 9.8% reported broad CSA. CSA significantly predicted insomnia symptoms in the female sample (n=1407) (OR=1.67, 95% CI=1.35–2.06, p<0.0001). The continuum of physical contact did not predict sleep. On a univariate level, more than one perpetrator and feeling forced/threatened increased risk for sleep problems, while having a male perpetrator (vs. female or multiple perpetrators) decreased risk. These associations did not hold at a multivariate level. In the mixed-sex sample (n=6777), we replicated our CSA finding (OR=1.65, 95% CI=1.34–2.03, p<0.0001) and found that female gender (OR=1.16, 95% CI=1.03–1.30, p=0.0125) was significant. However, the female gender*CSA interaction was not significant. Conclusion CSA predicts insomnia symptoms in adults 25–30 years post-abuse, but the small sample size for incident characteristics (n=424) resulted in limited conclusions about associated risk. PMID:26390111

  20. Factor Structure of the Counselor Burnout Inventory in a Sample of Sexual Offender and Sexual Abuse Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jayoung; Wallace, Sam; Puig, Ana; Choi, Bo Young; Nam, Suk Kyung; Lee, Sang Min

    2010-01-01

    This study empirically tested and compared three different models of factor structure with a sample of therapists working with sexual offenders, survivors of sexual abuse, or both. Results indicated that a modified five-factor model was the most appropriate. Practical implications for sexual offender/abuse survivor therapists are discussed.…

  1. NH{sub 3} sensor based on CSA doped PANi-SnO{sub 2} nanohybrid

    SciTech Connect

    Khuspe, G. D.; Navale, S. T.; Chougule, M. A.; Mulik, R. N.; Godse, P. R.; Patil, V. B.; Sen, Shashwati

    2014-04-24

    The PANi-SnO{sub 2} hybrid nanocomposite based thin films doped with 10–50 wt % CSA were deposited on the glass substrates using the spin coating technique. The sensor response in relation to the CSA doping concentration and the gas concentration has been systematically studied. A significant sensitivity (91%) towards 100 ppm NH{sub 3} operating at room temperature is observed for the 30 wt % CSA doped PANi-SnO2 nanohybrid. The sensing mechanism of CSA doped PANi-SnO{sub 2} materials to NH{sub 3} was presumed to be the effect of p–n heterojunctions.

  2. Abuse Characteristics and Individual Differences Related to Disclosing Childhood Sexual, Physical, and Emotional Abuse and Witnessed Domestic Violence.

    PubMed

    Bottoms, Bette L; Peter-Hagene, Liana C; Epstein, Michelle A; Wiley, Tisha R A; Reynolds, Carrie E; Rudnicki, Aaron G

    2016-04-01

    Many adult survivors of childhood abuse hide their victimization, avoiding disclosure that could identify perpetrators, end the abuse, and bring help to the victim. We surveyed 1,679 women undergraduates to understand disclosure of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse, and, for the first time, witnessed domestic violence, which many consider to be emotionally abusive. A substantial minority of victims failed to ever disclose their sexual abuse (23%), physical abuse (34%), emotional abuse (20%), and witnessed domestic violence (29%). Overall, abuse-specific factors were better predictors of disclosure than individual-level characteristics. Disclosure of sexual abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and by multiple perpetrators), being more worried about injury and more upset at the time of the abuse, and self-labeling as a victim of abuse. Disclosure of physical abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and multiple perpetrators), being less emotionally close to the perpetrator, being older when the abuse ended, being more worried and upset, and self-labeling as a victim. Disclosure of emotional abuse was associated with being older when the abuse ended, and being more worried and upset. Disclosure was unrelated to victim demographic characteristics or defensive reactions (dissociative proneness, fantasy proneness, repressive coping style, and temporary forgetting), except that among physical and emotional abuse victims, repressors were less likely to disclose than non-repressors. Disclosure of witnessing domestic violence was not significantly related to any factors measured.

  3. Transport Properties of 60% camphor sulfonic acid (CSA) doped polyanilines.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, W.-P.; Gudmundsdottir, A.; Platz, M. S.; Epstein, A. J.; Monkman, A. P.

    1998-03-01

    We report correlated σ_DC(T) and S(T) of unstretched and stretched polyaniline films prepared from m-cresol using 0.60 HCSA per ring. For unstretched film with σ_DC(300K) ~ 270 S/cm and σ(10K)/σ(300K) ~ 0.6 showing a metallic state near an insulator-metal transition(IMT), S(300K) is +8.5 ± 0.5 μV/K with nearly linear S(T) similar to that reported earlier for PAN-CSA fibers.(Y.Z. Wang, et al.), Synth. Met. 68, 207 (1995) For unstretched film on the insulator side of the IMT, σ_DC(300K) is ~ 85 S/cm with σ(10K)/σ(300K) ~ 0.28 and S(300K) is +5.5 ± 0.5 μV/K. For stretched film, σ_DC(300K) and S(300K) for parallel and perpendicular the stretched direction are ~ 630, ~ 90 S/cm, and +10 ± 0.5 and +7 ± 0.5 μV/K, respectively. They are on the metallic side of the IMT with σ(10K)/σ(300K) ~ 0.45, have nearly temperature independent σ_parallel(T)/σ_perpendicular(T), and have nearly linear S(T). Thermoelectric power results for these CSA doped polyaniline samples with different σ(T) are discussed in terms of an effective medium model in accord with inhomogeneous disorder present.(F. Zuo, et al.), Phys. Rev. B 36, 3475 (1987)

  4. Prevalence and correlates of sleep paralysis in adults reporting childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Murray P; Mulligan, Ashlee D; Carleton, R Nicholas; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2008-12-01

    Sleep paralysis (SP) occurs when rapid eye movement (REM) activity and concomitant paralysis of the skeletal muscles persist as an individual awakens and becomes conscious of his/her surroundings. SP is often accompanied by frightening hallucinations that some researchers suggest may be confounded with memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA; [McNally, R. J., & Clancy, S. A. (2005). Sleep paralysis in adults reporting repressed, recovered, or continuous memories of childhood sexual abuse. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 19, 595-602]). The purpose of this study was to evaluate relationships between CSA and SP. Based on self-report, participants (n=263) were categorized into three CSA groups: confirmed, unconfirmed, or no history of CSA. Relative to participants reporting no CSA history, those reporting CSA reported more frequent and more distressing episodes of SP. Post hoc analyses revealed that participants with clinically significant post-traumatic symptoms (irrespective of CSA history) also reported more frequent and more distressing episodes of SP. Significant correlations were found among SP indices and measures of post-traumatic symptoms, depression, dissociation, and absorption. Implications and future research directions are discussed.

  5. Towards a common framework for assessing the activity and associations of groups who sexually abuse children

    PubMed Central

    Cockbain, Ella; Brayley, Helen; Sullivan, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Extensive social psychological research emphasises the importance of groups in shaping individuals’ thoughts and actions. Within the child sexual abuse (CSA) literature criminal organisation has been largely overlooked, with some key exceptions. This research was a novel collaboration between academia and the UK's Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre (CEOP). Starting from the premise that the group is, in itself, a form of social situation affecting abuse, it offers the first systematic situational analysis of CSA groups. In-depth behavioural data from a small sample of convicted CSA group-offenders (n = 3) were analysed qualitatively to identify factors and processes underpinning CSA groups’ activities and associations: group formation, evolution, identity and resources. The results emphasise CSA groups’ variability, fluidity and dynamism. The foundations of a general framework are proposed for researching and assessing CSA groups and designing effective interventions. It is hoped that this work will stimulate discussion and development in this long-neglected area of CSA, helping to build a coherent knowledge-base. PMID:26494978

  6. Suicidal Behavior Outcomes of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Longitudinal Study of Adjudicated Girls.

    PubMed

    Rabinovitch, Sara M; Kerr, David C R; Leve, Leslie D; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2015-08-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories are prevalent among adolescent girls in the juvenile justice system (JJS) and may contribute to their high rates of suicidal behavior. Among 166 JJS girls who participated in an intervention trial, baseline CSA and covariates were examined as predictors of suicide attempt and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) reported at long-term follow-up (7-12 years later). Early forced CSA was related to lifetime suicide attempt and NSSI history and (marginally) to postbaseline attempt; effects were not mediated by anxiety or depressive symptoms. Findings suggest that earlier victimization and younger entry into JJS are linked with suicide attempt and NSSI.

  7. Childhood Sexual Abuse Moderates the Relationship Between Obesity and Mental Health in Low-Income Women.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Jennifer C; Milan, Stephanie

    2016-02-01

    We examined whether a history of self-reported childhood sexual abuse (CSA) moderates the relationship between obesity and mental health symptoms (depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder) in an ethnically diverse sample of low-income women. A community sample of 186 women completed self-report measures and had their weight and height measured. Body mass index and CSA had an interactive effect on all mental health measures, such that obese women with a CSA history reported substantially higher levels of all symptoms. These results give greater specificity to the obesity-mental health link reported in previous studies and provide possible directions for targeted intervention.

  8. Initial Assessment of Stewards of Children Program Effects on Child Sexual Abuse Reporting Rates in Selected South Carolina Counties

    PubMed Central

    Letourneau, Elizabeth J.; Nietert, Paul J.; Rheingold, Alyssa A.

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programs often include a focus on increased reporting of suspected abuse, in addition to other prevention components such as helping trainees recognize suspected abusive situations. This study aimed to determine whether the Stewards of Children prevention program is associated with increased CSA reporting. Analyses examined whether rates of CSA allegations increased over time in three counties in South Carolina (SC) targeted with program dissemination efforts and whether CSA reporting trends differed between the three targeted counties and three comparison counties that did not experience substantial program dissemination. CSA allegation data were obtained by county and year for predissemination and postdissemination periods from the SC Department of Social Services. Results indicated that, for the targeted counties but not the nontargeted counties, estimated allegation rates increased significantly over time, corresponding with the onset of significant program dissemination efforts. Results also indicated significant between-groups differences in allegation trends for targeted versus nontargeted counties. These findings suggest that the Stewards prevention intervention may be associated with increased CSA allegations. However, results require replication with randomization of counties. Moreover, whether increased reporting is associated with decreased CSA incidence remains unknown. PMID:26530898

  9. The Differential Effects of Abuse Characteristics and Attachment in the Prediction of Long-Term Effects of Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Pamela C.

    1993-01-01

    Female incest survivors (n=112) completed several inventories and checklists to measure sexual abuse severity and adult attachment. Analyses indicated that sexual abuse characteristics predicted depression, intrusive thoughts, and memory avoidance. Adult attachment, particularly a lack of secure attachment, predicted memory avoidance, and also…

  10. Shattered Vision: Disenchantment of Couplehood among Female Survivors of Violence in the Shadow of Their Family-of-Origin Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchbinder, Eli; Goldblatt, Hadass

    2011-01-01

    This article describes and analyzes the relationship disenchantment of couplehood among female survivors of violence and their family-of-origin experiences of abuse. Twenty Israeli women who were survivors of violence participated in this qualitative research. Each woman underwent three in-depth interviews, two for data collection and one for…

  11. The impact of child sexual abuse on addiction severity: an analysis of trauma processing.

    PubMed

    Walker, G C; Scott, P S; Koppersmith, G

    1998-03-01

    The Information of Processing Trauma Model provides a framework for understanding the dynamics and responses of childhood sexual abuse. Chemical dependency plays a role in both the cause and effect of childhood sexual abuse. Survivors of childhood sexual abuse with chemical dependency require treatment of both disorders. This treatment should emphasize the key role of the encapsulation phase in symptom formation and recovery.

  12. Relationship between Family Functioning and Parenting Beliefs and Feelings among Women Who Have a History of Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Guadalupe; Lam, Brian Trung

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between family functioning and parenting beliefs and feelings among women with a history of child sexual abuse (CSA). This study utilized secondary data obtained in 2001 from the National Data Archive on Child Abuse and Neglect. The sample included 107 women. Most respondents had a highly functional family;…

  13. Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse and Adult Vulnerability to PTSD: The Mediating Effects of Attachment and Dissociation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twaite, James A.; Rodriguez-Srednicki, Ofelia

    2004-01-01

    Two hundred and eighty-four adults from the metropolitan New York area reported on their history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), childhood physical abuse (CPA), and on the nature of their exposure to the terrorist attack on the World Trade Center. The respondents also completed the Impact of Events Scale-Revised (IES-R), the Attachment Style…

  14. "Having Housing Made Everything Else Possible": Affordable, Safe and Stable Housing for Women Survivors of Violence.

    PubMed

    Clough, Amber; Draughon, Jessica E; Njie-Carr, Veronica; Rollins, Chiquita; Glass, Nancy

    2014-09-01

    Research indicates that the need for safe housing and the economic resources to maintain safe housing are two of the most pressing concerns among abused women who are planning to or have recently left abusers. Intimate partner violence (IPV) is frequently an immediate cause or precursor to homelessness and housing instability. The aim of the study is to explore abused women's experiences accessing affordable, safe, and stable housing. To achieve the aim, adult female IPV survivors answered questions about: 1) steps that were taken to secure housing; 2) safety issues after leaving the abuser; 3) barriers to obtaining housing; and 4) responses from housing and domestic violence advocacy systems related to survivors' housing needs. Four major themes emerged from the in-depth interviews: 1) stable, affordable housing is critical in increasing safety; 2) survivors face multiple systemic or individual barriers; 3) survivors develop and utilize an array of creative and resourceful strategies; and 4) survivors identified a variety of supportive services tailored to address their needs. The findings inform practice, policy and research for both the housing and domestic violence service systems with an emphasis on collaboration to meet the complex safety and stable housing needs of survivors and their families, particularly following the impact on housing of the 2008 U.S. economic crisis and subsequent recession.

  15. PTSD and marital satisfaction in military service members: examining the simultaneous roles of childhood sexual abuse and combat exposure.

    PubMed

    Miller, Adam B; Schaefer, Karen E; Renshaw, Keith D; Blais, Rebecca K

    2013-11-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is relatively common and is associated with a multitude of negative outcomes in adulthood, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and lower marital satisfaction. However, CSA has been understudied in military samples. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relative contributions of CSA and combat exposure to PTSD and marital satisfaction. Two hundred eighteen National Guard/Reserve veterans who deployed overseas between 2001 and 2008 completed self-report measures of CSA, marital satisfaction, combat exposure, and PTSD symptom severity. Data were analyzed using linear regression and path analysis to evaluate a comprehensive model including all variables. CSA accounted for unique variance in PTSD symptom severity independent of combat exposure. CSA also had a negative direct association with marital satisfaction, independent of combat exposure and PTSD symptom severity. In contrast, combat exposure had only a negative indirect association with marital satisfaction via PTSD when all variables were examined simultaneously. CSA accounted for unique variance in both PTSD symptom severity and marital satisfaction in this sample of combat veterans. Clinically, results suggest that assessment and treatment of CSA is indicated for military veterans suffering from PTSD. Further, treatment of CSA may improve marital satisfaction, which may positively affect psychological functioning in the veteran.

  16. Narrative Art and Incarcerated Abused Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Rachel; Taylor, Janette Y.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes an arts and narrative intervention program using visual art, storytelling, music, journaling, and support groups with incarcerated abused women to address the following questions: How can visual art and music empower incarcerated female survivors of domestic violence? Can art, music, storytelling, journaling, and support…

  17. [A model of the effects of child sexual abuse on post-traumatic stress: the mediating role of attributions of blame and avoidance coping].

    PubMed

    Cantón-Cortés, David; Cantón, José; Justicia, Fernando; Cortés, María Rosario

    2011-02-01

    Employing structural equation modeling, the direct and indirect effects of the severity of Child Sexual Abuse (CSA), attributions of blame for the abuse, and coping strategies on Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptomatology are analyzed. The effects of other types of child maltreatment on PTSD were also controlled. The sample comprised 163 female college students who were victims of CSA. The results suggested that victims of more severe abuse showed higher levels of avoidant coping, self blame, and family blame. Having suffered other kinds of abuse or neglect was also related to higher family blame attributions. Lastly, both attributions of blame scales were indirectly related to PTSD symptomatology through avoidant coping. The strong relationships between attributions of blame, coping strategies, and PTSD suggest that it might be useful to intervene early with children who have suffered CSA in an effort to modify the attributions they make about the abuse and the way they cope with it.

  18. Recognizing abuse.

    PubMed

    Davidhizar, R; Newman-Giger, J

    1996-01-01

    After years as a taboo topic, abuse has come "out of the closet" and is being talked about openly in society. Yet, while abuse in the workplace is being confronted, abuse within families still often goes unrecognized by outsiders, including by nurses. Failure of nurses to recognize abuse is unfortunate since frequently they are the first point of contact with the victim of abuse in the emergency room, clinic and home. Understanding and insight into the problem of family violence by nurses is critical in addressing this problem. Knowledge is crucial in planning strategies that will have the long-lasting effect of decreasing the cycle of abuse in families.

  19. Resilience Moderates the Association between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Depressive Symptoms Among Women with and At-Risk for HIV

    PubMed Central

    Dale, Sannisha K.; Weber, Kathleen M.; Cohen, Mardge H.; Kelso, Gwendolyn A.; Cruise, Ruth C.; Brody, Leslie R.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) places women at risk for HIV infection and once infected, for poor mental health outcomes, including lower quality of life and depressive symptoms. Among HIV-positive and demographically matched HIV-negative women, we investigated whether resilience and HIV status moderated the relationships between CSA and health indices as well as the relationships among CSA, depressive symptoms, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Participants included 202 women (138 HIV+, 64 HIV−, 87% African American) from the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) Chicago CORE Center site. Results indicated that in both HIV-positive and HIV-negative women, higher resilience significantly related to lower depressive symptoms and higher HRQOL. CSA related to higher depressive symptoms only for women scoring low in resilience. Interventions to promote resilience, especially in women with a CSA history, might minimize depressive symptoms and poor HRQOL among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women. PMID:25085079

  20. The impact of clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse: the role of gender, development, and posttraumatic stress.

    PubMed

    Fogler, Jason M; Shipherd, Jillian C; Clarke, Stephanie; Jensen, Jennifer; Rowe, Erin

    2008-01-01

    The literature on clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse suggests that there are two modal populations of survivors: boys and adult women. We review what is known about trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder following sexual abuse and explore the different treatment needs for these two survivor groups. For children, clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse can catastrophically alter the trajectory of psychosocial, sexual, and spiritual development. Depending on the age at which abuse occurred, adult clients may present with clinical issues that are more appropriate for a younger developmental stage. Additionally, the symptoms of traumatic stress may be misunderstood when clients conceptualize their abuse as an "affair" or "consensual" relationship. We discuss empirically supported treatments for post-traumatic stress disorder and potential adaptations for the needs of clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse survivors.

  1. LigDockCSA: protein-ligand docking using conformational space annealing.

    PubMed

    Shin, Woong-Hee; Heo, Lim; Lee, Juyong; Ko, Junsu; Seok, Chaok; Lee, Jooyoung

    2011-11-30

    Protein-ligand docking techniques are one of the essential tools for structure-based drug design. Two major components of a successful docking program are an efficient search method and an accurate scoring function. In this work, a new docking method called LigDockCSA is developed by using a powerful global optimization technique, conformational space annealing (CSA), and a scoring function that combines the AutoDock energy and the piecewise linear potential (PLP) torsion energy. It is shown that the CSA search method can find lower energy binding poses than the Lamarckian genetic algorithm of AutoDock. However, lower-energy solutions CSA produced with the AutoDock energy were often less native-like. The loophole in the AutoDock energy was fixed by adding a torsional energy term, and the CSA search on the refined energy function is shown to improve the docking performance. The performance of LigDockCSA was tested on the Astex diverse set which consists of 85 protein-ligand complexes. LigDockCSA finds the best scoring poses within 2 Å root-mean-square deviation (RMSD) from the native structures for 84.7% of the test cases, compared to 81.7% for AutoDock and 80.5% for GOLD. The results improve further to 89.4% by incorporating the conformational entropy.

  2. Childhood sexual abuse: sources of trauma.

    PubMed

    Draucker, C B

    1993-01-01

    Many American women who were sexually abused as children seek mental health services to help them heal from their abuse. An appreciation of the varied sources of trauma that may stem from a sexual abuse experience may guide clinicians in facilitating a meaningful discussion with survivors of the ways in which their childhood development and their current lives have been influenced by their sexual abuse. Therefore, the goal of this study was to provide a beginning delineation of possible sources of trauma in the abuse situation, based on the retrospective reflections of women who have survived abuse. One hundred and eighty-six survivors were asked to identify the most traumatic aspects of their abuse experience. A content analysis was performed on their written responses, and the following eight categories, reflecting different sources of trauma, were identified: abandonment, powerlessness, violence, betrayal, guilt and shame, loss of self, loss of childhood, and impact on sexual adjustment. Possible treatment implications and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  3. Physical Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... seniors who are not abused. What are the indicators? Indicators are signs or clues that abuse has ... clusters of indicators that suggest a problem. Physical indicators Sprains, dislocations, fractures, or broken bones Burns from ...

  4. Inhalant Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Who may be abusing inhalants?The most common abusers of inhalants are teenagers, especially those who are ... to your child about the dangers of trying drugs can help him or her make the right ...

  5. Abusive Relationships

    MedlinePlus

    ... relationships and friendships. Emotional abuse (stuff like teasing, bullying, and humiliating others) can be difficult to recognize ... How to Break Up Respectfully Abuse Dealing With Bullying Date Rape Getting Over a Break-Up Posttraumatic ...

  6. Principles of assessment of abuse liability: US legal framework and regulatory environment.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Beatriz A

    2013-09-01

    Identifying the abuse potential of drug products in the premarketing and postmarketing environment has been a critical component in the implementation of drug abuse control laws worldwide. In the US, the Controlled Substances Act of 1970 (CSA) is a comprehensive federal law enacted to prevent the abuse or diversion of substances with abuse liability or addiction potential (for present purposes, these terms are used interchangeably). Under the jurisdiction of the Drug Enforcement Administration, the law applies to the manufacture and distribution of narcotics and other drug substances with potential of abuse. The CSA classifies substances with abuse potential into schedules I-V based on the substance's risk of diversion or abuse, and thus provides a legal framework for the assessment of abuse liability of New Molecular Entities. When the Food and Drug Administration reviews the safety and efficacy of a New Drug Application it also determines whether the drug has potential for abuse, and if so, will begin the process to schedule the drug under the CSA. As the assessment of abuse potential is a critical component of a marketing application, pharmaceutical companies (sponsors) bear the responsibility of generating a comprehensive preclinical and clinical data package for regulators to review and make decisions on labeling and the corresponding postmarketing surveillance. Recent regulatory guidelines adopted in the European Union (EU) (2006), Canada (2007), and USA (2010) provide recommendations to sponsors on preclinical and clinical methodologies for the assessment of abuse potential. This paper reviews the legal framework of the assessment of abuse liability and scheduling of controlled substances in the USA and describes the current global regulatory environment and the challenges that sponsors and regulators face when assessing abuse liability of New Molecular Entities, from the early stages of development through the late stages, review, and approval.

  7. Adolescent Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman, Susan; Seligman, Linda

    1983-01-01

    Discusses legal and developmental aspects of adolescent abuse, as distinguished from child abuse. The role of the school counselor in identifying and counseling abused adolescents and their families is discussed and several forms of intervention and support services are described. (JAC)

  8. 78 FR 79423 - Energy Efficiency Program for Industrial Equipment: Petition of CSA Group for Classification as a...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-30

    ... system in a highly competent manner; and (4) be expert in the test procedures and methodologies in IEEE Standard 112-2004 Test Methods A and B, IEEE Standard 114-2010, CSA Standard C390-10, and CSA C747 or...) Whether CSA is expert in the content and application of the test procedures and methodologies in IEEE...

  9. Potential pathways from stigmatization and externalizing behavior to anger and dating aggression in sexually abused youth.

    PubMed

    Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A; Cleland, Charles M; Barrett, Ellen P

    2013-01-01

    Although experiencing childhood sexual abuse (CSA) puts youth at risk for involvement in relationship violence, research is limited on the potential pathways from CSA to subsequent dating aggression. The current study examined prospective pathways from externalizing behavior problems and stigmatization (abuse-specific shame and self-blame attributions) to anger and dating aggression. One hundred sixty youth (73% female, 69% ethnic/racial minorities) with confirmed CSA histories were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery (T1, when they were 8-15 years of age), and again 1 and 6 years later (T2 and T3). Externalizing behavior and abuse-specific stigmatization were assessed at T1 and T2. Anger and dating aggression were assessed at T3. The structural equation model findings supported the proposed relations from stigmatization following the abuse to subsequent dating aggression through anger. Only externalizing behavior at T1 was related to later dating aggression, and externalizing was not related to subsequent anger. This longitudinal research suggests that clinical interventions for victims of CSA be sensitive to the different pathways by which youth come to experience destructive conflict behavior in their romantic relationships.

  10. Phoenix Society for Burn Survivors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medical Professionals Phoenix Society is the leader in connecting the burn recovery community and creating resources for survivors. Since 1977, we have partnered with survivors, families, health care professionals, burn centers, and the fire ...

