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  1. Couples therapy with childhood sexual abuse survivors (CSA) and their partners: establishing a context for witnessing.

    PubMed

    Nasim, Ron; Nadan, Yochay

    2013-09-01

    This article proposes a clinical practice for therapy with couples in which one partner suffered sexual abuse in childhood. Such couples often encounter unique difficulties with physical contact, intimacy, sexuality, communication, and trust, and their relationship dynamic may be marked by reenactments of past traumatic relational patterns. This clinical practice is founded on the assumption that establishing the witnessing lacking during the traumatic event in childhood can break the traumatic reenactments in adulthood, and spur recovery. The suggested practice may facilitate twofold witnessing: the couple's therapist witnesses the reenactments of the trauma in the couple's relationship; and the survivor's partner witnesses the trauma's effect on the survivor's personal life and relationship. Twofold witnessing can help break the cycle of traumatic reenactment and help the survivor integrate the events of her life into a more coherent, continuous narrative. The partner's presence also facilitates acknowledgement of what happened to the survivor, and helps the survivor elaborate on her stories of resistance, survival, and strength. Finally, each of the partners is able to appear more wholly and fully, and together to tell the preferred stories of their life as a couple, replete with the multiple relational patterns they wish to live, which may contradict the characteristics of the original trauma. PMID:24033236

  2. The Sexuality of Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Roller, Cynthia; Martsolf, Donna S; Draucker, Claire Burke; Ross, Ratchneewan

    2011-01-01

    In this grounded theory study, a theoretical framework that depicts the process by which childhood sexual abuse (CSA) influences the sexuality of women and men survivors was constructed. Data were drawn from interview transcripts of 95 men and women who experienced CSA. Using constant comparison analysis, the researchers determined that the central phenomenon of the data was a process labeled Determining My Sexual Being, in which survivors moved from grappling with questions related to the nature, cause, and sexual effects of the abuse to laying claim to their own sexuality. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:21785665

  3. Experiential Avoidance and High-Risk Sexual Behavior in Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batten, Sonja V.; Follette, Victoria M.; Aban, Inmaculada B.

    2001-01-01

    The process of experiential avoidance has been proposed to account for many of the correlates of child sexual abuse (CSA). Explores variables related to two of the long-term correlates of CSA, general psychological distress and high risk sexual behavior. Results indicate that CSA survivors report higher levels of experiential avoidance and…

  4. Female Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors: An Existential Exploration and Implications for Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Kathy D.; Mills, Kimberly T.; Strickland, Amanda L.

    2011-01-01

    In the United States, annual prevalence factors indicate that 25% of women are reported survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Existential concerns and basic purposes within the physical, social, personal and spiritual dimensions of female CSA survivors' worldviews are explored. The recognition and meanings of existential purposes and concerns…

  5. Spirituality and Coping with Life Stress among Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gall, Terry Lynn

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore the role of spiritual coping in adult survivors' responses to current life stressors. Although there has been research on general coping and adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), there has been no work done on spiritual coping behaviour and survivors' current adjustment. Method: One…

  6. Abuse deterrent formulations and the Controlled Substances Act (CSA).

    PubMed

    Sapienza, Frank L

    2006-06-01

    The Controlled Substances Act (CSA) has reduced the diversion of controlled substances at the manufacturing and distribution levels. Recent increased diversion has occurred at the retail level. Levels of diversion and abuse of controlled substances with similar abuse potential and therapeutic indications often parallel availability for medical use, while rates of diversion and abuse may be influenced by factors related to specific products, including their formulations and risk management plans. Abuse deterrent formulations may reduce abuse and attendant adverse health consequences even if the products are diverted. Their development should consider how, to what extent and by whom products containing the targeted substance are abused. It should take into consideration all potential types of abuse including "as is", multiple doses, alternate routes of administration, physical or chemical separation of the active ingredient, compromised extended release mechanisms and abuse in combination with other substances. Industry incentives for developing abuse-resistant formulations include enhanced corporate image and potentially less restrictive scheduling or risk management plans. Scheduling is substance specific, but the CSA includes products/formulations that are differentially scheduled. Issues to be considered for differential scheduling under the CSA include: (1) whether there is legal authority to do so; (2) application of standard scheduling criteria to individual products; (3) product specific data for "eight factor analyses"; (4) development of predictive data and standards accepted by the scientific and regulatory communities; (5) use of predictive data or post marketing surveillance data; (6) international treaty obligations. These issues must be addressed before differential scheduling can be considered. PMID:16529882

  7. Relationship to Perpetrator, Disclosure, Social Reactions, and PTSD Symptoms in Child Sexual Abuse Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Sarah E.

    2007-01-01

    This research examined victim relationship to the perpetrator, disclosure characteristics, social reactions, and PTSD in adult survivors' of child sexual abuse (CSA) identified in a convenience sample of 733 college students. Results indicated that relationship to the perpetrator was related to CSA characteristics and outcomes. More negative…

  8. Assessing the Long-Term Effects of EMDR: Results from an 18-Month Follow-Up Study with Adult Female Survivors of CSA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmond, Tonya; Rubin, Allen

    2004-01-01

    This 18-month follow-up study builds on the findings of a randomized experimental evaluation that found qualified support for the short-term effectiveness of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) in reducing trauma symptoms among adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). The current study provides preliminary evidence…

  9. The "Wall of Fear": The Bridge between the Traumatic Event and Trauma Resolution Therapy for Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oz, Sheri

    2005-01-01

    A multitude of published books and papers on child sexual abuse (CSA) describe symptoms, long-term effects, and therapy for survivors of abuse. However, the parallels between the nature of the sexual trauma event(s) as originally experienced by the victim and the therapeutic process into which the survivor later becomes engaged have not been…

  10. A qualitative cancer screening study with childhood sexual abuse survivors: experiences, perspectives and compassionate care

    PubMed Central

    Gesink, Dionne; Nattel, Lilian

    2015-01-01

    Objective The childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivor population is substantial and survivors have been identified as part of the population who were under-screened or never-screened for breast, cervical and colon cancer. Our objective was to learn CSA survivor perspectives on, and experiences with, breast, cervical and colon cancer screening with the intention of generating recommendations to help healthcare providers improve cancer screening participation. Design A pragmatic constructivist qualitative study involving individual, semistructured, in-depth interviews was conducted in January 2014. Thematic analysis was used to describe CSA survivor perspectives on cancer screening and identify potential facilitators for screening. Participants A diverse purposive sample of adult female CSA survivors was recruited. The inclusion criteria were: being a CSA survivor, being in a stable living situation, where stable meant able to meet one's financial needs independently, able to maintain supportive relationships, having participated in therapy to recover from past abuse, and living in a safe environment. 12 survivors were interviewed whose ages ranged from the early 40s to mid-70s. Descriptive saturation was reached after 10 interviews. Setting Interviews were conducted over the phone or Internet. CSA survivors were primarily from urban and rural Ontario, but some resided elsewhere in Canada and the USA. Results The core concept that emerged was that compassionate care at every level of the healthcare experience could improve cancer screening participation. Main themes included: desire for holistic care; unique needs of patients with dissociative identity disorder; the patient-healthcare provider relationship; appointment interactions; the cancer screening environment; and provider assumptions about patients. Conclusions Compassionate care can be delivered by: building a relationship; practising respect; focusing attention on the patient; not rushing the appointment

  11. Intrapersonal and Familial Effects of Child Sexual Abuse on Female Partners of Male Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Christine M. Anderson; Veach, Patricia McCarthy

    2005-01-01

    Intrapersonal and familial effects of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) were investigated by interviewing 10 female partners of male survivors. Consensual qualitative research analysis (C. Hill, B. Thompson, & E. Nutt Williams, 1997) yielded 13 domains describing male partner, female partner, couple, and family functioning. Findings concerning…

  12. Amelioration of sexual fantasies to sexual abuse cues in an adult survivor of childhood sexual abuse: a case study.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jane E; Wilson, Keith M

    2008-12-01

    Although sexual dysfunction of childhood sexual abuse survivors has received considerable attention, other sexual difficulties experienced by survivors of CSA, such as sexual fantasies to cues of sexual abuse, have received less attention. In this A-B design case study, a young adult female survivor of childhood sexual abuse presented for treatment at a Midwest rape crisis center. After successful treatment of post-traumatic stress disorder, she complained of unwanted sexual fantasies to sexual abuse cues and concomitant guilt and shame. Following baseline data collection, treatment consisted of self-applied aversion therapy to unwanted sexual arousal to sexual abuse cues. Decrease in sexual arousal to these cues was concurrent with the introduction of treatment. A concomitant decrease in guilt and shame occurred while self-ratings of control increased. PMID:18355799

  13. A Qualitative Study of Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors in Taiwan: Toward a Transactional and Ecological Model of Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Yu-Wei; Heppner, P. Paul

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to explore the experiences of 10 female Taiwanese childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivors (age range = 20-39 years) to broaden our understanding of the post-abuse coping process in a Chinese sociocultural context. This investigation was grounded on a feminist paradigm, and the consensual qualitative research method (Hill et…

  14. Extradyadic Sexual Involvement and Sexual Compulsivity in Male and Female Sexual Abuse Survivors.

    PubMed

    Vaillancourt-Morel, Marie-Pier; Dugal, Caroline; Poirier Stewart, Rébécca; Godbout, Natacha; Sabourin, Stéphane; Lussier, Yvan; Briere, John

    2016-01-01

    We tested a mediation model in which the relationship between child sexual abuse (CSA) severity and extradyadic sexual involvement (ESI) is explained through sexual compulsivity. Participants were 669 adults currently involved in an intimate relationship who completed self-report questionnaires. Prevalence of ESI was 32% in women and 57% in men survivors, more than twice the rates among participants with no CSA history. Sexual compulsivity was significantly higher in participants with multiple extradyadic partners as compared to participants reporting only one extradyadic relationship, who nevertheless scored higher than participants reporting no extradyadic partner. The hypothesized structural equation model (SEM) was invariant across men and women and indicated CSA severity was positively and significantly associated with sexual compulsivity, which, in turn, predicted ESI. However, there was also a direct association between CSA and ESI. High CSA severity, directly and through high sexual compulsivity, led to the highest probability of ESI. PMID:26421749

  15. Themes of power and betrayal in sexual abuse survivors' characterizations of interpersonal relationships.

    PubMed

    Liem, J H; O'Toole, J G; James, J B

    1996-10-01

    Consistent with the notion that childhood sexual abuse (CSA) shapes motivational dispositions and internalized schemata that are reflected in adult characterizations of self and others, we hypothesized that adult CSA survivors' characterizations of interpersonal relationships would reflect greater power motivation as defined by McClelland and Winter, and more preoccupation with themes of powerlessness and betrayal than nonabused adult's - a pattern associated with poor psychological functioning. Stories written by women with CSA histories (n = 43) reflected both a greater need for and fear of power, and contained more themes of powerlessness and betrayal than stories written by women without CSA histories (n = 43). Frequency of sexual abuse in combination with fear of power was predictive of depression and low self-esteem. PMID:8902744

  16. Adolescent Survivors of Sexual Abuse: Developmental Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banyard, Victoria L.; Williams, Linda M.

    2007-01-01

    Using an ecological model as a guiding framework, this article reviews key factors which put adolescent survivors of sexual abuse at risk for negative outcomes, as well as resources which might enhance positive outcomes and recovery. Throughout the article, quotes from women who experienced sexual abuse during their youth highlight opportunities…

  17. Emotional Support and Adult Depression in Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Musliner, Katherine L.; Singer, Jonathan B.

    2015-01-01

    The goals of this study were to evaluate the effects of emotional support from friends and parents at two time points (adolescence and adulthood) on adult depression in a nationally representative sample of survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and examine whether the associations were moderated by the identity of the perpetrator (parent/caregiver vs. not). Data was taken from Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). The study sample included 1,238 Add Health participants with a history of CSA and an equivalently sized comparison group of individuals with no history of CSA. Parental support was measured using four items from each wave that assessed the warmth of participants' relationships with their parents and their satisfaction with those relationships. Friend support in adolescence was measured using participants' perceptions of how much their friends cared about them and in adulthood using participants' self-reported number of close friends. Depression was measured using a 10-item subscale of the CES-D. Support from friends and parents in adulthood were significantly associated with lower odds of adult depression in CSA survivors with a history of non-parent/caregiver abuse. Among survivors of parent/caregiver abuse, emotional support was not significantly associated with adult depression regardless of when or by whom it was provided. Emotional support in adulthood from friends and parents is associated with reduced odds of adult depression in CSA survivors, but only in cases where the abuse was perpetrated by someone other than a parent or caregiver. PMID:24630442

  18. Adult mental health outcomes of child sexual abuse survivors born at extremely low birth weight.

    PubMed

    Lund, Jessie I; Day, Kimberly L; Schmidt, Louis A; Saigal, Saroj; Van Lieshout, Ryan J

    2016-09-01

    The high prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) is concerning, particularly as survivors are at increased risk for multiple adverse outcomes, including poor mental health across the lifespan. Children born at an extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1000g) and who experience CSA may be a group that is especially vulnerable to psychopathology later in life. However, no research has considered the mental health risks associated with being born at ELBW and experiencing CSA. In this study, we investigated the mental health of 179 ELBW survivors and 145 matched normal birth weight (NBW; >2500g) participants at ages 22-26 and 29-36. At age 22-26, CSA was associated with increased odds of clinically significant internalizing (OR=7.32, 95% CI: 2.31-23.23) and externalizing (OR=4.65, 95% CI: 1.11-19.51) problems among ELBW participants exposed to CSA compared to those who did not, though confidence intervals were wide. At age 29-36, CSA was linked to increased odds of any current (OR=3.43, 95% CI: 1.08-10.87) and lifetime (OR=7.09, 95% CI: 2.00-25.03) non-substance use psychiatric disorders, however, this did not hold after adjustment for covariates. Statistically significant differences in mental health outcomes were not observed in NBW participants exposed to CSA compared to NBW participants who were not exposed. Survivors of significant perinatal adversity who are also exposed to CSA may be at higher risk for psychopathology through the fourth decade of life. PMID:27500386

  19. Relationship to perpetrator, disclosure, social reactions, and PTSD symptoms in child sexual abuse survivors.

    PubMed

    Ullman, Sarah E

    2007-01-01

    This research examined victim relationship to the perpetrator, disclosure characteristics, social reactions, and PTSD in adult survivors' of child sexual abuse (CSA) identified in a convenience sample of 733 college students. Results indicated that relationship to the perpetrator was related to CSA characteristics and outcomes. More negative reactions such as disbelief were observed for those victimized by relatives compared with acquaintance and stranger victims, especially for those disclosing in childhood. Victims of relatives had more PTSD symptoms if they delayed disclosure, received more negative reactions in childhood, and engaged in self-blame at the time of the abuse. Results are discussed in the context of Freyd's (1996) betrayal trauma theory, in order to better understand the traumatic impact of CSA. PMID:17255075

  20. Childhood Sexual Abuse. A Booklet for First Nations Adult Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samson, Alana; And Others

    This booklet offers information about sources of help for First Nations adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse, particularly in Canada. It explains the definition of sexual abuse and describes the specifics of the law regarding such abuse. Descriptions of common aspects of childhood sexual abuse include quotes from adult survivors. Long-term…

  1. Sexual self-schemas of female child sexual abuse survivors: relationships with risky sexual behavior and sexual assault in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Niehaus, Ashley F; Jackson, Joan; Davies, Stephanie

    2010-12-01

    Childhood sexual trauma has been demonstrated to increase survivors' risk for engaging in unrestricted sexual behaviors and experiencing adolescent sexual assault. The current study used the sexual self-schema construct to examine cognitive representations of sexuality that might drive these behavioral patterns. In Study 1 (N = 774), we attempted to improve the content validity of the Sexual Self Schema Scale for child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors, introducing a fourth sexual self-schema factor titled the "immoral/irresponsible" factor. In Study 2 (N = 1150), the potential differences in sexual self-views, as assessed by the four sexual self-schema factors, between CSA survivors and non-victims were explored. In addition, Study 2 evaluated how these sexual self-schema differences may contribute to participation in unrestricted sexual behaviors and risk for sexual assault in adolescence. Results indicated that a history of CSA impacted the way women viewed themselves as a sexual person on each of the four factors. CSA survivors were found to view themselves as more open and possessing more immoral/irresponsible cognitions about sexuality as compared to women who did not have a CSA history. In addition, the CSA survivors endorsed less embarrassment and passionate/romantic views of their sexual selves. The interaction of CSA severity and the sexual self-schemas explained variance in adolescent sexual assault experiences above and beyond the severity of CSA history and participation in risky sexual behaviors. The findings suggest that sexual self-views may serve to moderate the relationship between CSA and adolescent sexual assault. Implications of these findings and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:20229148

  2. The Psychospiritual Dynamics of Adult Survivors of Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemoncelli, John; Carey, Andrew

    1996-01-01

    Discusses challenges in treating adult survivors of physical, emotional, and sexual abuse, and how the relationship with God can either psychologically promote healing or maintain an abusive cycle. Argues that clinicians must understand the dynamic bonding process between abuser and survivor and how this relationship is typically transferred to…

  3. Positive Coping Strategies Developed by Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benishek, Lois A.; Morrow, Susan L.

    1995-01-01

    Estimates indicate that 1 in 4 women and 1 in 7 men have been sexually abused as children. These statistics may be underestimated based on anecdotal information relayed by many therapists who specialize in working with survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Effects of childhood sexual abuse have far reaching implications for the survivors' abilities…

  4. Adult Adjustment of Survivors of Institutional Child Abuse in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Alan; Dooley, Barbara; Fitzpatrick, Mark; Flanagan, Edel; Flanagan-Howard, Roisin; Tierney, Kevin; White, Megan; Daly, Margaret; Egan, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To document the adult adjustment of survivors of childhood institutional abuse. Method: Two hundred and forty-seven adult survivors of institutional abuse with a mean age of 60 were interviewed with a protocol that included the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, modules from the Structured Clinical Interview for Axis I Disorders of DSM IV…

  5. Resilient Child Sexual Abuse Survivors: Cognitive Coping and Illusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himelein, Melissa J.; McElrath, Jo Ann V.

    1996-01-01

    Two studies examined coping strategies associated with resilience in a nonclinical sample of young adult child sexual abuse survivors. Survivors were likely to engage in positive illusions or such cognitive strategies as disclosing and discussing the abuse, minimization, positive reframing, and refusing to dwell on the experience. Results support…

  6. Enactment and the treatment of abuse survivors.

    PubMed

    Plakun, E M

    1998-01-01

    Regardless of the approach employed, treatment of patients with histories of sexual or other abuse is a formidable challenge. One reason for this is the vulnerability to "enactment" inherent in therapeutic work with such patients. Enactment is a recently elaborated psychoanalytic notion, defined as a pattern of nonverbal interactional behavior between the two parties in a therapeutic situation, with unconscious meaning for both. It involves mutual projective identification between therapist and patient. This paper clarifies the nature of enactment (conceptualized here as involving either refusal or actualization of the transference by the therapist) and its treatment implications. Transference-countertransference enactment paradigms encountered in work with survivors of abuse are presented. The therapeutic consequences of failing to recognize and respond to such enactments in work with these patients are explored. Unrecognized enactments may lead therapists unwittingly to abdicate the therapeutic role by becoming abusive, abused or vicariously traumatized, excessively guilty, seductive, overinvolved, and/or exhortatory or to implant false memories. Ways of utilizing enactment to advance treatment are also described and illustrated. PMID:9559350

  7. Eating Disorders in Adult Women: The Sexual Abuse Connection. A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roland, Catherine; Butler, Scott

    1992-01-01

    Literature review examines several areas repeatedly addressed concerning prevalence of eating disorders and child sexual abuse (CSA): psychological profiles of eating-disordered adult women who may have experienced CSA; psychosocial aftereffects of CSA; familial dynamics of survivors of CSA; studies connecting eating disorders and CSA; and studies…

  8. Family of Origin Environments in Two Clinical Samples of Survivors of Intra-Familial, Extra-Familial, and Both Types of Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, S.N.; Hyman, S.M.; Andres-Hyman, R.C.

    2004-01-01

    e family members, non-family members, or both family and non-family members.Objective:: It has been suggested that survivors of ongoing childhood sexual abuse (CSA) tend to have been reared in ineffective family environments that render them particularly vulnerable to maltreatment and which foster psychological difficulties beyond those accounted…

  9. Understanding economic abuse in the lives of survivors.

    PubMed

    Postmus, Judy L; Plummer, Sara-Beth; McMahon, Sarah; Murshid, N Shaanta; Kim, Mi Sung

    2012-02-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) often includes economic abuse as one tactic commonly used by an abuser; unfortunately, there is a lack of empirical understanding of economic abuse. Additionally, research is limited on the predictors of economic self-sufficiency in the lives of women experiencing IPV. This paper furthers our knowledge about economic abuse and its relationship with economic self-sufficiency by presenting the results from an exploratory study with IPV survivors participating in a financial literacy program. Of the 120 individuals who participated in the first wave, 94% experienced some form of economic abuse, which also correlated highly with other forms of IPV. Seventy-nine percent experienced some form of economic control, 79% experienced economic exploitative behaviors, and 78% experienced employment sabotage. MANOVA results also indicated that economic control differed significantly based on education with those with a high school education experiencing higher rates than those with less than high school education or those with some college. Finally, results from the OLS regressions indicated that experiencing any form of economic abuse as well as economic control significantly predicted a decrease in economic self sufficiency. Implications suggest that advocates should assess for economic abuse when working with survivors and should be prepared to offer financial tools to increase survivors' economic self-sufficiency. Policymakers should understand the ramifications of economic abuse and create policies that support survivors and prohibit economic abuse. Finally, more research is needed to fully understand economic abuse and its impact on survivors and their economic self-sufficiency. PMID:21987509

  10. Exploring Disclosure in Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whisnant, Roberta Ann

    2009-01-01

    Previous research involving adult survivors of CSA (childhood sexual abuse) indicates that approximately 77% of CSA victims did not report the abuse while in childhood. The purpose of this study was to examine CSA disclosure in childhood. Participants for this study were 137 children/adolescents ranging in ages from 2-16 interviewed at a child…

  11. Barriers to Successful Treatment Completion in Child Sexual Abuse Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Paul; Scribano, Philip; Stevens, Jack

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) often requires psychological treatment to address the symptoms of victim trauma. Barriers to entry and completion of counseling services can compromise long-term well-being. An integrated medical and mental health evaluation and treatment model of a child advocacy center (CAC) has the potential to reduce barriers to mental…

  12. Multi-Informant Assessment of Anxiety regarding Ano-Genital Examinations for Suspected Child Sexual Abuse (CSA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scribano, Philip V.; Hornor, Gail; Rhoda, Dale; Curran, Sherry; Stevens, Jack

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Given the commonly held belief that physical examinations for child sexual abuse (CSA) are very distressing, our primary objective was to evaluate anxiety during these assessments using the Multidimensional Anxiety Score for Children (MASC-10). A second objective was to compare self-reported anxiety to parental report using the MASC-10…

  13. Counselor Meaning-Making: Working with Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Viviani, Anna Michele

    2011-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse is a prevalent but taboo topic in society. Conservatively 80,000 new cases are reported each year with many more either unreported or unsubstantiated within the legal system. Survivors of childhood sexual abuse often times seek counseling assistance to manage the variety of short-and long-term emotional issues that may arise…

  14. A Coping Model for Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draucker, Claire B.

    1995-01-01

    A group of 149 adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse was tested using a causal model that identifies relationships among sexual abuse situation characteristics, the accomplishment of cognitive coping tasks, and long-term effects. Results indicated the model did not fit the data. A revised model is proposed and examined. (JBJ)

  15. Child Sexual Abuse Survivors with Dissociative Amnesia: What's the Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Molly R.; Nochajski, Thomas H.

    2013-01-01

    Although the issue of dissociative amnesia in adult survivors of child sexual abuse has been contentious, many research studies have shown that there is a subset of child sexual abuse survivors who have forgotten their abuse and later remembered it. Child sexual abuse survivors with dissociative amnesia histories have different formative and…

  16. Attributions of Responsibility in a Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) Vignette among Respondents with CSA Histories: The Role of Abuse Similarity to a Hypothetical Victim

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Hilary G.; Zinzow, Heidi M.; Burns, Erin E.; Jackson, Joan L.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research suggests that similarity to a victim may influence attributions of responsibility in hypothetical child sexual abuse scenarios. One aspect of similarity receiving mixed support in the literature is respondent child sexual abuse history. Using a sample of 1,345 college women, the present study examined child sexual abuse history,…

  17. Perceptions of Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors: Development and Initial Validation of a New Scale to Measure Stereotypes of Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zafar, Sadia; Ross, Erin C.

    2013-01-01

    The Childhood Sexual Abuse Stereotypes Scale was developed to assess stereotypes of adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Scale items were derived from two studies that elicited cultural and personal beliefs about, and emotions experienced towards adult childhood sexual abuse survivors among university undergraduates. Two scales, Emotions and…

  18. Attributions of responsibility in a child sexual abuse (CSA) vignette among respondents with CSA histories: the role of abuse similarity to a hypothetical victim.

    PubMed

    Harding, Hilary G; Zinzow, Heidi M; Burns, Erin E; Jackson, Joan L

    2010-03-01

    Previous research suggests that similarity to a victim may influence attributions of responsibility in hypothetical child sexual abuse scenarios. One aspect of similarity receiving mixed support in the literature is respondent child sexual abuse history. Using a sample of 1,345 college women, the present study examined child sexual abuse history, similarity to victim, and attributions of responsibility to a hypothetical victim, family member, and perpetrator in a child sexual abuse vignette. Results revealed no group differences in responsibility ratings among respondents with and without child sexual abuse histories. However, among the 133 respondents with child sexual abuse histories, results indicated that similarity to victim moderated the relationship between vignette characteristics, respondent history, and responsibility attributions. Results suggest that similarity to a victim may influence ratings in a self-preserving manner. PMID:20390786

  19. Victim Therapy with Adult Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Thomas L.

    This paper describes a four-phase therapeutic approach that has proven useful to adult female and male survivors of child sexual abuse. The methods described are primarily used in individual therapy, although the context is within the family therapy realm and relies heavily upon Structural Family Systems Theory. The four phases which a victim…

  20. The Use of Transpersonal Empathy with Child Abuse Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilewski, Michael J.

    Adult survivors of childhood abuse are some of the more difficult and challenging patients in psychotherapy. This paper applies a transpersonal model of empathy to therapeutic work with these individuals. The transpersonal model of empathy extends traditional humanistic models which strive towards "advanced accurate empathy" to the level at which,…

  1. The Feeling of Being Contaminated in Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Its Treatment via a Two-Session Program of Cognitive Restructuring and Imagery Modification: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Kerstin; Steil, Regina

    2012-01-01

    Clinical experiences show that many survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) suffer from a distressing feeling of being contaminated (FBC) even years or decades after the last experience of sexual violence. So far, this symptom has been neglected in research. The aim of this article is to illustrate this symptom and the necessity of a specialized…

  2. Health Professionals' Responses to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse History: Female Child Sexual Abuse Survivors' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Kim; Julich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had…

  3. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN CHILDHOOD SEXUAL ABUSE (CSA) AND ADVERSE PSYCHOLOGICAL OUTCOMES AMONG YOUTH IN TAIPEI

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nan; Ahmed, Saifuddin; Zabin, Laurie S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The objective of this study is to examine the relationship between a history of CSA and negative psychological consequences in adulthood controlling for family environments and Confucian values. Methods The data used in this study was collected from Taipei. 4084 participants aged 15-24 composed the final analysis sample. Three sets of logistic regression models were fitted to verify the association between CSA and negative psychological outcomes. Socio-demographic variables, household instability and parenting variables, as well as Confucian value variables were controlled in models step by step. The overall prevalence of CSA in our analysis sample was 5.2 %. Results The overall prevalence of depression, anxiety and suicidal ideation among Taipei respondents were 11.8 %, 16.4 % and 16.7 %, respectively, but young people who experienced CSA had significantly higher rates of all three than young adults who had not experienced CSA. After controlled for other covariates, the odds ratios of depression, anxiety and suicidal ideation associated with a history of CSA were 1.78 (95% CI: 1.25-2.54), 1.77 (95% CI: 1.28-2.44) and 2.56 (95% CI: 1.56-4.29), respectively. Conclusion Our findings suggested that CSA is an independent predictor of negative psychological consequences in adulthood. In our analysis, we controlled for household, parenting and Confucian culture factors which provides a better understanding of how they work together to affect adult psychological status. PMID:22340856

  4. Service Patterns of Adult Survivors of Childhood versus Adult Sexual Assault/Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Susan F.; Lundy, Marta; Bertrand, Cathy; Ortiz, Cynthia; Tomas-Tolentino, Grace; Ritzema, Kim; Matson, Julia

    2009-01-01

    This analysis compared the characteristics and service patterns of adult survivors of childhood sexual assault/abuse and adult survivors of adult sexual assault/abuse. Utilizing data from sexual assault crisis centers serving survivors in a Midwestern state over a six year period and controlling for revictimization, we describe and compare the…

  5. Emotions and emotion regulation in survivors of childhood sexual abuse: the importance of “disgust” in traumatic stress and psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Coyle, Eimear; Karatzias, Thanos; Summers, Andy; Power, Mick

    2014-01-01

    Background Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has the potential to compromise socio-emotional development of the survivor resulting in increased vulnerability to difficulties regulating emotions. In turn, emotion regulation is thought to play a key part in a number of psychological disorders which CSA survivors are at increased risk of developing. A better understanding of the basic emotions experienced in this population and emotion regulation strategies will inform current treatment. Objective This paper examines the relationships between type of emotions experienced, emotion regulation strategies, and psychological trauma symptoms in a sample of survivors of CSA. Method A consecutive case series of CSA survivors (n=109) completed the Basic Emotions Scale (BES)—Weekly, General, and Coping versions; the Regulation of Emotions Questionnaire; the Post-traumatic Stress Checklist—Civilian Version (PCL-C); and the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation Outcome Measure. Results Significantly higher levels of disgust than other levels of emotions were reported on the weekly version of the BES. In addition, significantly higher levels of disgust and lower levels of happiness were reported on the BES—General subscale. Regression analyses revealed that sadness, fear, disgust, and external dysfunctional coping strategies predicted global post-traumatic stress disorder and re-experiencing symptomatology measured by the PCL-C. Global distress, as measured by CORE, was predicted by the emotions of sadness, disgust, and low happiness, as well as dysfunctional regulatory strategies. In addition, preliminary exploratory factor analyses supported the structure of all three versions of the BES, with disgust explaining the largest percentage of variance, followed by happiness. Conclusions The findings highlight the utility of profiling basic emotions in understanding the strong associations between emotional phenomena, particularly the emotion of disgust and psychopathology in CSA

  6. Coping strategies in female survivors of childhood sexual abuse from two Canadian and two New Zealand cultural groups.

    PubMed

    Barker-Collo, Suzanne; Read, John; Cowie, Sue

    2012-01-01

    Individuals from some minority cultures are at greater risk of experiencing childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and are also at heightened risk of negative outcomes from abuse. Coping strategies, which may mediate the relationship between CSA and outcomes, are also impacted by culture. This study examined the use of coping strategies in female survivors of CSA across 4 cultural groupings from 2 countries-86 European Canadians, 40 Native Canadians, 129 European New Zealanders, and 35 Māori New Zealanders-who all completed the Coping Responses Inventory. The 4 groups differed significantly on 7 of the 8 Coping Responses Inventory scales (Logical Analysis, Positive Reappraisal, Problem Solving, Cognitive Avoidance, Acceptance or Resignation, Seeking Alternative Rewards, Emotional Discharge). Whereas New Zealanders differed significantly from Canadians (p<.001), Europeans did not differ significantly from indigenous cultural groups, nor did nationality and culture grouping interact (p>.05). The profile of coping in New Zealand Europeans was relatively flat, with average scores across coping types close to the mean of the t-score distribution. Māori New Zealanders produced a similar profile, with only slight increases on 2 scales of avoidant coping. The findings raise questions about the extent to which generalizations can be made about there being either a "Western/European" culture or a particular "indigenous" culture. This in turn also raises the issue of whether cross-validation and replication of findings are needed if the findings are to be applied outside of the country in which the data were gathered. PMID:22651678

  7. Peritraumatic Tonic Immobility and Trauma-Related Symptoms in Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse: The Role of Posttrauma Cognitions.

    PubMed

    Van Buren, Brian R; Weierich, Mariann R

    2015-01-01

    Tonic immobility is a set of involuntary motor responses elicited under conditions of extreme fear and perceived inescapability, and it is one type of peritraumatic distress reported by survivors of child sexual abuse. Experiencing tonic immobility during child sexual abuse is associated with increased risk for developing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, although less is known about relations between tonic immobility and other established risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder. We investigated posttraumatic cognitions as a potential mediator of the relations between peritraumatic fear, perceptions of inescapability, tonic immobility, and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms. Specifically, we tested posttraumatic negative beliefs about the self, the world, and self-blame as pathways that might increase risk for post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in child sexual abuse survivors who had experienced tonic immobility. Forty-six women with a history of unwanted childhood sexual contact completed questionnaires measuring peritraumatic tonic immobility, posttraumatic cognitions, and current posttraumatic stress symptoms. Negative beliefs about the self independently mediated the relation between peritraumatic perceptions of inescapability and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, but the data did not support similar path model for the physical symptoms of tonic immobility and post-traumatic stress disorder. We discuss ways in which treatment of survivors and future research on CSA can benefit from attention to the impact of peritraumatic distress on posttraumatic beliefs. PMID:26701284

  8. Multidimensional Assessment of Resilience in Mothers Who Are Child Sexual Abuse Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Margaret O'Dougherty; Fopma-Loy, Joan; Fischer, Stephanie

    2005-01-01

    Objective: There has been relatively little attention given to positive adaptation following childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and typically such resilience has been explored primarily in the intrapersonal domain. This study explored questions about later resilience following CSA within a multidimensional framework by assessing resilience across…

  9. Intergenerational Child Abuse and Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robboy, Juliet; Anderson, Kristen G.

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the consequences of child sexual abuse (CSA) but few have examined the intergenerational effects of poly-victimization and maladaptive coping. The purpose of this investigation was to examine patterns of maltreatment and maladaptive coping among second-generation CSA survivors. It is hypothesized that: (a) maternal…

  10. Childhood Sexual Abuse Severity Reconsidered: A Factor Structure of CSA Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, T. Lorraine; Riggs, Matt; Robinson, Jill L.

    2011-01-01

    To address the lack of empirically grounded measures of childhood sexual abuse severity, a survey of self-report items was developed following a thorough review of the childhood sexual abuse literature. An exploratory factor analysis was conducted using data collected from a convenience sample of college students that included 275 females and…

  11. Increasing the Usability of Cognitive Processing Therapy for Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    House, Amy S.

    2006-01-01

    There is an ongoing need for empirically based treatments for child sexual abuse (CSA) that are time-efficient and cost-effective. This article describes a modification of cognitive processing therapy for child sexual abuse (CPT-SA) that increases the therapy's usability by reducing the number of individual therapy sessions required. The…

  12. Patterns of Partners' Abusive Behaviors as Reported by Latina and Non-Latina Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glass, Nancy; Perrin, Nancy; Hanson, Ginger; Mankowski, Eric; Bloom, Tina; Campbell, Jacquelyn

    2009-01-01

    This study builds on the existing knowledge of risk factors for lethal intimate partner violence (IPV) and typologies of IPV abusers by exploring patterns of abusive partners' behaviors among known risk factors for intimate partner femicide (i.e., murder of women) and determines if groups of survivors with similar patterns of abusive behaviors…

  13. Experiences of Mothers Who Are Child Sexual Abuse Survivors: A Qualitative Exploration.

    PubMed

    Cavanaugh, Courtenay E; Harper, Bianca; Classen, Catherine C; Palesh, Oxana; Koopman, Cheryl; Spiegel, David

    2015-01-01

    Child sexual abuse has been associated with a number of problems affecting women over their lifespan, including difficulties with parenting. However, there is a modest number of qualitative studies examining the impact of child sexual abuse on survivors who are mothers. There is a particular need for qualitative investigations that ask survivors who are mothers general questions about the impact of child sexual abuse on their lives rather than those that specifically ask about the impact of child sexual abuse on parenting. The former approach would allow survivors to describe effects that may impact parenting but that survivors do not consciously link to affecting their parenting. Such information may inform interventions to assist this population of survivors. This secondary data analysis examined themes revealed in interviews with 44 survivors of child sexual abuse who were mothers. Participants were seeking treatment for their child sexual abuse and completed an in-person interview in which they were asked open-ended questions about the sexual abuse they experienced as a child and how their abuse affects them now as adults. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded using thematic analysis. The following six themes emerged from the narratives: (a) being a parent, (b) family of origin dysfunction, (c) the impact of abuse, (d) the abuse history and response to abuse, (e) coping, and (f) hopes and desires for the future. This study highlights several ways in which child sexual abuse impacts survivors who are mothers, areas for further study, and the need for interventions to assist this population in meeting the challenges they face as mothers. PMID:26301437

  14. Trauma Characteristics and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Adolescent Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Carmen P.; Morris, Sarah Herrick; Conklin, Phoebe; Jayawickreme, Nuwan; Foa, Edna B.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the characteristics of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and the severity of consequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, suicidal ideation, and substance use in a sample of 83 female adolescents aged 13-18 years seeking treatment for PTSD. Nearly two-thirds of the sample (60.7%, n = 51) reported the perpetrator of the CSA was a relative. A large portion (40.5%, n = 34) of the sample reported being victimized once, while almost a quarter of the sample reported chronic victimization (23.8%, n = 20). PTSD and depression scores were in the clinical range, whereas reported levels of suicidal ideation and substance use were low. The frequency of victimizations was associated with suicidal ideation. Contrary to expectation, CSA characteristics including trauma type, perpetrator relationship, and duration of abuse were unrelated to PTSD severity, depressive symptoms, or substance abuse. PMID:25089075

  15. Abuse and Parental Characteristics, Attributions of Blame, and Psychological Adjustment in Adult Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinzow, Heidi; Seth, Puja; Jackson, Joan; Niehaus, Ashley; Fitzgerald, Monica

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of abuse and parental characteristics on attributional content and determine the relative contribution of different attributions of blame in predicting psychological symptomatology among adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. One hundred eighty-three female undergraduates with a history of…

  16. Dissociative Experiences and Disorders among Women Who Identify Themselves as Sexual Abuse Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Geri; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Interviews with 51 female sexual abuse survivors revealed that over half had a diagnosis of multiple personality disorder, and the vast majority had extensive dissociative symptomatology and related features. (Author/JDD)

  17. Short-Term Group Treatment for Survivors of Sexual Abuse: A Psychoeducational Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Nikki; Renninger, Salina

    1995-01-01

    Counseling survivors of sexual abuse requires acknowledgment of the legitimacy of the client's ego defenses while helping the client abandon those defenses which have become obstacles to leading a fulfilling life. Such defenses may also impede the therapeutic process, as survivors are less likely to trust other people. Clients can arrive at a…

  18. Relational Challenges and Recovery Processes in Male Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kia-Keating, Maryam; Sorsoli, Lynn; Grossman, Frances K.

    2010-01-01

    Male survivors of childhood sexual abuse face challenges resolving sexual victimization experiences with the ideals of masculinity, often experiencing intimacy problems, emotional discomfort, alienation, and anger. Little attention has been paid to how male survivors learn to develop long-term connections, disclose emotions in relationship…

  19. Practical Ways Psychotherapy Can Support Physical Healthcare Experiences for Male Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hovey, Angela; Stalker, Carol A.; Schachter, Candice L.; Teram, Eli; Lasiuk, Gerri

    2011-01-01

    Many survivors of child sexual abuse who engage in psychotherapy also experience physical health problems. This article summarizes the findings of a multiphased qualitative study about survivors' experiences in healthcare settings. The study informed the development of the "Handbook on Sensitive Practice for Health Care Practitioners: Lessons from…

  20. Sexual Abuse Survivors' Perceptions of the Effectiveness of EMDR and Eclectic Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmond, Tonya; Sloan, Lacey; McCarty, Dawn

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This article examines survivor perspectives of the effectiveness of two different treatments for trauma symptoms among adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse--Eye movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) and eclectic therapy. Method: Qualitative interviews obtained in the context of a mixed-methods study were conducted…

  1. The Efficacy of Exposure-Based Cognitive Therapy with Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Yun Hui

    Recent research has revealed the efficacy of cognitive behavioral interventions with sexual abuse survivors. Cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) interventions require trauma survivors to confront their painful memories directly. This allows for assessment of cognitive distortions that need to be challenged and reframed. The extent and amount of…

  2. How ineffective family environments can compound maldevelopment of critical thinking skills in childhood abuse survivors.

    PubMed

    Kostolitz, Alessandra C; Hyman, Scott M; Gold, Steven N

    2014-01-01

    The high stress of childhood abuse is associated with neurobiological detriments to executive function. Child abuse survivors may also be cognitively and relationally disadvantaged as a result of being raised in emotionally impoverished families that lack cohesion, organization, flexibility, self-expression, and moral and ethical values and fail to provide opportunities for effective learning. A review of literature demonstrates how dysfunctional family of origin environments common to child abuse survivors, concomitant with the extreme stress of overt acts of abuse, can act as a barrier to the development of higher-order critical thinking skills. The article concludes by discussing ramifications of critical thinking skill deficits in child abuse survivors and highlights the importance of integrating and prioritizing critical thinking skills training in treatment. PMID:25116865

  3. Institutional abuse of children in the Austrian Catholic Church: types of abuse and impact on adult survivors' current mental health.

    PubMed

    Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte; Kantor, Viktoria; Weindl, Dina; Knefel, Matthias; Moy, Yvonne; Butollo, Asisa; Jagsch, Reinhold; Glück, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the nature and dimensions of institutional child abuse (IA) by the Austrian Catholic Church and to investigate the current mental health of adult survivors. Data were collected in two steps. First, documents of 448 adult survivors of IA (M=55.1 years, 75.7% men) who had disclosed their abuse history to a victim protection commission were collected. Different types of abuse, perpetrator characteristics, and family related risk factors were investigated. Second, a sample of 185 adult survivors completed the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL-C) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Participants reported an enormous diversity of acts of violent physical, sexual, and emotional abuse that had occurred in their childhood. The majority of adult survivors (83.3%) experienced emotional abuse. Rates of sexual (68.8%) and physical abuse (68.3%) were almost equally high. The prevalence of PTSD was 48.6% and 84.9% showed clinically relevant symptoms in at least one 1 of 10 symptom dimensions (9 BSI subscales and PTSD). No specific pre-IA influence was found to influence the development of PTSD in later life (e.g. poverty, domestic violence). However, survivors with PTSD reported a significantly higher total number of family related risk factors (d=0.33). We conclude that childhood IA includes a wide spectrum of violent acts, and has a massive negative impact on the current mental health of adult survivors. We address the long-term effects of these traumatic experiences in addition to trauma re-activation in adulthood as both bear great challenges for professionals working with survivors. PMID:24018068

  4. "I Keep That Hush-Hush": Male Survivors of Sexual Abuse and the Challenges of Disclosure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorsoli, Lynn; Kia-Keating, Maryam; Grossman, Frances K.

    2008-01-01

    Disclosure is a prominent variable in child sexual abuse research, but little research has examined male disclosure experiences. Sixteen male survivors of childhood sexual abuse were interviewed regarding experiences of disclosure. Analytic techniques included a grounded theory approach to coding and the use of conceptually clustered matrices.…

  5. Intergenerational child abuse and coping.

    PubMed

    Robboy, Juliet; Anderson, Kristen G

    2011-11-01

    Many studies have investigated the consequences of child sexual abuse (CSA) but few have examined the intergenerational effects of poly- victimization and maladaptive coping. The purpose of this investigation was to examine patterns of maltreatment and maladaptive coping among second-generation CSA survivors. It is hypothesized that: (a) maternal CSA history would be associated with a higher incidence of poly-victimization and maladaptive coping and (b) experiencing more forms of abuse would mediate the relation between maternal CSA history and maladaptive coping behaviors. The method used was a chart review of 139 sexually abused females aged 12 to 17, examining maternal abuse history, maladaptive coping behaviors, and child maltreatment. The results showed that poly-victimization differed as a function of maternal CSA history but maladaptive coping did not. Experiencing more types of abuse was associated with both self-injurious behaviors and substance use. In conclusion, results support the hypothesis that second generation CSA survivors are more likely to experience poly-victimization. Future research should address how intergenerational patterns of abuse might affect presenting symptomatology and treatment outcome. PMID:21602207

  6. The Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educator’s Role in Teaching Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Hotelling, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    There is a strong likelihood that at least one participant in any Lamaze childbirth education class has had personal experience with childhood sexual abuse. Using the wisdom of Lamaze Certified Childbirth Educators and respected authors in the field of childhood sexual abuse, this column enlightens the childbirth educator in three ways: understanding the incidence of female and male childhood sexual abuse; understanding the effects of sexual, emotional, physical, and verbal abuse on the pregnant and parenting family; and facilitating classes that are sensitive to the needs of survivors of childhood sexual abuse as well to all expectant parents. PMID:23449947

  7. Childhood sexual abuse and attachment: An intergenerational perspective.

    PubMed

    Kwako, Laura E; Noll, Jennie G; Putnam, Frank W; Trickett, Penelope K

    2010-07-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a recognized risk factor for various negative outcomes in adult survivors and their offspring. We used the Dynamic-Maturational Model of attachment theory as a framework for exploring the impact of maternal CSA on children's attachment relationships in the context of a longitudinal sample of adult survivors of CSA and non-abused comparison mothers and their children. Results indicated that children of CSA survivors were more likely to have extreme strategies of attachment than the children of non-abused mothers. However, because both groups were at socioeconomic risk, both were typified by anxious attachment. Explanations for findings and implications for children's development are explored. PMID:20603427

  8. Childhood sexual abuse and attachment: An intergenerational perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kwako, Laura E.; Noll, Jennie G.; Putnam, Frank W.; Trickett, Penelope K.

