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Sample records for abuse disorder symptoms

  1. The Relationship Between Childhood Abuse and Adult Personality Disorder Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Kelly E.; Carpenter, Linda L.; Price, Lawrence H.; Gagne, Gerard G.; Mello, Andrea F.; Mello, Marcelo F.; Tyrka, Audrey R.

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed personality disorder symptomatology in a community sample of healthy adults without diagnosable DSM-IV-TR Axis I psychiatric disorders who reported a history of childhood abuse. Twenty-eight subjects with a history of moderate to severe physical, sexual, and/or emotional abuse according to the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire were compared to 33 subjects without an abuse history on symptoms of personality disorders. Subjects in the Abuse group were more likely to report subclinical symptoms of paranoid, narcissistic, borderline, antisocial, obsessive compulsive, passive-aggressive, and depressive personality disorders. These findings link reports of childhood abuse with symptoms of personality disorders in the absence of Axis I psychiatric disorders in a community sample of healthy adults. PMID:17685839

  2. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and Disorders of Extreme Stress (DESNOS) symptoms following prostitution and childhood abuse.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyunjung; Klein, Carolin; Shin, Min-Sup; Lee, Hoon-Jin

    2009-08-01

    With the participation of 46 prostituted women in Korea, this study investigates the relationship between prostitution experiences, a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and disorders of extreme stress not otherwise specified (DESNOS). Prostituted women showed higher levels of PTSD and DESNOS symptoms compared to a control group. Women who had experienced both CSA by a significant other and prostitution showed the highest levels of traumatic stress. However, posttraumatic reexperiencing and avoidance and identity, relational, and affect regulation problems were significant for prostitution experiences even when the effects of CSA were controlled.

  3. Effect of Song Writing versus Recreational Music on Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Symptoms and Abuse Attribution in Abused Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulter, Susan J.

    2000-01-01

    Attempts to develop a song-writing technique to reduce posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in abused children from 9 to 17 years old, all patients of an inpatient psychiatric child/adolescent unit who had been physically and/or sexually abused. Finds no significant change in overall scores due to treatment condition. (SR)

  4. Deficits in Emotion Regulation Mediate the Relationship between Childhood Abuse and Later Eating Disorder Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Erin E.; Fischer, Sarah; Jackson, Joan L.; Harding, Hilary G.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship of child maltreatment to both emotion dysregulation and subsequent eating pathology. In an effort to extend previous research, the authors examined the unique impact of childhood emotional abuse (CEA) on emotion dysregulation and eating disorder (ED) symptoms while controlling for the effects of sexual…

  5. [Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms and their relationship with child abuse: predictor and consequence].

    PubMed

    Cornellà Canals, J; Juárez López, J R

    2014-12-01

    The current literature increasingly associates the presence of symptoms of ADHD in both physical and psychological and sexual child abuse. This implies the need for greater accuracy in the differential diagnosis, as until a few years ago, post-traumatic stress disorder was considered the reference symptoms for this type of case. Thus, it is necessary to define and conceptualize an increasingly broad and detailed world of sequels and consequences, where ADHD may be related to the psychological damage suffered by child abuse. Furthermore, the particular vulnerability of children with ADHD can, in turn, become a factor of risk that needs to be considered by the professionals who care for this type of patient.

  6. [Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms and their relationship with child abuse: predictor and consequence].

    PubMed

    Cornellà Canals, J; Juárez López, J R

    2014-12-01

    The current literature increasingly associates the presence of symptoms of ADHD in both physical and psychological and sexual child abuse. This implies the need for greater accuracy in the differential diagnosis, as until a few years ago, post-traumatic stress disorder was considered the reference symptoms for this type of case. Thus, it is necessary to define and conceptualize an increasingly broad and detailed world of sequels and consequences, where ADHD may be related to the psychological damage suffered by child abuse. Furthermore, the particular vulnerability of children with ADHD can, in turn, become a factor of risk that needs to be considered by the professionals who care for this type of patient. PMID:25201341

  7. Relationships between Trauma, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms, Dissociative Symptoms, and Lifetime Heroin Use among Individuals Who Abuse Substances in Residential Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, E. Gail; Diaz, Naelys; Peluso, Paul R.; Mullaney, Donald; Weiner, Michael; McIlveen, John W.

    2009-01-01

    This study explored the relationships between trauma, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, dissociation, and lifetime heroin use among inpatient clients who abused substances. Results indicate important implications for practice and directions for future research. (Contains 1 figure and 1 table.)

  8. Survey of Eating Disorder Symptoms among Women in Treatment for Substance Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Lisa R.; Greenfield, Shelly F.; Gordon, Susan; Killeen, Therese; Jiang, Huiping; Zhang, Yulei; Hien, Denise

    2010-01-01

    A strong association between substance use disorders (SUD) and eating disorders (ED) in women has been established. Yet, little is known about the rates and impact of ED symptoms in women presenting to addiction treatment. The current investigation assessed the prevalence of ED symptoms and their effect on treatment outcomes in a sample of substance abusing women with co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) enrolled in outpatient substance use programs. Participants were 122 women who participated in a multi-site clinical trial comparing two behavioral treatments for co-occurring SUD and PTSD. The Eating Disorder Examination-self report (EDE-Q), and measures of PTSD and SUD symptoms were administered at baseline, during treatment and at four follow-up points. Two subgroups emerged; those reporting binge eating in the 28 days prior to baseline (Binge group; n = 35) and those who reported no binge eating episodes (No Binge group; n = 87). Women in the Binge group endorsed significantly higher ED, PTSD and depression symptoms at baseline than those in the No Binge group. Though all participants showed significant reductions in PTSD symptoms and improvements in abstinence rates during the study period, the improvements for the Binge group were significantly lower. These findings suggest that a sub-group of women with co-occurring PTSD and SUDs who endorsed binge ED symptoms responded differently to SUD/PTSD group treatment. Identification of eating disorder symptoms among treatment-seeking women with SUDs may be an important element in tailoring interventions and enhancing treatment outcomes. PMID:20525031

  9. Differential effects of childhood abuse and neglect: mediation by posttraumatic distress in neurotic disorder and negative symptoms in schizophrenia?

    PubMed

    Vogel, Matthias; Meier, Johanna; Grönke, Stephanie; Waage, Marco; Schneider, Wolfgang; Freyberger, Harald Jürgen; Klauer, Thomas

    2011-08-30

    Dissociation, though understood as a response to trauma, lacks a proven etiology. The assumption of a dose-response relationship between trauma, dissociation and Schneiderian symptoms led to the proposal of a dissociative subtype of schizophrenia characterized by severe child maltreatment, dissociation and psychosis. Child maltreatment and dissociation are common features of neurotic disorders as well, and the link between trauma, dissociation, and hallucinations is not specific for schizophrenia. This study compares childhood abuse and neglect, posttraumatic distress and adult dissociation in patients with psychotic vs. non-psychotic disorder. Thirty-five participants with non-psychotic disorder and twenty-five with schizophrenia were analyzed using the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms (SAPS), the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS), the Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS), the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale PDS (PDS), the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTO) and the Arbeitsgemeinschaft Methodik und Dokumentation in der Psychiatrie (AMDP)-module on dissociation. Trauma and clinical syndromes were compared by means of T-testing and logistic regression between 1) the diagnoses and 2) groups with and without post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), marked dissociation and psychotic symptoms. While non-psychotic disorder was related to abuse, schizophrenia showed an association with neglect. Childhood trauma predicted posttraumatic symptomatology and negative symptoms. Childhood abuse and neglect may effectuate different outcomes in neurotic and psychotic disorder. The underlying mechanisms, including dissociation, dovetail with cognitive, emotional and behavioural changes involved in depression, posttraumatic distress and chronic schizophrenia symptoms rather than being directly linked to trauma.

  10. Association of FKBP5 Polymorphisms and Childhood Abuse With Risk of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Binder, Elisabeth B.; Bradley, Rebekah G.; Liu, Wei; Epstein, Michael P.; Deveau, Todd C.; Mercer, Kristina B.; Tang, Yilang; Gillespie, Charles F.; Heim, Christine M.; Nemeroff, Charles B.; Schwartz, Ann C.; Cubells, Joseph F.; Ressler, Kerry J.

    2008-01-01

    Context In addition to trauma exposure, other factors contribute to risk for development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adulthood. Both genetic and environmental factors are contributory, with child abuse providing significant risk liability. Objective To increase understanding of genetic and environmental risk factors as well as their interaction in the development of PTSD by gene × environment interactions of child abuse, level of non–child abuse trauma exposure, and genetic polymorphisms at the stress-related gene FKBP5. Design, Setting, and Participants A cross-sectional study examining genetic and psychological risk factors in 900 non psychiatric clinic patients (762 included for all genotype studies) with significant levels of childhood abuse as well as non–child abuse trauma using a verbally presented survey combined with single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping. Participants were primarily urban, low-income, black (>95%) men and women seeking care in the general medical care and obstetrics-gynecology clinics of an urban public hospital in Atlanta, Georgia, between 2005 and 2007. Main Outcome Measures Severity of adult PTSD symptomatology, measured with the modified PTSD Symptom Scale, non–child abuse (primarily adult) trauma exposure and child abuse measured using the traumatic events inventory and 8 SNPs spanning the FKBP5 locus. Results Level of child abuse and non–child abuse trauma each separately predicted level of adult PTSD symptomatology (mean [SD], PTSD Symptom Scale for no child abuse, 8.03 [10.48] vs ≥2 types of abuse, 20.93 [14.32]; and for no non–child abuse trauma, 3.58 [6.27] vs ≥4 types, 16.74 [12.90]; P<.001). Although FKBP5 SNPs did not directly predict PTSD symptom outcome or interact with level of non–child abuse trauma to predict PTSD symptom severity, 4 SNPs in the FKBP5 locus significantly interacted (rs9296158, rs3800373, rs1360780, and rs9470080; minimum P=.0004) with the severity of child abuse

  11. Affective temperaments play an important role in the relationship between childhood abuse and depressive symptoms in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Toda, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Takeshi; Tsunoda, Tomoya; Nakai, Yukiei; Tanichi, Masaaki; Tanaka, Teppei; Hashimoto, Naoki; Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Nakagawa, Shin; Kitaichi, Yuji; Boku, Shuken; Tanabe, Hajime; Nibuya, Masashi; Yoshino, Aihide; Kusumi, Ichiro

    2016-02-28

    Previous studies have shown that various factors, such as genetic and environmental factors, contribute to the development of major depressive disorder (MDD). The aim of this study is to clarify how multiple factors, including affective temperaments, childhood abuse and adult life events, are involved in the severity of depressive symptoms in MDD. A total of 98 participants with MDD were studied using the following self-administered questionnaire surveys: Patient Health Questionnaire-9 measuring the severity of depressive symptoms; Life Experiences Survey (LES) measuring negative and positive adult life events; Temperament Evaluation of the Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego auto-questionnaire (TEMPS-A) measuring affective temperaments; and the Child Abuse and Trauma Scale (CATS) measuring childhood abuse. The data were analyzed using single and multiple regression analyses and structural equation modeling (SEM). The neglect score reported by CATS indirectly predicted the severity of depressive symptoms through affective temperaments measured by TEMPS-A in SEM. Four temperaments (depressive, cyclothymic, irritable, and anxious) directly predicted the severity of depressive symptoms. The negative change in the LES score also directly predicted severity. This study suggests that childhood abuse, especially neglect, indirectly increases the severity of depressive symptoms through increased scores of affective temperaments in MDD.

  12. Somatic symptom disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... disorders; Somatization disorder; Somatiform disorders; Briquet syndrome; Illness anxiety disorder ... history of abuse. SSD is similar to illness anxiety disorder . This is when a person is overly ...

  13. Functional Neurological Symptom Disorder: Mismanagement, Misdiagnosis, Chronic Cough Following Sexual Abuse: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    BIDAKI, Reza; ZAREPUR, Ehsan; AKRAMI, Maryam; Mohammad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objective Conversion disorder (CD) is a mental disorder in which patient displays neurological symptoms such as blindness, mutism, paralysis and seizure. It starts when our mind converts our mental stress into a physical symptom. A 15-year-old single white female with chronic cough, which had begun 5 months ago, was brought to our clinic. She had no history of hospitalization. His daily cough was without sputum production or fever, rhinorrhea and stopped during sleep. There was no recent exposure to tobacco smoke or a person with a chronic productive cough. Laboratory tests were normal. She had engaged 4 months ago. Doing sex during engagement is prohibited in her culture but and had anal sex, because of her spouse’s trend. Psychotherapy was done and complete recovery was accomplished. PMID:27247590

  14. Functional Neurological Symptom Disorder: Mismanagement, Misdiagnosis, Chronic Cough Following Sexual Abuse: A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Bidaki, Reza; Zarepur, Ehsan; Akrami, Maryam; Mohammad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Objective Conversion disorder (CD) is a mental disorder in which patient displays neurological symptoms such as blindness, mutism, paralysis and seizure. It starts when our mind converts our mental stress into a physical symptom. A 15-year-old single white female with chronic cough, which had begun 5 months ago, was brought to our clinic. She had no history of hospitalization. His daily cough was without sputum production or fever, rhinorrhea and stopped during sleep. There was no recent exposure to tobacco smoke or a person with a chronic productive cough. Laboratory tests were normal. She had engaged 4 months ago. Doing sex during engagement is prohibited in her culture but and had anal sex, because of her spouse's trend. Psychotherapy was done and complete recovery was accomplished. PMID:27247590

  15. Substance abuse and personality disorders in homeless drop-in center clients: symptom severity and psychotherapy retention in a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Ball, Samuel A; Cobb-Richardson, Patricia; Connolly, Adrian J; Bujosa, Cesar T; O'neall, Thomas W

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the psychiatric symptoms, psychosocial problems, and treatment response of personality-disordered substance abusers receiving services within a homeless drop-in center. Fifty-two homeless clients were assessed after program admission and randomly assigned to receive either individual psychotherapy focused on personality disorder and substance abuse relapse prevention (dual-focus schema therapy [DFST]) or standard group substance abuse counseling (SAC). Client functioning was assessed using measures of personality disorder, psychiatric symptoms, early maladaptive schemas, interpersonal problems, and addiction-related psychosocial impairment. Therapy retention (total weeks in treatment) and utilization (number of weeks in which sessions were attended) were the primary outcomes. Although rates of cluster B personality disorders were comparable to other substance dependent samples, clusters A and C disorders were disproportionately more common. Clients reported significant psychiatric symptoms, criminality, and psychosocial impairment, yet made limited lifetime use of mental health services. Overall, there was greater utilization of individual DFST than group SAC. However, clients with more severe personality disorder symptoms demonstrated better utilization of SAC than DFST. PMID:16122538

  16. Substance abuse and personality disorders in homeless drop-in center clients: symptom severity and psychotherapy retention in a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Ball, Samuel A; Cobb-Richardson, Patricia; Connolly, Adrian J; Bujosa, Cesar T; O'neall, Thomas W

    2005-01-01

    This study evaluated the psychiatric symptoms, psychosocial problems, and treatment response of personality-disordered substance abusers receiving services within a homeless drop-in center. Fifty-two homeless clients were assessed after program admission and randomly assigned to receive either individual psychotherapy focused on personality disorder and substance abuse relapse prevention (dual-focus schema therapy [DFST]) or standard group substance abuse counseling (SAC). Client functioning was assessed using measures of personality disorder, psychiatric symptoms, early maladaptive schemas, interpersonal problems, and addiction-related psychosocial impairment. Therapy retention (total weeks in treatment) and utilization (number of weeks in which sessions were attended) were the primary outcomes. Although rates of cluster B personality disorders were comparable to other substance dependent samples, clusters A and C disorders were disproportionately more common. Clients reported significant psychiatric symptoms, criminality, and psychosocial impairment, yet made limited lifetime use of mental health services. Overall, there was greater utilization of individual DFST than group SAC. However, clients with more severe personality disorder symptoms demonstrated better utilization of SAC than DFST.

  17. Predictors of Depressive Symptoms among Inpatient Substance Abusers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Naelys; Green, Diane; Horton, Eloise G.

    2009-01-01

    The existing literature indicates high comorbidity rates between depressive disorders and substance abuse disorders. Despite these elevated rates, there is limited empirical work devoted to understanding predictors of depressive symptoms among substance abusers. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of spirituality, believing in God's…

  18. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Psychosomatic Symptoms in Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Colin A.

    2005-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome is characterized by chronic gastrointestinal symptoms without a demonstrable physical cause. In a subgroup of patients, irritable bowel syndrome may be part of a cluster of psychosomatic symptoms related to childhood sexual abuse. To investigate this possibility, the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule (DDIS), the…

  19. [The complex of neurological symptoms of substance abuse].

    PubMed

    Litvintsev, B S; Odinak, M M; Litvinenko, I V; Goncharenko, A Yu; Petrov, A D; Kovalenko, A P

    2015-08-01

    Standard neurological examination was performed in 85 patients of military service age (the average age was 32,6±5,3 years - from 19 to 44 years) with a confirmed diagnosis of substance abuse, caused by the use of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances: cocaine and amphetamine in 12 patients, opioids - in 73 patienls. Some symptoms of nervous system damage had statistically characteristic peculiarities for different forms of substance abuse. Mydriasis, signs a bilateral pyramidal insufficiency, hyperkinetic disorder are often characteristic for cocaine and amphetamine abuse. Opioid abuse is characterised by more severe symptoms of nervous system damage, disseminated neurologic symptomatic and polyneurotic disorders. Symptoms of neurasthenia and vegetative-vascular dystonia, which are usually accompanied by the; symptoms of organic lesions of the central and peripheral nervous system, were observed in all patients with substance abuse. In order to detect the symptoms of nervous system damage in patients, which are supposed to be conscribe, it is necessary to take medical history. PMID:26829868

  20. [The complex of neurological symptoms of substance abuse].

    PubMed

    Litvintsev, B S; Odinak, M M; Litvinenko, I V; Goncharenko, A Yu; Petrov, A D; Kovalenko, A P

    2015-08-01

    Standard neurological examination was performed in 85 patients of military service age (the average age was 32,6±5,3 years - from 19 to 44 years) with a confirmed diagnosis of substance abuse, caused by the use of narcotic drugs and psychotropic substances: cocaine and amphetamine in 12 patients, opioids - in 73 patienls. Some symptoms of nervous system damage had statistically characteristic peculiarities for different forms of substance abuse. Mydriasis, signs a bilateral pyramidal insufficiency, hyperkinetic disorder are often characteristic for cocaine and amphetamine abuse. Opioid abuse is characterised by more severe symptoms of nervous system damage, disseminated neurologic symptomatic and polyneurotic disorders. Symptoms of neurasthenia and vegetative-vascular dystonia, which are usually accompanied by the; symptoms of organic lesions of the central and peripheral nervous system, were observed in all patients with substance abuse. In order to detect the symptoms of nervous system damage in patients, which are supposed to be conscribe, it is necessary to take medical history.

  1. Pharmacotherapy for substance abuse disorders in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Gabriel; Ivanov, Iliyan

    2011-02-01

    The public health effects of adolescent substance abuse disorders (SUD) reaches further than the immediate intoxicating effects. Medications play a limited role in the treatment of youth beyond addressing short-term symptoms but may improve longer-term outcomes for some patients. Given the potential devastating consequences of SUD, clinicians should become familiar with all available treatment options. This article reviews the pharmacotherapy for adolescent SUD to inform clinicians considering the use of this modality for selected groups of patients.

  2. Psychiatric disorders, spouse abuse and child abuse.

    PubMed

    Bland, R C; Orn, H

    1986-01-01

    The results of 2000 standardized psychiatric diagnostic interviews of randomly selected adult household residents of Edmonton showed that having had any psychiatric diagnosis increased the risk for being involved in spouse and child abuse, particularly for those with alcohol abuse/dependence plus anti-social personality or depression. Altogether 56% of spouse abusers and 69% of child abusers had a lifetime psychiatric diagnosis.

  3. The effects of childhood abuse on self-reported psychotic symptoms in severe mental illness: Mediating effects of posttraumatic stress symptoms.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Young; Choi, Young Min; Kim, Bongseog; Lee, Dong Woo; Gim, Min Sook; Park, Soo Hyun

    2015-09-30

    The present study examined the role of posttraumatic stress symptoms in the relationship between childhood abuse and self-reported psychotic symptoms in severe mental illness. A total of 126 patients diagnosed with major psychiatric conditions with comorbid symptoms of psychosis participated in the present study. The representative psychiatric diagnoses included schizophrenia, bipolar disorder with psychotic features, major depressive disorder with psychotic features, schizoaffective disorder, schizophreniform disorder, and delusional disorder. The Korean Child Trauma Questionnaire measured the type and degree of childhood abuse including emotional, physical, and sexual abuse. Korean version of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised assessed posttraumatic stress symptoms, and PSYC subscale of the PSY-5 Factor Scale of the MMPI-2 was used as a measure of self-reported psychotic symptoms. There was a significant relationship between childhood physical, emotional, sexual abuse and psychotic symptoms. Posttraumatic stress symptoms partially mediated the relationship between childhood abuse and psychotic symptoms. This implies that childhood abuse is significantly associated with the experience of chronic posttraumatic stress symptoms, and that such symptoms in turn increases the likelihood of experiencing psychotic symptoms. The results highlight the need for appropriate assessment and intervention concerning childhood abuse and posttraumatic stress symptoms in severe mental illness.

  4. The effects of childhood abuse on self-reported psychotic symptoms in severe mental illness: Mediating effects of posttraumatic stress symptoms.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ji Young; Choi, Young Min; Kim, Bongseog; Lee, Dong Woo; Gim, Min Sook; Park, Soo Hyun

    2015-09-30

    The present study examined the role of posttraumatic stress symptoms in the relationship between childhood abuse and self-reported psychotic symptoms in severe mental illness. A total of 126 patients diagnosed with major psychiatric conditions with comorbid symptoms of psychosis participated in the present study. The representative psychiatric diagnoses included schizophrenia, bipolar disorder with psychotic features, major depressive disorder with psychotic features, schizoaffective disorder, schizophreniform disorder, and delusional disorder. The Korean Child Trauma Questionnaire measured the type and degree of childhood abuse including emotional, physical, and sexual abuse. Korean version of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised assessed posttraumatic stress symptoms, and PSYC subscale of the PSY-5 Factor Scale of the MMPI-2 was used as a measure of self-reported psychotic symptoms. There was a significant relationship between childhood physical, emotional, sexual abuse and psychotic symptoms. Posttraumatic stress symptoms partially mediated the relationship between childhood abuse and psychotic symptoms. This implies that childhood abuse is significantly associated with the experience of chronic posttraumatic stress symptoms, and that such symptoms in turn increases the likelihood of experiencing psychotic symptoms. The results highlight the need for appropriate assessment and intervention concerning childhood abuse and posttraumatic stress symptoms in severe mental illness. PMID:26144585

  5. Lifetime positive symptoms in patients with schizophrenia and cannabis abuse are partially explained by co-morbid addiction.

    PubMed

    Dubertret, Caroline; Bidard, Isabelle; Adès, Jean; Gorwood, Philip

    2006-09-01

    Recent prospective findings have shown that cannabis use by young people could be a risk factor for psychotic symptoms in adulthood, but the long-term impact of cannabis abuse on the clinical features of declared schizophrenia remains to be explored. We assessed the independent influence of cannabis abuse on the clinical symptoms of schizophrenia, after controlling for frequently co-occurring addictive disorders. Patients with schizophrenia, and with (N=66), or without (N=139) cannabis abuse, were compared for lifetime positive and negative symptoms, taking into account presence of any other addictive disorders. The incidence of the abuse of drugs other than cannabis was nearly five times greater amongst patients with both schizophrenia and cannabis abuse. When the analyses were limited to subjects with no other abuse, less avolution and fewer apathy symptoms were still detected in patients with schizophrenia and cannabis abuse than in those with no abuse (p=0.0001). In contrast, between-group differences for positive symptoms were abolished when multiple substance abuses were taken into account. The strong association between cannabis abuse and fewer negative symptoms in schizophrenia was thus replicated in this sample, but once co-morbid addictive disorders had been controlled no influence of cannabis abuse on hallucinations was detected. Distinguishing the effects of co-occurring addictive disorder(s) in patients with schizophrenia and cannabis dependence may thus be important when attempting to analyse the impact of cannabis abuse.

  6. Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... and symptoms a person feels are related to psychological factors. These symptoms can't be traced to a specific physical cause. In people who have a somatic symptom and related disorder, medical test results are either normal or don't explain ...

  7. Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Mediate the Relation between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weierich, Mariann R.; Nock, Matthew K.

    2008-01-01

    Prior research consistently has shown a strong relation between childhood abuse and nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI), yet it is unclear why this relation exists. The authors examined 2 specific posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom clusters as potential mechanisms through which childhood abuse may be related to NSSI. Participants were 86…

  8. Gastrointestinal symptoms and disorders in patients with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yasuhiro; Fukudo, Shin

    2015-10-01

    The two most clinically serious eating disorders are anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. A drive for thinness and fear of fatness lead patients with anorexia nervosa either to restrict their food intake or binge-eat then purge (through self-induced vomiting and/or laxative abuse) to reduce their body weight to much less than the normal range. A drive for thinness leads patients with bulimia nervosa to binge-eat then purge but fail to reduce their body weight. Patients with eating disorders present with various gastrointestinal disturbances such as postprandial fullness, abdominal distention, abdominal pain, gastric distension, and early satiety, with altered esophageal motility sometimes seen in patients with anorexia nervosa. Other common conditions noted in patients with eating disorders are postprandial distress syndrome, superior mesenteric artery syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, and functional constipation. Binge eating may cause acute gastric dilatation and gastric perforation, while self-induced vomiting can lead to dental caries, salivary gland enlargement, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and electrolyte imbalance. Laxative abuse can cause dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. Vomiting and/or laxative abuse can cause hypokalemia, which carries a risk of fatal arrhythmia. Careful assessment and intensive treatment of patients with eating disorders is needed because gastrointestinal symptoms/disorders can progress to a critical condition. PMID:26499370

  9. Gastrointestinal symptoms and disorders in patients with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yasuhiro; Fukudo, Shin

    2015-10-01

    The two most clinically serious eating disorders are anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. A drive for thinness and fear of fatness lead patients with anorexia nervosa either to restrict their food intake or binge-eat then purge (through self-induced vomiting and/or laxative abuse) to reduce their body weight to much less than the normal range. A drive for thinness leads patients with bulimia nervosa to binge-eat then purge but fail to reduce their body weight. Patients with eating disorders present with various gastrointestinal disturbances such as postprandial fullness, abdominal distention, abdominal pain, gastric distension, and early satiety, with altered esophageal motility sometimes seen in patients with anorexia nervosa. Other common conditions noted in patients with eating disorders are postprandial distress syndrome, superior mesenteric artery syndrome, irritable bowel syndrome, and functional constipation. Binge eating may cause acute gastric dilatation and gastric perforation, while self-induced vomiting can lead to dental caries, salivary gland enlargement, gastroesophageal reflux disease, and electrolyte imbalance. Laxative abuse can cause dehydration and electrolyte imbalance. Vomiting and/or laxative abuse can cause hypokalemia, which carries a risk of fatal arrhythmia. Careful assessment and intensive treatment of patients with eating disorders is needed because gastrointestinal symptoms/disorders can progress to a critical condition.

  10. Sexual Abuse History and Pelvic Floor Disorders in Women

    PubMed Central

    Cichowski, Sara B.; Dunivan, Gena C.; Komesu, Yuko M.; Rogers, Rebecca G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Sexual abuse rates in the general female population range between 15% and 25%, and sexual abuse is known to have a long-term impact on a woman’s health. The aim of this study was to report the prevalence of sexual abuse history in women presenting to clinicians for pelvic floor disorders (PFD) and to determine whether a history of sexual abuse is associated with a specific type of PFD. Methods We conducted a retrospective chart review of new urogynecology patients seen at the University of New Mexico Hospital. All women underwent a standardized history and physical examination and completed symptom severity and quality-of-life measures. Univariate and multivariable analyses were conducted to determine which PFDs were associated with a history of sexual abuse among women with and without a history of sexual abuse. Results A total of 1899 new urogynecology patients with complete information were identified from January 2007 and October 2011; 1260 (66%) were asked about a history of sexual abuse. The prevalence of sexual abuse was 213/1260 (17%). In the multivariable analysis, only chronic pelvic pain remained significantly associated with a history of sexual abuse. Conclusions A history of sexual abuse is common among women with PFDs, and these women were more likely to have chronic pelvic pain. PMID:24305526

  11. Signs and Symptoms of Mood Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... of your family's history. Signs and symptoms of bipolar disorder Bipolar disorder differs significantly from clinical depression, although ... or restlessness. Symptoms of mania - the "highs" of bipolar disorder Increased physical and mental activity and energy Heightened ...

  12. Eating disorder symptoms and parenting styles.

    PubMed

    Haycraft, Emma; Blissett, Jackie

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed to examine associations between symptoms of eating disorders and parenting style, in a non-clinical sample. One hundred and five mothers completed self-report measures of eating disorder symptoms and parenting style. Higher levels of eating disorder symptoms were associated with more authoritarian and permissive parenting styles. Authoritative parenting was not significantly related to eating disorder symptoms. The findings demonstrate that eating disorder symptoms in non-clinical individuals are related to less adaptive parenting styles. These findings have potential implications for clinicians working with mothers with eating disorders.

  13. [Drug abuse/dependence and developmental disorder: clinical features of drug abusers with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Toshihiko

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we review Western studies on the prevalence of comorbid attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) in individuals with drug abuse/dependence, and the associations of drug abuse/dependence with AD/HD. Additionally, we introduce our studies on the associations between adulthood drug abuse/dependence and the childhood AD/HD tendency in Japan, using a self-rating questionnaire to assess childhood AD/HD tendencies, the Japanese version of the Wender Utah Rating Scale. Our studies suggested that, while adulthood drug abuse/dependence may be closely associated with the childhood AD/HD tendency, as many Western studies have indicated, the abused substances most commonly chosen by drug abusers with a childhood AD/HD tendency were not methamphetamines but organic solvents, unlike in several Western studies. Our results did not support the findings of some Western studies: "preferences to choose a stimulant as "self-medication" to directly improve AD/HD symptoms. However, organic solvents appeared to be chosen as "self-medication" to cope with secondary/peripheral symptoms derived from AD/HD.

  14. Dependent personality disorder and physical abuse.

    PubMed

    Loas, Gwenolé; Cormier, Julie; Perez-Diaz, Fernando

    2011-01-30

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the likelihood of physical spousal abuse is increased in dependent personality disorder (DPD) compared to other personality disorders. The sample consisted of 305 subjects consecutively admitted to an outpatient department of legal medicine for physical abuse. Using the Structured Clinical Interview for Disorders, screen questionnaire (SCID-II-SQ), the subjects were divided into three groups: without personality disorders (WPD, N=108), with non-dependent personality disorders (NDPD, N=179) and with DPDs (DPD, N=18). First,, the three groups were compared to the rate of spouses among the perpetrators. The rate of spouses among the perpetrators was significantly different between the three groups: 44.4% of the perpetrators were the spouse for DPD subjects versus 11.2% for WPD and 20.1% for NDPD. Second, logistic regressions using the status of perpetrators (spouse or others) as dependent variable and socio-demographical variables as well as the rates of DPD, avoidant, obsessive-compulsive and borderline personality disorders as independent variables reported that these four disorders of personality were significant predictors. Moreover, the co-morbidities of DPD with avoidant, obsessive-compulsive or borderline personality disorders were higher than 50%. These results suggest first that DPD subjects are at high risk of physical abuse by their spouses and second that this relationship was found also for the two other cluster C personality disorders as well as for borderline personality disorder.

  15. Serotonin transporter polymorphism (5HTTLPR), severe childhood abuse and depressive symptom trajectories in adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Timothy B.; Gunn, Jane M.; Potiriadis, Maria; Everall, Ian P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Cross-sectional studies suggest that the serotonin transporter promoter region polymorphism (5-HTT gene-linked polymorphic region, 5HTTLPR) moderates the relationship between childhood abuse and major depressive disorder. Aims To examine whether the 5HTTLPR polymorphism moderates the effect childhood abuse has on 5-year depressive symptom severity trajectories in adulthood. Method At 5-year follow-up, DNA from 333 adult primary care attendees was obtained and genotyped for the 5HTTLPR polymorphism. Linear mixed models were used to test for a genotype × childhood abuse interaction effect on 5-year depressive symptom severity trajectories. Results After covariate adjustment, homozygous s allele carriers with a history of severe childhood abuse had significantly greater depressive symptom severity at baseline compared with those without a history of severe childhood abuse and this effect persisted throughout the 5-year period of observation. Conclusions The 5HTTLPR s/s genotype robustly moderates the effects of severe childhood abuse on depressive symptom severity trajectories in adulthood. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703731

  16. Three Types of Memory for Childhood Sexual Abuse: Relationships to Characteristics of Abuse and Psychological Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowley, M. Sue

    2008-01-01

    Data from a clinical sample (N = 88) reporting childhood sexual abuse was compared by types of memory, abuse characteristics, and psychological symptoms. Three types of memory were identified from a questionnaire ("Always" n = 27 [31%], "Recovered" n = 41 [46%], and "Both" n = 20 [23%]). When compared with narrative reports from a subset (n = 30)…

  17. Exploring the Role of Child Sexual Abuse and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Gay and Bisexual Men Reporting Compulsive Sexual Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blain, Leah M.; Muench, Fred; Morgenstern, Jon; Parsons, Jeffrey T.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Compulsive sexual behavior (CSB) is an impairing yet understudied clinical phenomenon. The experience of child sexual abuse (CSA) has been implicated as an etiological factor in the development of some cases of CSB (Kuzma & Black, 2008); however, research regarding the role of CSA and related psychopathology in CSB symptomatology has…

  18. [Association between depressive symptoms and alcohol abuse among students from Bucaramanga, Colombia].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, Diana Carolina; Dallos Bareño, Carlos Manuel; González Rueda, Silvia Juliana; Sánchez Herrera, Zayda Marcela; Díaz-Martínez, Luis Alfonso; Rueda-Jaimes, Germán Eduardo; Campo-Arias, Adalberto

    2005-01-01

    Various studies have reported an important association between depressive symptoms and alcohol abuse. However, the topic had not been investigated in Colombian students. This study focused on the association between depressive symptoms and alcohol abuse among high school students in Bucaramanga, Colombia. A self-reported anonymous questionnaire was answered by 560 15-19-year-olds. The survey included the Zung Self-Reported Depression Scale, CAGE Questionnaire for Alcohol Use, and VESPA questionnaire (Epidemiological Surveillance of Psychoactive Drugs). Logistic regression was used to establish associations. Prevalence was 5.7% for alcohol dependence and 39.5% for depressive symptoms. Associations were found between alcohol abuse and depressive symptoms (PR = 3.33; 95%CI: 1.41-7.83), poor self-perceived academic achievement (PR = 2.59; 95%CI: 1.16-5.37), and smoking (PR = 2.47; 95%CI: 1.13-5.40). The authors conclude that there is a strong association between depressive symptoms and alcohol abuse in Colombian high school students. Preventive programs are needed to identify early depressive disorders and alcohol abuse. PMID:16158145

  19. Symptom patterns in dissociative identity disorder patients and the general population.

    PubMed

    Ross, Colin A; Ness, Laura

    2010-01-01

    The authors used the Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule to compare structured interview symptom patterns in a general population sample (N= 502) and a sample of patients with clinical diagnoses of dissociative identity disorder (N= 303). Based on the Trauma Model, the authors predicted that the patterns would be similar in the 2 samples and that symptom scores would be higher in participants reporting childhood sexual abuse in both samples. They predicted that symptom scores would be higher among women with dissociative identity disorder reporting sexual abuse than among women in the general population reporting sexual abuse, with the clinical sample reporting more severe abuse. These predictions were supported by the data. The authors conclude that symptom patterns in dissociative identity disorder are typical of the normal human response to severe, chronic childhood trauma and have ecological validity for the human race in general.

  20. Kids with Bipolar Disorder More Likely to Abuse Drugs, Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161012.html Kids With Bipolar Disorder More Likely to Abuse Drugs, Alcohol: Study And ... 16, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- For some teens with bipolar disorder, the risk that they will abuse alcohol and ...

  1. Sexual abuse allegations by children with neuropsychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Lindblad, Frank; Lainpelto, Katrin

    2011-03-01

    All Swedish court cases from 2004 and 2006 concerning alleged child sexual abuse (sexual harassment excluded) were identified through criminal registers. Fourteen cases (one boy) concerned a child with a neuropsychiatric disorder. The diagnostic groups were mental retardation (10 cases), autism (three cases), and ADHD (one case). Psychiatric experts were engaged in only two cases. When experts were involved, the courts focused on credibility issues. When the courts applied neuropsychiatric arguments in the absence of an expert, they used developmental arguments. When the authors found that significant neuropsychiatric issues were not discussed by the court it concerned interpretations of symptoms and developmental standpoints. The results illustrate the complexity and pitfalls of drawing conclusions about associations between symptoms and personality characteristics on one side and accuracy of sexual abuse allegations on the other. Moreover, the results highlight the importance of a high quality system for providing courts with adequate neuropsychiatric knowledge.

  2. [Symptoms profile of mixed anxiety and depressive disorder].

    PubMed

    Małyszczak, K; Sidorowicz, S; Łaczmański, T

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes symptoms of mixed depressive and anxiety disorder (ICD-10). The study was carried out in three medical dispensaries: two psychiatric (42 persons) and one primary care (62 persons). Patients with or without anxiety and depressive symptoms were included. Exclusion criteria was: psychoactive substance abuse, physical diseases affecting mental state, and mental disorders other than anxiety or mood disorders. A total of 104 patients (65 women and 39 men in mean age of 41.1 years) were inquired with General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-30), Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) and diagnostic questionnaire based on Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry, Version 2.0. There was no pattern of symptoms specific for mixed disorder that could be a basis for operational criteria. The most frequent were symptoms of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD), depression and dysthymia. The most specific symptoms, selected using discriminant analysis were: (1) difficulty in concentrating, (2) feeling mentally tense, (3) feeling of hopelessness or despair, (4) shortening of breath, (5) lowered mood, (6) feeling dizzy, unsteady, faint, or light headed; (7) early waking up, (8) nightmares, (9) dry mouth, (10) hot flushes or cold chills, (11) frequent tearfulness. The results contribute to the concept that mixed depression and anxiety disorder is closely related to generalised anxiety disorder (GAD). PMID:11842606

  3. Sexual abuse predicts functional somatic symptoms: an adolescent population study.

    PubMed

    Bonvanie, Irma J; van Gils, Anne; Janssens, Karin A M; Rosmalen, Judith G M

    2015-08-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of childhood sexual abuse on medically not well explained or functional somatic symptoms (FSSs) in adolescents. We hypothesized that sexual abuse predicts higher levels of FSSs and that anxiety and depression contribute to this relationship. In addition, we hypothesized that more severe abuse is associated with higher levels of FSSs and that sexual abuse is related to gastrointestinal FSSs in particular. This study was part of the Tracking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS): a general population cohort which started in 2001 (N=2,230; 50.8% girls, mean age 11.1 years). The current study uses data of 1,680 participants over four assessment waves (75% of baseline, mean duration of follow-up: 8 years). FSSs were measured by the Somatic Complaints subscale of the Youth Self-Report at all waves. Sexual abuse before the age of sixteen was assessed retrospectively with a questionnaire at T4. To test the hypotheses linear mixed models were used adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, anxiety and depression. Sexual abuse predicted higher levels of FSSs after adjustment for age sex and socioeconomic status (B=.06) and after additional adjustment for anxiety and depression (B=.03). While sexual abuse involving physical contact significantly predicted the level of FSSs (assault; B=.08, rape; B=.05), non-contact sexual abuse was not significantly associated with FSSs (B=.04). Sexual abuse was not a stronger predictor of gastrointestinal FSSs (B=.06) than of all FSSs. Further research is needed to clarify possible mechanisms underlying relationship between sexual abuse and FSSs. PMID:26142915

  4. [Negative symptoms in schizophrenia and substance-related disorders].

    PubMed

    Simon, N; Belzeaux, R; Adida, M; Azorin, J-M

    2015-12-01

    Dual diagnosis of schizophrenia and substance-related disorders is common in psychiatric practice. Epidemiologic studies and report have established that the risk of a substance-related disorder was 4 to 5 times higher in a population of psychiatric patients than in the general population. However, little is known on the reason of this relationship and the treatments required. It's well known that a family history of psychosis is a risk factor of schizophrenia. Similarly a family history of substance use disorders increases the risk of using substances. Because the two disorders often occurred together, it could be hypothesized that a genetic risk factor is common. However, recent studies did not confirm this hypothesis and it seems that their genetic risks factor would be unrelated. Evidence now exists describing the different profiles of patients whether they used substance or not. Concerning negative symptoms clinical studies and meta-analyses have described fewer symptoms in schizophrenia patients with a substance use disorder. Among the different explanations that have been addressed, it seems that a lower capability of obtaining the substance could partly explain this relationship. Perhaps because patients with social withdrawal have more difficulties to find and spend the time required to obtain abused substances. At the opposite some products such as cocaine may relieve some symptoms especially anhedonia and alogia. However the link between substance-related disorders and negative symptoms is weak and decreases in more recent studies, probably because negative symptoms as well as addiction disorders are better characterized. Considering that treating psychiatric symptoms may not always lead to a decrease in the substance-related disorders but that patients who give up substances improve their psychotic symptoms, a therapeutic strategy should be planned for these dual disorders patients combining psychiatry and addiction interventions.

  5. Childhood Abuse, Body Image Disturbance, and Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaaf, Kristin K.; McCanne, Thomas R.

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among childhood sexual and physical abuse, body image disturbance, and eating disorder symptomatology in college students, of whom 29 had been sexually abused, 32 physically abused, and 29 nonabused. There was no evidence that child sexual or physical abuse was associated with the development of body image…

  6. Negative Generalization and Symptoms of Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fulford, Daniel; Rosen, Rebecca K.; Johnson, Sheri L.; Carver, Charles S.

    2013-01-01

    The tendency to generalize from a single failure to one's entire self-worth is an important correlate and predictor of depression. Despite conceptual overlap between cognitive biases in anxiety and depression, little research has examined whether negative generalization relates to anxiety symptoms. We examined associations of negative generalization with symptoms of several anxiety disorders, above and beyond its association with lifetime symptoms of depression, among 248 undergraduates. After controlling for lifetime symptoms of major depression, negative generalization was significantly correlated with symptoms of each anxiety disorder tested, most notably generalized anxiety and social phobia. PMID:24340170

  7. Manualized treatment for substance abusers with personality disorders: dual focus schema therapy.

    PubMed

    Ball, S A

    1998-01-01

    The presence of an untreated personality disorder may be associated with worse compliance and outcome in substance abuse treatment. Therapeutic attention to the symptoms of personality disorder may reduce the severity of substance abuse and other Axis I symptoms which potentially contribute to relapse. A 24-week manual-guided individual cognitive-behavioral therapy approach has been developed that integrates relapse prevention with targeted intervention for early maladaptive schemas (enduring negative beliefs about oneself, others, and events) and coping styles. This Dual Focus Schema Therapy is being compared to 12-Step Drug Counseling for opioid-dependent individuals with personality disorders in an ongoing study funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse. This article reviews Young's (1994) schema-focused theory and approach and summarizes the treatment manual, which integrates relapse prevention for substance abuse.

  8. [Clinical and psychological disorders of pregnant women induced by abuse].

    PubMed

    Diquelou, J-Y; Amar, P; Boyer, S; Montilla, F; Karoubi, R

    2008-06-01

    This study is performed on a population of pregnant women during the second trimester of their pregnancy. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that clinical symptoms noticeable by the obstétricians during their consultations. Eight hundred and fifty-three patients have been involved in this study by responding to an anonymous questionnary. Hundred and seventy-five patients(groupI) have been abuse either physically or psychologically or sexually. The study shows that there is a strong difference between the groupI and the group without abuse in their medical past history (678 patients) about the occurracy of several disorders. The most frequently observed troubles are sexuals disorders, school failures, deficients relationship with others persons, anxiety and troubles of humor. We can concluded, about those clinical manifestations, that they do exist during pregnancy and probably thoses symptoms are linked to traumatism occured during their past history. Obstetricians must look after thoses symptoms very seriously to propose a good management of the pregnancy either about their psychological problems or about the social environnement in which they live.

  9. Do Trauma Symptoms Mediate the Relationship between Childhood Physical Abuse and Adult Child Abuse Risk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Joel S.; Thomsen, Cynthia J.; Crouch, Julie L.; Rabenhorst, Mandy M.; Martens, Patricia M.; Dyslin, Christopher W.; Guimond, Jennifer M.; Stander, Valerie A.; Merrill, Lex L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Although the intergenerational transmission of family violence has been well documented, the mechanisms responsible for this effect have not been fully determined. The present study examined whether trauma symptoms mediate the relationship between a childhood history of child physical abuse (CPA) and adult CPA risk, and whether any such…

  10. Childhood Maltreatment and Social Anxiety Disorder: Implications for Symptom Severity and Response to Pharmacotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Laura C.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Blanco, Carlos; Schneier, Franklin R.; Liebowitz, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Childhood maltreatment has been associated with symptom severity, reduced quality of life, and impaired functioning in adults with social anxiety disorder (SAD). No study has investigated how childhood maltreatment impacts pharmacotherapy outcomes in this population, despite evidence for such a link in depression. The current study replicates previous work on childhood maltreatment within SAD and examines its impact on response to pharmacotherapy. Methods 156 individuals seeking treatment for SAD completed the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, which measures various types of abuse and neglect, along with measures of symptom severity, quality of life, and disability. Data from a subset of patients enrolled in a paroxetine trial (N=127) were analyzed to gauge the impact of childhood maltreatment on attrition and treatment response. Results All types of maltreatment except for sexual abuse and physical abuse were related to greater symptom severity. Emotional abuse and neglect were related to greater disability, and emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and physical abuse were related to decreased quality of life. Emotional abuse significantly predicted attrition. A time by emotional abuse interaction suggests that for those who stayed the course, the impact of emotional abuse on severity of social anxiety weakened significantly over time. Conclusions Emotional maltreatment was most strongly linked to dysfunction in SAD, despite a tendency in the anxiety literature to focus on the effects of sexual and physical abuse. Additionally, individuals reporting emotional abuse were more likely to dropout from pharmacotherapy, but those who stayed the course displayed similar outcomes to those without such a history. PMID:22065560

  11. Psychiatric Disorders of Children Living with Drug-Abusing, Alcohol-Abusing, and Non-Substance-Abusing Fathers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Michelle L.; Fals-Stewart, William

    2004-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined lifetime psychiatric disorders and current emotional and behavioral problems of 8- to 12-year-old children living with drug-abusing (DA) fathers compared to children living in demographically matched homes with alcohol-abusing (AA) or non-substance-abusing fathers. Method: Children's lifetime psychiatric…

  12. Child abuse predicts adult PTSD symptoms among individuals diagnosed with intellectual disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Catani, Claudia; Sossalla, Iris M.

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has shown that people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are more likely to experience child abuse as well as other forms of traumatic or negative events later in life compared to the general population. Little is known however, about the association of these experiences with adult mental health in intellectually disabled individuals. The present study aimed to assess whether child abuse in families and institutions as well as other types of adverse life events, were associated with current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms in individuals with ID. We conducted clinical interviews which included standardized self-report measures for childhood abuse, PTSD, and depression in an unselected sample of 56 persons with a medical diagnosis of ID who were attending a specialized welfare center. The frequency of traumatic experiences was very high, with physical and emotional child abuse being the most common trauma types. 87% of the persons reported at least one aversive experience on the family violence spectrum, and 50% of the sample reported a violent physical attack later in adulthood. 25% were diagnosed with PTSD and almost 27% had a critical score on the depression scale. Physical and emotional child abuse was positively correlated with the amount of institutional violence and the number of general traumatic events, whereas childhood sexual abuse was related to the experience of intimate partner violence in adult life. A linear regression model revealed child abuse in the family to be the only significant independent predictor of PTSD symptom severity. The current findings underscore the central role of child maltreatment in the increased risk of further victimization and in the development of mental health problems in adulthood in intellectually disabled individuals. Our data have important clinical implications and demonstrate the need for targeted prevention and intervention programs that are tailored to the specific needs

  13. Child abuse predicts adult PTSD symptoms among individuals diagnosed with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Catani, Claudia; Sossalla, Iris M

    2015-01-01

    Prior research has shown that people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are more likely to experience child abuse as well as other forms of traumatic or negative events later in life compared to the general population. Little is known however, about the association of these experiences with adult mental health in intellectually disabled individuals. The present study aimed to assess whether child abuse in families and institutions as well as other types of adverse life events, were associated with current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression symptoms in individuals with ID. We conducted clinical interviews which included standardized self-report measures for childhood abuse, PTSD, and depression in an unselected sample of 56 persons with a medical diagnosis of ID who were attending a specialized welfare center. The frequency of traumatic experiences was very high, with physical and emotional child abuse being the most common trauma types. 87% of the persons reported at least one aversive experience on the family violence spectrum, and 50% of the sample reported a violent physical attack later in adulthood. 25% were diagnosed with PTSD and almost 27% had a critical score on the depression scale. Physical and emotional child abuse was positively correlated with the amount of institutional violence and the number of general traumatic events, whereas childhood sexual abuse was related to the experience of intimate partner violence in adult life. A linear regression model revealed child abuse in the family to be the only significant independent predictor of PTSD symptom severity. The current findings underscore the central role of child maltreatment in the increased risk of further victimization and in the development of mental health problems in adulthood in intellectually disabled individuals. Our data have important clinical implications and demonstrate the need for targeted prevention and intervention programs that are tailored to the specific needs

  14. Personality disorder and dimension differences between type A and type B substance abusers.

    PubMed

    Ball, S A; Kranzler, H R; Tennen, H; Poling, J C; Rounsaville, B J

    1998-01-01

    Substance abuse subtype differences in DSM-IV personality disorders and normal personality dimensions were evaluated in 370 inpatient and outpatient alcohol, cocaine, and opiate abusers. The Type A/Type B distinction was replicated, with Type B substance abusers exhibiting more premorbid risk factors, more severe substance abuse, and greater psychosocial impairment. As predicted, compared to Type A, Type B were more commonly diagnosed with, and had more severe symptoms of, all personality disorders except Schizoid. With regard to normal personality dimensions, Type B scored higher on neuroticism, novelty seeking, and harm avoidance; Type A scored higher on agreeableness, conscientiousness, cooperativeness, and self-directedness. These subtype differences remained after controlling for the effects of antisocial personality and psychiatric symptoms.

  15. Symptom overreporting and recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Geraerts, Elke; Jelicic, Marko; Merckelbach, Harald

    2006-10-01

    The authenticity of recovered memories is a much debated issue. Surprisingly, no study has systematically looked at symptom overreporting in people claiming recovered memories of childhood sexual abuse (CSA). In a first sample we administered the Structured Inventory of Malingered Symptomatology (SIMS) to individuals who said they had recovered CSA memories (n=66), individuals who said their CSA had always been accessible (continuous CSA memory group; n=119), and controls who said they had no CSA experiences (n=83). In a second sample individuals reporting recovered (n=45) or continuous (n=45) CSA memories completed the Morel Emotional Numbing Test (MENT). Our aim was to compare these groups with regard to their tendency to overreport symptoms. The results indicate that people with recovered memories do not score higher on the SIMS and the MENT than other CSA survivors suggesting that symptom overreporting is not typical for people reporting recovered memories.

  16. Child Abuse, Dissociation, and Core Beliefs in Bulimic Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartt, Joanne; Waller, Glenn

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 23 British women with bulimic disorders found no dimensional relationship between any form of child abuse and bulimic pathology. However, neglect and sexual abuse were correlated with dissociation. A subset of core beliefs was associated with child abuse, with different cognitive profiles associated with each trauma. (Contains…

  17. Schemas and Borderline Personality Disorder symptoms in incarcerated women.

    PubMed

    Specht, Matt W; Chapman, Alex; Cellucci, Tony

    2009-06-01

    There is increasing interest regarding the role of maladaptive cognition in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). The current study examined the relationship between early maladaptive schema (EMS) domains and BPD symptoms as well as whether schema domains account for the relationship between childhood maltreatment and BPD severity. Incarcerated women (N=105) were assessed for BPD symptoms via semi-structured diagnostic interview. Disconnection/Rejection and Impaired Limits were associated with BPD pathology although these domains shared variance with depression and antisocial personality disorder pathology, respectively. In addition, the relationship between childhood abuse and BPD severity was non-significant after controlling for schema domains. Related findings and the implications for cognitive treatment of BPD are discussed. PMID:19159865

  18. Schemas and Borderline Personality Disorder symptoms in incarcerated women.

    PubMed

    Specht, Matt W; Chapman, Alex; Cellucci, Tony

    2009-06-01

    There is increasing interest regarding the role of maladaptive cognition in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). The current study examined the relationship between early maladaptive schema (EMS) domains and BPD symptoms as well as whether schema domains account for the relationship between childhood maltreatment and BPD severity. Incarcerated women (N=105) were assessed for BPD symptoms via semi-structured diagnostic interview. Disconnection/Rejection and Impaired Limits were associated with BPD pathology although these domains shared variance with depression and antisocial personality disorder pathology, respectively. In addition, the relationship between childhood abuse and BPD severity was non-significant after controlling for schema domains. Related findings and the implications for cognitive treatment of BPD are discussed.

  19. FKBP5 polymorphisms, childhood abuse, and PTSD symptoms: Results from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Laura E; Han, Shizhong; Harpaz-Rotem, Ilan; Mota, Natalie P; Southwick, Steven M; Krystal, John H; Gelernter, Joel; Pietrzak, Robert H

    2016-07-01

    Polymorphisms in the FK506 Binding Protein 5 (FKBP5) gene may interact with childhood abuse to increase risk of developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of four previously identified FKBP5 putative risk SNPs (rs9296158, rs3800373, rs1360780, rs947008), childhood abuse, and lifetime PTSD symptoms, including contemporary phenotypic models of PTSD symptoms, in two nationally representative samples of European-American (EA) U.S. military veterans. The main sample included 1585 EA veterans who participated in the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study (NHRVS), and the replication sample included 577 EA veterans who participated in a second baseline cohort survey of the NHRVS. Outcome variables were lifetime PTSD symptom severity and a 4-factor phenotypic model of PTSD symptoms that included re-experiencing, avoidance, emotional numbing/negative cognitions and mood, and hyperarousal/alterations in arousal and reactivity symptoms. Results revealed that the four FKBP5 SNPs were associated with PTSD symptom severity in both samples (p values ranged from 0.001 to 0.012). Further, SNP rs9470080 in the main sample, and all four SNPs in the replication sample interacted with childhood abuse to predict PTSD severity (p values ranged from 0.002 to 0.006). In both samples, all four FKBP5 SNPs predicted hyperarousal/alterations in arousal and reactivity (p values ranged from<0.001 to 0.002). Results of this study suggest that FKBP5 polymorphisms, directly and interactively with childhood abuse, predict severity of lifetime PTSD symptoms, most notably hyperarousal symptoms, in two nationally representative samples of EA veterans. They further indicate that FKBP5 polymorphisms and childhood abuse may contribute to vulnerability for PTSD symptoms and may be most strongly associated with trauma-related hyperarousal symptoms that comprise this phenotype.

  20. Childhood Traumatic Experiences, Dissociative Symptoms, and Dissociative Disorder Comorbidity Among Patients With Panic Disorder: A Preliminary Study.

    PubMed

    Ural, Cenk; Belli, Hasan; Akbudak, Mahir; Tabo, Abdulkadir

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed childhood trauma history, dissociative symptoms, and dissociative disorder comorbidity in patients with panic disorder (PD). A total of 92 psychotropic drug-naive patients with PD, recruited from outpatient clinics in the psychiatry department of a Turkish hospital, were involved in the study. Participants were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders (SCID-D), Dissociation Questionnaire, Panic and Agoraphobia Scale, Panic Disorder Severity Scale, and Childhood Trauma Questionnaire. Of the patients with PD, 18 (19%) had a comorbid dissociative disorder diagnosis on screening with the SCID-D. The most prevalent disorders were dissociative disorder not otherwise specified, dissociative amnesia, and depersonalization disorders. Patients with a high degree of dissociation symptoms and dissociative disorder comorbidity had more severe PD than those without (p < .05). All of the childhood trauma subscales used were correlated with the severity of symptoms of dissociation and PD. Among all of the subscales, the strongest relationship was with childhood emotional abuse. Logistic regression analysis showed that emotional abuse and severity of PD were independently associated with dissociative disorder. In our study, a significant proportion of the patients with PD had concurrent diagnoses of dissociative disorder. We conclude that the predominance of PD symptoms at admission should not lead the clinician to overlook the underlying dissociative process and associated traumatic experiences among these patients.

  1. Substances of abuse and movement disorders: complex interactions and comorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Deik, Andres; Saunders-Pullman, Rachel; Luciano, Marta San

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between movement disorders and substance abuse which we previously reviewed are updated. We examine these relationships bidirectionally with focus on drugs of abuse which cause movement disorders, as well as primary movement disorders that are associated with use and abuse of alcohol and dopaminergic medications. First, we review the movement disorders that may develop from the acute use or withdrawal of frequent drugs of abuse, including alcohol, cocaine, heroin, amphetamine and methcathinone. We then comment on the interaction between alcoholism and alcohol-responsive movement disorders, such as essential tremor and myoclonus-dystonia. Lastly, we discuss the potential for abuse of antiparkinsonian dopaminergic agents in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). PMID:23030352

  2. Evaluation for bleeding disorders in suspected child abuse.

    PubMed

    Anderst, James D; Carpenter, Shannon L; Abshire, Thomas C

    2013-04-01

    Bruising or bleeding in a child can raise the concern for child abuse. Assessing whether the findings are the result of trauma and/or whether the child has a bleeding disorder is critical. Many bleeding disorders are rare, and not every child with bruising/bleeding concerning for abuse requires an evaluation for bleeding disorders. In some instances, however, bleeding disorders can present in a manner similar to child abuse. The history and clinical evaluation can be used to determine the necessity of an evaluation for a possible bleeding disorder, and prevalence and known clinical presentations of individual bleeding disorders can be used to guide the extent of the laboratory testing. This clinical report provides guidance to pediatricians and other clinicians regarding the evaluation for bleeding disorders when child abuse is suspected.