  11. Associations among childhood sexual abuse, language use and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Tierney Ahrold; Meston, Cindy May

    2012-01-01

    To better understand the link between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction, we examined cognitive differences between women with (N = 128) and without (NSA, N = 99) CSA histories. We used the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count, a computerized text analysis program, to investigate language differences between women with and without CSA histories when writing about their daily life (neutral essay) and their beliefs about sexuality and their sexual experiences (sexual essay). Compared to NSA women, women with CSA histories used fewer first person pronouns in the neutral essay but more in the sexual essay, suggesting women with CSA histories have greater self-focus when thinking about sexuality. Women who reported CSA used more intimacy words and more language consistent with psychological distancing in the sexual essay than did NSA women. Use of positive emotion words in the sexual essay predicted sexual functioning and satisfaction in both groups. These findings support the view that language use differs in significant ways between women with and without sexual abuse histories, and that these differences relate to sexual functioning and satisfaction. PMID:22387124

  12. Childhood Sexual Abuse Moderates the Association between Sexual Functioning and Sexual Distress in Women

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Kyle R.; Hughan, Corey P.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the degree to which a history of CSA moderates the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in women. Method Women with (n = 105, M age = 33.71, 66.1% Caucasian) and without (n = 71, M age = 32.63, 74.7% Caucasian) a history of CSA taking part in a larger clinical trial completed self-report questionnaires at intake including the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women (SSS-W), the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), and the Trauma History Questionnaire (THQ). Results Desire, arousal, lubrication, and orgasm interacted with sexual abuse status in predicting sexual distress such that sexual functioning was more weakly associated with distress for women with a history of CSA. This disconnect was more pronounced for women who were abused by a family member. Conclusion CSA status serves as an important moderator of the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in women. Specifically, women with a history of CSA show higher levels of distress in the context of good sexual functioning as compared to women without a history of CSA. Possible explanations and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:22391416

  13. Adult Coping with Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Theoretical and Empirical Review

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kate; Fortier, Michelle A.; DiLillo, David

    2009-01-01

    Coping has been suggested as an important element in understanding the long-term functioning of individuals with a history of child sexual abuse (CSA). The present review synthesizes the literature on coping with CSA, first by examining theories of coping with trauma, and, second by examining how these theories have been applied to studies of coping in samples of CSA victims. Thirty-nine studies were reviewed, including eleven descriptive studies of the coping strategies employed by individuals with a history of CSA, eighteen correlational studies of the relationship between coping strategies and long-term functioning of CSA victims, and ten investigations in which coping was examined as a mediational factor in relation to long-term outcomes. These studies provide initial information regarding early sexual abuse and subsequent coping processes. However, this literature is limited by several theoretical and methodological issues, including a failure to specify the process of coping as it occurs, a disparity between theory and research, and limited applicability to clinical practice. Future directions of research are discussed and include the need to understand coping as a process, identification of coping in relation to adaptive outcomes, and considerations of more complex mediational and moderational processes in the study of coping with CSA. PMID:20161502

  14. Complexity of childhood sexual abuse: Predictors of current PTSD, mood disorders, substance use, and sexual risk behavior among adult men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Boroughs, Michael S.; Valentine, Sarah E.; Ironson, Gail H.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Safren, Steven A.; Taylor, S. Wade; Dale, Sannisha K.; Baker, Joshua S.; Wilner, Julianne G.; O'Cleirigh, Conall

    2016-01-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are the group most at risk for HIV and represent the majority of new infections in the United States. Rates of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among MSM have been estimated as high as 46%. CSA is associated with increased risk of HIV and greater likelihood of HIV sexual risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationships between CSA complexity indicators and mental health, substance use, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV sexual risk among MSM. MSM with CSA histories (n = 162) who were screened for an HIV-prevention efficacy trial completed comprehensive psychosocial assessments. Five indicators of complex CSA experiences were created: CSA by family member, CSA with penetration, CSA with physical injury, CSA with intense fear, and first CSA in adolescence. Adjusted regression models were used to identify relationships between CSA complexity and outcomes. Participants reporting CSA by family member were at 2.6 odds of current alcohol use disorder (OR: 2.64: CI 1.24 – 5.63), 2 times higher odds of substance use disorder (OR 2.1: CI 1.02 – 2.36), and 2.7 times higher odds of reporting an STI in the past year (OR 2.7: CI 1.04 – 7.1). CSA with penetration was associated with increased likelihood of current PTSD (OR 3.17: CI 1.56 – 6.43), recent HIV sexual risk behavior (OR 2.7: CI 1.16 – 6.36) and a greater number of casual sexual partners (p = .02). Both CSA with Physical Injury (OR 4.05: CI 1.9 – 8.7) and CSA with Intense Fear (OR 5.16: CI 2.5 – 10.7) were related to increased odds for current PTSD. First CSA in adolescence was related to increased odds of major depressive disorder. These findings suggest that CSA, with one or more complexities, creates patterns of vulnerabilities for MSM, including PTSD, substance use, and sexual risk taking and suggests the need for detailed assessment of CSA and the development of integrated HIV prevention programs that address mental health and substance

  15. Pediatric Blood Cancer Survivors and Tobacco Use across Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Masiero, Marianna; Riva, Silvia; Fioretti, Chiara; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Scholars underline the pivotal role of tobacco cigarette smoking in carcinogenesis process for blood tumors. A controversial debate is represented by the diffusion of tobacco use in young cancer survivors that had a previous diagnosis of blood tumor during the childhood. Compared with their peers, scientific evidence highlights that pediatric survivors have more difficult to give-up cigarette smoking. Furthermore, tobacco-smoking is frequently linked with others risk behaviors as drinking or substance abuse. In reviewing the main knowledge on this topic, authors affirm the need for increasing research on blood cancer survivors in order to depict psychological characteristics of pediatric blood cancer survivors. Improving health decision-making skills in young survivors could reduce the risk to adopt un-healthy behaviors and increase psychological wellbeing. Furthermore, authors propose tailored antismoking interventions based on the knowledge of the psychological and cognitive factors that support smoking during the transition toward emerging-adulthood. PMID:27047419

  16. Mediators of the Long-Term Impact of Child Sexual Abuse: Perceived Stigma, Betrayal, Powerlessness, and Self-Blame.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffey, Patricia; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This study tested 192 women who had been sexually abused as children, to see if perceived stigma, betrayal, powerlessness, and self-blame mediated long-term effects of child sexual abuse. Levels of psychological distress experienced by adult survivors of abuse were found to be mediated by feelings of stigma and self-blame. (Author/PB)

  17. Cognitive function is preserved in older adults with a reported history of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Joanne; Kamiya, Yumiko; Robertson, Ian H; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2013-12-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with mood and cognitive deficits in children and young adults. Evidence suggests that the effects of early-life adversity persist throughout adulthood; however, the impact of CSA on cognition in older adults is largely unknown. This study investigated cognitive function in older adults with a reported history of CSA. Data are from a population-based study (The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing) of 6,912 adults aged 50 years and older. Participants answered questions about CSA as part of a stressful life events questionnaire. Global cognition, executive function, memory (both objective and self-rated), attention, and processing speed were measured via a comprehensive battery of tests. Anxiety and depression, other childhood adversity, health behaviours, chronic disease, and medication use were also assessed. Of the total sample, 6.5% reported CSA. These individuals were more likely to have experienced other forms of childhood adversity and to exhibit poor mental health compared to those who reported no history of CSA. Multivariate regression analyses revealed, however, that CSA was associated with better global cognition, memory, executive function, and processing speed, despite poorer psychological health in this group. Future studies should aim to investigate possible reasons for this finding.

  18. Judges' views of child sexual abuse: evaluating beliefs against research findings in a Finnish sample.

    PubMed

    Korkman, Julia; Svanbäck, Jatta; Finnilä, Katarina; Santtila, Pekka

    2014-10-01

    Beliefs impact our decision-making and different professionals have been shown to have beliefs about child sexual abuse (CSA) that do not coincide with scientific findings. In the present study, judges' beliefs regarding CSA were explored. Finnish judges (N = 104) answered a questionnaire about CSA related issues as well as questions regarding their professional experience of CSA cases. The judges held both correct and incorrect beliefs; while their CSA prevalence estimates were rather well in line with research findings, half of the participants estimated that no professionals use suggestive methods when interviewing children and more than 40% thought suggestive methods can be useful when trying to get a child to tell about real events. Judges correctly assumed symptoms cannot be used to assess a CSA case, however, the majority thought play observations were appropriate means for evaluating such suspicions. Experience seemed to lead to more confidence in their own expertise but not in an actual increase in knowledge, namely, judges thought themselves more expert when more experienced although their expertise as measured by the questionnaire did not improve. Overall, the judges had both correct and erroneous beliefs but while experience did not improve the situation, gaining information about CSA did. More research about the beliefs of judges and how such beliefs impact legal decision-making is needed.

  19. Childhood sexual abuse, sexual motives, and adolescent sexual risk-taking among males and females receiving child welfare services.

    PubMed

    Wekerle, Christine; Goldstein, Abby L; Tanaka, Masako; Tonmyr, Lil

    2017-01-27

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with multiple negative outcomes, including increased risky sexual behavior. To date, the majority of research on the relationship between CSA and risky sex in adolescence has been limited, with a lack of focus on males and youth receiving child welfare services. Participants in the current study were 297 youth (mean age=15.98; SD=1.01, 57.6% female) from the child welfare system who reported being sexually active at the time of the survey. CSA was associated with severity of other types of maltreatment for both genders, and exposure to intimate partner violence for females only. In general, males engaged in more sexual risk behaviors than females. Males with CSA had stronger motives to have sex for: (1) coping, (2) peer approval and (3) partner approval, as compared to non-CSA males; as well as (4) greater motives for partner and peer approval compared to females with CSA. Males with no CSA had stronger sexual motives for enhancement (e.g., feeling pleasure) compared to females with no CSA. Mediation analyses revealed a significant indirect effect for coping motives for males: CSA was associated with increased motives to use sex for coping which was associated with increased sexual risk-taking. These findings provide important information regarding the relationship between CSA and sexual risk-taking for child welfare sample and highlight coping with negative affect as a potential mechanism that underlies the CSA-risky sex relationship. It also encourages further consideration of motives for risk and resilience behaviors among youth.

  20. A Strengths-Based Group Intervention for Women Who Experienced Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker-Williams, Hayley J.; Fouché, Ansie

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the benefits of a ''survivor to thriver'' strengths-based group intervention program to facilitate posttraumatic growth in women survivors of child sexual abuse. Method: A quasi-experimental, one group, pretest, posttest, time-delay design was employed using qualitative methods to evaluate the benefits of the…

  1. Familial support as perceived by adult victims of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Stroud, D D

    1999-04-01

    With the increasing popularity of family therapies in cases of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), many studies have discussed the importance of familial support in the successful recovery of victims. Therefore, a systematic study exploring family support of victims was undertaken to shed light on the level of family support perceived by adult victims of CSA. It was anticipated that victims of intrafamilial CSA would report more family dissatisfaction and perceive less family support than extrafamilial victims. As hypothesized, intrafamilial victims reported significantly more general family dissatisfaction and specifically, perceived significantly less father, parent, and brother support. Additionally, the gender of the victim played a significant role: Male victims reported less father, parent and sister support and less family protectiveness after disclosure when compared to female victims. Based on the results, clinicians should be aware that issues of gender and relatedness may play a significant part in the effectiveness of their CSA clients' family support systems.

  2. False Memory for Trauma-Related DRM Lists in Adolescents and Adults with Histories of Child Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Gail S.; Ogle, Christin M.; Block, Stephanie D.; Harris, LaTonya S.; Larson, Rakel P.; Augusti, Else-Marie; Cho, Young Il; Beber, Jonathan; Timmer, Susan; Urquiza, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to examine Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) false memory for trauma-related and nontrauma-related lists in adolescents and adults with and without documented histories of child sexual abuse (CSA). Individual differences in psychopathology and adult attachment were also explored. Participants were administered free recall and recognition tests after hearing CSA, negative, neutral, and positive DRM lists. In free recall, CSA and negative lists produced the most false memory. In sharp contrast, for recognition, CSA lists enjoyed the highest d’ scores. CSA-group adolescents who evinced greater PTSD symptoms had higher rates of false memory compared to: 1) nonCSA-group adolescents with higher PTSD symptom scores (free recall), and 2) CSA-group adolescents with lower PTSD symptom scores (recognition). Regression analyses revealed that individuals with higher PTSD scores and greater fearful-avoidant attachment tendencies showed less proficient memory monitoring for CSA lists. Implications for trauma and memory development and for translational research are discussed. PMID:23786687

  3. Transdiagnostic psychopathology mediates the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Latack, Jessica A; Rodriguez-Seijas, Craig; Stohl, Malka; Blanco, Carlos; Hasin, Deborah S; Eaton, Nicholas R

    2015-10-01

    Exposure to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with elevated rates of mental disorders, sexual risk behavior, and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in adulthood. Mental disorders themselves are associated with an increased risk for HIV/AIDs and STIs as well, and thus may mediate the association between CSA and HIV/AIDS and other STIs. The links among CSA, disorders, and STIs are unclear, however. The current study tested the hypothesis that the association of CSA with STIs is mediated by adult transdiagnostic psychopathology. We examined the potential mediating role of transdiagnostic psychopathology factors-internalizing (INT) and externalizing (EXT)-in the association between CSA and receiving a past-year diagnosis of HIV, AIDS, or another STI in a large, national probability sample of adults (N=34,653). Using indirect effects modeling, we found that 54.4% of the association between CSA and subsequent HIV/AIDS/STI diagnosis operated through transdiagnostic psychopathology. The proposed mediation model was supported, indicating that individuals reporting CSA had higher estimated levels of latent general liabilities for INT and EXT disorders, and it was largely these liabilities that accounted for the link between CSA and heightened risk of adult HIV, AIDS, and STI diagnoses.

  4. Self-reported and agency-notified child sexual abuse in a population-based birth cohort

    PubMed Central

    Kisely, Steve; Alati, Rosa; Strathearn, Lane; Najman, Jake

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with many adverse psychiatric outcomes. However, most studies have relied on retrospective self-report of exposure to CSA. We set out to investigate the incidence of CSA in the same birth cohort using both retrospective self-report and prospective government agency notification, and examine the psychological outcomes in young adulthood. The primary outcomes were measures of DSM-IV diagnoses (CIDI-Auto) at age 21. The 21-year retrospective CSA questions were completed by 3739 participants. CSA was self-reported by 19.3% of males and 30.6% of females. After adjustment for potential confounders, both self-reported and agency-notified CSA were associated with increased odds of lifetime major depressive disorder (MDD), anxiety disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). For the first time in a birth cohort, this study has shown the disparity between the incidence of CSA when measured by self-report and government agency notification. Despite this discrepancy, adverse psychiatric outcomes are seen when CSA is defined using either method. PMID:26774419

  5. csa2sac—A program for computing discharge from continuous slope-area stage data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wiele, Stephen M.

    2015-12-17

    In addition to csa2sac, the SAC7 program is required. It is the same as the original SAC program, except that it is compiled for 64-bit Windows operating systems and has a slightly different command line input. It is available online (http://water.usgs.gov/software/SAC/) as part of the SACGUI installation program. The program name, “SAC7.exe,” is coded into csa2sac, and must not be changed.

  6. Trajectories of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Early Adolescent HIV/AIDS Risk Behaviors: The Role of Other Maltreatment, Witnessed Violence, and Child Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Deborah J.; Runyan, Desmond K.; Lewis, Terri; Litrownik, Alan J.; Black, Maureen M.; Wiley, Tisha; English, Diana E.; Proctor, Laura J.; Jones, Bobby L.; Nagin, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with HIV/AIDS risk behavior; however, much of this work is retrospective and focuses on women. The current study used semi-parametric mixture modeling with youth (n = 844; 48.8% boys) from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) to examine the link between trajectories of CSA…

  7. The links between religiosity, childhood sexual abuse, and subsequent marijuana use: an empirical inquiry of a sample of female college students.

    PubMed

    Chu, Doris C

    2012-09-01

    A number of studies indicate that childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has a negative impact on later psychological well-being. It is well documented that experiences of CSA are associated with depression, self-destructiveness, and subsequent substance abuse or alcohol consumption. Compared with women who experienced no such sexual abuse in childhood, women who were victims of sexual abuse in childhood were more likely to be depressed and use drugs or consume alcohol in later life. Analyzing data of 1,569 females derived from the "Longitudinal Study of Violence Against Women," this study examines whether the strain caused by sexual victimization leads to a higher level of subsequent marijuana use and whether religiosity moderates the negative effects of CSA. It was found that CSA was associated with an increased level of marijuana use in high school. However, more proximate sexual victimization (victimization in college) seemed to override the impact of CSA on subsequent marijuana use. Religiosity was found to moderate the effect of CSA on marijuana use in high school. Religiosity was negatively associated with marijuana use in high school as well as the second and fourth collegiate years. Policy implications and promising directions for future research are discussed.

  8. Gender and age differences in prevalence and incidence of child sexual abuse in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Ajduković, Marina; Sušac, Nika; Rajter, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Aim To examine age and gender differences in the prevalence and incidence of child sexual abuse, the level of acquaintance of the child and the perpetrator, and correlations between experiencing family violence and sexual abuse on a nationally representative sample of 11, 13, and 16 years old children. Method A probabilistic stratified cluster sample included 2.62% of the overall population of children aged 11 (n = 1223), 13 (n = 1188), and 16 (n = 1233) from 40 primary and 29 secondary schools. A modified version of ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool – Children's Version was used. Five items referred to child sexual abuse (CSA) for all age groups. Results In Croatia, 10.8% of children experienced some form of sexual abuse (4.8% to 16.5%, depending on the age group) during childhood and 7.7% of children experienced it during the previous year (3.7% to 11.1%, depending on the age group). Gender comparison showed no difference in the prevalence of contact sexual abuse, whereas more girls than boys experienced non-contact sexual abuse. Correlations between sexual abuse and physical and psychological abuse in the family were small, but significant. Conclusion Comparisons with international studies show that Croatia is a country with a low prevalence of CSA. The fact that the majority of perpetrators of sexual abuse are male and female peers indicates the urgent need to address risks of sexual victimization in the health education of children. PMID:24170726

  9. Children of Holocaust Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Shirley Ann

    As a result of the Holocaust, many survivors developed long term psychosocial impairment known as the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), which is characterized by depression, anxiety, hypocondriasis, inability to concentrate or to express anger, nightmares, insomnia, obsessive thoughts, guilt, mistrust, and alienation. The literature in this…

  10. Client disclosure and therapist response in psychotherapy with women with a history of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Farber, Barry A; Feldman, Sarah; Wright, A Jordan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the perceptions of adult clients (N=98; M age=32) with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) of the costs and benefits of disclosure of this material. Significant benefits of disclosing included a sense of relief from sharing bottled-up emotions, and feeling more accepted and understood by one's therapist; significant negative consequences included feeling emotionally overwhelmed, and feeling uncomfortably vulnerable and exposed. Linear regressions indicated that CSA patients who generally disclose more have a greater tendency to experience both positive and negative effects of disclosure about abuse. In addition, a hierarchical regression analysis indicated that higher levels of symptomatology were predictive of higher levels of anxiety related to disclosure in therapy, suggesting that clinicians need to be cautious in encouraging disclosure about CSA with patients with severe pathology.

  11. CSA/AZA, in the absence of prednisone, improves linear growth in renal transplanted children.

    PubMed

    David-Neto, E; Nahas, W; Sampaio, E C; Ianhez, L E; Sabbaga, E; Arap, S

    1992-01-01

    We compared the results of 44 renal transplants in children, of whom 24 were treated with CSA/AZA and 20 with prednisone in combination with AZA and/or CSA. There were no differences in age distribution or mean ages at transplant between the two treatment groups. The CSA/AZA group had a longer follow-up (29 +/- 33 vs 17 +/- 18 months). At the last follow-up, five children in the CSA/AZA and none in the prednisone group had lost their grafts. Serum creatinine increased in both groups from 0.7 +/- 0.1 mg/dl and 0.9 +/- 0.1 mg/dl at the end of the first month to 1.1 +/- 0.2 mg/dl in the 36th month (CSA/AZA group) (P < 0.0001) and to 1.5 +/- 0.6 mg/dl in the 18th month (prednisone group) (P < 0.05), respectively. Total cholesterol level was 189 +/- 52 mg/dl and 178 +/- 60 mg/dl and LDL level was 117 +/- 48 mg/dl and 115 +/- 51 mg/dl for the prednisone and CSA/AZA groups, respectively. HDL was greater in the CSA/AZA group (50 +/- 10 vs 41 +/- 10 mg/dl) (P < 0.03), and VLDL was greater in the prednisone group (31 +/- 13 vs 22 +/- 8 mg/dl) (P < 0.05). Serum triglyceride was greater in the prednisone group (174 +/- 93 vs 112 +/- 50 mg/dl) (P < 0.03). The standard deviation score for height of the children in the prednisone group did not change (-2.4 +/- 1.4 vs -2.1 +/- 1.4 SDS), whereas the SDS height score for the CSA/AZA children increased from -3.1 +/- 1.7 to -2.6 +/- 1.5, -1.9 +/- 1.4 and -1.7 +/- 1.4, at 12, 24 and 36 months, respectively (P < 0.001). CSA/AZA is a good immunosuppressive regime for the first renal transplant in children, but only 75% tolerated AZA/CSA without same damage to their grafts.

  12. Childhood sexual abuse by representatives of the Roman Catholic Church: a prevalence estimate among the Dutch population.

    PubMed

    Langeland, Willemien; Hoogendoorn, Adriaan W; Mager, Daniel; Smit, Jan H; Draijer, Nel

    2015-08-01

    Estimates of the extent of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) within in the Roman Catholic Church (RCC) in the general population are difficult to find. The independent Commission of Inquiry into sexual abuse of minors in the RCC in the Netherlands collected population-based data to estimate its prevalence. A large random online population sample was surveyed using a two-phase stratified sampling procedure. In Phase 1, 34,267 subjects aged 40 years and older were screened for childhood exposure to sexual abuse by non-family members, a history of institutionalization and a Roman Catholic upbringing. In Phase 2, a stratified subset of 2,462 subjects was assessed to obtain more detailed target information about sexual abuse reports within the RCC. We employed multiple imputation for the estimation of RCC CSA in the original Phase 1 sample. The prevalence of non-familial CSA in general (14.0%) was higher among women (17.2%) than among men (10.6%). The prevalence of CSA within the Dutch RCC (1.7%) was higher among men (2.7%) than among women (0.7%). As expected, older subjects reported more often CSA in the RCC than their younger counterparts. Respondents who stayed for some time in RCC run institutions for education or child protection had a higher risk to report sexual abuse. Although sexual abuse of minors by representatives of the RCC was a structural problem during a period that the Church was highly influential in the Netherlands, the estimated prevalence of the phenomenon is only a fraction of the prevalence rate of non-familial CSA.

  13. The Revictimization of Adult Women With Histories of Childhood Abuse

    PubMed Central

    CHU, JAMES A.

    1992-01-01

    Both clinical experience and recent research statistics support the observation that childhood abuse survivors are vulnerable to revictimization as adults. The responsibility for revictimization, such as physical or sexual assault, belongs to the perpetrators. However, the factors that make abuse survivors more vulnerable to exploitation need to be examined and understood in order to provide adequate treatment and protection. This discussion integrates an understanding of three powerful forces—the repetition compulsion, post-traumatic syndromes, and profound relational disturbances—that permit the process of revictimization to occur. PMID:22700102

  14. Child sexual abuse as reported by Israeli adolescents: social and health related correlates.

    PubMed

    Mansbach-Kleinfeld, Ivonne; Ifrah, Anneke; Apter, Alan; Farbstein, Ilana

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of the study were to assess the prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in a nation-wide representative sample of 14-17 year old Israeli adolescents, and to examine the associations between CSA, socio-demographic correlates and various measures of physical and mental health. The study population consisted of 906 mother-adolescent dyads, belonging to a community based, representative sample of Israeli 14-17 year olds, interviewed in 2004-5. Response rate was 68%. Subjects provided demographic data, and information about CSA, physical symptoms, body image, well-being and use of mental health services. DAWBA was used to obtain information regarding mental disorders and suicidality. SDQ was used to obtain data on bullying. Statistical analyses were conducted using an SPSS-17 complex sample analysis module and multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the associations between CSA and risk factors and social and health related correlates. Findings show that CSA was reported by 3.3% of adolescents. Higher risk of exposure to CSA was found among girls, among adolescents living in a one-parent household and among adolescents with a chronic disability. In multivariate models adjusting for gender, learning disabilities and depression, CSA was associated with suicidal attempts, stomach ache, dizziness, sleep problems, well being at home and bullying behaviors. No association was found with suicidal ideation or other physical symptoms. Our findings confirm that the associations between CSA and different outcomes vary depending on the socio-psychological context, and underline the importance of addressing the complexity of variables associated with CSA.

  15. Forensic Child Sexual Abuse Evaluations: Assessing Subjectivity and Bias in Professional Judgements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everson, Mark D.; Sandoval, Jose Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Evaluators examining the same evidence often arrive at substantially different conclusions in forensic assessments of child sexual abuse (CSA). This study attempts to identify and quantify subjective factors that contribute to such disagreements so that interventions can be devised to improve the reliability of case decisions. Methods:…

  16. Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse by Adolescents: A Qualitative In-Depth Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonbucher, Verena; Maier, Thomas; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Schnyder, Ulrich; Landolt, Markus A.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to study the process of disclosure by examining adolescents from the general population who had experienced child sexual abuse (CSA). Twenty-six sexually victimized adolescents (23 girls, 3 boys; age: 15-18 years) participated in a qualitative face-to-face in-depth interview on different aspects of disclosure. A…

  17. Pre-Service Special Education Teachers' Professionalism and Preparation in Terms of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Zboon, Eman; Ahmad, Jamal

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at examining Jordanian pre-service special education teachers' professionalism and preparation on the topic of child sexual abuse (CSA). Qualitative research data from interviews with 20 pre-service special education teachers were analysed using thematic analysis. The results showed that these participants generally hold avoiding…

  18. Preventing Child Sexual Abuse: Parents' Perceptions and Practices in Urban Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ige, Olusimbo K.; Fawole, Olufunmilayo I.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined parents' perceptions of child sexual abuse as well as prevention practices in an urban community in southwest Nigeria. Questionnaires were collected from 387 parents and caregivers of children younger than 15 years of age. Results showed that many parents felt CSA was a common problem in the community, and most parents…

  19. Does Typography of Substance Abuse and Dependence Differ as a Function of Exposure to Child Maltreatment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Carla Kmett; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Dangelmaier, Ruth E.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the link between child maltreatment, including child sexual assault (CSA) and child physical assault (CPA), and addiction-related symptomatology in a subsample of adolescents from the National Survey of Adolescents, all of whom met DSM-IV criteria for substance abuse or dependence (N = 281). More than 60% of the sample reported a…

  20. The Teachers' Role in Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: Implications for Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholes, Laura; Jones, Christian; Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Rolfe, Ben; Pozzebon, Kay

    2012-01-01

    In response to the diverse number of child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programs currently implemented in school contexts, this paper examines key considerations for selecting such initiatives and the multiplicity of understandings required to inform facilitation of contextually relevant prevention curriculum. First, the paper examines concerns…

  1. Risk for Suicidal Thoughts and Behavior after Childhood Sexual Abuse in Women and Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedi, Saaniya; Nelson, Elliot C.; Lynskey, Michael T.; McCutcheon, Vivia V.; Heath, Andrew C.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2011-01-01

    Earlier studies have found an elevated risk for psychopathology and suicidal behavior associated with childhood sexual abuse (CSA); however, the degree to which risk is mediated by depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women and men remains unclear. We examined these issues in data from a family study of childhood maltreatment (N…

  2. The Sexual Well-Being of Women Who Have Experienced Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemieux, Suzanne R.; Byers, E. Sandra

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse (CSA) and a range of positive and negative aspects of women's sexual well-being. We also investigated the extent to which women's cognitive-affective sexual appraisals mediated these relationships. Participants were 272 female community college and university students. CSA…

  3. Experience of Sexual Abuse in Childhood and Abortion in Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined the associations between the experience of sexual abuse in childhood (CSA) and the number of abortions in adolescence and early adulthood. Method: A 25-year prospective longitudinal study of the health, development, and adjustment of a birth cohort of 1,265 New Zealand children (630 females). Measures included…

  4. The Link between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Myocardial Infarction in a Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Bejan, Raluca; Hunter, John T.; Grundland, Tamara; Brennenstuhl, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the relationship between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and myocardial infarction in men and women, while controlling for social determinants (i.e., socioeconomic status, social support, mental health) and traditional cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., age, race, obesity, smoking, physical inactivity, diabetes…

  5. Psychogenic Amnesia for Childhood Sexual Abuse and Risk for Sexual Revictimisation in Both Adolescence and Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wager, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    This study was an investigation of the additional risk conferred by the experience of psychogenic amnesia for memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on the likelihood of becoming a victim of sexual assault in later life. A total of 210 community respondents completed a retrospective web-based trauma survey. The majority of respondents were…

  6. A Media Campaign Prevention Program for Child Sexual Abuse: Community Members' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Self-Brown, Shannon; Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Campbell, Carole; de Arellano, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the face validity and feasibility of materials included in a multimedia child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention campaign. A quantitative survey method assessed participants' comfort level, knowledge gain, and likelihood of behavioral change in response to the media campaign. Furthermore, a focus group method explored participants'…

  7. Is Child Sexual Abuse Declining in Canada? An Analysis of Child Welfare Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collin-Vezina, Delphine; Helie, Sonia; Trocme, Nico

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Canadian victimization surveys and police databases suggest that, overall, no decline in sexual crimes in Canada had occurred lately. We aimed at reviewing the existing data from Canadian child protection services to further explore whether a decline in the number of substantiated child sexual abuse (CSA) cases has occurred during the…

  8. Why have all the boys gone? Gender differences in prosecution acceptance of child sexual abuse cases.

    PubMed

    Edelson, Meredyth Goldberg

    2013-10-01

    Cases of child sexual abuse (CSA) referred to the District Attorney (DA) are not necessarily accepted for prosecution. Two pilot studies sought to investigate whether there were gender differences in whether cases of CSA referred to the DA's office were accepted by the DA and, if they existed, what might account for gender differences in decisions to accept cases and file charges. The results of the first study indicated that cases involving male victims were significantly less likely to be accepted for prosecution than cases involving female victims. Comparisons of acceptance rates were based on expected frequencies given CSA prevalence rates by gender in the literature and on the proportion of males and females seen at a Child Abuse Assessment Center (CAAC) from where the DA referrals were obtained. The second study assessed both disclosure-related variables (assessed by content analyses of disclosures made at a CAAC) and abuse-related variables (that occurred at or near the time of the abuse) that might explain these differences. Few variables were found to significantly differentiate males' and females' cases; these were the relationship of the child to the perpetrator, whether the child was offended by a juvenile, whether the child told someone of the abuse, pornography exposure, whether the child displayed concerning behaviors, and whether the child was questioned about possible abuse. Implications of these results are discussed.

