Science.gov

Sample records for abuse emergency response

  1. Emerging drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Michael E; Bryant, Sean M; Aks, Steven E

    2014-02-01

    Many new emerging drugs of abuse are marketed as legal highs despite being labeled "not for human consumption" to avoid regulation. The availability of these substances over the Internet and in "head shops" has lead to a multitude of emergency department visits with severe complications including deaths worldwide. Despite recent media attention, many of the newer drugs of abuse are still largely unknown by health care providers. Slight alterations of the basic chemical structure of substances create an entirely new drug no longer regulated by current laws and an ever-changing landscape of clinical effects. The purity of each substance with exact pharmacokinetic and toxicity profiles is largely unknown. Many of these substances can be grouped by the class of drug and includes synthetic cannabinoids, synthetic cathinones, phenethylamines, as well as piperazine derivatives. Resultant effects generally include psychoactive and sympathomimetic-like symptoms. Additionally, prescription medications, performance enhancing medications, and herbal supplements are also becoming more commonly abused. Most new drugs of abuse have no specific antidote and management largely involves symptom based goal directed supportive care with benzodiazepines as a useful adjunct. This paper will focus on the history, epidemiology, clinical effects, laboratory analysis, and management strategy for many of these emerging drugs of abuse. PMID:24275167

  2. Increased Screening for Child Physical Abuse in Emergency Departments in a Regional Trauma System: Response to a Sentinel Event.

    PubMed

    Wilkins, Ginger G; Ball, Jane; Mann, N Clay; Nadkarni, Milan; Meredith, J Wayne

    2016-01-01

    A pediatric patient was assaulted while being treated at a Level 1 pediatric trauma center, prompting a Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services site visit. The process of screening for physical abuse and protection of patients was reevaluated and revised, and a new guideline was implemented and shared with referral hospitals. During this same time period, 13 referral hospitals participated in an unrelated federally funded study determining the impact of recognition and care of injured children in states with and without a pediatric emergency care facility recognition program. A pre-post study analysis revealed that screening for abuse doubled during this time period. PMID:26953535

  3. A hypothesized model of Korean women's responses to abuse.

    PubMed

    Choi, Myunghan; Harwood, Jake

    2004-07-01

    Many abused married Korean women have a strong desire to leave their abusive husbands but remain in the abusive situations because of the strong influence of their sociocultural context. The article discusses Korean women's responses to spousal abuse in the context of patriarchal, cultural, and social exchange theory. Age, education, and income as component elements share common effects on the emergent variable, sociostructural power. Gender role attitudes, traditional family ideology, individualism/collectivism, marital satisfaction, and marital conflict predict psychological-relational power as a latent variable. Sociostructural, patriarchal, cultural, and social exchange theories are reconceptualized to generate the model of Korean women's responses to abuse. PMID:15189642

  4. Emergency departments and abuse: policy issues, practice barriers, and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Conti, C T

    1998-01-01

    The abuse of women has reached epidemic proportions. There are an estimated 12 million abused women in the United States. Reported cases of abuse, however, range from 2 to 4 million. Less than 15% of these women ever seek medical care. Of women who do seek care, an estimated 75% use the emergency department, often presenting with complaints not readily suggestive of abuse. Reports indicate, however, that emergency departments consistently identify less than 10% of all abuse cases. In 1991 and 1992, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations established standards for emergency departments to develop policies and procedures for the identification, treatment, and referral of female and elderly victims of abuse. Virtually all emergency medicine professional societies have official policies to encourage development of protocols for abuse identification and management. The American Medical Association and the Department of Health and Human Services have likewise developed guidelines to help emergency departments achieve these national health care objectives. Currently, less than 50% of all emergency departments have established algorithms to address abused women who present to the emergency department for treatment. This article reviews current health policy, examines the impediments to the detection of abuse in the emergency department, and recommends mechanisms to enhance the awareness of abuse among emergency department personnel. PMID:9648424

  5. Drug Abuse on College Campuses: Emerging Issues. Issues in Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This "Issues in Prevention" focuses on emerging issues concerning drug abuse on college campuses. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Drug Abuse Trends; (2) Q&A With Jim Lange; (3) Bath Salts; (4) Refuse to Abuse; (5) Related Federal Resource; and (6) Higher Education Center Resources.

  6. Deconstructing the architecture of alcohol abuse and dependence symptoms in a community sample of late adolescent and emerging adult women: an item response approach.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Alexis E; Agrawal, Arpana; Bucholz, Kathleen K; Sartor, Carolyn E; Madden, Pamela A F; Heath, Andrew C

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the underlying factorial architecture of lifetime DSM-IV alcohol use disorder (AUD) criteria in a population-based sample of adolescent and emerging adult female twins who had ever used alcohol (n=2832; aged 18-25 years), and to determine whether thresholds and factor loadings differed by age. Item response modeling was applied to DSM-IV AUD criteria. Compound criteria (e.g., persistent desire or unsuccessful attempts to quit or cut down) were included as separate items. Of the remaining 16 items, tolerance and use despite physical problems were the most and least commonly endorsed items, respectively. Underlying the items was a single factor representing liability to AUDs. Factor loadings ranged from 0.67 for blackouts to 0.90 for time spent using/recovering from effects. Some items assessing different DSM-IV criteria had very similar measurement characteristics, while others assessing the same criterion showed markedly different thresholds and factor loadings. Compared to that of women aged 21-25 years, the threshold for hazardous use was higher in women aged 18-20 years, but lower for used longer than intended and persistent desire to cut down. After accounting for threshold differences, no variations in discrimination across age groups were observed. In agreement with the extant literature, our findings indicate that the factorial structure of AUD is unidimensional, with no support for the abuse/dependence distinction. Individual components of compound criteria may differ in measurement properties; therefore pooling information from such divergent items will reduce information about the AUD construct. PMID:21306836

  7. Affective responsiveness, betrayal, and childhood abuse.

    PubMed

    Reichmann-Decker, Aimee; DePrince, Anne P; McIntosh, Daniel N

    2009-01-01

    Several trauma-specific and emotion theories suggest that alterations in children's typical affective responses may serve an attachment function in the context of abuse by a caregiver or close other. For example, inhibiting negative emotional responses or expressions might help the child preserve a relationship with an abusive caregiver. Past research in this area has relied on self-report methods to discover links between affective responsiveness and caregiver abuse. Extending this literature, the current study used facial electromyography to assess affective responsiveness with 2 measures: mimicry of emotional facial expressions and affective modulation of startle. We predicted that women who reported childhood abuse by close others would show alterations in affective responsiveness relative to their peers. We tested 100 undergraduate women who reported histories of (a) childhood sexual or physical abuse by someone close, such as a parent (high-betrayal); (b) childhood abuse by someone not close (low-betrayal); or (c) no abuse in childhood (no-abuse). Especially when viewing women's emotional expressions, the high-betrayal group showed more mimicry of happy and less mimicry of angry faces relative to women who reported no- or low-betrayal abuse, who showed the opposite pattern. Furthermore, women who reported high-betrayal abuse showed less affective modulation of startle during pictures depicting men threatening women than did the other two groups. Findings suggest that, as predicted by betrayal trauma theory, women who have experienced high-betrayal abuse show alterations in automatic emotional processes consistent with caregiving-maintenance goals in an abusive environment. PMID:19585337

  8. Prosecution: An Effective Response to Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harshbarger, Scott

    A district attorney of Middlesex County, Massachusetts, argues that prosecution is the most effective and appropriate response to child abuse cases. Two basic premises are advanced. First, anyone who physically abuses, sexually assaults, or rapes a child has committed a serious crime, regardless of the relationship of the victim to the offender.…

  9. USGS Emergency Response Resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bewley, Robert D.

    2011-01-01

    Every day, emergency responders are confronted with worldwide natural and manmade disasters, including earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, landslides, tsunami, volcanoes, wildfires, terrorist attacks, and accidental oil spills.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is ready to coordinate the provisioning and deployment of USGS staff, equipment, geospatial data, products, and services in support of national emergency response requirements.

  10. Emergency Response Synchronization Matrix

    1999-06-01

    An emergency response to a disaster is complex, requiring the rapid integration, coordination, and synchronization of multiple levels of governmental and non-governmental organizations from numerous jurisdictions into a unified community response. For example, a community’s response actions to a fixed site hazardous materials incident could occur in an area extending from an on-site storage location to points 25 or more miles away. Response actions are directed and controlled by local governments and agencies situated withinmore » the response area, as well as by state and federal operaticns centers quite removed from the area of impact. Time is critical and the protective action decision-making process is greatly compressed. The response community must carefully plan and coordinate response operations in order to have confidence that they will be effectively implemented when faced with the potentially catastrophic nature of such releases. A graphical depiction of the entire response process via an emergency response synchronization matrix is an effective tool in optimizing the planning, exercising, and implementation of emergency plans. This system—based approach to emergency planning depicts how a community organizes its response tasks across space and time in relation to hazard actions. It provides the opportunity to make real—time adjustments as necessary for maximizing the often limited resources in protecting area residents. A response must involve the entire community and must not be limited by individual jurisdictions and organizations acting on their own without coordination, integration, and synchronization.« less

  11. Against the Odds: The Impact of Woman Abuse on Maternal Response to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaggia, Ramona; Turton, Jennifer V.

    2005-01-01

    Although the co-occurrence of woman abuse and child sexual abuse is high little research exists exploring the impact of woman abuse on maternal response to child sexual abuse (CSA). Findings from two qualitative studies indicate the form of woman abuse to have differential impact on maternal response. Mothers who were abused in non-physical ways,…

  12. EMERGENCY RESPONSE SUPPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emergency response program provides trained personnel and mobile and fixed laboratory resources to address radiological incidents or events that result in potential or actual radiation exposure of the public or environment. The primary product of the program is high quality,...

  13. Hanford Emergency Response Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Wagoner, J.D.

    1994-04-01

    The Hanford Emergency Response Plan for the US Department of Energy (DOE), Richland Operations Office (RL), incorporates into one document an overview of the emergency management program for the Hanford Site. The program has been developed in accordance with DOE orders, and state and federal regulations to protect worker and public health and safety and the environment in the event of an emergency at or affecting the Hanford Site. This plan provides a description of how the Hanford Site will implement the provisions of DOE 5500 series and other applicable Orders in terms of overall policies and concept of operations. It should be used as the basis, along with DOE Orders, for the development of specific contractor and RL implementing procedures.

  14. Nephrotoxic effects of common and emerging drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Pendergraft, William F; Herlitz, Leal C; Thornley-Brown, Denyse; Rosner, Mitchell; Niles, John L

    2014-11-01

    The kidneys can be injured in diverse ways by many drugs, both legal and illegal. Novel associations and descriptions of nephrotoxic effects of common and emerging drugs of abuse have appeared over the past several years. Anabolic androgenic steroids, illicitly used by athletes and others for decades to increase muscle mass and decrease body fat, are emerging as podocyte toxins given recent descriptions of severe forms of FSGS in long-term abusers. Synthetic cannabinoids, a new group of compounds with marijuana-like effects, recently became popular as recreational drugs and have been associated with an atypical form of AKI. 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine, commonly known as ecstasy, is a widely used synthetic recreational drug with mood-enhancing properties and a constellation of toxicities that can result in death. These toxic effects include hyperthermia, hypotonic hyponatremia due to its arginine vasopressin secretagogue-like effects, rhabdomyolysis, and cardiovascular collapse. Cocaine, a serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitor that serves as an illegal stimulant, appetite suppressant, and anesthetic, also causes vasoconstriction and rhabdomyolysis. Recent adulteration of much of the world's supply of cocaine with levamisole, an antihelminthic agent with attributes similar to but distinct from those of cocaine, appears to have spawned a new type of ANCA-associated systemic vasculitis. This review discusses the nephrotoxic effects of these common and emerging drugs of abuse, of which both community and health care providers should become aware given their widespread abuse. Future investigation into pathogenetic mechanisms associated with these drugs is critical and may provide a window into ways to lessen and even prevent the nephrotoxic effects of these drugs of abuse and perhaps allow a deeper understanding of the nephrotoxicities themselves. PMID:25035273

  15. Emergency Response Guideline Development

    SciTech Connect

    Gary D. Storrick

    2007-09-30

    Task 5 of the collaborative effort between ORNL, Brazil, and Westinghouse for the International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative entitled “Development of Advanced Instrumentation and Control for an Integrated Primary System Reactor” focuses on operator control and protection system interaction, with particular emphasis on developing emergency response guidelines (ERGs). As in the earlier tasks, we will use the IRIS plant as a specific example of an integrated primary system reactor (IPSR) design. The present state of the IRIS plant design – specifically, the lack of a detailed secondary system design – precludes establishing detailed emergency procedures at this time. However, we can create a structure for their eventual development. This report summarizes our progress to date. Section 1.2 describes the scope of this effort. Section 2 compares IPSR ERG development to the recent AP1000 effort, and identifies three key plant differences that affect the ERGs and control room designs. The next three sections investigate these differences in more detail. Section 3 reviews the IRIS Safety-by-Design™ philosophy and its impact on the ERGs. Section 4 looks at differences between the IRIS and traditional loop PWR I&C Systems, and considers their implications for both control room design and ERG development. Section 5 examines the implications of having one operating staff control multiple reactor units. Section 6 provides sample IRIS emergency operating procedures (EOPs). Section 7 summarizes our conclusions.

  16. Emergency Response Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Traci M.

    2004-01-01

    Safety and security is very important at NASA. The Security Management and Safeguards Office goal is ensure safety and security for all NASA Lewis and Plum Brook Station visitors and workers. The office protects against theft, sabotage, malicious damage, espionage, and other threats or acts of violence. There are three types of security at NASA: physical, IT, and personnel. IT is concerned with sensitive and classified information and computers. Physical security includes the officers who check visitors and workers in and patrol the facility. Personnel security is concerned with background checks during hiring. During my internship, I met people from and gained knowledge about all three types of security. I primarily worked with Dr. Richard Soppet in physical security. During my experience with physical security, I observed and worked with many aspects of it. I attended various security meetings at both NASA Lewis and Plum Brook. The meetings were about homeland security and other improvements that will be made to both facilities. I also spent time with a locksmith. The locksmith makes copies of keys and unlocks doors for people who need them. I rode around in a security vehicle with an officer as he patrolled. I also observed the officer make a search of a visitor s vehicle. All visitors vehicles are searched upon entering NASA. I spent time and observed in the dispatch office. The officer answers calls and sends out officers when needed. The officer also monitors the security cameras. My primary task was completing an emergency response manual. This manual would assist local law enforcement and fire agencies in case of an emergency. The manual has pictures and descriptions of the buildings. It also contains the information about hazards inside of the buildings. This information will be very helpul to law enforcement so that when called upon during an emergency, they will not create an even bigger problem with collateral damage.

  17. Emergency Response Health Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Mena, RaJah; Pemberton, Wendy; Beal, William

    2012-05-01

    Health physics is an important discipline with regard to understanding the effects of radiation on human health; however, there are major differences between health physics for research or occupational safety and health physics during a large-scale radiological emergency. The deployment of a U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) monitoring and assessment team to Japan in the wake of the March 2011 accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant yielded a wealth of lessons on these difference. Critical teams (CMOC (Consequence Management Outside the Continental U.S.) and CMHT (Consequence Management Home Team) ) worked together to collect, compile, review, and analyze radiological data from Japan to support the response needs of and answer questions from the Government of Japan, the U.S. military in Japan, the U.S. Embassy and U.S. citizens in Japan, and U.S. citizens in America. This paper addresses the unique challenges presented to the health physicist or analyst of radiological data in a large-scale emergency. A key lesson learned was that public perception and the availability of technology with social media requires a diligent effort to keep the public informed of the science behind the decisions in a manner that is meaningful to them.

  18. Grassroots responsiveness to human rights abuse: history of the Washtenaw Interfaith Coalition for Immigrant Rights.

    PubMed

    Sanders, Laura; Martinez, Ramiro; Harner, Margaret; Harner, Melanie; Horner, Pilar; Delva, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss how a community agency based in Washtenaw County, the Washtenaw Interfaith Coalition for Immigration Rights (WICIR), emerged in response to increasing punitive immigration practices and human rights abuses toward the Latino community. The article discusses how WICIR is engaged in advocacy, community education on immigration issues, and political action toward a more humane immigration reform. Detailed examples of human rights abuses and the WICIR activities described in response to the abuses serve as illustrations of social work advocacy, education, and policy formulation that affect the general public, policymakers, and law enforcement officials. PMID:23724575

  19. Diagnostic Coding of Abuse Related Fractures at Two Children's Emergency Departments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somji, Zeeshanefatema; Plint, Amy; McGahern, Candice; Al-Saleh, Ahmed; Boutis, Kathy

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Pediatric fractures suspicious for abuse are often evaluated in emergency departments (ED), although corresponding diagnostic coding for possible abuse may be lacking. Thus, the primary objective of this study was to determine the proportion of fracture cases investigated in the ED for abuse that had corresponding International…

  20. Responses of International Migrant Women to Abuse Associated With Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Praem; Gagnon, Anita J

    2016-03-01

    The current study aims to identify what newly arrived migrant women do, in the early months post-birth, to respond to abuse associated with pregnancy. Textual data from 59 migrant women were analyzed thematically to identify common responses to abuses. The most common response was to physically leave their countries of origin and move to Canada, or to move out of the shared dwelling. Other responses included taking legal action, remaining silent, reporting the abuse, seeking counseling, isolating themselves, and supporting anger management for the abuser. These results enhance our understanding of the decisions, including inaction, made by migrant women. PMID:25922475

  1. Interprofessional program to provide emergency sheltering to abused elders.

    PubMed

    Heck, Lauri; Gillespie, Gordon L

    2013-01-01

    Abuse of senior citizens should be paradoxical in a civilized society; however, the U.S. Government Accountability Office reports that 14.1% of noninstitutionalized older adults experienced some type of abuse within the previous year. This is suspected to be an underestimation of the number of abuses reported. In a society where the older population is predicted to increase significantly, it is likely that the number of cases for abused elders will increase proportionately. Through the success of advocacy groups to raise awareness of child and domestic partner abuse, funding has been channeled to shelter these abuse victims. The same cannot be said for elders who are abused. Providing shelter in a safe, secure, medically appropriate environment, free from violence, for an older adult is essential. This article describes a community's collaborative health planning process to respond to elder abuse and develop a program to shelter elders experiencing abuse or suspected abuse. PMID:23636048

  2. Emerging drugs of abuse: clinical and legal considerations.

    PubMed

    Aoun, Elie G; Christopher, Paul P; Ingraham, James W

    2014-06-01

    Over the past several decades, nontraditional drugs of abuse, including bath salts, synthetic cannabinoids, and salvia, have increased in popularity and use. Despite this fact, they remain unfamiliar to many healthcare providers. Commonly marketed as "legal highs," these substances are being used for their desired neuropsychiatric effects, taking advantage of their accessibility, low cost, variable legality, and limited detection on traditional urine drug screens. Similar to traditional drugs of abuse, these substances have varying degrees of toxicity and may lead to potentially adverse effects, ranging from benign to life threatening. This paper offers a review of three of the more widely-used emerging drugs (or classes of drugs): bath salts, synthetic cannabinoids, and salvia. For each we review its history and development, the neurochemical basis for its clinical effects, the nature and route of ingestion, the range of desired effects, potential toxicities, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, as well as social and legal considerations. [Full text available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2014-06.asp, free with no login]. PMID:24905374

  3. Health Professionals' Responses to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse History: Female Child Sexual Abuse Survivors' Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Kim; Julich, Shirley; Glover, Marewa; Gautam, Jeny

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on a postal questionnaire, conducted in 2004, with female survivors of historic child sexual abuse. The questionnaire explored their experiences of health professionals' responsiveness to disclosure of child sexual abuse history. Of 61 participants, aged between 22 and 65, 69% had disclosed to health professionals. Those who had…

  4. Fire Department Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, A.; Bell, K.; Kelly, J.; Hudson, J.

    1997-09-01

    In 1995 the SRS Fire Department published the initial Operations Basis Document (OBD). This document was one of the first of its kind in the DOE complex and was widely distributed and reviewed. This plan described a multi-mission Fire Department which provided fire, emergency medical, hazardous material spill, and technical rescue services.

  5. Emergency response health physics.

    PubMed

    Mena, Rajah; Pemberton, Wendy; Beal, William

    2012-05-01

    Health physics is an important discipline with regard to understanding the effects of radiation on human health. This paper aims to illustrate the unique challenges presented to the health physicist or analyst of radiological data in a large-scale emergency. PMID:22469932

  6. Preventing Growth Hormone Abuse: An Emerging Health Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, George L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Facts about growth hormone abuse should be incorporated into substance abuse components of health education curriculums. Sources, uses, and dangers associated with human growth hormones are discussed. A sample lesson plan is included. (IAH)

  7. Facilitators and barriers to screening for child abuse in the emergency department

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To identify facilitators of, and barriers to, screening for child abuse in emergency departments (ED) through interviews with ED staff, members of the hospital Board, and related experts. Methods This qualitative study is based on semi-structured interviews with 27 professionals from seven Dutch hospitals (i.e. seven pediatricians, two surgeons, six ED nurses, six ED managers and six hospital Board members). The resulting list of facilitators/barriers was subsequently discussed with five experts in child abuse and one implementation expert. The results are ordered using the Child Abuse Framework of the Dutch Health Care Inspectorate that legally requires screening for child abuse. Results Lack of knowledge of child abuse, communication with parents in the case of suspected abuse, and lack of time for development of policy and cases are barriers for ED staff to screen for child abuse. For Board members, lack of means and time, and a high turnover of ED staff are impediments to improving their child abuse policy. Screening can be promoted by training ED staff to better recognize child abuse, improving communication skills, appointing an attendant specifically for child abuse, explicit support of the screening policy by management, and by national implementation of an approved protocol and validated screening instrument. Conclusions ED staff are motivated to work according to the Dutch Health Care Inspectorate requirements but experiences many barriers, particularly communication with parents of children suspected of being abused. Introduction of a national child abuse protocol can improve screening on child abuse at EDs. PMID:23092228

  8. EMERGENCY RESPONSE HEALTH PHYSICS

    SciTech Connect

    Mena, RaJah; Pemberton, Wendy; Beal, William

    2012-01-01

    Health physics is an important discipline with regard to understanding the effects of radiation on human health. Topics of discussion included in this manuscript are related to responding to a radiation emergency, and the necessary balance between desired high accuracy laboratory results and rapid turnaround requirements. Considerations are addressed for methodology with which to provide the most competent solutions despite challenges presented from incomplete datasets and, at times, limited methodology. An emphasis is placed on error and uncertainty of sample analysis results, how error affects products, and what is communicated in the final product.

  9. Prescription drug abuse. Patient, physician, and cultural responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Wesson, D R; Smith, D E

    1990-05-01

    The abuse of prescription drugs is one facet of America's drug problem that is particularly complex because access to prescription drugs must be maintained for some purposes and contained for others. The American Medical Association has sponsored two national conferences to grapple with the confluence of the medical access to prescription drugs and a national drug abuse control policy. One result has been a classification of misprescribing physicians that blames physicians for prescription drug abuse. The conceptualization and public policy response to prescription drug abuse have been largely shaped by the emotional response to the epidemic of crack cocaine and other nonprescription drug abuse. A new perspective is needed--one that accommodates the evolving role of physicians in society, the life-style choices that physicians enable in their patients, and the respective responsibilities of both physicians and patients in physician-patient transactions. PMID:2349802

  10. Drug Abuse: A Community College Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellander, Gustavo A.; Hubbard, Gary

    In 1985, the Chancellor of West Valley College met with California Attorney General John Van De Kamp to explore methods by which the community college district could respond to the growing problem of drug abuse. The first step was the establishment of a 15-hour, fee-supported class on drug and alcohol abuse education for adult offenders at the…

  11. Reporting Child Abuse: Rights and Responsibilities for Child Care Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Law Center, San Francisco, CA.

    This booklet provides answers to 12 questions about the rights and responsibilities of child care providers in California concerning the issue of child abuse. The questions are (1) Who is a "Child Care Custodian?" (2) How do I decide whether or not to report? (3) How do I recognize 'abuse' and 'neglect'? (4) How and when should I tell the parent…

  12. EMERGENCY RESPONSE NOTIFICATION SYSTEM (ERNS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Emergency Response Notification System (ERNS) is a database used to store information on notifications of oil discharges and hazardous substances releases. The ERNS program is a cooperative data sharing effort among the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Headquarters, the ...

  13. Emergency Response Breathing Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Aerospace Design & Development, Inc.'s (ADD's) SCAMP was developed under an SBIR contract through Kennedy Space Center. SCAMP stands for Supercritical Air Mobility Pack. The technology came from the life support fuel cell support systems used for the Apollo and Space Shuttle programs. It uses supercritical cryogenic air and is able to function in microgravity environments. SCAMP's self-contained breathing apparatus(SCBA) systems are also ground-based and can provide twice as much air than traditional SCBA's due to its high-density capacity. The SCAMP system was designed for use in launch pad emergency rescues. ADD also developed a protective suit for use with SCAMP that is smaller and lighter system than the old ones. ADD's SCAMP allows for body cooling and breathing from the supercritical cryogenic air, requiring no extra systems. The improvement over the traditional SCBA allows for a reduction of injuries, such as heat stress, and makes it easier for rescuers to save lives.

  14. Grassroots Responsiveness to Human Rights Abuse: History of the Washtenaw Interfaith Coalition for Immigrant Rights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Laura; Martinez, Ramiro; Harner, Margaret; Harner, Melanie; Horner, Pilar; Delva, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss how a community agency based in Washtenaw County, the Washtenaw Interfaith Coalition for Immigration Rights (WICIR), emerged in response to increasing punitive immigration practices and human rights abuses toward the Latino community. The article discusses how WICIR is engaged in advocacy, community…

  15. Emerging drugs of abuse: current perspectives on synthetic cannabinoids

    PubMed Central

    Debruyne, Danièle; Le Boisselier, Reynald

    2015-01-01

    New psychoactive drugs that have appeared over the last decade are typically dominated by cathinones and synthetic cannabinoids (SCs). SCs have been emerging as recreational drugs because they mimic the euphoria effect of cannabis while still being legal. Sprayed on natural herb mixtures, SCs have been primarily sold as “herbal smoking blends” or “herbal incense” under brand names like “Spice” or “K2”. Currently, SCs pure compounds are available from websites for the combination with herbal materials or for the use in e-cigarettes. For the past 5 years, an ever increasing number of compounds, representative of different chemical classes, have been promoted and now represent a large assortment of new popular drugs of abuse, which are difficult to properly identify. Their legal status varies by country with many government institutions currently pushing for their control. The in vitro binding to CB1/CB2 receptors is usually well-known and considerable differences have been found in the CB1 versus CB2 selectivity and potency within the different SCs, with several structure-activity relations being evident. Desired effects by CB1 agonist users are relaxation/recreative, however, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, or psychiatric/neurological side effects are commonly reported. At present there is no specific antidote existing if an overdose of designer drugs was to occur, and no curative treatment has been approved by health authorities. Management of acute toxic effects is mainly symptomatic and extrapolated from experience with cannabis. PMID:26543389

  16. Emerging drugs of abuse: current perspectives on synthetic cannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Debruyne, Danièle; Le Boisselier, Reynald

    2015-01-01

    New psychoactive drugs that have appeared over the last decade are typically dominated by cathinones and synthetic cannabinoids (SCs). SCs have been emerging as recreational drugs because they mimic the euphoria effect of cannabis while still being legal. Sprayed on natural herb mixtures, SCs have been primarily sold as "herbal smoking blends" or "herbal incense" under brand names like "Spice" or "K2". Currently, SCs pure compounds are available from websites for the combination with herbal materials or for the use in e-cigarettes. For the past 5 years, an ever increasing number of compounds, representative of different chemical classes, have been promoted and now represent a large assortment of new popular drugs of abuse, which are difficult to properly identify. Their legal status varies by country with many government institutions currently pushing for their control. The in vitro binding to CB1/CB2 receptors is usually well-known and considerable differences have been found in the CB1 versus CB2 selectivity and potency within the different SCs, with several structure-activity relations being evident. Desired effects by CB1 agonist users are relaxation/recreative, however, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, or psychiatric/neurological side effects are commonly reported. At present there is no specific antidote existing if an overdose of designer drugs was to occur, and no curative treatment has been approved by health authorities. Management of acute toxic effects is mainly symptomatic and extrapolated from experience with cannabis. PMID:26543389

  17. Rural-Urban Disparities in Child Abuse Management Resources in the Emergency Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choo, Esther K.; Spiro, David M.; Lowe, Robert A.; Newgard, Craig D.; Hall, Michael Kennedy; McConnell, Kenneth John

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To characterize differences in child abuse management resources between urban and rural emergency departments (EDs). Methods: We surveyed ED directors and nurse managers at hospitals in Oregon to gain information about available abuse-related resources. Chi-square analysis was used to test differences between urban and rural EDs.…

  18. Emergency Department Trends from the Drug Abuse Warning Network, Preliminary Estimates January-June 2002. Drug Abuse Warning Network Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Office of Applied Studies.

    This publication presents estimates of drug-related emergency department (ED) episodes from the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) from 1994 through the first half of 2001. DAWN is an ongoing, national data system that collects information on drug-related visits to EDs from a national probability sample of hospitals. This publication marks a major…

  19. Emerging Issues in the Research on Child Sexual Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Roberts, Jennifer A.

    1999-01-01

    Identifies major issues in current research on child sexual-abuse prevention including the effectiveness of assessment methods, potential side-effects of prevention programs, the developmental appropriateness of programs, the differential effectiveness of presenters of prevention materials, parental involvement in sexual-abuse prevention efforts,…

  20. Developing and implementing an intervention. Evaluation of an emergency department pilot on partner abuse.

    PubMed

    Spinola, C; Stewart, L; Fanslow, J; Norton, R

    1998-03-01

    This article discusses the role of formative and process evaluation in the development and implementation of a pilot intervention to improve the identification, treatment, and referral of women abused by their partners who present to an emergency department (ED). These evaluations were undertaken in conjunction with an outcome evaluation of training in and use of a five-step protocol of care piloted in a New Zealand public hospital. The outcome evaluation showed there was an improvement in identification and acute care of abused women following the intervention. The article highlights key factors that were relevant to the intervention's development and implementation, including social context, development processes, appropriateness for the setting, and level of support from key stakeholders. Factors identified as key to intervention effectiveness included its appropriateness for abused women and responsiveness to specific hospital, department, and staff needs. The key role of formative and process evaluation in the development and implementation of pilot interventions is highlighted, and the particular lessons gained from this study have relevance and application to other interventions. PMID:10183341

  1. Emergency Department Visits Involving Misuse and Abuse of the Antipsychotic Quetiapine: Results from the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN)

    PubMed Central

    Mattson, Margaret E; Albright, Victoria A; Yoon, Joanna; Council, Carol L

    2015-01-01

    Case reports in medical literature suggest that the atypical antipsychotic quetiapine, a medication not previously considered to have abuse potential, is now being subject to misuse and abuse (MUA; ie, taken when not prescribed for them or used in a way other than instructed by their health professional). Here we present systematic, nationally representative data from the 2005 to 2011 Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) for prevalence of emergency department (ED) visits among the U.S. general population involving quetiapine and related to MUA, suicide attempts, and adverse reactions. Nationally, quetiapine-related ED visits increased 90% between 2005 and 2011, from 35,581 ED visits to 67,497. DAWN data indicate that when used without medical supervision for recreational/self-medication purposes, quetiapine poses health risks for its users, especially among polydrug users and women. These findings suggest that the medical and public health communities should increase vigilance concerning this drug and its potential for MUA. PMID:26056465

  2. Emergency Department Visits Involving Misuse and Abuse of the Antipsychotic Quetiapine: Results from the Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN).

    PubMed

    Mattson, Margaret E; Albright, Victoria A; Yoon, Joanna; Council, Carol L

    2015-01-01

    Case reports in medical literature suggest that the atypical antipsychotic quetiapine, a medication not previously considered to have abuse potential, is now being subject to misuse and abuse (MUA; ie, taken when not prescribed for them or used in a way other than instructed by their health professional). Here we present systematic, nationally representative data from the 2005 to 2011 Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) for prevalence of emergency department (ED) visits among the U.S. general population involving quetiapine and related to MUA, suicide attempts, and adverse reactions. Nationally, quetiapine-related ED visits increased 90% between 2005 and 2011, from 35,581 ED visits to 67,497. DAWN data indicate that when used without medical supervision for recreational/self-medication purposes, quetiapine poses health risks for its users, especially among polydrug users and women. These findings suggest that the medical and public health communities should increase vigilance concerning this drug and its potential for MUA. PMID:26056465

  3. Abusive supervision and subordinate performance: Instrumentality considerations in the emergence and consequences of abusive supervision.

    PubMed

    Walter, Frank; Lam, Catherine K; van der Vegt, Gerben S; Huang, Xu; Miao, Qing

    2015-07-01

    Drawing from moral exclusion theory, this article examines outcome dependence and interpersonal liking as key boundary conditions for the linkage between perceived subordinate performance and abusive supervision. Moreover, it investigates the role of abusive supervision for subordinates' subsequent, objective work performance. Across 2 independent studies, an experimental scenario study (N = 157; Study 1) and a time-lagged field study (N = 169; Study 2), the negative relationship between perceived subordinate performance and abusive supervision was found to hinge on a supervisor's outcome dependence on subordinates but not on a supervisor's liking of subordinates. Furthermore, Study 2 demonstrated (a) a negative association between abusive supervision and subordinates' subsequent objective performance and (b) a conditional indirect effect of perceived performance on subsequent objective performance, through abusive supervision, contingent on the degree of outcome dependence, although these relationships did not reach conventional significance levels when controlling for prior objective performance. All in all, the findings highlight the role of instrumentality considerations in relation to abusive supervision and promote new knowledge on both origins and consequences of such supervisory behavior. PMID:25664469

  4. Prescription opioid abuse: Problems and responses.

    PubMed

    Compton, Wilson M; Boyle, Maureen; Wargo, Eric

    2015-11-01

    Prescription opioid abuse and addiction, along with consequences such as overdose death and increasing transition to heroin use, constitute a devastating public health problem in the United States. Increasingly it is clear that overprescription of these medications over the past two decades has been a major upstream driver of the opioid abuse epidemic. This commentary considers the factors that have led to overprescription of opioids by clinicians, discusses recent evidence casting doubt on the efficacy of opioids for treating chronic pain, and describes the ongoing efforts by federal and community stakeholders to address this epidemic-for example, supporting prescription drug monitoring programs and improved clinician training in pain management to help reduce the supply of opioids, increasing dissemination of evidence-based primary prevention programs to reduce demand for opioids, and expanding access to effective opioid agonist therapies and antagonist medications for both treatment and overdose prevention. PMID:25871819

  5. Enhanced regional brain metabolic responses to benzodiazepines in cocaine abusers

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.J.; Fowler, J.S.

    1997-05-01

    While dopamine (DA) appears to be crucial for cocaine reinforcement, its involvement in cocaine addiction is much less clear. Using PET we have shown persistent reductions in striatal DA D2 receptors (which arc predominantly located on GABA cells) in cocaine abusers. This finding coupled to GABA`s role as an effector for DA led us to investigate if there were GABAergic abnormalities in cocaine abusers. In this study we measured regional brain metabolic responses to lorazepam, to indirectly assess GABA function (benzodiazepines facilitate GABAergic neurotransmission). Methods: The experimental subjects consisted of 12 active cocaine abusers and 32 age matched controls. Each subject underwent two PET FDG scans obtained within 1 week of each other. The first FDG scan was obtained after administration of placebo (3 cc of saline solution) given 40-50 minutes prior to FDG; and the second after administration of lorazepam (30 {mu}g/kg) given 40-50 minutes prior to FDG. The subjects were blind to the drugs received. Results: Lorazepam-induced sleepiness was significantly greater in abusers than in controls (p<0.001). Lorazepam-induced decreases in brain glucose metabolism were significantly larger in cocaine abusers than in controls. Whereas in controls whole brain metabolism decreased 13{+-}7 %, in cocaine abusers it decreased 21{+-}13 % (p < 0.05). Lorazepam-induced decrements in regional metabolism were significantly larger in striatum (p < 0.0 1), thalamus (p < 0.01) and cerebellum (p < 0.005) of cocaine abusers than of controls (ANOVA diagnosis by condition (placebo versus lorazepam) interaction effect). The only brain region for which the absolute metabolic changes-induced by lorazepam in cocaine abusers were equivalent to those in controls was the orbitofrontal cortex. These results document an accentuated sensitivity to benzodiazepines in cocaine abusers which is compatible with disrupted GABAergic function in these patients.

  6. Maternal Perceptions Of And Responses To Child Sexual Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Vidovič, Lea

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background Several researches indicate that most child victims delay disclosing of sexual abuse for significant periods of time. There are numerous reasons as to why children are avoiding the disclosure of the abuse. The aim of this study was to determine how a mother’s response to a child’s allegations impacts the child’s willingness to disclose sexual abuse. Methods We conducted a retrospective quantitative and qualitative analysis of 73 court-referred cases of child sexual abuse which have been disclosed in Slovenia in the last ten years. All the child victims included in the study were female and the perpetrators adult male persons. The expert opinions were made by the same expert. Results We realized that, at the occurrence of abuse, the child victims were from 4 to 15 years old and their mean age was at 11. 5 years. About two-thirds of children were victims of the intra-familial type (61.6%) and a little more than one third of extra-familial type of sexual abuse (38.4%). The group of victims with the support of their mothers needed about 9 months to disclose the secret, while the delay of the disclosure in the cases without the support of mothers was much longer (M=6.9 years). Conclusion For female child victims of sexual abuse the perceived protective attitude of their mothers is very important. Especially when the sexual abuse happened in the family, the mother’s support can attribute to stop the ongoing abuse, eliminate its immediate effects and decrease its likely negative long-term outcome. PMID:27284381

  7. [Emergency consultations for abuse of psychoactive substances in Buenos Aires hospitals].

    PubMed

    Míguez, H A; Grimson, R W

    1989-10-01

    Emergency consultations connected with psychoactive substance abuse may reflect the particular nature and the magnitude of this problem in a community. A survey of three Buenos Aires hospitals revealed that 5% of all the cases attended during a single week were related to the consumption of alcohol, cocaine, marijuana, or psychoactive drugs, either separately or in combination. Lack of formal education, unemployment, and marital separation were important factors in substance abuse by males (especially in the case of alcohol abuse among older men and the abuse of psychoactive and illegal drugs among the young), while women tended to take overdoses of psychoactive drugs in times of personal crisis. Cultural tolerance of alcoholism and the availability of psychoactive drugs emerged as problems requiring specific study. The research method generated reliable data and could be used to obtain epidemiological information to support the necessary control measures. PMID:2532900

  8. Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... also may fall prey to strangers who take advantage of their cognitive impairment. Types of abuse Signs ... property) to his or her disadvantage or the advantage of someone else Sexual abuse: touching, fondling or ...