  3. Evaluation for bleeding disorders in suspected child abuse.

    PubMed

    Anderst, James D; Carpenter, Shannon L; Abshire, Thomas C

    2013-04-01

    Bruising or bleeding in a child can raise the concern for child abuse. Assessing whether the findings are the result of trauma and/or whether the child has a bleeding disorder is critical. Many bleeding disorders are rare, and not every child with bruising/bleeding concerning for abuse requires an evaluation for bleeding disorders. In some instances, however, bleeding disorders can present in a manner similar to child abuse. The history and clinical evaluation can be used to determine the necessity of an evaluation for a possible bleeding disorder, and prevalence and known clinical presentations of individual bleeding disorders can be used to guide the extent of the laboratory testing. This clinical report provides guidance to pediatricians and other clinicians regarding the evaluation for bleeding disorders when child abuse is suspected. PMID:23530182

  4. Role of sexual abuse in development of conversion disorder: case report.

    PubMed

    Sobot, V; Ivanovic-Kovacevic, S; Markovic, J; Misic-Pavkov, G; Novovic, Z

    2012-02-01

    Described case report speaks in favour of the relation between childhood sexual abuse with the development of conversion disorder. Following Salmonella poisoning, adolescent, at the age of 16, develops series of severe somatic symptoms. Results of diagnostic procedures excluded organic foundation of the symptoms; diagnosis of conversion disorder is established. Soon, patient's problems stop abruptly and spontaneously, and the aetiology of the mental disorder remains unexplained. Six years later, adolescent reveals for the first time data about the childhood sexual abuse during the forensic evaluation (within the court process related to the request for compensation for the complications which occurred following the Salmonella infection). During the forensic evaluation, we had insight into the previous medical history, while an interview, psychological and psychiatric exploration was conducted with the examinee. Data about the sexual abuse retrospectively explain the dynamics of the development of conversion disorder. The described case indicates that sexual abuse of children and adolescents frequently remains unrecognized, which has sequels for treatment and prevention of subsequent consequences for mental health. It is important to emphasize the significance of examining history of abuse during the diagnostic of certain mental disorders. Forensic implications of the case have not been discussed in details for the needs of this report.

  5. Signs and Symptoms of a Bleeding Disorder in Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... Us Information For... Media Policy Makers Blood Disorders Signs and Symptoms Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Bleeding Disorders Download and print this fact sheet » Signs and symptoms of a bleeding disorder: I have ...

  6. Persistent Alterations in Biological Profiles in Women With Abuse Histories: Influence of Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Girdler, Susan S.; Leserman, Jane; Bunevicius, Robertas; Klatzkin, Rebecca; Pedersen, Cort A.; Light, Kathleen C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine dysregulation in biological measures associated with histories of abuse in women and whether women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) differ in their dysregulation. Design Twenty-five women meeting prospective criteria for PMDD and 42 non-PMDD controls underwent structured interview to determine abuse histories and lifetime Axis I diagnoses, excluding those with current Axis I disorders or using medications. Major Outcome Measures Plasma cortisol and norepinephrine (NE), heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), and vascular resistance index (VRI) were assessed at rest and in response to mental stress. Results A greater proportion of PMDD women had prior abuse compared with non-PMDD women. Regardless of PMDD status, all abused women had lower plasma NE and higher HRs and tended to have lower plasma cortisol at rest and during stress. Abused women also reported more severe daily emotional and physical symptoms. Greater VRI and BP at rest and during stress were seen only in PMDD women with abuse. Conclusion There is persistent dysregulation in stress-responsive systems in all abused women that cannot be accounted for by current psychiatric illness or medications, and PMDD women may be differentially more vulnerable to the impact of abuse on measures reflecting α-adrenergic receptor function. PMID:17385972

  7. Child Abuse and Mental Disorders in Iranian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Pirdehghan, Azar; Vakili, Mahmood; Rajabzadeh, Yavar; Puyandehpour, Mohammad; Aghakoochak, Arezoo

    2016-01-01

    Background Child abuse is a serious social health problem all over the world with important adverse effects. Objectives The aim of this study was to extend our understanding of the relation between mental disorders and child abuse. Materials and Methods The study was designed as a cross-sectional survey on 700 students in secondary schools using multiple cluster sampling in Yazd, Iran in 2013. We applied 2 self reported questionnaires: DASS (depression anxiety stress scales)-42 for assessing mental disorders (anxiety, stress and depression) and a standard self-reported valid and reliable questionnaire for recording child abuse information in neglect, psychological, physical and sexual domains. The collected data was analyzed using SPSS software. P-values < 0.05 were considered as significant. Results There was a statically significant correlation between mental disorder and child abuse score (Spearman rho: 0.2; P-value < 0.001). The highest correlations between mental disorders and child abuse were found in psychological domain, Spearman’s rho coefficients were 0.46, 0.41 and 0.36 for depression, anxiety and stress respectively (P-value < 0.001). Based on the results of logistic regression for mental disorder, females, last born adolescents and subjects with drug or alcohol abuser parents had mental disorder odds of 3, 0.4 and 1.9 times compared to others; and severe psychological abuse, being severely neglected and having sexual abuse had odds 90, 1.6 and 1.5 respectively in another model. Conclusions Programming for mandatory reporting of child abuse by physicians and all health care givers e.g. those attending schools or health centers, in order to prevent or reduce its detrimental effects is useful and success in preventing child abuse could lead to reductions in the prevalence of mental disorders. PMID:27437096

  8. Dual Diagnosis: Substance Abuse and Mental Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... because of binge drinking, to someone’s symptoms of bipolar disorder becoming more severe when that person abuses heroin ... your story Mental Illness ADHD Anxiety Disorders Autism Bipolar Disorder Borderline Personality Disorder Depression Dissociative Disorders Eating Disorders ...

  9. High prevalence of symptoms in a severely abused “non-patient” women population

    PubMed Central

    Pallotta, N; Piacentino, D; Ciccantelli, B; Rivera, M; Golini, N; Spagnoli, A; Vincoli, G; Farchi, S

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of this article is to assess the prevalence of somatic symptoms and of gastrointestinal (GI) syndromes in abused “non-patient” women and the association with the time of perpetration, type, and severity of abuse. Methods Sixty-seven women, 18–58 years, receiving shelter in anti-violence associations were invited to fill out an anonymous questionnaire with a medical and an abuse section. The severity of abuse was expressed as the 0–6 Abuse Severity Measure (ASM). The association between abuse characteristics and the number of symptoms, and GI syndromes was assessed by Poisson regression model. Results Most women suffered from childhood and adulthood sexual and physical abuse. They reported a mean of 5.1 GI symptoms (range 0–13; median 5; IQR 6) and of 1.3 extra-GI symptoms (range 0–6; median 1; IQR 2); 30% of women matched the Rome II Criteria for one, 36% for two, and 4.4% for three or more syndromes, respectively. Women with an ASM of 5–6, having suffered from both sexual and physical abuse, reported significantly (p = 0.02) more GI symptoms, but not extra-GI ones (p = 0.07), and met criteria for more GI syndromes than women with an ASM ≤4 and those reporting only one type of abuse. No association was found between the time of perpetration of the abuse and the number of GI and extra-GI symptoms. Conclusions Symptoms in abused “non-patient” women mainly concern the abdomen and the GI tract. A history of severe, combined physical and sexual abuse is associated with a higher number of GI symptoms. PMID:25452847

  10. Sexual abuse in childhood and the mentally disordered female offender.

    PubMed

    Silberman, Matthew

    2010-10-01

    This study examines the role that a history of child sexual abuse played in the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders in a sample of 321 female offenders incarcerated in a maximum-security prison for women. The results show that a history of child sexual abuse increases the likelihood that an inmate would receive mental health treatment. Psychotropic medication is frequently prescribed in response to adjustment problems associated with childhood sexual abuse. White women who exhibit adjustment problems associated with a history of child sexual abuse are especially likely to be diagnosed as mentally disordered at admission and to be sent to the mental health unit for treatment. In the absence of a diagnosed mental disorder at admission, women who receive psychotropic medication to help them adjust to prison life are likely to be diagnosed with a mental disorder later on.

  11. Aripiprazole Improved Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms in Asperger's Disorder.

    PubMed

    Celik, Gonca; Tahiroglu, Aysegul Yolga; Firat, Sunay; Avci, Ayşe

    2011-12-01

    There are many comorbid disorders associated with autism spectrum disorders in child and adolescent population. Although obsessive compulsive disorder and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) comorbidity has common in clinical practice, there are few reports about psychopharmacological treatment for obsessive compulsive symptoms in children with ASD in the literacy. We report a successful treatment case with aripiprazole in Asperger's Disorder with obsessive compulsive symptoms. The Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale was performed to assess symptom variety. This case report supports the effectiveness of aripiprazole in treatment of obsessive compulsive symptoms in Asperger's Disorder or ASDs. Aripiprazole may be beneficial to obsessive compulsive disorder comorbid autism spectrum disorders in child and adolescent age group.

  12. A Validational Study of the Structured Interview of Symptoms Associated with Sexual Abuse (SASA) Using Three Samples of Sexually Abused, Allegedly Abused, and Nonabused Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Robert; McCann, John; Adams, Joyce; Voris, Joan; Dahl, Barbara

    1997-01-01

    A study validated the use of a structured parent interview regarding emotional, behavioral, and physical symptoms by comparing results among 22 sexually abused boys whose perpetrator confessed, 47 boys evaluated in a sexual abuse clinic but without a history of perpetrator confession, and 52 nonabused boys (ages 3-15). (Author/CR)

  13. Metacognitive interpersonal therapy for co-occurrent avoidant personality disorder and substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Dimaggio, Giancarlo; D'Urzo, Maddalena; Pasinetti, Manuela; Salvatore, Giampaolo; Lysaker, Paul H; Catania, Dario; Popolo, Raffaele

    2015-02-01

    Many patients with substance abuse problems present with co-occurrent cluster C personality disorders. Focusing on both disorders disrupts the maintenance mechanisms and the vicious cycle between the 2 conditions; however, treatment teams often neglect this issue. In this work, we describe the features of metacognitive interpersonal therapy as applied to a man with avoidant and depressive personality disorders and heroin, cocaine, and alcohol abuse. Psychotherapy proceeded through the following steps: (a) conducting drug therapy to deal with symptoms of abstinence from heroin; (b) forming a therapeutic bond to overcome the patient's severe emotional withdrawal; (c) fostering basic metacognitive capacities such as awareness of emotions and their triggers; (d) sharing formulations of maladaptive interpersonal schemas and descriptions of the associated states of mind; (e) conveying an understanding of the link between interpersonal events (recent ones and traumatic memories) and substance abuse; (f) facilitating the acquisition of critical distance from maladaptive schemas; and (g) promoting the use of adaptive coping skills instead of resorting to substance abuse. Implications for generalizing these procedures to the treatment of other patients with co-occurrent personality disorders and substance abuse are described.

  14. Eating Disorders and Sexual Abuse among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Jeanne

    This study was conducted to examine the list of identifying factors and predictors of childhood physical abuse, extrafamilial sexual abuse, and incest among male and female adolescents in the general population. In 1989, a survey was administered to 6,224 9th and 12th grade students in public schools in Minnesota. The findings revealed that more…

  15. Eating disorder symptoms pre- and postpartum.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Cecilia Brundin; Zandian, Modjtaba; Clinton, David

    2016-08-01

    The study aimed to investigate symptoms of disordered eating pre- and postpartum using a standardised and widely used measure of eating disorder (ED) psychopathology. A consecutive series of women attending either prenatal (N = 426) or postnatal (N = 345) clinics in metropolitan Stockholm were assessed using the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). Assessments were conducted at either the first visit to prenatal clinics (10-12 weeks of pregnancy) or 6 to 8 months postpartum. An optimised shortened version of the EDE-Q was best suited for studying eating disorders pre- and postpartum. Using the optimised version of the instrument with 14 items and a cut-off score of ≥2.8, it was estimated that 5.3 % of prepartum and 12.8 % of postpartum mothers were suffering from clinical eating disorders. Seriously disordered eating behaviour during, and especially after, pregnancy may be more common than previously thought. It is imperative that health services focus increased attention on these problems by raising awareness, developing and extending specialist services, as well as through implementing educational programmes and training directed toward frontline healthcare services.

  16. Eating disorder symptoms pre- and postpartum.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Cecilia Brundin; Zandian, Modjtaba; Clinton, David

    2016-08-01

    The study aimed to investigate symptoms of disordered eating pre- and postpartum using a standardised and widely used measure of eating disorder (ED) psychopathology. A consecutive series of women attending either prenatal (N = 426) or postnatal (N = 345) clinics in metropolitan Stockholm were assessed using the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q). Assessments were conducted at either the first visit to prenatal clinics (10-12 weeks of pregnancy) or 6 to 8 months postpartum. An optimised shortened version of the EDE-Q was best suited for studying eating disorders pre- and postpartum. Using the optimised version of the instrument with 14 items and a cut-off score of ≥2.8, it was estimated that 5.3 % of prepartum and 12.8 % of postpartum mothers were suffering from clinical eating disorders. Seriously disordered eating behaviour during, and especially after, pregnancy may be more common than previously thought. It is imperative that health services focus increased attention on these problems by raising awareness, developing and extending specialist services, as well as through implementing educational programmes and training directed toward frontline healthcare services. PMID:26961005

  17. Traumatic Symptoms in Sexually Abused Children: Implications for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Sarah D.; Brack, Greg; Mullis, Frances Y.

    2008-01-01

    School counselors have a duty to formulate strategies that aid in the detection and prevention of child sexual abuse (American School Counselor Association, 2003). School counselors are charged with helping sexually abused children by recognizing sexual abuse indicators based on a child's symptomatology and/or behavior, and understanding how this…

  18. Psychological Abuse and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avant, Elizabeth M.; Swopes, Rachel M.; Davis, Joanne L.; Elhai, Jon D.

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that among college students, physical and sexual abuse in intimate relationships are associated with posttraumatic stress. Psychological abuse occurs in intimate relationships among college students, and though there is evidence that such abuse has a negative emotional impact, posttraumatic stress has not been extensively…

  19. Childhood Sexual Abuse and Borderline Personality Disorder in the Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Glenn

    1994-01-01

    Examination of 115 women with eating disorders revealed a secondary diagnosis of borderline personality disorder associated with a history of childhood sexual abuse. A model involving background features, precipitants, and immediate and long-term psychological consequences is suggested to explain the link to childhood abuse, and implications for…

  20. Urogenital tract disorders in children suspected of being sexually abused

    PubMed Central

    Wojciechowska, Joanna; Krefft, Maja; Hirnle, Lidia; Kołodziej, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Child sexual abuse (CSA) is generally defined as child exploitation that leads to achievement of sexual satisfaction. According to data from European countries, sexual abuse of children affects 10–40% of girls and 5–20% of boys. Material and methods The Medline, and Web of Science databases were searched with no date limitation on May 2015 using the terms ‘child abuse’ in conjunction with ‘urinary tract’, ‘urologist’, ‘urological dysfunction’, ‘urologic symptoms’, ‘LUTS’ or ‘urinary infection’. Results Awareness of the CSA problem among paediatricians and urologists is very important, because they are often the only physicians who are able to recognize the problem. CSA diagnosis is possible only through the proper collection of a medical history and a thorough physical examination. Urologists have to remember that children exposed to sexual abuse rarely exhibit abnormal genital findings. In fact, absence of genital findings is the rule rather than the exception. In most cases, the final diagnosis of sexual abuse is based on the child's history and behavior, along with the onset and exacerbation of urologic symptoms. Conclusions In this article, we present a review of studies and literature concerning urinary symptoms in sexually abused children to clarify the problem for a broad group of urologists. We present common symptoms and premises that can point to the right diagnosis and basic guidelines of proceeding after suspicion of abuse. PMID:27123337

  1. Physical and Sexual Abuse and Early-Onset Bipolar Disorder in Youths Receiving Outpatient Services: Frequent, but Not Specific

    PubMed Central

    Youngstrom, Eric A.; Martinez, Maria; KogosYoungstrom, Jennifer; Scovil, Kelly; Ross, Jody; Feeny, Norah C.; Findling, Robert L.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if physical and sexual abuse showed relationships to early-onset bipolar spectrum disorders (BPSD) consistent with findings from adult retrospective data. Participants (N=829, M= 10.9 years old ±3.4 SD, 60 % male, 69 % African American, and 18 % with BPSD), primarily from a low socio-economic status, presented to an urban community mental health center and a university research center. Physical abuse was reported in 21 %, sexual abuse in 20 %, and both physical and sexual abuse in 11 % of youths with BPSD. For youths without BPSD, physical abuse was reported in 16 %, sexual abuse in 15 %, and both physical and sexual abuse in 5 % of youths. Among youth with BPSD, physical abuse was significantly associated with a worse global family environment, more severe depressive and manic symptoms, a greater number of sub-threshold manic/hypomanic symptoms, a greater likelihood of suicidality, a greater likelihood of being diagnosed with PTSD, and more self-reports of alcohol or drug use. Among youth with BPSD, sexual abuse was significantly associated with a worse global family environment, more severe manic symptoms, a greater number of sub-threshold manic/hypomanic symptoms, greater mood swings, more frequent episodes, more reports of past hospitalizations, and a greater number of current and past comorbid Axis I diagnoses. These findings suggest that if physical and/or sexual abuse is reported, clinicians should note that abuse appears to be related to increased severity of symptoms, substance use, greater co-morbidity, suicidality, and a worse family environment. PMID:25118660

  2. Physical and sexual abuse and early-onset bipolar disorder in youths receiving outpatient services: frequent, but not specific.

    PubMed

    Du Rocher Schudlich, Tina; Youngstrom, Eric A; Martinez, Maria; KogosYoungstrom, Jennifer; Scovil, Kelly; Ross, Jody; Feeny, Norah C; Findling, Robert L

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if physical and sexual abuse showed relationships to early-onset bipolar spectrum disorders (BPSD) consistent with findings from adult retrospective data. Participants (N = 829, M = 10.9 years old ± 3.4 SD, 60% male, 69% African American, and 18% with BPSD), primarily from a low socio-economic status, presented to an urban community mental health center and a university research center. Physical abuse was reported in 21%, sexual abuse in 20%, and both physical and sexual abuse in 11% of youths with BPSD. For youths without BPSD, physical abuse was reported in 16%, sexual abuse in 15%, and both physical and sexual abuse in 5% of youths. Among youth with BPSD, physical abuse was significantly associated with a worse global family environment, more severe depressive and manic symptoms, a greater number of sub-threshold manic/hypomanic symptoms, a greater likelihood of suicidality, a greater likelihood of being diagnosed with PTSD, and more self-reports of alcohol or drug use. Among youth with BPSD, sexual abuse was significantly associated with a worse global family environment, more severe manic symptoms, a greater number of sub-threshold manic/hypomanic symptoms, greater mood swings, more frequent episodes, more reports of past hospitalizations, and a greater number of current and past comorbid Axis I diagnoses. These findings suggest that if physical and/or sexual abuse is reported, clinicians should note that abuse appears to be related to increased severity of symptoms, substance use, greater co-morbidity, suicidality, and a worse family environment.

  3. Psychological Symptoms and Drug Use Severity among Israeli Adolescents Presenting for Outpatient Drug Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, G.M.; Izzard, M.C.; Kedar, T.; Hutlzer, A.; Mell, H.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the rates of externalizing and internalizing symptoms, and the relation between psychological symptoms and drug use severity, among 117 Israeli adolescents presenting for outpatient drug abuse treatment. Psychological symptoms were assessed via both adolescent self-report and parent report. Drug use was…

  4. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Attachment, and Trauma Symptoms in College Females: The Moderating Role of Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspelmeier, Jeffery E.; Elliott, Ann N.; Smith, Christopher H.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The present study tests a model linking attachment, childhood sexual abuse (CSA), and adult psychological functioning. It expands on previous work by assessing the degree to which attachment security moderates the relationship between a history of child sexual abuse and trauma-related symptoms in college females. Method: Self-reports of…

  5. Parental Employment Status and Symptoms of Children Abused during a Recession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobey, Trina; McAuliff, Kathleen; Rocha, Celina

    2013-01-01

    Incidences and severity of child abuse have increased since the start of the recession. This study examined the relationship between employment status and severity of symptoms in children abused during a recession year. Participants included 154 females and 65 males between 2 and 17 years old referred to Dallas Children's Advocacy Center…

  6. Childhood abuse and aggression in girls: the contribution of borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Burnette, Mandi L; Reppucci, N Dickon

    2009-01-01

    The authors tested whether emerging borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms mediated the association between childhood physical abuse (CPA) and aggression among incarcerated girls. Participants were 121 incarcerated adolescent girls (13-19 years old). Three forms of aggression (relational, overt, and violent offending behavior) and exposure to CPA by a parental figure were assessed using self-report inventories, whereas BPD symptoms were evaluated using a structured interview. Mediation models, including tests of indirect effects, were conducted in which each form of aggression was predicted from CPA with BPD symptoms entered as a mediator. A divergent pattern emerged in which BPD symptoms mediated the relationship between CPA and violent offending, but not less severe forms of overt aggression. Relational aggression, although correlated with CPA, was not associated with BPD symptoms. Implications for the conceptualization and treatment of girls' aggression within the context of interpersonal functioning are discussed. PMID:19144235

  7. Abuse, depressive symptoms, executive functioning, and overgeneral memory among a psychiatric sample of children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Valentino, Kristin; Bridgett, David J; Hayden, Lisa C; Nuttall, Amy K

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has established the independent associations of depressive symptoms and childhood trauma to overgeneral memory (OGM); the present study addresses the potentially interactive effects between these two risk factors on OGM. In addition, the current study comprehensively evaluates whether executive functions (EF) mediate the relation between depressive symptoms and/or abuse to OGM in a child and adolescent sample. OGM was assessed among an inpatient-psychiatric sample of 49 youth (ages 7-17) with, and without, child abuse histories and depressive symptomatology. EF was assessed with standardized neuropsychological measures of verbal fluency, inhibition, and cognitive flexibility. There was a significant interaction of depressive symptoms and abuse in predicting OGM; the effect of depression on OGM was less pronounced among youth with abuse histories, who had elevated OGM at both low and high depressive symptoms relative to those with no abuse and low depressive symptoms. Among the EF measures, only category fluency was associated with OGM. An additive, rather than mediational, model was supported, whereby category fluency accounted for a significant proportion of variance in OGM above child abuse and depressive symptoms. The meaning of these findings for models of OGM and clinical practice are emphasized.

  8. Tests of a Direct Effect of Childhood Abuse on Adult Borderline Personality Disorder Traits: A Longitudinal Discordant Twin Design

    PubMed Central

    Bornovalova, Marina A.; Huibregtse, Brooke M.; Hicks, Brian M.; Keyes, Margaret; McGue, Matt; Iacono, William

    2012-01-01

    We used a longitudinal twin design to examine the causal association between sexual, emotional, and physical abuse in childhood (before age 18) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) traits at age 24 using a discordant twin design and biometric modeling. Additionally, we examined the mediating and moderating effects of symptoms of childhood externalizing and internalizing disorders on the link between childhood abuse and BPD traits. Although childhood abuse, BPD traits, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms were all correlated, the discordant twin analyses and biometric modeling showed little to no evidence that consistent with a causal effect of childhood abuse on BPD traits. Instead, our results indicate that the association between childhood abuse and BPD traits stems from common genetic influences that, in some cases, also overlap with internalizing and externalizing disorders. These findings are inconsistent with the widely held assumption that childhood abuse causes BPD, and suggests that BPD traits in adulthood are better accounted for by heritable vulnerabilities to internalizing and externalizing disorders. PMID:22686871

  9. Potential therapeutic strategy to treat substance abuse related disorders.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sulie L

    2013-12-01

    The "Potential Therapeutic Strategy to Treat Substance Abuse Related Disorders" session was chaired by Dr. Sulie Chang, director of NeuroImmune Phamacology at Seton University. The four presenters (and their topics) were: Dr. Wen-zhe Ho (Miniway to stop HIV/HCV), Dr. Ru-Band Lu (Low dose of memantine in the treatment of opioid dependence in human), Dr. Ping Zhang (Treatment of alcohol-related disorders-Learning from stem/progenitor cell), and Chia-Hsiang Chen (Treatment of methamphetamine abuse: an antibody-based immunotherapy approach).

  10. Potential therapeutic strategy to treat substance abuse related disorders.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sulie L

    2013-12-01

    The "Potential Therapeutic Strategy to Treat Substance Abuse Related Disorders" session was chaired by Dr. Sulie Chang, director of NeuroImmune Phamacology at Seton University. The four presenters (and their topics) were: Dr. Wen-zhe Ho (Miniway to stop HIV/HCV), Dr. Ru-Band Lu (Low dose of memantine in the treatment of opioid dependence in human), Dr. Ping Zhang (Treatment of alcohol-related disorders-Learning from stem/progenitor cell), and Chia-Hsiang Chen (Treatment of methamphetamine abuse: an antibody-based immunotherapy approach). PMID:25267886

  11. Effects of posttraumatic stress disorder and child sexual abuse on self-efficacy development.

    PubMed

    Diehl, Amy S; Prout, Maurice F

    2002-04-01

    The symptoms of child sexual abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) affect a child's self-efficacy. A child's self-efficacy beliefs impact the course and treatment of PTSD, because perceived self-efficacy plays a mediating role in children's ability to cope with trauma. Self-efficacy research indicates that emotional competence can be learned and may provide treatment for PTSD that provides symptom reduction as well as a means of substituting problem-solving coping skills for emotion-focused coping skills.

  12. [Symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder in neurological diseases].

    PubMed

    Kutlubaev, M A

    2016-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common form of neurosis. Symptoms of OCD could develop as a sign of focal brain lesion, particularly in multiple sclerosis, extrapyramidal disorders, epilepsy, less frequently - in other diseases. Timely diagnosis and treatment of the symptoms of OCD is an important aspect in the management of mentioned neurological disorders. PMID:27240053

  13. Trauma Characteristics and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Adolescent Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Carmen P.; Morris, Sarah Herrick; Conklin, Phoebe; Jayawickreme, Nuwan; Foa, Edna B.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between the characteristics of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and the severity of consequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, suicidal ideation, and substance use in a sample of 83 female adolescents aged 13-18 years seeking treatment for PTSD. Nearly two-thirds of the sample (60.7%, n = 51) reported the perpetrator of the CSA was a relative. A large portion (40.5%, n = 34) of the sample reported being victimized once, while almost a quarter of the sample reported chronic victimization (23.8%, n = 20). PTSD and depression scores were in the clinical range, whereas reported levels of suicidal ideation and substance use were low. The frequency of victimizations was associated with suicidal ideation. Contrary to expectation, CSA characteristics including trauma type, perpetrator relationship, and duration of abuse were unrelated to PTSD severity, depressive symptoms, or substance abuse. PMID:25089075

  14. Trauma Characteristics and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Adolescent Survivors of Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    McLean, Carmen P; Morris, Sarah Herrick; Conklin, Phoebe; Jayawickreme, Nuwan; Foa, Edna B

    2014-07-01

    This study examined the relationship between the characteristics of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and the severity of consequent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, suicidal ideation, and substance use in a sample of 83 female adolescents aged 13-18 years seeking treatment for PTSD. Nearly two-thirds of the sample (60.7%, n = 51) reported the perpetrator of the CSA was a relative. A large portion (40.5%, n = 34) of the sample reported being victimized once, while almost a quarter of the sample reported chronic victimization (23.8%, n = 20). PTSD and depression scores were in the clinical range, whereas reported levels of suicidal ideation and substance use were low. The frequency of victimizations was associated with suicidal ideation. Contrary to expectation, CSA characteristics including trauma type, perpetrator relationship, and duration of abuse were unrelated to PTSD severity, depressive symptoms, or substance abuse.

  15. Family environment, personality, and psychological symptoms in adults sexually abused as children.

    PubMed

    Drerup Stokes, Lauren; McCord, David; Aydlett, Lydia

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined the relationships between family environment characteristics, personality traits, and current psychological symptoms in adults with a history of child sexual abuse. Family environment characteristics, personality traits, and psychological symptoms in 18 abused and 18 nonabused college students were examined using ANOVAs and MANOVAs. Pearson product moment correlations were also performed. Results indicated significantly more dysfunctional family environment characteristics (inflexibility, poor cohesion, family dissatisfaction, and poor family communication) in the abused versus the nonabused group. There were significantly higher levels in the personality traits of neuroticism and openness to experience in the abused group; however, there were no significant differences in psychological symptoms when comparing the two groups. The implications of the results and areas of future research are discussed.

  16. Child Sexual Abuse, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Substance Use: Predictors of Revictimization in Adult Sexual Assault Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Najdowski, Cynthia J.; Filipas, Henrietta H.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the unique effects of child sexual abuse simultaneously with post-traumatic stress disorder symptom clusters, problem drinking, and illicit drug use in relation to sexual revictimization in a community sample of female adult sexual assault victims. Participants (N = 555) completed two surveys a year apart. Child sexual abuse…

  17. Abusive supervision, psychosomatic symptoms, and deviance: Can job autonomy make a difference?

    PubMed

    Velez, Maria João; Neves, Pedro

    2016-07-01

    Recently, interest in abusive supervision has grown (Tepper, 2000). However, little is still known about organizational factors that can reduce its adverse effects on employee behavior. Based on the Job Demands-Resources Model (Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner, & Schaufeli, 2001), we predict that job autonomy acts as a buffer of the positive relationship between abusive supervision, psychosomatic symptoms and deviance. Therefore, when job autonomy is low, a higher level of abusive supervision should be accompanied by increased psychosomatic symptoms and thus lead to higher production deviance. When job autonomy is high, abusive supervision should fail to produce increased psychosomatic symptoms and thus should not lead to higher production deviance. Our model was explored among a sample of 170 supervisor-subordinate dyads from 4 organizations. The results of the moderated mediation analysis supported our hypotheses. That is, abusive supervision was significantly related to production deviance via psychosomatic symptoms when job autonomy was low, but not when job autonomy was high. These findings suggest that job autonomy buffers the impact of abusive supervision perceptions on psychosomatic symptoms, with consequences for production deviance. (PsycINFO Database Record

  18. [Behavioral disorders and substance abuse in adolescents with mental retardation].

    PubMed

    Papachristou, Ec; Anagnostopoulos, Dk

    2014-01-01

    The percentage of people with mental retardation in the general population is estimated at about 2.3%, with adolescence (15-20 years) constituting the development period during which a peak in rates of mental retardation is observed. The increased prevalence of adolescence may be explained from the fact that the specified requirements of the school initially, and society later, inevitably lead to comparative evaluation of the teen with mental retardation in relation to peers, thus making mental retardation more apparent. Adolescents with mental retardation face a number of physical and psychological needs which are not often distinguishable and as a consequence undergo the deterioration of their already burdened quality of life. In particular, mental health problems occur 3 to 4 times more often in adolescents with mental retardation compared with adolescents of the general population. This review presents the most recent epidemiological findings regarding the correlation between behavioral disorders, substance use and the possible comorbidity in adolescents with intellectual disability, both at community level and residential care level. Epidemiological data indicate that behavioral disorders are among the most common types of psychopathology in mentally retarded adolescents with the severity and symptoms varying depending on the personal characteristics of each adolescent. Regarding substance use, the available data show that the rates of substance use (alcohol, smoking, illicit drugs) are lower in this specific population group but the differences over the last years tend to be eliminated. Finally, according to the few surveys that were examined referring to the comorbidity of behavioral disorders and substance use in adolescents with intellectual disability, the results were contradictory. Specifically, while behavioral disorders continued to be one of the most common types of psychopathology, the related substances disorders indicated lower rates compared to

  19. [Behavioral disorders and substance abuse in adolescents with mental retardation].

    PubMed

    Papachristou, Ec; Anagnostopoulos, Dk

    2014-01-01

    The percentage of people with mental retardation in the general population is estimated at about 2.3%, with adolescence (15-20 years) constituting the development period during which a peak in rates of mental retardation is observed. The increased prevalence of adolescence may be explained from the fact that the specified requirements of the school initially, and society later, inevitably lead to comparative evaluation of the teen with mental retardation in relation to peers, thus making mental retardation more apparent. Adolescents with mental retardation face a number of physical and psychological needs which are not often distinguishable and as a consequence undergo the deterioration of their already burdened quality of life. In particular, mental health problems occur 3 to 4 times more often in adolescents with mental retardation compared with adolescents of the general population. This review presents the most recent epidemiological findings regarding the correlation between behavioral disorders, substance use and the possible comorbidity in adolescents with intellectual disability, both at community level and residential care level. Epidemiological data indicate that behavioral disorders are among the most common types of psychopathology in mentally retarded adolescents with the severity and symptoms varying depending on the personal characteristics of each adolescent. Regarding substance use, the available data show that the rates of substance use (alcohol, smoking, illicit drugs) are lower in this specific population group but the differences over the last years tend to be eliminated. Finally, according to the few surveys that were examined referring to the comorbidity of behavioral disorders and substance use in adolescents with intellectual disability, the results were contradictory. Specifically, while behavioral disorders continued to be one of the most common types of psychopathology, the related substances disorders indicated lower rates compared to

  20. Psychiatric disorders and characteristics of abuse in sexually abused children and adolescents with and without intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Soylu, Nusret; Alpaslan, Ahmet Hamdi; Ayaz, Muhammed; Esenyel, Selcen; Oruç, Mücahit

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare sexually abused children and adolescents, with and without intellectual disabilities (ID), in terms of post-abuse psychiatric disorders, features of the sexual abuse, and sociodemographic characteristics. The study included sexually abused children aged 6-16 years, who were sent to three different child mental health units for forensic evaluation; there were 102 cases (69 girls and 33 boys) with ID and 154 cases (126 girls and 28 boys) without ID. Researchers retrospectively examined the files, social examination reports, and the judicial reports of the cases. It was determined that in the group with ID, sexual abuse types including penetration and contact had higher rates, they were exposed to more frequent repeated abuses, the abuses were revealed with their own reports at a later period and lower rates, and post-abuse pregnancies were more frequent. It was also determined that the abuser was a familiar person and a family member at lower rates and more than one abuser was encountered more frequently, compared to the group without ID. While no difference was determined between the two groups in terms of the frequency of post-abuse post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depressive disorder (MDD), conduct disorder (CD) was observed more frequently in the group with ID. This study emphasizes that sexual abuse, which is an important problem in individuals with ID, has different features and effects.

  1. The association of pain severity and pain interference levels with abuse experiences and mental health symptoms among 300 mothers: baseline data analysis for a 7-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Symes, Lene; McFarlane, Judith; Nava, Angeles; Gilroy, Heidi; Maddoux, John

    2013-01-01

    Women who experience interpersonal violence are at increased risk for anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and chronic pain and other physical disorders. Although the effects of mental health disorders on women's functioning and well-being are well established, less is known about the effects of pain. We examined participants' (n = 300 mothers) experiences of pain severity and pain interference. Higher levels of pain severity and pain interference were significantly associated with anxiety, PTSD, and depression symptoms. Mental health symptoms compounded by pain, may leave abused women less able to access resources or practice safety behaviors to protect themselves and their children. PMID:23301564

  2. Abuse in Women and Men with and without Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Heimer, Gun; Svärdsudd, Kurt; Agréus, Lars

    2007-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the history of abuse in childhood and adulthood and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in women and men with FGID in the general adult population. A cross-sectional study in a random population sample (n = 1,537, 20–87 years) living in Östhammar municipality, Sweden, in 1995 was performed. Persons with FGID (n = 141) and a group of abdominal symptom-free controls (SSF, n = 97) were selected by means of a validated questionnaire assessing gastrointestinal symptoms (the ASQ). Abuse, anxiety and depression (the HADS) and HRQL (the PGWB) were measured. Women with FGID had a higher risk of having a history of some kind of abuse, as compared with the SSF controls (45% vs.16%, OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.01–3.9; SSF = 1), in contrast to men (29% vs. 24% n.s.). Women with a history of abuse and FGID had reduced HRQL 91 (95% CI 85–97) as compared with women without abuse history 100 (95% CI 96–104, P = 0.01, “healthy” = 102–105 on PGWB). Childhood emotional abuse was a predictor for consulting with OR = 4.20 (95% CI: 1.12–15.7.7). Thus, previous abuse is common in women with FGID and must be considered by the physician for diagnosis and treatment of the disorder. PMID:18060497

  3. Family Treatment for Bipolar Disorder and Substance Abuse in Late Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Miklowitz, David J.

    2013-01-01

    The initial onset of bipolar disorder occurs in childhood or adolescence in about 50% of patients. Early-onset forms of the disorder have a poorer prognosis than adult-onset forms and are frequently characterized by comorbid substance abuse. Clinical trials research suggests that family psychoeducational approaches are effective adjuncts to medication in stabilizing the symptoms of bipolar disorder in adults and youth, although their efficacy in patients with comorbid substance use disorders has not been systematically investigated. This article describes the family-focused treatment (FFT) of a late adolescent with bipolar disorder and polysubstance dependence. The treatment of this patient and family required adapting FFT to consider the family’s structure, dysfunctional alliance patterns, and unresolved conflicts from early in the family’s history. The case illustrates the importance of conducting manual-based behavioral family treatments with a psychotherapeutic attitude, including addressing unstated emotional conflicts and resistances that may impede progress. PMID:22504610

  4. Family treatment for bipolar disorder and substance abuse in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Miklowitz, David J

    2012-05-01

    The initial onset of bipolar disorder occurs in childhood or adolescence in about 50% of patients. Early-onset forms of the disorder have a poorer prognosis than adult-onset forms and are frequently characterized by comorbid substance abuse. Clinical trials research suggests that family psychoeducational approaches are effective adjuncts to medication in stabilizing the symptoms of bipolar disorder in adults and youth, although their efficacy in patients with comorbid substance use disorders has not been systematically investigated. This article describes the family-focused treatment (FFT) of a late adolescent with bipolar disorder and polysubstance dependence. The treatment of this patient and family required adapting FFT to consider the family's structure, dysfunctional alliance patterns, and unresolved conflicts from early in the family's history. The case illustrates the importance of conducting manual-based behavioral family treatments with a psychotherapeutic attitude, including addressing unstated emotional conflicts and resistances that may impede progress.

  5. Relationship between Spirituality and Depressive Symptoms among Inpatient Individuals Who Abuse Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diaz, Naelys; Horton, E. Gail; Green, Diane; McIlveen, John; Weiner, Michael; Mullaney, Donald

    2011-01-01

    This study aims to examine the relationship between spirituality and believing in God's presence and depressive symptoms among 160 inpatient individuals who abuse substances. Findings indicated that both spirituality and believing in God's presence were significant predictors of depressive symptoms, whereby spirituality was inversely related to…

  6. The Concurrence of Eating Disorders with Histories of Child Abuse among Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Jeanne

    1995-01-01

    Examines the relationship between eating disorders and history of physical abuse, incest, and extrafamilial sexual abuse. Results of a survey of adolescents (n=6,224) indicate that eating disorders are correlated with all 3 types of abuse. Presence of an eating disorder also correlates with presence of other addictive behaviors, family history of…

  7. 49 CFR 242.115 - Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules... CONDUCTORS Program and Eligibility Requirements § 242.115 Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules... evaluated as not currently affected by a substance abuse disorder or that the person has been evaluated...

  8. 49 CFR 242.115 - Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules... CONDUCTORS Program and Eligibility Requirements § 242.115 Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules... evaluated as not currently affected by a substance abuse disorder or that the person has been evaluated...

  9. 49 CFR 242.115 - Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules... CONDUCTORS Program and Eligibility Requirements § 242.115 Substance abuse disorders and alcohol drug rules... evaluated as not currently affected by a substance abuse disorder or that the person has been evaluated...

  10. Sexual Abuse Allegations by Children with Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindblad, Frank; Lainpelto, Katrin

    2011-01-01

    All Swedish court cases from 2004 and 2006 concerning alleged child sexual abuse (sexual harassment excluded) were identified through criminal registers. Fourteen cases (one boy) concerned a child with a neuropsychiatric disorder. The diagnostic groups were mental retardation (10 cases), autism (three cases), and ADHD (one case). Psychiatric…

  11. Social Anxiety Disorders and Alcohol Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Council Special Interest Groups Child & Adolescent Anxiety SIG Peer Consultation OCD & Related Disorders SIG Peer Consultation Professional Opportunities: Jobs and Fellowships Journal & Multimedia ...

  12. Aripiprazole Improved Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms in Asperger's Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tahiroglu, Aysegul Yolga; Firat, Sunay; Avci, Ayşe

    2011-01-01

    There are many comorbid disorders associated with autism spectrum disorders in child and adolescent population. Although obsessive compulsive disorder and autism spectrum disorders (ASD) comorbidity has common in clinical practice, there are few reports about psychopharmacological treatment for obsessive compulsive symptoms in children with ASD in the literacy. We report a successful treatment case with aripiprazole in Asperger's Disorder with obsessive compulsive symptoms. The Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale was performed to assess symptom variety. This case report supports the effectiveness of aripiprazole in treatment of obsessive compulsive symptoms in Asperger's Disorder or ASDs. Aripiprazole may be beneficial to obsessive compulsive disorder comorbid autism spectrum disorders in child and adolescent age group. PMID:23429759

  13. Childhood histories of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders in Japanese methamphetamine and inhalant abusers: preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Kamijo, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Akiko; Iseki, Eizo; Hirayasu, Yoshio

    2005-02-01

    The present study examined childhood histories of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in 54 methamphetamine and 12 inhalant abusers using the Wender Utah Rating Scale. The inhalant abusers experienced initial drinking at a younger age than methamphetamine abusers (P=0.038). The Wender Utah Rating Scale score was significantly higher in the inhalant abusers than in the methamphetamine abusers (P=0.013) although 83.3% of inhalant and 55.6% of methamphetamine abusers had higher scores than the cut-off for ADHD. These findings suggest that drug abuse is associated with childhood ADHD, and that inhalant abusers have a higher incidence of childhood ADHD than methamphetamine abusers.

  14. Gender Abuse, Depressive Symptoms, and Substance Use Among Transgender Women: A 3-Year Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Bockting, Walter; Rosenblum, Andrew; Hwahng, Sel; Mason, Mona; Macri, Monica; Becker, Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the effects of gender abuse (enacted stigma), depressive symptoms, and demographic, economic, and lifestyle factors on substance use among transgender women. Methods. We conducted a 3-year prospective study (December 2004 to September 2007) of 230 transgender women aged 19 to 59 years from the New York Metropolitan Area. Statistical techniques included generalized estimating equations with logistic and linear regression links. Results. Six-month prevalence of any substance use at baseline was 76.2%. Across assessment points, gender abuse was associated with alcohol, cannabis, cocaine, or any substance use during the previous 6 months, the number of days these substances were used during the previous month, and the number of substances used. Additional modeling associated changes in gender abuse with changes in substance use across time. Associations of gender abuse and substance use were mediated 55% by depressive symptoms. Positive associations of employment income, sex work, transgender identity, and hormone therapy with substance use were mediated 19% to 42% by gender abuse. Conclusions. Gender abuse, in conjunction with depressive symptoms, is a pervasive and moderately strong risk factor for substance use among transgender women. Improved substance abuse treatment is sorely needed for this population. PMID:25211716

  15. Childhood trauma, midbrain activation and psychotic symptoms in borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Nicol, K; Pope, M; Romaniuk, L; Hall, J

    2015-01-01

    Childhood trauma is believed to contribute to the development of borderline personality disorder (BPD), however the mechanism by which childhood trauma increases risk for specific symptoms of the disorder is not well understood. Here, we explore the relationship between childhood trauma, brain activation in response to emotional stimuli and psychotic symptoms in BPD. Twenty individuals with a diagnosis of BPD and 16 healthy controls were recruited to undergo a functional MRI scan, during which they viewed images of faces expressing the emotion of fear. Participants also completed the childhood trauma questionnaire (CTQ) and a structured clinical interview. Between-group differences in brain activation to fearful faces were limited to decreased activation in the BPD group in the right cuneus. However, within the BPD group, there was a significant positive correlation between physical abuse scores on the CTQ and BOLD signal in the midbrain, pulvinar and medial frontal gyrus to fearful (versus neutral) faces. In addition there was a significant correlation between midbrain activation and reported psychotic symptoms in the BPD group (P<0.05). These results show that physical abuse in childhood is, in individuals with BPD, associated with significantly increased activation of a network of brain regions including the midbrain in response to emotional stimuli. Sustained differences in the response of the midbrain to emotional stimuli in individuals with BPD who suffered childhood physical abuse may underlie the vulnerability of these patients to developing psychotic symptoms.

  16. Comorbid mood, psychosis, and marijuana abuse disorders: a theoretical review.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Natascha; Cadet, Jean Lud

    2009-10-01

    There is a need to bridge the gap between the fields of addiction psychiatry and general psychiatry to effectively treat co-morbid substance abuse and psychiatric disorders. This alarming epidemic transcends communities and severely impacts healthcare worldwide, yielding poor treatment outcomes and prognoses for afflicted patients. Because substance abuse can exacerbate or trigger psychosis and mood disorders, it is important to keep these issues in the forefront when evaluating patients. To address some of the complications stemming from not enough interactions between various groups of practitioners, this review addresses the neurobehavioral effects of cannabis use and their impact on patients who suffer from psychotic or affective disorders. The hope is that this article will serve as a spring board for further discussions among practitioners who treat these patients. Greater interactions between caretakers are bound to impact the care of our patients in a very positive way.

  17. Symptoms of Autism and Schizophrenia Spectrum Disorders in Clinically Referred Youth with Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Drabick, Deborah A. G.

    2012-01-01

    Examined autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) symptoms in a clinically referred, non-ASD sample (N = 1160; ages 6-18) with and without oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). Mothers and teachers completed "DSM-IV"-referenced symptom checklists. Youth with ODD were subdivided into angry/irritable symptom (AIS) or…

  18. Childhood sexual and physical abuse in adult patients with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Ogata, S N; Silk, K R; Goodrich, S; Lohr, N E; Westen, D; Hill, E M

    1990-08-01

    Experiences of abuse and neglect were assessed in 24 adults diagnosed as having borderline personality disorder according to the Diagnostic Interview for Borderline Patients and in 18 depressed control subjects without borderline disorder. Significantly more of the borderline patients than depressed patients reported childhood sexual abuse, abuse by more than one person, and both sexual and physical abuse. There were no between-group differences for rates of neglect or physical abuse without sexual abuse. A stepwise logistic regression revealed that derealization, diagnostic group, and chronic dysphoria were the best predictors of childhood sexual abuse in this group of patients.

  19. Differential Symptom Pattern of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in Maltreated Children with and without Concurrent Depression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Runyon, Melissa K.; Faust, Jan; Orvaschel, Helen

    2002-01-01

    A study examined differences in the Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptomalogy among 96 abused children with and without concurrent depression. Analysis revealed that three post-trauma symptoms, including psychological amnesia, flashbacks/reenactments, and sleep difficulties, discriminated among groups. Children with PTSD and depression…

  20. Dissociative identity disorder and substance abuse: the forgotten relationship.

    PubMed

    McDowell, D M; Levin, F R; Nunes, E V

    1999-01-01

    The treatment and research of dissociative disorders, particularly dissociative identity disorder (DID), are hampered by professional skepticism and diagnostic uncertainties. Almost always associated with severe and sustained childhood trauma, its chief manifestations are at least two distinct and separate identities which have an independent manner of existing in the world. It is also associated with a high degree of psychiatric comorbidity. Among the most frequent diagnoses found in patients with DID are substance use and dependence. For a variety of reasons there has been little dialogue among the disciplines that study patients with trauma and those that study and treat substance abuse. Clinicians dealing with a primarily substance-abusing population are likely to encounter but not recognize these patients. The authors present several representative cases illustrative of features of patients with DID. The epidemiology, phenomenology and presentation of DID, as well as its relation to posttraumatic stress disorder are discussed. Little systematic investigation exists on the treatment of DID in general, and substance abuse in DID in particular. The authors draw upon the existing literature, and their experience to discuss treatment strategies aimed at treating patients with both diagnoses. Ignoring either diagnosis is likely to be detrimental to patients; both disorders and their coexistence need to be addressed.

  1. Prevalent Intravenous Abuse of Methylphenidate Among Treatment-Seeking Patients With Substance Abuse Disorders: A Descriptive Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Haraldsson, Haraldur M.; Rafnar, Bjarni O.; Sigurdsson, Engilbert; Steingrimsson, Steinn; Johannsson, Magnus; Bragadottir, Helena; Magnusson, Andres

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Prescription rates of methylphenidate (MPH) are sharply rising in most Western countries. Although it has been reported that MPH has abuse potential, little is known about the prevalence of intravenous (IV) abuse of MPH. The aim of the study was to investigate the prevalence of IV MPH abuse among treatment-seeking IV substance abusers in Iceland. Methods: This is a descriptive population-based study using a semistructured interview assessing sociodemographics, substance abuse history, and the method of administration of 108 IV substance abusers. During 1 year, consecutively admitted adult inpatients with substance use disorder at any detoxification center in Iceland that reported any IV substance abuse in the past 30 days were invited to participate. Abuse was defined as nontherapeutic use of a substance to gain psychological or physiological effect. Results: Prevalence of any IV MPH abuse among participants was 88% in the last 30 days (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82-0.94) and MPH was the most commonly abused substance (65%) and the preferred substance (63%). Around one third (30%) reported MPH as the first IV substance ever abused. However, among those reporting a shorter history than 10 years of IV abuse, 42% reported MPH as the first IV substance ever abused. Conclusions: This first nationwide study on IV abuse of MPH shows that it is common among treatment-seeking IV abusers in Iceland and suggests that MPH has high abuse potential. Therefore, both the use and possible abuse of MPH in those with high abuse potential should be monitored, especially in countries where MPH prescriptions rates are on the rise. PMID:25748561

  2. Personality Disorders, Coping Strategies, and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Women with Histories of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Dawn M.; Sheahan, Timothy C.; Chard, Kathleen M.

    2003-01-01

    Using a treatment-seeking sample of adult female survivors of childhood sexual abuse, the relationships between coping strategies, personality disorders (PD) and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) were explored. A variety of PDs were found to exist in this population, with avoidant, antisocial, dependent PDs having higher frequencies than…

  3. Maternal Exposure to Intimate Partner Abuse before Birth Is Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder in Offspring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Andrea L.; Lyall, Kristen; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Ascherio, Alberto; Weisskopf, Marc G.

    2016-01-01

    We sought to determine whether maternal (a) physical harm from intimate partner abuse during pregnancy or (b) sexual, emotional, or physical abuse before birth increased risk of autism spectrum disorder. We calculated risk ratios for autism spectrum disorder associated with abuse in a population-based cohort of women and their children (54,512…

  4. Eating Disorders as Sequelae of Sexual Abuse: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Jama Leigh

    The literature regarding the relationship between sexual abuse and eating disorders was reviewed. Overall, women with anorexia and bulimia seem to have similar to slightly higher incidences of childhood sexual abuse than has the general population. At the same times, rates of abuse among eating disordered women, including those who experienced…

  5. Trauma, gender, and mental health symptoms in individuals with substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Keyser-Marcus, Lori; Alvanzo, Anika; Rieckmann, Traci; Thacker, Leroy; Sepulveda, Allison; Forcehimes, Alyssa; Islam, Leila Z; Leisey, Monica; Stitzer, Maxine; Svikis, Dace S

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with substance use disorders are often plagued by psychiatric comorbidities and histories of physical and/or sexual trauma. Males and females, although different in their rates of expressed trauma and psychiatric symptomatology, experience comparable adverse consequences, including poorer substance abuse treatment outcomes, diminished psychosocial functioning, and severe employment problems. The goal of the current study was to examine the relationships between trauma history, lifetime endorsement of psychiatric symptoms, and gender in a sample of individuals participating in outpatient substance abuse treatment. Study participants (N = 625) from six psychosocial counseling and five methadone maintenance programs were recruited as part of a larger study conducted through the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network (NIDA CTN). Study measures included lifetime trauma experience (yes/no), type of trauma experienced (sexual, physical, both), lifetime depression/anxiety, and lifetime suicidal thoughts/attempts (as measured by the Addiction Severity Index-Lite [ASI-Lite]). Lifetime endorsement of psychiatric symptoms was compared between individuals with and without trauma history. The role of gender was also examined. Results indicated that the experience of trauma was associated with an increase in lifetime report of psychiatric symptoms. Experience of physical and combined physical and sexual trauma consistently predicted positive report of psychiatric symptoms in both males and females, even when controlling for demographic and treatment-related variables. Employment outcomes, however, were not predicted by self-reported history of lifetime trauma. PMID:24811286

  6. Trauma, gender, and mental health symptoms in individuals with substance use disorders.

    PubMed

    Keyser-Marcus, Lori; Alvanzo, Anika; Rieckmann, Traci; Thacker, Leroy; Sepulveda, Allison; Forcehimes, Alyssa; Islam, Leila Z; Leisey, Monica; Stitzer, Maxine; Svikis, Dace S

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with substance use disorders are often plagued by psychiatric comorbidities and histories of physical and/or sexual trauma. Males and females, although different in their rates of expressed trauma and psychiatric symptomatology, experience comparable adverse consequences, including poorer substance abuse treatment outcomes, diminished psychosocial functioning, and severe employment problems. The goal of the current study was to examine the relationships between trauma history, lifetime endorsement of psychiatric symptoms, and gender in a sample of individuals participating in outpatient substance abuse treatment. Study participants (N = 625) from six psychosocial counseling and five methadone maintenance programs were recruited as part of a larger study conducted through the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical Trials Network (NIDA CTN). Study measures included lifetime trauma experience (yes/no), type of trauma experienced (sexual, physical, both), lifetime depression/anxiety, and lifetime suicidal thoughts/attempts (as measured by the Addiction Severity Index-Lite [ASI-Lite]). Lifetime endorsement of psychiatric symptoms was compared between individuals with and without trauma history. The role of gender was also examined. Results indicated that the experience of trauma was associated with an increase in lifetime report of psychiatric symptoms. Experience of physical and combined physical and sexual trauma consistently predicted positive report of psychiatric symptoms in both males and females, even when controlling for demographic and treatment-related variables. Employment outcomes, however, were not predicted by self-reported history of lifetime trauma.

  7. Predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and other psychological symptoms in trauma-exposed firefighters.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Eric C; Zimering, Rose; Daly, Erin; Knight, Jeffrey; Kamholz, Barbara W; Gulliver, Suzy Bird

    2012-02-01

    Firefighters are exposed to a range of potentially traumatic stressors, yet studies examining the impact of this exposure are equivocal. Although some studies suggest increased risk for mental health problems, others suggest unusual resilience. Type of assessment methodology may contribute to the lack of consistent findings. We assessed 142 trauma-exposed, professional firefighters utilizing a standardized clinical interview and self-report measures and found low rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnoses (4.2%), and depressive, anxiety, and alcohol-abuse symptoms. Frequency of trauma exposure did not predict psychological symptoms. Perceived social support, occupational stress, coping, as well as the interaction between perceived social support and self-blame were significant predictors of symptoms. Firefighters reporting low-perceived social support and high self-blame demonstrated the highest levels of clinically significant symptoms. These findings may inform education, treatment, and resilience training for emergency personnel. PMID:22449083

  8. Predictors of posttraumatic stress disorder and other psychological symptoms in trauma-exposed firefighters.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Eric C; Zimering, Rose; Daly, Erin; Knight, Jeffrey; Kamholz, Barbara W; Gulliver, Suzy Bird

    2012-02-01

    Firefighters are exposed to a range of potentially traumatic stressors, yet studies examining the impact of this exposure are equivocal. Although some studies suggest increased risk for mental health problems, others suggest unusual resilience. Type of assessment methodology may contribute to the lack of consistent findings. We assessed 142 trauma-exposed, professional firefighters utilizing a standardized clinical interview and self-report measures and found low rates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnoses (4.2%), and depressive, anxiety, and alcohol-abuse symptoms. Frequency of trauma exposure did not predict psychological symptoms. Perceived social support, occupational stress, coping, as well as the interaction between perceived social support and self-blame were significant predictors of symptoms. Firefighters reporting low-perceived social support and high self-blame demonstrated the highest levels of clinically significant symptoms. These findings may inform education, treatment, and resilience training for emergency personnel.

  9. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Social and Occupational Functioning of People With Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ng, Lauren C; Petruzzi, Liana J; Greene, M Claire; Mueser, Kim T; Borba, Christina P C; Henderson, David C

    2016-08-01

    This study sought to clarify the contribution of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) to interpersonal and occupational functioning in people with schizophrenia. Self-report questionnaires and semistructured interviews were used to evaluate PTSD and brain injury, positive symptoms, depression, substance abuse, occupational and social functioning, and intelligence. Multiple regressions assessed the relationship between predictors and functional impairment. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms were present in 76% of participants, with 12% of participants meeting diagnostic criteria for PTSD. Participants with PTSD had higher rates of depression and more severe positive symptoms. Results of multiple regressions indicated that PTSD symptoms were the only significant predictor of patient-rated interpersonal and occupational functioning. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms were not associated with interviewer-rated interpersonal or occupational functioning or employment. While more research is needed, screening and treatment for exposure to traumatic events and PTSD symptoms might be indicated for individuals with schizophrenia. Availability of PTSD assessment and evidence-based treatments for people with schizophrenia is a crucial and often unmet health service need. PMID:27105458

  10. The Association of Maternal Depressive Symptoms with Child Externalizing Problems: The Role of Maternal Support Following Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Aaron; Smith, Daniel; Begle, Angela M.; Ayer, Lynsay

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the role of abuse-specific maternal support in the association between parent depressive symptoms and child externalizing problems in a sample of children with a history of sexual abuse. In total, 106 mother-child dyads were studied. The association between maternal depressive symptoms and child delinquency behaviors was found…

  11. Brief screening for co-occurring disorders among women entering substance abuse treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lincoln, Alisa K; Liebschutz, Jane M; Chernoff, Miriam; Nguyen, Dana; Amaro, Hortensia

    2006-01-01

    Background Despite the importance of identifying co-occurring psychiatric disorders in substance abuse treatment programs, there are few appropriate and validated instruments available to substance abuse treatment staff to conduct brief screen for these conditions. This paper describes the development, implementation and validation of a brief screening instrument for mental health diagnoses and trauma among a diverse sample of Black, Hispanic and White women in substance abuse treatment. With input from clinicians and consumers, we adapted longer existing validated instruments into a 14 question screen covering demographics, mental health symptoms and physical and sexual violence exposure. All women entering treatment (methadone, residential and out-patient) at five treatment sites were screened at intake (N = 374). Results Eighty nine percent reported a history of interpersonal violence, and 70% reported a history of sexual assault. Eighty-eight percent reported mental health symptoms in the last 30 days. The screening questions administered to 88 female clients were validated against in-depth psychiatric diagnostic assessments by trained mental health clinicians. We estimated measures of predictive validity, including sensitivity, specificity and predictive values positive and negative. Screening items were examined multiple ways to assess utility. The screen is a useful and valid proxy for PTSD but not for other mental illness. Conclusion Substance abuse treatment programs should incorporate violence exposure questions into clinical use as a matter of policy. More work is needed to develop brief screening tools measures for front-line treatment staff to accurately assess other mental health needs of women entering substance abuse treatment PMID:16959041

  12. Severity of Child Sexual Abuse and Revictimization: The Mediating Role of Coping and Trauma Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortier, Michelle A.; DiLillo, David; Messman-Moore, Terri L.; Peugh, James; DeNardi, Kathleen A.; Gaffey, Kathryn J.