  9. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... for pornography is also sexual abuse. Most sexual abusers know the child they abuse. They may be ... friends, neighbors or babysitters. About one-third of abusers are related to the child. Most abusers are ...

  10. Fetal Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Lindsey; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Five cases of fetal abuse by mothers suffering from depression are discussed. Four of the women had unplanned pregnancies and had considered termination of the pregnancy. Other factors associated with fetal abuse include pregnancy denial, pregnancy ambivalence, previous postpartum depression, and difficulties in relationships. Vigilance for…

  11. Telestroke in stroke survivors.

    PubMed

    Joubert, Jacques; Joubert, Lynette B; de Bustos, Elizabeth Medeiros; Ware, Dallas; Jackson, David; Harrison, Terrence; Cadilhac, Dominique

    2009-01-01

    Stroke is a high-frequency disorder placing a significant burden on the health care systems, being the foremost cause of complex chronic disability in adults. Devising systems that can enhance the prevention of stroke recurrence is an important priority and challenge in both the developed and the developing world. The potential for recurrent stroke can be substantially reduced by effective management of vascular risk factors. Telestroke is a tool with potential application to improve risk management of stroke survivors. Lack of acknowledgment of existing practices as well as lack of awareness of potential financial barriers to diffusion of telestroke can lead to limited implementation. Telestroke offers service providers the opportunity to access large numbers of stroke survivors targeting secondary prevention. The ideal 'telestroke model' provides service support, education for the patient and caregiver, as well as integration of specialist and primary care services. Effective use of technological advances, with adequate recognition of the importance of human interaction in the long-term management of a largely elderly population of stroke survivors is challenging but possible. Telestroke should be systems- and not technology-driven. Barriers in the implementation of telestroke have been identified as insufficient planning of IT infrastructure, lack of long-term vision for sustainability, a lack of contextual perspective as well as poor communication across domains. Future telestroke models should provide effective action in an integrated model of care recognizing and involving all existing players and practices.

  12. The Prevalence of Child Sexual Abuse in Out-of-Home Care: Increased Risk for Children with a Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Euser, Saskia; Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Tharner, Anne; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children without disabilities in out-of-home care have a higher risk of child sexual abuse [CSA (Euser et al. 2013)]. In this study, we examined the year prevalence of CSA in out-of-home care for children with a mild intellectual disability, and compared it with the prevalence in out-of-home care for non-disabled children and children…

  13. Cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Shigematsu, I.; Kagan, A.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: sampling of atomic bomb survivors and method of cancer detection in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; atomic bomb dosimetry for epidemiological studies of survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; tumor and tissue registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; the cancer registry in Nagasaki, with atomic bomb survivor data, 1973-1977; cancer mortality; methods for study of delayed health effects of a-bomb radiation; experimental radiation carcinogenesis in rodents; leukemia, multiple myeloma, and malignant lymphoma; cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands; malignant tumors in atomic bomb survivors with special reference to the pathology of stomach and lung cancer; colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors; breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors; and ovarian neoplasms in atomic bomb survirors.

  14. Patients Reporting Ritual Abuse in Childhood: A Clinical Syndrome. Report of 37 Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Walter C.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Thirty-seven adult dissociative disorder patients who reported ritual abuse in childhood by satanic cults are described. A clinical syndrome is presented that includes dissociative states with satanic overtones, posttraumatic stress disorder, survivor guilt, unusual fears, and substance abuse. Questions concerning reliability, credibility, and…

  15. What prevents Chinese parents from reporting possible cases of child sexual abuse to authority? A holistic-interactionistic approach.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qian Wen; Sun, Xiaoyue; Chen, Mengtong; Qiao, Dong Ping; Chan, Ko Ling

    2017-02-01

    The reporting of suspected CSA cases to authorities in a timely manner is important in preventing continued abuse and protecting abused children at early ages. The current study seeks to explore parents' intentions of reporting their own children's CSA experiences to authorities as well as their reporting willingness when they become aware of possible CSA cases happening to children in other families. Two rounds of semi-structured interviews were conducted among a sample of 26 parents in Beijing; these parents were purposefully selected so as to be diverse in terms of gender, age, and socioeconomic status. The data were analyzed thematically. The findings showed that the reporting of suspected CSA to authorities was a choice made by only a few Chinese parents; it was often even a last resort. By using a holistic-interactionistic approach, the interaction between Chinese parents' intentions of reporting CSA and the Chinese socio-cultural context was analyzed as a dynamic and continuously ongoing process. The impacts of the definition and perceptions of CSA on reporting, the balance of children's rights and parents' power, and the double effect of informal social control are discussed. The implications, both locally and globally, are also discussed.

  16. Survivorship: adult cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Ganz, Patricia A

    2009-12-01

    During the next decade, a rapid increase in the number of new cancer diagnoses in the population as well as a growing number of cancer survivors can be expected. Cancer is anticipated to exceed cardiovascular disease as the primary cause of mortality in the United States population. Despite efforts in tobacco control, the aging of the population and obesity epidemic will contribute toward the increasing incidence of cancer. Although oncology specialists will continue to play a critical role in the diagnosis and initial treatment of patients with cancer, primary care providers will need to play an expanding role in the early detection of cancer, as well as the follow-up, health promotion, and cancer surveillance that will be necessary after initial cancer treatment. Oncology specialists will need to do a better job coordinating the care of their patients with primary care providers, and work toward a shared care model that will optimize the quality of care delivered by the health care system. Cancer treatment summaries and survivorship care plans are an initial attempt to address the current fragmentation and lack of coordination in care that exist today. Cancer survivors are at risk for a wide range of late effects after their primary cancer treatment. Unfortunately, there is limited information about the exact incidence and prevalence of many physical late effects. For example, how many women given standard adjuvant chemotherapy with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide for breast cancer at age 35 years will develop permanent amenorrhea after treatment, and be infertile? What is the excess risk of osteoporosis in a 70-year-old man receiving endocrine therapy for prostate cancer? What is the risk of coronary artery disease after mantle irradiation for Hodgkin lymphoma? Because of the limited database for many of these sequelae of treatment, clinicians have to keep all of these potential risks in mind as they interview a survivor, and develop a long-term management plan

  17. Maladaptive behavior in survivors: dysexecutive survivor syndrome.

    PubMed

    Leach, John

    2012-12-01

    This paper attempts to answer the question: why does normal, goal-directed, purposeful, and coordinated behavior fragment in a survival situation? Events accompanying the initial impact phase of a survival incident are characterized by speed, danger, violence, and uncontrollability. The following recoil phase is known to produce behavioral and cognitive impairment that leads to a reduced ability to produce a response that is meaningful and may result in tonic immobility. The author argues that the commonly witnessed responses among survivors comprise a subset of known behaviors, including loss of initiative, stereotypy, perseveration of thought and action, hyperkinesia, hypokinesia, and, in extreme cases, akinesia or cognitive paralysis. These behaviors are characteristic of executive dysfunction and a model is given suggesting how this condition may arise under survival conditions. The case is presented that during the initial phase of a survival incident, victims show a transient, nonclinical dysexecutive syndrome. This model should aid survival training and provide a context for conducting behavioral autopsies by accident investigators.

  18. Moving from Victim to Survivor of Cultural Violence: A Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, Carmen F.; Casto, Challon

    2008-01-01

    The authors propose the Moving From Victim to Survivor of Cultural Violence model, using the stages of D. W. Sue and D. Sue's (1999) Racial/Cultural Identity Development model. This conceptual model describes the process of first overcoming internalized sexism, domestic abuse, sexual harassment, rape, and other forms of oppression and then healing…

  19. Darkness into Light: The Dream Journal of an Addicted Trauma Survivor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    This article applies dream work to the case of an addicted survivor of sexual abuse trauma using models of C. G. Jung (1974) and L. S. Leonard (1989). It then relates the dreams of the fictional client to St. Teresa of Avila's (1577/1989) classic model for spiritual growth, The Interior Castle. The goal of working with dreams in the context of…

  20. Mediators of Childhood Sexual Abuse and High-Risk Sex Among Men-Who-Have-Sex-With-Men

    PubMed Central

    Catania, Joseph A.; Paul, Jay; Osmond, Dennis; Folkman, Susan; Pollack, Lance; Canchola, Jesse; Chang, Jason; Neilands, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    Objective Mediators of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and HIV risk behavior were examined for men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM). Method Data from a dual frame survey of urban MSM (N = 1078) provided prevalence estimates of CSA, and a test of two latent variable models (defined by partner type) of CSA-risk behavior mediators. Results A 20% prevalence of CSA was reported. For MSM in secondary sexual relationships, our modeling work identified two over-arching but inter-related pathways (e.g., both pathways include effects on interpersonal skills) linking CSA and high-risk behavior: 1) CSA-Motivation-Scripts-Skills-Risk Behavior, and 2) CSA-Motivation-Coping-Risk Appraisal-Skills-Risk Behavior. For men in primary relationships, there was one over-arching pathway including CSA-Motivation-Coping-Risk Appraisal- Risk Behavior processes. Exploratory analyses indicated that men with a history of CSA in only primary relationships vs only secondary relationships had, for example, fewer motivational problems, and better coping and interpersonal skills. Conclusions CSA contributes to the ongoing HIV epidemic among MSM by distorting or undermining critical motivational, coping, and interpersonal factors that, in turn, influence adult sexual risk behavior. Further, the type of adult relationships men engage serve as markers for adult CSA-related problems. The findings are discussed in the context of current theory and HIV prevention strategies. Practice Implications Direct extrapolation from our findings to practice is limited. However, there are general implications that may be drawn. First, the complex challenges faced by men with severe CSA experiences may limit the effectiveness of typical short-term HIV risk reduction programs; more intensive treatment may be needed. Secondly, Clinical Psychologists and Psychiatrists with MSM patients with CSA histories should, if not already, routinely consider issues of sexual health; patterns and types of sexual partners may be useful

  1. Complexity of childhood sexual abuse: predictors of current post-traumatic stress disorder, mood disorders, substance use, and sexual risk behavior among adult men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Boroughs, Michael S; Valentine, Sarah E; Ironson, Gail H; Shipherd, Jillian C; Safren, Steven A; Taylor, S Wade; Dale, Sannisha K; Baker, Joshua S; Wilner, Julianne G; O'Cleirigh, Conall

    2015-10-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are the group most at risk for HIV and represent the majority of new infections in the United States. Rates of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among MSM have been estimated as high as 46 %. CSA is associated with increased risk of HIV and greater likelihood of HIV sexual risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationships between CSA complexity indicators and mental health, substance use, sexually transmitted infections, and HIV sexual risk among MSM. MSM with CSA histories (n = 162) who were screened for an HIV prevention efficacy trial completed comprehensive psychosocial assessments. Five indicators of complex CSA experiences were created: CSA by family member, CSA with penetration, CSA with physical injury, CSA with intense fear, and first CSA in adolescence. Adjusted regression models were used to identify relationships between CSA complexity and outcomes. Participants reporting CSA by family member were at 2.6 odds of current alcohol use disorder (OR 2.64: CI 1.24-5.63), two times higher odds of substance use disorder (OR 2.1: CI 1.02-2.36), and 2.7 times higher odds of reporting an STI in the past year (OR 2.7: CI 1.04-7.1). CSA with penetration was associated with increased likelihood of current PTSD (OR 3.17: CI 1.56-6.43), recent HIV sexual risk behavior (OR 2.7: CI 1.16-6.36), and a greater number of casual sexual partners (p = 0.02). Both CSA with Physical Injury (OR 4.05: CI 1.9-8.7) and CSA with Intense Fear (OR 5.16: CI 2.5-10.7) were related to increased odds for current PTSD. First CSA in adolescence was related to increased odds of major depressive disorder. These findings suggest that CSA, with one or more complexities, creates patterns of vulnerabilities for MSM, including post-traumatic stress disorder, substance use, and sexual risk taking, and suggests the need for detailed assessment of CSA and the development of integrated HIV prevention programs that address mental health and

  2. Childhood sexual abuse and its association with adult physical and mental health: results from a national cohort of young Australian women.

    PubMed

    Coles, Jan; Lee, Adeline; Taft, Angela; Mazza, Danielle; Loxton, Deborah

    2015-07-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) occurs across the world, with a prevalence of 20% internationally. Our aim was to investigate the associations between CSA, CSA plus adult violence experiences, and selected self-reported physical and mental health in a community sample of women. Data from 7,700 women aged 28-33 years from the 1973-1978 cohort who completed Survey 4 of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH) were analyzed. Questions about prior abuse experience such as child sexual abuse, IPV, adult physical and sexual assaults, andphysical and mental health. Women who experienced CSA were 1.4 times more likely to experience bodily pain (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.37, confidence interval [CI] = [1.19, 1.58]), 1.3 times more likely to have poorer general health (AOR = 1.33, CI = [1.15, 1.54]), and 1.4 times more likely to be depressed in the past 3 years (AOR = 1.44, CI = [1.22, 1.71]) compared with those without abuse.. Women who experienced both CSA and adult violence were 2.4 to 3.1 times more likely to experience poor general (AOR = 2.35, CI = [1.76, 3.14]) and mental health (AOR = 2.69, CI = [1.98, 3.64]), and suffer from depression (AOR = 2.84, CI = [2.13, 3.78]) and anxiety (AOR = 3.10, CI = [2.12, 4.53]) compared with women with no abuse. This study demonstrates the importance of CSA in pain and poorer long-term mental and physical health.. It emphasizes how prior CSA may amplify pain and poorer long-term mental and physical health among women who are again exposed to violence in adulthood.

  3. Child sexual abuse prevention training for childcare professionals: an independent multi-site randomized controlled trial of Stewards of Children.

    PubMed

    Rheingold, Alyssa A; Zajac, Kristyn; Chapman, Jason E; Patton, Meghan; de Arellano, Michael; Saunders, Benjamin; Kilpatrick, Dean

    2015-04-01

    Given the significant rates and deleterious consequences of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), identifying effective primary prevention approaches is a clear priority. There isa growing awareness that childcare professionals (e.g.,teachers, childcare personnel, clergy) are in a unique position to engage in prevention efforts due to high accessibility to children and expertise in child development. However, CSA prevention programs targeting childcare professionals have received insufficient attention. The goal of this study was toc on duct an independent multi-site controlled evaluation of an existing CSA prevention program, Stewards of Children, offered through both in-person and web-based formats. This study included 352 childcare professionals recruited from children’s advocacy centers across three states. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (1) inperson training, (2) web-based training, or (3) waitlist control. Dependent variables included CSA knowledge, CSA attitudes,and self-reported CSA preventive behaviors. Results indicated that Stewards impacted knowledge, attitudes, and preventive behaviors. No differences were found between training modalities (i.e., in-person versus web-based) on knowledge and preventive behaviors. Results indicate that brief trainings for childcare professionals may impact CSA prevention efforts.

  4. The childhood sexual abuse among youth in three Asian cities: Taipei, Shanghai, and Hanoi.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Zabin, Laurie S; Ahmed, Saifuddin

    2015-03-01

    The article describes the prevalence and risk factors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among youth in Hanoi, Shanghai, and Taipei. Data used in this study are from the Three-City Asian Study of Adolescents and Youth, 2006-2007. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression models were used. The self-reported lifetime prevalence of CSA was 5.2% in Taipei, 1.3% in Shanghai, and 0.5% in Hanoi. The overall prevalence was 2.2% for females and 1.7% for males. The average age of first CSA was 10.5 years. Household instability, migration before age 14, and low maternal warmth were found to be positively associated with CSA, whereas discussing problems with father and being close to mother were negatively associated with CSA, after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Our findings suggested the importance of prevention programs for preteen aged children, public education to raise awareness, and further prospective studies to identify various risk markers for CSA in Asia.

  5. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Acute Alcohol Effects on Men’s Sexual Aggression Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Kiekel, Preston A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Although research has established childhood sexual abuse (CSA) as a risk factor for men’s perpetration of sexual aggression, there has been little investigation of the factors undergirding this association. This study represents one of the first to use a laboratory-based sexual aggression analogue coupled with an alcohol administration protocol to investigate the pathways through which CSA and alcohol influence men’s self-reported sexual aggression intentions. Method After completing background questionnaires, male social drinkers (N = 220) were randomly assigned to a control, placebo, low alcohol dose or high alcohol dose condition. Following beverage consumption, participants read a sexual scenario in which the female partner refused to have unprotected sexual intercourse, after which they completed dependent measures. Results Path analysis indicated that men with a CSA history and intoxicated men perceived the female character as more sexually aroused and reported stronger sexual entitlement cognitions, both of which were in turn associated with greater condom use resistance and higher sexual aggression intentions. Exploratory analyses revealed that intoxication moderated the effects of CSA history on sexual entitlement cognitions, such that sexual entitlement cognitions were highest for men who had a CSA history and consumed alcohol. Conclusions Findings suggest that CSA history may facilitate sexual assault perpetration through its effects on in-the-moment cognitions, and that these effects may be exacerbated by alcohol intoxication. PMID:22754720

  6. Resiliency factors in the relation between childhood sexual abuse and adulthood sexual assault in college-age women.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kate; Blaustein, Margaret; Knight, Wanda Grant; Spinazzola, Joseph; van der Kolk, Bessel A

    2007-01-01

    Research has suggested that childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may be a risk factor for adulthood sexual assault. This study examined associations between CSA experiences, cognitive resiliency variables, and revictimization. Participants were 73 college-age females who completed self-report questionnaires assessing CSA, adult assault, self-efficacy, locus of control (LOC), and coping styles. Sexual assault was categorized as forced or coerced assault based on the tactics used by the perpetrator. Results indicated that CSA alone was the strongest independent predictor of forced adult assault; however, LOC and positive coping were associated with resiliency to coercive sexual assault. The current findings have clinical implications in that LOC and coping styles are characteristics that can be enhanced through therapy.

  7. False memory for trauma-related Deese-Roediger-McDermott lists in adolescents and adults with histories of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Gail S; Ogle, Christin M; Block, Stephanie D; Harris, Latonya S; Larson, Rakel P; Augusti, Else-Marie; Cho, Young Il; Beber, Jonathan; Timmer, Susan; Urquiza, Anthony

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of the present research was to examine Deese-Roediger-McDermott false memory for trauma-related and nontrauma-related lists in adolescents and adults with and without documented histories of child sexual abuse (CSA). Individual differences in psychopathology and adult attachment were also explored. Participants were administered free recall and recognition tests after hearing CSA, negative, neutral, and positive Deese-Roediger-McDermott lists. In free recall, CSA and negative lists produced the most false memory. In sharp contrast, for recognition, CSA lists enjoyed the highest d' scores. CSA-group adolescents who evinced greater posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms had higher rates of false memory compared to (a) non-CSA group adolescents with higher PTSD symptom scores (free recall), and (b) CSA-group adolescents with lower PTSD symptom scores (recognition). Regression analyses revealed that individuals with higher PTSD scores and greater fearful-avoidant attachment tendencies showed less proficient memory monitoring for CSA lists. Implications for trauma and memory development and for translational research are discussed.

  8. Exploring the Impact of Childhood Abuse on HIV Social and Attitudinal Factors Among Adults With and Without this History in Sub-Saharan Africa: Findings from NIMH Project Accept (HPTN 043).

    PubMed

    Richter, Linda; Makusha, Tawanda; Komárek, Arnošt; Daniels, Joseph; Coates, Tom

    2016-04-01

    Using data from four sites in three African countries, this community randomized study examined the association between childhood sexual and/or physical abuse (CSA and/or CPA) and HIV disclosure, HIV-related stigma, stress, and social support among adults with and without a history of abuse. A history of abuse among men was associated with higher levels of adult-reported stress and HIV-related stigma, and with significantly lower rates of HIV test result disclosure to current partners. Women with a history of CSA and/or CPA had significantly higher perceived stigma, discrimination and stress. Although childhood abuse was significantly associated with adult stress and stigmatization, participants with histories of CSA and/or CPA also reported significantly higher perceived social support compared to people without such experiences. These findings may reflect support received in response to disclosure of CSA or CPA or emotional ambivalence in relationships that have been found to be associated with child abuse. We conclude that it is critical for HIV prevention interventions to advocate for the primary prevention of child abuse, for early identification of adolescents and adults who report experiencing childhood abuse, and to address stigma and stress-related attitudinal, behavioral and relationship difficulties experiences as an aftermath of early abuse that increase their risk of HIV.

  9. Drug abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Weiss RD. Drugs of abuse. In: Goldman L, ... Hospice and Palliative Medicine, Atlanta, GA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the ...

  10. Abusive Relationships

    MedlinePlus

    ... Break Up Respectfully Abuse Sexual Harassment and Sexual Bullying Love and Romance Getting Over a Break-Up Dealing With Bullying Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Sexual Attraction and Orientation Teens ...

  11. Siblings of Childhood Cancer Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gogan, Janis L.

    This paper reports on a long term follow up study of siblings of childhood cancer survivors. Seventy siblings of childhood cancer survivors in 37 families were interviewed using a semi-structured format which included both forced choice and open ended questions. The children discussed their memories of the sibling's cancer diagnosis and treatment…

  12. A meta-analysis of the published research on the effects of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Paolucci, E O; Genuis, M L; Violato, C

    2001-01-01

    A meta-analysis of the published research on the effects of child sexual abuse (CSA) was undertaken for 6 outcomes: posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, suicide, sexual promiscuity, victim-perpetrator cycle, and poor academic performance. Thirty-seven studies published between 1981 and 1995 involving 25,367 people were included. Many of the studies were published in 1994 (24; 65%), and most were done in the United States (22; 59%). All six dependent variables were coded, and effect sizes (d) were computed for each outcome. Average unweighted and weighted ds for each of the respective outcome variables were .50 and .40 for PTSD, .63 and .44 for depression, .64 and .44 for suicide, .59 and .29 for sexual promiscuity, .41 and .16 for victim-perpetrator cycle, and .24 and .19 for academic performance. A file drawer analysis indicated that 277 studies with null ds would be required to negate the present findings. The analyses provide clear evidence confirming the link between CSA and subsequent negative short- and long-term effects on development. There were no statistically significant differences on ds when various potentially mediating variables such as gender, socioeconomic status, type of abuse, age when abused, relationship to perpetrator, and number of abuse incidents were assessed. The results of the present meta-analysis support the multifaceted model of traumatization rather than a specific sexual abuse syndrome of CSA.

  13. Childhood sexual abuse and HIV-related risks among men who have sex with men in Washington, DC.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Gregory; Magnus, Manya; Kuo, Irene; Rawls, Anthony; Peterson, James; Montanez, Luz; West-Ojo, Tiffany; Jia, Yujiang; Opoku, Jenevieve; Greenberg, Alan E

    2014-05-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been reported to be disproportionately higher among men who have sex with men (MSM) than among heterosexual men; it has also been found to be significantly positively associated with HIV status and HIV risk factors, including unprotected anal intercourse. The purpose of this study was to assess the correlates of CSA in a sample of community-recruited MSM, investigate race as a potential effect modifier, and describe the independent association between CSA and HIV infection in Washington, DC. A total of 500 MSM were recruited by venue-based sampling in 2008 as part of the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance. More than one-half of MSM identified as White, while one-third identified as Black. CSA was reported by 17.5 % of the 451 MSM, with the first instance of abuse occurring at a median age of 8.3 (interquartile range = 5.0, 11.0). In multivariable analysis, HIV-positive men were significantly more likely to report a history of CSA compared to HIV-negative men after adjusting for intimate partner violence in the last 12 months, having been arrested in the last 12 months, and depressive symptoms. HIV-positive MSM had more than four times the odds of reporting CSA after controlling for other correlates (aOR = 4.19; 95 % CI 2.26, 7.75). Despite hypothesizing that race modified the effect of CSA on HIV infection we found this was not the case in this sample. More research is needed to investigate the potential pathway between a history of CSA and HIV infection, and how this contributes to driving the HIV epidemic among MSM in Washington, DC.

  14. Gendered pathways from child sexual abuse to sexual aggression victimization and perpetration in adolescence and young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Krahé, Barbara; Berger, Anja

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to examine the pathways from child sexual abuse to sexual assault victimization and perpetration in adolescence and early adulthood, considering risky sexual behavior and lowered sexual self-esteem as mediator variables. In a two-wave longitudinal study with 2251 college students in Germany, male and female participants provided reports of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration since age 14 (T1) and again a year later (T2), covering the last 12 months. In addition, child sexual abuse (CSA; before the age of 14), risky sexual behavior, and sexual self-esteem were assessed at T1, and risky sexual behavior and sexual-self-esteem were assessed again at T2. Experience of CSA was significantly associated with greater likelihood of sexual aggression victimization and perpetration, lower sexual self-esteem, and more risky sexual behavior in both gender groups at T1 and was directly related to victimization at T2 among male participants. In both gender groups, CSA indirectly contributed to a higher probability of sexual victimization at T2 via its impact on victimization T1. In males, the indirect path from CSA to T2 perpetration via T1 perpetration was also significant. Through its negative impact on sexual self-esteem, CSA indirectly increased the probability of sexual victimization among women and the probability of sexual aggression perpetration among men. Risky sexual behavior mediated the pathway from CSA to sexual victimization at T2 for men and women and the pathway from CSA to sexual aggression perpetration for women. The findings contribute to the understanding of gendered effects of CSA on revictimization and the victim-to-perpetrator cycle.