  9. Automated emergency meteorological response system

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper, D W

    1980-01-01

    A sophisticated emergency response system was developed to aid in the evaluation of accidental releases of hazardous materials from the Savannah River Plant to the environment. A minicomputer system collects and archives data from both onsite meteorological towers and the National Weather Service. In the event of an accidental release, the computer rapidly calculates the trajectory and dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere. Computer codes have been developed which provide a graphic display of predicted concentration profiles downwind from the source, as functions of time and distance.

  10. Exploring New Territory: Police Organizational Responses to Child Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Catherine

    1996-01-01

    This paper compares the results of different models of police intervention in child sexual abuse cases in New South Wales, Australia. Data suggest that specialist police units in which police manage the full investigation provide a more comprehensive service than those where the police response is fragmented among units within the police force.…

  11. 48 CFR 436.577 - Emergency response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency response. 436... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 436.577 Emergency response. The contracting officer may insert the clause at 452.236-77, Emergency Response, in...

  12. 48 CFR 436.577 - Emergency response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency response. 436... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING CONSTRUCTION AND ARCHITECT-ENGINEER CONTRACTS Contract Clauses 436.577 Emergency response. The contracting officer may insert the clause at 452.236-77, Emergency Response, in...

  13. Substance abuse in the workplace: creating a responsible policy.

    PubMed

    Tamborini-Martin, S; Vachon, D O; Hanley, K V

    1988-11-01

    Catholic healthcare institutions seeking to address the problem of substance abuse must answer three basic questions: To whom does Catholic healthcare hold itself responsible? What is Catholic healthcare's responsibility to itself? What changes or actions will effectively and justly address the problem of substance abuse, now and for the future? Catholic healthcare organizations' primary responsibility is to provide safe, high-quality care for its patients, but their mission and philosophy also mandate that they be concerned for the well-being of their employees and physicians. Creating a drug-free workplace would benefit all groups. An effective substance abuse program also serves the self-interest of Catholic healthcare institutions. It helps to boost employee morale, increases productivity, improves the organization's image, and protects it against the threat of legal action. Studies have shown, however, that substance abuse programs which call for mandatory or random testing are unworkable. The best approach is an overall policy that combines for-cause testing with educational and rehabilitative programs. Such a policy not only answers to the self-interest of Catholic healthcare institutions; it also lives up to the values of our Catholic Christian ministry of healing. PMID:10318148

  14. Advancing Prevention Research on Child Abuse, Youth Violence, and Domestic Violence: Emerging Strategies and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guterman, Neil B.

    2004-01-01

    Prevention research on the related problems of child abuse, youth violence, and domestic violence has grown at an accelerating pace in recent years. In this context, a set of shared methodological issues has emerged as investigators seek to advance the interpersonal violence prevention knowledge base. This article considers some of the persistent…

  15. Reimbursement and Insurance Coverage in Cases of Suspected Sexual Abuse in the Emergency Department.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupfer, Gary M.; Giardino, Angelo P.

    1995-01-01

    Emergency department charts of 186 suspected preadolescent victims of sexual abuse (SSA) were compared with 623 patients evaluated for upper limb fracture. Hospital costs of SSA patients were more often and to a greater degree underwritten by the hospital itself because of lower reimbursement and a higher percentage of uninsured and publicly…

  16. Emerging drugs of abuse: current perspectives on substituted cathinones.

    PubMed

    Paillet-Loilier, Magalie; Cesbron, Alexandre; Le Boisselier, Reynald; Bourgine, Joanna; Debruyne, Danièle

    2014-01-01

    Substituted cathinones are synthetic analogs of cathinone that can be considered as derivatives of phenethylamines with a beta-keto group on the side chain. They appeared in the recreational drug market in the mid-2000s and now represent a large class of new popular drugs of abuse. Initially considered as legal highs, their legal status is variable by country and is rapidly changing, with government institutions encouraging their control. Some cathinones (such as diethylpropion or pyrovalerone) have been used in a medical setting and bupropion is actually indicated for smoking cessation. Substituted cathinones are widely available from internet websites, retail shops, and street dealers. They can be sold under chemical, evocative or generic names, making their identification difficult. Fortunately, analytical methods have been developed in recent years to solve this problem. Available as powders, substituted cathinones are self-administered by snorting, oral injestion, or intravenous injection. They act as central nervous system stimulants by causing the release of catecholamines (dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin) and blocking their reuptake in the central and peripheral nervous system. They may also decrease dopamine and serotonin transporter function as nonselective substrates or potent blockers and may inhibit monoamine oxidase effects. Nevertheless, considerable differences have been found in the potencies of the different substituted cathinones in vitro. Desired effects reported by users include increased energy, empathy, and improved libido. Cardiovascular (tachycardia, hypertension) and psychiatric/neurological signs/symptoms (agitation, seizures, paranoia, and hallucinations) are the most common adverse effects reported. Severe toxicity signs compatible with excessive serotonin activity, such as hyperthermia, metabolic acidosis, and prolonged rhabdomyolysis, have also been observed. Reinforcing potential observed in animals predicts a high potential

  17. Emerging drugs of abuse: current perspectives on substituted cathinones

    PubMed Central

    Paillet-Loilier, Magalie; Cesbron, Alexandre; Le Boisselier, Reynald; Bourgine, Joanna; Debruyne, Danièle

    2014-01-01

    Substituted cathinones are synthetic analogs of cathinone that can be considered as derivatives of phenethylamines with a beta-keto group on the side chain. They appeared in the recreational drug market in the mid-2000s and now represent a large class of new popular drugs of abuse. Initially considered as legal highs, their legal status is variable by country and is rapidly changing, with government institutions encouraging their control. Some cathinones (such as diethylpropion or pyrovalerone) have been used in a medical setting and bupropion is actually indicated for smoking cessation. Substituted cathinones are widely available from internet websites, retail shops, and street dealers. They can be sold under chemical, evocative or generic names, making their identification difficult. Fortunately, analytical methods have been developed in recent years to solve this problem. Available as powders, substituted cathinones are self-administered by snorting, oral injestion, or intravenous injection. They act as central nervous system stimulants by causing the release of catecholamines (dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin) and blocking their reuptake in the central and peripheral nervous system. They may also decrease dopamine and serotonin transporter function as nonselective substrates or potent blockers and may inhibit monoamine oxidase effects. Nevertheless, considerable differences have been found in the potencies of the different substituted cathinones in vitro. Desired effects reported by users include increased energy, empathy, and improved libido. Cardiovascular (tachycardia, hypertension) and psychiatric/neurological signs/symptoms (agitation, seizures, paranoia, and hallucinations) are the most common adverse effects reported. Severe toxicity signs compatible with excessive serotonin activity, such as hyperthermia, metabolic acidosis, and prolonged rhabdomyolysis, have also been observed. Reinforcing potential observed in animals predicts a high potential

  18. Mobile Emergency Response Water Treatment Technology Results

    EPA Science Inventory

    When natural disasters like hurricanes, floods and earthquakes occur, safe drinking water can be compromised, limited or unavailable. Under such situations, communities have emergency response plans. One of many options for providing safe drinking water during emergency situati...

  19. Caffeinated Alcoholic Beverages – An Emerging Trend in Alcohol Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Franklin, Kelle M; Hauser, Sheketha R; Bell, Richard L.; Engleman, Eric A

    2014-01-01

    Alcohol use disorders are pervasive in society and their impact affects quality of life, morbidity and mortality, as well as individual productivity. Alcohol has detrimental effects on an individual’s physiology and nervous system, and is associated with disorders of many organ and endocrine systems impacting an individual’s health, behavior, and ability to interact with others. Youth are particularly affected. Unfortunately, adolescent usage also increases the probability for a progression to dependence. Several areas of research indicate that the deleterious effects of alcohol abuse may be exacerbated by mixing caffeine with alcohol. Some behavioral evidence suggests that caffeine increases alcohol drinking and binge drinking episodes, which in turn can foster the development of alcohol dependence. As a relatively new public health concern, the epidemiological focus has been to establish a need for investigating the effects of caffeinated alcohol. While the trend of co-consuming these substances is growing, knowledge of the central mechanisms associated with caffeinated ethanol has been lacking. Research suggests that caffeine and ethanol can have additive or synergistic pharmacological actions and neuroadaptations, with the adenosine and dopamine systems in particular implicated. However, the limited literature on the central effects of caffeinated ethanol provides an impetus to increase our knowledge of the neuroadaptive effects of this combination and their impact on cognition and behavior. Research from our laboratories indicates that an established rodent animal model of alcoholism can be extended to investigate the acute and chronic effects of caffeinated ethanol. PMID:25419478

  20. Caffeinated Alcoholic Beverages - An Emerging Trend in Alcohol Abuse.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Kelle M; Hauser, Sheketha R; Bell, Richard L; Engleman, Eric A

    2013-08-20

    Alcohol use disorders are pervasive in society and their impact affects quality of life, morbidity and mortality, as well as individual productivity. Alcohol has detrimental effects on an individual's physiology and nervous system, and is associated with disorders of many organ and endocrine systems impacting an individual's health, behavior, and ability to interact with others. Youth are particularly affected. Unfortunately, adolescent usage also increases the probability for a progression to dependence. Several areas of research indicate that the deleterious effects of alcohol abuse may be exacerbated by mixing caffeine with alcohol. Some behavioral evidence suggests that caffeine increases alcohol drinking and binge drinking episodes, which in turn can foster the development of alcohol dependence. As a relatively new public health concern, the epidemiological focus has been to establish a need for investigating the effects of caffeinated alcohol. While the trend of co-consuming these substances is growing, knowledge of the central mechanisms associated with caffeinated ethanol has been lacking. Research suggests that caffeine and ethanol can have additive or synergistic pharmacological actions and neuroadaptations, with the adenosine and dopamine systems in particular implicated. However, the limited literature on the central effects of caffeinated ethanol provides an impetus to increase our knowledge of the neuroadaptive effects of this combination and their impact on cognition and behavior. Research from our laboratories indicates that an established rodent animal model of alcoholism can be extended to investigate the acute and chronic effects of caffeinated ethanol. PMID:25419478

  1. SSRL Emergency Response Shore Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mah, Robert W.; Papasin, Richard; McIntosh, Dawn M.; Denham, Douglas; Jorgensen, Charles; Betts, Bradley J.; Del Mundo, Rommel

    2006-01-01

    The SSRL Emergency Response Shore Tool (wherein SSRL signifies Smart Systems Research Laboratory ) is a computer program within a system of communication and mobile-computing software and hardware being developed to increase the situational awareness of first responders at building collapses. This program is intended for use mainly in planning and constructing shores to stabilize partially collapsed structures. The program consists of client and server components, runs in the Windows operating system on commercial off-the-shelf portable computers, and can utilize such additional hardware as digital cameras and Global Positioning System devices. A first responder can enter directly, into a portable computer running this program, the dimensions of a required shore. The shore dimensions, plus an optional digital photograph of the shore site, can then be uploaded via a wireless network to a server. Once on the server, the shore report is time-stamped and made available on similarly equipped portable computers carried by other first responders, including shore wood cutters and an incident commander. The staff in a command center can use the shore reports and photographs to monitor progress and to consult with structural engineers to assess whether a building is in imminent danger of further collapse.

  2. Development of Emergency Response Planning Guidelines (ERPGs).

    PubMed

    Cavender, Finis; Phillips, Scott; Holland, Michael

    2008-06-01

    Emergency Response Planning Guidelines (ERPGs) are airborne concentrations of chemicals that have been evaluated for three levels of emergency response. These are a nuisance level, and level that would affect egress from an exposure or a level that is near, but below a life threatening concentration. The ERPG is a volunteer committee of the American Industrial Hygiene Association that is comprised of industrial hygienists and toxicologists. This paper describes the history of emergency response guidelines and process of the evaluation. PMID:18570174

  3. Attitudes Toward Computer Interventions for Partner Abuse and Drug Use Among Women in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Choo, Esther; Ranney, Megan; Wetle, Terrie; Morrow, Kathleen; Mello, Michael; Squires, Daniel; Tapé, Chantal; Garro, Aris; Zlotnick, Caron

    2014-01-01

    Background Drug use and partner abuse often coexist among women presenting to the emergency department (ED). Technology offers one solution to the limited time and expertise available to address these problems. Aims The aims of this study were to explore womens’ attitudes about use of computers for screening and intervening in drug use and partner abuse. Methods Seventeen adult women with recent histories of partner abuse and drug use were recruited from an urban ED to participate in one-on-one semi-structured interviews. A coding classification scheme was developed and applied to the transcripts by two independent coders. The research team collaboratively decided upon a thematic framework and selected illustrative quotes. Results Most participants used computers and/or mobile phones frequently and reported high self-efficacy with them. Women described emotional difficulty and shame around partner abuse experiences and drug use; however, they felt that reporting drug use and partner abuse was easier and safer through a computer than face-to-face with a person, and that advice from a computer about drug use or partner abuse was acceptable and accessible. Some had very positive experiences completing screening assessments. However, participants were skeptical of a computer’s ability to give empathy, emotional support or meaningful feedback. The ED was felt to be an appropriate venue for such programs, as long as they were private and did not supersede clinical care. Conclusions Women with partner abuse and drug use histories were receptive to computerized screening and advice, while still expressing a need for the empathy and compassion of a human interaction within an intervention. PMID:26167133

  4. Emerging treatment guidelines for mentally ill chemical abusers.

    PubMed

    Carey, K B

    1989-04-01

    Dr. Miller's Introduction: We are becoming more and more aware that many alcoholics and chemically dependent individuals also suffer from a psychiatric disorder. This reality emerges now after a period in which the possibility of coexisting mental and addictive disorders was often denied by the alcoholism and drug fields. Psychiatrists and other mental health professionals need to be alert to patients with these dual disorders so that relapses of both the dependency and the psychiatric disorder can be averted. This month's column presents useful guidelines to help professionals deal effectively with this difficult problem. PMID:2714747

  5. Pancreatic adaptive responses in alcohol abuse: Role of the unfolded protein response.

    PubMed

    Lugea, Aurelia; Waldron, Richard T; Pandol, Stephen J

    2015-07-01

    The majority of those who drink excessive amounts of alcohol do not develop pancreatic disease. One overarching hypothesis is that alcohol abuse requires additional risk factors, either environmental or genetic, for disease to occur. However, another reason be a result of alcohol-induced activation of adaptive systems that protect the pancreas from the toxic effects of alcohol. We show that mechanisms within the unfolded protein response (UPR) of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that can lead to protection of the pancreas from pancreatic diseases with alcohol abuse. The remarkable ability of the pancreas to adapt its machinery to alcohol abuse using UPR systems and continue functioning is the likely reason that pancreatitis from alcohol abuse does not occur in the majority of heavy drinkers. These findings indicate that methods to enhance the protective responses of the UPR can provide opportunities for prevention and treatment of pancreatic diseases. PMID:25736240

  6. Aircraft Emergencies: Challenge and Response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burian, Barbara K.

    2010-01-01

    Emergency and abnormal situations in aviation present flight crews with a number of challenges. Checklists are essential tools that have been developed to assist them to meet these challenges. However, in order for checklists to be most effective in these situations they must be designed with the operational and situational demands of emergencies and abnormal conditions in mind as well as human performance capabilities and limitations under high stress and workload.

  7. An Emerging Problem: Methamphetamine Abuse among Treatment Seeking Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Rachel; Ang, Alfonso; McCann, Michael J.; Rawson, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined correlates of methamphetamine (MA) and marijuana (MJ) use and treatment response among treatment-involved youth (N = 4,430) in Los Angeles County, California treated between 2000 and 2005. Of the sample, 912 (21%) were primary MA and 3,518 (79%) were primary MJ users. Correlates of increased MA use included being female, White,…

  8. Radiological emergency: Malaysian preparedness and response.

    PubMed

    Yusof, Mohd Abd Wahab; Ali, Hamrah Mohd

    2011-07-01

    Planning and preparation in advance for radiological emergencies can help to minimise potential public health and environmental threats if and when an actual emergency occurs. During the planning process, emergency response organisations think through how they would respond to each type of incident and the resources that will be needed. In Malaysia, planning, preparation for and response to radiological emergencies involve many parties. In the event of a radiological emergency and if it is considered a disaster, the National Security Council, the Atomic Energy Licensing Board and the Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia) will work together with other federal agencies, state and local governments, first responders and international organisations to monitor the situation, contain the release, and clean up the contaminated site. Throughout the response, these agencies use their protective action guidelines. This paper discusses Malaysian preparedness for, and response to, any potential radiological emergency. PMID:21729940

  9. Uses of the internet in emergency response.

    SciTech Connect

    Herzenberg, C. L.; Newsom, D. E.; Swietlik, C. E.; Bertram, K. M.; Decision and Information Sciences

    1999-01-01

    Past and potential future uses of the Internet in emergency preparedness and emergency response are examined. Discussion of past experience in use of the Internet in crises includes some examples from the Kobe earthquake in 1995, the Loma Prieta earthquake in 1989, and the ice storm in the northeastern United States in 1998. Various advantages and drawbacks of use of the Internet in emergency response are examined. Both some promising applications and issues that may arise in use of the Internet for emergency response are discussed.

  10. Physiological Responses to Child Stimuli in Mothers with and without a Childhood History of Physical Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casanova, Gisele M.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study investigated the physiological responses of 13 mothers with and 17 mothers without a childhood history of physical abuse to videotape presentations of an infant smiling or crying. Mothers who had been abused showed increased skin conductance while viewing the smiling infant, whereas mothers without a history of abuse showed increased…

  11. Court-involved battered women's responses to violence: the role of psychological, physical, and sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Dutton, M A; Goodman, L A; Bennett, L

    1999-01-01

    Failure to understand the importance of psychological abuse as a component of domestic violence can result in little appreciation for the complexity of victims' experience and thus a failure to provide the most effective intervention. This study examined the role of psychological abuse, physical violence, injury, and sexual abuse in predicting court-involved women's (1) prior attempts to seek help from the justice system and to leave the battering relationship, (2) use of criminal prosecution and civil protection orders, and (3) traumatic stress reactions. At the univariate level, each abuse variable was significantly associated with at least one strategic response and all traumatic responses to violence. Multivariate analyses revealed that strategic responses were largely predicted by injury and physical assault, whereas traumatic responses were mainly predicted by psychological abuse. Taken together, these findings demonstrate the important role of both physical and psychological abuse in shaping women's responses to domestic violence. PMID:10397628

  12. Emergency preparedness: one community's response.

    PubMed

    Glick, Doris F; Jerome-D'Emilia, Bonnie; Nolan, Mary Anne; Burke, Pamela

    2004-01-01

    Since 2001, our nations' leaders, the press, and the general public have looked to the health sector for leadership in addressing acts of terrorism. It has become urgent for health agencies and related public services to collaborate and for all health professionals to become knowledgeable about disaster preparedness. This article describes collaboration between the public health department, local hospitals and the school of nursing in one community, Charlottesville, Virginia, to address disaster preparedness. In this story about our community's emergency preparedness, the focus is both on preparation and the hope we will never need to utilize this knowledge. PMID:15596974

  13. Emergency Response Teams in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, James A.

    2001-01-01

    Illustrates the value of proper crisis response training to help schools protect lives by avoiding adverse situations. Details the execution of a crisis management plan, which was developed following a cafeteria/kitchen explosion. (GR)

  14. An emergency response team for membrane repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNeil, Paul L.; Kirchhausen, Tom

    2005-01-01

    On demand, rapid Ca(2+)-triggered homotypic and exocytic membrane-fusion events are required to repair a torn plasma membrane, and we propose that this emergency-based fusion differs fundamentally from other rapid, triggered fusion reactions. Emergency fusion might use a specialized protein and organelle emergency response team that can simultaneously promote impromptu homotypic fusion events between organelles and exocytic fusion events along the vertices between these fusion products and the plasma membrane.

  15. Emergence of Sex Differences in the Development of Substance Use and Abuse during Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Dr. Cynthia

    2015-01-01

    Substance use and abuse begins during adolescence. Male and female adolescent humans initiate use at comparable rates, but males increase use faster. In adulthood, more men than women use and abuse addictive drugs. However, some women progress more rapidly from initiation of use to entry into treatment. In animal models, adolescent males and females consume addictive drugs similarly. However, reproductively mature females acquire self-administration faster, and in some models, escalate use more. Sex/gender differences exist in neurobiologic factors mediating both reinforcement (dopamine, opioids) and aversiveness (CRF, dynorphin), as well as intrinsic factors (personality, psychiatric co-morbidities) and extrinsic factors (history of abuse, environment especially peers and family) which influence the progression from initial use to abuse., Many of these important differences emerge during adolescence, and are moderated by sexual differentiation of the brain. Estradiol effects which enhance both dopaminergic and CRF-mediated processes contribute to the female vulnerability to substance use and abuse. Testosterone enhances impulsivity and sensation seeking in both males and females. Several protective factors in females also influence initiation and progression of substance use including hormonal changes of pregnancy as well as greater capacity for self-regulation and lower peak levels of impulsivity/sensation seeking. Same sex peers represent a risk factor more for males than females during adolescence, while romantic partners increase risk for women during this developmental epoch. In summary, biologic factors, psychiatric co-morbidities as well as personality and environment present sex/gender-specific risks as adolescents begin to initiate substance use. PMID:26049025

  16. Emergence of sex differences in the development of substance use and abuse during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Cynthia

    2015-09-01

    Substance use and abuse begin during adolescence. Male and female adolescent humans initiate use at comparable rates, but males increase use faster. In adulthood, more men than women use and abuse addictive drugs. However, some women progress more rapidly from initiation of use to entry into treatment. In animal models, adolescent males and females consume addictive drugs similarly. However, reproductively mature females acquire self-administration faster, and in some models, escalate use more. Sex/gender differences exist in neurobiologic factors mediating both reinforcement (dopamine, opioids) and aversiveness (CRF, dynorphin), as well as intrinsic factors (personality, psychiatric co-morbidities) and extrinsic factors (history of abuse, environment especially peers and family) which influence the progression from initial use to abuse. Many of these important differences emerge during adolescence, and are moderated by sexual differentiation of the brain. Estradiol effects which enhance both dopaminergic and CRF-mediated processes contribute to the female vulnerability to substance use and abuse. Testosterone enhances impulsivity and sensation seeking in both males and females. Several protective factors in females also influence initiation and progression of substance use including hormonal changes of pregnancy as well as greater capacity for self-regulation and lower peak levels of impulsivity/sensation seeking. Same sex peers represent a risk factor more for males than females during adolescence, while romantic partners increase risk for women during this developmental epoch. In summary, biologic factors, psychiatric co-morbidities as well as personality and environment present sex/gender-specific risks as adolescents begin to initiate substance use. PMID:26049025

  17. Hazardous materials transportation and emergency response programs

    SciTech Connect

    Joy, D.S.; Fore, C.S.

    1983-01-01

    This presentation consists of the following visual aids; (1) detailed routing capabilities of truck, rail, barge; (2) legislative data base for hazardous materials; and (3) emergency response of accident site Eddyville, Kentucky (airports in vicinity of Eddyville, KY).

  18. Singaporean Early Childhood Teachers' Responses to Myths about Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Freda; Potter, Gillian K.

    2004-01-01

    Prior to attending seminars on child abuse and domestic violence, 86 kindergarten and 64 special education (early childhood) teachers completed a questionnaire seeking views relating to the accuracy of statements relating to all forms of child abuse. This was designed to identify the accuracy of teachers' knowledge of child abuse and neglect…

  19. Substance Abuse and Child Welfare: Clear Linkages and Promising Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Semidei, Joseph; Radel, Laura Feig; Nolan, Catherine

    2001-01-01

    Examines the prevalence of substance abuse among families involved with the child welfare system and the impact of substance abuse on child welfare practice. Discusses how both the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997 and welfare reform legislation intensify the need to address parental substance abuse effectively. Considers strategies for…

  20. Attributions of Responsibility in a Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) Vignette among Respondents with CSA Histories: The Role of Abuse Similarity to a Hypothetical Victim

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harding, Hilary G.; Zinzow, Heidi M.; Burns, Erin E.; Jackson, Joan L.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research suggests that similarity to a victim may influence attributions of responsibility in hypothetical child sexual abuse scenarios. One aspect of similarity receiving mixed support in the literature is respondent child sexual abuse history. Using a sample of 1,345 college women, the present study examined child sexual abuse history,…

  1. Shifting perspectives: culturally responsive interventions with latino substance abusers.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Miguel E; Curry, Shannon J

    2009-01-01

    In 2001, there were 35 million Latinos living in the United States. It is estimated that by 2050 Latinos will comprise 97 million people in the United States, or one-fourth of the U.S. population, establishing this ethnic group as the fastest growing and soon to be largest in the country (U.S. Census Bureau, 2001 ). These numbers highlight the need for a multicultural paradigm shift, or the inclusion of culture-specific skills and culturally responsive interventions in psychological practice. Latinos face challenges as a racial/ethnic group that the traditional Euro-American model of treatment neither addresses nor validates. Unfortunately, substance abuse serves a purposeful function for many Latinos as a means of escape from the problems related to the social, environmental, and political structures. The current article adapts the model set forth by Parham ( 2002 ) as a strength-based therapeutic framework for intervention. The following stages are outlined to serve as the basis for most therapeutic encounters with clients from all racial and ethnic groups presenting with substance abuse problems: therapeutic alliance building, culturally appropriate assessment, sociopolitical awareness and liberation, creating collaborative change, and addressing sustainability of change. PMID:25985072

  2. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Visits Among Adolescents Presenting to US Emergency Departments

    PubMed Central

    Fahimi, Jahan; Aurrecoechea, Adrian; Anderson, Erik; Herring, Andrew; Alter, Harrison

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To identify factors associated with adolescent emergency department (ED) visits for substance abuse, including those complicated by mental health (dual diagnosis), and to analyze their effect on ED length of stay (LOS) and disposition. Methods We performed a secondary analysis of ED visits by adolescents (aged 11-24) using the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (1997-2010), identifying visits for mental health, substance use, and dual diagnosis. Univariate and multivariate statistics were used to analyze demographic and visit-level factors, factors associated with substance use and dual diagnosis visits, and the effects of substance use and mental health conditions on emergency department LOS and disposition. Results Substance use and mental health accounted for 2.1% and 4.3% of all adolescent visits, respectively, with 20.9% (95% confidence interval [CI] 18.3-23.5%) of substance abuse visits complicated by mental health. Factors significantly associated with substance use include: male gender, urban location, West region, ambulance arrival, night and weekend shift, anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and psychotic disorders. Additional LOS was 89.77 minutes for mental health, 71.33 minutes for substance use, and 139.97 minutes for dual diagnosis visits, as compared to visits where these conditions were not present. Both mental health and substance use were associated with admission/transfer as compared to other dispositions: mental health, odds ratio (OR) 5.93 (95% CI 5.14-6.84), illicit drug use, OR 3.56 (95% CI 2.72-4.64), and dual diagnosis, OR 6.86 (95% 4.67-10.09). Conclusions Substance abuse and dual diagnosis are common among adolescent ED visits and are strongly associated with increased use of prehospital resources, emergency department length of stay, and need for hospitalization. PMID:25875990

  3. The Impact of High-Profile Sexual Abuse Cases in the Media on a Pediatric Emergency Department.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Dustin D; Stephens, Clare L; Thompson, Amy D

    2016-01-01

    High-profile media cases of sexual abuse may encourage disclosures of abuse from victims of unrelated assaults and also influence parental concerns, leading to increased emergency department visits. In the region of the study authors' institution, there are two recent high-profile sexual abuse cases with media coverage: Earl Bradley, a Delaware pediatrician, and Jerry Sandusky, a Pennsylvania college football coach. This is a retrospective cohort study of children evaluated for sexual abuse at a pediatric emergency department. Patients were classified as either presenting during a media period or non-media period. The media periods were one-month periods immediately following breaking news reports, when the cases were highly publicized in the media. The non-media periods were the 12-month periods directly preceding the first reports. The median number of emergency department visits per month during a non-media period was 9 visits (interquartile range 6-10). There were 11 visits in the month following the Sandusky case and 13 visits following the Bradley case. There was no statistical difference in number of emergency department visits for sexual abuse between the periods (p = .09). These finding have implications regarding use of resources in pediatric EDs after high-profile sexual abuse cases. PMID:27561119

  4. 43 CFR 46.150 - Emergency responses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., the Responsible Official shall consult with the Office of Environmental Policy and Compliance about... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT OF 1969 Protection and Enhancement of Environmental Quality § 46.150 Emergency..., the Responsible Official shall take into account the probable environmental consequences of...

  5. 43 CFR 46.150 - Emergency responses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., the Responsible Official shall consult with the Office of Environmental Policy and Compliance about... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT OF 1969 Protection and Enhancement of Environmental Quality § 46.150 Emergency..., the Responsible Official shall take into account the probable environmental consequences of...

  6. 43 CFR 46.150 - Emergency responses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., the Responsible Official shall consult with the Office of Environmental Policy and Compliance about... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT OF 1969 Protection and Enhancement of Environmental Quality § 46.150 Emergency..., the Responsible Official shall take into account the probable environmental consequences of...

  7. Radiological Emergency Response Health and Safety Manual

    SciTech Connect

    D. R. Bowman

    2001-05-01

    This manual was created to provide health and safety (H&S) guidance for emergency response operations. The manual is organized in sections that define each aspect of H and S Management for emergency responses. The sections are as follows: Responsibilities; Health Physics; Industrial Hygiene; Safety; Environmental Compliance; Medical; and Record Maintenance. Each section gives guidance on the types of training expected for managers and responders, safety processes and procedures to be followed when performing work, and what is expected of managers and participants. Also included are generic forms that will be used to facilitate or document activities during an emergency response. These ensure consistency in creating useful real-time and archival records and help to prevent the loss or omission of information.

  8. Emergency Response Virtual Environment for Safe Schools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wasfy, Ayman; Walker, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    An intelligent emergency response virtual environment (ERVE) that provides emergency first responders, response planners, and managers with situational awareness as well as training and support for safe schools is presented. ERVE incorporates an intelligent agent facility for guiding and assisting the user in the context of the emergency response operations. Response information folders capture key information about the school. The system enables interactive 3D visualization of schools and academic campuses, including the terrain and the buildings' exteriors and interiors in an easy to use Web..based interface. ERVE incorporates live camera and sensors feeds and can be integrated with other simulations such as chemical plume simulation. The system is integrated with a Geographical Information System (GIS) to enable situational awareness of emergency events and assessment of their effect on schools in a geographic area. ERVE can also be integrated with emergency text messaging notification systems. Using ERVE, it is now possible to address safe schools' emergency management needs with a scaleable, seamlessly integrated and fully interactive intelligent and visually compelling solution.

  9. A Coordinated Response to Child Abuse and Neglect: The Foundation for Practice. Child Abuse and Neglect User Manual Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Jill; Salus, Marsha K.; Wolcott, Deborah; Kennedy, Kristie Y.

    Child abuse and neglect is a community concern. Each community has a legal and moral obligation to promote the safety, permanency, and well-being of children, which includes responding effectively to child maltreatment. At the State and local levels, professionals assume various roles and responsibilities ranging from prevention, identification,…

  10. Attributions of responsibility in a child sexual abuse (CSA) vignette among respondents with CSA histories: the role of abuse similarity to a hypothetical victim.

    PubMed

    Harding, Hilary G; Zinzow, Heidi M; Burns, Erin E; Jackson, Joan L

    2010-03-01

    Previous research suggests that similarity to a victim may influence attributions of responsibility in hypothetical child sexual abuse scenarios. One aspect of similarity receiving mixed support in the literature is respondent child sexual abuse history. Using a sample of 1,345 college women, the present study examined child sexual abuse history, similarity to victim, and attributions of responsibility to a hypothetical victim, family member, and perpetrator in a child sexual abuse vignette. Results revealed no group differences in responsibility ratings among respondents with and without child sexual abuse histories. However, among the 133 respondents with child sexual abuse histories, results indicated that similarity to victim moderated the relationship between vignette characteristics, respondent history, and responsibility attributions. Results suggest that similarity to a victim may influence ratings in a self-preserving manner. PMID:20390786

  11. Standardized emergency management system and response to a smallpox emergency.

    PubMed

    Kim-Farley, Robert J; Celentano, John T; Gunter, Carol; Jones, Jessica W; Stone, Rogelio A; Aller, Raymond D; Mascola, Laurene; Grigsby, Sharon F; Fielding, Jonathan E

    2003-01-01

    The smallpox virus is a high-priority, Category-A agent that poses a global, terrorism security risk because it: (1) easily can be disseminated and transmitted from person to person; (2) results in high mortality rates and has the potential for a major public health impact; (3) might cause public panic and social disruption; and (4) requires special action for public health preparedness. In recognition of this risk, the Los Angeles County Department of Health Services (LAC-DHS) developed the Smallpox Preparedness, Response, and Recovery Plan for LAC to prepare for the possibility of an outbreak of smallpox. A unique feature of the LAC-DHS plan is its explicit use of the Standardized Emergency Management System (SEMS) framework for detailing the functions needed to respond to a smallpox emergency. The SEMS includes the Incident Command System (ICS) structure (management, operations, planning/intelligence, logistics, and finance/administration), the mutual-aid system, and the multi/interagency coordination required during a smallpox emergency. Management for incident command includes setting objectives and priorities, information (risk communications), safety, and liaison. Operations includes control and containment of a smallpox outbreak including ring vaccination, mass vaccination, adverse events monitoring and assessment, management of confirmed and suspected smallpox cases, contact tracing, active surveillance teams and enhanced hospital-based surveillance, and decontamination. Planning/intelligence functions include developing the incident action plan, epidemiological investigation and analysis of smallpox cases, and epidemiological assessment of the vaccination coverage status of populations at risk. Logistics functions include receiving, handling, inventorying, and distributing smallpox vaccine and vaccination clinic supplies; personnel; transportation; communications; and health care of personnel. Finally, finance/administration functions include monitoring

  12. Surveillance and response to disease emergence.

    PubMed

    Merianos, Angela

    2007-01-01

    New and emerging infectious diseases affect humans, domestic animals, livestock and wildlife and can have a significant impact on health, trade and biodiversity. Of the emerging infectious diseases of humans, 75% are zoonotic, with wildlife being an increasingly important source of inter-species transmission. Recent animal health emergencies have highlighted the vulnerability of the livestock sector to the impact of infectious diseases and the associated risks to human health. Outbreaks resulting from wildlife trade have resulted in enormous economic losses globally. On a global level, the human health sector lags behind the animal health sector in the assessment of potential threats, although substantive differences exist among countries in the state of national preparedness planning for emerging diseases. The lack of surveillance data on emerging zoonoses from many developing countries means that the burden of human, livestock and wildlife disease is underestimated and opportunities for control interventions thereby limited. In the context of emerging zoonoses, comprehensive risk assessments are needed to identify the animal-human and animal-animal interfaces where transmission of infectious agents occurs and the feasibility of risk reduction interventions. The impact of emerging diseases can be minimised through a well-prepared and strong public health system and similar systems developed by the livestock, wildlife and food safety sectors. National animal disease emergencies, especially those that spill over to affect human health, require a whole-of-government approach for effective disease containment. As it is highly likely that zoonoses and animal diseases with the potential to affect human health will continue to emerge, surveillance and response systems for emerging zoonotic diseases will need to be strengthened and maintained at national and international levels. Applied research, linked across the human, livestock and wildlife sectors, is needed to

  13. Rorschach Responses of Sexually Abused Children: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinton, Gregory T.; Jenkins-Monroe, Valata

    1994-01-01

    Using archival data, this study compared Rorschach protocols of 94 sexually abused children to the Exner norms in order to determine the potential usefulness of the Rorschach test in the area of child abuse assessment and treatment. Of the 18 Rorschach variables studied, 17 significantly distinguished at least one subject group from the norms.…

  14. Emergency Response Planning for Radiological Releases

    SciTech Connect

    Biwer, B.M.; LePoire, D.J.; Lazaro, M.A.; Allison, T.; Kamboj, S.; Chen, S.Y.

    2006-07-01

    The emergency management planning tool RISK-RDD was developed to aid emergency response planners and decision makers at all levels of government to better understand and prepare for potential problems related to a radiological release, especially those in urban areas. Radioactive release scenarios were studied by using the RISK-RDD radiological emergency management program. The scenarios were selected to investigate the key aspects of radiological risk management not always considered in emergency planning as a whole. These aspects include the evaluation of both aerosolized and non-aerosolized components of an atmospheric release, methods of release, acute and chronic human health risks, and the concomitant economic impacts as a function of the risk-based cleanup level. (authors)

  15. Indicators of Sexual Abuse in Children's Rorschach Responses: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billingsley, Ralph C.

    1995-01-01

    Rorschach protocols of 18 sexually-abused children were compared to protocols of 18 clinical controls. Dependent variables included responses with overt sexual contents, sexual symbols, and near-sexual content. Results suggested that the dependent variables, in combination, could differentiate sexually abused children from other groups. Other…

  16. The Child Abuse Reporting Law. Protecting Children Becomes a Broader Community Responsibility. 2d Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Mason P., Jr.

    North Carolina's Child Abuse Reporting Law makes all citizens legally responsible for reporting incidents of child abuse and neglect. Professionals, such as doctors and teachers, must also give their professional opinions as to the nature, extent, and causes of the damaged child's condition. The basic purpose of the law is to identify children at…

  17. Child Sexual Abuse, Coping Responses, Self-Blame, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Adult Sexual Revictimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filipas, Henrietta H.; Ullman, Sarah E

    2006-01-01

    The present study examined the psychological sequelae of child sexual abuse (CSA) and the factors that contributed to revictimization in the form of adult sexual assault (ASA) using a survey of 577 female college students. CSA characteristics, maladaptive coping in response to CSA, degree of self-blame at the time of the abuse and currently, and…

  18. Correlates of Violent Response among Peruvian Women Abused by an Intimate Partner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelaye, Bizu; Lam, Nelly; Cripe, Swee May; Sanchez, Sixto E.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors sought to identify correlates of violent response among women exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV) in Lima, Peru. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information on exposure to IPV and women's physical violent reaction towards their abuser. Women who were sexually abused by their partners, as compared with women who…

  19. Emergency Response: Elearning for Paramedics and Firefighters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This article is based on an innovative research project with academics, software developers, and organizational pilot sites to design and develop elearning software for an emergency response simulation with supporting collaborative tools. In particular, this article focuses on the research that the author has conducted to provide the theoretical…

  20. 14 CFR 1216.311 - Emergency responses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... compliance with 40 CFR 1506.11 as soon as is reasonable. (c) If the Responsible Official proposes emergency... significant environmental impacts, the SEO will consult with the CEQ to ensure compliance with 40 CFR 1506.11... Sample Return)—A subcategory of missions that would collect extraterrestrial materials from solar...

  1. GLOBAL EMERGING INFECTIONS SURVEILLANCE AND RESPONSE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Department of Defense (DoD) Gonococcal Isolate Surveillance Project (GISP). The DoD Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (DoD-GEIS) partners with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) in the global surv...