    2009-01-01

    Child sexual abuse (CSA) has consistently been associated with the use of avoidant coping; these coping methods have been associated with increased trauma symptoms, which have, in turn, been linked to increased risk for adult sexual revictimization. Given these previous findings, the purpose of the current study was to test a model that…

  13. Thyroid Hormone Levels and Psychological Symptoms in Sexually Abused Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haviland, Mark G.; Sonne, Janet L.; Anderson, Donald L.; Nelson, Jerald C.; Sheridan-Matney, Clare; Nichols, Joy G.; Carlton, Esther I.; Murdoch, William G. C.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationships between psychological symptoms and thyroid hormone levels in adolescent girls who had experienced the traumatic stress of sexual abuse. Method: The study design was cross-sectional/correlational. Subjects ("N"=22; age range=12-18 years) had their blood drawn, and they completed 2 psychological tests…

  14. Interpersonal Rejection Sensitivity in Childhood Sexual Abuse Survivors: Mediator of Depressive Symptoms and Anger Suppression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luterek, Jane A.; Harb, Gerlinde C.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Marx, Brian P.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated whether interpersonal rejection sensitivity serves a mediating role between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and three long-term psychological correlates of CSA in adult female survivors: depressive symptoms, anger suppression, and attenuated emotional expression. Interpersonal rejection sensitivity has been shown to be a risk…

  15. Witnessing Domestic Abuse in Childhood as an Independent Risk Factor for Depressive Symptoms in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, David; Springer, Kristen W.; Greenfield, Emily A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study addresses the relationship between retrospective reports of witnessing domestic abuse in childhood and levels of depressive symptoms in young adulthood. We examine whether the association between having witnessed violence in childhood and depression is independent of having been the direct target of sexual and/or physical…

  16. The Relationship between Childhood Abuse, Psychological Symptoms and Subsequent Sex Offending

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Background: Childhood sexual and physical abuse has been related to subsequent offending behaviour in non-disabled individuals as well as people with intellectual disabilities, but there is a dearth of research examining the link between these two characteristics and psychological, behavioural and psychiatric symptoms amongst sex offenders with…

  17. Psychosocial Characteristics and Correlates of Symptom Distress in Nonoffending Mothers of Sexually Abused Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deblinger, Esther; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Nonoffending mothers' (n=99) self-reported symptom distress was measured across 3 groups of sexual abuse types: incest, relative, and nonrelative. A multiple regression analysis of psychosocial characteristics indicated that a mother's perceived aloneness in facing the crisis and a personal history of adult sexual assault were positively related…

  18. Traumatic Stress Symptoms and Breast Cancer: The Role of Childhood Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldsmith, Rachel E.; Jandorf, Lina; Valdimarsdottir, Heiddis; Amend, Kandace L.; Stoudt, Brett G.; Rini, Christine; Hershman, Dawn; Neugut, Alfred; Reilly, James J.; Tartter, Paul I.; Feldman, Sheldon M.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Bovbjerg, Dana H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The present study investigated relations between reported childhood abuse and recent traumatic stress symptoms in women newly diagnosed with breast cancer (n = 330). Methods: As part of a larger ongoing study, patients from eight public and private hospitals were referred by their physicians and completed the Childhood Trauma…

  19. Information-processing correlates of reported sexual abuse in eating-disordered and comparison women.

    PubMed

    Waller, G; Ruddock, A

    1995-06-01

    A history of sexual abuse during childhood or adulthood is reported by a large number of eating-disordered and nonclinical women. However, the cognitive consequences of such abuse are not fully understood. An adaptation of the Stroop test is described, examining information-processing correlates of reported sexual abuse and of clinicians' judgments of the relevance of that abuse to the formulation of cases. Words related to sexual abuse impaired color-naming in eating-disordered and comparison women who reported a history of such abuse. This Stroop interference effect was greater in those eating-disordered women where the abuse was judged to be relevant to their psychopathology. It was also associated with the characteristics of the abuse (use of force, identity of abuser, time since the abuse). Finally, the Stroop interference effect was associated with the degree of bulimic psychopathology in the eating-disordered women who reported abuse. In particular, the frequency of binging was significantly greater in those eating-disordered women who had reported abuse, but that difference was a product of the correlation of the two variables with the degree of information processing bias. A two-stage model of cognitive reaction to sexual abuse is proposed, integrating these effects with the existing literature. The utility of this measure as a research and clinical tool requires further consideration in other clinical groups. PMID:7552843

  20. SYMPTOM DIMENSIONS OF ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER AND NICOTINE WITHDRAWAL SYMPTOMS

    PubMed Central

    Ameringer, Katherine J.; Leventhal, Adam M.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and nicotine withdrawal symptoms are related; however, it is unknown how this relationship extends across ADHD symptom gradations, differs between inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity symptom types, and generalizes to a national sample. This study examined cross-sectional associations between childhood ADHD symptom indexes (total, inattention, and hyperactivity-impulsivity) and lifetime DSM-IV nicotine withdrawal symptoms. Results showed that each ADHD symptom index associated with almost every withdrawal symptom (Ps < .01). After controlling for hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention symptom overlap, inattention (but not hyperactivity-impulsivity) retained incremental associations with most withdrawal symptoms. These findings are relevant for understanding mechanisms of ADHD and smoking comorbidity. PMID:23244555

  1. A pediatric case of factitious disorder with unexplained bleeding symptoms.

    PubMed

    Uzuner, Selcuk; Bahali, Kayhan; Kurban, Sema; Erenberk, Ufuk; Cakir, Erkan

    2013-01-01

    Factitious disorder is characterized by deliberate production or imitation of physical or psychological symptoms in order to adopt the sick role. The disorder can be seen as factitious bleeding. Factitious bleeding is a rare disorder in pediatric population. The concomitant appearance of hemoptysis and hematuria in the same patient has not been previously reported. In this case report, we present a pediatric case of factitious disorder with both hemoptysis and hematuria. PMID:24199786

  2. SCL-90 symptom patterns: indicators of dissociative disorders.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Marlene; Barry, Declan T; Sholomskas, Diane; Hall, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the SCL-90 profiles of adult outpatients with and without dissociative disorders. A total of 194 participants were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders-Revised (SCID-D-R) and the Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90). Patients with dissociative identity disorder (DID) reported significantly higher SCL-90 Global Severity Index (GSI) and individual subscale scores than those without dissociative disorders. It is recommended that patients who are polysymptomatic on the SCL-90 be considered for follow-up dissociative symptom assessment to aid differential diagnosis and to inform subsequent treatment.

  3. Co-occurring prescription opioid use problems and posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Andrea; Lambert-Harris, Chantal; McGovern, Mark P.; Xie, Haiyi; An, Melissa; McLeman, Bethany

    2016-01-01

    Background Prescription opioids are the most rapidly growing category of abused substances, and result in significant morbidity, mortality and healthcare costs. Co-occurring with psychiatric disorders, persons with prescription opioid problems have negative treatment outcomes. Data are needed on the prevalence of co-occurring prescription opioid abuse and specific disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), to better inform clinical practice. Objective: To determine prevalence rates of current co-occurring prescription opioid use problems and PTSD symptom severity among patients in community addiction treatment settings. Methods We abstracted administrative and chart information on 573 new admissions to three addictive treatment agencies during 2011. Systematic data were collected on PTSD symptoms, substance use, and patient demographics. Results Prescription opioid use was significantly associated with co-occurring PTSD symptom severity (OR: 1.42, p < 0.05). Use of prescription opioids in combination with sedatives (OR: 3.81, p < 0.01) or cocaine (OR: 2.24, p < 0.001) also were associated with PTSD severity. The odds of having co-occurring PTSD symptoms and prescription opioid use problem were nearly three times greater among females versus males (OR: 2.63, p < 0.001). Younger patients (18–34 years old) also were at higher risk (OR: 1.86, p < 0.01). Conclusions Prescription opioid use problems are a risk factor for co-occurring PTSD symptom severity. Being female or younger increase the likelihood of this co-morbidity. Further research is needed to confirm these finding, particularly using more rigorous diagnostic procedures. These data suggest that patients with prescription opioid use problems should be carefully evaluated for PTSD symptoms. PMID:24809229

  4. Using Smartphones to Monitor Bipolar Disorder Symptoms: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Kindermann, Sally; Maier, Andreas; Kerl, Christopher; Moock, Jörn; Barbian, Guido; Rössler, Wulf

    2016-01-01

    Background Relapse prevention in bipolar disorder can be improved by monitoring symptoms in patients' daily life. Smartphone apps are easy-to-use, low-cost tools that can be used to assess this information. To date, few studies have examined the usefulness of smartphone data for monitoring symptoms in bipolar disorder. Objective We present results from a pilot test of a smartphone-based monitoring system, Social Information Monitoring for Patients with Bipolar Affective Disorder (SIMBA), that tracked daily mood, physical activity, and social communication in 13 patients. The objective of this study was to investigate whether smartphone measurements predicted clinical symptoms levels and clinical symptom change. The hypotheses that smartphone measurements are (1) negatively related to clinical depressive symptoms and (2) positively related to clinical manic symptoms were tested. Methods Clinical rating scales were administered to assess clinical depressive and manic symptoms. Patients used a smartphone with the monitoring app for up to 12 months. Random-coefficient multilevel models were computed to analyze the relationship between smartphone data and externally rated manic and depressive symptoms. Overall clinical symptom levels and clinical symptom changes were predicted by separating between-patient and within-patient effects. Using established clinical thresholds from the literature, marginal effect plots displayed clinical relevance of smartphone data. Results Overall symptom levels and change in clinical symptoms were related to smartphone measures. Higher overall levels of clinical depressive symptoms were predicted by lower self-reported mood measured by the smartphone (beta=-.56, P<.001). An increase in clinical depressive symptoms was predicted by a decline in social communication (ie, outgoing text messages: beta=-.28, P<.001) and a decline in physical activity as measured by the smartphone (ie, cell tower movements: beta=-.11, P=.03). Higher overall

  5. Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders in Professional Football (Soccer) Across Five European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Backx, Frank J.G.; Aoki, Haruhito; Kerkhoffs, Gino M.M.J.

    2015-01-01

    Evidence on the prevalence of symptoms related to distress, anxiety/depression or substance abuse/dependence, – typically referred to as symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD) – is lacking in European professional football (soccer). The aims of the present study were to investigate the prevalence of symptoms related to CMD (distress, anxiety/depression, sleeping disturbance, adverse alcohol behaviour, and adverse nutrition behaviour) in professional footballers from five European countries, and to explore associations of the outcome measures under study with life events and career dissatisfaction. A cross-sectional design was used. Questionnaires were distributed among professional footballers by the national players’ unions in Finland, France, Norway, Spain and Sweden. The highest prevalence of symptoms related to common mental disorders were 18% for distress (Sweden), 43% for anxiety/depression (Norway), 33% for sleeping disturbance (Spain), 17% for adverse alcohol behaviour (Finland), and 74% for adverse nutrition behaviour (Norway). In Finland, France and Sweden, both life events and career dissatisfaction were associated with distress, anxiety/depression, adverse alcohol behaviour, and adverse nutrition behaviour. Results suggest the need for self-awareness in professional football about common mental disorders and a multidisciplinary approach by the medical team. Key points The highest prevalence of symptoms related to common mental disorders were 18% for distress (Sweden), 43% for anxiety/depression (Norway), 33% for sleeping disturbance (Spain), 17% for adverse alcohol behaviour (Finland), and 74% for adverse nutrition behaviour (Norway). In Finland, France and Sweden, both life events and career dissatisfaction were associated with distress, anxiety/depression, adverse alcohol behaviour, and adverse nutrition behaviour. Our results suggest the need for self-awareness in professional football about common mental disorders and a multidisciplinary

  6. Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders in Professional Football (Soccer) Across Five European Countries.

    PubMed

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Backx, Frank J G; Aoki, Haruhito; Kerkhoffs, Gino M M J

    2015-12-01

    Evidence on the prevalence of symptoms related to distress, anxiety/depression or substance abuse/dependence, - typically referred to as symptoms of common mental disorders (CMD) - is lacking in European professional football (soccer). The aims of the present study were to investigate the prevalence of symptoms related to CMD (distress, anxiety/depression, sleeping disturbance, adverse alcohol behaviour, and adverse nutrition behaviour) in professional footballers from five European countries, and to explore associations of the outcome measures under study with life events and career dissatisfaction. A cross-sectional design was used. Questionnaires were distributed among professional footballers by the national players' unions in Finland, France, Norway, Spain and Sweden. The highest prevalence of symptoms related to common mental disorders were 18% for distress (Sweden), 43% for anxiety/depression (Norway), 33% for sleeping disturbance (Spain), 17% for adverse alcohol behaviour (Finland), and 74% for adverse nutrition behaviour (Norway). In Finland, France and Sweden, both life events and career dissatisfaction were associated with distress, anxiety/depression, adverse alcohol behaviour, and adverse nutrition behaviour. Results suggest the need for self-awareness in professional football about common mental disorders and a multidisciplinary approach by the medical team. Key pointsThe highest prevalence of symptoms related to common mental disorders were 18% for distress (Sweden), 43% for anxiety/depression (Norway), 33% for sleeping disturbance (Spain), 17% for adverse alcohol behaviour (Finland), and 74% for adverse nutrition behaviour (Norway).In Finland, France and Sweden, both life events and career dissatisfaction were associated with distress, anxiety/depression, adverse alcohol behaviour, and adverse nutrition behaviour.Our results suggest the need for self-awareness in professional football about common mental disorders and a multidisciplinary approach by

  7. Autistic Disorder Symptoms in Rett Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wulffaert, Josette; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.; Scholte, Evert M.

    2009-01-01

    According to the major classification systems it is not possible to diagnose a comorbid autistic disorder in persons with Rett syndrome. However, this is a controversial issue, and given the level of functioning of persons with Rett syndrome, the autistic disorder is expected to be present in a comparable proportion as in people with the same…

  8. Intimate partner stalking victimization and posttraumatic stress symptoms in post-abuse women.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Kimberly N; Newton, Tamara L; Fernandez-Botran, Rafael; Miller, James J; Ellison Burns, Vicki

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to further understanding of intimate partner stalking victimization in post-abuse women, with particular attention to the definition of stalking (with or without fear and threat) most predictive of posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. In community midlife women with histories of divorce (N = 192), a history of stalking victimization accompanied by fear and threat was positively correlated with PTS symptom severity, after accounting for other partner abuse. The presence, compared with absence, of fear-and-threat stalking history doubled the odds of symptomatic levels of hyperarousal. Greater physical assault and injury chronicity differentiated fear-and-threat stalked women from other stalked women. Stalking contributed to a fuller understanding of PTS symptoms in women, showing particular relevance for hyperarousal. PMID:23419275

  9. Intimate partner stalking victimization and posttraumatic stress symptoms in post-abuse women.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Kimberly N; Newton, Tamara L; Fernandez-Botran, Rafael; Miller, James J; Ellison Burns, Vicki

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to further understanding of intimate partner stalking victimization in post-abuse women, with particular attention to the definition of stalking (with or without fear and threat) most predictive of posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms. In community midlife women with histories of divorce (N = 192), a history of stalking victimization accompanied by fear and threat was positively correlated with PTS symptom severity, after accounting for other partner abuse. The presence, compared with absence, of fear-and-threat stalking history doubled the odds of symptomatic levels of hyperarousal. Greater physical assault and injury chronicity differentiated fear-and-threat stalked women from other stalked women. Stalking contributed to a fuller understanding of PTS symptoms in women, showing particular relevance for hyperarousal.

  10. Depressive Symptoms, Coping Strategies, and Disordered Eating among College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanBoven, Amy M.; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2006-01-01

    In a 2-phase study with a total of 392 participants, depressive symptoms mediated the association between disordered eating and lower problem-solving confidence and an avoidance problem-solving style. Depressive symptoms did not mediate the association between the ability to generate competent solutions to hypothetical stressful situations and…

  11. Gender Differences in Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sipes, Megan; Matson, Johnny L.; Worley, Julie A.; Kozlowski, Alison M.

    2011-01-01

    Gender differences in symptoms representing the triad of impairments of Autism Spectrum Disorders remain unclear. To date, the majority of research conducted on this topic has utilized samples of older children. Thus, the purpose of the current study was to utilize a sample of toddlers to investigate gender differences in symptom endorsements of…

  12. Autistic disorder symptoms in Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wulffaert, Josette; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A; Scholte, Evert M

    2009-11-01

    According to the major classification systems it is not possible to diagnose a comorbid autistic disorder in persons with Rett syndrome. However, this is a controversial issue, and given the level of functioning of persons with Rett syndrome, the autistic disorder is expected to be present in a comparable proportion as in people with the same level of functioning. To investigate, parents of 52 females with classical and atypical Rett syndrome (2.4-49.3 years) completed the Developmental Behavior Checklist (DBC), the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO) and the Dutch Vineland Screener 0-6 (VS 0-6). All participants had a severe to profound intellectual disability (ID) according to the VS 0-6. Behavior indicated an autistic disorder in 42 (DBC) to 58 percent (DISCO) of the Rett cases. Autistic behavior had decreased in 19 percent such that they no longer met the criteria for autistic disorder. Some participants were suspected of having a comorbid autistic disorder, though not more often than can be expected at their level of functioning. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of a comorbid autistic disorder as much as they should be in other people with this level of functioning.

  13. Child abuse in the context of intimate partner violence against women: the impact of women's depressive and posttraumatic stress symptoms on maternal behavior.

    PubMed

    Boeckel, Mariana G; Blasco-Ros, Concepción; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Martínez, Manuela

    2014-05-01

    Intimate male partner violence against women has been recognized as an important public health problem, with a high impact on women's mental health, including depressive and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. However, fathers who have been involved in intimate partner violence (IPV) have an increased probability of being violent toward their children. The aim of this study was to assess the relation between the mental health status of abused women, their partner's violence toward the children, and their maternal behavior.

  14. History of abuse and psychological distress symptoms among female sex workers in two Mexico-U.S. border cities.

    PubMed

    Ulibarri, Monica D; Semple, Shirley J; Rao, Swati; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Fraga-Vallejo, Miguel A; Bucardo, Jesus; De la Torre, Adela; Salázar-Reyna, Juan; Orozovich, Prisci; Staines-Orozco, Hugo S; Amaro, Hortensia; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Patterson, Thomas L

    2009-01-01

    This study examined histories of past emotional, physical, and sexual abuse as correlates of current psychological distress using data from 916 female sex workers (FSWs) who were enrolled in a safer-sex behavioral intervention in Tijuana and Ciudad (Cd.) Juarez, Mexico. We hypothesized that histories of abuse would be associated with higher symptom levels of depression and somatization and that social support would moderate the relationship. Nonparametric correlations and a series of hierarchical regression analyses revealed that all forms of past abuse predicted higher levels of depressive symptoms, and physical and sexual abuse were significantly associated with higher levels of somatic symptoms. Social support was also significantly associated with fewer symptoms of distress; however, it was not shown to moderate the relationship between abuse history and distress.

  15. History of Abuse and Psychological Distress Symptoms among Female Sex Workers in Two Mexico-U.S. Border Cities

    PubMed Central

    Ulibarri, Monica; Semple, Shirley J.; Rao, Swati; Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Fraga-Vallejo, Miguel A.; Bucardo, Jesus; De la Torre, Adela; Salazar-Reyna, Juan; Orozovich, Prisci; Staines-Orozco, Hugo S.; Amaro, Hortensia; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined histories of past emotional, physical, and sexual abuse as correlates of current psychological distress using data from 916 female sex workers (FSWs) who were enrolled in a safer-sex behavioral intervention in Tijuana and Ciudad (Cd.) Juarez, Mexico. We hypothesized that histories of abuse would be associated with higher symptom levels of depression and somatization, and that social support would moderate the relationship. Nonparametric correlations and a series of hierarchical regression analyses revealed that all forms of past abuse predicted higher levels of depressive symptoms, and physical and sexual abuse were significantly associated with higher levels of somatic symptoms. Social support was also significantly associated with fewer symptoms of distress; however, it was not shown to moderate the relationship between abuse history and distress. PMID:19634364

  16. Functional Gastrointestinal Symptoms in Children with Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Allison M.; Schilpzand, Elizabeth; Bell, Clare; Walker, Lynn S.; Baber, Kari

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the incidence and correlates of functional gastrointestinal symptoms in children with anxiety disorders. Participants were 6-13 year old children diagnosed with one or more anxiety disorders (n = 54) and non-clinical control children (n = 51). Telephone diagnostic interviews were performed with parents to determine the presence…

  17. School Climate and Continuity of Adolescent Personality Disorder Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasen, Stephanie; Cohen, Patricia; Chen, Henian; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; Crawford, Thomas N.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Schools are key social contexts for shaping development and behavior in youths; yet, little is known of their influence on adolescent personality disturbance. Method: A community-based sample of 592 adolescents was assessed for family and school experiences, Axis I psychiatric disorders, and Axis II personality disorder (PD) symptoms,…

  18. Personality Disorders Classification and Symptoms in Cocaine and Opioid Addicts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malow, Robert M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined extent to which personality disorders and associated symptom criteria were found among 117 cocaine- and opioid-dependent men in drug dependence treatment unit. Drug groups were distinguished by higher rates of antisocial and borderline symptomatology rather than by features associated with other personality disorders. Different…

  19. Beyond Symptom Counts for Diagnosing Oppositional Defiant Disorder and Conduct Disorder?

    PubMed

    Lindhiem, Oliver; Bennett, Charles B; Hipwell, Alison E; Pardini, Dustin A

    2015-10-01

    Conduct Disorder (CD) and Oppositional Defiant Disorder (ODD) are among the most commonly diagnosed childhood behavioral health disorders. Although there is substantial evidence of heterogeneity of symptom presentations, DSM diagnoses of CD and ODD are formally diagnosed on the basis of symptom counts without regard to individual symptom patterns. We used unidimensional item response theory (IRT) two-parameter logistic (2PL) models to examine item parameters for the individual symptoms of CD and ODD using data on 6,491 adolescents (ages 13-17) from the National Comorbidity Study: Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A). For each disorder, the symptoms differed in terms of severity and discrimination parameters. As a result, some adolescents who were above DSM diagnostic thresholds for disruptive behavior disorders exhibited lower levels of the underlying construct than others below the thresholds, based on their unique symptom profile. In terms of incremental benefit, our results suggested an advantage of latent trait scores for CD but not ODD.

  20. Trait Mindfulness, Reasons For Living and General Symptom Severity as Predictors of Suicide Probability in Males with Substance Abuse or Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadkhani, Parvaneh; Azadmehr, Hedieh; Mobramm, Ardeshir; Naseri, Esmaeil

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate suicide probability in Iranian males with substance abuse or dependence disorder and to investigate the predictors of suicide probability based on trait mindfulness, reasons for living and severity of general psychiatric symptoms. Method: Participants were 324 individuals with substance abuse or dependence in an outpatient setting and prison. Reasons for living questionnaire, Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale and Suicide probability Scale were used as instruments. Sample was selected based on convenience sampling method. Data were analyzed using SPSS and AMOS. Results: The life-time prevalence of suicide attempt in the outpatient setting was35% and it was 42% in the prison setting. Suicide probability in the prison setting was significantly higher than in the outpatient setting (p<0.001). The severity of general symptom strongly correlated with suicide probability. Trait mindfulness, not reasons for living beliefs, had a mediating effect in the relationship between the severity of general symptoms and suicide probability. Fear of social disapproval, survival and coping beliefs and child-related concerns significantly predicted suicide probability (p<0.001). Discussion: It could be suggested that trait mindfulness was more effective in preventing suicide probability than beliefs about reasons for living in individuals with substance abuse or dependence disorders. The severity of general symptom should be regarded as an important risk factor of suicide probability. PMID:26005482

  1. Sleep, eating disorder symptoms, and daytime functioning

    PubMed Central

    Tromp, Marilou DP; Donners, Anouk AMT; Garssen, Johan; Verster, Joris C

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between eating disorders, body mass index (BMI), sleep disorders, and daytime functioning. Design Survey. Setting The Netherlands. Participants N=574 Dutch young adults (18–35 years old). Measurements Participants completed a survey on eating and sleep habits including the Eating Disorder Screen for Primary care (ESP) and SLEEP-50 questionnaire subscales for sleep apnea, insomnia, circadian rhythm disorder (CRD), and daytime functioning. SLEEP-50 outcomes of participants who screened negative (≤2) and positive (>2) on the ESP were compared. In addition, SLEEP-50 scores of groups of participants with different ESP scores (0–4) and different BMI groups (ie, underweight, healthy weight, overweight, and obese) were compared using nonparametric statistics. Results Almost 12% (n=67) of participants screened positive for having an eating disorder. Relative to participants without eating disorders, participants who screened positive for eating disorders reported significantly higher scores on sleep apnea (3.7 versus 2.9, P=0.012), insomnia (7.7 versus 5.5, P<0.0001), CRD (2.9 versus 2.3, P=0.011), and impairment of daytime functioning (8.8 versus 5.8, P=0.0001). ESP scores were associated with insomnia (r=0.117, P=0.005), sleep apnea (r=0.118, P=0.004), sleep quality (r=−0.104, P=0.012), and daytime functioning (r=0.225, P<0.0001), but not with CRD (r=0.066, P=0.112). BMI correlated significantly with ESP scores (r=0.172, P<0.0001) and scores on sleep apnea (r=0.171, P<0.0001). When controlling for BMI, the partial correlation between ESP and sleep apnea remained significant (r=0.10, P=0.015). Conclusion Participants who score positive for eating disorders scored significantly higher on sleep disorder scales, and reported significantly more impairment of daytime functioning. PMID:26848280

  2. Common skin and bleeding disorders that can potentially masquerade as child abuse.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhavita; Butterfield, Rebecca

    2015-12-01

    Child abuse and neglect remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality among children worldwide. Over the last few decades, there has been growing research in the field of Child Abuse Pediatrics with greater recognition and research into potential diagnostic mimics of inflicted injury. This paper reviews some common skin findings and bleeding disorders that have features in common with child abuse.

  3. Tailoring therapeutic strategies for treating posttraumatic stress disorder symptom clusters.

    PubMed

    Norrholm, Seth D; Jovanovic, Tanja

    2010-01-01

    According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by three major symptom clusters following an event that elicited fear, helplessness, or horror. This review will examine each symptom cluster of PTSD separately, giving case study examples of patients who exhibit a preponderance of a given symptom domain. We use a translational approach in describing the underlying neurobiology that is relevant to particular symptoms and treatment options, thus showing how clinical practice can benefit from current research. By focusing on symptom clusters, we provide a more specific view of individual patient's clinical presentations, in order to better address treatment needs. Finally, the review will also address potential genetic approaches to treatment as another form of individualized treatment. PMID:20856915

  4. The relationship between eating disorder symptoms and obsessive compulsive disorder in primigravida women

    PubMed Central

    Mohamadirizi, Soheila; Kordi, Masoumeh; Shakeri, Mohamad Taghi; Modares-Gharavi, Morteza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Eating Disorder Symptoms are among the most common disorders in perinatal period and are influenced by various environmental and psychosocial factors such as anxiety disorders. So, the aim of this study was to determine the relationship between Eating Disorder symptoms and Obsessive Compulsive disorder in primigravida women. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried on 213 in primigravida women referring to Mashhad health care centers, selected through a two stage sampling method (cluster-convenience) in Mashhad in 2013. Demographic and prenatal characteristics Questionnaire, Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q)(26Q) and Maudsley Obsessive Compulsive Questionnaire (30Q) were completed by the subjects. The statistical analysis was performed with various statistical tests such as Pearson correlation coefficient, t-test, one-way ANOVA and linear regression. Significance level was considered as P < 0.05. Results: Based on the findings 94.6% of the subjects had Obsessive Compulsive disorder, and 18% had Eating Disorder Symptoms. In addition, there was a poor positive correlation between the rate of Eating Disorder Symptoms and Obsessive Compulsive. Conclusions: There was a correlation between the Eating Disorder Symptoms and Obsessive Compulsive in pregnant women. It is recommended to eliminate or decrease Eating Disorder Symptoms and Obsessive Compulsive among Iranian pregnant women through preventive measures. PMID:26793246

  5. Harm Reduction as "Continuum Care" in Alcohol Abuse Disorder.

    PubMed

    Maremmani, Icro; Cibin, Mauro; Pani, Pier Paolo; Rossi, Alessandro; Turchetti, Giuseppe

    2015-11-19

    Alcohol abuse is one of the most important risk factors for health and is a major cause of death and morbidity. Despite this, only about one-tenth of individuals with alcohol abuse disorders receive therapeutic intervention and specific rehabilitation. Among the various dichotomies that limit an effective approach to the problem of alcohol use disorder treatment, one of the most prominent is integrated treatment versus harm reduction. For years, these two divergent strategies have been considered to be opposite poles of different philosophies of intervention. One is bound to the search for methods that aim to lead the subject to complete abstinence; the other prioritizes a progressive decline in substance use, with maximum reduction in the damage that is correlated with curtailing that use. Reduction of alcohol intake does not require any particular setting, but does require close collaboration between the general practitioner, specialized services for addiction, alcohology services and psychiatry. In patients who reach that target, significant savings in terms of health and social costs can be achieved. Harm reduction is a desirable target, even from an economic point of view. At the present state of neuroscientific knowledge, it is possible to go one step further in the logic that led to the integration of psychosocial and pharmacological approaches, by attempting to remove the shadows of social judgment that, at present, are aiming for a course of treatment that is directed towards absolute abstention.

  6. Alcohol Use Disorders, Use and Abuse | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Alcohol Use and Abuse Alcohol Use Disorders Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table of Contents NIAAA guidelines for low-risk drinking for alcohol use disorders call for men to drink no ...

  7. Variability in symptom expression among sexually abused girls: developing multivariate models.

    PubMed

    Spaccarelli, S; Fuchs, C

    1997-03-01

    Examined which of several apparent risk variables were predictors of internalizing and externalizing problems in 48 girls who were referred for therapy after disclosing sexual abuse. Specifically, the effects of abuse characteristics, support from nonoffending parents, victims' coping strategies, and victims' cognitive appraisals on symptomatology were assessed. As hypothesized, results indicated that internalizing and externalizing problems were associated with different sets of predictor variables. Victims' self-reports of depression and anxiety were related to lower perceived support from nonoffending parents, more use of cognitive avoidance coping, and more negative appraisals of the abuse. These results were partially replicated when using parent-report measures of depression, but were not replicated for parent reports of victim anxiety. Incest was the only variable that was significantly related to parent-reported anxiety. Parent-reported aggressive behaviors were predicted by level of abuse-related stress; and aggression, social problems, and sexual problems were all related to the tendency to cope by controlling others. Social problems were also related to coping by self-distraction. Regression analyses were done for each dependent variable to examine which predictors accounted for unique variance when controlling for other significant zero-order correlates. Implications of these results for understanding variability in symptom expression among sexual abuse victims are discussed.

  8. Variability in symptom expression among sexually abused girls: developing multivariate models.

    PubMed

    Spaccarelli, S; Fuchs, C

    1997-03-01

    Examined which of several apparent risk variables were predictors of internalizing and externalizing problems in 48 girls who were referred for therapy after disclosing sexual abuse. Specifically, the effects of abuse characteristics, support from nonoffending parents, victims' coping strategies, and victims' cognitive appraisals on symptomatology were assessed. As hypothesized, results indicated that internalizing and externalizing problems were associated with different sets of predictor variables. Victims' self-reports of depression and anxiety were related to lower perceived support from nonoffending parents, more use of cognitive avoidance coping, and more negative appraisals of the abuse. These results were partially replicated when using parent-report measures of depression, but were not replicated for parent reports of victim anxiety. Incest was the only variable that was significantly related to parent-reported anxiety. Parent-reported aggressive behaviors were predicted by level of abuse-related stress; and aggression, social problems, and sexual problems were all related to the tendency to cope by controlling others. Social problems were also related to coping by self-distraction. Regression analyses were done for each dependent variable to examine which predictors accounted for unique variance when controlling for other significant zero-order correlates. Implications of these results for understanding variability in symptom expression among sexual abuse victims are discussed. PMID:9118173

  9. Emotional abuse as a predictor of early maladaptive schemas in adolescents: contributions to the development of depressive and social anxiety symptoms.

    PubMed

    Calvete, E

    2014-04-01

    The schema therapy model posits that maltreatment generates early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) that lead to the development of emotional disorders throughout the life span. The model also stipulates that temperament moderates the influence of maltreatment on EMSs. This study examines (a) whether emotional abuse perpetrated by parents and peers, both alone and interactively with temperament, predicts the worsening of EMSs; and (b) whether EMSs in turn predict an increase in depressive and social anxiety symptoms in adolescents. A total of 1,052 adolescents (Mage=13.43; SD=1.29) were assessed at three time points, each of which was separated by 6 months. The subjects completed measures of emotional abuse by parents and peers, neuroticism, extraversion, EMSs, depressive symptoms, and social anxiety. The findings indicate that emotional bullying victimization and neuroticism predict a worsening of all schema domains over time. Contrary to expectations, there was no significant interaction between temperament dimensions and emotional abuse. The results confirmed the mediational hypothesis that changes in EMSs mediated the predictive association between bullying victimization and emotional symptoms. This study provides partial support for the schema therapy model by demonstrating the role of emotional abuse and temperament in the genesis of EMSs. PMID:24252743

  10. The Moderating Role of Purging Behaviour in the Relationship Between Sexual/Physical Abuse and Nonsuicidal Self-Injury in Eating Disorder Patients.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Sónia; Machado, Bárbara; Silva, Cátia; Crosby, Ross D; Lavender, Jason M; Cao, Li; Machado, Paulo P P

    2016-03-01

    This study sought to examine predictors of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) in eating disorder patients and to evaluate the moderating role of purging behaviours in the relationship between a theorised predictor (i.e. sexual/physical abuse) and NSSI. Participants in this study were 177 female patients with eating disorders (age range = 14-38 years) who completed semistructured interviews assessing eating disorder symptoms and eating disorder-related risk factors (e.g. history of sexual and physical abuse, history of NSSI and feelings of fatness). Results revealed that 65 participants (36.7%) reported lifetime engagement in NSSI, and 48 participants (27.1%) reported a history of sexual/physical abuse. Early onset of eating problems, lower BMI, feeling fat, a history of sexual/physical abuse and the presence of purging behaviours were all positively associated with the lifetime occurrence of NSSI. The relationship between sexual/physical abuse before eating disorder onset and lifetime NSSI was moderated by the presence of purging behaviours, such that the relationship was stronger in the absence of purging. These findings are consistent with the notion that purging and NSSI may serve similar functions in eating disorder patients (e.g. emotion regulation), such that the presence of purging may attenuate the strength of the association between sexual/physical abuse history (which is also associated with elevated NSSI risk) and engagement in NSSI behaviours. PMID:26606864

  11. Examining the Relationship between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Borderline Personality Disorder: Does Social Support Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elzy, Meredith B.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between childhood sexual abuse and borderline personality disorder is a prominent issue in the etiological research on borderline personality disorder. This study further explored the relationship between childhood sexual abuse and the development of borderline personality features while evaluating the moderating role of a primary…

  12. Personality disorder symptoms are differentially related to divorce frequency.

    PubMed

    Disney, Krystle L; Weinstein, Yana; Oltmanns, Thomas F

    2012-12-01

    Divorce is associated with a multitude of outcomes related to health and well-being. Data from a representative community sample (N = 1,241) of St. Louis residents (ages 55-64) were used to examine associations between personality pathology and divorce in late midlife. Symptoms of the 10 DSM-IV personality disorders were assessed with the Structured Interview for DSM-IV Personality and the Multisource Assessment of Personality Pathology (both self and informant versions). Multiple regression analyses showed Paranoid and Histrionic personality disorder symptoms to be consistently and positively associated with number of divorces across all three sources of personality assessment. Conversely, Avoidant personality disorder symptoms were negatively associated with number of divorces. The present paper provides new information about the relationship between divorce and personality pathology at a developmental stage that is understudied in both domains.

  13. Musculoskeletal symptoms, postural disorders and occupational risk factors: correlation analysis.

    PubMed

    Comper, Maria Luiza C; Macedo, Felipe; Padula, Rosimeire S

    2012-01-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WRMSD) include a list of inflammatory and degenerative diseases characterized by the presence of musculoskeletal symptoms, compensatory posture changes and functional disabilities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the kinetic/functional characteristics of textile plant workers, their level of exposure to risk factors and the contribution these make to musculoskeletal symptoms. The sample of 42 workers answered the Nordic Questionnaire and the Job Factors Questionnaire. The kinetic/functional characteristics of each worker were verified by a blinded evaluator. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson's correlation. Musculoskeletal symptoms were more prevalent in the spinal region and upper limbs. The exposure levels to risk factors were identified as a serious problem. Postural disorders, musculoskeletal symptoms and risk factors were correlated (P ≤ 0.05).

  14. Assessment and treatment of mood disorders in the context of substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Tolliver, Bryan K; Anton, Raymond F

    2015-06-01

    Recognition and management of mood symptoms in individuals using alcohol and/or other drugs represent a daily challenge for clinicians in both inpatient and outpatient treatment settings. Diagnosis of underlying mood disorders in the context of ongoing substance abuse requires careful collection of psychiatric history, and is often critical for optimal treatment planning and outcomes. Failure to recognize major depression or bipolar disorders in these patients can result in increased relapse rates, recurrence of mood episodes, and elevated risk of completed suicide. Over the past decade, epidemiologic research has clarified the prevalence of comorbid mood disorders in substance-dependent individuals, overturning previous assumptions that depression in these patients is simply an artifact of intoxication and/or withdrawal, therefore requiring no treatment. However, our understanding of the bidirectional relationships between mood and substance use disorders in terms of their course(s) of illness and prognoses remains limited. Like-wise, strikingly little treatment research exists to guide clinical decision making in co-occurring mood and substance use disorders, given their high prevalence and public health burden. Here we overview what is known and the salient gaps of knowledge where data might enhance diagnosis and treatment of these complicated patients.

  15. Assessment and treatment of mood disorders in the context of substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Tolliver, Bryan K; Anton, Raymond F

    2015-06-01

    Recognition and management of mood symptoms in individuals using alcohol and/or other drugs represent a daily challenge for clinicians in both inpatient and outpatient treatment settings. Diagnosis of underlying mood disorders in the context of ongoing substance abuse requires careful collection of psychiatric history, and is often critical for optimal treatment planning and outcomes. Failure to recognize major depression or bipolar disorders in these patients can result in increased relapse rates, recurrence of mood episodes, and elevated risk of completed suicide. Over the past decade, epidemiologic research has clarified the prevalence of comorbid mood disorders in substance-dependent individuals, overturning previous assumptions that depression in these patients is simply an artifact of intoxication and/or withdrawal, therefore requiring no treatment. However, our understanding of the bidirectional relationships between mood and substance use disorders in terms of their course(s) of illness and prognoses remains limited. Like-wise, strikingly little treatment research exists to guide clinical decision making in co-occurring mood and substance use disorders, given their high prevalence and public health burden. Here we overview what is known and the salient gaps of knowledge where data might enhance diagnosis and treatment of these complicated patients. PMID:26246792

  16. Schizophrenia Spectrum and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Autism Spectrum Disorder and Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study compared the differential severity of specific symptoms of schizophrenia spectrum disorder (SSD) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and child psychiatry outpatient referrals (controls). Each group was further subdivided into subgroups with and without co-occurring attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).…

  17. Italian neurologists' perception on cognitive symptoms in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Neri, G; Serrati, C; Zolo, P; Cataldo, N; Ripellino, C

    2016-09-01

    The assessment of cognition is an important part of major depressive disorder (MDD) evaluation and a crucial issue is the physicians' perception of cognitive dysfunction in MDD that remains nowadays a little known matter. The present study aims at investigating the understanding of neurologists' perception about cognitive dysfunction in MDD. An on-line survey addressed to 85 Italian neurologists in the period between May and June 2015 was performed. The questionnaire comprised three sections: the first section collecting information on neurologists' socio-demographic profile, the second investigating cognitive symptoms relevance in relation with different aspects and the third one explicitly focusing on cognitive symptoms in MDD. Cognitive symptoms are considered most significant among DSM-5 symptoms to define the presence of a Major Depressive Episode in a MDD, to improve antidepressant therapy adherence, patients' functionality and concurrent neurological condition, once resolved. Furthermore, an incongruity came to light from this survey: the neurologists considered cognitive symptoms a not relevant aspect to choose the antidepressant treatment in comparison with the other DSM-5 symptoms on one side, but they declared the opposite in the third part of the questionnaire focused on cognitive symptoms. Cognitive symptoms appeared to be a relevant aspect in MDD and neurologists have a clear understanding of this issue. Nevertheless, the discrepancy between neurologists' perception on cognitive symptoms and the antidepressant treatment highlights the feeling of an unmet need that could be filled increasing the awareness of existing drugs with pro-cognitive effects.

  18. 49 CFR 240.119 - Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Process § 240.119 Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules.... (b) Fitness requirement. (1) A person who has an active substance abuse disorder shall not be... certified engineer who is determined to have an active substance abuse disorder shall be suspended...

  19. 49 CFR 240.119 - Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Process § 240.119 Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules.... (b) Fitness requirement. (1) A person who has an active substance abuse disorder shall not be... certified engineer who is determined to have an active substance abuse disorder shall be suspended...

  20. 49 CFR 240.119 - Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Process § 240.119 Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules.... (b) Fitness requirement. (1) A person who has an active substance abuse disorder shall not be... certified engineer who is determined to have an active substance abuse disorder shall be suspended...

  1. 49 CFR 240.119 - Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules compliance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Process § 240.119 Criteria for consideration of data on substance abuse disorders and alcohol/drug rules.... (b) Fitness requirement. (1) A person who has an active substance abuse disorder shall not be... certified engineer who is determined to have an active substance abuse disorder shall be suspended...

  2. Examination of the causes of covariation between conduct disorder symptoms and vulnerability to drug dependence.

    PubMed

    Button, Tanya M M; Hewitt, John K; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Young, Susan E; Corley, Robin P; Stallings, Michael C

    2006-02-01

    Conduct disorder (CD) symptoms and substance dependence commonly co-occur. Both phenotypes are highly heritable and a common genetic influence on the covariation has been suggested. The aim of this study was to determine the extent to which genes and environment contribute to the covariance between CD and drug dependence using twins from the Colorado Longitudinal Twin Sample and the Colorado Twin Registry. A total of 880 twin pairs (237 monozygotic [MZ] female, 195 MZ male, 116 dizygotic [DZ] female, 118 DZ male and 214 DZ opposite-sex) aged 13 to 18 (mean = 15.65) were included in the analysis. CD was assessed by lifetime Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) symptom count and a polysubstance dependence vulnerability index was developed from responses to the Composite International Diagnostic Interview--Substance Abuse Module. A bivariate Cholesky Decomposition model was used to partition the cause of variation and covariation of the two phenotypes. No sex-limitation was observed in our data, and male and female parameter estimates were constrained to be equal. Both CD symptoms and dependence vulnerability were significantly heritable, and genes, shared environment and nonshared environment all contributed to the covariation between them. Genes contributed 35% of the phenotypic covariance, shared environment contributed 46%, and nonshared environmental influences contributed the remaining 19% to the phenotypic covariance. Therefore, there appears to be pleiotropic genetic influence on CD symptoms and dependence vulnerability.

  3. Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms Among People Living with HIV and Childhood Sexual Abuse: The Role of Shame and Posttraumatic Growth.

    PubMed

    Willie, Tiara C; Overstreet, Nicole M; Peasant, Courtney; Kershaw, Trace; Sikkema, Kathleen J; Hansen, Nathan B

    2016-08-01

    There is a critical need to examine protective and risk factors of anxiety and depressive symptoms among people living with HIV in order to improve quality of life. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the associations between HIV-related shame, sexual abuse-related shame, posttraumatic growth, and anxiety and depressive symptoms among a cohort of 225 heterosexual women and men who have sex with men (MSM) living with HIV who have experienced childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Higher sexual abuse-related shame was related to more anxiety and depressive symptoms for heterosexual women. Higher posttraumatic growth predicted less anxiety symptoms for only heterosexual women. Higher posttraumatic growth predicted less depressive symptoms for heterosexual women and MSM, but the magnitude of this effect was stronger for heterosexual women than MSM. Psychosocial interventions may need to be tailored to meet the specific needs of heterosexual women and MSM living with HIV and CSA.

  4. Dextromethorphan abuse masquerading as a recurrent seizure disorder.

    PubMed

    Majlesi, Nima; Lee, David C; Ali, Sayed S

    2011-03-01

    Dextromethorphan (DXM) has unique toxicity that may be difficult to diagnose. We present a case of a young woman who presented to our emergency department (ED) initially diagnosed with recurrent seizures. Paramedics brought a 19-year-old woman to the ED. Witnesses noted "shaking," which the patient did not recall. The patient denied fever, antecedent trauma, or neurological complaint. She was recently administered lamotrigine for bipolar disorder. She was a former alcoholic with no history of developing withdrawal. She admitted to marijuana use but denied use of any other illicit substances. Her vital signs and physical examination were unremarkable. She had a normal brain computed tomography, electrocardiogram, and laboratory evaluation. There was no alcohol detected. Her urine drug screen was negative for opiates, benzodiazepines, cocaine, amphetamines, barbiturates, phencyclidine, and tricyclic antidepressants. She was diagnosed with new-onset seizure and discharged home. No abnormalities were seen in the brain magnetic resonance imaging scan and electroencephalogram. She was scheduled for a cardiac syncope workup, but never followed through. Two months later, she presented to the hospital again for a similar complaint. Coworkers reported witnessing sudden tonic-clonic movements and confusion. On ED presentation, the patient was tachycardic with a heart rate of 110 beats/min and had horizontal nystagmus. She was alert with a flat affect. She did not recall events but answered questions appropriately. Repeat radiographic and laboratory evaluations were normal including urine drug screen and computed tomography. Upon questioning, she admitted to abusing DXM for the past several months. A serum DXM level at this time was 988.3 ng/mL. She was admitted to the hospital for 24 hours without sequelae. All further diagnostic testing was cancelled, and she was referred to a drug rehabilitation program. Abuse of DXM is increasing in incidence. The serum level of our

  5. Trajectories of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms as Precursors of Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms in Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stepp, Stephanie D.; Burke, Jeffrey D.; Hipwell, Alison E.; Loeber, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Little empirical evidence exists regarding the developmental links between childhood psychopathology and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adolescence. The current study addresses this gap by examining symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) as potential precursors. ADHD and BPD…

  6. Obsessive-Compulsive Spectrum Disorder Symptoms in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sulkowski, Michael L.; Mariaskin, Amy; Storch, Eric A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated the occurrence of obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders (OCSDs) and associated symptomology in college students. Participants: Participants included 358 undergraduate students. Results: Results suggest that clinically significant levels of OCSD symptoms are relatively common. Additionally, OCSD symptoms…

  7. Somatic Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginsburg, Golda S.; Riddle, Mark A.; Davies, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of somatic symptoms (SSs) in children and adolescents with anxiety disorders; the relationship between SSs and anxiety severity, impairment, and child global functioning; and the impact of fluvoxamine (FLV) versus pill placebo (PBO) on reducing SSs. Method: As part of a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,…

  8. Parental Reports of Symptoms of Childhood Disorders in Dutch Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholte, Evert M.; Van Berckelaer-Onnes, Ina A.; Van der Ploeg, Jan D.; Van den Bergh, Peter M.

    2008-01-01

    The number of children displaying childhood disorders in the Netherlands is estimated through a questionnaire referencing DSM-IV symptoms filled out by the parents of 2,563 4-18-year-old Dutch children randomly taken from the general Dutch Youth population in 2004. The number of impaired children was estimated by applying the DSM-IV criteria for…

  9. Transactional processes in the development of adult personality disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Elizabeth A; Ruiz, Sarah K

    2016-08-01

    The development of adult personality disorder symptoms, including transactional processes of relationship representational and behavioral experience from infancy to early adolescence, was examined using longitudinal data from a risk sample (N = 162). Significant preliminary correlations were found between early caregiving experience and adult personality disorder symptoms and between representational and behavioral indices across time and adult symptomatology. Significant correlations were also found among diverse representational assessments (e.g., interview, drawing, and projective narrative) and between concurrent representational and observational measures of relationship functioning. Path models were analyzed to investigate the combined relations of caregiving experience in infancy; relationship representation and experience in early childhood, middle childhood, and early adolescence; and personality disorder symptoms in adulthood. The hypothesized model representing interactive contributions of representational and behavioral experience represented the data significantly better than competing models representing noninteractive contributions. Representational and behavioral indicators mediated the link between early caregiving quality and personality disorder symptoms. The findings extend previous studies of normative development and support an organizational developmental view that early relationship experiences contribute to socioemotional maladaptation as well as adaptation through the progressive transaction of mutually informing expectations and experience. PMID:27427797

  10. Classifying symptom change in eating disorders: clinical significance metrics for the Change in Eating Disorder Symptoms Scale.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Anthony D; Spangler, Diane L

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine clinically significant change criteria and change trajectories for the Change in Eating Disorder Symptoms Scale (CHEDS). Participants included non-eating disordered (n=95) and eating disordered (n=58) samples. The clinical sample was undergoing enhanced cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT-E) for eating disorders. Reliable change indices (RCI), cutscores, and change trajectories were calculated. CHEDS total score RCI was 12 points while the cutscore between eating disordered and non-eating disordered groups was 65. Trajectory models for benchmarking were successfully derived based on initial scores. The change indices and trajectories permit session-by-session analyses and benchmarking of change. These empirically-calibrated indices of patient change and progress allow for empirically-guided treatment decision-making. PMID:26735393

  11. Reasons for dropout from drug abuse treatment: symptoms, personality, and motivation.

    PubMed

    Ball, Samuel A; Carroll, Kathleen M; Canning-Ball, Monica; Rounsaville, Bruce J

    2006-02-01

    Previous research has identified risk factors for early attrition from substance abuse treatment, but has not assessed reasons for dropout from the client's perspective. Interview and self-report assessment data were collected from 24 clients who prematurely terminated outpatient treatment to evaluate their subjective reasons for dropping out and the association of these reasons with demographic and clinical variables. Items from scales indicating problems with client motivation or conflicts with program staff were the most commonly endorsed. The severity of participant's symptoms and logistical problems interfering with appointments were less commonly reported as reasons for dropping out. Demographic, substance abuse, and motivational stage indicators were infrequently associated with subjective reasons for dropout. In contrast, indicators of maladaptive personality functioning were strongly associated with many reasons for dropping out, especially concerns about privacy and boundary issues within the program. Results from this preliminary evaluation will guide the development of an instrument and intervention focused on dropout risk factors and treatment reengagement.

  12. Association of Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse with Intimate Partner Violence, Poor General Health and Depressive Symptoms among Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Barrios, Yasmin V.; Gelaye, Bizu; Zhong, Qiuyue; Nicolaidis, Christina; Rondon, Marta B.; Garcia, Pedro J.; Sanchez, Pedro A. Mascaro; Sanchez, Sixto E.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined associations of childhood physical and sexual abuse with risk of intimate partner violence (IPV). We also evaluated the extent to which childhood abuse was associated with self-reported general health status and symptoms of antepartum depression in a cohort of pregnant Peruvian women. Methods In-person interviews were conducted to collect information regarding history of childhood abuse and IPV from 1,521 women during early pregnancy. Antepartum depressive symptomatology was evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Results Any childhood abuse was associated with 2.2-fold increased odds of lifetime IPV (95%CI: 1.72–2.83). Compared with women who reported no childhood abuse, those who reported both, childhood physical and sexual abuse had a 7.14-fold lifetime risk of physical and sexual IPV (95%CI: 4.15–12.26). The odds of experiencing physical and sexual abuse by an intimate partner in the past year was 3.33-fold higher among women with a history of childhood physical and sexual abuse as compared to women who were not abused as children (95%CI 1.60–6.89). Childhood abuse was associated with higher odds of self-reported poor health status during early pregnancy (aOR = 1.32, 95%CI: 1.04–1.68) and with symptoms of antepartum depression (aOR = 2.07, 95%CI: 1.58–2.71). Conclusion These data indicate that childhood sexual and physical abuse is associated with IPV, poor general health and depressive symptoms in early pregnancy. The high prevalence of childhood trauma and its enduring effects of on women’s health warrant concerted global health efforts in preventing violence. PMID:25635902

  13. Child maltreatment and psychological symptoms in a Portuguese adult community sample: the harmful effects of emotional abuse.

    PubMed

    Dias, Aida; Sales, Luísa; Hessen, David J; Kleber, Rolf J

    2015-07-01

    Child maltreatment (CM) is associated with poor long-term health outcomes. However, knowledge about CM prevalence and related consequences is scarce among adults in South European countries. We examined the self-reported prevalence of five different forms of CM in a community sample of 1,200 Portuguese adults; we compared the results with similar samples from three other countries, using the same instrument. We also explored the relationship between CM and psychological symptoms. Cross-sectional data using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form and the Brief Symptom Inventory were analyzed. Moderate or severe CM exposure was self-reported by 14.7% of the sample, and 67% was exposed to more than one form of CM. Emotional neglect was the most endorsed experience, with women reporting greater emotional abuse and men reporting larger physical abuse. Physical and sexual abuse was less self-reported by Portuguese than by American or German subjects. CM exposure predicted 12.8% of the psychological distress. Emotional abuse was the strongest predictor for psychological symptoms, namely for paranoid ideation, depression, and interpersonal sensitivity. Emotional abuse overlapped with the exposure to all other CM forms, and interacted with physical abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect to predict psychological distress. Low exposure to emotional abuse was directly associated with the effects of physical abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect to predict adult psychological distress. Verbal abuse experiences were frequently reported and had the highest correlations with adult psychological distress. Our results underline the potential hurtful effects of child emotional abuse among Portuguese adults in the community. They also highlight the need to improve prevention and intervention actions to reduce exposure and consequences of CM, particularly emotional abuse. PMID:25270111

  14. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder among urban residents.

    PubMed

    Parto, Jacklyn A; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2011-07-01

    Previous studies indicate a high risk of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) among women and low-income, urban-residing African-Americans. This study examined PTSD symptoms among urban-residing, socioeconomically diverse, working-age African-Americans and whites. The participants completed the PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version. Of the 2104 participants, 268 (12.7%) were screened positive for PTSD symptoms. Women (13.8%) were more likely than men (11.3%), white participants (13.8%) were more likely than African-Americans (11.9%), and younger participants (16.1%) were more likely than older participants (10.2%) to screen positive for PTSD symptoms. A significant interaction (p = 0.05) revealed that white women living below the 125% poverty level were most likely to report PTSD symptoms. These findings highlight the importance of PTSD screening in low-income urban neighborhoods.

  15. Maternal exposure to intimate partner abuse before birth is associated with autism spectrum disorder in offspring.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Andrea L; Lyall, Kristen; Rich-Edwards, Janet W; Ascherio, Alberto; Weisskopf, Marc G

    2016-01-01

    We sought to determine whether maternal (a) physical harm from intimate partner abuse during pregnancy or (b) sexual, emotional, or physical abuse before birth increased risk of autism spectrum disorder. We calculated risk ratios for autism spectrum disorder associated with abuse in a population-based cohort of women and their children (54,512 controls, 451 cases). Physical harm from abuse during pregnancy was not associated with autism spectrum disorder. However, autism spectrum disorder risk was increased in children of women who reported fear of partner or sexual, emotional, or physical abuse in the 2 years before the birth year (abuse in the year before the birth year: risk ratio = 1.58, 95% confidence interval = 1.04, 2.40; abuse in both of the 2 years before the birth year: risk ratio = 2.16, 95% confidence interval = 1.33, 3.50). Within-family results were similar, although did not reach statistical significance. Association of intimate partner abuse before the child's birth year with autism spectrum disorder in the child was not accounted for by gestation length, birth weight, maternal smoking or alcohol consumption during pregnancy, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, or history of induced abortion.

  16. Sexual Abuse in Childhood and Interpersonal Violence in Adulthood: A Cumulative Impact on Depressive Symptoms in Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuigan, William M.; Middlemiss, Wendy

    2005-01-01

    This study investigates the cumulative impact of sexual abuse in childhood and adult interpersonal violence in the past year on depressive symptoms in a nonclinical sample of 265 primarily African American (74%) women. The frequency of depressive symptoms, measured by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), was highest for…

  17. Effects of a Behavioral Sleep Medicine Intervention on Trauma Symptoms in Adolescents Recently Treated for Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Sally; Haynes, Patricia L.; Ruiz, Bridget; Bootzin, Richard R.