  15. Social Reactions to Child Sexual Abuse Disclosures: A Critical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Sarah E.

    2003-01-01

    Recent studies have examined disclosure of child sexual abuse to determine the correlates and consequences of telling others about this form of victimization. The present article reviews the current empirical literature on disclosure and reactions to adult survivors to assess what is known about the process of disclosure and whether telling others…

  16. “Having Housing Made Everything Else Possible”: Affordable, Safe and Stable Housing for Women Survivors of Violence

    PubMed Central

    Clough, Amber; Draughon, Jessica E.; Njie-Carr, Veronica; Rollins, Chiquita; Glass, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that the need for safe housing and the economic resources to maintain safe housing are two of the most pressing concerns among abused women who are planning to or have recently left abusers. Intimate partner violence (IPV) is frequently an immediate cause or precursor to homelessness and housing instability. The aim of the study is to explore abused women’s experiences accessing affordable, safe, and stable housing. To achieve the aim, adult female IPV survivors answered questions about: 1) steps that were taken to secure housing; 2) safety issues after leaving the abuser; 3) barriers to obtaining housing; and 4) responses from housing and domestic violence advocacy systems related to survivors’ housing needs. Four major themes emerged from the in-depth interviews: 1) stable, affordable housing is critical in increasing safety; 2) survivors face multiple systemic or individual barriers; 3) survivors develop and utilize an array of creative and resourceful strategies; and 4) survivors identified a variety of supportive services tailored to address their needs. The findings inform practice, policy and research for both the housing and domestic violence service systems with an emphasis on collaboration to meet the complex safety and stable housing needs of survivors and their families, particularly following the impact on housing of the 2008 U.S. economic crisis and subsequent recession. PMID:25328440

  17. Concrete-Semiconcrete-Abstract (CSA) Instruction: A Decision Rule for Improving Instructional Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sealander, Karen A.; Johnson, Gae R.; Lockwood, Adam B.; Medina, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    A concrete-semiconcrete-abstract (CSA) instructional approach derived from discovery learning (DIS) was embedded in a direct instruction (DI) methodology to teach eight elementary students with math disabilities. One-minute abstract-level probes were the primary metric used to assess student performance on subtraction problems (minuends 0-9). A…

  18. 7 CFR 249.10 - Coupon, market, and CSA program management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 249.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM.../or CSA program that is disqualified from participating in the WIC Farmers' Market Nutrition...

  19. 7 CFR 249.10 - Coupon, market, and CSA program management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 249.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM.../or CSA program that is disqualified from participating in the WIC Farmers' Market Nutrition...

  20. 7 CFR 249.10 - Coupon, market, and CSA program management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 249.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM.../or CSA program that is disqualified from participating in the WIC Farmers' Market Nutrition...

  1. 7 CFR 249.10 - Coupon, market, and CSA program management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 249.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM.../or CSA program that is disqualified from participating in the WIC Farmers' Market Nutrition...

  2. 7 CFR 249.10 - Coupon, market, and CSA program management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 249.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM.../or CSA program that is disqualified from participating in the WIC Farmers' Market Nutrition...

  3. 77 FR 18298 - Improvements to the Compliance, Safety, Accountability (CSA) Motor Carrier Safety Measurement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... for enforcement interventions designed to reduce commercial motor vehicle crashes and hazardous... fact- based displays of SMS results on the SMS Web site. The data preview may be found at http://csa... Participation: The http://www.regulations.gov Web site is generally available 24 hours each day, 365 days...

  4. Bactericidal Activity of Ceragenin CSA-13 in Cell Culture and in an Animal Model of Peritoneal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Niemirowicz, Katarzyna; Wnorowska, Urszula; Byfield, Fitzroy J.; Piktel, Ewelina; Wątek, Marzena; Janmey, Paul A.; Savage, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    Ceragenins constitute a novel family of cationic antibiotics characterized by a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities, which have mostly been assessed in vitro. Using a polarized human lung epithelial cell culture system, we evaluated the antibacterial activities of the ceragenin CSA-13 against two strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1 and Xen5). Additionally, the biodistribution and bactericidal activity of a CSA-13–IRDye 800CW derivate were assessed using an animal model of peritoneal infection after PAO1 challenge. In cell culture, CSA-13 bactericidal activities against PAO1 and Xen5 were higher than the activities of the human cathelicidin peptide LL-37. Increased CSA-13 activity was observed in polarized human lung epithelial cell cultures subjected to butyric acid treatment, which is known to increase endogenous LL-37 production. Eight hours after intravenous or intraperitoneal injection, the greatest CSA-13–IRDye 800CW accumulation was observed in mouse liver and kidneys. CSA-13–IRDye 800CW administration resulted in decreased bacterial outgrowth from abdominal fluid collected from animals subjected to intraperitoneal PAO1 infection. These observations indicate that CSA-13 may synergistically interact with antibacterial factors that are naturally present at mucosal surfaces and it maintains its antibacterial activity in the infected abdominal cavity. Cationic lipids such as CSA-13 represent excellent candidates for the development of new antibacterial compounds. PMID:26248361

  5. Structure of the archaeal Cascade subunit Csa5: relating the small subunits of CRISPR effector complexes.

    PubMed

    Reeks, Judith; Graham, Shirley; Anderson, Linzi; Liu, Huanting; White, Malcolm F; Naismith, James H

    2013-05-01

    The Cascade complex for CRISPR-mediated antiviral immunity uses CRISPR RNA (crRNA) to target invading DNA species from mobile elements such as viruses, leading to their destruction. The core of the Cascade effector complex consists of the Cas5 and Cas7 subunits, which are widely conserved in prokaryotes. Cas7 binds crRNA and forms the helical backbone of Cascade. Many archaea encode a version of the Cascade complex (denoted Type I-A) that includes a Csa5 (or small) subunit, which interacts weakly with the core proteins. Here, we report the crystal structure of the Csa5 protein from Sulfolobus solfataricus. Csa5 comprises a conserved α-helical domain with a small insertion consisting of a weakly conserved β-strand domain. In the crystal, the Csa5 monomers have multimerized into infinite helical threads. At each interface is a strictly conserved intersubunit salt bridge, deletion of which disrupts multimerization. Structural analysis indicates a shared evolutionary history among the small subunits of the CRISPR effector complexes. The same α-helical domain is found in the C-terminal domain of Cse2 (from Type I-E Cascade), while the N-terminal domain of Cse2 is found in Cmr5 of the CMR (Type III-B) effector complex. As Cmr5 shares no match with Csa5, two possibilities present themselves: selective domain loss from an ancestral Cse2 to create two new subfamilies or domain fusion of two separate families to create a new Cse2 family. A definitive answer awaits structural studies of further small subunits from other CRISPR effector complexes.

  6. A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship of Child Sexual Abuse to HIV Risk Behavior among Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arriola, K.R.J.; Louden, T.; Doldren, M.A.; Fortenberry, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: This study is a meta-analysis of the literature exploring the relationship between child sexual abuse (CSA) and HIV risk behavior among women. Four outcome variables were tested: unprotected sex; sex with multiple partners; sex trading; and adult sexual revictimization. Method:: Forty-six studies met the inclusion criteria and were…

  7. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adult Sexual Health among Indigenous Kanak Women and Non-Kanak Women of New Caledonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamelin, Christine; Salomon, Christine; Cyr, Diane; Gueguen, Alice; Lert, France

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Few studies have addressed the long-term consequences of adverse childhood experiences among women in Oceania, in particular among indigenous women. This paper aims to report prevalences of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and to asses the negative sexual health consequences in adulthood by comparing indigenous Kanak to non-Kanak women in…

  8. Child Sexual Abuse and Its Relationship with Health Risk Behaviors among Rural Children and Adolescents in Hunan, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Danhua; Li, Xiaoming; Fan, Xinghua; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The current study was designed to explore the prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) and its association with health risk behaviors (i.e., smoking, alcohol use, binge drinking, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempt) among rural children and adolescents in China. Methods: A sample of 683 rural children and adolescents (8 to 18 years of…

  9. Association between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adult Sexual Victimization in a Representative Sample in Hong Kong Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ko Ling

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The current study investigated the prevalence and impact of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on adult sexual victimization (ASV) in Hong Kong, China. This study also examines correlates of demographic characteristics, depression, suicidal ideation, and self-esteem with ASV. Methods: A total of 5,049 Chinese adult respondents were…

  10. Prevalence of child and adult sexual abuse and risk taking practices among HIV serodiscordant African-American couples.

    PubMed

    2010-10-01

    This study reports the prevalence of child (CSA) and adult (ASA) sexual abuse among 535 African American HIV serodiscordant couples from four major United State cities, and its relationship to personal and couple related vulnerabilities and HIV risk factors. As part of a randomized, clinical trial, CSA and ASA histories were obtained through face-to-face interviews. Results indicate that HIV positive women were significantly more likely to report one kind of abuse (32.32%), either before or since age 18 or both (32.6%). HIV-positive men (34.9%) were significantly more likely to report CSA than HIV-negative men (22.0%). Overall, 72% of couples reported that one or both had CSA histories. These findings underscore the heightened emotional vulnerability, and STI and HIV transmission risk taking practices, associated with sexual abuse. Sexual abuse histories among couples should be assessed to better understand how these histories may contribute to couples dynamics and risk-taking practices.

  11. Child Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enter ZIP code here Enter ZIP code here Child Sexual Abuse Public This section is for Veterans, General Public, Family, & Friends Child Sexual Abuse What is child sexual abuse? Child sexual abuse ...

  12. Childhood Sexual Abuse and the Development of Recurrent Major Depression in Chinese Women

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Cai, Yiyun; Cong, Enzhao; Liu, Ying; Gao, Jingfang; Li, Youhui; Tao, Ming; Zhang, Kerang; Wang, Xumei; Gao, Chengge; Yang, Lijun; Li, Kan; Shi, Jianguo; Wang, Gang; Liu, Lanfen; Zhang, Jinbei; Du, Bo; Jiang, Guoqing; Shen, Jianhua; Zhang, Zhen; Liang, Wei; Sun, Jing; Hu, Jian; Liu, Tiebang; Wang, Xueyi; Miao, Guodong; Meng, Huaqing; Li, Yi; Hu, Chunmei; Li, Yi; Huang, Guoping; Li, Gongying; Ha, Baowei; Deng, Hong; Mei, Qiyi; Zhong, Hui; Gao, Shugui; Sang, Hong; Zhang, Yutang; Fang, Xiang; Yu, Fengyu; Yang, Donglin; Liu, Tieqiao; Chen, Yunchun; Hong, Xiaohong; Wu, Wenyuan; Chen, Guibing; Cai, Min; Song, Yan; Pan, Jiyang; Dong, Jicheng; Pan, Runde; Zhang, Wei; Shen, Zhenming; Liu, Zhengrong; Gu, Danhua; Wang, Xiaoping; Liu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Qiwen; Li, Yihan; Chen, Yiping; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Shi, Shenxun; Flint, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Background Our prior study in Han Chinese women has shown that women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are at increased risk for developing major depression (MD). Would this relationship be found in our whole data set? Method Three levels of CSA (non-genital, genital, and intercourse) were assessed by self-report in two groups of Han Chinese women: 6017 clinically ascertained with recurrent MD and 5983 matched controls. Diagnostic and other risk factor information was assessed at personal interview. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression. Results We confirmed earlier results by replicating prior analyses in 3,950 new recurrent MD cases. There were no significant differences between the two data sets. Any form of CSA was significantly associated with recurrent MD (OR 4.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) [3.19–5.24]). This association strengthened with increasing CSA severity: non-genital (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.58–3.15), genital (OR 5.24, 95% CI 3.52–8.15) and intercourse (OR 10.65, 95% CI 5.56–23.71). Among the depressed women, those with CSA had an earlier age of onset, longer depressive episodes. Recurrent MD patients those with CSA had an increased risk for dysthymia (OR 1.60, 95%CI 1.11–2.27) and phobia (OR 1.41, 95%CI 1.09–1.80). Any form of CSA was significantly associated with suicidal ideation or attempt (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.20–1.89) and feelings of worthlessness or guilt (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.02–2.02). Intercourse (OR 3.47, 95%CI 1.66–8.22), use of force and threats (OR 1.95, 95%CI 1.05–3.82) and how strongly the victims were affected at the time (OR 1.39, 95%CI 1.20–1.64) were significantly associated with recurrent MD. Conclusions In Chinese women CSA is strongly associated with recurrent MD and this association increases with greater severity of CSA. Depressed women with CSA have some specific clinical traits. Some features of CSA were associated with greater likelihood of developing recurrent MD. PMID:24489940

  13. Closeness in relationships as a mediator between sexual abuse in childhood or adolescence and psychopathological outcome in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Dimitrova, Nevena; Pierrehumbert, Blaise; Glatz, Nathalie; Torrisi, Raffaella; Heinrichs, Markus; Halfon, Oliver; Chouchena, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    The risk of adverse psychological outcomes in adult victims of childhood and adolescent sexual abuse (CSA) has been documented; however, research on possible mediating variables is still required, namely with a clinical perspective. The attachment literature suggests that secure interpersonal relationships may represent such a variable. Twenty-eight women who had experienced episodes of CSA, and 16 control women, were interviewed using Bremner's Early Trauma Inventory and the DSM-IV Global Assessment of Functioning; they also responded to Collins' Relationship Scales Questionnaire, evaluating adult attachment representations in terms of Closeness, Dependence and Anxiety. Subjects with an experience of severe abuse reported significantly more interpersonal distance in relationships (low index of Closeness) than other subjects. The index of psychopathological functioning was correlated with both the severity of abuse and attachment (low index of Closeness). Regression analysis on the sample of abused women revealed that attachment predicted psychopathology when abuse was controlled for, whereas abuse did not predict psychopathology when attachment was controlled for. Therefore, preserving a capacity for closeness with attachment figures in adulthood appears to mediate the consequences of CSA on subsequent psychopathological outcome.

  14. [Child abuse].

    PubMed

    V Essen, H; Schlickewei, W; Dietz, H-G

    2005-02-01

    Child abuse is most often diagnosed by an emergency doctor on call who sometimes "feels" more than knows what he is confronted with. He should nevertheless always take a medical history and make a physical and radiological examination. X-ray imaging and an ophthalmologic retinal examination are the most important diagnostic steps. Typical findings are multiple and/or dorsal rib fractures, complex skull fractures, physeal fractures, all fractures within the first 12 months, multiple fractures in different localisations and stages of healing, all injuries with uncommon distributions, all patterned bruises, immersion burns, intramural hematoma and every unexplained loss of consciousness. The first step towards victim protection is always the removal of the abused child from its caregivers by admitting it to hospital, as 95% of all cases of reported child abuse take place within the child's family.

  15. Conversations with Holocaust survivor residents.

    PubMed

    Hirst, Sandra P; LeNavenec, Carole Lynne; Aldiabat, Khaldoun

    2011-03-01

    Traumatic events in one's younger years can have an impact on how an individual copes with later life. One traumatic experience for Jewish individuals was the Holocaust. Some of these people are moving into long-term care facilities. It was within this context that the research question emerged: What are Holocaust survivor residents' perceptions of a life lived as they move into a long-term care facility? For this qualitative study, Holocaust survivors were individually interviewed. Findings emphasize that nursing care needs to ensure that Holocaust survivor residents participate in activities, receive timely health care, and receive recognition of their life experiences.

  16. Contraception for cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Eleanor Bimla; Hess, Rachel; Trussell, James

    2009-11-01

    Women who have survived cancer may need guidance in choosing a method of contraception. This paper reviews the evidence supporting the safety and efficacy of available methods of contraception for cancer survivors and concludes that the Copper T380A intrauterine device (IUD), a highly effective, reversible, long-acting, hormone-free method should be considered a first-line contraceptive option for women with a history of a hormonally mediated cancer. However, the levonorgestrel-containing IUD may be preferable for women being treated with tamoxifen and women who have survived non-hormonally mediated cancers. Women with IUDs can undergo all forms of imaging, including computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging.

  17. A Novel Virus-Like Particle Based Vaccine Platform Displaying the Placental Malaria Antigen VAR2CSA

    PubMed Central

    Thrane, Susan; Janitzek, Christoph M.; Agerbæk, Mette Ø.; Ditlev, Sisse B.; Resende, Mafalda; Nielsen, Morten A.; Theander, Thor G.; Salanti, Ali; Sander, Adam F.

    2015-01-01

    Placental malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum is a major cause of mortality and severe morbidity. Clinical testing of a soluble protein-based vaccine containing the parasite ligand, VAR2CSA, has been initiated. VAR2CSA binds to the human receptor chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) and is responsible for sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes in the placenta. It is imperative that a vaccine against malaria in pregnancy, if administered to women before they become pregnant, can induce a strong and long lasting immune response. While most soluble protein-based vaccines have failed during clinical testing, virus-like particle (VLP) based vaccines (e.g., the licensed human papillomavirus vaccines) have demonstrated high efficacy, suggesting that the spatial assembly of the vaccine antigen is a critical parameter for inducing an optimal long-lasting protective immune response. We have developed a VLP vaccine display platform by identifying regions of the HPV16 L1 coat protein where a biotin acceptor site (AviTagTM) can be inserted without compromising VLP-assembly. Subsequent biotinylation of Avi-L1 VLPs allow us to anchor monovalent streptavidin (mSA)-fused proteins to the biotin, thereby obtaining a dense and repetitive VLP-display of the vaccine antigen. The mSA-VAR2CSA antigen was delivered on the Avi-L1 VLP platform and tested in C57BL/6 mice in comparison to two soluble protein-based vaccines consisting of naked VAR2CSA and mSA-VAR2CSA. The mSA-VAR2CSA Avi-L1 VLP and soluble mSA-VAR2CSA vaccines induced higher antibody titers than the soluble naked VAR2CSA vaccine after three immunizations. The VAR2CSA Avi-L1 VLP vaccine induced statistically significantly higher endpoint titres compared to the soluble mSA-VAR2CSA vaccine, after 1st and 2nd immunization; however, this difference was not statistically significant after 3rd immunization. Importantly, the VLP-VAR2CSA induced antibodies were functional in inhibiting the binding of parasites to CSA

  18. A Novel Virus-Like Particle Based Vaccine Platform Displaying the Placental Malaria Antigen VAR2CSA.

    PubMed

    Thrane, Susan; Janitzek, Christoph M; Agerbæk, Mette Ø; Ditlev, Sisse B; Resende, Mafalda; Nielsen, Morten A; Theander, Thor G; Salanti, Ali; Sander, Adam F

    2015-01-01

    Placental malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum is a major cause of mortality and severe morbidity. Clinical testing of a soluble protein-based vaccine containing the parasite ligand, VAR2CSA, has been initiated. VAR2CSA binds to the human receptor chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) and is responsible for sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes in the placenta. It is imperative that a vaccine against malaria in pregnancy, if administered to women before they become pregnant, can induce a strong and long lasting immune response. While most soluble protein-based vaccines have failed during clinical testing, virus-like particle (VLP) based vaccines (e.g., the licensed human papillomavirus vaccines) have demonstrated high efficacy, suggesting that the spatial assembly of the vaccine antigen is a critical parameter for inducing an optimal long-lasting protective immune response. We have developed a VLP vaccine display platform by identifying regions of the HPV16 L1 coat protein where a biotin acceptor site (AviTagTM) can be inserted without compromising VLP-assembly. Subsequent biotinylation of Avi-L1 VLPs allow us to anchor monovalent streptavidin (mSA)-fused proteins to the biotin, thereby obtaining a dense and repetitive VLP-display of the vaccine antigen. The mSA-VAR2CSA antigen was delivered on the Avi-L1 VLP platform and tested in C57BL/6 mice in comparison to two soluble protein-based vaccines consisting of naked VAR2CSA and mSA-VAR2CSA. The mSA-VAR2CSA Avi-L1 VLP and soluble mSA-VAR2CSA vaccines induced higher antibody titers than the soluble naked VAR2CSA vaccine after three immunizations. The VAR2CSA Avi-L1 VLP vaccine induced statistically significantly higher endpoint titres compared to the soluble mSA-VAR2CSA vaccine, after 1st and 2nd immunization; however, this difference was not statistically significant after 3rd immunization. Importantly, the VLP-VAR2CSA induced antibodies were functional in inhibiting the binding of parasites to CSA

  19. Teen dating abuse: recognition and interventions.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Sally Ann; Rosenbluth, Barri; Cotton, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Teen dating abuse, also known as teen dating violence, is a significant public health issue. Adolescents with a history of dating abuse may struggle academically and experience increased risk for serious injury or even death. They may engage in risky sexual behavior, substance abuse, and unhealthy dieting and exhibit suicidal behaviors. School nurses may be the first adults that teens confide in when experiencing dating abuse and may lack the knowledge and skills to intervene with teens involved in unhealthy dating relationships. Beginning in 2008, Dell Children s Medical Center in Austin, Texas, partnered with SafePlace (a local nonprofit that serves survivors of sexual and domestic violence) to address dating abuse. This collaboration is part of Start Strong Austin, one of 11 communities nationwide participating in the Start Strong: Building Healthy Teen Relationships Initiative funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. The Start Strong model employs innovative strategies in education, community engagement, policy change, and social marketing to prevent dating abuse before it starts.

  20. Directed forgetting of trauma cues in adults reporting repressed or recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    McNally, R J; Clancy, S A; Schacter, D L

    2001-02-01

    An item-cuing directed forgetting task was used to investigate whether women reporting repressed (n = 13) or recovered (n = 13) memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) exhibit an avoidant encoding style (and resultant impaired memory) for trauma cues relative to women reporting no CSA experience (n = 15). All participants viewed intermixed trauma (e.g., molested), positive (e.g., confident), and categorized neutral (e.g., mailbox) words on a computer screen and were instructed either to remember or to forget each word. The results provided no support for the hypothesis that people reporting either repressed or recovered memories of CSA are especially adept at forgetting words related to trauma. These groups recalled words they were instructed to remember more often than words they were instructed to forget regardless of whether they were trauma related.

  1. A media campaign prevention program for child sexual abuse: community members' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Self-Brown, Shannon; Rheingold, Alyssa A; Campbell, Carole; de Arellano, Michael A

    2008-06-01

    This study examines the face validity and feasibility of materials included in a multimedia child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention campaign. A quantitative survey method assessed participants' comfort level, knowledge gain, and likelihood of behavioral change in response to the media campaign. Furthermore, a focus group method explored participants' attitudes and opinions regarding the campaign and the unique effects of ethnic or cultural norms on participants' acceptance of the media materials. Six groups, established based on participant ethnicity (i.e., three Caucasian groups, two African American groups, one Hispanic group), met at two sites in the Charleston, South Carolina, area. Quantitative data suggest that participants reported increased CSA knowledge and low levels of discomfort or anxiety related to exposure to the materials. Focus group results suggest that study participants, regardless of ethnic background, agreed that the media campaign can have a positive impact on public knowledge of CSA. Implications and directions for future research are discussed.

  2. Child sexual abuse: report of 311 cases with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Essabar, Laila; Khalqallah, Abdenbi; Dakhama, Badr Sououd Benjelloun

    2015-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a global problem that has significant consequences for public health; it has been a prominent topic of public concern for more than a decade, but many basic facts about the problem remain unclear or in dispute. We conducted a study of 311 cases of CSA in order to highlight the epidemiological features and negative impact on victims’ well-being and to emphasize the need for a multidisciplinary approach to the primary prevention and management of CSA. We noted an increase in cases number with male predominance. Most of our patients came from lower socioeconomic classes. The perpetrators were male in 100% of cases; acquaintances in 70% of cases and family members in 22 cases. Physical examination were normal in 61% of cases, however, a range of psychological and physical effects were identified with dramatic health consequences: three cases of attempted suicide, five pregnancies and one case of HIV virus infection. PMID:26090005

  3. Suicidal Behavior Outcomes of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Longitudinal Study of Adjudicated Girls

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovitch, Sara M.; Kerr, David C. R.; Leve, Leslie D.; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories are prevalent among adolescent girls in the juvenile justice system (JJS) and may contribute to their high rates of suicidal behavior. Among 166 JJS girls who participated in an intervention trial, baseline CSA and covariates were examined as predictors of suicide attempt and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) reported at long-term follow-up (7–12 years later). Early forced CSA was related to lifetime suicide attempt and NSSI history, and (marginally) to post-baseline attempt; effects were not mediated by anxiety or depressive symptoms. Findings suggest that earlier victimization and younger entry into JJS are linked with girls’ suicide attempt and NSSI. PMID:25370436

  4. Maternal history of child abuse moderates the association between daily stress and diurnal cortisol in pregnancy: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Bublitz, Margaret H; Stroud, Laura R

    2013-11-01

    Previous research on the association between maternal daily stress and cortisol in pregnancy has yielded inconsistent findings. However, past studies have not considered whether stressful experiences in childhood impact maternal cortisol regulation in pregnancy. In this pilot study, we aimed to examine whether the association between maternal daily stress and cortisol differed according to maternal history of child abuse. Forty-one women provided salivary cortisol samples at wake-up, 30 min after wake-up, and bedtime for 3 days at three times over second and third trimesters of pregnancy. On each day of cortisol collection women reported their daily stress. Women reported child abuse experiences prior to age 18 years by completing 15 items from the Adverse Childhood Experiences Scale. Twenty-one percent (N = 9) of women reported a history of child sexual abuse (CSA), 44% (N = 18) reported a history of non-sexual child abuse and 34% (N = 14) reported no history of child abuse. Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) analyses revealed that stress in the day prior was associated with increases in morning cortisol in women with CSA histories compared to women with non-sexual abuse histories or no history of child abuse. Increases in evening cortisol were associated with increases in daily stress in women with CSA histories compared to women with non-sexual abuse histories or no history of child abuse. Results reveal a dynamic association between daily stress and cortisol in pregnancy and suggest that patterns differ according to maternal child abuse history.

  5. Ageing Holocaust survivors in Australia.

    PubMed

    Paratz, Elizabeth D; Katz, Benny

    2011-02-21

    In recent years, a phenomenon of "late effects of the Holocaust" has emerged, with impacts on the psychological and physical health of ageing Holocaust survivors. As Holocaust survivors age, they may experience heightened anxiety around normal processes of ageing, worsened post-traumatic stress disorder with cognitive decline, and fear of the medical system. Holocaust survivors are at increased risk of osteoporosis, cardiometabolic disease due to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction, cancer, and sequelae of Nazi medical experiments. From existing medical literature on this topic, practical principles of management are derived to create a framework for sensitive medical management of Holocaust survivors in Australia. The issues discussed are also relevant to the wider geriatric refugee or prisoner-of-war experience.

  6. Structure of the DBL3x domain of pregnancy-associated malaria protein VAR2CSA complexed with chondroitin sulfate A

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, K.; Gittis, A.G.; Nguyen, P.; Gowda, D.C.; Miller, L.H.; Garboczi, D.N.