  2. Emergency Response Systems for Outdoor Programming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Kurt; Satz, Jay A.

    The Student Conservation Association (SCA) runs backcountry programs in wilderness settings, providing both an educational experience for participants and badly needed conservation work on public lands. As part of its risk management efforts, SCA has developed an emergency response system that ties resources in the field to all the resources of…

  3. 78 FR 1154 - Onsite Emergency Response Capabilities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-08

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission) is issuing a draft regulatory basis document to support the potential amendment of its regulations concerning nuclear power plant licensees' onsite emergency response capabilities. The NRC is seeking public comments on this document. The issuance of this draft regulatory basis document is one of the actions stemming from the NRC's......

  4. Opperational Systems for Emergency Preparedness and Response

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, G; Nasstrom, J S; Baskett, R

    2003-11-10

    Operational systems predict the consequences of atmospheric releases of hazardous materials for real-time emergency response, pre-event planning, and post-incident assessment. Such systems provide federal, state, and local agencies, emergency planners and responders, public health officials, military personnel, and other users with critical information on which to base life-and-death decisions on safe zones for siting of incident command posts, sheltering-in-place or evacuation advisories, the need for protective equipment, and the utilization of hospital and health care resources. A range of operational modeling capabilities is required to support different types of release events, distance scales, and response times. Fast-response deployable models are used to perform hazard assessments and initial response functions, and can serve as a backup when connections to a reach-back center are not available. Higher-fidelity three-dimensional dispersion models, coupled to real-time observational data and numerical weather prediction model output, are used for real-time response and support expert quality-assured predictions and refined assessments. Computational fluid dynamics models, which explicitly resolve urban structures, are used for high fidelity applications including vulnerability analyses and planning studies. This paper will briefly discuss the types and capabilities of models used or under development for emergency response systems, customer products, supporting data, and a few representative examples of operational systems. Some selected research priorities are summarized in the final sections.

  5. A response to Mimics of child abuse: Can choking explain abusive head trauma? [35 (2015) 33-37].

    PubMed

    Galaznik, John G

    2016-04-01

    In the recently published article in this journal, "Mimics of Child Abuse: Can Choking Explain Abusive Head Trauma?",(1) the author chose to revisit a discussion prompted by a case report from 5 years ago which was inappropriate in his opinion. He went further to suggest that bringing an unvalidated mechanism of injury into the legal setting "obstructs justice", is a "further victimization of the child", and is a "travesty of justice".(1) Given the "Shaken Baby Syndrome: Rotational Cranial Injuries" has always been only an unvalidated hypothesis lacking experimental confirmation, the exploring of alternative injury mechanisms should be entirely appropriate. In 2010, the post publication discussion ended with a challenge to the American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Child Abuse and Neglect (AAP COCAN) to either support the pure shaking mechanism with quality EBMS or eliminate any positive support for it from any official policy statement until the exact nature of each injury that pure abusive shaking has the potential to cause is clearly defined and supported with quality experimental research.(4) Since this is an area of acknowledged controversy by the AAP, it is appropriate to examine the evidence based experimental literature that has emerged over the last five years that is relevant to the abusive shaking hypothesis and the hypothesis of any primary brain-lethal hypoxic event leading to the findings of retinal hemorrhages, extra-axial bleeding, and brain injury when an infant presents to medical attention after an Acute/Apparent Life Threatening Event. In that light, this review was undertaken. PMID:26828828

  6. Sudden unexpected infant death: differentiating natural from abusive causes in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Bechtel, Kirsten

    2012-10-01

    Sudden unexpected infant deaths (SUIDs) are deaths in infants younger than 12 months that occur suddenly, unexpectedly, and without obvious cause in the emergency department (ED). Sudden infant death syndrome, the leading cause of SUID in the United States, is much more common, but fatal child abuse and neglect have been sometimes mistaken for sudden infant death syndrome. The distinction between these 2 entities can only be made after a thorough investigation of the scene, interview of caregivers, and a complete forensic autopsy. Development of ED guidelines for the reporting and evaluation of SUID, in collaboration with the local medical examiner and child death review teams, will enable ED practitioners to collect important information in a compassionate manner that will be valuable to the investigating personnel. PMID:23034500

  7. Value of the internet in emergency response.

    SciTech Connect

    Herzenberg, C. L.; Newsom, D. E.; Swietlik, C. E.

    1999-05-26

    Can the Internet be of value in emergency response? The answer is yes, judging by its use in the Kobe earthquake in Japan in 1995, ice storms in the US and Canada in 1998, and other disasters. Current and future areas of application are numerous, including exchanging messages, documents, and data files via e-mail; accessing operational data on-line; visualizing events via photos and maps; providing backup communications in lieu of broadcast media, exchanging information between crisis managers and responders; and providing information to media and the public. However, the Internet has some drawbacks, such as hardware/software requirements, computer literacy requirements, traffic jams, dependence on power and communication networks, and risks to information integrity and security. This paper examines some of the advantages, drawbacks, concerns, and potential uses of the Internet for emergency response.

  8. PHMC post-NPH emergency response training

    SciTech Connect

    Conrads, T.J.

    1997-04-08

    This document describes post-Natural Phenomena Hazard (NPH) emergency response training that was provided to two teams of Project Hanford Management Contractors (PHMC) staff that will be used to assess potential structural damage that may occur as a result of a significant natural phenomena event. This training supports recent plans and procedures to use trained staff to inspect structures following an NPH event on the Hanford Site.

  9. 75 FR 43232 - Revisions of the Emergency Response Guidebook

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... (ERG2012), particularly from those who have experience using the 2008 Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG). The ERG is for use by emergency services personnel to provide guidance for initial response to.... PHMSA developed the Emergency Response Guidebook (ERG) for use by emergency services personnel...

  10. Domestic abuse as a transgressive practice: understanding nurses' responses through the lens of abjection.

    PubMed

    Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Taylor, Julie

    2013-10-01

    Domestic abuse is a worldwide public health issue with long-term health and social consequences. Nurses play a key role in recognizing and responding to domestic abuse. Yet there is considerable evidence that their responses are often inappropriate and unhelpful, such as trivializing or ignoring the abuse. Empirical studies have identified several reasons why nurses' responses are sometimes wanting. These include organizational constraints, e.g. lack of time and privacy; and interpersonal factors such as fear of offending women and lack of confidence. We propose, however, that these factors present only a partial explanation. Drawing on the work of Julia Kristeva, we suggest that alternative understandings may be derived through applying the concept of abjection. Abjection is a psychological defence against any threat (the abject) to the clean and proper self that results in rejection of the abject. Using examples from our own domestic abuse research, we contend that exposure of nurses to the horror of domestic abuse evokes a state of abjection. Domestic abuse (the abject) transgresses established social boundaries of clean and proper. Thus when exposed to patients' and clients' experiences of it, some nurses subconsciously reject domestic abuse as a possibility (abjection). They do this to protect themselves from the horror of the act, but in so doing, render themselves unable to formulate appropriate responses. Rather than understanding the practice of some nurses as wilfully neglectful or ignorant, we argue that through a state of abjection, they are powerless to act. This does not refute existing evidence about nurses' responses to domestic abuse. Rather, as a relatively unknown concept in nursing, abjection provides an additional explanatory layer that accounts for why some nurses respond the way they do. Crucially, it elucidates the need for nurses to be supported emotionally when faced with the transgressive practice of abuse. PMID:24034160

  11. Sexual revictimization: the impact of attachment anxiety, accumulated trauma, and response to childhood sexual abuse disclosure.

    PubMed

    Brenner, Inbal; Ben-Amitay, Galit

    2015-01-01

    It has been proposed that a complexity of personal, interpersonal, and environmental factors is related to sexual revictimization among childhood sexual abuse survivors. In this study, we investigated the relations between attachment dimensions, exposure to accumulated childhood traumas, reaction to childhood sexual abuse disclosure, and adult sexual revictimization. Participants were 60 Israeli women with histories of childhood sexual abuse. Seventy percent of the women reported adult sexual revictimization. Revictimization was related to higher attachment anxiety but not to higher attachment avoidance. Revictimization was also related to emotional and physical child abuse but not to emotional and physical child neglect. Revictimization rates were higher among women who had received negative environmental responses following childhood sexual abuse disclosure than among women who had received supportive reactions and those who had not disclosed childhood sexual abuse at all. Findings were significant even after controlling for severity of childhood sexual abuse. The findings emphasize the role of various contextual-interpersonal factors on revictimization vulnerability among the survivors of childhood sexual abuse. PMID:25774414

  12. Training for emergency response with RimSim:Response!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Bruce D.; Schroder, Konrad A.

    2009-05-01

    Since developing and promoting a Pacific Rim community emergency response simulation software platform called RimSim, the PARVAC team at the University of Washington has developed a variety of first responder agents who can participate within a response simulation. Agents implement response heuristics and communications strategies in conjunction with live players trying to develop their own heuristics and communications strategies to participate in a successful community response crisis. The effort is facilitated by shared visualization of the affected geographical extent. We present initial findings from interacting with a wide variety of mixed agent simulation sessions and make the software available for others to perform their own experiments.e

  13. Information Products Laboratory for Emergency Response - IPLER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodacek, A.; Boyd, D. L.; van Aardt, J.; Renschler, C. S.; McKeown, D. M.; Collins, H.; Duvvuri, S.; Pillai, A. H.

    2009-12-01

    The three-tiered disaster management approach, disaster planning, disaster response and disaster recovery, is ripe for innovation through integrated knowledge and technology transfer efforts between university researchers, technology companies, and public sector responders. We have formed a partnership, the Information Products Laboratory for Emergency Response or IPLER, dedicated to innovation in disaster management by the appropriate application of remote sensing and geospatial technologies. The mission of the IPLER is to create a technology, policy, and business development incubator to facilitate interaction and innovation among university researchers, private sector service and product providers, and public sector emergency response decision makers. Our initial demonstration projects involve flood and wildland fire mapping. The initial results highlight the utility of integrated multispectral imaging and lidar sensing with terrain and hydrologic modeling for managing areas affected by the 2009 flooding of Cattaraugus Creek, NY, USA. Additionally, our processing flow for multispectral (mid- and longwave IR) remote sensing data of wildfire is an example of near realtime transformation of imaging data into simplified information products for use in wildland fire response.

  14. Evaluation of automated emergency response systems

    SciTech Connect

    Addis, R.P.

    1988-12-31

    Automated Emergency Response (ER) systems are playing a greater role in providing prompt and reliable predictions of the impact of inadvertent releases of hazardous materials to the environment. Observed and forecast environmental and accident source term data are input into environmental transport and dispersion models to provide dosimetry estimates used as decision making aids for responding to emergencies. Several automated ER systems have been developed for US Federal Government facilities and many are available commercially. For such systems to be useful, they must reliably and consistently deliver a timely product to the decision makers. Evaluation of the entire ER system is essential to determine the performance that can be expected from the system during an emergency. Unfortunately, seldom are ER systems evaluated as a whole. Usually Quality Assurance programs evaluate the performance of individual components of the system. Most atmospheric pollution model evaluation methods usually involve an evaluation of the predictive performance of the transport and dispersion model when compared either with experimental tracer results or results from other models. Rarely, however, is the ability of the ER system to provide timely, reliable and consistent information evaluated. Such an evaluation is vital to determine the system performance during an emergency and to provide valuable information to aid in improving the system.

  15. Feasibility of Tablet Computer Screening for Opioid Abuse in the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Weiner, Scott G.; Horton, Laura C.; Green, Traci C.; Butler, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Tablet computer-based screening may have the potential for detecting patients at risk for opioid abuse in the emergency department (ED). Study objectives were a) to determine if the revised Screener and Opioid Assessment for Patients with Pain (SOAPP®-R), a 24-question previously paper-based screening tool for opioid abuse potential, could be administered on a tablet computer to an ED patient population; b) to demonstrate that >90% of patients can complete the electronic screener without assistance in <5 minutes and; c) to determine patient ease of use with screening on a tablet computer. Methods This was a cross-sectional convenience sample study of patients seen in an urban academic ED. SOAPP®-R was programmed on a tablet computer by study investigators. Inclusion criteria were patients ages ≥18 years who were being considered for discharge with a prescription for an opioid analgesic. Exclusion criteria included inability to understand English or physical disability preventing use of the tablet. Results 93 patients were approached for inclusion and 82 (88%) provided consent. Fifty-two percent (n=43) of subjects were male; 46% (n=38) of subjects were between 18–35 years, and 54% (n=44) were >35 years. One hundred percent of subjects completed the screener. Median time to completion was 148 (interquartile range 117.5–184.3) seconds, and 95% (n=78) completed in <5 minutes. 93% (n=76) rated ease of completion as very easy. Conclusions It is feasible to administer a screening tool to a cohort of ED patients on a tablet computer. The screener administration time is minimal and patient ease of use with this modality is high. PMID:25671003

  16. Achieving reliable communication in dynamic emergency responses.

    PubMed

    Chipara, Octav; Plymoth, Anders N; Liu, Fang; Huang, Ricky; Evans, Brian; Johansson, Per; Rao, Ramesh; Griswold, William G

    2011-01-01

    Emergency responses require the coordination of first responders to assess the condition of victims, stabilize their condition, and transport them to hospitals based on the severity of their injuries. WIISARD is a system designed to facilitate the collection of medical information and its reliable dissemination during emergency responses. A key challenge in WIISARD is to deliver data with high reliability as first responders move and operate in a dynamic radio environment fraught with frequent network disconnections. The initial WIISARD system employed a client-server architecture and an ad-hoc routing protocol was used to exchange data. The system had low reliability when deployed during emergency drills. In this paper, we identify the underlying causes of unreliability and propose a novel peer-to-peer architecture that in combination with a gossip-based communication protocol achieves high reliability. Empirical studies show that compared to the initial WIISARD system, the redesigned system improves reliability by as much as 37% while reducing the number of transmitted packets by 23%. PMID:22195075

  17. Achieving Reliable Communication in Dynamic Emergency Responses

    PubMed Central

    Chipara, Octav; Plymoth, Anders N.; Liu, Fang; Huang, Ricky; Evans, Brian; Johansson, Per; Rao, Ramesh; Griswold, William G.

    2011-01-01

    Emergency responses require the coordination of first responders to assess the condition of victims, stabilize their condition, and transport them to hospitals based on the severity of their injuries. WIISARD is a system designed to facilitate the collection of medical information and its reliable dissemination during emergency responses. A key challenge in WIISARD is to deliver data with high reliability as first responders move and operate in a dynamic radio environment fraught with frequent network disconnections. The initial WIISARD system employed a client-server architecture and an ad-hoc routing protocol was used to exchange data. The system had low reliability when deployed during emergency drills. In this paper, we identify the underlying causes of unreliability and propose a novel peer-to-peer architecture that in combination with a gossip-based communication protocol achieves high reliability. Empirical studies show that compared to the initial WIISARD system, the redesigned system improves reliability by as much as 37% while reducing the number of transmitted packets by 23%. PMID:22195075

  18. Ruptured mycotic common femoral artery pseudoaneurysm: fatal pulmonary embolism after emergency stent-grafting in a drug abuser.

    PubMed

    Karkos, Christos D; Kalogirou, Thomas E; Giagtzidis, Ioakeim T; Papazoglou, Konstantinos O

    2014-12-01

    The rupture of a mycotic femoral artery pseudoaneurysm in an intravenous drug abuser is a limb- and life-threatening condition that necessitates emergency intervention. Emergency stent-grafting appears to be a viable, minimally invasive alternative, or a bridge, to subsequent open surgery. Caution is required in cases of suspected concomitant deep vein thrombosis in order to minimize the possibility of massive pulmonary embolism during stent-grafting, perhaps by omitting stent-graft postdilation or by inserting an inferior vena cava filter first. We describe the emergency endovascular management, in a 60-year-old male intravenous drug abuser, of a ruptured mycotic femoral artery pseudoaneurysm, which was complicated by a fatal pulmonary embolism. PMID:25593530

  19. USGS standard quadrangle maps for emergency response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Laurence R.

    2009-01-01

    The 1:24,000-scale topographic quadrangle was the primary product of the U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) National Mapping Program from 1947-1992. This map series includes about 54,000 map sheets for the conterminous United States, and is the only uniform map series ever produced that covers this area at such a large scale. This map series partially was revised under several programs, starting as early as 1968, but these programs were not adequate to keep the series current. Through the 1990s the emphasis of the USGS mapping program shifted away from topographic maps and toward more specialized digital data products. Topographic map revision dropped off rapidly after 1999, and stopped completely by 2004. Since 2001, emergency-response and homeland security requirement have revived the question of whether a standard national topographic series is needed. Emergencies such as Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and California wildfires in 2007-08 demonstrated that familiar maps are important to first responders. Maps that have a standard scale, extent, and grids help reduce confusion and save time in emergencies. Traditional maps are designed to allow the human brain to quickly process large amounts of information, and depend on artistic layout and design that cannot be fully automated. In spite of technical advances, creating a traditional, general-purpose topographic map is still expensive. Although the content and layout of traditional topographic maps probably is still desirable, the preferred packaging and delivery of maps has changed. Digital image files are now desired by most users, but to be useful to the emergency-response community, these files must be easy to view and easy to print without specialized geographic information system expertise or software.

  20. ASPECT Emergency Response Chemical and Radiological Mapping

    ScienceCinema

    LANL

    2009-09-01

    A unique airborne emergency response tool, ASPECT is a Los Alamos/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency project that can put chemical and radiological mapping tools in the air over an accident scene. The name ASPECT is an acronym for Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology. Update, Sept. 19, 2008: Flying over storm-damaged refineries and chemical factories, a twin-engine plane carrying the ASPECT (Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology) system has been on duty throughout the recent hurricanes that have swept the Florida and Gulf Coast areas. ASPECT is a project of the U.S. U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys National Decontamination Team. Los Alamos National Laboratory leads a science and technology program supporting the EPA and the ASPECT aircraft. Casting about with a combination of airborne photography and infrared spectroscopy, the highly instrumented plane provides emergency responders on the ground with a clear concept of where danger lies, and the nature of the sometimes-invisible plumes that could otherwise kill them. ASPECT is the nations only 24/7 emergency response aircraft with chemical plume mapping capability. Bob Kroutil of Bioscience Division is the project leader, and while he said the team has put in long hours, both on the ground and in the air, its a worthwhile effort. The plane flew over 320 targeted sites in four days, he noted. Prior to the deployment to the Gulf Coast, the plane had been monitoring the Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado. Los Alamos National Laboratory Divisions that are supporting ASPECT include, in addition to B-Division, CTN-5: Networking Engineering and IRM-CAS: Communication, Arts, and Services. Leslie Mansell, CTN-5, and Marilyn Pruitt, IRM-CAS, were recognized the the U.S. EPA for their outstanding support to the hurricane response of Gustav in Louisiana and Ike in Texas. The information from the data collected in the most recent event, Hurricane

  1. ASPECT Emergency Response Chemical and Radiological Mapping

    SciTech Connect

    LANL

    2008-05-12

    A unique airborne emergency response tool, ASPECT is a Los Alamos/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency project that can put chemical and radiological mapping tools in the air over an accident scene. The name ASPECT is an acronym for Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology. Update, Sept. 19, 2008: Flying over storm-damaged refineries and chemical factories, a twin-engine plane carrying the ASPECT (Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology) system has been on duty throughout the recent hurricanes that have swept the Florida and Gulf Coast areas. ASPECT is a project of the U.S. U.S. Environmental Protection Agencys National Decontamination Team. Los Alamos National Laboratory leads a science and technology program supporting the EPA and the ASPECT aircraft. Casting about with a combination of airborne photography and infrared spectroscopy, the highly instrumented plane provides emergency responders on the ground with a clear concept of where danger lies, and the nature of the sometimes-invisible plumes that could otherwise kill them. ASPECT is the nations only 24/7 emergency response aircraft with chemical plume mapping capability. Bob Kroutil of Bioscience Division is the project leader, and while he said the team has put in long hours, both on the ground and in the air, its a worthwhile effort. The plane flew over 320 targeted sites in four days, he noted. Prior to the deployment to the Gulf Coast, the plane had been monitoring the Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado. Los Alamos National Laboratory Divisions that are supporting ASPECT include, in addition to B-Division, CTN-5: Networking Engineering and IRM-CAS: Communication, Arts, and Services. Leslie Mansell, CTN-5, and Marilyn Pruitt, IRM-CAS, were recognized the the U.S. EPA for their outstanding support to the hurricane response of Gustav in Louisiana and Ike in Texas. The information from the data collected in the most recent event, Hurricane

  2. National Labs and Nuclear Emergency Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budil, Kimberly

    2015-04-01

    The DOE national laboratories, and in particular the three NNSA national security laboratories, have long supported a broad suite of national nuclear security missions for the U.S. government. The capabilities, infrastructure and base of expertise developed to support the U.S. nuclear weapons stockpile have been applied to such challenges as stemming nuclear proliferation, understanding the nuclear capabilities of adversaries, and assessing and countering nuclear threats including essential support to nuclear emergency response. This talk will discuss the programs that are underway at the laboratories and the essential role that science and technology plays therein. Nuclear scientists provide expertise, fundamental understanding of nuclear materials, processes and signatures, and tools and technologies to aid in the identification and mitigation of nuclear threats as well as consequence management. This talk will also discuss the importance of direct engagement with the response community, which helps to shape research priorities and to enable development of useful tools and techniques for responders working in the field. National Labs and Nuclear Emergency Response.

  3. Teachers' Responsibilities when Adolescent Abuse and Neglect Are Suspected

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Tracy W.; Lambie, Glenn W.

    2005-01-01

    As institutions collectively serving young adolescents of every race, creed, ethnic, and socioeconomic group, middle level schools provide an ideal environment for combating adolescent abuse and neglect. Additionally, because of their frequent, recurring, and long-term contact with the young adolescents they teach, middle level teachers are in an…

  4. The Federal Response to Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Olivia

    2000-01-01

    The Clinton administration prioritized the issue of improving the lives of maltreated children. Critical programs administered by the Administration on Children and Families included the Adoption and Safe Families Act, Children's Justice Act programs, and Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act research and demonstration projects. Projects serve…

  5. [Commitment of drug abusers in Israel: medical or social responsibility?].

    PubMed

    Sigal, M; Gelkopf, M; Ben-Or, H M

    1991-01-01

    In 1977 a new paragraph was added to Israel's penal law allowing rehabilitation of convicted drug abusers by compulsory psychiatric treatment. The commitment was implemented on the basis of a court order. Notwithstanding the doubts of psychiatrists the law permitted the commitment of a significant number of drug abusers to psychiatric wards. The rehabilitation treatment through commitment and some of its negative consequences are described in a study that covers 10 years of activity at the Pardessia Menta Health Center. We present 3 typical profiles of drug abusers who were treated in our center as specified by the law. None needed medical help in physical withdrawal from the drug. All took advantage of the opportunity to spend part of their incarceration time in the hospital instead of in jail. The law was amended in July 1989 and since February 1990 treatment is conducted under the supervision of probation officers and not in a medical institution. The amended law reflects the approach to drug abuse as a social not psychopathological problem, so that social agencies and no medical instances are in charge. PMID:2010135

  6. Physically Abused Children's Regulation of Attention in Response to Hostility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollak, Seth D.; Vardi, Shira; Bechner, Anna M. Putzner; Curtin, John J.

    2005-01-01

    The present study examines the effects of early emotional experiences on children's regulation or strategic control of attention in the presence of interpersonal hostility. Abused children's reactions to the unfolding of a realistic interpersonal emotional situation were measured through multiple methods including autonomic nervous system changes…

  7. Methamphetamine Abuse and Manufacture: The Child Welfare Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohman, Melinda; Oliver, Rhonda; Wright, Wendy

    2004-01-01

    Methamphetamine abuse is on the rise, particularly by women of child-bearing age. This article describes the history and effects of methamphetamine use. The authors examine the ways exposure to the manufacture of this drug affects clients and social workers in the course of their work. Because children are frequently found at the scene of a…

  8. Readiness Issues for Emergency Response Instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    C.A. Riland; D.R. Bowman; R.J. Tighe

    1999-03-01

    Issues in maintaining readiness of instruments for deployment and use in emergency response situation often differ from those in maintaining instruments for normal operations. Confunding circumstances include use of non-availability of check sources, ensuring instruments are always in calibration and operable, possible use of instruments in different climates, packaging of instrumentation for deployment, transport of instrumentation and check sources, and ensuring users are familiar with instruments. Methods and procedures for addressing these issues are presented. Instrumentation used for survey, in situ measurements, electronic dosimetry, and air conditioning are discussed.

  9. Determining Possible Professionals and Respective Roles and Responsibilities for a Model Comprehensive Elder Abuse Intervention: A Delphi Consensus Survey

    PubMed Central

    Du Mont, Janice; Kosa, Daisy; Macdonald, Sheila; Elliot, Shannon; Yaffe, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Objective We have undertaken a multi-phase, multi-method program of research to develop, implement, and evaluate a comprehensive hospital-based nurse examiner elder abuse intervention that addresses the complex functional, social, forensic, and medical needs of older women and men. In this study, we determined the importance of possible participating professionals and respective roles and responsibilities within the intervention. Methods Using a modified Delphi methodology, recommended professionals and their associated roles and responsibilities were generated from a systematic scoping review of relevant scholarly and grey literatures. These items were reviewed, new items added for review, and rated/re-rated for their importance to the intervention on a 5-point Likert scale by an expert panel during a one day in-person meeting. Items that did not achieve consensus were subsequently re-rated in an online survey. Analysis Those items that achieved a mean Likert rating of 4+ (rated important to very important), and an interquartile range<1 in the first or second round, and/or for which 80% of ratings were 4+ in the second round were retained for the model elder abuse intervention. Results Twenty-two of 31 recommended professionals and 192 of 229 recommended roles and responsibilities rated were retained for our model elder abuse intervention. Retained professionals were: public guardian and trustee (mean rating = 4.88), geriatrician (4.87), police officer (4.87), GEM (geriatric emergency management) nurse (4.80), GEM social worker (4.78), community health worker (4.76), social worker/counsellor (4.74), family physician in community (4.71), paramedic (4.65), financial worker (4.59), lawyer (4.59), pharmacist (4.59), emergency physician (4.57), geriatric psychiatrist (4.33), occupational therapist (4.29), family physician in hospital (4.28), Crown prosecutor (4.24), neuropsychologist (4.24), bioethicist (4.18), caregiver advocate (4.18), victim support worker (4

  10. Rapid response team for behavioral emergencies.

    PubMed

    Loucks, Jeannine; Rutledge, Dana N; Hatch, Beverly; Morrison, Victoria

    2010-03-01

    Behaviors of patients with psychiatric illness who are hospitalized on nonbehavioral health units can be difficult to address by staff members. Instituting a rapid response team to proactively de-escalate potential volatile situations on nonpsychiatric units in a hospital allows earlier treatment of behavioral issues with these patients. The behavioral emergency response team (BERT) consists of staff members (registered nurses, social workers) from behavioral health services who have experience in caring for patients with acute psychiatric disorders as well as competence in management of assaultive behavior. BERT services were trialed on a medical pulmonary unit; gradual housewide implementation occurred over 2 years. Tools developed for BERT include an activation algorithm, educational cue cards for staff, and a staff survey. Results of a performance improvement survey reveal that staff nurses have had positive experiences with BERT but that many nurses are still not comfortable caring for psychiatric patients on their units. PMID:21659266

  11. Dentist attitudes and responsibilities concerning child sexual abuse. A review and a case report

    PubMed Central

    Garrocho-Rangel, Arturo; Márquez-Preciado, Raúl; Olguín-Vivar, Ana-Isabel; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Socorro

    2015-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization, child abuse and neglect is “every kind of physical, sexual, emotional abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, commercial or other exploitation resulting in actual or potential harm to the child’s health, survival, development or dignity in the context of a relationship of responsibility, trust or power”. The aim of the present report is to inform about the most relevant aspects of child abuse and the characteristics of injuries to the head, neck, and orofacial regions, in addition to the suggested role of, and management by, the dentist for the evaluation of this condition, and also for reporting a case of a physically and sexually abused girl aged 5 years 8 months. Throughout the appointments, some type of abuse in this patient was suspected by the treating dentists at the clinic, mainly due to the initial behavior exhibited by the patient in the dental chair. Based on the clinical diagnostic an intensive preventive plan and restorative treatment was realized. The timely detection of the signs and symptoms of sexual abuse, often present in the orofacial region, place the pediatric dentist in a strategic situation, with the capacity to recognize, register, and later report those cases considered as suspect, including the dental treatment delivered and the intensive behavioral-psychological management, in order to achieve acceptation by the otherwise very anxious patient of the indicated restorative and preventive dental procedures. Key words:Child abuse, dentistry, behavior management. PMID:26330943

  12. Hepatitis-B Infections among the Injection Drug Abusers: An Emerging Risk in Public Health, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Hossain, K J; Nandi, A K

    2015-10-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the incidence of Hepatitis-B (HBV) infection among the injection drugs abusers (IDUs). The research work was a cross-sectional study. A total of 400 IDUs were selected from July 2012 to June 2013 at the Outpatient Department of the Central Drug Addiction Treatment Center, Tejgaon, Dhaka, Bangladesh. They were selected consecutively following the purposive sampling method on the basis of defined selection criteria. Research instruments were a pre-tested interviewer questionnaire and blood specimen. Results showed that 79.70%(315) of the IDUs were found literate and 20.3%(85) illiterate. In present occupation, majority of them 60.5%(242) had no work and 39.5%(158) specific occupation. The mean age of them was 27.9±6.4 years. In marital status, 46.5%(186) were unmarried, 20.7%(83) married after addiction and 30.3%(121) married before addiction. Majority of the IDUs 75.2%(289) started their addiction with cannabis. In addition to injection drugs use, all of them were multiple drug abusers. In response to the sharing of needle, 35.7%(143) of the IDUs shared needle uncommonly and 64.3%(257) did not shared it at all. Ninety-three percent (372) of them were heterosexual and polygamous having extramarital sex with multiple partners. The quality of sex-partners was wife, friends, brothel & hotel based sex sellers and street sex sellers. Majority of IDUs {82.0%(328)} did not use condom at all and 15.5(62) sold blood several times in their lifetime. Seven percent {7.0%(28)} injection drug abusers had been suffering from hepatitis-B virus (HBV) infection. HBV infection was found to be significantly (p≥0.05) associated with the quality of sex partners and number of sex partners, and age and marital status. There is no significant association with sharing of needle particularly occasional sharing of needle. Altering the behaviors of IDUs, especially their sexual lifestyles, drug habit, using of disposable syringe without sharing of

  13. Portable Neutron Sensors for Emergency Response Operations

    SciTech Connect

    ,

    2012-06-24

    This article presents the experimental work performed in the area of neutron detector development at the Remote Sensing Laboratory–Andrews Operations (RSL-AO) sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) in the last four years. During the 1950s neutron detectors were developed mostly to characterize nuclear reactors where the neutron flux is high. Due to the indirect nature of neutron detection via interaction with other particles, neutron counting and neutron energy measurements have never been as precise as gamma-ray counting measurements and gamma-ray spectroscopy. This indirect nature is intrinsic to all neutron measurement endeavors (except perhaps for neutron spin-related experiments, viz. neutron spin-echo measurements where one obtains μeV energy resolution). In emergency response situations generally the count rates are low, and neutrons may be scattered around in inhomogeneous intervening materials. It is also true that neutron sensors are most efficient for the lowest energy neutrons, so it is not as easy to detect and count energetic neutrons. Most of the emergency response neutron detectors are offshoots of nuclear device diagnostics tools and special nuclear materials characterization equipment, because that is what is available commercially. These instruments mostly are laboratory equipment, and not field-deployable gear suited for mobile teams. Our goal is to design and prototype field-deployable, ruggedized, lightweight, efficient neutron detectors.

  14. Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the emergency response laws and regulations in place in the various states within the southern region for use by legislators, emergency response planners, the general public and all persons concerned about the existing legal framework for emergency response. SSEB expects to periodically update the report as necessary. Radiation protection regulations without emergency response provisions are not included in the summary.

  15. 40 CFR 68.95 - Emergency response program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency response program. 68.95 Section 68.95 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Emergency Response § 68.95 Emergency response program....

  16. 40 CFR 68.95 - Emergency response program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emergency response program. 68.95 Section 68.95 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Emergency Response § 68.95 Emergency response program....

  17. 40 CFR 68.95 - Emergency response program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emergency response program. 68.95 Section 68.95 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Emergency Response § 68.95 Emergency response program....

  18. 40 CFR 68.95 - Emergency response program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emergency response program. 68.95 Section 68.95 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Emergency Response § 68.95 Emergency response program....

  19. The Relationship Between Perceptions of Response to Disclosure of Childhood Sexual Abuse and Later Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Palo, Amanda D; Gilbert, Brenda O

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed whether perceptions of others' reactions to disclosure are related to psychological and physical outcomes among individuals with a history of child sexual abuse. Eighty-six female undergraduates completed a series of questionnaires assessing child sexual abuse, nonsexual trauma, depression, anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, somatic symptoms, disclosure, and social reactions to disclosure. Those who reported child sexual abuse endorsed higher levels of psychological and physical symptoms than those who reported a nonsexual traumatic event. Child sexual abuse survivors who reported more hurtful responses to disclosure had higher levels of posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and physical symptoms than nonsexual trauma survivors. These findings suggest that many survivors of CSA may need psychological services, and an important focus of treatment may be assessing and strengthening social support. PMID:26301435

  20. Physiological Responses to Non-Child-Related Stressors in Mothers at Risk for Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casanova, Gisele M.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study investigated changes in heart rate and skin conductance in response to four types of non-child-related stressors in mothers at risk and at low risk for physical child abuse. At-risk mothers had greater and more prolonged sympathetic activation during the most stressful presentations, supporting the view of such responses as mediators of…

  1. Simulation Training in Early Emergency Response (STEER).

    PubMed

    Generoso, Jose Roberto; Latoures, Renee Elizabeth; Acar, Yahya; Miller, Dean Scott; Ciano, Mark; Sandrei, Renan; Vieira, Marlon; Luong, Sean; Hirsch, Jan; Fidler, Richard Lee

    2016-06-01

    HOW TO OBTAIN CONTACT HOURS BY READING THIS ISSUE Instructions: 1.3 contact hours will be awarded by Villanova University College of Nursing upon successful completion of this activity. A contact hour is a unit of measurement that denotes 60 minutes of an organized learning activity. This is a learner-based activity. Villanova University College of Nursing does not require submission of your answers to the quiz. A contact hour certificate will be awarded after you register, pay the registration fee, and complete the evaluation form online at http://goo.gl/gMfXaf. In order to obtain contact hours you must: 1. Read the article, "Simulation Training in Early Emergency Response (STEER)," found on pages 255-263, carefully noting any tables and other illustrative materials that are included to enhance your knowledge and understanding of the content. Be sure to keep track of the amount of time (number of minutes) you spend reading the article and completing the quiz. 2. Read and answer each question on the quiz. After completing all of the questions, compare your answers to those provided within this issue. If you have incorrect answers, return to the article for further study. 3. Go to the Villanova website to register for contact hour credit. You will be asked to provide your name, contact information, and a VISA, MasterCard, or Discover card number for payment of the $20.00 fee. Once you complete the online evaluation, a certificate will be automatically generated. This activity is valid for continuing education credit until May 31, 2019. CONTACT HOURS This activity is co-provided by Villanova University College of Nursing and SLACK Incorporated. Villanova University College of Nursing is accredited as a provider of continuing nursing education by the American Nurses Credentialing Center's Commission on Accreditation. OBJECTIVES Define the purpose of the Simulation Training in Early Emergency Response (STEER) study. Review the outcome of the STEER study. DISCLOSURE

  2. Disaster Response and Preparedness Application: Emergency Environmental Response Tool (EERT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smoot, James; Carr, Hugh; Jester, Keith

    2003-01-01

    In 2000, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Environmental Office at the John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) developed an Environmental Geographic Information Systems (EGIS) database. NASA had previously developed a GIS database at SSC to assist in the NASA Environmental Office's management of the Center. This GIS became the basis for the NASA-wide EGIS project, which was proposed after the applicability of the SSC database was demonstrated. Since its completion, the SSC EGIS has aided the Environmental Office with noise pollution modeling, land cover assessment, wetlands delineation, environmental hazards mapping, and critical habitat delineation for protected species. At SSC, facility management and safety officers are responsible for ensuring the physical security of the facilities, staff, and equipment as well as for responding to environmental emergencies, such as accidental releases of hazardous materials. All phases of emergency management (planning, mitigation, preparedness, and response) depend on data reliability and system interoperability from a variety of sources to determine the size and scope of the emergency operation. Because geospatial data are now available for all NASA facilities, it was suggested that this data could be incorporated into a computerized management information program to assist facility managers. The idea was that the information system could improve both the effectiveness and the efficiency of managing and controlling actions associated with disaster, homeland security, and other activities. It was decided to use SSC as a pilot site to demonstrate the efficacy of having a baseline, computerized management information system that ultimately was referred to as the Emergency Environmental Response Tool (EERT).

  3. Gap Assessment in the Emergency Response Community

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, Jonathan L.; Burtner, Edwin R.; Pike, William A.; Peddicord, Annie M Boe; Minsk, Brian S.

    2010-09-27

    This report describes a gap analysis of the emergency response and management (EM) community, performed during the fall of 2009. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) undertook this effort to identify potential improvements to the functional domains in EM that could be provided by the application of current or future technology. To perform this domain-based gap analysis, PNNL personnel interviewed subject matter experts (SMEs) across the EM domain; to make certain that the analyses reflected a representative view of the community, the SMEs were from a variety of geographic areas and from various sized communities (urban, suburban, and rural). PNNL personnel also examined recent and relevant after-action reports and U.S. Government Accountability Office reports.

  4. Next-generation emergency response robots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzan, Forrest; Paul, George; Dunten, Seth; Kennedy, William; Dietsch, Jeanne A.

    2004-09-01

    As reported by Blitch, current Search and Rescue robots have proven inadequate in the field. Shortfalls in mobility include: inadequate relationship between traction and drag, inadequate self-righting, inadequate sensor protection and too many protrusions to snag. Because autonomous navigation is often impossible but tele-operation may be difficult, sliding autonomy is critical. In addition, next generation SR robots need plug-n-play sensor options and modular cargo holds to deliver daughter-bots or other specialized rescue equipment. Finally, dust and smoke have caused both sensors and robots to fail in the field. Many of the needs of Search and Rescue teams are shared by all Emergency Response robots: EOD, SWAT, HazMat and other law enforcement officers. We discuss how next-generation designs solve many of the problems currently facing ER robots.