    2007-01-01

    This study tested whether improvement in sleep by an integrative, behavioral sleep intervention was associated with improvement in traumatic stress (TS) symptoms in a sample of 20 adolescents who were recently treated for substance abuse. Sleep was measured throughout the intervention via daily sleep diaries, and traumatic stress symptoms were…

  18. Psychological and Drug Abuse Symptoms Associated with Non-medical Use of Opioid Analgesics among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Carol J; Young, Amy; McCabe, Sean E

    2014-01-01

    Background This exploratory study examined the psychological and substance abuse symptoms and motivations associated with adolescents’ medical and nonmedical use of opioid analgesics. We compared three groups of adolescents: 1) those who never used an opioid analgesic; 2) those who used a prescribed opioid analgesic (medical users); and 3) those who used someone else’s opioid analgesics (nonmedical users). Nonmedical use was defined as using someone else’s opioid analgesic medication. Comparisons among the groups were made on psychological and substance abuse symptoms as well as motivations to engage in nonmedical use. Methods A web-based survey, the Secondary Student Life Survey (SSLS) was administered to a sample of students who attended one of five secondary schools in southeastern Michigan. The sample included 2,627 respondents and was evenly distributed by sex and grade. Sixty-five percent (65.0%) were White/Caucasian and 29.5% African-American. The average age was 14.8 years (SD=1.9). Results Seventy percent (70.4%, n=1850) reported never using opioid analgesics in their lifetimes. Of the remaining 24.5% (n=644) of opioid analgesic users, most were medical users. However, 3.5% (n=92) were classified as nonmedical users who used someone else’s medication for pain relief only, and 1.6% (n=41) were classified as nonmedical users for reasons other than for pain relief (e.g. to get high). In contrast to never users, both medical users and nonmedical users reported more substance abuse symptoms and symptoms associated with pain. Further, those nonmedical users who used opioids to sensation seek had greater odds of having psychological symptoms. Conclusions These data: 1) provide additional support for the existence of distinct subgroups of adolescent opioid analgesic users; 2) provide evidence of psychological symptoms associated with nonmedical use; and 3) highlight the psychological differences among nonmedical users who self-treat for pain versus

  19. Generalized Anxiety Disorder and Hypoglycemia Symptoms Improved with Diet Modification

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Sukriti

    2016-01-01

    Observational evidence suggests that a relationship may exist between high glycemic index diets and the development of anxiety and depression symptoms; however, as no interventional studies assessing this relationship in a psychiatric population have been completed, the possibility of a causal link is unclear. AB is a 15-year-old female who presented with concerns of generalized anxiety disorder and hypoglycemia symptoms. Her diet consisted primarily of refined carbohydrates. The addition of protein, fat, and fiber to her diet resulted in a substantial decrease in anxiety symptoms as well as a decrease in the frequency and severity of hypoglycemia symptoms. A brief return to her previous diet caused a return of her anxiety symptoms, followed by improvement when she restarted the prescribed diet. This case strengthens the hypothesis that dietary glycemic index may play a role in the pathogenesis or progression of mental illnesses such as generalized anxiety disorder and subsequently that dietary modification as a therapeutic intervention in the treatment of mental illness warrants further study. PMID:27493821

  20. Dissociative symptoms and dissociative disorder comorbidity in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Belli, Hasan; Ural, Cenk; Vardar, Melek Kanarya; Yesılyurt, Sema; Oncu, Fatıh

    2012-10-01

    The present study attempted to assess the dissociative symptoms and overall dissociative disorder comorbidity in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). In addition, we examined the relationship between the severity of obsessive-compulsive symptoms and dissociative symptoms. All patients admitted for the first time to the psychiatric outpatient unit were included in the study. Seventy-eight patients had been diagnosed as having OCD during the 2-year study period. Patients had to meet the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for OCD. Most (76.9%; n = 60) of the patients were female, and 23.1% (n = 18) of the patients were male. Dissociation Questionnaire was used to measure dissociative symptoms. The Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition Dissociative Disorders interviews and Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Checklist and Severity Scale were used. Eleven (14%) of the patients with OCD had comorbid dissociative disorder. The most prevalent disorder in our study was dissociative depersonalization disorder. Dissociative amnesia and dissociative identity disorder were common as well. The mean Yale-Brown score was 23.37 ± 7.27 points. Dissociation Questionnaire scores were between 0.40 and 3.87 points, and the mean was 2.23 ± 0.76 points. There was a statistically significant positive correlation between Yale-Brown points and Dissociation Questionnaire points. We conclude that dissociative symptoms among patients with OCD should alert clinicians for the presence of a chronic and complex dissociative disorder. Clinicians may overlook an underlying dissociative process in patients who have severe symptoms of OCD. However, a lack of adequate response to cognitive-behavioral and drug therapy may be a consequence of dissociative process.

  1. PREVENTION AND OUTCOMES FOR VICTIMS OF CHILDHOOD SEXUAL ABUSE

    PubMed Central

    Ulibarri, Monica D.; Ulloa, Emilio C.; Salazar, Marissa

    2015-01-01

    This study examined self-reported sexually abusive experiences in childhood and adulthood as correlates of current drug use, alcohol abuse, and depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 204 Latina women 18–34 years old. Results indicated significant relationships between history of sexual abuse (regardless of age of occurrence), depression symptoms, PTSD symptoms, alcohol abuse, and drug use. When examined separately, childhood sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of depression, PTSD, and substance use but not alcohol abuse behaviors. Experiencing sexual abuse in adulthood was associated with symptoms of depression, alcohol abuse behaviors, and substance use but not PTSD symptoms. Structural equation modeling showed that substance use partially mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and mental health outcomes. These findings suggest mental health and substance use services should incorporate treatment for trauma, which may be the root of comorbid mental health and substance use issues. PMID:25635897

  2. Substance Abuse Treatment for Persons with Co-Occurring Disorders. Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 42

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Treatment Improvement Protocols (TIPs), developed by the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT), part of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), are best-practice guidelines for the treatment of substance use disorders. CSAT draws on the experience…

  3. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Quality of Life in Sexually Abused Australian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gospodarevskaya, Elena

    2013-01-01

    The study used publicly available data on post-traumatic stress disorder in a sample of the Australian population with a history of sexual abuse to demonstrate how this evidence can inform economic analyses. The 2007 Australian Mental Health Survey revealed that 8.3% of 993 adolescents experienced childhood sexual abuse, of which 40.2% were…

  4. Representations of Attachment Security in the Bird's Net Drawings of Clients with Substance Abuse Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Denille M.; Kaiser, Donna; Deaver, Sarah P.

    2003-01-01

    Presents results of a study of the graphic indicators in drawings by patients with substance abuse disorders. The Bird's Nest Drawing, an assessment task previously devised to elicit pictorial representations of attachment security, was used to examine attachment patterns of volunteers. Results showed that those with substance abuse diagnoses were…

  5. Childhood Emotional Abuse and Disordered Eating among Undergraduate Females: Mediating Influence of Alexithymia and Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hund, Anita R.; Espelage, Dorothy L.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Drawing from stress-vulnerability and trauma theory (e.g., Rorty & Yager, 1996), this paper presents a model of associations among child emotional abuse (CEA), alexithymia, general distress (GD), and disordered eating (DE). This study extended previous research on psychological outcomes of child physical and sexual abuse to explore…

  6. Speech-Sound Disorders and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Barbara A.; Short, Elizabeth J.; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Taylor, H. Gerry; Freebairn, Lisa; Tag, Jessica; Avrich, Allison A.; Stein, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association of speech-sound disorders (SSD) with symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by the severity of the SSD and the mode of transmission of SSD within the pedigrees of children with SSD. Participants and Methods: The participants were 412 children who were enrolled…

  7. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Mental Health over Time among Low-Income Women at Increased Risk of HIV in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Golin, Carol E; Haley, Danielle F; Wang, Jing; Hughes, James P; Kuo, Irene; Justman, Jessica; Adimora, Adaora A; Soto-Torres, Lydia; O'Leary, Ann; Hodder, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Women living in poverty suffer more post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms than do members of the general population; however we know little about factors associated with changes in their PTSD symptoms over time. Using data from HPTN 064, a cohort of women from low-income, high-HIV-prevalence communities across six eastern states (n=1,860), we assessed the prevalence of and changes in PTSD symptoms over 12 months and the effect of potential predictors on symptom acquisition and remission (via the Primary Care-PTSD symptoms scale). Forty-three percent screened positive for PTSD symptoms. Those reporting food insecurity, ongoing abuse, depressive symptoms, or binge drinking were more likely to acquire PTSD symptoms. Those with ongoing abuse or depressive symptoms were less likely to experience PTSD symptom remission. Findings suggest a need to integrate programs to reduce abuse, depression, and economic hardship with those that address sexual health risks among women living in low-income, high-HIV-prevalence neighborhoods. PMID:27180715

  8. Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Mental Health over Time among Low-Income Women at Increased Risk of HIV in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Golin, Carol E; Haley, Danielle F; Wang, Jing; Hughes, James P; Kuo, Irene; Justman, Jessica; Adimora, Adaora A; Soto-Torres, Lydia; O'Leary, Ann; Hodder, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Women living in poverty suffer more post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms than do members of the general population; however we know little about factors associated with changes in their PTSD symptoms over time. Using data from HPTN 064, a cohort of women from low-income, high-HIV-prevalence communities across six eastern states (n=1,860), we assessed the prevalence of and changes in PTSD symptoms over 12 months and the effect of potential predictors on symptom acquisition and remission (via the Primary Care-PTSD symptoms scale). Forty-three percent screened positive for PTSD symptoms. Those reporting food insecurity, ongoing abuse, depressive symptoms, or binge drinking were more likely to acquire PTSD symptoms. Those with ongoing abuse or depressive symptoms were less likely to experience PTSD symptom remission. Findings suggest a need to integrate programs to reduce abuse, depression, and economic hardship with those that address sexual health risks among women living in low-income, high-HIV-prevalence neighborhoods.

  9. Unique contributions of individual eating disorder symptoms to eating disorder-related impairment.

    PubMed

    Hovrud, Lindsey; De Young, Kyle P

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the unique contribution of individual eating disorder symptoms and related features to overall eating disorder-related impairment. Participants (N=113) from the community with eating disorders completed assessments including the Clinical Impairment Assessment (CIA) and the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. A multiple linear regression analysis indicated that 58.6% of variance in the CIA was accounted for by binge eating frequency, weight and shape concerns, and depression. These findings indicate that certain eating disorder symptoms uniquely account for impairment and that depression is a substantial contributor. It is possible that purging, restrictive eating, and body mass index did not significantly contribute to impairment because these features are consistent with many individuals' weight and shape goals. The results imply that eating disorder-related impairment may be more a result of cognitive features and binge eating rather than body weight and compensatory behaviors. PMID:26026614

  10. Trajectories of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms as precursors of borderline personality disorder symptoms in adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Stepp, Stephanie D; Burke, Jeffrey D; Hipwell, Alison E; Loeber, Rolf

    2012-01-01

    Little empirical evidence exists regarding the developmental links between childhood psychopathology and borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adolescence. The current study addresses this gap by examining symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) as potential precursors. ADHD and BPD share clinical features of impulsivity, poor self-regulation, and executive dysfunction, while ODD and BPD share features of anger and interpersonal turmoil. The study is based on annual, longitudinal data from the two oldest cohorts in the Pittsburgh Girls Study (N = 1,233). We used piecewise latent growth curve models of ADHD and ODD scores from age 8 to 10 and 10 to 13 years to examine the prospective associations between dual trajectories of ADHD and ODD symptom severity and later BPD symptoms at age 14 in girls. To examine the specificity of these associations, we also included conduct disorder and depression symptom severity at age 14 as additional outcomes. We found that higher levels of ADHD and ODD scores at age 8 uniquely predicted BPD symptoms at age 14. Additionally, the rate of growth in ADHD scores from age 10 to 13 and the rate of growth in ODD scores from 8 to 10 uniquely predicted higher BPD symptoms at age 14. This study adds to the literature on the early development of BPD by providing the first longitudinal study to examine ADHD and ODD symptom trajectories as specific childhood precursors of BPD symptoms in adolescent girls.

  11. Eating Disorders in Adult Women: The Sexual Abuse Connection. A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roland, Catherine; Butler, Scott

    1992-01-01

    Literature review examines several areas repeatedly addressed concerning prevalence of eating disorders and child sexual abuse (CSA): psychological profiles of eating-disordered adult women who may have experienced CSA; psychosocial aftereffects of CSA; familial dynamics of survivors of CSA; studies connecting eating disorders and CSA; and studies…

  12. An IRT Analysis of the Symptoms of Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Emmert-Aronson, Benjamin O; Brown, Timothy A

    2015-06-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties of a major depressive episode using a large sample (N = 2,907) of outpatients with mood and anxiety disorders. A two-parameter logistic model yielded item threshold and discrimination parameters. A two-group confirmatory factor analysis was used to evaluate gender bias. Item thresholds fell along a continuum with the core features of depressed mood and anhedonia, along with fatigue, endorsed at lower levels of depression, and change in appetite and suicidal ideation endorsed at more severe levels. Item discriminations were highest for depressed mood and anhedonia, and lowest for change in appetite and suicidal ideation. The data indicate that the symptoms of depression assess a range of severity, with varying precision in discriminating depression. No gender differences were observed. Three exploratory symptom sets were compared with the full symptom set for depression, offering quantitative evidence that can be used to modify the psychiatric classification system.

  13. Impact of childhood abuse history on psychological symptoms among male and female soldiers in the U.S. Army.

    PubMed

    Rosen, L N; Martin, L

    1996-12-01

    The long-term psychological effects of four different types of childhood maltreatment were examined among 1,072 male and 305 female soldiers on active duty in the United States Army. The predictor variables included four subscales from the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ)-(1) physical-emotional abuse, (2) sexual abuse, (3) emotional neglect, and (4) physical neglect. An additional sexual abuse variable based on the four screening questions developed by Finkelhor, Hotaling, Lewis, and Smith (1990) was also included. Outcome was measured by the Brief Symptom Inventory and a dissociation scale developed by Briere and Runtz (1988). MANOVAs were conducted for each outcome measure. Physical-emotional abuse contributed to most of the effects. However, sexual abuse contributed additional significant effects to all of the subscales. In general, males and females showed similar outcomes, but certain gender differences were noted. PMID:8985606

  14. Satanism, ritual abuse, and multiple personality disorder: a sociohistorical perspective.

    PubMed

    Mulhern, S

    1994-10-01

    During the past decade in North America, a growing number of mental health professionals have reported that between 25% and 50% of their patients in treatment for multiple personality disorder (MPD) have recovered early childhood traumatic memories of ritual torture, incestuous rape, sexual debauchery, sacrificial murder, infanticide, and cannibalism perpetrated by members of clandestine satanic cults. Although hundreds of local and federal police investigations have failed to corroborate patients' therapeutically constructed accounts, because the satanic etiology of MPD is logically coherent with the neodissociative, traumatic theory of psychopathology, conspiracy theory has emerged as the nucleus of a consistent pattern of contemporary clinical interpretation. Resolutely logical and thoroughly operational, ultrascientific psychodemonology remains paradoxically oblivious to its own irrational premises. When the hermetic logic of conspiracy theory is stripped away by historical and socio/psychological analysis, however, the hypothetical perpetrators of satanic ritual abuse simply disappear, leaving in their wake the very real human suffering of all those who have been caught up in the social delusion. PMID:7960286

  15. Satanism, ritual abuse, and multiple personality disorder: a sociohistorical perspective.

    PubMed

    Mulhern, S

    1994-10-01

    During the past decade in North America, a growing number of mental health professionals have reported that between 25% and 50% of their patients in treatment for multiple personality disorder (MPD) have recovered early childhood traumatic memories of ritual torture, incestuous rape, sexual debauchery, sacrificial murder, infanticide, and cannibalism perpetrated by members of clandestine satanic cults. Although hundreds of local and federal police investigations have failed to corroborate patients' therapeutically constructed accounts, because the satanic etiology of MPD is logically coherent with the neodissociative, traumatic theory of psychopathology, conspiracy theory has emerged as the nucleus of a consistent pattern of contemporary clinical interpretation. Resolutely logical and thoroughly operational, ultrascientific psychodemonology remains paradoxically oblivious to its own irrational premises. When the hermetic logic of conspiracy theory is stripped away by historical and socio/psychological analysis, however, the hypothetical perpetrators of satanic ritual abuse simply disappear, leaving in their wake the very real human suffering of all those who have been caught up in the social delusion.

  16. Chronic illness histories of adults entering treatment for co-occurring substance abuse and other mental health disorders.

    PubMed

    Chesher, Nicholas J; Bousman, Chad A; Gale, Maiken; Norman, Sonya B; Twamley, Elizabeth W; Heaton, Robert K; Everall, Ian P; Judd, Patricia A

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about the medical status of individuals entering treatment for co-occurring substance abuse and other mental disorders (COD). We analyzed the medical histories of 169 adults entering outpatient treatment for CODs, estimating lifetime prevalence of chronic illness and current smoking, comparing these rates to the general population, and examining psychiatric and substance-related correlates of chronic illness. Results revealed significantly higher prevalence of hypertension, asthma, arthritis, and smoking compared to the general US population, and showed an association between chronic illness and psychiatric symptom distress and substance use severity. Findings support integration of chronic illness management into COD treatment. 

  17. Cross-Disorder Genetic Analysis of Tic Disorders, Obsessive-Compulsive, and Hoarding Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Zilhão, Nuno R; Smit, Dirk J; Boomsma, Dorret I; Cath, Danielle C

    2016-01-01

    Hoarding, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and Tourette's disorder (TD) are psychiatric disorders that share symptom overlap, which might partly be the result of shared genetic variation. Population-based twin studies have found significant genetic correlations between hoarding and OCD symptoms, with genetic correlations varying between 0.1 and 0.45. For tic disorders, studies examining these correlations are lacking. Other lines of research, including clinical samples and GWAS or CNV data to explore genetic relationships between tic disorders and OCD, have only found very modest if any shared genetic variation. Our aim was to extend current knowledge on the genetic structure underlying hoarding, OC symptoms (OCS), and lifetime tic symptoms and, in a trivariate analysis, assess the degree of common and unique genetic factors contributing to the etiology of these disorders. Data have been gathered from participants in the Netherlands Twin Register comprising a total of 5293 individuals from a sample of adult monozygotic (n = 2460) and dizygotic (n = 2833) twin pairs (mean age 33.61 years). The data on Hoarding, OCS, and tic symptoms were simultaneously analyzed in Mplus. A liability threshold model was fitted to the twin data, analyzing heritability of phenotypes and of their comorbidity. Following the criteria for a probable clinical diagnosis in all phenotypes, 6.8% of participants had a diagnosis of probable hoarding disorder (HD), 6.3% of OCS, and 12.8% of any probable lifetime tic disorder. Genetic factors explained 50.4, 70.1, and 61.1% of the phenotypic covariance between hoarding-OCS, hoarding-tics, and OCS-tics, respectively. Substantial genetic correlations were observed between hoarding and OCS (0.41), hoarding and tics (0.35), and between OCS and tics (0.37). These results support the contribution of genetic factors in the development of these disorders and their comorbidity. Furthermore, tics were mostly influenced by specific

  18. Prevalence and characteristics of abuse experiences and depression symptoms among injection drug-using female sex workers in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Ulibarri, Monica D; Hiller, Sarah P; Lozada, Remedios; Rangel, M Gudelia; Stockman, Jamila K; Silverman, Jay G; Ojeda, Victoria D

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the prevalence and characteristics of physical and sexual abuse and depression symptoms among 624 injection drug-using female sex workers (FSW-IDUs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico; a subset of 47 from Tijuana also underwent qualitative interviews. Linear regressions identified correlates of current depression symptoms. In the interviews, FSW-IDUs identified drug use as a method of coping with the trauma they experienced from abuse that occurred before and after age 18 and during the course of sex work. In a multivariate linear regression model, two factors-ever experiencing forced sex and forced sex in the context of sex work-were significantly associated with higher levels of depression symptoms. Our findings suggest the need for integrated mental health and drug abuse services for FSW-IDUs addressing history of trauma as well as for further research on violence revictimization in the context of sex work in Mexico.

  19. Prevalence and Characteristics of Abuse Experiences and Depression Symptoms among Injection Drug-Using Female Sex Workers in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ulibarri, Monica D.; Hiller, Sarah P.; Lozada, Remedios; Rangel, M. Gudelia; Stockman, Jamila K.; Silverman, Jay G.; Ojeda, Victoria D.

    2013-01-01

    This mixed methods study examined the prevalence and characteristics of physical and sexual abuse and depression symptoms among 624 injection drug-using female sex workers (FSW-IDUs) in Tijuana and Ciudad Juarez, Mexico; a subset of 47 from Tijuana also underwent qualitative interviews. Linear regressions identified correlates of current depression symptoms. In the interviews, FSW-IDUs identified drug use as a method of coping with the trauma they experienced from abuse that occurred before and after age 18 and during the course of sex work. In a multivariate linear regression model, two factors—ever experiencing forced sex and forced sex in the context of sex work—were significantly associated with higher levels of depression symptoms. Our findings suggest the need for integrated mental health and drug abuse services for FSW-IDUs addressing history of trauma as well as for further research on violence revictimization in the context of sex work in Mexico. PMID:23737808

  20. Opioid peptides and gastrointestinal symptoms in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Lázaro, Cristiane P; Pondé, Milena P; Rodrigues, Luiz E A

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterized by deficits in the individual's ability to socialize, communicate, and use the imagination, in addition to stereotyped behaviors. These disorders have a heterogenous phenotype, both in relation to symptoms and regarding severity. Organic problems related to the gastrointestinal tract are often associated with ASD, including dysbiosis, inflammatory bowel disease, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, celiac disease, indigestion, malabsorption, food intolerance, and food allergies, leading to vitamin deficiencies and malnutrition. In an attempt to explain the pathophysiology involved in autism, a theory founded on opioid excess has been the focus of various investigations, since it partially explains the symptomatology of the disorder. Another hypothesis has been put forward whereby the probable triggers of ASDs would be related to the presence of bacteria in the bowel, oxidative stress, and intestinal permeability. The present update reviews these hypotheses.

  1. Opioid peptides and gastrointestinal symptoms in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Lázaro, Cristiane P; Pondé, Milena P; Rodrigues, Luiz E A

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are characterized by deficits in the individual's ability to socialize, communicate, and use the imagination, in addition to stereotyped behaviors. These disorders have a heterogenous phenotype, both in relation to symptoms and regarding severity. Organic problems related to the gastrointestinal tract are often associated with ASD, including dysbiosis, inflammatory bowel disease, exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, celiac disease, indigestion, malabsorption, food intolerance, and food allergies, leading to vitamin deficiencies and malnutrition. In an attempt to explain the pathophysiology involved in autism, a theory founded on opioid excess has been the focus of various investigations, since it partially explains the symptomatology of the disorder. Another hypothesis has been put forward whereby the probable triggers of ASDs would be related to the presence of bacteria in the bowel, oxidative stress, and intestinal permeability. The present update reviews these hypotheses. PMID:27304256

  2. The Role of Narcissistic Vulnerability in Predicting Adult Posttraumatic Symptoms from Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Bachar, Eytan; Canetti, Laura; Hadar, Hilit; Baruch, Julia; Dor, Yehuda; Freedman, Sara

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine whether narcissistic vulnerability can aid in clarifying the debate regarding the relationship between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adulthood adjustment to traumatic events. 157 survivors (mean age = 31.1, SD = 10.9) of a traumatic event (war activities and road and work accidents) were assessed 1 week, 1, and 4 months following the event. Of the 157 participants, 15 reported experiencing CSA, and 26 reported experiencing childhood physical abuse (CPA). In the first-week assessment, patients were administered the Narcissistic Vulnerability Scale (NVS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). In the follow-up assessments, subjects were interviewed on the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. Narcissistic vulnerability was found, both in 1- and 4-month follow-ups, to increase the likelihood of participants who experienced CSA to develop PTSD symptoms later in their adult life, when exposed to other additional trauma. Narcissistic vulnerability, in both follow-ups, did not increase the likelihood of participants who experienced CPA to develop PTSD symptoms later in their life when exposed to other additional trauma. The NVS predicted the development of PTSD symptoms in the whole sample, both in the 1- and 4-month follow-ups, above and beyond the prediction of the BDI. In other words, narcissistic vulnerability can add additional information above and beyond general negative emotionality. In conclusion, it is recommended to take into consideration the interplay between CSA and the individual's narcissistic vulnerability when assessing the long term effects of CSA such as acute or chronic PTSD.

  3. The Role of Narcissistic Vulnerability in Predicting Adult Posttraumatic Symptoms from Childhood Sexual Abuse.

    PubMed

    Bachar, Eytan; Canetti, Laura; Hadar, Hilit; Baruch, Julia; Dor, Yehuda; Freedman, Sara

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine whether narcissistic vulnerability can aid in clarifying the debate regarding the relationship between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and adulthood adjustment to traumatic events. 157 survivors (mean age = 31.1, SD = 10.9) of a traumatic event (war activities and road and work accidents) were assessed 1 week, 1, and 4 months following the event. Of the 157 participants, 15 reported experiencing CSA, and 26 reported experiencing childhood physical abuse (CPA). In the first-week assessment, patients were administered the Narcissistic Vulnerability Scale (NVS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). In the follow-up assessments, subjects were interviewed on the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale. Narcissistic vulnerability was found, both in 1- and 4-month follow-ups, to increase the likelihood of participants who experienced CSA to develop PTSD symptoms later in their adult life, when exposed to other additional trauma. Narcissistic vulnerability, in both follow-ups, did not increase the likelihood of participants who experienced CPA to develop PTSD symptoms later in their life when exposed to other additional trauma. The NVS predicted the development of PTSD symptoms in the whole sample, both in the 1- and 4-month follow-ups, above and beyond the prediction of the BDI. In other words, narcissistic vulnerability can add additional information above and beyond general negative emotionality. In conclusion, it is recommended to take into consideration the interplay between CSA and the individual's narcissistic vulnerability when assessing the long term effects of CSA such as acute or chronic PTSD. PMID:25410429

  4. A longitudinal study of several potential mediators of the relationship between child maltreatment and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Shenk, Chad E; Putnam, Frank W; Rausch, Joseph R; Peugh, James L; Noll, Jennie G

    2014-02-01

    Child maltreatment is a reliable predictor of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. However, not all maltreated children develop PTSD symptoms, suggesting that additional mediating variables explain how certain maltreated children develop PTSD symptoms and others do not. The current study tested three potential mediators of the relationship between child maltreatment and subsequent PTSD symptoms: (a) respiratory sinus arrhythmia reactivity, (b) cortisol reactivity, and (c) experiential avoidance, or the unwillingness to experience painful private events, such as thoughts and memories. Maltreated (n = 51) and nonmaltreated groups (n = 59) completed a stressor paradigm, a measure of experiential avoidance, and a semistructured interview of PTSD symptoms. One year later, participants were readministered the PTSD symptoms interview. Results of a multiple mediator model showed the set of potential mediators mediated the relationship between child maltreatment and subsequent PTSD symptoms. However, experiential avoidance was the only significant, specific indirect effect, demonstrating that maltreated children avoiding painful private events after the abuse were more likely to develop a range of PTSD symptoms 1 year later. These results highlight the importance of experiential avoidance in the development of PTSD symptoms for maltreated children, and implications for secondary prevention and clinical intervention models are discussed. PMID:24444173

  5. Early Development of Comorbidity Between Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Breaux, Rosanna P.; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I.

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are among the most common childhood disorders and frequently co-occur. The present study sought to advance our understanding of how comorbidity between ADHD and ODD develops during the preschool years by testing a cross-lagged model that integrates two prominent models: the developmental precursor model and the correlated risk factors model. Participants were 199 children (107 boys) who took part in a longitudinal study of preschoolers with behavior problems. Parent reports of ADHD and ODD symptoms were collected annually from ages 3 to 6 and a family history interview was administered at age 3. In support of the developmental precursors model, ADHD symptoms predicted later argumentative/defiant symptoms. In support of the correlated risk factors model, family histories of ADHD and ODD/CD symptoms were correlated risk factors that uniquely predicted ADHD and anger/irritable symptoms in children. Results suggest that the correlated risk factors model may best explain the development of comorbidity between symptoms of ADHD and anger/irritability, whereas the developmental precursors model may better explain the development of comorbidity between symptoms of ADHD and argumentative/defiance. PMID:26854502

  6. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Structure in Injured Children: Functional Impairment and Depression Symptoms in a Confirmatory Factor Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassam-Adams, Nancy; Marsac, Meghan L.; Cirilli, Carla

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the factor structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in children and adolescents who have experienced an acute single-incident trauma, associations between PTSD symptom clusters and functional impairment, and the specificity of PTSD symptoms in relation to depression and general distress. Method: Examined…

  7. Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... also may fall prey to strangers who take advantage of their cognitive impairment. Types of abuse Signs ... property) to his or her disadvantage or the advantage of someone else Sexual abuse: touching, fondling or ...

  8. Withdrawal symptoms in internet gaming disorder: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Kaptsis, Dean; King, Daniel L; Delfabbro, Paul H; Gradisar, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is currently positioned in the appendix of the DSM-5 as a condition requiring further study. The aim of this review was to examine the state of current knowledge of gaming withdrawal symptomatology, given the importance of withdrawal in positioning the disorder as a behavioral addiction. A total of 34 studies, including 10 qualitative studies, 17 research reports on psychometric instruments, and 7 treatment studies, were evaluated. The results indicated that the available evidence on Internet gaming withdrawal is very underdeveloped. Internet gaming withdrawal is most consistently referred to as 'irritability' and 'restlessness' following cessation of the activity. There exists a concerning paucity of qualitative studies that provide detailed clinical descriptions of symptoms arising from cessation of internet gaming. This has arguably compromised efforts to quantify withdrawal symptoms in empirical studies of gaming populations. Treatment studies have not reported on the natural course of withdrawal and/or withdrawal symptom trajectory following intervention. It is concluded that many more qualitative clinical studies are needed, and should be prioritised, to develop our understanding of gaming withdrawal. This should improve clinical descriptions of problematic internet gaming and in turn improve the quantification of IGD withdrawal and thus treatments for harmful internet gaming.

  9. Anxiety Symptoms in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or Chronic Multiple Tic Disorder and Community Controls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Gadow, Kenneth D.; DeVincent, Carla J.; Crowell, Judy

    2010-01-01

    We compared symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and separation anxiety disorder (SAD) in 5 groups of boys with neurobehavioral syndromes: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) plus autism spectrum disorder (ASD), ADHD plus chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD), ASD only, ADHD only, and community Controls. Anxiety symptoms were…

  10. Psychiatric Disorders in HTLV-1-Infected Individuals with Bladder Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Orge, Glória O.; Dellavechia, Thais R.; Carneiro-Neto, José Abraão; Araújo-de-Freitas, Lucas; Daltro, Carla H. C.; Santos, Carlos T.; Quarantini, Lucas C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies have reported high rates of depression and anxiety in HTLV-1 infected individuals with the neurological disease and in the asymptomatic phase. No study has investigated the rates in individuals that already show bladder symptoms without severe neurological changes; that is, during the oligosymptomatic phase. The present study investigated patients in this intermediate form on the spectrum of the infection. Methodology/Principal Findings Participants answered a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Brazilian Version 5.0.0 (MINI PLUS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Data analysis was performed in STATA statistical software (version 12.0). Depressive disorder was the most frequent comorbidity. Current depressive disorder was higher in the group of overactive bladder subjects (11.9%), and lifelong depression was more frequent in the HAM/TSP group (35%). The three groups had similar frequencies of anxiety disorders. Increased frequency and severity of anxiety and depression symptoms were observed in the overactive bladder group. Conclusion/Significance The results suggest that individuals with overactive bladders need a more thorough assessment from the mental health perspective. These patients remain an understudied group regarding psychiatric comorbidities. PMID:26018525

  11. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Symptoms among American Indians and Alaska Natives: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Bassett, Deborah; Buchwald, Dedra; Manson, Spero

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) experience high rates of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We reviewed existing literature to address three interrelated questions: 1) What is the prevalence of PTSD and PTSD symptoms among AI/ANs? 2) What are the inciting events, risk factors, and comorbidities in AI/ANs, and do they differ from those in the general U.S. population? 3) Are studies available to inform clinicians about the course and treatment of PTSD in this population? Methods: We searched the PubMed and Web of Science databases and a database on AI/AN health, capturing an initial sample of 77 original English-language articles published 1992-2010. After applying exclusion criteria, we retained 37 articles on prevalence of PTSD and related symptoms among AI/AN adults. We abstracted key information and organized it in tabular format. Results: AI/ANs experience a substantially greater burden of PTSD and related symptoms than U.S. Whites. Combat experience and interpersonal violence were consistently cited as leading causes of PTSD and related symptoms. PTSD was associated with bodily pain, lung disorders, general health problems, substance abuse, and pathological gambling. In general, inciting events, risk factors, and comorbidities appear similar to those in the general U.S. population. Conclusions: Substantial research indicates a strikingly high incidence of PTSD in AI/AN populations. However, inciting events, risk factors, and comorbidities in AI/ANs, and how they may differ from those in the general population, are poorly understood. Very few studies are available on the clinical course and treatment of PTSD in this vulnerable population. PMID:24022752

  12. A Recommendation for the Management of Illness Anxiety Disorder Patients Abusing the Health Care System

    PubMed Central

    Almalki, Mohammad; Al-Tawayjri, Ibrahim; Al-Anazi, Ahmed; Mahmoud, Sami

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Illness anxiety disorder (IAD) entails a preoccupation with having a serious, undiagnosed illness in which somatic symptoms are, if present, mild in intensity (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Case Report. This is a case of seventy-three-year-old Saudi man who started visiting the primary health care center around twenty-five years ago. With concerns of having cancer, the patient continuously visited the hospital, costing over $170,000. Throughout this period, the patient has been exposed to extensive unnecessary imaging studies and laboratory tests that have effects on his life in all aspects with such concerns. Five years ago, a family doctor has put an end to that by directing the patient to the right path. The doctor made several actions; most importantly, he directed the patient to a cognitive behavioral therapy which significantly improved a range of hypochondriacal beliefs and attitudes. This patient's case demonstrates the fundamental importance of a proper health system that limits such patients from abusing the health system and depleting the medical resources. Moreover, this case emphasizes the important role of the family physician who can be the first physician to encounter such patients. Thus, proper understanding of the nature of such disorder is a key element for better diagnosis and management. PMID:27313939

  13. A Recommendation for the Management of Illness Anxiety Disorder Patients Abusing the Health Care System.

    PubMed

    Almalki, Mohammad; Al-Tawayjri, Ibrahim; Al-Anazi, Ahmed; Mahmoud, Sami; Al-Mohrej, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Illness anxiety disorder (IAD) entails a preoccupation with having a serious, undiagnosed illness in which somatic symptoms are, if present, mild in intensity (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Case Report. This is a case of seventy-three-year-old Saudi man who started visiting the primary health care center around twenty-five years ago. With concerns of having cancer, the patient continuously visited the hospital, costing over $170,000. Throughout this period, the patient has been exposed to extensive unnecessary imaging studies and laboratory tests that have effects on his life in all aspects with such concerns. Five years ago, a family doctor has put an end to that by directing the patient to the right path. The doctor made several actions; most importantly, he directed the patient to a cognitive behavioral therapy which significantly improved a range of hypochondriacal beliefs and attitudes. This patient's case demonstrates the fundamental importance of a proper health system that limits such patients from abusing the health system and depleting the medical resources. Moreover, this case emphasizes the important role of the family physician who can be the first physician to encounter such patients. Thus, proper understanding of the nature of such disorder is a key element for better diagnosis and management. PMID:27313939

  14. A Recommendation for the Management of Illness Anxiety Disorder Patients Abusing the Health Care System.

    PubMed

    Almalki, Mohammad; Al-Tawayjri, Ibrahim; Al-Anazi, Ahmed; Mahmoud, Sami; Al-Mohrej, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Illness anxiety disorder (IAD) entails a preoccupation with having a serious, undiagnosed illness in which somatic symptoms are, if present, mild in intensity (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). Case Report. This is a case of seventy-three-year-old Saudi man who started visiting the primary health care center around twenty-five years ago. With concerns of having cancer, the patient continuously visited the hospital, costing over $170,000. Throughout this period, the patient has been exposed to extensive unnecessary imaging studies and laboratory tests that have effects on his life in all aspects with such concerns. Five years ago, a family doctor has put an end to that by directing the patient to the right path. The doctor made several actions; most importantly, he directed the patient to a cognitive behavioral therapy which significantly improved a range of hypochondriacal beliefs and attitudes. This patient's case demonstrates the fundamental importance of a proper health system that limits such patients from abusing the health system and depleting the medical resources. Moreover, this case emphasizes the important role of the family physician who can be the first physician to encounter such patients. Thus, proper understanding of the nature of such disorder is a key element for better diagnosis and management.

  15. Maternal Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms and Parenting of Adolescent Daughters

    PubMed Central

    Zalewski, Maureen; Stepp, Stephanie D.; Scott, Lori N.; Whalen, Diana J.; Beeney, Joseph F.; Hipwell, Alison E.

    2014-01-01

    Maternal borderline personality disorder (BPD) symptoms are associated with poorer parenting. However, most studies conducted are with young children. In the current study, the authors examined associations between maternal BPD symptoms and parenting in an urban community sample of 15- to 17-year-old girls (n = 1,598) and their biological mothers. Additionally, the authors tested the impact of adolescent temperament on these associations. Mothers reported on their own psychopathology and their daughters' temperament. Adolescent girls reported on mothers' parenting methods in terms of psychological and behavioral control. Results demonstrated that maternal BPD symptoms were associated with aspects of psychological and behavioral control, even after controlling for maternal depression and alcohol use severity. After examining specific BPD components that may account for these associations, the authors found that affective/behavioral dysregulation, but not interpersonal dysregulation or identity disturbance, uniquely accounted for parenting. Adolescent temperament did not moderate these associations. BPD symptoms, particularly affective/behavioral dysregulation, are important targets when conducting parenting interventions. PMID:24689767

  16. Adult social attachment disturbance is related to childhood maltreatment and current symptoms in borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Minzenberg, Michael J; Poole, John H; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2006-05-01

    We characterized borderline personality disorder (BPD) along two fundamental dimensions of adult social attachment and evaluated attachment associations with childhood maltreatment and current symptoms using self-report measures in 40 outpatients with DSM-IV BPD. The BPD group had significantly greater dimensional attachment impairment and rate of fearful attachment type compared with a healthy control group. Among BPD subjects, dimensional attachment-anxiety was specifically associated with sexual abuse, whereas attachment-avoidance was associated with all five maltreatment types. The two attachment dimensions showed divergent associations with current interpersonal problems, impulsivity subtypes and mood symptoms. We conclude that (1) BPD is characterized by adult attachment disturbance; (2) these attachment problems are strongly related to childhood maltreatment, and to current interpersonal problems and clinical symptoms that are considered core features of BPD; and (3) the diverse problems of BPD patients may arise from two basic mechanisms, each tied to a different type of attachment disturbance, developmental history, and clinical outcome. PMID:16699383

  17. Intimate partner violence, depressive symptoms, and immigration status: does existing advocacy intervention work on abused immigrant women in the Chinese community?

    PubMed

    Wong, Janet Y H; Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Y T; Yuen, K H; Humphreys, Janice; Bullock, Linda

    2013-07-01

    Advocacy intervention has been shown to be efficacious at reducing depressive symptoms in women who suffer from intimate partner violence (IPV). However, the intervention effect among abused immigrant women has not been well studied. This study compares the demographic and psychosocial characteristics between abused immigrant and nonimmigrant women, and evaluates the impact of immigration status on the efficacy of an advocacy intervention in reducing depressive symptoms and improving perceived social support. Two hundred abused Chinese women recruited from a local community center in Hong Kong were randomized to receive either the advocacy intervention or usual care. The advocacy intervention was found to be effective at reducing depressive symptoms and improving social support for abused Chinese nonimmigrant women, but the same effects were not seen for abused immigrant women. The findings provide essential insights into the need for developing targeted and efficacious advocacy interventions for abused immigrant women. Effective services to address abused immigrant women's needs were also suggested.

  18. The Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Val66Met Polymorphism Moderates the Effects of Childhood Abuse on Severity of Depressive Symptoms in a Time-Dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Webb, Caitlin; Gunn, Jane M; Potiriadis, Maria; Everall, Ian P; Bousman, Chad A

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have demonstrated that the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met single-nucleotide polymorphism moderates the association between exposure to negative life events and depression outcomes. Yet, it is currently unclear whether this moderating effect is applicable to positive life events and if the moderating effect is stable over time. To address these gaps in the literature, we examined clinical and BDNF genotypic data from a 5-year prospective cohort of 310 primary care attendees. Primary care attendees were selected based on existence of depressive symptoms at screening. Depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline and annually for 5 years post-baseline using the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Linear mixed models assessed differences in depressive symptom severity over the 5-year follow-up period by BDNF Val66Met and history of life events, both negative and positive. Analysis identified a novel three-way interaction between the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism, history of severe childhood abuse, and time. Post hoc analysis stratified by time showed a two-way interaction between Val66Met and severe childhood abuse at baseline that was not detectable at any other time point. An interaction between Val66Met and positive life events was not detected. Our longitudinal results suggest that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism moderates the depressive symptom severity experienced by those with a history of severe childhood abuse but does so in a time-dependent manner. Our results further support the notion that gene-environment-depression interactions are dynamic and highlight the importance of longitudinal assessment of these interactions. Given these novel longitudinal findings; replication is required. PMID:27621711

  19. The Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Val66Met Polymorphism Moderates the Effects of Childhood Abuse on Severity of Depressive Symptoms in a Time-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Caitlin; Gunn, Jane M.; Potiriadis, Maria; Everall, Ian P.; Bousman, Chad A.

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have demonstrated that the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met single-nucleotide polymorphism moderates the association between exposure to negative life events and depression outcomes. Yet, it is currently unclear whether this moderating effect is applicable to positive life events and if the moderating effect is stable over time. To address these gaps in the literature, we examined clinical and BDNF genotypic data from a 5-year prospective cohort of 310 primary care attendees. Primary care attendees were selected based on existence of depressive symptoms at screening. Depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline and annually for 5 years post-baseline using the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Linear mixed models assessed differences in depressive symptom severity over the 5-year follow-up period by BDNF Val66Met and history of life events, both negative and positive. Analysis identified a novel three-way interaction between the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism, history of severe childhood abuse, and time. Post hoc analysis stratified by time showed a two-way interaction between Val66Met and severe childhood abuse at baseline that was not detectable at any other time point. An interaction between Val66Met and positive life events was not detected. Our longitudinal results suggest that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism moderates the depressive symptom severity experienced by those with a history of severe childhood abuse but does so in a time-dependent manner. Our results further support the notion that gene–environment–depression interactions are dynamic and highlight the importance of longitudinal assessment of these interactions. Given these novel longitudinal findings; replication is required. PMID:27621711

  20. The Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Val66Met Polymorphism Moderates the Effects of Childhood Abuse on Severity of Depressive Symptoms in a Time-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Caitlin; Gunn, Jane M.; Potiriadis, Maria; Everall, Ian P.; Bousman, Chad A.

    2016-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies have demonstrated that the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met single-nucleotide polymorphism moderates the association between exposure to negative life events and depression outcomes. Yet, it is currently unclear whether this moderating effect is applicable to positive life events and if the moderating effect is stable over time. To address these gaps in the literature, we examined clinical and BDNF genotypic data from a 5-year prospective cohort of 310 primary care attendees. Primary care attendees were selected based on existence of depressive symptoms at screening. Depressive symptoms were assessed at baseline and annually for 5 years post-baseline using the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Linear mixed models assessed differences in depressive symptom severity over the 5-year follow-up period by BDNF Val66Met and history of life events, both negative and positive. Analysis identified a novel three-way interaction between the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism, history of severe childhood abuse, and time. Post hoc analysis stratified by time showed a two-way interaction between Val66Met and severe childhood abuse at baseline that was not detectable at any other time point. An interaction between Val66Met and positive life events was not detected. Our longitudinal results suggest that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism moderates the depressive symptom severity experienced by those with a history of severe childhood abuse but does so in a time-dependent manner. Our results further support the notion that gene–environment–depression interactions are dynamic and highlight the importance of longitudinal assessment of these interactions. Given these novel longitudinal findings; replication is required.

  1. Insomnia Symptoms Following Treatment for Comorbid Panic Disorder With Agoraphobia and Generalized Anxiety Disorder.

    PubMed

    Cousineau, Héloïse; Marchand, André; Bouchard, Stéphane; Bélanger, Claude; Gosselin, Patrick; Langlois, Frédéric; Labrecque, Joane; Dugas, Michel J; Belleville, Geneviève

    2016-04-01

    Patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia (PDA) or generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) frequently also suffer from insomnia. However, the impact of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders on insomnia has been understudied. Furthermore, comorbidity between anxiety disorders is common. Our main objective was to assess the impact of CBT for PDA or GAD on insomnia. In a quasi-experimental design, 86 participants with PDA and GAD received conventional CBT for their primary disorder or combined CBT for both disorders. Overall, CBTs had a significant impact on reducing insomnia symptoms (η = 0.58). However, among people with insomnia at pretest (67%), 33% still had an insomnia diagnosis, and the majority (63%) had clinically significant residual insomnia following treatment. In conclusion, the CBTs had a positive effect on the reduction of insomnia, but a significant proportion of participants still had insomnia problems following treatment. Clinicians should address insomnia during CBT for PDA and GAD. PMID:27019339

  2. Exacerbation of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms with medical illness.

    PubMed

    Hamner, M B

    1994-03-01

    Chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may increase the risk for associated psychiatric and medical illnesses. In turn, the onset of medical illness may result in an exacerbation of PTSD symptoms leading to excessive or maladaptive psychological and physiological reactions. Five combat veterans with PTSD and medical disease are presented to illustrate this potential for worsening of PTSD with concurrent medical illness. Health care workers in general hospital settings should be aware of unique psychological vulnerabilities in PTSD patients. Prospective studies are needed to assess the impact of medical comorbidity on the course of PTSD.

  3. Symptoms resembling temporomandibular joint disorder caused by a pleomorphic adenoma.

    PubMed

    Marchese, Nadia; Witterick, Ian; Freeman, Bruce V

    2013-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is a benign neoplasm of the salivary glands. It is the most common type of salivary gland tumour and the tumour most commonly found in the parotid gland. Clinical diagnosis of a parotid gland neoplasm can be difficult, particularly when the lesion is located deep within the gland. Although usually asymptomatic, pleomorphic adenoma may exhibit symptoms mimicking those of conditions such as temporomandibular joint disorder. This case report highlights the difficulties of diagnosing this type of tumour and the importance of communication between physicians and dentists to ensure an accurate diagnosis.

  4. Does Writing about Past Childhood Abuse Reduce Psychological and Physical Symptoms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antal, Holly M.; Range, Lillian M.

    2009-01-01

    To see if writing about former abuse reduced depression, somatic, and sleep complaints, 664 undergraduates were screened for past physical or sexual abuse. Of those abused, 88 consenting students were randomly assigned to no-writing control or writing (20 minutes on 4 different days) about abuse or trivial topics. All completed pre-, post-, and…

  5. High school students' posttraumatic symptoms, substance abuse and involvement in violence in the aftermath of war.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Miriam; Pat-Horenczyk, Ruth; Benbenishty, Rami; Brom, Danny; Baum, Naomi; Astor, Ron Avi

    2012-10-01

    This study examined one-year after effects of exposure to war events on adolescents' Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms (PTS) and risk behaviors (substance use and involvement in school violence). In addition, it addressed two potential vulnerability factors: at the micro level, it examined whether childhood trauma raised the vulnerability of Israeli adolescents to PTS and risk behaviors when exposed to war events. At the macro level, we explored whether ethnicity, i.e., being an Israeli Arab, is a vulnerability factor to PTS and risk behaviors. We used a representative sample of 7th to 11th grade students from the north of Israel that included 4151 students: 1800 Jewish (54.4% boys) and 2351 Arab (41.5% boys). We assessed exposure to war events and childhood traumatic events, PTS and PTSD, substance use (alcohol, cannabis, Ecstasy) and involvement in school violence. The findings revealed extensive exposure to war events among both Jewish and Arab students. A year after the war, its effects on adolescents were still manifested in PTS, and involvement in school violence and substance use. Exposure to child physical abuse was associated with higher levels of PTS symptoms, substance use and involvement in violence. Exposure to other traumatic events was also associated with greater PTS symptoms and involvement in violence but not with greater substance use. Arab students were a more vulnerable population. They reported higher PTS symptoms, more cannabis use and greater involvement in school violence than Jewish students. However, exposure to war events had similar effects on both Arab and Jewish students. We conclude that war effects include a broad range of psychological distress and risk behaviors that last long after the war ends, especially among youth who have experienced childhood trauma and high exposure to war-related stressors.

  6. Psychiatric Symptom Clusters as Risk Factors for Alcohol Use Disorders in Adolescence: A National Study

    PubMed Central

    Harford, Thomas C.; Yi, Hsiao-ye; Chen, Chiung M.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2015-01-01

    Background Few epidemiologic studies have examined a full range of adolescent psychiatric disorders in the general population. The association between psychiatric symptom clusters (PSCs) and DSM-IV alcohol use disorders (AUDs) among adolescents is not well understood. Methods This study draws upon the public-use data from the 2000 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, including a study sample of 19,430 respondents ages 12 to 17. Logistic regression and exploratory structural equation modeling assess the associations between PSCs and DSM-IV AUDs by gender. The PSCs are based on brief screening scales devised from the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children Predictive Scales. Results Several PSCs were found to be significantly associated with DSM-IV AUDs, including separation anxiety, generalized anxiety, depression, oppositional defiant disorder, and conduct disorder among both genders, and panic disorder and obsessive compulsive disorder among females. Consistent with the literature, the analysis of PSCs yields three factors identical for both genders—two internalizing factors (fear and anxiety–misery) and one externalizing factor. Adolescents who scored higher on the externalizing factor tended to have higher levels of the AUD factor. Female adolescents who scored higher on the internalizing misery factor and lower on the internalizing fear factor also tended to have higher levels of the AUD factor. Conclusion The associations that we found between PSCs and AUDs among adolescents in this study are consistent with those found among adults in other studies, although gender may moderate associations between internalizing PSCs and AUDs. Our findings lend support to previous findings on the developmentally stable associations between disruptive behaviors and AUDs among adolescents as well as adults in the general population. PMID:26110378

  7. Cross-Cultural Comparisons of Child-Reported Emotional and Physical Abuse: Rates, Risk Factors and Psychosocial Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebre, Sandra; Sprugevica, Ieva; Novotni, Antoni; Bonevski, Dimitar; Pakalniskiene, Vilmante; Popescu, Daniela; Turchina, Tatiana; Friedrich, William; Lewis, Owen

    2004-01-01

    Objectives: This study was designed to assess the incidence of child emotional and physical abuse, associated risk factors and psychosocial symptoms in a cross-cultural comparison between post-communist bloc countries. Method: One-thousand one-hundred forty-five children ages 10-14 from Latvia (N=297), Lithuania (N=300), Macedonia (N=302), and…

  8. Childhood Emotional Abuse and Neglect as Predictors of Psychological and Physical Symptoms in Women Presenting to a Primary Care Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spertus, Ilyse L.; Yehuda, Rachel; Wong, Cheryl M.; Halligan, Sarah; Seremetis, Stephanie V.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: There were two aims to this study: first to examine whether emotional abuse and neglect are significant predictors of psychological and somatic symptoms, and lifetime trauma exposure in women presenting to a primary care practice, and second to examine the strength of these relationships after controlling for the effects of other types…

  9. Sensory Symptoms in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Other Developmental Disorders and Typical Development: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Carolyn; Hepburn, Susan; Young, Gregory S.; Rogers, Sally J.

    2016-01-01

    Sensory symptoms are prevalent in autism spectrum disorder but little is known about the early developmental patterns of these symptoms. This study examined the development of sensory symptoms and the relationship between sensory symptoms and adaptive functioning during early childhood. Three groups of children were followed across three time…

  10. The role of child sexual abuse in the etiology of substance-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Maniglio, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    To elucidate the role of child sexual abuse in the etiology of substance-related disorders, a systematic review of the several articles on the childhood sexual abuse-related risk for developing substance problems in adolescence or adulthood is provided. Seven databases were searched, supplemented with hand-search of reference lists. Six reviews, including 200 studies, were included. Results indicate that child sexual abuse is a statistically significant, although general and nonspecific, risk factor for substance problems. Other biological and psychosocial variables contribute to substance-related disorders, with sexual abuse conferring additional risk, either as a distal, indirect cause or as a proximal, direct cause. Recommendations for future research are provided.

  11. Somatic symptom disorders and illness behaviour: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Prior, Kirsty N; Bond, Malcolm J

    2013-02-01

    The behavioural aspects of somatic symptom disorders have received minimal research attention to date. The first section of this paper identifies key theoretical perspectives relevant to behavioural responses to illness. Specifically, the sociological concept of illness behaviour is offered as a general framework in which to consider the range of psychosocial factors associated with responses to perceived illness. Further, the potential relevance of the construct of abnormal illness behaviour and the cognitive behavioural conceptualization of health anxiety is explored. The second part of the paper describes various approaches to the operationalization of illness behaviour, with particular emphasis on the Illness Behaviour Questionnaire, an instrument with a rich history of application. Additional insight is provided into two contemporary instruments which aim to measure overt behavioural aspects of illness more specifically. The third and final section of the paper makes recommendations for how future research may advance the understanding of state- versus trait-based characteristics of illness behaviour. Suggestions are made for how adaptive forms of behaviour (e.g. self-management, appropriate coping) may reduce the risk of developing a somatic symptom disorder or alternatively, minimizing the potentially negative psychosocial implications of such a presentation.

  12. Signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in adolescent violin players.

    PubMed

    Kovero, O; Könönen, M

    1996-08-01

    Signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and the frequency of radiologically observed abnormalities in the condyles of temporomandibular joints (TMJs) of adolescent violin players (VP group) were investigated in a group of 31 music students and in their age- and sex-matched controls (C group). All subjects underwent a routine clinical stomatognathic examination, a standardized interview, and radiography of the condyles. The VP group reported a higher frequency of the subjective symptoms: pain in the TMJ when chewing, a feeling of stiffness in the TMJ, and clenching of the teeth. Clinically, the VP group showed a greater range of maximal protrusion and of maximal laterotrusion to the right, and a greater frequency of deviation to the right on opening. They also showed more palpatory tenderness in the masticatory muscles and pain in the TMJ on maximal opening. The number of playing years and the number of weekly playing hours correlated with several signs and symptoms of TMDs. In terms of radiologic findings in the condyles of the TMJs there was no difference between the groups. It is concluded that intense violin playing may have a predisposing role in the etiology of TMDs in adolescence. PMID:8876740

  13. Signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in adolescent violin players.

    PubMed

    Kovero, O; Könönen, M

    1996-08-01

    Signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and the frequency of radiologically observed abnormalities in the condyles of temporomandibular joints (TMJs) of adolescent violin players (VP group) were investigated in a group of 31 music students and in their age- and sex-matched controls (C group). All subjects underwent a routine clinical stomatognathic examination, a standardized interview, and radiography of the condyles. The VP group reported a higher frequency of the subjective symptoms: pain in the TMJ when chewing, a feeling of stiffness in the TMJ, and clenching of the teeth. Clinically, the VP group showed a greater range of maximal protrusion and of maximal laterotrusion to the right, and a greater frequency of deviation to the right on opening. They also showed more palpatory tenderness in the masticatory muscles and pain in the TMJ on maximal opening. The number of playing years and the number of weekly playing hours correlated with several signs and symptoms of TMDs. In terms of radiologic findings in the condyles of the TMJs there was no difference between the groups. It is concluded that intense violin playing may have a predisposing role in the etiology of TMDs in adolescence.

  14. Gastrointestinal symptoms and motility disorders in patients with systemic scleroderma

    PubMed Central

    Di Ciaula, Agostino; Covelli, Michele; Berardino, Massimo; Wang, David QH; Lapadula, Giovanni; Palasciano, Giuseppe; Portincasa, Piero

    2008-01-01

    Background Studies on gastrointestinal symptoms, dysfunctions, and neurological disorders in systemic scleroderma are lacking so far. Methods Thirty-eight scleroderma patients (34 limited, 4 diffuse), 60 healthy controls and 68 dyspeptic controls were scored for upper and lower gastrointestinal symptoms (dyspepsia, bowel habits), gastric and gallbladder emptying to liquid meal (functional ultrasonography) and small bowel transit (H2-breath test). Autonomic nerve function was assessed by cardiovascular tests. Results The score for dyspepsia (mainly gastric fullness) was greater in scleroderma patients than healthy controls, but lower than dyspeptic controls who had multiple symptoms, instead. Scleroderma patients with dyspepsia had a longer disease duration. Fasting antral area and postprandial antral dilatation were smaller in scleroderma patients than dyspeptic and healthy controls. Gastric emptying was delayed in both scleroderma patients (particularly in those with abnormal dyspeptic score) and dyspeptic controls, who also showed a larger residual area. Despite gallbladder fasting and postprandial volumes were comparable across the three groups, gallbladder refilling appeared delayed in dyspeptic controls and mainly dependent on delayed gastric emptying in scleroderma. Small intestinal transit was also delayed in 74% of scleroderma and 66% of dyspeptic controls. Bowel habits were similar among the three groups. Autonomic neuropathy was not associated with dyspepsia, gastric and gallbladder motility and small intestinal transit. Conclusion In scleroderma patients dyspepsia (mainly gastric fullness), restricted distension of the gastric antrum and diffuse gastrointestinal dysmotility are frequent features. These defects are independent from the occurrence of autonomic neuropathy. PMID:18304354

  15. Overt versus covert conduct disorder symptoms and the prospective prediction of antisocial personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Le Corff, Yann; Toupin, Jean

    2014-12-01

    Studies have shown strong continuity between conduct disorder (CD) in adolescence and antisocial personality disorder (APD) in adulthood. Researchers have been trying to explain why some adolescents with CD persist into adult APD and others do not. A few studies reported that overt and covert CD symptoms have a differential predictive power for APD, with mixed results. The present study aimed to evaluate the prospective association of overt and covert CD symptoms with APD in a sample of male adolescents with CD (N = 128, mean age = 15.6, SD = 1.6). Participants were recruited at intake in Quebec Youth Centers and reassessed 3 years later (n = 73). CD and ADHD symptoms were assessed at intake with the DISC-R while APD was assessed 3 years later with the SCID-II. Logistic regression results showed that, contrary to previous prospective studies (Lahey, Loeber, Burke, & Applegate, 2005; Washburn et al., 2007), overt (OR = 2.12, 95% CI [1.29, 3.50]) but not covert (OR = 1.04, 95% CI [0.69, 1.56]) symptoms predicted later APD, controlling for ADHD symptoms and socioeconomic status. It is hypothesized that the divergence with previous studies may be explained by the higher mean number and wider range of overt CD symptoms in our sample.

  16. National Institute on Drug Abuse symposium report: drugs of abuse, dopamine, and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders/HIV-associated dementia.

    PubMed

    Purohit, Vishnudutt; Rapaka, Rao; Frankenheim, Jerry; Avila, Albert; Sorensen, Roger; Rutter, Joni

    2013-04-01

    The National Institute on Drug Abuse organized a symposium on drugs of abuse, dopamine, and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND)/HIV-associated dementia (HAD) in Rockville, Maryland, October 4, 2011. The purpose of this symposium was to evaluate the potential role of dopamine in the potentiation of HAND/HAD by drugs of abuse. A summary of the symposium has been presented in this report.