    2011-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a recognized risk factor for various negative outcomes in adult survivors and their offspring. We used the Dynamic-Maturational Model of attachment theory as a framework for exploring the impact of maternal CSA on children’s attachment relationships in the context of a longitudinal sample of adult survivors of CSA and non-abused comparison mothers and their children. Results indicated that children of CSA survivors were more likely to have extreme strategies of attachment than the children of non-abused mothers. However, because both groups were at socioeconomic risk, both were typified by anxious attachment. Explanations for findings and implications for children’s development are explored. PMID:20603427

  9. Best Clinical Practices for Male Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse: “Do No Harm”

    PubMed Central

    Gallo-Silver, Les; Anderson, Christopher M; Romo, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    The health care literature describes treatment challenges and recommended alterations in practice procedures for female survivors of childhood sexual abuse, a subtype of adverse childhood experiences. Currently, there are no concomitant recommendations for best clinical practices for male survivors of childhood sexual abuse or other adverse clinical experiences. Anecdotal information suggests ways physicians can address the needs of adult male survivors of childhood sexual abuse by changes in communication, locus of control, and consent/permission before and during physical examinations and procedures. The intent of this article is to act as a catalyst for improved patient care and more research focused on the identification and optimal responses to the needs of men with adverse childhood experiences in the health care setting. PMID:25106042

  10. Expressive Group Therapy for Teen Survivors of Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adelman, Evie

    This document contains an experiential presentation for counselors dealing with the special needs and difficulties of adolescent female survivors of incest who participate in group therapy. It briefly describes a group therapy program for female adolescent survivors of incest offered by a counseling center in Ohio which meets once a week. It…

  11. CE: Mental Health Matters: Revisiting Child Sexual Abuse and Survivor Issues.

    PubMed

    Sabella, Donna

    2016-03-01

    Child sexual abuse is a global issue that nurses must be aware of and knowledgeable about as they care for children in various care settings. This article focuses on the prevalence, potential risk factors, and possible signs and symptoms of child sexual abuse. It also provides information about what nurses can do should they suspect that a child has been or is being abused. Because consequences can be far reaching and exist for many years after the abuse, this article also addresses the possible long-term issues faced by survivors and provides resources that nurses can share with patients. PMID:26871893

  12. Therapy for Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors using Attachment and Family Systems Theory Orientations

    PubMed Central

    Karakurt, Gunnur; Silver, Kristin E.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to understand the effects of childhood sexual abuse on a survivor’s later life. For understanding and treating the emotional distress and interpersonal problems resulting from childhood sexual abuse, attachment theory provides a valuable framework. When this framework is combined with family systems theory, it can help therapists understand the family context where sexual abuse occurs and how this affects health and functioning throughout the lifespan. Case examples of female adult sexual abuse survivors are also explored, with insight from the intersection of systems and attachment theories. PMID:24443623

  13. Women survivors of child sexual abuse. How can health professionals promote healing?

    PubMed Central

    Schachter, Candice L.; Radomsky, Nellie A.; Stalker, Carol A.; Teram, Eli

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore how health professionals can practise in ways sensitive to adult women survivors of child sexual abuse. DESIGN: Qualitative semistructured in-depth interviews. SETTING: Small and midsize cities in Ontario and Saskatchewan. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty-seven women survivors of childhood sexual abuse. METHODS: Respondents were asked about their experiences with physical therapists and other health professionals and asked how practice could be sensitive to their needs as survivors. A grounded-theory approach was used. After independent analyses, researchers achieved consensus on the main themes. Findings were checked with participants, other survivors, and mental health professionals. MAIN FINDINGS: A crucial theme was the need to feel safe when consulting any health professional. Participants described specific ways for clinicians to facilitate the feeling of safety. Disclosure of abuse history was another key theme; analysis revealed no one "right way" to inquire about it. CONCLUSION: Women survivors of child sexual abuse want safe, accepting environments and sensitive, informed health professionals with whom to work in partnership on all their health concerns. PMID:15318678

  14. Emotional and Sexual Correlates of Child Sexual Abuse as a Function of Self-Definition Status.

    PubMed

    Vaillancourt-Morel, Marie-Pier; Godbout, Natacha; Bédard, Maryline Germain; Charest, Émilie; Briere, John; Sabourin, Stéphane

    2016-08-01

    Among individuals defined as having been sexually abused based on legal criteria, some will self-report having been abused and some will not. Yet, the empirical correlates of self-definition status are not well studied. Different definitions of abuse may lead to varying prevalence rates and contradictory findings regarding psychological outcomes. The present study examined whether, among legally defined sexual abuse survivors, identifying oneself as having experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) was associated with more severe abuse, negative emotional reactions toward the abuse, and current sexual reactions. A convenience sample of 1,021 French-speaking Canadians completed self-report questionnaires online. The prevalence of legally defined CSA was 21.3% in women and 19.6% in men, as compared to 7.1% in women and 3.8% in men for self-defined CSA. Among legally defined sexual abuse survivors, those who identified themselves as CSA survivors had been abused more frequently, were more likely to report a male aggressor, and more often described abuse by a parental figure than those who did not self-identify as abused. Further, self-defined CSA was associated with more negative postabuse reactions and sexual avoidance, whereas those not identifying as sexually abused were more likely to report sexual compulsion. PMID:27364540

  15. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Culture, and Coping: A Qualitative Study of Latinas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ligiero, Daniela P.; Fassinger, Ruth; McCauley, Moira; Moore, Jessica; Lyytinen, Nina

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to articulate a model of how Latinas cope with childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and the ways in which personal and cultural variables influence their coping strategies. Nine women who identified as Latina and as survivors of CSA participated in an in-depth interview. The data were analyzed using a grounded theory…

  16. Many Ways of Telling: Expanding Conceptualizations of Child Sexual Abuse Disclosure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaggia, R.

    2004-01-01

    Objective:: The aim of this study was to explore influences that inhibit or promote child sexual abuse (CSA) disclosure. Method:: Face-to-face in-depth interviews of 24 female and male survivors of CSA were conducted, using the Long-Interview method to trace disclosure processes. Verbatim transcriptions of the interviews were analyzed by hand and…

  17. Understanding Economic Abuse in the Lives of Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postmus, Judy L.; Plummer, Sara-Beth; McMahon, Sarah; Murshid, N. Shaanta; Kim, Mi Sung

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) often includes economic abuse as one tactic commonly used by an abuser; unfortunately, there is a lack of empirical understanding of economic abuse. Additionally, research is limited on the predictors of economic self-sufficiency in the lives of women experiencing IPV. This paper furthers our knowledge about…

  18. Survivors' perspectives on the impact of clergy sexual abuse on families of origin.

    PubMed

    Wind, Leslie H; Sullivan, James M; Levins, Daniel J

    2008-01-01

    Clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse rose to public attention in 2002 through the disclosure of abuse by Catholic priests within the Archdiocese of Boston and a simultaneous cover-up by church hierarchy. Similar patterns have since been described in other Catholic dioceses and in other faith denominations. While recent studies have examined the impact of such abuse on adult survivors, little is known about the impact on their families of origin. Using the Trauma Transmission and Empowerment models and the Family Adjustment and Adaptation Response model, this paper examines the impact of such abuse on families from male survivors' perspectives. A five-phased approach to reconciliation within families and dialogue with the church community is discussed to highlight communication as a core theme to healing. PMID:19042600

  19. The Nature of Posttraumatic Growth in Adult Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Hartley, Sarah; Johnco, Carly; Hofmeyr, Marthinus; Berry, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    Potential negative sequelae for survivors of child sexual abuse is well documented. However, growing evidence suggests that some individuals who actively cope with traumatic events can progress from a negative trajectory toward positive psychological change, often termed posttraumatic growth. Current posttraumatic growth theories may be of limited applicability to developmental considerations involved in child sexual abuse. This explorative study examines posttraumatic growth among adult female survivors of child sexual abuse. In-depth interviews were conducted with six participants who believed they had grown through coping with their abuse. Data was analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Three superordinate and nine subordinate themes were identified and explored. Some participants reported experiencing growth and distress simultaneously. Theoretical and clinical implications are examined in relation to the study's findings. PMID:26934545

  20. Evaluating a Survivors Group Pilot for Women with Significant Intellectual Disabilities Who Have Been Sexually Abused

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peckham, Nicholas Guy; Howlett, Susan; Corbett, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Background: Sexual abuse has been associated with trauma, low self-esteem, anger, depression and challenging behaviours. This pilot study builds on a small published literature by evaluating a survivors group (SG) for women with an intellectual disability and an educational support group (ESG) for their carers. Method: The SG was delivered weekly…

  1. A Psychosynthesis Approach to the Use of Mental Imagery with Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Michael H.

    1997-01-01

    States that the techniques of mental imagery can help adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse access the inner wisdom necessary to identify, understand, and creatively address issues from the past and develop new and healthier patterns of thinking and behaving. Documents the innovative ways psychosynthesis uses mental imagery with this client…

  2. The Use of Therapeutic Stories in Counseling Child and Adolescent Sexual Abuse Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kress, Victoria E.; Adamson, Nicole A.; Yensel, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Counselors will regularly counsel children and adolescents with histories of sexual abuse and be challenged with providing supportive and empowering interventions that serve to move the client from victim to survivor status. Therapeutic stories are a creative counseling technique that can be used when counseling child and adolescent sexual abuse…

  3. Exploring Childhood Memories with Adult Survivors of Sexual Abuse: Concrete Reconstruction and Visualization Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roland, Catherine B.

    1993-01-01

    Describes two memory-enhancing techniques, visualization and concrete reconstruction, that have been successful in counseling adult survivors of sexual abuse. Includes suggested implementations, case examples, and implications for incorporating memory techniques into counseling process. Describes various risk factors involved in using these…

  4. Effects of Group Therapy on Female Adolescent Survivors of Sexual Abuse: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thun, Debra; Sims, Patricia L.; Adams, Mary Ann; Webb, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Explores treatment interventions for female sexual abuse survivors through a pilot study examining the relationship between group treatment and adolescent self-image. Results revealed that participants who received group therapy increased in levels of impulse control and that the experimental group had a decrease in self-reliance whereas the…

  5. Coping Strategies Used by Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse on the Journey to Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phanichrat, Thanomjit; Townshend, Julia M.

    2010-01-01

    This interpretative phenomenological analysis study explored seven adult survivors' experiences of coping with childhood sexual abuse and identified their coping strategies on the road to recovery. Data for the analysis was collected using semistructured interviews. The analytical process yielded two key theme clusters: avoidant coping strategies…

  6. The psychological impact of sexual abuse: content analysis of interviews with male survivors.

    PubMed

    Lisak, D

    1994-10-01

    Autobiographical interviews with 26 adult male survivors of childhood sexual abuse were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim and content analyzed to identify common psychological themes. Approximately equal numbers of men were abused by male and female perpetrators, almost half came from disrupted or violent homes and a majority had a history of substance abuse. Fifteen psychological themes were identified: Anger, Betrayal, Fear, Homosexuality Issues, Helplessness, Isolation and Alienation, Legitimacy, Loss, Masculinity Issues, Negative Childhood Peer Relations, Negative Schemas about People, Negative Schemas about the Self, Problems with Sexuality, Self Blame/Guilt and Shame/Humiliation. The themes are discussed and illustrated with examples drawn from the transcripts. PMID:7820347

  7. Impact of traumatic events on posttraumatic stress disorder among Danish survivors of sexual abuse in childhood.

    PubMed

    Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte M; Palic, Sabina; Karsberg, Sidsel; Eriksen, Sara Bek

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse can be extremely traumatic and lead to lifelong symptomatology. The present study examined the impact of several demographic, abuse, and psychosocial variables on posttraumatic stress disorder severity among a consecutive sample of treatment-seeking, adult child sexual abuse survivors (N = 480). The child sexual abuse sample was characterized by severe trauma exposure, insecure attachment, and significant traumatization, with an estimated 77% suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder, more than twice the level of the comparison group. Regression analyses revealed risk factors associated with the development of posttraumatic stress disorder in which the strongest predictors being additional traumas, negative affectivity, and somatization. The findings add to existing research confirming the stressful nature of child sexual abuse and the variables that contribute to the development and severity of posttraumatic stress disorder. PMID:25256036

  8. Child Sexual Abuse and Women's Sexual Health: The Contribution of CSA Severity and Exposure to Multiple Forms of Childhood Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacelle, Celine; Hebert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2012-01-01

    Research studies have provided increasing evidence for the potential adverse impact of child sexual abuse on women's sexual health. The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse and sexual health while controlling for various forms of childhood victimization. Self-report questionnaires were administered to 889 young women…

  9. Psychodynamics of eating disorder behavior in sexual abuse survivors.

    PubMed

    Ross, Colin A

    2009-01-01

    The author reviews the psychodynamics of eating disorder behaviors in women with childhood sexual abuse histories, with a focus on anorexia, bingeing, purging, and overeating. The various defenses and behaviors interact with each other through numerous different feedback loops. The same behavior can have multiple defensive functions and the same defensive function can be served by different behaviors. None of the behaviors is specific to childhood sexual abuse, but the abuse history modifies the content, heightens the intensity of the feelings being defended against, and should be taken into account in the therapy. Several examples of therapeutic strategies are also provided. PMID:19845087

  10. In their own words: the experience of mothering as a survivor of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    O'Dougherty Wright, Margaret; Fopma-Loy, Joan; Oberle, Katherine

    2012-05-01

    This article reviews past research on the parenting characteristics of childhood sexual abuse survivors and presents the results of a qualitative study exploring the women's perspectives on mothering as a survivor. Grounded theory was used in the collection and analysis of the data. Data sources included the narrative responses of 79 women (mean age = 38.2 years) and in-depth interviews of a purposive sample of 15 women (mean age = 39 years). They had an average of 2.2 children, ranging in age from 5 months to young adulthood. The theoretical model identified through analysis of data using the constant comparison method was entitled "The Hard Work of Mothering as a Survivor." Processes emerged that described the ways participants managed the work of mothering in light of memories of the abuse and attempts to heal from this earlier trauma. The conditions for committing to the work included becoming aware of and accepting the reality of the abuse and how it affected one's life, and taking on the hard work of developing a mothering self. This included expanding awareness, developing and evaluating a personal model of mothering, navigating typical and abuse salient parenting challenges, mothering through the pain of recovery, and battling for balance. The findings highlighted the dynamic, multifaceted nature of recovery and resilience for these mothers and the need for an increased focus on parenting in counseling with childhood sexual abuse survivors. Provision of anticipatory guidance regarding commonly experienced stressors at varying stages of the child's development and the mother's stage of recovery and methods for coping with these challenges, would benefit these mothers and promote parenting competence. Specific implications for psychotherapy and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:22559129

  11. Participatory Action Research on Help-Seeking Behaviors of Self-Defined Ritual Abuse Survivors: A Brief Report.

    PubMed

    Matthew, Laurie; Barron, Ian G

    2015-01-01

    The existence of ritual abuse is the subject of much debate. Ritual abuse survivor perceptions of seeking help have not been explored, and studies have yet to utilize self-defined survivors as collaborative researchers. This study addresses both issues. Participatory action research was utilized to design a survey and semistructured interview to investigate ritual abuse survivor experience of seeking help. Sixty-eight participants completed the survey, and 22 were interviewed. A group approach to thematic analysis aided validity and reliability. Participants reported experiencing disbelief and a lack of ritual abuse awareness and help from support services. In contrast, participatory action research was reported by participants as educative and emancipatory. Future research should explore the benefits of participatory action research for survivors of different forms of oppression. PMID:26061026

  12. ''A Burden in Your Heart'': Lessons of Disclosure from Female Preadolescent and Adolescent Survivors of Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staller, Karen M.; Nelson-Gardell, Debra

    2005-01-01

    Objectives: To enhance understanding of the sexual abuse disclosure process from the perspective of preteen and teenage survivors. To reconsider prominent models of the disclosure process in light of our findings. Methods: We conducted a secondary analysis of data from four focus groups in which 34 preadolescent and adolescent female survivors of…

  13. A Model of Screening and Goal-Setting in Short-Term Counseling with Sexual Abuse Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lese, Karen P.

    Although plentiful information is available about the long-term treatment of sexual abuse survivors, a framework for the short-term treatment of this population is lacking in the literature. A preliminary model of screening and goal-setting in short-term therapy for survivors, to be used at university and college counseling centers, is presented…

  14. Adventure Programming and Facilitating When You Don't Know Your Participant Is a Survivor of Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitten, Denise

    Survivors of sexual abuse are likely to be among the participants of many adventure and experiential programs. This paper aims to increase outdoor leaders' understanding of the possible reactions of survivors to adventure experiences and related group interactions. Long-term effects of sexual violence are pervasive and may be triggered by the…

  15. Exploring the feasibility of email-mediated interaction in survivors of abuse.

    PubMed

    Constantino, R; Crane, P A; Noll, B S; Doswell, W M; Braxter, B

    2007-05-01

    There is a growing use of email-based provision of information, development of health-related skills and interventions; however, use of email to assist women and children experiencing abuse after receiving Protection from Abuse (PFA) court order has not been explored. The specific aim of this research was to test the feasibility of an email device called MIVO for use in interacting with women and children after receiving PFA. This qualitative design used a three-step recruitment, screening and email interaction with mothers and their adolescent child after obtaining informed consent and training in the use of an email device. Sample included six pairs of mother and child (n = 12) who have received a PFA within the past 6 months. Demographic data were gathered using the sociodemographic questionnaire. Qualitative data were gathered using email messages from mother and child pairs. Results showed that email interaction is a feasible and acceptable way of providing support and information to survivors of abuse after their PFA. The following themes in their order and rank of appearance were found in the email interaction between the nurse and survivors: (1) safety issues; (2) job-related issues; (3) school-related issues; (4) parenting-related issues; and (5) health-related issues. Themes identified for the children were school work and friends. Privacy, confidentiality and respect for individual rights are paramount in email interactions. Email interaction is useful in education, screening, safety instructions and follow-up care. Technological devices such as MIVO may have usefulness as an email interaction device among women, their child and a nurse to reduce their risk for further interpersonal violence/abuse and to increase disclosure of abuse. Healthcare providers need to identify technological developments, and through evidence-based research examine their feasibility and adaptability for translation into practice specifically, in caring for survivors of abuse

  16. Female survivors of child sexual abuse: finding voice through research participation.

    PubMed

    McClain, Natalie; Amar, Angela Frederick

    2013-07-01

    It is unclear whether survivors of trauma are at risk of emotional or psychological distress when they participate in research because there is little data on the subjective experience of research study participants and how they make meaning from their participation in research. This qualitative descriptive study explored the experience of research participation by survivors of childhood sexual abuse. We interviewed 12 female survivors and identified themes. Participants noted both positive personal and societal benefits of study participation and reported no harm due to their research participation. Study findings can help researchers understand the perspectives of participants regarding the benefits of taking part in violence research and can help allay concerns over causing participants undue psychological distress. PMID:23875549

  17. Meta-analysis of psychological treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder in adult survivors of childhood abuse.

    PubMed

    Ehring, Thomas; Welboren, Renate; Morina, Nexhmedin; Wicherts, Jelte M; Freitag, Janina; Emmelkamp, Paul M G

    2014-12-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly prevalent in adult survivors of childhood sexual and/or physical abuse. However, intervention studies focusing on this group of patients are underrepresented in earlier meta-analyses on the efficacy of PTSD treatments. The current meta-analysis exclusively focused on studies evaluating the efficacy of psychological interventions for PTSD in adult survivors of childhood abuse. Sixteen randomized controlled trials meeting inclusion criteria could be identified that were subdivided into trauma-focused cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), non-trauma-focused CBT, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, and other treatments (interpersonal, emotion-focused). Results showed that psychological interventions are efficacious for PTSD in adult survivors of childhood abuse, with an aggregated uncontrolled effect size of g=1.24 (pre- vs. post-treatment), and aggregated controlled effect sizes of g=0.72 (post-treatment, comparison to waitlist control conditions) and g=0.50 (post-treatment, comparison with TAU/placebo control conditions), respectively. Effect sizes remained stable at follow-up. As the heterogeneity between studies was large, we examined the influence of two a priori specified moderator variables on treatment efficacy. Results showed that trauma-focused treatments were more efficacious than non-trauma-focused interventions, and that treatments including individual sessions yielded larger effect sizes than pure group treatments. As a whole, the findings are in line with earlier meta-analyses showing that the best effects can be achieved with individual trauma-focused treatments. PMID:25455628

  18. Child sexual abuse and subsequent relational and personal functioning: the role of parental support.

    PubMed

    Godbout, Natacha; Briere, John; Sabourin, Stéphane; Lussier, Yvan

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the role of nonoffending parental support in the relationship between child sexual abuse (CSA) and later romantic attachment, psychiatric symptoms, and couple adjustment. Of 348 adults engaged in stable romantic relationship, 59 (17%) reported sexual abuse. In this subgroup, 14% (n=8) reported parental intervention after the abuse was disclosed (i.e., support), 15% (n=9) reported a lack of parental intervention after abuse disclosure (i.e., nonsupport), and 71% (n=42) reported that their nonabusive parent(s) was(were) unaware of their abuse. Results indicated that, compared to other groups, CSA survivors with nonsupportive parents reported higher levels of anxious attachment, psychological symptoms, and dyadic maladjustment. In contrast, CSA survivors with supportive parent(s) expressed psychological and couple adjustment equivalent to non-abused participants, and lower attachment avoidance, relative to all other groups. Path analysis revealed that insecure attachment completely mediated the relationship between perceived parental support after CSA and later psychosocial outcomes. An actor-partner interdependence model showed different patterns for men and women and highlighted the importance of considering relational dynamics in dyads of CSA survivors. Overall, the results suggest that perceived parental support serves as a protective factor among those exposed to CSA. PMID:24199753

  19. The Relationship of Child Maltreatment and Self-Capacities with Distress when Telling One's Story of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palesh, Oxana Gronskaya; Classen, Catherine C.; Field, Nigel; Kraemer, Helena C.; Spiegel, David

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the impact of telling one's story of childhood sexual abuse and its relationship with the survivor's self-capacities and history of other child maltreatment. The baseline data were collected from 134 female CSA survivors who were participating in a large intervention study. Participants were given 10 minutes to describe their…

  20. Traumagenic Dynamics in Adult Women Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse vs. Adolescent Male Sex Offenders with Similar Histories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Carla; Hendrix, Rebecca

    2001-01-01

    Female childhood sexual abuse survivors and adolescent male sexual offenders with a history of childhood sexual abuse were assessed using the Trauma-Related Beliefs Questionnaire. Results suggested that male sex offenders hold high levels of traumagenic beliefs common in females, especially related to trust and betrayal. (Author)

  1. Breaking down barriers: exploring the potential for social care practice with trans survivors of domestic abuse.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Michaela

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing recognition that domestic abuse takes place outside the heteronormative paradigm of social life. This paper presents a discussion of the findings of doctoral research which explores trans people's experiences of domestic abuse, their social care needs and whether these are met by domestic abuse agencies. This paper foregrounds debate on the intersections of domestic abuse, trans communities and social care provision as this research, and previous studies, suggests that trans survivors do not seek out or benefit from social care intervention. Qualitative data, collected via narrative interviews, were collected during 2012 from participants mainly located in the United Kingdom (two participants were based in the United States). A total of 24 interviews were undertaken with trans people (n = 15) and social care practitioners (n = 9). Data were examined using a voice-centred relational technique. The findings reveal that barriers are multiple and complex but work could be undertaken to encourage help-seeking behaviours. Barriers include expectations of a transphobic response and 'Othering' practices; lack of entitlement felt by trans people; lack of knowledge/misunderstandings about trans social care needs; heteronormative bias of existing services; and practitioner attitudes fixed to notions about gender as binary. The paper ends by proposing a framework for practice with trans survivors which incorporates a person-centred, narrative approach. PMID:25660988

  2. The centrality of victimization. Regaining the focal point of recovery for survivors of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Summit, R C

    1989-06-01

    Psychiatrists have tended to be reluctant followers rather than leaders in the proliferation of concern for child abuse that has developed over the past 25 years. By discounting the relevance of child sexual trauma, psychiatric clinicians and theoreticians overlook not only the therapeutic needs of many survivors but the opportunity to reconceptualize the role of trauma in the etiology and treatment of conditions presumed to be incurable. Present controversies over child sexual abuse are mirrors of past misadventures with uncovering. Since 1860, child abuse has been discovered and then discredited every 35 years by the most visionary clinicians of the day, each faced with the alternative of denouncing the discovery or succumbing to scorn and disgrace. The history of child sexual abuse, whether viewed by parent via child, therapist via patient, or adult survivor via the child within, is one of unimaginable pain and betrayal masked by adult distancing, disavowal, victim blame, and identification with the aggressor. The lurid emotional imperatives of the trauma itself have no place in a just and fair society, and they resist translation into the rational, objective language and concepts of behavioral science. The subject of child sexual abuse is itself so passionate and so paradoxical that it provokes polarized dichotomies at every level, leaving indifference and avoidance as the only hope for serenity. The active nesciance, the determined insistence on not knowing, that pervades every aspect of child sexual abuse encourages the most authoritative scholars to be the most repressive of radical discovery, especially if authority has been achieved as a reaction against youthful vulnerability. Every clinician facing a survivor of childhood sexual trauma faces an assault on personal comfort and authority, just as each patient in that encounter risks intimidation and disgrace. The connections between childhood assault and adult adjustment will be missed unless the therapist

  3. Esuba: a psychoeducation group for incarcerated survivors of abuse.

    PubMed

    Roe-Sepowitz, Dominique E; Bedard, Laura E; Pate, Kerensa N; Hedberg, E C

    2014-02-01

    This study examined the effects associated with a trauma and abuse-focused psychoeducation group for incarcerated women on decreasing trauma symptoms. A total of 320 women participated in 34 groups in five prisons that followed a manualized intervention. A one-group pretest-posttest design was used to examine changes on 10 Trauma Symptom Inventory subscales (Anxious Arousal, Depression, Anger/Irritability, Intrusive Experiences, Defensive Avoidance, Dissociation, Sexual Concerns, Dysfunctional Sexual Behavior, Impaired Self-Reference, and Tension Reduction Behavior). Analyses indicated significant improvement on all 10 trauma subscales. Small effect sizes were found on all of the subscales. The findings of this study are encouraging and are the first step toward more rigorous evaluation of this pilot program. These findings provide initial support for the use of group psychoeducation intervention to address traumatic stress symptoms with incarcerated women. PMID:23188924

  4. Chieko's story: giving voice to survivors of wife abuse.

    PubMed

    Hatashita, Hiroyo; Brykczynski, Karen A; Anderson, Elizabeth T

    2006-04-01

    Chieko's story relates in narrative form the childhood and early adult experiences of a Japanese woman who is learning to heal and rebuild her life after growing up in a violent home and ending an abusive marriage. This exemplar illustrates major processes and themes that emerged from a cross-cultural qualitative study of family violence. It also portrays universal aspects of this significant and pervasive health and social issue. This in-depth analysis and commentary on one woman's story that could have occurred almost anywhere uncovers hidden aspects contributing to the recidivism of this phenomenon. This story conveys hope for the many women and children who have no voice and for the clinicians who work with them. PMID:16595364

  5. Mental health problems and medically unexplained physical symptoms in adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse: an integrative literature review.

    PubMed

    Nelson, S; Baldwin, N; Taylor, J

    2012-04-01

    People sexually abused in childhood are at higher risk than non-abused people of medically unexplained symptoms such as irritable bowel syndrome or chronic pain, with mental ill health and high healthcare use. Friction and frustration, with high, unproductive healthcare costs, can often develop between these patients and health-care professionals such as general practitioners and nursing staff. The aim of this integrative literature review was to seek a sound evidence base from which to develop helpful interventions, improve relationships and identify gaps in knowledge. It found some theories about interconnections among childhood sexual abuse mental health and medically unexplained symptoms, such as 'somatization' or 'secondary gain', were used prejudicially, stigmatizing survivors. Conflicting theories make more difficult the search for effective interventions. Researchers rarely collaborated with sexual abuse specialists. Emphasis on identifying key risk factors, rather than providing support or alleviating distress, and lack of studies where survivors voiced their own experiences, meant very few targeted interventions for this group were proposed. Recommendations to enable effective interventions include making abuse survivors the prime study focus; qualitative research with survivors, to assist doctors and nursing staff with sensitive care; case histories using medical records; prospective studies with sexually abused children; support for the growing field of neurobiological research. PMID:22070785

  6. Coping strategies used by survivors of childhood sexual abuse on the journey to recovery.

    PubMed

    Phanichrat, Thanomjit; Townshend, Julia M

    2010-01-01

    This interpretative phenomenological analysis study explored seven adult survivors' experiences of coping with childhood sexual abuse and identified their coping strategies on the road to recovery. Data for the analysis was collected using semistructured interviews. The analytical process yielded two key theme clusters: avoidant coping strategies and problem-focused coping strategies. The participants journeyed through similar gradual and dynamic coping processes by initially adopting avoidant strategies before turning to problem-focused ones. A healthy process of coping with sexual abuse involved seeking support, cognitive engagement, optimistic thinking, self-acceptance, and seeking meaning strategies. This study suggests that problem-focused coping strategies should be promoted as part of therapeutic intervention. PMID:20390779

  7. Literacy Learning Care: Exploring the Roles of Care in Literacy Learning with Survivors of Abuse in Irish Industrial Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feely, Maggie

    2010-01-01

    The links between literacy and care have received little attention. A general neglect of the affective domain in the academe is strongly echoed in traditional analyses of unmet adult literacy needs where economic causes and consequences dominate debates. The findings from a study of people who are survivors of institutional abuse and neglect…

  8. The psychosocial consequences of child sexual abuse in Ethiopia: a case-control comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Wondie, Yemataw; Zemene, Workie; Tafesse, Biruk; Reschke, Konrad; Schröder, Harry

    2011-07-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) continues to be a pressing public health concern around the globe. Few existing reports, however, indicate the alarming rate at which the problem is increasing in sub-Saharan Africa. The present study is designed to investigate the psychosocial consequences of sexual abuse among child survivors in Ethiopia who were abused mainly through early marriage, rape, and child prostitution. Data are collected from 318 such CSA survivors-and 318 matched, non-sexually abused, normal controls- using the Children's Impact of Traumatic Events Scale-Revised and the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale. The results reveal the CSA survivors to be significantly more symptomatic than the control group: They demonstrated a lower degree of social support, a lower degree of empowerment, as well as a higher degree of guilt and increased likelihood of viewing the world as dangerous. Finally, these CSA survivors show a lower degree of positive self-worth than their non-sexually abused counterparts. These findings have important implications for the formulation of appropriate preventions and interventions to be undertaken by various stakeholders ranging from family to policy makers. PMID:20587451

  9. Resilience and mental health in adult survivors of child abuse associated with the institution of the Austrian Catholic Church.

    PubMed

    Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte; Weindl, Dina; Kantor, Viktoria; Knefel, Matthias; Glück, Tobias; Moy, Yvonne; Butollo, Asisa; Jagsch, Reinhold

    2014-10-01

    In recent years, reports of institutional abuse within the Catholic Church have emerged and research on the consequences on mental health is in its beginnings. In this study, we report findings on current mental health and resilience in a sample of adult survivors of institutional abuse (N = 185). We compared 3 groups of survivors that differed regarding their current mental health to investigate aspects of resilience, coping, and disclosure. The majority of the sample was male (76.2%), the mean age was 56.28 (SD = 9.46) years, and more than 50.0% of the sample was cohabiting/married. Most of the survivors reported severe mental health problems. Known protective factors (education, social support, age) were not associated with mental health in our sample. Our findings corroborate that institutional abuse has long-term effects on mental health. We found that fewer emotional reactions during disclosure, task-oriented coping, and optimism were associated with better mental health. The study was limited by a cross-sectional design, but we conclude that the kind of institutional abuse reported is especially adverse, and thus typical protective factors for mental health do not apply. Future research should focus on intrapersonal factors and institutional dynamics to improve treatment for persons affected by institutional abuse. PMID:25322886

  10. Psychophysiological sexual arousal in women with a history of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Rellini, Alessandra H; Meston, Cindy M

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of literature that suggests that child sexual abuse (CSA) survivors with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have higher baseline sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity than healthy controls and research that suggests that the SNS plays a critical role in female physiological sexual arousal, we examined the impact of SNS activation through intense exercise on sexual arousal in women with CSA and PTSD. We measured physiological and subjective sexual arousal in women with CSA (n = 8), women with CSA and PTSD (n = 10), and healthy controls (n = 10) during exposure to nonerotic and erotic videos. After exercise, women with CSA and women with CSA and PTSD showed no significant differences in the physiological sexual response compared with no exercise, which was different from the increased physiological sexual response after exercise observed in control women. PMID:16234222

  11. The Influence of Childhood Sexual Abuse on Adolescent Outcomes: The Roles of Gender, Poverty, and Revictimization

    PubMed Central

    Matta Oshima, Karen M.; Jonson-Reid, Melissa; Seay, Kristen D.

    2014-01-01

    Research on childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has focused on adult revictimization and outcomes. This article examines the rate of child maltreatment revictimization among male and female children reported to child protective services for CSA and whether revictimization impacts outcomes. Using longitudinal administrative data, Cox regressions were used to examine relationships between initial report of CSA, maltreatment revictimization, and adolescent outcomes among children from poor and non-poor families. Despite no significant differences in CSA rates between poor and non-poor families, poor CSA victims were significantly more likely to have re-reports for maltreatment. Children with multiple reports were more likely to have negative outcomes. Interventions for CSA survivors should focus on preventing maltreatment recurrence generally and not ignore needs of male victims. PMID:24641766

  12. Women's History of Sexual Abuse, Their Sexuality, and Sexual Self-Schemas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meston, Cindy M.; Rellini, Alessandra H.; Heiman, Julia R.

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors assessed 48 female survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA) and 71 female control participants using measures of adult sexual function, psychological function (i.e., depression and anxiety), and sexual self-schemas. The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether differences existed between women with and without a…

  13. "You're Nothing without Me!": The Positive Role of Education in Regaining Self-Worth and "Moving On" for Survivors of Domestic Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Angela

    2007-01-01

    This research paper shows the ways in which survivors of domestic abuse can move on with their lives and take action to prevent their re-victimisation by returning to education. The primary aim was to explore the role of education as an agent of change, effecting positive and empowering changes to survivors' lives, thereby enhancing their life…

  14. Dissociation during sex and sexual arousal in women with and without a history of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Bird, Elizabeth R; Seehuus, Martin; Clifton, Jessica; Rellini, Alessandra H

    2014-07-01

    Women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) experience dissociative symptoms and sexual difficulties with greater frequency than women without a history of CSA. Current models of sexual dysfunction for sexual abuse survivors suggest that dissociation may mediate the relationship between CSA and sexual arousal difficulties. Dissociation, however, is often conceptualized as a single construct in studies of CSA and not as separate domains as in the dissociation literature. In the present study, women with (CSA, N = 37) and without (NSA, N = 22) a history of CSA recruited from the community were asked to indicate the frequency and intensity of their experience in two dissociation subgroups, derealization and depersonalization, during sex with a partner and in their daily life. Findings showed that, in the NSA group, more depersonalization during sex with a partner was associated with lower sexual arousal functioning. However, for both the NSA and CSA groups, more derealization during sex was associated with higher sexual arousal functioning. No measure of dissociation was significantly associated with sexual responses in the laboratory. These findings highlight the importance of distinguishing between different forms of dissociation (i.e., derealization and depersonalization) in the study of sexual arousal functioning. In addition, the findings challenge the notion that dissociation is a main predictor of sexual arousal problems in survivors of CSA and suggest that a more nuanced relationship may exist. PMID:24297658

  15. Forgetting of trauma cues in adults reporting continuous or recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    McNally, Richard J; Ristuccia, Carel S; Perlman, Carol A

    2005-04-01

    According to betrayal trauma theory, adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) who were molested by their caretakers (e.g., a father) are especially likely to dissociate ("repress") their memories of abuse. Testing college students, some reporting CSA, DePrince and Freyd (2004) found that those scoring high on a dissociation questionnaire exhibited memory deficits for trauma words when they viewed these words under divided-attention conditions. Replicating DePrince and Freyd's procedure, we tested for memory deficits for trauma words relative to neutral words in adults reporting either continuous or recovered memories of CSA versus adults denying a history of CSA. A memory deficit for trauma words under divided attention was expected in the recovered-memory group. Results were inconsistent with this prediction, as all three groups exhibited better recall of trauma words than neutral words, irrespective of encoding conditions. PMID:15828982

  16. Family characteristics and long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Suchitra; Winter, David; Messer, David; Metcalfe, Chris

    2011-11-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study investigated the role of family variables in the development of psychological problems in childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivors, contributing to the debate between the 'abuse related' perspective, which assumes a direct causal link between abuse and later problems, and the 'family dysfunction' perspective, which assumes that these problems are caused by the dysfunctional nature of families in which abuse occurs. The two questions of central concern were: (1) whether maladaptive family dynamics and CSA were each associated with later adjustment; and (2) whether these associations acted independently of one another. DESIGN. A retrospective cohort study comparing sexually abused and non-abused participants matched one-to-one on demographic variables. METHODS. The 64 clinical participants were recruited by sending questionnaires to clients on a psychological therapy waiting list, and 44 students were recruited from questionnaires made available at University Health Centres. Participants completed measures of psychological and sexual adjustment, family functioning, and construing. Multiple linear regression models investigated overall and independent associations between abuse, family circumstances, and adjustment in adulthood. RESULTS. There was only weak evidence for the influence of CSA, independently of family environment, on later psychological distress and sexual adjustment, but strong evidence for the influence of aspects of family environment, independent of abuse, on later psychological distress, sexual adjustment, self-esteem, body image, and sexual attitude. CONCLUSIONS. The findings provide support for the 'family dysfunction' perspective on the long-term effects of CSA. PMID:22003952

  17. Prolonged Exposure for Treating PTSD Among Female Methadone Patients Who Were Survivors of Sexual Abuse in Israel.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Miriam; Nacasch, Nitsa; Levit, Shabtay; Katz, Noam; Foa, Edna B

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this pilot study were: (a) to test the feasibility of prolonged exposure (PE) therapy conducted by a social worker staff on female patients in methadone program clinics who were survivors of child sexual abuse or rape and (b) to examine preliminary outcomes of PE on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and illicit drug use at pre- and posttreatment, and up to 12-month follow-ups. Twelve female methadone patients who were survivors of child sexual abuse or rape diagnosed with PTSD were enrolled in 13-19 weekly individual PE sessions. Assessments were conducted at pre-, mid-, and posttreatment, as well as at 3, 6, and 12-month follow-ups. The treatment outcomes measures included PTSD symptoms, depressive symptoms, and illicit drug use. Ten of the 12 study patients completed treatment. PTSD and depressive symptoms showed significant reduction. No relapse to illicit drug use was detected. These preliminary results suggest that PE may be delivered by methadone social workers with successful outcomes. Further research should test the efficacy of PE among methadone patients in a randomized control trial with standard care as the control condition. PMID:26399489

  18. Female Survivors' Perceptions of Lifelong Impact on Their Education of Child Abuse Suffered in Orphanages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.; Bode, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Many children raised in orphanages suffered ongoing child abuse and neglect including sexual abuse, and nearly all were denied an adequate education. This paper explores adult females' perceptions of the impacts on their education of child sexual abuse they suffered while living in orphanages in Australia. In-depth qualitative and anonymous…

  19. The Relationship Between Perceptions of Response to Disclosure of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Later Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Palo, Amanda D; Gilbert, Brenda O

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed whether perceptions of others' reactions to disclosure are related to psychological and physical outcomes among individuals with a history of child sexual abuse. Eighty-six female undergraduates completed a series of questionnaires assessing child sexual abuse, nonsexual trauma, depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, somatic symptoms, disclosure, and social reactions to disclosure. Those who reported child sexual abuse endorsed higher levels of psychological and physical symptoms than those who reported a nonsexual traumatic event. Child sexual abuse survivors who reported more hurtful responses to disclosure had higher levels of posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and physical symptoms than nonsexual trauma survivors. These findings suggest that many survivors of CSA may need psychological services, and an important focus of treatment may be assessing and strengthening social support. PMID:26301435

  20. Physiological stress responses predict sexual functioning and satisfaction differently in women who have and have not been sexually abused in childhood.

    PubMed

    Meston, Cindy M; Lorenz, Tierney A

    2013-07-01

    Physiological responses to sexual stimuli may contribute to the increased rate of sexual problems seen in women with childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories. We compared two physiological stress responses as predictors of sexual function and satisfaction, sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation and cortisol in women with (CSA, N = 136) and without CSA histories (NSA, N = 102). In CSA survivors, cortisol response to sexual stimuli did not significantly predict sexual functioning; however, in NSA women, cortisol increases were associated with poorer sexual functioning, and decreases with higher functioning. For women with CSA histories, lower SNS activity was associated with poorer sexual functioning. For CSA survivors with low lifetime trauma, lower SNS activity was associated with higher sexual satisfaction; for women with high lifetime trauma, the reverse was true. Decreased SNS activity during sexual stimuli predicted higher sexual functioning in NSA women with low lifetime exposure to traumatic events, but lower sexual functioning in those with high exposure. Differences between women with and without CSA histories in the association between cortisol and SNS response and sexual functioning and satisfaction suggests that CSA causes disruptions in both short and long-term stress responses to sexual stimuli that perpetuate into adulthood. PMID:24748915

  1. Physiological stress responses predict sexual functioning and satisfaction differently in women who have and have not been sexually abused in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Meston, Cindy M.; Lorenz, Tierney A.

    2012-01-01

    Physiological responses to sexual stimuli may contribute to the increased rate of sexual problems seen in women with childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories. We compared two physiological stress responses as predictors of sexual function and satisfaction, sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activation and cortisol in women with (CSA, N = 136) and without CSA histories (NSA, N = 102). In CSA survivors, cortisol response to sexual stimuli did not significantly predict sexual functioning; however, in NSA women, cortisol increases were associated with poorer sexual functioning, and decreases with higher functioning. For women with CSA histories, lower SNS activity was associated with poorer sexual functioning. For CSA survivors with low lifetime trauma, lower SNS activity was associated with higher sexual satisfaction; for women with high lifetime trauma, the reverse was true. Decreased SNS activity during sexual stimuli predicted higher sexual functioning in NSA women with low lifetime exposure to traumatic events, but lower sexual functioning in those with high exposure. Differences between women with and without CSA histories in the association between cortisol and SNS response and sexual functioning and satisfaction suggests that CSA causes disruptions in both short and long-term stress responses to sexual stimuli that perpetuate into adulthood. PMID:24748915

  2. Hypertension in Adult Survivors of Child Abuse: Observations from the Nurses’ Health Study II

    PubMed Central

    Riley, EH; Wright, RJ; Jun, HJ; Hibert, EN; Rich-Edwards, JW

    2013-01-01

    Background Limited research has shown a possible association between exposure to physical or sexual abuse prior to age 18 and the risk of developing hypertension as an adult. The factors mediating this relationship are unknown. Methods We analyzed questionnaire data from 68 505 female participants in the Nurses’ Health Study II regarding exposure to physical and sexual abuse prior to age 18. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to assess the relationship between abuse exposure and hypertension. Results Sixty-four percent of the participants (n = 41 792) reported physical and/or sexual abuse prior to age 18; 17% reported hypertension. All forms of abuse had a dose-response relationship with hypertension. Adjustments for smoking, alcohol, family history of hypertension, exercise, and oral contraceptives did not alter risk estimates. Adjustment for body mass index (BMI) significantly attenuated the associations between abuse and risk of hypertension and accounted for approximately 50% of the observed association between abuse exposure and hypertension. Women experiencing forced sexual activity as a child and as an adolescent had a 20% increased risk for developing hypertension (95% CI 8–32%) that was independent of BMI. Similarly, women reporting severe physical abuse in childhood and/or adolescence had risk estimates ranging from 14% (95% CI 5–24%) to 22% (95% CI 11–33%). Conclusion Early interpersonal violence may be a widespread risk factor for the development of hypertension in women. BMI is a significant mediator in the relationship between early abuse and adult hypertension. PMID:20445210

  3. What Determines Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptomatology for Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Lynne; Joyce, Peter R.

    1997-01-01

    A study of 73 New Zealand women attending a sexual abuse program found that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms were associated with higher levels of all psychopathology. However, the severity of PTSD symptoms was also associated with the extent of abuse which involved actual sexual intercourse. (Author/CR)

  4. Survivors' Perspectives on the Impact of Clergy Sexual Abuse on Families of Origin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wind, Leslie H.; Sullivan, James M.; Levins, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    Clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse rose to public attention in 2002 through the disclosure of abuse by Catholic priests within the Archdiocese of Boston and a simultaneous cover-up by church hierarchy. Similar patterns have since been described in other Catholic dioceses and in other faith denominations. While recent studies have examined the impact…

  5. Sarah's Story: Using Ritual Therapy to Address Psychospiritual Issues in Treating Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Radha J.; Horton, H. Shelton, Jr.; Watson, Terri

    1997-01-01

    Describes an individual's healing from the trauma of childhood sexual abuse through counseling, spiritual growth, and the use of therapeutic ritual. Explores relationships between the psychospiritual issues associated with childhood sexual abuse and commonly designated treatment goals. Claims that addressing psychospiritual issues is crucial in…

  6. Mentoring Undergraduate University Women Survivors of Childhood Abuse and Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Rosemary C.; D'Amico, Miranda

    2011-01-01

    This inquiry describes the role of mentoring for undergraduate women survivors of trauma. It employed a comparative case approach. Interviews elicited stories from participants reflecting the role mentors have played in their life course and educational experiences. Four major themes emerged: Fantasy mentors, mentor as mirror, mentor as nurturer…

  7. Tonic Immobility in Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors and Its Relationship to Posttraumatic Stress Symptomatology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Sauder, Colin L.; Martin, Elaine K.; Marx, Brian P.

    2010-01-01

    Past research has shown that 37% to 52% of sexual assault survivors report experiencing a set of peritraumatic responses, which include gross motor inhibition, analgesia, and fixed or unfocused staring. This response set closely resembles a set of unconditioned responses, collectively known as Tonic Immobility (TI). This study examined TI among…

  8. An evaluation of ICD-11 PTSD and complex PTSD criteria in a sample of adult survivors of childhood institutional abuse

    PubMed Central

    Knefel, Matthias; Lueger-Schuster, Brigitte

    2013-01-01

    Background The WHO recently launched the proposal for the 11th version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11) that also includes two diagnoses related to traumatic stress. In contrast to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), ICD-11 will probably, in addition to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), also define a new diagnosis termed “complex posttraumatic stress disorder” (CPTSD). Objective We aimed to apply the proposed ICD-11 criteria for PTSD and CPTSD and to compare their prevalence to the ICD-10 (International Classification of Diseases [10th revision]) PTSD prevalence. In addition, we compiled a list of symptoms for CPTSD based on subthreshold PTSD so as to include a wider group of individuals. Methods To evaluate the appropriateness of the WHO ICD-11 proposal compared to the criteria of ICD-10, we applied the newly introduced criteria for PTSD and CPTSD deriving from the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist – Civilian Version (PCL-C) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) scales, to a sample of adult survivors (N=229) of childhood institutional abuse. We evaluated the construct validity of CPTSD using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Results More individuals fulfilled the criteria for PTSD according to ICD-10 (52.8%) than the ICD-11 proposal (17% for PTSD only; 38.4% if combined with complex PTSD). The new version of PTSD neutralized the gender effects. The prevalence of CPTSD was 21.4%, and women had a significantly higher rate of CPTSD than men (40.4 and 15.8%, respectively). Those survivors who were diagnosed with CPTSD experienced institutional abuse for a longer time. CFA showed a strong model fit. Conclusion CPTSD is a highly relevant classification for individuals with complex trauma history, but surprisingly, effects of gender were apparent. Further research should thus address gender effects. PMID:24312721

  9. Elevated Salivary Alpha Amylase in Adolescent Sexual Abuse Survivors with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Strawn, Jeffrey R.; Out, Dorothee; Granger, Douglas A.; Putnam, Frank W.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Little is known regarding neuroendocrine responses in adolescent girls with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) who have experienced sexual abuse. Therefore, we collected saliva samples three times daily for 3 days to assess concentrations of salivary alpha amylase (sAA) – a surrogate marker for autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity and, in particular, sympathetic activity – in sexually abused adolescent girls. Methods: Twenty-four girls (mean age: 15±1.4 years) who had experienced recent sexual abuse (i.e., sexual abuse occurred 1–6 months prior to study enrollment) and 12 healthy comparison subjects (mean age: 14.8±1.3 years) completed a structured interview and assessments to ascertain symptoms of posttraumatic stress, then collected saliva at home upon awakening, 30 minutes after waking, and at 5 p.m. on three consecutive school days. Results: For sexually abused girls, total PTSD symptoms were associated with higher overall morning levels of sAA (r[20]=0.51, p=0.02), a finding driven by intrusive symptoms (r[20]=0.43, p<0.05) and hyperarousal symptoms (r[20]=0.58, p=0.01). There were no significant differences in diurnal sAA secretion between the sexually abused girls and healthy comparison adolescents. Conclusions: Overall morning concentrations of sAA in sexually abused girls are associated with overall PTSD severity as well as symptoms of hyperarousal and intrusive symptoms, possibly reflecting symptom-linked increases in ANS tone. These data raise the possibility that alterations in ANS activity are related to the pathophysiology of sexual abuse-related PTSD in adolescent girls, and may inform therapeutic interventions (e.g., antiadrenergic medications). PMID:25803321

  10. Childhood betrayal trauma and self-blame appraisals among survivors of intimate partner abuse.

    PubMed

    Babcock, Rebecca L; DePrince, Anne P

    2012-01-01

    Child abuse perpetrated by a close other, such as a parent, is linked to a wide range of detrimental effects, including an increased risk of self-blame. The current study evaluated whether experiences of childhood betrayal trauma were linked to self-blame following victimization in adulthood. A diverse sample of women (n = 230) from an urban city were recruited based on having experienced an incident of intimate partner abuse (IPA) reported to the local police. Women reported on their trauma histories and levels of self-blame for the target IPA incident. Results showed that a history of childhood betrayal trauma exposure predicted the degree of self-blame for the IPA incident. Women who experienced severe IPA during the target incident also indicated higher levels of self-blame. Findings from this study suggest that it may be important to target self-blame appraisals in interventions with adults exposed to abuse in childhood. PMID:22989241

  11. Risk Management in Treating Child Sexual Abuse Victims and Adult Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheflin, Alan W.