  5. Code System for Emergency Response Dose Assessment.

    2002-01-16

    Version: 00 A dose assessment model for emergency response applications. Dose pathways represented in the model are those that are most likely to be important during and immediately following a release (hours) rather than over an extended time frame (days or weeks). The doses computed include: external dose resulting from exposure to radiation emitted by radionuclides in the air and deposited on the ground, internal dose commitment resulting from inhalation, and total whole-body dose. Threemore » preprocessors are included. RSFPREP generates the MESORAD run specification (input) file, METWR creates the meteorological data file, and RELPREP prepares the release definition file. PRNT is a postprocessor for generating printer or screen-compatible output. All four programs run interactively. MESORAD was developed from version 2.0 of the MESOI atmospheric dispersion model (NESC 9862) retaining its modular nature.« less

  6. Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide a summary of the emergency response laws and regulations in place in the various states within the southern region for use by legislators, emergency response planners, the general public and all persons concerned about the existing legal framework for emergency response. SSEB expects to periodically update the report as necessary. Radiation protection regulations without emergency response provisions are not included in the summary. The radiological emergency response laws and regulations of the Southern States Energy Compact member states are in some cases disparate. Several states have very specific laws on radiological emergency response while in others, the statutory law mentions only emergency response to ``natural disasters.`` Some states have adopted extensive regulations on the topic, others have none. For this reason, any general overview must necessarily discuss laws and regulations in general terms. State-by-state breakdowns are given for specific states.

  7. Surveillance and uncertainty: community pharmacy responses to over the counter medicine abuse.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Richard

    2013-05-01

    The sale of over-the-counter (OTC) medicines from community pharmacies offers important opportunities for members of the public to access medicines and self-treat conditions. They are increasingly recognised, however, as having the potential for abuse and harm despite their perceived relative safety. This study reports on a qualitative study that explored the experiences and views of community pharmacy staff in relation to current practices and concerns, management and support relating to OTC medicine abuse. Semi-structured interviews were undertaken with a purposive sample of ten pharmacists and seven medicines counter assistants in the United Kingdom. Analysis of interviews indicated that a range of medicines was implicated, including opiates, sedative antihistamines, laxatives and decongestants. A surveillance role was apparent for assistants, who placed emphasis on regulations, procedure and monitoring frequency of purchases to manage abuse, with referral on to pharmacists. Frequency of purchase was central to assistants' definition of those suspected of OTC medicine abuse, which pharmacists also utilised as well as a distinction between intentional abuse and unintentional medicine misuse. A lack of information about customers, easy access to, and poor communication between community pharmacies were emergent barriers to pharmacists providing more support. Many appeared uncertain of referral options or how pharmacists could effectively stop the problem of abuse. The commercial environment was a particular concern, in relation to customer expectations, medicine advertising and easy access to different community pharmacies. A key tension emerged between providing medicine supplies that permitted consumer freedom, with the needs of healthcare professionals to understand more about those consumers qua patients. Policy implications include the need for improved knowledge for community pharmacy staff about signposting to relevant services, increased awareness of who

  8. Sexual abuse of minors: emerging medical and social problem in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Lema, V M

    1997-11-01

    Sexual abuse is one of the most dehumanising human offenses. There has been an increasing public concern and outcry regarding the escalating wave of sexual abuse of young girls in Malawi, in the recent past. Four young girls, aged between two and seven years who were sexually abused by adult males aged between 20 and 70 years seen and managed in the department within the past two years, are presented to illustrate the problem. Their physical injuries, varied reactions and those of their immediate families to the abuse; possible predisposing factors to the abuses; the related medical, psychosocial as well as legal management of such incidents, in the light of limited public awareness, and lack of adequately and appropriately trained personnel and facilities in Malawi are discussed. With the scare of AIDS and an increasing disintegration of the traditional family fabric, there is a high potential for an increase, not only of the prevalence of sexual abuse of minors in Malawi, but also the variety and severity of sequelae. It is therefore recommended that there is need to create public awareness about sexual abuse, train and equip the relevant personnel to appropriately manage such cases, as well as enact and enforce the relevant legal provisions, so as to curb the menace, for the well-being of the society. PMID:9557452

  9. Emerging technology for vehicular safety and emergency response to roadway crashes.

    PubMed

    Champion, H R; Cushing, B

    1999-12-01

    Emerging technology for vehicular safety and emergency response to roadway crashes is the topic of this article. Reduction in emergency medical services system notification time, improvements in vehicular safety, crash avoidance and protection, post-crash injury control, triage, national automatic crash notification systems, and technologic improvements in emergency diagnostics and treatment during the past year are discussed. PMID:10625974

  10. Effects of separator breakdown on abuse response of 18650 Li-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, E. P.; Doughty, D. H.; Pile, D. L.

    The thermal abuse tolerance of Li-ion cells depends not only on the stability of the active materials in the anode and cathode but also on the stability of the separator which prevents direct interaction between these electrodes. Separator response has been measured as a function of temperature and high voltage both for isolated materials and in full 18650 cells. Separators with different compositions and properties were measured to determine the effect of separator melt integrity on cell response under abusive conditions. These studies were performed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program.

  11. Emergency Stent Grafting After Unsuccessful Surgical Repair of a Mycotic Common Femoral Artery Pseudoaneurysm in a Drug Abuser

    SciTech Connect

    Lupattelli, Tommaso; Garaci, Francesco Giuseppe; Basile, Antonio; Minnella, Daniela Paola; Casini, Andrea; Clerissi, Jacques

    2009-03-15

    Mycotic false aneurysm caused by local arterial injury from attempted intravenous injections in drug addicts remains a challenging clinical problem. The continued increase in drug abuse has resulted in an increased incidence of this problem, particularly in high-volume urban centres. In the drug-abusing population, mycotic arterial pseudoaneurysms most often occur because of missed venous injection and are typically seen in the groin, axilla, and antecubital fossa. Mycotic aneurysms may lead to life-threatening haemorrhage, limb loss, sepsis, and even death. Any soft-tissue swelling in the vicinity of a major artery in an intravenous drug abuser should be suspected of being a false aneurysm until proven otherwise and should prompt immediate referral to a vascular surgeon for investigation and management. We report a case of rupturing mycotic pseudoaneurysm of the left common femoral artery treated by surgical resection followed by vessel reconstruction with autologous material. Unfortunately, at the time of discharge a sudden leakage from the vein graft anastomosis occurred, with subsequent massive bleeding, and required emergent endovascular covered stenting. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of femoral artery bleeding in a drug abuser treated by stent graft placement.

  12. Lessons Learned for Follow-up Phone Booster Counseling Calls with Substance Abusing Emergency Department Patients

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Dennis M.; Hatch-Maillette, Mary A.; Phares, Melissa M.; McGarry, Ernest; Peavy, K. Michelle; Taborsky, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Background Post-visit “booster” sessions have been recommended to augment the impact of brief interventions delivered in the Emergency Department (ED). This paper, which focuses on implementation issues, presents descriptive information and interventionists’ qualitative perspectives on providing brief interventions over the phone, challenges, “lessons learned”, and recommendations for others attempting to implement adjunctive booster calls. Method Attempts were made to complete two 20-minute telephone “booster” calls within a week following a patient’s ED discharge with 425 patients who screened positive for and had recent problematic substance use other than alcohol or nicotine. Results Over half (56.2%) of participants completed the initial call; 66.9% of those who received the initial call also completed the second call. Median number of attempts to successfully contact participants for the first and second calls was 4 and 3, respectively. Each completed call lasted an average of about 22 minutes. Common challenges/barriers identified by booster callers included unstable housing, limited phone access, unavailability due to additional treatment, lack of compensation for booster calls, and booster calls coming from an area code different than the participants’ locale and from someone other than ED staff. Conclusions Specific recommendations are presented with respect to implementing a successful centralized adjunctive booster call system. Future use of booster calls might be informed by research on contingency management (e.g., incentivizing call completions), smoking cessation quitlines, and phone-based continuing care for substance abuse patients. Future research needs to evaluate the incremental benefit of adjunctive booster calls on outcomes over and above that of brief motivational interventions delivered in the ED setting. PMID:25534151

  13. The Cortisol Paradox of Trauma-Related Disorders: Lower Phasic Responses but Higher Tonic Levels of Cortisol Are Associated with Sexual Abuse in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Schalinski, Inga; Elbert, Thomas; Steudte-Schmiedgen, Susann; Kirschbaum, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Inconsistent findings exist for the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with stress related disorders. Recent studies point towards early life stress as a potential modulator. Methods We investigated the impact of childhood sexual abuse on phasic (saliva cortisol reactivity) and tonic (hair cortisol) regulation. Furthermore, we assessed predictors on cortisol accumulation in hair. Women (N = 43) with stress-related disorders underwent a standardized assessment of idiographic adverse and traumatic experiences and psychopathology, while measuring salivary cortisol and, heart rate and blood pressure. Results Comparing women with and without childhood sexual abuse revealed lower rates of responders and distinct levels of salivary cortisol to the interview in conjunction with a lower heart rate for the abused group. Childhood adversities, traumatic experiences, and depression contributed to higher hair cortisol levels. Conclusions Our finding of lower response rate and distinct salivary cortisol pattern in individuals with childhood sexual abuse compared to individuals without early sexual abuse supports the role of environmental programming for the HPA axis. Both, childhood adversities and traumatic stress emerge as crucial factors for long-term cortisol secretion. Lower or suppressed phasic cortisol responses to trauma-related stimuli may therefore be associated with higher tonic values. Thus, early exposure to adversities may result in a biological distinct phenotype in adult patients with stress-related disorders. PMID:26317554

  14. 49 CFR 172.604 - Emergency response telephone number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency response telephone number. 172.604... telephone number. (a) A person who offers a hazardous material for transportation must provide an emergency response telephone number, including the area code, for use in the event of an emergency involving...

  15. Mechanisms of child abuse public service announcement effectiveness: roles of emotional response and perceived effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Hove, Thomas; Kim, Mikyoung; Jeong, Hyun Ju

    2011-09-01

    This study tests the processes through which child abuse public service announcements (PSAs) are effective. The proposed model builds upon the persuasion mediation model of Dillard and Peck (2000 ), which integrates emotional response and perceived effectiveness as antecedents of issue attitudes and behavioral intention. The model tested the mediating role of perceived effectiveness in the persuasion process. Multigroup structural equation modeling was performed for three different types of child abuse prevention PSAs shown on YouTube to 486 college students. The model was well fitted across all three child abuse PSAs. Emotional response seems to exert the largest influence on behavioral intention directly and indirectly through perceived effectiveness and issue attitudes. In addition, perceived effectiveness has both a direct and an indirect impact on behavioral intention. PMID:21512928

  16. Emerging Antigens Involved in Allergic Responses

    PubMed Central

    Platts-Mills, Thomas A.E.; Commins, Scott P.

    2013-01-01

    New allergic diseases can “emerge” because of exposure to a novel antigen, because the immune responsiveness of the subject changes, or because of a change in the behavior of the population. Novel antigens have entered the environment as new pests in the home (e.g., Asian lady beetle or stink bugs), in the diet (e.g., prebiotics or wheat isolates), or because of the spread of a biting arthropod (e.g., ticks). Over the last few years, a significant new disease has been identified, which has changed the paradigm for food allergy. Bites of the tick, Amblyomma americanum, are capable of inducing IgE antibodies to galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose, which is associated with two novel forms of anaphylaxis. In a large area of the southeastern United States, the disease of delayed anaphylaxis to mammalian meat is now common. This disease challenges many previous rules about food allergy and provides a striking model of an emerging allergic disease. PMID:24095162

  17. Value of systematic detection of physical child abuse at emergency rooms: a cross-sectional diagnostic accuracy study

    PubMed Central

    Sittig, Judith S; Uiterwaal, Cuno S P M; Moons, Karel G M; Russel, Ingrid M B; Nievelstein, Rutger A J; Nieuwenhuis, Edward E S; van de Putte, Elise M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of our diagnostic accuracy study Child Abuse Inventory at Emergency Rooms (CHAIN-ER) was to establish whether a widely used checklist accurately detects or excludes physical abuse among children presenting to ERs with physical injury. Design A large multicentre study with a 6-month follow-up. Setting 4 ERs in The Netherlands. Participants 4290 children aged 0–7 years attending the ER because of physical injury. All children were systematically tested with an easy-to-use child abuse checklist (index test). A national expert panel (reference standard) retrospectively assessed all children with positive screens and a 15% random sample of the children with negative screens for physical abuse, using additional information, namely, an injury history taken by a paediatrician, information provided by the general practitioner, youth doctor and social services by structured questionnaires, and 6-month follow-up information. Main outcome measure Physical child abuse. Secondary outcome measure Injury due to neglect and need for help. Results 4253/4290 (99%) parents agreed to follow-up. At a prevalence of 0.07% (3/4253) for inflicted injury by expert panel decision, the positive predictive value of the checklist was 0.03 (95% CI 0.006 to 0.085), and the negative predictive value 1.0 (0.994 to 1.0). There was 100% (93 to 100) agreement about inflicted injury in children, with positive screens between the expert panel and child abuse experts. Conclusions Rare cases of inflicted injury among preschool children presenting at ERs for injury are very likely captured by easy-to-use checklists, but at very high false-positive rates. Subsequent assessment by child abuse experts can be safely restricted to children with positive screens at very low risk of missing cases of inflicted injury. Because of the high false positive rate, we do advise careful prior consideration of cost-effectiveness and clinical and societal implications before de novo implementation

  18. 14 CFR 120.113 - Medical Review Officer, Substance Abuse Professional, and Employer Responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Medical Review Officer, Substance Abuse Professional, and Employer Responsibilities. 120.113 Section 120.113 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR CARRIERS AND OPERATORS FOR COMPENSATION OR HIRE: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS...

  19. Native American Indian Adolescents: Response to a Culturally Tailored, School-Based Substance Abuse Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patchell, Beverly A.

    2011-01-01

    Native American Indian adolescent substance abuse has been a longstanding health concern. There are few culturally tailored interventions for mild to moderate substance users. The purpose of this study was to measure the response of Native American Indian adolescents from the Plains tribal groups to a school-based culturally tailored substance…

  20. College Students' Hypothetical Responses to Suicidal Individuals Who Are HIV Positive, Substance Abusing, Depressed, or Anxious.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neal, Steven E.; Range, Lillian M.

    1993-01-01

    Undergraduates (n=141) read vignette about suicidal person with either Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, depression, drug abuse, anxiety, or adjustment problems. Found that suicidal person who was human immunodeficiency virus-positive engendered significantly less helpful responses from students than did suicidal person who had panic attacks.…

  1. Writing the Male Abuser in Cultural Responses to Domestic Violence in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godsland, Shelley

    2012-01-01

    The article analyzes the portrayal of the male perpetrator of heterosexual domestic violence in a selection of contemporary Spanish texts (novel, drama, and autobiography) that form part of a clearly discernible cultural response to the issue of intimate partner violence in Spain today. It reads the figure of the abuser in conjunction with a range…

  2. Legal and Social Service Responses to Child Sexual Abuse: A Primer and Discussion of Relevant Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Tisha R. A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a broad overview of legal and social service responses to child sexual abuse, the overarching legal framework provided by federal legislation, and funding mandates and the unique and shared investigative concerns of law enforcement and child protective service entities. Relevant psychological research is highlighted throughout,…

  3. Preparing Educators to Participate in the Community Response to Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaffrey, Mary; Tewey, Stephanna

    Professional educational organizations such as The Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) recognize the special needs of abused and neglected children and the responsibility of the entire professional community to offer services to meet these needs. CEC is presently involved in the design of a training program for educators that combines a…

  4. Savannah River Plant emergency response: Environmental transport and assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Addis, R.P.

    1988-01-01

    The ability to evaluate rapidly the possible consequences of inadvertent releases of hazardous pollutants to the environment is vital for the safe operation of most industrial plants. The Savannah River Plant has developed an emergency response system which integrates environmental observations and computer predictions to provide relevant, reliable, and timely information to decision makers. Experience has shown that the interdependence of all components of an emergency response system requires that the system must be well integrated and coordinated. Research and development is an integral component of the Emergency Response Program. It is designed to increase knowledge of environmental transport and diffusion, and to develop technologies to improve the emergency response system. This paper describes the SRP emergency response system, discusses the importance of reliability through system integration, and indicates the role played by research and development in maintaining a vital emergency response system. 10 refs., 7 figs.

  5. Neutron energy measurements in emergency response applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Guss, Paul; Hornish, Michael; Wilde, Scott; Stampahar, Tom; Reed, Michael

    2009-08-01

    We present significant results in recent advances in the measurement of neutron energy. Neutron energy measurements are a small but significant part of radiological emergency response applications. Mission critical information can be obtained by analyzing the neutron energy given off from radioactive materials. In the case of searching for special nuclear materials, neutron energy information from an unknown source can be of importance. At the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) of National Security Technologies, LLC, a series of materials, viz., liquid organic scintillator (LOS), Lithium Gadolinium Borate (LGB) or Li6Gd(BO3)3 in a plastic matrix, a recently developed crystal of Cesium Lithium Yttrium Chloride, Cs2LiYCl6: Ce (called CLYC)[1], and normal plastic scintillator (BC-408) with 3He tubes have been used to study their effectiveness as a portable neutron energy spectrometer. Comparisons illustrating the strengths of the various materials will be provided. Of these materials, LGB offers the ability to tailor its response to the neutron spectrum by varying the isotopic composition of the key constituents (Lithium, Gadolinium [Yttrium], and Boron). All three of the constituent elements possess large neutron capture cross section isotopes for highly exothermic reactions. These compounds of composition Li6Gd(Y)(BO3)3 can be activated by Cerium ions Ce3+. CLYC, on the other hand, has a remarkable gamma response in addition to superb neutron discrimination, comparable to that of Europium-doped Lithium Iodide (6LiI: Eu). Comparing these two materials, CLYC has higher light output (4500 phe/MeV) than that from 6LiI: Eu and shows better energy resolution for both gamma and neutron pulse heights. Using CLYC, gamma energy pulses can be discriminated from the neutron signals by simple pulse height separation. For the cases of both LGB and LOS, careful pulse shape discrimination is needed to separate the gamma energy signals from neutron pulses. Both analog and digital

  6. Southern states radiological emergency response laws and regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    The radiological emergency response laws and regulations of the Southern States Energy Compact member states are in some cases disparate. Several states have very specific laws on radiological emergency response while in others, the statutory law mentions only emergency response to ``natural disasters.`` Some states have adopted extensive regulations on the topic; others have none. For this reason, any general overview must necessarily discuss laws and regulations in general terms.

  7. Pathway from Child Sexual and Physical Abuse to Risky Sex Among Emerging Adults: The Role of Trauma-Related Intrusions and Alcohol Problems

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Kate; Latzman, Natasha E.; Latzman, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Some evidence suggests that risk reduction programming for sexual risk behaviors (SRB) has been minimally effective, emphasizing a need for research on etiological and mechanistic factors that can be addressed in prevention and intervention programming. Childhood sexual and physical abuse have been linked with SRB among older adolescents and emerging adults; however, pathways to SRB remain unclear. This study adds to the literature by testing a model specifying that traumatic intrusions following early abuse may increase risk for alcohol problems, which in turn, may increase the likelihood of engaging in various types of SRB. Methods Participants were 1169 racially-diverse college students (72.9% female; 37.6% Black/African-American; 33.6% White) who completed anonymous questionnaires assessing child abuse, traumatic intrusions, alcohol problems, and sexual risk behavior. Results The hypothesized path model specifying that traumatic intrusions and alcohol problems account for associations between child abuse and several aspects of SRB was a good fit for the data; however, for men, stronger associations emerged between physical abuse and traumatic intrusions and between traumatic intrusions and alcohol problems, while for women, alcohol problems were more strongly associated with intent to engage in risky sex. Conclusions Findings highlight the role of traumatic intrusions and alcohol problems in explaining paths from childhood abuse to SRB in emerging adulthood and suggest that risk reduction programs may benefit from an integrated focus on traumatic intrusions, alcohol problems, and SRB for individuals with abuse experiences. Implications and Contribution This study provides support for a pathway from childhood abuse to risky sexual behavior in emerging adulthood that operates through traumatic intrusions and alcohol problems. Risk reduction programs that employ an integrated focus on traumatic intrusions, alcohol problems, and risky sexual behavior may be

  8. Chinese Employees' Psychological Responses to Abusive Supervisors: The Roles of Gender and Self-Esteem.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rong; Jiang, Jiang; Yang, Liuqin; Shing Chan, Darius Kwan

    2016-06-01

    Drawing on the conservation of resources theory, the relations between abusive supervision and emotional exhaustion and intent to leave were examined, as well as the gender differences in these relations. Moreover, the moderating effect of self-esteem was tested in an integrated model stipulating that the gender-moderating effect was mediated by the abusive supervision × self-esteem interaction. Data were collected from 264 employees (111 men; M age = 32.0 years; M tenure = 9.2 years). Results of regression analyses indicated that abusive supervision was positively correlated to emotional exhaustion and intent to leave. Women reported higher emotional exhaustion and intent to leave than men. The relations of interest were stronger among employees with higher self-esteem (emotional exhaustion: β = 0.44; intent to leave: β = 0.53). The interaction of abusive supervision × self-esteem mediated the gender-moderating effect. Women's stronger responses to abusive supervision may be related to their higher self-esteem, possibly because of the importance of employment to Chinese women. PMID:27091874

  9. Understanding cycles of abuse: A multimotive approach.

    PubMed

    Simon, Lauren S; Hurst, Charlice; Kelley, Ken; Judge, Timothy A

    2015-11-01

    Fundamental to the definition of abusive supervision is the notion that subordinates are often victims of a pattern of mistreatment (Tepper, 2000). However, little research has examined the processes through which such destructive relational patterns emerge. In this study, we draw from and extend the multimotive model of reactions to interpersonal threat (Smart Richman & Leary, 2009) to formulate and test hypotheses about how employees' emotional and behavioral responses may ameliorate or worsen supervisors' abuse. To test this model, we collected 6 waves of data from a sample of 244 employees. Results revealed reciprocal relationships between abusive supervision and both supervisor-directed counterproductive behavior and supervisor-directed avoidance. Whereas the abusive supervision--counterproductive behavior relationship was partially driven by anger, the abusive supervision--avoidance relationship was partially mediated by fear. These findings suggest that some may find themselves in abusive relationships, in part, because their own reactions to mistreatment can, perhaps unknowingly, reinforce abusive behavior. PMID:26011719

  10. 43 CFR 46.150 - Emergency responses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT OF 1969 Protection and Enhancement of Environmental Quality § 46.150 Emergency... harm to life, property, or important natural, cultural, or historic resources. When taking such...

  11. 43 CFR 46.150 - Emergency responses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT OF 1969 Protection and Enhancement of Environmental Quality § 46.150 Emergency... harm to life, property, or important natural, cultural, or historic resources. When taking such...

  12. Emerging Strategies for Risk Assessment of Sexually Abusive Youth: Theory, Controversy, and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prescott, David P.

    2004-01-01

    Clinicians and other professionals evaluating, managing, and treating sexually abusive youth are frequently called upon to offer judgments regarding risk for sexual reoffense. There are currently no empirically validated methods for accurately classifying risk among this population. Therefore, those faced with this task have an obligation to…

  13. National Analysis of Differences among Substance Abuse Treatment Outcomes: College Student and Nonstudent Emerging Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahker, Ethan; Acion, Laura; Arndt, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To discover differences between student and nonstudent substance abuse treatment demographics, treatment characteristics, and outcomes. Participants: Conducted February 2014, clients without prior treatment admissions, aged 18-24, not in methadone maintenance therapy, and in nonintensive and ambulatory intensive outpatient treatment…

  14. Emergency response planning guidelines: A step-by-step approach

    SciTech Connect

    Petroff, D.M.

    1997-02-01

    Emergency planning and response has become a larger part of hazardous materials management since the enactment of the Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act, Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response, Process Safety Management, and now Risk Management for Accidental Chemical Releases under the Clean Air Act (CAA). A large obstacle to the emergency planning process has been how to evaluate an incident and determine its potential consequences. To help alleviate this problem, the American Industrial Hygiene Association developed and approved a series of emergency response planning guidelines (ERPGs). The guidelines are intended to provide estimates of concentrations where the adverse effects as described for each of the levels defined would be observed -- thus providing a common measurement of harm to people from a multitude of chemicals. To date, ERPGs have been adopted by the US EPA, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, the Department of Transportation, and the Department of Energy for emergency planning or response.

  15. Impact of Physical and Sexual Abuse on Treatment Response in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescent Study (TORDIA)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamseddeen, Wael; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Clarke, Gregory; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Birmaher, Boris; Keller, Martin B.; Emslie, Graham; Iyengar, Satish; Ryan, Neal D.; McCracken, James T.; Porta, Giovanna; Mayes, Taryn; Brent, David A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: We previously reported that a history of abuse was associated with a poorer response to combination treatment in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents study (TORDIA). We now report on the nature and correlates of abuse that might explain these findings. Method: Youth who did not benefit from an adequate selective…

  16. Relationships between Maternal Adult Attachment Security, Child Perceptions of Maternal Support, and Maternal Perceptions of Child Responses to Sexual Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leifer, Myra; Kilbane, Teresa; Skolnick, Linda I.

    2002-01-01

    Study assessed the relationships between maternal adult attachment style, children's perceptions of maternal support following disclosure of sexual abuse, and maternal perceptions of children's behavioral and emotional responses to sexual abuse. Findings indicate that fostering parent-child attachment is important in order to decrease the risk for…

  17. The Emergency Smoke Response System (a prototype)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahm, P.; Larkin, N.; Brown, T. J.; Raffuse, S. M.; Strand, T.; Sullivan, D.

    2009-12-01

    The U.S. Forest Service Emergency Smoke Response System (ESRS) prototype was first launched during the Santa Ana wildfire event of southern California (fall 2007) and after further refinement it was again launched during the lightening wildfire event of northing California (summer 2008). During both wildfire events smoke plumes from the fires caused significant impacts on the air quality in both urban and rural communities, transportation corridors, and aviation landing strips. The ESRS, called up by U.S.F.S. headquarters, is used to provide enhanced information and data on air quality impacts and smoke transport to fire management and the public. The prototype U.S.F.S. ESRS is a combination of efforts that supplement the ongoing smoke and fire modeling information with a high resolution meteorological and smoke modeling domain placed over the wildfire event location. This domain is used to look at fine-scale fire meteorology and smoke transport and air quality impacts. At the same time, additional smoke monitors (EBAMS) are deployed in the area with real-time reporting capabilities. The monitors supplement the existing network to provide air quality information in communities without monitors or in remote (i.e. locations along transportation corridors). The data from the modeling efforts and air quality monitoring are presented to fire managers and air quality regulators through websites, which show the latest available information. To ensure maximum utility of the modeling and monitoring information, an experienced air quality forecast produces daily forecast summaries by region, providing text forecast guidance and model output discussion. The forecaster is available for the daily fire calls that fire managers use to coordinate efforts across the region. Fire managers can request modifications or new graphics which they find useful for dissemination of the information. Fire is a natural ecological process. Policy, climate, and ecological shifts can change the

  18. Drugs of abuse: the highs and lows of altered mental states in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Meehan, Timothy J; Bryant, Sean M; Aks, Steven E

    2010-08-01

    The diagnosis and management of poisoned patients presenting with alterations in mental status can be challenging, as patients are often unable (or unwilling) to provide an adequate history. Several toxidromes exist. Recognition hinges upon vital signs and the physical examination. Understanding these "toxic syndromes" may guide early therapy and management, providing insight into the patient's underlying medical problem. Despite toxidrome recognition guiding antidotal therapy, the fundamental aspect of managing these patients involves meticulous supportive care. The authors begin with a discussion of various toxidromes and then delve into the drugs responsible for each syndrome. They conclude with a discussion on drug-facilitated sexual assault ("date rape"), which is both an underrecognized problem in the emergency department (ED) and representative of the drug-related problems faced in a modern ED. PMID:20709248

  19. 45 CFR 673.5 - Emergency response plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Emergency response plan. 673.5 Section 673.5 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION ANTARCTIC NON-GOVERNMENTAL EXPEDITIONS § 673.5 Emergency response plan. Any person organizing a non-governmental expedition to or within Antarctica who...

  20. A Study of Frameworks Held by Emergency Response Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Elizabeth

    A 47-item structured Q-sort methodology was used to identify and analyze the frameworks held by experienced emergency response personnel. The questionnaire was designed to determine the following: the characteristics/behaviors considered important by people within specific fields of emergency response; differences between individuals within a…

  1. 29 CFR 2700.24 - Emergency response plan dispute proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency response plan dispute proceedings. 2700.24 Section 2700.24 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) FEDERAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH REVIEW COMMISSION PROCEDURAL RULES Contests of Citations and Orders § 2700.24 Emergency response plan dispute proceedings. (a) Referral by the Secretary....

  2. 40 CFR 68.180 - Emergency response program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Emergency response program. 68.180 Section 68.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.180 Emergency response...

  3. 40 CFR 68.180 - Emergency response program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emergency response program. 68.180 Section 68.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.180 Emergency response...

  4. 40 CFR 68.180 - Emergency response program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Emergency response program. 68.180 Section 68.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.180 Emergency response...

  5. 40 CFR 68.180 - Emergency response program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Emergency response program. 68.180 Section 68.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.180 Emergency response...

  6. 49 CFR 172.604 - Emergency response telephone number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the emergency response information provider (ERI provider). The name of the person, or contract number or other unique identifier assigned by an ERI provider, identified with the emergency response... registered with the ERI provider must ensure that the agency or organization has received current...

  7. 40 CFR 68.180 - Emergency response program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency response program. 68.180 Section 68.180 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CHEMICAL ACCIDENT PREVENTION PROVISIONS Risk Management Plan § 68.180 Emergency response...

  8. 46 CFR 148.61 - Emergency response information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Emergency response information. 148.61 Section 148.61 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DANGEROUS CARGOES CARRIAGE OF BULK SOLID MATERIALS THAT REQUIRE SPECIAL HANDLING Minimum Transportation Requirements § 148.61 Emergency response information. The shipper of a...

  9. The Impact of a History of Child Sexual Abuse on Maternal Response to Allegations of Sexual Abuse Concerning Her Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deblinger, Esther; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Compares nonoffending mothers with and without a history of child sexual abuse (CSA) to the sexual abuse allegations concerning their children. Nonoffending mothers with a history of CSA exhibited more distress and reported greater feelings of aloneness in facing the crisis. However, maternal history of CSA did not differentiate the groups with…

  10. Collective response of human populations to large-scale emergencies.

    PubMed

    Bagrow, James P; Wang, Dashun; Barabási, Albert-László

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent advances in uncovering the quantitative features of stationary human activity patterns, many applications, from pandemic prediction to emergency response, require an understanding of how these patterns change when the population encounters unfamiliar conditions. To explore societal response to external perturbations we identified real-time changes in communication and mobility patterns in the vicinity of eight emergencies, such as bomb attacks and earthquakes, comparing these with eight non-emergencies, like concerts and sporting events. We find that communication spikes accompanying emergencies are both spatially and temporally localized, but information about emergencies spreads globally, resulting in communication avalanches that engage in a significant manner the social network of eyewitnesses. These results offer a quantitative view of behavioral changes in human activity under extreme conditions, with potential long-term impact on emergency detection and response. PMID:21479206

  11. Collective Response of Human Populations to Large-Scale Emergencies

    PubMed Central

    Barabási, Albert-László

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent advances in uncovering the quantitative features of stationary human activity patterns, many applications, from pandemic prediction to emergency response, require an understanding of how these patterns change when the population encounters unfamiliar conditions. To explore societal response to external perturbations we identified real-time changes in communication and mobility patterns in the vicinity of eight emergencies, such as bomb attacks and earthquakes, comparing these with eight non-emergencies, like concerts and sporting events. We find that communication spikes accompanying emergencies are both spatially and temporally localized, but information about emergencies spreads globally, resulting in communication avalanches that engage in a significant manner the social network of eyewitnesses. These results offer a quantitative view of behavioral changes in human activity under extreme conditions, with potential long-term impact on emergency detection and response. PMID:21479206

  12. An Emerging Scholarship of Practice. Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sergiovanni, Thomas J.

    1990-01-01

    Responding to Blumberg's and Bolin's articles, this article claims that a viable scholarship of practice for supervision has already emerged. The key to present-day theorizing is figuring out how the reflection-in-action process unfolds and how to inform it. Recent research suggests that the heart of professional practice is knowing in action.…

  13. A Social Identity Approach to Understanding Responses to Child Sexual Abuse Allegations

    PubMed Central

    Minto, Kiara; Hornsey, Matthew J.; Gillespie, Nicole; Healy, Karen; Jetten, Jolanda

    2016-01-01

    Two studies investigated the role of group allegiances in contributing to the failure of institutions to appropriately respond to allegations of child sexual abuse. In Study 1, 601 participants read a news article detailing an allegation of child sexual abuse against a Catholic Priest. Catholics were more protective of the accused–and more skeptical of the accuser—than other participants, an effect that was particularly pronounced among strongly identified Catholics. In Study 2 (N = 404), the tendency for Catholics to be more protective of the accused and more skeptical of the accuser than non-Catholics was replicated. Moreover, these effects held independently of the objective likelihood that the accused was guilty. Overall, the data show that group loyalties provide a psychological motivation to disbelieve child abuse allegations. Furthermore, the people for whom this motivation is strongest are also the people who are most likely to be responsible for receiving and investigating allegations: highly identified ingroup members. The findings highlight the psychological mechanisms that may limit the ability of senior Church figures to conduct impartial investigations into allegations of child abuse within the Church. PMID:27111546

  14. A Social Identity Approach to Understanding Responses to Child Sexual Abuse Allegations.

    PubMed

    Minto, Kiara; Hornsey, Matthew J; Gillespie, Nicole; Healy, Karen; Jetten, Jolanda

    2016-01-01

    Two studies investigated the role of group allegiances in contributing to the failure of institutions to appropriately respond to allegations of child sexual abuse. In Study 1, 601 participants read a news article detailing an allegation of child sexual abuse against a Catholic Priest. Catholics were more protective of the accused-and more skeptical of the accuser-than other participants, an effect that was particularly pronounced among strongly identified Catholics. In Study 2 (N = 404), the tendency for Catholics to be more protective of the accused and more skeptical of the accuser than non-Catholics was replicated. Moreover, these effects held independently of the objective likelihood that the accused was guilty. Overall, the data show that group loyalties provide a psychological motivation to disbelieve child abuse allegations. Furthermore, the people for whom this motivation is strongest are also the people who are most likely to be responsible for receiving and investigating allegations: highly identified ingroup members. The findings highlight the psychological mechanisms that may limit the ability of senior Church figures to conduct impartial investigations into allegations of child abuse within the Church. PMID:27111546

  15. Legal and social service responses to child sexual abuse: a primer and discussion of relevant research.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Tisha R A

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides a broad overview of legal and social service responses to child sexual abuse, the overarching legal framework provided by federal legislation, and funding mandates and the unique and shared investigative concerns of law enforcement and child protective service entities. Relevant psychological research is highlighted throughout, including research on investigator training, forensic interviewing techniques, children's suggestibility, jurors' perceptions of child witnesses, and courtroom accommodations for child witnesses. PMID:19856733

  16. Development of a judicial response to substance abuse.

    PubMed

    McHardy, L W

    1990-01-01

    The American juvenile justice system continues to be an arena in which a myriad of varying values and practices come under constant challenge and close scrutiny, not only from those outside the system, but particularly by those within the system, those on the firing-line--the judges, court administrators, prosecutors, defenders, police, social workers and probation officers who are responsible for the operation of the system. Every juvenile court and the personnel who work with it are faced with the difficult process of evaluating and adapting to multiple "standards" and the challenges of implementing effective change within the perimeters of varying systems and statutes. The National Council of Juvenile and Family Court Judges recognizes that the responsibility for further improvement, for effective and long-lasting change, in a juvenile justice system that operates in a vastly complex society will rest even more heavily in the future where it has been in the past--on the individual judge and practitioner. PMID:2095932

  17. Updating Dosimetry for Emergency Response Dose Projections.

    PubMed

    DeCair, Sara

    2016-02-01

    In 2013, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed an update to the 1992 Protective Action Guides (PAG) Manual. The PAG Manual provides guidance to state and local officials planning for radiological emergencies. EPA requested public comment on the proposed revisions, while making them available for interim use by officials faced with an emergency situation. Developed with interagency partners, EPA's proposal incorporates newer dosimetric methods, identifies tools and guidelines developed since the current document was issued, and extends the scope of the PAGs to all significant radiological incidents, including radiological dispersal devices or improvised nuclear devices. In order to best serve the emergency management community, scientific policy direction had to be set on how to use International Commission on Radiological Protection Publication 60 age groups in dose assessment when implementing emergency guidelines. Certain guidelines that lend themselves to different PAGs for different subpopulations are the PAGs for potassium iodide (KI), food, and water. These guidelines provide age-specific recommendations because of the radiosensitivity of the thyroid and young children with respect to ingestion and inhalation doses in particular. Taking protective actions like using KI, avoiding certain foods or using alternative sources of drinking water can be relatively simple to implement by the parents of young children. Clear public messages can convey which age groups should take which action, unlike how an evacuation or relocation order should apply to entire households or neighborhoods. New in the PAG Manual is planning guidance for the late phase of an incident, after the situation is stabilized and efforts turn toward recovery. Because the late phase can take years to complete, decision makers are faced with managing public exposures in areas not fully remediated. The proposal includes quick-reference operational guidelines to inform re-entry to

  18. Who Benefits from Gender Responsive Treatment? Accounting for Abuse History on Longitudinal Outcomes for Women in Prison

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Preeta; Messina, Nena; Grella, Christine E.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores outcome variation among women offenders who participated in gender-responsive substance abuse treatment (GRT). In order to identify subgroups of participants that may differentially benefit from this treatment, secondary analyses examined the interaction between randomization into GRT and a history of abuse (physical/sexual) on depression and number of substances used post- treatment. The sample consisted of 115 incarcerated women assessed at baseline and 6- and 12-months post parole. Longitudinal regression showed that women reporting abuse randomized into GRT had significantly reduced odds of depression (OR = .29, p < .05, 95% CI = .10 – .86) and lowered rates of number of substances used (IRR = .52, p < .05, 95% CI = 0.28–0.98), in comparison to those who reported abuse and were randomized to the non-GRT group. GRT for women offenders who have experienced prior abuse would maximize the benefits of the trauma-informed, gender-sensitive intervention. PMID:24910481

  19. Current Trends in Gamma Ray Detection for Radiological Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, S., Guss, P., Maurer, R.

    2011-08-18

    Passive and active detection of gamma rays from shielded radioactive materials, including special nuclear materials, is an important task for any radiological emergency response organization. This article reports on the current trends and status of gamma radiation detection objectives and measurement techniques as applied to nonproliferation and radiological emergencies.

  20. Chemical and Biological Terrorism: Improvements to Emergency Medical Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeGraffenreid, Jeff Gordon

    The challenge facing many emergency medical services (EMS) is the implementation of a comprehensive educational strategy to address emergency responses to terrorism. One such service, Johnson County (Kansas) Medical Action, needed a strategy that would keep paramedics safe and offer the community an effective approach to mitigation. A…

  1. Comparing policies for children of parents attending hospital emergency departments after intimate partner violence, substance abuse or suicide attempt.