  17. Personality Disorders in Substance Abusers: A Comparison of Patients Treated in a Prison Unit and Patients Treated in Inpatient Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefansson, Ragnar; Hesse, Morten

    2008-01-01

    A large body of literature has shown a high prevalence of personality disorders in substance abusers. We compared a sample of substance abusers treated in a prison setting with substance abusers treated in a non-prison inpatient setting rated with the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III. Base-rate scores indicated a prevalence of 95% of…

  18. Intimate Partner Violence and Miscarriage: Examination of the Role of Physical and Psychological Abuse and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morland, Leslie A.; Leskin, Gregory A.; Block, Carolyn Rebecca; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Friedman, Matthew J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite research documenting high rates of violence during pregnancy, few studies have examined the impact of physical abuse, psychological abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on miscarriage. Secondary analysis of data collected by the Chicago Women's Health Risk Study permitted an exploration of the relationships among physical abuse,…

  19. Cross-Disorder Genetic Analysis of Tic Disorders, Obsessive–Compulsive, and Hoarding Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Zilhão, Nuno R.; Smit, Dirk J.; Boomsma, Dorret I.; Cath, Danielle C.

    2016-01-01

    Hoarding, obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), and Tourette’s disorder (TD) are psychiatric disorders that share symptom overlap, which might partly be the result of shared genetic variation. Population-based twin studies have found significant genetic correlations between hoarding and OCD symptoms, with genetic correlations varying between 0.1 and 0.45. For tic disorders, studies examining these correlations are lacking. Other lines of research, including clinical samples and GWAS or CNV data to explore genetic relationships between tic disorders and OCD, have only found very modest if any shared genetic variation. Our aim was to extend current knowledge on the genetic structure underlying hoarding, OC symptoms (OCS), and lifetime tic symptoms and, in a trivariate analysis, assess the degree of common and unique genetic factors contributing to the etiology of these disorders. Data have been gathered from participants in the Netherlands Twin Register comprising a total of 5293 individuals from a sample of adult monozygotic (n = 2460) and dizygotic (n = 2833) twin pairs (mean age 33.61 years). The data on Hoarding, OCS, and tic symptoms were simultaneously analyzed in Mplus. A liability threshold model was fitted to the twin data, analyzing heritability of phenotypes and of their comorbidity. Following the criteria for a probable clinical diagnosis in all phenotypes, 6.8% of participants had a diagnosis of probable hoarding disorder (HD), 6.3% of OCS, and 12.8% of any probable lifetime tic disorder. Genetic factors explained 50.4, 70.1, and 61.1% of the phenotypic covariance between hoarding-OCS, hoarding-tics, and OCS-tics, respectively. Substantial genetic correlations were observed between hoarding and OCS (0.41), hoarding and tics (0.35), and between OCS and tics (0.37). These results support the contribution of genetic factors in the development of these disorders and their comorbidity. Furthermore, tics were mostly influenced by specific

  20. Cross-Disorder Genetic Analysis of Tic Disorders, Obsessive-Compulsive, and Hoarding Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Zilhão, Nuno R; Smit, Dirk J; Boomsma, Dorret I; Cath, Danielle C

    2016-01-01

    Hoarding, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), and Tourette's disorder (TD) are psychiatric disorders that share symptom overlap, which might partly be the result of shared genetic variation. Population-based twin studies have found significant genetic correlations between hoarding and OCD symptoms, with genetic correlations varying between 0.1 and 0.45. For tic disorders, studies examining these correlations are lacking. Other lines of research, including clinical samples and GWAS or CNV data to explore genetic relationships between tic disorders and OCD, have only found very modest if any shared genetic variation. Our aim was to extend current knowledge on the genetic structure underlying hoarding, OC symptoms (OCS), and lifetime tic symptoms and, in a trivariate analysis, assess the degree of common and unique genetic factors contributing to the etiology of these disorders. Data have been gathered from participants in the Netherlands Twin Register comprising a total of 5293 individuals from a sample of adult monozygotic (n = 2460) and dizygotic (n = 2833) twin pairs (mean age 33.61 years). The data on Hoarding, OCS, and tic symptoms were simultaneously analyzed in Mplus. A liability threshold model was fitted to the twin data, analyzing heritability of phenotypes and of their comorbidity. Following the criteria for a probable clinical diagnosis in all phenotypes, 6.8% of participants had a diagnosis of probable hoarding disorder (HD), 6.3% of OCS, and 12.8% of any probable lifetime tic disorder. Genetic factors explained 50.4, 70.1, and 61.1% of the phenotypic covariance between hoarding-OCS, hoarding-tics, and OCS-tics, respectively. Substantial genetic correlations were observed between hoarding and OCS (0.41), hoarding and tics (0.35), and between OCS and tics (0.37). These results support the contribution of genetic factors in the development of these disorders and their comorbidity. Furthermore, tics were mostly influenced by specific

  1. Cognitive-analytical therapy for a patient with functional neurological symptom disorder-conversion disorder (psychogenic myopia): A case study.

    PubMed

    Nasiri, Hamid; Ebrahimi, Amrollah; Zahed, Arash; Arab, Mostafa; Samouei, Rahele

    2015-05-01

    Functional neurological symptom disorder commonly presents with symptoms and defects of sensory and motor functions. Therefore, it is often mistaken for a medical condition. It is well known that functional neurological symptom disorder more often caused by psychological factors. There are three main approaches namely analytical, cognitive and biological to manage conversion disorder. Any of such approaches can be applied through short-term treatment programs. In this case, study a 12-year-old boy with the diagnosed functional neurological symptom disorder (psychogenic myopia) was put under a cognitive-analytical treatment. The outcome of this treatment modality was proved successful.

  2. Cognitive-analytical therapy for a patient with functional neurological symptom disorder-conversion disorder (psychogenic myopia): A case study

    PubMed Central

    Nasiri, Hamid; Ebrahimi, Amrollah; Zahed, Arash; Arab, Mostafa; Samouei, Rahele

    2015-01-01

    Functional neurological symptom disorder commonly presents with symptoms and defects of sensory and motor functions. Therefore, it is often mistaken for a medical condition. It is well known that functional neurological symptom disorder more often caused by psychological factors. There are three main approaches namely analytical, cognitive and biological to manage conversion disorder. Any of such approaches can be applied through short-term treatment programs. In this case, study a 12-year-old boy with the diagnosed functional neurological symptom disorder (psychogenic myopia) was put under a cognitive-analytical treatment. The outcome of this treatment modality was proved successful. PMID:26487881

  3. Clinical Signs and Subjective Symptoms of Temporomandibular Disorders in Instrumentalists

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jae-Young; Kwon, Jeong-Seung; Lee, Debora H.; Bae, Jung-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Most of the reports on instrumentalists' experiences of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) have been reported not by clinical examinations but by subjective questionnaires. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical signs and subjective symptoms of TMD in a large number of instrumentalists objectively. Materials and Methods A total of 739 musicians from a diverse range of instrument groups completed a TMD questionnaire. Among those who reported at least one symptom of TMD, 71 volunteers underwent clinical examinations and radiography for diag-nosis. Results Overall, 453 participants (61.3%) reported having one or more symptoms of TMD. The most frequently reported symptom was a clicking or popping sound, followed by temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain, muscle pain, crepitus, and mouth opening limitations. Compared with lower-string instrumentalists, a clicking or popping sound was about 1.8 and 2 times more frequent in woodwind and brass instrumentalists, respectively. TMJ pain was about 3.2, 2.8, and 3.2 times more frequent in upper-string, woodwind, and brass instrumentalists, respectively. Muscle pain was about 1.5 times more frequent in instrumentalists with an elevated arm position than in those with a neutral arm position. The most frequent diagnosis was myalgia or myofascial pain (MFP), followed by disc displacement with reduction. Myalgia or MFP was 4.6 times more frequent in those practicing for no less than 3.5 hours daily than in those practicing for less than 3.5 hours. Conclusion The results indicate that playing instruments can play a contributory role in the development of TMD. PMID:27593881

  4. Chronic Pain, Psychopathology, and DSM-5 Somatic Symptom Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Joel; Rosenbloom, Brittany N; Fashler, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    Unlike acute pain that warns us of injury or disease, chronic or persistent pain serves no adaptive purpose. Though there is no agreed on definition of chronic pain, it is commonly referred to as pain that is without biological value, lasting longer than the typical healing time, not responsive to treatments based on specific remedies, and of a duration greater than 6 months. Chronic pain that is severe and intractable has detrimental consequences, including psychological distress, job loss, social isolation, and, not surprisingly, it is highly comorbid with depression and anxiety. Historically, pain without an apparent anatomical or neurophysiological origin was labelled as psychopathological. This approach is damaging to the patient and provider alike. It pollutes the therapeutic relationship by introducing an element of mutual distrust as well as implicit, if not explicit, blame. It is demoralizing to the patient who feels at fault, disbelieved, and alone. Moreover, many medically unexplained pains are now understood to involve an interplay between peripheral and central neurophysiological mechanisms that have gone awry. The new Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition, somatic symptom disorder overpsychologizes people with chronic pain; it has low sensitivity and specificity, and it contributes to misdiagnosis, as well as unnecessary stigma. Adjustment disorder remains the most appropriate, accurate, and acceptable diagnosis for people who are overly concerned about their pain. PMID:26174215

  5. Symmetry Concerns as a Symptom of Body Dysmorphic Disorder.

    PubMed

    Hart, Ashley S; Phillips, Katharine A

    2013-07-01

    Symmetry obsessions are a common symptom of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and have several demographic and clinical correlates. Appearance-related symmetry concerns appear common in body dysmorphic disorder (BDD); however, no published studies have examined this topic. This study examined the clinical features, prevalence, and correlates of symmetry concerns involving physical appearance in two BDD samples (N=160 and N=115). More than 25% of participants in each sample reported symmetry concerns for a body part with which they were preoccupied (total of 18 body parts in sample 1 and 18 in sample 2). In sample 1, BDD participants with appearance-related symmetry concerns were older than those without appearance-related symmetry concerns. In sample 2, those with appearance-related symmetry concerns reported poorer mental health-related quality of life, were more likely to have experienced lifetime suicidal ideation, had better BDD-related insight, and were less likely to have a lifetime eating disorder. In both samples, participants with appearance-related symmetry concerns were more likely to have lifetime OCD but not OCD-related symmetry obsessions. Thus, symmetry is a common appearance concern in BDD that is associated with comorbid OCD but not with OCD symmetry concerns specifically, suggesting that symmetry concerns may have a different mechanism/pathophysiology in BDD versus OCD.

  6. Temperament and the structure of personality disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Mulder, R T; Joyce, P R

    1997-01-01

    This paper attempts to construct a simplified system for the classification of personality disorders, and relates this system to normally distributed human personality characteristics. One hundred and forty-eight subjects with a variety of psychiatric diagnoses were evaluated using the SCID-II structured clinical interview for personality disorders. A four-factor solution of personality disorder symptoms was obtained and we labelled these factors 'the four As': antisocial, asocial, asthenic and anankastic. The factors related to the four temperament dimensions of the Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ), but less closely to Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) dimensions. The four factors were similar to those identified in a number of studies using a variety of assessment methods and this lends some credibility to our findings. It suggests that a more parsimonious set of trait descriptors could be used to provide simpler, less overlapping categories that retain links with current clinical practice. In addition, these factors can be seen as extremes of normally distributed behaviours obtained using the TPQ questionnaire.

  7. Depression Symptoms in Boys with Autism Spectrum Disorder and Comparison Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadow, Kenneth D.; Guttmann-Steinmetz, Sarit; Rieffe, Carolien; DeVincent, Carla J.

    2012-01-01

    This study compares severity of specific depression symptoms in boys with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or chronic multiple tic disorder (CMTD) and typically developing boys (Controls). Children were evaluated with parent and teacher versions of the Child Symptom Inventory-4 (CSI-4) and a…

  8. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Preschool Children: Examining Psychometric Properties Using Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purpura, David J.; Wilson, Shauna B.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Clear and empirically supported diagnostic symptoms are important for proper diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders. Unfortunately, the symptoms of many disorders presented in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) lack sufficient psychometric…

  9. A Follow-up Study of a Multisite, Randomized, Controlled Trial for Children with Sexual Abuse-Related PTSD Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deblinger, Esther; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Cohen, Judith A.; Steer, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To ascertain whether the differential responses that previously have been found between trauma-focused, cognitive-behavioral therapy (TF-CBT), and child-centered therapy (CCT) for treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related problems in children who had been sexually abused would persist following treatment and to examine…

  10. Comorbid Personality Disorders in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Its Symptom Dimensions.

    PubMed

    Bulli, Francesco; Melli, Gabriele; Cavalletti, Veronica; Stopani, Eleonora; Carraresi, Claudia

    2016-06-01

    The current paper was aimed at: (1) investigating the comorbidity between obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and personality disorders (PDs) using an OCD sample and clinician-administered structured interviews; (2) exploring the associations of different cluster comorbid PDs with the specific symptom dimensions of OCD; (3) analyzing the variables which could play a significant role in the probability of having at least one comorbid PD, controlling for confounding variables. The SCID-II and Y-BOCS, together with a series of self-report measures of OCD, depression and anxiety symptoms were administered to a clinical sample of 159 patients with a primary diagnosis of OCD. 20.8 % of the participants suffered from at least one comorbid PD; the most common was obsessive-compulsive PD (9.4 %), followed by narcissistic PD (6.3 %). In OCD patients with comorbid cluster C PDs, the percentage of responsibility for harm, injury, or bad luck symptoms was significantly greater than other OCD symptom dimensions (p < .005). Logistic regression found some evidence supporting the association between severity of OCD symptoms and comorbid PDs. PDs are prevalent among Italian people with OCD and should be routinely assessed, as comorbidity may affect help-seeking behaviour and response to treatment.

  11. The Developmental Association between Eating Disorders Symptoms and Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety in Juvenile Twin Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberg, Judy L.; Bulik, Cynthia M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the role of genetic and environmental factors in the developmental association among symptoms of eating disorders, depression, and anxiety syndromes in 8-13-year-old and 14-17-year-old twin girls. Methods: Multivariate genetic models were fitted to child-reported longitudinal symptom data gathered from clinical interview…

  12. Associations between mental health, substance use, and sexual abuse experiences among Latinas.

    PubMed

    Ulibarri, Monica D; Ulloa, Emilio C; Salazar, Marissa

    2015-01-01

    This study examined self-reported sexually abusive experiences in childhood and adulthood as correlates of current drug use, alcohol abuse, and depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Participants were 204 Latina women 18-34 years old. Results indicated significant relationships between history of sexual abuse (regardless of age of occurrence), depression symptoms, PTSD symptoms, alcohol abuse, and drug use. When examined separately, childhood sexual abuse was associated with symptoms of depression, PTSD, and substance use but not alcohol abuse behaviors. Experiencing sexual abuse in adulthood was associated with symptoms of depression, alcohol abuse behaviors, and substance use but not PTSD symptoms. Structural equation modeling showed that substance use partially mediated the relationship between sexual abuse and mental health outcomes. These findings suggest mental health and substance use services should incorporate treatment for trauma, which may be the root of comorbid mental health and substance use issues.

  13. Depression and Anxiety Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders without Intellectual Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strang, John F.; Kenworthy, Lauren; Daniolos, Peter; Case, Laura; Wills, Meagan C.; Martin, Alex; Wallace, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that rates of depression and anxiety symptoms are elevated among individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) of various ages and IQs and that depression/anxiety symptoms are associated with higher IQ and fewer ASD symptoms. In this study which examined correlates of depression and anxiety symptoms in the full…

  14. Procedural validity of the AUDADIS-5 depression, anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder modules: substance abusers and others in the general population*

    PubMed Central

    Hasin, Deborah S.; Shmulewitz, Dvora; Stohl, Malka; Greenstein, Eliana; Aivadyan, Christina; Morita, Kara; Saha, Tulshi; Aharonovich, Efrat; Jung, Jeesun; Zhang, Haitao; Nunes, Edward V.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about the procedural validity of lay-administered, fully-structured assessments of depressive, anxiety and post-traumatic stress (PTSD) disorders in the general population as determined by comparison to clinical re-appraisal, and whether this differs between current regular substance abusers and others. We evaluated the procedural validity of the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule, DSM-5 Version (AUDADIS-5) assessment of these disorders through clinician re-interviews. Methods Test-retest design among respondents from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III): (264 current regular substance abusers, 447 others). Clinicians blinded to AUDADIS-5 results administered the semi-structured Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders, DSM-5 version (PRISM-5). AUDADIS-5/PRISM-5 concordance was indicated by kappa (κ) for diagnoses and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) for dimensional measures (DSM-5 symptom or criterion counts). Results were compared between current regular substance abusers and others. Results AUDADIS-5 and PRISM-5 concordance for DSM-5 depressive disorders, anxiety disorders and PTSD was generally fair to moderate (κ =0.24–0.59), with concordance on dimensional scales much better (ICC=0.53–0.81). Concordance differed little between regular substance abusers and others. Conclusions AUDADIS-5/PRISM-5 concordance indicated procedural validity for the AUDADIS-5 among substance abusers and others, suggesting that AUDADIS-5 diagnoses of DSM-5 depressive, anxiety and PTSD diagnoses are informative measures in both groups in epidemiologic studies. The stronger concordance on dimensional measures supports the current movement towards dimensional psychopathology measures, suggesting that such measures provide important information for research in the NESARC-III and other datasets, and possibly for clinical purposes as well. PMID

  15. Positive and negative symptoms in dissociative identity disorder and schizophrenia: a comparative analysis.

    PubMed

    Ellason, J W; Ross, C A

    1995-04-01

    A substantial number of patients with dissociative identity disorder have had previous diagnoses of schizophrenia, due to the presence of positive symptoms of schizophrenia. The authors investigated the pattern of positive and negative symptoms in patients with dissociative identity disorder, and compared it with norms in schizophrenia. A total of 108 patients with a clinical diagnosis of dissociative identity disorder were administered the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. The positive symptom and general psychopathology scores were significantly more severe in the dissociative identity group than the norms for schizophrenia, while the negative symptoms were significantly more severe in schizophrenia. Since patients with dissociative identity disorder report more positive symptoms of schizophrenia than do schizophrenics, while schizophrenics report more negative symptoms, a primary emphasis on positive symptoms may result in false-positive diagnoses of schizophrenia and false-negative diagnoses of dissociative identity disorder.

  16. Resilience Moderates the Association Between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Depressive Symptoms Among Women with and At-Risk for HIV.

    PubMed

    Dale, Sannisha K; Weber, Kathleen M; Cohen, Mardge H; Kelso, Gwendolyn A; Cruise, Ruth C; Brody, Leslie R

    2015-08-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) places women at risk for HIV infection and once infected, for poor mental health outcomes, including lower quality of life and depressive symptoms. Among HIV-positive and demographically matched HIV-negative women, we investigated whether resilience and HIV status moderated the relationships between CSA and health indices as well as the relationships among CSA, depressive symptoms, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Participants included 202 women (138 HIV+, 64 HIV-, 87 % African American) from the Women's Interagency HIV Study Chicago CORE Center site. Results indicated that in both HIV-positive and HIV-negative women, higher resilience significantly related to lower depressive symptoms and higher HRQOL. CSA related to higher depressive symptoms only for women scoring low in resilience. Interventions to promote resilience, especially in women with a CSA history, might minimize depressive symptoms and poor HRQOL among HIV-positive and HIV-negative women.

  17. Perinatal and early infantile symptoms in congenital disorders of glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Funke, Simone; Gardeitchik, Thatjana; Kouwenberg, Dorus; Mohamed, Miski; Wortmann, Saskia B; Korsch, Eckhard; Adamowicz, Maciej; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Wevers, Ron A; Horvath, Adrienne; Lefeber, Dirk J; Morava, Eva

    2013-03-01

    Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are a rapidly growing family of inborn errors. Screening for CDG in suspected cases is usually performed in the first year of life by serum transferrin isoelectric focusing or mass spectrometry. Based on the transferrin analysis patients can be biochemically diagnosed with a type 1 or type 2 transferrin pattern, and labeled as CDG-I, or CDG-II. The diagnosis of CDG is frequently delayed due to the highly variable phenotype, some cases showing single organ involvement and others mimicking syndromes, like skeletal dysplasia, cutis laxa syndrome, or congenital muscle dystrophy. The aim of our study was to evaluate perinatal abnormalities and early discriminative symptoms in 58 patients consecutively diagnosed with diverse CDG-subtypes. Neonatal findings and clinical features in the first months of life were studied in 36 children with CDG-I and 22 with CDG-II. Maternal complications were found in five, small for gestational age in nine patients. Five children had abnormal neonatal screening results for hypothyroidism. Congenital microcephaly and neonatal seizures were common in CDG-II. Inverted nipples were uncommon with 5 out of 58 children. Dysmorphic features were mostly nonspecific, except for cutis laxa. Early complications included feeding problems, cardiomyopathy, thrombosis, and bleeding. Cases presenting in the neonatal period had the highest mortality rate. Survival in CDG patients is highly dependent on early intervention therapy. We recommend low threshold screening for glycosylation disorders in infants with neurologic symptoms, even in the absence of abnormal fat distribution. Growth retardation and neonatal bleeding increase suspicion for CDG. PMID:23401092

  18. Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Marijuana Use: The Role of Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Melanie C.; Benson, Kari; Flory, Kate

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The present study sought to examine the relations among disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs; ie, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], conduct disorder [CD], oppositional defiant disorder [ODD]), depressive symptoms, and marijuana use among a sample of late adolescents and emerging adults. METHOD A total of 900 students (75.8% female, 80.3% Caucasian, Mage = 20) from a large public university completed an online survey. RESULTS Findings indicated that depressive symptoms mediated the relation between the marijuana use and past symptoms of ADHD, past diagnosis of ADHD, CD symptoms, CD diagnosis, and ODD diagnosis. CONCLUSION Depressive symptoms represent a link between DBDs and marijuana use that is suggested, but not well documented in the existing literature. The current findings add to this evidence and suggest a need to assess individuals presenting with symptoms of DBDs for depressive symptoms, as this symptom pattern may result in a greater likelihood of marijuana use. PMID:27594786

  19. Subthreshold Symptoms of Depression in Preadolescent Girls Are Stable and Predictive of Depressive Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Hipwell, Alsion; Feng, Xin; Babinski, Dara; Hinze, Amanda; Rischall, Michal; Henneberger, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Symptoms of depression are investigated among 232 preadolescent girls to study if they were predictive and stable of depression. Findings show that early symptoms of depression among preadolescent girls predict depressive disorders. Implications for preventive measures are discussed.

  20. Disruptive Behavior Disorders and Marijuana Use: The Role of Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Melanie C.; Benson, Kari; Flory, Kate

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The present study sought to examine the relations among disruptive behavior disorders (DBDs; ie, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], conduct disorder [CD], oppositional defiant disorder [ODD]), depressive symptoms, and marijuana use among a sample of late adolescents and emerging adults. METHOD A total of 900 students (75.8% female, 80.3% Caucasian, Mage = 20) from a large public university completed an online survey. RESULTS Findings indicated that depressive symptoms mediated the relation between the marijuana use and past symptoms of ADHD, past diagnosis of ADHD, CD symptoms, CD diagnosis, and ODD diagnosis. CONCLUSION Depressive symptoms represent a link between DBDs and marijuana use that is suggested, but not well documented in the existing literature. The current findings add to this evidence and suggest a need to assess individuals presenting with symptoms of DBDs for depressive symptoms, as this symptom pattern may result in a greater likelihood of marijuana use.

  1. Relations between anger and DSM-5 posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Durham, Tory A; Byllesby, Brianna M; Armour, Cherie; Forbes, David; Elhai, Jon D

    2016-10-30

    The present study investigated the relationship between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and anger. Anger co-occurring with PTSD is found to have a severe effect across a wide range of traumatic experiences, making this an important relationship to examine. The present study utilized data regarding dimensions of PTSD symptoms and anger collected from a non-clinical sample of 247 trauma-exposed participants. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to determine the underlying factor structure of both PTSD and anger by examining anger in the context of three models of PTSD. Results indicate that a five-factor representation of PTSD and one-factor representation of anger fit the data best. Additionally, anger demonstrated a strong relationship with the dysphoric arousal and negative alterations in cognitions and mood (NACM) factors; and dysphoric arousal was differentially related to anger. Clinical implications include potential need to reevaluate PTSD's diagnostic symptom structure and highlight the potential need to target and treat comorbid anger in individuals with PTSD. In regard to research, these results support the heterogeneity of PTSD. PMID:27525831

  2. Alexithymia in personality disorders: correlations with symptoms and interpersonal functioning.

    PubMed

    Nicolò, Giuseppe; Semerari, Antonio; Lysaker, Paul H; Dimaggio, Giancarlo; Conti, Laura; D'Angerio, Stefania; Procacci, Michele; Popolo, Raffaele; Carcione, Antonino

    2011-11-30

    Impairment in the ability to recognize and make sense of emotions has been hypothesized to be present in a sub-sample of people suffering from personality disorder (PD). In particular it is possible that difficulty recognizing and expressing feelings, or alexithymia, is related to many of the symptoms and problems in making sense of social interactions which are hallmarks of PD. In this study we measured levels of alexithymia with the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20 and explored its correlations with the overall presence of PD and different PD diagnoses, symptoms, and interpersonal difficulties. Results were largely consistent with the hypothesis. Higher levels of alexithymia were related to high levels of global psychopathology and with dysfunctional representation of interpersonal relations. A sub-sample of patients, mostly suffering from avoidant, dependent, passive-aggressive and depressive PD, had alexithymic features and, in particular reported difficulties describing their feelings to others. A patient with cluster B PD featured no alexithymia. Implications of this study for future research and treatment are discussed.

  3. Prevalence of psychiatric and substance use disorders in opioid abusers in a community syringe exchange program.

    PubMed

    Kidorf, Michael; Disney, Elizabeth R; King, Van L; Neufeld, Karin; Beilenson, Peter L; Brooner, Robert K

    2004-05-10

    The present study evaluates the prevalence of psychiatric and substance use disorders in male and female intravenous opioid abusers participating at a community needle exchange program (NEP). All participants (n = 422) were administered the Structured Clinical Interview for the DSM-IV (SCID) for Axis I disorders and antisocial personality disorder (APD). Psychiatric and substance abuse comorbidity were highly prevalent. Major depression was the most common current and lifetime Axis I non-substance use disorder (6 and 21% of the sample, respectively); 37% were diagnosed with APD. Over 50% of the sample was diagnosed with at least one non-substance use Axis I disorder or APD. In addition to opioid dependence, cocaine dependence was the most prevalent current and lifetime substance use disorder (68 and 78% of the sample, respectively), followed by alcohol and cannabis dependence. Overall, participants reported a mean of over one current and over three lifetime substance use disorders in addition to opioid dependence. Women reported higher rates of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), while men were more likely diagnosed with APD. Presence of a psychiatric disorder was associated with increased prevalence of substance use disorder for all drug classes. The high rates of comorbidity observed in this sample suggest that the harm reduction efforts of NEPs can be significantly enhanced through referral of participants to programs that treat substance use and/or other psychiatric disorders.

  4. Psychiatric disorders in preschoolers: the structure of DSM-IV symptoms and profiles of comorbidity.

    PubMed

    Wichstrøm, Lars; Berg-Nielsen, Turid Suzanne

    2014-07-01

    Psychiatric disorders have been increasingly recognized in preschool children; at present, however, we know comparatively less about how well current diagnostic manuals capture the symptoms described in this age group and how comorbidity is patterned. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate whether the symptoms defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DSM-IV) load on their respective disorders, examine whether individual symptoms exist that load particularly high or low on the disorder they allegedly define, and analyze how comorbidity clusters in individual children. Parents of a community sample of Norwegian 4-year-olds (N = 995) were interviewed using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and a latent profile analysis (LPA) were performed on the symptoms of seven DSM disorders: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, major depressive disorder (MDD), generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), social phobia, and separation anxiety disorder. The results showed that the CFA solution that closely resembled the disorders delineated in the DSM-IV fitted the data best. However, vegetative symptoms did not define preschool depression. The LPA identified nine symptom profiles among preschoolers, of which four showed evidence of psychopathology: comorbid MDD/GAD ? ADHD combined type, comorbid MDD/GAD ? ADHD hyperactive/impulsive type, separation anxiety only, and social phobia only. In conclusion, the symptoms observed in preschoolers fit the DSM-IV well, and comorbidity followed specific patterns.

  5. A Risk Assessment Tool to Predict Sustained PTSD Symptoms Among Women Reporting Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Maddoux, John; McFarlane, Judith; Pennings, Jacquelyn

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Nationally and worldwide, 30% or more of women are likely to have experienced intimate partner violence. Maternal mental health symptoms predict child function. When mothers have sustained posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), their children at are risk for growth and developmental delays and poor behavioral outcomes that may adversely affect the course of their lives. While many who experience trauma will recover without intervention, a significant proportion will experience PTSD, with negative consequences for their personal lives and the lives of their families. Early identification of those at high risk for PTSD symptoms will support early interventions to prevent PTSD and its negative consequences. Methods: This paper describes the development of a tool that can predict PTSD symptoms at 8 months in mothers who are primarily of low socioeconomic status and primarily members of underrepresented groups. The tool consists of four key measures. Conclusions: Using this tool to identify mothers at high risk for sustained PTSD and entering them into early intervention programs may protect mothers and their children from negative outcomes and promote their health and wellbeing. PMID:26267645

  6. Frequency of intrusions and flashbacks in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder related to childhood sexual abuse: an electronic diary study.

    PubMed

    Priebe, Kathlen; Kleindienst, Nikolaus; Zimmer, Josepha; Koudela, Susanne; Ebner-Priemer, Ulrich; Bohus, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Intrusions and flashbacks are core features of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The frequency of these symptoms is usually assessed through retrospective questionnaires, which may be subject to recall bias of unknown magnitude. Electronic diaries that enable real-time assessment have been used to address recall biases in several psychiatric disorders. However, to our knowledge, this is the first study to apply this method to assess intrusions and flashbacks in PTSD related to childhood sexual abuse (CSA). Female patients with PTSD related to CSA (n = 28) were provided with electronic diaries for repeated real-time assessment of intrusions and flashbacks over the period of 1 week. At the end of this period, they were asked to retrospectively report how many such symptoms they recalled having experienced over the past week. The total number of symptoms reported in the electronic diaries (74.5 ± 62.0 intrusions and 24.4 ± 36.0 flashbacks for the week) was substantially higher than those reported in previous studies. Furthermore, electronic diaries revealed the occurrence of about 50% more intrusions and flashbacks than did the retrospective assessment (74.5 vs. 49.5 for intrusions, and 24.4 vs. 13.4 for flashbacks). Such high frequencies are not captured with existing assessment instruments and suggest a possible ceiling effect. Future research needs to clarify whether these high numbers are specific to highly symptomatic PTSD patients or might generalize to other populations of PTSD patients. PMID:23876157

  7. Anxiety and Depression Symptoms in Children with Asperger Syndrome Compared with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Depressive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Subin; Park, Min-Hyeon; Kim, Hyo Jin; Yoo, Hee Jeong

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine (a) anxiety and depression symptoms in children with Asperger syndrome (AS) compared to children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and children with depressive disorder; (b) parental anxiety and depressive symptoms in the three groups; and (c) the association between the anxiety and…

  8. Co-occurring disorders in the adolescent mental health and substance abuse treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Turner, Win C; Muck, Randolph D; Muck, Rebekah J; Stephens, Robert L; Sukumar, Bhuvana

    2004-12-01

    This article explores the rates of co-occurring disorders in two large federally-funded programs that target youth. In the mental health treatment system, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration's (SAMHSA) Center for Mental Health Services (CMHS) supports the Comprehensive Community Mental Health Services for Children and Their Families Program. SAMHSA's Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT) supports a number of grant programs providing substance abuse treatment for adolescents. The data from these programs underscores the need for the use of systematic, validated, biopsychosocial assessment instruments for all youth entering either the substance abuse or mental health treatment systems. The current evidence base for models of co-occurring treatment for youth is discussed and recommendations made for future activity related to adolescent co-occurring treatment.

  9. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and executive functioning in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Jarrett, Matthew A

    2016-02-01

    The current study examined attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety symptoms in relation to self-reported executive functioning deficits in emerging adults. College students (N = 421; ages 17-25; 73.1% female) completed self-reports of ADHD, anxiety, and executive functioning in a laboratory setting. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that self-reported executive functioning deficits were significantly related to all 3 symptom domains. Executive functioning deficits were most strongly related to inattention followed by hyperactivity/impulsivity and anxiety. Analyses based on clinical groups revealed that groups with ADHD and comorbid anxiety showed greater deficits on self-regulation of emotion and self-organization/problem solving than those with ADHD only or anxiety only. Groups with ADHD showed greater deficits with self-motivation and self-restraint than those with anxiety only. All clinical groups differed from a control group on executive functioning deficits. Overall, anxiety symptoms appear to be associated with college students' self-reported executive functioning deficits above and beyond relationships with ADHD symptomatology. Further, those with ADHD and anxiety appear to show increased difficulties with self-regulation of emotion and self-organization/problem solving, a domain which appears to overlap substantially with working memory. Future studies should seek to replicate our findings with a clinical population, utilize both report-based and laboratory task measures of executive functioning, and integrate both state and trait anxiety indices into study designs. Finally, future studies should seek to determine how executive functioning deficits can be best ameliorated in emerging adults with ADHD and anxiety. (PsycINFO Database Record

  10. DEPRESSIVE AND POSTTRAUMATIC SYMPTOMS AMONG WOMEN SEEKING PROTECTION ORDERS AGAINST INTIMATE PARTNERS: RELATIONS TO COPING STRATEGIES AND PERCEIVED RESPONSES TO ABUSE DISCLOSURE

    PubMed Central

    Flicker, Sharon M.; Cerulli, Catherine; Swogger, Marc T.; Talbot, Nancy L.

    2014-01-01

    This investigation examined the relationship of abuse-specific coping strategies and perceived responses to abuse disclosure to symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress among 131 women seeking a protection order against an intimate partner. Disengagement, denial, and self-blame coping strategies, as well as blaming of the participant by others, were associated with greater depressive and posttraumatic symptoms. None of the strategies of coping or responses to abuse disclosure were negatively related to depressive or posttraumatic stress symptoms. Findings suggest that mental health providers may find it useful to address these negative styles of coping while public education campaigns should target victim-blaming. PMID:22735315

  11. On the Complexity of Brain Disorders: A Symptom-Based Approach

    PubMed Central

    Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Phillips, Joseph; Kéri, Szabolcs; Misiak, Blazej; Frydecka, Dorota

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence shows that brain disorders involve multiple and different neural dysfunctions, including regional brain damage, change to cell structure, chemical imbalance, and/or connectivity loss among different brain regions. Understanding the complexity of brain disorders can help us map these neural dysfunctions to different symptom clusters as well as understand subcategories of different brain disorders. Here, we discuss data on the mapping of symptom clusters to different neural dysfunctions using examples from brain disorders such as major depressive disorder (MDD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), schizophrenia, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In addition, we discuss data on the similarities of symptoms in different disorders. Importantly, computational modeling work may be able to shed light on plausible links between various symptoms and neural damage in brain disorders. PMID:26941635

  12. Public mental health clients with severe mental illness and probable posttraumatic stress disorder: trauma exposure and correlates of symptom severity.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weili; Yanos, Philip T; Silverstein, Steven M; Mueser, Kim T; Rosenberg, Stanley D; Gottlieb, Jennifer D; Duva, Stephanie Marcello; Kularatne, Thanuja; Dove-Williams, Stephanie; Paterno, Danielle; Hawthorne, Danielle; Giacobbe, Giovanna

    2013-04-01

    Individuals with severe mental illness (SMI) are at greatly increased risk for trauma exposure and for the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study reports findings from a large, comprehensive screening of trauma and PTSD symptoms among public mental health clients in a statewide community mental health system. In 851 individuals with SMI and probable PTSD, childhood sexual abuse was the most commonly endorsed index trauma, followed closely by the sudden death of a loved one. Participants had typically experienced an average of 7 types of traumatic events in their lifetime. The number of types of traumatic events experienced and Hispanic ethnicity were significantly associated with PTSD symptom severity. Clients reported experiencing PTSD in relation to events that occurred on average 20 years earlier, suggesting the clinical need to address trauma and loss throughout the lifespan, including their prolonged after-effects.

  13. Earlier predictors of eating disorder symptoms in 9-year-old children. A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, Kathryn N; Drewett, Robert F; Le Couteur, Ann S; Adamson, Ashley J

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the study was to examine predictors of eating disorder symptoms in a population based sample at the earliest age at which they can be measured using the Children's Eating Attitudes Test. Data were collected from the longitudinal Gateshead Millennium Study cohort; 609 children participated in the 7 year data sweep (and their mothers and teachers), and 589 children participated in the 9 year data sweep. Eating disorder symptoms at 9 years were higher in boys, and in children from more deprived families. Higher eating disorder symptoms were associated with more body dissatisfaction at 9 years. Higher symptoms were predicted by higher levels of dietary restraint and of emotional symptoms, but not greater body dissatisfaction, 2 years earlier. The study showed that some correlates of high eating disorder symptoms found in adolescents and adults are also found in children, before the rise in diagnosable eating disorders over the pubertal period.

  14. The Character-Disordered Family: A Community Treatment Model for Family Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Lorna M.; Shafer, Gretchen

    1979-01-01

    A collaborative approach to treating sexually abusive families is described, in which such families are viewed as analogous to "character-disordered" individuals. This model, unlike traditional voluntary treatment models, is explained to assume that effective intervention requires authoritative control and careful coordination of all professional…

  15. Therapeutic Alliance, Negative Mood Regulation, and Treatment Outcome in Child Abuse-Related Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cloitre, Marylene; Chase Stovall McClough,K.; Miranda, Regina; Chemtob, Claude M.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the related contributions of the therapeutic alliance and negative mood regulation to the outcome of a 2-phase treatment for childhood abuse-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Phase 1 focused on stabilization and preparatory skills building, whereas Phase 2 was comprised primarily of imaginal exposure to traumatic…

  16. Child Abuse and Multiple Personality Disorders: Review of the Literature and Suggestions for Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coons, Philip M.

    1986-01-01

    Multiple personality disorder is associated with a high incidence of physical and sexual abuse during childhood. While difficult to diagnose, multiple personality is easier to treat if diagnosed early in childhood or adolescence. Treatment for multiple personality focuses on establishing trust and communicating with and integrating the…

  17. Behaviour Disorders Related to Drug Abuse among Secondary School Students in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King'endo, Madrine

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out the behavior disorders displayed by secondary school students as a result of substance abuse. This would assist to train teachers on specialized intervention methods so that they can have knowledge on how to curb drug menace in learning institutions. The students were interrogated about substance abuse…

  18. Relationships with Mothers and Peers Moderate the Association between Childhood Sexual Abuse and Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Ryan E.; Bukowski, William M.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the current study was to assess whether relationships with mothers and peers moderate the association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and anxiety disorders. That is, positive and supportive experiences were expected to minimize the effects of CSA whereas nonsupportive experiences were expected to magnify them.…

  19. Improving Initial Session Attendance of Substance Abusing and Conduct Disordered Adolescents: A Controlled Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, Brad; Azrin, Nathan H.; Lawson, Heather; Friedlander, Josh; Teichner, Gordon; Rindsberg, Jeff

    1998-01-01

    Demonstrates a method of improving first session attendance in a population of conduct-disordered and substance-abusing adolescents. Results indicate that an intensive intervention involving the youth and parent was more effective in improving session attendance than a less intensive intervention that excluded the youth's involvement. Discusses…

  20. Disordered Eating in College Students: Links with Childhood Abuse and Maternal Eating Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feilke, Kim; Chambliss, Catherine

    The prevalence of sexual conflicts in many patients with eating disorders has been well documented. A parallel has been found between psychological problems experienced by victims of childhood sexual abuse and patients with anorexia nervosa and/or bulimia. Past studies have used inpatient clinical samples; however, this study extended this area of…

  1. Weight-related abuse: Perceived emotional impact and the effect on disordered eating.

    PubMed

    Salwen, Jessica K; Hymowitz, Genna F; Bannon, Sarah M; O'Leary, K Daniel

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this article was to evaluate theories that (1) weight-related abuse (WRA) plays a unique role in the development of disordered eating, above and beyond general childhood verbal abuse and weight-related teasing, and (2) the perceived emotional impact of WRA mediates the relationship between WRA and current disordered eating. Self-report questionnaires on childhood trauma, weight-related teasing, WRA, and current eating behaviors were administered to a total of 383 undergraduate students. In initial regressions, WRA significantly predicted binge eating, emotional eating, night eating, and unhealthy weight control. WRA continued to significantly predict all 4 forms of disordered eating following the introduction of measures of weight-related teasing and childhood verbal abuse into the regression. Latent variable analysis confirmed that perceived emotional impact of WRA mediated the relationship between WRA and disordered eating, and tests for indirect effects yielded a significant indirect effect of WRA on disordered eating through perceived emotional impact. In sum, WRA is a unique construct and the content of childhood or adolescent maltreatment is important in determining eventual psychopathology outcomes. These findings support the necessity of incorporating information on developmental history and cognitive factors into assessment and treatment of individuals with disordered eating.

  2. Diagnosing major depressive disorder IV: relationship between number of symptoms and the diagnosis of disorder.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Mark; McGlinchey, Joseph B; Young, Diane; Chelminski, Iwona

    2006-06-01

    The symptom inclusion criteria for DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD) consist of a list of nine characteristic features of depression, at least five of which must be present. Two of the criteria for MDD, low mood and loss of interest or pleasure, are accorded greater importance than the remaining seven criteria in that one of these two features is required for the diagnosis. The implicit assumption underlying this organization of the criteria is that some individuals might meet five of the nine criteria without experiencing low mood or loss of interest or pleasure and thus be inappropriately diagnosed with major depression. We are not aware of any studies that have examined this assumption. In the present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services project, we examined how many psychiatric outpatients meet five of the nine DSM-IV criteria for MDD without simultaneously experiencing either low mood or loss of interest or pleasure. If this pattern is rare or does not exist, then the method of counting criteria to diagnose major depression could be simplified to a straightforward five out of nine. Twenty-seven (1.5%) patients reported five or more criteria in the absence of low mood or loss of interest or pleasure. More than half (N = 16) of these 27 patients were diagnosed with MDD or bipolar disorder, depressed type, in partial remission (N = 14), bipolar disorder mixed type (N = 1), or bipolar disorder not otherwise specified (N = 1). Six of the remaining 11 patients were diagnosed with depressive disorder not otherwise specified. Thus, few patients who met five or more of the MDD criteria were not diagnosed with a depressive disorder. This suggests that the diagnostic criteria for MDD can be simplified to a straightforward symptom count without reference to the necessity of low mood or loss of interest or pleasure. PMID:16772864

  3. Examining affect and perfectionism in relation to eating disorder symptoms among women with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Jason M; Mason, Tyler B; Utzinger, Linsey M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Le Grange, Daniel; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B

    2016-07-30

    This study examined personality and affective variables in relation to eating disorder symptoms in anorexia nervosa (AN). Women (N=118) with DSM-IV AN completed baseline questionnaires (Beck Depression Inventory, Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale) and interviews (Eating Disorder Examination, Yale-Brown-Cornell Eating Disorder Scale), followed by two weeks of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involving multiple daily reports of affective states and eating disorder behaviors. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted using eating disorder symptoms as dependent variables (i.e., EMA binge eating, EMA self-induced vomiting, eating disorder rituals, eating disorder preoccupations, dietary restraint). Predictor variables were maladaptive perfectionism (baseline), depressive symptoms (baseline), and affect lability (EMA). Results revealed that affect lability was independently associated with binge eating, whereas depressive symptoms were independently associated with self-induced vomiting. Depressive symptoms were independently associated with eating disorder rituals, whereas both depressive symptoms and maladaptive perfectionism were independently associated with eating disorder preoccupations. Finally, maladaptive perfectionism and affect lability were both independently associated with dietary restraint. This pattern of findings suggests the importance of affective and personality constructs in relation to eating disorder symptoms in AN and may highlight the importance of targeting these variables in the context of treatment.

  4. Shame- and guilt-proneness: relationships with anxiety disorder symptoms in a clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Fergus, Thomas A; Valentiner, David P; McGrath, Patrick B; Jencius, Simon

    2010-12-01

    Researchers postulate that both shame and guilt are emotions important to anxiety disorders. Extant data, however, indicate that guilt-proneness shares non-significant relationships with psychopathology symptoms after controlling for shame-proneness. To further investigate the relevance of shame and guilt to the anxiety disorders domain, the current study examined associations between shame- and guilt-proneness and anxiety disorder symptoms using data from patients (N=124) with primary anxiety disorder diagnoses. Results indicated that only symptoms of social anxiety disorder (SAD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) shared significant relations with shame-proneness after controlling for other types of anxiety disorder symptoms, depression symptoms, and guilt-proneness. Further, changes in shame-proneness during treatment were found to share significant relations with changes in obsessive-compulsive disorder, SAD, and GAD symptoms. The current results indicate that shame is more relevant to symptoms of the anxiety disorders domain than is guilt. The implications of these results for the conceptualization and treatment of anxiety disorders are discussed. PMID:20591613

  5. Examining affect and perfectionism in relation to eating disorder symptoms among women with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Jason M; Mason, Tyler B; Utzinger, Linsey M; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crosby, Ross D; Engel, Scott G; Mitchell, James E; Le Grange, Daniel; Crow, Scott J; Peterson, Carol B

    2016-07-30

    This study examined personality and affective variables in relation to eating disorder symptoms in anorexia nervosa (AN). Women (N=118) with DSM-IV AN completed baseline questionnaires (Beck Depression Inventory, Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale) and interviews (Eating Disorder Examination, Yale-Brown-Cornell Eating Disorder Scale), followed by two weeks of ecological momentary assessment (EMA) involving multiple daily reports of affective states and eating disorder behaviors. Hierarchical regression analyses were conducted using eating disorder symptoms as dependent variables (i.e., EMA binge eating, EMA self-induced vomiting, eating disorder rituals, eating disorder preoccupations, dietary restraint). Predictor variables were maladaptive perfectionism (baseline), depressive symptoms (baseline), and affect lability (EMA). Results revealed that affect lability was independently associated with binge eating, whereas depressive symptoms were independently associated with self-induced vomiting. Depressive symptoms were independently associated with eating disorder rituals, whereas both depressive symptoms and maladaptive perfectionism were independently associated with eating disorder preoccupations. Finally, maladaptive perfectionism and affect lability were both independently associated with dietary restraint. This pattern of findings suggests the importance of affective and personality constructs in relation to eating disorder symptoms in AN and may highlight the importance of targeting these variables in the context of treatment. PMID:27208513

  6. Substance abuse disorders in the parents of ADHD children, and parents of normal children.

    PubMed

    Farokhzadi, Farideh; Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza; Alipour, Ahmad; Rostami, Reza; Dehestani, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to compare the attention-deficit/ hyperactivity, and substance abuse disorders background in the parents of children with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and the parents of normal children. The available sampling method was used to choose 400 parents of children (200 parents of children with ADHD and 200 parents of normal children), the ages of children were 6-18 years old. The data were collected through the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS) for parents and the Kiddy Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime version (K-SADS-PL), Connors Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS) and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS) for adult ADHD. The results were analyzed by using SPSS-17 software, based on two-variable Chi-Square and t-tests.and P value in all disorders were equals to P<0.05. The results indicated that substance abuse in parents of children with ADHD is 21% more prevalent, and parents of children with ADHD compared to parents of normal children have 2% ADHD, 9% attention deficit disorder, and 1% hyperactivity disorder more in their background. Therefore, we conclude that there exists a significant difference between the above mentioned disorders in the parents of children with ADHD, and parents of normal children. The high prevalence rate of disorders and background of ADHD in families of individuals with ADHD shows the probability of effect of inheritance in the disorder. Also, it shows that parents of children with ADHD have more substance abuse and history of ADHD in their background.

  7. A review of somatoform disorders in DSM-IV and somatic symptom disorders in proposed DSM-V.

    PubMed

    Ghanizadeh, Ahmad; Firoozabadi, Ali

    2012-12-01

    Psychiatric care providers should be trained to use current changes in the somatoform disorders criteria. New diagnostic criteria for Somatic Symptom disorders in the proposed DSM-V is discussed and compared with its older counterpart in DSM-IV. A new category called Somatic Syndrome Disorders is suggested. It includes new subcategories such as "Complex Somatic Symptom Disorder" (CSSD) and "Simple Somatic Symptom Disorder" (SSSD). Some of the subcategories of DSM-IV derived disorders are included in CSSD. While there are some changes in diagnostic criteria, there are concerns and limitations about the new classification needed to be more discussed before implementation. Functional somatic disturbance, the counterpart of converion disorder in DSM-IV, can be highly dependet on the developmental level of children. However, the role of developmental level needs to be considered.

  8. Symptoms of muscle dysmorphia, body dysmorphic disorder, and eating disorders in a nonclinical population of adult male weightlifters in Australia.

    PubMed

    Nieuwoudt, Johanna E; Zhou, Shi; Coutts, Rosanne A; Booker, Ray

    2015-05-01

    The current study aimed to (a) determine the rates of symptoms of muscle dysmorphia (MD), body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), and eating disorder; (b) determine the relationships among symptoms of MD, BDD, and eating disorders; and (c) provide a comprehensive comparison of symptoms of MD, BDD, and eating disorders in a nonclinical population of adult male weightlifters in Australia. The participants (N = 648, mean age = 29.5 years, SD = 10.1) participated in an online survey, consisting of Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale, the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire, and the Eating Attitude Test-26. Results indicated that 110 participants (17%) were at risk of having MD, 69 participants (10.6%) were at risk of having BDD, and 219 participants (33.8%) were at risk of having an eating disorder. Furthermore, 36 participants (5.6%) were found at risk of having both MD and BDD, and 60 participants (9.3%) were at risk of having both MD and an eating disorder. Significant correlations and associations were found between symptoms of MD and BDD, and symptoms of MD and eating disorders. Support was provided for the comorbidity of, and symptomatic similarities between, symptoms of MD and BDD, and symptoms of MD and eating disorders. This may reflect a shared pathogenesis between symptoms of MD, BDD, and eating disorders. Strength and conditioning professionals, exercise scientists, athletic trainers, and personal trainers should be aware that adult males who are working out with weights (i.e., free weights or machines) may be at increased risk of having MD, BDD, and eating disorders. PMID:25909960

  9. Symptoms of muscle dysmorphia, body dysmorphic disorder, and eating disorders in a nonclinical population of adult male weightlifters in Australia.

    PubMed

    Nieuwoudt, Johanna E; Zhou, Shi; Coutts, Rosanne A; Booker, Ray

    2015-05-01

    The current study aimed to (a) determine the rates of symptoms of muscle dysmorphia (MD), body dysmorphic disorder (BDD), and eating disorder; (b) determine the relationships among symptoms of MD, BDD, and eating disorders; and (c) provide a comprehensive comparison of symptoms of MD, BDD, and eating disorders in a nonclinical population of adult male weightlifters in Australia. The participants (N = 648, mean age = 29.5 years, SD = 10.1) participated in an online survey, consisting of Muscle Appearance Satisfaction Scale, the Body Dysmorphic Disorder Questionnaire, and the Eating Attitude Test-26. Results indicated that 110 participants (17%) were at risk of having MD, 69 participants (10.6%) were at risk of having BDD, and 219 participants (33.8%) were at risk of having an eating disorder. Furthermore, 36 participants (5.6%) were found at risk of having both MD and BDD, and 60 participants (9.3%) were at risk of having both MD and an eating disorder. Significant correlations and associations were found between symptoms of MD and BDD, and symptoms of MD and eating disorders. Support was provided for the comorbidity of, and symptomatic similarities between, symptoms of MD and BDD, and symptoms of MD and eating disorders. This may reflect a shared pathogenesis between symptoms of MD, BDD, and eating disorders. Strength and conditioning professionals, exercise scientists, athletic trainers, and personal trainers should be aware that adult males who are working out with weights (i.e., free weights or machines) may be at increased risk of having MD, BDD, and eating disorders.

  10. Stability Subtypes of Callous-Unemotional Traits and Conduct Disorder Symptoms and Their Correlates.

    PubMed

    Eisenbarth, Hedwig; Demetriou, Chara A; Kyranides, Melina Nicole; Fanti, Kostas A

    2016-09-01

    Callous-unemotional traits and conduct disorder symptoms tend to co-occur across development, with existing evidence pointing to individual differences in the co-development of these problems. The current study identified groups of at risk adolescents showing stable (i.e., high on both conduct disorder and callous-unemotional symptoms, high only on either callous-unemotional or conduct disorder symptoms) or increasing conduct disorder and callous-unemotional symptoms. Data were collected from a sample of 2038 community adolescents between 15 and 18 years (1070 females, M age = 16) of age. A longitudinal design was followed in that adolescent reports were collected at two time points, 1 year apart. Increases in conduct disorder symptoms and callous-unemotional traits were accompanied by increases in anxiety, depressive symptoms, narcissism, proactive and reactive aggression and decreases in self-esteem. Furthermore, adolescents with high and stable conduct disorder symptoms and callous-unemotional traits were consistently at high risk for individual, behavioral and contextual problems. In contrast, youth high on callous-unemotional traits without conduct disorder symptoms remained at low-risk for anxiety, depressive symptoms, narcissism, and aggression, pointing to a potential protective function of pure callous-unemotional traits against the development of psychopathological problems. PMID:27299762

  11. Factors Associated with Depressive Symptoms in Parents of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meltzer, Lisa J.

    2011-01-01

    Parents of children with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) have higher rates of depressive symptoms than parents of typically developing (TD) children or parents of children with other developmental disorders. The purpose of this study was to examine child and parent sleep as factors associated with depressive symptoms in parents of children with…

  12. Characteristics Associated with Presence of Depressive Symptoms in Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sterling, Lindsey; Dawson, Geraldine; Estes, Annette; Greenson, Jessica

    2008-01-01

    Evidence suggests that individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) often exhibit associated psychiatric symptoms, particularly related to depression. The current study investigated whether individual characteristics, specifically, severity of ASD symptoms, level of cognitive ability, and/or presence of other psychiatric disorders, are…

  13. Anxiety Symptoms across the Lifespan in People Diagnosed with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Thompson E., III; Hess, Julie A.; Moree, Brittany N.; Fodstad, Jill C.; Dempsey, Tim; Jenkins, Whitney S.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2011-01-01

    Symptoms of psychiatric disorders have been found to co-occur at high rates in those diagnosed with Autistic Disorder (AD). However, to date, no study has yet examined the developmental trajectory of comorbid psychiatric symptoms across the lifespan within the AD population. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to conduct a cross-sectional…

  14. Predicting Changes in Eating Disorder Symptoms among Adolescents in China: An 18-Month Prospective Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Todd; Chen, Hong

    2008-01-01

    This 18-month prospective study investigated factors that contributed to changes in eating disorder symptoms among adolescents living in the People's Republic of China. Five hundred forty-one Chinese middle school and high school students (182 boys, 359 girls) completed measures of eating disorder symptoms; body dissatisfaction; appearance ideal…

  15. Psychiatric Symptoms in Children Diagnosed with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Examination of Gender Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worley, Julie A.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2011-01-01

    In addition to the triad of impairments experienced by children and adolescents diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD), they often present with symptoms of psychiatric disorders. To date, very few studies have examined gender differences in regards to psychiatric symptoms in children and adolescents diagnosed with an ASD. Thus, the current…

  16. Egocentric virtual maze learning in adult survivors of childhood abuse with dissociative disorders: evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Weniger, Godehard; Siemerkus, Jakob; Barke, Antonia; Lange, Claudia; Ruhleder, Mirjana; Sachsse, Ulrich; Schmidt-Samoa, Carsten; Dechent, Peter; Irle, Eva

    2013-05-30

    Present neuroimaging findings suggest two subtypes of trauma response, one characterized predominantly by hyperarousal and intrusions, and the other primarily by dissociative symptoms. The neural underpinnings of these two subtypes need to be better defined. Fourteen women with childhood abuse and the current diagnosis of dissociative amnesia or dissociative identity disorder but without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 14 matched healthy comparison subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while finding their way in a virtual maze. The virtual maze presented a first-person view (egocentric), lacked any topographical landmarks and could be learned only by using egocentric navigation strategies. Participants with dissociative disorders (DD) were not impaired in learning the virtual maze when compared with controls, and showed a similar, although weaker, pattern of activity changes during egocentric learning when compared with controls. Stronger dissociative disorder severity of participants with DD was related to better virtual maze performance, and to stronger activity increase within the cingulate gyrus and the precuneus. Our results add to the present knowledge of preserved attentional and visuospatial mnemonic functioning in individuals with DD. PMID:23522878

  17. Egocentric virtual maze learning in adult survivors of childhood abuse with dissociative disorders: evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Weniger, Godehard; Siemerkus, Jakob; Barke, Antonia; Lange, Claudia; Ruhleder, Mirjana; Sachsse, Ulrich; Schmidt-Samoa, Carsten; Dechent, Peter; Irle, Eva

    2013-05-30

    Present neuroimaging findings suggest two subtypes of trauma response, one characterized predominantly by hyperarousal and intrusions, and the other primarily by dissociative symptoms. The neural underpinnings of these two subtypes need to be better defined. Fourteen women with childhood abuse and the current diagnosis of dissociative amnesia or dissociative identity disorder but without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 14 matched healthy comparison subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while finding their way in a virtual maze. The virtual maze presented a first-person view (egocentric), lacked any topographical landmarks and could be learned only by using egocentric navigation strategies. Participants with dissociative disorders (DD) were not impaired in learning the virtual maze when compared with controls, and showed a similar, although weaker, pattern of activity changes during egocentric learning when compared with controls. Stronger dissociative disorder severity of participants with DD was related to better virtual maze performance, and to stronger activity increase within the cingulate gyrus and the precuneus. Our results add to the present knowledge of preserved attentional and visuospatial mnemonic functioning in individuals with DD.

  18. Induced abortion and anxiety, mood, and substance abuse disorders: isolating the effects of abortion in the national comorbidity survey.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Priscilla K; Coyle, Catherine T; Shuping, Martha; Rue, Vincent M

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine associations between abortion history and a wide range of anxiety (panic disorder, panic attacks, PTSD, Agoraphobia), mood (bipolar disorder, mania, major depression), and substance abuse disorders (alcohol and drug abuse and dependence) using a nationally representative US sample, the national comorbidity survey. Abortion was found to be related to an increased risk for a variety of mental health problems (panic attacks, panic disorder, agoraphobia, PTSD, bipolar disorder, major depression with and without hierarchy), and substance abuse disorders after statistical controls were instituted for a wide range of personal, situational, and demographic variables. Calculation of population attributable risks indicated that abortion was implicated in between 4.3% and 16.6% of the incidence of these disorders. Future research is needed to identify mediating mechanisms linking abortion to various disorders and to understand individual difference factors associated with vulnerability to developing a particular mental health problem after abortion.