    1998-01-01

    Current legal issues involved in cases against therapists working with child sexual abuse victims are reviewed. Changes in the legal climate over the past decade are described. Issues involved in the "false memory" attack are discussed. Techniques for risk management and the current situation in the media are discussed. (EMK)

  12. Empowering Adolescent Survivors of Sexual Abuse: Application of a Solution-Focused Ericksonian Counseling Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kress, Victoria E.; Hoffman, Rachel M.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a solution-focused and Ericksonian group counseling model that can be used with adolescent girls who have been sexually abused. An overview of the components of this approach is provided. A postintervention focus group provided additional results and ideas for the future development of the group counseling model.

  13. Perpetrator Methodology as a Predictor of Traumatic Symptomatology in Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leahy, Trisha; Pretty, Grace; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2004-01-01

    This retrospective study explores, through quantitative and qualitative methods, the relationship of two variables (perpetrator relationship and perpetrator methodology) to posttraumatic and dissociative symptomatology. The quantitative sample comprised a nonpsychiatric group (N = 39) of Australian adults reporting sexual abuse histories. A MANOVA…

  14. Her Body Speaks: The Experience of Dance Therapy for Women Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Letty J.; Daniluk, Judith C.

    2002-01-01

    This qualitative, phenomenological study explores the experiences of dance therapy for 5 women who had been sexually abused as children. Using in-depth, largely unstructured interviews, the women reflect on their dance therapy experiences: and on their perceptions of the role of these experiences in their psychological healing. (Contains 46…

  15. Resiliency Determinants and Resiliency Processes among Female Adult Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogar, Christine B.; Hulse-Killacky, Diana

    2006-01-01

    This phenomenological, qualitative study examined resiliency determinants and resiliency formation among 10 women who had been sexually abused as children. An examination of the determinants and processes that facilitated resiliency in participants' adult lives revealed 5 determinant clusters (interpersonally skilled, competent, high self-regard,…

  16. Efficacy of a Group Intervention for Adult Women Survivors of Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Martine; Bergeron, Manon

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of a group intervention for women sexually abused in childhood or adulthood. The sample consisted of 41 women involved in a group intervention based on a feminist approach offered by help centers for sexual assault victims in Quebec and 11 women in a wait-list comparison group. Results reveal that the group…

  17. From Victims to Survivors: Reclaimed Voices of Women Sexually Abused in Childhood by Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Juliann; Morse, Jill

    This book is a research-based resource for professionals treating women who are sexually abused by female perpetrators, mainly mothers and grandmothers. The book first focuses on the female perpetrator, defines the treatments that have proven successful, and provides an overview of the available literature. Also addressed are the myths and…

  18. A Developmental Framework for Enhancing Resiliency in Adult Survivors of Childhood Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orbke, Samantha; Smith, Heather L.

    2013-01-01

    Roughly one third of children subjected to abusive environments grow into healthy and capable adults, demonstrating remarkable resiliency, despite risks for developing maladaptive self-structures and destructive behaviors (Werner, "American Journal of Orthopsychiatry" 59:72-81 1989; Kendall-Tackett "et al.", "Psychological Bulletin" 113:164-180…

  19. A preliminary mapping of individual, relational, and social factors that impede disclosure of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Collin-Vézina, Delphine; De La Sablonnière-Griffin, Mireille; Palmer, Andrea M; Milne, Lise

    2015-05-01

    Uncovering the pathways to disclosures of child sexual abuse (CSA) and the factors influencing the willingness of victims to talk about the abuse is paramount to the development of powerful practice and policy initiatives. Framed as a long interview method utilizing a grounded theory approach to analyze data, the objective of the current study was to provide a preliminary mapping of the barriers to CSA disclosures through an ecological systemic lens, from a sample of 67 male and female CSA adult survivors, all of whom had recently received counselling services. The current project led to the identification of three broad categories of barriers that were each comprised of several subthemes, namely: Barriers from Within (internalized victim-blaming, mechanisms to protect oneself, and immature development at time of abuse); Barriers in Relation to Others (violence and dysfunction in the family, power dynamics, awareness of the impact of telling, and fragile social network); and Barriers in Relation to the Social World (labelling, taboo of sexuality, lack of services available, and culture or time period). This study points to the importance of using a broad ecological framework to understand the factors that inhibit disclosure of CSA, as barriers to disclosure do not constrain solely the victims. Results are discussed in light of their implications for research, prevention and intervention programs, and social policies and media campaigns, as the burden is on the larger community to create a climate of safety and transparency that makes the telling of CSA possible. PMID:25846196

  20. Prevalence and predictors of Axis I disorders in a large sample of treatment-seeking victims of sexual abuse and incest

    PubMed Central

    McElroy, Eoin; Shevlin, Mark; Elklit, Ask; Hyland, Philip; Murphy, Siobhan; Murphy, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    Background Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a common occurrence and a robust, yet non-specific, predictor of adult psychopathology. While many demographic and abuse factors have been shown to impact this relationship, their common and specific effects remain poorly understood. Objective This study sought to assess the prevalence of Axis I disorders in a large sample of help-seeking victims of sexual trauma, and to examine the common and specific effects of demographic and abuse characteristics across these different diagnoses. Method The participants were attendees at four treatment centres in Denmark that provide psychological therapy for victims of CSA (N=434). Axis I disorders were assessed using the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III (MCMI-III). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to examine the associations between CSA characteristics (age of onset, duration, number of abusers, number of abusive acts) and 10 adult clinical syndromes. Results There was significant variation in the prevalence of disorders and the abuse characteristics were differentially associated with the outcome variables. Having experienced sexual abuse from more than one perpetrator was the strongest predictor of psychopathology. Conclusions The relationship between CSA and adult psychopathology is complex. Abuse characteristics have both unique and shared effects across different diagnoses. Highlights of the article The prevalence of Axis I disorders were assessed in a large sample of sexual abuse and incest survivors. The impact of demographic and abuse characteristics were also examined. There was significant variation in the prevalence of disorders. Abuse characteristics were differentially associated with the disorders. Abuse from multiple perpetrators was the strongest overall predictor of psychopathology. PMID:27064976

  1. Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse on the Emotions and Behaviours of Adult Men from Three Ethnic Groups in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Galvan, Frank H.; Williams, John K.; Prusinski, Missy; Zhang, Muyu; Wyatt, Gail E.; Myers, Hector F.

    2014-01-01

    Adult men of different ethnic backgrounds who experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may vary in their reports of the psychological and behavioural impact of CSA on their lives. Empirical studies rarely examine the impact of race/ethnicity or cultural context on the psychological and behavioural struggles of adult male CSA survivors. This study utilised qualitative content analysis to examine the reported CSA-related psychological and behavioural challenges of 150 U.S. men, with equal numbers of Blacks, Latinos, and non-Latino Whites. Interview data revealed some ethnic differences: Black men more frequently denied having present day adverse effects than other groups. However, Black men who did report negative consequences of CSA discussed difficulties with substance use and hyper-sexualised behaviour more often than other ethnicities. Latino men reported anger, anxiety, hyper-vigilance, flashbacks and communication problems more often than the other two groups. Black and Latino men also discussed guilt/shame issues and sexual identity concerns more often than Whites did. In contrast, White men more frequently discussed issues related to low self-esteem, loneliness and isolation. These findings suggest that ethnically diverse men may respond differently to CSA experiences and that considerations need to be taken into account when providing health care to men with CSA histories. PMID:24393013

  2. Psychometric Evaluation and Comparison of Three Retrospective, Multi-Item Measures of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulme, Polly A.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the psychometric qualities of three retrospective, multi-item measures of childhood sexual abuse (CSA): the CSA Frequency Scale, CSA Count Index, and CSA Multiple Characteristics Index. Methods: Two samples of women 20-50 years old who experienced CSA were recruited from a family practice clinic (N=132) and the…

  3. Predicting Long-Term Outcomes for Women Sexually Abused in Childhood: Contribution of Abuse Severity Versus Family Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fassler, I.R.; Amodeo, M.; Griffin, M.L.; Clay, C.M.; Ellis, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: Child sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with adverse adult psychosocial outcomes, although some reports describe minimal long-term effects. The search for explanations for the heterogeneous outcomes in women with CSA has led to an examination of a range of CSA-related factors, from the severity of individual CSA incidents to the…

  4. Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... also may fall prey to strangers who take advantage of their cognitive impairment. Types of abuse Signs ... property) to his or her disadvantage or the advantage of someone else Sexual abuse: touching, fondling or ...

  5. The Impact of a History of Child Sexual Abuse on Maternal Response to Allegations of Sexual Abuse Concerning Her Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deblinger, Esther; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Compares nonoffending mothers with and without a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) to the sexual abuse allegations concerning their children. Nonoffending mothers with a history of CSA exhibited more distress and reported greater feelings of aloneness in facing the crisis. However, maternal history of CSA did not differentiate the groups with…

  6. Recovering from childhood sexual abuse: a theoretical framework for practice and research.

    PubMed

    Chouliara, Z; Karatzias, T; Gullone, A

    2014-02-01

    Research on survivors' experiences of recovering from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been limited and focused on those with severe mental health difficulties. This study elicited experiences of recovery from CSA in male and female survivors who have/have not utilized mental health services. The tangible end-point was to propose a theoretical model of personally meaningful recovery. This is a qualitative study, which utilized semi-structured individual interviews following the critical incident technique. Transcripts were analysed using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis to identify recurrent themes. A total 22 adult survivors of CSA. Main themes identified were: The Affected Self, Factors Hindering Recovery, Factors Enhancing Recovery, The Hurdles of Recovery and the Recovering Self. The affected self included: lack of boundary awareness and self-blame, over self-reliance, over-vigilance and guilt, shame, aloneness and social stigma. The recovering self was characterized by increasing confidence, assertiveness, ability to self-care and self-acceptance, and by embracing vulnerability. These findings have potentially major implications for clinical practice, service provision, policy development and professional training in this field. The importance of disclosure in the healing process seemed paramount and can have major implications for current service protocols. PMID:23379783

  7. Beyond "Survivor": How Childhood Sexual Abuse Informs the Identity of Adult Women at the End of the Therapeutic Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Alexis; Daniluk, Judith C.

    2004-01-01

    A qualitative method was used to explore how adult women experienced their identity after extensive therapy to deal with childhood sexual abuse. Seven women shared their healing journeys and their perceptions of the role of the abuse in their current life and self-perceptions. Phenomenological analysis of the interview data revealed 5 common…

  8. A Multi-Method Treatment for Child Survivors of Sexual Abuse: An Intervention Informed by Relational and Trauma Theories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levendosky, Alytia A.; Buttenheim, Margaret

    2002-01-01

    Presents a case study of the treatment of a pre-adolescent female survivor of incest. The treatment integrated relational and trauma theory perspectives in focusing on reducing self-blame, preventing further isolation, creating a safe, secure environment, and helping the patient develop positive connections with others and feelings of…

  9. Beyond gender: proximity to interpersonal trauma in examining differences in believing child abuse disclosures.

    PubMed

    Miller, Katherine E; Cromer, Lisa DeMarni

    2015-01-01

    Survivors of child sexual abuse (CSA) often delay disclosing or do not disclose the abuse for fear of not being believed. Studies document that women believe CSA disclosures more often than do men. Little research has examined theoretical underpinnings for gender differences in believing. However, 1 theory suggests that women may be more empathetic to disclosures because interpersonal trauma (IPT) is proximal to their lives. The present study aimed to extend understanding of how proximity to IPT may shape views of others' experiences of IPT. This study examined whether proximity to IPT (i.e., knowing a close other who had experienced IPT) rather than personal experience would better account for the robust gender differences typically found in believing disclosures. College students (N = 279) completed self-report measures about their personal trauma history and responded to questions regarding knowledge of close others' trauma histories. Participants read a vignette of an adult female disclosing CSA and rated the disclosure for believability. Results indicate that exposure to IPT increased believing, whereas gender did not. These results suggest that one's proximity to IPT may be an alternative explanation for influence on believing CSA rather than gender alone. PMID:25517856

  10. Reducing symbolic-violence in the research encounter: collaborating with a survivor of domestic abuse in a qualitative study in UK primary care.

    PubMed

    Malpass, Alice; Sales, Kim; Feder, Gene

    2016-03-01

    This paper explores ideas of symbolic violence inherent in the research encounter (Bourdieu 1999). After defining symbolic violence and how the concept enters into domestic violence and abuse (DVA) research, we discuss the challenges arising from a (DVA) survivor taking on the role of interviewer in a qualitative study nested within a UK primary care based trial: IRIS (Identification and Referral to Improve Safety). KS, a survivor of DVA, conducted interviews with 12 women who had been referred to a domestic violence agency by primary care clinicians taking part in the IRIS trial in two UK cities (Bristol and east London) during 2009. Field notes were kept during all of the research meetings with KS and these were included in analysis. Our analysis maps the research pathway of 'non-violent communication' and discusses the role of social symmetry and proximity in the research encounter. We conclude that while a welcoming disposition, empathy and active listening are all generic skills to qualitative research; if a researcher can enter fieldwork with a claim of social proximity and symmetry, their use of these generic skills is enhanced through a process of shared objectification and empowerment talk. We explore the limitations of social proximity, its relationship to feminist and anthropological theories of 'insider' research and its relevance to primary care research. PMID:26403218

  11. Disclosure of child sexual abuse by adolescents: a qualitative in-depth study.

    PubMed

    Schönbucher, Verena; Maier, Thomas; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Schnyder, Ulrich; Landolt, Markus A

    2012-11-01

    This qualitative study aimed to study the process of disclosure by examining adolescents from the general population who had experienced child sexual abuse (CSA). Twenty-six sexually victimized adolescents (23 girls, 3 boys; age: 15-18 years) participated in a qualitative face-to-face in-depth interview on different aspects of disclosure. A qualitative content analysis was conducted following Mayring and using the qualitative data analysis program Atlas.ti. In addition, quantitative correlation analyses were calculated to identify factors associated with disclosure. Less than one third of participants immediately disclosed CSA to another person. In most cases, recipients of both immediate and delayed disclosure were peers. More than one third of participants had never disclosed the abuse to a parent. Main motives for nondisclosure to parents were lack of trust or not wanting to burden the parents. Factors that correlated positively with disclosure were extrafamilial CSA, single CSA, age of victim at CSA, and having parents who were still living together. Negative associations with disclosure were found for feelings of guilt and shame and the perpetrator's age. Many adolescent survivors of CSA have serious concerns about disclosure to their parents and consider friends as more reliable confidants. These findings have two main implications for prevention: (1) In order to facilitate disclosure to parents, the strengthening of the child-parent relationship should be given specific attention in prevention programs, and (2) prevention programs should aim at teaching adolescents how they can help a victim if they become a recipient of disclosure. PMID:22821848

  12. The Development of a Sexual Abuse Severity Score: Characteristics of Childhood Sexual Abuse Associated with Trauma Symptomatology, Somatization, and Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zink, Therese; Klesges, Lisa; Stevens, Susanna; Decker, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is common and is associated with both mental and physical health problems in adulthood. Using data from an age- and sex-stratified population survey of 600 Olmsted County, Minnesota, residents, a Sexual Abuse Severity Score was developed. The abuse characteristics of 156 CSA respondents were associated with…

  13. "From that moment on my life changed": turning points in the healing process for men recovering from child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Easton, Scott D; Leone-Sheehan, Danielle M; Sophis, Ellen J; Willis, Danny G

    2015-01-01

    Recent research indicates that child sexual abuse often undermines the health of boys and men across the lifespan. However, some male survivors experience a turning point marking a positive change in their health trajectories and healing process. Although frequently discussed in reference to physical health problems or addictions, very little is known about turning points with respect to child sexual abuse for men. The purpose of this secondary qualitative analysis was to describe the different types of turning points experienced by male survivors who completed the 2010 Health and Well-Being Survey (N = 250). Using conventional content analysis, researchers identified seven types of turning points that were classified into three broad categories: influential relationships (professional and group support, personal relationships), insights and new meanings (cognitive realizations, necessity to change, spiritual transformation), and action-oriented communication (disclosure of CSA, pursuit of justice). Implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed. PMID:25747418

  14. Randomized Trial of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Chronic Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Adult Female Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonagh, Annmarie; Friedman, Matthew; McHugo, Gregory; Ford, Julian; Sengupta, Anjana; Mueser, Kim; Demment, Christine Carney; Fournier, Debra; Schnurr, Paula P.

    2005-01-01

    The authors conducted a randomized clinical trial of individual psychotherapy for women with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to childhood sexual abuse (n = 74), comparing cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) with a problem-solving therapy (present-centered therapy; PCT) and to a wait-list (WL). The authors hypothesized that CBT would be…

  15. Child Sexual Abuse, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Substance Use: Predictors of Revictimization in Adult Sexual Assault Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.; Filipas, Henrietta H.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the unique effects of child sexual abuse simultaneously with post-traumatic stress disorder symptom clusters, problem drinking, and illicit drug use in relation to sexual revictimization in a community sample of female adult sexual assault victims. Participants (N = 555) completed two surveys a year apart. Child sexual abuse…

  16. Women of Courage: A Personal Account of a Wilderness-Based Experiential Group for Survivors of Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Virginia A.

    2006-01-01

    Adventure-based therapy has grown in both scope and popularity. These groups are frequently utilized in the treatment of adolescents with behavioral or substance abuse issues. Less evident is the use of this modality with other populations. Described here is a personal account of the author's participation in a wilderness-based group for women.…

  17. Beyond PTSD: Emotion Regulation and Interpersonal Problems as Predictors of Functional Impairment in Survivors of Childhood Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloitre, Marylene; Miranda, Regina; Stovall-McClough, K. Chase; Han, Hyemee

    2005-01-01

    This study sought to determine the relative contribution of problems in emotion regulation and interpersonal functioning compared to PTSD symptoms in predicting functional impairment among women with childhood abuse histories. One hundred sixty-four treatment-seeking women completed measures of emotion regulation, interpersonal problems, PTSD…

  18. Against the Odds: The Impact of Woman Abuse on Maternal Response to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaggia, Ramona; Turton, Jennifer V.

    2005-01-01

    Although the co-occurrence of woman abuse and child sexual abuse is high little research exists exploring the impact of woman abuse on maternal response to child sexual abuse (CSA). Findings from two qualitative studies indicate the form of woman abuse to have differential impact on maternal response. Mothers who were abused in non-physical ways,…

  19. Child Sexual Abuse, Coping Responses, Self-Blame, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Adult Sexual Revictimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filipas, Henrietta H.; Ullman, Sarah E

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the psychological sequelae of child sexual abuse (CSA) and the factors that contributed to revictimization in the form of adult sexual assault (ASA) using a survey of 577 female college students. CSA characteristics, maladaptive coping in response to CSA, degree of self-blame at the time of the abuse and currently, and…

  20. Clinical Characteristics of Adults Reporting Repressed, Recovered, or Continuous Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNally, Richard J.; Perlman, Carol A.; Ristuccia, Carel S.; Clancy, Susan A.

    2006-01-01

    The authors assessed women and men who either reported continuous memories of their childhood sexual abuse (CSA, n = 92), reported recovering memories of CSA (n = 38), reported believing they harbored repressed memories of CSA (n = 42), or reported never having been sexually abused (n = 36). Men and women were indistinguishable on all clinical and…

  1. Childhood Sexual Abuse Patterns, Psychosocial Correlates, and Treatment Outcomes among Adults in Drug Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boles, Sharon M.; Joshi, Vandana; Grella, Christine; Wellisch, Jean

    2005-01-01

    This study reports on the effects of having a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on treatment outcomes among substance abusing men and women (N = 2,434) in a national, multisite study of drug treatment outcomes. A history of CSA was reported by 27.2% of the women and 9.2% of the men. Controlling for gender, compared to patients without CSA,…

  2. Boys and CSA Prevention: Issues Surrounding Gender and Approaches for Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholes, Laura; Jones, Christian; Nagel, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Freda Briggs (2007), a leader in the field of child protection in Australia continues to raise concerns about the vulnerability and victimisation of boys that she believes is substantially under-recognised. She argues that boys have not been well supported by child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programs with child protection curriculum not yet…

  3. Pedophilic sexual interests and psychopathy in child sexual abusers working with children.

    PubMed

    Turner, Daniel; Rettenberger, Martin; Lohmann, Lena; Eher, Reinhard; Briken, Peer

    2014-02-01

    Research has identified stable and dynamic characteristics in child sexual abusers working with children (CSA-W) that may distinguish them from other child sexual abusers (CSA). However, in previous research CSA-W have usually been included in the group of extra-familial CSA (CSA-E). Two hundred and forty-eight forensic-sexological reports about CSA conducted by the Federal Evaluation Centre for Violent and Sexual Offenders in the Austrian Prison System were evaluated retrospectively. One hundred and nineteen intra-familial CSA (CSA-I), 66 CSA-E, and 38 CSA-W were compared with regard to static risk factors, indicators of psychopathy, and pedophilic sexual interests. CSA-E had the highest risk of recidivism as measured by the Static-99 total score, followed by CSA-W. Furthermore, CSA-E had more previous convictions than CSA-W. Both CSA-E and CSA-I had higher total scores on the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised than CSA-W. CSA-W had the highest prevalence of pedophilia diagnoses according to DSM-IV-TR criteria, as well as the highest rate of pedophilia with an orientation toward male children, and the highest frequency of male victims. CSA-W also had the highest total scores in the Screening Scale for Pedophilic Interests. CSA-W seem to constitute a group with particular risk factors and criminogenic needs, that is, they show more indicators of pedophilic sexual interests but less general antisociality and psychopathy, and would thus seem to be distinguishable from other CSA. Future research should focus in particular on evaluating differences in the grooming strategies used by CSA-W to commit and disclose child sexual abuse, as well as on the resources of this particular offender group. PMID:24008098

  4. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Multiple Dimensions of Self-Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murthi, Meera; Servaty-Seib, Heather L.; Elliott, Ann N.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship between child sexual abuse (CSA) and self-concept in a nonclinical sample of female college students. Participants with a history of CSA had lower scores than participants without a history of CSA on four domains of self-concept: familial, affect, competence, and physical. History…

  5. Reports of Child Sexual Abuse in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batchelor, Ervin S.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined incidence of child sexual abuse (CSA) reports to school psychologists and perceived quality of services to child victims and surveyed usage of CSA prevention and screening programs. Subjects included 171 school psychologists who reported 498 CSA cases. Results suggest need for training school psychologists in assessment of child sexual…

  6. Measuring abusive behaviors: is economic abuse a unique form of abuse?

    PubMed

    Stylianou, Amanda Mathisen; Postmus, Judy L; McMahon, Sarah

    2013-11-01

    Recent attention has been given by researchers to exploring economic abuse strategies used by abusers. However, little research has been conducted to understanding how to conceptualize economic abuse in relation to other forms of abuse. This article examines the factor structure of abusive items from the Scale of Economic Abuse--12 and the Abusive Behavior Inventory through confirmatory factor analyses using data collected with 457 female survivors of abuse. The findings provide evidence for conceptualizing economic abuse as a unique form of abuse moderately correlated with psychological, physical, and sexual forms of abuse. PMID:23946140

  7. Perceptions of Child Sexual Abuse: Victim and Perpetrator Characteristics, Treatment Efficacy, and Lay vs. Legal Opinions of Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Lisa L.; Birkimer, John C.

    2002-01-01

    Examines interactions between victim age and victim response, and victim relation to perpetrator and victim response influencing perceptions of child sexual abuse (CSA). Results suggest that undergraduate students' perceptions of CSA are influenced by several factors and that laws regarding CSA may not be well understood. (Contains 29 references,…

  8. The Role of Narcissistic Vulnerability in Predicting Adult Posttraumatic Symptoms from Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Bachar, Eytan; Canetti, Laura; Hadar, Hilit; Baruch, Julia; Dor, Yehuda; Freedman, Sara

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine whether narcissistic vulnerability can aid in clarifying the debate regarding the relationship between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adulthood adjustment to traumatic events. 157 survivors (mean age = 31.1, SD = 10.9) of a traumatic event (war activities and road and work accidents) were assessed 1 week, 1, and 4 months following the event. Of the 157 participants, 15 reported experiencing CSA, and 26 reported experiencing childhood physical abuse (CPA). In the first-week assessment, patients were administered the Narcissistic Vulnerability Scale (NVS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). In the follow-up assessments, subjects were interviewed on the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. Narcissistic vulnerability was found, both in 1- and 4-month follow-ups, to increase the likelihood of participants who experienced CSA to develop PTSD symptoms later in their adult life, when exposed to other additional trauma. Narcissistic vulnerability, in both follow-ups, did not increase the likelihood of participants who experienced CPA to develop PTSD symptoms later in their life when exposed to other additional trauma. The NVS predicted the development of PTSD symptoms in the whole sample, both in the 1- and 4-month follow-ups, above and beyond the prediction of the BDI. In other words, narcissistic vulnerability can add additional information above and beyond general negative emotionality. In conclusion, it is recommended to take into consideration the interplay between CSA and the individual's narcissistic vulnerability when assessing the long term effects of CSA such as acute or chronic PTSD. PMID:25410429

  9. An Evidence-Based Education Program for Adults about Child Sexual Abuse ("Prevent It!") That Significantly Improves Attitudes, Knowledge, and Behavior.

    PubMed

    Martin, Erin K; Silverstone, Peter H

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe the development of an evidence-based education program for adults about childhood sexual abuse (CSA), called Prevent It! Uniquely, the primary goal of this program was to change the behavior of participants, as well as to increase knowledge about CSA and positive attitudes toward it. A comprehensive review shows no previous similar approach. The program includes a detailed manual to allow standardized administration by trained facilitators, as well as multiple video segments from CSA survivors and professionals. A total of 23 program workshops were run, with 366 adults participating. Of these, 312 (85%) agreed to take part in the study. All completed baseline ratings prior to the program and 195 (63% of study sample) completed follow-up assessments at 3-months. There were no significant differences between the demographic make-up of the baseline group and the follow-up group. Assessments included demographic data, knowledge, attitudes, and several measures of behavior (our primary outcome variable). Behavioral questions asked individuals to select behaviors used in the previous 3-months from a list of options. Questions also included asking "how many times in the previous 3-months" have you "talked about healthy sexual development or Child sexual abuse (CSA) with a child you know"; "suspected a child was sexually abused"; "taken steps to protect a child"; or "reported suspected sexual abuse to police or child welfare"? The majority of attendees were women, with the commonest age group being between 30 and 39 years old. Approximately 33% had experienced CSA themselves. At 3-month follow-up there were highly statistically significant improvements in several aspects of behavior and knowledge, and attitudes regarding CSA. For example, the number of subjects actively looking for evidence of CSA increased from 46% at baseline to 81% at follow-up, while the number of subjects who actively took steps to protect children increased from 25% at baseline to 48

  10. An Ecological Analysis of Child Sexual Abuse Disclosure: Considerations for Child and Adolescent Mental Health

    PubMed Central

    Alaggia, Ramona

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Research continues to indicate a concerning number of children and youth, between 60–80%, withhold disclosure until adulthood suggesting that many children endure prolonged victimization or never receive necessary intervention. The study aim was to qualitatively identify factors that impede or promote child sexual abuse (CSA) disclosure. Methods: Using a phenomenological design, forty adult survivors of CSA were interviewed about their disclosure experiences to provide retrospective accounts of their childhood and adolescent abuse experiences, disclosure attempts, and meaning-making of these experiences. Results: Findings show that disclosure is multiply determined by a complex interplay of factors related to child characteristics, family environment, community influences, and cultural and societal attitudes. An ecological analysis is offered to understand these complexities. Unless barriers to disclosure are eradicated, negative effects of CSA can persist manifesting in serious mental health issues. Conclusions: Practitioners can expect to work with children, adolescents and adults who have withheld disclosure or attempted to tell over time having experienced a wide range of responses. Multi-level intervention is recommended at the individual, community and macro-levels. Future investigations should focus on how to identify and measure the impact of community and macro level factors on disclosure, aspects that have received much less attention. PMID:20119565

  11. Pain in Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Glare, Paul A.; Davies, Pamela S.; Finlay, Esmé; Gulati, Amitabh; Lemanne, Dawn; Moryl, Natalie; Oeffinger, Kevin C.; Paice, Judith A.; Stubblefield, Michael D.; Syrjala, Karen L.

    2014-01-01

    Pain is a common problem in cancer survivors, especially in the first few years after treatment. In the longer term, approximately 5% to 10% of survivors have chronic severe pain that interferes with functioning. The prevalence is much higher in certain subpopulations, such as breast cancer survivors. All cancer treatment modalities have the potential to cause pain. Currently, the approach to managing pain in cancer survivors is similar to that for chronic cancer-related pain, pharmacotherapy being the principal treatment modality. Although it may be appropriate to continue strong opioids in survivors with moderate to severe pain, most pain problems in cancer survivors will not require them. Moreover, because more than 40% of cancer survivors now live longer than 10 years, there is growing concern about the long-term adverse effects of opioids and the risks of misuse, abuse, and overdose in the nonpatient population. As with chronic nonmalignant pain, multimodal interventions that incorporate nonpharmacologic therapies should be part of the treatment strategy for pain in cancer survivors, prescribed with the aim of restoring functionality, not just providing comfort. For patients with complex pain issues, multidisciplinary programs should be used, if available. New or worsening pain in a cancer survivor must be evaluated to determine whether the cause is recurrent disease or a second malignancy. This article focuses on patients with a history of cancer who are beyond the acute diagnosis and treatment phase and on common treatment-related pain etiologies. The benefits and harms of the various pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic options for pain management in this setting are reviewed. PMID:24799477

  12. Pain in cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Glare, Paul A; Davies, Pamela S; Finlay, Esmé; Gulati, Amitabh; Lemanne, Dawn; Moryl, Natalie; Oeffinger, Kevin C; Paice, Judith A; Stubblefield, Michael D; Syrjala, Karen L

    2014-06-01

    Pain is a common problem in cancer survivors, especially in the first few years after treatment. In the longer term, approximately 5% to 10% of survivors have chronic severe pain that interferes with functioning. The prevalence is much higher in certain subpopulations, such as breast cancer survivors. All cancer treatment modalities have the potential to cause pain. Currently, the approach to managing pain in cancer survivors is similar to that for chronic cancer-related pain, pharmacotherapy being the principal treatment modality. Although it may be appropriate to continue strong opioids in survivors with moderate to severe pain, most pain problems in cancer survivors will not require them. Moreover, because more than 40% of cancer survivors now live longer than 10 years, there is growing concern about the long-term adverse effects of opioids and the risks of misuse, abuse, and overdose in the nonpatient population. As with chronic nonmalignant pain, multimodal interventions that incorporate nonpharmacologic therapies should be part of the treatment strategy for pain in cancer survivors, prescribed with the aim of restoring functionality, not just providing comfort. For patients with complex pain issues, multidisciplinary programs should be used, if available. New or worsening pain in a cancer survivor must be evaluated to determine whether the cause is recurrent disease or a second malignancy. This article focuses on patients with a history of cancer who are beyond the acute diagnosis and treatment phase and on common treatment-related pain etiologies. The benefits and harms of the various pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic options for pain management in this setting are reviewed. PMID:24799477

  13. Egocentric virtual maze learning in adult survivors of childhood abuse with dissociative disorders: evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Weniger, Godehard; Siemerkus, Jakob; Barke, Antonia; Lange, Claudia; Ruhleder, Mirjana; Sachsse, Ulrich; Schmidt-Samoa, Carsten; Dechent, Peter; Irle, Eva

    2013-05-30

    Present neuroimaging findings suggest two subtypes of trauma response, one characterized predominantly by hyperarousal and intrusions, and the other primarily by dissociative symptoms. The neural underpinnings of these two subtypes need to be better defined. Fourteen women with childhood abuse and the current diagnosis of dissociative amnesia or dissociative identity disorder but without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 14 matched healthy comparison subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while finding their way in a virtual maze. The virtual maze presented a first-person view (egocentric), lacked any topographical landmarks and could be learned only by using egocentric navigation strategies. Participants with dissociative disorders (DD) were not impaired in learning the virtual maze when compared with controls, and showed a similar, although weaker, pattern of activity changes during egocentric learning when compared with controls. Stronger dissociative disorder severity of participants with DD was related to better virtual maze performance, and to stronger activity increase within the cingulate gyrus and the precuneus. Our results add to the present knowledge of preserved attentional and visuospatial mnemonic functioning in individuals with DD. PMID:23522878

  14. Symptom Trajectories Among Child Survivors of Maltreatment: Findings from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN).

    PubMed

    Lauterbach, Dean; Armour, Cherie

    2016-02-01

    Very few studies have investigated the longitudinal trajectory of depression and anxiety related symptomatology among child victims of maltreatment or among those at risk for maltreatment. The current study examined latent class trajectories of anxiety/depression symptoms in a sample of 1354 (n = 657 boys, n = 697 girls) victimized or at risk children using data collected from the Longtitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN). Four trajectory groups were identified labeled low-stable, moderate-stable, moderate-increasing, and high-decreasing. This study also sought to investigate predictors of group membership. Relative to the low-stable group, membership in the three more pathological groups (i.e., moderate-stable, moderate-increasing, and high-decreasing) was predicted by a greater number of maltreatment allegations, more visits to a primary care physician for psychological issues, less perceived support by primary maternal caregiver, and lower rated popularity of the child. Implications for early identification of child maltreatment victims in primary health care settings was discussed. PMID:25795014

  15. Abuse-Specific Self-Schemas and Self-Functioning: A Prospective Study of Sexually Abused Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiring, Candice; Cleland, Charles M.; Simon, Valerie A.

    2010-01-01

    Potential pathways from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to negative self-schemas to subsequent dissociative symptoms and low global self-esteem were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 160 ethnically diverse youth with confirmed CSA histories. Participants were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery, when they were 8 to 15 years of…

  16. Risk Assessment in Child Sexual Abusers Working With Children.

    PubMed

    Turner, Daniel; Rettenberger, Martin; Yoon, Dahlnym; Klein, Verena; Eher, Reinhard; Briken, Peer

    2016-09-01

    Child sexual abuse occurring in a child- or youth-serving institution or organization has attracted great public and scientific attention. In light of the particular personal and offense-related characteristics of men who have abused children within such an institution or organization, it is of special importance to evaluate the predictive performance of currently applied risk assessment instruments in this offender population. Therefore, the present study assessed the risk ratings and predictive performance of four risk assessment instruments and one instrument assessing protective factors concerning any, violent and sexual recidivism in child sexual abusers working with children (CSA-W) in comparison with extra-familial child sexual abusers (CSA-E) and intra-familial child sexual abusers (CSA-I). The results indicate that CSA-W mostly recidivate with a sexual offense. Although all included risk measures seem to function with CSA-W, the Static-99 seems to be the instrument that performs best in predicting sexual recidivism in CSA-W. CSA-W had the most protective factors measured with the Structured Assessment of PROtective Factors (SAPROF). While the SAPROF could not predict desistance from recidivism in CSA-W, it predicted desistance from any recidivism in all CSA. As CSA-W frequently hold many indicators for pedophilic sexual interests but only a few for antisocial tendencies, it can be suggested that CSA-W are at an increased risk for sexual recidivism and thus risk measures especially designed for sexual recidivism work best in CSA-W. Nevertheless, CSA-W also hold many protective factors; however, their impact on CSA-W is not clear yet and needs further study. PMID:25527631

  17. An Evidence-Based Education Program for Adults about Child Sexual Abuse (“Prevent It!”) That Significantly Improves Attitudes, Knowledge, and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Erin K.; Silverstone, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    Here we describe the development of an evidence-based education program for adults about childhood sexual abuse (CSA), called Prevent It! Uniquely, the primary goal of this program was to change the behavior of participants, as well as to increase knowledge about CSA and positive attitudes toward it. A comprehensive review shows no previous similar approach. The program includes a detailed manual to allow standardized administration by trained facilitators, as well as multiple video segments from CSA survivors and professionals. A total of 23 program workshops were run, with 366 adults participating. Of these, 312 (85%) agreed to take part in the study. All completed baseline ratings prior to the program and 195 (63% of study sample) completed follow-up assessments at 3-months. There were no significant differences between the demographic make-up of the baseline group and the follow-up group. Assessments included demographic data, knowledge, attitudes, and several measures of behavior (our primary outcome variable). Behavioral questions asked individuals to select behaviors used in the previous 3-months from a list of options. Questions also included asking “how many times in the previous 3-months” have you “talked about healthy sexual development or Child sexual abuse (CSA) with a child you know”; “suspected a child was sexually abused”; “taken steps to protect a child”; or “reported suspected sexual abuse to police or child welfare”? The majority of attendees were women, with the commonest age group being between 30 and 39 years old. Approximately 33% had experienced CSA themselves. At 3-month follow-up there were highly statistically significant improvements in several aspects of behavior and knowledge, and attitudes regarding CSA. For example, the number of subjects actively looking for evidence of CSA increased from 46% at baseline to 81% at follow-up, while the number of subjects who actively took steps to protect children increased from

  18. Sexual Desire and Linguistic Analysis: A Comparison of Sexually-Abused and Non-Abused Women

    PubMed Central

    Rellini, Alessandra H.

    2010-01-01

    Although studies have identified a relationship between a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) and problems with hypoactive sexual desire, little is known about the potential cognitive and affective mechanisms involved in the sexual desire of women with a history of CSA. In this study, 27 women with a history of CSA and 22 women with no history of abuse were asked to write about sexual and non sexual topics. The Linguistic Inquiry Word Count software program was used to compute the percentage of words that fell into positive emotions, negative emotions, body, and sex categories. As expected, women with a history of CSA used more negative emotions words when writing about sexual topics, but not non-sexual topics, compared to non-abused women. Women with a history of CSA also used more sex words when writing about the non-sexual topics compared to non-abused women. Frequencies of body and sex words used in the sexual texts were positively linked to levels of sexual desire function. This association was not different between women with and without a history of CSA. A history of CSA remained an independent predictor of levels of sexual desire dysfunction even when taking into consideration the language used in the sexual texts, indicating that there may be aspects of the sexual desire experienced by women with a history of CSA that differ from non-abused women that remain unexplored. PMID:17136590

  19. Concealment of Child Sexual Abuse in Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartill, Mike

    2013-01-01

    When the sexual abuse of children is revealed, it is often found that other nonabusing adults were aware of the abuse but failed to act. During the past twenty years or so, the concealment of child sexual abuse (CSA) within organizations has emerged as a key challenge for child protection work. Recent events at Pennsylvania State University (PSU)…

  20. Personal constructs, childhood sexual abuse and revictimization.

    PubMed

    Freshwater, K; Leach, C; Aldridge, J

    2001-09-01

    Within the theoretical framework of Ryle's Procedural Sequence Object Relations Model and Kelly's Personal Construct Theory, this study investigates sex-role polarization of incest survivors and the centrality of abuse within survivors' constructs of men that may contribute to revictimization. Repertory grid methodology was used with 40 female survivors of childhood sexual abuse and 28 non-abused women. Grid measures and psychometric measures were compared between groups of women who had and had not experienced childhood sexual abuse, revictimized and non-revictimized survivors, and survivors who had and had not experienced incestuous abuse. Results showed significant differences between survivors and non-abused women, with survivors having higher levels of depression and perceived distress, lower self-esteem and higher self/ ideal self discrepancy. Hypothesized differences in sex-role polarization were not found. There were few differences between revictimized and non-revictimized survivors, although revictimized survivors rated 'self now' as more powerful than non-revictimized survivors. No differences were found between survivors who had and had not experienced incestuous abuse. In addition to the value of exploring personal constructs, a range of models need to be considered in understanding revictimization and women's construal of men. The implications of using repertory grid methodology for research and clinical work are discussed. PMID:11589329

  1. Personal constructs, childhood sexual abuse and revictimization.

    PubMed

    Freshwater, Kate; Leach, Chris; Aldridge, Jan

    2001-09-01

    Within the theoretical framework of Ryle's Procedural Sequence Object Relations Model and Kelly's Personal Construct Theory, this study investigates sex-role polarization of incest survivors and the centrality of abuse within survivors' constructs of men that may contribute to revictimization. Repertory grid methodology was used with 40 female survivors of childhood sexual abuse and 28 non-abused women. Grid measures and psychometric measures were compared between groups of women who had and had not experienced childhood sexual abuse, revictimized and non-revictimized survivors, and survivors who had and had not experienced incestuous abuse. Results showed significant differences between survivors and non-abused women, with survivors having higher levels of depression and perceived distress, lower self-esteem and higher self/ideal self discrepancy. Hypothesized differences in sex-role polarization were not found. There were few differences between revictimized and non-revictimized survivors, although revictimized survivors rated 'self now' as more powerful than non-revictimized survivors. No differences were found between survivors who had and had not experienced incestuous abuse. In addition to the value of exploring personal constructs, a range of models need to be considered in understanding revictimization and women's construal of men. The implications of using repertory grid methodology for research and clinical work are discussed. PMID:11802849

  2. Treating Survivors of War Trauma and Torture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanscom, Karen L.

    2001-01-01

    Proposes a mental health treatment model for survivors of torture and war trauma, presenting principles underlying such treatment and a developmental view of such abuse. Describes a Guatemalan project that uses the model to train village women to treat survivors in their communities and a U.S. torture treatment program that treats survivors…

  3. Parent-Focused Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, Tamar; Letourneau, Elizabeth J

    2015-08-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a serious public health issue. Current after-the-fact approaches to treating victims and punishing offenders are not adequate to address a problem of this magnitude; development and rigorous evaluation of CSA prevention strategies are critical. We propose that CSA prevention efforts should target parents of young children. Parents have been neglected as a focus of CSA prevention; they merit attention given their potential to improve children's safety via effective communication and monitoring. This paper provides an overview of current strategies for reducing CSA prevalence and their limitations, presents a rationale for parent-focused CSA prevention, and discusses considerations pertinent to development of an effective parent-focused approach. Parent-focused CSA prevention offers potential as a public health approach to prevention of CSA, and it is time that we devote resources toward developing and studying this important area. PMID:25757528

  4. Ethnicity and Child Sexual Abuse Experiences of Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Filipas, Henrietta H.

    2005-01-01

    This research examines the understudied issue of race/ethnicity in relation to child sexual abuse experiences (CSA) in a cross-sectional convenience sample of 461 female college students completing a survey. Comparisons of students' abuse experiences revealed ethnic differences in sexual abuse prevalence, severity of abuse, the victim-offender…

  5. Behavioral and Psychological Assessment of Child Sexual Abuse in Clinical Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malhotra, Savita; Biswas, Parthasarathy

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the behavioral and psychological assessment of Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) in clinical practice. Following a brief introduction regarding definition and etiology of CSA and discussion on issues of behavioral/psychological consequences of CSA, the paper reviews the various approaches towards behavioral/psychological assessment in…

  6. Factors Related to Childhood Sexual Abuse among Gay/Bisexual Male Internet Escorts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Bimbi, David S.; Koken, Juline A.; Halkitis, Perry N.

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory investigation examined the relationship between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and related psychosocial characteristics and sexual behaviors among 46 gay/bisexual male escorts who advertise via the Internet. More than a quarter of men (28.3%) reported some history of CSA. Men reporting CSA were more likely to be from an ethnic…

  7. Child Abuse May Shorten Some Women's Lives

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160478.html Child Abuse May Shorten Some Women's Lives Extreme stress ... 300 middle-aged U.S. adults, female survivors of child abuse were more likely to die over the ...

  8. An Epidemiological Overview of Child Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mannat Mohanjeet; Parsekar, Shradha S.; Nair, Sreekumaran N.

    2014-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a universal problem with grave life-long outcomes. The estimates vary widely depending on the country under study, the definitions used, the type of CSA studied, the extent of coverage, and quality of data. This study intended to assess the magnitude and the issues related to CSA. We searched databases such as PubMed, Google scholar, web (newspaper reports), and government websites. The relevant data was extracted from these sources for gathering evidence on CSA and secondary data analysis was done. The prevalence of CSA was found to be high in India as well as throughout the world. CSA is an extensive problem and even the lowest prevalence includes a huge number of victims. It also has various adverse effects on the psychological, physical, behavioral, and interpersonal well-being of the victim. Hence, stringent measures should be taken for the prevention and control of this hidden public health issue. PMID:25657958

  9. Space astronomy and astrophysics program by CSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurin, Denis; Ouellet, Alain; Dupuis, Jean; Chicoine, Ruth-Ann

    2014-07-01

    Canada became actively engaged in space astronomy in the 1990s by contributing two fine guidance sensors to the FUSE Far-UV mission (NASA 1999-2008). In the same period, Canada contributed to ODIN's infrared instrument (ESA 2001-2006) and correlators for VSOP (JAXA 1997-2005). In early 2000, Canada developed its own space telescope, Micro-variability and Observations of STars (MOST), a 15-cm telescope on a microsatellite, operating since 2003, and more recently contributed to the realization of the BRITE nanosatellites constellation. Canada also provided hardware to the European Space Agency's Herschel HIFI instrument and simulators to the SPIRE instrument and data analysis tools for Planck. More recently the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) delivered detector units for the UVIT instrument on board the Indian Space Research Organisation's (ISRO) ASTROSAT. The CSA's most important contribution to a space astronomy mission to date is the Fine Guidance Senor (FGS) and Near Infrared Imager and Slitless Spectrograph (NIRISS) instrument to NASA's James Webb Space Telescope. The CSA is currently building the laser metrology system for JAXA's ASTRO-H hard X-ray telescope. Canadian astronomers contributed to several high profile stratospheric balloon projects investigating the CMB and the CSA recently established a balloon launch facility. As expressed in Canada's new Space Policy Framework announced in February 2014, Canada remains committed to future space exploration endeavors. The policy aims at ensure that Canada is a sought-after partner in the international space exploration missions that serve Canada's national interests; and continuing to invest in the development of Canadian contributions in the form of advanced systems and optical instruments. In the longer term, through consultations and in keeping the Canadian astronomical community's proposed Long Range Plan, the CSA is exploring possibilities to contributions to important missions such as WFIRST, SPICA and Athena

  10. Exposure to Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse and Adjustment in Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fergusson, David M.; Boden, Joseph M.; Horwood, L. John

    2008-01-01

    Objective: This research examined linkages between exposure to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and childhood physical punishment/abuse (CPA) and mental health issues in early adulthood. Method: The investigation analyzed data from a birth cohort of over 1,000 New Zealand young adults studied to the age of 25. Results: Exposure to CSA and CPA was…

  11. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Stigmatization, Internalizing Symptoms, and the Development of Sexual Difficulties and Dating Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A.; Cleland, Charles M.

    2009-01-01

    Potential pathways from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to subsequent romantic intimacy problems were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 160 ethnically diverse youth with confirmed CSA histories. Participants were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery, when they were 8-15 years of age, and again 1-6 years later. Stigmatization…

  12. An Empirical Case Study of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Initiative in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Thigpen, Sally; Curtis, Anna; Wright, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This empirical case study describes Prevent Child Abuse Georgia's effort to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by educating communities throughout the state on supporting preventive behaviour. The initiative consisted of three major components: (1) dissemination of CSA prevention messages and materials; (2) a statewide helpline that…

  13. Psychiatric Comorbidity in Women with a History of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katerndahl, David A.; Burge, Sandra; Kellogg, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with the development of numerous adult mental disorders. Women with a history of CSA were surveyed concerning their abuse experience and prevalence of DSM-IV mental disorders. The 63 women in the low morbidity cluster had a mean of 1.02 disorders. The 11 women in the moderate morbidity cluster had a mean…

  14. Potential Pathways from Stigmatization and Externalizing Behavior to Anger and Dating Aggression in Sexually Abused Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A.; Cleland, Charles M.; Barrett, Ellen P.