    PubMed

    Hoytema van Konijnenburg, Eva M M; Diderich, Hester M; Teeuw, Arianne H; Klein Velderman, Mariska; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie; van der Lee, Johanna H

    2016-03-01

    To improve identification of child maltreatment, a new policy ('Hague protocol') was implemented in hospitals in The Netherlands, stating that adults attending the hospital emergency department after intimate partner violence, substance abuse or a suicide attempt should be asked whether they care for children. If so, these children are referred to the Reporting Center for Child Abuse and Neglect (RCCAN), for assessment and referrals to support services. An adapted, hospital-based version of this protocol ('Amsterdam protocol') was implemented in another region. Children are identified in the same manner, but, instead of a RCCAN referral, they are referred to the pediatric outpatient department for an assessment, including a physical examination, and referrals to services. We compared results of both protocols to assess how differences between the protocols affect the outcomes on implementation, detection of child maltreatment and referrals to services. Furthermore, we assessed social validity and results of a screening physical examination. We included 212 families from the Amsterdam protocol (cohort study with reports by pediatric staff and parents) and 565 families from the Hague protocol (study of RCCAN records and telephone interviews with parents). We found that the RCCAN identified more maltreatment than pediatric staff (98% versus at least 51%), but referrals to services were similar (82% versus 80% of the total sample) and parents were positive about both interventions. Physical examination revealed signs of maltreatment in 5%. We conclude that, despite the differences, both procedures can serve as suitable methods to identify and refer children at risk for maltreatment. PMID:26718263

  2. Xylazine intoxication in humans and its importance as an emerging adulterant in abused drugs: A comprehensive review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Colón, Kazandra; Chavez-Arias, Carlos; Díaz-Alcalá, José Eric; Martínez, María A

    2014-07-01

    Xylazine is not a controlled substance; it is marketed as a veterinary drug and used as a sedative, analgesic and muscle relaxant. In humans, it could cause central nervous system depression, respiratory depression, bradycardia, hypotension, and even death. There have been publications of 43 cases of xylazine intoxication in humans, in which 21 (49%) were non-fatal scenarios and 22 (51%) resulted in fatalities. Most of the non-fatal cases required medical intervention. Over recent years xylazine has emerged as an adulterant in recreational drugs, such as heroin or speedball (a cocaine and heroin mixture). From the 43 reported cases, 17 (40%) were associated with the use of xylazine as an adulterant of drugs of abuse. Its chronic use is reported to be associated with physical deterioration and skin ulceration. Literature shows some similar pharmacologic effects between xylazine and heroin in humans. These similar pharmacologic effects may create synergistic toxic effects in humans. Therefore, fatalities among drug users may increase due to the use of xylazine as an adulterant. Xylazine alone has proven harmful to humans and even more when it is combined with drugs of abuse. A comprehensive review of the literature of non-fatal and fatal xylazine intoxication cases including those in which the substance was used as adulterant is presented, in order to increase the awareness in the forensic community, law enforcement, and public health agencies. PMID:24769343

  3. Trust Model Based on M-CRGs in Emergency Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Shasha; Zhang, Pengzhu; Jia, Zhaoqing

    Many research results demonstrate that government itself cannot handle all the requests from residents in emergency response. Some scholars proposed that building community response grids which utilized pre-existing communities to support citizen request. Unfortunately, little attention has been given to achieve effective and trustworthy collaboration between professional emergency responders and residents. In this paper, the authors modify the architecture of CRGs to provide a valid organizational pattern in emergency response. Based on the modified CRGs (M-CRGs), the trust modeling framework is discussed in detail. Through recording the total behaviors and evaluation of all agents in the systems, the society network is built and the global trustworthiness which reflects the agents' true synthetical ability is gained in the model. An application of this model to Snow Disasters in Southern China is illustrated. Analysis shows that the model contributes to developing efficiency in emergency response.

  4. EMERGENCY RESPONSE FOR PUBLIC WATER SUPPLIES AFTER HURRICANE KATRINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Hurricane Katrina resulted in damage and destruction to local water supplies in Mississippi and Louisiana affecting millions of people. Immediately following the devastation, a multidisciplinary team of 30 EPA emergency response, research, and water program personnel joined force...

  5. Prescription drug abuse: problem, policies, and implications.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Janice

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview on prescription drug abuse and highlights a number of related legislative bills introduced during the 112th Congress in response to this growing epidemic. Prescription drug abuse has emerged as the nation's fastest growing drug problem. Although prescription drugs have been used effectively and appropriately for decades, deaths from prescription pain medicine in particular have reached epidemic proportions. Bills related to prescription drug abuse introduced during the 112th Congress focus on strengthening provider and consumer education, tracking and monitoring prescription drug abuse, improving data collection on drug overdose fatalities, combating fraud and abuse in Medicare and Medicaid programs, reclassifying drugs to make them more difficult to prescribe and obtain, and enforcing stricter penalties for individuals who operate scam pain clinics and sell pain pills illegitimately. This article underscores the importance of a multifaceted approach to combating prescription drug abuse and concludes with implications for nursing. PMID:23245611

  6. Minicomputer Capabilities Related to Meteorological Aspects of Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect

    Rarnsdell, J. V.; Athey, G. F.; Ballinger, M. Y.

    1982-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the NRC staff involved in reviewing licensee emergency response plans with background information on the capabilities of minicomputer systems that are related to the collection and dissemination of meteorological infonmation. The treatment of meteorological information by organizations with existing emergency response capabilities is described, and the capabilities, reliability and availability of minicomputers and minicomputer systems are discussed.

  7. Impact of Physical and Sexual Abuse on Treatment Response in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescent Study (TORDIA)

    PubMed Central

    Shamseddeen, Wael; Asarnow, Joan Rosenbaum; Clarke, Gregory; Vitiello, Benedetto; Wagner, Karen Dineen; Birmaher, Boris; Keller, Martin B.; Emslie, Graham; Iyengar, Satish; Ryan, Neal D.; McCracken, James T.; Porta, Giovanna; Mayes, Taryn; Brent, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective We previously reported that a history of abuse was associated with a poorer response to combination treatment in the Treatment of Resistant Depression in Adolescents study (TORDIA). We now report on the nature and correlates of abuse that might explain these findings. Method Youth who did not benefit from an adequate selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) trial (N=334) were randomized to: an alternative SSRI; an alternative SSRI plus cognitive behavior therapy (CBT); venlafaxine; or venlafaxine plus CBT. Analyses examined the effect of history of abuse on response to the pharmacotherapy and combination therapy. Results Those without a history of physical abuse (PA) or sexual abuse (SA) had a higher 12-week response rate to combination therapy compared to medication mono-therapy (62.8% vs. 37.6%; OR=2.8, 95% CI: 1.6–4.7, p<0.001). Those with a history of SA had similar response rates to combination vs. medication monotherapy (48.3% vs. 42.3%; OR=1.3, 95% CI: 0.4–3.7; p=0.66), while those with history of PA had a much lower rate of response to combination therapy (18.4% vs. 52.4%, OR=0.1; 95% CI: 0.02–0.43). Even after adjusting for other clinical predictors, a history of PA moderated treatment outcome. Conclusion These results should be considered within the limitations of a post-hoc analysis, lack of detailed assessment of abuse and other forms of trauma, and neuropsychological status. Depressed patients with history of abuse, especially PA may require specialized clinical approaches. Further work is needed to understand by what mechanisms a history of abuse affects treatment response. PMID:21334569

  8. An emergency response UAV Surveillance System.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Pedro A; Geckle, William J; Barton, Jeffrey D; Samsundar, John; Gao, Tia; Brown, Myron Z; Martin, Sean R

    2006-01-01

    A system using Unmanned Air Vehicles (UAVs), equipped for real time telemetry of video imagery, sensor support data, and GPS/INS navigation, is being developed to provide situational awareness (SA) to the central command of mass casualty incident response. UAVs provide an inexpensive and safe means of acquiring video surveillance in chaotic disaster scenes, while being durable and non-intrusive. The system provides autonomous surveillance of defined perimeters, video tracking and active following of targets of interest, and real time cueing to other imaging UAVs. PMID:17238697

  9. Space Shuttle Hot Cabin Emergency Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepaniak, P.; Effenhauser, R. K.; McCluskey, R.; Gillis, D. B.; Hamilton, D.; Kuznetz, L. H.

    2005-01-01

    Methods: Human thermal tolerance, countermeasures, and thermal model data were reviewed and compared to existing shuttle ECS failure temperature and humidity profiles for each failure mode. Increases in core temperature associated with cognitive impairment was identified, as was metabolic heat generation of crewmembers, temperature monitoring, and communication capabilities after partial power-down and other limiting factors. Orbiter landing strategies and a hydration and salt replacement protocol were developed to put wheels on deck in each failure mode prior to development of significant cognitive impairment or collapse of crewmembers. Thermal tradeoffs for use of the Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES), Liquid Cooling Garment, integrated G-suit and Quick Don Mask were examined. candidate solutions involved trade-offs or conflicts with cabin oxygen partial pressure limits, system power-downs to limit heat generation, risks of alternate and emergency landing sites or compromise of Mode V-VIII scenarios. Results: Rehydration and minimized cabin workloads are required in all failure modes. Temperature/humidity profiles increase rapidly in two failure modes, and deorbit is recommended without the ACES, ICU and g-suit. This latter configuration limits several shuttle approach and landing escape modes and requires communication modifications. Additional data requirements were identified and engineering simulations were recommended to develop more current shuttle temperature and humidity profiles. Discussion: After failure of the shuttle ECS, there is insufficient cooling capacity of the ACES to protect crewmembers from rising cabin temperature and humidity. The LCG is inadequate for cabin temperatures above 76 F. Current shuttle future life policy makes it unlikely that major engineering upgrades necessary to address this problem will occur.

  10. Consideration of meteorological conditions in emergency response planning

    SciTech Connect

    Heinold, D.W.; Takacs, K.C.

    1996-12-31

    EPA`s Risk Management Program under Section 112(r) of the Clean Air Act will require companies to develop emergency response plans for accidental releases of acutely hazardous substances. Typically, emergency response actions range from large scale community evacuation out of the high risk area to shelter-in-place. Efforts are underway to establish universally adopted ambient air quality criteria upon which response decisions can be based. The dose-response of the chemical of concern will determine whether it is more critical to limit the peak concentration to which a person could be exposed, or to diminish the integrated dose. The ability of a response action to achieve either objective depends on a variety of factors: the release, including time varying ambient concentration; spatial extent of plume; transport time; and release duration. In addition, choice of response actions may depend upon factors specific to the exposure site, such as personal mobility, building air infiltration rate, and response implementation time.

  11. Enabling Communication in Emergency Response Environments

    PubMed Central

    Aldunate, Roberto G.; Schmidt, Klaus Nicholas; Herrera, Oriel

    2012-01-01

    Effective communication among first responders during response to natural and human-made large-scale catastrophes has increased tremendously during the last decade. However, most efforts to achieve a higher degree of effectiveness in communication lack synergy between the environment and the technology involved to support first responders operations. This article presents a natural and intuitive interface to support Stigmergy; or communication through the environment, based on intuitively marking and retrieving information from the environment with a pointer. A prototype of the system was built and tested in the field, however the pointing activity revealed challenges regarding accuracy due to limitations of the sensors used. The results obtained from these field tests were the basis for this research effort and will have the potential to enable communication through the environment for first responders operating in highly dynamical and inhospitable disaster relief environments. PMID:22778647

  12. Time-varying effect models for ordinal responses with applications in substance abuse research

    PubMed Central

    Dziak, John J.; Li, Runze; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Buu, Anne

    2014-01-01

    Ordinal responses are very common in longitudinal data collected from substance abuse research or other behavioral research. This study develops a new statistical model with free SAS macro’s that can be applied to characterize time-varying effects on ordinal responses. Our simulation study shows that the ordinal-scale time-varying effects model has very low estimation bias and sometimes offers considerably better performance when fitting data with ordinal responses than a model that treats the response as continuous. Contrary to a common assumption that an ordinal scale with several levels can be treated as continuous, our results indicate that it is not so much the number of levels on the ordinal scale but rather the skewness of the distribution that makes a difference on relative performance of linear versus ordinal models. We use longitudinal data from a well-known study on youth at high risk for substance abuse as a motivating example to demonstrate that the proposed model can characterize the time-varying effect of negative peer influences on alcohol use in a way that is more consistent with the developmental theory and existing literature, in comparison to the linear time-varying effect model. PMID:25209555

  13. 78 FR 34031 - Burned Area Emergency Response, Forest Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... Response activities on National Forest System lands. Agency regulations at 36 CFR 220.6(d)(2) (73 FR 43093...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service RIN 0596-AC73 Burned Area Emergency Response, Forest Service AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of interim directive; request for public comment. SUMMARY:...

  14. 48 CFR 452.236-77 - Emergency Response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... deemed necessary to control or suppress a fire set or caused by the Contractor or the Contractor's agents... contracts: Emergency Response (NOV 1996) (a) Contractor's Responsibility for Fire Fighting. (1) The..., Equipment, Utilities, and Improvements, shall immediately extinguish all fires on the work site other...

  15. 48 CFR 452.236-77 - Emergency Response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... deemed necessary to control or suppress a fire set or caused by the Contractor or the Contractor's agents... contracts: Emergency Response (NOV 1996) (a) Contractor's Responsibility for Fire Fighting. (1) The..., Equipment, Utilities, and Improvements, shall immediately extinguish all fires on the work site other...

  16. Use of geographic data in emergency response decision making system

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, H.

    1997-07-01

    Geographic data have a number of key roles in emergency response systems focused on releases of hazardous material to the environment. Maps are a key element in allowing emergency response personnel to become oriented during a response and in presenting status information effectively to these personnel. Geographic data are essential for modeling to predict dispersal patterns during a release. It is also necessary to integrate model and measurement data with demographic information in order to assess the consequences of a release. Appropriate support for such capabilities is based on a number of evolving technologies including fast computers, large databases, network technology, remote sensing and geographic information systems.

  17. Northern Territory Emergency Response: criticism, support and redesign.

    PubMed

    Evans, Brendon W

    2012-06-01

    The recent Federal Government Report and Media release, Stronger Futures in the Northern Territory: Report on Consultations and its claim of 'widespread Indigenous Support' has brought the topic of the Northern Territory Emergency Response (the Intervention) back into the public mind. This article provides a synthesis of four years of debate around the Northern Territory Emergency Response, at a time when the program is nearing the end of its time frame. It outlines the main arguments supporting the Intervention, the central criticisms and the government's response to these evaluations, with the aim of providing a primer or summary for health professionals to the discussion around this important public issue. PMID:22620472

  18. Sexual abuses.

    PubMed

    Abel, G G; Rouleau, J L

    1995-03-01

    The sexual abuses described in this article are occurring so frequently that they constitute a public health problem. Superficially they appear to be quite dissimilar because they involve individuals of different ages, different settings, and different power relationships. Basic to each of them, however, is an absence of consent by the victim and the misuse of power by the perpetrator in order to accomplish the abuse. We now have an adequate understanding of each of these abuses and it is now time to make a concerted effort to stop these abuses. This will require the combined efforts of the education of the public, improved identification of the abuses, treatment of the victims, and an appropriate criminal justice response combined with treatment of the perpetrator. PMID:7761302

  19. Modeling operators' emergency response time for chemical processing operations.

    PubMed

    Murray, Susan L; Harputlu, Emrah; Mentzer, Ray A; Mannan, M Sam

    2014-01-01

    Operators have a crucial role during emergencies at a variety of facilities such as chemical processing plants. When an abnormality occurs in the production process, the operator often has limited time to either take corrective actions or evacuate before the situation becomes deadly. It is crucial that system designers and safety professionals can estimate the time required for a response before procedures and facilities are designed and operations are initiated. There are existing industrial engineering techniques to establish time standards for tasks performed at a normal working pace. However, it is reasonable to expect the time required to take action in emergency situations will be different than working at a normal production pace. It is possible that in an emergency, operators will act faster compared to a normal pace. It would be useful for system designers to be able to establish a time range for operators' response times for emergency situations. This article develops a modeling approach to estimate the time standard range for operators taking corrective actions or following evacuation procedures in emergency situations. This will aid engineers and managers in establishing time requirements for operators in emergency situations. The methodology used for this study combines a well-established industrial engineering technique for determining time requirements (predetermined time standard system) and adjustment coefficients for emergency situations developed by the authors. Numerous videos of workers performing well-established tasks at a maximum pace were studied. As an example, one of the tasks analyzed was pit crew workers changing tires as quickly as they could during a race. The operations in these videos were decomposed into basic, fundamental motions (such as walking, reaching for a tool, and bending over) by studying the videos frame by frame. A comparison analysis was then performed between the emergency pace and the normal working pace operations

  20. Who's on First? Anatomy of the Federal Response to Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Lawrence S.

    1981-01-01

    Organizational issues inevitably have a crucial impact on policy development, particularly in drug issues. Consequently, an evaluation of the organizational framework of federal efforts was conducted. Based on this examination, innumerable federal agencies which have authority in drug abuse exist in all three branches of government. Unfortunately, this has resulted in many areas of duplication and in arbitrarily drawn lines of responsibilities. Furthermore, the organization of federal drug efforts reflects commonly held misconceptions about the use of psychoactive substances and policy contradictions between economic and public health aspects of the usage of these substances. Finally, the coordination of federal drug efforts remains ill-defined. PMID:7205977

  1. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) Behavioral Health Disaster Response App.

    PubMed

    Seligman, Jamie; Felder, Stephanie S; Robinson, Maryann E

    2015-10-01

    The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) in the Department of Health and Human Services offers extensive disaster behavior health resources to assist disaster survivors in preparing for, responding to, and recovering from natural and manmade disasters. One of SAMHSA's most innovative resources is the SAMHSA Behavioral Health Disaster Response App (SAMHSA Disaster App). The SAMHSA Disaster App prepares behavioral health responders for any type of traumatic event by allowing them to access disaster-related materials and other key resources right on their phone, at the touch of a button. The SAMHSA Disaster App is available on iPhone, Android, and BlackBerry devices. PMID:26165522

  2. Writing the male abuser in cultural responses to domestic violence in Spain.

    PubMed

    Godsland, Shelley

    2012-01-01

    The article analyzes the portrayal of the male perpetrator of heterosexual domestic violence in a selection of contemporary Spanish texts (novel, drama, and autobiography) that form part of a clearly discernible cultural response to the issue of intimate partner violence in Spain today. It reads the figure of the abuser in conjunction with a range of primarily Spanish studies on domestic aggression, with the aim of showing how and why the chosen authors engage with bodies of theory that address battery. The study concludes that some cultural producers devise a strategy of eliding the male aggressor in an attempt to subvert the power he wields over the female victim. PMID:22834049

  3. Review on emergency medical response against terrorist attack.

    PubMed

    Wang, De-Wen; Liu, Yao; Jiang, Ming-Min

    2014-01-01

    Terrorism is a global issue and a constant international threat. As a result, anti-terrorism and emergency response strategies are tasks of critical importance that have a direct impact on the national security of every country in the world. This paper reviews new characteristics of international anti-terrorism measures and offers an in-depth reflection on emergency medical response countermeasures; additionally, this paper presents the goals of related research, which include: 1) to present a model of a highly efficient medical response command; 2) to introduce the pre-planning phases of the emergency medical response; 3) to establish a response system capable of handling various types of terror attacks; 4) to promote anti-terrorism awareness to the general public and emphasize its prevention; and 5) to continue basic investigations into emergency medical responses for various types of terrorist attacks (for example, the classifications and characteristics of new injuries, pathophysiology, prevention and treatment of the resultant stress disorders, improved high-efficiency medical response measures and equipment, etc.). PMID:25722867

  4. Elements of a national emergency response system for nuclear accidents

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerson, M.H.

    1987-02-10

    The purpose of this paper is to suggest elements for a general emergency response system, employed at a national level, to detect, evaluate and assess the consequences of a radiological atmospheric release occurring within or outside of national boundaries. These elements are focused on the total aspect of emergency response ranging from providing an initial alarm to a total assessment of the environmental and health effects. Elements of the emergency response system are described in such a way that existing resources can be directly applied if appropriate; if not, newly developed or an expansion of existing resources can be employed. The major thrust of this paper is toward a philosophical discussion and general description of resources that would be required to implementation. If the major features of this proposal system are judged desirable for implementation, then the next level of detail can be added. The philosophy underlying this paper is preparedness - preparedness through planning, awareness and the application of technology. More specifically, it is establishment of reasonable guidelines including the definition of reference and protective action levels for public exposure to accidents involving nuclear material; education of the public, government officials and the news media; and the application of models and measurements coupled to computer systems to address a series of questions related to emergency planning, response and assessment. It is the role of a proven national emergency response system to provide reliable, quality-controlled information to decision makers for the management of environmental crises.

  5. Taking on Substance Abuse in the Emergency Room: One Hospital's SBIRT Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Gary; Libart, Dane; Fanning, Linda; Higgs, Tracy; Dirickson, Cathy

    2012-01-01

    Screening for alcohol and drugs seems to be gaining traction and is becoming more commonplace in the healthcare setting. With emergency departments often being a point of contact for many individuals needing healthcare services, it makes sense to provide screening for substance misuse within this setting. The purpose of this paper is to share how…

  6. SRNL EMERGENCY RESPONSE CAPABILITY FOR ATMOSPHERIC CONTAMINANT RELEASES

    SciTech Connect

    Koffman, L; Chuck Hunter, C; Robert Buckley, R; Robert Addis, R

    2006-07-12

    Emergency response to an atmospheric release of chemical or radiological contamination is enhanced when plume predictions, field measurements, and real-time weather information are integrated into a geospatial framework. The Weather Information and Display (WIND) System at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) utilizes such an integrated framework. The rapid availability of predictions from a suite of atmospheric transport models within this geospatial framework has proven to be of great value to decision makers during an emergency involving an atmospheric contaminant release.

  7. Emergency Response Capability Baseline Needs Assessment Compliance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Sharry, John A.

    2013-09-16

    This document is the second of a two-part analysis of Emergency Response Capabilities of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The first part, 2013 Baseline Needs Assessment Requirements Document established the minimum performance criteria necessary to meet mandatory requirements. This second part analyses the performance of Lawrence Livermore Laboratory Emergency Management Department to the contents of the Requirements Document. The document was prepared based on an extensive review of information contained in the 2009 BNA, the 2012 BNA document, a review of Emergency Planning Hazards Assessments, a review of building construction, occupancy, fire protection features, dispatch records, LLNL alarm system records, fire department training records, and fire department policies and procedures.

  8. Substance Abuse and America: Historical Perspective on the Federal Response to a Social Phenomenon

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Lawrence S.

    1981-01-01

    Much more often than is commonly given credit, factors other than a substance's therapeutic efficacy contribute to its affect on the individual experience, its own proliferation, and society's response. To explore these dynamics, American history is examined from the perspective of analyzing the development of substance abuse. Of the conclusions borne out by this historical perspective, foremost was that psychoactive substance use has been an element in the American social ecology from its earliest beginnings. The health professions have not always exhibited behavior in the interest of public health, and, most importantly, the federal response has often been plagued with outcomes that have been less desirable than many of the problems. This historical review supports the thesis that drug-seeking behavior and the response it elicits are in a constant state of flux and cannot be adequately appreciated in isolation from the sociocultural and historical contexts in which they occur. PMID:7017155

  9. USGS Emergency Response and the Hazards Data Distribution System (HDDS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, B. K.; Lamb, R.

    2013-12-01

    Remotely sensed datasets such as satellite imagery and aerial photography can be an invaluable resource to support the response and recovery from many types of emergency events such as floods, earthquakes, landslides, wildfires, and other natural or human-induced disasters. When disaster strikes there is often an urgent need and high demand for rapid acquisition and coordinated distribution of pre- and post-event geospatial products and remotely sensed imagery. These products and images are necessary to record change, analyze impacts, and facilitate response to the rapidly changing conditions on the ground. The coordinated and timely provision of relevant imagery and other datasets is one important component of the USGS support for domestic and international emergency response activities. The USGS Hazards Data Distribution System (HDDS) serves as a single, consolidated point-of-access for relevant satellite and aerial image datasets during an emergency event response. The HDDS provides data visibility and immediate download services through a complementary pair of graphical map-based and traditional directory-based interfaces. This system allows emergency response personnel to rapidly select and obtain pre-event ('baseline') and post-event emergency response imagery from many different sources. These datasets will typically include images that are acquired directly by USGS, but may also include many other types of images that are collected and contributed by partner agencies and organizations during the course of an emergency event response. Over the past decade, USGS Emergency Response and HDDS have supported hundreds of domestic and international disaster events by providing critically needed pre- and post-event remotely sensed imagery and other related geospatial products as required by the emergency response community. Some of the larger national events supported by HDDS have included Hurricane Sandy (2012), the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill (2010), and Hurricane

  10. Exploring the relationship between child physical abuse and adult dating violence using a causal inference approach in an emerging adult population in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Wesley G; Park, MiRang; Richards, Tara N; Tomsich, Elizabeth; Gover, Angela; Powers, Ráchael A

    2014-12-01

    Child maltreatment is one of the most commonly examined risk factors for violence in dating relationships. Often referred to as the intergenerational transmission of violence or cycle of violence, a fair amount of research suggests that experiencing abuse during childhood significantly increases the likelihood of involvement in violent relationships later, but these conclusions are primarily based on correlational research designs. Furthermore, the majority of research linking childhood maltreatment and dating violence has focused on samples of young people from the United States. Considering these limitations, the current study uses a rigorous, propensity score matching approach to estimate the causal effect of experiencing child physical abuse on adult dating violence among a large sample of South Korean emerging adults. Results indicate that the link between child physical abuse and adult dating violence is spurious rather than causal. Study limitations and implications are discussed. PMID:25220481

  11. Methodology for Estimating Ingestion Dose for Emergency Response at SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Simpkins, A.A.

    2003-07-21

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), emergency response computer models are used to estimate dose following releases of radioactive materials to the environment. Downwind air and ground concentrations and their associated doses from inhalation and ground shine pathways are estimated. The emergency response model (PUFF-PLUME) uses real-time data to track either instantaneous (puff) or continuous (plume) releases. A site-specific ingestion dose model was developed for use with PUFF-PLUME that includes the following ingestion dose pathways pertinent to the surrounding SRS area: milk, beef, water, and fish. The model is simplistic and can be used with existing code output.

  12. Racial-Ethnic Disparities in Opioid Prescriptions at Emergency Department Visits for Conditions Commonly Associated with Prescription Drug Abuse.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Astha; Tien, Yu-Yu; Hsia, Renee Y

    2016-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse is a growing problem nationally. In an effort to curb this problem, emergency physicians might rely on subjective cues such as race-ethnicity, often unknowingly, when prescribing opioids for pain-related complaints, especially for conditions that are often associated with drug-seeking behavior. Previous studies that examined racial-ethnic disparities in opioid dispensing at emergency departments (EDs) did not differentiate between prescriptions at discharge and drug administration in the ED. We examined racial-ethnic disparities in opioid prescription at ED visits for pain-related complaints often associated with drug-seeking behavior and contrasted them with conditions objectively associated with pain. We hypothesized a priori that racial-ethnic disparities will be present among opioid prescriptions for conditions associated with non-medical use, but not for objective pain-related conditions. Using data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey for 5 years (2007-2011), the odds of opioid prescription during ED visits made by non-elderly adults aged 18-65 for 'non-definitive' conditions (toothache, back pain and abdominal pain) or 'definitive' conditions (long-bone fracture and kidney stones) were modeled. Opioid prescription at discharge and opioid administration at the ED were the primary outcomes. We found significant racial-ethnic disparities, with non-Hispanic Blacks being less likely (adjusted odds ratio ranging from 0.56-0.67, p-value < 0.05) to receive opioid prescription at discharge during ED visits for back pain and abdominal pain, but not for toothache, fractures and kidney stones, compared to non-Hispanic whites after adjusting for other covariates. Differential prescription of opioids by race-ethnicity could lead to widening of existing disparities in health, and may have implications for disproportionate burden of opioid abuse among whites. The findings have important implications for medical provider education

  13. Racial-Ethnic Disparities in Opioid Prescriptions at Emergency Department Visits for Conditions Commonly Associated with Prescription Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Tien, Yu-Yu; Hsia, Renee Y.

    2016-01-01

    Prescription drug abuse is a growing problem nationally. In an effort to curb this problem, emergency physicians might rely on subjective cues such as race-ethnicity, often unknowingly, when prescribing opioids for pain-related complaints, especially for conditions that are often associated with drug-seeking behavior. Previous studies that examined racial-ethnic disparities in opioid dispensing at emergency departments (EDs) did not differentiate between prescriptions at discharge and drug administration in the ED. We examined racial-ethnic disparities in opioid prescription at ED visits for pain-related complaints often associated with drug-seeking behavior and contrasted them with conditions objectively associated with pain. We hypothesized a priori that racial-ethnic disparities will be present among opioid prescriptions for conditions associated with non-medical use, but not for objective pain-related conditions. Using data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey for 5 years (2007–2011), the odds of opioid prescription during ED visits made by non-elderly adults aged 18–65 for ‘non-definitive’ conditions (toothache, back pain and abdominal pain) or ‘definitive’ conditions (long-bone fracture and kidney stones) were modeled. Opioid prescription at discharge and opioid administration at the ED were the primary outcomes. We found significant racial-ethnic disparities, with non-Hispanic Blacks being less likely (adjusted odds ratio ranging from 0.56–0.67, p-value < 0.05) to receive opioid prescription at discharge during ED visits for back pain and abdominal pain, but not for toothache, fractures and kidney stones, compared to non-Hispanic whites after adjusting for other covariates. Differential prescription of opioids by race-ethnicity could lead to widening of existing disparities in health, and may have implications for disproportionate burden of opioid abuse among whites. The findings have important implications for medical

  14. Physical Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for Victims ...

  15. Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for Victims ...

  16. Item Response Theory Analysis of DSM-IV Cannabis Abuse and Dependence Criteria in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Christie A.; Gelhorn, Heather; Crowley, Thomas J.; Sakai, Joseph T.; Stallings, Michael; Young, Susan E.; Rhee, Soo Hyun; Corley, Robin; Hewitt, John K.; Hopfer, Christian J.

    2008-01-01

    A study to examine the DSM-IV criteria for cannabis abuse and dependence among adolescents is conducted. Results conclude that abuse and dependence criteria were not found to affect the different levels of severity in cannabis use.

  17. [Changes in emotional response to visual stimuli with sexual content in drug abusers].

    PubMed

    Aguilar de Arcos, Francisco; Verdejo Garcia, Antonio; Lopez Jimenez, Angeles; Montañez Pareja, Matilde; Gomez Juarez, Encarnacion; Arraez Sanchez, Francisco; Perez Garcia, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    In a phenomenon as complex as drug dependence there is no doubt that affective and emotional aspects are involved. However, there has been little research to date on these emotional aspects, especially in specific relation to everyday affective stimuli, unrelated to drug use. In this work we investigate whether the consumption of narcotic substances causes changes in the emotional response to powerful unconditional natural stimuli, such as those of a sexual nature. To this end, I.A.P.S. images with explicit erotic content were shown to 84 drug-dependent males, in separate groups according to preferred substance. These groups' results were compared with each other and with the values obtained by non-consumers. The results indicate that drug abusers respond differently to visual stimuli with erotic content compared to non-consumers, and that there are also differences in response among consumers according to preferred substance. PMID:18551224

  18. 49 CFR 195.403 - Emergency response training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency response training. 195.403 Section 195.403 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION OF HAZARDOUS LIQUIDS BY PIPELINE Operation...

  19. 49 CFR 195.403 - Emergency response training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency response training. 195.403 Section 195.403 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) PIPELINE SAFETY TRANSPORTATION...

  20. "Grey" Areas and "Organized Chaos" in Emergency Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Nancy; Plumb, Donovan; Jolemore, Shawn

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this research is to explore the interaction between organizational policies and daily work practices of paramedics and firefighters within two emergency response organizations. Design/methodology/approach: Data were collected in a case study consisting of interviews, focus groups, and observations. The theoretical grounding…

  1. VIEW OF EMERGENCY RESPONSE VEHICLES PARKED OUTSIDE BUILDING 331, THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF EMERGENCY RESPONSE VEHICLES PARKED OUTSIDE BUILDING 331, THE VEHICLE MAINTENANCE GARAGE AND FIRE STATION. THE BUILDING, ORIGINALLY CONSTRUCTED IN 1953, WAS DESIGNED AND UTILIZED AS A WAREHOUSE. ADDITIONS TO THE STRUCTURE, INCLUDING THE FIRE DEPARTMENT STRUCTURE, WERE COMPLETED IN 1967. (4/7/87) - Rocky Flats Plant, Vehicle Maintenance Garage & Fire Station, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  2. 47 CFR 0.192 - Emergency Response Interoperability Center.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau to develop, recommend, and administer policy goals, objectives... Organization Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau § 0.192 Emergency Response Interoperability Center. (a... extent permitted by applicable law, the Chief of the Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau...

  3. 47 CFR 0.192 - Emergency Response Interoperability Center.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau to develop, recommend, and administer policy goals, objectives... Organization Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau § 0.192 Emergency Response Interoperability Center. (a... extent permitted by applicable law, the Chief of the Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau...

  4. Radiation Response of Emerging High Gain, Low Noise Detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Heidi N.; Farr, William H; Zhu, David Q.

    2007-01-01

    Data illustrating the radiation response of emerging high gain, low noise detectors are presented. Ionizing dose testing of silicon internal discrete avalanche photodiodes, and 51-MeV proton testing of InGaAs/InAlAs avalanche photodiodes operated in Geiger mode are discussed.

  5. 78 FR 44523 - Burned Area Emergency Response, Forest Service

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-24

    ..., (78 FR 34031). This correction adds the Web site that was inadvertently omitted from the interim... Federal Register of June 6, 2013, in FR Doc. 2013-13459, on page 34031, column 3, after the first... Forest Service RIN 0596-AC73 Burned Area Emergency Response, Forest Service AGENCY: Forest Service,...

  6. Emergent Listener Responses following Intraverbal Training in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingvarsson, Einar T.; Cammilleri, Anthony P.; Macias, Heather

    2012-01-01

    We examined the emergence of listener responses following intraverbal training in four children with autism. Intraverbal training consisted of a transfer-of-control procedure in which the participants were taught to answer questions in the form of "What is the state bird of [name of state]" using either picture prompts (tact-to-intraverbal…

  7. Emerging Conceptions of Children's Responses to Parental Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuczynski, Leon

    This paper reviews the behavior modification and internalization models of parental control of children, and explores the conceptualizations of children's responses to control that are emerging from the literature on development. In the behavior modification model, no distinction is made among types of child compliance or noncompliance.…

  8. 4-H Teen Community Emergency Response Team (CERT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Lynette; Powell, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    The Community Emergency Response Team (CERT) program is designed to train Americans to safely help themselves and their community in the event of a widespread disaster. This program is designed for adults. Despite youth increasingly becoming recognized as valuable resources, able to equally partner with adults in leadership and decision-making…

  9. 49 CFR 172.602 - Emergency response information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Emergency response information. 172.602 Section 172.602 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL PROVISIONS, HAZARDOUS...

  10. Chilling stress response of post-emergent cotton seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    • Early season development of cotton is often impaired by sudden episodes of chilling temperature. We determined the chilling response specific to post-emergent 13-d-old cotton seedlings. • Seedlings were gradually chilled during the dark period and rewarmed during the night-to-day transition. Fo...

  11. Exploring Interoperability as a Multidimensional Challenge for Effective Emergency Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santisteban, Hiram

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. The purpose of this research was to further an understanding of how the federal government is addressing the challenges of interoperability for emergency response or crisis management (FEMA, 2009) by informing the development of standards through the review of current congressional law, commissions, studies, executive orders, and…

  12. Creating a Campus Based Community Emergency Response Team (CERT)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    This article provides the reader with information regarding forming a community emergency response team (CERT) at a community college. College public safety departments are efficient entities in ordinary times. However, recent events at community colleges across the country have shown that there have been situations where their capabilities have…

  13. 49 CFR 172.602 - Emergency response information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... shipping paper; (ii) In a document, other than a shipping paper, that includes both the basic description... on a shipping paper, a written notification to pilot-in-command, or a dangerous cargo manifest, in a... description of the hazardous material on the shipping paper with the emergency response information...

  14. 49 CFR 172.602 - Emergency response information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Emergency response information. 172.602 Section 172.602 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE, SPECIAL PROVISIONS, HAZARDOUS...

  15. 49 CFR 172.602 - Emergency response information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... shipping paper; (ii) In a document, other than a shipping paper, that includes both the basic description... on a shipping paper, a written notification to pilot-in-command, or a dangerous cargo manifest, in a... description of the hazardous material on the shipping paper with the emergency response information...

  16. 49 CFR 172.602 - Emergency response information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... shipping paper; (ii) In a document, other than a shipping paper, that includes both the basic description... on a shipping paper, a written notification to pilot-in-command, or a dangerous cargo manifest, in a... description of the hazardous material on the shipping paper with the emergency response information...

  17. Being Prepared: The School Emergency Response Plan Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuentes, Efrain Garza; Rose, Raymond M.

    This handbook was designed to help educators develop a proactive school-preparedness plan for dealing with a variety of crises, ranging from natural disasters to accidents to acts of violence. The School Emergency Response Plan (SERP) is not a violence-prevention program; rather, it is part of an overall effort to ensure a safe learning…

  18. Hazardous Materials Emergency Response Training: The Colorado Training Institute. Innovations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Leslie

    The Colorado Training Institute (CTI), established in 1980, is a non-profit, instructional program devoted to promoting hazardous materials safety through education. It has trained over 3,000 emergency response personnel and industry officials and is a unique example of the private and public sectors working together to protect the public from…

  19. In-plant emergency response training: Technical matters and technique

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, T.K.

    1997-02-01

    There are four key elements to any effective training program: knowledge, skill, attitude and behavior. Prior to commencement of any learning experience, there must be a knowledge objective. It is the responsibility of the trainer to provide students with the information needed to properly implement a specific task. All training can be boiled down to one thing -- behavior modification. Emergency response training is no exception. To have a well-trained team, all four elements must be present. Improving a training program`s effectiveness is the primary focus of this article. The emergency response provisions of the HAZWOPER legislation provide all companies that may be required to respond to hazardous materials emergencies with two options: train their own team or call in a qualified outside response team. There are advantages and disadvantages in either case. Training and equipping one`s own team is an expensive, time-consuming option, but it can decrease the response time and enhance the probability that a standard response procedure will be implemented.