  19. Lifespan attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and borderline personality disorder symptoms in female patients: a latent class approach.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Fiona; Lappenschaar, Martijn; Kan, Cornelis; Verkes, Robbert-Jan; Buitelaar, Jan

    2011-12-30

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and borderline personality disorder (BPD) are frequently comorbid. To contribute to a better understanding of the associations regularly found between ADHD and BPD, on the one hand, and the developmental pathways for these disorders, on the other hand, latent class analyses (LCA) were undertaken to identify classes differing in profiles of childhood symptoms of ADHD and adult symptoms of ADHD and BPD. Diagnostic interviews with 103 female outpatients meeting the criteria for ADHD and/or BPD were used to assess current DSM-IV symptoms; childhood symptoms of ADHD were assessed in parent interviews. The latent classes were examined in relation to the DSM-IV conceptualizations of ADHD and BPD. And relations between childhood and adult classes were examined to hypothesize about developmental trajectories. LCA revealed an optimal solution with four distinct symptom profiles: only ADHD symptoms; BPD symptoms and only ADHD symptoms of hyperactivity; BPD symptoms and ADHD symptoms of inattention and hyperactivity; BPD symptoms and ADHD symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. All patients with BPD had some ADHD symptoms in both adulthood and childhood. Hyperactivity was least discriminative of adult classes. Adult hyperactivity was not always preceded by childhood hyperactivity; some cases of comorbid ADHD and BPD symptoms were not preceded by significant childhood ADHD symptoms; and some cases of predominantly BPD symptoms could be traced back to combined symptoms of ADHD in childhood. The results underline the importance of taking ADHD diagnoses into account with BPD. ADHD classification subtypes may not be permanent over time, and different developmental pathways to adult ADHD and BPD should therefore be investigated.

  20. Childhood Sexual Abuse, Stigmatization, Internalizing Symptoms, and the Development of Sexual Difficulties and Dating Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feiring, Candice; Simon, Valerie A.; Cleland, Charles M.

    2009-01-01

    Potential pathways from childhood sexual abuse (CSA) to subsequent romantic intimacy problems were examined in a prospective longitudinal study of 160 ethnically diverse youth with confirmed CSA histories. Participants were interviewed at the time of abuse discovery, when they were 8-15 years of age, and again 1-6 years later. Stigmatization…

  1. Oxytocin Receptor Genetic and Epigenetic Variations: Association with Child Abuse and Adult Psychiatric Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smearman, Erica L.; Almli, Lynn M.; Conneely, Karen N.; Brody, Gene H.; Sales, Jessica M.; Bradley, Bekh; Ressler, Kerry J.; Smith, Alicia K.

    2016-01-01

    Childhood abuse can alter biological systems and increase risk for adult psychopathology. Epigenetic mechanisms, alterations in DNA structure that regulate the gene expression, are a potential mechanism underlying this risk. While abuse associates with methylation of certain genes, particularly those in the stress response system, no study to date…

  2. Treatment of anxiety disorders and comorbid alcohol abuse with buspirone in a patient with antidepressant-induced platelet dysfunction: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mazhar, Mir; Hassan, Tariq; Munshi, Tariq

    2013-01-01

    The risk of abnormal bleeding with serotonin reuptake inhibitors has been known, but there is insufficient evidence base to guide pharmacological treatment of anxiety in patients with underlying haematological conditions. The following case report is about a 50-year-old female with generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder, and alcohol abuse where pharmacological treatment of anxiety symptoms has been difficult as it would lead to bruising due to the patient's underlying qualitative platelet dysfunction. Treatment with venlafaxine, citalopram, escitalopram, and clomipramine resulted in improvement and anxiety symptoms, as well as reduction in alcohol use, but pharmacological treatment has to be discontinued because of bruising and hematomas. In view of an active substance use disorder, benzodiazepines were avoided as a treatment option. The patient's anxiety symptoms and comorbid alcohol abuse responded well to pharmacological treatment with buspirone which gradually titrated up to a dose of 30 mg BID. Patient was followed for around a six-month period while she was on buspirone before being discharged to family doctor's care. Buspirone is unlikely to have a significant effect on platelet serotonin transponder and could be an effective alternative for pharmacological treatment of anxiety in patients with a bleeding diathesis. PMID:24416612

  3. Review of Factor Analytic Studies Examining Symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuster, Jill; Perry, Adrienne; Bebko, James; Toplak, Maggie E.

    2014-01-01

    Factor analytic studies have been conducted to examine the inter-relationships and degree of overlap among symptoms in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). This paper reviewed 36 factor analytic studies that have examined ASD symptoms, using 13 different instruments. Studies were grouped into three categories: Studies with all DSM-IV symptoms, studies…

  4. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Symptoms and Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Is it ADHD? Symptoms Checklist Fill out the symptoms checklist and ... more about other concerns and conditions . How is ADHD diagnosed? Healthcare professionals use the guidelines in the ...

  5. Addressing substance abuse and violence in substance use disorder treatment and batterer intervention programs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Substance use disorders and perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) are interrelated, major public health problems. Methods We surveyed directors of a sample of substance use disorder treatment programs (SUDPs; N=241) and batterer intervention programs (BIPs; N=235) in California (70% response rate) to examine the extent to which SUDPs address IPV, and BIPs address substance abuse. Results Generally, SUDPs were not addressing co-occurring IPV perpetration in a formal and comprehensive way. Few had a policy requiring assessment of potential clients, or monitoring of admitted clients, for violence perpetration; almost one-quarter did not admit potential clients who had perpetrated IPV, and only 20% had a component or track to address violence. About one-third suspended or terminated clients engaging in violence. The most common barriers to SUDPs providing IPV services were that violence prevention was not part of the program’s mission, staff lacked training in violence, and the lack of reimbursement mechanisms for such services. In contrast, BIPs tended to address substance abuse in a more formal and comprehensive way; e.g., one-half had a policy requiring potential clients to be assessed, two-thirds required monitoring of substance abuse among admitted clients, and almost one-half had a component or track to address substance abuse. SUDPs had clients with fewer resources (marriage, employment, income, housing), and more severe problems (both alcohol and drug use disorders, dual substance use and other mental health disorders, HIV + status). We found little evidence that services are centralized for individuals with both substance abuse and violence problems, even though most SUDP and BIP directors agreed that help for both problems should be obtained simultaneously in separate programs. Conclusions SUDPs may have difficulty addressing violence because they have a clientele with relatively few resources and more complex psychological and medical

  6. Identifying Latent Trajectories of Personality Disorder Symptom Change: Growth Mixture Modeling in the Longitudinal Study of Personality Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hallquist, Michael N.; Lenzenweger, Mark F.

    2013-01-01

    Although previous reports have documented mean-level declines in personality disorder (PD) symptoms over time, little is known about whether personality pathology sometimes emerges among nonsymptomatic adults, or whether rates of change differ qualitatively among symptomatic persons. Our study sought to characterize heterogeneity in the longitudinal course of PD symptoms with the goal of testing for and describing latent trajectories. Participants were 250 young adults selected into two groups using a PD screening measure: those who met diagnostic criteria for a DSM-III-R PD (PPD, n = 129), and those with few PD symptoms (NoPD, n = 121). PD symptoms were assessed three times over a four-year study using semistructured interviews. Total PD symptom counts and symptoms of each DSM-III-R PD were analyzed using growth mixture modeling. In the NoPD group, latent trajectories were characterized by stable, minor symptoms; the rapid or gradual remission of subclinical symptoms; or the emergence of symptoms of Avoidant, Obsessive-Compulsive, or Paranoid PD. In the PPD group, three latent trajectories were evident: rapid symptom remission, slow symptom decline, or a relative absence of symptoms. Rapid remission of PD symptoms was associated with fewer comorbid disorders, lower negative emotionality, and greater positive emotionality and constraint, whereas emergent personality dysfunction was associated with comorbid PD symptoms and lower positive emotionality. In most cases, symptom change for one PD was associated with concomitant changes in other PDs, depressive symptoms, and anxiety. These results indicate that the longitudinal course of PD symptoms is heterogeneous, with distinct trajectories evident for both symptomatic and nonsymptomatic individuals. The prognosis of PD symptoms may be informed by an assessment of personality and comorbid psychopathology. PMID:23231459

  7. Identifying latent trajectories of personality disorder symptom change: growth mixture modeling in the longitudinal study of personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Hallquist, Michael N; Lenzenweger, Mark F

    2013-02-01

    Although previous reports have documented mean-level declines in personality disorder (PD) symptoms over time, little is known about whether personality pathology sometimes emerges among nonsymptomatic adults, or whether rates of change differ qualitatively among symptomatic persons. Our study sought to characterize heterogeneity in the longitudinal course of PD symptoms with the goal of testing for and describing latent trajectories. Participants were 250 young adults selected into two groups using a PD screening measure: those who met diagnostic criteria for a DSM-III-R PD (PPD, n = 129), and those with few PD symptoms (NoPD, n = 121). PD symptoms were assessed three times over a 4-year study using semistructured interviews. Total PD symptom counts and symptoms of each DSM-III-R PD were analyzed using growth mixture modeling. In the NoPD group, latent trajectories were characterized by stable, minor symptoms; the rapid or gradual remission of subclinical symptoms; or the emergence of symptoms of avoidant, obsessive-compulsive, or paranoid PD. In the PPD group, three latent trajectories were evident: rapid symptom remission, slow symptom decline, or a relative absence of symptoms. Rapid remission of PD symptoms was associated with fewer comorbid disorders, lower Negative Emotionality, and greater Positive Emotionality and Constraint, whereas emergent personality dysfunction was associated with comorbid PD symptoms and lower Positive Emotionality. In most cases, symptom change for one PD was associated with concomitant changes in other PDs, depressive symptoms, and anxiety. These results indicate that the longitudinal course of PD symptoms is heterogeneous, with distinct trajectories evident for both symptomatic and nonsymptomatic individuals. The prognosis of PD symptoms may be informed by an assessment of personality and comorbid psychopathology. PMID:23231459

  8. Identifying latent trajectories of personality disorder symptom change: growth mixture modeling in the longitudinal study of personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Hallquist, Michael N; Lenzenweger, Mark F

    2013-02-01

    Although previous reports have documented mean-level declines in personality disorder (PD) symptoms over time, little is known about whether personality pathology sometimes emerges among nonsymptomatic adults, or whether rates of change differ qualitatively among symptomatic persons. Our study sought to characterize heterogeneity in the longitudinal course of PD symptoms with the goal of testing for and describing latent trajectories. Participants were 250 young adults selected into two groups using a PD screening measure: those who met diagnostic criteria for a DSM-III-R PD (PPD, n = 129), and those with few PD symptoms (NoPD, n = 121). PD symptoms were assessed three times over a 4-year study using semistructured interviews. Total PD symptom counts and symptoms of each DSM-III-R PD were analyzed using growth mixture modeling. In the NoPD group, latent trajectories were characterized by stable, minor symptoms; the rapid or gradual remission of subclinical symptoms; or the emergence of symptoms of avoidant, obsessive-compulsive, or paranoid PD. In the PPD group, three latent trajectories were evident: rapid symptom remission, slow symptom decline, or a relative absence of symptoms. Rapid remission of PD symptoms was associated with fewer comorbid disorders, lower Negative Emotionality, and greater Positive Emotionality and Constraint, whereas emergent personality dysfunction was associated with comorbid PD symptoms and lower Positive Emotionality. In most cases, symptom change for one PD was associated with concomitant changes in other PDs, depressive symptoms, and anxiety. These results indicate that the longitudinal course of PD symptoms is heterogeneous, with distinct trajectories evident for both symptomatic and nonsymptomatic individuals. The prognosis of PD symptoms may be informed by an assessment of personality and comorbid psychopathology.

  9. Relationship between anxiety, anxiety sensitivity and conduct disorder symptoms in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Bilgiç, Ayhan; Türkoğlu, Serhat; Ozcan, Ozlem; Tufan, Ali Evren; Yılmaz, Savaş; Yüksel, Tuğba

    2013-09-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is often comorbid with anxiety disorders and previous studies observed that anxiety could have an impact on the clinical course of ADHD and comorbid disruptive behavioral disorders (conduct disorders and oppositional-defiant disorders). Anxiety sensitivity (AS) is a different concept from anxiety per se and it is believed to represent the constitutionally based sensitivity of individuals to anxiety and anxiety symptoms. We aimed to assess the associations between anxiety, AS and symptoms of disruptive behavioral disorders (DBD) in a clinical sample of children and adolescents with ADHD. The sample consisted of 274 treatment naive children with ADHD aged 8-17 years. The severity of ADHD symptoms and comorbid DBD were assessed via parent rated Turgay DSM-IV-Based Child and Adolescent Behavioral Disorders Screening and Rating Scale (T-DSM-IV-S), Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS), and Conners' Teacher Rating Scale (CTRS). AS and severity of anxiety symptoms of children were evaluated by self-report inventories. The association between anxiety, AS, and DBD was evaluated using structural equation modeling. Analyses revealed that AS social subscale scores negatively predicted symptoms of conduct disorder (CD) reported in T-DSM-IV-S. On the other hand, CD symptoms positively predicted severity of anxiety. No direct relationships were detected between anxiety, AS and oppositional-defiant behavior scores in any scales. These results may suggest a protective effect of AS social area on the development of conduct disorder in the presence of a diagnosis of ADHD, while the presence of symptoms of CD may be a vulnerability factor for the development of anxiety symptoms in children and adolescents with ADHD.

  10. Early Cannabis Use and Schizotypal Personality Disorder Symptoms from Adolescence to Middle Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Anglin, Deidre M.; Corcoran, Cheryl; Brown, Alan; Chen, Henian; Lighty, Quenesha; Brook, Judith; Cohen, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Background While increasing evidence suggests that cannabis use may play a role in the development of schizophrenia in some young people, less is known about the strength and specificity of its relationship to latent schizophrenia liability, i.e., schizotypal personality disorder traits. Aims Determine the predictive value of cannabis use during childhood and early adolescence on schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) symptoms projecting into adulthood, using a community-based longitudinal cohort from upstate New York. Method Prospective data from 804 participants was used to determine associations between early cannabis use and later schizotypal symptoms, accounting for important potential confounds (e.g., adolescent schizotypal symptoms). Results Cannabis use with onset prior to age 14 strongly predicted SPD symptoms in adulthood, independent of early adolescent SPD symptoms, major depression, anxiety disorder, other drug use, and cigarette use. There was no interaction effect of early cannabis use and early adolescent SPD symptoms on SPD symptoms into adulthood. Conclusions Our data provide further support for a strong association of early cannabis use with the development of symptoms characteristic of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. As with studies in schizophrenia, early SPD symptoms could not fully explain the association of early cannabis use with later schizotypal symptoms. The mechanisms that underlie the association of cannabis use and schizotypal symptoms in a developmental context deserve further exploration. PMID:22325079

  11. What Is Child Abuse and Neglect? Recognizing the Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePlus

    ... which results in death, serious physical or emotional harm, sexual abuse or exploitation; or an act or ... act which presents an imminent risk of serious harm.” Most Federal and State child protection laws primarily ...

  12. Psychological Correlates of Help Seeking for Eating-Disorder Symptoms in Female College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Dinah F.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the psychological correlates of treatment seeking for eating disorders in female college students. Results indicated that 56% of the 106 participants with eating-disorder symptomatology did not believe their behaviors warranted therapy. Women with eating-disorder symptoms who did not believe their behaviors warranted…

  13. Functional Outcomes of Child and Adolescent Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms in Young Adult Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, Jeffrey D.; Rowe, Richard; Boylan, Khrista

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is considered to be a disorder of childhood, yet evidence suggests that prevalence rates of the disorder are stable into late adolescence and trajectories of symptoms persist into young adulthood. Functional outcomes associated with ODD through childhood and adolescence include conflict within…

  14. Restricted and Repetitive Behaviors and Psychiatric Symptoms in Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stratis, Elizabeth A.; Lecavalier, Luc

    2013-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are at high risk for co-occurring psychiatric disorders. Previous research has suggested that restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRB) are associated with symptoms of co-occurring psychiatric disorders in individuals with ASD, but this relationship is not well understood. The current study…

  15. Effects of Trauma Intervention on HIV Sexual Risk Behaviors among Women with Co-Occurring Disorders in Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaro, Hortensia; Larson, Mary Jo; Zhang, Annie; Acevedo, Andrea; Dai, Jianyu; Matsumoto, Atsushi

    2007-01-01

    Women in substance abuse treatment often have co-occurring mental health disorders and a history of trauma; they are also at high risk for HIV infection and other sexually transmitted diseases via unprotected sex. A quasi-experimental study evaluated the effectiveness of trauma-enhanced substance abuse treatment combined with HIV/AIDS prevention…

  16. Sudden losses and sudden gains during a DBT-PTSD treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder following childhood sexual abuse

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Antje; Ehring, Thomas; Priebe, Kathlen; Dyer, Anne S.; Steil, Regina; Bohus, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Background Exposure-based treatment approaches are first-line interventions for patients suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, the dissemination of exposure-based treatments for PTSD is challenging, as a large proportion of clinicians report being concerned about symptoms worsening as a result of this type of intervention and are therefore reluctant to offer it to patients with PTSD. However, there is only little empirical evidence to date on the pattern of symptom worsening during exposure-based treatment for PTSD. Objective The goal of the present study was to explore the frequency of sudden losses and sudden gains in the course of an exposure-based treatment programme for female patients suffering from PTSD related to childhood sexual abuse who also show severe comorbidity. In addition, the relationship between sudden changes and treatment outcome was examined. Methods Female participants (N=74) were randomised to either a 12-week residential DBT-PTSD programme or a treatment-as-usual wait list. The pattern of symptom change was assessed via weekly assessments using the Posttraumatic Diagnostic Scale (PDS). Sudden changes were computed as suggested by the literature on sudden gains. Results During treatment, only one participant (3%) experienced a sudden loss, whereas 25% of participants experienced sudden gains. In the waiting condition, 8% of the participants experienced sudden losses and 5% experienced sudden gains during the same time period. No symptom worsening was observed in response to exposure sessions. However, sudden gains occurred during exposure and non-exposure treatment weeks. Patients with sudden gains showed better treatment outcome in the post-treatment and follow-up assessments. Conclusions Exposure-based treatment did not lead to PTSD symptom worsening in the study sample. Results show that sudden gains occur frequently during PTSD treatment and have a prognostic value for treatment outcome. PMID:25317254

  17. Substance Abuse and Trauma.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Shannon; Suárez, Liza

    2016-10-01

    There is a strong, bidirectional link between substance abuse and traumatic experiences. Teens with cooccurring substance use disorders (SUDs) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have significant functional and psychosocial impairment. Common neurobiological foundations point to the reinforcing cycle of trauma symptoms, substance withdrawal, and substance use. Treatment of teens with these issues should include a systemic and integrated approach to both the SUD and the PTSD. PMID:27613348

  18. Oligodendroglial abnormalities in schizophrenia, mood disorders and substance abuse. Comorbidity, shared traits, or molecular phenocopies?

    PubMed

    Sokolov, Boris P

    2007-08-01

    The evidence implicating oligodendroglia in major mental disorders has grown significantly in the past few years. Microarray analysis revealed altered expression of oligodendroglia-related genes in multiple brain regions from several, clinically diverse groups of subjects with schizophrenia (SZ) as well as subjects with bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorders (MDD), alcoholics and cocaine users. In line with gene expression findings, evidence for ultrastructural changes in white matter and altered oligodendroglia in these disorders were reported in neuroimaging and neuropathological studies. Changes in oligodendroglia-related genes reported in SZ, BD and MDD appear to display considerable similarities (particularly decreased expression of MAG, ERBB, TF, PLP1, MOG, MOBP, MOG), while changes in cocaine abuse and alcoholism are more diverse. Common oligodendroglial abnormalities might indicate aetiological or pathophysiological overlaps between different disorders. The possible mechanisms of oligodendroglial abnormalities may involve functional variations in oligodendroglia-related genes, epigenetic regulation of chromatin, DA system hyperactivity and other mechanisms.

  19. Patient characteristics as a moderator of post-traumatic stress disorder treatment outcome: combining symptom burden and strengths

    PubMed Central

    Petkova, Eva; Su, Zhe; Weiss, Brandon

    2016-01-01

    Background Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) psychotherapy research has failed to identify patient characteristics that consistently predict differential outcome. Aims To identify patient characteristics associated with differential outcome via a statistically generated composite moderator among women with childhood abuse-related PTSD in a randomised controlled trial comparing exposure therapy, skills training and their combination. Method Six baseline patient characteristics were combined in a composite moderator of treatment effects for PTSD symptoms across the three treatment conditions through a 6-month follow-up. Results The optimal moderator was the combined burden of all symptoms and emotion regulation strength. Those with high moderator scores, reflecting high symptom load relative to emotion regulation, did least well in exposure, moderately well in skills and best in the combination. Conclusions A clinically meaningful moderator, which combines patient symptom burden and strengths, was identified. Assessment at follow-up may provide a more accurate indicator of variability in outcome than that obtained immediately post-treatment. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2016. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703762

  20. The relationship between acculturative stress and eating disorder symptoms: is it unique from general life stress?

    PubMed

    Kroon Van Diest, Ashley M; Tartakovsky, Margarita; Stachon, Caitlin; Pettit, Jeremy W; Perez, Marisol

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to expand upon the literature examining the relationship between acculturative stress and eating disorder symptoms among different ethnic groups. Specifically, acculturative stress was explored as a moderator of the relationship between body dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptoms among ethnic minority women. Additionally, the distinction between acculturative stress and general life stress in predicting eating disorder symptoms was assessed. Participants consisted of 247 undergraduate women, all of whom were members of an ethnic minority group including African Americans, Asian Americans, and Latinas. Acculturative stress was found to moderate the relationship between body dissatisfaction and eating disorder symptoms, but only among African American women. Acculturative stress was also found to significantly predict bulimic symptoms above and beyond general life stress among African American, Asian American, and Latina women.

  1. Association between severity of behavioral phenotype and comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Rao, Patricia A; Landa, Rebecca J

    2014-04-01

    Autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are neurodevelopmental disorders that cannot be codiagnosed under existing diagnostic guidelines (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association, 4th ed., text rev.). However, reports are emerging that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is sometimes comorbid with autism spectrum disorder. In the current study, we examined rates of parent-reported clinically significant symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in school-aged children (4-8 years) with autism spectrum disorder, most of whom were first enrolled in our research protocols as toddlers. Results revealed that children with autism spectrum disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder had lower cognitive functioning, more severe social impairment, and greater delays in adaptive functioning than children with autism spectrum disorder only. Implications for clinical practice include the need to assess for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms at an early age in children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder. Research is needed to determine efficacious interventions for young children with autism spectrum disorder with comorbid attention deficit hyperactivity disorder to optimize outcomes.

  2. Quality of life in patients with psychotic disorders: impact of symptoms, personality, and attachment.

    PubMed

    Boyette, Lindy-Lou; Korver-Nieberg, Nikie; Meijer, Carin; de Haan, Lieuwe

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess the relative contribution of symptoms and specific psychosocial factors to different domains of quality of life (QoL) in patients with psychotic disorders. Positive, negative, and depressive symptoms; Five-Factor Model personality traits; and attachment dimensions were assessed in 110 patients with nonaffective psychotic disorders. Hierarchical and stepwise regression analyses were conducted. Psychosocial factors were able to predict all domains of QoL, when symptom severity was controlled for. Furthermore, the physical QoL domain was best predicted by attachment, personality, and sex (R = 43.1%); the psychological QoL domain, by personality and depressive symptoms (R = 60.5%); the social domain, by personality and positive symptoms (R = 30.3%); and the environmental domain, by personality and negative symptoms (R = 27.9%). Our findings highlight the role that specific individual characteristics play in different aspects of QoL in patients with psychotic disorders.

  3. Depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms in adolescent females and males.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Paxton, Susan J; Chabrol, Henri

    2010-04-01

    This study aimed to explore the role of depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms. A sample of 509 adolescents (56% female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms and sociocultural influences on appearance from family, peers and the media. Both girls and boys displaying high levels of depressive symptoms perceived stronger media and peer influences on appearance. Among girls, eating disorder symptoms were directly affected by sociocultural influences, in particular media influences, as well as by depression. However, depression played only a limited role as a moderator of these relationships. Among boys, sociocultural influences and depression revealed fewer direct effects on eating disorder symptoms. However, depression had a greater moderating effect on these relationships. Future research into the role of depression may increase the understanding of gender differences in body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness and bulimic symptoms.

  4. Depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms in adolescent females and males.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Paxton, Susan J; Chabrol, Henri

    2010-04-01

    This study aimed to explore the role of depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms. A sample of 509 adolescents (56% female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms and sociocultural influences on appearance from family, peers and the media. Both girls and boys displaying high levels of depressive symptoms perceived stronger media and peer influences on appearance. Among girls, eating disorder symptoms were directly affected by sociocultural influences, in particular media influences, as well as by depression. However, depression played only a limited role as a moderator of these relationships. Among boys, sociocultural influences and depression revealed fewer direct effects on eating disorder symptoms. However, depression had a greater moderating effect on these relationships. Future research into the role of depression may increase the understanding of gender differences in body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness and bulimic symptoms. PMID:20229229

  5. A Clinical Study of ADHD Symptoms with Relation to Symptoms of Learning Disorders in Schoolchildren in Bogota, Colombia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Talero-Gutierrez, Claudia; Van Meerbeke, Alberto Velez; Reyes, Rodrigo Gonzalez

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate possible relationships between symptoms of ADHD and of learning disorder (LD) in a population geographically, culturally, and linguistically distinct from previous studies. Method: The authors evaluated a cross section of 834 Colombian schoolchildren for childhood neurological pathologies on the basis of a medical…

  6. Consulting for substance abuse: mental disorders among adolescents and their parents.

    PubMed

    Hodgins, S; Tengström, A; Bylin, S; Göranson, M; Hagen, L; Janson, M; Larsson, A; Lundgren-Andersson, C; Lundmark, C; Norell, E; Pedersen, H

    2007-01-01

    Studies conducted outside of Scandinavia indicate that most adolescents with substance misuse problems suffer from co-morbid mental disorders. The present study assessed the mental health of adolescents seeking help for substance misuse problems in a large Swedish city. Parents' mental health was also examined. The sample included 97 girls with their 90 mothers and 52 fathers, and 81 boys with their 72 mothers and 37 fathers. The adolescents completed a diagnostic interview, either the Kiddie-SADs or the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) depending on their age. Their parents underwent diagnostic interviews with the SCID. Ninety per cent of the girls and 81% of the boys met criteria for at least one disorder other than substance misuse, and on average, they suffered from three other disorders, most of which had onset before substance misuse began. Almost 80% of the mothers and 67% of the fathers met criteria for at least one mental disorder other than alcohol and drug-related disorders. The findings concur with those reported from studies conducted in North America. The results suggest that in Sweden mental disorders are not being identified and effectively treated among some children and young adolescents who subsequently abuse alcohol and/or illicit drugs. Adolescents who consult for substance abuse problems require assessments and treatment by mental health professionals.

  7. A multiple case study comparison of normal private preparatory school and substance abusing/mood disordered adolescents and their families.

    PubMed

    Yeh, L S; Hedgespeth, J

    1995-01-01

    This multiple case study of ten families of normal private preparatory school adolescents and five families of substance abusing/mood disordered adolescents was an effort to identify factors that may suggest a relationship between the abuse of substances in adolescents who also have mood disorders and the following family factors: parental marital discord, degree of family satisfaction, and family problem-solving styles. The fifteen families completed four assessment instruments and participated in a videotaped problem-solving exercise. The results of this study showed that all members of the substance abusing/mood disordered adolescents' families rated themselves as dysfunctional in all major areas of family life. In contrast, the normal private preparatory school families reported satisfaction with most areas of family functioning. Communication styles also differed considerably between the two small groups of families. These results appear to support the importance of family evaluation and treatment when addressing the issue of adolescent substance abusers with mood disorders.

  8. Substance Abuse Disorders Treatment in El Salvador: Analysis of Policy-Making-Related Failure

    PubMed Central

    Dickson-Gómez, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Illicit drug use and substance abuse disorders have increased dramatically in developing countries during recent decades. Sadly, treatment for people diagnosed as manifesting and/or attributed with substance abuse disorders in developing countries is usually inadequate to meet demand, not evidence based, and of poor quality. In response, international health organizations have developed best-practice guidelines for substance user treatment in developing countries, although little research has evaluated their implementation. This opinion piece will examine one such effort to improve substance user treatment in El Salvador. It will be argued that the program failed (2007–2008) because of a lack of political will by the Salvadoran government through their Ministry of Health to effectively supervise, monitor, and subsidize substance user treatment. PMID:23186469

  9. The Relationship Between Borderline Personality Disorder and Major Depression in Later Life: Acute Versus Temperamental Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Galione, Janine N.; Oltmanns, Thomas F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective A recent issue in the personality disorder field is the prevalence and course of Axis II symptoms in later life. Focusing on the presentation of personality disorder criteria over time may have some utility in exploring the relationship between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and major depression in older adults. Temperamental personality symptoms are relatively resistant to change but tend to be nonspecific to disorders, while acute symptoms remit relatively quickly. We predicted that temperamental BPD symptoms would be positively correlated with a history of depression and did not expect to find a relationship between major depression and acute BPD symptoms. Method One thousand six hundred and thirty participants between the ages of 55 and 64 were recruited to participate in a community-based longitudinal study representative of the St. Louis area. Participants completed a battery of assessments at baseline, including diagnostic interviews for all ten personality disorders and major depressive disorder. Results Temperamental and acute BPD symptoms were significantly correlated with a history of major depression. After adjustments were made for the effects of temperamental symptoms on depression, acute symptoms were no longer correlated with a history of depression. As predicted, temperamental symptoms remained significantly related to depression, even after controlling for the effects of acute symptoms. BPD acute symptoms showed a unique negative correlation with the amount of time following remission from a depressive episode. Conclusions Overall, this study supports associations between major depression and borderline personality in older adults. The findings indicate that a history of major depression is primarily related to stable BPD symptoms related to emotional distress, which are more prevalent in older adults compared to acute features. PMID:23567384

  10. Psychometric properties of the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) with substance abusers in outpatient and residential treatment.

    PubMed

    Voluse, Andrew C; Gioia, Christopher J; Sobell, Linda Carter; Dum, Mariam; Sobell, Mark B; Simco, Edward R

    2012-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT), an 11-item self-report questionnaire developed to screen individuals for drug problems, are evaluated. The measure, developed in Sweden and evaluated there with individuals with severe drug problems, has not been evaluated with less severe substance abusers or with clinical populations in the United States. Participants included 35 drug abusers in an outpatient substance abuse treatment program, 79 drug abusers in a residential substance abuse treatment program, and 39 alcohol abusers from both treatment settings who did not report a drug abuse problem. The DUDIT was found to be a psychometrically sound drug abuse screening measure with high convergent validity (r=.85) when compared with the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10), and to have a Cronbach's alpha of .94. In addition, a single component accounted for 64.91% of total variance, and the DUDIT had sensitivity and specificity scores of .90 and .85, respectively, when using the optimal cut-off score of 8. Additionally, the DUDIT showed good discriminant validity as it significantly differentiated drug from alcohol abusers. These findings support the DUDIT as a reliable and valid drug abuse screening instrument that measures a unidimensional construct. Further research is warranted with additional clinical populations. PMID:21937169

  11. Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms and Trajectories in Child Sexual Abuse Victims: An Analysis of Sex Differences Using the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maikovich, Andrea Kohn; Koenen, Karestan C.; Jaffee, Sara R.

    2009-01-01

    Very few studies have prospectively examined sex differences in posttraumatic stress symptoms and symptom trajectories in youth victimized by childhood sexual abuse. This study addresses that question in a relatively large sample of children, drawn from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being, who were between the ages of 8-16 years…

  12. Characteristics and Anxiety Symptom Presentation Associated with Autism Spectrum Traits in Youth with Anxiety Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Settipani, Cara A.; Puleo, Connor M.; Conner, Bradley T.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2012-01-01

    There is limited information about the nature of anxiety among youth with symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The present study examined (a) differences in the clinical characteristics of anxious youth with and without symptoms of ASD and (b) the symptoms of anxiety that best distinguish between these groups. Results indicated that anxious youth with elevated ASD symptoms had significantly more diagnoses (e.g., specific phobias), and were more likely to meet diagnostic criteria for social phobia (and list social concerns among their top fears) than youth without elevated ASD symptoms. At the symptom level, severity of interpersonal worry based on parent report and severity of fear of medical (doctor/dentist) visits based on youth report best differentiated ASD status. The findings inform diagnostic evaluations, case conceptualization, and treatment planning for youth with anxiety disorders and ASD symptoms. PMID:22366448

  13. Sleep, Illness Course, and Concurrent Symptoms in Inter-episode Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Eidelman, Polina; Talbot, Lisa S.; Gruber, June; Harvey, Allison G.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated associations between sleep, illness course, and concurrent symptoms in 21 participants with bipolar disorder who were inter-episode. Sleep was assessed using a week-long diary. Illness course and symptoms were assessed via validated semi-structured interviews. Lower and more variable sleep efficiency and more variable total wake time were associated with more lifetime depressive episodes. Variability in falling asleep time was positively correlated with concurrent depressive symptoms. Sleep efficiency was positively correlated with concurrent manic symptoms. These findings suggest that inter-episode sleep disturbance is associated with illness course and that sleep may be an important intervention target in bipolar disorder. PMID:20004888

  14. Schema modes and childhood abuse in borderline and antisocial personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Sieswerda, Simkje

    2005-09-01

    Complex personality disorders (PDs) have been hypothesized to be characterized by alternating states of thinking, feeling and behavior, the so-called schema modes (Young, Klosko, & Weishaar (2003). Schema therapy: A practioner's guide. New York: Guilford). The present study tested the applicability of this model to borderline personality disorders (BPD) and antisocial personality disorders (APD), and related it to a presumed common etiological factor, childhood trauma. Sixteen patients with BPD, 16 patients with APD and 16 nonpatient controls (all 50% of both sexes) completed a Schema Mode Questionnaire assessing cognitions, feelings and behaviors characteristic of six schema modes. Participants were interviewed to retrace abusive sexual, physical and emotional events before the age of 18. BPD as well as APD participants were characterized by four maladaptive modes (Detached Protector, Punitive Parent, Abandoned/Abused Child and Angry Child). APD displayed most characteristics of the Bully/Attack mode, though not significantly different from BPD. The Healthy Adult mode was of low presence in BPD and of high presence in APD and the nonpatients. Frequency and severity of the three kinds of abuse were equally high in both PD groups, and significantly higher than in nonpatients.

  15. Genetic Risk for Conduct Disorder Symptom Subtypes in an ADHD Sample: Specificity to Aggressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monuteaux, Michael C.; Biederman, Joseph; Doyle, Alysa E.; Mick, Eric; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2009-01-01

    Four hundred forty-four subjects aged 6-55 years were evaluated to examine the role of COMT and SLC6A4 genes in the risk for conduct disorder and its symptomatic subtypes in the context of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. No significant association is found between these genes and the risk for conduct disorder.

  16. Psychiatric symptom typology in a sample of youth receiving substance abuse treatment services: associations with self-reported child maltreatment and sexual risk behaviors.

    PubMed

    Oshri, Assaf; Tubman, Jonathan G; Jaccard, James

    2011-11-01

    Latent profile analysis (LPA) was used to classify 394 adolescents undergoing substance use treatment, based on past year psychiatric symptoms. Relations between profile membership and (a) self-reported childhood maltreatment experiences and (b) current sexual risk behavior were examined. LPA generated three psychiatric symptom profiles: Low-, High- Alcohol-, and High- Internalizing Symptoms profiles. Analyses identified significant associations between profile membership and childhood sexual abuse and emotional neglect ratings, as well as co-occurring sex with substance use and unprotected intercourse. Profiles with elevated psychiatric symptom scores (e.g., internalizing problems, alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms) and more severe maltreatment histories reported higher scores for behavioral risk factors for HIV/STI exposure. Heterogeneity in psychiatric symptom patterns among youth receiving substance use treatment services, and prior histories of childhood maltreatment, have significant implications for the design and delivery of HIV/STI prevention programs to this population.

  17. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder/PTSD in adolescent victims of sexual abuse: resilience and social support as protection factors

    PubMed Central

    Hébert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Blais, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The present analysis explored the contribution of personal (resilience), familial (maternal and paternal support, sibling support) and extra-familial (peer support, other adult) to the prediction of clinical levels of PTSD symptoms in teenagers reporting sexual abuse while controlling for abuse-related variables (type of abuse, severity, and multiple abuse). In a representative sample of high schools students in the province of Quebec, a total of 15.2% of high school girls and 4.4% of high school boys reported a history of child sexual abuse. Sexually abused girls (27.8%) were more likely than boys (14.9%) to obtain scores reaching clinical levels of PTSD symptoms. A logistic hierarchical regression revealed that over and above the characteristics of the sexual abuse experienced, resilience, maternal as well as peer support contributed to the prediction of symptoms of PTSD reaching the clinical threshold. Avenues for intervention practices and prevention among adolescent victims of sexual assault are discussed. PMID:24714884

  18. The role of psychological flexibility in the relationship between self-concealment and disordered eating symptoms.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Akihiko; Boone, Matthew S; Timko, C Alix

    2011-04-01

    The present cross-sectional study investigated whether psychological flexibility mediates the association between self-concealment and disordered eating (DE) symptoms among non-clinical college students. Data of 209 male and female participants (nfemale =165), aged 18-22 years old, were used for analyses. Self-concealment was found to be positively associated with DE symptoms (i.e., general eating disorder symptoms and eating disorder-related cognitions) and negatively associated with psychological flexibility. Psychological flexibility was inversely associated with DE symptoms. Finally, psychological flexibility was found to mediate the association between self-concealment and DE symptoms after accounting for gender, ethnic background, and body mass index (BMI). PMID:21385643

  19. Transcultural aspects of somatic symptoms in the context of depressive disorders.

    PubMed

    Bagayogo, Issa P; Interian, Alejandro; Escobar, Javier I

    2013-01-01

    Somatic symptoms are a common presentation of mental disorders or psychological distress worldwide, and may often coexist with depressive and anxiety symptoms, thus accounting for what might be the most frequent psychiatric syndrome in primary care. Indeed, physical symptoms accompanying the clinical presentations of a variety of mental disorders may be considered as universal 'idioms of distress' that may vary across cultures, depending on attitudes and explanations embedded in each one of them. These variations in symptom presentations are the result of various interacting factors that ultimately determine how individuals identify and classify bodily sensations, perceive illness, and seek medical attention. This chapter examines the impact of culture on the experiencing of somatic symptoms, based on an inclusive review of the topic from ethnic, nosological, clinical and social perspectives. Particular attention is paid to the association of somatic symptoms with mood symptoms, since depressive disorders appear to be the most common, costly and disabling psychiatric entities worldwide. The review shows that racial/ethnic variations in somatic symptoms in the context of depression are common, and seem to be related to depression severity. Sociocultural factors, particularly stigma, may influence the unique emphasis placed on somatic symptoms within depression, and may account for some racial/ethnic differences in somatic symptom reporting.

  20. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Physical Health Symptoms Among Women Seeking Help for Relationship Aggression

    PubMed Central

    Taft, Casey T.; Vogt, Dawne S.; Mechanic, Mindy B.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined associations between intimate partner aggression and physical health symptoms among a sample of help-seeking women experiencing relationship aggression (N = 388). Using a structural equation modeling framework, the authors found posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms to fully mediate the associations of both physical and psychological aggression with physical health symptoms. The influence of PTSD symptoms on physical health symptoms was partially mediated by anger/irritability. Results were consistent with studies from other trauma groups suggesting that PTSD is pivotal with respect to explaining the effects of trauma on health. PMID:17874920

  1. Maternal Depressive Symptoms in Pediatric Major Depressive Disorder: Relationship to Acute Treatment Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennard, Betsy D.; Hughes, Jennifer L.; Stewart, Sunita M.; Mayes, Taryn; Nightingale-Teresi, Jeanne; Tao, Rongrong; Carmody, Thomas; Emslie, Graham J.

    2008-01-01

    A study examined maternal depressive symptoms at the beginning and end of acute pediatric treatment of children with major depressive disorder (MDD). Results suggested a direct and possible reciprocal association between maternal and child depression severity.

  2. Just Say Know: An Examination of Substance Use Disorders among Older Adults in Gerontological and Substance Abuse Journals

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Daniel; Engel, Rafael J.; Hunsaker, Amanda E.; Engel, Yael; Detlefsen, Ellen Gay; Reynolds, Charles F.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which studies of alcohol abuse, illicit drug use, and prescription drug abuse among older adults appear in the leading gerontological and substance abuse journals. The authors reviewed articles published in the 10 social science gerontological journals and the 10 social science substance abuse journals with the highest 5-year impact factors in PubMed from 2000 to 2010. Articles were selected that presented original research on alcohol, substance, or prescription abuse with older adults aged 50 and older; and were identified through aging and substance abuse-related Medical Subject Headings and word searches of titles and abstracts (N = 634). Full text of each article was reviewed by the authors, and consensus determined inclusion in the final sample. Of the 19,953 articles published respectively in the top 10 gerontological and substance abuse journals, 181 articles met the inclusion criteria of reporting findings related to substance use disorders among older adults. Specifically, 0.9% (102 of 11,700) of articles from the top 10 gerontology journals and 1.0% (79 of 8,253) of articles from the top 10 substance abuse journals met the criteria. Most published articles addressed alcohol misuse/abuse or polysubstance abuse with few articles addressing illicit drug use or the misuse of prescription medications. Less than 1% of articles published in the 10 gerontology journals and the 10 substance abuse journals with the highest 5-year impact scores addressed substance abuse in older adults. Practitioners treating health and/or mental health problems are at a disadvantage in accurately identifying and treating these conditions in older adult populations without a proper understanding of the role of comorbid substance use disorders. PMID:23731426

  3. Just say know: an examination of substance use disorders among older adults in gerontological and substance abuse journals.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Daniel; Engel, Rafael J; Hunsaker, Amanda E; Engel, Yael; Detlefsen, Ellen Gay; Reynolds, Charles F

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the extent to which studies of alcohol abuse, illicit drug use, and prescription drug abuse among older adults appear in the leading gerontological and substance abuse journals. The authors reviewed articles published in the 10 social science gerontological journals and the 10 social science substance abuse journals with the highest 5-year impact factors in PubMed from 2000 to 2010. Articles were selected that presented original research on alcohol, substance, or prescription abuse with older adults aged 50 and older; and were identified through aging and substance abuse-related Medical Subject Headings and word searches of titles and abstracts (N = 634). Full text of each article was reviewed by the authors, and consensus determined inclusion in the final sample. Of the 19,953 articles published respectively in the top 10 gerontological and substance abuse journals, 181 articles met the inclusion criteria of reporting findings related to substance use disorders among older adults. Specifically, 0.9% (102 of 11,700) of articles from the top 10 gerontology journals and 1.0% (79 of 8,253) of articles from the top 10 substance abuse journals met the criteria. Most published articles addressed alcohol misuse/abuse or polysubstance abuse with few articles addressing illicit drug use or the misuse of prescription medications. Less than 1% of articles published in the 10 gerontology journals and the 10 substance abuse journals with the highest 5-year impact scores addressed substance abuse in older adults. Practitioners treating health and/or mental health problems are at a disadvantage in accurately identifying and treating these conditions in older adult populations without a proper understanding of the role of comorbid substance use disorders.

  4. Former Abusers of Anabolic Androgenic Steroids Exhibit Decreased Testosterone Levels and Hypogonadal Symptoms Years after Cessation: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Selmer, Christian; Østergren, Peter Busch; Pedersen, Karen Boje; Schou, Morten; Gustafsson, Finn; Faber, Jens; Juul, Anders; Kistorp, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Aims Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) is highly prevalent among male recreational athletes. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of AAS abuse on reproductive hormone levels and symptoms suggestive of hypogonadism in current and former AAS abusers. Methods This study had a cross-sectional case-control design and involved 37 current AAS abusers, 33 former AAS abusers (mean (95%CI) elapsed duration since AAS cessation: 2.5 (1.7; 3.7) years) and 30 healthy control participants. All participants were aged 18–50 years and were involved in recreational strength training. Reproductive hormones (FSH, LH, testosterone, inhibin B and anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH)) were measured using morning blood samples. Symptoms of hypogonadism (depressive symptoms, fatigue, decreased libido and erectile dysfunction) were recorded systematically. Results Former AAS abusers exhibited significantly lower median (25th –75th percentiles) total and free testosterone levels than control participants (total testosterone: 14.4 (11.9–17.7) nmol/l vs. 18.8 (16.6–22.0) nmol/l) (P < 0.01). Overall, 27.2% (13.3; 45.5) of former AAS abusers exhibited plasma total testosterone levels below the lower reference limit (12.1 nmol/l) whereas no control participants exhibited testosterone below this limit (P < 0.01). Gonadotropins were significantly suppressed, and inhibin B and AMH were significantly decreased in current AAS abusers compared with former AAS abusers and control participants (P < 0.01). The group of former AAS abusers had higher proportions of participants with depressive symptoms ((24.2%) (11.1; 42.2)), erectile dysfunction ((27.3%) (13.3; 45.6)) and decreased libido ((40.1%) (23.2; 57.0)) than the other two groups (trend analyses: P < 0.05). Conclusions Former AAS abusers exhibited significantly lower plasma testosterone levels and higher frequencies of symptoms suggestive of hypogonadism than healthy control participants years after AAS cessation

  5. Seasonal Variation of Depressive Symptoms in Unipolar Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cobb, Bryan S.; Coryell, William H.; Cavanaugh, Joseph; Keller, Martin; Solomon, David A.; Endicott, Jean; Potash, James B.; Fiedorowicz, Jess G.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Retrospective and cross-sectional studies of seasonal variation of depressive symptoms in unipolar major depression have yielded conflicting results. We examined seasonal variation of mood symptoms in a long-term prospective cohort – the Collaborative Depression Study (CDS). Methods The sample included 298 CDS participants from five academic centers with a prospectively derived diagnosis of unipolar major depression who were followed for at least ten years of annual or semi-annual assessments. Generalized linear mixed models were utilized to investigate the presence of seasonal patterns. In a subset of 271 participants followed for at least 20 years, the stability of a winter depressive pattern was assessed across the first two decades of follow-up. Results A small increase in proportion of time depressed was found in the months surrounding the winter solstice, although the greatest symptom burden was seen in December through April with a peak in March. The relative burden of winter depressive symptoms in the first decade demonstrated no relationship to that of the second decade. The onset of new episodes was highest October through January, peaking in January. Conclusions There exists a small but statistically significant peak in depressive symptoms from the month of the winter solstice to the month of the spring equinox. However, the predominance of winter depressive symptoms did not appear stable over the long-term course of illness. PMID:25176622

  6. Sarcosine treatment for oppositional defiant disorder symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder children.

    PubMed

    Tzang, Ruu-Fen; Chang, Yue-Cune; Tsai, Guochuan E; Lane, Hsien-Yuan

    2016-10-01

    Methylphenidate, a stimulant that activates dopaminergic and noradrenergic function, is an important agent in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Sarcosine, a glycine transporter-1 inhibitor, may also play a role in treating ADHD by modulating the glutamatergic neurotransmission system through activating N-methyl-D-aspartate type glutamate receptors. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of sarcosine in treating children with ADHD. We conducted a six-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. The primary outcome measures were those on the Inattention, Hyperactivity/impulsivity, and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) subscales of the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham, version IV scale. Efficacy and safety were measured bi-weekly. A total of 116 children with ADHD were enrolled. Among them, 48 (83%) of the 58 sarcosine recipients and 44 (76%) of the 58 placebo recipients returned for the first post-treatment visit. The missing data values were imputed by the last observation carry forward method. From a multiple linear regression analysis, using the generalized estimating equation approach, and an intention to treat analysis, the efficacy of sarcosine marginally surpassed that of placebo at weeks 2, 4, and 6, with p-values=0.01, 0.026, and 0.012, respectively, although only for ODD symptoms. Treatment of ADHD by sarcosine (0.03 g/kg/day) was well tolerated. Sarcosine could possibly be a novel agent for managing ODD symptoms in the context of ADHD. However, future larger-scale studies are warranted to optimize its dosage.

  7. Review of Pharmacotherapy Options for the Treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and ADHD-Like Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowles, Brieana M.; Findling, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Developmental disorders such as subaverage intelligence, pervasive developmental disorders, and genetic syndromes are frequently associated with comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or ADHD-like symptoms. While there are not pharmacological cures for these developmental disorders, coinciding ADHD and ADHD-like symptoms that…

  8. Substance-related disorders and somatic symptoms: how should clinicians understand the associations?

    PubMed

    Yoshimasu, Kouichi

    2012-12-01

    There are five major patterns which explain the associations between somatic symptoms and substance-related disorders (SRD) in patients without organic disorders. They are withdrawal somatic symptoms, somatic symptoms related to co-morbid mental disorders, those related to co-morbid infectious diseases, functional intractable somatic symptoms (including somatoform disorders), and symptoms associated with intoxication. Those somatic symptoms that occur according to those five patterns might overlap each other, making it difficult for physicians to precisely grasp the associations between somatic symptoms and SRD. This results in a very complicated formation of various kinds of symptoms (syndrome). Furthermore, the clinical and social features of those patterns of associations differ between legal and illicit substances users. It should also be noted that such somatic symptoms associated with SRD may be affected by social factors such as cultural backgrounds or legal restrictions on such substances. Those factors differ according to each country, area, or community whose cultural backgrounds are somewhat specific. In those areas, psychosocial factors such as stigmas, prejudices, or feeling ashamed of one's mental disorder (including SRD) also differ. Thus, it is important to take into account the effects of social or psychosocial backgrounds when evaluating and studying the associations between somatic symptoms and SRD. When clinicians confront patients with somatic symptoms and suspected SRD, they should presume which association pattern is the most significant problem for the patients, based on those psychosocial and biological information obtained from the patients themselves and their surroundings. This procedure might give an opportunity to clinicians for elucidating complicated associations between somatic complaints and SRD.

  9. Coping with Child Sexual Abuse among College Students and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder: The Role of Continuity of Abuse and Relationship with the Perpetrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canton-Cortes, David; Canton, Jose

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of child sexual abuse (CSA) on the use of coping strategies and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) scores in young adults, as well as the role of avoidance and approach coping strategies in those PTSD scores in CSA victims. The role of coping strategies was studied by considering…

  10. Psychiatric comorbidity in patients with conversion disorder and prevalence of dissociative symptoms.

    PubMed

    Yayla, Sinan; Bakım, Bahadır; Tankaya, Onur; Ozer, Omer Akil; Karamustafalioglu, Oguz; Ertekin, Hulya; Tekin, Atilla

    2015-01-01

    The 1st objective of the current study was to investigate the frequency and types of dissociative symptoms in patients with conversion disorder (CD). The 2nd objective of the current study was to determine psychiatric comorbidity in patients with and without dissociative symptoms. A total of 54 consecutive consenting patients primarily diagnosed with CD according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, criteria who were admitted to the psychiatric emergency outpatient clinic of Sisli Etfal Research and Teaching Hospital (Istanbul, Turkey) were included in the study. The Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders, Structured Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders, and Dissociative Experiences Scale were administered. Study groups consisted of 20 patients with a dissociative disorder and 34 patients without a diagnosis of any dissociative disorder. A total of 37% of patients with CD had any dissociative diagnosis. The prevalence of dissociative disorders was as follows: 18.5% dissociative disorder not otherwise specified, 14.8% dissociative amnesia, and 3.7% depersonalization disorder. Significant differences were found between the study groups with respect to comorbidity of bipolar disorder, past hypomania, and current and past posttraumatic stress disorder (ps = .001, .028, .015, and .028, respectively). Overall comorbidity of bipolar disorder was 27.8%. Psychiatric comorbidity was higher and age at onset was earlier among dissociative patients compared to patients without dissociative symptoms. The increased psychiatric comorbidity and early onset of conversion disorder found in patients with dissociative symptoms suggest that these patients may have had a more severe form of conversion disorder.

  11. Eating Disorder Symptoms And Length Of Stay In Residential Treatment For Substance Use: A Brief Report

    PubMed Central

    Elmquist, JoAnna; Shorey, Ryan C.; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Treatment dropout is common both among people in treatment for eating disorders and for substance use disorders. Because of the high rates of co-occurrence and mortality associated with these disorders, the purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between eating disorder symptoms, length of stay, and decisions to leave against medical advice among individuals in substance use treatment. Method We analyzed de-identified medical record data for 122 adult women enrolled in residential treatment for substance use disorders over a 12-month period. Routine treatment intake included standardized assessments of eating disorders, depression, and substance use. Results Participants averaged 43.1 years of age (SD = 10.7) and were primarily non-Hispanic Caucasian (n = 118, 96.7%). Approximately 8 (6.6%) patients met criteria for a probable eating disorder, and 79 (64.8%) for a probable alcohol use disorder. Mean length of stay was 28.1 days (SD = 6.6) and 21 (17%) patients left against medical advice. Logistic regression analysis showed that eating disorder symptoms were significantly associated with decisions to leave treatment against medical advice after controlling for age, years of education, depression symptoms alcohol problems, and drug problems; χ2 = 14.88, df = 6, p =.02. This model accounted for 19.1% (Nagelkerke R2) of the variance in discharge type. Eating disorder symptoms were not associated with length of treatment. Conclusions Our findings suggest the importance of assessing and monitoring eating disorder symptoms among individuals in treatment for substance use disorders. PMID:26457661

  12. Depression as a Moderator of Sociocultural Influences on Eating Disorder Symptoms in Adolescent Females and Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodgers, Rachel F.; Paxton, Susan J.; Chabrol, Henri

    2010-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the role of depression as a moderator of sociocultural influences on eating disorder symptoms. A sample of 509 adolescents (56% female) completed self-report questionnaires assessing depression, body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms and sociocultural influences on appearance from family, peers and…

  13. Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adults with Intellectual Disability: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reilly, Colin; Holland, Niamh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Despite a reported excess of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in individuals with intellectual disability, it has been argued that ADHD symptoms have been under diagnosed and inadequately treated in individuals with intellectual disability. Materials and methods: Published studies focussing on the level of ADHD…

  14. A Meta-Analysis of Sensory Modulation Symptoms in Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Sasson, Ayelet; Hen, Liat; Fluss, Ronen; Cermak, Sharon A.; Engel-Yeger, Batya; Gal, Eynat

    2009-01-01

    Sensory modulation symptoms are common in persons with autism spectrum disorders (ASD); however have a heterogeneous presentation. Results from 14 studies indicated a significant high difference between ASD and typical groups in the presence/frequency of sensory symptoms, with the greatest difference in under-responsivity, followed by…

  15. Frequency and Correlates of Posttraumatic-Stress-Disorder-Like Symptoms after Treatment for Breast Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordova, Matthew J.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Assessed Quality Of Life (QOL) and symptoms similar to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women posttreatment for breast cancer. Negatively related PTSD symptomatology to QOL, income, and age. Time since treatment, type of cytotoxic treatment, and stage of disease were unrelated to PTSD symptoms. Suggests that in breast cancer survivors,…

  16. Eating Disorder Symptoms among College Students: Prevalence, Persistence, Correlates, and Treatment-Seeking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Daniel; Nicklett, Emily J.; Roeder, Kathryn; Kirz, Nina E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the prevalence, correlates, persistence, and treatment-seeking related to symptoms of eating disorders (EDs) in a random sample of college students. Participants: A random sample of students at a large university were recruited for an Internet survey in Fall 2005 and a follow-up survey in Fall 2007. Methods: ED symptoms were…

  17. The Structure of Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptoms in the General Population at 18 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beuker, Karin T.; Schjolberg, Synnve; Lie, Kari Kveim; Donders, Rogier; Lappenschaar, Martijn; Swinkels, Sophie H. N.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2013-01-01

    It is unclear whether symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in young children in the population fit the three-factor structure of ASD as described in the DSM-IV, and cluster together in individual subjects. This study analysed questionnaire data on ASD symptoms filled in by mothers of 11,332 18-month-old children that was collected in the…

  18. Predicting the Early Developmental Course of Symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Stauffenberg, Camilla; Campbell, Susan B.

    2007-01-01

    Data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care were examined to test whether: attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms remain stable from 54 months through early elementary school; behavioral inhibition and attention deficits assessed at 54 months predict ADHD symptoms in elementary…

  19. Anger and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Crime Victims: A Longitudinal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orth, Ulrich; Cahill, Shawn P.; Foa, Edna B.; Maercker, Andreas

    2008-01-01

    Among trauma-exposed individuals, severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms is strongly correlated with anger. The authors used 2 longitudinal data sets with 282 and 218 crime victims, respectively, to investigate the temporal sequence of anger and PTSD symptoms following the assault. Cross-lagged regression analyses indicated that…

  20. Examining the Relationship between Executive Functions and Restricted, Repetitive Symptoms of Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Brian R.; Lincoln, Alan J.; Ozonoff, Sally; Lai, Zona

    2005-01-01

    The executive function theory was utilized to examine the relationship between cognitive process and the restricted, repetitive symptoms of Autistic Disorder (AD). Seventeen adults with AD were compared to 17 nonautistic controls on a new executive function battery (Delis-Kaplin Executive Function Scales). Restricted, repetitive symptoms were…

  1. Autism Spectrum Disorder Symptoms among Children Enrolled in the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Lisa D.; Levy, Susan E.; Daniels, Julie; Schieve, Laura; Croen, Lisa A.; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn; Blaskey, Lisa; Giarelli, Ellen; Lee, Li-Ching; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer; Reynolds, Ann; Rice, Catherine; Rosenberg, Cordelia Robinson; Thompson, Patrick; Yeargin-Allsopp, Marshalyn; Young, Lisa; Schendel, Diana

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the phenotypic profiles of children aged 30-68 months in the Study to Explore Early Development (SEED). Children classified as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), developmental delay (DD) with ASD symptoms, DD without ASD symptoms, and population comparison (POP) differed significantly from each other on cognitive, adaptive,…

  2. The Relation between Maternal Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Mother-Infant Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semple, Deborah L.; Mash, Eric J.; Ninowski, Jerilyn E.; Benzies, Karen M.