    2008-09-19

    Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes bind to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) in the placenta via the VAR2CSA protein, a member of the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1 family, leading to life-threatening malaria in pregnant women with severe effects on their fetuses and newborns. Here we describe the structure of the CSA binding DBL3x domain, a Duffy binding-like (DBL) domain of VAR2CSA. By forming a complex of DBL3x with CSA oligosaccharides and determining its structure, we have identified the CSA binding site to be a cluster of conserved positively charged residues on subdomain 2 and subdomain 3. Mutation or chemical modification of lysine residues at the site markedly diminished CSA binding to DBL3x. The location of the CSA binding site is an important step forward in the molecular understanding of pregnancy-associated malaria and offers a new target for vaccine development.

  7. Identification of Sexually Abused Female Adolescents at Risk for Suicidal Ideations: A Classification and Regression Tree Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brabant, Marie-Eve; Hebert, Martine; Chagnon, Francois

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the clinical profiles of 77 female teenager survivors of sexual abuse and examined the association of abuse-related and personal variables with suicidal ideations. Analyses revealed that 64% of participants experienced suicidal ideations. Findings from classification and regression tree analysis indicated that depression,…

  8. Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... bruises, while behavioral indicators are ways victims and abusers act or interact with each other. Some of the indicators listed below can be explained by other causes (e.g. inappropriate or unusual behavior may signal dementia or drug interactions) and no single indicator can be taken ...

  9. Different labour outcomes in primiparous women that have been subjected to childhood sexual abuse or rape in adulthood: a case–control study in a clinical cohort

    PubMed Central

    Nerum, H; Halvorsen, L; Straume, B; Sørlie, T; Øian, P

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the duration and outcome of the first labour in women who have been subjected to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and women who have been raped in adulthood (RA). Design Case–control study in a clinical cohort. Setting University Hospital of North Norway. Sample In all, 373 primiparas: 185 subjected to CSA, 47 to RA and 141 controls without a history of abuse. Methods Data on birth outcomes were retrieved from the patient files. Information on sexual abuse was reported in consultation with specialised midwives in the mental health team. Birth outcomes were analysed by multinominal regression analysis. Main outcome measures Vaginal births, delivery by caesarean section, operative vaginal delivery and duration of labour. Results As compared with controls, the RA group showed a significantly higher risk for caesarean section (adjusted OR 9.9, 95% CI 3.4–29.4) and operative vaginal delivery (adjusted OR 12.2, 95% CI 4.4–33.7). There were no significant differences between the CSA and the control group. The RA group displayed significantly longer duration of labour in all phases as compared with the control and CSA groups. Conclusions There were major differences in the duration of labour and birth outcomes in the two abuse groups. Despite a higher proportion of obstetric risk factors at onset of labour in the CSA group, women subjected to CSA had shorter labours and less risk for caesarean section and operative vaginal deliveries than women subjected to RA. The best care for birthing women subjected to sexual abuse needs to be explored in further studies. PMID:23157417

  10. Sexual Cognitions in Victims of Childhood and Adolescence/Adulthood Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Moyano, Nieves; Sierra, Juan Carlos

    2015-06-23

    This study explored the relationship between 1) child sexual abuse (CSA), adolescent/adult sexual abuse (AASA), and both (CSA+AASA), and 2) the frequency of positive and negative sexual cognitions according to their content -intimate, exploratory, dominance, submission, and impersonal- in men and women. We also analyzed the severity of the sexual contact of individuals who had experienced AASA. We assessed a Spanish sample of 228 men and 333 women, aged between 18 and 50 years old. In the sample, 341 individuals reported having experienced some type of sexual victimization (victims group), while 220 individuals reported no victimization (non-victims group). Overall, sexual victims reported a higher frequency of positive sexual cognitions compared to non-victims, particularly when they had experienced CSA+AASA and the severity of the sexual contact was greater. Men and women who had experienced abuse reported a higher frequency of exploratory cognitions (p < .01). Male victims reported more cognitions of submission (p < .01), whereas female victims reported more cognitions of dominance (p < .05), which indicates lack of congruence with traditional gender roles. Finally, only intimate cognitions (p < .001) were experienced as negative by male victims. We discuss the relevance of the findings for therapeutic interventions with sexual abuse victims.

  11. Novel inhibitors of the calcineurin/NFATc hub - alternatives to CsA and FK506?

    PubMed Central

    Sieber, Matthias; Baumgrass, Ria

    2009-01-01

    The drugs cyclosporine A (CsA) and tacrolimus (FK506) revolutionized organ transplantation. Both compounds are still widely used in the clinic as well as for basic research, even though they have dramatic side effects and modulate other pathways than calcineurin-NFATc, too. To answer the major open question - whether the adverse side effects are secondary to the actions of the drugs on the calcineurin-NFATc pathway - alternative inhibitors were developed. Ideal inhibitors should discriminate between the inhibition of (i) calcineurin and peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerases (PPIases; the matchmaker proteins of CsA and FK506), (ii) calcineurin and the other Ser/Thr protein phosphatases, and (iii) NFATc and other transcription factors. In this review we summarize the current knowledge about novel inhibitors, synthesized or identified in the last decades, and focus on their mode of action, specificity, and biological effects. PMID:19860902

  12. Dynamics of camphor sulfonic acid in polyaniline (PANI-CSA): a quasielastic neutron scattering study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bée, M.; Djurado, D.; Combet, J.; Telling, M.; Rannou, P.; Pron, A.; Travers, J. P.

    2001-07-01

    PolyAniline (PANI) doped by camphor sulphonic acid (CSA) exhibits an electronic conductivity of several hundreds of S/cm. All the authors agree to invoke in various extents the role of disorder in the evolution of the transport properties as a function of temperature. The IRIS spectrometer at the Rutherford-Appleton Laboratory was used to remove uncertainties of previous IN6-IN16 experiments at Institut Laue-Langevin. The rigidity of the PANI chains was confirmed, in both a conducting and a partially doped sample. All the observable quasielastic scattering occurs from the CSA dynamics. However, this contribution is too weak in the case of the partially doped specimen to conclude about the coupling of the counter-ion disorder with the electronic transport properties.

  13. Psychiatric and physical sequelae of childhood physical and sexual abuse and forced sexual trauma among individuals with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Subica, Andrew M

    2013-10-01

    Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) frequently co-occur with serious mental illness, yet the unique mental and physical health influences of childhood physical abuse (CPA), childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and forced sexual trauma on individuals with serious mental illness remain unevaluated. The present study of 172 individuals with serious mental illness investigated the adverse effects of CPA, CSA, and forced sexual trauma on severity of PTSD and depression, and overall mental and physical health functioning. Data analysis consisted of chi-square tests, independent t tests, bivariate odds ratios, and linear regressions. Prevalence of CPA (44.8%), CSA (29.1%), and forced sexual trauma (33.1%) were elevated, and nearly one third of participants (31.4%) reported clinical PTSD. Participants exposed to CSA or forced sexual trauma evidenced bivariate ORs ranging from 4.13 to 7.02 for PTSD, 2.44 to 2.50 for major depression, and 2.14 to 2.31 for serious physical illness/disability. Sexual trauma exposure associated with heightened PTSD and depression, and reduced mental and physical health functioning, with CSA uniquely predicting PTSD, depression, and physical health difficulties. CPA less significantly affected these clinical domains. Sexual traumas have profound negative effects on mental and physical health outcomes among individuals with serious mental illness; increased screening and treatment of sexual traumas is needed.

  14. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Fear of Abandonment Moderate the Relation of Intimate Partner Violence to Severity of Dissociation.

    PubMed

    Zerubavel, Noga; Messman-Moore, Terri L; DiLillo, David; Gratz, Kim L

    2017-02-01

    Betrayal trauma theory proposes a relation between intimate partner violence (IPV) and dissociation, suggesting that dissociation among victims of IPV may function to restrict awareness of abuse in order to preserve attachments perceived as vital. We investigated two factors that may moderate the relation between IPV and dissociation-childhood sexual abuse (CSA) severity and fear of abandonment-among 348 women currently in a relationship. The relation between frequency of IPV (sexual and physical) and dissociation (amnesia and depersonalization) was moderated by CSA severity and fear of abandonment. Specifically, among women with clinically-relevant fear of abandonment, the strength of the relation between IPV and dissociation became stronger as CSA severity increased. This study is the first to demonstrate the moderating roles of fear of abandonment and CSA history in the relation between IPV and dissociation among women. Findings suggest that it may be important to target fear of abandonment in interventions with IPV victims who have a CSA history. Results suggest that fear of abandonment warrants greater attention in research on IPV revictimization.

  15. CSA2012

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Lieberman, Joseph I. [ID-CT

    2012-07-19

    11/14/2012 Upon reconsideration, cloture on the bill not invoked in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 51 - 47. Record Vote Number: 202. (consideration: CR S6784; text: CR S6784) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. Caregiver perceptions about mental health services after child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Fong, Hiu-fai; Bennett, Colleen E; Mondestin, Valerie; Scribano, Philip V; Mollen, Cynthia; Wood, Joanne N

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe caregiver perceptions about mental health services (MHS) after child sexual abuse (CSA) and to explore factors that affected whether their children linked to services. We conducted semi-structured, in-person interviews with 22 non-offending caregivers of suspected CSA victims<13 years old seen at a child advocacy center in Philadelphia. Purposive sampling was used to recruit caregivers who had (n=12) and had not (n=10) linked their children to MHS. Guided by the Health Belief Model framework, interviews assessed perceptions about: CSA severity, the child's susceptibility for adverse outcomes, the benefits of MHS, and the facilitators and barriers to MHS. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed using modified grounded theory. Recruitment ended when thematic saturation was reached. Caregivers expressed strong reactions to CSA and multiple concerns about adverse child outcomes. Most caregivers reported that MHS were generally necessary for children after CSA. Caregivers who had not linked to MHS, however, believed MHS were not necessary for their children, most commonly because they were not exhibiting behavioral symptoms. Caregivers described multiple access barriers to MHS, but caregivers who had not linked reported that they could have overcome these barriers if they believed MHS were necessary for their children. Caregivers who had not linked to services also expressed concerns about MHS being re-traumatizing and stigmatizing. Interventions to increase MHS linkage should focus on improving communication with caregivers about the specific benefits of MHS for their children and proactively addressing caregiver concerns about MHS.

  17. Influence of Intermittent Preventive Treatment on Antibodies to VAR2CSA in Pregnant Cameroonian Women

    PubMed Central

    Babakhanyan, Anna; Tutterrow, Yeung L.; Bobbili, Naveen; Salanti, Ali; Wey, Andrew; Fogako, Josephine; Leke, Robert J.; Leke, Rose G. F.; Taylor, Diane Wallace

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) and insecticide-treated bed nets are the standard of care for preventing malaria in pregnant women. Since these preventive measures reduce exposure to malaria, their influence on the antibody (Ab) response to the parasite antigen VAR2CSA was evaluated in pregnant Cameroonian women exposed to holoendemic malaria. Ab levels to full-length VAR2CSA (FV2), variants of the six Duffy binding like (DBL) domains, and proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2 were measured longitudinally in 92 women before and 147 women after IPT. As predicted, reduced exposure interfered with acquisition of Ab in primigravidae, with 71% primigravidae being seronegative to FV2 at delivery. Use of IPT for > 13 weeks by multigravidae resulted in 26% of women being seronegative at delivery and a significant reduction in Ab levels to FV2, DBL5, DBL6, proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2, and number of variants recognized. Thus, in women using IPT important immune responses were not acquired by primigravidae and reduced in a portion of multigravidae, especially women with one to two previous pregnancies. Longitudinal data from individual multigravidae on IPT suggest that lower Ab levels most likely resulted from lack of boosting of the VAR2CSA response and not from a short-lived Ab response. PMID:26711513

  18. Dissociative experiences during sexual behavior among a sample of adults living with HIV infection and a history of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Nathan B; Brown, Lauren J; Tsatkin, Elizabeth; Zelgowski, Brittany; Nightingale, Vienna

    2012-01-01

    Little attention has been given to the occurrence of dissociative symptoms during sexual behavior in adults who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA). For this study, 57 adults living with HIV infection who had experienced CSA and were entering a treatment study for traumatic stress completed study assessments and clinical interviews, including a 15-item scale of dissociative experiences during sexual behavior. Predictor variables included Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision diagnoses of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative disorders, rape by an intimate partner, duration of CSA, number of perpetrators of CSA, and current sexual satisfaction. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify significant associations between predictors and dissociation during sex. Mean differences by clinical diagnosis were also examined. Results indicated that PTSD, dissociative disorders, rape by an intimate partner, duration of CSA, and number of perpetrators of CSA were associated with increased dissociation during sexual behavior. Dissociation during sex likely increases vulnerability to sexual revictimization and risky sexual behavior. Standard behavioral prevention interventions may be ineffective for sexual situations when dissociation occurs, and prevention efforts should be integrated with mental health care for those who have experienced CSA.

  19. Relation of Childhood Sexual Abuse, Intimate Partner Violence, and Depression to Risk Factors for HIV Among Black Men Who Have Sex With Men in 6 US Cities

    PubMed Central

    Wilton, Leo; Magnus, Manya; Wang, Lei; Wang, Jing; Dyer, Typhanye Penniman; Koblin, Beryl A.; Hucks-Ortiz, Christopher; Fields, Sheldon D.; Shoptaw, Steve; Stephenson, Rob; O’Cleirigh, Conall; Cummings, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the relation of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), intimate partner violence (IPV), and depression to HIV sexual risk behaviors among Black men who have sex with men (MSM). Methods. Participants were 1522 Black MSM recruited from 6 US cities between July 2009 and December 2011. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used. Results. Participants reported sex before age 12 years with someone at least 5 years older (31.1%), unwanted sex when aged 12 to 16 years (30%), IPV (51.8%), and depression (43.8%). Experiencing CSA when aged 12 to 16 years was inversely associated with any receptive condomless anal sex with a male partner (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.50; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.29, 0.86). Pressured or forced sex was positively associated with any receptive anal sex (AOR = 2.24; 95% CI = 1.57, 3.20). Experiencing CSA when younger than 12 years, physical abuse, emotional abuse, having been stalked, and pressured or forced sex were positively associated with having more than 3 male partners in the past 6 months. Among HIV-positive MSM (n = 337), CSA between ages 12 and 16 years was positively associated with having more than 3 male partners in the past 6 months. Conclusions. Rates of CSA, IPV, and depression were high, but associations with HIV sexual risk outcomes were modest. PMID:26469666

  20. Alcohol Myopia and Sexual Abdication among Women: Examining the Moderating Effect of Child Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Staples, Jennifer M.; George, William H.; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; Heiman, Julia

    2014-01-01

    HIV and other STIs are major public health concerns for women, and risky sexual behaviors increase the risk of transmission. Risky sexual behaviors include sexual abdication, that is, willingness to let a partner decide how far to go sexually. Alcohol intoxication is a risk factor for risky sexual behavior, and the Inhibition Conflict Model of Alcohol Myopia may help explain this relationship (Steele et al., 1985). This model suggests that in order for intoxication to influence behavior there must be high conflict, meaning the strength of the instigatory cues and inhibitory cues are both high. Recent research indicates that the degree to which cues are experienced as high in instigation or inhibition is subject to individual difference factors. One individual difference factor associated with alcohol-related sexual risk taking is child sexual abuse (CSA) history. The current study examined the influence of acute alcohol intoxication, CSA, and inhibition conflict on sexual abdication with 131 women (mean age 25) randomized into a 2 (alcohol, control) x 2 (high conflict, low conflict) experimental design. Regression analyses yielded a significant 3-way interaction, F (1,122) = 8.15, R2 = .14, p <.01. When there was high conflict, intoxicated CSA women were more likely to abdicate than sober CSA women, however, sober CSA women were less likely to abdicate than sober NSA women. When there was low conflict, CSA history and alcohol intoxication had no influence on abdication. These results may help explain the association between alcohol and risky sexual decision making among women with CSA. PMID:25310825

  1. A Balamuthia survivor

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This case report describes a human survivor of Balamuthia mandrillaris infection. This is a free-living amoeba that can cause infection with the devastating consequence of near universally fatal encephalitis. We report this case to demonstrate the possibility of recovery. Case presentation: A 26-year-old Hispanic male, a landscape gardener, presented to the hospital in March 2010 with a two month history of headache, visual disturbances and new-onset seizures. Brain imaging identified two enhancing central lesions and Balamuthia mandrillaris was later identified by brain biopsy. He received several months of various antimicrobials including miltefosine, a novel use of the drug in this disease at the time. Seven weeks into therapy, considerations were made to switch him to ‘comfort care’ because of worsening clinical status and seemingly lack of response to treatment. The patient finally demonstrated clinical and radiological improvement after eight weeks with modified therapy, despite experiencing some debilitating toxic effects likely to be related to antibiotics. Two years after his initial presentation he made a complete recovery. Conclusion: Balamuthia mandrillaris amoebic encephalitis is considered an almost universally fatal disease; this case demonstrates the possibility of recovery. This report outlines his treatment, drug toxicities and includes additional information regarding the therapeutic use of the drug miltefosine. Whether his survival is related to the specific antimicrobials used in this case is unknown and further investigation is warranted. PMID:28348755

  2. Sleep paralysis in adults reporting repressed, recovered, or continuous memories of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    McNally, Richard J; Clancy, Susan A

    2005-01-01

    Sleep paralysis typically occurs as individuals awaken from rapid eye movement sleep before motor paralysis wanes. Many episodes are accompanied by tactile and visual hallucinations, often of threatening intruders in the bedroom. Pendergrast [Victims of Memory: Incest Accusations and Shattered Lives, HarperCollins, London, 1996] proposed that individuals who report repressed or recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may misinterpret episodes of sleep paralysis as reemerging fragments of dissociated ("repressed") memories of CSA. To investigate this issue, we administered a sleep paralysis questionnaire to people reporting either repressed (n = 18), recovered (n = 14), or continuous (n = 36) memories of CSA, or to a control group reporting no history of CSA (n = 16). The prevalence of sleep paralysis was: repressed memory group (44%), recovered memory group (43%), continuous memory group (47%), and control group (13%). Among the six individuals in the recovered memory group who had experienced sleep paralysis, one interpreted it as related to sexual abuse (i.e., a rate of 17%). All other participants who had reported sleep paralysis embraced other interpretations (e.g., saw a ghost). Dissociation and depressive symptoms were more common among those who had experienced sleep paralysis than among those who denied having experienced it.

  3. Spousal Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Gullattee, Alyce C.

    1979-01-01

    Spouse abuse is being discussed and agonized over more frequently than in past years. Although interpousal and intrafamilial violence have been behaviors of note and considerable consequence, they have been attributable, almost exclusively, to the lower socioeconomic classes. Many hypotheses have been proposed concerning the etiology of violence. The author discusses some of the more general sociopolitical theories of violence and proposes three areas of significant moment to behaviorists. PMID:439165

  4. Effect of criminal defendant's history of childhood sexual abuse and personality disorder diagnosis on juror decision making.

    PubMed

    Butler, Ebony; Jacquin, Kristine

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated whether a defendant's history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and/or personality disorder (PD) diagnosis affected juror decision making in a child sexual abuse trial. The PDs in the study were borderline PD and antisocial PD. Participants were 385 college students, 121 men and 264 women, who read a summary of a mock criminal trial and then made various juror decisions. Trial summaries were prepared by the principal investigator and were all uniform in content, length and detail. For the trial, both the defendant's gender and victim's gender were specified. The defendant was male, and the alleged victim was female. When the verdict was assessed, the results yielded that when the defendant's CSA history was presented, juror guilt ratings were higher than when there was no history of CSA. Similarly, when the defendant had a PD diagnosis, there were higher guilt ratings than when there was no PD diagnosis. CSA history and PD diagnosis were significant predictors of guilt ratings, suggesting that jurors perceive defendants more negatively if they have either been sexually abused as a child or have borderline or antisocial PD.

  5. Child Abuse: Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Timothy L.-Y.

    The purpose of this paper was to elaborate on the definitions of child abuse in order to improve the understanding of child abuse. The definitions given by the U.S. House Joint Committee on Child Abuse in the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, and in research by Holden (1984), are cited. These definitions refer to the nature of abusive acts…

  6. Maternal and child reflective functioning in the context of child sexual abuse: pathways to depression and externalising difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Ensink, Karin; Bégin, Michaël; Normandin, Lina; Fonagy, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background Sexual abuse is a well-recognised risk factor for child psychopathology. Little is known regarding whether child and maternal mentalization can be considered a potential resource or protective factor in this context, respectively, mediating or moderating the relationship between sexual abuse and psychopathology. Objective The aims of this study were (1) to explore the relationships between child and maternal mentalizing, measured as reflective functioning (RF), and child depressive symptoms and externalising difficulties; and (2) to examine whether child mentalizing mediates the relationship between child sexual abuse (CSA) and psychopathology. Method A total of 168 children aged 7–12 years and their mothers participated in the study. The sample included 74 dyads where children had experienced sexual abuse. The Child Attachment Interview was rated by using the Child Reflective Functioning Scale to assess children's mentalization, and the Child Depression Inventory was used to assess depressive symptoms. Mothers completed the Parent Development Interview to assess maternal RF and the Child Behavior Checklist to assess their child's externalising difficulties. A model involving direct and indirect paths from CSA, child and maternal RF to child psychopathology was examined using Mplus software. Results Child mentalization partially mediated the relationships between CSA and depressive symptoms, as well as the relationship between CSA and externalising difficulties. Maternal mentalization was an independent predictor of child externalising difficulties, with higher maternal RF associated with less externalising difficulties. Discussion The findings indicate that by ages 7–12, child mentalization is an important inner resource associated with lower depression and externalising. In addition, this study provides new evidence of the importance of the parent's mentalizing stance for the development of self-regulation and externalising difficulties in both

  7. Differential Recognition of Terminal Extracellular Plasmodium falciparum VAR2CSA Domains by Sera from Multigravid, Malaria-Exposed Malian Women

    PubMed Central

    Travassos, Mark A.; Coulibaly, Drissa; Bailey, Jason A.; Niangaly, Amadou; Adams, Matthew; Nyunt, Myaing M.; Ouattara, Amed; Lyke, Kirsten E.; Laurens, Matthew B.; Pablo, Jozelyn; Jasinskas, Algis; Nakajima, Rie; Berry, Andrea A.; Takala-Harrison, Shannon; Kone, Abdoulaye K.; Kouriba, Bourema; Rowe, J. Alexandra; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Thera, Mahamadou A.; Laufer, Miriam K.; Felgner, Philip L.; Plowe, Christopher V.

    2015-01-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family mediates parasite sequestration in small capillaries through tissue-specific cytoadherence. The best characterized of these proteins is VAR2CSA, which is expressed on the surface of infected erythrocytes that bind to chondroitin sulfate in the placental matrix. Antibodies to VAR2CSA prevent placental cytoadherence and protect against placental malaria. The size and complexity of the VAR2CSA protein pose challenges for vaccine development, but smaller constitutive domains may be suitable for subunit vaccine development. A protein microarray was printed to include five overlapping fragments of the 3D7 VAR2CSA extracellular region. Malian women with a history of at least one pregnancy had antibody recognition of four of these fragments and had stronger reactivity against the two distal fragments than did nulliparous women, children, and men from Mali, suggesting that the C-terminal extracellular VAR2CSA domains are a potential focus of protective immunity. With carefully chosen sera from longitudinal studies of pregnant women, this approach has the potential to identify seroreactive VAR2CSA domains associated with protective immunity against pregnancy-associated malaria. PMID:25918203

  8. Brain Training for Cancer Survivors' Nerve Damage

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Brain Training for Cancer Survivors' Nerve Damage Neurofeedback seems to offers relief from chemo-induced pain, ... brain waves with a type of training called neurofeedback seems to help cancer survivors ease symptoms of ...

  9. Detroit Research on Cancer Survivors Study

    Cancer.gov

    An NCI press release about the launch of the Detroit Research on Cancer Survivors (ROCS) study, which will look at factors affecting cancer progression, recurrence, mortality, and quality of life among African-American cancer survivors.

  10. Evil, Child Abuse and the Caring Professions.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Caroline

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the ways in which the concept of evil has been invoked in relation to child abuse. First, the scene is set by juxtaposing professional discourses which have eschewed the concept of evil and public opinion which is affronted by the evil of child abuse. Second, I will discuss the work of some therapists in the USA whose work with perpetrators and survivors has led them to frame the causes and consequences of child abuse in terms of moral evil. Third, I will draw upon case studies of Satanic abuse and spirit possession in the UK to illustrate that some social workers and religious communities have interpreted child abuse as an outcome of or as an antidote to metaphysical evil. Finally, there is a critical appraisal of the merits of referencing moral and metaphysical evil in the discourses of caring professionals, with a suggestion that a mythical-metaphorical conception of evil could be a more flexible and fruitful resource for therapeutic work.

  11. "Reconstructing a Sense of Self": Trauma and Coping Among Returned Women Survivors of Human Trafficking in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Le, PhuongThao D

    2016-05-19

    Survivors of human trafficking who return to their community of origin must cope with the trauma they experienced as victims as well as the conditions that contributed to their trafficking vulnerabilities. In this article, I examine the psychosocial adjustment process among women survivors of trafficking who returned to Vietnam. Supplemented by participation observation, thematic analysis of in-depth interviews with survivors revealed that throughout the trafficking process, the women experienced multiple abuses and changes in relationships and environments. The women coped by navigating a process of "reconstructing a sense of self," seeking congruence between their self-understandings and the changing contextual factors while exhibiting three main coping strategies: regulating emotional expression and thought, creating opportunities within constraints, and relating to cultural schemas. The findings underscore the importance of considering contextual factors such as cultural norms and societal values in efforts to assist trafficked survivors reintegrate into their communities.

  12. Survivor voices: co-learning, re-connection, and healing through community action research and engagement (CARE).

    PubMed

    Cortez, Patricia; Dumas, Tracey; Joyce, Jeneka; Olson, Deborah; Peters, Sharon; Todahl, Jeff; Walters, Elaine; Wilde, Rose

    2011-01-01

    This article describes the Trauma Healing Project (THP: www.http//healingattention.org), the Survivor Voices study (n = 351), and the complementary nature of community- campus partnerships (CCP) and community-based participatory action research methodology (PAR). Survivor Voices-a random digit telephone survey developed by, conducted, analyzed, and disseminated by survivors of abuse and violence, university researchers, and students-was designed to learn from survivors about what hurt and about what helped with regard to how people responded to their trauma, and what they recommend for trauma healing. We feature our CCP, including challenges faced, how we have addressed those challenges, and profile our current findings. We describe how PAR and CCPs can be very useful tools toward the development of a community-wide effort to reduce violence and support trauma healing.

  13. 'We are looked down upon and rejected socially': a qualitative study on the experiences of trafficking survivors in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Dahal, Pranab; Joshi, Sunil Kumar; Swahnberg, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Background The successful reintegration of sexual trafficking survivors into Nepalese society is challenging. This paper aims to explore the trafficking process, abuses faced during sexual slavery,and the challenges faced by women and girl survivors for successful reintegration. Method This exploratory study used qualitative methods to identify that poverty, illiteracy, lack of opportunities, and varied social stigma initiate the victimization process, and continuity of this vicious circle increases the risk for (re)entrapment. Result The reasons for sexual trafficking have also become the reasons for restricting survivors from opportunities for growth and mainstreaming. Conclusion Non-existent support systems, detachment from familial ties, being outcast by society, and an uncertain livelihood make reintegration difficult for survivors.