  20. NEURODEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY ASSOCIATED WITH CHILDHOOD SEXUAL ABUSE

    PubMed Central

    De Bellis, Michael D.; Spratt, Eve G.; Hooper, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Child maltreatment appears to be the single most preventable cause of mental illness and behavioral dysfunction in the US. There are few published studies examining the developmental and the psychobiological consequences of sexual abuse. There are multiple mechanisms through which sexual abuse can cause PTSD, activate biological stress response systems, and contribute to adverse brain development. This article will critically review the psychiatric problems associated with maltreatment and the emerging biologic stress system research with a special emphasis on what is known about victimization by sexual abuse. PMID:21970646

  1. Medical emergency rescue in disaster: the international emergency response to the Haiyan typhoon in Philippines.

    PubMed

    Ling, Feng; Ye, Zhen; Cai, Wenwei; Lu, Ye; Xia, Shichang; Chen, Zhiping; Chen, Enfu; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Zhen; Lv, Huakun; Gong, Zhenyu

    2014-12-01

    Following Typhoon Haiyan, the World Health Organization (WHO) has been supporting the Government of the Philippines in coordinating the incoming relief supplies from more than 30 international humanitarian health organizations. During the 10 days in Abuyong, Philippines, the Chinese medical rescue team consisting of 50 experts specialized in clinical medicine and disease prevention and control action was taken including, medical treatment, environmental disinfection and health education. A total of 1,831 cases and 2,144 outpatients were treated, blood tests, B-ultrasound, electrocardiogram (ECG) and other laboratory examinations were carried out for more than 615 patients; a cumulative 90,000 square meters in external environment were disinfected, and more than 500 health education materials were handed out. Besides, measures of purifying drinking water, and rebuilding the local hospital have also been carried out. The international emergency response to the Haiyan typhoon in Philippines contributed to reconstruct the local disaster health system by the activities from international medical emergency rescue. To improve the capacity of international medical emergency rescue in disaster, the special project of foreign medical emergency rescue should be set in countries' medical emergency rescue, and disaster emergency medical rescue should be reserved as a conventional capacity. PMID:25641183

  2. Methodology for Estimating Ingestion Dose for Emergency Response at SRS

    SciTech Connect

    Simpkins, A.A.

    2002-04-22

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), emergency response models estimate dose for inhalation and ground shine pathways. A methodology has been developed to incorporate ingestion doses into the emergency response models. The methodology follows a two-phase approach. The first phase estimates site-specific derived response levels (DRLs) which can be compared with predicted ground-level concentrations to determine if intervention is needed to protect the public. This phase uses accepted methods with little deviation from recommended guidance. The second phase uses site-specific data to estimate a 'best estimate' dose to offsite individuals from ingestion of foodstuffs. While this method deviates from recommended guidance, it is technically defensibly and more realistic. As guidance is updated, these methods also will need to be updated.

  3. Strengthening the Federal Emergency Management Agency's disaster response capabilities.

    PubMed

    Cannon, Glenn M

    2008-04-01

    The Federal Emergency Management Agency's (FEMA) Disaster Operations Directorate provides the core federal response capability to save lives and to protect property in US communities that have been overwhelmed by the impact of a major disaster or emergency. The directorate executes its mission through three main programme areas: operational direction, command and control; operational teams; and operational planning. Based on lessons learned from years of disaster response experience, FEMA is now taking a more proactive and collaborative approach with its partners. This paper discusses how FEMA is placing a greater emphasis on response operations and strengthening capabilities across the full range of operational and support missions by comprehensively revamping its disaster operations model; enhancing its headquarters and regional operations centres; enhancing its headquarters and regional operational planning capabilities; and addressing catastrophic disaster planning and related critical preparedness issues. PMID:21339114

  4. Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response training Center needs assessment

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, K.A.; Bolton, P.A.; Robinson, R.K.

    1993-09-01

    For the Hanford Site to provide high-quality training using simulated job-site situations to prepare the 4,000 Site workers and 500 emergency responders for known and unknown hazards a Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training Center is needed. The center will focus on providing classroom lecture as well as hands-on, realistic training. The establishment of the center will create a partnership among the US Department of Energy; its contractors; labor; local, state, and tribal governments; and Xavier and Tulane Universities of Louisiana. This report presents the background, history, need, benefits, and associated costs of the proposed center.

  5. Improving Emergency Response and Human-Robotic Performance

    SciTech Connect

    David I. Gertman; David J. Bruemmer; R. Scott Hartley

    2007-08-01

    Preparedness for chemical, biological, and radiological/nuclear incidents at nuclear power plants (NPPs) includes the deployment of well trained emergency response teams. While teams are expected to do well, data from other domains suggests that the timeliness and accuracy associated with incident response can be improved through collaborative human-robotic interaction. Many incident response scenarios call for multiple, complex procedure-based activities performed by personnel wearing cumbersome personal protective equipment (PPE) and operating under high levels of stress and workload. While robotic assistance is postulated to reduce workload and exposure, limitations associated with communications and the robot’s ability to act independently have served to limit reliability and reduce our potential to exploit human –robotic interaction and efficacy of response. Recent work at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) on expanding robot capability has the potential to improve human-system response during disaster management and recovery. Specifically, increasing the range of higher level robot behaviors such as autonomous navigation and mapping, evolving new abstractions for sensor and control data, and developing metaphors for operator control have the potential to improve state-of-the-art in incident response. This paper discusses these issues and reports on experiments underway intelligence residing on the robot to enhance emergency response.

  6. NNSA/NV Consequence Management Capabilities for Radiological Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect

    D. R. Bowman

    2002-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office (NNSA/NV) provides an integrated Consequence Management (CM) response capability for the (NNSA) in the event of a radiological emergency. This encompasses planning, technical operations, and home team support. As the lead organization for CM planning and operations, NNSA/NV coordinates the response of the following assets during the planning and operational phases of a radiological accident or incident: (1) Predictive dispersion modeling through the Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the High Consequence Assessment Group at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); (2) Regional radiological emergency assistance through the eight Radiological Assistance Program (RAP) regional response centers; (3) Medical advice and assistance through the Radiation Emergency Assistance Center/Training Site (REAC/TS) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; (4) Aerial radiological mapping using the fixed-wing and rotor-wing aircraft of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS); (5) Consequence Management Planning Teams (CMPT) and Consequence Management Response Teams (CMRT) to provide CM field operations and command and control. Descriptions of the technical capabilities employed during planning and operations are given below for each of the elements comprising the integrated CM capability.

  7. Learning from Japan: strengthening US emergency care and disaster response.

    PubMed

    Parmar, Parveen; Arii, Maya; Kayden, Stephanie

    2013-12-01

    As Hurricane Katrina demonstrated in 2005, US health response systems for disasters-typically designed to handle only short-term mass-casualty events-are inadequately prepared for disasters that result in large-scale population displacements. Similarly, after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, Japan found that many of its disaster shelters failed to meet international standards for long-term provision of basic needs and health care for the vulnerable populations that sought refuge in the shelters. Hospital disaster plans had not been tested and turned out to be inadequate, and emergency communication equipment did not function. We make policy recommendations that aim to improve US responses to mass-displacement disasters based on Japan's 2011 experience. First, response systems must provide for the extended care of large populations of chronically ill and vulnerable people. Second, policies should ensure that shelters meet or exceed international standards for the provision of food, water, sanitation, and privacy. Third, hospital disaster plans should include redundant communication systems and sufficient emergency provisions for both staff and patients. Finally, there must be routine drills for responses to mass-displacement disasters so that areas needing improvement can be uncovered before an emergency occurs. PMID:24301402

  8. Research on public health emergency response system platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi; Gan, Jie-fu; Qu, Yi-zhen

    2006-01-01

    The present public health system has continually struggled to combat ongoing and emerging public health threats and emergencies. The main impediment to improving public health readiness is the lack of an effective Public Health Emergency Response System. Although many health systems have been built and large amount of data collected, it is hard to analyze these data in depth and use them efficiently. An effective PHEMS should be able to manage data, produce information and provide services. Based on digital city, such a PHEMS has a most possible chance to be built. Detailed analysis of the architecture of the PHEMS, including (1) the surveillance system for data collection, (2) the consolidated information model based on HL7 Reference Information Model (RIM), (3) and the public health service framework, is focused in this paper. As a test-bed, the implementation of a prototype, which is a part of Digital Beijing Pilot, is illustrated. In the end, some operational and technical difficulties are discussed.

  9. Physiotherapists in emergency departments: responsibilities, accountability and education.

    PubMed

    Crane, Jacqueline; Delany, Clare

    2013-06-01

    Emergency physiotherapy roles have evolved within the UK and are increasingly being adopted in Australia in response to a need for greater workforce flexibility and improved service provision to meet growing patient demand. This paper discusses the need for the physiotherapy profession to develop evidence-based regulatory, ethical and educative frameworks to keep pace with the changing clinical environment and service delivery in emergency departments. Definitions of Emergency Physiotherapy as either advanced practice or extended scope of practice are identified, and the implications for both regulation of practice and education are highlighted. Suggestions for education in areas of clinical skills, ethical understanding and legal and professional knowledge are highlighted as important areas to support physiotherapists moving into this area of practice. PMID:23219643

  10. Bridging Scientific Model Outputs with Emergency Response Needs in Catastrophic Earthquake Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannes, Tay W.

    2010-01-01

    In emergency management, scientific models are widely used for running hazard simulations and estimating losses often in support of planning and mitigation efforts. This work expands utility of the scientific model into the response phase of emergency management. The focus is on the common operating picture as it gives context to emergency…

  11. Cardiac Emergency Response Planning for Schools: A Policy Statement.

    PubMed

    Rose, Kathleen; Martin Goble, Monica; Berger, Stuart; Courson, Ron; Fosse, Gwen; Gillary, Randall; Halowich, Joe; Indik, Julia H; Konig, Madeleine; Lopez-Anderson, Martha; Murphy, M Kathleen; Newman, Mary M; Ranous, Jeff; Sasson, Comilla; Taras, Howard; Thompson, Allison

    2016-09-01

    A sudden cardiac arrest in school or at a school event is potentially devastating to families and communities. An appropriate response to such an event-as promoted by developing, implementing, and practicing a cardiac emergency response plan (CERP)-can increase survival rates. Understanding that a trained lay-responder team within the school can make a difference in the crucial minutes between the time when the victim collapses and when emergency medical services arrive empowers school staff and can save lives. In 2015, the American Heart Association convened a group of stakeholders to develop tools to assist schools in developing CERPs. This article reviews the critical components of a CERP and a CERP team, the factors that should be taken into account when implementing the CERP, and recommendations for policy makers to support CERPs in schools. PMID:27486226

  12. Evaluation of the Emergency Response Dose Assessment System(ERDAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Randolph J.; Lambert, Winifred C.; Manobianco, John T.; Taylor, Gregory E.; Wheeler, Mark M.; Yersavich, Ann M.

    1996-01-01

    The emergency response dose assessment system (ERDAS) is a protype software and hardware system configured to produce routine mesoscale meteorological forecasts and enhanced dispersion estimates on an operational basis for the Kennedy Space Center (KSC)/Cape Canaveral Air Station (CCAS) region. ERDAS provides emergency response guidance to operations at KSC/CCAS in the case of an accidental hazardous material release or an aborted vehicle launch. This report describes the evaluation of ERDAS including: evaluation of sea breeze predictions, comparison of launch plume location and concentration predictions, case study of a toxic release, evaluation of model sensitivity to varying input parameters, evaluation of the user interface, assessment of ERDA's operational capabilities, and a comparison of ERDAS models to the ocean breeze dry gultch diffusion model.

  13. Satellite image collection modeling for large area hazard emergency response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shufan; Hodgson, Michael E.

    2016-08-01

    Timely collection of critical hazard information is the key to intelligent and effective hazard emergency response decisions. Satellite remote sensing imagery provides an effective way to collect critical information. Natural hazards, however, often have large impact areas - larger than a single satellite scene. Additionally, the hazard impact area may be discontinuous, particularly in flooding or tornado hazard events. In this paper, a spatial optimization model is proposed to solve the large area satellite image acquisition planning problem in the context of hazard emergency response. In the model, a large hazard impact area is represented as multiple polygons and image collection priorities for different portion of impact area are addressed. The optimization problem is solved with an exact algorithm. Application results demonstrate that the proposed method can address the satellite image acquisition planning problem. A spatial decision support system supporting the optimization model was developed. Several examples of image acquisition problems are used to demonstrate the complexity of the problem and derive optimized solutions.

  14. Emerging applications of stimuli-responsive polymer materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuart, Martien A. Cohen; Huck, Wilhelm T. S.; Genzer, Jan; Müller, Marcus; Ober, Christopher; Stamm, Manfred; Sukhorukov, Gleb B.; Szleifer, Igal; Tsukruk, Vladimir V.; Urban, Marek; Winnik, Françoise; Zauscher, Stefan; Luzinov, Igor; Minko, Sergiy

    2010-02-01

    Responsive polymer materials can adapt to surrounding environments, regulate transport of ions and molecules, change wettability and adhesion of different species on external stimuli, or convert chemical and biochemical signals into optical, electrical, thermal and mechanical signals, and vice versa. These materials are playing an increasingly important part in a diverse range of applications, such as drug delivery, diagnostics, tissue engineering and 'smart' optical systems, as well as biosensors, microelectromechanical systems, coatings and textiles. We review recent advances and challenges in the developments towards applications of stimuli-responsive polymeric materials that are self-assembled from nanostructured building blocks. We also provide a critical outline of emerging developments.

  15. Intelligent situation assessment and response aiding in flight emergencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudlicka, Eva; Corker, Kevin; Cramer, Nichael; Young, David; Baron, Sheldon

    1989-01-01

    A knowledge-based pilot aiding system which performs situation assessment and response aiding is described. The system uses a causal model of the flight domain to both simulate the effects of identified failures on flight and to derive responses during emergencies. The model represents information at two levels of abstraction: Boolean, which simply states whether a subsystem or aircraft component is normal or abnormal, and qualitative, which expresses the subsystem or component status as one of several qualitative values, such as increasing, decreasing, or stable.

  16. The epidemic of prescription opioid abuse, the subsequent rising prevalence of heroin use, and the federal response.

    PubMed

    Kanouse, Andrew B; Compton, Peggy

    2015-06-01

    Opioids are a mainstay in the treatment of pain both chronically and acutely. In the past 20 years, the prescribing of opioids has increased exponentially. As the population for whom opioids are indicated has grown, with the number of opioid prescriptions written increased, so have indicators of opioid misuse, abuse, morbidity, and mortality. The purpose of this article is to review and explore the combination of factors of events that led to the current "epidemic" of prescription opioid abuse and overdose deaths, as well as the subsequent resurgence of heroin use among opioid addicts. Federal initiatives to mount war on prescription opioid abuse are reviewed, including responses from the White House, Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA), Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and interagency initiatives. Many initiatives are currently in place to combat the rising rates of morbidity and mortality associated with opioids, and those involved are hopeful in their efforts to curb the epidemic of this deadly phenomenon. PMID:26095479

  17. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Additional Resources Return to: What is Elder Abuse? Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse Substance abuse has been identified ... the most frequently cited risk factor associated with elder abuse and neglect. It may be the victim and/ ...

  18. Offshore oil spill response practices and emerging challenges.

    PubMed

    Li, Pu; Cai, Qinhong; Lin, Weiyun; Chen, Bing; Zhang, Baiyu

    2016-09-15

    Offshore oil spills are of tremendous concern due to their potential impact on economic and ecological systems. A number of major oil spills triggered worldwide consciousness of oil spill preparedness and response. Challenges remain in diverse aspects such as oil spill monitoring, analysis, assessment, contingency planning, response, cleanup, and decision support. This article provides a comprehensive review of the current situations and impacts of offshore oil spills, as well as the policies and technologies in offshore oil spill response and countermeasures. Correspondingly, new strategies and a decision support framework are recommended for improving the capacities and effectiveness of oil spill response and countermeasures. In addition, the emerging challenges in cold and harsh environments are reviewed with recommendations due to increasing risk of oil spills in the northern regions from the expansion of the Arctic Passage. PMID:27393213

  19. Disrespect, harassment, and abuse

    PubMed Central

    Miedema, Baukje; Easley, Julie; Fortin, Pierrette; Hamilton, Ryan; Tatemichi, Sue

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To examine harassment and abusive encounters between family physicians and their patients or colleagues in the workplace. DESIGN Qualitative case study using semistructured interviews. SETTING Province of New Brunswick. PARTICIPANTS Forty-eight family physicians from across the province. METHODS A collective case-study approach was developed, with 24 cases of 2 individuals per case. Cases were selected based on sex, location (urban or rural), language (French or English), and number of years since medical school graduation (< 10 years, 10 to 20 years, or > 20 years). Physicians were interviewed in either French or English. Participants were recruited using the College of Physicians and Surgeons of New Brunswick’s physician directory. Based on the rates of response and participation, some cases were overrepresented, while others were not completed. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed thematically using a categorical aggregation approach. A coding scheme for the thematic analysis was developed by the research team before the interviews were transcribed. MAIN FINDINGS Although the original intent of this study was to examine the work environment of family physicians in light of the increasing number of women entering the profession, harassment and abusive encounters in the workplace emerged as a main theme. These encounters ranged from minor to severe. Minor abusive encounters included disrespectful behaviour and verbal threats by patients, their families, and occasionally colleagues. More severe forms of harassment involved physical threats, physical encounters, and stalking. Demanding patients, such as heavy drug users, were often seen as threatening. Location of practice, years in practice, and sex of the physician seemed to affect abusive encounters—young, female, rural physicians appeared to experience such encounters most often. CONCLUSION Abusive encounters in the workplace are concerning. It is essential to

  20. Physiological concentrations of zinc reduce taurine-activated GlyR responses to drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Kirson, Dean; Cornelison, Garrett L; Philpo, Ashley E; Todorovic, Jelena; Mihic, S John

    2013-12-01

    Taurine is an endogenous ligand acting on glycine receptors in many brain regions, including the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and nucleus accumbens (nAcc). These areas also contain low concentrations of zinc, which is known to potentiate glycine receptor responses. Despite an increasing awareness of the role of the glycine receptor in the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse, the possible interactions of these compounds with zinc has not been thoroughly addressed. Two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiological experiments were performed on α1, α2 α1β and α2β glycine receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The effects of zinc alone, and zinc in combination with other positive modulators on the glycine receptor, were investigated when activated by the full agonist glycine versus the partial agonist taurine. Low concentrations of zinc enhanced responses of maximally-effective concentrations of taurine but not glycine. Likewise, chelation of zinc from buffers decreased responses of taurine- but not glycine-mediated currents. Potentiating concentrations of zinc decreased ethanol, isoflurane, and toluene enhancement of maximal taurine currents with no effects on maximal glycine currents. Our findings suggest that the concurrence of high concentrations of taurine and low concentrations of zinc attenuate the effects of additional modulators on the glycine receptor, and that these conditions are more representative of in vivo functioning than effects seen when these modulators are applied in isolation. PMID:23973295

  1. Physiological concentrations of zinc reduce taurine-activated GlyR responses to drugs of abuse

    PubMed Central

    Kirson, Dean; Cornelison, Garrett L.; Philpo, Ashley E.; Todorovic, Jelena; Mihic, S. John

    2013-01-01

    Taurine is an endogenous ligand acting on glycine receptors in many brain regions, including the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and nucleus accumbens (nAcc). These areas also contain low concentrations of zinc, which is known to potentiate glycine receptor responses. Despite an increasing awareness of the role of the glycine receptor in the rewarding properties of drugs of abuse, the possible interactions of these compounds with zinc has not been thoroughly addressed. Two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiological experiments were performed on α1, α2 α1β and a2β glycine receptors expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. The effects of zinc alone, and zinc in combination with other positive modulators on the glycine receptor, were investigated when activated by the full agonist glycine versus the partial agonist taurine. Low concentrations of zinc enhanced responses of maximally-effective concentrations of taurine but not glycine. Likewise, chelation of zinc from buffers decreased responses of taurine- but not glycine-mediated currents. Potentiating concentrations of zinc decreased ethanol, isoflurane, and toluene enhancement of maximal taurine currents with no effects on maximal glycine currents. Our findings suggest that the concurrence of high concentrations of taurine and low concentrations of zinc attenuate the effects of additional modulators on the glycine receptor, and that these conditions are more representative of in vivo functioning than effects seen when these modulators are applied in isolation. PMID:23973295

  2. WMD first response: requirements, emerging technologies, and policy implications

    SciTech Connect

    Vergino, E S; Hoehn, W E

    2000-06-19

    In the US today, efforts are underway to defend against the possible terrorist use of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) against US cities. These efforts include the development and adaptation of technologies to support prevention and detection, to defend against a possible attack, and, if these fail, to provide both mitigation responses and attribution for a WMD incident. Technologies under development span a range of systems, from early detection and identification of an agent or explosive, to diagnostic and systems analysis tools; and to forensic analysis for law enforcement. Also, many techniques and tools that have been developed for other applications are being examined to determine whether, with some modification, they could be of use by the emergency preparedness, public health, and law enforcement communities. However, anecdotal evidence suggests the existence of a serious disconnect between the technology development communities and these user communities. This disconnect arises because funding for technology development is derived primarily from sources (principally federal agencies) distant from the emergency response communities, which are predominantly state, county, or local entities. Moreover, the first responders with whom we have worked candidly admit that their jurisdictions have been given, or have purchased for them, a variety of technological devices, typically without consulting the emergency responders about their utility. In private discussions, emergency responders derisively refer to these as a closet full of useless toys. Technology developers have many new and relevant technologies currently in the development pipeline, but most have not been adequately vetted against the field needs or validated for field use. The Center for Global Security Research at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the Sam Nunn School of International Affairs at the Georgia Institute of Technology recently sponsored a two-day workshop to bring together

  3. Avertable dose intervention applied in emergency response dose evaluation system for nuclear emergency preparedness in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Chung-hsin; Teng, Jen-hsin; Yang, Yung-muh; Chang, Bor-jing

    2010-06-01

    In Taiwan the new guides for the nuclear emergency public protective action were laid down by the Atomic Energy Council (AEC) of Executive Yuan, Taiwan, ROC on July 15th, 2005. The main modifications of the guides are that the avertable dose is applied as the intervention levels and suggests the public protective actions. The emergency response dose evaluation system named RPDOSE, which was developed in 2005, was employed in this work to enhance the capability of the avertable dose evaluation for the villages in the emergency planning zone (EPZ). The period of the long-term weather forecasting data was extended from 4 to 8 days to satisfy the requirement of avertable dose computing. According to the intervention levels, the RPDOSE system is used to calculate the avertable dose and suggest appropriate public protective actions such as sheltering, evacuation or iodine prophylaxis as well as the proposed acting times for each village in the EPZ. This system was employed and examined in the annual nuclear emergency exercise of 2008 in the Maanshan nuclear power plant.

  4. Optimal network solution for proactive risk assessment and emergency response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Tianxing

    Coupled with the continuous development in the field industrial operation management, the requirement for operation optimization in large scale manufacturing network has provoked more interest in the research field of engineering. Compared with the traditional way to take the remedial measure after the occurrence of the emergency event or abnormal situation, the current operation control calls for more proactive risk assessment to set up early warning system and comprehensive emergency response planning. Among all the industries, chemical industry and energy industry have higher opportunity to face with the abnormal and emergency situations due to their own industry characterization. Therefore the purpose of the study is to develop methodologies to give aid in emergency response planning and proactive risk assessment in the above two industries. The efficacy of the developed methodologies is demonstrated via two industrial real problems. The first case is to handle energy network dispatch optimization under emergency of local energy shortage under extreme conditions such as earthquake, tsunami, and hurricane, which may cause local areas to suffer from delayed rescues, widespread power outages, tremendous economic losses, and even public safety threats. In such urgent events of local energy shortage, agile energy dispatching through an effective energy transportation network, targeting the minimum energy recovery time, should be a top priority. The second case is a scheduling methodology to coordinate multiple chemical plants' start-ups in order to minimize regional air quality impacts under extreme meteorological conditions. The objective is to reschedule multi-plant start-up sequence to achieve the minimum sum of delay time compared to the expected start-up time of each plant. All these approaches can provide quantitative decision support for multiple stake holders, including government and environment agencies, chemical industry, energy industry and local

  5. The application of mobile satellite services to emergency response communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freibaum, J.

    1980-01-01

    The application of an integrated satellite/terrestrial emergency response communications system in disaster relief operations is discussed. Large area coverage communications capability, full-time availability, a high degree of mobility, plus reliability, are pointed out as criteria for an effective emergency communications system. Response time is seen as a major factor determining the possible survival and/or protection of property. These criteria, can not be met by existing communications systems and complete blackouts were experienced during the past decades caused by either interruption or destruction of existing power lines, and overload or inadequacy of remaining lines. Several emergency cases, caused by either hurricanes, tornados, or floods, during which communication via satellite was instrumental to inform rescue and relief teams, are described in detail. Seismic Risk Maps and charts of Major Tectonic Plates Earthquake Epicenters are given, and it is noted that, 35 percent of the U.S. population is living in critical areas. National and international agreements for the implementation of a satellite-aided global Search and Rescue Program is mentioned. Technological and economic breakthroughs are still needed in large multibeam antennas, switching circuits, and low cost mobile ground terminals. A pending plan of NASA to initiate a multiservice program in 1982/83, with a Land Mobile Satellite capability operating in the 806 - 890 MHz band as a major element, may help to accelerate the needed breakthroughs.

  6. Australian Undergraduate Primary School Student-Teachers' Responses to Child Sexual Abuse and Its Mandatory Reporting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldman, Juliette D. G.

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to understand how primary school teachers, as mandatory reporters of child sexual abuse, are responding to child sexual abuse and its mandatory reporting, even though many teachers do not receive a compulsory course in Child Protection and its legal requirements in their pre-service university training. A cohort of 81 Australian…

  7. Abused Women's Perspectives on the Criminal Justice System's Response to Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barata, Paula C.

    2007-01-01

    This study used Q methodology to better understand battered women's views about the criminal justice system (CJS). Fifty-eight abused and formerly abused women, representing a broad range of experiences, were involved in the study. Participants sorted 72 statements about domestic violence and the CJS according to how strongly they agreed with each…

  8. Reporting Suspected Sexual Abuse: A Study of Counselor and Counselor Trainee Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Susan Hackbarth; DeVaney, Susan B.

    1994-01-01

    Examined school counselors' (n=68) and trainees' (n=61) reporting of suspected child sexual abuse. Found that large majority of both trainees and counselors were aware of standard reporting procedures in case of intrafamily sexual abuse and were prepared to implement those procedures. Other findings revealed that school professionals were…

  9. Broadband macroscopic cortical oscillations emerge from intrinsic neuronal response failures

    PubMed Central

    Goldental, Amir; Vardi, Roni; Sardi, Shira; Sabo, Pinhas; Kanter, Ido

    2015-01-01

    Broadband spontaneous macroscopic neural oscillations are rhythmic cortical firing which were extensively examined during the last century, however, their possible origination is still controversial. In this work we show how macroscopic oscillations emerge in solely excitatory random networks and without topological constraints. We experimentally and theoretically show that these oscillations stem from the counterintuitive underlying mechanism—the intrinsic stochastic neuronal response failures (NRFs). These NRFs, which are characterized by short-term memory, lead to cooperation among neurons, resulting in sub- or several- Hertz macroscopic oscillations which coexist with high frequency gamma oscillations. A quantitative interplay between the statistical network properties and the emerging oscillations is supported by simulations of large networks based on single-neuron in-vitro experiments and a Langevin equation describing the network dynamics. Results call for the examination of these oscillations in the presence of inhibition and external drives. PMID:26578893

  10. Two-Graph Building Interior Representation for Emergency Response Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boguslawski, P.; Mahdjoubi, L.; Zverovich, V.; Fadli, F.

    2016-06-01

    Nowadays, in a rapidly developing urban environment with bigger and higher public buildings, disasters causing emergency situations and casualties are unavoidable. Preparedness and quick response are crucial issues saving human lives. Available information about an emergency scene, such as a building structure, helps for decision making and organizing rescue operations. Models supporting decision-making should be available in real, or near-real, time. Thus, good quality models that allow implementation of automated methods are highly desirable. This paper presents details of the recently developed method for automated generation of variable density navigable networks in a 3D indoor environment, including a full 3D topological model, which may be used not only for standard navigation but also for finding safe routes and simulating hazard and phenomena associated with disasters such as fire spread and heat transfer.

  11. Progestins influence motivation, reward, conditioning, stress, and/or response to drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Frye, Cheryl A

    2007-02-01

    Progesterone (pregn-4-ene-3,20-dione; P) and its metabolite 5alpha-pregnan-3alpha-ol-20-one (3alpha,5alpha-THP) are secreted by ovaries, adrenals, and glial cells. 3alpha,5alpha-THP in the midbrain ventral tegmental area mediates sexual receptivity of rodents through its actions at GABA(A), NMDA, and/or D(1) receptors. The extent to which 3alpha,5alpha-THP may influence anti-anxiety/anti-stress effects, conditioning and/or reward through these substrates and/or by altering hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis function is discussed. Biosynthesis of 3alpha,5alpha-THP occurs in responses to mating and may underlie some of the rewarding aspects of sexual behavior. Recent findings from our laboratory which demonstrate that progestins can enhance approach to novel stimuli, conditioning, and reinforcement are reviewed. How progestins' effects on these processes may underlie response to drugs of abuse is considered and new findings which demonstrate interactions between progestins and cocaine are presented. PMID:16979750

  12. Civilian exposure to toxic agents: emergency medical response.

    PubMed

    Baker, David

    2004-01-01

    Civilian populations are at risk from exposure to toxic materials as a result of accidental or deliberate exposure. In addition to industrial hazards, toxic agents designed for use in warfare now are a potential hazard in everyday life through terrorist action. Civil emergency medical responders should be able to adapt their plans for dealing with casualties from hazardous materials (HazMat) to deal with the new threat. Chemical and biological warfare (CBW) and HazMat agents can be viewed as a continuous spectrum. Each of these hazards is characterized by qualities of toxicity, latency of action, persistency, and transmissibility. The incident and medical responses to release of any agent is determined by these characteristics. Chemical and biological wardare agents usually are classified as weapons of mass destruction, but strictly, they are agents of mass injury. The relationship between mass injury and major loss of life depends very much on the protection, organization, and emergency care provided. Detection of a civil toxic agent release where signs and symptoms in casualties may be the first indicator of exposure is different from the military situation where intelligence information and tuned detection systems generally will be available. It is important that emergency medical care should be given in the context of a specific action plan. Within an organized and protected perimeter, triage and decontamination (if the agent is persistent) can proceed while emergency medical care is provided at the same time. The provision of advanced life support (TOXALS) in this zone by protected and trained medical responders now is technically feasible using specially designed ventilation equipment. Leaving life support until after decontamination may have fatal consequences. Casualties from terrorist attacks also may suffer physical as well as toxic trauma and the medical response also should be capable of dealing with mixed injuries. PMID:15506255

  13. Satanism as a response to abuse: the dynamics and treatment of satanic involvement in male youths.

    PubMed

    Belitz, J; Schacht, A

    1992-01-01

    Male youths from abusive family environments may be particularly vulnerable to recruitment into satanic cults. Families that are abusive, devalue or invalidate the abused child's feelings, blame the child for the family's problems, and view the world in rigidly moralistic terms create environments in which the youths are likely to identify with the aggressor and label themselves as evil. These youths, who may have poor social skills and feelings of anger, low self-esteem, self-blame, depression, powerlessness, and isolation as a result of the abuse, may use satanic involvement as a means of legitimizing their experience and differentiating from a negatively enmeshed and/or abusive family system. In this paper, the etiological factors and treatment approaches of ten hospitalized boys who had voluntarily involved themselves in repeated group satanic activities during their adolescence are described, and two case illustrations are given. Recommendations for understanding and treating such cases are provided. PMID:1471565

  14. Simultaneous detection of 93 conventional and emerging drugs of abuse and their metabolites in urine by UHPLC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Tang, Magdalene H Y; Ching, C K; Lee, Caroline Y W; Lam, Ying-Hoo; Mak, Tony W L

    2014-10-15

    Novel psychoactive substances (NPS) are becoming increasingly popular worldwide in recent years, some of which have been reported to cause considerable harm and even fatalities. Currently, simultaneous screening for a comprehensive panel of conventional and novel drugs of abuse is not widely available in most clinical laboratories. The aim of this study was to establish a chromatography/mass spectrometry-based analytical system for the simultaneous detection of conventional drugs of abuse and NPS in urine. Sample preparation entails enzyme digestion and solid phase extraction; analytes were then detected by liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with multiple reaction monitoring. Forty-seven conventional drugs (28 parent drugs, 19 metabolites) and 46 NPS analytes (44 parent drugs, two metabolites) are covered by the established method, which has been validated according to international guidelines. The method was then applied to 964 urine samples collected from drug abusers and the results revealed the presence of two NPS - TFMPP and methcathinone - as well as conventional drugs of abuse. To conclude, an LC-MS/MS method has been established that allows the simultaneous detection of over 90 conventional as well as novel psychoactive substances and metabolites in urine samples. The method was successfully applied to authentic specimens revealing the presence of conventional as well as novel drugs of abuse in the local population. PMID:25203724

  15. Current Domain Challenges in the Emergency Response Community

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, Jonathan L.; Peddicord, Annie M Boe; Burtner, Edwin R.; Mahy, Heidi A.

    2011-05-08

    This paper describes the development of a framework targeted to technology providers in order to better understand the grand domain challenges of the emergency response and management community (EM). In developing this framework, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory researchers interviewed subject matter experts (SMEs) across the EM domain and corroborated these findings with current literature. We are currently examining relationships and dependencies within the framework. A thorough understanding of these gaps and dependencies will allow for a more informed approach prioritizing research, developing tools, and applying technology to enhance performance in the EM community.

  16. The emergency medical response to the Cantara hazardous materials incident.

    PubMed

    Koehler, G A; Van Ness, C

    1993-01-01

    On 14 July 1991, at 2150 h, a train derailment occurred near the Cantara rail curve about six miles above Dunsmuir in Northern California. The derailment spilled approximately 19,000 gallons of metam-sodium into the Sacramento River. When mixed with water, metam-sodium degrades to methylisothiocyanate (MITC) and other gases. The contaminated river water passed the town of Dunsmuir and other occupied areas exposing residents to MITC gas. From 15 July to 20 July (five days), a total of 360 people underwent triage. The majority of patients displayed minor exposure symptoms that did not require hospital care. Mercy Mt. Shasta Hospital, a small rural hospital close to Dunsmuir, received the majority of patients. As of 29 July, 15 days after the incident, Mercy Mt. Shasta Hospital had seen 244 exposed patients in its emergency department, and had admitted five. Three had symptoms that could have been spill-related. Three Regional Poison Control Centers provided medical toxicology advice. Medical management of the emergency medical services (EMS) response to the event was piecemeal and weak. There did not appear to be a medical operations component at local Emergency Operations Centers (EOC). Most health care personnel interviewed complained about inadequate information about the substance and the situation. Local fire service mutual-aid agreements to obtain additional fire service and ambulance personnel worked well. It is important to emphasize that everyone who believed they had been exposed to the chemical underwent triage and received appropriate acute medical care. PMID:10155481

  17. 44 CFR 352.27 - Federal role in the emergency response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Federal role in the emergency response. 352.27 Section 352.27 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS COMMERCIAL NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS...

  18. Immune responses of wild birds to emerging infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Staley, M; Bonneaud, C

    2015-05-01

    Over the past several decades, outbreaks of emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) in wild birds have attracted worldwide media attention, either because of their extreme virulence or because of alarming spillovers into agricultural animals or humans. The pathogens involved have been found to infect a variety of bird hosts ranging from relatively few species (e.g. Trichomonas gallinae) to hundreds of species (e.g. West Nile Virus). Here we review and contrast the immune responses that wild birds are able to mount against these novel pathogens. We discuss the extent to which these responses are associated with reduced clinical symptoms, pathogen load and mortality, or conversely, how they can be linked to worsened pathology and reduced survival. We then investigate how immune responses to EIDs can evolve over time in response to pathogen-driven selection using the illustrative case study of the epizootic outbreak of Mycoplasma gallisepticum in wild North American house finches (Haemorhous mexicanus). We highlight the need for future work to take advantage of the substantial inter- and intraspecific variation in disease progression and outcome following infections with EID to elucidate the extent to which immune responses confer increased resistance through pathogen clearance or may instead heighten pathogenesis. PMID:25847450

  19. Southern state radiological emergency preparedness and response agencies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    This Report provides information on the state agencies assigned to radioactive materials transportation incidents in 16 Southern States Energy Board member states. For each, the report lists the agencies with primary authority for preparedness and response, their responsibilities and personnel within the agencies who can offer additional information on their radioactive materials transportation programs. The report also lists each state's emergency team members and its laboratory and analytical capabilities. Finally, the governor's designee for receiving advance notification of high-level radioactive materials and spent fuel shipments under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's regulations is listed for each state. Part 71 requires prenotification for large quantity radioactive waste shipments. Part 73 addresses prenotification for spent nuclear reactor fuel shipments.

  20. Southern state radiological emergency preparedness and response agencies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-11-01

    This Report provides information on the state agencies assigned to radioactive materials transportation incidents in 16 Southern States Energy Board member states. For each, the report lists the agencies with primary authority for preparedness and response, their responsibilities and personnel within the agencies who can offer additional information on their radioactive materials transportation programs. The report also lists each state`s emergency team members and its laboratory and analytical capabilities. Finally, the governor`s designee for receiving advance notification of high-level radioactive materials and spent fuel shipments under 10 CFR Parts 71 and 73 of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s regulations is listed for each state. Part 71 requires prenotification for large quantity radioactive waste shipments. Part 73 addresses prenotification for spent nuclear reactor fuel shipments.

  1. Emergence, reductionism and landscape response to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Stephan; Mighall, Tim

    2010-05-01

    Predicting landscape response to external forcing is hampered by the non-linear, stochastic and contingent (ie dominated by historical accidents) forcings inherent in landscape evolution. Using examples from research carried out in southwest Ireland we suggest that non-linearity in landform evolution is likely to be a strong control making regional predictions of landscape response to climate change very difficult. While uncertainties in GCM projections have been widely explored in climate science much less attention has been directed by geomorphologists to the uncertainties in landform evolution under conditions of climate change and this problem may be viewed within the context of philosophical approaches to reductionsim and emergence. Understanding the present and future trajectory of landform change may also guide us to provide an enhanced appreciation of how landforms evolved in the past.

  2. 76 FR 23810 - Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau; Federal Advisory Committee Act; Emergency Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... COMMISSION Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau; Federal Advisory Committee Act; Emergency Response Interoperability Center Public Safety Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... advises interested persons that the FCC Emergency Response Interoperability Center Public Safety...

  3. 76 FR 10898 - Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau; Federal Advisory Committee Act; Emergency Response...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-28

    ... COMMISSION Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau; Federal Advisory Committee Act; Emergency Response Interoperability Center Public Safety Advisory Committee Meeting AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... advises interested persons that the FCC Emergency Response Interoperability Center Public Safety...

  4. 46 CFR 148.62 - Location of shipping papers and emergency response information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... unmanned barge the shipping papers and emergency response information must be kept on the tug or towing vessel. When an unmanned barge is moored, the shipping paper and emergency response information must...