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between maternal symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and specific maternal behaviors was examined in a community sample of 40 mothers of infants aged 3-8 months. It was hypothesized that maternal ADHD symptoms would be related to lower levels of maternal sensitivity, and higher levels of maternal…

  3. Measurement Differences from Rating Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms in Response to Differentially Distressing Traumatic Events

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elhai, Jon D.; Fine, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    The authors explored differences in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as a result of rating symptoms from two separate, differentially distressing traumatic events. In an initial sample of 400 nonclinical participants, the authors inquired through a web survey about previous psychological trauma, instructing participants to nominate…

  4. Trait Resilience Moderates the Longitudinal Linkage between Adolescent Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Posttraumatic Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ying, Liuhua; Wang, Yanli; Lin, Chongde; Chen, Chuansheng

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the longitudinal association between posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and posttraumatic growth (PTG) as well as the moderating role of trait resilience in that association. Participants completed measures of PTSD symptoms, PTG, and trait resilience at 12, 18, and 24 months after the Wenchuan earthquake.…

  5. Family Routine Moderates the Relation between Child Impulsivity and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanza, H. Isabella; Drabick, Deborah A. G.

    2011-01-01

    Although child impulsivity is associated with oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms, few studies have examined whether family processes moderate this association. To address this gap, we tested whether child-reported family routine moderated the relation between child hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI) and ODD symptoms among a sample of…

  6. Co-Occurrence of Motor Problems and Autistic Symptoms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiersen, Angela M.; Constantino, John N.; Todd, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    A study is conducted to examine the concurrence between parent-reported motor problems and clinical autistic symptoms in children with and without attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Results suggest that children with ADHD and parent-reported motor problems are likely to have more severe autistic symptoms than those with ADHD alone.

  7. The Moderating Role of Experiential Avoidance in the Relationship between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Severity and Cannabis Dependence.

    PubMed

    Bordieri, Michael J; Tull, Matthew T; McDermott, Michael J; Gratz, Kim L

    2014-10-01

    The relationship between cannabis use and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has received increased scientific scrutiny in recent years. Consistent with this research, studies provide evidence that many individuals with PTSD use cannabis to reduce negative affect and other unpleasant internal experiences associated with PTSD. However, no research to date has explored factors that may be associated with an increased likelihood of cannabis misuse among individuals with PTSD. Consequently, this study explored the moderating role of experiential avoidance (EA; defined as the tendency to engage in strategies to reduce unpleasant private experiences) in the PTSD-cannabis dependence relationship among a sample of 123 Criterion A trauma-exposed patients in residential substance abuse treatment. Moderation analyses indicated an interactive effect of PTSD symptom severity and EA on current cannabis dependence. Specifically, results revealed a conditional effect of PTSD symptom severity on cannabis dependence only when EA was average or higher, with higher levels of PTSD symptom severity associated with a greater risk of cannabis dependence. These findings are consistent with evidence that cannabis use may serve an avoidant function among some individuals with PTSD and suggest that acceptance-based behavioral approaches might be effective in targeting both cannabis use and PTSD-related impairment.

  8. [More than every tenth person have symptoms of seasonal affective disorder].

    PubMed

    Madsen, Helle Østergaard; Dam, Henrik; Hageman, Ida

    2011-11-21

    Seasonal affective disorder is a syndrome of classical depressive symptoms such as reduced energy, initiative and mood combined with atypical symptoms of increased appetite, weight and sleep duration. The symptoms recur each winter and disappear again in spring or early summer. The prevalence ranges from 1% to 10% in Scandinavian populations. Reduced light exposure, melatonergic and serotonergic disturbances are suggested pathogenetic factors. Light therapy offers convincing effect with minimal adverse effects and remains first-line treatment along with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

  9. Emerging Drugs for the Treatment of Symptoms Associated with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wink, Logan K.; Plawecki, Martin H.; Erickson, Craig A.; Stigler, Kimberly A.; McDougle, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Importance of the Field Autism spectrum disorders, or pervasive developmental disorders (PDDs), are neurodevelopmental disorders defined by qualitative impairment in social interaction, impaired communication, and stereotyped patterns of behavior. The most common forms of PDD are autstic disorder (autism), Asperger's disorder, and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD NOS). Recent surveillance studies reveal an increase in the prevalence of autism and related PDDs. The use of pharmacologic agents in the treatment of these disorders can reduce the impact of interfering symptoms, providing relief for affected individuals and their families. Areas Covered in this Review This review examines results from neurobiologic research in an attempt to both elucidate the pathophysiology of autism and guide the development of pharmacologic agents for the treatment of associated symptoms. The safety and efficacy data of drugs currently in clinical use for the treatment of these symptoms, as well as pharmaceuticals currently under development, are discussed. What the Reader will Gain This comprehensive review will deepen the reader's current understanding of the research guiding the pharmacologic treatment of symptoms associated with autism and related PDDs. Areas of focus for future research are also discussed. The need for large-scale investigation of some commonly used pharmacologic agents, in addition to the development of drugs with improved efficacy and safety profiles, is made evident. Take Home Message Despite progress in the development of pharmacologic treatments for a number of interfering symptom domains associated with autism and other PDDs, a great deal of work remains. PMID:20470188

  10. Electroconvulsive therapy treatment in patients with somatic symptom and related disorders

    PubMed Central

    Leong, KaWai; Tham, Joseph CW; Scamvougeras, Anton; Vila-Rodriguez, Fidel

    2015-01-01

    Objective Medically unexplained somatic complaints are highly prevalent, and lead to significant impairment and disability. The number of effective treatment modalities for somatic symptom and related disorders (SSDs) or somatoform disorders (SDs) remains limited. To date, there is no formal indication for electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in SSD or SD. We report on the largest case series to date regarding the effectiveness of ECT in patients with SSD and SD. Methods A retrospective chart review of all patients treated with an index course of ECT at the Neuropsychiatric Program at the University of British Columbia Hospital from 2000 to 2010 was conducted. The primary outcomes consisted of changes in pseudoneurologic symptoms, pain symptoms, cardiopulmonary symptoms, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Complaints were examined pre- and post-ECT. Results Twenty-eight participants were included in this study. Twenty-one participants received right unilateral ECT. Six received bifrontal ECT. One received bitemporal ECT. Eighteen of 21 participants reported improvement in pseudoneurologic symptoms; eleven of 14 participants reported improvement in pain symptoms; one participant reported improvement in cardiopulmonary symptoms; and one of two participants reported improvement in gastrointestinal symptoms. This paper discusses the putative mechanism of action of ECT in the treatment of SD/SSD. Conclusion This retrospective study suggests that ECT could be included as part of the existing treatment for refractory SSD and SD, particularly in refractory cases with comorbid mood disorders. PMID:26504388

  11. Anxiety and depression symptoms and response to methylphenidate in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and tic disorder.

    PubMed

    Gadow, Kenneth D; Nolan, Edith E; Sverd, Jeffrey; Sprafkin, Joyce; Schwartz, Joseph

    2002-06-01

    This study examined response to methylphenidate in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and chronic multiple tic disorder. The primary goal was to determine if children with anxiety or depression symptoms showed a less favorable response to treatment. Subjects were 38 prepubertal children who participated in an 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, methylphenidate crossover evaluation. Treatment effects were assessed with direct observations of child behavior in public school and clinic settings; rating scales completed by parents, teachers, and clinicians; and laboratory analogue tasks. There was little evidence (group data) that children with anxiety or depression symptoms responded in a clinically different manner to methylphenidate than youngsters who did not exhibit these symptoms, particularly in school observations of the core features of ADHD. Seeming differences between children with and without comorbid anxiety or depression symptoms and drug response are likely explained by differences in pretreatment levels of negativistic behaviors (i.e., symptoms of oppositional defiant disorder or conduct disorder). Methylphenidate appears to be effective for the management of ADHD behaviors in children with mild to moderate anxiety or depression symptoms; nevertheless, much research remains to be performed in this area.

  12. [Neuropsychological treatment of cognitive deficits in substance abuse disorders, affective disorders, anxiety disorders and obsessive-compulsive disorders - current status and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Buschert, V C; Zwanzger, P; Brunnauer, A

    2015-05-01

    Neuropsychological treatment represents a promising therapeutic approach in the amelioration of cognitive deficits in many neuropsychiatric disorders. Cognitive impairment constitutes a core feature that often persists beyond psychopathological symptoms having a significant impact on psychosocial functioning. However, research interest and evidence of efficacy vary considerably between disease groups. Although neuropsychological treatment is frequently used in clinical practice, there are, with the exception of schizophrenia, relatively few studies on its effectiveness.

  13. Demographic and clinical characteristics of people with intellectual disabilities with and without substance abuse disorders in a Medicaid population.

    PubMed

    Slayter, Elspeth Maclean

    2010-12-01

    Little is known about the demographic and clinical characteristics of people with intellectual disabilities and substance abuse problems. Drawing on health care billing claims for people with Medicaid coverage aged 12-99 years, the characteristics of people with intellectual disability and a history of substance abuse (N=9,484) were explored and compared with people with intellectual disability but without substance abuse. Age- and/or gender-adjusted odds ratios were derived from logistic regression analyses to consider differences in demographic and clinical diagnoses. People with intellectual disability and substance abuse constituted 2.6% of all people with intellectual disability, most of whom had a diagnosis of mild or moderate intellectual disability. People with intellectual disability and substance abuse problems were, on average, 2 years older than the comparison group and less likely to be White. The sample was more likely than the comparison group to have serious mental illness or depression and substance abuse-related disorders were not prevalent. These data provide a comparison point for existing studies of mental health diagnoses as well as new information about substance abuse disorders. Implications relate to the identification of substance abuse among people with intellectual disabilities as well as the establishment of demographic and clinical correlates.

  14. Early development of comorbidity between symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD).

    PubMed

    Harvey, Elizabeth A; Breaux, Rosanna P; Lugo-Candelas, Claudia I

    2016-02-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are among the most common childhood disorders and frequently co-occur. The present study sought to advance our understanding of how comorbidity between ADHD and ODD develops during the preschool years by testing a cross-lagged model that integrates 2 prominent models: the developmental precursor model and the correlated risk factors model. Participants were 199 children (107 boys) who took part in a longitudinal study of preschoolers with behavior problems. Parent reports of ADHD and ODD symptoms were collected annually from ages 3 to 6 and a family history interview was administered at age 3. In support of the developmental precursors model, ADHD symptoms predicted later argumentative/defiant symptoms. In support of the correlated risk factors model, family histories of ADHD and ODD/CD symptoms were correlated risk factors that uniquely predicted ADHD and anger/irritable symptoms in children. Results suggest that the correlated risk factors model may best explain the development of comorbidity between symptoms of ADHD and anger/irritability, whereas the developmental precursors model may better explain the development of comorbidity between symptoms of ADHD and argumentative/defiance.

  15. What are the Symptoms of a Vestibular Disorder?

    MedlinePlus

    ... distance Increased night blindness; difficulty walking in the dark Poor depth perception Visit the Neuro-Optometric Association's ... vestibular disorders can be. Your support of VEDA matters. Please help us continue this important work by ...

  16. An Empirical Examination of Symptom Substitution Associated With Behavior Therapy for Tourette's Disorder.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Alan L; McGuire, Joseph F; Wilhelm, Sabine; Piacentini, John; Woods, Douglas W; Walkup, John T; Hatch, John P; Villarreal, Robert; Scahill, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Over the past six decades, behavior therapy has been a major contributor to the development of evidence-based psychotherapy treatments. However, a long-standing concern with behavior therapy among many nonbehavioral clinicians has been the potential risk for symptom substitution. Few studies have been conducted to evaluate symptom substitution in response to behavioral treatments, largely due to measurement and definitional challenges associated with treated psychiatric symptoms. Given the overt motor and vocal tics associated with Tourette's disorder, it presents an excellent opportunity to empirically evaluate the potential risk for symptom substitution associated with behavior therapy. The present study examined the possible presence of symptom substitution using four methods: (a) the onset of new tic symptoms, (b) the occurrence of adverse events, (c) change in tic medications, and (d) worsening of co-occurring psychiatric symptoms. Two hundred twenty-eight participants with Tourette's disorder or persistent motor or vocal tic disorders were randomly assigned to receive behavioral therapy or supportive therapy for tics. Both therapies consisted of eight sessions over 10 weeks. Results indicated that participants treated with behavior therapy were not more likely to have an onset of new tic symptoms, experience adverse events, increase tic medications, or have an exacerbation in co-occurring psychiatric symptoms relative to participants treated with supportive therapy. Further analysis suggested that the emergence of new tics was attributed with the normal waxing and waning nature of Tourette's disorder. Findings provide empirical support to counter the long-standing concern of symptom substitution in response to behavior therapy for individuals with Tourette's disorder. PMID:26763495

  17. Trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder symptomatology: patterns among American Indian adolescents in substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Deters, Pamela B; Novins, Douglas K; Fickenscher, Alexandra; Beals, Jan

    2006-07-01

    In this study the authors examined the prevalence and correlates of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and trauma symptomatology among a sample of 89 American Indian adolescents in a residential substance abuse treatment program. These youths reported an average of 4.1 lifetime traumas, with threat of injury and witnessing injury being most common; molestation, rape, and sexual attack were least common. Approximately 10% of participants met the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual IV Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria for full PTSD, and about 14% met the criteria for subthreshold PTSD. Molestation (including rape and sexual attack), experiencing 6 or more traumas, and a diagnosis of abuse of or dependence on stimulants were significantly associated with PTSD. Findings indicated that trauma was a pervasive phenomenon among this population, with sexual traumas being particularly stigmatizing, resulting in high rates of posttraumatic symptomatology, specifically PTSD.

  18. Learning Processes Associated with Panic-Related Symptoms in Families with and without Panic Disordered Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Albuquerque, Jiske E. G.; Munsch, Simone; Margraf, Jurgen; Schneider, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    The present study compared learning processes associated with panic-related symptoms in families with and without panic disordered mothers. Using a multi-informant approach, 86 mothers [of whom 58 had a primary diagnosis of panic disorder (PD)], their partners and teenage children (mean age, 16.67 years) reported about parents' behavior (modeling…

  19. One Factor or Two Parallel Processes? Comorbidity and Development of Adolescent Anxiety and Depressive Disorder Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, William W., III; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Muris, Peter; van Hoof, Anne; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: This study investigates whether anxiety and depressive disorder symptoms of adolescents from the general community are best described by a model that assumes they are indicative of one general factor or by a model that assumes they are two distinct disorders with parallel growth processes. Additional analyses were conducted to explore…

  20. Career Beliefs and Job Satisfaction in Adults with Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Painter, Carol A.; Prevatt, Frances; Welles, Theresa

    2008-01-01

    The authors evaluated dysfunctional career beliefs and subsequent low job satisfaction in adults reporting significant symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants (N = 81) completed the Adult Attention Deficit Disorders Evaluation Scale (S. B. McCarney & P. D. Anderson, 1996), the Career Thoughts Inventory (J. P.…

  1. Differential Social Comparison Processes in Women with and without Eating Disorder Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corning, Alexandra F.; Krumm, Angela J.; Smitham, Lora A.

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of predictions from social comparison theory (L. Festinger, 1954) and informed by findings from the social comparison and eating disorder literatures, hypotheses were tested regarding the social comparison behaviors of women with eating disorder symptoms and their asymptomatic peers. Results indicated differentiating social-cognitive…

  2. Ethnic Differences in Eating Disorder Symptoms among College Students: The Confounding Role of Body Mass Index.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arriaza, Cecilia A.; Mann, Traci

    2001-01-01

    Explored the role of body mass index (BMI) in eating disorders among Hispanic, Asian American, and non-Hispanic white female college students. Data from student surveys indicated that after controlling for BMI, ethnic differences in eating disorder symptoms of concern about weight and shape disappeared, but differences in restrained eating…

  3. A Prospective Examination of Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Victims of Nonsexual Assault.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, David S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were examined prospectively in 84 nonsexual assault victims, beginning shortly after the assault and continuing weekly for 3 months. Severity of PTSD decreased significantly over the course of the study in the groups who were not diagnosed with the disorder at the final assessment. (JBJ)

  4. Parent and Child Agreement on Anxiety Disorder Symptoms Using the DISC Predictive Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weems, Carl F.; Feaster, Daniel J.; Horigian, Viviana E.; Robbins, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Growing recognition of the negative impact of anxiety disorders in the lives of youth has made their identification an important clinical task. Multiple perspective assessment (e.g., parents, children) is generally considered a preferred method in the assessment of anxiety disorder symptoms, although it has been generally thought that disagreement…

  5. Differential Social Comparison Processes in Women with and without Eating Disorder Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corning, Alexandra F.; Krumm, Angela J.; Smitham, Lora A.

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of predictions from social comparison theory (L. Festinger, 1954) and informed by findings from the social comparison and eating disorder literatures, hypotheses were tested regarding the social comparison behaviors of women with eating disorder symptoms and their asymptomatic peers. Results indicated differentiating social-cognitive…

  6. Validating the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Scale with Persons Who Have Severe Mental Illnesses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hare, Thomas; Shen, Ce; Sherrer, Margaret

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Interview data collected from 275 clients with severe mental illnesses are used to test the construct and criterion validity of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptom Scale (PSS). Method: First, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses are used to test whether the scale reflects the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom…

  7. Beyond Exposure for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Symptoms: Broad-Spectrum PTSD Treatment Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardo, Thomas W.; Gray, Matt J.

    2005-01-01

    Although cases of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) with comorbid disorders are common, the first generation of PTSD treatment approaches, including exposure and cognitive-behavioral therapy, generally ignore symptoms beyond those specific to PTSD. Optimum PTSD treatment outcome requires more comprehensive strategies, and the development and…

  8. Anxiety Disorders: Recognizing the Symptoms of Six of the Most Common Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cancro, Robert

    2007-01-01

    This article describes six common types of anxiety disorders: (1) generalized anxiety disorder; (2) panic disorder; (3) obsessive-compulsive disorder; (4) post-traumatic stress disorder; (5) specific phobias; and (6) social phobia. Treatment of anxiety disorders have two components that can be offered separately or in combination. They are…

  9. What Are the Symptoms of Adrenal Gland Disorders?

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart rate Headache Sweating Episodes of high or low blood pressure Anxiety or panic attack Shaking (tremors) of the hands Pale skin Blurred vision Weight loss Constipation Abdominal pain High blood sugar Psychiatric disturbances Addison’s Disease Symptoms can vary, depending ...

  10. Sex Differences in the Pathways to Symptoms of Alcohol Use Disorder: A Study of Opposite-Sex Twin Pairs

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, Kenneth S.; Edwards, Alexis C.; Gardner, Charles O.

    2015-01-01

    Background We sought to develop an empirical, broad-based developmental model for sex differences in risk for symptoms of alcohol use disorders, here called alcohol problems (AP). Methods We assessed 18 risk factors in five developmental tiers in both members of 1,377 opposite sex dizygotic twin pairs from the Virginia population-based twin registry. Analyses were conducted by structural modeling, examining within-pair differences. Results The best-fitting model explained 73% of the variance in men and 71% in women for last year AP. 49% of paths differed significantly across sexes. Ten variables had appreciably different predictive effects on AP in males versus females. Three were stronger in females: familial risk, early onset anxiety disorders, and nicotine dependence. Seven predictors had a stronger total effect in males: novelty seeking, conduct disorder, childhood sexual abuse, parental loss, neuroticism, low self-esteem, and low marital satisfaction. Conclusions In a co-twin control design, which matches sisters and brothers on genetic and familial-environmental background, we found numerous sex differences in predictors of last year AP. Factors that were more prominent in men and in women were diverse, reflecting both internalizing and externalizing psychopathology. The model was slightly more successful at predicting AP in men than in women. PMID:25845269

  11. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Pemoline for Attention-Deficit-hyperactivity Disorder in Substance-Abusing Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riggs, Paula D.; Hall, Shannon K.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Lohman, Michelle; Kayser, Ashley

    2004-01-01

    Objective: In adolescents with substance use disorder (SUD), comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with greater severity of substance abuse, conduct problems, and worse treatment outcomes. Although many controlled trials have established the efficacy of psychostimulants, including pemoline, for ADHD in children and…

  12. Co-Occurring Severe Mental Illnesses and Substance Abuse Disorders as Predictors of State Prison Inmate Assaults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Steven R.; Buttaro, Anthony, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Using hierarchical logistic regression with a nationally representative sample of state prisoners ("n" = 12,504), we found inmates with dual severe psychiatric and substance abuse disorders to be at higher risk of being assaulted and to assault others in prison than nonmentally ill inmates. Dually disordered inmates may be "importing"…

  13. Peer deviance, social support, and symptoms of internalizing disorders among youth exposed to Hurricane Georges.

    PubMed

    Rubens, Sonia L; Vernberg, Eric M; Felix, Erika D; Canino, Glorisa

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influence of peers in meeting DSM-IV symptom criteria for an internalizing disorder in adolescents exposed to Hurricane Georges. Participants included a representative community sample of 905 youth (n = 476 boys) ages 11-17, residing in Puerto Rico. Data were gathered on hurricane exposure, symptoms of internalizing disorders, peer social support, peer violence, and peer substance use through in-person structured interviews with adolescents and caretakers from 1999 to 2000 in Puerto Rico, 12-27 months after Hurricane Georges. Hurricane exposure, peer violence, and peer substance use predicted whether adolescents met DSM-IV symptom criteria for a measured internalizing disorder. An interaction was found between hurricane exposure and peer violence, which indicated that hurricane exposure was significantly related to meeting DSM-IV symptom criteria for an internalizing disorder among adolescents who do not report associating with violent peers. However, for participants who reported high levels of peer violence, hurricane exposure did not convey additional risk for meeting DSM-IV symptom criteria for an internalizing disorder. With the increasing role peers play in adolescents' lives, understanding the influence of peers on the development of internalizing symptoms following hurricane exposure may assist in planning developmentally sensitive response plans.

  14. Anxiety disorders and depression among high school adolescents and youths in Nigeria: Understanding differential effects of physical abuse at home and school.

    PubMed

    Fakunmoju, Sunday B; Bammeke, Funmi O

    2015-07-01

    Despite the exposure of children to physical abuse in more than one setting in many regions of the world, little is known about the associations of physical abuse in different settings (e.g., at home and school) with anxiety disorders and depression among adolescents and youths. Using a convenience sample of 502 adolescents and youths ages 13-23 years from five public and three private senior secondary schools in Nigeria, the study examined associations of gender and physical abuse by parents with anxiety disorders as well as associations of physical abuse by parents and/or teachers with depression in the sample, 39.6% of whom had experienced physical abuse at home and in school. Findings suggest that physical abuse by parents was associated with anxiety disorders and depression than physical abuse by teachers. Being female was equally associated with anxiety disorders. Implications of findings for mental health, practice, research, and theory are discussed.

  15. Bifactor latent structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)/oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms and first-order latent structure of sluggish cognitive tempo symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lee, SoYean; Burns, G Leonard; Beauchaine, Theodore P; Becker, Stephen P

    2016-08-01

    The objective was to determine if the latent structure of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms is best explained by a general disruptive behavior factor along with specific inattention (IN), hyperactivity/impulsivity (HI), and ODD factors (a bifactor model) whereas the latent structure of sluggish cognitive tempo (SCT) symptoms is best explained by a first-order factor independent of the bifactor model of ADHD/ODD. Parents' (n = 703) and teachers' (n = 366) ratings of SCT, ADHD-IN, ADHD-HI, and ODD symptoms on the Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behavior Inventory (CADBI) in a community sample of children (ages 5-13; 55% girls) were used to evaluate 4 models of symptom organization. Results indicated that a bifactor model of ADHD/ODD symptoms, in conjunction with a separate first-order SCT factor, was the best model for both parent and teacher ratings. The first-order SCT factor showed discriminant validity with the general disruptive behavior and specific IN factors in the bifactor model. In addition, higher scores on the SCT factor predicted greater academic and social impairment, even after controlling for the general disruptive behavior and 3 specific factors. Consistent with predictions from the trait-impulsivity etiological model of externalizing liability, a single, general disruptive behavior factor accounted for nearly all common variance in ADHD/ODD symptoms, whereas SCT symptoms represented a factor different from the general disruptive behavior and specific IN factor. These results provide additional support for distinguishing between SCT and ADHD-IN. The study also demonstrates how etiological models can be used to predict specific latent structures of symptom organization. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Mediation of early maladaptive schemas between perceptions of parental rearing style and personality disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Thimm, Jens C

    2010-03-01

    In schema therapy (ST), early maladaptive schemas (EMS) are proposed to be the defining core of personality disorders. Adverse relational experiences in childhood are assumed to be the main cause for the development of EMS. The present study explored the links between perceived parental rearing behaviours, EMS, and personality disorder symptoms in a clinical sample (N=108). Results from mediation analyses suggest that EMS mediate the relationships between recalled parenting rearing behaviours and personality disorder symptoms. Findings give support to the theoretical model ST is based on. PMID:19896642

  17. Mediation of early maladaptive schemas between perceptions of parental rearing style and personality disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Thimm, Jens C

    2010-03-01

    In schema therapy (ST), early maladaptive schemas (EMS) are proposed to be the defining core of personality disorders. Adverse relational experiences in childhood are assumed to be the main cause for the development of EMS. The present study explored the links between perceived parental rearing behaviours, EMS, and personality disorder symptoms in a clinical sample (N=108). Results from mediation analyses suggest that EMS mediate the relationships between recalled parenting rearing behaviours and personality disorder symptoms. Findings give support to the theoretical model ST is based on.

  18. Sleep, eating disorder symptoms, and daytime functioning

    PubMed Central

    Tromp, Marilou DP; Donners, Anouk AMT; Garssen, Johan; Verster, Joris C

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between eating disorders, body mass index (BMI), sleep disorders, and daytime functioning. Design Survey. Setting The Netherlands. Participants N=574 Dutch young adults (18–35 years old). Measurements Participants completed a survey on eating and sleep habits including the Eating Disorder Screen for Primary care (ESP) and SLEEP-50 questionnaire subscales for sleep apnea, insomnia, circadian rhythm disorder (CRD), and daytime functioning. SLEEP-50 outcomes of participants who screened negative (≤2) and positive (>2) on the ESP were compared. In addition, SLEEP-50 scores of groups of participants with different ESP scores (0–4) and different BMI groups (ie, underweight, healthy weight, overweight, and obese) were compared using nonparametric statistics. Results Almost 12% (n=67) of participants screened positive for having an eating disorder. Relative to participants without eating disorders, participants who screened positive for eating disorders reported significantly higher scores on sleep apnea (3.7 versus 2.9, P=0.012), insomnia (7.7 versus 5.5, P<0.0001), CRD (2.9 versus 2.3, P=0.011), and impairment of daytime functioning (8.8 versus 5.8, P=0.0001). ESP scores were associated with insomnia (r=0.117, P=0.005), sleep apnea (r=0.118, P=0.004), sleep quality (r=−0.104, P=0.012), and daytime functioning (r=0.225, P<0.0001), but not with CRD (r=0.066, P=0.112). BMI correlated significantly with ESP scores (r=0.172, P<0.0001) and scores on sleep apnea (r=0.171, P<0.0001). When controlling for BMI, the partial correlation between ESP and sleep apnea remained significant (r=0.10, P=0.015). Conclusion Participants who score positive for eating disorders scored significantly higher on sleep disorder scales, and reported significantly more impairment of daytime functioning. PMID:26848280

  19. Conduct disorder, war zone stress, and war-related posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in American Indian Vietnam veterans.

    PubMed

    Dillard, Denise; Jacobsen, Clemma; Ramsey, Scott; Manson, Spero

    2007-02-01

    This study examined whether conduct disorder (CD) was associated with war zone stress and war-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in American Indian (AI) Vietnam veterans. Cross-sectional lay-interview data was analyzed for 591 male participants from the American Indian Vietnam Veterans Project. Logistic regression evaluated the association of CD with odds of high war zone stress and linear regression evaluated the association of CD and PTSD symptom severity. Childhood CD was not associated with increased odds of high war zone stress. Conduct disorder was associated with elevated war-related PTSD symptoms among male AI Vietnam Veterans independent of war zone stress level and other mediators. Future efforts should examine reasons for this association and if the association exists in other AI populations.

  20. [Nighttime eating disorders--clinical symptoms and treatment].

    PubMed

    Zawilska, Jolanta B; Santorek-Strumiłło, Edyta J; Kuna, Paulina

    2010-01-01

    Nighttime eating is categorized as either night eating syndrome (NES) or the sleep-related eating disorder (SRED). Both diseases are often connected with an increase of the body mass, obesity, and with psychiatric disturbances. NES is characterized by evening hyperphagia, abnormally increased food intake after the evening meal, nocturnal awakings with ingestions, morning anorexia, and insomnia. Patients suffering from NES are aware of their nocturnal ingestions. It is suggested that NES is an abnormality in the circadian rhythm of meal timing that occurs in people with normal circadian rhythm of sleep. Other factors underlying NES include genetic predispositions, hormonal and neurochemical disturbances, and mood disorders. SRED is characterized by recurrent episodes of eating or drinking after arousal from nighttime sleep, unaware in tight the most cases, with adverse consequences. The distinctive features of SRED are amnesia of night eating episodes and consumption of non-typical food or dangerous articles. SRED is frequently associated with other sleep disorders, e.g., restless leg syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, obstructive sleep apnea, and somnambulism. It can be also induced by medicines applied by a patient (e.g. zolpidem). It is hypothesized that the syndrome represents a variation of somnambulism. In the treatment of NES both non-pharmacological methods (psychotherapy, phototherapy) as well as the pharmacotherapy (aimed to increase serotoninergic neurotransmission in the brain, predominantly by sertraline, a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor) are used. SRED can be treated by controlling comorbid sleep disorders and eliminating provocative sedative hypnotics.

  1. [Nighttime eating disorders--clinical symptoms and treatment].

    PubMed

    Zawilska, Jolanta B; Santorek-Strumiłło, Edyta J; Kuna, Paulina

    2010-01-01

    Nighttime eating is categorized as either night eating syndrome (NES) or the sleep-related eating disorder (SRED). Both diseases are often connected with an increase of the body mass, obesity, and with psychiatric disturbances. NES is characterized by evening hyperphagia, abnormally increased food intake after the evening meal, nocturnal awakings with ingestions, morning anorexia, and insomnia. Patients suffering from NES are aware of their nocturnal ingestions. It is suggested that NES is an abnormality in the circadian rhythm of meal timing that occurs in people with normal circadian rhythm of sleep. Other factors underlying NES include genetic predispositions, hormonal and neurochemical disturbances, and mood disorders. SRED is characterized by recurrent episodes of eating or drinking after arousal from nighttime sleep, unaware in tight the most cases, with adverse consequences. The distinctive features of SRED are amnesia of night eating episodes and consumption of non-typical food or dangerous articles. SRED is frequently associated with other sleep disorders, e.g., restless leg syndrome, periodic limb movement disorder, obstructive sleep apnea, and somnambulism. It can be also induced by medicines applied by a patient (e.g. zolpidem). It is hypothesized that the syndrome represents a variation of somnambulism. In the treatment of NES both non-pharmacological methods (psychotherapy, phototherapy) as well as the pharmacotherapy (aimed to increase serotoninergic neurotransmission in the brain, predominantly by sertraline, a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor) are used. SRED can be treated by controlling comorbid sleep disorders and eliminating provocative sedative hypnotics. PMID:21387771

  2. Hopelessness as a Risk Factor for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms Among Interpersonal Violence Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Scher, Christine D.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    Post-traumatic stress disorder often co-occurs with depression, and they may share common risk factors. One possible common cognitive risk factor is hopelessness. Thus, we examined whether hopelessness was related to symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. Participants were 202 female survivors of interpersonal violence. Relationships between self-reported and interviewer-rated measures of hopelessness gathered at 2 weeks post-trauma and self-reported and interviewer-rated symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder gathered at 2 weeks and 3 months post-trauma were examined. Hierarchical, simultaneous regression analyses that co-varied trauma type revealed that hopelessness was related to self-reported symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder, both concurrently and prospectively. Follow-up analyses revealed that relationships between hopelessness and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder were due almost entirely to shared variance with depression. No relationships were found between hopelessness and interviewer-rated symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. PMID:15986786

  3. Measures of Symptom Exaggeration for Mental Health Disorders: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Ebrahim, Shanil; Bance, Sheena; Mulla, Sohail M; Montoya, Luis; Malachowski, Cindy; Kamal El Din, Mostafa; Busse, Jason W

    2015-01-01

    Introduction .- Measures that help detect exaggeration of symptoms can be valuable for informing more accurate diagnoses and aid in treatment and case management. We completed a systematic review to identify measures that assess symptom exaggeration in mental health disorders. Methods .- Eligible studies assessed exaggeration of symptoms with a psychometrically validated measure in patients presenting with a mental health disorder. We searched MEDLINE and PsycINFO from inception to June 2013 for relevant studies. To determine study eligibility, reviewers screened title and abstracts of identified citations, and reviewed full texts of all potentially eligible citations. Data extractors completed data abstraction of eligible studies. Results .- Of 8435 unique citations, 105 studies consisting of 112 cohorts were eligible, and we identified 36 unique, validated measures assessing exaggeration of symptoms. The most frequently used measures were symptom validity indicators embedded in the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2) (n=48, 46%), the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS) (n=12, 11%), and the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) (n=11, 10%). Most studies (n=96; 91%) failed to test reliability of their measure of symptom exaggeration. The symptom validity indicators in the MMPI/MMPI-2 and the SIRS both showed moderate to high internal consistency, range 0.47 to 0.85 and 0.48 to 0.95, respectively. Conclusions .- Multiple measures assessing symptom exaggeration have been used in patients with mental health disorders. The symptom validity indicators of the MMPI/MMPI-2 are the most widely used measures to assess symptom exaggeration. Assessment and reporting of reliability is poor across studies; we require further assessment of psychometric properties for existing measures of symptom exaggeration. PMID:27584846

  4. Mental Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Mechanic, Mindy B.; Weaver, Terri L.; Resick, Patricia A.

    2010-01-01

    Battered women are exposed to multiple forms of intimate partner abuse. This article explores the independent contributions of physical violence, sexual coercion, psychological abuse, and stalking on symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among a sample of 413 severely battered, help-seeking women. The authors test the unique effects of psychological abuse and stalking on mental health outcomes, after controlling for physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. Mean scores for the sample fall into the moderate to severe range for PTSD and within the moderate category for depression scores. Hierarchical regressions test the unique effects of stalking and psychological abuse, after controlling for physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. Psychological abuse and stalking contribute uniquely to the prediction of PTSD and depression symptoms, even after controlling for the effects of physical violence, injuries, and sexual coercion. Results highlight the importance of examining multiple dimensions of intimate partner abuse. PMID:18535306

  5. Development of schizotypal symptoms following psychiatric disorders in childhood or adolescence.

    PubMed

    Fagel, Selene S A A; Swaab, Hanna; De Sonneville, Leo M J; Van Rijn, Sophie; Pieterse, Jolijn K; Scheepers, Floor; Van Engeland, Herman

    2013-11-01

    It was examined how juvenile psychiatric disorders and adult schizotypal symptoms are associated. 731 patients of the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry of the University Medical Centre Utrecht, the Netherlands, with mean age of 12.1 years (SD = 4.0) were reassessed at the mean age of 27.9 years (SD = 5.7) for adult schizotypal symptoms using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Revised (Vollema, Schizophr Bull 26(3):565-575, 2000). Differences between 13 juvenile DSM categories and normal controls (n = 80) on adult schizotypal total and factor scores were analyzed, using (M)ANCOVA. Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorders (ADHD), deferred diagnosis, sexual and gender identity disorders and depressive disorders had higher SPQ total scores when compared to normal controls (p < 0.001). Higher levels of disorganized schizotypal symptoms were found for PDD, ADHD, and deferred diagnosis (p < 0.001). The same diagnostic groups showed higher level of negative schizotypal symptoms, which was likewise true for sexual and gender identity disorders, depressive disorders, disruptive disorders, and the category of 'Other conditions that may be a focus of clinical attention' (p < 0.001). No differences with normal controls were found for adult positive schizotypal symptoms (p < 0.110). The current findings are suggestive of the idea that psychiatric disorders in childhood or adolescence are a more general expression of a liability to schizophrenia spectrum pathology in future life. In addition, specific patterns of adult schizotypal symptomatology are associated with different types of juvenile psychiatric disorder.

  6. Citalopram controls phobic symptoms in patients with panic disorder: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed Central

    Leinonen, E; Lepola, U; Koponen, H; Turtonen, J; Wade, A; Lehto, H

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of long-term treatment with citalopram or clomipramine on subjective phobic symptoms in patients with panic disorder. DESIGN: Double-blind, parallel-group, five-arm study. PATIENTS: Patients aged 18 to 65 years with panic disorder (DMS-III-R diagnosis) and with no major depressive symptoms. INTERVENTIONS: Four hundred and seventy-five patients were randomized to 8 weeks of treatment with either citalopram (10 to 15 mg per day; 20 to 30 mg per day; or 40 to 60 mg per day), clomipramine (60 to 90 mg per day) or placebo. Two hundred and seventy-nine patients continued treatment after the 8-week acute phase. OUTCOME MEASURES: Phobic symptoms were assessed using the Phobia Scale and the Symptom Checklist's (SCL-90) phobia-related factors. RESULTS: At all dosages, citalopram was more efficacious than placebo, with 20 to 30 mg generally being the most effective dosage. Citalopram (20 to 30 mg) generally decreased phobic symptoms significantly more than placebo after Month 3. Interpersonal sensitivity decreased when measured on the respective SCL-90 sub-scale. Alleviation of phobic symptoms generally continued to increase towards the end of the treatment. The effect of clomipramine was not as consistent. CONCLUSIONS: All active treatment groups, especially the group receiving 20 to 30 mg per day of citalopram, effectively controlled phobic symptoms in patients with panic disorder. Long-term treatment with citalopram further decreased phobic symptoms. PMID:10721681

  7. Detection of simulated ADHD and reading disorder using symptom validity measures.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Thomas W; Frazier, Allison R; Busch, Robyn M; Kerwood, Melissa A; Demaree, Heath A

    2008-09-01

    Previous studies have typically focused on the ability of cognitive symptom validity tests to identify cognitive symptom exaggeration in the context of head injury or memory loss. Few published studies have examined the detection of simulated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or reading disorder (RD). The present study examined the accuracy of symptom validity measures in the detection of simulated ADHD and RD. Results indicated that several commonly used symptom validity measures show good validity for detecting simulated ADHD and RD. Total Validity Indicator Profile (VIP) scores and hard item accuracy score from the Victoria Symptom Validity Test (VSVT) were the most accurate at distinguishing simulation of ADHD and RD from adequate effort. Percentages of control participants and participants in simulation conditions scoring below a specified cut score are provided to give clinicians an estimate of the simulator (true) positive and control (false) positive rates.

  8. Differential-diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive symptoms in the borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Brunnhuber, Stefan

    2003-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive symptoms are clinically unspecific and can be found in numerous disorders. Within the framework of psychotherapeutically treatable illnesses, the classical obsessive-compulsive neurosis can be distinguished from early anancastia in the case of borderline personality disorder. The text refers to some aspects of the obsessive-compulsive disorder within these earlier disorders. At least five characteristics can be discussed: In the course of this, the varying functions of obsessive-compulsive symptoms for the inner-psychological organization become clear and specifically show that on a low structural level, symptoms do not appear to be primarily pathological but are a part of a "quasi-physiological" and ego-sustaining mechanism. What remains open to discussion in the end is, whether there may be an important substratum for the basis of a historiographical biology as called repeatedly for from psychosomatic theory repeatedly. In addition to this, the awareness of both forms is an important requirement for treatment.

  9. Structural equation modeling of risk factors for the development of eating disorder symptoms in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Williamson, D A; Netemeyer, R G; Jackman, L P; Anderson, D A; Funsch, C L; Rabalais, J Y

    1995-05-01

    Risk factors for the development of eating disorder symptoms in female college athletes were studied using structural equation modeling. Three risk factors: social influence for thinness, athletic performance anxiety, and self-appraisal of athletic achievement, were selected for study. The association of these risk factors and eating disorder symptoms was hypothesized to be mediated by overconcern with body size and shape. The study sample was 98 women recruited from eight sports teams at a major university. Structural equation modeling analysis supported the hypothesized model and cross-validation of the model showed the findings to be stable. The results of this correlational study suggested that eating disorder symptoms in college athletes are significantly influenced by the interaction of sociocultural pressure for thinness, athletic performance anxiety, and negative self-appraisal of athletic achievement. If these risk factors lead to overconcern with body size and shape, then the emergence of an eating disorder is more probable. PMID:7620479

  10. Imbalance in habitual versus goal directed neural systems during symptom provocation in obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    PubMed

    Banca, Paula; Voon, Valerie; Vestergaard, Martin D; Philipiak, Gregor; Almeida, Inês; Pocinho, Fernando; Relvas, João; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2015-03-01

    Intrusive thoughts and compulsive urges to perform stereotyped behaviours are typical symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Emerging evidence suggests a cognitive bias towards habit formation at the expense of goal-directed performance in obsessive-compulsive disorder. In this study, we test this hypothesis using a novel individualized ecologically valid symptom provocation design: a live provocation functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm with synchronous video-recording of behavioural avoidance responses. By pairing symptom provocation with online avoidance responses on a trial-by-trial basis, we sought to investigate the neural mechanisms leading to the compulsive avoidance response. In keeping with the model of habit formation in obsessive-compulsive disorder, we hypothesized that this disorder would be associated with lower activity in regions implicated in goal-directed behaviours and higher activity in regions implicated in habitual behaviours. Fifteen patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and 15 healthy control volunteers participated in this functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Online stimuli were individually tailored to achieve effective symptom provocation at neutral, intermediate and strong intensity levels. During the symptom provocation block, the participant could choose to reject or terminate the provoking stimuli resulting in cessation of the symptom provocation. We thus separately analysed the neural correlates of symptom provocation, the urge to avoid, rejection and relief. Strongly symptom-provoking conditions evoked a dichotomous pattern of deactivation/activation in patients, which was not observed either in control conditions or in healthy subjects: a deactivation of caudate-prefrontal circuits accompanied by hyperactivation of subthalamic nucleus/putaminal regions. This finding suggests a dissociation between regions engaged in goal-directed and habitual behaviours. The putaminal hyperactivity during patients

  11. Imbalance in habitual versus goal directed neural systems during symptom provocation in obsessive-compulsive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Banca, Paula; Voon, Valerie; Vestergaard, Martin D.; Philipiak, Gregor; Almeida, Inês; Pocinho, Fernando; Relvas, João

    2015-01-01

    Intrusive thoughts and compulsive urges to perform stereotyped behaviours are typical symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder. Emerging evidence suggests a cognitive bias towards habit formation at the expense of goal-directed performance in obsessive-compulsive disorder. In this study, we test this hypothesis using a novel individualized ecologically valid symptom provocation design: a live provocation functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm with synchronous video-recording of behavioural avoidance responses. By pairing symptom provocation with online avoidance responses on a trial-by-trial basis, we sought to investigate the neural mechanisms leading to the compulsive avoidance response. In keeping with the model of habit formation in obsessive-compulsive disorder, we hypothesized that this disorder would be associated with lower activity in regions implicated in goal-directed behaviours and higher activity in regions implicated in habitual behaviours. Fifteen patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and 15 healthy control volunteers participated in this functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Online stimuli were individually tailored to achieve effective symptom provocation at neutral, intermediate and strong intensity levels. During the symptom provocation block, the participant could choose to reject or terminate the provoking stimuli resulting in cessation of the symptom provocation. We thus separately analysed the neural correlates of symptom provocation, the urge to avoid, rejection and relief. Strongly symptom-provoking conditions evoked a dichotomous pattern of deactivation/activation in patients, which was not observed either in control conditions or in healthy subjects: a deactivation of caudate-prefrontal circuits accompanied by hyperactivation of subthalamic nucleus/putaminal regions. This finding suggests a dissociation between regions engaged in goal-directed and habitual behaviours. The putaminal hyperactivity during patients

  12. Alcoholism in Black Vietnam Veterans: Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Carter, James H.

    1982-01-01

    A definitive diagnosis of a posttraumatic stress disorder in black Vietnam veterans can be made when recognition is given, not only to the stressors of war but to racism. An aftermath of the war for black veterans has been an alarming increase in alcoholism, believed to be an attempt to reduce feeling of inadequacy, pessimism, and uncontrollable rage. Two cases are described that are illustrative of the posttraumatic stress disorder and alcoholism in black Vietnam veterans. A brief discussion of salient issues that are crucial to diagnosis and treatment is presented. PMID:7120496

  13. Alcoholism in black Vietnam veterans: symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Carter, J H

    1982-07-01

    A definitive diagnosis of a posttraumatic stress disorder in black Vietnam veterans can be made when recognition is given, not only to the stressors of war but to racism. An aftermath of the war for black veterans has been an alarming increase in alcoholism, believed to be an attempt to reduce feeling of inadequacy, pessimism, and uncontrollable rage.Two cases are described that are illustrative of the posttraumatic stress disorder and alcoholism in black Vietnam veterans. A brief discussion of salient issues that are crucial to diagnosis and treatment is presented.

  14. Genetic findings are challenging the symptom-based diagnostic classification system of mental disorders

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, Chen

    2016-01-01

    The present diagnostic classification of mental illnesses is primarily based on symptomatology. A recent cross-disorder genome-wide association study revealed that there were genetic similarities between multiple clinically defined diagnoses (including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and autism spectrum disorder) on regions of chromosomes 3p21 and 10q24 and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within two L-type voltage-gated calcium channel subunits of CACNA1C and CACNB2. These findings suggest that the pathogenesis of these five independent disorders are related. Such cross-disorder genetic studies challenge the current symptom-based diagnostic classification of mental disorders. Researchers need to identify creative ways to bridge the gap between these two approaches to understanding and labelling mental disorders. PMID:27688643

  15. Genetic findings are challenging the symptom-based diagnostic classification system of mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chen

    2016-02-25

    The present diagnostic classification of mental illnesses is primarily based on symptomatology. A recent cross-disorder genome-wide association study revealed that there were genetic similarities between multiple clinically defined diagnoses (including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and autism spectrum disorder) on regions of chromosomes 3p21 and 10q24 and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within two L-type voltage-gated calcium channel subunits of CACNA1C and CACNB2. These findings suggest that the pathogenesis of these five independent disorders are related. Such cross-disorder genetic studies challenge the current symptom-based diagnostic classification of mental disorders. Researchers need to identify creative ways to bridge the gap between these two approaches to understanding and labelling mental disorders. PMID:27688643

  16. Implicit out-group preference is associated with eating disorders symptoms amongst Emirati females.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Justin; Quadflieg, Susanne; O'Hara, Lily

    2016-04-01

    Studies exploring the relationship between acculturation and eating disorders symptoms have proven equivocal. Socially desirable responding associated with the use of explicit measures may account for these mixed findings. This study explores the relationship between in-group identity, acculturation and eating disorders symptoms using both implicit and explicit assessments. Emirati female college students (N=94) completed an affective priming task (APT) designed to implicitly assess Emirati in-group evaluations. Participants also completed explicit measures, including the Westernization Survey and the Multicomponent In-group Identification Scale. Eating disorders symptoms were assessed using the Eating Attitudes Test. Only implicit in-group evaluations were correlated with eating disorders symptoms. Specifically, increases in in-group preference were associated with lower levels of eating disorders symptomatology. Furthermore, participants with an actual out-group preference had significantly higher levels of eating disorders symptomatology compared with those demonstrating an in-group preference. These findings support the acculturative stress hypothesis, and suggest that the relationship between eating disorders and acculturation may be better understood with reference to implicit rather than explicit in-group evaluations. PMID:26741259

  17. Implicit out-group preference is associated with eating disorders symptoms amongst Emirati females.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Justin; Quadflieg, Susanne; O'Hara, Lily

    2016-04-01

    Studies exploring the relationship between acculturation and eating disorders symptoms have proven equivocal. Socially desirable responding associated with the use of explicit measures may account for these mixed findings. This study explores the relationship between in-group identity, acculturation and eating disorders symptoms using both implicit and explicit assessments. Emirati female college students (N=94) completed an affective priming task (APT) designed to implicitly assess Emirati in-group evaluations. Participants also completed explicit measures, including the Westernization Survey and the Multicomponent In-group Identification Scale. Eating disorders symptoms were assessed using the Eating Attitudes Test. Only implicit in-group evaluations were correlated with eating disorders symptoms. Specifically, increases in in-group preference were associated with lower levels of eating disorders symptomatology. Furthermore, participants with an actual out-group preference had significantly higher levels of eating disorders symptomatology compared with those demonstrating an in-group preference. These findings support the acculturative stress hypothesis, and suggest that the relationship between eating disorders and acculturation may be better understood with reference to implicit rather than explicit in-group evaluations.

  18. Personality disorders among alcohol-dependent patients manifesting or not manifesting cocaine abuse: a comparative pilot study.

    PubMed

    Echeburúa, Enrique; De Medina, Ricardo Bravo; Aizpiri, Javier

    2009-01-01

    This study assessed personality disorders (PDs) in 158 alcohol-dependent outpatients (62 manifesting cocaine abuse and 96 without cocaine abuse) with the International Personality Disorders Examination interview between 2003 and 2006. Thirty-nine alcohol-dependent/cocaine abusers (62.9% of this group) and 51 only alcohol-dependent patients (53.1% of this group) manifested at least one PD. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in the overall prevalence rate of PDs. The most prevalent PDs, among the alcohol-dependent/cocaine abusers, were antisocial (21%), narcissistic (14.5%), and borderline (11.3%) PDs. The most frequently diagnosed PDs among the only alcohol-dependent patients were obsessive-compulsive (20.8%), paranoid (10.4%), and dependent (9.4%) PDs. There were significant differences between the groups. The study limitations are discussed.

  19. Drug Abuse and Hepatitis C Infection as Comorbid Features of HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorder: Neurocognitive and Neuroimaging Features

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    Substance abuse and co-infection with hepatitis C (HCV) are two highly relevant determinants of neurocognitive and neuroimaging abnormalities associated with HIV. Substance abuse and HCV are common in the HIV population and there is increasing evidence that the CNS is directly compromised by these comorbid conditions via additive or synergistic processes. In this article we review the current literature regarding mechanisms of neuronal injury as well as the neuropsychological and neuroimaging signatures associated with substance abuse and HCV status among HIV patients. We discuss specific methodological challenges and threats to validity associated with studies of HIV and comorbid substance use disorders or HCV and review potential strategies for minimizing their confounding effects. Efforts to understand the interactions between HIV, substance abuse and HCV co-infection will lead to more complete models of neuropathogenesis of HIV and a greater understanding of the variability in neuropsychological expression of HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorder. PMID:19468837

  20. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms Predict Symptom Severity of Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiao, Yun; Chen, Rong; Ke, Xiaoyan; Cheng, Lu; Chu, Kangkang; Lu, Zuhong; Herskovits, Edward H.

    2012-01-01

    Autism is widely believed to be a heterogeneous disorder; diagnosis is currently based solely on clinical criteria, although genetic, as well as environmental, influences are thought to be prominent factors in the etiology of most forms of autism. Our goal is to determine whether a predictive model based on single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)…

  1. Classification of Co-Occurring Depression and Substance Abuse Symptoms Predicts Suicide Attempts in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Effinger, Jenell M.; Stewart, David G.

    2012-01-01

    Although both depression and substance use have been found to contribute to suicide attempts, the synergistic impact of these disorders has not been fully explored. Additionally, the impact of subthreshold presentations of these disorders has not been researched. We utilized the Quadrant Model of Classification (a matrix of severity of two…

  2. Is impaired response inhibition independent of symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder? Evidence from ERPs.

    PubMed

    Lei, Hui; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Fan, Jie; Dong, Jiaojiao; Zhou, Cheng; Zhang, Xiaocui; Zhong, Mingtian

    2015-01-01

    Impaired response inhibition has been consistently reported in patients diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This clinically heterogeneous disorder is characterized by several symptom dimensions that may have distinct, but partially overlapping, neural correlates. The present study examined whether alterations in response inhibition may be related to symptom severity and symptom dimensions. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in a group of 42 medication-free OCD patients as well as 42 healthy controls during a stop-signal task. Symptom dimension scores were obtained using the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale symptom checklist. OCD patients showed longer stop-signal reaction times (SSRT, p < 0.01) and larger stop-N2 amplitudes (p < 0.01) compared to healthy controls. Neither the longer SSRT nor the larger stop-N2 scores were significantly correlated with symptom severity or present or lifetime OCD symptoms in OCD patients. These results indicate that deficient response inhibition is a common occurrence in OCD patients that is independent of global symptom severity and symptom dimensions. These data support the notion that impaired response inhibition may be a general attribute of patients with OCD. PMID:25990063

  3. Is impaired response inhibition independent of symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder? Evidence from ERPs

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Hui; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Fan, Jie; Dong, Jiaojiao; Zhou, Cheng; Zhang, Xiaocui; Zhong, Mingtian

    2015-01-01

    Impaired response inhibition has been consistently reported in patients diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This clinically heterogeneous disorder is characterized by several symptom dimensions that may have distinct, but partially overlapping, neural correlates. The present study examined whether alterations in response inhibition may be related to symptom severity and symptom dimensions. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in a group of 42 medication-free OCD patients as well as 42 healthy controls during a stop-signal task. Symptom dimension scores were obtained using the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale symptom checklist. OCD patients showed longer stop-signal reaction times (SSRT, p < 0.01) and larger stop-N2 amplitudes (p < 0.01) compared to healthy controls. Neither the longer SSRT nor the larger stop-N2 scores were significantly correlated with symptom severity or present or lifetime OCD symptoms in OCD patients. These results indicate that deficient response inhibition is a common occurrence in OCD patients that is independent of global symptom severity and symptom dimensions. These data support the notion that impaired response inhibition may be a general attribute of patients with OCD. PMID:25990063

  4. Contribution of temperament to eating disorder symptoms in emerging adulthood: Additive and interactive effects.

    PubMed

    Burt, Nicole M; Boddy, Lauren E; Bridgett, David J

    2015-08-01

    Temperament characteristics, such as higher negative emotionality (NE) and lower effortful control (EC), are individual difference risk factors for developmental psychopathology. Research has also noted relations between temperament and more specific manifestations of psychopathology, such as eating disorders (EDs). Although work is emerging that indicates that NE and EC may additively contribute to risk for ED symptoms, no studies have considered the interactive effects of NE and EC in relation to ED symptoms. In the current investigation, we hypothesized that (1) low EC would be associated with increased ED symptoms, (2) high NE would be associated with increased ED symptoms, and (3) these temperament traits would interact, such that the relationship between NE and ED symptoms would be strongest in the presence of low EC. After controlling for gender and child trauma history, emerging adults' (N=160) lower EC (i.e., more difficulties with self-regulation) was associated with more ED symptoms. NE did not emerge as a direct predictor of ED symptoms. However, the anticipated interaction of these temperament characteristics on ED symptoms was found. The association between NE and ED symptoms was only significant in the context of low EC. These findings provide evidence that elevated NE may only be a risk factor for the development of eating disorders when individuals also have self-regulation difficulties. The implications of these findings for research and interventions are discussed.

  5. Is impaired response inhibition independent of symptom dimensions in obsessive-compulsive disorder? Evidence from ERPs.

    PubMed

    Lei, Hui; Zhu, Xiongzhao; Fan, Jie; Dong, Jiaojiao; Zhou, Cheng; Zhang, Xiaocui; Zhong, Mingtian

    2015-05-20

    Impaired response inhibition has been consistently reported in patients diagnosed with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This clinically heterogeneous disorder is characterized by several symptom dimensions that may have distinct, but partially overlapping, neural correlates. The present study examined whether alterations in response inhibition may be related to symptom severity and symptom dimensions. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded in a group of 42 medication-free OCD patients as well as 42 healthy controls during a stop-signal task. Symptom dimension scores were obtained using the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale symptom checklist. OCD patients showed longer stop-signal reaction times (SSRT, p < 0.01) and larger stop-N2 amplitudes (p < 0.01) compared to healthy controls. Neither the longer SSRT nor the larger stop-N2 scores were significantly correlated with symptom severity or present or lifetime OCD symptoms in OCD patients. These results indicate that deficient response inhibition is a common occurrence in OCD patients that is independent of global symptom severity and symptom dimensions. These data support the notion that impaired response inhibition may be a general attribute of patients with OCD.

  6. Increased Childhood Abuse in Patients With Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder in a Turkish Sample: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Albayrak, Yakup; Sahin, Basak

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Abuse is considered to have a place in the etiology of various psychiatric disorders. Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is one of the psychiatric disorders for which abuse could be an etiologic factor; however, few studies have investigated the relationship between abuse and PMDD. In this study, our aim was to investigate childhood abuse in patients with PMDD and compare them with healthy female subjects. Method: This cross-sectional study included 70 women with PMDD (DSM-IV-TR criteria) who were admitted to the outpatient psychiatry clinic of Ankara Yenimahalle State Hospital, Ankara, Turkey, between December 2012 and December 2013. Additionally, 78 healthy controls were included in the study. Sociodemographic, familial, and reproductive period characteristics of the women were recorded. All subjects were administered the Premenstrual Syndrome Scale (PMSS) and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Results: Among the sociodemographic characteristics, being a university graduate (76.9%) and being a public servant (70.5%) were significantly higher in the healthy control group (P = .01 and P = .01, respectively). A family history of PMDD (31.4%), a history of postpartum psychiatric disorders (11.4%), and a history of attempted suicide (7.1%) were higher in the PMDD group compared with the healthy control group (P = .001, P = .003, and P = .024, respectively). Significant differences were also found between PMDD and healthy controls in PMSS score (P ≤ .001), CTQ total scores (P = .002), and subscale scores including emotional abuse and emotional neglect (P = .004), physical abuse (P = .009), and sexual abuse (P = .012). Conclusions: To our knowledge, the present study is the first to investigate associations between PMDD and childhood abuse from Turkey. More comprehensive studies on this topic with larger sample sizes are required to enrich the literature and enable practitioners to be more effective in clinical practice. PMID:25664213

  7. Psychiatric Co-Occurring Symptoms and Disorders in Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lever, Anne G.; Geurts, Hilde M.

    2016-01-01

    Although psychiatric problems are less prevalent in old age within the general population, it is largely unknown whether this extends to individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We examined psychiatric symptoms and disorders in young, middle-aged, and older adults with and without ASD (N[subscript max] = 344, age 19-79 years, IQ > 80).…

  8. Associations of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptom Dimensions with Smoking Deprivation Effects in Adult Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Bidwell, L. Cinnamon; Ameringer, Katherine J.; Leventhal, Adam M.