  14. Frailty in Childhood Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Ness, Kirsten K.; Armstrong, Gregory T.; Kundu, Mondira; Wilson, Carmen L.; Tchkonia, Tamara; Kirkland, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Young adult childhood cancer survivors are at increased risk for frailty, a physiologic phenotype typically found among older adults. This phenotype is associated with new onset chronic health conditions and mortality among both older adults and among childhood cancer survivors. Mounting evidence suggests that poor fitness, muscular weakness and cognitive decline are common among adults treated for childhood malignancies, and that risk factors for these outcomes are not limited to those treated with cranial radiation. Although the pathobiology of this phenotype is not known, early cellular senescence, sterile inflammation and mitochondrial dysfunction in response to initial cancer or treatment related insults are hypothesized to play a role. Interventions to prevent or remediate frailty among childhood cancer survivors have not been tested. Pharmaceutical, nutriceutical and lifestyle interventions show some promise. PMID:25529481

  15. Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Whether they're using street drugs or medications, drug abusers often have trouble at school, at home, with ... a short period of time may make a drug abuser aggressive or paranoid. Although stimulant abuse might not ...

  16. Self-Defining as Sexually Abused and Adult Sexual Risk Behavior: Results from a Cross-Sectional Survey of Women Attending an STD Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with increased sexual risk behavior in adulthood, and this association may be mediated by traumagenic dynamics constructs (i.e., traumatic sexualization, trust, guilt, and powerlessness). However, few studies have investigated whether such relationships hold for women who do not identify as…

  17. Reductions in Traumatic Stress Following a Coping Intervention Were Mediated by Decreases in Avoidant Coping for People Living with HIV/AIDS and Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Ranby, Krista W.; Meade, Christina S.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Wilson, Patrick A.; Kochman, Arlene

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether (a) Living in the Face of Trauma (LIFT), a group intervention to address coping with HIV and childhood sexual abuse (CSA), significantly reduced traumatic stress over a 1-year follow-up period more than an attention-matched support group comparison intervention; and (b) reductions in avoidant coping over time mediated…

  18. Internet Use and Breast Cancer Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Afshari, Mojgan; Mohamed, Nor Aini

    2011-01-01

    A survey was administered to 400 breast cancer survivors at hospitals and support group meetings in Peninsular Malaysia to explore their level of Internet use and factors related to the Internet use by breast cancer survivors. Findings of this study indicated that about 22.5% of breast cancer survivors used Internet to get information about breast…

  19. 5 CFR 850.202 - Survivor elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Survivor elections. 850.202 Section 850... (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT SYSTEMS MODERNIZATION Applications for Benefits; Elections § 850.202 Survivor elections. (a) A survivor election under subsection (j) or (k) of section 8339, or under section 8416,...

  20. Survivors' Reactions: Suicide vs. Other Causes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, John L.; Kelly, Leah D.

    The literature on suicide survivors suggests that suicide grief is different than the grief associated with survivorship from other causes. The few studies that have compared groups of survivors from other causes, however, have often not observed as many differences as expected based on the suicide survivors literature. In this study, 230 college…

  1. Childhood Sexual Abuse Is Highly Associated With HIV Risk–Taking Behavior and Infection Among MSM in the EXPLORE Study

    PubMed Central

    Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Noonan, Elizabeth; Donnell, Deborah; Safren, Steven A.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Gortmaker, Steven; O’Cleirigh, Conall; Chesney, Margaret A.; Coates, Thomas J.; Koblin, Beryl A.; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found high rates of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among US men who have sex with men (MSM). CSA history has been associated with a variety of negative effects later in life including behaviors that place MSM at greater risk for HIV acquisition and transmission. The present analysis is the first to examine the longitudinal association between CSA and HIV infection, unprotected anal sex, and serodiscordant unprotected anal sex, as well as mediators of these relationships among a large sample of HIV-uninfected MSM. Methods The EXPLORE Study was a behavioral intervention trial conducted in 6 US cities over 48 months with HIV infection as the primary efficacy outcome. Behavioral assessments were done every 6 months via confidential computerized assessments. Longitudinal regression models were constructed, adjusting for randomization arm, geographical location of study site, age at enrollment, education, and race/ethnicity. Results Of the 4295 participants enrolled, 39.7% had a history of CSA. Participants with a history of CSA [adjusted hazards ratio = 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02 to 1.69] were at increased risk for HIV infection over study follow-up. A significant association was seen between history of CSA and unprotected anal sex (adjusted odds ratio = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.12 to 1.36) and serodiscordant unprotected anal sex (adjusted odds ratio = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.18 to 1.43). Among participants reporting CSA, the EXPLORE intervention had no effect in reducing HIV infection rates. Participants reporting CSA were significantly more likely to have symptoms of depression and use nonprescription drugs. Conclusions A predictive relationship between a history of CSA and subsequent HIV infection was observed among this large sample of HIV-uninfected MSM. Findings indicate that HIV-uninfected MSM with CSA histories are at greater risk for HIV infection, report higher rates of HIV sexual risk behavior, and may derive less benefit from

  2. Payload specialist Robert B. Thirsk, representing the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), performs a test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-78 ONBOARD VIEW --- Payload specialist Robert B. Thirsk, representing the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), performs a test on his arm using the Torque Velocity Dynamometer (TVD). Dr. Thirsk was measuring changes in muscle forces of the bicep and tricep in this particular view. The TVD hardware is also used to measure leg muscle forces and velocity at the ankle and elbow joints. Crew members for the mission performed all experiment protocols prior to flight to develop a baseline and will also perform post-flight tests to complete the analysis. Additionally, muscle biopsies were taken before the flight and will be conducted after the flight.

  3. Childhood sexual abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder among pregnant and postpartum women: Review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Wosu, Adaeze C.; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this review are i) to summarize and evaluate current knowledge on the association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in pregnant and postpartum women, ii) to provide suggestions for future research on this topic, and iii) to highlight some clinical implications. Methods Relevant publications were identified through literature searches of four databases (PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and PsycARTICLES) using keywords such as “child abuse,” “posttraumatic stress,” “pregnancy” and “postpartum”. Results Five studies were included in this review. Findings across all studies were consistent with higher prevalence of PTSD diagnosis or symptomatology among women with history of CSA. However, only findings from two studies were statistically significant. One study observed higher overall PTSD scores in women with CSA history compared to women with non-CSA trauma history or no trauma history during pregnancy (mean±SD 1.47 (0.51) vs. 1.33 (0.41) vs. 1.22 (0.29), p<0.001), at 2 months postpartum (mean±SD 1.43 (0.49) vs. 1.26 (0.38) vs. 1.19 (0.35), p<0.001), and at 6 months postpartum (mean±SD 1.36 (1.43) vs. 1.20 (0.33) vs. 1.14 (0.27), p<0.001). Another study observed that the prevalence of PTSD during pregnancy was 4.1 % in women with no history of physical or sexual abuse, 11.4 % in women with adult physical or sexual abuse history, 16.0 % in women with childhood physical or sexual abuse history, and 39.0 % in women exposed to both childhood and adult physical or sexual abuse (p<0.001); in a subsequent analysis, the investigators reported that pregnant women with PTSD had over 5-fold odds of having a history of childhood completed rape compared to counterparts without PTSD (OR = 5.3, 95 % CI 3.2, 8.7). Conclusions Overall, available evidence suggests positive associations of CSA with clinical PTSD or PTSD symptomatology among pregnant and postpartum women. PMID:25380784

  4. Childhood sexual abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder among pregnant and postpartum women: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Wosu, Adaeze C; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

    2015-02-01

    The aims of this review are (i) to summarize and evaluate current knowledge on the association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in pregnant and postpartum women, (ii) to provide suggestions for future research on this topic, and (iii) to highlight some clinical implications. Relevant publications were identified through literature searches of four databases (PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, and PsycARTICLES) using keywords such as "child abuse," "posttraumatic stress," "pregnancy," and "postpartum". Five studies were included in this review. Findings across all studies were consistent with higher prevalence of PTSD diagnosis or symptomatology among women with history of CSA. However, only findings from two studies were statistically significant. One study observed higher overall PTSD scores in women with CSA history compared to women with non-CSA trauma history or no trauma history during pregnancy (mean ± SD 1.47 (0.51) vs. 1.33 (0.41) vs. 1.22 (0.29), p < 0.001), at 2 months postpartum (mean ± SD 1.43 (0.49) vs. 1.26 (0.38) vs. 1.19 (0.35), p < 0.001), and at 6 months postpartum (mean ± SD 1.36 (1.43) vs. 1.20 (0.33) vs. 1.14 (0.27), p < 0.001). Another study observed that the prevalence of PTSD during pregnancy was 4.1 % in women with no history of physical or sexual abuse, 11.4 % in women with adult physical or sexual abuse history, 16.0 % in women with childhood physical or sexual abuse history, and 39.0 % in women exposed to both childhood and adult physical or sexual abuse (p < 0.001); in a subsequent analysis, the investigators reported that pregnant women with PTSD had over 5-fold odds of having a history of childhood completed rape compared to counterparts without PTSD (OR = 5.3, 95 % CI 3.2, 8.7). Overall, available evidence suggests positive associations of CSA with clinical PTSD or PTSD symptomatology among pregnant and

  5. Korean Survivors of the Japanese "Comfort Women" System: Understanding the Lifelong Consequences of Early Life Trauma.

    PubMed

    Park, Jee Hoon; Lee, KyongWeon; Hand, Michelle D; Anderson, Keith A; Schleitwiler, Tess E

    2016-01-01

    Prior to and during World War II, thousands of girls and young women were abducted from Korea and forced into sexual slavery by the Japanese government. Termed comfort women, these girls and young women suffered extreme sexual, physical, and emotional abuse and trauma. Research on this group is not well-developed and people know little of the impact of this early life trauma on the lives of these women who are now in later life. Using snowball sampling, 16 older adult survivors of the comfort women system participated in semistructured qualitative interviews. Thematic analysis was conducted to gain an understanding of the trauma that these women suffered and how it impacted their lives. Results revealed the depths of the abuse these women suffered, including repeated rapes, physical beatings, humiliation, forced surgery and sterilization, and social exclusion. These early traumatic experiences appeared to reverberate throughout their lives in their family relations, their inability to marry and to conceive children, and their emotional and physical well-being throughout the life course and into later life. The experiences of these survivors illustrate the lasting impact of early-life trauma and can guide interventions with current survivors of sexual abuse or trafficking.

  6. Methamphetamine abuse.

    PubMed

    Winslow, Bradford T; Voorhees, Kenton I; Pehl, Katherine A

    2007-10-15

    Methamphetamine is a stimulant commonly abused in many parts of the United States. Most methamphetamine users are white men 18 to 25 years of age, but the highest usage rates have been found in native Hawaiians, persons of more than one race, Native Americans, and men who have sex with men. Methamphetamine use produces a rapid, pleasurable rush followed by euphoria, heightened attention, and increased energy. Possible adverse effects include myocardial infarction, stroke, seizures, rhabdomyolysis, cardiomyopathy, psychosis, and death. Chronic methamphetamine use is associated with neurologic and psychiatric symptoms and changes in physical appearance. High-risk sexual activity and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus are also associated with methamphetamine use. Use of methamphetamine in women who are pregnant can cause placental abruption, intrauterine growth retardation, and preterm birth, and there can be adverse consequences in children exposed to the drug. Treatment of methamphetamine intoxication is primarily supportive. Treatment of methamphetamine abuse is behavioral; cognitive behavior therapy, contingency management, and the Matrix Model may be effective. Pharmacologic treatments are under investigation.

  7. Nursing Postvention for Suicide Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantino, Rose Eva Bana

    Survivors of suicide are invaded by an unhealthy complex of disturbing emotions resulting in depression, psychological distress, grief, social isolation, and even suicide. This study examined the bereavement patterns of widows whose husbands had died from various causes including cancer, heart disease, and suicide. Subjects (N=117) were randomly…

  8. Childhood sexual abuse, alcohol use, and PTSD symptoms as predictors of adult sexual assault among lesbians and gay men.

    PubMed

    Han, Sohyun C; Gallagher, Matthew W; Franz, Molly R; Chen, May S; Cabral, Fabiana M; Marx, Brian P

    2013-08-01

    Prior research has indicated that childhood sexual abuse (CSA), alcohol use, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are important risk factors for adult sexual assault (ASA). A notable limitation of this prior work, however, is that it has almost exclusively focused on heterosexual women. The present study sought to remedy this by examining the extent to which CSA, alcohol use, and PTSD symptoms related to ASA among lesbians (n = 122) and gay men (n = 117). Using structural equation modeling, we found that alcohol use was the best predictor of ASA among lesbians whereas CSA was the best predictor of ASA among gay men. These results suggest that certain risk factors may be differentially related to ASA among groups with different sexual orientations. Such findings deepen our current understanding of ASA and offer important directions for reducing the risk of ASA for lesbian and gay individuals.

  9. Women's Sex-Related Dissociation: The Effects of Alcohol Intoxication, Attentional Control Instructions, and History of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Bird, Elizabeth R; Gilmore, Amanda K; Stappenbeck, Cynthia A; Heiman, Julia R; Davis, Kelly Cue; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H

    2017-02-17

    This study examined influences of alcohol intoxication, attentional control, and childhood sexual abuse (CSA) severity on sex-related dissociation. Sex-related dissociation is defined here as dissociation (e.g., feeling as if the world is unreal and feeling disconnected from one's body) during sexual activity or in the presence of sexual stimuli. Women (N = 70) were randomized to a 2 (alcohol condition: none,.10% peak breath alcohol concentration) X 2 (attentional control instructions: none, "relax and maximize" sexual arousal) experiment and exposed to sexual stimuli. Alcohol intoxication was positively associated with sex-related dissociation. CSA severity and sex-related dissociation were positively associated in the no-instruction condition but not in the "relax and maximize" condition. For some women, efforts to relax and maximize sexual arousal may buffer the association between CSA and sex-related dissociation.

  10. The effects of childhood sexual abuse on cortisol trajectories in pregnancy are moderated by current family functioning

    PubMed Central

    Bublitz, Margaret H.; Parade, Stephanie; Stroud, Laura R.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to understand the roles of maternal history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and current family functioning on the cortisol awakening response (CAR) in pregnancy. Participants were 185 pregnant women (ages 18–40) who completed items from the Adverse Childhood Experiences scale to measure child maltreatment history and the Family Assessment Device to measure current family functioning. Participants provided saliva samples at wake-up and 30 minutes after wake-up at 25, 29, and 35 weeks gestation to measure CAR. A moderation effect was found such that participants with more severe CSA histories and poorer perceived family functioning had increasing CAR in pregnancy compared to participants with less severe CSA histories and better family functioning. These findings highlight the importance of considering stress in both childhood and current environments in predicting maternal cortisol in pregnancy. PMID:25220484

  11. Llama immunization with full-length VAR2CSA generates cross-reactive and inhibitory single-domain antibodies against the DBL1X domain

    PubMed Central

    Nunes-Silva, Sofia; Gangnard, Stéphane; Vidal, Marta; Vuchelen, Anneleen; Dechavanne, Sebastien; Chan, Sherwin; Pardon, Els; Steyaert, Jan; Ramboarina, Stephanie; Chêne, Arnaud; Gamain, Benoît

    2014-01-01

    VAR2CSA stands today as the leading vaccine candidate aiming to protect future pregnant women living in malaria endemic areas against the severe clinical outcomes of pregnancy associated malaria (PAM). The rational design of an efficient VAR2CSA-based vaccine relies on a profound understanding of the molecular interactions associated with P. falciparum infected erythrocyte sequestration in the placenta. Following immunization of a llama with the full-length VAR2CSA recombinant protein, we have expressed and characterized a panel of 19 nanobodies able to recognize the recombinant VAR2CSA as well as the surface of erythrocytes infected with parasites originating from different parts of the world. Domain mapping revealed that a large majority of nanobodies targeted DBL1X whereas a few of them were directed towards DBL4ε, DBL5ε and DBL6ε. One nanobody targeting the DBL1X was able to recognize the native VAR2CSA protein of the three parasite lines tested. Furthermore, four nanobodies targeting DBL1X reproducibly inhibited CSA adhesion of erythrocytes infected with the homologous NF54-CSA parasite strain, providing evidences that DBL1X domain is part or close to the CSA binding site. These nanobodies could serve as useful tools to identify conserved epitopes shared between different variants and to characterize the interactions between VAR2CSA and CSA. PMID:25487735

  12. Llama immunization with full-length VAR2CSA generates cross-reactive and inhibitory single-domain antibodies against the DBL1X domain.

    PubMed

    Nunes-Silva, Sofia; Gangnard, Stéphane; Vidal, Marta; Vuchelen, Anneleen; Dechavanne, Sebastien; Chan, Sherwin; Pardon, Els; Steyaert, Jan; Ramboarina, Stephanie; Chêne, Arnaud; Gamain, Benoît

    2014-12-09

    VAR2CSA stands today as the leading vaccine candidate aiming to protect future pregnant women living in malaria endemic areas against the severe clinical outcomes of pregnancy associated malaria (PAM). The rational design of an efficient VAR2CSA-based vaccine relies on a profound understanding of the molecular interactions associated with P. falciparum infected erythrocyte sequestration in the placenta. Following immunization of a llama with the full-length VAR2CSA recombinant protein, we have expressed and characterized a panel of 19 nanobodies able to recognize the recombinant VAR2CSA as well as the surface of erythrocytes infected with parasites originating from different parts of the world. Domain mapping revealed that a large majority of nanobodies targeted DBL1X whereas a few of them were directed towards DBL4ε, DBL5ε and DBL6ε. One nanobody targeting the DBL1X was able to recognize the native VAR2CSA protein of the three parasite lines tested. Furthermore, four nanobodies targeting DBL1X reproducibly inhibited CSA adhesion of erythrocytes infected with the homologous NF54-CSA parasite strain, providing evidences that DBL1X domain is part or close to the CSA binding site. These nanobodies could serve as useful tools to identify conserved epitopes shared between different variants and to characterize the interactions between VAR2CSA and CSA.

  13. Sexual Risk-Taking among High-Risk Urban Women with and without Histories of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Mediating Effects of Contextual Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosack, Katie E.; Randolph, Mary E.; Dickson-Gomez, Julia; Abbott, Maryann; Smith, Ellen; Weeks, Margaret R.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the mechanisms of risk for urban women at high risk for HIV with and without childhood sexual abuse histories. Childhood sexual abuse survivors reported more unprotected intercourse and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The association of STI locus of control with frequency of unprotected sex was fully mediated by…

  14. Homosexual orientation-from nature, not abuse: A critique of Roberts, Glymour, and Koenen (2013).

    PubMed

    Rind, Bruce

    2013-11-01

    Roberts, Glymour, and Koenen (2013), using instrumental variable models, argued that child abuse causes homosexual orientation, defined in part as any same-sex attractions. Their instruments were various negative family environment factors. In their analyses, they found that child sexual abuse (CSA) was more strongly related to homosexual orientation than non-sexual maltreatment was, especially among males. The present commentary therefore focused on male CSA. It is argued that Roberts et al.'s "abuse model" is incorrect and an alternative is presented. Male homosexual behavior is common in primates and has been common in many human societies, such that an evolved human male homosexual potential, with individual variation, can be assumed. Cultural variation has been strongly influenced by cultural norms. In our society, homosexual expression is rare because it is counternormative. The "counternormativity model" offered here holds that negative family environment weakens normative controls and increases counternormative thinking and behavior, which, in combination with sufficient homosexual potential and relevant, reinforcing experiences, can produce a homosexual orientation. This is a benign or positive model (innate potential plus release and reinforcement), in contrast to Roberts et al.'s negative model (abuse plus emotional compensation or cognitive distortion). The abuse model is criticized for being based on the sexual victimological paradigm, which developed to describe the female experience in rape and incest. This poorly fits the gay male experience, as demonstrated in a brief non-clinical literature review. Validly understanding male homosexuality, it is argued, requires the broad perspective, as employed here.

  15. Effects of expressive writing on sexual dysfunction, depression, and PTSD in women with a history of childhood sexual abuse: Results from a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Meston, Cindy M.; Lorenz, Tierney A.; Stephenson, Kyle R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have high rates of depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and sexual problems in adulthood. Aim We tested an expressive writing based intervention for its effects on psychopathology, sexual function, satisfaction and distress in women who have a history of CSA. Main Outcome measures Validated self-report measures of psychopathology and sexual function were conducted at post-treatment, 2 weeks, one month, and six months. Methods Seventy women with CSA histories completed five 30-minute sessions of expressive writing, either with a trauma focus or a sexual schema focus. Results Women in both writing interventions exhibited improved symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Women who were instructed to write about the impact of the abuse on their sexual schema were significantly more likely to recover from sexual dysfunction. Conclusions Expressive writing may improve depressive and PTSD symptoms in women with CSA histories. Sexual schema-focused expressive writing in particular appears to improve sexual problems, especially for depressed women with CSA histories. Both treatments are accessible, cost-effective, and acceptable to patients. PMID:23875721

  16. Identification of a Major Dimorphic Region in the Functionally Critical N-Terminal ID1 Domain of VAR2CSA

    PubMed Central

    Doritchamou, Justin; Sabbagh, Audrey; Jespersen, Jakob S.; Renard, Emmanuelle; Salanti, Ali; Nielsen, Morten A.; Deloron, Philippe; Tuikue Ndam, Nicaise

    2015-01-01

    The VAR2CSA protein of Plasmodium falciparum is transported to and expressed on the infected erythrocyte surface where it plays a key role in placental malaria (PM). It is the current leading candidate for a vaccine to prevent PM. However, the antigenic polymorphism integral to VAR2CSA poses a challenge for vaccine development. Based on detailed analysis of polymorphisms in the sequence of its ligand-binding N-terminal region, currently the main focus for vaccine development, we assessed var2csa from parasite isolates infecting pregnant women. The results reveal for the first time the presence of a major dimorphic region in the functionally critical N-terminal ID1 domain. Parasite isolates expressing VAR2CSA with particular motifs present within this domain are associated with gravidity- and parasite density-related effects. These observations are of particular interest in guiding efforts with respect to optimization of the VAR2CSA-based vaccines currently under development. PMID:26393516

  17. Functional Antibodies against VAR2CSA in Nonpregnant Populations from Colombia Exposed to Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax

    PubMed Central

    Doritchamou, Justin; Arango, Eliana M.; Cabrera, Ana; Arroyo, Maria Isabel; Kain, Kevin C.; Ndam, Nicaise Tuikue; Maestre, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    In pregnancy, parity-dependent immunity is observed in response to placental infection with Plasmodium falciparum. Antibodies recognize the surface antigen, VAR2CSA, expressed on infected red blood cells and inhibit cytoadherence to the placental tissue. In most settings of malaria endemicity, antibodies against VAR2CSA are predominantly observed in multigravid women and infrequently in men, children, and nulligravid women. However, in Colombia, we detected antibodies against multiple constructs of VAR2CSA among men and children with acute P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infection. The majority of men and children (>60%) had high levels of IgGs against three recombinant domains of VAR2CSA: DBL5ε, DBL3X, and ID1-ID2. Surprisingly, these antibodies were observed only in pregnant women, men, and children exposed either to P. falciparum or to P. vivax. Moreover, the anti-VAR2CSA antibodies are of high avidity and efficiently inhibit adherence of infected red blood cells to chondroitin sulfate A in vitro, suggesting that they are specific and functional. These unexpected results suggest that there may be genotypic or phenotypic differences in the parasites of this region or in the host response to either P. falciparum or P. vivax infection outside pregnancy. These findings may hold significant clinical relevance to the pathophysiology and outcome of malaria infections in this region. PMID:24686068

  18. Predicting Suicide Attempts in Depressed Adolescents: Clarifying the Role of Disinhibition and Childhood Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jeremy G.; Kim, Judy C.; Esposito, Erika C.; Gold, Joseph; Nock, Matthew K.; Auerbach, Randy P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents, and depressed youth are six times more likely to make suicide attempts as compared to non-depressed adolescents. The present study examined the unique and interactive effects of two well-established correlates of suicidality – childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and disinhibition – in predicting suicide attempts among depressed adolescents. Method Participants were 163 adolescents (125 females) aged 13 to 18 (M = 15.60, SD = 1.27) diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder (n = 95, 58.3%) and/or Dysthymia (n = 69, 42.3%) recruited from an acute residential treatment service. Participants completed interviews assessing psychopathology and suicidality, self-report measures of depressive symptoms and CSA, and a computerized disinhibition task. Results Consistent with hypotheses, CSA moderated the association between disinhibition and adolescents' report of their past year and lifetime suicide attempts. Specifically, higher disinhibition was associated with a greater likelihood of having made a suicide attempt among adolescents with a history of CSA, but not among those without. The same pattern of results held in analyses of suicide attempt frequency. Limitations Primary findings were based on observational, cross-sectional data, and therefore, causal relationships cannot be inferred. The gender imbalance in the sample precluded stratifying our analyses by gender. CSA was ascertained by self-report; replication of the results with more objective measures is warranted. Conclusions Our findings indicate that CSA and disinhibition may work together to predict elevated suicide risk, and these results have implications for early identification efforts in youth at high risk for suicide. PMID:26318268

  19. Body mass index and anxiety/depression as mediators of the effects of child sexual and physical abuse on physical health disorders in women.

    PubMed

    McCarthy-Jones, Simon; McCarthy-Jones, Roseline

    2014-12-01

    The relation between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and physical health disorders in adulthood, and what factors may serve as mediators, remains poorly understood. Using data from the 2007 Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey (N=3,486), we tested whether CSA was associated with physical health disorders in adult women and if mediated effects via body mass index (BMI), anxiety/depression, alcohol dependence, and smoking were present. Compared to women with no CSA, women who had experienced CSA involving intercourse had more than twice the odds of being obese, more than 3 times the odds of experiencing mental health disorders, more than 4 times the odds of being alcohol dependent, more than 5 times the odds of being drug dependent, and more than 6 times the odds of attempting suicide. Those experiencing both CSA and child physical abuse (CPA) were on average over 11kg heavier than those with neither CSA nor CPA. After controlling for demographics, CPA, and childhood bullying, CSA was associated with the majority of physical health disorders studied (typically 50-100% increases in odds). Evidence was found consistent with mediation by BMI (typically accounting for 5-20% increases in odds) and anxiety/depression (typically accounting for 8-40% increases in odds), in a dose-response manner, for the majority of physical health disorders. Bidirectional relations among these mediators and physical health disorders, and residual confounding, may have led to overestimation of mediation through BMI and anxiety/depression and underestimation of mediation through alcohol/smoking. Relations between both CPA and childhood bullying and physical health disorders in adulthood were also found. Longitudinal studies employing more sensitive measures of potential mediators are now required.