  5. 46 CFR 148.62 - Location of shipping papers and emergency response information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... unmanned barge the shipping papers and emergency response information must be kept on the tug or towing vessel. When an unmanned barge is moored, the shipping paper and emergency response information must...

  6. 46 CFR 148.62 - Location of shipping papers and emergency response information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... unmanned barge the shipping papers and emergency response information must be kept on the tug or towing vessel. When an unmanned barge is moored, the shipping paper and emergency response information must...

  7. 46 CFR 148.62 - Location of shipping papers and emergency response information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... unmanned barge the shipping papers and emergency response information must be kept on the tug or towing vessel. When an unmanned barge is moored, the shipping paper and emergency response information must...

  8. Technical Basis for Radiological Emergency Plan Annex for WTD Emergency Response Plan: West Point Treatment Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, Eva E.; Strom, Daniel J.

    2005-08-01

    Staff of the King County Wastewater Treatment Division (WTD) have concern about the aftermath of a radiological dispersion event (RDE) leading to the introduction of significant quantities of radioactive material into the combined sanitary and storm sewer system in King County, Washington. Radioactive material could come from the use of a radiological dispersion device (RDD). RDDs include "dirty bombs" that are not nuclear detonations but are explosives designed to spread radioactive material (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) 2001). Radioactive material also could come from deliberate introduction or dispersion of radioactive material into the environment, including waterways and water supply systems. This document, Volume 3 of PNNL-15163 is the technical basis for the Annex to the West Point Treatment Plant (WPTP) Emergency Response Plan related to responding to a radiological emergency at the WPTP. The plan primarily considers response to radioactive material that has been introduced in the other combined sanitary and storm sewer system from a radiological dispersion device, but is applicable to any accidental or deliberate introduction of materials into the system.

  9. Application of a geographic information system for radiologic emergency response

    SciTech Connect

    Best, R.G.; Doyle, J.F.

    1995-03-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) is a multifunctional analytical tool that can be used to compile available data and derive information. A GIS is a computerized database management system for the capture, storage, retrieval, analysis, and display of spatial data. Maps are the most common type of spatial data, but any type of data that can be referenced by an x-y location or geographic coordinate can be used in a GIS. In a radiological emergency, it is critical that data of all types be rapidly compiled into a common format in order to make accurate observations and informed decisions. Developing a baseline GIS for nuclear facilities would offer a significant incentive for all organizations to contribute to and utilize this powerful data management tool. The system being developed could integrate all elements of emergency planning, from the initial protective actions based on models through the emergency monitoring phase, and finally ending with the complex reentry and recovery phase. Within the Federal Radiological Monitoring and Assessment Center (FRMAC), there is a continuing effort to improve the data management and communication process. To demonstrate the potential of GIS for emergency response, the system has been utilized in interagency FRMAC exercises. An interactive GIS system has been deployed and used to analyze the available spatial data to help determine the impact of a hypothetical radiological release and to develop mitigation plans. For this application, both hardcopy and real-time spatial displays were generated with the GIS. Composite maps with different sizes, scales, and themes were produced to support the exercises.

  10. A Randomized Experimental Study of Gender-Responsive Substance Abuse Treatment for Women in Prison

    PubMed Central

    Messina, Nena; Grella, Christine E.; Cartier, Jerry; Torres, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    This experimental pilot study compared post-release outcomes for 115 women who participated in prison-based substance abuse treatment. Women were randomized to a gender-responsive treatment (GRT) program using manualized curricula (Helping Women Recover and Beyond Trauma) or a standard prison-based therapeutic community (TC). Data were collected from the participants at prison program entry and 6 and 12 months after release. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Results indicate that both groups improved in psychological well-being; however, GRT participants had greater reductions in drug use, were more likely to remain in residential aftercare longer (2.6 months vs. 1.8 months, p < .05), and were less likely to have been reincarcerated within 12 months after parole (31% vs. 45%, respectively; a 67% reduction in odds for the experimental group, p < .05). Findings show the beneficial effects of treatment components oriented toward women's needs and support the integration of GRT in prison programs for women. PMID:20015605

  11. Current trends in gamma radiation detection for radiological emergency response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Guss, Paul; Maurer, Richard

    2011-09-01

    Passive and active detection of gamma rays from shielded radioactive materials, including special nuclear materials, is an important task for any radiological emergency response organization. This article reports on the current trends and status of gamma radiation detection objectives and measurement techniques as applied to nonproliferation and radiological emergencies. In recent years, since the establishment of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office by the Department of Homeland Security, a tremendous amount of progress has been made in detection materials (scintillators, semiconductors), imaging techniques (Compton imaging, use of active masking and hybrid imaging), data acquisition systems with digital signal processing, field programmable gate arrays and embedded isotopic analysis software (viz. gamma detector response and analysis software [GADRAS]1), fast template matching, and data fusion (merging radiological data with geo-referenced maps, digital imagery to provide better situational awareness). In this stride to progress, a significant amount of inter-disciplinary research and development has taken place-techniques and spin-offs from medical science (such as x-ray radiography and tomography), materials engineering (systematic planned studies on scintillators to optimize several qualities of a good scintillator, nanoparticle applications, quantum dots, and photonic crystals, just to name a few). No trend analysis of radiation detection systems would be complete without mentioning the unprecedented strategic position taken by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to deter, detect, and interdict illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime transportation-the so-called second line of defense.

  12. Southern State Radiological Transportation Emergency Response Training Course Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The Southern States Energy Board (SSEB) is an interstate compact organization that serves 16 states and the commonwealth of Puerto Rico with information and analysis in energy and environmental matters. Nuclear waste management is a topic that has garnered considerable attention in the SSEB region in the last several years. Since 1985, SSEB has received support from the US Department of Energy for the regional analysis of high-level radioactive waste transportation issues. In the performance of its work in this area, SSEB formed the Advisory Committee on High-Level Radioactive Materials Transportation, which comprises representatives from impacted states and tribes. SSEB meets with the committee semi-annually to provide issue updates to members and to solicit their views on activities impacting their respective states. Among the waste transportation issues considered by SSEB and the committee are shipment routing, the impacts of monitored retrievable storage, state liability in the event of an accident and emergency preparedness and response. This document addresses the latter by describing the radiological emergency response training courses and programs of the southern states, as well as federal courses available outside the southern region.

  13. Current Trends in Gamma Radiation Detection for Radiological Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, S., Guss, P., Maurer, R.

    2011-09-01

    Passive and active detection of gamma rays from shielded radioactive materials, including special nuclear materials, is an important task for any radiological emergency response organization. This article reports on the current trends and status of gamma radiation detection objectives and measurement techniques as applied to nonproliferation and radiological emergencies. In recent years, since the establishment of the Domestic Nuclear Detection Office by the Department of Homeland Security, a tremendous amount of progress has been made in detection materials (scintillators, semiconductors), imaging techniques (Compton imaging, use of active masking and hybrid imaging), data acquisition systems with digital signal processing, field programmable gate arrays and embedded isotopic analysis software (viz. gamma detector response and analysis software [GADRAS]1), fast template matching, and data fusion (merging radiological data with geo-referenced maps, digital imagery to provide better situational awareness). In this stride to progress, a significant amount of interdisciplinary research and development has taken place–techniques and spin-offs from medical science (such as x-ray radiography and tomography), materials engineering (systematic planned studies on scintillators to optimize several qualities of a good scintillator, nanoparticle applications, quantum dots, and photonic crystals, just to name a few). No trend analysis of radiation detection systems would be complete without mentioning the unprecedented strategic position taken by the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) to deter, detect, and interdict illicit trafficking in nuclear and other radioactive materials across international borders and through the global maritime transportation–the so-called second line of defense.

  14. Developmental pathways to adolescent cannabis abuse and dependence: child maltreatment, emerging personality, and internalizing versus externalizing psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Oshri, Assaf; Rogosch, Fred A; Burnette, Mandi L; Cicchetti, Dante

    2011-12-01

    Child maltreatment is strongly associated with adolescent psychopathology and substance abuse and dependence. However, developmental processes unfolding from childhood into adolescence that delineate this trajectory are not well understood. The current study used path analysis in a structural equation modeling framework to examine multiple mediator models, including ego control, ego resiliency, and internalizing and externalizing symptoms to investigate this developmental process. Participants were 415 children, assessed across 3 waves of data, (i.e., at ages 7 to 9, 10 to 12, and 13 to 15). The sample included maltreated (n = 259) and nonmaltreated (n = 156) children; groups were comparable in sociodemographic characteristics. Findings support an transactional-ecological model by revealing a developmental sequence in which severity of early childhood maltreatment potentiates less adaptive childhood personality functioning, followed by externalizing problems in preadolescence, and ultimately adolescent cannabis abuse and dependence symptoms. A developmental pathway from child maltreatment to adolescent cannabis abuse and dependence symptoms via personality and preadolescent internalizing problems was not supported. Understanding developmental pathways by which maltreatment experiences increase risk for substance abuse and dependence symptoms in youth has far-reaching implications for the treatment and prevention of substance use disorders. PMID:21534646

  15. Etiology of Substance Use Disorder in Children and Adolescents. Emerging Findings from the Center for Education and Drug Abuse Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarter, Ralph E., Ed.; Vanyukov, Michael M., Ed.

    The mission of the Center for Education and Drug Abuse Research (CEDAR) is to delineate the etiology of Substance Use Disorder (SUD). Biobehavioral processes and environmental factors are comprehensively assessed prior to first exposure to alcohol and drugs, and subsequently during the period of substance use behavior leading ultimately to a…

  16. The San Bernardino, California, Terror Attack: Two Emergency Departments’ Response

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Carol; Walters, Elizabeth; Borger, Rodney; Clem, Kathleen; Fenati, Gregory; Kiemeney, Michael; Seng, Sakona; Yuen, Ho-Wang; Neeki, Michael; Smith, Dustin

    2016-01-01

    On December 2, 2015, a terror attack in the city of San Bernardino, California killed 14 Americans and injured 22 in the deadliest attack on U.S. soil since September 11, 2001. Although emergency personnel and law enforcement officials frequently deal with multi-casualty incidents (MCIs), what occurred that day required an unprecedented response. Most of the severely injured victims were transported to either Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) or Arrowhead Regional Medical Center (ARMC). These two hospitals operate two designated trauma centers in the region and played crucial roles during the massive response that followed this attack. In an effort to shed a light on our response to others, we provide an account of how these two teaching hospitals prepared for and coordinated the medical care of these victims. In general, both centers were able to quickly mobilize large number of staff and resources. Prior disaster drills proved to be invaluable. Both centers witnessed excellent teamwork and coordination involving first responders, law enforcement, administration, and medical personnel from multiple specialty services. Those of us working that day felt safe and protected. Although we did identify areas we could have improved upon, including patchy communication and crowd-control, they were minor in nature and did not affect patient care. MCIs pose major challenges to emergency departments and trauma centers across the country. Responding to such incidents requires an ever-evolving approach as no two incidents will present exactly alike. It is our hope that this article will foster discussion and lead to improvements in management of future MCIs. PMID:26823922

  17. The San Bernardino, California, Terror Attack: Two Emergency Departments' Response.

    PubMed

    Lee, Carol; Walters, Elizabeth; Borger, Rodney; Clem, Kathleen; Fenati, Gregory; Kiemeney, Michael; Seng, Sakona; Yuen, Ho-Wang; Neeki, Michael; Smith, Dustin

    2016-01-01

    On December 2, 2015, a terror attack in the city of San Bernardino, California killed 14 Americans and injured 22 in the deadliest attack on U.S. soil since September 11, 2001. Although emergency personnel and law enforcement officials frequently deal with multi-casualty incidents (MCIs), what occurred that day required an unprecedented response. Most of the severely injured victims were transported to either Loma Linda University Medical Center (LLUMC) or Arrowhead Regional Medical Center (ARMC). These two hospitals operate two designated trauma centers in the region and played crucial roles during the massive response that followed this attack. In an effort to shed a light on our response to others, we provide an account of how these two teaching hospitals prepared for and coordinated the medical care of these victims. In general, both centers were able to quickly mobilize large number of staff and resources. Prior disaster drills proved to be invaluable. Both centers witnessed excellent teamwork and coordination involving first responders, law enforcement, administration, and medical personnel from multiple specialty services. Those of us working that day felt safe and protected. Although we did identify areas we could have improved upon, including patchy communication and crowd-control, they were minor in nature and did not affect patient care. MCIs pose major challenges to emergency departments and trauma centers across the country. Responding to such incidents requires an ever-evolving approach as no two incidents will present exactly alike. It is our hope that this article will foster discussion and lead to improvements in management of future MCIs. PMID:26823922

  18. DEPRESSIVE AND POSTTRAUMATIC SYMPTOMS AMONG WOMEN SEEKING PROTECTION ORDERS AGAINST INTIMATE PARTNERS: RELATIONS TO COPING STRATEGIES AND PERCEIVED RESPONSES TO ABUSE DISCLOSURE

    PubMed Central

    Flicker, Sharon M.; Cerulli, Catherine; Swogger, Marc T.; Talbot, Nancy L.

    2014-01-01

    This investigation examined the relationship of abuse-specific coping strategies and perceived responses to abuse disclosure to symptoms of depression and posttraumatic stress among 131 women seeking a protection order against an intimate partner. Disengagement, denial, and self-blame coping strategies, as well as blaming of the participant by others, were associated with greater depressive and posttraumatic symptoms. None of the strategies of coping or responses to abuse disclosure were negatively related to depressive or posttraumatic stress symptoms. Findings suggest that mental health providers may find it useful to address these negative styles of coping while public education campaigns should target victim-blaming. PMID:22735315

  19. Emergency Response and the International Charter Space and Major Disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, B.; Lamb, R.

    2011-12-01

    Responding to catastrophic natural disasters requires information. When the flow of information on the ground is interrupted by crises such as earthquakes, landslides, volcanoes, hurricanes, and floods, satellite imagery and aerial photographs become invaluable tools in revealing post-disaster conditions and in aiding disaster response and recovery efforts. USGS is a global clearinghouse for remotely sensed disaster imagery. It is also a source of innovative products derived from satellite imagery that can provide unique overviews as well as important details about the impacts of disasters. Repeatedly, USGS and its resources have proven their worth in assisting with disaster recovery activities in the United States and abroad. USGS has a well-established role in emergency response in the United States. It works closely with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) by providing first responders with satellite and aerial images of disaster-impacted sites and products developed from those images. The combination of the USGS image archive, coupled with its global data transfer capability and on-site science staff, was instrumental in the USGS becoming a participating agency in the International Charter Space and Major Disasters. This participation provides the USGS with access to international members and their space agencies, to information on European and other global member methodology in disaster response, and to data from satellites operated by Charter member countries. Such access enhances the USGS' ability to respond to global emergencies and to disasters that occur in the United States (US). As one example, the Charter agencies provided imagery to the US for over 4 months in response to the Gulf oil spill. The International Charter mission is to provide a unified system of space data acquisition and delivery to those affected by natural or man-made disasters. Each member space agency has committed resources to support the provisions of the Charter and

  20. [Response to treatment of patients abusing the "dappou drug" who participated in a group relapse prevention program: a comparison with patients abusing methamphetamine].

    PubMed

    Hikitsuchi, Emi; Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Wada, Kiyoshi; Tanibuchi, Yuko; Takano, Ayumi; Imamura, Fumi; Kawachi, Hiraku; Wakabayashi, Asako; Kato, Takashi

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we compared the efficacy of a group relapse prevention program using the cognitive behavioral therapy-based workbook, Serigaya Methamphetamine Relapse Prevention Program (SMARPP), between patients abusing the so-called "dappou drugs" (designer drug in Japan, and those abusing methamphetamine (MAP). Both groups participated in the SMARPP at the Center Hospital, National Center of Neurology and Psychiatry. Results showed that, no significant differences were found in the rates of participation in the program or self-reported frequency of drug or alcohol use between the patients abusing "dappou drugs" or MAP. However, patients using "dappou drugs" reported no significant increase in their confidence in their ability to resist the temptation to use drugs on the self- report drug abuse scales after the SMARPP intervention, while patients abusing MAP reported a significant positive difference in their ability to resist temptation. In addition, insight into substance abuse problems and motivation to participate in further treatment slightly declined in those using "dappou drugs," while there was a significant increase reported by the patients using MAP. These results suggested that the SMARPP might not be as effective for patients abusing "dappou drugs" as for those abusing MAP. The development of a relapse prevention program specifically designed for patients abusing "dappou drugs" is required. PMID:25831947

  1. Ebola Virus Disease: Ethics and Emergency Medical Response Policy.

    PubMed

    Jecker, Nancy S; Dudzinski, Denise M; Diekema, Douglas S; Tonelli, Mark

    2015-09-01

    Caring for patients affected with Ebola virus disease (EVD) while simultaneously preventing EVD transmission represents a central ethical challenge of the EVD epidemic. To address this challenge, we propose a model policy for resuscitation and emergent procedure policy of patients with EVD and set forth ethical principles that lend support to this policy. The policy and principles we propose bear relevance beyond the EVD epidemic, offering guidance for the care of patients with other highly contagious, virulent, and lethal diseases. The policy establishes (1) a limited code status for patients with confirmed or suspected EVD. Limited code status means that a code blue will not be called for patients with confirmed or suspected EVD at any stage of the disease; however, properly protected providers (those already in full protective equipment) may initiate resuscitative efforts if, in their clinical assessment, these efforts are likely to benefit the patient. The policy also requires that (2) resuscitation not be attempted for patients with advanced EVD, as resuscitation would be medically futile; (3) providers caring for or having contact with patients with confirmed or suspected EVD be properly protected and trained; (4) the treating team identify and treat in advance likely causes of cardiac and respiratory arrest to minimize the need for emergency response; (5) patients with EVD and their proxies be involved in care discussions; and (6) care team and provider discretion guide the care of patients with EVD. We discuss ethical issues involving medical futility and the duty to avoid harm and propose a utilitarian-based principle of triage to address resource scarcity in the emergency setting. PMID:25855946

  2. Reservoir Host Immune Responses to Emerging Zoonotic Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Mandl, Judith N.; Ahmed, Rafi; Barreiro, Luis B.; Daszak, Peter; Epstein, Jonathan H.; Virgin, Herbert W.; Feinberg, Mark B.

    2015-01-01

    Zoonotic viruses, such as HIV, Ebola virus, coronaviruses, influenza A viruses, hantaviruses, or henipaviruses, can result in profound pathology in humans. In contrast, populations of the reservoir hosts of zoonotic pathogens often appear to tolerate these infections with little evidence of disease. Why are viruses more dangerous in one species than another? Immunological studies investigating quantitative and qualitative differences in the host-virus equilibrium in animal reservoirs will be key to answering this question, informing new approaches for treating and preventing zoonotic diseases. Integrating an understanding of host immune responses with epidemiological, ecological, and evolutionary insights into viral emergence will shed light on mechanisms that minimize fitness costs associated with viral infection, facilitate transmission to other hosts, and underlie the association of specific reservoir hosts with multiple emerging viruses. Reservoir host studies provide a rich opportunity for elucidating fundamental immunological processes and their underlying genetic basis, in the context of distinct physiological and metabolic constraints that contribute to host resistance and disease tolerance. PMID:25533784

  3. The Spacecraft Emergency Response System (SERS) for Autonomous Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breed, Julia; Chu, Kai-Dee; Baker, Paul; Starr, Cynthia; Fox, Jeffrey; Baitinger, Mick

    1998-01-01

    Today, most mission operations are geared toward lowering cost through unmanned operations. 7-day/24-hour operations are reduced to either 5-day/8-hour operations or become totally autonomous, especially for deep-space missions. Proper and effective notification during a spacecraft emergency could mean success or failure for an entire mission. The Spacecraft Emergency Response System (SERS) is a tool designed for autonomous mission operations. The SERS automatically contacts on-call personnel as needed when crises occur, either on-board the spacecraft or within the automated ground systems. Plus, the SERS provides a group-ware solution to facilitate the work of the person(s) contacted. The SERS is independent of the spacecraft's automated ground system. It receives and catalogues reports for various ground system components in near real-time. Then, based on easily configurable parameters, the SERS determines whom, if anyone, should be alerted. Alerts may be issued via Sky-Tel 2-way pager, Telehony, or e-mail. The alerted personnel can then review and respond to the spacecraft anomalies through the Netscape Internet Web Browser, or directly review and respond from the Sky-Tel 2-way pager.

  4. HAZBOT - A hazardous materials emergency response mobile robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, H. W.; Edmonds, G.

    1992-01-01

    The authors describe the progress that has been made towards the development of a mobile robot that can be used by hazardous materials emergency response teams to perform a variety of tasks including incident localization and characterization, hazardous material identification/classification, site surveillance and monitoring, and ultimately incident mitigation. In September of 1991, the HAZBOT II vehicle performed its first end-to-end demonstration involving a scenario in which the vehicle: navigated to the incident location from a distant (150-200 ft.) deployment site; entered a building through a door with thumb latch style handle and door closer; located and navigated to the suspected incident location (a chemical storeroom); unlocked and opened the storeroom's door; climbed over the storeroom's 12 in. high threshold to enter the storeroom; and located and identified a broken container of benzene.

  5. Multi-Criteria Sensor Placement for Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect

    Southworth, Frank

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes an approach to locating a set of sensors to provide early warning of a dangerous chemical or biological agent release. The objective of the warning system is to minimize potential fatalities and any other health-related problems resulting from either an accidental release (such as a chemical spill) or from of a deliberate act of terrorism. The sensor placement solution is described as part of a broader simulation approach that considers the number of sensors available for deployment, the effect of weather conditions on the spread and concentration of the agent released, the speed at which appropriate emergency response actions can be taken to evacuate or shelter-in-place, and factors that make some release points more likely than others, such as the relative ease of site access or the presence of high priority or high impact targets within the at-risk area. Aerial photography and GIS also play important roles in the decision support environment described.

  6. SARS: mobilizing and maintaining a public health emergency response.

    PubMed

    Posid, Joseph M; Bruce, Sherrie M; Guarnizo, Julie T; Taylor, Melissa L; Garza, Brenda W

    2005-01-01

    During the spring and summer of 2003, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) mobilized the resources of the entire agency in a concerted effort to meet the challenges posed by the outbreak of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS). Over the 133 days that comprised the emergency response phase of the SARS outbreak, CDC utilized the skills of more than 850 people. These staff were deployed from every Center, Institute, and Office within CDC and the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry. They provided technical assistance to countries reporting large numbers of cases and requesting assistance, met passengers and crew from these locations upon arrival in the United States, and assured that the syndrome was reported and thoroughly investigated within the United States. This paper describes the operational requirements that were established and the resources that were used to conduct this investigation. PMID:15829833

  7. Cultural and religious influences in maternal response to intrafamilial child sexual abuse:charting new territory for research and treatment.

    PubMed

    Alaggia, R

    2001-01-01

    The role of culture when providing services for families in the wake of child sexual abuse disclosure is a charged issue although surprisingly little attention has been given in the research literature to this. This article reports the findings of a grounded theory study exploring facets of maternal response, and aspects of more and less supportive responses, to children who were sexually abused by the mother's intimate partner. Ten mothers, chosen on the basis of theoretical sampling, provided information through in-depth interviews to understand how they responded emotionally and behaviourally to their child's disclosure. As well, three service providers were interviewed as key informants. The research revealed cultural and religious influences as affecting how mothers made meaning of the sexual abuse and the actions they took. Mothers from cultural backgrounds that adhere to rigid patriarchal norms identified themes of intense value conflicts regarding family preservation, loyalty binds between the perpetrating partner and child victim, and anxieties around being alienated from their extended family and ethnic community. They also reported that their cultural belief systems were not well understood by service providers. In parallel, helping professionals identified cultural issues as presenting barriers for engaging with some clients. Practice implications and research directions are discussed. PMID:15149935

  8. Differential responsiveness to a parenting intervention for mothers in substance abuse treatment.

    PubMed

    Paris, Ruth; Herriott, Anna; Holt, Melissa; Gould, Karen

    2015-12-01

    This study examines the relationship between levels of psychological distress in substance-dependent mothers and their differential response to a dyadic parent-child intervention. A sample of 66 mothers who were receiving treatment for substance abuse, as well as a simultaneous parenting intervention, were interviewed pre and post-treatment on measures of psychological distress, adult and child trauma history, parental reflective functioning, and child social-emotional development. Additionally, clinicians provided assessments of the parent-child relationships. As anticipated, trauma histories for mothers and children, children's social emotional development, and parental reflective functioning were associated with aspects of maternal psychological distress. Kruskal-Wallis and subsequent Wilcoxson signed rank tests revealed that women with highest levels of baseline psychological distress showed significant improvements in psychological functioning post-treatment while women with moderately elevated levels of psychological distress did not. Women who were most distressed at baseline showed increased levels of parental reflective functioning post-treatment while women with moderate and lower levels of baseline psychological distress showed improvements on clinician-rated assessments of parent-child relationships. Chi Square analyses showed that parents who endorsed the highest levels of distress at baseline reported that their children's risk status regarding social-emotional development decreased post-treatment. Despite similarities in substance dependence, mothers in this sample had different needs and outcomes in the context of this parenting intervention due to variation in mental health. Given this variation, parenting interventions for substance-dependent mothers need to account for the individual differences in levels of psychological distress. PMID:26455262

  9. The Behavioral Relevance of Cortical Neural Ensemble Responses Emerges Suddenly

    PubMed Central

    Sadacca, Brian F.; Mukherjee, Narendra; Vladusich, Tony; Li, Jennifer X.

    2016-01-01

    Whereas many laboratory-studied decisions involve a highly trained animal identifying an ambiguous stimulus, many naturalistic decisions do not. Consumption decisions, for instance, involve determining whether to eject or consume an already identified stimulus in the mouth and are decisions that can be made without training. By standard analyses, rodent cortical single-neuron taste responses come to predict such consumption decisions across the 500 ms preceding the consumption or rejection itself; decision-related firing emerges well after stimulus identification. Analyzing single-trial ensemble activity using hidden Markov models, we show these decision-related cortical responses to be part of a reliable sequence of states (each defined by the firing rates within the ensemble) separated by brief state-to-state transitions, the latencies of which vary widely between trials. When we aligned data to the onset of the (late-appearing) state that dominates during the time period in which single-neuron firing is correlated to taste palatability, the apparent ramp in stimulus-aligned choice-related firing was shown to be a much more precipitous coherent jump. This jump in choice-related firing resembled a step function more than it did the output of a standard (ramping) decision-making model, and provided a robust prediction of decision latency in single trials. Together, these results demonstrate that activity related to naturalistic consumption decisions emerges nearly instantaneously in cortical ensembles. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This paper provides a description of how the brain makes evaluative decisions. The majority of work on the neurobiology of decision making deals with “what is it?” decisions; out of this work has emerged a model whereby neurons accumulate information about the stimulus in the form of slowly increasing firing rates and reach a decision when those firing rates reach a threshold. Here, we study a different kind of more naturalistic decision

  10. The Behavioral Relevance of Cortical Neural Ensemble Responses Emerges Suddenly.

    PubMed

    Sadacca, Brian F; Mukherjee, Narendra; Vladusich, Tony; Li, Jennifer X; Katz, Donald B; Miller, Paul

    2016-01-20

    Whereas many laboratory-studied decisions involve a highly trained animal identifying an ambiguous stimulus, many naturalistic decisions do not. Consumption decisions, for instance, involve determining whether to eject or consume an already identified stimulus in the mouth and are decisions that can be made without training. By standard analyses, rodent cortical single-neuron taste responses come to predict such consumption decisions across the 500 ms preceding the consumption or rejection itself; decision-related firing emerges well after stimulus identification. Analyzing single-trial ensemble activity using hidden Markov models, we show these decision-related cortical responses to be part of a reliable sequence of states (each defined by the firing rates within the ensemble) separated by brief state-to-state transitions, the latencies of which vary widely between trials. When we aligned data to the onset of the (late-appearing) state that dominates during the time period in which single-neuron firing is correlated to taste palatability, the apparent ramp in stimulus-aligned choice-related firing was shown to be a much more precipitous coherent jump. This jump in choice-related firing resembled a step function more than it did the output of a standard (ramping) decision-making model, and provided a robust prediction of decision latency in single trials. Together, these results demonstrate that activity related to naturalistic consumption decisions emerges nearly instantaneously in cortical ensembles. Significance statement: This paper provides a description of how the brain makes evaluative decisions. The majority of work on the neurobiology of decision making deals with "what is it?" decisions; out of this work has emerged a model whereby neurons accumulate information about the stimulus in the form of slowly increasing firing rates and reach a decision when those firing rates reach a threshold. Here, we study a different kind of more naturalistic decision

  11. Visual Evoked Potential Response Among Drug Abusers- A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rajeev; Thapar, Satish; Mittal, Shilekh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There is important preclinical evidence that substance abuse may produce neurophysiological disturbances particularly in relation to altered neural synchronization in Visual Evoked Potentials (VEP). Aim The purpose of current study was to compare the latencies and amplitudes of different waveforms of VEP among different drug abusers and controls and also to identify early neurological damage so that proper counseling and timely intervention can be undertaken. Materials and Methods VEP was assessed by Data Acquisition and Analysis system in a sample of 58 drug abusers, all males, within age group of 15-45 years as well as in age matched 30 healthy controls. The peak latencies and peak to peak amplitudes of different waveforms were measured by applying one-way Anova test and unpaired t-test using SPSS version 16. Results In between drug abusers and controls, the difference in the duration of N75 and P100 waveform of VEP was found to be statistically highly significant (p<0.001) in both the eyes. Also the amplitude of wave P100 was found to be decreased among drug abusers in both eyes. Conclusion Chronic intoxication by different drugs has been extensively associated with amplitude reduction of P100 and prolonged latency of N75 and P100 reflecting an adverse effects of drug dependence on neural transmission within primary visual areas of brain. PMID:27042456

  12. Emergency Response Damage Assessment using Satellite Remote Sensing Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clandillon, Stephen; Yésou, Hervé; Schneiderhan, Tobias; de Boissezon, Hélène; de Fraipont, Paul

    2013-04-01

    During disasters rescue and relief organisations need quick access to reliable and accurate information to be better equipped to do their job. It is increasingly felt that satellites offer a unique near real time (NRT) tool to aid disaster management. A short introduction to the International Charter 'Space and Major Disasters', in operation since 2000 promoting worldwide cooperation among member space agencies, will be given as it is the foundation on which satellite-based, emergency response, damage assessment has been built. Other complementary mechanisms will also be discussed. The user access, triggering mechanism, an essential component for this user-driven service, will be highlighted with its 24/7 single access point. Then, a clear distinction will be made between data provision and geo-information delivery mechanisms to underline the user need for geo-information that is easily integrated into their working environments. Briefly, the path to assured emergency response product quality will be presented beginning with user requirements, expressed early-on, for emergency response value-adding services. Initiatives were then established, supported by national and European institutions, to develop the sector, with SERTIT and DLR being key players, providing support to decision makers in headquarters and relief teams in the field. To consistently meet the high quality levels demanded by users, rapid mapping has been transformed via workflow and quality control standardisation to improve both speed and quality. As such, SERTIT located in Alsace, France, and DLR/ZKI from Bavaria, Germany, join their knowledge in this presentation to report about recent standards as both have ISO certified their rapid mapping services based on experienced, well-trained, 24/7 on-call teams and established systems providing the first crisis analysis product in 6 hours after satellite data reception. The three main product types provided are then outlined: up-to-date pre

  13. Typhoon emergency response planning for the South China Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Corona, E.N.; Lynch, R.D.; Riffe, D.; Cardone, V.J.; Cox, A.; Chen, H.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the development, implementation and performance of a comprehensive typhoon emergency response plan (ERP) utilized during 1995 by Arco China Inc. (ACI) for their offshore Hainan Is. South China Sea development. An important component of the enhanced plan is a new system to forecast winds and sea states generated by tropical cyclones (TC) built around known uncertainties in forecasts of cyclones and well proven numerical models of the TC surface wind field and the spectral wave field. The forecast system provides specification of time histories of the winds and waves at the site for the nominally predicted track as well as the probabilities of exceedance of critical evacuation thresholds of wind speed and sea state. The ERP and forecast system were operated throughout the 1995 typhoon season and evaluated at the Yacheng development, which was seriously threatened by 15 tropical cyclones between June and November. The response to these threats in terms of interruption of operations, partial or total evacuation of offshore personnel and average downtime is described and compared to previous experience which used more conventional forecast services. The evaluation has shown the new system to provide significant benefits in terms of safety, efficiency and cost savings. The wind and sea state forecast histories provided year-round by the forecast system are also of significant benefit to the management of floating production systems.

  14. 40 CFR 1.47 - Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Office of Solid Waste and Emergency... ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters § 1.47 Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. The Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER), under the supervision of the...

  15. 40 CFR 1.47 - Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Office of Solid Waste and Emergency... ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters § 1.47 Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. The Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER), under the supervision of the...

  16. Evaluation of Rugged Wireless Mesh Nodes for Use In Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin L Young; Alan M Snyder

    2007-11-01

    During the summer of 2007, engineers at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) conducted a two-day evaluation of commercially available battery powered, wireless, self-forming mesh nodes for use in emergency response. In this paper, the author describes the fundamentals of this emerging technology, applciations for emergency response and specific results of the technology evaluation conducted at the Idaho National Laboratory.

  17. 44 CFR 352.27 - Federal role in the emergency response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Federal role in the emergency... Federal Participation § 352.27 Federal role in the emergency response. In addition to the Federal... be needed. Any Federal response role, undertaken pursuant to this section, shall be transferred...

  18. 49 CFR 1.44 - Office of Intelligence, Security and Emergency Response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Office of Intelligence, Security and Emergency... DELEGATION OF POWERS AND DUTIES Office of the Secretary Ost Officials § 1.44 Office of Intelligence, Security and Emergency Response. The Director of the Office of Intelligence, Security and Emergency Response...

  19. 49 CFR 1.44 - Office of Intelligence, Security and Emergency Response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Office of Intelligence, Security and Emergency... DELEGATION OF POWERS AND DUTIES Office of the Secretary Ost Officials § 1.44 Office of Intelligence, Security and Emergency Response. The Director of the Office of Intelligence, Security and Emergency Response...

  20. 49 CFR 1.44 - Office of Intelligence, Security and Emergency Response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Office of Intelligence, Security and Emergency... DELEGATION OF POWERS AND DUTIES Office of the Secretary Ost Officials § 1.44 Office of Intelligence, Security and Emergency Response. The Director of the Office of Intelligence, Security and Emergency Response...

  1. Utilizing SAR and Multispectral Integrated Data for Emergency Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havivi, S.; Schvartzman, I.; Maman, S.; Marinoni, A.; Gamba, P.; Rotman, S. R.; Blumberg, D. G.

    2016-06-01

    the emergency response following an event.

  2. Modeling and public health emergency responses: lessons from SARS.

    PubMed

    Glasser, John W; Hupert, Nathaniel; McCauley, Mary M; Hatchett, Richard

    2011-03-01

    Modelers published thoughtful articles after the 2003 SARS crisis, but had limited if any real-time impact on the global response and may even have inadvertently contributed to a lingering misunderstanding of the means by which the epidemic was controlled. The impact of any intervention depends on its efficiency as well as efficacy, and efficient isolation of infected individuals before they become symptomatic is difficult to imagine. Nonetheless, in exploring the possible impact of quarantine, the product of efficiency and efficacy was varied over the entire unit interval. Another mistake was repeatedly fitting otherwise appropriate gamma distributions to times to event regardless of whether they were stationary or not, particularly onset-isolation intervals whose progressive reduction evidently contributed to SARS control. By virtue of their unknown biology, newly-emerging diseases are more challenging than familiar human scourges. Influenza, for example, recurs annually and has been modeled more thoroughly than any other infectious disease. Moreover, models were integrated into preparedness exercises, during which working relationships were established that bore fruit during the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic. To provide the most accurate and timely advice possible, especially about the possible impact of measures designed to control diseases caused by novel human pathogens, we must appreciate the value and difficulty of policy-oriented modeling. Effective communication of insights gleaned from modeling SARS will help to ensure that policymakers involve modelers in future outbreaks of newly-emerging infectious diseases. Accordingly, we illustrate the increasingly timely care-seeking by which, together with increasingly accurate diagnoses and effective isolation, SARS was controlled via heuristic arguments and descriptive analyses of familiar observations. PMID:21420657

  3. DOE Response to the Fukushima Accident: Advancing the Science of Emergency Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blumenthal, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    The US Department of Energy maintains specialized technical teams to respond to radiological/nuclear emergencies. They apply well-established laboratory nuclear measurement techniques in field environments, conduct rapid analysis, and deliver data products to government leaders in support of real-time public safety decisions. Meeting these requirements, often in the face of incomplete and imperfect information, takes a great deal of training and practice to effectively translate science into operations. Since large-scale emergencies are rare, the Fukushima nuclear accident in March 2011 provided an opportunity to employ these teams. Their timely support to both US and Japanese decision makers provides an excellent case study in the application of instrumentation, analysis methods, data presentation, and training to emergency response.

  4. ShakeMap-Based Earthquake Emergency Response for Lifelines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishenko, S.; Eidinger, J.; McLaren, M.

    2007-12-01

    Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E), Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART), Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), and a number of other lifeline operators and utilities are using Geographic Information System (GIS)-based products, including ShakeMap, to enhance their earthquake emergency response capabilities. PG&E uses ShakeMap in conjunction with improved digital hazard maps for the San Francisco Bay area as a decision support tool to prioritize response activities. Used as a screening tool, this information helps to rapidly identify potential gas and electric transmission problem areas, prior to the receipt of damage reports from the field. Earthquake Risk Values, which combine ground shaking estimates with surface fault rupture, ground failure, and pipeline performance factors, are used to identify potentially vulnerable transmission pipeline segments and gas handling facilities for inspection following an earthquake. Scenario ShakeMaps are used for emergency training exercises and, in the event a large earthquake causes the Internet to be temporarily out of service, can be used for initial damage assessments until actual ShakeMaps become available. BART integrates the ground motions developed in near real time using ShakeMap with a BART vulnerability model in a System Earthquake Risk Assessment (SERA) to establish the likely post earthquake damage to the BART system. After most M3 or larger earthquakes, the SERA model for BART is run, using the ShakeMap- developed ground motions, to assess the likely and near-lower bound performance for more than 15,000 individual structures and components in the BART system. If any of these structures or components are predicted to have greater than a 10% chance of material nonlinear performance that might invoke a life safety situation, BART sends out people to visually inspect the facilities so targeted by the analysis. This software has been used to analyze the BART system for 15 earthquakes (M3.5 to M4.4) using ShakeMaps since 2003

  5. WomanKind: an innovative model of health care response to domestic abuse.

    PubMed

    Hadley, S M; Short, L M; Lezin, N; Zook, E

    1995-01-01

    This article focuses on the role of the WomanKind program in creating opportunities for discussing domestic violence and training health professionals. The WomanKind program is based on the belief that without such discussion, health care providers will continue to treat the medical and mental health problems that bring women to their doors without addressing the underlying pattern of abuse that is the root cause. WomanKind has evolved to integrate case management/advocacy services for victims of domestic abuse, in addition to education and consultation for health professionals. It also provides case management and advocacy services, including crisis intervention, assessment and evaluation, and ongoing assistance to battered women who suffer from physical, emotional, or sexual abuse by a current or former partner. The WomanKind staff consists of a director who oversees the program, including marketing and public relations, education and training, as well as assisting the full-time program coordinators at each of the three hospital sites. An intensive 40-hour training program provides the new WomanKind volunteers with an understanding of the issues of domestic abuse and violence, as well as knowledge of community resources. The program goals are elaborated in this article as well as the program marketing techniques. PMID:8574114

  6. Satanism as a Response to Abuse: The Dynamics and Treatment of Satanic Involvement in Male Youths.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belitz, Jerald; Schacht, Anita

    1992-01-01

    Asserts that male youths from abusive family environments may be particularly vulnerable to recruitment into satanic cults. Describes etiological factors and treatment approaches of 10 hospitalized boys who voluntarily involved themselves in repeated group satanic activities during their adolescence. Includes two case illustrations. Provides…

  7. Exploratory Assessments of Child Abuse: Children's Responses to Interviewer's Questions across Multiple Interview Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Tess; Pipe, Margaret-Ellen

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The present study extends field research on interviews with young children suspected of having been abused by examining multiple assessment interviews designed to be inquisitory and exploratory, rather than formal evidential or forensic interviews. Methods: Sixty-six interviews with 24 children between the ages of 3 and 6 years who were…

  8. Evolving a Community's Response to Child Sexual Abuse: Training Issues for Preservice Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berson, Michael J.; Berson, Ilene R.; Ralston, M. Elizabeth

    1998-01-01

    Although educators play a critical role in identifying and preventing child sexual abuse; many lack confidence in their knowledge and ability to provide appropriate intervention services. This article provides background and practical information for teachers, examines barriers to success, and presents a model program designed to develop teachers'…

  9. Updated tool for nuclear criticality accident emergency response

    SciTech Connect

    Broadhead, B.L.; Hopper, C.M.