    2013-01-01

    Although experiencing childhood sexual abuse (CSA) puts youth at risk for involvement in relationship violence, research is limited on the potential pathways from CSA to subsequent dating aggression. The current study examined prospective pathways from externalizing behavior problems and stigmatization (abuse-specific shame and self-blame…

  15. Prevention of Child Sexual Abuse in China: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Communication Practices of Parents of Elementary School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, JingQi; Dunne, Michael P.; Han, Ping

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Active involvement by parents may contribute substantially to the success of school-based programs to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA). In China, little is known about parental understanding of CSA. This study investigated Chinese parents' knowledge, attitudes, and communication practices with their children about CSA. Method: Six…

  16. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sexual Risk Behavior among Men and Women Attending a Sexually Transmitted Disease Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Vanable, Peter A.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia; Urban, Marguerite A.

    2006-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with a wide range of negative outcomes. The authors investigated the relation between CSA and sexual risk behavior in 827 patients recruited from a sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic. Overall, CSA was reported by 53% of women and 49% of men and was associated with greater sexual risk behavior,…

  17. Mediators of Childhood Sexual Abuse and High-Risk Sex among Men-Who-Have-Sex-with-Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catania, Joseph A.; Paul, Jay; Osmond, Dennis; Folkman, Susan; Pollack, Lance; Canchola, Jesse; Chang, Jason; Neilands, Torsten

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Mediators of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and HIV risk behavior were examined for men-who-have-sex-with-men (MSM). Method: Data from a dual frame survey of urban MSM (N = 1078) provided prevalence estimates of CSA, and a test of two latent variable models (defined by partner type) of CSA-risk behavior mediators. Results: A 20%…

  18. Resiliency Factors in the Relation between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adulthood Sexual Assault in College-Age Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Kate; Blaustein, Margaret; Knight, Wanda Grant; Spinazzola, Joseph; van der Kolk, Bessel A.

    2007-01-01

    Research has suggested that childhood sexual abuse (CSA) may be a risk factor for adulthood sexual assault. This study examined associations between CSA experiences, cognitive resiliency variables, and revictimization. Participants were 73 college-age females who completed self-report questionnaires assessing CSA, adult assault, self-efficacy,…

  19. Growing Opportunities: CSA Members, CSA Farmers, and Informal Learning in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everson, Connie

    2015-01-01

    Community-supported agriculture (CSA) began as a loosely formalised, vaguely socialistic agreement between consumers and farmers through which the consumers were provided with fresh produce from the farms. When the institution became more structured, education gained a near-equal footing with the nutritional offerings. My research indicated that…

  20. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Social Support, and Psychological Outcomes: A Loss Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murthi, Meera; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The objectives of the study were: (a) to develop a scale to assess CSA-related loss among a college sample of CSA survivors (CSALM), (b) to examine the measure's convergent validity through associations among depression, alexithymia, coping, and social support, and (c) to test whether social support moderates the relation between…

  1. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Dissociation, and Adult Self-Destructive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Srednicki, Ofelia

    2001-01-01

    Female college students reporting a history of childhood sexual abuse and not reporting a history of childhood sexual abuse were compared on indices of six self-destructive behaviors, including drug use, alcohol abuse, binge eating, self-mutilation, risky sex, and suicidality. The CSA group had significantly higher mean scores on all the indices…

  2. Men's Self-Definitions of Abusive Childhood Sexual Experiences, and Potentially Related Risky Behavioral and Psychiatric Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, William C.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To estimate how many heterosexual and gay/bisexual men self-define abusive childhood sexual experiences (CSEs) to be childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and to assess whether CSA self-definition is associated with risky behavioral and psychiatric outcomes in adulthood. Methods: In Philadelphia County, 197 (66%) of 298 recruited men…

  3. Awareness of Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Education among Parents of Grade 3 Elementary School Pupils in Fuxin City, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Jing Qi; Chen, Da Guang

    2005-01-01

    Several recent studies on child sexual abuse (CSA) in Chinese society have shown that the problem is not uncommon, and is associated with poor mental health and health-related risk behaviors of abused youth. It is very important to understand and improve public awareness of CSA prevention, especially for the parents. However, there are few…

  4. Changes in the Prevalence of Child Sexual Abuse, Its Risk Factors, and Their Associations as a Function of Age Cohort in a Finnish Population Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laaksonen, Toni; Sariola, Heikki; Johansson, Ada; Jern, Patrick; Varjonen, Markus; von der Pahlen, Bettina; Sandnabba, N. Kenneth; Santtila, Pekka

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We examined (1) the prevalence of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) experiences as a function of cohort and gender, (2) the prevalence of factors associated with CSA as a function of cohort and whether the association of these factors with CSA remained the same irrespective of cohort, and (3) whether any cohort differences could be…

  5. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Abuse-Specific Attributions of Blame over 6 Years Following Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiring, Candice; Cleland, Charles

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of change in attributions for childhood sexual abuse (CSA) over a 6-year period and whether such patterns were related to abuse severity, age, gender, and subsequent symptoms of depression and PTSD. Methodology: One-hundred and sixty children, 8-15 years old, were interviewed within 8…

  6. Psychological Sequelae of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Abuse-Related Characteristics, Coping Strategies, and Attributional Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steel, Jennifer; Sanna, Lawrence; Hammond, Barbara; Whipple, James; Cross, Herbert

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to test a model predicting the contribution of abuse-related characteristics and mediating variables such as coping and attributional style in the development of psychological sequelae in adults reporting a history of child sexual abuse (CSA). Methodology: Two hundred and eighty-five males and females from…

  7. Suicide Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, David H.

    1975-01-01

    Interviews with seven of ten known survivors of jumps from the Golden Gate and San Francisco-Oakland Bay bridges showed a unique association between the Golden Gate Bridge and suicide. The study went beyond exploring the nature of suicidal jumps and shed new light on the experience of nearly dying. All the survivors described this experience as tranquil and peaceful. None of them experienced life events or distant memories passing through their minds or before their eyes. However, all of them experienced transcendence and spiritual rebirth phenomena. Suggestions for preventing suicides from the Golden Gate Bridge are discussed, including the construction of a suicide barrier. PMID:1171558

  8. Children Seeking Refuge: A Review of the Escalating Humanitarian Crisis of Child Sexual Abuse and HIV/AIDS in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Clifton P; Veenema, Tener Goodwin

    2015-01-01

    Early identification and intervention for victims of child sexual abuse (CSA) is essential to halting the spread of HIV in Latino populations because children who are sexually abused are at an increased risk of contracting HIV. The recent influx of unaccompanied children into the United States exposed histories of victimization, vulnerability to CSA, and suggested an epidemic of CSA in Latin America. CSA has been identified as a contributory event to HIV infection. The aim of our research was to identify factors associated with CSA and Latin Americans. A systematic review and a document search were conducted on factors associated with CSA in Latin America. Victimization was associated with lifelong risk factors for HIV. Males were consistently underrepresented in the published CSA literature and machismo attitudes may contribute to abuses of sexual power by males and contribute to males not reporting or under-reporting victimization. PMID:25769757

  9. Effect of CSA Concentration on the Ammonia Sensing Properties of CSA-Doped PA6/PANI Composite Nanofibers

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Zengyuan; Fu, Jiapeng; Lv, Pengfei; Huang, Fenglin; Wei, Qufu

    2014-01-01

    Camphor sulfonic acid (CSA)-doped polyamide 6/polyaniline (PA6/PANI) composite nanofibers were fabricated using in situ polymerization of aniline under different CSA concentrations (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.10 M) with electrospun PA6 nanofibers as templates. The structural, morphological and ammonia sensing properties of the prepared composite nanofibers were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), four-point probe techniques, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and a home-made gas sensing test system. All the results indicated that the CSA concentration had a great influence on the sensing properties of CSA-doped PA6/PANI composite nanofibers. The composite nanofibers doped with 0.02 M CSA showed the best ammonia sensing properties, with a significant sensitivity toward ammonia (NH3) at room temperature, superior to that of the composite nanofibers doped with 0.04–0.10 mol/L CSA. It was found that for high concentrations of CSA, the number of PANI–H+ reacted with NH3 would not make up a high proportion of all PANI–H+ within certain limits. As a result, within a certain range even though higher CSA-doped PA6/PANI nanofibers had better conductivity, their ammonia sensing performance would degrade. PMID:25401687

  10. Effect of CSA concentration on the ammonia sensing properties of CSA-doped PA6/PANI composite nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Pang, Zengyuan; Fu, Jiapeng; Lv, Pengfei; Huang, Fenglin; Wei, Qufu

    2014-01-01

    Camphor sulfonic acid (CSA)-doped polyamide 6/polyaniline (PA6/PANI) composite nanofibers were fabricated using in situ polymerization of aniline under different CSA concentrations (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.10 M) with electrospun PA6 nanofibers as templates. The structural, morphological and ammonia sensing properties of the prepared composite nanofibers were studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), four-point probe techniques, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and a home-made gas sensing test system. All the results indicated that the CSA concentration had a great influence on the sensing properties of CSA-doped PA6/PANI composite nanofibers. The composite nanofibers doped with 0.02 M CSA showed the best ammonia sensing properties, with a significant sensitivity toward ammonia (NH3) at room temperature, superior to that of the composite nanofibers doped with 0.04-0.10 mol/L CSA. It was found that for high concentrations of CSA, the number of PANI-H+ reacted with NH3 would not make up a high proportion of all PANI-H+ within certain limits. As a result, within a certain range even though higher CSA-doped PA6/PANI nanofibers had better conductivity, their ammonia sensing performance would degrade. PMID:25401687

  11. Desert Survivors!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Jessica; Friedenstab, Steve

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a special third-grade classroom unit based on the reality show "Survivor." The goal of this engaging and interactive unit was to teach students about physical and behavioral adaptations that help animals survive in various desert biomes. The activity combines research, argument, and puppet play over one week of…

  12. Female Intimate Partner Violence Survivors' Experiences with Accessing Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLeod, Amy L.; Hays, Danica G.; Chang, Catherine Y.

    2010-01-01

    This phenomenological study investigates the types of personal and community resources that female intimate partner violence (IPV) survivors used when leaving an abusive male partner. Three African American and 2 European American IPV survivors, ages 24 to 38 years, described positive and negative experiences with social support, personal…

  13. Enhancing Employment Outcomes for Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence: A Developmental Work Personality Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keim, Jeanmarie; Strauser, David R.; Olguin, David L.

    2009-01-01

    Rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) are high. Many survivors elect to leave abusive relationships and seek treatment to address the abusive cycle and psychiatric symptoms that may result. Programs to assist survivors often include an employment component. This article discusses the use of the Developmental Work Personality Scale (D. R.…

  14. Common Themes in the Experiences of Mother-Daughter Incest Survivors: Implications for Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogilvie, Beverly; Daniluk, Judith

    1995-01-01

    Studied mother-daughter incest. Common themes were extracted from in-depth interviews with survivors of mother-perpetrated sexual abuse, some of which parallel the experience of survivors of other forms of child sexual abuse, and some of which are more specific to mother-daughter incest. Discusses themes and counseling implications. (JBJ)

  15. How Much Child Sexual Abuse is “Below the Surface,” and Can We Help Adults Identify it Early?

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Erin K.; Silverstone, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) occurs frequently in society to children aged between 2 and 17. It is significantly more common in girls than boys, with the peak age for CSA occurring when girls are aged 13–17. Many children experience multiple episodes of CSA, as well as having high rates of other victimizations (such as physical assaults). One of the problems for current research in CSA is different definitions of what this means, and no recent review has clearly differentiated more severe forms of CSA, and how commonly this is disclosed. In general we suggest there are four types of behavior that should be included as CSA, namely (1) non-contact, (2) genital touching, (3) attempted vaginal and anal penetrative acts, and (4) vaginal and anal penetrative acts. Evidence suggests that CSA involving types (2), (3), and (4) is more likely to have significant long-term outcomes, and thus can be considered has having higher-impact. From the research to date approximately 15% of girls aged 2–17 experience higher-impact CSA (with most studies suggesting that between 12 and 18% of girls experience higher-impact CSA). Approximately 6% of boys experience higher-impact CSA (with most studies suggesting that between 5 and 8% experience higher-impact CSA). The data also suggests that in over 95% of cases the CSA is never disclosed to authorities. Thus, CSA is frequent but often not identified, and occurs “below the surface” in the vast majority of higher-impact cases. Helping adults to understand “below the surface” CSA might help them to recognize it early, but there are very few indicators specific to CSA, making this a challenging goal to achieve. Nonetheless, given that CSA frequently occurs with other types of abuse, a training program that focuses on both CSA and other abuse may offer a method to allow both early recognition and prevention by adults in the general population. PMID:23874306

  16. Perceptions of child sexual abuse:victim and perpetrator characteristics, treatment efficacy, and lay vs. legal opinions of abuse.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Lisa L; Birkimer, John C

    2002-01-01

    Two studies examined interactions between victim age and victim response, and victim relation to perpetrator and victim response influencing perceptions of child sexual abuse (CSA). Undergraduates read one of several vignettes describing a sexual encounter between a man and a girl. In Experiment 1, age of the girl was varied; victim age interacted with victim response to increase ratings of abuse and expected trauma for the girl. In Experiment 2, age was held constant while victim relation to perpetrator was varied; men gave higher ratings of abuse than did women for scenarios involving a step father rather than a neighbor, regardless of victim response. In both studies, psychotherapy was expected to help the victim more than the perpetrator and the law was judged to be less stringent than it is regarding CSA. Results suggest that perceptions of CSA are influenced by several factors and that laws regarding CSA may not be well understood. PMID:16221633

  17. Child Sexual Abuse and Its Relationship With Health Risk Behaviors Among Adolescents and Young Adults in Taipei.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Qianqian; Gao, Ersheng; Cheng, Yan; Chuang, Yi-Li; Zabin, Laurie S; Emerson, Mark R; Lou, Chaohua

    2015-09-01

    This study explores the association of child sexual abuse (CSA) with subsequent health risk behaviors among a cross-section of 4354 adolescents and young adults surveyed in urban and rural Taipei. Descriptive analysis and logistic regressions were employed. The overall proportion of CSA was 5.15%, with more females (6.14%) than males (4.16%) likely to experience CSA. CSA was differently associated with multiple adverse health outcomes, after adjusting other factors, such as age, residence, economic status, education, employment status, and household instability. Both males and females with CSA experience were more likely to report drinking, gambling, and suicidal ideation compared with those who had no history of CSA. However, the significant association between CSA and smoking, fighting, and suicidal attempt was not observed among females. Effective interventions are needed to reduce CSA and its adverse effects on adolescent well-being. PMID:25720535

  18. Coping with Child Sexual Abuse among College Students and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: The Role of Continuity of Abuse and Relationship with the Perpetrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canton-Cortes, David; Canton, Jose

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of child sexual abuse (CSA) on the use of coping strategies and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) scores in young adults, as well as the role of avoidance and approach coping strategies in those PTSD scores in CSA victims. The role of coping strategies was studied by considering…

  19. Undergraduate Students' Reactions to Analogue Male Disclosure of Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Tanya D.; Tan, Josephine C. H.

    1999-01-01

    Investigates undergraduates' reactions toward hypothetical male survivor's disclosure of sexual abuse. Reports that when age of incident was higher, survivor was seen as less masculine; more responsible for abuse; and sex role and rape myths were strongly applied to him. Less positive reactions were associated with disclosing to other men, abuse…

  20. Exploring Posttraumatic Outcomes as a Function of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakespeare-Finch, Jane; de Dassel, Therese

    2009-01-01

    There is sparse systematic examination of the potential for growth as well as distress that may occur for some adult survivors of childhood sexual abuse. The presented study explored posttraumatic growth and its relationship with negative posttrauma outcomes within the specific population of survivors of childhood sexual abuse (N = 40). Results…

  1. The Impact of Clergy-Perpetrated Sexual Abuse: The Role of Gender, Development, and Posttraumatic Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogler, Jason M.; Shipherd, Jillian C.; Clarke, Stephanie; Jensen, Jennifer; Rowe, Erin

    2008-01-01

    The literature on clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse suggests that there are two modal populations of survivors: boys and adult women. We review what is known about trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder following sexual abuse and explore the different treatment needs for these two survivor groups. For children, clergy-perpetrated sexual abuse can…

  2. CSA doped polypyrrole-zinc oxide thin film sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chougule, M. A.; Jundale, D. M.; Raut, B. T.; Sen, Shashwati; Patil, V. B.

    2013-02-01

    The polypyrrole-zinc oxide (PPy-ZnO) hybrid sensor doped with different weight ratios of camphor sulphonic acid (CSA) were prepared by spin coating technique. These CSA doped PPy-ZnO hybrids were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) which proved the formation of polypyrrole, PPy-ZnO and the interaction between polypyrrole - ZnO (PPy-ZnO) hybrid with CSA doping. The gas sensing properties of the PPy-ZnO hybrid films doped with CSA have been studied for oxidizing (NO2) as well as reducing (H2S, NH3, CH4OH and CH3OH) gases at room temperature. We demonstrate that CSA doped PPy-ZnO hybrid films are highly selective to NO2 along with high-sensitivity at low concentration (80% to 100 ppm) and better stability, which suggested that the CSA doped PPy-ZnO hybrid films are potential candidate for NO2 detection at room temperature.

  3. Reported child sexual abuse in Bahrain: 2000-2009

    PubMed Central

    Al-Mahroos, Fadheela; Al-Amer, Eshraq

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a common problem with severe short and long-term consequences to the abused child, the family and to society. The aim of this study was to evaluate the extent of CSA, and demographic and other characteristics of the abused and their families. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective and descriptive study based on a review of medical records of CSA cases from 2000-2009 at Sulmaniya Medical Complex, the main secondary and tertiary medical care facility in Bahrain. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The review included demographic data, child and family characteristics, manifestations and interventions. RESULTS: The 440 children diagnosed with CSA had a mean age of 8 years (range, 9 months to 17 years); 222 were males (50.5%) and 218 were females (49.5%). There was a steady increase in cases from 31 per year in 2000 to 77 cases in 2009. Children disclosed abuse in 26% of cases, while health sector professionals recognized 53% of the cases. Genital touching and fondling (62.5%) were the most common form of CSA, followed by sodomy in 39%. Gonorrhea was documented in 2% of the cases and pregnancy in 4% of the females. The illiteracy rate among the fathers and mothers was 9% and 12%, respectively, which is higher than the rate among the adult general population. Children came from all socio-economic classes. There was referral to police in 56%, public prosecution in 31% of the cases, but only 8% reached the court. CONCLUSION: During ten years there has been a 2.5% increase in reported cases of CSA. Improving the skill of professionals in identifying CSA indicators and a mandatory reporting law might be needed to improve the rate of recognition and referral of CSA cases. Further general population-based surveys are needed to determine more accurately the scope of CSA and the risk and protective factors in the family and community. PMID:21808114

  4. How Well Does Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy Treat Symptoms of Complex PTSD? An Examination of Child Sexual Abuse Survivors Within A Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Resick, Patricia A.; Nishith, Pallavi; Griffin, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Are brief cognitive-behavioral treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) also effective for the wider range of symptoms conceptualized as complex PTSD? Female rape victims, most of whom had extensive histories of trauma, were randomly assigned to cognitive-processing therapy, prolonged exposure, or a delayed-treatment waiting-list condition. After determining that both types of treatment were equally effective for treating complex PTSD symptoms, we divided the sample of 121 participants into two groups depending upon whether they had a history of child sexual abuse. Both groups improved significantly over the course of treatment with regard to PTSD, depression, and the symptoms of complex PTSD as measured by the Trauma Symptom Inventory. Improvements were maintained for at least 9 months. Although there were group main effects on the Self and Trauma factors, there were no differences between the two groups at posttreatment once pretreatment scores were covaried. These findings indicate that cognitive-behavioral therapies are effective for patients with complex trauma histories and symptoms patterns. PMID:12766690

  5. Changes in Sympathetic Nervous System Activity are Associated with Changes in Sexual Wellbeing in Women with a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Tierney K.; Harte, Christopher B.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Women with histories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) have higher rates of sexual difficulties, as well as high sympathetic nervous system (SNS) response to sexual stimuli. Aim To examine whether treatment-related changes in autonomic balance, as indexed by heart rate variability (HRV), were associated with changes in sexual arousal and orgasm function. Methods In Study 1, we measured HRV while writing a sexual essay in 42 healthy, sexually functional women without any history of sexual trauma. These data, along with demographics, were used to develop HRV norms equations. In Study 2, 136 women with a history of CSA were randomized to one of three active expressive writing treatments that focused on their trauma, sexuality, or daily life (control condition). We recorded HRV while writing a sexual essay at pre-treatment, post-treatment, and 2 week, 1 month, and 6 month follow-ups; we also calculated the expected HRV for each participant based on the norms equations from Study 1. Main Outcome Measures Heart rate variability, Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), Sexual Satisfaction Scale – Women (SSS-W) Results The difference between expected and observed HRV decreased over time, indicating that, post-treatment, CSA survivors displayed HRV closer to the expected HRV of a demographics-matched woman with no history of sexual trauma. Also, over time, participants whose HRV became less dysregulated showed the biggest gains in sexual arousal and orgasm function. These effects were consistent across condition. Conclusions Treatments that reduce autonomic imbalance may improve sexual wellbeing among CSA populations. PMID:25963394

  6. Outcomes of Child Sexual Abuse as Predictors of Later Sexual Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese-Weber, Marla; Smith, Dana M.

    2011-01-01

    The association between a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) and specific negative outcomes (attachment, feelings of power, and self-esteem) was explored as was the relationship between those negative outcomes and sexual victimization during the first semester of college. Two groups of freshman college women (67 who had experienced CSA and 55 who…

  7. Association between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Transactional Sex in Youth Aging out of Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahrens, Kym R.; Katon, Wayne; McCarty, Carolyn; Richardson, Laura P.; Courtney, Mark E.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the association between history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and having transactional sex among adolescents who have been in foster care. Methods: We used an existing dataset of youth transitioning out of foster care. Independent CSA variables included self report of history of sexual molestation and rape when participants…

  8. School-Based Childhood Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: An Integrative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fryda, Candice M.; Hulme, Polly A.

    2015-01-01

    One prevention strategy for childhood sexual abuse (CSA) involves educational programs delivered to children in the school environment. The purpose of this integrative literature review was to determine the state of the science on school-based CSA prevention programs. The authors extracted data from 26 articles that fit inclusion criteria to…

  9. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Relationship Satisfaction, and Sexual Risk Taking in a Community Sample of Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Testa, Maria; VanZile-Tamsen, Carol; Livingston, Jennifer A.

    2005-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been proposed to influence both women's adult sexual risk behaviors and the quality of their intimate relationships. Among a household sample of women (n = 732), good fit was obtained for a model in which CSA predicted Wave 1 male partner sexual risk and aggression characteristics, resulting in lower relationship…

  10. Exposure to Childhood Sexual and Physical Abuse and Subsequent Educational Achievement Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boden, Joseph M.; Horwood, L. John; Fergusson, David M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This paper examined the relationship between exposure to sexual and physical abuse (CSA and CPA) in childhood and later educational achievement outcomes in late adolescence and early adulthood in a birth cohort of over 1,000 children studied to age 25. Method: Retrospective data on CSA and CPA were gathered at ages 18 and 21 and used to…

  11. Childhood Sexual Abuse Moderates the Association between Sexual Functioning and Sexual Distress in Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephenson, Kyle R.; Hughan, Corey P.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the degree to which a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) moderates the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in women. Method: Women with (n = 105, M age = 33.71, 66.1% Caucasian) and without (n = 71, M age = 32.63, 74.7% Caucasian) a history of CSA taking part in a larger clinical trial completed…

  12. Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse on College Student Development: A Seven-Vectors Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Daniel B.

    2016-01-01

    The application of theory in this article expanded on Chickering and Reisser's ([Chickering, A. W., 1993]) 7-vectors framework by considering the effects of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on the normal experience of student development in higher education. The article includes an overview of the prevalence and effects of CSA and a case study of a…

  13. Caregiver Perceptions of Sexual Abuse and Its Effect on Management after a Disclosure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker-Descartes, Ingrid; Sealy, Yvette M.; Laraque, Danielle; Rojas, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to examine caregiver management strategies for child sexual abuse (CSA) when presented with hypothetical scenarios that vary in physical invasiveness. Methods: One hundred fifty three caregivers were given 3 scenarios of CSA with 7 management strategies presented in the 21-item Taking Action Strategies (TAS)…

  14. Associations among Childhood Sexual Abuse, Language Use, and Adult Sexual Functioning and Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenz, Tierney Ahrold; Meston, Cindy May

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To better understand the link between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction, we examined cognitive differences between women with (N = 128) and without (NSA, N = 99) CSA histories. Methods: We used the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count, a computerized text analysis program, to investigate language…

  15. Child Sexual Abuse in China: A Study of Adolescents in Four Provinces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, J.; Dunne, M.P.; Han, P.

    2004-01-01

    Objective:: Little is known about Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) in Chinese societies. This study examined CSA experiences and associations with demographic factors, self-reported health and risky behaviors among senior high school students in four provinces in central and northern China. Method:: Students in four schools in Hubei, Henan, Hebei, and…

  16. A Life History Assessment of Early Childhood Sexual Abuse in Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vigil, Jacob M.; Geary, David C.; Byrd-Craven, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    Life history theory provided a framework for examining the relations among child sexual abuse (CSA), childhood adversity, and patterns of reproductive development and behavior. A community survey that assessed CSA, life history variables (e.g., age of menarche), and social and family background was administered to 623 women (mean age=26.9 years).…

  17. Serious Games for Learning: Games-Based Child Sexual Abuse Prevention in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholes, Laura; Jones, Christian; Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Rolfe, Ben

    2014-01-01

    In spite of research demonstrating conceptual weakness in many child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programmes and outdated modes of delivery, students continue to participate in a diversity of initiatives. Referring to the development of a games-based approach to CSA prevention in Australia, this paper examines empirically based attributes of…

  18. Childhood Sexual Abuse in Males and Subsequent Risky Sexual Behavior: A Potential Alcohol-Use Pathway

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Davis, Kelly Cue; George, William H.; Norris, Jeanette

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among boys has been associated with a variety of subsequent maladaptive behaviors. This study explored a potential connection between CSA and an increased likelihood of risky sexual behavior in adulthood. Further, the study examined whether or not alcohol use may contribute to this relationship. Method: As…

  19. The Relationship between Sexual Abuse during Childhood and Parenting Outcomes: Modeling Direct and Indirect Pathways

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuetze, P.; Eiden, R.D.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: This study examined the association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and parenting outcomes including parenting stress, feelings of competence and discipline strategies. Maternal depression and current partner violence were hypothesized to be mediators of the association between CSA and parenting. Method:: This study is based on…

  20. Prevalence and Predictors of Dating Violence among Adolescent Female Victims of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre; Wright, John

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to advance knowledge of dating violence behaviors among adolescent victims of child sexual abuse (CSA), first, by determining the prevalence of psychological and physical dating violence and the reciprocity of violence, and second, by investigating the influence of certain CSA characteristics to dating violence.…

  1. Practitioner Review: The Victims and Juvenile Perpetrators of Child Sexual Abuse -- Assessment and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vizard, Eileen

    2013-01-01

    Background: The assessment of victims of child sexual abuse (CSA) is now a recognized aspect of clinical work for both CAMH and adult services. As juvenile perpetrators of CSA are responsible for a significant minority of the sexual assaults on other children, CAMH services are increasingly approached to assess these oversexualized younger…

  2. The Perils and Possibilities in Disclosing Childhood Sexual Abuse to a Romantic Partner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Del Castillo, Darren; O'Dougherty Wright, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    This study sought to understand the long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in adulthood by interviewing seven women about their experiences of disclosing CSA to romantic partners. Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis, an in-depth, qualitative research approach, was used to analyze the transcripts. The analysis produced 10 themes…

  3. An Exploration of the Connection between Child Sexual Abuse and Gambling in Aboriginal Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dion, Jacinthe; Collin-Vezina, Delphine; De La Sablonniere, Mireille; Philippe-Labbe, Marie-Pierre; Giffard, Tania

    2010-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) lead to short-term sequelae and long-lasting pervasive outcomes. Research has started addressing CSA as a potential risk factor for later addictions, including pathological gambling. Among Aboriginal peoples, it is plausible that the legacy of residential schooling and other historical traumas have led to unresolved grief…

  4. "As Time Went On, I Just Forgot About It": Thematic Analysis of Spontaneous Disclosures of Recovered Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    MacIntosh, Heather B; Fletcher, Kara; Collin-Vézina, Delphine

    2016-01-01

    This study was a thematic analysis of transcripts of interviews of child sexual abuse survivors discussing their experiences of recovered memories. This study included 27 English-speaking participants from 3 major Canadian cities: Montreal, Toronto, and Ottawa. Seven participants identified as male and 20 as female. Participants ranged in age from 31 to 69 with a mean age of 47. The educational background of participants ranged from 9th grade to doctoral levels. Out of the sample of 27, 21 participants reported some period of amnesia for their CSA experiences. Three primary global themes emerged in the transcripts of participants describing adult emergent recovered memories: flashbacks, triggers, and denial. Three global themes emerged in the transcripts of participants describing partially discontinuous memories: dreams/nightmares as the "how" of memory recovery, triggers, and active processes of forgetting. PMID:26941125

  5. Child sexual abuse, attachment style, and depression: the role of the characteristics of abuse.

    PubMed

    Cantón-Cortés, David; Cortés, María Rosario; Cantón, José

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the effects of secure, avoidant, and anxious attachment styles on depressive symptomatology in child sexual abuse (CSA) among young female adult victims. The role of attachment style was studied by considering possible interactive effects with the type of abuse, the relationship with the perpetrator, and the continuity of abuse. Participants were 168 female victims of CSA. Information about the abuse was obtained from a self-reported questionnaire. Attachment style was assessed with the Attachment Style Measure (ASM), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was used to assess depressive symptomatology. Secure and anxious attachment styles were correlated with low and high depression scores respectively. The effects of attachment style were stronger in cases where the abuse consisted of oral sex/penetration, a non-family member as perpetrator, and in isolated, compared with continued, abuse. These results confirm that characteristics of CSA (type of abuse, relationship with the perpetrator, and continuity of abuse) can affect the impact of attachment style on depressive symptomatology. PMID:24958133

  6. Abuse-Specific Self-Schemas and Self-Functioning: A Prospective Study of Sexually Abused Youth

    PubMed Central

    Feiring, Candice; Cleland, Charles M.; Simon, Valerie A.

    2009-01-01

    Potential pathways from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to negative self-schemas to subsequent dissociative symptoms and low global self-esteem were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 160 ethnically diverse youth with confirmed CSA histories. Participants were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery, when they were 8-15 years of age, and again 1- and 6- years later. Abuse-specific indicators of stigmatization, in particular the combination of shame and self-blame, more than general self-blame attributions for everyday events, explained which youth with CSA histories experienced more dissociative symptoms and clinically significant levels of dissociation. Abuse-specific stigmatization was found to operate as a prospective mechanism for subsequent dissociative symptoms but not self-esteem. PMID:20390797

  7. Physical Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for Victims ...

  8. Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for Victims ...

  9. EGSnrc-based Monte Carlo dosimetry of CSA1 and CSA2 {sup 137}Cs brachytherapy source models

    SciTech Connect

    Selvam, T. Palani; Sahoo, S.; Vishwakarma, R. S.

    2009-09-15

    Purpose: AAPM TG-56 recommends the use of a specific dosimetric dataset for each brachytherapy source model. In this study, a full dosimetric dataset for indigenously developed {sup 137}Cs source models, namely, the CSA1 and CSA2, in accordance with the AAPM TG-43U1 formalism is presented. The study includes calculation of dose-to-kerma ratio D/K in water around these sources including stainless steel encapsulated {sup 137}Cs sources such as RTR, 3M, and selectron/LDR {sup 137}Cs. Methods: The Monte Carlo-based EGSnrcMP code system is employed for modeling the sources in vacuum and in water. Calculations of air-kerma strength, S{sub K} for the investigated sources and collision kerma in water along the transverse axis of the RTR source are based on the FLURZnrc code. Simulations of water-kerma and dose in water for the CSA1, CSA2, RTR, 3M, and selectron/LDR {sup 137}Cs sources are carried out using the DOSRZnrc code. In DOSRZnrc calculations, water-kerma and dose are scored in a cylindrical water phantom having dimensions of 80 cm diameterx80 cm height. Results: The calculated dose-rate constants for the CSA1 and CSA2 sources are 0.945(1) and 1.023(1) cGy/(h U), respectively. The calculated value of S{sub K} per unit source activity, S{sub K}/A for the CSA1 and CSA2 sources is 7.393(7)x10{sup -8} cGy cm{sup 2}/(h Bq). The EGSnrcMP-based collision kerma rates for the RTR source along the transverse axis (0.25-10 cm) agree with the corresponding GEANT4-based published values within 0.5%. Anisotropy profiles of the CSA1 and CSA2 sources are significantly different from those of other sources. For the selectron/LDR single pellet {sup 137}Cs spherical source (modeled as a cylindrical pellet with dimensions similar to the seed selectron), the values of D/K at 1 and 1.25 mm from the capsule are 1.023(1) and 1.029(1), respectively. The value of D/K at 1 mm from the CSA1, CSA2, RTR, and 3M {sup 137}Cs source capsules (all sources have an external radius of 1.5 mm) is 1

  10. Autobiographical Memory Specificity in Child Sexual Abuse Victims

    PubMed Central

    Ogle, Christin M.; Block, Stephanie D.; Harris, LaTonya S.; Goodman, Gail S.; Pineda, Annarheen; Timmer, Susan; Urquiza, Anthony; Saywitz, Karen J.

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the specificity of autobiographical memory in adolescents and adults with versus without child sexual abuse (CSA) histories. Eighty-five participants, approximately half of whom per age group had experienced CSA, were tested on the Autobiographical Memory Interview. Individual difference measures, including for trauma-related psychopathology, were also administered. Findings revealed developmental differences in the relation between autobiographical memory specificity and CSA. Even with depression statistically controlled, reduced memory specificity in CSA victims relative to controls was observed among adolescents but not among adults. A higher number of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder criteria met predicted more specific childhood memories in participants who reported CSA as their most traumatic life event. These findings contribute to the scientific understanding of childhood trauma and autobiographical memory functioning and underscore the importance of considering the role of age and degree of traumatization within the study of autobiographical memory. PMID:23627947

  11. Childhood sexual abuse and obesity.

    PubMed

    Gustafson, T B; Sarwer, D B

    2004-08-01

    The causes of the current obesity epidemic are multifactorial and include genetic, environmental, and individual factors. One potential risk factor may be the experience of childhood sexual abuse. Childhood sexual abuse is remarkably common and is thought to affect up to one-third of women and one-eighth of men. A history of childhood sexual abuse is associated with numerous psychological sequelae including depression, anxiety, substance abuse, somatization, and eating disorders. Relatively few studies have examined the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and adult obesity. These studies suggest at least a modest relationship between the two. Potential explanations for the relationship have focused on the role of disordered eating, particularly binge eating, as well as the possible "adaptive function" of obesity in childhood sexual abuse survivors. Nevertheless, additional research on the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and obesity is clearly needed, not only to address the outstanding empirical issues but also to guide clinical care. PMID:15245381

  12. Veterans of a Secret War: Survivors of Childhood Sexual Trauma Compared to Vietnam War Veterans with PTSD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Catherine

    1994-01-01

    A longitudinal study of women survivors of childhood sexual abuse documents the presence of the same posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms experienced by Vietnam veterans. In both cases, traumatic violence was the antecedent, but abuse survivors differed by context, age, length of trauma, and isolation. (JPS)

  13. Risk for suicidal thoughts and behavior after childhood sexual abuse in women and men.

    PubMed

    Bedi, Saaniya; Nelson, Elliot C; Lynskey, Michael T; McCutcheon, Vivia V; Heath, Andrew C; Madden, Pamela A F; Martin, Nicholas G

    2011-08-01

    Earlier studies have found an elevated risk for psychopathology and suicidal behavior associated with childhood sexual abuse (CSA); however, the degree to which risk is mediated by depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women and men remains unclear. We examined these issues in data from a family study of childhood maltreatment (N = 2,559). We found significant CSA-associated risk for depression, PTSD, and suicidal behavior for women and men. In survival analyses controlling for these disorders, we observed persistent but somewhat reduced CSA-associated risk for suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Our findings suggest that these disorders partially mediate CSA-associated risk. PMID:21599726

  14. The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and adult mental health among undergraduates: victim gender doesn't matter.

    PubMed

    Young, M Scott; Harford, Kelli-Lee; Kinder, Bill; Savell, Jodi K

    2007-10-01

    A large body of research has documented the harmful effects of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on adult mental health among females, but less work has examined this issue among males. This study examined whether gender moderated the relationship between CSA and adult mental health among a mixed-gender sample of 406 undergraduates. A Pearson chi-square test indicated that a significantly greater proportion of females (41.6%) than males (30.7%) reported a history of CSA. ANCOVAs tested whether gender, CSA status, and their interaction were related to adult mental health symptomatology as measured by Brief Symptom Inventory gender-normed t scores. Participants with a history of CSA reported significantly higher levels of global mental health problems, hostility, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism. The gender by CSA status interaction was not significant for any scale, indicating that the harmful effects of CSA on adult mental health did not vary by gender. PMID:17766729

  15. Survivors in the Margins: The Invisibility of Violence Against Older Women.

    PubMed

    Crockett, Cailin; Brandl, Bonnie; Dabby, Firoza Chic

    2015-01-01

    Violence against older women exists in the margins between domestic violence and elder abuse, with neither field adequately capturing the experiences of older women survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV). This commentary explores this oversight, identifying how the lack of gender analysis in the elder abuse field exacerbates older survivors' invisibility when the wider violence against women (VAW) field lacks a lifespan approach to abuse. Examining the impact of generational and aging factors on how older women experience IPV, we assert that the VAW field may be overlooking a wider population of survivors than previously thought. PMID:26371877

  16. Lessons learned from child sexual abuse research: prevalence, outcomes, and preventive strategies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Although child sexual abuse (CSA) is recognized as a serious violation of human well-being and of the law, no community has yet developed mechanisms that ensure that none of their youth will be sexually abused. CSA is, sadly, an international problem of great magnitude that can affect children of all ages, sexes, races, ethnicities, and socioeconomic classes. Upon invitation, this current publication aims at providing a brief overview of a few lessons we have learned from CSA scholarly research as to heighten awareness of mental health professionals on this utmost important and widespread social problem. This overview will focus on the prevalence of CSA, the associated mental health outcomes, and the preventive strategies to prevent CSA from happening in the first place. PMID:23866106

  17. Childhood sexual abuse in advanced cancer patients in the palliative care setting.

    PubMed

    Wygant, Carmella; Hui, David; Bruera, Eduardo

    2011-08-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a common, distressing, yet rarely discussed topic in palliative care. The long-term effects of CSA can have a significant impact on patients' quality of life, particularly at the end of life. In this article, we aim to initiate a discussion regarding the need to address CSA in the palliative care setting, using the example of an advanced cancer patient and her caregiver sister who revealed their common past. Specifically, we will be discussing 1) the comorbidities, psychological distress, and family distress associated with CSA, 2) its impact on health care delivery, 3) an approach to initiating conversations regarding CSA, and 4) various management strategies. Successful management of CSA necessitates an interprofessional team approach and may help to improve the quality of life of patients and their families. PMID:21444190

  18. Simulating Memory Impairment for Child Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Newton, Jeremy W; Hobbs, Sue D

    2015-08-01

    The current study investigated effects of simulated memory impairment on recall of child sexual abuse (CSA) information. A total of 144 adults were tested for memory of a written CSA scenario in which they role-played as the victim. There were four experimental groups and two testing sessions. During Session 1, participants read a CSA story and recalled it truthfully (Genuine group), omitted CSA information (Omission group), exaggerated CSA information (Commission group), or did not recall the story at all (No Rehearsal group). One week later, at Session 2, all participants were told to recount the scenario truthfully, and their memory was then tested using free recall and cued recall questions. The Session 1 manipulation affected memory accuracy during Session 2. Specifically, compared with the Genuine group's performance, the Omission, Commission, or No Rehearsal groups' performance was characterized by increased omission and commission errors and decreased reporting of correct details. Victim blame ratings (i.e., victim responsibility and provocativeness) and participant gender predicted increased error and decreased accuracy, whereas perpetrator blame ratings predicted decreased error and increased accuracy. Findings are discussed in relation to factors that may affect memory for CSA information. PMID:26294381

  19. Unresolved Childhood Sexual Abuse: Are Older Adults Affected?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allers, Christopher T.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents case studies and discussions regarding 3 observed characteristics of unresolved childhood sexual abuse in adult survivors over 65 years of age. Specifically, chronic depression, elder abuse, and misdiagnosis of residual abuse trauma as dementia or mental illness are compared to parallel issues identified by researchers working with…

  20. Associations between Child Sexual Abuse and Negative Sexual Experiences and Revictimization among Women: Does Measuring Severity Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loeb, Tamra B.; Gaines, Tommi; Wyatt, Gail E.; Zhang, Muyu; Liu, Honghu

    2011-01-01

    Women with histories of child sexual abuse (CSA) are more likely than those without such experiences to report a variety of negative sexual outcomes. This study examines the explanatory power of a CSA summed composite versus dichotomous (presence/absence) measurement in predicting a comprehensive negative sexual behavior outcome. Study…

  1. Examining the Relationship between a Childhood History of Sexual Abuse and Later Dissociation, Breast-Feeding Practices, and Parenting Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowman, Katherine Gail; Ryberg, Jacalyn Wickline; Becker, Heather

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare Mexican American adolescent mothers with and without childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories to examine the influence of CSA on dissociation, selection of infant feeding method, and intimate parenting anxiety. Participants are 78 English-speaking adolescents between 15 and 19 years of age and recruited from…

  2. The Prevalence of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adolescent Unwanted Sexual Contact among Boys and Girls Living in Victoria, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Elya E.; Romaniuk, Helena; Olsson, Craig A.; Jayasinghe, Yasmin; Carlin, John B.; Patton, George C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with both short- and long-term adverse mental and physical health consequences, yet there remains considerable controversy about the prevalence of CSA in the general population. There is also little prospective data on unwanted sexual contact (USC) collected during adolescence. Methods: Data…

  3. Childhood Sexual Abuse Associated with Dating Partner Violence and Suicidal Ideation in a Representative Household Sample in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ko Ling; Yan, Elsie; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Y. T.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and impact of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on future intimate partner violence (IPV) in dating relationship in Hong Kong, China. A total of 1,154 Chinese adult respondents engaged in dating relationships were interviewed face-to-face about their CSA histories, childhood witnessing of parental violence, adult…

  4. Is Child Sexual Abuse Declining? Evidence from a Population-Based Survey of Men and Women in Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunne, Michael P.; Purdie, David M.; Cook, Michelle D.; Boyle, Frances M.; Najman, Jake M.

    2003-01-01

    A study examined age-cohort differences of self-reported child sexual abuse (CSA) experiences of 1,784 Australian adults. CSA was reported significantly less by younger males than older males. Among females who had intercourse before 16, older women were more likely to say they were an unwilling partner on the first occasion. (Contains…

  5. Linking Childhood Sexual Abuse and Early Adolescent Risk Behavior: The Intervening Role of Internalizing and Externalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Deborah J.; Lewis, Terri; Litrownik, Alan; Thompson, Richard; Proctor, Laura J.; Isbell, Patricia; Dubowitz, Howard; English, Diana; Jones, Bobby; Nagin, Daniel; Runyan, Desmond

    2013-01-01

    A robust literature links childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to later substance use and sexual risk behavior; yet, relatively little empirical attention has been devoted to identifying the mechanisms linking CSA to risky behavior among youth, with even less work examining such processes in boys. With the aim of addressing this gap in the literature, the…

  6. Intention to Participate in Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: A Study of Chinese Adults in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, C.S.k.; Yan, E.C.w.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives:: This study aimed to explore factors relating to intention to participate in community child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programs among Chinese adults in Hong Kong. Method:: A total of 1,606 Chinese adults (497 men and 1,109 women) were individually interviewed about their intention to participate in community CSA prevention…

  7. Can Norm Theory Explain the Effects of Victim Age and Level of Physical Maturity on Perceptions of Child Sexual Abuse?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Paul; Davies, Michelle; Anderson, Irina; Potton, Anita

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the effects of victim age, victim physical maturity, and respondent gender on attributions toward victims, perpetrator, and the nonoffending members of the victim's family in a hypothetical child sexual abuse (CSA) case. Participants read a brief CSA vignette in which the male perpetrator (a school caretaker) sexually…

  8. Child Sexual Abuse and Persistence of Risky Sexual Behaviors and Negative Sexual Outcomes over Adulthood: Findings from a Birth Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Roode, Thea; Dickson, Nigel; Herbison, Peter; Paul, Charlotte

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the impact of child sexual abuse (CSA) on adult sexual behaviors and outcomes over three age periods. Methods: A longitudinal study of a birth cohort born in Dunedin, New Zealand in 1972/1973 was used. Information on CSA was sought at age 26, and on sexual behaviors and outcomes at ages 21, 26, and 32. Comparisons were…

  9. Preadoptive Child Sexual Abuse as a Predictor of Moves in Care, Adoption Disruptions, and Inconsistent Adoptive Parent Commitment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nalavany, Blace A.; Ryan, Scott D.; Howard, Jeanne A.; Smith, Susan Livingston

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To date, little empirical attention has been given to the impact of preadoptive child sexual abuse (CSA) on adoption adjustment. The main objective of the present study was to investigate whether preadoptive CSA was associated with more placement moves, adoption disruption, and inconsistent parental commitment compared to adopted…

  10. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Additional Resources Return to: What is Elder Abuse? Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse Substance abuse has been identified ... the most frequently cited risk factor associated with elder abuse and neglect. It may be the victim and/ ...

  11. Characteristics of Sexually Abused Children and Their Nonoffending Mothers Followed by Child Welfare Services: The Role of a Maternal History of Child Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Baril, Karine; Tourigny, Marc; Paillé, Pierre; Pauzé, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Considering the importance of mother's support in the adaptation of a sexually abused child, it is relevant to determine if the mothers and children involved in an intergenerational cycle of child sexual victimization differ from dyads in which only the child has been abused. The purpose of this study was to compare mother-child dyads with sexually abused children according to whether the mother had herself been victim of child sexual abuse. The sample included 87 dyads with sexually abused children aged 3-18 years old and their mothers (44 reporting maternal and child abuse), followed by social welfare services of the province of Quebec (Canada). The two groups of mothers were compared on their past family abuse experiences and past family relations, their mental health history, their current psychological distress, their parenting behaviors, and their current levels of family functioning. Children were compared on their adaptation. Multivariate analyses indicated that mothers reporting child sexual abuse were more likely to report more other maltreatments in their childhood and greater prevalence of lifetime history of alcohol abuse disorders, dysthymia, and panic disorder compared with mothers who had not experienced CSA. Compared to children whose mothers had not experienced CSA, those whose mothers had experienced CSA showed higher rates of problems behaviors and were more likely to report having been sexually abused by a trusted person. These results highlight the specific clinical needs for the assessment and treatment for sexually abused children whose mothers experienced child sexual abuse. PMID:27472507

  12. Long-term effects of sexual abuse which occurred in childhood: a review.

    PubMed

    Cahill, C; Llewelyn, S P; Pearson, C

    1991-05-01

    The psychological problems and difficulties experienced by adults who report having been sexually abused in childhood are reviewed. These long-term effects include damage to the victims' emotional reactions and self-perceptions, relationship problems, problems with sexuality and difficulties in social functioning. Common presenting problems of victims of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are described. Also discussed are the characteristics of incestuous abuse in terms of the victim, the abusive relationship and its termination; the contributions of the various aspects of CSA to the psychological impact of such abuse; and psychodynamic explanations of the development of long-term effects. The bulk of the published material regarding the long-term effects of CSA refers to female victims only, and this 'bias' is reflected in the review. PMID:2059744

  13. Positive and Negative Posttraumatic Change Following Childhood Sexual Abuse Are Associated With Youths' Adjustment.

    PubMed

    Simon, Valerie A; Smith, Erin; Fava, Nicole; Feiring, Candice

    2015-11-01

    Meanings made of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) experiences are important to psychosocial adjustment. The current study examined adolescents' and young adults' perceptions of posttraumatic change (PTC) in the self, relationships, sexuality, and worldviews attributed to prior CSA experiences. We sought to document the prevalence of positive and negative PTC and examine their unique and joint associations with psychosocial adjustment. Participants included 160 youth with confirmed cases of CSA (73% female; 8-14 years at abuse discovery) who were part of a longitudinal study of the long-term effects of CSA. Six years after discovery, youth were interviewed about their abuse experiences. Interviews were coded for the valence and strength of PTC. The majority of youth reported PTC, and negative changes were more frequent and stronger than positive changes. Controlling for age, gender, abuse severity, and negative PTC, positive PTC was associated with lower abuse stigmatization for all youth. Controlling for age, gender, abuse severity, and positive PTC, negative PTC was associated with greater abuse stigmatization, post-traumatic stress disorder, sexual problems, and dating aggression for all youth. Relations of positive PTC with depression and support from friends and romantic partner were moderated by negative PTC, such that positive PTC was associated with better adjustment for youth with low versus high levels of negative PTC. Results highlight the importance of both negative and positive PTC for understanding meanings made of CSA experiences and their implications for psychosocial adjustment and intervention. PMID:26092440

  14. Sexual Abuse and Sexual Functioning in a Chronic Pelvic Pain Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randolph, Mary E.; Reddy, Diane M.