  20. Perpetrators and context of child sexual abuse in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Mwangi, Mary W; Kellogg, Timothy A; Brookmeyer, Kathryn; Buluma, Robert; Chiang, Laura; Otieno-Nyunya, Boaz; Chesang, Kipruto

    2015-06-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) interventions draw from a better understanding of the context of CSA. A survey on violence before age 18 was conducted among respondents aged 13-17 and 18-24 years. Among females (13-17), the key perpetrators of unwanted sexual touching (UST) were friends/classmates (27.0%) and among males, intimate partners (IP) (35.9%). The first incident of UST among females occurred while traveling on foot (33.0%) and among males, in the respondent's home (29.1%). Among females (13-17), the key perpetrators of unwanted attempted sex (UAS) were relatives (28.9%) and among males, friends/classmates (31.0%). Among females, UAS occurred mainly while traveling on foot (42.2%) and among males, in school (40.8%). Among females and males (18-24 years), the main perpetrators of UST were IP (32.1% and 43.9%) and the first incident occurred mainly in school (24.9% and 26.0%), respectively. The main perpetrators of UAS among females and males (18-24 years) were IP (33.3% and 40.6%, respectively). Among females, UAS occurred while traveling on foot (32.7%), and among males, in the respondent's home (38.8%); UAS occurred mostly in the evening (females 60.7%; males 41.4%) or afternoon (females 27.8%; males 37.9%). Among females (18-24 years), the main perpetrators of pressured/forced sex were IP and the first incidents occurred in the perpetrator's home. Prevention interventions need to consider perpetrators and context of CSA to increase their effectiveness. In Kenya, effective CSA prevention interventions that target intimate relationships among young people, the home and school settings are needed.

  1. Sexual revictimization: the impact of attachment anxiety, accumulated trauma, and response to childhood sexual abuse disclosure.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Inbal; Ben-Amitay, Galit

    2015-01-01

    It has been proposed that a complexity of personal, interpersonal, and environmental factors is related to sexual revictimization among childhood sexual abuse survivors. In this study, we investigated the relations between attachment dimensions, exposure to accumulated childhood traumas, reaction to childhood sexual abuse disclosure, and adult sexual revictimization. Participants were 60 Israeli women with histories of childhood sexual abuse. Seventy percent of the women reported adult sexual revictimization. Revictimization was related to higher attachment anxiety but not to higher attachment avoidance. Revictimization was also related to emotional and physical child abuse but not to emotional and physical child neglect. Revictimization rates were higher among women who had received negative environmental responses following childhood sexual abuse disclosure than among women who had received supportive reactions and those who had not disclosed childhood sexual abuse at all. Findings were significant even after controlling for severity of childhood sexual abuse. The findings emphasize the role of various contextual-interpersonal factors on revictimization vulnerability among the survivors of childhood sexual abuse.

  2. Interpersonal difficulties mediate the relationship between child sexual abuse and depression symptoms.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Laura C; Scarpa, Angela

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the influence of interpersonal functioning as a mediator in the relationship between child sexual abuse and depression symptoms, after accounting for the influence of child physical abuse. The research questions build on the existing knowledge base by examining mechanisms of adult adjustment among child sexual abuse survivors. In the current study, 2,892 young adult women (18-29 years old; M = 19.06) reported on child sexual and physical abuse, 5 domains of interpersonal functioning, and depression symptoms. The results supported aggression, sensitivity, ambivalence, and lack of sociability as mediators in the relationship between child sexual abuse and depression symptoms. These results suggest that interpersonal difficulties related to hostility, emotional reactivity, inability to collaborate, and isolation may be of particular interest when understanding depression in child sexual abuse survivors. The findings support interpersonal problems as a key mechanism of depression symptoms following child sexual abuse and is even demonstrated when examining long-term outcomes and controlling for child physical abuse. The hypotheses and findings are discussed in the context of interpersonal psychotherapy for depression.

  3. School age children's coping with sexual abuse: abuse stresses and symptoms associated with four coping strategies.

    PubMed

    Chaffin, M; Wherry, J N; Dykman, R

    1997-02-01

    Strategies used by 84 sexually abused children, ages 7 to 12, to cope with their abuse were evaluated, along with child abuse-related symptoms, parent-reported behavioral symptoms, and teacher-reported behavioral symptoms. Principal components analysis of coping yielded four strategies that were labeled avoidant coping, internalized coping, angry coping, and active/social coping. Each coping strategy was found to be associated with a unique set of abuse characteristics, abuse-related social environment, and symptoms. In contrast to findings with adult survivors and adolescents, use of avoidant coping strategies among school-age children was found to be related to fewer behavioral problems, although it was also associated with greater sexual anxieties. Internalized coping was found to be associated with increased guilt and PTSD hyperarousal symptoms. Active/social coping was the only strategy found to be unrelated to symptoms, but neither was it associated with measured benefits. In contrast to some clinical opinion that externalizing blame and venting anger is a helpful strategy, angry coping was found to be associated with a wide range of behavioral and emotional problems as rated by the child's home-room school teacher. Results are discussed in terms of a proposed mediational model.

  4. Amygdala habituation to emotional faces in adolescents with internalizing disorders, adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related PTSD and healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    van den Bulk, Bianca G; Somerville, Leah H; van Hoof, Marie-José; van Lang, Natasja D J; van der Wee, Nic J A; Crone, Eveline A; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

    2016-10-01

    Adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with childhood sexual abuse related post-traumatic stress disorder (CSA-related PTSD) show a large overlap in symptomatology. In addition, brain research indicated hyper-responsiveness and sustained activation instead of habituation of amygdala activation to emotional faces in both groups. Little is known, however, about whether the same patterns of amygdala habituation are present in these two groups. The current study examined habituation patterns of amygdala activity to emotional faces (fearful, happy and neutral) in adolescents with a DSM-IV depressive and/or anxiety disorder (N=25), adolescents with CSA-related PTSD (N=19) and healthy controls (N=26). Behaviourally, the adolescents from the internalizing and CSA-related PTSD group reported more anxiety to fearful and neutral faces than adolescents from the control group and adolescents from the CSA-related PTSD group reacted slower compared to the internalizing group. At the whole brain level, there was a significant interaction between time and group within the left amygdala. Follow-up ROI analysis showed elevated initial activity in the amygdala and rapid habituation in the CSA-related PTSD group compared to the internalizing group. These findings suggest that habituation patterns of amygdala activation provide additional information on problems with emotional face processing. Furthermore, the results suggest there are differences in the underlying neurobiological mechanisms related to emotional face processing for adolescents with internalizing disorders and adolescents with CSA-related PTSD. Possibly CSA-related PTSD is characterized by a stronger primary emotional response driven by the amygdala.

  5. Psychosocial Outcomes in Adult Survivors of Retinoblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Jennifer S.; Chou, Joanne F.; Sklar, Charles A.; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Novetsky Friedman, Danielle; McCabe, Mary; Robison, Leslie L.; Kleinerman, Ruth A.; Li, Yuelin; Marr, Brian P.; Abramson, David H.; Dunkel, Ira J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Survival rates for individuals diagnosed with retinoblastoma (RB) exceed 95% in the United States; however, little is known about the long-term psychosocial outcomes of these survivors. Patients and Methods Adult RB survivors, diagnosed from 1932 to 1994 and treated in New York, completed a comprehensive questionnaire adapted from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS), by mail or telephone. Psychosocial outcomes included psychological distress, anxiety, depression, somatization, fear of cancer recurrence, satisfaction with facial appearance, post-traumatic growth, and post-traumatic stress symptoms; noncancer CCSS siblings served as a comparison group. Results A total of 470 RB survivors (53.6% with bilateral RB; 52.1% female) and 2,820 CCSS siblings were 43.3 (standard deviation [SD], 11) years and 33.2 (SD, 8.4) years old at the time of study, respectively. After adjusting for sociodemographic factors, RB survivors did not have significantly higher rates of depression, somatization, distress, or anxiety compared with CCSS siblings. Although RB survivors were more likely to report post-traumatic stress symptoms of avoidance and/or hyperarousal (both P < .01), only five (1.1%) of 470 met criteria for post-traumatic stress disorder. Among survivors, having a chronic medical condition did not increase the likelihood of psychological problems. Bilateral RB survivors were more likely than unilateral RB survivors to experience fears of cancer recurrence (P < .01) and worry about their children being diagnosed with RB (P < .01). However, bilateral RB survivors were no more likely to report depression, anxiety, or somatic complaints than unilateral survivors. Conclusion Most RB survivors do not have poorer psychosocial functioning compared with a noncancer sample. In addition, bilateral and unilateral RB survivors seem similar with respect to their psychological symptoms. PMID:26417002

  6. Convergence and Divergence in Reports of Maternal Support Following Childhood Sexual Abuse: Prevalence and Associations with Youth Psychosocial Adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Bick, Johanna; Zajac, Kristyn; Ralston, M. Elizabeth; Smith, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the convergence and divergence in mothers’ and children’s reports of maternal support following disclosures of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). One hundred and twenty mothers and their children (ages 7 to 17 years) reported on two aspects of support following CSA disclosures: mothers’ belief in the child’s disclosure and parent-child discussion of the abuse incident. Whereas 62% of mothers’ and children’s reports on mothers’ belief of the disclosure positively converged (i.e., both reported that mothers “completely believed” the child’s disclosure), 37% of mothers’ and children’s reports diverged, and the remaining 1% negatively converged (i.e., both reported that the mother only believed the child “somewhat”). Positively convergent responses were associated with youths’ lower risk for tobacco and illicit drug use. Forty four percent of mothers’ and children’s reports on whether details of the CSA were discussed positively converged (i.e., both reported that details were discussed), 33% diverged, and 23% negatively converged (i.e., both reported that details were not discussed). Relative to other patterns of reporting, negatively convergent responses were associated with higher levels of trauma symptoms. Findings have implications for identifying high-risk mother-child dyads based on patterns of informant reporting following CSA. PMID:24456741

  7. History of childhood sexual abuse and risk of prenatal and postpartum depression or depressive symptoms: an epidemiologic review.

    PubMed

    Wosu, Adaeze C; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this review is to summarize the literature (and to the extent possible, report the magnitude and direction of the association) concerning history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and depression or depressive symptoms among pregnant and postpartum women. Publications were identified through literature searches of seven databases (PubMed, EMBASE, PyscINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science, BIOSIS, and Science Direct) using keywords including "child abuse," "depression," "pregnancy," "prenatal," "pregnancy," and "postpartum." The literature search yielded seven eligible studies on the prenatal period and another seven studies on the postpartum period. All but one prenatal study observed statistically significant positive associations of CSA with depression or depressive symptoms during pregnancy. Findings on the association of CSA with postpartum depression or depressive symptoms were inconsistent; pooled unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were 1.82 (95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.92, 3.60) and 1.20 (95 % CI 0.81, 1.76). In sum, findings suggest a positive association of history of CSA with depression and depressive symptoms in the prenatal period. Findings on the postpartum period were inconsistent. Clinical and public health implications of evidence from the available literature are discussed, as are desirable study design characteristics of future research.

  8. The Effect of Child Sexual Abuse on Men: Toward a Male Sensitive Measure.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Patrick; Easton, Scott D; Gould, Nick

    2015-06-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a trauma that affects males in substantial numbers, sometimes in ways that are gender-specific (e.g., compromised masculine identity, confusion regarding sexuality). Much of the identification of the male-specific outcomes has been derived from practitioner experience and small qualitative studies. The current study explores gender-specific outcomes and describes the development of a scale to measure the effects of CSA on men. First, qualitative interviews with 20 men who were sexually abused in childhood were thematically analyzed. The emergent themes of sexuality, self-concept, psychological and emotional well-being, and social functioning were used to construct a 30-item instrument which was later completed by 147 men with histories of CSA. The dimensionality of the 30 items was then assessed for suitability as scales using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). The final instrument, the Male Sexual Abuse Effects Scale (MSAES), combines three subscales: Negative Identity, Guilt and Self-Blame, and Psychological and Emotional Well-Being. Items concerning masculine identity were shown to be valid in the scale. MSAES scores were compared with the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28) and found to be significantly correlated. GHQ-28 clinical thresholds were applied to differentiate clinical from nonclinical cases; an independent-samples t test showed that the clinical cases from the GHQ-28 had high scores on the MSAES. The new scale has the potential to help clinicians and researchers identify men who have been severely affected by CSA and who should be of clinical concern.

  9. Unresolved Attachment, PTSD, and Dissociation in Women with Childhood Abuse Histories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stovall-McClough, K. Chase; Cloitre, Marylene

    2006-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine unresolved trauma as assessed by the Adult Attachment Interview and current psychiatric symptoms, focusing on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociation, in a group of adult female childhood abuse survivors. The authors examined psychiatric symptoms and attachment representations in a…

  10. Continuous In Situ Measurements of Near Bottom Chemistry and Sediment-Water Fluxes with the Chimney Sampler Array (CSA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, C. S.; Mendlovitz, H. P.; White, B. L.; Hoer, D.; Sleeper, K.; Chanton, J.; Wilson, R.; Lapham, L.

    2011-12-01

    The Chimney Sampler Array (CSA) was designed to measure in situ chemical and physical parameters within the benthic boundary layer plus methane and oxygen sediment-water chemical fluxes at upper slope sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico. The CSA can monitor temporal changes plus help to evaluate oceanographic and sub-seafloor processes that can influence the formation and stability of gas hydrates in underlying sediments. The CSA consists of vertical cylinders (chimneys) equipped with internal chemical sensors and with laboratory flume-calibrated washout rates. Chimney washout rates multiplied by chimney mean versus ambient concentrations allow calculation of net O2 and methane sediment-water fluxes. The CSA is emplaced on the seafloor by a ROVARD lander using a ROV for chimney deployments. The CSA presently includes two 30 cm diameter by 90 cm length cylinders that seal against the sediment with lead pellet beanbags; within each chimney cylinder are optode, conductivity and methane sensors. The CSA's data logger platform also includes pressure and turbidity sensors external to the chimneys along with an acoustic Doppler current meter to measure temporal variation in ambient current velocity and direction. The CSA was deployed aboard a ROVARD lander on 9/13/2010 in the northern Gulf of Mexico (Lat. 28 51.28440, Long. 088 29.39421) on biogeochemically active sediments within Block MC-118. A ROV was utilized for chimney deployment away from the ROVARD lander. The CSA monitored temporal changes in water column physical parameters, obtained near-bottom chemical data to compare with pore fluid and sediment core measurements and measured temporal variability in oxygen and methane sediment-water fluxes at two closely spaced stations at MC-118. A continuous, three-week data set was obtained that revealed daily cycles in chemical parameters and episodic flux events. Lower than ambient chimney dissolved O2 concentrations controlled by temporal variability in washout rates

  11. Maladaptive Schemas as Mediators in the Relationship Between Child Sexual Abuse and Displaced Aggression.

    PubMed

    Estévez, Ana; Ozerinjauregi, Nagore; Herrero-Fernández, David

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is one of the most serious forms of abuse due to the psychological consequences that persist even into adulthood. Expressions of anger among child sexual abuse survivors remain common even years after the event. While child sexual abuse has been extensively studied, the expression of displaced aggression has been studied less. Some factors, such as the maladaptive early schemas, might account for this deficiency. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationships between child sexual abuse, displaced aggression, and these schemas according to gender and determine if these early schemas mediate the relationship between child sexual abuse and displaced aggression. A total of 168 Spanish subjects who were victims of child sexual abuse completed measures of childhood trauma, displaced aggression, and early maladaptive schemas. The results depict the relationship between child sexual abuse, displaced aggression, and early maladaptive schemas. Women scored higher than men in child sexual abuse, emotional abuse, disconnection or rejection and impaired autonomy. Mediational analysis found a significant mediation effect of disconnection or rejection on the relationship between child sexual abuse and displaced aggression; however, impaired autonomy did not mediate significantly.

  12. Lifting the curtain of silence: survivors speak about rape behind bars.

    PubMed

    Stemple, Lara

    2003-01-01

    In the struggle to end sexual violence behind bars, personal stories of abuse serve as an important advocacy tool for organizations such as Stop Prisoner Rape (SPR). The first-person accounts of men and women who have endured this abuse help to personalize, and thereby, humanize the issue. Statistics about the frequency of prisoner rape are powerful, but they can also be numbing, conveying the sense that nothing can be done to stop the problem. Personal accounts in contrast, have an emotional impact that encourages action. Speaking out about abuse also helps survivors, freeing them from a sense of shame, guilt, and humiliation and providing an avenue of political engagement that can be tremendously empowering. This article presents the first-persona accounts of four individuals whose lives were powerfully affected by rape behind bars.

  13. A regulatory perspective on the abuse potential evaluation of novel stimulant drugs in the United States.

    PubMed

    Calderon, Silvia N; Klein, Michael

    2014-12-01

    In the United States of America (USA), the abuse potential assessment of a drug is performed as part of the safety evaluation of a drug under development, and to evaluate if the drug needs to be subject to controls that would minimize the abuse of the drug once on the market. The assessment of the abuse potential of new drugs consists of a scientific and medical evaluation of all data related to abuse of the drug. This paper describes the regulatory framework for evaluating the abuse potential of new drugs, in general, including novel stimulants. The role of the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the evaluation of the abuse potential of drugs, and its role in drug control are also discussed. A definition of abuse potential, an overview of the currently accepted approaches to evaluating the abuse potential of a drug, as well as a description of the criteria that applies when recommending a specific level of control (i.e., a Schedule) for a drug under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'CNS Stimulants'.

  14. Sexual minority cancer survivors' satisfaction with care.

    PubMed

    Jabson, Jennifer M; Kamen, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    Satisfaction with care is important to cancer survivors' health outcomes. Satisfaction with care is not equal for all cancer survivors, and sexual minority (i.e., lesbian, gay, and bisexual) cancer survivors may experience poor satisfaction with care. Data were drawn from the 2010 LIVESTRONG national survey. The final sample included 207 sexual minority cancer survivors and 4,899 heterosexual cancer survivors. Satisfaction with care was compared by sexual orientation, and a Poisson regression model was computed to test the associations between sexual orientation and satisfaction with care, controlling for other relevant variables. Sexual minority cancer survivors had lower satisfaction with care than did heterosexual cancer survivors (B = -0.12, SE = 0.04, Wald χ(2) = 9.25, p< .002), even controlling for demographic and clinical variables associated with care. Sexual minorities experience poorer satisfaction with care compared to heterosexual cancer survivors. Satisfaction with care is especially relevant to cancer survivorship in light of the cancer-related health disparities reported among sexual minority cancer survivors.

  15. Developing Consumer/Survivor/Recovering Voice and Its Impact on Services and Research: Our Experience with the SAMHSA Women, Co-Occurring Disorders and Violence Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mockus, Susan; Mars, Laura Cinq; Ovard, Dorothy Guazzo; Mazelis, Ruta; Bjelajac, Paula; Grady, Janice; LaClair, Christine; Livingston, Cardenia; Slavin, Sharon; Williams, Susan; McKinney, Jacki

    2005-01-01

    Integrating consumer/survivor/recovering (C/S/R) women in the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's Women, Co-Occurring Disorders and Violence Study involved both struggles and growth. The C/S/R women and all of our professional allies, both individually and collectively, greatly enhanced the study by overcoming what earlier…

  16. Predictors of Treatment Outcomes among Depressed Women with Childhood Sexual Abuse Histories

    PubMed Central

    Cort, Natalie A.; Gamble, Stephanie A.; Smith, Phillip N.; Chaudron, Linda H.; Lu, Naiji; He, Hua; Talbot, Nancy L.

    2012-01-01

    Background A notable portion (21%) of female patients receiving treatment for depression in community mental health centers (CMHC) has childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories. Treatment outcomes in this population are heterogeneous; identifying factors associated with differential outcomes could inform treatment development. This exploratory study begins to address the gap in what is known about predictors of treatment outcomes among depressed women with sexual abuse histories. Method Seventy women with major depressive disorder and CSA histories in a CMHC were randomly assigned to Interpersonal Psychotherapy (n = 37) or usual care (n = 33). Using generalized estimating equations, we examined four pre-treatment predictor domains (i.e., sociodemographic characteristics, clinical features, social and physical functioning, and trauma features) potentially related to depression treatment outcomes. Results Among sociodemographic characteristics, Black race/ethnicity, public assistance income, and unemployment were associated with less depressive symptom reduction over the course of treatment. Two clinical features, chronic depression and borderline personality disorder, were also related to less reduction in depressive symptoms across the treatment period. Conclusion Our results demonstrate the clinical relevance of attending to predictors of depressed women with CSA histories being treated in public sector mental health centers. Particular sociodemographic characteristics and clinical features among these women may be significant indicators of risk for relatively poorer treatment outcomes. PMID:22570264

  17. Murine Model for Preclinical Studies of Var2CSA-Mediated Pathology Associated with Malaria in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Dechavanne, Sebastien; Sousa, Patrícia M.; Barateiro, André; Cunha, Sónia F.; Nunes-Silva, Sofia; Lima, Flávia A.; Murillo, Oscar; Marinho, Claudio R. F.; Gangnard, Stephane; Srivastava, Anand; Braks, Joanna A.; Janse, Chris J.; Gamain, Benoit; Penha-Gonçalves, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy leads to abortions, stillbirth, low birth weight, and maternal mortality. Infected erythrocytes (IEs) accumulate in the placenta by adhering to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) via var2CSA protein exposed on the P. falciparum IE membrane. Plasmodium berghei IE infection in pregnant BALB/c mice is a model for severe placental malaria (PM). Here, we describe a transgenic P. berghei parasite expressing the full-length var2CSA extracellular region (domains DBL1X to DBL6ε) fused to a P. berghei exported protein (EMAP1) and characterize a var2CSA-based mouse model of PM. BALB/c mice were infected at midgestation with different doses of P. berghei-var2CSA (P. berghei-VAR) or P. berghei wild-type IEs. Infection with 104 P. berghei-VAR IEs induced a higher incidence of stillbirth and lower fetal weight than P. berghei. At doses of 105 and 106 IEs, P. berghei-VAR-infected mice showed increased maternal mortality during pregnancy and fetal loss, respectively. Parasite loads in infected placentas were similar between parasite lines despite differences in maternal outcomes. Fetal weight loss normalized for parasitemia was higher in P. berghei-VAR-infected mice than in P. berghei-infected mice. In vitro assays showed that higher numbers of P. berghei-VAR IEs than P. berghei IEs adhered to placental tissue. Immunization of mice with P. berghei-VAR elicited IgG antibodies reactive to DBL1-6 recombinant protein, indicating that the topology of immunogenic epitopes is maintained between DBL1-6–EMAP1 on P. berghei-VAR and recombinant DBL1-6 (recDBL1-6). Our data suggested that impairments in pregnancy caused by P. berghei-VAR infection were attributable to var2CSA expression. This model provides a tool for preclinical evaluation of protection against PM induced by approaches that target var2CSA. PMID:27045035

  18. Barriers to Help Seeking for Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Calton, Jenna M; Cattaneo, Lauren Bennett; Gebhard, Kris T

    2016-12-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a pervasive and devastating social problem that is estimated to occur in one of every four opposite-sex relationships and at least one of every five same-sex romantic relationships. These estimates may not represent violence against those who identify as transgender or genderqueer, and very little comprehensive research has been conducted on IPV within these populations. One statewide study on IPV found rates of IPV were as high as one of every two transgender individuals. In order to cope with the effects of abuse or leave an abusive partner, many lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and genderqueer (LGBTQ) IPV survivors seek support from others. However, LGBTQ IPV survivors may experience unique difficulties related to their sexual orientation and gender identity when seeking assistance. This article reviews the literature on LGBTQ IPV and suggests three major barriers to help-seeking exist for LGBTQ IPV survivors: a limited understanding of the problem of LGBTQ IPV, stigma, and systemic inequities. The significance and consequences of each barrier are discussed, and suggestions for future research, policy, and practice are provided.

  19. How to Handle Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Is Happening en español Cómo manejar el abuso Grown-ups are usually there to help and ... to understand the different types of abuse: physical, sexual, verbal or emotional, and neglect. Physical abuse: Physical ...

  20. Students and Drug Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Todays Educ, 1969

    1969-01-01

    Introduction to "Students and Drug Abuse, prepared by the Public Information Branch and Center for Studies of Narcotic and Drug Abuse, National Institute of Mental Health, in cooperation with the staff of Today's Education.

  1. Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... their drinking causes distress and harm. It includes alcoholism and alcohol abuse. Alcoholism, or alcohol dependence, is a disease that causes ... groups. NIH: National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism

  2. Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... from what the doctor prescribed, it is called prescription drug abuse. It could be Taking a medicine that was prescribed for someone else Taking a ... at higher doses or when taken with other medicines. NIH: National Institute on Drug Abuse

  3. Child abuse - physical

    MedlinePlus

    ... way Uses harsh discipline Was abused as a child Alcohol or drug problems Emotional problems or mental illness ... Physical abuse - children References Berkowitz CD, Stewart ST. Child maltreatment. In: Marx JA, Hockberger RS, Walls RM, eds. ...

  4. Elder Abuse among African Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauriac, Jesse J.; Scruggs, Natoschia

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of extreme, moderate, and mild forms of elder abuse among African-American women (n=25) and men (n=10) were examined. African-American respondents emphasized physical abuse when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Along with physical abuse, verbal abuse was the most frequently identified form of abuse, and was significantly…

  5. Child Abuse: Educator's Responsibilities. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Office of the Attorney General, Sacramento. Crime Prevention Center.

    This document presents the educator with a guide to child abuse. A section defining child abuse examines the issues of physical abuse, physical neglect, sexual abuse, and emotional maltreatment. Areas discussed for these types of abuse include abuse indicators, location of injury, history, behavioral indicators, and types of injury. Incestuous and…

  6. ‘We are looked down upon and rejected socially’: a qualitative study on the experiences of trafficking survivors in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Dahal, Pranab; Joshi, Sunil Kumar; Swahnberg, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Background The successful reintegration of sexual trafficking survivors into Nepalese society is challenging. This paper aims to explore the trafficking process, abuses faced during sexual slavery,and the challenges faced by women and girl survivors for successful reintegration. Method This exploratory study used qualitative methods to identify that poverty, illiteracy, lack of opportunities, and varied social stigma initiate the victimization process, and continuity of this vicious circle increases the risk for (re)entrapment. Result The reasons for sexual trafficking have also become the reasons for restricting survivors from opportunities for growth and mainstreaming. Conclusion Non-existent support systems, detachment from familial ties, being outcast by society, and an uncertain livelihood make reintegration difficult for survivors. PMID:26584683

  7. Shattered vision: disenchantment of couplehood among female survivors of violence in the shadow of their family-of-origin experiences.

    PubMed

    Buchbinder, Eli; Goldblatt, Hadass

    2011-03-01

    This article describes and analyzes the relationship disenchantment of couplehood among female survivors of violence and their family-of-origin experiences of abuse. Twenty Israeli women who were survivors of violence participated in this qualitative research. Each woman underwent three in-depth interviews, two for data collection and one for validating the themes emerging from content analysis. Data analysis revealed that female survivors of violence aim to overcome the distress and pain of emotional and physical violence experienced in their family of origin, by constructing a couplehood vision imbued with a feeling of power, meaning, hope, and freedom. Partner violence shattered the women's vision of couplehood, leading to crisis, disillusionment, and disenchantment in their marital relationships.