    2014-01-01

    Identifying relations of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) symptom dimensions to individual facets of the tobacco withdrawal syndrome could elucidate the mechanisms linking ADHD and regular smoking. This study examined the unique relations of inattention (IN) and hyperactivity-impulsivity (HI) symptom dimensions of ADHD to a variety of tobacco withdrawal symptoms. 132 community-dwelling adult smokers recruited without regard to ADHD status completed a self-report measure of ADHD symptoms experienced over the past 6 months at a baseline visit. At two subsequent experimental sessions (one following overnight tobacco deprivation and one nondeprived; order counterbalanced), participants completed measures of tobacco withdrawal symptoms, mood, and desire to smoke. Preliminary analyses showed that higher levels of IN and HI symptoms were both associated with higher levels of negative affect and concentration difficulties during nondeprived (“baseline”) states (Ps < .01). Over and above nondeprived ratings, higher levels of HI symptoms were associated with larger deprivation-induced increases in negative affect, concentration problems, and desire to smoke, particularly for negative affect relief, during deprived states (Ps < .01). ADHD symptoms, particularly HI symptoms, are associated with more severe exacerbations in abstinence-induced withdrawal symptoms, which could be an important mechanism of ADHD-smoking comorbidity. These findings suggest the need for clinical studies examining the role of these unique and potentially more severe withdrawal profiles experienced by smokers with high-levels of ADHD symptoms in smoking reinstatement and cessation outcomes. PMID:24731115

  9. Local application of Aqua Titan improves symptoms of temporomandibular joint muscle disorder: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, K; Tsukimura, N; Ishizuka, T; Kohinata, K; Yonehara, Y; Honda, K

    2015-04-01

    Aqua Titan (AT), comprising microscopic titanium particles dispersed in water, has been reported to have beneficial effects on muscle tissue. This study investigated the effects of local application of AT on symptoms in patients with muscle disorders of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) compared to patients with joint disorders of the TMJ. Sixteen patients with unilateral masseter muscle pain during motion (muscle disorder group) and six patients with unilateral TMJ pain during motion (joint disorder group) applied an AT-permeated patch over the painful area every night for 2 weeks. Symptoms were evaluated clinically at the initial visit and 1 and 2 weeks later. Clinical symptoms in the joint disorder group showed no tendency towards improvement after 2 weeks. In contrast, mouth opening range with/without pain, visual analogue scale (VAS) scores for pain during mouth opening and eating, and activities of daily living (ADL) scores in the muscle disorder group were improved significantly after 2 weeks. Multiple comparison tests in the muscle disorder group showed significant improvements in the VAS for eating and ADL score after 1 week. These results suggest that the AT patch has a potential supplementary role in the treatment of patients with muscle disorders of the TMJ.

  10. Measurement differences from rating posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in response to differentially distressing traumatic events.

    PubMed

    Elhai, Jon D; Fine, Thomas H

    2012-09-01

    The authors explored differences in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms as a result of rating symptoms from two separate, differentially distressing traumatic events. In an initial sample of 400 nonclinical participants, the authors inquired through a web survey about previous psychological trauma, instructing participants to nominate their most distressing and second most distressing traumatic events experienced. Using the PTSD Checklist, participants rated their PTSD symptoms separately from these worst and second worst events. Using the four-factor emotional numbing PTSD model in confirmatory factor analysis, results demonstrated evidence supporting separation of PTSD symptom rating sets from two differentially distressing traumas-specifically, the worst and second worst events. Measurement invariance tests revealed that factor loadings did not vary between the worst and second worst event PTSD ratings; item thresholds (indexing symptom severity) differed. Results generally support the recommended PTSD assessment protocol instructing participants to rate PTSD symptoms from a single, worst index event.

  11. The impact of parenting on the associations between child aggression subtypes and oppositional defiant disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Pederson, Casey A; Fite, Paula J

    2014-12-01

    The current study evaluated parenting behaviors (i.e., parental monitoring, inconsistent discipline, parental involvement, positive parenting, and corporal punishment) as moderators of the link between proactive and reactive aggression and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms in a community sample of 89 children ranging from 9 to 12 years of age (M = 10.44, SD = 1.14; 56 % male). Reactive, but not proactive, aggression was uniquely positively associated with ODD symptoms. Additionally, inconsistent discipline moderated the association between proactive, but not reactive, aggression and ODD symptoms, such that proactive aggression was associated with ODD symptoms only when levels of inconsistent discipline were high. Findings appear to suggest that associations between these aggression subtypes and ODD symptoms are influenced by different factors, with inconsistent discipline indicated in the association between proactively aggressive behavior and ODD symptoms. Implications for intervention are discussed.

  12. "But it might be a heart attack": intolerance of uncertainty and panic disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Carleton, R Nicholas; Duranceau, Sophie; Freeston, Mark H; Boelen, Paul A; McCabe, Randi E; Antony, Martin M

    2014-06-01

    Panic disorder models describe interactions between feared anxiety-related physical sensations (i.e., anxiety sensitivity; AS) and catastrophic interpretations therein. Intolerance of uncertainty (IU) has been implicated as necessary for catastrophic interpretations in community samples. The current study examined relationships between IU, AS, and panic disorder symptoms in a clinical sample. Participants had a principal diagnosis of panic disorder, with or without agoraphobia (n=132; 66% women). IU was expected to account for significant variance in panic symptoms controlling for AS. AS was expected to mediate the relationship between IU and panic symptoms, whereas IU was expected to moderate the relationship between AS and panic symptoms. Hierarchical linear regressions indicated that IU accounted for significant unique variance in panic symptoms relative to AS, with comparable part correlations. Mediation and moderation models were also tested and suggested direct and indirect effects of IU on panic symptoms through AS; however, an interaction effect was not supported. The current cross-sectional evidence supports a role for IU in panic symptoms, independent of AS.

  13. Does Liposuction Improve Body Image and Symptoms of Eating Disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Salmi, Asko M.; Peltoniemi, Hilkka H.; Charpentier, Pia; Kuokkanen, Hannu O. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Unpleasant attention to unfavorable fat may have harmful psychological effects in terms of body dissatisfaction. As a consequence, this may cause abnormal eating regulation. It has been noted that women interested in liposuction self-report more eating problems. As far as we know, there are no prospective studies with standardized instruments providing sufficient data regarding the effects of aesthetic liposuction on various aspects of quality of life. Nevertheless, publications on the effects of eating habits are lacking. Methods: Sixty-one consecutive women underwent aesthetic liposuction. Three outcome measures were applied at baseline and at follow-up: the eating disorder inventory, Raitasalo's modification of the Beck depression inventory, and the 15-dimensional general quality of life questionnaire. Results: The mean age at baseline was 44 years, and the mean body mass index was 26.0. Thirty-six (59%) women completed all outcome measures with a mean follow-up time of 7 months. A significant improvement from baseline to follow-up was noted in women's body satisfaction, and their overall risk for developing an eating disorder decreased significantly. Conclusion: Aesthetic liposuction results in a significantly reduced overall risk for an eating disorder in combination with improved body satisfaction. PMID:26301150

  14. Childhood sexual abuse and posttraumatic stress disorder among pregnant and postpartum women: Review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Wosu, Adaeze C.; Gelaye, Bizu; Williams, Michelle A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this review are i) to summarize and evaluate current knowledge on the association between childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in pregnant and postpartum women, ii) to provide suggestions for future research on this topic, and iii) to highlight some clinical implications. Methods Relevant publications were identified through literature searches of four databases (PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, and PsycARTICLES) using keywords such as “child abuse,” “posttraumatic stress,” “pregnancy” and “postpartum”. Results Five studies were included in this review. Findings across all studies were consistent with higher prevalence of PTSD diagnosis or symptomatology among women with history of CSA. However, only findings from two studies were statistically significant. One study observed higher overall PTSD scores in women with CSA history compared to women with non-CSA trauma history or no trauma history during pregnancy (mean±SD 1.47 (0.51) vs. 1.33 (0.41) vs. 1.22 (0.29), p<0.001), at 2 months postpartum (mean±SD 1.43 (0.49) vs. 1.26 (0.38) vs. 1.19 (0.35), p<0.001), and at 6 months postpartum (mean±SD 1.36 (1.43) vs. 1.20 (0.33) vs. 1.14 (0.27), p<0.001). Another study observed that the prevalence of PTSD during pregnancy was 4.1 % in women with no history of physical or sexual abuse, 11.4 % in women with adult physical or sexual abuse history, 16.0 % in women with childhood physical or sexual abuse history, and 39.0 % in women exposed to both childhood and adult physical or sexual abuse (p<0.001); in a subsequent analysis, the investigators reported that pregnant women with PTSD had over 5-fold odds of having a history of childhood completed rape compared to counterparts without PTSD (OR = 5.3, 95 % CI 3.2, 8.7). Conclusions Overall, available evidence suggests positive associations of CSA with clinical PTSD or PTSD symptomatology among pregnant and postpartum women. PMID:25380784

  15. Efficacy of Atomoxetine in Children with Severe Autistic Disorders and Symptoms of ADHD: An Open-Label Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charnsil, Chawanun

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to examine the efficacy of atomoxetine in treating symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with severe autistic disorder. Method: Children with severe autistic disorder who had symptoms of ADHD were given atomoxetine for 10 weeks. The efficacy of atomoxetine was evaluated by using the…

  16. Working memory network alterations and associated symptoms in adults with ADHD and Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Ariel; Biederman, Joseph; Valera, Eve; Lomedico, Alexandra; Aleardi, Megan; Makris, Nikos; Seidman, Larry J.

    2012-01-01

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Bipolar Disorder (BPD) co-occur frequently and represent a particularly morbid clinical form of both disorders, however underlying neural circuitry contributing to the comorbidity remain understudied. Our aim was to investigate functional brain circuitry during working memory in a group of participants who meet criteria for both disorders (ADHD+BPD), and to explore the relationship of symptoms of each disorder to brain function. We used fMRI to image brain activity in 18 male adults with both ADHD and BPD, and 18 healthy control participants matched one-to-one on age, sex, and handedness, while they performed a sequential letter n-back task. We investigated differences in activation between these groups, and also correlations of brain activity during the task to symptoms of ADHD and BPD independently. We found significant hypoactivity in the subjects with ADHD+BPD vs. controls across frontal and parietal regions, and further, found that BPD and ADHD symptoms related to activity in anatomically distinct regions that were respectively characterized by activation and suppression during task. We conclude that comorbid ADHD+BPD is associated with alterations across anterior and posterior nodes of the working memory network, and symptoms of each disorder are related to anatomically and functionally distinct brain regions. PMID:22272986

  17. Autism spectrum disorder symptoms in children with ADHD: A community-based study.

    PubMed

    Green, Jessica Leigh; Rinehart, Nicole; Anderson, Vicki; Nicholson, Jan M; Jongeling, Brad; Sciberras, Emma

    2015-12-01

    This study examined the prevalence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) symptoms in a community-based sample of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and non-ADHD controls. We also examined the relationship between ASD symptoms and ADHD subtype, ADHD symptom severity and child gender. Participants were 6-10-year-old children (164 ADHD; 198 non-ADHD control) attending 43 schools in Melbourne, Australia, who were participating in the Children's Attention Project. ADHD was assessed in two stages using the parent and teacher Conners' 3 ADHD index and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children IV (DISC-IV). ASD symptoms were identified using the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ). Unadjusted and adjusted linear and logistic regression examined continuous and categorical outcomes, respectively. Children with ADHD had more ASD symptoms than non-ADHD controls (adjusted mean difference=4.0, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.8; 5.3, p<0.001, effect size=0.7). Boys with ADHD had greater ASD symptom severity than girls with ADHD (adjusted mean difference=2.9, 95% CI 0.8; 5.2, p=0.01, effect size=0.4). Greater ADHD symptom severity was associated with greater ASD symptom severity (regression co-efficient=1.6, 95% CI 1.2; 2.0, p<0.001). No differences were observed by ADHD subtype. Greater hyperactive/impulsive symptoms were associated with greater ASD symptoms (regression coefficient=1.0; 95% CI 0.0; 2.0, p=0.04) however, this finding attenuated in adjusted analyses (p=0.45). ASD symptoms are common in children with ADHD. It is important for clinicians to assess for ASD symptoms to ensure appropriate intervention. PMID:26433184

  18. Impact of Childhood Abuse History on Psychological Symptoms among Male and Female Soldiers in the U.S. Army.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Leora N.; Martin, Lee

    1996-01-01

    The psychological effects of physical-emotional abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect, and physical neglect were examined among 1,072 male and 305 female soldiers. Results found the females were three times more likely to have been sexually or both physically and sexually abused and that physical-emotional abuse contributed to most of the…

  19. The Melatonin Receptor Agonist Ramelteon Effectively Treats Insomnia and Behavioral Symptoms in Autistic Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Oka, Yasunori

    2014-01-01

    Children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD), including autistic disorder, frequently suffer from comorbid sleep problems. An altered melatonin rhythm is considered to underlie the impairment in sleep onset and maintenance in ASD. We report three cases with autistic disorder in whom nocturnal symptoms improved with ramelteon, a selective melatonin receptor agonist. Insomnia and behavior, assessed using the Clinical Global Impression-Improvement Scale, improved in two cases with 2 mg ramelteon and in the third case with 8 mg ramelteon. Our findings demonstrate that ramelteon is effective not only for insomnia, but for behavioral problems as well, in patients with autistic disorder. PMID:24955274

  20. Autism Symptoms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Familial Trait which Correlates with Conduct, Oppositional Defiant, Language and Motor Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mulligan, Aisling; Anney, Richard J. L; O'Regan, Myra; Chen, Wai; Butler, Louise; Fitzgerald, Michael; Buitelaar, Jan; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph; Rothenberger, Aribert; Minderaa, Ruud; Nijmeijer, Judith; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Oades, Robert D.; Roeyers, Herbert; Buschgens, Cathelijne; Christiansen, Hanna; Franke, Barbara; Gabriels, Isabel; Hartman, Catharina; Kuntsi, Jonna; Marco, Rafaela; Meidad, Sheera; Mueller, Ueli; Psychogiou, Lamprini; Rommelse, Nanda; Thompson, Margaret; Uebel, Henrik; Banaschewski, Tobias; Ebstein, Richard; Eisenberg, Jacques; Manor, Iris; Miranda, Ana; Mulas, Fernando; Sergeant, Joseph; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund; Asherson, Phil; Faraone, Stephen V.; Gill, Michael

    2009-01-01

    It is hypothesised that autism symptoms are present in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), are familial and index subtypes of ADHD. Autism symptoms were compared in 821 ADHD probands, 1050 siblings and 149 controls. Shared familiality of autism symptoms and ADHD was calculated using DeFries-Fulker analysis. Autism symptoms were higher…

  1. [Schizoaffective disorder: clinical symptoms and present-day approach to treatment].

    PubMed

    Danileviciūte, Vita

    2002-01-01

    During 20th century serious mental disorders were divided into two groups according symptomatology and course of disorder. Individuals with dominating disturbance of perception, thinking and cognition were basically diagnosed having schizophrenic. Individuals with mood disturbance were basically diagnosed having affective disorders. However, there were patients who did not fit neatly into either category. In 1933 Jocob Kasanin introduced the term "schizoaffective psychosis". Scientific discussions involved the possibility that schizoaffective disorder was conceptualized most accurately as following: a type of schizophrenia, a type of affective disorder, a unique disorder that was separate from both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, an arbitrary categorization of clinical symptoms that marked a continuum between schizophrenia and affective illness, a heterogeneous collection of "interforms" between schizophrenia and affective disorders. However, diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder is included both in DSM-IV-TR and ICD-10. Schizoaffective disorder is listed in the category "schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders". The differential diagnosis includes basically either schizophrenia or affective disorder. The epidemiological status of schizoaffective disorder is somewhat uncertain compared with schizophrenia because of dilemmas related to diagnosis and classification of the disorder. Treatment of schizoaffective disorder comprises psychotropic medication, supportive psychotherapy, social care, rehabilitation. The most important groups of psychotropic medications are: antipsychotics, antidepressants and mood stabilizers. Atypical antipsychotics are the first-line medication for schizoaffective disorder due to their pharmacological properties. In the case of schizoaffective disorders combination of atypical antipsychotics with antidepressants seems to be useful. Novel antidepressants have priority for the combination mentioned above. Peculiarities of mechanism of

  2. Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Symptoms in Huntington’s Disease: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Molano-Eslava, Juan Carlos; Iragorri-Cucalón, Ángela; Ucrós-Rodríguez, Gonzalo; Bonilla-Jácome, Carolina; Tovar-Perdomo, Santiago; Herin, David V.; Orozco-Cabal, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Few cases of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) symptoms preceding the clinical onset of Huntington Disease (HD) or during later stages of the disease have been reported in the literature, but the nature of this association and its neurobiological mechanisms have not been well-investigated. Objectives To review the scientific literature regarding OCD symptoms in patients with HD and describe a case study from our clinic. Methods Extensive literature searches were performed to identify reports of patients with concurrent HD and OCD symptoms. Results Recent studies and the current case report suggest that OCD symptoms may predate or coincide with motor, affective or behavioral symptoms in patients with HD. The development of OCD and HD symptoms may involve structural and functional changes affecting the orbital and medial prefrontal cortex, ventromedial caudate nucleus, and pallidal sites. Conclusions Some patients with HD develop symptoms associated with OCD. Progressive and differential neuropathological changes in the ventromedial caudate nucleus and related neural circuits may underlie this association. No specific treatment strategy has been developed to treat these patients; however some medications attenuate associated symptoms. Further testing is needed to determine the neurobiological mechanisms of these disorders. PMID:19966930

  3. Quantitative Linkage for Autism Spectrum Disorders Symptoms in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Significant Locus on Chromosome 7q11

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijmeijer, Judith S.; Arias-Vásquez, Alejandro; Rommelse, Nanda N.; Altink, Marieke E.; Buschgens, Cathelijne J.; Fliers, Ellen A.; Franke, Barbara; Minderaa, Ruud B.; Sergeant, Joseph A.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Hartman, Catharina A.

    2014-01-01

    We studied 261 ADHD probands and 354 of their siblings to assess quantitative trait loci associated with autism spectrum disorder symptoms (as measured by the Children's Social Behavior Questionnaire (CSBQ) using a genome-wide linkage approach, followed by locus-wide association analysis. A genome-wide significant locus for the CSBQ subscale…

  4. Aversion and proneness to shame in self- and informant-reported personality disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Schoenleber, Michelle; Berenbaum, Howard

    2012-07-01

    The present study examined the specificity and extent of relationships between shame and symptoms of five personality disorders (PDs), as they are apparent to both the self and others. Borderline, narcissistic, avoidant, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive PD symptoms were assessed in a sample of 367 undergraduates that evidenced a wide range of symptom levels (25.6% endorsed threshold or greater severity of symptoms on the Schedule of Nonadaptive and Adaptive Personality-2). Importantly, for both conceptual and methodological reasons, information about PD symptoms was also obtained from friends/family of 45.2% of the sample. Shame aversion (the tendency to perceive shame as a particularly painful and unwanted emotion) was assessed using the Shame-Aversive Reactions Questionnaire, and shame-proneness (the propensity to experience shame across situations) was assessed using the Test of Self-Conscious Affect-3. Shame aversion displayed the most consistent relationship with PD symptoms, being associated with self-reports of symptoms of all five PDs and informant-reports of symptoms of three PDs, over and above experiential avoidance, trait affect, and guilt. A significant Shame Aversion × Shame-Proneness interaction further revealed that shame-proneness was associated with symptoms of avoidant and dependent PDs among individuals with high but not low levels of shame aversion. Thus, these findings highlight shame aversion's specific importance in PD symptoms and suggest important future research directions.

  5. Racism: a symptom of the narcissistic personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Bell, C C

    1980-07-01

    Despite the criticism that psychoanalytic models are not applicable to social phenomena, knowledge of the dynamics of narcissistic development aids in understanding a particular kind of racist individual. Specifically, racist attitudes may be indicative of a narcissistic personality disorder or of a regression to primitive narcissistic functioning secondary to environmental forces. The differentiation between the narcissistic racist, the stress-induced racist, and the socially misinformed racist is discussed utilizing clinical paradigms discovered in psychotherapy. Life experiences and religion are discussed as possible aids in the transformation of primary narcissism into secondary narcissism.

  6. Abuse, Depressive Symptoms, Executive Functioning, and Overgeneral Memory among a Psychiatric Sample of Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valentino, Kristin; Bridgett, David J.; Hayden, Lisa C.; Nuttall, Amy K.

    2012-01-01

    Prior research has established the independent associations of depressive symptoms and childhood trauma to overgeneral memory (OGM); the present study addresses the potentially interactive effects between these two risk factors on OGM. In addition, the current study comprehensively evaluates whether executive functions (EF) mediate the relation…

  7. Parental bonding and eating disorder symptoms in adolescents: the meditating role of core beliefs.

    PubMed

    Turner, Hannah M; Rose, Kathryn S; Cooper, Myra J

    2005-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the mediating role of early maladaptive schemas in the relationship between parental bonding and eating disorder symptoms in a group of female adolescents. Three hundred and sixty-seven female adolescents completed the Parental Bonding instrument [PBI; Brit. J. Med. Psychol. 52 (1979) 1-10], the Young Schema Questionnaire short version [YSQ; Young, J. E. (1998). The Young Schema Questionnaire: Short form. Available at ], and the Eating Attitudes Test [EAT; Psychol. Med. 9 (1979) 273-279]. Two underlying schemas, defectiveness/shame and dependence/incompetence, were perfect mediators in the relationship between parental bonding and eating disorder symptoms. Schemas relating to both shame and dependency may be important in determining the effect that parental bonding has on eating disorder symptoms in a sample of female adolescent schoolgirls. PMID:15598597

  8. The specificity of social rank in eating disorder versus depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Troop, Nicholas A; Baker, Anna H

    2008-01-01

    It has been proposed that an evolutionary approach to understanding rank and social status may contribute to our understanding of eating disorder symptoms. The present study sought to explore the degree to which rank might be related to eating pathology independently of its known association with depression. A non-clinical sample of 74 women completed rank-relevant measures of social defeat, entrapment, submissive behavior and social comparison as well as measures of depressive and eating disorder symptoms. Independently of depressive symptoms, submissive behavior and an unfavorable social comparison predicted eating pathology while social defeat and internal entrapment predicted depressive symptoms. There appears to be a specific role for social rank in relation to eating pathology. However, further research is required to determine precisely what this role is and the degree to which it relates to risk or recovery. PMID:18568923

  9. Subclinical Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms: Relationships with Blood Pressure, Hostility, and Sleep.

    PubMed

    McCubbin, James A; Zinzow, Heidi M; Hibdon, Melissa A; Nathan, Aaron W; Morrison, Anastasia V; Hayden, Gregg W; Lindberg, Caitlyn; Switzer, Fred S

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among subclinical PTSD symptoms, blood pressure, and several variables linked to both frank PTSD and the basic psychobiological adaptation to stress. The authors recruited a sample of 91 healthy, young men and women between 18 and 35 years. We examined links among subclinical posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, blood pressure, sleep quality, and hostility. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms were associated with poorer sleep quality and higher hostility scores in both women and men. In men, PTSD symptoms were also associated with elevated resting diastolic blood pressure, and sex was an important moderator of that relationship. Moreover, sleep quality and hostility are substantive mediators of the relationship between diastolic blood pressure and PTSD. Behavioral interventions designed to increase sleep quality and restructure hostile attitudes could potentially serve as preventive interventions for PTSD and the underlying cardiovascular comorbidities in young adults. PMID:27403340

  10. Subclinical Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms: Relationships with Blood Pressure, Hostility, and Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Zinzow, Heidi M.; Hibdon, Melissa A.; Nathan, Aaron W.; Morrison, Anastasia V.; Hayden, Gregg W.; Lindberg, Caitlyn; Switzer, Fred S.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among subclinical PTSD symptoms, blood pressure, and several variables linked to both frank PTSD and the basic psychobiological adaptation to stress. The authors recruited a sample of 91 healthy, young men and women between 18 and 35 years. We examined links among subclinical posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, blood pressure, sleep quality, and hostility. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms were associated with poorer sleep quality and higher hostility scores in both women and men. In men, PTSD symptoms were also associated with elevated resting diastolic blood pressure, and sex was an important moderator of that relationship. Moreover, sleep quality and hostility are substantive mediators of the relationship between diastolic blood pressure and PTSD. Behavioral interventions designed to increase sleep quality and restructure hostile attitudes could potentially serve as preventive interventions for PTSD and the underlying cardiovascular comorbidities in young adults. PMID:27403340

  11. A comparison of alternate systems for diagnosing antisocial personality disorder in cocaine abusers.

    PubMed

    Carroll, K M; Ball, S A; Rounsaville, B J

    1993-07-01

    We evaluated rates, reliability, internal consistency, factor structure, and clinical and predictive validity of antisocial personality disorder (ASP) across three diagnostic systems which varied in emphasis on a) core sociopathic traits and b) independence of antisocial behaviors from substance use in 399 cocaine abusers. Rates of ASP ranged from 7% (Research Diagnostic Criteria) to 53% (DSM-III-R). The DSM-III-R diagnosis of ASP was more reliable at 1 month and 1 year than the Research Diagnostic Criteria. Items assessing core traits of sociopathy had very low reliability and were poorly correlated with other criteria. Across all systems, cocaine abusers with ASP had earlier onset of drug dependence, more psychosocial dysfunction, and higher rates of other psychiatric disorders. Finally, only the DSM-III-R diagnosis of ASP was associated with treatment retention and short-term prognosis. These findings suggest that current diagnostic systems which require core sociopathic traits and independence of criminal behaviors from substance use may be more unreliable and of weaker prognostic significance than less restrictive systems. PMID:8320546

  12. Harm Reduction as “Continuum Care” in Alcohol Abuse Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Maremmani, Icro; Cibin, Mauro; Pani, Pier Paolo; Rossi, Alessandro; Turchetti, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol abuse is one of the most important risk factors for health and is a major cause of death and morbidity. Despite this, only about one-tenth of individuals with alcohol abuse disorders receive therapeutic intervention and specific rehabilitation. Among the various dichotomies that limit an effective approach to the problem of alcohol use disorder treatment, one of the most prominent is integrated treatment versus harm reduction. For years, these two divergent strategies have been considered to be opposite poles of different philosophies of intervention. One is bound to the search for methods that aim to lead the subject to complete abstinence; the other prioritizes a progressive decline in substance use, with maximum reduction in the damage that is correlated with curtailing that use. Reduction of alcohol intake does not require any particular setting, but does require close collaboration between the general practitioner, specialized services for addiction, alcohology services and psychiatry. In patients who reach that target, significant savings in terms of health and social costs can be achieved. Harm reduction is a desirable target, even from an economic point of view. At the present state of neuroscientific knowledge, it is possible to go one step further in the logic that led to the integration of psychosocial and pharmacological approaches, by attempting to remove the shadows of social judgment that, at present, are aiming for a course of treatment that is directed towards absolute abstention. PMID:26610535

  13. Maternal Emotional Distress, Abuse Risk, and Children's Symptoms: Child Gender as a Moderator of Parent Sensitivity as a Mediator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Thomas, Rae; Hendrickson, Kym; Avdagic, Elbina; Webb, Haley; McGregor, Leanne

    2013-01-01

    Mothers' distress is a correlate of their children's elevated behaviour problems and symptoms. Parenting practices have been shown to mediate these associations, but few studies have observed parenting or focused on parents at risk of child abuse. In this study of 269 high-risk mothers and their young children (M?=?4.2?years), structural…

  14. The prevalence of symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in parents of children with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Bonatto, Samyra Jogaib; Kerner, Mariana; Merelles, Saulo; Pondé, Milena Pereira

    2016-06-30

    This study aims to estimate the prevalence of symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This is a cross-sectional study conducted with the parents of 89 children previously diagnosed with ASD. The research instrument used was the 18-item Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS). Symptoms of ADHD were present in 10.4% of the mothers of children with a diagnosis of ASD and in 11.3% of the fathers. These results suggest that the prevalence of symptoms of ADHD in the parents of children with autism is higher than that found in the general adult population. PMID:27060874

  15. Association between gastrointestinal symptoms and affectivity in patients with bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Karling, Pontus; Maripuu, Martin; Wikgren, Mikael; Adolfsson, Rolf; Norrback, Karl-Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    AIM To study if anxiety, depression and experience of stress are associated with gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms in patients with bipolar disorder. METHODS A total of 136 patients with bipolar disorder (mean age 49.9 years; 61% women) and 136 controls from the general population (mean age 51.0 years; 60% women) were included in the study. GI symptoms were assessed with The Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale-irritable bowel syndrome (GSRS-IBS), level of anxiety and depression with The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and stress-proneness with Perceived Stress Questionnaire. Over a ten year period, all visits in primary care were retrospectively recorded in order to identify functional GI disorders. RESULTS In subjects with low total HADS-score, there were no significant differences in GI-symptoms between patients and controls (GSRS-IBS 7.0 vs 6.5, P = 0.513). In the patients with bipolar disorder there were significant correlations between all GSRS and HADS subscores for all symptom clusters except for “constipation” and “reflux”. Factors associated to GI symptoms in the patient group were female sex (adjusted OR = 2.37, 95%CI: 1.07-5.24) and high HADS-Depression score (adjusted OR = 3.64, 95%CI: 1.07-12.4). These patients had also significantly more visits for IBS than patients with low HADS-Depression scores (29% vs 8%, P = 0.008). However, there was no significant differences in consulting behaviour for functional GI disorders between patients and controls (25% vs 17%, P = 0.108). CONCLUSION Female patients and patients with high HADS depression score reported significantly more GI symptoms, whereas patients with low HADS scores did not differ from control subjects. PMID:27784966

  16. Paediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Depressive Symptoms: Clinical Correlates and CBT Treatment Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Brown, H M; Lester, K J; Jassi, A; Heyman, I; Krebs, G

    2015-07-01

    Depression frequently co-occurs with paediatric obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), yet the clinical correlates and impact of depression on CBT outcomes remain unclear. The prevalence and clinical correlates of depression were examined in a paediatric specialist OCD-clinic sample (N = 295; Mean = 15 [7 - 18] years, 42 % female), using both dimensional (Beck Depression Inventory-youth; n = 261) and diagnostic (Development and Wellbeing Assessment; n = 127) measures of depression. The impact of depressive symptoms and suspected disorders on post-treatment OCD severity was examined in a sub-sample who received CBT, with or without SSRI medication (N = 100). Fifty-one per-cent of patients reported moderately or extremely elevated depressive symptoms and 26 % (95 % CI: 18 - 34) met criteria for a suspected depressive disorder. Depressive symptoms and depressive disorders were associated with worse OCD symptom severity and global functioning prior to CBT. Individuals with depression were more likely to be female, have had a psychiatric inpatient admission and less likely to be attending school (ps < 0.01). OCD and depressive symptom severity significantly decreased after CBT. Depressive symptoms and depressive disorders predicted worse post-treatment OCD severity (βs = 0.19 and 0.26, ps < 0.05) but became non-significant when controlling for pre-treatment OCD severity (βs = 0.05 and 0.13, ns). Depression is common in paediatric OCD and is associated with more severe OCD and poorer functioning. However, depression severity decreases over the course of CBT for OCD and is not independently associated with worse outcomes, supporting the recommendation for treatment as usual in the presence of depressive symptoms.

  17. Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders and Adverse Health Behaviours in Male Professional Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Aoki, Haruhito; Kerkhoffs, Gino

    2015-12-22

    To present time, scientific knowledge about symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours among professional soccer players is lacking. Consequently, the aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance) and adverse health behaviours (adverse alcohol behaviour, smoking, adverse nutrition behaviour) among professional soccer players, and to explore their associations with potential stressors (severe injury, surgery, life events and career dissatisfaction). Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study among male professional players. Using validated questionnaires to assess symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours as well as stressors, an electronic questionnaire was set up and distributed by players' unions in 11 countries from three continents. Prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours among professional soccer players ranged from 4% for smoking and 9% for adverse alcohol behaviour to 38% for anxiety/depression and 58% for adverse nutrition behaviour. Significant associations were found for a higher number of severe injuries with distress, anxiety/depression, sleeping disturbance and adverse alcohol behaviour, an increased number of life events with distress, sleeping disturbance, adverse alcohol behaviour and smoking, as well as an elevated level of career dissatisfaction with distress, anxiety/depression and adverse nutrition behaviour. Statistically significant correlations (p<0.01) were found for severe injuries and career dissatisfaction with most symptoms of common mental disorders. High prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours was found among professional players, confirming a previous pilot-study in a similar study population. PMID:26925182

  18. Symptoms of Common Mental Disorders and Adverse Health Behaviours in Male Professional Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Gouttebarge, Vincent; Aoki, Haruhito; Kerkhoffs, Gino

    2015-01-01

    To present time, scientific knowledge about symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours among professional soccer players is lacking. Consequently, the aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders (distress, anxiety/depression, sleep disturbance) and adverse health behaviours (adverse alcohol behaviour, smoking, adverse nutrition behaviour) among professional soccer players, and to explore their associations with potential stressors (severe injury, surgery, life events and career dissatisfaction). Cross-sectional analyses were conducted on baseline questionnaires from an ongoing prospective cohort study among male professional players. Using validated questionnaires to assess symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours as well as stressors, an electronic questionnaire was set up and distributed by players’ unions in 11 countries from three continents. Prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours among professional soccer players ranged from 4% for smoking and 9% for adverse alcohol behaviour to 38% for anxiety/depression and 58% for adverse nutrition behaviour. Significant associations were found for a higher number of severe injuries with distress, anxiety/depression, sleeping disturbance and adverse alcohol behaviour, an increased number of life events with distress, sleeping disturbance, adverse alcohol behaviour and smoking, as well as an elevated level of career dissatisfaction with distress, anxiety/depression and adverse nutrition behaviour. Statistically significant correlations (p<0.01) were found for severe injuries and career dissatisfaction with most symptoms of common mental disorders. High prevalence of symptoms of common mental disorders and adverse health behaviours was found among professional players, confirming a previous pilot-study in a similar study population. PMID:26925182

  19. Is increased sexual behavior a symptom of bipolar disorder in children and adolescents?

    PubMed

    Adelson, Stewart; Bell, Robinette; Graff, Adam; Goldenberg, David; Haase, Elizabeth; Downey, Jennifer I; Friedman, Richard C

    2013-01-01

    While there is consensus that bipolar disorder exists in children and adolescents, its diagnostic criteria are debated. Excessive sexual behavior has been reported in youth who may have juvenile bipolar disorder (JBD), and has been termed "hypersexuality." Although there is no universal definition of this term, this observation has led to a hypothesis that increased sexual behavior characterizes the bipolar syndrome in children and adolescents, and differentiates it from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Although this hypothesis is plausible, evidence for it is incomplete, because testing it definitively would require both establishing a standard definition of hypersexuality in children and adolescents, and also reaching consensus about the other nonsexual criteria for pediatric bipolar disorder. In addition, studies to test it would need to control factors other than JBD that are known to increase sexual behavior in children and adolescents. These include sexual abuse and related posttraumatic stress disorder, excessive exposure to sexual stimuli, psychiatric illness in general, and social variables such as family chaos and social stress. Some of these factors might increase sexual behavior in youth with bipolar disorder through psychodynamic mechanisms rather than as a result of the illness itself. Therefore, further research is needed to determine whether increased sexual behavior can serve as a diagnostically valuable criterion for bipolar disorder in children and adolescents, and whether it differentiates the disorder from other conditions known to be associated with increased sexual behavior in youth.

  20. Potential link between body dysmorphic disorder symptoms and alexithymia in an eating-disordered treatment-seeking sample.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, Andrea Siân; Sullivan, Karen Anne

    2011-09-30

    This study aimed to explore the manifestation of body dysmorphic disorder symptoms in a sample of people with eating disorders and to investigate possible associations between body dysmorphia and alexithymia. Forty patients currently seeking treatment for an eating disorder completed a battery of six measures assessing alexithymia, mood, eating behaviours, weight-related body image, body dysmorphia and non-weight related body image. Significant moderate positive correlations (Pearson's r) between selected variables were found, suggesting that participants with high levels of dysmorphic concern (imagined ugliness) have more difficulty with the affective elements of alexithymia, that is, identifying and describing feelings. When depression, eating attitudes, and weight-related body image concerns were controlled for, significant moderate positive correlations between this alexithymia factor and dysmorphic concerns remained present. An independent-samples t-test between eating-disordered participants with and without symptoms of body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) revealed significant group differences in difficulties identifying feelings. This pattern of results was replicated when the groups were identified on the basis of dysmorphic concerns, as opposed to BDD symptoms. This study highlights the associations between alexithymia and body dysmorphia that have not previously been demonstrated. PMID:21803428

  1. Psychiatric Co-occurring Symptoms and Disorders in Young, Middle-Aged, and Older Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Lever, Anne G; Geurts, Hilde M

    2016-06-01

    Although psychiatric problems are less prevalent in old age within the general population, it is largely unknown whether this extends to individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). We examined psychiatric symptoms and disorders in young, middle-aged, and older adults with and without ASD (Nmax = 344, age 19-79 years, IQ > 80). Albeit comparable to other psychiatric patients, levels of symptoms and psychological distress were high over the adult lifespan; 79 % met criteria for a psychiatric disorder at least once in their lives. Depression and anxiety were most common. However, older adults less often met criteria for any psychiatric diagnosis and, specifically, social phobia than younger adults. Hence, despite marked psychological distress, psychiatric problems are also less prevalent in older aged individuals with ASD.

  2. [Antiphospolipid syndrome related chorea gravidarum case with psychotic symptoms misdiagnosed as conversion disorder: case report].

    PubMed

    Kuz Tekşut, Tuba; Özcan, Halil; Işık, Mein; Karslı, Fatih

    2013-01-01

    Chorea gravidarum (CG) is a rare movement disorder characterized by rapid, irregular randomly distributed involuntary movements during pregnancy. Similar to Sydenham chorea, psychiatric symptoms may be observed in cases of CG. CG may be idiopathic or secondary to an underlying cause. One of the most common causes of CG is antiphospholipid syndrome. Herein we present a case of recurrent CG that was considered to be due to antiphospholipid syndrome. The patient had a history of 3 pregnancy losses and her fourth pregnancy was treated appropriately, resulting in the birth of healthy full-term baby. During the patient's first pregnancy CG was accompanied by psychotic symptoms and was misdiagnosed as conversion disorder.

  3. Rethinking a universal framework in the psychiatric symptom-disorder relationship.

    PubMed

    Alegría, Margarita; McGuire, Thomas

    2003-09-01

    Research on disparities in health and services should include a critical examination of how social, cultural, and contextual factors affect the connection between symptoms and psychiatric disorders. Systematic differences in this connection by these factors will mean that clinicians using a universalist approach to disorders may make more diagnostic errors for certain patients (e.g., ethnic minorities, the poor). Based on the literature on normative clinical decision-making, this study tests for whether the effect of specific psychiatric disorders on key symptoms is the same for certain groups of the population. The data come from the National Comorbidity Survey. Conditional probabilities of disorders and symptoms, the elements feeding into clinical decision-making, are calculated and tested for equivalence across various racial/ethnic, educational, income, and gender groups. We find some significant differences in the relation of key symptoms to disorders across groups. These findings should encourage testing relativistic frameworks in diagnostic nosology as a step to improve clinical decision-making and reduce diagnostic and treatment disparities in mental health services.

  4. Perfectionism and Personality Disorders as Predictors of Symptoms and Interpersonal Problems.

    PubMed

    Dimaggio, Giancarlo; Lysaker, Paul H; Calarco, Teresa; Pedone, Roberto; Marsigli, Nicola; Riccardi, Ilaria; Sabatelli, Beatrice; Carcione, Antonino; Paviglianiti, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Maladaptive perfectionism is a common factor in many disorders and is correlated with some personality dysfunctions. Less clear is how dimensions, such as concern over mistakes, doubts about actions, and parental criticism, are linked to overall suffering. Additionally, correlations between perfectionism and personality disorders are poorly explored in clinical samples. In this study we compared a treatment seeking individuals (n=93) and a community sample (n=100) on dimensions of maladaptive perfectionism, personality disorders, symptoms, and interpersonal problems. Results in both samples revealed maladaptive perfectionism was strongly associated with general suffering, interpersonal problems, and a broad range of personality disordered traits. Excessive concern over one's errors, and to some extent doubts about actions, predicted unique additional variance beyond the presence of personality pathology in explaining symptoms and interpersonal problems.

  5. The comorbidity of psychotic symptoms and posttraumatic stress disorder: evidence for a specifier in DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Bosson, Julia Vigna; Reuther, Erin T; Cohen, Alex S

    2011-10-01

    The comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and psychotic symptoms is higher than what might be expected based on the prevalence of either disorder alone. Furthermore, the presence of psychotic symptoms is evident in PTSD patients who do not otherwise meet criteria for a psychotic spectrum disorder. The current paper discusses three existing hypotheses regarding the relation of PTSD and psychosis and presents a series of case studies that illustrates this phenomenon across a diverse group of patients and scenarios. Clinical implications in light of these case studies are offered, including the suggestion that the next edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders includes a specifier of PTSD with psychotic features.

  6. Symptom Prevalence of ADHD in a Community Residential Substance Abuse Treatment Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAweeney, Mary; Rogers, Nikki L.; Huddleston, Carole; Moore, Dennis; Gentile, Julie P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: ADHD is a common comorbid condition with substance use disorder. This study seeks to examine the discrepancy in the prevalence rate between those previously diagnosed with ADHD and those diagnosed while in treatment. It is hypothesized that clients with ADHD would have earlier unsuccessful terminations from treatment than non-ADHD…

  7. Adolescent's perceptions of parenting behaviours and its relationship to adolescent Generalized Anxiety Disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Hale, William W; Engels, Rutger; Meeus, Wim

    2006-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between how adolescents perceived parenting behaviours and adolescent Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) symptom scores. The 1106 junior high and high school students (12-19 years old; 49.6% males and 50.4% females) completed questionnaires regarding their perception of parenting behaviours and self-rated symptoms of GAD. The findings of this study demonstrate that adolescent perceptions of parental alienation and rejection are strongly associated with adolescent GAD symptom scores. Additionally, mid-adolescence females perceive more parental alienation in relation to their GAD symptom scores than both early and mid-adolescent males. And early adolescent males perceive more parental rejection in relation to their GAD symptom scores than mid-adolescent males.

  8. Associations Between Changes in Normal Personality Traits and Borderline Personality Disorder Symptoms over 16 years

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Aidan G.C.; Hopwood, Christopher J.; Zanarini, Mary C.

    2014-01-01

    There has been significant movement toward conceptualizing borderline personality disorder (BPD) with normal personality traits. However one critical assumption underlying this transition, that longitudinal trajectories of BPD symptoms and normal traits track together, has not been tested. We evaluated the prospective longitudinal associations of changes in five-factor model traits and BPD symptoms over the course of 16 years using parallel process latent growth curve models in 362 patients with BPD (N=290) or other PDs (N=72). Moderate to strong cross-sectional and longitudinal associations were observed between BPD symptoms and Neuroticism, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. This study is the first to demonstrate a longitudinal link between changes in BPD symptoms and changes in traits over an extended interval in a clinical sample. These findings imply that changes in BPD symptoms occur in concert with changes in normal traits, and support the proposed transition to conceptualizing BPD, at least in part, with trait dimensions. PMID:25364942

  9. Borderline personality disorder symptoms and newlyweds' observed communication, partner characteristics, and longitudinal marital outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lavner, Justin A; Lamkin, Joanna; Miller, Joshua D

    2015-11-01

    Given borderline personality disorder's (BPD) relation with interpersonal dysfunction, there is substantial interest in understanding BPD's effect on marriage. The current study used data from a community sample of 172 newlywed couples to examine spouses' BPD symptoms in relation to their observed communication, partner BPD symptoms, 4-year marital quality trajectories, and 10-year divorce rates. BPD symptoms were correlated cross-sectionally with more negative skills during observational problem-solving and social support tasks, and spouses reporting more BPD symptoms were married to partners reporting more BPD symptoms. Longitudinally, hierarchical linear modeling of newlyweds' 4-year marital trajectories indicated that BPD symptoms predicted the intercept of marital quality for spouses and their partners, reflecting lower levels of marital satisfaction and higher levels of marital problems. BPD symptoms did not predict 10-year divorce rates. These findings highlight the chronic relationship impairment associated with BPD symptoms, indicate that distress begins early in marriage, and suggest that partners with higher levels of BPD symptoms remain in more troubled marriages. PMID:26348097

  10. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in youth with vs without chronic pain.

    PubMed

    Noel, Melanie; Wilson, Anna C; Holley, Amy Lewandowski; Durkin, Lindsay; Patton, Michaela; Palermo, Tonya M

    2016-10-01

    Chronic pain and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms have been found to co-occur in adults; however, research has not examined this co-occurrence in adolescence, when pediatric chronic pain often first emerges. The aims of this study were to compare the frequency and intensity of PTSD symptoms and stressful life events in cohorts of youth with (n = 95) and without (n = 100) chronic pain and their parents and to determine the association between PTSD symptoms, health-related quality of life, and pain symptoms within the chronic pain sample. All participants completed questionnaire measures through an online survey. Findings revealed that youth with chronic pain and their parents had significantly higher levels of PTSD symptoms as compared with pain-free peers. More youth with chronic pain (32%) and their parents (20%) reported clinically significant elevations in PTSD symptoms than youth without chronic pain (8%) and their parents (1%). Youth with chronic pain also reported a greater number of stressful life events than those without chronic pain, and this was associated with higher PTSD symptoms. Among the chronic pain cohort, higher levels of PTSD symptoms were predictive of worse health-related quality of life and were associated with higher pain intensity, unpleasantness, and interference. Results suggest that elevated PTSD symptoms are common and linked to reduced functioning among youth with chronic pain. Future research is needed to examine PTSD at the diagnostic level and the underlying mechanisms that may explain why this co-occurrence exists.

  11. Prodromal and autistic symptoms in schizotypal personality disorder and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome.

    PubMed

    Esterberg, Michelle L; Ousley, Opal Y; Cubells, Joseph F; Walker, Elaine F

    2013-02-01

    Despite clear diagnostic distinctions, schizophrenia and autism share symptoms on several dimensions. Recent research has suggested the two disorders overlap in etiology, particularly with respect to inherited and noninherited genetic factors. Studying the relationship between psychotic-like and autistic-like symptoms in risk groups such as 22q11 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) and schizotypal personality disorder (SPD) has the potential to shed light on such etiologic factors; thus, the current study examined prodromal symptoms and autistic features in samples of 22q11DS and SPD subjects using standardized diagnostic measures, including the Structured Interview for Prodromal Symptoms (SIPS) and the Autism Diagnostic Inventory-Revised (ADI-R). Results showed that SPD subjects manifested significantly more severe childhood and current social as well as stereotypic autistic features, as well as more severe positive prodromal symptoms. The two groups did not differ on negative, disorganized, or general prodromal symptoms, but were distinguishable based on correlations between prodromal and autistic features; the relationships between childhood autistic features and current prodromal symptoms were stronger for the SPD group. The results suggest that childhood autistic features are less continuous with subsequent prodromal signs in 22q11DS patients relative to those with SPD, and the findings highlight the importance of studying the overlap in diagnostic phenomenology in groups at risk for developing psychosis and/or autism.

  12. On the physiological symptom constellation in youth with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD).

    PubMed

    Kendall, Philip C; Pimentel, Sandra S

    2003-01-01

    To investigate the physiological symptom constellation of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)/Overanxious Disorder (OAD) in children, the present study examined parent and child reports. Children (N=47; aged 9-13) were evaluated to meet criteria for a diagnosis of GAD. Child physiological symptoms were assessed including: (a) inability to sit still/relax, (b) difficulty paying attention/concentrating, (c) irritability/getting upset easily, (d) muscle aches, and (e) sleep disturbance. Separate child and parent reports were significantly discordant for each of the GAD somatic symptoms. Parents also endorsed significantly more somatic symptoms than their GAD children. Furthermore, 9- to 11-year-olds reported fewer somatic symptoms than 11- to 13-year-olds, whereas the number of parental endorsements of child symptoms remained consistent across child ages. Results of a separate analysis of treatment sensitivity suggest that somatic symptoms were responsive to cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for anxiety. When assessing GAD in children, discrepancies between parent and child report of somatic symptomatology, as well as a child's age and developmental level, should be considered.

  13. Modafinil treatment of amphetamine abuse in adult ADHD.

    PubMed

    Mann, N; Bitsios, P

    2009-06-01

    Substance abuse is a frequent co-morbid condition of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Treatment with conventional psychostimulants in adult ADHD with co-morbid stimulant abuse may be problematic. In this study, we report the case of a patient with adult ADHD with co-morbid amphetamine abuse who was treated successfully with the non-stimulant alertness-promoting drug modafinil. The drug resolved both the inattention/hyperactivity symptoms as well as the amphetamine abuse. Modafinil may be a suitable candidate treatment for adults with ADHD and stimulant abuse.

  14. Understanding the Covariation among Childhood Externalizing Symptoms: Genetic and Environmental Influences on Conduct Disorder, Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Danielle M.; Viken, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Pulkkinen, Lea; Rose, Richard J.

    2005-01-01

    Conduct disorder (CD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) are common childhood externalizing disorders that frequently co-occur. However, the causes of their comorbidity are not well understood. To address that question, we analyzed data from >600 Finnish twin pairs, who completed standardized…

  15. Evaluating depressive symptoms in mania: a naturalistic study of patients with bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Young, Allan H; Eberhard, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate patients with bipolar I disorder (BD-I) who have mania with depressive symptoms and who meet the new “with mixed features” specifier of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fifth edition (DSM-5). Method This prospective, multinational, naturalistic study surveyed psychiatrists and their patients with BD-I from October 2013 to March 2014. Eligible patients had BD-I, had a (current) manic episode, and had experienced onset of a manic episode within the previous 3 months. Psychiatrists provided patient information on depressive symptoms (DSM-5 criteria); symptoms of anxiety, irritability, and agitation; suicide attempts; and physician satisfaction with treatment response. Data were stratified according to whether patients met the criteria for the BD-I “with mixed features” specifier of DSM-5 (≥3 depressive symptoms) or not, and characteristics were compared between the two subgroups. Patients also self-reported on depressive symptoms using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview module questionnaire. Results Overall, 34% of 1,035 patients met the criteria for BD-I “with mixed features,” exhibiting ≥3 depressive symptoms during their current manic episode. This correlated with the matched patient self-reports of depressive symptoms. During their current manic episode, BD-I patients “with mixed features” had more severe symptoms of anxiety, irritability, and agitation (average composite severity score of 4.1 vs 3.4), a higher incidence of suicide attempts (38% vs 9%), and more physician dissatisfaction with treatment response (22% vs 14%), compared to patients with 0–2 depressive symptoms (all P<0.05). Conclusion This study found that patients with BD-I “with mixed features” (ie, ≥3 depressive symptoms during a manic episode), suffered, on average, from a greater burden of disease than patients with pure mania. Improved identification of these patients may help to optimize

  16. Course of Alcohol Symptoms and Social Anxiety Disorder from Adolescence to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Black, Jessica J.; Clark, Duncan B.; Martin, Christopher S.; Kim, Kevin H.; Blaze, Thomas J.; Creswell, Kasey G.; Chung, Tammy

    2015-01-01

    Background There is limited knowledge of the course of social anxiety disorder (SAD) from adolescence into adulthood, and how SAD and alcohol use disorder (AUD) symptoms change together over time. The current study examined how persistent and adolescent-limited SAD relate to alcohol symptom trajectories across adolescence and into adulthood, as well as gender differences in the course of SAD and AUD symptoms. Methods Participants were 788 youth (ages 12 to 18 at the baseline assessment; 46.2% female; 80.5% White) recruited from the community (n = 220) and from clinical programs (n = 568). Youth completed clinical interviews on their lifetime history of AUD symptoms and SAD at baseline and were followed through age 25. Multivariate polynomial growth mixture modeling was used to estimate developmental trajectories for SAD and AUD symptoms separately, then together in a dual trajectory model. Gender differences were examined using a classify–analyze approach. Results Three SAD trajectory classes were identified: adolescent-limited (15%), persistent (6%), and no SAD (79%). For AUD symptoms, 5 trajectories were identified: severe (10%), moderate (22%), remitting (18%), young adult onset (22%), and stable low (28%). Those with a history of SAD were about twice as likely to be in the severe AUD symptom class compared to those without a history of SAD. Compared to those with persisting SAD, those in the adolescent-limited SAD class were more likely to belong to the stable low AUD trajectory. Compared to males with SAD, females with SAD were less likely to be in the moderate AUD symptom class and were more likely to be in stable low and young adult onset AUD symptom classes. Conclusions A history of SAD was associated with membership in the severe AUD trajectory group. The association of gender with SAD and AUD differed depending on developmental period. Future research should examine whether treating SAD in early adolescence may prevent subsequent AUD symptoms. PMID

  17. Relationship of serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-18 and schizophrenia-like symptoms in chronic ketamine abusers

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Ni; Luo, Yayan; Xu, Ke; Zhang, Minling; Ke, Xiaoyin; Huang, Xini; Ding, Yi; Wang, Daping; Ning, Yuping; Deng, Xuefeng; He, Hongbo

    2016-01-01

    Objective Exposing to NMDAR receptor antagonists, such as ketamine, produces schizophrenia-like symptoms in humans and deteriorates symptoms in schizophrenia patients. Meanwhile, schizophrenia is associated with alterations of cytokines in the immune system. This study aims to examine the serum TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-18 levels in chronic human ketamine users as compared to healthy subjects. The correlations between the serum cytokines levels with the demographic, ketamine use characteristics and psychiatric symptoms were also assessed. Methods 155 subjects who fulfilled the criteria of ketamine dependence and 80 healthy control subjects were recruited. Serum TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-18 levels were measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The psychiatric symptoms of the ketamine abusers were assessed using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Results Serum IL-6 and IL-18 levels were significantly higher, while serum TNF-α level was significantly lower among ketamine users than among healthy controls (p < 0.05). Serum TNF-α levels showed a significant negative association with PANSS total score (r = −0.210, p < 0.01) and negative subscore (r = −0.300, p < 0.01). No significant association was found between PANSS score and serum levels of IL-6 and IL-18. Conclusions Serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-18 were altered in chronic ketamine abusers which may play a role in schizophrenia-like symptoms in chronic ketamine abusers. PMID:26589393

  18. Childhood abuse is associated with structural impairment in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and aggressiveness in patients with borderline personality disorder.

    PubMed

    Morandotti, Niccolò; Dima, Danai; Jogia, Jigar; Frangou, Sophia; Sala, Michela; Vidovich, Giulia Zelda De; Lazzaretti, Matteo; Gambini, Francesca; Marraffini, Elisa; d'Allio, Giorgio; Barale, Francesco; Zappoli, Federico; Caverzasi, Edgardo; Brambilla, Paolo

    2013-07-30

    Volume reduction and functional impairment in areas of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) have been found in borderline personality disorder (BPD), particularly in patients with a history of childhood abuse. These abnormalities may contribute to the expression of emotion dysregulation and aggressiveness. In this study we investigated whether the volume of the PFC is reduced in BPD patients and whether a history of childhood abuse would be associated with greater PFC structural changes. Structural MRI data were obtained from 18 BPD patients and 19 healthy individuals matched for age, sex, handedness, and education and were analyzed using voxel based morphometry. The Child Abuse Scale was used to elicit a past history of abuse; aggression was evaluated using the Buss-Durkee Hostility Inventory (BDHI). The volume of the right ventrolateral PFC (VLPFC) was significantly reduced in BPD subjects with a history of childhood abuse compared to those without this risk factor. Additionally, right VLPFC gray matter volume significantly correlated with the BDHI total score and with BDHI irritability and negativism subscale scores in patients with a history of childhood abuse. Our results suggest that a history of childhood abuse may lead to increased aggression mediated by an impairment of the right VLPFC.

  19. Early Response to Psychotherapy and Long-term Change in Worry Symptoms in Older Adults with Generalized Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Andrea; Cully, Jeffrey; Rhoades, Howard; Kunik, Mark; Kraus-Schuman, Cynthia; Wilson, Nancy; Stanley, Melinda

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To determine the association of early and long-term reductions in worry symptoms after cognitive behavioral therapy for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in older adults. Design Substudy of larger randomized controlled trial Setting Family medicine clinic and large multi-specialty health organization in Houston, TX, between March 2004 and August 2006 Participants Patients (N=76) 60 years or older with a principal or coprincipal diagnosis of GAD, excluding those with significant cognitive impairment, bipolar disorder, psychosis or active substance abuse. Intervention Cognitive behavioral therapy, up to 10 sessions over 12 weeks, or enhanced usual care (regular, brief telephone calls and referrals to primary care provider as needed) Measurements Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) administered by telephone at baseline, 1 month (mid-treatment), 3 months (post-treatment), and at 3-month intervals through 15 months (1-year follow-up). We used binary logistic regression analysis to determine the association between early (1-month) response and treatment responder status (reduction of more than 8.5 points on the PSWQ) at 3 and 15 months. We also used hierarchical linear modeling to determine the relationship of early response to the trajectory of score change after post-treatment. Results Reduction in PSWQ scores after the first month predicted treatment response at post-treatment and follow-up, controlling for treatment arm and baseline PSWQ score. The magnitude of early reduction also predicted the slope of score change from post-treatment through the 15-month assessment. Conclusions Early symptom reduction is associated with long-term outcomes after psychotherapy in older adults with GAD. PMID:21427643

  20. Prevalence of a history of sexual abuse among female psychiatric patients in a state hospital system.

    PubMed

    Craine, L S; Henson, C E; Colliver, J A; MacLean, D G

    1988-03-01

    Fifty-one percent of a sample of 105 female state hospital patients were found to have been sexually abused as children or adolescents. In the majority of cases, hospital staff were unaware that the patients had histories of sexual abuse, and only 20 percent of the abused patients believed they had been adequately treated for sexual abuse. Sixty-six percent of the abused patients met the diagnostic criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder, although none had received that diagnosis. Compared with patients who had not been sexually abused, abused patients were significantly more likely to have 17 of 32 symptoms commonly linked with sexual abuse. Every patient who was positive for six symptoms--compulsive sexual behavior, chemical dependency, sadomasochistic sexual fantasy, sexual identity issues, chronic fatigue, and loss of interest in sex--had been sexually abused.