    2006-01-01

    Sexual abuse, particularly childhood sexual abuse, has been linked to chronic pelvic pain and to sexual dysfunction, though the sexual functioning of survivors of sexual abuse has not been studied in a chronic pain population. Sixty-three women with chronic pelvic pain completed measures of sexual function, sexual abuse, and pain. Using an index…

  15. Community-Based Career Counseling for Women Survivors of Intimate Partner Violence: A Collaborative Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronister, Krista M.; Harley, Eliza; Aranda, Christina L.; Barr, Leah; Luginbuhl, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) costs women nearly 8 million days of paid work annually. Greater attention to violence survivors' employment and career development can facilitate women escaping abusive relationships and promotes their overall rehabilitation and healing. A first step to increasing attention to survivors' career development includes…

  16. Delay in disclosure of non-parental child sexual abuse in the context of emotional and physical maltreatment: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tashjian, Sarah M; Goldfarb, Deborah; Goodman, Gail S; Quas, Jodi A; Edelstein, Robin

    2016-08-01

    The present pilot study sought to identify predictors of delays in child sexual abuse (CSA) disclosure, specifically whether emotional and physical abuse by a parental figure contributes to predicting delays over and above other important victim factors. Alleged CSA victims (N=79), whose parental figures were not the purported sexual abuse perpetrators, were interviewed and their case files reviewed, across two waves of a longitudinal study. Regression analyses indicated that experiencing both emotional and physical abuse by a parental figure was uniquely predictive of longer delays in disclosure of CSA perpetrated by someone other than a parental figure. Victim-CSA perpetrator relationship type and sexual abuse duration also significantly predicted CSA disclosure delay, whereas victim age at the time of the police report, victim gender, and victims' feelings of complicity were not significant unique predictors. Child abuse victims' expectations of lack of parental support may underlie these findings. Parent-child relationships are likely crucial to timely disclosure of CSA, even when a parent is not the CSA perpetrator. PMID:27380625

  17. Applications of the CSA-amplified PASS experiment.

    PubMed

    Orr, Robin M; Duer, Melinda J

    2006-07-01

    The recently reported CSA-amplified PASS experiment correlates the spinning sidebands at the true spinning frequency omega(r) with the spinning sidebands that would be obtained at the effective spinning frequency omega(r)/N, where N is termed the scaling factor. The experiment is useful for the measurement of small chemical shift anisotropies, for which slow magic-angle spinning frequencies, required to measure several spinning sidebands, can be unstable. We have experimentally evaluated the reliability of this experiment for this application. In particular we have demonstrated that large scaling factors of the order of N=27 may be used, whilst still obtaining accurate chemical shift sideband intensities at the effective spinning frequency from the F(1) projection. Moreover, the sideband intensities are accurately obtained even in the presence of significant pulse imperfections. A second application of the CSA-amplified PASS experiment is the measurement of the chemical shift anisotropy of sites that experience homonuclear dipolar coupling, as may be found in uniformly labelled biological molecules, or for nuclei with a high natural abundance. The effects of homonuclear dipolar coupling on CSA-amplified PASS spectra has been investigated by numerical simulations and are demonstrated using uniformly (13)C enriched l-histidine monohydrochloride monohydrate. PMID:16406513

  18. Child sexual abuse: seven years in practice.

    PubMed

    Bahali, Kayhan; Akçan, Ramazan; Tahiroglu, Aysegul Y; Avci, Ayse

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the socio-demographic characteristics of sexually abused children. The records of 101 cases of child sexual abuse (CSA) were retrospectively evaluated. Socio-demographic characteristics of the victims, type of sexual abuse, and psychiatric diagnosis were studied. Of the victims, 56.4% (n = 57) were female and 43.6% (n = 44) were male. The mean age was 9.57 +/- 3.5, with a range of 4-17 years. Ninety-three (92.1%) of the victims had been admitted as part of the legal process. The majority (66.3%) of the victims had been abused by an acquaintance, while 33.7% had been abused by a stranger. Anal or vaginal penetration was reported in 48.5% of the cases. Post-traumatic stress disorder was the most common (54.5%) psychiatric diagnosis established after sexual abuse. Descriptive data related to the abused children and an understanding of the consequences of CSA will help authorities in planning prevention. PMID:20345776

  19. Conditioned saccharin avoidance and sensitization to drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Fenu, Sandro; Cadoni, Cristina; Di Chiara, Gaetano

    2010-12-25

    Saccharin avoidance conditioned by drugs of abuse (CSA) has been interpreted as an expression of the appetitive, dopamine-dependent, properties of the drug. Repeated exposure to these drugs induces an increase (sensitization) of their motor stimulant properties associated with differential changes in DA transmission in the NAc shell and core. The present study investigated the changes in drug CSA induced by schedules of repeated drug exposure that induce behavioral sensitization. CSA was performed in a two-bottle choice paradigm with two saccharin-drug associations in rats previously sensitized to morphine, cocaine, amphetamine and nicotine. In control rats morphine (1 and 5mg/kg s.c.), cocaine (5 and 10mg/kg i.p.), amphetamine (0.25 and 0.5mg/kg s.c.) and nicotine (0.4 mg/kg s.c.) induced dose-dependent CSA. Sensitization to morphine, cocaine and nicotine, which is known to reduce the responsiveness of NAc shell DA to the same drugs, also reduced CSA. In contrast, sensitization to amphetamine, that does not affect the responsiveness of NAc shell DA to the drug, failed to affect CSA. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that NAc shell DA is a substrate of the appetitive properties of drugs of abuse. PMID:20561960

  20. Prevalence and Correlates of Child Sexual Abuse: A National Study

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Fuentes, Gabriela; Olfson, Mark; Villegas, Laura; Morcillo, Carmen; Wang, Shuai; Blanco, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Background This study examines the prevalence, correlates, and psychiatric disorders of adults with history of child sexual abuse (CSA). Methods Data were derived from a large national sample of the U.S. population. More that 34,000 adults aged 18 years and older residing in households were face-to-face interviewed in a survey conducted during the 2004–2005 period. Diagnoses were based on the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule-DSM-IV version. Weighted means, frequencies, and odds ratios of sociodemographic correlates and prevalence of psychiatric disorders were computed. Logistic regression models were used to examine the strength of associations between child sexual abuse and psychiatric disorders, adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, risk factors and other axis I psychiatric disorders. Results The prevalence of child sexual abuse was 10.14% (24.8% in men, and 75.2% in women). Child physical abuse, maltreatment, and neglect was more prevalent among individuals with CSA than among those without it. Adults with child sexual abuse history had significantly higher rates of any Axis I disorder and suicide attempts. The frequency, type and number of CSA were significantly correlated with psychopathology. Conclusions The high correlation rates of CSA with psychopathology and increased risk for suicide attempts in adulthood suggest the need for a systematic assessment of psychiatric disorders and suicide risk in these individuals. The risk factors for CSA emphasize the need for health care initiatives geared towards increasing recognition and development of treatment approaches for the emotional sequelae CSA as well as early preventive approaches. PMID:22854279

  1. Child sexual abuse in southern Brazil and associated factors: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Bassani, Diego G; Palazzo, Lilian S; Béria, Jorge U; Gigante, Luciana P; Figueiredo, Andréia CL; Aerts, Denise RGC; Raymann, Beatriz CW

    2009-01-01

    Background The prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in the population has been poorly described in developing countries. Population data on child sexual abuse in Brazil is very limited. This paper aims to estimate lifetime prevalence of child sexual abuse and associated factors in a representative sample of the population aged 14 and over in a city of southern Brazil. Methods A two-stage sampling strategy was used and individuals were invited to respond to a confidential questionnaire in their households. CSA was defined as non-consensual oral-genital, genital-genital, genital-rectal, hand-genital, hand-rectal, or hand-breast contact/intercourse between ages 0 and 18. Associations between socio-demographic variables and CSA, before and after age 12, were estimated through multinomial regression. Results Complete data were available for 1936 respondents from 1040 households. Prevalence of CSA among girls (5.6% 95%CI [4.8;7.5]) was higher than among boys (1.6% 95%CI [0.9;2.6]). Boys experienced CSA at younger ages than girls and 60% of all reported CSA happened before age 12. Physical abuse was frequently associated with CSA at younger (OR 5.6 95%CI [2.5;12.3]) and older (OR 9.4 95%CI [4.5;18.7]) ages. CSA after age 12 was associated with an increased number of sexual partners in the last 2 months. Conclusion Results suggest that CSA takes place at young ages and is associated with physical violence, making it more likely to have serious health and developmental consequences. Except for gender, no other socio-demographic characteristic identified high-risk sub-populations. PMID:19432975

  2. Child sexual abuse and its outcomes among high school students in southwest Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Worku, Dereje; Gebremariam, Abebe; Jayalakshmi, S

    2006-07-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a major contributing factor to the burden of disease among children and adolescents. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of CSA and its outcomes among female high school students in Ethiopia. A cross-sectional study was conducted among Jirren high school female students in April 2005. A total of 323 female students from grade 9 were selected by systematic random sampling and they completed a self-administered questionnaire on experiences of sexual abuse. Data were cleaned and analysed by SPSS/PC statistical package. The results revealed that the prevalence of CSA was 68.7%. Among the different forms of sexual abuses, verbal harassment was the most common (51.4%) followed by sexual intercourse, 18.0% and unwelcome kissing, 17.1%. The commonly indicated abusers in this study were unknown persons (36%) followed by school-mates (31.5%). Among victims of sexual abuse, 7.2% had an unwanted pregnancy and 5.9% had sexually transmitted diseases. The rate of other psychological effects of CSA, such as suicide ideation, suicide attempt, and sexual dysfunction, was high. The overwhelming majority (86.4%) considered sexual abuse to be a major social problem. The study revealed that the prevalence of CSA is high. Reproductive health education should be provided to students. Parents, police, and the public in general should be made aware of the problem before it endangers the lives of children and adolescents. PMID:16884614

  3. Mediators of the Relation between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Women’s Sexual Risk Behavior: A Comparison of Two Theoretical Frameworks

    PubMed Central

    Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood, but little research has investigated processes that might mediate this relation. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether constructs suggested by the traumagenic dynamics (TD) model (a theory of the effects of CSA) or constructs suggested by the Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills (IMB) model (a theory of the antecedents of sexual risk behavior) better mediated the relation between CSA and sexual risk behavior in adulthood. Participants were 481 women attending an STI clinic (66% African American) who completed a computerized survey as well as behavioral simulations assessing condom application and sexual assertiveness skills. Forty-five percent of the sample met criteria for CSA and CSA was associated with sexual risk behavior in adulthood. In multiple mediator models, the TD constructs mediated the relation between CSA and the number of sexual partners whereas the IMB constructs mediated the relation between CSA and unprotected sex. In addition, the TD constructs better mediated the relation between CSA and the number of sexual partners; the TD and IMB constructs did not differ in their ability to mediate the relation between CSA and unprotected sex. Sexual risk reduction interventions for women who were sexually abused should target not only the constructs from health behavior models (e.g., motivation and skills to reduce sexual risk), but also constructs that are specific to sexual abuse (e.g., traumatic sexualization and guilt). PMID:22282323

  4. Does the impact of child sexual abuse differ from maltreated but non-sexually abused children? A prospective examination of the impact of child sexual abuse on internalizing and externalizing behavior problems.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Terri; McElroy, Erika; Harlaar, Nicole; Runyan, Desmond

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) continues to be a significant problem with significant short and long term consequences. However, extant literature is limited by the reliance on retrospective recall of adult samples, single-time assessments, and lack of longitudinal data during the childhood and adolescent years. The purpose of this study was to compare internalizing and externalizing behavior problems of those with a history of sexual abuse to those with a history of maltreatment, but not sexual abuse. We examined whether gender moderated problems over time. Data were drawn from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) at ages 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 16 (N=977). The Child Behavior Checklist was used to assess internalizing and externalizing problems. Maltreatment history and types were obtained from official Child Protective Services (CPS) records. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) were used to assess behavior problems over time by maltreatment group. Findings indicated significantly more problems in the CSA group than the maltreated group without CSA over time. Internalizing problems were higher for sexually abused boys compared to girls. For sexually abused girls internalizing problems, but not externalizing problems increased with age relative to boys. This pattern was similar among maltreated but not sexually abused youth. Further efforts are needed to examine the psychological effects of maltreatment, particularly CSA longitudinally as well as better understand possible gender differences in order to best guide treatment efforts. PMID:26712421

  5. Healing from Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Theoretical Model

    PubMed Central

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Martsolf, Donna S.; Roller, Cynthia; Knapik, Gregory; Ross, Ratchneewan; Stidham, Andrea Warner

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a prevalent social and healthcare problem. The processes by which individuals heal from CSA are not clearly understood. The purpose of this study was to develop a theoretical model to describe how adults heal from CSA. Community recruitment for an on-going, broader project on sexual violence throughout the lifespan, referred to as the Sexual Violence Study, yielded a subsample of 48 women and 47 men who had experienced CSA. During semi-structured, open-ended interviews, they were asked to describe their experiences with healing from CSA and other victimization throughout their lives. Constructivist grounded theory methods were used with these data to develop constructs and hypotheses about healing. For the Sexual Violence Study, frameworks were developed to describe the participants' life patterns, parenting experiences, disclosures about sexual violence, spirituality, and altruism. Several analytic techniques were used to synthesize the findings of these frameworks to develop an overarching theoretical model that describes healing from CSA. The model includes four stages of healing, five domains of functioning, and six enabling factors that facilitate movement from one stage to the next. The findings indicate that healing is a complex and dynamic trajectory. The model can be used to alert clinicians to a variety of processes and enabling factors that facilitate healing in several domains and to guide discussions on important issues related to healing from CSA. PMID:21812546

  6. Exploring the Role of Child Sexual Abuse and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Gay and Bisexual Men Reporting Compulsive Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blain, Leah M.; Muench, Fred; Morgenstern, Jon; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) is an impairing yet understudied clinical phenomenon. The experience of child sexual abuse (CSA) has been implicated as an etiological factor in the development of some cases of CSB (Kuzma & Black, 2008); however, research regarding the role of CSA and related psychopathology in CSB symptomatology has…

  7. The Relative Influence of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Other Family Background Risk Factors on Adult Adversities in Female Outpatients Treated for Anxiety Disorders and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peleikis, Dawn E.; Mykletun, Arnstein; Dahl, Alv A.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: This study from Norway examines the relative influence of child sexual abuse (CSA) and family background risk factors (FBRF) on the risk for current mental disorders and the quality of current intimate relationships in women with CSA treated for anxiety disorders and/or depression. Women with these disorders frequently seek treatment,…

  8. Child Sexual Abuse Consequences in Community Samples of Latino and European American Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newcomb, Michael D.; Munoz, David T.; Carmona, Jennifer Vargas

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Research investigating the impact of child sexual abuse (CSA) in community samples of adolescents has been limited. This study aims to identify sexual abuse among ethnically diverse high school adolescents of both genders and evaluate their psycho-emotional consequences. Method: Through the use of self-report instruments, a sample of…

  9. The Connections between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: Implications for Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarakeshwar, Nalini; Fox, Ashley; Ferro, Carol; Khawaja, Shazia; Kochman, Arlene; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2005-01-01

    A qualitative study was conducted with 28 women who are human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in order to examine (1) the challenges generated by the experience of sexual abuse and related coping strategies, (2) the impact of the HIV diagnosis on their coping strategies, and (3) the links…

  10. Differences in Perceptions of Child Sexual Abuse Based on Perpetrator Age and Respondent Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giglio, Jessie J.; Wolfteich, Paula M.; Gabrenya, William K.; Sohn, Mary L.

    2011-01-01

    Child sexual abuse changes the lives of countless children. Child sexual abuse victims experience short and long term negative outcomes that affect their daily functioning. In this study, undergraduate students' perceptions of CSA were obtained using vignettes with an adult or child perpetrator and a general questionnaire. Results indicated…

  11. Number of Childhood Abuse Perpetrators and the Occurrence of Depressive Episodes in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Richard T.; Jager-Hyman, Shari; Wagner, Clara A.; Alloy, Lauren B.; Gibb, Brandon E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Although past research has documented a link between adverse childhood experiences--particularly childhood emotional (CEA), physical (CPA), and sexual abuse (CSA)--and depression, relatively few studies have examined the unique impact of each of these highly co-occurring abuse types. Moreover, relatively little is known about the…

  12. Profiles of School Adaptation: Social, Behavioral and Academic Functioning in Sexually Abused Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daignault, Isabelle V.; Hebert, Martine

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The short-term outcomes of child sexual abuse (CSA) on academic, behavioral and social adaptation at school were examined in order to: (1) document the proportion of sexually abused (SA) girls struggling in school and define the nature of their difficulties, (2) explore whether different profiles of school adaptation could be…

  13. Rethinking the Routine Provision of Psychotherapy to Children/Adolescents Labeled "Sexually Abused"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oellerich, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Whether symptomatic or asymptomatic, children labeled sexually abused are routinely offered treatment at considerable financial cost. One result of this is that mental health professionals are being charged with exploiting the problem of child sexual abuse (CSA). Is the routine provision of psychotherapy for children and adolescents labeled…

  14. A Critical Review of Available Data on Sexual Abuse of Children in Denmark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helweg-Larsen, K.; Larsen, H.B.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: To describe different data sources that may illuminate the incidence and character of child sexual abuse (CSA) in Denmark in the late 1990s. Method:: Data concerning alleged sexual abuse of children below 15 years of age in the 1990s were retrieved from the Danish National Patient Register and the Danish National Criminal Register. In…

  15. The independent effects of child sexual abuse and impulsivity on lifetime suicide attempts among female patients.

    PubMed

    Daray, Federico M; Rojas, Sasha M; Bridges, Ana J; Badour, Christal L; Grendas, Leandro; Rodante, Demián; Puppo, Soledad; Rebok, Federico

    2016-08-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a causal agent in many negative adulthood outcomes, including the risk for life-threatening behaviors such as suicide ideation and suicide attempts. Traumatic events such as CSA may pose risk in the healthy development of cognitive and emotional functioning during childhood. In fact, high impulsivity, a risk factor for suicidal behavior, is characteristic of CSA victims. The current study aims to understand the relations among CSA, impulsivity, and frequency of lifetime suicide attempts among a female patient sample admitted for suicidal behavior. Participants included 177 female patients between the ages of 18 and 63 years admitted at two hospitals in Buenos Aires, Argentina. Number of previous suicide attempts and CSA were assessed via structured interviews, while impulsivity was assessed with the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). A model of structural equations was employed to evaluate the role of impulsivity in the relation between CSA and suicide attempts. CSA (β=.18, p<.05) and impulsivity (β=.24, p<.05) were associated with the number of previous suicide attempts. However, impulsivity was not significantly associated with CSA (β=.09, p>.05). CSA and impulsivity are independently associated with lifetime suicide attempts among female patients with recent suicidal behavior. PMID:27352091

  16. Teachers' knowledge, attitudes and experience in sexual abuse prevention education in El Salvador.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Alicia; Katz, Craig; Ciro, Dianne; Guttfreund, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Research on how to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) in developing nations is practically non-existent. We sought to determine Salvadoran teachers' knowledge, attitudes, experience and barriers to CSA detection and reporting to assess the need for a CSA prevention programme and to assess barriers in conducting such a programme. One hundred teachers completed a questionnaire while they visited the Tin Marin Children's Museum in San Salvador. Nineteen of these teachers also participated in a focus group. We found that 89% of teachers reported at least two signs and symptoms of child abuse. One hundred per cent of teachers agreed that it is their responsibility to teach students about sexual abuse. Unusual for a study of this kind, parental migration was mentioned as making children vulnerable to CSA, and fear of gang violence and retribution was identified as interfering with teachers' ability to protect children. We conclude that Salvadoran teachers were knowledgeable about CSA detection and reporting and would support a programme in which they are trained to speak to their students about this topic. Barriers to reporting child abuse, such as teachers' safety and fear, need to be addressed in future CSA prevention programmes. PMID:24172028

  17. Empowering Abused Women through Equine Assisted Career Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froeschle, Janet

    2009-01-01

    Female survivors of domestic violence may experience symptoms of low self-esteem, insecurity, difficulty with problem solving, low self-efficacy, and high anxiety with regard to their economic future. Creative methods are needed to help abuse survivors overcome these factors so they are able to set and attain career goals. Equine assisted therapy…

  18. Clinical characteristics of adults reporting repressed, recovered, or continuous memories of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    McNally, Richard J; Perlman, Carol A; Ristuccia, Carel S; Clancy, Susan A

    2006-04-01

    The authors assessed women and men who either reported continuous memories of their childhood sexual abuse (CSA, n = 92), reported recovering memories of CSA (n = 38), reported believing they harbored repressed memories of CSA (n = 42), or reported never having been sexually abused (n = 36). Men and women were indistinguishable on all clinical and psychometric measures. The 3 groups that reported abuse scored similarly on measures of anxiety, depression, dissociation, and absorption. These groups also scored higher than the control group. Inconsistent with betrayal trauma theory, recovered memory participants were not more likely to report abuse by a parent or stepparent than were continuous memory participants. Rates of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder did not differ between the continuous and recovered memory groups. PMID:16649868

  19. Structural insight into epitopes in the pregnancy-associated malaria protein VAR2CSA.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Pernille; Nielsen, Morten A; Resende, Mafalda; Rask, Thomas S; Dahlbäck, Madeleine; Theander, Thor; Lund, Ole; Salanti, Ali

    2008-02-01

    Pregnancy-associated malaria is caused by Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites binding specifically to chondroitin sulfate A in the placenta. This sequestration of parasites is a major cause of low birth weight in infants and anemia in the mothers. VAR2CSA, a polymorphic multi-domain protein of the PfEMP1 family, is the main parasite ligand for CSA binding, and identification of protective antibody epitopes is essential for VAR2CSA vaccine development. Attempts to determine the crystallographic structures of VAR2CSA or its domains have not been successful yet. In this study, we propose 3D models for each of the VAR2CSA DBL domains and we show that regions in the fold of VAR2CSA inter-domain 2 and a PfEMP1 CIDR domain seem to be homologous to the EBA-175 and Pk alpha-DBL fold. This suggests that ID2 could be a functional domain. We also identify regions of VAR2CSA present on the surface of native VAR2CSA by comparing reactivity of plasma containing anti-VAR2CSA antibodies in peptide array experiments before and after incubation with native VAR2CSA. By this method we identify conserved VAR2CSA regions targeted by antibodies that react with the native molecule expressed on infected erythrocytes. By mapping the data onto the DBL models we present evidence suggesting that the S1+S2 DBL sub-domains are generally surface-exposed in most domains, whereas the S3 sub-domains are less exposed in native VAR2CSA. These results comprise an important step towards understanding the structure of VAR2CSA on the surface of CSA-binding infected erythrocytes. PMID:18282103

  20. Symbolic Confrontation with Women Survivors of Childhood Sexual Victimization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apolinsky, Sandra R.; Wilcoxon, S. Allen

    1991-01-01

    Investigated comparative effects of symbolic confrontation in affecting measures of self-concept and depression of 30 adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse participating in a counseling group. The results seem to suggest that the technique of symbolic confrontation can be effective in ameliorating negative aftereffects of victimization…

  1. Evaluation of a Spiritually Focused Intervention with Older Trauma Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowland, Sharon; Edmond, Tonya; Fallot, Roger D.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of an 11-session, spiritually focused group intervention with older women survivors (age 55 years and older) of interpersonal trauma (child abuse, sexual assault, or domestic violence) in reducing trauma-related depressive symptoms, posttraumatic stress, and anxiety. Forty-three community-dwelling women…

  2. Adult Attachment and Longterm Effects in Survivors of Incest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Pamela C.; Anderson, Catherine L.; Brand, Bethany; Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Grelling, Barbara Z.; Kretz, Lisa

    1998-01-01

    Ninety-two adult female incest survivors were interviewed and completed measures of current functioning. Hierarchical regression analyses suggested that adult attachment behavior was significantly associated with personality structure, depression, and distress; and abuse severity was associated with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms and…

  3. Parenting Difficulties among Adult Survivors of Father-Daughter Incest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Pamela M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study examined the self-reported parenting experience and practices of women who were either incest victims of their fathers as children (n=20), whose fathers were alcoholic but not sexually abusive (n=25), or who had no known risk in childhood (n=39). Incest survivors reported less confidence and sense of control as parents. (Author/DB)

  4. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Impulsive Personality Traits: Mixed Evidence for Moderation by DRD4 Genotype

    PubMed Central

    Harden, K. Paige; Carlson, Marie D.; Kretsch, Natalie; Corbin, William R.; Fromme, Kim

    2015-01-01

    This project examines associations between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and two dimensions of impulsivity (sensation seeking and premeditation), and tests whether CSA-personality associations are moderated by the DRD4 exon III VNTR polymorphism. Sample 1 is from a longitudinal study of university students measured at 10 waves over ages 18–24 years (n = 500). Sample 2 is from a national sample of young adult sibling pairs, ages 18–24, from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 2,559). In both samples, CSA was associated with elevated sensation seeking. In Sample 1, the association between CSA and sensation seeking was moderated by DRD4 genotype; this gene × environment interaction effect, however, was not replicated in Sample 2. Results suggest new avenues for research on CSA in the area of normal-range personality variation. PMID:25642000

  5. Does childhood sexual abuse victimization translate into juvenile sexual offending? New evidence.

    PubMed

    DeLisi, Matthew; Kosloski, Anna E; Vaughn, Michael G; Caudill, Jonathan W; Trulson, Chad R

    2014-01-01

    The cycle of violence thesis posits that early exposure to maltreatment increases the likelihood of later maladaptive and antisocial behaviors. Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) specifically has been shown to increase the likelihood of sexual offending, although less is known about its linkages to other forms of crime. Based on data from 2,520 incarcerated male juvenile offenders from a large southern state, hierarchical logistic regression models suggested that CSA increased the likelihood of later sexual offending nearly sixfold (467% increase). However, CSA was associated with an 83% reduced likelihood of homicide offending and 68% reduced likelihood of serious person/property offending. These findings suggest further support for the cycle of violence where CSA promotes sexual offending but novel findings regarding the linkages between CSA and other forms of crime. PMID:25199390

  6. The Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse in Anorexia Nervosa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Jacqueline C.; Bewell, Carmen; Blackmore, Elizabeth; Woodside, D. Blake

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the impact of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on clinical characteristics and premature termination of treatment in anorexia nervosa (AN). Method: The participants were 77 consecutive patients with AN admitted to an inpatient eating disorders unit. The patients were assessed in terms of eating disorder…

  7. Research participants telling the truth about their lives: the ethics of asking and not asking about abuse.

    PubMed

    Becker-Blease, Kathryn A; Freyd, Jennifer J

    2006-04-01

    Most discussions of the ethics of self-report research on abuse and interpersonal violence focus on the risks of asking participants about their experiences. An important element of the cost-benefit analysis--the costs of not asking about child abuse--has largely been ignored. Furthermore, little research has been conducted on the costs and benefits of child abuse research, leaving researchers to make decisions based on individual beliefs about such issues as the prevalence of abuse, the likelihood of disclosure, the effects of child abuse, and the ability of abuse survivors to give informed consent. The authors suggest that these beliefs tend to overemphasize survivors' vulnerability and ignore the costs of avoiding asking about abuse. In fact, these beliefs may reinforce societal avoidance of abuse and ultimately harm abuse survivors. PMID:16594838

  8. An epidemiologic study of childhood sexual abuse and adult sleep disturbances.

    PubMed

    Lind, Mackenzie J; Aggen, Steven H; Kendler, Kenneth S; York, Timothy P; Amstadter, Ananda B

    2016-03-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is linked to negative consequences, including insomnia. Few studies have examined the enduring effects of CSA on adult insomnia. Given the relationship between sleep and poor health, a better understanding of these effects has clinical implications. We used a representative adult twin sample. Both sexes were assessed with a broad CSA variable, with a subset of females (n = 424) given additional items capturing escalating physical contact and abuse characteristics. A sum score of past-month insomnia symptoms was calculated from the Symptom Checklist-90 (shortened version). Logistic regression was used to estimate the effects of CSA, physical contact, and incident characteristics on insomnia symptoms. Of the full sample (N = 8,184), 9.8% reported CSA. CSA significantly predicted insomnia symptoms in the female sample (n = 1,407; odds ratio [OR] = 1.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.35-2.06, p < .0001) but the continuum of physical contact did not. Individually, more than 1 perpetrator and feeling forced/threatened increased sleep risk, whereas having a male perpetrator (vs. female or multiple) decreased risk. These associations did not hold when combined. In the mixed-sex sample (n = 6,777), we replicated our CSA finding (OR = 1.65, 95% CI = 1.34-2.04, p < .0001) and found that female gender (OR = 1.16, 95% CI = 1.03-1.30, p = .0125), but not the gender*CSA interaction, was significant. CSA predicts adult insomnia symptoms decades after abuse, but the small sample size for incident characteristics (n = 424) resulted in limited conclusions about associated risk. PMID:26390111

  9. Urogenital tract disorders in children suspected of being sexually abused

    PubMed Central

    Wojciechowska, Joanna; Krefft, Maja; Hirnle, Lidia; Kołodziej, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Child sexual abuse (CSA) is generally defined as child exploitation that leads to achievement of sexual satisfaction. According to data from European countries, sexual abuse of children affects 10–40% of girls and 5–20% of boys. Material and methods The Medline, and Web of Science databases were searched with no date limitation on May 2015 using the terms ‘child abuse’ in conjunction with ‘urinary tract’, ‘urologist’, ‘urological dysfunction’, ‘urologic symptoms’, ‘LUTS’ or ‘urinary infection’. Results Awareness of the CSA problem among paediatricians and urologists is very important, because they are often the only physicians who are able to recognize the problem. CSA diagnosis is possible only through the proper collection of a medical history and a thorough physical examination. Urologists have to remember that children exposed to sexual abuse rarely exhibit abnormal genital findings. In fact, absence of genital findings is the rule rather than the exception. In most cases, the final diagnosis of sexual abuse is based on the child's history and behavior, along with the onset and exacerbation of urologic symptoms. Conclusions In this article, we present a review of studies and literature concerning urinary symptoms in sexually abused children to clarify the problem for a broad group of urologists. We present common symptoms and premises that can point to the right diagnosis and basic guidelines of proceeding after suspicion of abuse. PMID:27123337

  10. Motherhood among Incest Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Tamar

    1995-01-01

    Mothers (n=26) who were incest survivors were compared with 28 mothers with no such history for 7 areas of parenting skills: role-image, objectivity, expectations, rapport, communication, limit-setting, and role-support. Significant differences were found on all seven scales, characterized by a tendency for the incest survivors to be less skillful…

  11. Factor Structure of the Counselor Burnout Inventory in a Sample of Sexual Offender and Sexual Abuse Therapists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jayoung; Wallace, Sam; Puig, Ana; Choi, Bo Young; Nam, Suk Kyung; Lee, Sang Min

    2010-01-01

    This study empirically tested and compared three different models of factor structure with a sample of therapists working with sexual offenders, survivors of sexual abuse, or both. Results indicated that a modified five-factor model was the most appropriate. Practical implications for sexual offender/abuse survivor therapists are discussed.…

  12. Elder Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical, sexual, or emotional abuse Neglect or abandonment Financial abuse - stealing of money or belongings Possible signs ... may be a sudden change in the person's financial situation. Elder abuse will not stop on its ...

  13. Elder Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... facilities or nursing homes. The mistreatment may be Physical, sexual, or emotional abuse Neglect or abandonment Financial abuse - stealing of money or belongings Possible signs of elder abuse include unexplained bruises, burns, ...

  14. Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical ...

  15. Childhood sexual abuse among Black women and White women from two-parent families.

    PubMed

    Amodeo, Maryann; Griffin, Margaret L; Fassler, Irene R; Clay, Cassandra M; Ellis, Michael A

    2006-08-01

    Differences in childhood sexual abuse (CSA) between Black women and White women are explored in a community sample of 290 women raised in two-parent families.A self-administered questionnaire and a face-to-face interview assessed CSA characteristics, aftermath, and prevalence as well as family structure and other childhood variables. Siblings served as collateral informants for the occurrence of CSA. Overall, comparisons of the nature, severity, and aftermath of CSA showed similarities by race; some differences, for example, in age of onset, are potentially relevant for the planning of prevention programs. Logistic regression models examined effects of childhood variables on CSA prevalence. Initial analyses showed a higher CSA prevalence among Black women (34.1% [45] of Black women vs. 22.8% [36] of White women) that was attenuated when family structure (e.g., living with two biological parents throughout childhood or not) and social class were considered. Of interest, differences in family structure remained important even among these two-parent families. Understanding the dynamics of abuse by race and family structure will facilitate the design of more targeted CSA prevention programs. PMID:16816321

  16. Towards a common framework for assessing the activity and associations of groups who sexually abuse children

    PubMed Central

    Cockbain, Ella; Brayley, Helen; Sullivan, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Extensive social psychological research emphasises the importance of groups in shaping individuals’ thoughts and actions. Within the child sexual abuse (CSA) literature criminal organisation has been largely overlooked, with some key exceptions. This research was a novel collaboration between academia and the UK's Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre (CEOP). Starting from the premise that the group is, in itself, a form of social situation affecting abuse, it offers the first systematic situational analysis of CSA groups. In-depth behavioural data from a small sample of convicted CSA group-offenders (n = 3) were analysed qualitatively to identify factors and processes underpinning CSA groups’ activities and associations: group formation, evolution, identity and resources. The results emphasise CSA groups’ variability, fluidity and dynamism. The foundations of a general framework are proposed for researching and assessing CSA groups and designing effective interventions. It is hoped that this work will stimulate discussion and development in this long-neglected area of CSA, helping to build a coherent knowledge-base. PMID:26494978

  17. Childhood sexual abuse and depression in Latino MSM: Does resilience protect against nonadherence to ART?

    PubMed Central

    Sauceda, John A.; Wiebe, John S.; Simoni, Jane M.

    2015-01-01

    This study tested depression as a mediator between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), an effect moderated by resilience. One-hundred and forty-nine HIV+ Latino men who have sex with men (MSM) were recruited for this study. Using a regression-based bootstrap approach, depression mediated the relationship between CSA and ART adherence, with worse adherence for participants at lowest percentiles of the resilience index. The prevalence of CSA and depression in HIV+ MSM is high and must be addressed to better prevent disease progression, reduce transmission, especially in expanding Latino populations. PMID:25156387

  18. Suicidal Behavior Outcomes of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Longitudinal Study of Adjudicated Girls.

    PubMed

    Rabinovitch, Sara M; Kerr, David C R; Leve, Leslie D; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2015-08-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories are prevalent among adolescent girls in the juvenile justice system (JJS) and may contribute to their high rates of suicidal behavior. Among 166 JJS girls who participated in an intervention trial, baseline CSA and covariates were examined as predictors of suicide attempt and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) reported at long-term follow-up (7-12 years later). Early forced CSA was related to lifetime suicide attempt and NSSI history and (marginally) to postbaseline attempt; effects were not mediated by anxiety or depressive symptoms. Findings suggest that earlier victimization and younger entry into JJS are linked with suicide attempt and NSSI. PMID:25370436

  19. Childhood Sexual Abuse Moderates the Relationship Between Obesity and Mental Health in Low-Income Women.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Jennifer C; Milan, Stephanie

    2016-02-01

    We examined whether a history of self-reported childhood sexual abuse (CSA) moderates the relationship between obesity and mental health symptoms (depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder) in an ethnically diverse sample of low-income women. A community sample of 186 women completed self-report measures and had their weight and height measured. Body mass index and CSA had an interactive effect on all mental health measures, such that obese women with a CSA history reported substantially higher levels of all symptoms. These results give greater specificity to the obesity-mental health link reported in previous studies and provide possible directions for targeted intervention. PMID:26541476

  20. Making the Hurt Go Away: Psychological and Spiritual Healing for African American Women Survivors of Childhood Incest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Tracy L.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the psychological and spiritual healing for African American women survivors of childhood sexual abuse. Considers adult sexuality for these women. Includes implications for counselors and recommendations for their self-care. (Author/JDM)

  1. Abuse Characteristics and Individual Differences Related to Disclosing Childhood Sexual, Physical, and Emotional Abuse and Witnessed Domestic Violence.

    PubMed

    Bottoms, Bette L; Peter-Hagene, Liana C; Epstein, Michelle A; Wiley, Tisha R A; Reynolds, Carrie E; Rudnicki, Aaron G

    2016-04-01

    Many adult survivors of childhood abuse hide their victimization, avoiding disclosure that could identify perpetrators, end the abuse, and bring help to the victim. We surveyed 1,679 women undergraduates to understand disclosure of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse, and, for the first time, witnessed domestic violence, which many consider to be emotionally abusive. A substantial minority of victims failed to ever disclose their sexual abuse (23%), physical abuse (34%), emotional abuse (20%), and witnessed domestic violence (29%). Overall, abuse-specific factors were better predictors of disclosure than individual-level characteristics. Disclosure of sexual abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and by multiple perpetrators), being more worried about injury and more upset at the time of the abuse, and self-labeling as a victim of abuse. Disclosure of physical abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and multiple perpetrators), being less emotionally close to the perpetrator, being older when the abuse ended, being more worried and upset, and self-labeling as a victim. Disclosure of emotional abuse was associated with being older when the abuse ended, and being more worried and upset. Disclosure was unrelated to victim demographic characteristics or defensive reactions (dissociative proneness, fantasy proneness, repressive coping style, and temporary forgetting), except that among physical and emotional abuse victims, repressors were less likely to disclose than non-repressors. Disclosure of witnessing domestic violence was not significantly related to any factors measured. PMID:25550167

  2. Several domains from VAR2CSA can induce Plasmodium falciparum adhesion-blocking antibodies

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum can result in several different syndromes with severe clinical consequences for the about 200 million individuals infected each year. During pregnancy, women living in endemic areas become susceptible to malaria due to lack of antibodies against a unique P. falciparum membrane protein, named VAR2CSA. This antigen is not expressed in childhood infections, since it binds chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) expressed on the intervillous space in the placenta. A vaccine appears possible because women acquire protective antibodies hindering sequestration in the placenta as a function of parity. A challenge for vaccine development is to design small constructs of this large antigen, which can induce broadly protective antibodies. It has previously been shown that one domain of VAR2CSA, DBL4-FCR3, induces parasite adhesion-blocking antibodies. In this study, it is demonstrated that other domains of VAR2CSA also can induce antibodies with inhibitory activity. Methods All VAR2CSA domains from the 3D7 and HB3 parasites were produced in Baculovirus-transfected insect cells. Groups of three rats per protein were immunized and anti-sera were tested for surface reactivity against infected erythrocytes expressing FCR3 VAR2CSA and for the ability to inhibit FCR3CSA parasite adhesion to CSA. The fine specificity of the immune sera was analysed by VAR2CSA peptide arrays. Results Inhibitory antibodies were induced by immunization with DBL3-HB3 T1 and DBL1-3D7. However, unlike the previously characterised DBL4-FCR3 response the inhibitory response against DBL1-3D7 and DBL3-HB3 T1 was poorly reproduced in the second rounds of immunizations. Conclusion It is possible to induce parasite adhesion-blocking antibodies when immunizing with a number of different VAR2CSA domains. This indicates that the CSA binding site in VAR2CSA is comprised of epitopes from different domains. PMID:20064234

  3. Initial Assessment of Stewards of Children Program Effects on Child Sexual Abuse Reporting Rates in Selected South Carolina Counties.

    PubMed

    Letourneau, Elizabeth J; Nietert, Paul J; Rheingold, Alyssa A

    2016-02-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programs often include a focus on increased reporting of suspected abuse, in addition to other prevention components such as helping trainees recognize suspected abusive situations. This study aimed to determine whether the Stewards of Children prevention program is associated with increased CSA reporting. Analyses examined whether rates of CSA allegations increased over time in three counties in South Carolina (SC) targeted with program dissemination efforts and whether CSA reporting trends differed between the three targeted counties and three comparison counties that did not experience substantial program dissemination. CSA allegation data were obtained by county and year for predissemination and postdissemination periods from the SC Department of Social Services. Results indicated that, for the targeted counties but not the nontargeted counties, estimated allegation rates increased significantly over time, corresponding with the onset of significant program dissemination efforts. Results also indicated significant between-groups differences in allegation trends for targeted versus nontargeted counties. These findings suggest that the Stewards prevention intervention may be associated with increased CSA allegations. However, results require replication with randomization of counties. Moreover, whether increased reporting is associated with decreased CSA incidence remains unknown. PMID:26530898

  4. Drug abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... abuse References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Weiss RD. Drugs of abuse. In: Goldman ...

  5. Substance Use, Childhood Sexual Abuse and Sexual Risk Behavior among Women in Methadone Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Lisa R.; Tross, Susan; Pavlicova, Martina; Hu, Mei-Chen; Campbell, Aimee N.; Nunes, Edward V.

    2009-01-01

    Substance use and a history of childhood sexual abuse have both been identified as risk factors for unprotected sex among women, yet questions remain as to how their combined influence may differentially affect sexual risk behavior. In the current study a Generalized Linear Mixed Model was used to examine the interaction effect between current cocaine and opioid use and a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on number of unprotected sexual occasions (USO) in a sample of 214 sexually active women in outpatient methadone maintenance treatment programs. Results show significant interaction effects between drug use in the past 30 days and CSA on unprotected sexual occasions. These interactions, however, differ depending on type of drug used and CSA status. For women with CSA, an increase in days of cocaine use was significantly associated with an increase in USO, whereas an increase in number of days of opiate use was not significantly associated with an increase in USO. In contrast, for women who did not report CSA, an increase in number of days of cocaine use was associated with a significant decrease in USO and number of days of opiate use was significantly correlated with an increase in USO. Findings indicate that CSA is related to unprotected sexual occasions depending on drug type and severity of use. Women with childhood sexual abuse using cocaine are at particularly high risk for having unprotected sex, which suggests that this group of women should be specifically targeted for HIV prevention interventions. PMID:19637103

  6. NH{sub 3} sensor based on CSA doped PANi-SnO{sub 2} nanohybrid

    SciTech Connect

    Khuspe, G. D.; Navale, S. T.; Chougule, M. A.; Mulik, R. N.; Godse, P. R.; Patil, V. B.; Sen, Shashwati

    2014-04-24

    The PANi-SnO{sub 2} hybrid nanocomposite based thin films doped with 10–50 wt % CSA were deposited on the glass substrates using the spin coating technique. The sensor response in relation to the CSA doping concentration and the gas concentration has been systematically studied. A significant sensitivity (91%) towards 100 ppm NH{sub 3} operating at room temperature is observed for the 30 wt % CSA doped PANi-SnO2 nanohybrid. The sensing mechanism of CSA doped PANi-SnO{sub 2} materials to NH{sub 3} was presumed to be the effect of p–n heterojunctions.

  7. [Child sexual abuse and sexually transmitted infections in sub-saharan Africa].

    PubMed

    Pitche, P

    2005-11-01

    Recently there has been increasing public concern regarding escalating child sexual abuse (CSA) in the sub-Saharan Africa. Medical consequences of child sexual abuse (CSA) include sexually transmitted infection (STI) and human immune virus (HIV) infection. The purpose of the study was to review literature on CSA and associated STI/HIV in the sub-Saharan Africa. The study covered the 23-year period from 1980 to 2003. The mean age of the child victims was 8 years. The incidence of penetrative sex in the studies ranged from 70 to 97%. Physical signs of CSA included genital or anal injuries, perineal trauma, and vesico-vaginal or recto-vaginal fistula. The incidence of STD varied according to whether the study was retrospective or prospective. Ten percent to 67% of children with STD had been sexually abused while 15 to 30% of sexual abuse incidents were associated with STD. The prevalence of HIV ranged from 3% in Togo to 37.5% in Cameroon. Most alleged child abusers were adult males known by the child, i.e., family members (30-60%), instructors or teachers, household personnel or neighbours. Some acts were motivated by traditional practices such as early, forced marriage and beliefs such as presumed benefits of sex with virgin children (cure for STI/HIV/STD, magic powers or wealth). This study shows that CSA is widespread throughout sub-Saharan Africa. Most problem involving CSA in sub-Saharan Afica have not been documented. Knowledge about the extent and special aspects of CSA in Africa can be useful for implementation of suitable management measures. PMID:16555518

  8. Shattered Vision: Disenchantment of Couplehood among Female Survivors of Violence in the Shadow of Their Family-of-Origin Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchbinder, Eli; Goldblatt, Hadass

    2011-01-01

    This article describes and analyzes the relationship disenchantment of couplehood among female survivors of violence and their family-of-origin experiences of abuse. Twenty Israeli women who were survivors of violence participated in this qualitative research. Each woman underwent three in-depth interviews, two for data collection and one for…

  9. The Differential Effects of Abuse Characteristics and Attachment in the Prediction of Long-Term Effects of Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Pamela C.

    1993-01-01

    Female incest survivors (n=112) completed several inventories and checklists to measure sexual abuse severity and adult attachment. Analyses indicated that sexual abuse characteristics predicted depression, intrusive thoughts, and memory avoidance. Adult attachment, particularly a lack of secure attachment, predicted memory avoidance, and also…

  10. Single-Cell Sampling and Analysis (SiCSA).

    PubMed

    Fricke, Wieland

    2012-01-01

    Single-cell sampling and analysis allows the determination of solute concentrations in individual cells and tissues. This is particularly important when studying a stress such as salinity, where the cell- and tissue-specific distribution of sodium and chloride may decide a plant's fate. In this chapter, some selected SiCSA methods are described in detail, and their advantages and possible pitfalls discussed. These methods include pressure-driven extraction of cell contents (cell sap sampling) and the analysis of extracted cell sap through picolitre osmometry (osmolality), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (concentrations of Na, K, P, S, Cl, Ca), and microfluorometry (concentrations of, for example, nitrate and total amino acids). PMID:22895753

  11. Relationship between Family Functioning and Parenting Beliefs and Feelings among Women Who Have a History of Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Guadalupe; Lam, Brian Trung

    2012-01-01

    This study explored the relationship between family functioning and parenting beliefs and feelings among women with a history of child sexual abuse (CSA). This study utilized secondary data obtained in 2001 from the National Data Archive on Child Abuse and Neglect. The sample included 107 women. Most respondents had a highly functional family;…

  12. Pseudocyesis in an adolescent incest survivor.

    PubMed

    Hendricks-Matthews, M K; Hoy, D M

    1993-01-01

    This case is an example of pseudocyesis in an incest survivor. Symptoms of pregnancy were unconsciously created by the patient to shield her from the memory of her incest and at the same time confront the reality of her abuse. Her symptoms allowed her entrance into the medical system. Once in the system, it was just a matter of time before she was referred for psychological evaluation. The authors recommend that family physicians consider incest when evaluating patients who present with pseudocyesis. PMID:8419509

  13. Childhood sexual experiences and the perception of abuse among Latino men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Dolezal, Curtis; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex

    2002-08-01

    There is a lack of consensus on how to define childhood sexual abuse (CSA). In this study we explore the perceptions of CSA among men who had such experiences. One hundred Latino men (predominately gay) who had childhood sexual experiences with an older partner (CSEOP) were asked whether they considered their experiences sexual abuse (41 said no; 59 said yes). Those who felt abused were younger when the events happened and were more likely to have been physically forced, physically hurt, threatened, and emotionally hurt. Negative correlates of CSEOP in adulthood were also explored. Men who considered themselves the victims of CSA differed from those without CSEOP in having more alcohol use, unprotected anal sex, and male sex partners. PMID:12476263

  14. "Having Housing Made Everything Else Possible": Affordable, Safe and Stable Housing for Women Survivors of Violence.