  8. Elder Abuse Awareness Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doyle, Kathleen; Morrow, Marilyn J.

    1985-01-01

    The Elder Abuse Awareness Project was undertaken: (1) to determine the incidence of abuse and neglect in seven Illinois counties; and (2) to develop, produce, and distribute educational materials on elder abuse for the service provider and for senior citizens. Results are presented and discussed. (MT)

  9. Elder Abuse in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arai, Mizuho

    2006-01-01

    Perceptions of elder abuse were examined in Japanese women (n =100) and men (n =46). Japanese women and men both emphasized physical aggression, followed by neglect and blaming, when giving examples of extremely abusive behavior. Physical aggression was also the most frequently mentioned type of moderate elder abuse, followed by neglect, economic…

  10. Elder Abuse Awareness Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrow, Marilyn J.; Doyle, Kathleen

    The Elder Abuse Awareness Project was developed to determine the incidence of abuse and neglect of elderly people in several rural counties in central Illinois. A primary purpose of the study was to survey service providers as to their actual encounters with elder abuse and neglect. Each provider was asked about warning signs or cues that were…

  11. Substance Abuse. Policy Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collaboration for Youth, Washington, DC.

    This paper presents the policy statement on substance abuse from the National Collaboration for Youth (NCY). The policy statement section lists programs and activities supported by the NCY. A section on background includes a statement of the issue of substance abuse. Areas examined in this section include alcohol abuse and drunk driving among…

  12. DC Electrical Conductivity Retention, Optical Properties and Ammonia Sensing Analysis of Naturally Degraded CSA-Doped Graphene/polyaniline Composite Nanofibers Prepared with CTAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghazali, Sayyed; Hossain, Muhammad M.; Khan, Abuzar; Khan, Mohd Y.; Hasan, Mudassir

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we report surfactant-mediated synthesis of camphor sulfonic acid (CSA)-doped polyaniline/graphene (PANI/GN) composite nanofibers as an electrical conductor and excellent ammonia sensor. The synthesis was mediated by cetyltrimethylammonium bromide as surfactant. The as-synthesized composite nanofibers were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, tunneling electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, diffused reflectance spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. The electrical conductivity of the CSA-doped PANI/GN composite nanofibers was found to be remarkably enhanced as compared to the CSA-doped PANI. The boost in electronic conductivity could be attributed to an improved electronic interaction between CSA-doped PANI backbone and GN present in the composite system. The naturally degraded CSA-doped PANI/GN composite nanofibers showed a decrease in electrical conductivity but worked as a good ammonia sensor in open atmospheric conditions.

  13. Neuropsychological Functioning in Survivors of Childhood Leukemia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeb, Roger N.; Regan, Judith M.

    1998-01-01

    Examined neuropsychological functioning of survivors of acute lymphoblastic leukemia who underwent central-nervous-system prophylactic treatment. Findings replicated past research in showing survivors perform poorly on visual-motor integration tasks and develop a Nonverbal Learning Disability. Findings offer recommendations for future research and…

  14. 22 CFR 19.11 - Survivor benefits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Survivor benefits. 19.11 Section 19.11 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE PERSONNEL BENEFITS FOR SPOUSES AND FORMER SPOUSES OF PARTICIPANTS IN THE FOREIGN SERVICE RETIREMENT AND DISABILITY SYSTEM § 19.11 Survivor benefits....

  15. 32 CFR 716.4 - Eligible survivors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Eligible survivors. 716.4 Section 716.4 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY PERSONNEL DEATH GRATUITY Provisions Applicable to the Navy and the Marine Corps § 716.4 Eligible survivors. (a) The death gratuity shall be...

  16. Predicting risky sexual behavior in emerging adulthood: examination of a moderated mediation model among child sexual abuse and adult sexual assault victims.

    PubMed

    Littleton, Heather L; Grills, Amie E; Drum, Katherine B

    2014-01-01

    Although having a sexual victimization history is associated with engaging in sexual risk behavior, the mechanisms whereby sexual victimization increases risk behavior are unclear. This study examined use of sex as an affect regulation strategy as a mediator of the relationship between depressive symptoms and sexual risk behavior among 1,616 sexually active college women as well as examined having a history of child sexual abuse (CSA), adolescent/adult sexual assault (ASA), or both (CSA/ASA) as moderators. Results supported the mediated model as well as moderated mediation, where depressive symptoms were more strongly associated with use of sex as an affect regulation strategy among ASA victims, and sex as an affect regulation strategy was more strongly related to sexual risk behavior for CSA/ASA victims.

  17. PREDICTING ABUSE POTENTIAL OF STIMULANTS AND OTHER DOPAMINERGIC DRUGS: OVERVIEW AND RECOMMENDATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Huskinson, Sally L.; Naylor, Jennifer E.; Rowlett, James K.; Freeman, Kevin B.

    2014-01-01

    Examination of a drug’s abuse potential at multiple levels of analysis (molecular/cellular action, whole-organism behavior, epidemiological data) is an essential component to regulating controlled substances under the Controlled Substances Act (CSA). We reviewed studies that examined several central nervous system (CNS) stimulants, focusing on those with primarily dopaminergic actions, in drug self-administration, drug discrimination, and physical dependence. For drug self-administration and drug discrimination, we distinguished between experiments conducted with rats and nonhuman primates (NHP) to highlight the common and unique attributes of each model in the assessment of abuse potential. Our review of drug self-administration studies suggests that this procedure is important in predicting abuse potential of dopaminergic compounds, but there were many false positives. We recommended that tests to determine how reinforcing a drug is relative to a known drug of abuse may be more predictive of abuse potential than tests that yield a binary, yes-or-no classification. Several false positives also occurred with drug discrimination. With this procedure, we recommended that future research follow a standard decision-tree approach that may require examining the drug being tested for abuse potential as the training stimulus. This approach would also allow several known drugs of abuse to be tested for substitution, and this may reduce false positives. Finally, we reviewed evidence of physical dependence with stimulants and discussed the feasibility of modeling these phenomena in nonhuman animals in a rational and practical fashion. PMID:24662599

  18. The perils and possibilities in disclosing childhood sexual abuse to a romantic partner.

    PubMed

    Del Castillo, Darren; Wright, Margaret O'Dougherty

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to understand the long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in adulthood by interviewing seven women about their experiences of disclosing CSA to romantic partners. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, an in-depth, qualitative research approach, was used to analyze the transcripts. The analysis produced 10 themes that were grouped into three domains: (a) Struggling in Private about Disclosure: prior to disclosing, participants described concerns that arose in the context of their romantic relationships; (b) The Experience of Disclosing: participants described when and how they disclosed and the thoughts and feelings accompanying disclosure; and (c) The Aftereffects of Disclosure: after disclosing, participants described the impact it had on the self as well as on the relationship with their romantic partner.

  19. Income in Adult Survivors of Childhood Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wengenroth, Laura; Sommer, Grit; Schindler, Matthias; Spycher, Ben D.; von der Weid, Nicolas X.; Stutz-Grunder, Eveline; Michel, Gisela; Kuehni, Claudia E.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about the impact of childhood cancer on the personal income of survivors. We compared income between survivors and siblings, and determined factors associated with income. Methods As part of the Swiss Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (SCCSS), a questionnaire was sent to survivors, aged ≥18 years, registered in the Swiss Childhood Cancer Registry (SCCR), diagnosed at age <21 years, who had survived ≥5 years after diagnosis of the primary tumor. Siblings were used as a comparison group. We asked questions about education, profession and income and retrieved clinical data from the SCCR. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify characteristics associated with income. Results We analyzed data from 1’506 survivors and 598 siblings. Survivors were less likely than siblings to have a high monthly income (>4’500 CHF), even after we adjusted for socio-demographic and educational factors (OR = 0.46, p<0.001). Older age, male sex, personal and parental education, and number of working hours were associated with high income. Survivors of leukemia (OR = 0.40, p<0.001), lymphoma (OR = 0.63, p = 0.040), CNS tumors (OR = 0.22, p<0.001), bone tumors (OR = 0.24, p = 0.003) had a lower income than siblings. Survivors who had cranial irradiation, had a lower income than survivors who had no cranial irradiation (OR = 0.48, p = 0.006). Discussion Even after adjusting for socio-demographic characteristics, education and working hours, survivors of various diagnostic groups have lower incomes than siblings. Further research needs to identify the underlying causes. PMID:27213682

  20. Inhalant Abuse and Dextromethorphan.

    PubMed

    Storck, Michael; Black, Laura; Liddell, Morgan

    2016-07-01

    Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of a volatile substance for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. As an important, yet underrecognized form of substance abuse, inhalant abuse crosses all demographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries, causing significant morbidity and mortality in school-aged and older children. This review presents current perspectives on epidemiology, detection, and clinical challenges of inhalant abuse and offers advice regarding the medical and mental health providers' roles in the prevention and management of this substance abuse problem. Also discussed is the misuse of a specific "over-the-counter" dissociative, dextromethorphan.

  1. Treatment of Danish Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse—A Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Elklit, Ask

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes in psychological and social domains associated with treatment in survivors of child sexual abuse. Method: Participants from four centers were assessed at baseline and were followed up after six and 12 months. The battery covered posttraumatic and general distress symptoms, attachment, coping styles, self-worth, and social support. Results: The estimated prevalence of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) was 78% at baseline; this rate declined to 40% after one year. There were no differences in outcome measures across the different centers or between the individual and group treatments. Half of the PTSD variation at 12 months was explained by four factors: education, avoidance attachment, emotional coping, and social support. Conclusion: The findings in this study indicated a substantial reduction in mental health problems in survivors following 12 months of treatment and identified personality and social factors important for recovery. PMID:26690484

  2. Rape Survivors' Experiences of the Silent Protest: Implications for Promoting Healing and Resilience.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhanunni, Anita; Edwards, David

    2016-05-01

    This article examines the experiences of nine rape survivors who participated in the Silent Protest, an annual protest march at Rhodes University that aims to highlight the sexual abuse of women, validate the harm done, and foster solidarity among survivors. Participants responded to a semi-structured interview focusing on the context of their rape and its impact, and their experiences of participation in the Protest In the first phase of data analysis, synoptic case narratives were written. In the second, themes from participants' experience were identified using interpretative phenomenological analysis. In the third, the data were examined in light of questions around the extent to which participation contributed to healing. Participants reported experiences of validation and empowerment but the majority were suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder. In some cases, participation had exacerbated self-blame and avoidant coping. Recommendations are made about the provision of psychoeducation and counseling at such events.

  3. Stop It Now! A Pilot Study Into the Limits and Benefits of a Free Helpline Preventing Child Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Van Horn, Joan; Eisenberg, Mara; Nicholls, Carol McNaughton; Mulder, Jules; Webster, Stephen; Paskell, Caroline; Brown, Ashley; Stam, Jeantine; Kerr, Jane; Jago, Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Stop It Now! aims to prevent child sexual abuse using a free anonymous helpline. It provides information, advice, and guidance to anyone concerned about child sexual abuse. It targets people who have sexually abused children or who are worried that they might do so. This article presents findings from a pilot study on the operation and outcomes of the helplines in the United Kingdom and the Netherlands. The findings underline the strength of the public health approach to prevention efforts. More specifically, benefits reported by helpline users are shown to correspond with the aims of the helplines. A number of factors were reported by users that helped them modify their own or others' actions to minimize risk of abuse. However, a challenge that remains is ensuring that helplines are accessible to those most in need. Recommendations are included to further expand the effect of Stop It Now! in reducing CSA.

  4. Caregiver-youth communication about sex in South Africa: the role of maternal child sexual abuse history.

    PubMed

    Anthony, Elizabeth R; Hipp, Tracy N; Darnell, Doyanne A; Armistead, Lisa; Cook, Sarah L; Skinner, Donald

    2014-01-01

    Much of the research on child sexual abuse focuses on negative outcomes. This brief report explores a potentially protective parenting behavior among black South African female caregivers with and without a child sexual abuse history. Using cross-sectional baseline data, we hypothesized that caregiver child sexual abuse history would be positively associated with caregiver-youth sex communication and this relationship would be strongest for girls. Youth whose caregiver experienced child sexual abuse were more likely to report communicating with their caregiver about sex than youth whose caregivers did not experience child sexual abuse; however, this relation did not hold for caregiver reported communication. Child sexual abuse survivors' ability and decision to discuss sex with their youth has the potential to protect youth from sexual risk and demonstrates resilience among a group rarely acknowledged for positive parenting practices.

  5. Rape Survivors' Agency within the Legal and Medical Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greeson, Megan R.; Campbell, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Many rape survivors seek help from the legal and medical systems post-assault. Previous studies have examined how social system personnel treat survivors, but less attention has been paid to how survivors attempt to shape their interactions with these systems. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine rape survivors' agency--the active…

  6. Outcome of paediatric intensive care survivors

    PubMed Central

    Grootenhuis, Martha A.; Bos, Albert P.

    2007-01-01

    The development of paediatric intensive care has contributed to the improved survival of critically ill children. Physical and psychological sequelae and consequences for quality of life (QoL) in survivors might be significant, as has been determined in adult intensive care unit (ICU) survivors. Awareness of sequelae due to the original illness and its treatment may result in changes in treatment and support during and after the acute phase. To determine the current knowledge on physical and psychological sequelae and the quality of life in survivors of paediatric intensive care, we undertook a computerised comprehensive search of online databases for studies reporting sequelae in survivors of paediatric intensive care. Studies reporting sequelae in paediatric survivors of cardiothoracic surgery and trauma were excluded, as were studies reporting only mortality. All other studies reporting aspects of physical and psychological sequelae were analysed. Twenty-seven studies consisting of 3,444 survivors met the selection criteria. Distinct physical and psychological sequelae in patients have been determined and seemed to interfere with quality of life. Psychological sequelae in parents seem to be common. Small numbers, methodological limitations and quantitative and qualitative heterogeneity hamper the interpretation of data. We conclude that paediatric intensive care survivors and their parents have physical and psychological sequelae affecting quality of life. Further well-designed prospective studies evaluating sequelae of the original illness and its treatment are warranted. PMID:17823815

  7. Marriage and divorce among childhood cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Koch, Susanne Vinkel; Kejs, Anne Mette Tranberg; Engholm, Gerda; Møller, Henrik; Johansen, Christoffer; Schmiegelow, Kjeld

    2011-10-01

    Many childhood cancer survivors have psychosocial late effects. We studied the risks for cohabitation and subsequent separation. Through the Danish Cancer Register, we identified a nationwide, population-based cohort of all 1877 childhood cancer survivors born from 1965 to 1980, and in whom cancer was diagnosed between 1965 and 1996 before they were 20 years of age. A sex-matched and age-matched population-based control cohort was used for comparison (n=45,449). Demographic and socioeconomic data were obtained from national registers and explored by discrete-time Cox regression analyses. Childhood cancer survivors had a reduced rate of cohabitation [rate ratio (RR) 0.78; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.73-0.83], owing to lower rates among survivors of both noncentral nervous system (CNS) tumors (RR 0.88; 95% CI: 0.83-0.95) and CNS tumors (RR 0.52; 95% CI: 0.45-0.59). Male CNS tumor survivors had a nonsignificantly lower rate (RR 0.47; 95% CI: 0.38-0.58) than females (RR 0.56; 95% CI: 0.47-0.68). The rates of separation were almost identical to those of controls. In conclusion, the rate of cohabitation was lower for all childhood cancer survivors than for the population-based controls, with the most pronounced reduction among survivors of CNS tumors. Mental deficits after cranial irradiation are likely to be the major risk factor.

  8. Subclinical Hypothyroidism in Childhood Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyun Joo; Hahn, Seung Min; Jin, Song Lee; Shin, Yoon Jung; Kim, Sun Hee; Lee, Yoon Sun; Kim, Hyo Sun; Lyu, Chuhl Joo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In childhood cancer survivors, the most common late effect is thyroid dysfunction, most notably subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH). Our study evaluated the risk factors for persistent SCH in survivors. Materials and Methods Survivors (n=423) were defined as patients who survived at least 2 years after cancer treatment completion. Thyroid function was assessed at this time and several years thereafter. Two groups of survivors with SCH were compared: those who regained normal thyroid function during the follow-up period (normalized group) and those who did not (persistent group). Results Overall, 104 of the 423 survivors had SCH. SCH was observed in 26% of brain or nasopharyngeal cancer survivors (11 of 43) and 21.6% of leukemia survivors (35 of 162). Sixty-two survivors regained normal thyroid function, 30 remained as persistent SCH, and 12 were lost to follow-up. The follow-up duration was 4.03 (2.15–5.78) years. Brain or nasopharyngeal cancer and Hodgkin disease were more common in the persistent group than in the normalized group (p=0.002). More patients in the persistent group received radiation (p=0.008). Radiation to the head region was higher in this group (2394±2469 cGy) than in the normalized group (894±1591 cGy; p=0.003). On multivariable analysis, lymphoma (p=0.011), brain or nasopharyngeal cancer (p=0.039), and head radiation dose ≥1800 cGy (p=0.039) were significant risk factors for persistent SCH. Conclusion SCH was common in childhood cancer survivors. Brain or nasopharyngeal cancer, lymphoma, and head radiation ≥1800 cGy were significant risk factors for persistent SCH. PMID:27189285

  9. Imaging of sigma1 receptors in the human brain using PET and [11C]SA4503.

    PubMed

    Toyohara, Jun; Sakata, Muneyuki; Ishiwata, Kiichi

    2009-09-01

    Sigma(1) receptors were imaged in living human brain by positron emission tomography (PET) using [(11)C] SA4503. A dynamic 90-min scan and kinetic analysis enabled quantification of receptor density in the brain. The sigma(1) receptors were distributed throughout the brain in normal subjects, but decreased in the frontal, temporal, and occipital lobes, cerebellum and thalamus in patients with early Alzheimer's disease and in the putamen in patients with Parkinson's disease. In addition, rates of receptor occupancy by the neuroleptic haloperidol and the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluvoxamine were evaluated by [(11)C]SA4503-PET and found to be high. [(11)C]SA4503-PET is useful for studying the pathophysiology of neurological and psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and for evaluation of the pharmacodynamics of psychiatric drugs.

  10. The Role of the Teacher in Helping Learners Overcome the Negative Impact of Child Sexual Abuse: A South African Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phasha, Tlakale Nareadi

    2008-01-01

    Current literature suggesting the negative impact of childhood experiences of sexual abuse on school functioning makes it imperative to consider the role of the teacher in helping survivors overcome the negative impact of such experiences. Schools cannot ignore the reason why some learners cannot learn. This article presents the findings of a…

  11. Student-to-Student Abuse in the Indian Residential Schools in Canada: Setting the Stage for Further Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Grant; DeGagné, Mike

    2013-01-01

    The Indian residential school system in Canada was established to assimilate Aboriginal children into mainstream society by removing the "Indian within them." In the past 20 years survivors of the schools have come forward with stories of physical and sexual abuse perpetrated against them by staff. However, what is significantly less…

  12. An Evaluation of Cognitive Processing Therapy for the Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Related to Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chard, Kathleen M.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the effectiveness of cognitive processing therapy for sexual abuse survivors (CPT-SA) with that of the minimal attention (MA) given to a wait-listed control group. Seventy-one women were randomly assigned to 1 of the 2 groups. Participants were assessed at pretreatment and 3 times during posttreatment: immediately after…

  13. Vicarious Trauma: An Exploratory Study of the Impact of Providing Sexual Abuse Treatment on Clinicians' Trust and Intimacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanDeusen, Karen M.; Way, Ineke

    2006-01-01

    This study examined vicarious trauma effects in male and female clinicians who treat sexual abuse survivors (n = 111) and sexual offenders (n = 272). The national survey was conducted using a random sample of clinical members of two professional organizations. Analyses tested the relationships between demographic variables, maltreatment history,…

  14. Physical, emotional and sexual adolescent abuse victimisation in South Africa: prevalence, incidence, perpetrators and locations

    PubMed Central

    Meinck, Franziska; Cluver, Lucie D; Boyes, Mark E; Loening-Voysey, Heidi

    2016-01-01

    Background Physical, emotional and sexual abuse of children is a major problem in South Africa, with severe negative outcomes for survivors. To date, no known studies have used data directly obtained from community-based samples of children to investigate prevalence, incidence, locations and perpetrators of child abuse victimisation. This study aims to investigate prevalence and incidence, perpetrators, and locations of child abuse victimisation in South Africa using a multicommunity sample. Methods 3515 children aged 10–17 years (56.6% female) were interviewed from all households in randomly selected census enumeration areas in two South African provinces. Child self-report questionnaires were completed at baseline and at 1-year follow-up (96.7% retention). Results Prevalence was 56.3% for lifetime physical abuse (18.2% past-year incidence), 35.5% for lifetime emotional abuse (12.1% incidence) and 9% for lifetime sexual abuse (5.3% incidence). 68.9% of children reported any type of lifetime victimisation and 27.1% reported lifetime multiple abuse victimisation. Main perpetrators of abuse were reported: for physical abuse, primary caregivers and teachers; for emotional abuse, primary caregivers and relatives; and for sexual abuse, girlfriend/boyfriends or other peers. Conclusions This is the first study assessing current self-reported child abuse through a large, community-based sample in South Africa. Findings of high rates of physical, emotional and sexual abuse demonstrate the need for targeted and effective interventions to prevent incidence and re-victimisation. PMID:26962202

  15. Skin manifestations of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Ermertcan, Aylin Turel; Ertan, Pelin

    2010-01-01

    Child abuse is a major public health problem all over the world. There are four major types of abuse: physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse and neglect. The most common manifestations of child abuse are cutaneous and their recognition; and differential diagnosis is of great importance. Clinicians, especially dermatologists, should be alert about the skin lesions of child abuse. In the diagnosis and management of child abuse, a multidisciplinary approach with ethical and legal procedures is necessary. In this manuscript, cutaneous manifestations of physical, sexual, emotional abuse and neglect are reviewed and discussed.

  16. Survivor Centrality Among Breast Cancer Survivors: Implications for Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Helgeson, Vicki S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The goal of this research was to examine the extent to which 10-year breast cancer survivors integrated cancer into their self-concept (i.e., survivor centrality), identify predictors of survivor centrality, and determine the relation of survivor centrality to well-being. Methods Breast cancer survivors (n = 240) were interviewed 10 years following the initial diagnosis. They completed measures of survivor centrality, illness valence (i.e., positive or negative views of illness), and well-being (positive and negative affect, mental and physical functioning, psychological distress, benefit-finding). Results There were few predictors of the kinds of women who were more likely to integrate breast cancer into their self-concepts, but survivor centrality was related to engaging in behaviors that suggested survivorship was relevant to women’s daily lives, such as becoming involved in breast cancer activities. Survivor centrality was related to three markers of negative psychological well-being: more negative affect, poorer mental functioning, and greater psychological distress. However, in the case of negative affect and psychological distress, this relation was moderated by illness valence, such that survivor centrality was only related to negative psychological well-being when the illness was viewed in less positive terms. Conclusions Women vary in the extent to which they define themselves in terms of the breast cancer experience. Survivor centrality in and of itself is not always indicative of adjustment to disease. When women have a more negative view of being a breast cancer survivor, survivor centrality is more likely to signify potential problems. PMID:20878844

  17. Mutation in CSA creates a new photoperiod-sensitive genic male sterile line applicable for hybrid rice seed production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Xu, Chenxi; He, Yi; Zong, Jie; Yang, Xijia; Si, Huamin; Sun, Zongxiu; Hu, Jianping; Liang, Wanqi; Zhang, Dabing

    2013-01-02

    Rice is a major staple food worldwide. Making hybrid rice has proved to be an effective strategy to significantly increase grain yield. Current hybrid rice technologies rely on male sterile lines and have been used predominantly in indica cultivars. However, intrinsic problems exist in the implementation of these technologies, such as limited germplasms and unpredictable conversions from sterility to fertility in the field. Here, we describe a photoperiod-controlled male sterile line, carbon starved anther (csa), which contains a mutation in an R2R3 MYB transcription regulator of pollen development. This mutation was introduced into indica and japonica rice, and it rendered male sterility under short-day conditions and male fertility under long-day conditions in both lines. Furthermore, F(1) plants of csa and a restorer line JP69 exhibited heterosis (hybrid vigor), suggesting the feasibility of using this mutation to create hybrid rice. The csa-based photoperiod-sensitive male sterile line allows the establishment of a stable two-line hybrid system, which promises to have a significant impact on agriculture.

  18. Development and Performance of the Oxygen Sensor in the CSA-CP Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Limero, Thomas; Beck, Steve; James, John T.

    2004-01-01

    A combustion products analyzer (CPA) was built for use on Shuttle in response to several thermodegradation incidents that had occurred during early flights. The CPA contained sensors that measured carbon monoxide, hydrogen chloride, hydrogen cyanide, and hydrogen fluoride. These marker compounds, monitored by the CPA, were selected based upon the likely products to be released in a spacecraft fire. When the Toxicology Laboratory group at Johnson Space Center (JSC) began to assess the air quality monitoring needs for the International Space Station (ISS), the CPA was the starting point for design of an instrument to monitor the atmosphere following a thermodegradation event. The final product was significantly different from the CPA and was named the compound specific analyzer-combustion products (CSA-CP). The major change from the CPA that will be the focus of this paper was the replacement of an unreliable hydrogen fluoride (HF) sensor with an oxygen sensor. A reliable HF sensor was not commercially available, but as the toxicology group reviewed the overall monitoring strategy for ISS, it appeared that a portable oxygen sensor to backup the major constituent analyzer was needed. Therefore, an oxygen sensor replaced the HF sensor in the new instrument. This paper will describe the development, deployment, and performance of the CSA-CP oxygen sensor on both Shuttle and ISS. Also, data for CSA-CP oxygen sensor accuracy at nominal and reduced pressures will be presented.

  19. Child Abuse Amendments of 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    The booklet presents the report of the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Education and Labor regarding the 1983 Child Abuse Amendments to the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act and the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment and Adoption Reform Act of 1978. The Amendment expands the definition of child abuse to include abuse by…

  20. The impact of childhood gender expression on childhood sexual abuse and psychopathology among young men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo, Marco A; Kuhns, Lisa M; Kwon, Soyang; Mustanski, Brian; Garofalo, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Young men who have sex with men (MSM) are a risk group highly vulnerable to HIV infection and psychiatric symptoms are direct predictors of sexual risk behavior in MSM. Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with psychiatric symptomology in adolescence, and MSM are disproportionately impacted by CSA compared to heterosexuals. Some evidence suggests that childhood gender nonconformity, a natural variation of human gender expression, is more common in MSM than heterosexual males and places MSM at greater risk for CSA. This study examined whether or not childhood gender expression moderated the association between incidents of unwanted, early sexual experiences occurring before age 13 (ESE) and current psychiatric symptomology in a community-based sample of 449 young MSM aged 16-20. Analyses revealed significant bivariate associations between ESE and psychological symptoms, and significant multivariable associations between ESE, gender nonconformity and psychiatric outcomes. Young MSM with childhood gender nonconformity may be disproportionately victimized by CSA thereby increasing their likelihood of developing psychiatric symptoms in adolescence. Early intervention addressing these factors may help reduce lifetime negative sequelae.