    PubMed

    Clough, Amber; Draughon, Jessica E; Njie-Carr, Veronica; Rollins, Chiquita; Glass, Nancy

    2014-09-01

    Research indicates that the need for safe housing and the economic resources to maintain safe housing are two of the most pressing concerns among abused women who are planning to or have recently left abusers. Intimate partner violence (IPV) is frequently an immediate cause or precursor to homelessness and housing instability. The aim of the study is to explore abused women's experiences accessing affordable, safe, and stable housing. To achieve the aim, adult female IPV survivors answered questions about: 1) steps that were taken to secure housing; 2) safety issues after leaving the abuser; 3) barriers to obtaining housing; and 4) responses from housing and domestic violence advocacy systems related to survivors' housing needs. Four major themes emerged from the in-depth interviews: 1) stable, affordable housing is critical in increasing safety; 2) survivors face multiple systemic or individual barriers; 3) survivors develop and utilize an array of creative and resourceful strategies; and 4) survivors identified a variety of supportive services tailored to address their needs. The findings inform practice, policy and research for both the housing and domestic violence service systems with an emphasis on collaboration to meet the complex safety and stable housing needs of survivors and their families, particularly following the impact on housing of the 2008 U.S. economic crisis and subsequent recession. PMID:25328440

  15. Adult Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse: A Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Tener, Dafna; Murphy, Sharon B

    2015-10-01

    Victims of childhood sexual abuse carry the experience of abuse into adulthood. One of the dilemmas victims face during adulthood is the decision to disclose or conceal the abuse. Although adult disclosure may be affected by former disclosure during childhood, adult survivors face new challenges and dilemmas, such as to whom, when, and how to tell. The purpose of this article is to review the domains found in the literature on survivors' experiences regarding disclosure of child sexual abuse during adulthood, all of which were published between 1980 and 2013. Domains include decisions to disclose during adulthood, barriers and facilitators to disclosure and potential recipients of the disclosure, as well as the process of telling and its impact on survivors' well-being. The authors present implications for policy, practice, and research. PMID:24903400

  16. Pain in cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Juan D; Farquhar-Smith, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Cancer and its treatment exert a heavy psychological and physical toll. Of the myriad symptoms which result, pain is common, encountered in between 30% and 60% of cancer survivors. Pain in cancer survivors is a major and growing problem, impeding the recovery and rehabilitation of patients who have beaten cancer and negatively impacting on cancer patients’ quality of life, work prospects and mental health. Persistent pain in cancer survivors remains challenging to treat successfully. Pain can arise both due to the underlying disease and the various treatments the patient has been subjected to. Chemotherapy causes painful chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN), radiotherapy can produce late effect radiation toxicity and surgery may lead to the development of persistent post-surgical pain syndromes. This review explores a selection of the common causes of persistent pain in cancer survivors, detailing our current understanding of the pathophysiology and outlining both the clinical manifestations of individual pain states and the treatment options available. PMID:26516548

  17. [A model of the effects of child sexual abuse on post-traumatic stress: the mediating role of attributions of blame and avoidance coping].

    PubMed

    Cantón-Cortés, David; Cantón, José; Justicia, Fernando; Cortés, María Rosario

    2011-02-01

    Employing structural equation modeling, the direct and indirect effects of the severity of Child Sexual Abuse (CSA), attributions of blame for the abuse, and coping strategies on Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptomatology are analyzed. The effects of other types of child maltreatment on PTSD were also controlled. The sample comprised 163 female college students who were victims of CSA. The results suggested that victims of more severe abuse showed higher levels of avoidant coping, self blame, and family blame. Having suffered other kinds of abuse or neglect was also related to higher family blame attributions. Lastly, both attributions of blame scales were indirectly related to PTSD symptomatology through avoidant coping. The strong relationships between attributions of blame, coping strategies, and PTSD suggest that it might be useful to intervene early with children who have suffered CSA in an effort to modify the attributions they make about the abuse and the way they cope with it. PMID:21266144

  18. Increased Frequency of Micronuclei in Adults with a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Discordant Monozygotic Twin Study

    PubMed Central

    York, Timothy P.; Brumelle, Jenni; Juusola, Jane; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Eaves, Lindon J.; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Aggen, Steven H.; Jones, Kimberly H.; Ferreira-Gonzalez, Andrea; Jackson-Cook, Colleen

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a traumatic life event associated with an increased lifetime risk for psychopathology/morbidity. The long-term biological consequences of CSA-elicited stress on chromosomal stability in adults are unknown. The primary aim of this study was to determine if the rate of acquired chromosomal changes, measured using the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay on stimulated peripheral blood lymphocytes, differs in adult female monozygotic twins discordant for CSA. Methods Monozygotic twin pairs discordant for CSA were identified from a larger population-based sample of female adult twins for whom the experience of CSA was assessed by self-report (51 individuals including a reference sample). Micronuclei (MN) contain chromatin from structurally normal or abnormal chromosomes that are excluded from the daughter nuclei during cell division and serve as a biomarker to assess acquired chromosomal instability. Results Female twins exposed to CSA exhibited a 1.63-fold average increase in their frequency of MN compared to their nonexposed genetically identical cotwins (Paired t-test, t16 = 2.65, P = 0.017). No additional effects of familial factors were detected after controlling for the effect of CSA exposure. A significant interaction between CSA history and age was observed, suggesting that the biological effects of CSA on MN formation may be cumulative. Conclusions These data support a direct link between CSA exposure and MN formation measured in adults that is not attributable to genetic or environmental factors shared by siblings. Further research is warranted to understand the biological basis for the observed increase in acquired chromosomal findings in people exposed to CSA and to determine if acquired somatic chromosomal abnormalities/somatic clonal mosaicism might mediate the adult pathology associated with CSA. PMID:23383158

  19. Polypyrrole-ZnO nanohybrids: effect of CSA doping on structure, morphology and optoelectronic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chougule, M. A.; Khuspe, G. D.; Sen, Shashwati; Patil, V. B.

    2013-10-01

    Polypyrrole-ZnO (PPy-ZnO) nanohybrid was prepared from PPy and ZnO nanoparticles (NPs). Nanohybrids of PPy-ZnO were doped with camphor sulfonic acid (CSA) with different weight ratios (10-50 %). The CSA-doped nanohybrids obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction, FTIR, field emission SEM, UV-vis spectroscopy and electrical transport method. Structural investigations using X-ray diffraction shows new peaks appeared at 15.44° and 17.61° in the XRD pattern of CSA-doped PPy-ZnO nanohybrids belong to CSA. The FTIR spectra confirmed the strong interaction between the CSA and PPy-ZnO nanohybrids. The UV-visible spectrums revealed the enhancement of doping level for the 30 % CSA-doped PPy-ZnO nanohybrid film which is assigned to the existence of greater number of charges on the polymer backbone. The room temperature dc electrical conductivity of CSA-doped PPy-ZnO nanohybrids were observed to depend on the CSA doping and the morphology.

  20. Narrative Art and Incarcerated Abused Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Rachel; Taylor, Janette Y.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes an arts and narrative intervention program using visual art, storytelling, music, journaling, and support groups with incarcerated abused women to address the following questions: How can visual art and music empower incarcerated female survivors of domestic violence? Can art, music, storytelling, journaling, and support…

  1. Resilience Moderates the Association Between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Depressive Symptoms Among Women with and At-Risk for HIV.

    PubMed

    Dale, Sannisha K; Weber, Kathleen M; Cohen, Mardge H; Kelso, Gwendolyn A; Cruise, Ruth C; Brody, Leslie R

    2015-08-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) places women at risk for HIV infection and once infected, for poor mental health outcomes, including lower quality of life and depressive symptoms. Among HIV-positive and demographically matched HIV-negative women, we investigated whether resilience and HIV status moderated the relationships between CSA and health indices as well as the relationships among CSA, depressive symptoms, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Participants included 202 women (138 HIV+, 64 HIV-, 87 % African American) from the Women's Interagency HIV Study Chicago CORE Center site. Results indicated that in both HIV-positive and HIV-negative women, higher resilience significantly related to lower depressive symptoms and higher HRQOL. CSA related to higher depressive symptoms only for women scoring low in resilience. Interventions to promote resilience, especially in women with a CSA history, might minimize depressive symptoms and poor HRQOL among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women. PMID:25085079

  2. The Chondroitin Sulfate A-binding Site of the VAR2CSA Protein Involves Multiple N-terminal Domains*

    PubMed Central

    Dahlbäck, Madeleine; Jørgensen, Lars M.; Nielsen, Morten A.; Clausen, Thomas M.; Ditlev, Sisse B.; Resende, Mafalda; Pinto, Vera V.; Arnot, David E.; Theander, Thor G.; Salanti, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Malaria during pregnancy is a major health problem for African women. The disease is caused by Plasmodium falciparum malaria parasites, which accumulate in the placenta by adhering to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA). The interaction between infected erythrocytes and the placental receptor is mediated by a parasite expressed protein named VAR2CSA. A vaccine protecting pregnant women against placental malaria should induce antibodies inhibiting the interaction between VAR2CSA and CSA. Much effort has been put into defining the part of the 350 kDa VAR2CSA protein that is responsible for binding. It has been shown that full-length recombinant VAR2CSA binds specifically to CSA with high affinity, however to date no sub-fragment of VAR2CSA has been shown to interact with CSA with similar affinity or specificity. In this study, we used a biosensor technology to examine the binding properties of a panel of truncated VAR2CSA proteins. The experiments indicate that the core of the CSA-binding site is situated in three domains, DBL2X-CIDRPAM and a flanking domain, located in the N-terminal part of VAR2CSA. Furthermore, recombinant VAR2CSA subfragments containing this region elicit antibodies with high parasite adhesion blocking activity in animal immunization experiments. PMID:21398524

  3. Principles of assessment of abuse liability: US legal framework and regulatory environment.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Beatriz A

    2013-09-01

    Identifying the abuse potential of drug products in the premarketing and postmarketing environment has been a critical component in the implementation of drug abuse control laws worldwide. In the US, the Controlled Substances Act of 1970 (CSA) is a comprehensive federal law enacted to prevent the abuse or diversion of substances with abuse liability or addiction potential (for present purposes, these terms are used interchangeably). Under the jurisdiction of the Drug Enforcement Administration, the law applies to the manufacture and distribution of narcotics and other drug substances with potential of abuse. The CSA classifies substances with abuse potential into schedules I-V based on the substance's risk of diversion or abuse, and thus provides a legal framework for the assessment of abuse liability of New Molecular Entities. When the Food and Drug Administration reviews the safety and efficacy of a New Drug Application it also determines whether the drug has potential for abuse, and if so, will begin the process to schedule the drug under the CSA. As the assessment of abuse potential is a critical component of a marketing application, pharmaceutical companies (sponsors) bear the responsibility of generating a comprehensive preclinical and clinical data package for regulators to review and make decisions on labeling and the corresponding postmarketing surveillance. Recent regulatory guidelines adopted in the European Union (EU) (2006), Canada (2007), and USA (2010) provide recommendations to sponsors on preclinical and clinical methodologies for the assessment of abuse potential. This paper reviews the legal framework of the assessment of abuse liability and scheduling of controlled substances in the USA and describes the current global regulatory environment and the challenges that sponsors and regulators face when assessing abuse liability of New Molecular Entities, from the early stages of development through the late stages, review, and approval. PMID

  4. Childhood sexual abuse: sources of trauma.

    PubMed

    Draucker, C B

    1993-01-01

    Many American women who were sexually abused as children seek mental health services to help them heal from their abuse. An appreciation of the varied sources of trauma that may stem from a sexual abuse experience may guide clinicians in facilitating a meaningful discussion with survivors of the ways in which their childhood development and their current lives have been influenced by their sexual abuse. Therefore, the goal of this study was to provide a beginning delineation of possible sources of trauma in the abuse situation, based on the retrospective reflections of women who have survived abuse. One hundred and eighty-six survivors were asked to identify the most traumatic aspects of their abuse experience. A content analysis was performed on their written responses, and the following eight categories, reflecting different sources of trauma, were identified: abandonment, powerlessness, violence, betrayal, guilt and shame, loss of self, loss of childhood, and impact on sexual adjustment. Possible treatment implications and suggestions for future research are discussed. PMID:8407289

  5. Identification of sexually abused female adolescents at risk for suicidal ideations: a classification and regression tree analysis.

    PubMed

    Brabant, Marie-Eve; Hébert, Martine; Chagnon, François

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the clinical profiles of 77 female teenager survivors of sexual abuse and examined the association of abuse-related and personal variables with suicidal ideations. Analyses revealed that 64% of participants experienced suicidal ideations. Findings from classification and regression tree analysis indicated that depression, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and hopelessness discriminated profiles of suicidal and nonsuicidal survivors. The elevated prevalence of suicidal ideations among adolescent survivors of sexual abuse underscores the importance of investigating the presence of suicidal ideations in sexual abuse survivors. However, suicidal ideation is not the sole variable that needs to be investigated; depression, hopelessness and posttraumatic stress symptoms are also related to suicidal ideations in survivors and could therefore guide interventions. PMID:23428149

  6. Individual and community-level socioeconomic position and its association with adolescents experience of childhood sexual abuse: a multilevel analysis of six countries in Sub-Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Yahaya, Ismail; Ponce de Leon, Antonio; Uthman, Olalekan A.; Soares, Joaquim; Macassa, Gloria

    2014-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is a substantial global health and human rights problem and consequently a growing concern in sub-Saharan Africa. We examined the association between individual and community-level socioeconomic status (SES) and the likelihood of reporting CSA. Methods: We applied multiple multilevel logistic regression analysis on Demographic and Health Survey data for 6,351 female adolescents between the ages of 15 and 18 years from six countries in sub-Saharan Africa, between 2006 and 2008. Results: About 70% of the reported cases of CSA were between 14 and 17 years. Zambia had the highest proportion of reported cases of CSA (5.8%). At the individual and community level, we found that there was no association between CSA and socioeconomic position. This study provides evidence that the likelihood of reporting CSA cut across all individual SES as well as all community socioeconomic strata. Conclusions: We found no evidence of socioeconomic differentials in adolescents’ experience of CSA, suggesting that adolescents from the six countries studied experienced CSA regardless of their individual and community-level socioeconomic position. However, we found some evidence of geographical clustering, adolescents in the same community are subject to common contextual influences. Further studies are needed to explore possible effects of countries’ political, social, economic, legal, and cultural impact on childhood sexual abuse. PMID:23797565

  7. Survivors of childhood cancer.

    PubMed

    Bradwell, Moira

    2009-05-01

    Treatment of childhood cancer aims to cure with minimum risk to the patient's subsequent health. Monitoring the long-term effects of treatment on children and young adults is now an essential part of the continued care of survivors. Late effects include: impact on growth, development and intellectual function; organ system impairment; the development of second malignancies; and psychosocial problems. These can adversely affect long-term survival and the quality of life. In the UK, models of long-term follow up for survivors of childhood cancer vary from centre to centre but nurses have a significant role to play. Combining the nurse specialist role with that of the advanced practitioner ensures that the goals of improving the quality of nursing care to the survivors of childhood cancer are achieved and maximises the nursing contribution to their follow up. With the number of childhood cancer survivors increasing, providing holistic, health promotional care, tailored to the specific needs of survivors will be crucial for their future. PMID:19505060

  8. Potential pathways from stigmatization and externalizing behavior to anger and dating aggression in sexually abused youth.

    PubMed

    Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A; Cleland, Charles M; Barrett, Ellen P

    2013-01-01

    Although experiencing childhood sexual abuse (CSA) puts youth at risk for involvement in relationship violence, research is limited on the potential pathways from CSA to subsequent dating aggression. The current study examined prospective pathways from externalizing behavior problems and stigmatization (abuse-specific shame and self-blame attributions) to anger and dating aggression. One hundred sixty youth (73% female, 69% ethnic/racial minorities) with confirmed CSA histories were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery (T1, when they were 8-15 years of age), and again 1 and 6 years later (T2 and T3). Externalizing behavior and abuse-specific stigmatization were assessed at T1 and T2. Anger and dating aggression were assessed at T3. The structural equation model findings supported the proposed relations from stigmatization following the abuse to subsequent dating aggression through anger. Only externalizing behavior at T1 was related to later dating aggression, and externalizing was not related to subsequent anger. This longitudinal research suggests that clinical interventions for victims of CSA be sensitive to the different pathways by which youth come to experience destructive conflict behavior in their romantic relationships. PMID:23148553

  9. Childhood Sexual Abuse Moderates the Association between Sexual Functioning and Sexual Distress in Women

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Kyle R.; Hughan, Corey P.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the degree to which a history of CSA moderates the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in women. Method Women with (n = 105, M age = 33.71, 66.1% Caucasian) and without (n = 71, M age = 32.63, 74.7% Caucasian) a history of CSA taking part in a larger clinical trial completed self-report questionnaires at intake including the Sexual Satisfaction Scale for Women (SSS-W), the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), and the Trauma History Questionnaire (THQ). Results Desire, arousal, lubrication, and orgasm interacted with sexual abuse status in predicting sexual distress such that sexual functioning was more weakly associated with distress for women with a history of CSA. This disconnect was more pronounced for women who were abused by a family member. Conclusion CSA status serves as an important moderator of the association between sexual functioning and sexual distress in women. Specifically, women with a history of CSA show higher levels of distress in the context of good sexual functioning as compared to women without a history of CSA. Possible explanations and clinical implications are discussed. PMID:22391416

  10. Adult Coping with Childhood Sexual Abuse: A Theoretical and Empirical Review

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kate; Fortier, Michelle A.; DiLillo, David

    2009-01-01

    Coping has been suggested as an important element in understanding the long-term functioning of individuals with a history of child sexual abuse (CSA). The present review synthesizes the literature on coping with CSA, first by examining theories of coping with trauma, and, second by examining how these theories have been applied to studies of coping in samples of CSA victims. Thirty-nine studies were reviewed, including eleven descriptive studies of the coping strategies employed by individuals with a history of CSA, eighteen correlational studies of the relationship between coping strategies and long-term functioning of CSA victims, and ten investigations in which coping was examined as a mediational factor in relation to long-term outcomes. These studies provide initial information regarding early sexual abuse and subsequent coping processes. However, this literature is limited by several theoretical and methodological issues, including a failure to specify the process of coping as it occurs, a disparity between theory and research, and limited applicability to clinical practice. Future directions of research are discussed and include the need to understand coping as a process, identification of coping in relation to adaptive outcomes, and considerations of more complex mediational and moderational processes in the study of coping with CSA. PMID:20161502

  11. Associations among childhood sexual abuse, language use and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Lorenz, Tierney Ahrold; Meston, Cindy May

    2012-01-01

    To better understand the link between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adult sexual functioning and satisfaction, we examined cognitive differences between women with (N = 128) and without (NSA, N = 99) CSA histories. We used the Linguistic Inquiry Word Count, a computerized text analysis program, to investigate language differences between women with and without CSA histories when writing about their daily life (neutral essay) and their beliefs about sexuality and their sexual experiences (sexual essay). Compared to NSA women, women with CSA histories used fewer first person pronouns in the neutral essay but more in the sexual essay, suggesting women with CSA histories have greater self-focus when thinking about sexuality. Women who reported CSA used more intimacy words and more language consistent with psychological distancing in the sexual essay than did NSA women. Use of positive emotion words in the sexual essay predicted sexual functioning and satisfaction in both groups. These findings support the view that language use differs in significant ways between women with and without sexual abuse histories, and that these differences relate to sexual functioning and satisfaction. PMID:22387124

  12. Sexual revictimization, PTSD, and problem drinking in sexual assault survivors.

    PubMed

    Ullman, Sarah E

    2016-02-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and problem drinking are common and often co-occurring sequelae experienced by women survivors of adult sexual assault, yet revictimization may mediate risk of symptoms over time. Structural equation modeling was used to examine data from a 3-wave panel design with a large (N=1012), ethnically diverse sample of women assault survivors to examine whether repeated sexual victimization related to greater PTSD and problem drinking. Structural equation modeling revealed that child sexual abuse was associated with greater symptoms of PTSD and problem drinking and intervening sexual victimization was associated with greater symptoms of PTSD and problem drinking at both 1 and 2year follow-ups. We found no evidence, however, that PTSD directly influenced problem drinking over the long term or vice versa, although they were correlated at each timepoint. Revictimization during the study predicted survivors' prospective PTSD and problem drinking symptoms inconsistently. Implications and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:26414205

  13. Eating attitudes in survivors of unwanted sexual experiences.

    PubMed

    Williams, H J; Wagner, H L; Calam, R M

    1992-05-01

    To investigate an hypothesized link between unwanted sexual experiences in childhood and later problems with eating, 21 survivors of sexual abuse completed three questionnaires: the Eating Attitudes Test, the Sexual Events Questionnaire, and the General Health Questionnaire. These women scored high on the EAT, and scores were higher for women who reported more sexual experiences. A similar relation was found between number of sexual experiences and depression, and anxiety and insomnia, but not with somatic symptoms. The implications of these findings for intervention in sexual abuse and eating disorder cases are discussed. PMID:1600404

  14. Sibling incest: reports from forty-one survivors.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Bonnie E; Maciol, Katherine; Schneider, Joanne

    2006-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted with a convenience sample of 41 adult survivors of sibling incest using a retrospective survey design. Participants were interviewed about their childhood sexual experiences with a sibling. Most participants reported vaginal or oral intercourse and coercive experiences. Half of the sample reported sexual experiences with family members, as well as other child abuse. Half of the participants showed evidence of distorted beliefs about child sexual abuse. Disclosure of the incest during childhood was rare. doi:10.1300/ J070v15n04_02. PMID:17200052

  15. Abusive Relationships

    MedlinePlus

    ... relationships and friendships. Emotional abuse (stuff like teasing, bullying, and humiliating others) can be difficult to recognize ... How to Break Up Respectfully Abuse Dealing With Bullying Date Rape Getting Over a Break-Up Posttraumatic ...

  16. Speaking about the unspeakable: exploring the impact of mother-daughter sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Peter, Tracey

    2008-09-01

    By embarking on multiple interviews with eight survivors (a total of 29 interviews), this article examines the impact of maternal sexual abuse on daughters. Although it is important to recognize the abuse that women lived through, it tells little about their struggles. Thus, as a way to honor the lives of the women interviewed, I have chosen to follow the model of Liz Kelly (1988), who focuses on the impact of sexual abuse in terms of coping, resisting, and surviving. Findings suggest that the impact of mother-daughter sexual abuse on survivors is particularly profound and experiences of maternal violence are often fraught with disbelief. PMID:18650493

  17. Cognitive function is preserved in older adults with a reported history of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Feeney, Joanne; Kamiya, Yumiko; Robertson, Ian H; Kenny, Rose Anne

    2013-12-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with mood and cognitive deficits in children and young adults. Evidence suggests that the effects of early-life adversity persist throughout adulthood; however, the impact of CSA on cognition in older adults is largely unknown. This study investigated cognitive function in older adults with a reported history of CSA. Data are from a population-based study (The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing) of 6,912 adults aged 50 years and older. Participants answered questions about CSA as part of a stressful life events questionnaire. Global cognition, executive function, memory (both objective and self-rated), attention, and processing speed were measured via a comprehensive battery of tests. Anxiety and depression, other childhood adversity, health behaviours, chronic disease, and medication use were also assessed. Of the total sample, 6.5% reported CSA. These individuals were more likely to have experienced other forms of childhood adversity and to exhibit poor mental health compared to those who reported no history of CSA. Multivariate regression analyses revealed, however, that CSA was associated with better global cognition, memory, executive function, and processing speed, despite poorer psychological health in this group. Future studies should aim to investigate possible reasons for this finding. PMID:24265204

  18. Pediatric Blood Cancer Survivors and Tobacco Use across Adolescence and Emerging Adulthood: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Masiero, Marianna; Riva, Silvia; Fioretti, Chiara; Pravettoni, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    Scholars underline the pivotal role of tobacco cigarette smoking in carcinogenesis process for blood tumors. A controversial debate is represented by the diffusion of tobacco use in young cancer survivors that had a previous diagnosis of blood tumor during the childhood. Compared with their peers, scientific evidence highlights that pediatric survivors have more difficult to give-up cigarette smoking. Furthermore, tobacco-smoking is frequently linked with others risk behaviors as drinking or substance abuse. In reviewing the main knowledge on this topic, authors affirm the need for increasing research on blood cancer survivors in order to depict psychological characteristics of pediatric blood cancer survivors. Improving health decision-making skills in young survivors could reduce the risk to adopt un-healthy behaviors and increase psychological wellbeing. Furthermore, authors propose tailored antismoking interventions based on the knowledge of the psychological and cognitive factors that support smoking during the transition toward emerging-adulthood. PMID:27047419

  19. Elder Abuse.

    PubMed

    Lachs, Mark S; Pillemer, Karl A

    2015-11-12

    Because older victims of abuse tend to be isolated, their interactions with physicians are important opportunities to recognize abuse and intervene. This review explores the manifestations of elder abuse and the role of multidisciplinary teams in its assessment and management. PMID:26559573

  20. Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to homelessness, crime, and missed work or problems with keeping a job. It harms unborn babies and destroys families. There are different types of treatment for drug abuse. But the best is to prevent drug ...

  1. Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... or become violent. An older child may use drugs or alcohol, try to run away or abuse others. Child abuse is a serious problem. If you suspect a child is being abused or neglected, call the police or your local child welfare agency.

  2. Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Cynthia L.; Liddle, Howard A.

    2003-01-01

    Liddle and Dakof's (1995) comprehensive review of the status of family-based treatment for drug abuse concluded that this modality offered a "promising, but not definitive" approach to treating drug abuse among adolescents and adults. Less than a decade later, significant progress can be seen in the treatment of drug abuse problems using…

  3. Elderly adult survivors of family violence. Implications for clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Anetzberger, G J

    1997-10-01

    This article on elderly adult survivors of domestic violence (usually women) reviews the literature that examines the impact on later life of domestic violence experienced earlier in life and that examines the effects of elder abuse perpetrated by adult family members. The discussion is illustrated with case studies and figures that list the physical, psychological, behavioral, and social effects of each type of violence as well as intervening variables. Next, the paper reviews the influence of culture and ethnicity on the meaning attached to elder abuse and on help-seeking or accepting behavior. The article then proposes a conceptual framework that uses contributing factors (cultural background, individual influences, and cohort influences), modifying factors (the nature of violence, personal circumstances, and relationship with perpetrator), the meaning of violence, and the effects on the survivor to explain the effects of early or late family violence on elderly adult survivors. The discussion notes that the framework focuses on negative effects but that survivors of domestic violence can experience positive effects, such as the development of personal coping skills. The article ends by noting that this proposed framework has clinical implications because it recognizes that the effects of domestic violence on elderly adults may be complicated, it helps practitioners link symptoms to domestic violence, it helps practitioners realize that the meaning of domestic violence may vary among elderly victims, and it shows that family violence occurs in a social context. PMID:12322016

  4. Testing a model of the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and psychosis in a first-episode psychosis group: the role of hallucinations and delusions, posttraumatic intrusions, and selective attention.

    PubMed

    Bendall, Sarah; Hulbert, Carol Anne; Alvarez-Jimenez, Mario; Allott, Kelly; McGorry, Patrick D; Jackson, Henry James

    2013-11-01

    Several theories suggest that posttraumatic intrusive symptoms are central to the relationship between childhood trauma (CT) and hallucinations and delusions in psychosis. Biased selective attention has been implicated as a cognitive process underlying posttraumatic intrusions. The current study sought to test theories of the relationship between childhood sexual abuse (CSA), hallucinations and delusions, posttraumatic intrusions, and selective attention in first-episode psychosis (FEP). Twenty-eight people with FEP and 21 nonclinical controls were assessed for CT and psychotic and posttraumatic stress symptoms and completed an emotional Stroop test using CSA-related and other words. Those with FEP and CSA had more severe hallucinations and delusions than those with FEP and without CSA. They also reported posttraumatic intrusions at clinical levels and showed selective attention to CSA-related words. The results are consistent with the posttraumatic intrusions account of hallucinations and delusions in those with CSA and psychosis. PMID:24177480

  5. Family Violence and Child Sexual Abuse Among South Asians in the US.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Hillary A; Chaudhary Nagaraj, Nitasha; Vyas, Amita N

    2016-08-01

    Family violence, including child sexual abuse (CSA), is a significant public health problem in the United States. It is particularly difficult to assess family violence and CSA among South Asians because it is often hidden due to cultural and familial stigma. A web-based survey was administered to a convenience sample (n = 368) of South Asian adults in the US. One-fourth (25.2 %) of the sample reported CSA; 13.8 % reported abuse involving exposure; 21.5 % reported abuse involving touching; 4.5 % reported attempted sexual intercourse; and 3.5 % reported forced sexual intercourse. Adjusted odds ratios found that participants who reported any relationship violence were significantly more likely to have experienced CSA (OR 2.28; 95 % CI 1.26-4.13); and suicide attempt was significantly associated with CSA (OR 3.96; 95 % CI 1.27-12.3). The findings presented in this formative study will assist in guiding future studies and interventions for South Asians in the United States. PMID:26032775

  6. Childhood sexual abuse and adolescent substance use: a latent class analysis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sunny Hyucksun; Hong, Hyokyoung Grace; Hazen, Andrea L

    2010-06-01

    Children who have exposure to child sexual abuse (CSA) are at particular risk for developing substance abuse in adolescence, but the extent to which CSA may shape patterns of adolescent substance use remains uncertain. The aim of this paper is to characterize the variations in patterns of adolescent substance use and to examine the association between CSA and qualitatively distinct patterns of adolescent substance use. Latent class analyses identified homogenous groups of adolescents with similar patterns of substance use using a sample of 1019 adolescents (mean age: 15.9 years; range: 13-18) who were selected from five publicly funded service systems. Different patterns of latent class structures were identified in boys and girls (a 4-class solution for girls and a 3-class solution for boys). CSA was associated with an increased risk of being a heavy polysubstance user in girls, even after adjustment of age, race/ethnicity, parental substance use, sibling use, peer use, psychopathology and other forms of childhood maltreatment including physical abuse and neglect. Findings indicate that female victims of CSA who are involved with public service systems are at high risk for developing multiple-substance use in adolescence. PMID:20197217

  7. Accessibility and Responsiveness Review Tool: community agency capacity to respond to survivors with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Jenson, Ronda J; Peterson-Besse, Jana; Fleming, Lisa; Blumel, Angie; Day, Arden

    2015-01-01

    For persons with disabilities who have experienced trauma in the forms of abuse and violence, options for accessible and trauma-informed services are often limited. Using a self-assessment and planning process, disability service providers and victim/survivor service providers are able to strategize ways of addressing the needs of survivors with disabilities. The Accessibility and Responsiveness Review Tool (Review Tool) incorporates the principles of universal design and trauma-informed practices into an agency-wide discussion tool leading to increases in knowledge, reduction in barriers, and overall improved programs for survivors with disabilities. Results of agencies that participated in the Review Tool process are presented. PMID:26016999

  8. CSA: An efficient algorithm to improve circular DNA multiple alignment

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Francisco; Pereira, Luísa; Freitas, Ana T

    2009-01-01

    Background The comparison of homologous sequences from different species is an essential approach to reconstruct the evolutionary history of species and of the genes they harbour in their genomes. Several complete mitochondrial and nuclear genomes are now available, increasing the importance of using multiple sequence alignment algorithms in comparative genomics. MtDNA has long been used in phylogenetic analysis and errors in the alignments can lead to errors in the interpretation of evolutionary information. Although a large number of multiple sequence alignment algorithms have been proposed to date, they all deal with linear DNA and cannot handle directly circular DNA. Researchers interested in aligning circular DNA sequences must first rotate them to the "right" place using an essentially manual process, before they can use multiple sequence alignment tools. Results In this paper we propose an efficient algorithm that identifies the most interesting region to cut circular genomes in order to improve phylogenetic analysis when using standard multiple sequence alignment algorithms. This algorithm identifies the largest chain of non-repeated longest subsequences common to a set of circular mitochondrial DNA sequences. All the sequences are then rotated and made linear for multiple alignment purposes. To evaluate the effectiveness of this new tool, three different sets of mitochondrial DNA sequences were considered. Other tests considering randomly rotated sequences were also performed. The software package Arlequin was used to evaluate the standard genetic measures of the alignments obtained with and without the use of the CSA algorithm with two well known multiple alignment algorithms, the CLUSTALW and the MAVID tools, and also the visualization tool SinicView. Conclusion The results show that a circularization and rotation pre-processing step significantly improves the efficiency of public available multiple sequence alignment algorithms when used in the

  9. Mediators of the Long-Term Impact of Child Sexual Abuse: Perceived Stigma, Betrayal, Powerlessness, and Self-Blame.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffey, Patricia; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This study tested 192 women who had been sexually abused as children, to see if perceived stigma, betrayal, powerlessness, and self-blame mediated long-term effects of child sexual abuse. Levels of psychological distress experienced by adult survivors of abuse were found to be mediated by feelings of stigma and self-blame. (Author/PB)

  10. Trajectories of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Early Adolescent HIV/AIDS Risk Behaviors: The Role of Other Maltreatment, Witnessed Violence, and Child Gender

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Deborah J.; Runyan, Desmond K.; Lewis, Terri; Litrownik, Alan J.; Black, Maureen M.; Wiley, Tisha; English, Diana E.; Proctor, Laura J.; Jones, Bobby L.; Nagin, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with HIV/AIDS risk behavior; however, much of this work is retrospective and focuses on women. The current study used semi-parametric mixture modeling with youth (n = 844; 48.8% boys) from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) to examine the link between trajectories of CSA…

  11. The links between religiosity, childhood sexual abuse, and subsequent marijuana use: an empirical inquiry of a sample of female college students.

    PubMed

    Chu, Doris C

    2012-09-01

    A number of studies indicate that childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has a negative impact on later psychological well-being. It is well documented that experiences of CSA are associated with depression, self-destructiveness, and subsequent substance abuse or alcohol consumption. Compared with women who experienced no such sexual abuse in childhood, women who were victims of sexual abuse in childhood were more likely to be depressed and use drugs or consume alcohol in later life. Analyzing data of 1,569 females derived from the "Longitudinal Study of Violence Against Women," this study examines whether the strain caused by sexual victimization leads to a higher level of subsequent marijuana use and whether religiosity moderates the negative effects of CSA. It was found that CSA was associated with an increased level of marijuana use in high school. However, more proximate sexual victimization (victimization in college) seemed to override the impact of CSA on subsequent marijuana use. Religiosity was found to moderate the effect of CSA on marijuana use in high school. Religiosity was negatively associated with marijuana use in high school as well as the second and fourth collegiate years. Policy implications and promising directions for future research are discussed. PMID:21685223

  12. Therapists' Use of Boundaries in Sexual Abuse Groups: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathews, Laura L.; Gerrity, Deborah A.

    2002-01-01

    This study surveyed survivor and nonsurvivor therapists regarding their use of boundaries in groups with survivors of childhood sexual abuse. No differences were detected between the two groups when all types of boundaries were considered. Using boundary subscales, significant differences for therapist neutrality in their groups was observed,…

  13. Gender and age differences in prevalence and incidence of child sexual abuse in Croatia

    PubMed Central

    Ajduković, Marina; Sušac, Nika; Rajter, Miroslav

    2013-01-01

    Aim To examine age and gender differences in the prevalence and incidence of child sexual abuse, the level of acquaintance of the child and the perpetrator, and correlations between experiencing family violence and sexual abuse on a nationally representative sample of 11, 13, and 16 years old children. Method A probabilistic stratified cluster sample included 2.62% of the overall population of children aged 11 (n = 1223), 13 (n = 1188), and 16 (n = 1233) from 40 primary and 29 secondary schools. A modified version of ISPCAN Child Abuse Screening Tool – Children's Version was used. Five items referred to child sexual abuse (CSA) for all age groups. Results In Croatia, 10.8% of children experienced some form of sexual abuse (4.8% to 16.5%, depending on the age group) during childhood and 7.7% of children experienced it during the previous year (3.7% to 11.1%, depending on the age group). Gender comparison showed no difference in the prevalence of contact sexual abuse, whereas more girls than boys experienced non-contact sexual abuse. Correlations between sexual abuse and physical and psychological abuse in the family were small, but significant. Conclusion Comparisons with international studies show that Croatia is a country with a low prevalence of CSA. The fact that the majority of perpetrators of sexual abuse are male and female peers indicates the urgent need to address risks of sexual victimization in the health education of children. PMID:24170726

  14. Childhood sexual abuse severity and disclosure as predictors of depression among adult African American and Latina women

    PubMed Central

    Sciolla, Andres; Glover, Dorie A.; Loeb, Tamra B.; Zhang, Muyu; Myers, Hector F.; Wyatt, Gail E.

    2011-01-01

    A history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been associated with adult depression, but data on abuse severity and disclosure are scant, particularly among low income ethnic minorities. CSA often co-occurs with other adversities, which also increase the risk of depression. This study examined the peri-trauma variable of abuse severity and the post-trauma variables of disclosure and self-blame as predictors of current depression symptoms in 94 low-income African American and Latina women with histories of CSA. After controlling for non-sexual childhood adversity and adult burden (i.e., chronic stress), severe CSA overall was associated with higher depression scores, especially among Latinas who disclosed their abuse. Depression symptoms among African American women were highest in those who disclosed and reported high levels of self-blame at the time of the incident. The link between depression and specific peri- and post-CSA factors in minority women may help guide future interventions. PMID:21716061

  15. Children of Holocaust Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Shirley Ann

    As a result of the Holocaust, many survivors developed long term psychosocial impairment known as the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), which is characterized by depression, anxiety, hypocondriasis, inability to concentrate or to express anger, nightmares, insomnia, obsessive thoughts, guilt, mistrust, and alienation. The literature in this…

  16. Client disclosure and therapist response in psychotherapy with women with a history of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Farber, Barry A; Feldman, Sarah; Wright, A Jordan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the perceptions of adult clients (N=98; M age=32) with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) of the costs and benefits of disclosure of this material. Significant benefits of disclosing included a sense of relief from sharing bottled-up emotions, and feeling more accepted and understood by one's therapist; significant negative consequences included feeling emotionally overwhelmed, and feeling uncomfortably vulnerable and exposed. Linear regressions indicated that CSA patients who generally disclose more have a greater tendency to experience both positive and negative effects of disclosure about abuse. In addition, a hierarchical regression analysis indicated that higher levels of symptomatology were predictive of higher levels of anxiety related to disclosure in therapy, suggesting that clinicians need to be cautious in encouraging disclosure about CSA with patients with severe pathology. PMID:23906369

  17. Prosecutors' reflections on sexually abused preschoolers and their ability to stand trial.

    PubMed

    Ernberg, Emelie; Tidefors, Inga; Landström, Sara

    2016-07-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) cases are notoriously difficult to investigate, and less than 10% of cases are prosecuted. We aimed to investigate prosecutors' experiences of preparing for and prosecuting suspected CSA cases with preschool aged victims. Nine specialized child prosecutors (6 women, 3 men) took part either in individual interviews or in focus groups on this subject. The transcripts were analyzed thematically. The prosecutors said that children's testimony was sometimes held to an adult standard and that child complainants who expressed emotion could be perceived as more credible than their less expressive counterparts. CSA victims were identified as vulnerable victims who had difficulty telling their stories. Some of the interviewers were described as lacking in the ability to approach these children. The results imply that the reliability and credibility of sexually abused preschoolers and their testimony might be influenced by a number of verbal and non-verbal factors and that there are several obstacles preventing prosecutors from prosecuting these cases. PMID:27286134

  18. Coping style and memory specificity in adolescents and adults with histories of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Harris, Latonya S; Block, Stephanie D; Ogle, Christin M; Goodman, Gail S; Augusti, Else-Marie; Larson, Rakel P; Culver, Michelle A; Pineda, Annarheen R; Timmer, Susan G; Urquiza, Anthony

    2016-09-01

    Individuals with histories of childhood trauma may adopt a nonspecific memory retrieval strategy to avoid unpleasant and intrusive memories. In a sample of 93 adolescents and adults with or without histories of child sexual abuse (CSA), we tested the hypothesis that nonspecific memory retrieval is related to an individual's general tendency to use avoidant (i.e., distancing) coping as a personal problem-solving or coping strategy, especially in victims of CSA. We also examined age differences and other individual differences (e.g., trauma-related psychopathology) as predictors of nonspecific memories. Distancing coping was significantly associated with less specific autobiographical memory. Younger age, lower vocabulary scores, and non-CSA childhood maltreatment (i.e., physical and emotional abuse) also uniquely predicted less autobiographical memory specificity, whereas trauma-related psychopathology was associated with more specific memory. Implications for the development of autobiographical memory retrieval in the context of coping with childhood maltreatment are discussed. PMID:26241375

  19. Childhood sexual abuse by representatives of the Roman Catholic Church: a prevalence estimate among the Dutch population.

    PubMed

    Langeland, Willemien; Hoogendoorn, Adriaan W; Mager, Daniel; Smit, Jan H; Draijer, Nel

    2015-08-01

    Estimates of the extent of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) within in the Roman Catholic Church (RCC) in the general population are difficult to find. The independent Commission of Inquiry into sexual abuse of minors in the RCC in the Netherlands collected population-based data to estimate its prevalence. A large random online population sample was surveyed using a two-phase stratified sampling procedure. In Phase 1, 34,267 subjects aged 40 years and older were screened for childhood exposure to sexual abuse by non-family members, a history of institutionalization and a Roman Catholic upbringing. In Phase 2, a stratified subset of 2,462 subjects was assessed to obtain more detailed target information about sexual abuse reports within the RCC. We employed multiple imputation for the estimation of RCC CSA in the original Phase 1 sample. The prevalence of non-familial CSA in general (14.0%) was higher among women (17.2%) than among men (10.6%). The prevalence of CSA within the Dutch RCC (1.7%) was higher among men (2.7%) than among women (0.7%). As expected, older subjects reported more often CSA in the RCC than their younger counterparts. Respondents who stayed for some time in RCC run institutions for education or child protection had a higher risk to report sexual abuse. Although sexual abuse of minors by representatives of the RCC was a structural problem during a period that the Church was highly influential in the Netherlands, the estimated prevalence of the phenomenon is only a fraction of the prevalence rate of non-familial CSA. PMID:26003819

  20. Community Characteristics Associated With Seeking Medical Evaluation for Suspected Child Sexual Abuse in Greater Houston.

    PubMed

    Greeley, Christopher Spencer; Chuo, Ching-Yi; Kwak, Min Ji; Henin, Sally S; Donnaruma-Kwoh, Marcella; Ferrell, Jamie; Giardino, Angelo Peter

    2016-06-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) affects over 62,000 children annually in the United States. A primary obstacle to the success of a public health prevention strategy is the lack of knowledge around community level risk factors for CSA. We evaluated community level characteristics for children seeking care for suspected CSA in the Greater Houston area for 2009. There was a total incidence rate of medical evaluations for suspected CSA of 5.9/1000 children. We abstracted the medical charts of 1982 (86 %) children who sought a medical evaluation for suspected CSA at three main medical systems in the Greater Houston area for 2009. We evaluated 18 community level variables from the American Community Survey for the 396 zip codes these children lived in. The mean number of cases per Greater Houston zip code was 2.77 (range 0-27), with 62 % of zip codes not having a case at any of the three sites surveyed. Zip codes with a higher than Houston average rate of vacant houses, never married females and unemployed labor force with high family poverty rate, were associated with an increased rate of children seeking care for suspected CSA. We demonstrated zip codes level characteristics which were associated with an increased rate of children seeking care for suspected CSA. Our modelling process and our data have implications for community based strategies aimed at improved surveillance or prevention of CSA. The process of identifying locally specific community level factors suggests target areas which have particular socioeconomic characteristics which are associated with increased rate of seeking CSA evaluations. PMID:26803840

  1. Child sexual abuse as reported by Israeli adolescents: social and health related correlates.

    PubMed

    Mansbach-Kleinfeld, Ivonne; Ifrah, Anneke; Apter, Alan; Farbstein, Ilana

    2015-02-01

    The objectives of the study were to assess the prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) in a nation-wide representative sample of 14-17 year old Israeli adolescents, and to examine the associations between CSA, socio-demographic correlates and various measures of physical and mental health. The study population consisted of 906 mother-adolescent dyads, belonging to a community based, representative sample of Israeli 14-17 year olds, interviewed in 2004-5. Response rate was 68%. Subjects provided demographic data, and information about CSA, physical symptoms, body image, well-being and use of mental health services. DAWBA was used to obtain information regarding mental disorders and suicidality. SDQ was used to obtain data on bullying. Statistical analyses were conducted using an SPSS-17 complex sample analysis module and multivariate analyses were conducted to assess the associations between CSA and risk factors and social and health related correlates. Findings show that CSA was reported by 3.3% of adolescents. Higher risk of exposure to CSA was found among girls, among adolescents living in a one-parent household and among adolescents with a chronic disability. In multivariate models adjusting for gender, learning disabilities and depression, CSA was associated with suicidal attempts, stomach ache, dizziness, sleep problems, well being at home and bullying behaviors. No association was found with suicidal ideation or other physical symptoms. Our findings confirm that the associations between CSA and different outcomes vary depending on the socio-psychological context, and underline the importance of addressing the complexity of variables associated with CSA. PMID:25542832

  2. Men’s self-definitions of abusive childhood sexual experiences, and potentially related risky behavioral and psychiatric outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Holmes, William C.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To estimate how many heterosexual and gay/bisexual men self-define abusive childhood sexual experiences (CSEs) to be childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and to assess whether CSA self-definition is associated with risky behavioral and psychiatric outcomes in adulthood. Methods In Philadelphia County, 197 (66%) of 298 recruited men participated in a telephone survey. They were screened for CSEs and then asked if they self-defined abusive CSEs to be CSA; they also were asked about risk behavior histories and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms. Results Of 43 (22%) participants with abusive CSEs, 35% did not and 65% did self-define abusive CSEs to be CSA (“Non-Definers” and “Definers,” respectively). Heterosexual and gay/bisexual subgroups’ CSA self-definition rates did not significantly differ. When self-definition subgroups were compared to those without CSEs (“No-CSEs”), Non-Definers had lower perceived parental care (p = .007) and fewer siblings (p = .03), Definers had more Hispanics and fewer African Americans (p = .04), and No-CSEs had fewer gay/bisexual men (p = .002) and fewer reports of physical abuse histories (p = .02) than comparison groups. Non-Definers reported more sex under the influence (p = .001) and a higher mean number of all lifetime sex partners (p = .004) as well as (only) female sex partners (p = .05). More Non-Definers than Definers reported having experienced penetrative sex as part of their CSA (83% versus 35%, p = .006). Different explanations about self-definition were provided by subgroups. Conclusions Many men with abusive CSEs do not self-define these CSEs to be CSA, though not in a way that differs by sexual identity. The process by which men self-define their abusive CSEs to be CSA or not appears to be associated not only with self-explanations that differ by self-definition subgroup, but also with behavioral outcomes that impart risk to Non-Definers. PMID:18035415

  3. Is Child Sexual Abuse Declining in Canada? An Analysis of Child Welfare Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collin-Vezina, Delphine; Helie, Sonia; Trocme, Nico

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Canadian victimization surveys and police databases suggest that, overall, no decline in sexual crimes in Canada had occurred lately. We aimed at reviewing the existing data from Canadian child protection services to further explore whether a decline in the number of substantiated child sexual abuse (CSA) cases has occurred during the…

  4. Psychogenic Amnesia for Childhood Sexual Abuse and Risk for Sexual Revictimisation in Both Adolescence and Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wager, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    This study was an investigation of the additional risk conferred by the experience of psychogenic amnesia for memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on the likelihood of becoming a victim of sexual assault in later life. A total of 210 community respondents completed a retrospective web-based trauma survey. The majority of respondents were…

  5. Women's Social Behavior when Meeting New Men: The Influence of Alcohol and Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parks, Kathleen A.; Hequembourg, Amy L.; Dearing, Ronda L.

    2008-01-01

    Heavy alcohol consumption (Testa & Parks, 1996) and childhood sexual abuse (CSA; Messman-Moore & Long, 2003) have been associated with adult sexual victimization. We examined the social behavior of 42 women under two alcohol conditions (high dose and low dose) in a bar laboratory. Women were videotaped interacting with a man they had just met.…

  6. Child Sexual Abuse and Adult Romantic Adjustment: Comparison of Single- and Multiple-Indicator Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godbout, Natacha; Sabourin, Stephane; Lussier, Yvan

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the usefulness of single- and multiple-indicator strategies in a model examining the role of child sexual abuse (CSA) to predict later marital satisfaction through attachment and psychological distress. The sample included 1,092 women and men from a nonclinical population in cohabiting or marital relationships. The single-item…

  7. The Link between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Myocardial Infarction in a Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Bejan, Raluca; Hunter, John T.; Grundland, Tamara; Brennenstuhl, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: This study examined the relationship between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and myocardial infarction in men and women, while controlling for social determinants (i.e., socioeconomic status, social support, mental health) and traditional cardiovascular risk factors (i.e., age, race, obesity, smoking, physical inactivity, diabetes…

  8. Forensic Child Sexual Abuse Evaluations: Assessing Subjectivity and Bias in Professional Judgements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everson, Mark D.; Sandoval, Jose Miguel

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Evaluators examining the same evidence often arrive at substantially different conclusions in forensic assessments of child sexual abuse (CSA). This study attempts to identify and quantify subjective factors that contribute to such disagreements so that interventions can be devised to improve the reliability of case decisions. Methods:…

  9. Pre-Service Special Education Teachers' Professionalism and Preparation in Terms of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Zboon, Eman; Ahmad, Jamal

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at examining Jordanian pre-service special education teachers' professionalism and preparation on the topic of child sexual abuse (CSA). Qualitative research data from interviews with 20 pre-service special education teachers were analysed using thematic analysis. The results showed that these participants generally hold avoiding…

  10. Preventing Child Sexual Abuse: Parents' Perceptions and Practices in Urban Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ige, Olusimbo K.; Fawole, Olufunmilayo I.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined parents' perceptions of child sexual abuse as well as prevention practices in an urban community in southwest Nigeria. Questionnaires were collected from 387 parents and caregivers of children younger than 15 years of age. Results showed that many parents felt CSA was a common problem in the community, and most parents…

  11. Experience of Sexual Abuse in Childhood and Abortion in Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined the associations between the experience of sexual abuse in childhood (CSA) and the number of abortions in adolescence and early adulthood. Method: A 25-year prospective longitudinal study of the health, development, and adjustment of a birth cohort of 1,265 New Zealand children (630 females). Measures included…

  12. The Teachers' Role in Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Programs: Implications for Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholes, Laura; Jones, Christian; Stieler-Hunt, Colleen; Rolfe, Ben; Pozzebon, Kay

    2012-01-01

    In response to the diverse number of child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention programs currently implemented in school contexts, this paper examines key considerations for selecting such initiatives and the multiplicity of understandings required to inform facilitation of contextually relevant prevention curriculum. First, the paper examines concerns…

  13. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Disordered Eating, Alexithymia, and General Distress: A Mediation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hund, Anita R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2005-01-01

    Drawing from trauma-related theory (e.g., M. F. Schwartz & P. Gay, 1996), this article presents a model of associations among child sexual abuse (CSA), psychological distress, alexithymia, and disordered eating (DE). Structural equation modeling was used to test this conceptual model with a sample of female college students (N = 589). Results…

  14. A Media Campaign Prevention Program for Child Sexual Abuse: Community Members' Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Self-Brown, Shannon; Rheingold, Alyssa A.; Campbell, Carole; de Arellano, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the face validity and feasibility of materials included in a multimedia child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention campaign. A quantitative survey method assessed participants' comfort level, knowledge gain, and likelihood of behavioral change in response to the media campaign. Furthermore, a focus group method explored participants'…

  15. Does Typography of Substance Abuse and Dependence Differ as a Function of Exposure to Child Maltreatment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Carla Kmett; Amstadter, Ananda B.; Dangelmaier, Ruth E.; Resnick, Heidi S.; Saunders, Benjamin E.; Kilpatrick, Dean G.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the link between child maltreatment, including child sexual assault (CSA) and child physical assault (CPA), and addiction-related symptomatology in a subsample of adolescents from the National Survey of Adolescents, all of whom met DSM-IV criteria for substance abuse or dependence (N = 281). More than 60% of the sample reported a…

  16. The Sexual Well-Being of Women Who Have Experienced Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemieux, Suzanne R.; Byers, E. Sandra

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined the association between child sexual abuse (CSA) and a range of positive and negative aspects of women's sexual well-being. We also investigated the extent to which women's cognitive-affective sexual appraisals mediated these relationships. Participants were 272 female community college and university students. CSA…

  17. Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse by Adolescents: A Qualitative In-Depth Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schonbucher, Verena; Maier, Thomas; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Schnyder, Ulrich; Landolt, Markus A.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study aimed to study the process of disclosure by examining adolescents from the general population who had experienced child sexual abuse (CSA). Twenty-six sexually victimized adolescents (23 girls, 3 boys; age: 15-18 years) participated in a qualitative face-to-face in-depth interview on different aspects of disclosure. A…

  18. Risk for Suicidal Thoughts and Behavior after Childhood Sexual Abuse in Women and Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bedi, Saaniya; Nelson, Elliot C.; Lynskey, Michael T.; McCutcheon, Vivia V.; Heath, Andrew C.; Madden, Pamela A. F.; Martin, Nicholas G.

    2011-01-01

    Earlier studies have found an elevated risk for psychopathology and suicidal behavior associated with childhood sexual abuse (CSA); however, the degree to which risk is mediated by depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women and men remains unclear. We examined these issues in data from a family study of childhood maltreatment (N…

  19. Memories of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Narrative Analyses of Types, Experiences, and Processes of Remembering

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, M. Sue

    2007-01-01

    The study explored types of memory for childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in a clinical sample of 30 women and identified factors that led some women (n = 24) to report recovered memories. Questionnaires produced three types of memory: always (n = 6), recovered (n = 14), both (n = 10); however, analysis of narrative data also revealed the use of…

  20. The impact of childhood abuse among women with assault-related PTSD receiving short-term cognitive-behavioral therapy.

    PubMed

    Resick, Patricia A; Suvak, Michael K; Wells, Stephanie Y

    2014-10-01

    This study examined the effect of child sexual or physical abuse on brief cognitive-behavioral therapy treatments with adults with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We analyzed secondary data from two randomized controlled trials (Resick, Nishith, Weaver, Astin, & Feuer, 2002; Resick et al., 2008) that included women with PTSD who did or did not have child sexual abuse (CSA) or child physical abuse (CPA) histories to determine whether childhood abuse impacted dropout rate or reduction in PTSD symptoms. In Study 1, presence, duration, or severity of CSA was not associated with dropout; however, frequency of CSA significantly predicted dropout (OR = 1.23). A significant CPA Severity × Treatment Group interaction emerged such that CPA severity was associated with greater dropout for prolonged exposure (PE; OR = 1.45), but not cognitive processing therapy (CPT; OR = 0.90). Study 2 found no differences in dropout. Study 1, comparing CPT and PE among women who experienced at least 1 rape found no differences in outcome based on childhood abuse history (rp (2) s = .000-.009). Study 2, a dismantling study of CPT with women seeking treatment for adult or child sexual or physical abuse found that for those with no childhood abuse, CPT-C, the cognitive-only version of CPT, had an advantage, whereas both forms of CPT worked best for those with higher frequency of childhood abuse; the effect size was small. PMID:25322885

  1. The Revictimization of Adult Women With Histories of Childhood Abuse

    PubMed Central

    CHU, JAMES A.

    1992-01-01

    Both clinical experience and recent research statistics support the observation that childhood abuse survivors are vulnerable to revictimization as adults. The responsibility for revictimization, such as physical or sexual assault, belongs to the perpetrators. However, the factors that make abuse survivors more vulnerable to exploitation need to be examined and understood in order to provide adequate treatment and protection. This discussion integrates an understanding of three powerful forces—the repetition compulsion, post-traumatic syndromes, and profound relational disturbances—that permit the process of revictimization to occur. PMID:22700102

  2. Why have all the boys gone? Gender differences in prosecution acceptance of child sexual abuse cases.

    PubMed

    Edelson, Meredyth Goldberg

    2013-10-01

    Cases of child sexual abuse (CSA) referred to the District Attorney (DA) are not necessarily accepted for prosecution. Two pilot studies sought to investigate whether there were gender differences in whether cases of CSA referred to the DA's office were accepted by the DA and, if they existed, what might account for gender differences in decisions to accept cases and file charges. The results of the first study indicated that cases involving male victims were significantly less likely to be accepted for prosecution than cases involving female victims. Comparisons of acceptance rates were based on expected frequencies given CSA prevalence rates by gender in the literature and on the proportion of males and females seen at a Child Abuse Assessment Center (CAAC) from where the DA referrals were obtained. The second study assessed both disclosure-related variables (assessed by content analyses of disclosures made at a CAAC) and abuse-related variables (that occurred at or near the time of the abuse) that might explain these differences. Few variables were found to significantly differentiate males' and females' cases; these were the relationship of the child to the perpetrator, whether the child was offended by a juvenile, whether the child told someone of the abuse, pornography exposure, whether the child displayed concerning behaviors, and whether the child was questioned about possible abuse. Implications of these results are discussed. PMID:23192527

  3. The Prevalence of Child Sexual Abuse in Out-of-Home Care: Increased Risk for Children with a Mild Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Euser, Saskia; Alink, Lenneke R. A.; Tharner, Anne; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children without disabilities in out-of-home care have a higher risk of child sexual abuse [CSA (Euser et al. 2013)]. In this study, we examined the year prevalence of CSA in out-of-home care for children with a mild intellectual disability, and compared it with the prevalence in out-of-home care for non-disabled children and children…

  4. Utilizing Nanobody Technology to Target Non-Immunodominant Domains of VAR2CSA

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Morten A.; Theander, Thor G.; Magez, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Placental malaria is a major health problem for both pregnant women and their fetuses in malaria endemic regions. It is triggered by the accumulation of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes (IE) in the intervillous spaces of the placenta and is associated with foetal growth restriction and maternal anemia. IE accumulation is supported by the binding of the parasite-expressed protein VAR2CSA to placental chondroitin sulfate A (CSA). Defining specific CSA-binding epitopes of VAR2CSA, against which to target the immune response, is essential for the development of a vaccine aimed at blocking IE adhesion. However, the development of a VAR2CSA adhesion-blocking vaccine remains challenging due to (i) the large size of VAR2CSA and (ii) the extensive immune selection for polymorphisms and thereby non-neutralizing B-cell epitopes. Camelid heavy-chain-only antibodies (HcAbs) are known to target epitopes that are less immunogenic to classical IgG and, due to their small size and protruding antigen-binding loop, able to reach and recognize cryptic, conformational epitopes which are inaccessible to conventional antibodies. The variable heavy chain (VHH) domain is the antigen-binding site of camelid HcAbs, the so called Nanobody, which represents the smallest known (15 kDa) intact, native antigen-binding fragment. In this study, we have used the Nanobody technology, an approach new to malaria research, to generate small and functional antibody fragments recognizing unique epitopes broadly distributed on VAR2CSA. PMID:24465459

  5. VAR2CSA Signatures of High Plasmodium falciparum Parasitemia in the Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Rovira-Vallbona, Eduard; Monteiro, Isadora; Bardají, Azucena; Serra-Casas, Elisa; Neafsey, Daniel E.; Quelhas, Diana; Valim, Clarissa; Alonso, Pedro; Dobaño, Carlota; Ordi, Jaume

    2013-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes (IE) accumulate in the placenta through the interaction between Duffy-binding like (DBL) domains of parasite-encoded ligand VAR2CSA and chondroitin sulphate-A (CSA) receptor. Polymorphisms in these domains, including DBL2X and DBL3X, may affect their antigenicity or CSA-binding affinity, eventually increasing parasitemia and its adverse effects on pregnancy outcomes. A total of 373 DBL2X and 328 DBL3X sequences were obtained from transcripts of 20 placental isolates infecting Mozambican women, resulting in 176 DBL2X and 191 DBL3X unique sequences at the protein level. Sequence alignments were divided in segments containing combinations of correlated polymorphisms and the association of segment sequences with placental parasite density was tested using Bonferroni corrected regression models, taking into consideration the weight of each sequence in the infection. Three DBL2X and three DBL3X segments contained signatures of high parasite density (P<0.003) that were highly prevalent in the parasite population (49–91%). Identified regions included a flexible loop that contributes to DBL3X-CSA interaction and two DBL3X motifs with evidence of positive natural selection. Limited antibody responses against signatures of high parasite density among malaria-exposed pregnant women could not explain the increased placental parasitemia. These results suggest that a higher binding efficiency to CSA rather than reduced antigenicity might provide a biological advantage to parasites with high parasite density signatures in VAR2CSA. Sequences contributing to high parasitemia may be critical for the functional characterization of VAR2CSA and the development of tools against placental malaria. PMID:23936092

  6. Cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    SciTech Connect

    Shigematsu, I.; Kagan, A.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: sampling of atomic bomb survivors and method of cancer detection in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; atomic bomb dosimetry for epidemiological studies of survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; tumor and tissue registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; the cancer registry in Nagasaki, with atomic bomb survivor data, 1973-1977; cancer mortality; methods for study of delayed health effects of a-bomb radiation; experimental radiation carcinogenesis in rodents; leukemia, multiple myeloma, and malignant lymphoma; cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands; malignant tumors in atomic bomb survivors with special reference to the pathology of stomach and lung cancer; colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors; breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors; and ovarian neoplasms in atomic bomb survirors.

  7. Catholicism and childhood sexual abuse: women's coping and psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Collins, Christi M; O'Neill-Arana, Margarita R; Fontes, Lisa Aronson; Ossege, Jennifer M

    2014-01-01

    The long-term effects of child sexual abuse include numerous psychological, social, and behavioral difficulties in women survivors, ranging from poor self-esteem and depression to sexual disorders and posttraumatic stress disorder. The role that religious beliefs may play in the difficulties these women suffer has been largely unexplored. This qualitative study explored women's experience of healing within the context of Catholicism. Interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of eight women raised as Catholics who reported child sexual abuse and who had participated in at least two years of psychotherapy. Results suggest that Catholic identity can both compound and relieve the suffering many women experience in healing from child sexual abuse. Participants related that their Catholicism was rarely addressed during psychotherapy. These findings have implications for clinicians working with Catholic survivors of child sexual abuse. PMID:24819394

  8. Complexity of childhood sexual abuse: predictors of current post-traumatic stress disorder, mood disorders, substance use, and sexual risk behavior among adult men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Boroughs, Michael S; Valentine, Sarah E; Ironson, Gail H; Shipherd, Jillian C; Safren, Steven A; Taylor, S Wade; Dale, Sannisha K; Baker, Joshua S; Wilner, Julianne G; O'Cleirigh, Conall

    2015-10-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are the group most at risk for HIV and represent the majority of new infections in the United States. Rates of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among MSM have been estimated as high as 46 %. CSA is associated with increased risk of HIV and greater likelihood of HIV sexual risk behavior. The purpose of this study was to identify the relationships between CSA complexity indicators and mental health, substance use, sexually transmitted infections, and HIV sexual risk among MSM. MSM with CSA histories (n = 162) who were screened for an HIV prevention efficacy trial completed comprehensive psychosocial assessments. Five indicators of complex CSA experiences were created: CSA by family member, CSA with penetration, CSA with physical injury, CSA with intense fear, and first CSA in adolescence. Adjusted regression models were used to identify relationships between CSA complexity and outcomes. Participants reporting CSA by family member were at 2.6 odds of current alcohol use disorder (OR 2.64: CI 1.24-5.63), two times higher odds of substance use disorder (OR 2.1: CI 1.02-2.36), and 2.7 times higher odds of reporting an STI in the past year (OR 2.7: CI 1.04-7.1). CSA with penetration was associated with increased likelihood of current PTSD (OR 3.17: CI 1.56-6.43), recent HIV sexual risk behavior (OR 2.7: CI 1.16-6.36), and a greater number of casual sexual partners (p = 0.02). Both CSA with Physical Injury (OR 4.05: CI 1.9-8.7) and CSA with Intense Fear (OR 5.16: CI 2.5-10.7) were related to increased odds for current PTSD. First CSA in adolescence was related to increased odds of major depressive disorder. These findings suggest that CSA, with one or more complexities, creates patterns of vulnerabilities for MSM, including post-traumatic stress disorder, substance use, and sexual risk taking, and suggests the need for detailed assessment of CSA and the development of integrated HIV prevention programs that address mental health and

  9. The Antibody Response of Pregnant Cameroonian Women to VAR2CSA ID1-ID2a, a Small Recombinant Protein Containing the CSA-Binding Site

    PubMed Central

    Babakhanyan, Anna; Leke, Rose G. F.; Salanti, Ali; Bobbili, Naveen; Gwanmesia, Philomina; Leke, Robert J. I.; Quakyi, Isabella A.; Chen, John J.; Taylor, Diane Wallace

    2014-01-01

    In pregnant women, Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes expressing the VAR2CSA antigen bind to chondroitin sulfate A in the placenta causing placental malaria. The binding site of VAR2CSA is present in the ID1-ID2a region. This study sought to determine if pregnant Cameroonian women naturally acquire antibodies to ID1-ID2a and if antibodies to ID1-ID2a correlate with absence of placental malaria at delivery. Antibody levels to full-length VAR2CSA and ID1-ID2a were measured in plasma samples from 745 pregnant Cameroonian women, 144 Cameroonian men, and 66 US subjects. IgM levels and IgG avidity to ID1-ID2a were also determined. As expected, antibodies to ID1-ID2a were absent in US controls. Although pregnant Cameroonian women developed increasing levels of antibodies to full-length VAR2CSA during pregnancy, no increase in either IgM or IgG to ID1-ID2a was observed. Surprisingly, no differences in antibody levels to ID1-ID2a were detected between Cameroonian men and pregnant women. For example, in rural settings only 8–9% of males had antibodies to full-length VAR2CSA, but 90–96% had antibodies to ID1-ID2a. In addition, no significant difference in the avidity of IgG to ID1-ID2a was found between pregnant women and Cameroonian men, and no correlation between antibody levels at delivery and absence of placental malaria was found. Thus, the response to ID1-ID2a was not pregnancy specific, but predominantly against cross-reactivity epitopes, which may have been induced by other PfEMP1 antigens, malarial antigens, or microbes. Currently, ID1-ID2a is a leading vaccine candidate, since it binds to the CSA with the same affinity as the full-length molecule and elicits binding-inhibitory antibodies in animals. Further studies are needed to determine if the presence of naturally acquired cross-reactive antibodies in women living in malaria endemic countries will alter the response to ID1-ID2a following vaccination with ID1-ID2a. PMID:24505415

  10. Moving from Victim to Survivor of Cultural Violence: A Conceptual Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salazar, Carmen F.; Casto, Challon

    2008-01-01

    The authors propose the Moving From Victim to Survivor of Cultural Violence model, using the stages of D. W. Sue and D. Sue's (1999) Racial/Cultural Identity Development model. This conceptual model describes the process of first overcoming internalized sexism, domestic abuse, sexual harassment, rape, and other forms of oppression and then healing…

  11. Darkness into Light: The Dream Journal of an Addicted Trauma Survivor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern, Stephen

    2004-01-01

    This article applies dream work to the case of an addicted survivor of sexual abuse trauma using models of C. G. Jung (1974) and L. S. Leonard (1989). It then relates the dreams of the fictional client to St. Teresa of Avila's (1577/1989) classic model for spiritual growth, The Interior Castle. The goal of working with dreams in the context of…

  12. Patients Reporting Ritual Abuse in Childhood: A Clinical Syndrome. Report of 37 Cases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Walter C.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Thirty-seven adult dissociative disorder patients who reported ritual abuse in childhood by satanic cults are described. A clinical syndrome is presented that includes dissociative states with satanic overtones, posttraumatic stress disorder, survivor guilt, unusual fears, and substance abuse. Questions concerning reliability, credibility, and…

  13. An Exploratory Study of Group Therapy for Sexually Abused Adolescents and Nonoffending Guardians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Amanda P.; Kelly, Adrian B.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescent survivors of sexual abuse frequently report severe trauma, depression, anxiety, and low self-esteem. While cognitive-behavioral group interventions show promise, interpreting efficacy is problematic due to commonly high attrition. This article reports promising exploratory study findings relating to a 12-week multimodal abuse-specific…

  14. Personality disturbances in drug-dependent women: relationship to childhood abuse.

    PubMed

    Haller, Deborah L; Miles, Donna R

    2004-05-01

    This study examined associations between childhood abuse and personality disturbances in 228 drug-dependent women. Thirty-six percent denied abuse, 50% reported emotional, 42% physical, and 42% sexual abuse. Million Clinical Multiarial Inventory (MCMI-III) scores > 74 provided evidence of personality disturbance and scores on Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) scales measuring somatic complaints, depression, anxiety and postraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) served as covariates. Emotional and physical abuse survivors were at increased risk for borderline, masochistic, and avoidant disturbances and decreased risk for narcissistic disturbances. Emotional abuse survivors were also less likely to be sadistic whereas physical abuse survivors were more likely to be paranoid. Sexual abuse survivors were twice as likely be antisocial; however, no association was found with borderline personality. Finally, an increased prevalence of severe personality disturbances was observed among those experiencing multiple types of abuse. Childhood trauma predisposes drug-dependent women to develop troublesome personality characteristics that are independent of drug addiction and other psychological problems associated with childhood trauma. PMID:15230076

  15. Impact of Childhood Sexual Abuse on Client Spiritual Development: Counseling Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ganje-Fling, Marilyn A.; McCarthy, Patricia

    1996-01-01

    Defines spirituality and discusses its relevance for counselors who work with childhood sexual abuse survivors. Describes the impact of abuse on client spirituality, and presents several suggestions for assessment and intervention approaches that address spiritual issues as part of the counseling process. (JPS)

  16. The Effects of Childhood Sexual Abuse on Children, Adolescents, and Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byers, Jenny

    This document investigates both immediate and long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse in order to help counselors identify victims and survivors. It is based on a search of the literature on child sexual abuse in the ALICE system in the Alden Library at Ohio University, and the Psychological Literature and Social Sciences Index. Key words used…

  17. Screening Spouse Abusers for Child Abuse Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Joel S.; Gold, Ruth G.

    1986-01-01

    Investigated the ability of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory to screen for child abuse in a group of spouse abusers. The completed, valid protocols revealed that 36.5 percent of the spouse abusers had elevated child abuse scores, while only 9.1 percent of the nonabusers had elevated abuse scores. (Author/BL)

  18. Fetal Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Lindsey; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Five cases of fetal abuse by mothers suffering from depression are discussed. Four of the women had unplanned pregnancies and had considered termination of the pregnancy. Other factors associated with fetal abuse include pregnancy denial, pregnancy ambivalence, previous postpartum depression, and difficulties in relationships. Vigilance for…

  19. Child sexual abuse prevention training for childcare professionals: an independent multi-site randomized controlled trial of Stewards of Children.

    PubMed

    Rheingold, Alyssa A; Zajac, Kristyn; Chapman, Jason E; Patton, Meghan; de Arellano, Michael; Saunders, Benjamin; Kilpatrick, Dean

    2015-04-01

    Given the significant rates and deleterious consequences of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), identifying effective primary prevention approaches is a clear priority. There isa growing awareness that childcare professionals (e.g.,teachers, childcare personnel, clergy) are in a unique position to engage in prevention efforts due to high accessibility to children and expertise in child development. However, CSA prevention programs targeting childcare professionals have received insufficient attention. The goal of this study was toc on duct an independent multi-site controlled evaluation of an existing CSA prevention program, Stewards of Children, offered through both in-person and web-based formats. This study included 352 childcare professionals recruited from children’s advocacy centers across three states. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three conditions: (1) inperson training, (2) web-based training, or (3) waitlist control. Dependent variables included CSA knowledge, CSA attitudes,and self-reported CSA preventive behaviors. Results indicated that Stewards impacted knowledge, attitudes, and preventive behaviors. No differences were found between training modalities (i.e., in-person versus web-based) on knowledge and preventive behaviors. Results indicate that brief trainings for childcare professionals may impact CSA prevention efforts. PMID:25015782

  20. Sexual abuses.

    PubMed

    Abel, G G; Rouleau, J L

    1995-03-01

    The sexual abuses described in this article are occurring so frequently that they constitute a public health problem. Superficially they appear to be quite dissimilar because they involve individuals of different ages, different settings, and different power relationships. Basic to each of them, however, is an absence of consent by the victim and the misuse of power by the perpetrator in order to accomplish the abuse. We now have an adequate understanding of each of these abuses and it is now time to make a concerted effort to stop these abuses. This will require the combined efforts of the education of the public, improved identification of the abuses, treatment of the victims, and an appropriate criminal justice response combined with treatment of the perpetrator. PMID:7761302

  1. False memory for trauma-related Deese-Roediger-McDermott lists in adolescents and adults with histories of child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Gail S; Ogle, Christin M; Block, Stephanie D; Harris, Latonya S; Larson, Rakel P; Augusti, Else-Marie; Cho, Young Il; Beber, Jonathan; Timmer, Susan; Urquiza, Anthony

    2011-05-01

    The purpose of the present research was to examine Deese-Roediger-McDermott false memory for trauma-related and nontrauma-related lists in adolescents and adults with and without documented histories of child sexual abuse (CSA). Individual differences in psychopathology and adult attachment were also explored. Participants were administered free recall and recognition tests after hearing CSA, negative, neutral, and positive Deese-Roediger-McDermott lists. In free recall, CSA and negative lists produced the most false memory. In sharp contrast, for recognition, CSA lists enjoyed the highest d' scores. CSA-group adolescents who evinced greater posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms had higher rates of false memory compared to (a) non-CSA group adolescents with higher PTSD symptom scores (free recall), and (b) CSA-group adolescents with lower PTSD symptom scores (recognition). Regression analyses revealed that individuals with higher PTSD scores and greater fearful-avoidant attachment tendencies showed less proficient memory monitoring for CSA lists. Implications for trauma and memory development and for translational research are discussed. PMID:23786687

  2. The effect of pre-existing affect on the sexual responses of women with and without a history of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Rellini, Alessandra H; Elinson, Samantha; Janssen, Erick; Meston, Cindy M

    2012-04-01

    Women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are at greater risk for experiencing sexual problems in their adult lives. Yet, little is known about the possible role of cognitive and affective mechanisms in the development of sexual arousal difficulties in this population. This study investigated the role of pre-existing affect (affect prior to exposure to sexual stimuli) on genital responses, subjective sexual arousal, and affect elicited during the presentation of erotic film excerpts in a community sample of 25 women with and 25 women without a history of CSA. The CSA group showed greater pre-existing negative affect and smaller genital responses to the erotic film stimuli compared to the NSA group. Findings support a moderating effect of CSA, in that pre-existing negative affect was associated with strength of genital responses in the NSA but not in the CSA group. The results did not support a mediation model of pre-existing negative affect as an explanation for smaller physiological sexual responses in the CSA group. Taken together, the findings suggest that pre-existing affect may be more relevant for women with no history of CSA and call for more research on factors implicated in impaired sexual responses in women with a history of CSA. PMID:21667233

  3. The childhood sexual abuse among youth in three Asian cities: Taipei, Shanghai, and Hanoi.

    PubMed

    Li, Nan; Zabin, Laurie S; Ahmed, Saifuddin

    2015-03-01

    The article describes the prevalence and risk factors of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among youth in Hanoi, Shanghai, and Taipei. Data used in this study are from the Three-City Asian Study of Adolescents and Youth, 2006-2007. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression models were used. The self-reported lifetime prevalence of CSA was 5.2% in Taipei, 1.3% in Shanghai, and 0.5% in Hanoi. The overall prevalence was 2.2% for females and 1.7% for males. The average age of first CSA was 10.5 years. Household instability, migration before age 14, and low maternal warmth were found to be positively associated with CSA, whereas discussing problems with father and being close to mother were negatively associated with CSA, after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Our findings suggested the importance of prevention programs for preteen aged children, public education to raise awareness, and further prospective studies to identify various risk markers for CSA in Asia. PMID:23343644

  4. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Acute Alcohol Effects on Men’s Sexual Aggression Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Kelly Cue; Schraufnagel, Trevor J.; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.; Norris, Jeanette; George, William H.; Kiekel, Preston A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Although research has established childhood sexual abuse (CSA) as a risk factor for men’s perpetration of sexual aggression, there has been little investigation of the factors undergirding this association. This study represents one of the first to use a laboratory-based sexual aggression analogue coupled with an alcohol administration protocol to investigate the pathways through which CSA and alcohol influence men’s self-reported sexual aggression intentions. Method After completing background questionnaires, male social drinkers (N = 220) were randomly assigned to a control, placebo, low alcohol dose or high alcohol dose condition. Following beverage consumption, participants read a sexual scenario in which the female partner refused to have unprotected sexual intercourse, after which they completed dependent measures. Results Path analysis indicated that men with a CSA history and intoxicated men perceived the female character as more sexually aroused and reported stronger sexual entitlement cognitions, both of which were in turn associated with greater condom use resistance and higher sexual aggression intentions. Exploratory analyses revealed that intoxication moderated the effects of CSA history on sexual entitlement cognitions, such that sexual entitlement cognitions were highest for men who had a CSA history and consumed alcohol. Conclusions Findings suggest that CSA history may facilitate sexual assault perpetration through its effects on in-the-moment cognitions, and that these effects may be exacerbated by alcohol intoxication. PMID:22754720

  5. Exploring the Impact of Childhood Abuse on HIV Social and Attitudinal Factors Among Adults With and Without this History in Sub-Saharan Africa: Findings from NIMH Project Accept (HPTN 043).

    PubMed

    Richter, Linda; Makusha, Tawanda; Komárek, Arnošt; Daniels, Joseph; Coates, Tom

    2016-04-01

    Using data from four sites in three African countries, this community randomized study examined the association between childhood sexual and/or physical abuse (CSA and/or CPA) and HIV disclosure, HIV-related stigma, stress, and social support among adults with and without a history of abuse. A history of abuse among men was associated with higher levels of adult-reported stress and HIV-related stigma, and with significantly lower rates of HIV test result disclosure to current partners. Women with a history of CSA and/or CPA had significantly higher perceived stigma, discrimination and stress. Although childhood abuse was significantly associated with adult stress and stigmatization, participants with histories of CSA and/or CPA also reported significantly higher perceived social support compared to people without such experiences. These findings may reflect support received in response to disclosure of CSA or CPA or emotional ambivalence in relationships that have been found to be associated with child abuse. We conclude that it is critical for HIV prevention interventions to advocate for the primary prevention of child abuse, for early identification of adolescents and adults who report experiencing childhood abuse, and to address stigma and stress-related attitudinal, behavioral and relationship difficulties experiences as an aftermath of early abuse that increase their risk of HIV. PMID:26271817

  6. Parental employment status and symptoms of children abused during a recession.

    PubMed

    Tobey, Trina; McAuliff, Kathleen; Rocha, Celina

    2013-01-01

    Incidences and severity of child abuse have increased since the start of the recession. This study examined the relationship between employment status and severity of symptoms in children abused during a recession year. Participants included 154 females and 65 males between 2 and 17 years old referred to Dallas Children's Advocacy Center after surviving child sexual abuse, physical abuse, and/or neglect. We found that child abuse survivors whose mothers were unemployed showed higher symptom severity. Larger differences were found when participants were broken down by age, ethnicity, and living situation. Father's employment status did not affect symptom severity probably because many children lived with single mothers. We concluded that child abuse survivors whose mothers are unemployed have increased risk for psychological symptoms. PMID:23682767

  7. Childhood sexual abuse and HIV-related risks among men who have sex with men in Washington, DC.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Gregory; Magnus, Manya; Kuo, Irene; Rawls, Anthony; Peterson, James; Montanez, Luz; West-Ojo, Tiffany; Jia, Yujiang; Opoku, Jenevieve; Greenberg, Alan E

    2014-05-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has been reported to be disproportionately higher among men who have sex with men (MSM) than among heterosexual men; it has also been found to be significantly positively associated with HIV status and HIV risk factors, including unprotected anal intercourse. The purpose of this study was to assess the correlates of CSA in a sample of community-recruited MSM, investigate race as a potential effect modifier, and describe the independent association between CSA and HIV infection in Washington, DC. A total of 500 MSM were recruited by venue-based sampling in 2008 as part of the National HIV Behavioral Surveillance. More than one-half of MSM identified as White, while one-third identified as Black. CSA was reported by 17.5 % of the 451 MSM, with the first instance of abuse occurring at a median age of 8.3 (interquartile range = 5.0, 11.0). In multivariable analysis, HIV-positive men were significantly more likely to report a history of CSA compared to HIV-negative men after adjusting for intimate partner violence in the last 12 months, having been arrested in the last 12 months, and depressive symptoms. HIV-positive MSM had more than four times the odds of reporting CSA after controlling for other correlates (aOR = 4.19; 95 % CI 2.26, 7.75). Despite hypothesizing that race modified the effect of CSA on HIV infection we found this was not the case in this sample. More research is needed to investigate the potential pathway between a history of CSA and HIV infection, and how this contributes to driving the HIV epidemic among MSM in Washington, DC. PMID:24573398

  8. Caring for Trauma Survivors.

    PubMed

    Antai-Otong, Deborah

    2016-06-01

    Although trauma exposure is common, few people develop acute and chronic psychiatric disorders. Those who develop posttraumatic stress disorder likely have coexisting psychiatric and physical disorders. Psychiatric nurses must be knowledgeable about trauma responses, implement evidence-based approaches to conduct assessments, and create safe environments for patients. Most researchers assert that trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral approaches demonstrate the most efficacious treatment outcomes. Integrated approaches, offer promising treatment options. This article provides an overview of clinical factors necessary to help the trauma survivor begin the process of healing and recovery and attain an optimal level of functioning. PMID:27229285

  9. Survivors of the Nazi Holocaust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chodoff, Paul

    1981-01-01

    Presents psychiatric evidence regarding immediate and long-term effects of concentration camp internment. Many survivors exhibit a concentration camp syndrome which somewhat resembles combat stress reaction; adaptive behavior of survivors is viewed as less important than luck. Language is considered inadequate to describe the psychological impact…

  10. Siblings of Childhood Cancer Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gogan, Janis L.

    This paper reports on a long term follow up study of siblings of childhood cancer survivors. Seventy siblings of childhood cancer survivors in 37 families were interviewed using a semi-structured format which included both forced choice and open ended questions. The children discussed their memories of the sibling's cancer diagnosis and treatment…

  11. Parity-dependent recognition of DBL1X-3X suggests an important role of the VAR2CSA high-affinity CSA-binding region in the development of the humoral response against placental malaria.

    PubMed

    Dechavanne, Sébastien; Srivastava, Anand; Gangnard, Stéphane; Nunes-Silva, Sofia; Dechavanne, Célia; Fievet, Nadine; Deloron, Philippe; Chêne, Arnaud; Gamain, Benoît

    2015-06-01

    Plasmodium falciparum multidomain protein VAR2CSA stands today as the leading vaccine candidate against pregnancy-associated malaria (PAM). Most of the studies aiming to decrypt how naturally acquired immunity develops have assessed the immune recognition of individual VAR2CSA Duffy-binding-like (DBL) domains, thus overlooking the presence of conformational epitopes resulting from the overall folding of the full-length protein. In order to characterize the development of humoral immunity toward VAR2CSA, we made use of a large cohort of 293 Senegalese pregnant women to assess the level of recognition by plasma IgG of the full-length VAR2CSA protein of the 3D7 parasite strain (3D7-VAR2CSA), the CSA-binding multidomains 3D7-DBL1X to -DBL3X (3D7-DBL1X-3X), and the CSA nonbinding multidomains 3D7-DBL4ε to -DBL6ε (3D7-DBL4ε-6ε), as well as individual 3D7-DBL domains. Our results revealed a parity-dependent recognition of the full-length 3D7-VAR2CSA and of the CSA-binding region, 3D7-DBL1X-3X. Indeed, multigravid women possess significantly higher levels of antibodies directed against these constructs than primigravidae. Our results suggest an important role of antibodies targeting the CSA-binding region in the development of immunity against PAM, therefore providing new insights on how natural protection might be acquired and further information for the design of VAR2CSA-based vaccines. PMID:25824842

  12. Elder abuse.

    PubMed

    Costa, A J

    1993-06-01

    Elder abuse is a tragedy both for the individual and for society because it occupies a pivotal position in the family life cycle of violence. Great variety exists among victims, abusers, and situations; thus, no single model is adequate to explain cause and direct treatment. Primary care physicians must be alert to the possibility of elder abuse in their patients and aware of resources within their community for managing cases once identified. Federal laws and regulations must take a proactive, long-term approach to the solution of this problem and must respect the autonomy of competent elderly patients. PMID:8356158

  13. “Having Housing Made Everything Else Possible”: Affordable, Safe and Stable Housing for Women Survivors of Violence

    PubMed Central

    Clough, Amber; Draughon, Jessica E.; Njie-Carr, Veronica; Rollins, Chiquita; Glass, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Research indicates that the need for safe housing and the economic resources to maintain safe housing are two of the most pressing concerns among abused women who are planning to or have recently left abusers. Intimate partner violence (IPV) is frequently an immediate cause or precursor to homelessness and housing instability. The aim of the study is to explore abused women’s experiences accessing affordable, safe, and stable housing. To achieve the aim, adult female IPV survivors answered questions about: 1) steps that were taken to secure housing; 2) safety issues after leaving the abuser; 3) barriers to obtaining housing; and 4) responses from housing and domestic violence advocacy systems related to survivors’ housing needs. Four major themes emerged from the in-depth interviews: 1) stable, affordable housing is critical in increasing safety; 2) survivors face multiple systemic or individual barriers; 3) survivors develop and utilize an array of creative and resourceful strategies; and 4) survivors identified a variety of supportive services tailored to address their needs. The findings inform practice, policy and research for both the housing and domestic violence service systems with an emphasis on collaboration to meet the complex safety and stable housing needs of survivors and their families, particularly following the impact on housing of the 2008 U.S. economic crisis and subsequent recession. PMID:25328440

  14. Domestic violence survivors' empowerment and mental health: Exploring the role of the alliance with advocates.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Lisa A; Fauci, Jennifer E; Sullivan, Cris M; DiGiovanni, Craig D; Wilson, Joshua M

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 4 decades, domestic violence (DV) programs-both residential and nonresidential-have sprung up in communities across the country with the aim of helping survivors become safe. These programs place strong emphasis on the relationship between the advocate and survivor as critical to becoming safer and healing from the trauma of abuse. Yet little research has demonstrated the extent to which specific aspects of the advocate-survivor alliance are related to specific indicators of survivor well-being, nor shown what factors might mediate that relationship. This study explored in a sample of help-seeking survivors (N = 370) whether the strength of the alliance between survivors and their advocates is related to lower symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and whether this association is mediated by survivors' sense of empowerment in the domain of safety. The structural equation model we tested also controlled for variables that might influence these relationships, including race/ethnicity, financial strain, and length of stay in the program. As expected, stronger alliance was associated with reduced symptoms of both depression and PTSD, through the mechanism of empowerment in the domain safety. These findings provide direction to programs seeking to establish a theory of change and point the way toward longitudinal research on the nature and function of the alliance as a potential contributor to healing. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27196389

  15. Childhood Sexual Abuse: Identification, Screening, and Treatment Recommendations in Primary Care Settings.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Rochelle F; Adams, Cristin S

    2016-06-01

    It is estimated that 8% to 12% of American youths have experienced at least one sexual assault in their lifetime, making childhood sexual abuse (CSA) an important public health problem that is likely to be encountered by primary care providers. Use of screening tools and understanding the principles behind targeted clinical evaluation can aid in identification of CSA victims despite highly variable presentation. The primary care provider must be aware of potential signs and symptoms as well as differential diagnoses in order to identify children who may benefit from further mental health evaluation and intervention. PMID:27262010

  16. Patients reporting ritual abuse in childhood: a clinical syndrome. Report of 37 cases.

    PubMed

    Young, W C; Sachs, R G; Braun, B G; Watkins, R T

    1991-01-01

    Thirty-seven adult dissociative disorder patients who reported ritual abuse in childhood by satanic cults are described. Patients came from a variety of separate clinical settings and geographical locations and reported a number of similar abuses. The most frequently reported types of ritual abuse are outlined, and a clinical syndrome is presented which includes dissociative states with satanic overtones, severe post-traumatic stress disorder, survivor guilt, bizarre self abuse, unusual fears, sexualization of sadistic impulses, indoctrinated beliefs, and substance abuse. Questions relating to issues of reliability, credibility and verifiability are addressed in depth, and the findings and implications are discussed. PMID:2043970

  17. Elder Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... to watch or be part of sexual acts. Money Matters: Financial Abuse and Healthcare Fraud After Victor’s ... the past 6 months, Victor has been taking money from their account for his own use. He ...

  18. A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship of Child Sexual Abuse to HIV Risk Behavior among Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arriola, K.R.J.; Louden, T.; Doldren, M.A.; Fortenberry, R.M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: This study is a meta-analysis of the literature exploring the relationship between child sexual abuse (CSA) and HIV risk behavior among women. Four outcome variables were tested: unprotected sex; sex with multiple partners; sex trading; and adult sexual revictimization. Method:: Forty-six studies met the inclusion criteria and were…

  19. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adult Sexual Health among Indigenous Kanak Women and Non-Kanak Women of New Caledonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamelin, Christine; Salomon, Christine; Cyr, Diane; Gueguen, Alice; Lert, France

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Few studies have addressed the long-term consequences of adverse childhood experiences among women in Oceania, in particular among indigenous women. This paper aims to report prevalences of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and to asses the negative sexual health consequences in adulthood by comparing indigenous Kanak to non-Kanak women in…

  20. Prevalence of Child and Adult Sexual Abuse and Risk Taking Practices Among HIV Serodiscordant African-American Couples

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    This study reports the prevalence of child (CSA) and adult (ASA) sexual abuse among 535 African American HIV serodiscordant couples from four major United State cities, and its relationship to personal and couple related vulnerabilities and HIV risk factors. As part of a randomized, clinical trial, CSA and ASA histories were obtained through face-to-face interviews. Results indicate that HIV positive women were significantly more likely to report one kind of abuse (32.32%), either before or since age 18 or both (32.6%). HIV-positive men (34.9%) were significantly more likely to report CSA than HIV-negative men (22.0%). Overall, 72% of couples reported that one or both had CSA histories. These findings underscore the heightened emotional vulnerability, and STI and HIV transmission risk taking practices, associated with sexual abuse. Sexual abuse histories among couples should be assessed to better understand how these histories may contribute to couples dynamics and risk-taking practices. PMID:20499150

  1. Child Sexual Abuse and Its Relationship with Health Risk Behaviors among Rural Children and Adolescents in Hunan, China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Danhua; Li, Xiaoming; Fan, Xinghua; Fang, Xiaoyi

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The current study was designed to explore the prevalence of child sexual abuse (CSA) and its association with health risk behaviors (i.e., smoking, alcohol use, binge drinking, suicidal ideation, and suicide attempt) among rural children and adolescents in China. Methods: A sample of 683 rural children and adolescents (8 to 18 years of…

  2. Association between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Adult Sexual Victimization in a Representative Sample in Hong Kong Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ko Ling

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The current study investigated the prevalence and impact of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on adult sexual victimization (ASV) in Hong Kong, China. This study also examines correlates of demographic characteristics, depression, suicidal ideation, and self-esteem with ASV. Methods: A total of 5,049 Chinese adult respondents were…

  3. Structural and functional insight into how the Plasmodium falciparum VAR2CSA protein mediates binding to chondroitin sulfate A in placental malaria.

    PubMed

    Clausen, Thomas M; Christoffersen, Stig; Dahlbäck, Madeleine; Langkilde, Annette Eva; Jensen, Kamilla E; Resende, Mafalda; Agerbæk, Mette Ø; Andersen, Daniel; Berisha, Besim; Ditlev, Sisse B; Pinto, Vera V; Nielsen, Morten A; Theander, Thor G; Larsen, Sine; Salanti, Ali

    2012-07-01

    Malaria is a major global health problem. Pregnant women are susceptible to infection regardless of previously acquired immunity. Placental malaria is caused by parasites capable of sequestering in the placenta. This is mediated by VAR2CSA, a parasite antigen that interacts with chondroitin sulfate A (CSA). One vaccine strategy is to block this interaction with VAR2CSA-specific antibodies. It is a priority to define a small VAR2CSA fragment that can be used in an adhesion blocking vaccine. In this, the obvious approach is to define regions of VAR2CSA involved in receptor binding. It has been shown that full-length recombinant VAR2CSA binds specifically to CSA with nanomolar affinity, and that the CSA-binding site lies in the N-terminal part of the protein. In this study we define the minimal binding region by truncating VAR2CSA and analyzing CSA binding using biosensor technology. We show that the core CSA-binding site lies within the DBL2X domain and parts of the flanking interdomain regions. This is in contrast to the idea that single domains do not possess the structural requirements for specific CSA binding. Small-angle x-ray scattering measurements enabled modeling of VAR2CSA and showed that the CSA-binding DBL2X domain is situated in the center of the structure. Mutating classic sulfate-binding sites in VAR2CSA, along with testing dependence of ionic interactions, suggest that the CSA binding is not solely dependent on the sulfated CSA structure. Based on these novel PfEMP1 structure-function studies, we have constructed a small VAR2CSA antigen that has the capacity to induce highly adhesion-blocking antibodies. PMID:22570492

  4. Structural and Functional Insight into How the Plasmodium falciparum VAR2CSA Protein Mediates Binding to Chondroitin Sulfate A in Placental Malaria*

    PubMed Central

    Clausen, Thomas M.; Christoffersen, Stig; Dahlbäck, Madeleine; Langkilde, Annette Eva; Jensen, Kamilla E.; Resende, Mafalda; Agerbæk, Mette Ø.; Andersen, Daniel; Berisha, Besim; Ditlev, Sisse B.; Pinto, Vera V.; Nielsen, Morten A.; Theander, Thor G.; Larsen, Sine; Salanti, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Malaria is a major global health problem. Pregnant women are susceptible to infection regardless of previously acquired immunity. Placental malaria is caused by parasites capable of sequestering in the placenta. This is mediated by VAR2CSA, a parasite antigen that interacts with chondroitin sulfate A (CSA). One vaccine strategy is to block this interaction with VAR2CSA-specific antibodies. It is a priority to define a small VAR2CSA fragment that can be used in an adhesion blocking vaccine. In this, the obvious approach is to define regions of VAR2CSA involved in receptor binding. It has been shown that full-length recombinant VAR2CSA binds specifically to CSA with nanomolar affinity, and that the CSA-binding site lies in the N-terminal part of the protein. In this study we define the minimal binding region by truncating VAR2CSA and analyzing CSA binding using biosensor technology. We show that the core CSA-binding site lies within the DBL2X domain and parts of the flanking interdomain regions. This is in contrast to the idea that single domains do not possess the structural requirements for specific CSA binding. Small-angle x-ray scattering measurements enabled modeling of VAR2CSA and showed that the CSA-binding DBL2X domain is situated in the center of the structure. Mutating classic sulfate-binding sites in VAR2CSA, along with testing dependence of ionic interactions, suggest that the CSA binding is not solely dependent on the sulfated CSA structure. Based on these novel PfEMP1 structure-function studies, we have constructed a small VAR2CSA antigen that has the capacity to induce highly adhesion-blocking antibodies. PMID:22570492

  5. Childhood Sexual Abuse and the Development of Recurrent Major Depression in Chinese Women

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Cai, Yiyun; Cong, Enzhao; Liu, Ying; Gao, Jingfang; Li, Youhui; Tao, Ming; Zhang, Kerang; Wang, Xumei; Gao, Chengge; Yang, Lijun; Li, Kan; Shi, Jianguo; Wang, Gang; Liu, Lanfen; Zhang, Jinbei; Du, Bo; Jiang, Guoqing; Shen, Jianhua; Zhang, Zhen; Liang, Wei; Sun, Jing; Hu, Jian; Liu, Tiebang; Wang, Xueyi; Miao, Guodong; Meng, Huaqing; Li, Yi; Hu, Chunmei; Li, Yi; Huang, Guoping; Li, Gongying; Ha, Baowei; Deng, Hong; Mei, Qiyi; Zhong, Hui; Gao, Shugui; Sang, Hong; Zhang, Yutang; Fang, Xiang; Yu, Fengyu; Yang, Donglin; Liu, Tieqiao; Chen, Yunchun; Hong, Xiaohong; Wu, Wenyuan; Chen, Guibing; Cai, Min; Song, Yan; Pan, Jiyang; Dong, Jicheng; Pan, Runde; Zhang, Wei; Shen, Zhenming; Liu, Zhengrong; Gu, Danhua; Wang, Xiaoping; Liu, Xiaojuan; Zhang, Qiwen; Li, Yihan; Chen, Yiping; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Shi, Shenxun; Flint, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Background Our prior study in Han Chinese women has shown that women with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are at increased risk for developing major depression (MD). Would this relationship be found in our whole data set? Method Three levels of CSA (non-genital, genital, and intercourse) were assessed by self-report in two groups of Han Chinese women: 6017 clinically ascertained with recurrent MD and 5983 matched controls. Diagnostic and other risk factor information was assessed at personal interview. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated by logistic regression. Results We confirmed earlier results by replicating prior analyses in 3,950 new recurrent MD cases. There were no significant differences between the two data sets. Any form of CSA was significantly associated with recurrent MD (OR 4.06, 95% confidence interval (CI) [3.19–5.24]). This association strengthened with increasing CSA severity: non-genital (OR 2.21, 95% CI 1.58–3.15), genital (OR 5.24, 95% CI 3.52–8.15) and intercourse (OR 10.65, 95% CI 5.56–23.71). Among the depressed women, those with CSA had an earlier age of onset, longer depressive episodes. Recurrent MD patients those with CSA had an increased risk for dysthymia (OR 1.60, 95%CI 1.11–2.27) and phobia (OR 1.41, 95%CI 1.09–1.80). Any form of CSA was significantly associated with suicidal ideation or attempt (OR 1.50, 95% CI 1.20–1.89) and feelings of worthlessness or guilt (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.02–2.02). Intercourse (OR 3.47, 95%CI 1.66–8.22), use of force and threats (OR 1.95, 95%CI 1.05–3.82) and how strongly the victims were affected at the time (OR 1.39, 95%CI 1.20–1.64) were significantly associated with recurrent MD. Conclusions In Chinese women CSA is strongly associated with recurrent MD and this association increases with greater severity of CSA. Depressed women with CSA have some specific clinical traits. Some features of CSA were associated with greater likelihood of developing recurrent MD. PMID:24489940

  6. 7 CFR 249.10 - Coupon, market, and CSA program management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Section 249.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM.../or CSA program that is disqualified from participating in the WIC Farmers' Market Nutrition...

  7. 7 CFR 249.10 - Coupon, market, and CSA program management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Section 249.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM.../or CSA program that is disqualified from participating in the WIC Farmers' Market Nutrition...

  8. 7 CFR 249.10 - Coupon, market, and CSA program management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Section 249.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM.../or CSA program that is disqualified from participating in the WIC Farmers' Market Nutrition...

  9. 7 CFR 249.10 - Coupon, market, and CSA program management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Section 249.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM.../or CSA program that is disqualified from participating in the WIC Farmers' Market Nutrition...

  10. 7 CFR 249.10 - Coupon, market, and CSA program management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Section 249.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS SENIOR FARMERS' MARKET NUTRITION PROGRAM.../or CSA program that is disqualified from participating in the WIC Farmers' Market Nutrition...

  11. Concrete-Semiconcrete-Abstract (CSA) Instruction: A Decision Rule for Improving Instructional Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sealander, Karen A.; Johnson, Gae R.; Lockwood, Adam B.; Medina, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    A concrete-semiconcrete-abstract (CSA) instructional approach derived from discovery learning (DIS) was embedded in a direct instruction (DI) methodology to teach eight elementary students with math disabilities. One-minute abstract-level probes were the primary metric used to assess student performance on subtraction problems (minuends 0-9). A…

  12. Daughters' obligation to care in the context of past abuse.

    PubMed

    Wuest, Judith; Malcolm, Jean; Merritt-Gray, Marilyn

    2010-12-01

    Using theoretical sampling, we extended a previous grounded theory study of women's caring through interviews with 16 women currently giving care to parents who had abused them as children to more fully understand daughters' obligation to care in the context of past abuse. Past relationship was characterized by emotional distance, "never being good enough," degradation, control, and unpredictability. Obligation to care was grounded not only in duty to others but also in duty to self. Caregiving was seen as an opportunity for validation and reconciliation. These findings advance knowledge by illuminating how survivors of child maltreatment become caregivers for their abusers. PMID:21058090

  13. Closeness in relationships as a mediator between sexual abuse in childhood or adolescence and psychopathological outcome in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Dimitrova, Nevena; Pierrehumbert, Blaise; Glatz, Nathalie; Torrisi, Raffaella; Heinrichs, Markus; Halfon, Oliver; Chouchena, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    The risk of adverse psychological outcomes in adult victims of childhood and adolescent sexual abuse (CSA) has been documented; however, research on possible mediating variables is still required, namely with a clinical perspective. The attachment literature suggests that secure interpersonal relationships may represent such a variable. Twenty-eight women who had experienced episodes of CSA, and 16 control women, were interviewed using Bremner's Early Trauma Inventory and the DSM-IV Global Assessment of Functioning; they also responded to Collins' Relationship Scales Questionnaire, evaluating adult attachment representations in terms of Closeness, Dependence and Anxiety. Subjects with an experience of severe abuse reported significantly more interpersonal distance in relationships (low index of Closeness) than other subjects. The index of psychopathological functioning was correlated with both the severity of abuse and attachment (low index of Closeness). Regression analysis on the sample of abused women revealed that attachment predicted psychopathology when abuse was controlled for, whereas abuse did not predict psychopathology when attachment was controlled for. Therefore, preserving a capacity for closeness with attachment figures in adulthood appears to mediate the consequences of CSA on subsequent psychopathological outcome. PMID:19757501

  14. Measuring (13)C/(15)N chemical shift anisotropy in [(13)C,(15)N] uniformly enriched proteins using CSA amplification.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ivan; Ge, Yuwei; Liu, Xiaoli; Liu, Mali; Li, Conggang; Gan, Zhehong

    2015-11-01

    Extended chemical shift anisotropy amplification (xCSA) is applied for measuring (13)C/(15)N chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) of uniformly labeled proteins under magic-angle spinning (MAS). The amplification sequence consists of a sequence of π-pulses that repetitively interrupt MAS averaging of the CSA interaction. The timing of the pulses is designed to generate amplified spinning sideband manifolds which can be fitted to extract CSA parameters. The (13)C/(13)C homonuclear dipolar interactions are not affected by the π-pulses due to the bilinear nature of the spin operators and are averaged by MAS in the xCSA experiment. These features make the constant evolution-time experiment suitable for measuring CSA of uniformly labeled samples. The incorporation of xCSA with multi-dimensional (13)C/(15)N correlation is demonstrated with a GB1 protein sample as a model system for measuring (13)C/(15)N CSA of all backbone (15)NH, (13)CA and (13)CO sites. PMID:26404770

  15. Bactericidal Activity of Ceragenin CSA-13 in Cell Culture and in an Animal Model of Peritoneal Infection

    PubMed Central

    Niemirowicz, Katarzyna; Wnorowska, Urszula; Byfield, Fitzroy J.; Piktel, Ewelina; Wątek, Marzena; Janmey, Paul A.; Savage, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    Ceragenins constitute a novel family of cationic antibiotics characterized by a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities, which have mostly been assessed in vitro. Using a polarized human lung epithelial cell culture system, we evaluated the antibacterial activities of the ceragenin CSA-13 against two strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO1 and Xen5). Additionally, the biodistribution and bactericidal activity of a CSA-13–IRDye 800CW derivate were assessed using an animal model of peritoneal infection after PAO1 challenge. In cell culture, CSA-13 bactericidal activities against PAO1 and Xen5 were higher than the activities of the human cathelicidin peptide LL-37. Increased CSA-13 activity was observed in polarized human lung epithelial cell cultures subjected to butyric acid treatment, which is known to increase endogenous LL-37 production. Eight hours after intravenous or intraperitoneal injection, the greatest CSA-13–IRDye 800CW accumulation was observed in mouse liver and kidneys. CSA-13–IRDye 800CW administration resulted in decreased bacterial outgrowth from abdominal fluid collected from animals subjected to intraperitoneal PAO1 infection. These observations indicate that CSA-13 may synergistically interact with antibacterial factors that are naturally present at mucosal surfaces and it maintains its antibacterial activity in the infected abdominal cavity. Cationic lipids such as CSA-13 represent excellent candidates for the development of new antibacterial compounds. PMID:26248361

  16. Economic abuse in the lives of women abused by an intimate partner: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Cynthia K

    2015-01-01

    This article presents qualitative findings of a study that examined the role of financial issues and economic factors in the lives of women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV). Eight themes emerged in discussions with women about the ways in which money and economic issues played a role in their experiences of abuse. Taken together, women's discussions clearly support an "economic abuse" dimension of IPV. Implications for safely advancing the economic well-being of low-income survivors are discussed. PMID:25548376

  17. Estimation of the CSA-ODF using Bayesian Compressed Sensing of Multi-shell HARDI

    PubMed Central

    Duarte-Carvajalino, Julio M.; Lenglet, Christophe; Xu, Junqian; Yacoub, Essa; Ugurbil, Kamil; Moeller, Steen; Carin, Lawrence; Sapiro, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Diffusion MRI provides important information about the brain white matter structures and has opened new avenues for neuroscience and translational research. However, acquisition time needed for advanced applications can still be a challenge in clinical settings. There is consequently a need to accelerate diffusion MRI acquisitions. Methods A multi-task Bayesian compressive sensing (MT-BCS) framework is proposed to directly estimate the constant solid angle orientation distribution function (CSA-ODF) from under-sampled (i.e., accelerated image acquisition) multi-shell high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) datasets, and accurately recover HARDI data at higher resolution in q-space. The proposed MT-BCS approach exploits the spatial redundancy of the data by modeling the statistical relationships within groups (clusters) of diffusion signal. This framework also provides uncertainty estimates of the computed CSA-ODF and diffusion signal, directly computed from the compressive measurements. Experiments validating the proposed framework are performed using realistic multi-shell synthetic images and in-vivo multi-shell high angular resolution HARDI datasets. Results Results indicate a practical reduction in the number of required diffusion volumes (q-space samples) by at least a factor of four to estimate the CSA-ODF from multi-shell data. Conclusion This work presents, for the first time, a multi-task Bayesian compressive sensing approach to simultaneously estimate the full posterior of the CSA-ODF and diffusion-weighted volumes from multi-shell HARDI acquisitions. It demonstrates improvement of the quality of acquired datasets via CS de-noising, and accurate estimation of the CSA-ODF, as well as enables a reduction in the acquisition time by a factor of two to four, especially when “staggered” q-space sampling schemes are used. The proposed MT-BCS framework can naturally be combined with parallel MR imaging to further accelerate HARDI acquisitions

  18. Conversations with Holocaust survivor residents.

    PubMed

    Hirst, Sandra P; LeNavenec, Carole Lynne; Aldiabat, Khaldoun

    2011-03-01

    Traumatic events in one's younger years can have an impact on how an individual copes with later life. One traumatic experience for Jewish individuals was the Holocaust. Some of these people are moving into long-term care facilities. It was within this context that the research question emerged: What are Holocaust survivor residents' perceptions of a life lived as they move into a long-term care facility? For this qualitative study, Holocaust survivors were individually interviewed. Findings emphasize that nursing care needs to ensure that Holocaust survivor residents participate in activities, receive timely health care, and receive recognition of their life experiences. PMID:20795597

  19. A media campaign prevention program for child sexual abuse: community members' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Self-Brown, Shannon; Rheingold, Alyssa A; Campbell, Carole; de Arellano, Michael A

    2008-06-01

    This study examines the face validity and feasibility of materials included in a multimedia child sexual abuse (CSA) prevention campaign. A quantitative survey method assessed participants' comfort level, knowledge gain, and likelihood of behavioral change in response to the media campaign. Furthermore, a focus group method explored participants' attitudes and opinions regarding the campaign and the unique effects of ethnic or cultural norms on participants' acceptance of the media materials. Six groups, established based on participant ethnicity (i.e., three Caucasian groups, two African American groups, one Hispanic group), met at two sites in the Charleston, South Carolina, area. Quantitative data suggest that participants reported increased CSA knowledge and low levels of discomfort or anxiety related to exposure to the materials. Focus group results suggest that study participants, regardless of ethnic background, agreed that the media campaign can have a positive impact on public knowledge of CSA. Implications and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:18378812

  20. Child sexual abuse: report of 311 cases with review of literature.

    PubMed

    Essabar, Laila; Khalqallah, Abdenbi; Dakhama, Badr Sououd Benjelloun

    2015-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a global problem that has significant consequences for public health; it has been a prominent topic of public concern for more than a decade, but many basic facts about the problem remain unclear or in dispute. We conducted a study of 311 cases of CSA in order to highlight the epidemiological features and negative impact on victims' well-being and to emphasize the need for a multidisciplinary approach to the primary prevention and management of CSA. We noted an increase in cases number with male predominance. Most of our patients came from lower socioeconomic classes. The perpetrators were male in 100% of cases; acquaintances in 70% of cases and family members in 22 cases. Physical examination were normal in 61% of cases, however, a range of psychological and physical effects were identified with dramatic health consequences: three cases of attempted suicide, five pregnancies and one case of HIV virus infection. PMID:26090005

  1. Child sexual abuse: report of 311 cases with review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Essabar, Laila; Khalqallah, Abdenbi; Dakhama, Badr Sououd Benjelloun

    2015-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a global problem that has significant consequences for public health; it has been a prominent topic of public concern for more than a decade, but many basic facts about the problem remain unclear or in dispute. We conducted a study of 311 cases of CSA in order to highlight the epidemiological features and negative impact on victims’ well-being and to emphasize the need for a multidisciplinary approach to the primary prevention and management of CSA. We noted an increase in cases number with male predominance. Most of our patients came from lower socioeconomic classes. The perpetrators were male in 100% of cases; acquaintances in 70% of cases and family members in 22 cases. Physical examination were normal in 61% of cases, however, a range of psychological and physical effects were identified with dramatic health consequences: three cases of attempted suicide, five pregnancies and one case of HIV virus infection. PMID:26090005

  2. Suicidal Behavior Outcomes of Childhood Sexual Abuse: Longitudinal Study of Adjudicated Girls

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovitch, Sara M.; Kerr, David C. R.; Leve, Leslie D.; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) histories are prevalent among adolescent girls in the juvenile justice system (JJS) and may contribute to their high rates of suicidal behavior. Among 166 JJS girls who participated in an intervention trial, baseline CSA and covariates were examined as predictors of suicide attempt and non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) reported at long-term follow-up (7–12 years later). Early forced CSA was related to lifetime suicide attempt and NSSI history, and (marginally) to post-baseline attempt; effects were not mediated by anxiety or depressive symptoms. Findings suggest that earlier victimization and younger entry into JJS are linked with girls’ suicide attempt and NSSI. PMID:25370436

  3. Different labour outcomes in primiparous women that have been subjected to childhood sexual abuse or rape in adulthood: a case–control study in a clinical cohort

    PubMed Central

    Nerum, H; Halvorsen, L; Straume, B; Sørlie, T; Øian, P

    2013-01-01

    Objective To compare the duration and outcome of the first labour in women who have been subjected to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and women who have been raped in adulthood (RA). Design Case–control study in a clinical cohort. Setting University Hospital of North Norway. Sample In all, 373 primiparas: 185 subjected to CSA, 47 to RA and 141 controls without a history of abuse. Methods Data on birth outcomes were retrieved from the patient files. Information on sexual abuse was reported in consultation with specialised midwives in the mental health team. Birth outcomes were analysed by multinominal regression analysis. Main outcome measures Vaginal births, delivery by caesarean section, operative vaginal delivery and duration of labour. Results As compared with controls, the RA group showed a significantly higher risk for caesarean section (adjusted OR 9.9, 95% CI 3.4–29.4) and operative vaginal delivery (adjusted OR 12.2, 95% CI 4.4–33.7). There were no significant differences between the CSA and the control group. The RA group displayed significantly longer duration of labour in all phases as compared with the control and CSA groups. Conclusions There were major differences in the duration of labour and birth outcomes in the two abuse groups. Despite a higher proportion of obstetric risk factors at onset of labour in the CSA group, women subjected to CSA had shorter labours and less risk for caesarean section and operative vaginal deliveries than women subjected to RA. The best care for birthing women subjected to sexual abuse needs to be explored in further studies. PMID:23157417

  4. Ageing Holocaust survivors in Australia.

    PubMed

    Paratz, Elizabeth D; Katz, Benny

    2011-02-21

    In recent years, a phenomenon of "late effects of the Holocaust" has emerged, with impacts on the psychological and physical health of ageing Holocaust survivors. As Holocaust survivors age, they may experience heightened anxiety around normal processes of ageing, worsened post-traumatic stress disorder with cognitive decline, and fear of the medical system. Holocaust survivors are at increased risk of osteoporosis, cardiometabolic disease due to hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction, cancer, and sequelae of Nazi medical experiments. From existing medical literature on this topic, practical principles of management are derived to create a framework for sensitive medical management of Holocaust survivors in Australia. The issues discussed are also relevant to the wider geriatric refugee or prisoner-of-war experience. PMID:21401461

  5. From the voices of women: facilitating survivor access to IPV services.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Catherine A; Farrar, Melissa; Frazer, Kitty; Thompson, Mary Jane

    2011-10-01

    This mixed-method study investigated perceptions women domestic violence survivors/victims have about why women do not seek help from formal support structures and actions domestic helping agencies can take to facilitate survivor access to services. Congruent with previous research, quantitative analysis identified 17 reasons women do not seek help from formal support structures. Expanding current knowledge, concept mapping revealed six ways family violence programs can better reach women in abusive relationships, including (1) remove barriers to services, (2) improve comfort with services, (3) "talk about it," (4) improve community awareness, (5) victim-targeted marketing, and (6) "I honestly don't know." PMID:22071094

  6. Community response and needs of African American female survivors of domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Gillum, Tameka L

    2008-01-01

    Relatively few studies have looked specifically at the experiences and needs of African American women who are survivors of domestic violence. This study sought to find out from African American survivors (a) what their experience was with various community entities and (b) how they feel race may have affected these experiences. Results indicate a great deal of dissatisfaction with the services received as they attempt to escape and/or stay away from their abusive partners. This dissatisfaction was in large measure due to lack of cultural competence. Implications for service and suggestions for community entities are presented. PMID:18087031

  7. Identification of Sexually Abused Female Adolescents at Risk for Suicidal Ideations: A Classification and Regression Tree Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brabant, Marie-Eve; Hebert, Martine; Chagnon, Francois

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the clinical profiles of 77 female teenager survivors of sexual abuse and examined the association of abuse-related and personal variables with suicidal ideations. Analyses revealed that 64% of participants experienced suicidal ideations. Findings from classification and regression tree analysis indicated that depression,…

  8. Child sexual abuse and adult religious life: challenges of theory and method.

    PubMed

    Tailor, Ketan; Piotrowski, Caroline; Woodgate, Roberta L; Letourneau, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    The religious consequences of child sexual abuse in adulthood remain relatively unexamined in the research literature, especially where abusers are not clergy. Some studies suggest child sexual abuse survivors may rely on religion as a source of support, though the majority document a decrease in religiosity. Given the propensity for psychological challenges among adult survivors with diminished spiritual coping, we are calling for increased research attention to religion in the context of child sexual abuse. The objectives of this article were to review the literature on intersections between child sexual abuse (perpetrated by nonclergy) and religiosity in adults and set forth relevant research approaches for future investigation. Findings revealed a comprehensive, multidisciplinary, and theoretically informed approach to research may be needed. PMID:25255927

  9. A Novel Virus-Like Particle Based Vaccine Platform Displaying the Placental Malaria Antigen VAR2CSA

    PubMed Central

    Thrane, Susan; Janitzek, Christoph M.; Agerbæk, Mette Ø.; Ditlev, Sisse B.; Resende, Mafalda; Nielsen, Morten A.; Theander, Thor G.; Salanti, Ali; Sander, Adam F.

    2015-01-01

    Placental malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum is a major cause of mortality and severe morbidity. Clinical testing of a soluble protein-based vaccine containing the parasite ligand, VAR2CSA, has been initiated. VAR2CSA binds to the human receptor chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) and is responsible for sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes in the placenta. It is imperative that a vaccine against malaria in pregnancy, if administered to women before they become pregnant, can induce a strong and long lasting immune response. While most soluble protein-based vaccines have failed during clinical testing, virus-like particle (VLP) based vaccines (e.g., the licensed human papillomavirus vaccines) have demonstrated high efficacy, suggesting that the spatial assembly of the vaccine antigen is a critical parameter for inducing an optimal long-lasting protective immune response. We have developed a VLP vaccine display platform by identifying regions of the HPV16 L1 coat protein where a biotin acceptor site (AviTagTM) can be inserted without compromising VLP-assembly. Subsequent biotinylation of Avi-L1 VLPs allow us to anchor monovalent streptavidin (mSA)-fused proteins to the biotin, thereby obtaining a dense and repetitive VLP-display of the vaccine antigen. The mSA-VAR2CSA antigen was delivered on the Avi-L1 VLP platform and tested in C57BL/6 mice in comparison to two soluble protein-based vaccines consisting of naked VAR2CSA and mSA-VAR2CSA. The mSA-VAR2CSA Avi-L1 VLP and soluble mSA-VAR2CSA vaccines induced higher antibody titers than the soluble naked VAR2CSA vaccine after three immunizations. The VAR2CSA Avi-L1 VLP vaccine induced statistically significantly higher endpoint titres compared to the soluble mSA-VAR2CSA vaccine, after 1st and 2nd immunization; however, this difference was not statistically significant after 3rd immunization. Importantly, the VLP-VAR2CSA induced antibodies were functional in inhibiting the binding of parasites to CSA

  10. Elder Abuse and Help-Seeking Behavior in Elderly Chinese.

    PubMed

    Yan, Elsie

    2015-09-01

    Elder abuse is a prevalent phenomenon resulting in physical, emotional, and social costs to individuals, families, and society. Timely and effective intervention is crucial because victims are often involved in relationships where re-victimization is common. Most elder abuse victims, however, are reluctant to seek help from outside their families. The aim of the present study is to explore factors associated with help-seeking behaviors among mistreated elders in Hong Kong. In-depth interviews were conducted with 40 elder abuse survivors. Although almost all of the participants could provide some examples of elder abuse, most denied that their own experience was abusive. Personal and professional social networks were important determinants of help seeking. Social isolation, cultural barriers, self-blame, and lack of knowledge were major barriers to help seeking. PMID:25331371

  11. Dissociative experiences during sexual behavior among a sample of adults living with HIV infection and a history of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Nathan B; Brown, Lauren J; Tsatkin, Elizabeth; Zelgowski, Brittany; Nightingale, Vienna

    2012-01-01

    Little attention has been given to the occurrence of dissociative symptoms during sexual behavior in adults who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA). For this study, 57 adults living with HIV infection who had experienced CSA and were entering a treatment study for traumatic stress completed study assessments and clinical interviews, including a 15-item scale of dissociative experiences during sexual behavior. Predictor variables included Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision diagnoses of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and dissociative disorders, rape by an intimate partner, duration of CSA, number of perpetrators of CSA, and current sexual satisfaction. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify significant associations between predictors and dissociation during sex. Mean differences by clinical diagnosis were also examined. Results indicated that PTSD, dissociative disorders, rape by an intimate partner, duration of CSA, and number of perpetrators of CSA were associated with increased dissociation during sexual behavior. Dissociation during sex likely increases vulnerability to sexual revictimization and risky sexual behavior. Standard behavioral prevention interventions may be ineffective for sexual situations when dissociation occurs, and prevention efforts should be integrated with mental health care for those who have experienced CSA. PMID:22545567

  12. Dissociative Experiences during Sexual Behavior among a Sample of Adults Living with HIV Infection and a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Nathan B.; Brown, Lauren J.; Tsatkin, Elizabeth; Zelgowski, Brittany; Nightingale, Vienna

    2012-01-01

    Little attention has been given to the occurrence of dissociative symptoms during sexual behavior in adults who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA). For this study, 57 adults living with HIV infection who had experienced CSA and were entering a treatment study for traumatic stress completed study assessments and clinical interviews, including a 15-item scale of Dissociative Experiences during Sexual Behavior. Predictor variables included DSM-IV-TR diagnoses of PTSD and Dissociative Disorders, Rape by an Intimate Partner, Duration of CSA, Number of Perpetrators of CSA, and Current Sexual Satisfaction. A multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify significant associations between predictors and dissociation during sex. Mean differences by clinical diagnosis were also examined. Results indicated that PTSD, Dissociative Disorders, Rape by an Intimate Partner, Duration of CSA, and Number of Perpetrators of CSA were associated with increased dissociation during sexual behavior. Dissociation during sex likely increases vulnerability to sexual revictimization and risky sexual behavior. Standard behavioral prevention interventions may be ineffective for sexual situations when dissociation occurs, and prevention efforts should be integrated with mental health care for those who have experienced CSA. PMID:22545567

  13. Structure of the DBL3x domain of pregnancy-associated malaria protein VAR2CSA complexed with chondroitin sulfate A

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, K.; Gittis, A.G.; Nguyen, P.; Gowda, D.C.; Miller, L.H.; Garboczi, D.N.

    2008-09-19

    Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes bind to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) in the placenta via the VAR2CSA protein, a member of the P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1 family, leading to life-threatening malaria in pregnant women with severe effects on their fetuses and newborns. Here we describe the structure of the CSA binding DBL3x domain, a Duffy binding-like (DBL) domain of VAR2CSA. By forming a complex of DBL3x with CSA oligosaccharides and determining its structure, we have identified the CSA binding site to be a cluster of conserved positively charged residues on subdomain 2 and subdomain 3. Mutation or chemical modification of lysine residues at the site markedly diminished CSA binding to DBL3x. The location of the CSA binding site is an important step forward in the molecular understanding of pregnancy-associated malaria and offers a new target for vaccine development.

  14. Caregiver perceptions about mental health services after child sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Fong, Hiu-fai; Bennett, Colleen E; Mondestin, Valerie; Scribano, Philip V; Mollen, Cynthia; Wood, Joanne N

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to describe caregiver perceptions about mental health services (MHS) after child sexual abuse (CSA) and to explore factors that affected whether their children linked to services. We conducted semi-structured, in-person interviews with 22 non-offending caregivers of suspected CSA victims<13 years old seen at a child advocacy center in Philadelphia. Purposive sampling was used to recruit caregivers who had (n=12) and had not (n=10) linked their children to MHS. Guided by the Health Belief Model framework, interviews assessed perceptions about: CSA severity, the child's susceptibility for adverse outcomes, the benefits of MHS, and the facilitators and barriers to MHS. Interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, coded, and analyzed using modified grounded theory. Recruitment ended when thematic saturation was reached. Caregivers expressed strong reactions to CSA and multiple concerns about adverse child outcomes. Most caregivers reported that MHS were generally necessary for children after CSA. Caregivers who had not linked to MHS, however, believed MHS were not necessary for their children, most commonly because they were not exhibiting behavioral symptoms. Caregivers described multiple access barriers to MHS, but caregivers who had not linked reported that they could have overcome these barriers if they believed MHS were necessary for their children. Caregivers who had not linked to services also expressed concerns about MHS being re-traumatizing and stigmatizing. Interventions to increase MHS linkage should focus on improving communication with caregivers about the specific benefits of MHS for their children and proactively addressing caregiver concerns about MHS. PMID:26602155

  15. Clarifying the causal relationship in women between childhood sexual abuse and lifetime major depression

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, K. S.; Aggen, S. H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is strongly associated with risk for major depression (MD) but the degree to which this association is causal remains uncertain. Method We applied structural equation modeling using the Mplus program to 1493 longitudinally assessed female twins from the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders. Results Our model included (i) retrospective self- and co-twin reports on CSA, (ii) major potentially confounding covariates, (iii) assessment of lifetime history of MD at two separate interviews, and (iv) mood-congruent recall (implemented by allowing current depressive symptoms to predict reporting of CSA). In a model with only measurement error, CSA explained 9.6% of MD. Including four key covariates reduced the variance explained to 5.3%, with the largest effects found for parental loss and low parental warmth. Adding the effect of mood-congruent recall to a final well-fitting model reduced the percentage of variance explained in lifetime MD (LTMD) by CSA to 4.4%. In this model, current depressive symptoms significantly predicted recall of CSA. Conclusions In a model correcting for measurement error, confounding and the impact of mood-congruent recall, CSA remains substantially associated with the risk for LTMD in women. These findings strongly suggest, but do not prove, that this association is causal, and are consistent with previous results in this sample using a co-twin control design, but also indicate that more than half of the uncorrected CSA–MD association is probably not causal. Traumatic life experiences contribute substantially to the risk for LTMD. PMID:23942036

  16. Outcomes of child sexual abuse as predictors of later sexual victimization.

    PubMed

    Reese-Weber, Marla; Smith, Dana M

    2011-06-01

    The association between a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) and specific negative outcomes (attachment, feelings of power, and self-esteem) was explored as was the relationship between those negative outcomes and sexual victimization during the first semester of college. Two groups of freshman college women (67 who had experienced CSA and 55 who had not) completed measures of attachment, feelings of power, and self-esteem at the beginning of their freshman year of college. At the end of their first semester of college, participants (n = 93) provided information about whether they had been sexually assaulted during their first semester of college. The results indicated that participants in the CSA group did not differ on reported attachment anxiety, attachment avoidance, feelings of power, or self-esteem as compared to the control group. However, participants in the CSA group were more like to be sexually victimized during their first semester of college. Finally, logistic regression indicated that the negative outcomes of CSA were significantly related to sexual victimization during the first semester of college, with attachment anxiety playing an important role. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed. PMID:20587463

  17. Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms Among People Living with HIV and Childhood Sexual Abuse: The Role of Shame and Posttraumatic Growth.

    PubMed

    Willie, Tiara C; Overstreet, Nicole M; Peasant, Courtney; Kershaw, Trace; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Hansen, Nathan B

    2016-08-01

    There is a critical need to examine protective and risk factors of anxiety and depressive symptoms among people living with HIV in order to improve quality of life. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the associations between HIV-related shame, sexual abuse-related shame, posttraumatic growth, and anxiety and depressive symptoms among a cohort of 225 heterosexual women and men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Higher sexual abuse-related shame was related to more anxiety and depressive symptoms for heterosexual women. Higher posttraumatic growth predicted less anxiety symptoms for only heterosexual women. Higher posttraumatic growth predicted less depressive symptoms for heterosexual women and MSM, but the magnitude of this effect was stronger for heterosexual women than MSM. Psychosocial interventions may need to be tailored to meet the specific needs of heterosexual women and MSM living with HIV and CSA. PMID:26837633

  18. Effect of criminal defendant's history of childhood sexual abuse and personality disorder diagnosis on juror decision making.

    PubMed

    Butler, Ebony; Jacquin, Kristine

    2014-08-01

    This study investigated whether a defendant's history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and/or personality disorder (PD) diagnosis affected juror decision making in a child sexual abuse trial. The PDs in the study were borderline PD and antisocial PD. Participants were 385 college students, 121 men and 264 women, who read a summary of a mock criminal trial and then made various juror decisions. Trial summaries were prepared by the principal investigator and were all uniform in content, length and detail. For the trial, both the defendant's gender and victim's gender were specified. The defendant was male, and the alleged victim was female. When the verdict was assessed, the results yielded that when the defendant's CSA history was presented, juror guilt ratings were higher than when there was no history of CSA. Similarly, when the defendant had a PD diagnosis, there were higher guilt ratings than when there was no PD diagnosis. CSA history and PD diagnosis were significant predictors of guilt ratings, suggesting that jurors perceive defendants more negatively if they have either been sexually abused as a child or have borderline or antisocial PD. PMID:24753498

  19. Linking Childhood Sexual Abuse and Early Adolescent Risk Behavior: The Intervening Role of Internalizing and Externalizing Problems

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Deborah J.; Lewis, Terri; Litrownik, Alan; Thompson, Richard; Proctor, Laura J.; Isbell, Trish; Dubowitz, Howard; English, Diana; Jones, Bobby; Nagin, Daniel; Runyan, Desmond

    2012-01-01

    A robust literature links childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to later substance use and sexual risk behavior; yet, relatively little empirical attention has been devoted to identifying the mechanisms linking CSA to risky behavior among youth, with even less work examining such processes in boys. With the aim of addressing this gap in the literature, the current study examined the indirect effect of childhood sexual abuse (CSA; from age 2 to 12) trajectory group on risky behavior at age 14 (alcohol use & sexual intercourse) via the intervening role of caregiver-reported internalizing and externalizing problems at age 12. Analyses were conducted with a subsample of youth (n = 657 sexual intercourse; n = 667 alcohol use) from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN), a multisite prospective study of youth at risk for maltreatment. For boys and girls, there was an indirect effect from CSA to sexual intercourse through externalizing problems. The same pattern emerged for alcohol use, but only for girls. Findings did not support an indirect path through internalizing problems for either boys or girls for either outcome. Findings suggest more focal targets for prevention efforts aimed at maintaining the health and safety of maltreated boys and girls during the adolescent transition. PMID:22752719

  20. Emotion Regulation in Sexually Abused Preschoolers: The Contribution of Parental Factors.

    PubMed

    Langevin, Rachel; Hébert, Martine; Allard-Dansereau, Claire; Bernard-Bonnin, Anne-Claude

    2016-04-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with emotion regulation deficits in childhood. Parents play a crucial role in the development of emotion regulation in their children, especially at younger ages. Close to 50% of mothers of sexually abused children report having been sexually victimized themselves as children. They are consequently at risk of experiencing significant distress following the disclosure of sexual abuse of their child. Parents' distress could interfere with their ability to provide support and to foster development of emotion regulation in their children. The aim of the present study was to explore the relationship of parental factors (history of sexual victimization in childhood and the current level of distress) to sexually abused preschoolers' emotion regulation competencies. Emotion regulation was assessed in 153 preschoolers by their parents with the Emotion Regulation Checklist; 75 of these children were abused (14 boys); 78 were not abused (21 boys) and were part of a comparison group. Parents reported their level of distress using the Psychiatric Symptom Index. Results indicated that parental factors contributed to some dimensions of preschoolers' emotion regulation (namely displays of underregulation of emotion) above and beyond children's victimization status and gender (Cohen's ƒ(2) = .15). Identifying parental distress and history of sexual victimization as positively associated with emotional dysregulation in preschool children victims of CSA has important research and clinical implications. PMID:26915665

  1. CSA2012

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Lieberman, Joseph I. [ID-CT

    2012-07-19

    11/14/2012 Upon reconsideration, cloture on the bill not invoked in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 51 - 47. Record Vote Number: 202. (consideration: CR S6784; text: CR S6784) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Maternal and child reflective functioning in the context of child sexual abuse: pathways to depression and externalising difficulties

    PubMed Central

    Ensink, Karin; Bégin, Michaël; Normandin, Lina; Fonagy, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background Sexual abuse is a well-recognised risk factor for child psychopathology. Little is known regarding whether child and maternal mentalization can be considered a potential resource or protective factor in this context, respectively, mediating or moderating the relationship between sexual abuse and psychopathology. Objective The aims of this study were (1) to explore the relationships between child and maternal mentalizing, measured as reflective functioning (RF), and child depressive symptoms and externalising difficulties; and (2) to examine whether child mentalizing mediates the relationship between child sexual abuse (CSA) and psychopathology. Method A total of 168 children aged 7–12 years and their mothers participated in the study. The sample included 74 dyads where children had experienced sexual abuse. The Child Attachment Interview was rated by using the Child Reflective Functioning Scale to assess children's mentalization, and the Child Depression Inventory was used to assess depressive symptoms. Mothers completed the Parent Development Interview to assess maternal RF and the Child Behavior Checklist to assess their child's externalising difficulties. A model involving direct and indirect paths from CSA, child and maternal RF to child psychopathology was examined using Mplus software. Results Child mentalization partially mediated the relationships between CSA and depressive symptoms, as well as the relationship between CSA and externalising difficulties. Maternal mentalization was an independent predictor of child externalising difficulties, with higher maternal RF associated with less externalising difficulties. Discussion The findings indicate that by ages 7–12, child mentalization is an important inner resource associated with lower depression and externalising. In addition, this study provides new evidence of the importance of the parent's mentalizing stance for the development of self-regulation and externalising difficulties in both

  3. Exposure to child abuse and risk for mental health problems in women.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Renee; Baumrind, Nikki; Kimerling, Rachel

    2007-01-01

    Risk for adult mental health problems associated with child sexual, physical, or emotional abuse and multiple types of child abuse was examined. Logistic regression analyses were used to test study hypotheses in a population-based sample of women (N = 3,936). As expected, child sexual, physical, and emotional abuse were independently associated with increased risk for mental health problems. History of multiple types of child abuse was also associated with elevated risk for mental health problems. In particular, exposure to all three types of child abuse was linked to a 23-fold increase in risk for probable posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Findings underscore relations between child emotional abuse and adult mental health problems and highlight the need for mental health services for survivors of multiple types of child abuse. PMID:18064973

  4. Stroke Survivors Often Struggle with Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_160835.html Stroke Survivors Often Struggle With Depression Risk was 8 times higher for those who ... Stroke survivors face an increased risk of developing depression, a new study suggests. In the first three ...

  5. Why Breast Cancer Survivors Should Exercise

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159781.html Why Breast Cancer Survivors Should Exercise Moderate physical activity can ease ... Excessive stress can lead to memory problems among breast cancer survivors, but exercise can help, according to new ...

  6. 32 CFR 716.4 - Eligible survivors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., should not be made. (c) Death of survivor prior to receipt of gratuity. (1) If a survivor dies before... by a member, pursuant to paragraph (a)(3) of this section, to receive death gratuity payment...

  7. Reductions in Traumatic Stress Following a Coping Intervention Were Mediated by Decreases in Avoidant Coping for People Living with HIV/AIDS and Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Ranby, Krista W.; Meade, Christina S.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Wilson, Patrick A.; Kochman, Arlene

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether (a) Living in the Face of Trauma (LIFT), a group intervention to address coping with HIV and childhood sexual abuse (CSA), significantly reduced traumatic stress over a 1-year follow-up period more than an attention-matched support group comparison intervention; and (b) reductions in avoidant coping over time mediated…

  8. Self-Defining as Sexually Abused and Adult Sexual Risk Behavior: Results from a Cross-Sectional Survey of Women Attending an STD Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senn, Theresa E.; Carey, Michael P.; Coury-Doniger, Patricia

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with increased sexual risk behavior in adulthood, and this association may be mediated by traumagenic dynamics constructs (i.e., traumatic sexualization, trust, guilt, and powerlessness). However, few studies have investigated whether such relationships hold for women who do not identify as…

  9. Assessing the Effectiveness of the NICHD Investigative Interview Protocol when Interviewing French-Speaking Alleged Victims of Child Sexual Abuse in Quebec

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyr, Mireille; Lamb, Michael E.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The study was designed to assess the effectiveness of the flexibly structured NICHD Investigative Interview Protocol for child sexual abuse (CSA) investigative interviews by police officers and mental health workers in Quebec. The NICHD Protocol was designed to operationalize "best practice" guidelines and to help forensic interviewers…

  10. Child Abuse: Definition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Timothy L.-Y.

    The purpose of this paper was to elaborate on the definitions of child abuse in order to improve the understanding of child abuse. The definitions given by the U.S. House Joint Committee on Child Abuse in the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, and in research by Holden (1984), are cited. These definitions refer to the nature of abusive acts…

  11. Spousal Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Gullattee, Alyce C.

    1979-01-01

    Spouse abuse is being discussed and agonized over more frequently than in past years. Although interpousal and intrafamilial violence have been behaviors of note and considerable consequence, they have been attributable, almost exclusively, to the lower socioeconomic classes. Many hypotheses have been proposed concerning the etiology of violence. The author discusses some of the more general sociopolitical theories of violence and proposes three areas of significant moment to behaviorists. PMID:439165

  12. Childhood Sexual Abuse Is Highly Associated With HIV Risk–Taking Behavior and Infection Among MSM in the EXPLORE Study

    PubMed Central

    Mimiaga, Matthew J.; Noonan, Elizabeth; Donnell, Deborah; Safren, Steven A.; Koenen, Karestan C.; Gortmaker, Steven; O’Cleirigh, Conall; Chesney, Margaret A.; Coates, Thomas J.; Koblin, Beryl A.; Mayer, Kenneth H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Previous studies have found high rates of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) among US men who have sex with men (MSM). CSA history has been associated with a variety of negative effects later in life including behaviors that place MSM at greater risk for HIV acquisition and transmission. The present analysis is the first to examine the longitudinal association between CSA and HIV infection, unprotected anal sex, and serodiscordant unprotected anal sex, as well as mediators of these relationships among a large sample of HIV-uninfected MSM. Methods The EXPLORE Study was a behavioral intervention trial conducted in 6 US cities over 48 months with HIV infection as the primary efficacy outcome. Behavioral assessments were done every 6 months via confidential computerized assessments. Longitudinal regression models were constructed, adjusting for randomization arm, geographical location of study site, age at enrollment, education, and race/ethnicity. Results Of the 4295 participants enrolled, 39.7% had a history of CSA. Participants with a history of CSA [adjusted hazards ratio = 1.30, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02 to 1.69] were at increased risk for HIV infection over study follow-up. A significant association was seen between history of CSA and unprotected anal sex (adjusted odds ratio = 1.24, 95% CI: 1.12 to 1.36) and serodiscordant unprotected anal sex (adjusted odds ratio = 1.30, 95% CI: 1.18 to 1.43). Among participants reporting CSA, the EXPLORE intervention had no effect in reducing HIV infection rates. Participants reporting CSA were significantly more likely to have symptoms of depression and use nonprescription drugs. Conclusions A predictive relationship between a history of CSA and subsequent HIV infection was observed among this large sample of HIV-uninfected MSM. Findings indicate that HIV-uninfected MSM with CSA histories are at greater risk for HIV infection, report higher rates of HIV sexual risk behavior, and may derive less benefit from

  13. Differential Induction of Functional IgG Using the Plasmodium falciparum Placental Malaria Vaccine Candidate VAR2CSA

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Vera V.; Ditlev, Sisse B.; Jensen, Kamilla E.; Resende, Mafalda; Dahlbäck, Madeleine; Andersen, Gorm; Andersen, Pernille; Theander, Thor G.; Salanti, Ali; Nielsen, Morten A.

    2011-01-01

    Background In Plasmodium falciparum malaria endemic areas placental malaria (PM) is an important complication of malaria. The recurrence of malaria in primigravidae women irrespective of acquired protection during childhood is caused by the interaction between the parasite-expressed VAR2CSA antigen and chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) in the placental intervillous space and lack of protective antibodies. PM impairs fetal development mainly by excessive inflammation processes. After infections during pregnancy women acquire immunity to PM conferred by antibodies against VAR2CSA. Ideally, a vaccine against PM will induce antibody-mediated immune responses that block the adhesion of infected erythrocytes (IE) in the placenta. Principal Findings We have previously shown that antibodies raised in rat against individual domains of VAR2CSA can block IE binding to CSA. In this study we have immunized mice, rats and rabbits with each individual domain and the full-length protein corresponding to the FCR3 VAR2CSA variant. We found there is an inherently higher immunogenicity of C-terminal domains compared to N-terminally located domains. This was irrespective of whether antibodies were induced against single domains or the full-length protein. Species-specific antibody responses were also found, these were mainly directed against single domains and not the full-length VAR2CSA protein. Conclusions/Significance Binding inhibitory antibodies appeared to be against conformational B-cell epitopes. Non-binding inhibitory antibodies reacted highly against the C-terminal end of the VAR2CSA molecule especially the highly polymorphic DBL6ε domain. Differential species-specific induction of antibody responses may allow for more direct analysis of functional versus non-functional B-cell epitopes. PMID:21464946

  14. Evil, Child Abuse and the Caring Professions.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Caroline

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to explore the ways in which the concept of evil has been invoked in relation to child abuse. First, the scene is set by juxtaposing professional discourses which have eschewed the concept of evil and public opinion which is affronted by the evil of child abuse. Second, I will discuss the work of some therapists in the USA whose work with perpetrators and survivors has led them to frame the causes and consequences of child abuse in terms of moral evil. Third, I will draw upon case studies of Satanic abuse and spirit possession in the UK to illustrate that some social workers and religious communities have interpreted child abuse as an outcome of or as an antidote to metaphysical evil. Finally, there is a critical appraisal of the merits of referencing moral and metaphysical evil in the discourses of caring professionals, with a suggestion that a mythical-metaphorical conception of evil could be a more flexible and fruitful resource for therapeutic work. PMID:24908583

  15. 5 CFR 850.202 - Survivor elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Survivor elections. 850.202 Section 850... (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT SYSTEMS MODERNIZATION Applications for Benefits; Elections § 850.202 Survivor elections. (a) A survivor election under subsection (j) or (k) of section 8339, or under section 8416,...

  16. 5 CFR 850.202 - Survivor elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Survivor elections. 850.202 Section 850... (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT SYSTEMS MODERNIZATION Applications for Benefits; Elections § 850.202 Survivor elections. (a) A survivor election under subsection (j) or (k) of section 8339, or under section 8416,...

  17. 5 CFR 850.202 - Survivor elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Survivor elections. 850.202 Section 850... (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT SYSTEMS MODERNIZATION Applications for Benefits; Elections § 850.202 Survivor elections. (a) A survivor election under subsection (j) or (k) of section 8339, or under section 8416,...

  18. 5 CFR 850.202 - Survivor elections.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Survivor elections. 850.202 Section 850... (CONTINUED) RETIREMENT SYSTEMS MODERNIZATION Applications for Benefits; Elections § 850.202 Survivor elections. (a) A survivor election under subsection (j) or (k) of section 8339, or under section 8416,...

  19. Internet Use and Breast Cancer Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Afshari, Mojgan; Mohamed, Nor Aini

    2011-01-01

    A survey was administered to 400 breast cancer survivors at hospitals and support group meetings in Peninsular Malaysia to explore their level of Internet use and factors related to the Internet use by breast cancer survivors. Findings of this study indicated that about 22.5% of breast cancer survivors used Internet to get information about breast…

  20. Survivors' Reactions: Suicide vs. Other Causes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, John L.; Kelly, Leah D.

    The literature on suicide survivors suggests that suicide grief is different than the grief associated with survivorship from other causes. The few studies that have compared groups of survivors from other causes, however, have often not observed as many differences as expected based on the suicide survivors literature. In this study, 230 college…