    1995-12-31

    Some 20 yr ago a hand-held slide rule was developed at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant to aid in the response to several postulated nuclear criticality accidents. These assumed accidents involved highly enriched uranium in either a bare metal or a uranyl nitrate system. The slide rule consisted of a sliding scale based on the total fission yield and four corresponding dose indicators: (1) a prompt radiation dose relationship as a function of distance; (2) a delayed fission product gamma dose rate relationship as a function of time and distance; (3) the total dose relationship with time and distance; and (4) the I-min integrated dose relationship with time and distance. The original slide rule was generated assuming very simplistic numerical procedures such as the inverse-square relationship of dose with distance and the Way-Wigner relationship to express the time dependence of the dose. The simple prescriptions were tied to actual dose measurements from similar systems to yield a meaningful, yet simple approach to emergency planning and response needs. This paper describes the application of an advanced procedure to the updating of the original slide rule for five critical systems. These five systems include (a) an unreflected sphere of 93.2 wt% enriched uranium metal, (b) an unreflected sphere of 93.2 wt% enriched uranyl nitrate solution with a H/{sup 235}U ratio of 500, (c) an unreflected sphere of damp 93.2 wt% enriched uranium oxide with a H/{sup 235}U ratio of 10, (d) an unreflected sphere of 4.95 wt% enriched uranyl fluoride solution having a H/{sup 235}U ratio of 410, and (e) an unreflected sphere of damp 5 wt% enriched uranium dioxide having a H/{sup 235}U ratio of 200.

  10. Rapid alpha spectroscopy of evaporated liquid residues for emergency response.

    PubMed

    Semkow, T M; Khan, A J; Haines, D K; Bari, A

    2009-04-01

    A new method for alpha spectroscopy of evaporated water residues was developed, consisting of evaporation of drinking water, flaming of the planchets, and alpha-spectroscopic measurements using a grid ionization chamber. The method can identify and quantify radioactivity concentrations > or =3 mBq L-1 in a matter of several hours, whereas determination of sub-mBq L-1 levels is achievable in 1 day. Detailed investigations of flaming of the planchets, the humidity effect, and alpha spectroscopy of thick sources are described. A three-dimensional calibration of the method was performed using standards containing 238U, 230Th, 239Pu, 241Am, and 244Cm radionuclides. In addition to its application to evaporated drinking water, this calibration is common for any environmental sample that can be prepared as a uniform layer, such as the residues from surface water, acidic washing or leaching from materials, as well as biological fluids such as urine. The developed method serves as a fast identifying or screening technique for emergency response involving alpha radioactivity. PMID:19276703

  11. Hanford Site emergency response needs, Volumes 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    Good, D.E.

    1996-04-16

    This report presents the results of a comprehensive third party needs assessment of the Hanford Fire Department (HFD), conducted by Hughes Associates Inc. The assessment was commissioned with the intent of obtaining an unbiased report which could be used as a basis for identifying needed changes/modifications to the fire department and its services. This report serves several functions: (1) it documents current and future site operations and associated hazards and risks identified as a result of document review, site and facility surveys, and interviews with knowledgeable personnel; (2) describes the HFD in terms of organization, existing resources and response capabilities; (3) identifies regulatory and other requirements that are applicable to the HFD and includes a discussion of associated legal liabilities; and (4) provides recommendations based on applicable requirements and existing conditions. Each recommendation is followed by a supporting statement to clarify the intent or justification of the recommendation. This report will be followed by a Master Plan document which will present an implementation method for the recommendations (with associated costs) considered to be essential to maintaining adequate, cost effective emergency services at the Hanford site in the next five to seven years.

  12. The 2012 derecho: emergency medical services and hospital response.

    PubMed

    Kearns, Randy D; Wigal, Mark S; Fernandez, Antonio; Tucker, March A; Zuidgeest, Ginger R; Mills, Michael R; Cairns, Bruce A; Cairns, Charles B

    2014-10-01

    During the early afternoon of June 29, 2012, a line of destructive thunderstorms producing straight line winds known as a derecho developed near Chicago (Illinois, USA). The storm moved southeast with wind speeds recorded from 100 to 160 kilometers per hour (kph, 60 to 100 miles per hour [mph]). The storm swept across much of West Virginia (USA) later that evening. Power outage was substantial as an estimated 1,300,000 West Virginians (more than half) were without power in the aftermath of the storm and approximately 600,000 citizens were still without power a week later. This was one of the worst storms to strike this area and occurred as residents were enduring a prolonged heat wave. The wind damage left much of the community without electricity and the crippling effect compromised or destroyed critical infrastructure including communications, air conditioning, refrigeration, and water and sewer pumps. This report describes utilization of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and hospital resources in West Virginia in response to the storm. Also reported is a review of the weather phenomena and the findings and discussion of the disaster and implications. PMID:25231139

  13. Elder Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical, sexual, or emotional abuse Neglect or abandonment Financial abuse - stealing of money or belongings Possible signs ... may be a sudden change in the person's financial situation. Elder abuse will not stop on its ...

  14. Elder Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... facilities or nursing homes. The mistreatment may be Physical, sexual, or emotional abuse Neglect or abandonment Financial abuse - stealing of money or belongings Possible signs of elder abuse include unexplained bruises, burns, ...

  15. Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... puts a child at risk of harm. Child abuse can be physical, sexual or emotional. Neglect, or not providing for a child's needs, is also a form of abuse. Most abused children suffer greater emotional than physical ...

  16. Abolition and reversal of strain differences in behavioral responses to drugs of abuse after a brief experience.

    PubMed

    Cabib, S; Orsini, C; Le Moal, M; Piazza, P V

    2000-07-21

    Inbred strains of mice are largely used to identify the genetic basis of normal and pathological behaviors. This report demonstrates that a moderate period of food shortage, an ecologically common experience, can reverse or abolish strain differences in behavioral responses to the abused psychostimulant amphetamine. The period of food shortage occurred when the animals were mature and was terminated before the administration of amphetamine. Strain differences in behavior appear highly dependent on environmental experiences. Consequently, to identify biological determinants of behavior, an integrated approach considering the interaction between environmental and genetic factors needs to be used. PMID:10903209

  17. Approaching the subject of violence: a response-based approach to working with men who have abused others.

    PubMed

    Todd, Nick; Weaver-Dunlop, Gillian; Ogden, Cindy

    2014-09-01

    Traditional effects-based approaches to therapeutic work with men who have abused others often attempt to intervene by correcting personal deficits assumed to be causing the violence. This not only creates a hierarchical counseling relationship but also can inadvertently excuse aggressive actions. In this article, we outline a response-based alternative that emphasizes questions of choice, agency, and volition within a collaborative therapeutic relationship. Rather than impose external correction, we pay attention to details of how men describe their violent acts and position themselves as agents of those acts as we work toward supporting them in their own acts of self-correction. PMID:25208974

  18. Drug abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... abuse References American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Weiss RD. Drugs of abuse. In: Goldman ...

  19. Women's experiences of victimizing sexualization, Part I: Responses related to abuse and home and family environment.

    PubMed

    Smith, S K

    1997-01-01

    Qualitative, interpretive research was conducted with ten adult women who felt that their experiences of learning about themselves as female and sexual had been harmful. The term "victimizing sexualization" was developed to identify this experience, and a thematic description of these women's experiences was derived. Components of their experiences were described within four major categories, including perceptions and descriptions directly related to abuse experiences, home and family environments, community and cultural characteristics, and longer term personal impacts. This article reports on two of the major thematic categories: perceptions and descriptions related to abuse experiences and home and family environment. Findings of this study establish "victimizing sexualization" as a meaningful women's health construct with important connections to feminist perspectives on women's lives. PMID:9362720

  20. Client disclosure and therapist response in psychotherapy with women with a history of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Farber, Barry A; Feldman, Sarah; Wright, A Jordan

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the perceptions of adult clients (N=98; M age=32) with a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) of the costs and benefits of disclosure of this material. Significant benefits of disclosing included a sense of relief from sharing bottled-up emotions, and feeling more accepted and understood by one's therapist; significant negative consequences included feeling emotionally overwhelmed, and feeling uncomfortably vulnerable and exposed. Linear regressions indicated that CSA patients who generally disclose more have a greater tendency to experience both positive and negative effects of disclosure about abuse. In addition, a hierarchical regression analysis indicated that higher levels of symptomatology were predictive of higher levels of anxiety related to disclosure in therapy, suggesting that clinicians need to be cautious in encouraging disclosure about CSA with patients with severe pathology. PMID:23906369

  1. Decreased striatal and enhanced thalamic dopaminergic responsivity in detoxified cocaine abusers

    SciTech Connect

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.J.; Fowler, J.S.

    1997-05-01

    It has been hypothesized that cocaine addiction could result from decreased brain dopamine (DA) function. However, little is known about changes in (DA) neurotransmission in human cocaine addiction. We used PET and [C-11]raclopride, a DA D2 receptor ligand sensitive to competition with endogenous DA, to measure relative changes in extracellular DA induced by methylphenidate (MP) in 20 cocaine abusers (3-6 weeks after cocaine discontinuation) and 23 controls. MP did not affect the transport of [C-11]raclopride from blood to brain (K1); however it induced a significant reduction in DA D2 receptor availability (Bmax/Kd) in striatum. The magnitude of ND-induced changes in striatal [C-11]raclopride binding were significantly larger in controls (21 + 13% change from baseline) than in cocaine abusers (9 {+-} 13 %) (ANOVA p < 0.005). In cocaine abusers, but not in controls, MP also decreased Bmax/Kd values in thalamus (29 {+-} 35 %) (ANOVA p < 0.005). There were no differences in plasma MP concentration between the groups. In striatum MP-induced changes in Bmax/Kd were significantly correlated with MP-induced changes in self reports of restlessness (r = 0.49, df 42, p < 0.002). In thalamus MP-induced changes in Bmax/Kd were significantly correlated with ND-induced changes in self reports of cocaine craving (r = 0.57, df 42, p < 0.0001). These results are compatible with a decrease in striatal DA brain function in cocaine abusers. They also suggest a participation of thalamic DA pathways in cocaine addiction.

  2. Convergence of dopamine and glutamate signaling onto striatal ERK activation in response to drugs of abuse

    PubMed Central

    Cahill, Emma; Salery, Marine; Vanhoutte, Peter; Caboche, Jocelyne

    2014-01-01

    Despite their distinct targets, all addictive drugs commonly abused by humans evoke increases in dopamine (DA) concentration within the striatum. The main DA Guanine nucleotide binding protein couple receptors (GPCRs) expressed by medium-sized spiny neurons of the striatum are the D1R and D2R, which are positively and negatively coupled to cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) signaling, respectively. These two DA GPCRs are largely segregated into distinct neuronal populations, where they are co-expressed with glutamate receptors in dendritic spines. Direct and indirect interactions between DA GPCRs and glutamate receptors are the molecular basis by which DA modulates glutamate transmission and controls striatal plasticity and behavior induced by drugs of abuse. A major downstream target of striatal D1R is the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase pathway. ERK activation by drugs of abuse behaves as a key integrator of D1R and glutamate NMDAR signaling. Once activated, ERK can trigger chromatin remodeling and induce gene expression that permits long-term cellular alterations and drug-induced morphological and behavioral changes. Besides the classical cAMP/PKA pathway, downstream of D1R, recent evidence implicates a cAMP-independent crosstalk mechanism by which the D1R potentiates NMDAR-mediated calcium influx and ERK activation. The mounting evidence of reciprocal modulation of DA and glutamate receptors adds further intricacy to striatal synaptic signaling and is liable to prove relevant for addictive drug-induced signaling, plasticity, and behavior. Herein, we review the evidence that built our understanding of the consequences of this synergistic signaling for the actions of drugs of abuse. PMID:24409148

  3. Youth Alcohol Use and Dating Abuse Victimization and Perpetration: A Test of the Relationships at the Daily Level in a Sample of Pediatric Emergency Department Patients Who Use Alcohol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Emily F.; Stuart, Gregory L.; Winter, Michael; Wang, Na; Bowen, Deborah J.; Bernstein, Judith; Vinci, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study retrospectively examined the daily-level associations between youth alcohol use and dating abuse (DA) victimization and perpetration for a 6-month period. Method: Timeline Followback (TLFB) interview data were collected from 397 urban emergency department patients, ages 17 to 21 years. Patients were eligible if they reported…

  4. Computational fluid dynamics modeling for emergency preparedness & response

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.L.; Albritton, J.R.; Ermak, D.L.; Kim, J.

    1995-07-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has played an increasing role in the improvement of atmospheric dispersion modeling. This is because many dispersion models are now driven by meteorological fields generated from CFD models or, in numerical weather prediction`s terminology, prognostic models. Whereas most dispersion models typically involve one or a few scalar, uncoupled equations, the prognostic equations are a set of highly-coupled, nonlinear equations whose solution requires a significant level of computational power. Until recently, such computer power could be found only in CRAY-class supercomputers. Recent advances in computer hardware and software have enabled modestly-priced, high performance, workstations to exhibit the equivalent computation power of some mainframes. Thus desktop-class machines that were limited to performing dispersion calculations driven by diagnostic wind fields may now be used to calculate complex flows using prognostic CFD models. The Atmospheric Release and Advisory Capability (ARAC) program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has, for the past several years, taken advantage of the improvements in hardware technology to develop a national emergency response capability based on executing diagnostic models on workstations. Diagnostic models that provide wind fields are, in general, simple to implement, robust and require minimal time for execution. Such models have been the cornerstones of the ARAC operational system for the past ten years. Kamada (1992) provides a review of diagnostic models and their applications to dispersion problems. However, because these models typically contain little physics beyond mass-conservation, their performance is extremely sensitive to the quantity and quality of input meteorological data and, in spite of their utility, can be applied with confidence to only modestly complex flows.

  5. Computational fluid dynamics modeling for emergency preparedness and response

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.L.; Albritton, J.R.; Ermak, D.L.; Kim, J.

    1995-02-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has (CFD) has played an increasing in the improvement of atmospheric dispersion modeling. This is because many dispersion models are now driven by meteorological fields generated from CFD models or, in numerical weather prediction`s terminology, prognostic models. Whereas most dispersion models typically involve one or a few scalar, uncoupled equations, the prognostic equations are a set of highly-couple equations whose solution requires a significant level of computational power. Recent advances in computer hardware and software have enabled modestly-priced, high performance, workstations to exhibit the equivalent computation power of some mainframes. Thus desktop-class machines that were limited to performing dispersion calculations driven by diagnostic wind fields may now be used to calculate complex flows using prognostic CFD models. The Release and Advisory Capability (ARAC) program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has, for the past several years, taken advantage of the improvements in hardware technology to develop a national emergency response capability based on executing diagnostic models on workstations. Diagnostic models that provide wind fields are, in general, simple to implement, robust and require minimal time for execution. Because these models typically contain little physics beyond mass-conservation, their performance is extremely sensitive to the quantity and quality of input meteorological data and, in spite of their utility, can be applied with confidence to only modestly complex flows. We are now embarking on a development program to incorporate prognostic models to generate, in real-time, the meteorological fields for the dispersion models. In contrast to diagnostic models, prognostic models are physically-based and are capable of incorporating many physical processes to treat highly complex flow scenarios.

  6. Review of current neutron detection systems for emergency response

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Guss, Paul; Kruschwitz, Craig

    2014-09-05

    Neutron detectors are utilized in a myriad of applications—from safeguarding special nuclear materials (SNM) to determining lattice spacing in soft materials. The transformational changes taking place in neutron detection and imaging techniques in the last few years are largely being driven by the global shortage of helium-3 (3He). This article reviews the status of neutron sensors used specifically for SNM detection in radiological emergency response. These neutron detectors must be highly efficient, be rugged, have fast electronics to measure neutron multiplicity, and be capable of measuring direction of the neutron sources and possibly image them with high spatial resolution. Neutronmore » detection is an indirect physical process: neutrons react with nuclei in materials to initiate the release of one or more charged particles that produce electric signals that can be processed by the detection system. Therefore, neutron detection requires conversion materials as active elements of the detection system; these materials may include boron-10 (10B), lithium-6 (6Li), and gadollinium-157 (157Gd), to name a few, but the number of materials available for neutron detection is limited. However, in recent years, pulse-shape-discriminating plastic scintillators, scintillators made of helium-4 (4He) under high pressure, pillar and trench semiconductor diodes, and exotic semiconductor neutron detectors made from uranium oxide and other materials have widely expanded the parameter space in neutron detection methodology. In this article we will pay special attention to semiconductor-based neutron sensors. Finally, modern microfabricated nanotubes covered inside with neutron converter materials and with very high aspect ratios for better charge transport will be discussed.« less

  7. Review of current neutron detection systems for emergency response

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Guss, Paul; Kruschwitz, Craig

    2014-09-05

    Neutron detectors are utilized in a myriad of applications—from safeguarding special nuclear materials (SNM) to determining lattice spacing in soft materials. The transformational changes taking place in neutron detection and imaging techniques in the last few years are largely being driven by the global shortage of helium-3 (3He). This article reviews the status of neutron sensors used specifically for SNM detection in radiological emergency response. These neutron detectors must be highly efficient, be rugged, have fast electronics to measure neutron multiplicity, and be capable of measuring direction of the neutron sources and possibly image them with high spatial resolution. Neutron detection is an indirect physical process: neutrons react with nuclei in materials to initiate the release of one or more charged particles that produce electric signals that can be processed by the detection system. Therefore, neutron detection requires conversion materials as active elements of the detection system; these materials may include boron-10 (10B), lithium-6 (6Li), and gadollinium-157 (157Gd), to name a few, but the number of materials available for neutron detection is limited. However, in recent years, pulse-shape-discriminating plastic scintillators, scintillators made of helium-4 (4He) under high pressure, pillar and trench semiconductor diodes, and exotic semiconductor neutron detectors made from uranium oxide and other materials have widely expanded the parameter space in neutron detection methodology. In this article we will pay special attention to semiconductor-based neutron sensors. Finally, modern microfabricated nanotubes covered inside with neutron converter materials and with very high aspect ratios for better charge transport will be discussed.

  8. Industry's voluntary program: Community Awareness and Emergency Response Program and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act.

    PubMed

    Cooper, J S

    1990-10-01

    This paper describes the chemical industry's Community Awareness and Emergency Response (CAER) Program, and voluntary and mandatory actions by the chemical industry to comply with the major environmental legislation. The chemical industry started the voluntary CAER Program soon after the Bhopal Disaster in 1984; it is coordinated through the Chemical Manufacturer's Association. This program, which began in March 1985, is a long-term industry commitment to develop a community outreach program and to improve local emergency response planning. The Congress of the United States began, in 1985, to consider proposals for mandatory programs. This led to enactment of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, known as SARA. A portion of this Act, entitled Title III is also known as the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act. Although this legislation has many mandatory requirements, it should be emphasized that a significant degree of voluntary industrial participation is needed if the purposes of the statute are to be achieved. Title III has created an intricate and still evolving system that ties together the EPA, industrial plant managers, state emergency response commissions, local emergency planning committees and fire departments with jurisdiction over the facility. Each of these groups has a different role and responsibilities but must work cooperatively with other participants. Because of the intricate network of participants, the magnitude of the information flow, and the continuing evolution of the system, unique public relations problems exist in order to comply with Title III.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2274977

  9. 78 FR 19357 - Allocation of Public Transportation Emergency Relief Funds in Response to Hurricane Sandy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-29

    ... Federal Transit Administration Allocation of Public Transportation Emergency Relief Funds in Response to...,000 under the Public Transportation Emergency Relief Program (Emergency Relief Program, Catalogue of... Funds published in the Federal Register on February 6, 2013 (78 FR 8691), and consistent with...

  10. WETLAND INVERTEBRATE COMMUNITY RESPONSES TO VARYING EMERGENT LITTER IN A PRAIRIE POTHOLE EMERGENT MARSH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plant litter produced in the interior of dense emergent stands may directly or indirectly influence invertebrate communities. Low litter may provide structure and refuge to invertebrates while high litter may shade out vegetation and algae and decrease oxygen concentrations. With...

  11. Estimating Derived Response Levels at the Savannah River Site for Use with Emergency Response Models

    SciTech Connect

    Simpkins, A.A.

    2002-12-06

    Emergency response computer models at the Savannah River Site (SRS) are coupled with real-time meteorological data to estimate dose to individuals downwind of accidental radioactive releases. Currently, these models estimate doses for inhalation and shine pathways, but do not consider dose due to ingestion of contaminated food products. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has developed derived intervention levels (DIL) which refer to the radionuclide-specific concentration in food present throughout the relevant period of time, with no intervention, that could lead to an individual receiving a radiation dose equal to the protective action guide. In the event of an emergency, concentrations in various food types are compared with these levels to make interdictions decisions. Prior to monitoring results being available, concentrations in the environmental media (i.e. soil), called derived response levels (DRLs), can be estimated from the DILs and directly compared with computer output to provide preliminary guidance as to whether intervention is necessary. Site-specific derived response levels (DRLs) are developed for ingestion pathways pertinent to SRS: milk, meat, fish, grain, produce, and beverage. This provides decision-makers with an additional tool for use immediately following an accident prior to the acquisition of food monitoring data.

  12. Emergency Preparedness and Response: Information for Pregnant Women - Fact Sheet

    MedlinePlus

    ... your own plan, writing down the steps on paper. Talk about potential disasters and emergencies and how ... plastic bags that seal for water-proofing important papers, a battery-powered flashlight and radio with extra ...

  13. Eye Safety for Emergency Response and Disaster Recovery

    MedlinePlus

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Workplace Safety & Health Topics Eye Safety Eye Safety for Emergency ... Pinterest Twitter YouTube NIOSH Homepage NIOSH A-Z Workplace Safety & Health Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH ...

  14. 45 CFR 673.5 - Emergency response plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... contained in 33 CFR 151.26 of the U.S. Coast Guard regulations will also satisfy the requirements of this... the event of an emergency, taking into account considerations of risk to human life and safety....

  15. 45 CFR 673.5 - Emergency response plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... contained in 33 CFR 151.26 of the U.S. Coast Guard regulations will also satisfy the requirements of this... the event of an emergency, taking into account considerations of risk to human life and safety....

  16. 45 CFR 673.5 - Emergency response plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... contained in 33 CFR 151.26 of the U.S. Coast Guard regulations will also satisfy the requirements of this... the event of an emergency, taking into account considerations of risk to human life and safety....

  17. 45 CFR 673.5 - Emergency response plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... contained in 33 CFR 151.26 of the U.S. Coast Guard regulations will also satisfy the requirements of this... the event of an emergency, taking into account considerations of risk to human life and safety....

  18. [What response in the face of health emergencies?].

    PubMed

    Bergeran, Pierick

    2015-01-01

    Heat wave, extreme cold, air pollution, epidemics, nuclear plant accidents, production incidents in the pharmaceutical or agro-food sectors, bioterrorism, social movements: over the last thirty years, health emergencies have multiplied. What is the strategy to adopt? PMID:26145995

  19. Development of urban planning guidelines for improving emergency response capacities in seismic areas of Iran.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, Kambod Amini; Jafari, Mohammad Kazem; Hosseini, Maziar; Mansouri, Babak; Hosseinioon, Solmaz

    2009-10-01

    This paper presents the results of research carried out to improve emergency response activities in earthquake-prone areas of Iran. The research concentrated on emergency response operations, emergency medical care, emergency transportation, and evacuation-the most important issues after an earthquake with regard to saving the lives of victims. For each topic, some guidelines and criteria are presented for enhancing emergency response activities, based on evaluations of experience of strong earthquakes that have occurred over the past two decades in Iran, notably Manjil (1990), Bam (2003), Firouz Abad-Kojour (2004), Zarand (2005) and Broujerd (2006). These guidelines and criteria are applicable to other national contexts, especially countries with similar seismic and social conditions as Iran. The results of this study should be incorporated into comprehensive plans to ensure sustainable development or reconstruction of cities as well as to augment the efficiency of emergency response after an earthquake. PMID:19500324

  20. Development of Emergency Response Guidelines (ERGs) for AP1000

    SciTech Connect

    Yuichi Hayashi; Saiu, Gianfranco; Wright, Richard F.

    2006-07-01

    The AP1000 is two-loop 1100 MWe advanced pressurized water reactor (PWR) that uses passive safety features to enhance plant safety and to provide significant and measurable improvements in plant simplification, reliability, investment protection and plant costs. The AP1000 uses proven technology, which builds on over 30 years of operating PWR experience. The AP1000 final design certification has been approved by the NRC in December, 2005. The Emergency Response Guidelines (ERGs) have been developed for the AP1000. The generic ERGs for the low pressure reference PWR plant were used as the basic documents to develop the AP1000 ERGs. The AP1000 design differences from the reference plant were reviewed and reflected in the process of developing operational steps in each ERG. The AP1000 used PRA in both design and licensing. The provisions of the AP1000 PRA were also reviewed and incorporated into the ERGs Although the AP1000 design does not require operator actions for the first 72 hours after accidents, the operator actions with both safety-related and non-safety-related equipment have an important role to mitigate the consequence of accidents. In the event of a LOCA, the AP1000 safety-related passive core cooling system (PXS) provides sources of core makeup water along with an automatic depressurization system (ADS) consisting of several sets of redundant flow paths which are sequentially opened in stages to reduce the reactor coolant system (RCS) pressure in a controlled manner. The final stage of this system, ADS-4, consists of four large valves that open off the hot legs, reducing the pressure to allow gravity injection from the in-containment refueling water storage tank (IRWST) and eventually the containment sump recirculation. The AP1000 has non-safety-related normal residual heat removal system (RNS) pumps which can be used to provide low pressure pumped injection of cask loading pit and/or IRWST water and recirculation of containment water. These pumps are

  1. Fear versus humor: the impact of sensation seeking on physiological, cognitive, and emotional responses to antialcohol abuse messages.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moon J; Shin, Mija

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the differences in physiological, cognitive, and emotional responses to existing emotional antialcohol abuse advertisements (fear vs. humor appeal) between high and low sensation seekers. A 2 (Message Type) x 2 (Sensation-Seeking Tendency) x 4 (Message Repetition) mixed-model experiment with repeated measures was conducted with 71 college students. The results, based on self-reports, indicated that fear messages generated more interest and perceived danger of excessive drinking regardless of sensation-seeking tendency, whereas humorous messages were rated as more likeable than fear messages, and the difference was bigger among low sensation seekers than among high sensation seekers. One interesting finding was that for both fear and humor appeals, low sensation seekers showed greater emotional responses (greater corrugators activities and greater zygomatic activities) than high sensation seekers overall. The implications of the current study as well as suggestions for future study were discussed. PMID:21449245

  2. The Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the Computer Security Act of 1987: Impact on incident response efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, E.E.

    1991-10-11

    The purpose of this paper is to evaluate two Federal statutes, the Computer Fraud and Abuse Act of 1986 and the Computer Security Act of 1987, from the perspective of computer security incident response efforts. First, the major relevant provisions of each statute are presented. Next, revisions to each statute are proposed, and additional areas needing to be addressed in future legislation are presented. The major conclusion is that these statutes represent a start in the legislative process to deter and prevent computer offenses such as unauthorized access to systems. However, many revisions and additions are needed before such legislation will significantly impact incident response efforts. In addition, legislation alone cannot bring about the degree of change necessary to address the range of computer security threats that presently exist.

  3. Addiction Science: A Rationale and Tools for a Public Health Response to Drug Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Rawson, Richard A.; Rieckmann, Traci; Gust, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    New scientific knowledge and effective, evidence-based interventions have provided health leaders and policymakers a remarkable paradigm to guide the development of addiction treatment services around the world. The definition of addiction as a brain disease, validated screening and assessment tools, medication-assisted treatment, and effective behavioral treatments have served as vehicles for both the United States and other countries to guide the transformation of their substance abuse treatment systems. Seeking to expand international research and infrastructure, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)'s International Program has engaged international investigators and institutions in addiction research to promote dissemination of addiction science globally. This paper presents three mixed-methods case studies to exemplify the use of advancements in evidence-based practice in addiction treatment as guides and tools for the creation or further development of treatment systems in three countries, Vietnam, Lebanon, and Abu Dhabi. Results indicate that a framework of evidence-based medicine and empirical science creates a necessary platform from which objective conversations about addictions may begin. Other facilitative factors that help create treatment programs internationally include: a receptive and supportive government, support from international donors and technical experts, networking and interest from other international organizations, and often a synergistic and concerted effort by multiple entities and partners. Despite substantial differences in the circumstances that generated these initiatives and the varying scope of the services, common themes across these efforts have been the implementation of science-based approaches to systems transformation and support for a public health approach to addressing drug abuse and addiction. PMID:26752803

  4. Information collection and dissemination: toward a portable, real-time information sharing platform for emergency response.

    PubMed

    Crawford, David; Gao, Tia; White, David

    2006-01-01

    The Advanced Health and Disaster Aid Network (AID-N) project seeks to 1) identify unmet needs of Washington DC area emergency response teams during mass casualty incidents and, 2) conduct feasibility tests of technology-based solutions. This paper describes Surveillance and Incident Reporting PDAs (SIRP), which provide an alternative platform for emergency response information collection, dissemination, and visualization. PMID:17238517

  5. 49 CFR 1.69 - Delegations to the Director of Intelligence, Security, and Emergency Response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delegations to the Director of Intelligence... Intelligence, Security, and Emergency Response. The Director of Intelligence, Security, and Emergency Response is delegated authority for the following: (a) Intelligence and Security. Carry out the...

  6. 49 CFR 1.69 - Delegations to the Director of Intelligence, Security, and Emergency Response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Delegations to the Director of Intelligence... Intelligence, Security, and Emergency Response. The Director of Intelligence, Security, and Emergency Response is delegated authority for the following: (a) Intelligence and Security. Carry out the...

  7. 40 CFR 1.47 - Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. 1.47 Section 1.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters § 1.47 Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. The Office of Solid Waste and...

  8. 40 CFR 1.47 - Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. 1.47 Section 1.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters § 1.47 Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. The Office of Solid Waste and...

  9. 40 CFR 1.47 - Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. 1.47 Section 1.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL STATEMENT OF ORGANIZATION AND GENERAL INFORMATION Headquarters § 1.47 Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. The Office of Solid Waste and...

  10. Mapping immune response profiles: the emerging scenario from helminth immunology.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Alvaro; Allen, Judith E

    2007-12-01

    Metazoan parasites of mammals (helminths) belong to highly divergent animal groups and yet induce a stereotypical host response: Th2-type immunity. It has long been debated whether this response benefits the host or the parasite. We review the current literature and suggest that Th2 immunity is an evolutionarily appropriate response to metazoan invaders both in terms of controlling parasites and repairing the damage they inflict. However, successful parasites induce regulatory responses, which become superimposed with, and control, Th2 responses. Beyond helminth infection, this superimposition of response profiles may be the norm: both Th1 and Th2 responses coexist with regulatory responses or, on the contrary, with the inflammatory Th17 responses. Thus, typical responses to helminth infections may differ from Th2-dominated allergic reactions in featuring not only a stronger regulatory component but also a weaker Th17 component. The similarity of immune response profiles to phylogenetically distinct helminths probably arises from mammalian evolution having hard-wired diverse worm molecules, plus tissue-damage signals, to the beneficial Th2 response, and from the convergent evolution of different helminths to elicit regulatory responses. We speculate that initiation of both Th2 and regulatory responses involves combinatorial signaling, whereby TLR-mediated signals are modulated by signals from other innate receptors, including lectins. PMID:18000958

  11. Parents' behavior in response to infant crying: abusive head trauma education.

    PubMed

    Simonnet, Hina; Laurent-Vannier, Anne; Yuan, Wenlun; Hully, Marie; Valimahomed, Sakil; Bourennane, Malek; Chevignard, Mathilde

    2014-12-01

    Abusive head trauma (AHT) is still too common, and probably underestimated. It is the leading cause of death from child abuse. Crying is thought to contribute to the act of shaking. Objectives of this study were to (a) assess parents' knowledge about infant crying, their ability to manage crying, and their knowledge about AHT; and (b) assess the feasibility and the impact of a simple educational intervention about crying and AHT with parents shortly after their child's birth. A short questionnaire was completed orally by the parents of 190 consecutive newborns in a maternity hospital at day 2 of life. Then, during the routine examination of the child, the pediatrician gave parents a short talk about infant crying and AHT, and a pamphlet. Finally, parents were contacted by phone at 6 weeks for the post-intervention questionnaire assessing their knowledge about crying and AHT. Among 202 consecutive births, parents of 190 children were included (266 parents; 70% mothers) over a 1-month period and answered the pre-intervention questionnaire. The intervention was feasible and easy to provide. Twenty-seven percent of mothers and 36% of fathers had never heard of AHT. At 6 weeks, 183 parents (68% of the sample; 80% mothers) answered the post-intervention questionnaire. Parents' knowledge improved significantly post-intervention. Parents found the intervention acceptable and useful. Health care professionals such as pediatricians or nurses could easily provide this brief talk to all parents during systematic newborn examination. PMID:25043922

  12. Alcohol Abuse Enhances Neuroinflammation and Impairs Immune Responses in an Animal Model of Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Potula, Raghava; Haorah, James; Knipe, Bryan; Leibhart, Jessica; Chrastil, Jesse; Heilman, David; Dou, Huanyu; Reddy, Rindha; Ghorpade, Anuja; Persidsky, Yuri

    2006-01-01

    Neuroinflammatory disorders (including human immunodeficiency virus-1 encephalitis, HIVE) are associated with oxidative stress and inflammatory brain injury, and excessive alcohol use can exacerbate tissue damage. Using a murine model of HIVE, we investigated the effects of alcohol abuse on the clearance of virus-infected macrophages and neuroinflammation. Severe combined immunodeficient mice were reconstituted with human lymphocytes, and encephalitis was induced by intracranial injection of HIV-1-infected monocyte-derived macrophages (HIV-1+ MDM). Animals were fed an ethanol-containing diet beginning 2 weeks before lymphocyte engraftment and for the entire duration of the experiment. Lymphocyte engraftment was not altered by ethanol exposure. Alcohol-mediated immunosuppression in ethanol-fed mice was manifested by a significant decrease in CD8+/interferon-γ+ T lymphocytes, a fivefold increase in viremia, and diminished expression of immunoproteasomes in the spleen. Although both groups showed similar amounts of CD8+ T-lymphocyte infiltration in brain areas containing HIV-1+ MDMs, ethanol-fed mice featured double the amounts of HIV-1+ MDMs in the brain compared to controls. Ethanol-exposed mice demonstrated higher microglial reaction and enhanced oxidative stress. Alcohol exposure impaired immune responses (increased viremia, decreased immunoproteasome levels, and prevented efficient elimination of HIV-1+ MDMs) and enhanced neuroinflammation in HIVE mice. Thus, alcohol abuse could be a co-factor in progression of HIV-1 infection of the brain. PMID:16565506

  13. Evaluation of an emergency response model for the Rocky Flats Plant: Charter

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This Charter provides a basis for a cooperative, interagency effort to evaluate the Terrain-Responsive Atmospheric Code for emergency response and emergency planning for the Rocky Flats Plant. This document establishes the foundation for the project entitled, Evaluation of an Emergency Response Model for the Rocky Flats Plant'' (to be referred to as the Project). This document meets the following objectives: Identify the Project; establish the project management structure, organizational responsibilities, and organizational commitments for reaching the goals of the Project, and identify a process for model revision and revelation for acceptance. 2 figs.

  14. Massive Open Online Librarianship: Emerging Practices in Response to MOOCs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mune, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Massive Open Online Courses, or MOOCs, have recently emerged as a disruptive pedagogy gaining rapid momentum in higher education. In some states, proposed legislations would accredit MOOCs to provide college-credit courses in the name of cost saving, efficiency and access. While debates rage regarding the place of MOOCs in higher education, some…

  15. 40 CFR 266.204 - Standards applicable to emergency responses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF SPECIFIC HAZARDOUS WASTES AND SPECIFIC TYPES OF HAZARDOUS WASTE MANAGEMENT FACILITIES Military Munitions § 266.204 Standards applicable to emergency... CFR 262.10(i), 263.10(e), 264.1(g)(8), 265.1(c)(11), and 270.1(c)(3), or alternatively to 40 CFR...

  16. Introduction of an Emergency Response Plan for flood loading of Sultan Abu Bakar Dam in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said, N. F. Md; Sidek, L. M.; Basri, H.; Muda, R. S.; Razad, A. Z. Abdul

    2016-03-01

    Sultan Abu Bakar Dam Emergency Response Plan (ERP) is designed to assist employees for identifying, monitoring, responding and mitigation dam safety emergencies. This paper is outlined to identification of an organization chart, responsibility for emergency management team and triggering level in Sultan Abu Bakar Dam ERP. ERP is a plan that guides responsibilities for proper operation of Sultan Abu Bakar Dam in respond to emergency incidents affecting the dam. Based on this study four major responsibilities are needed for Abu Bakar Dam owing to protect any probable risk for downstream which they can be Incident Commander, Deputy Incident Commander, On-Scene Commander, Civil Engineer. In conclusion, having organization charts based on ERP studies can be helpful for decreasing the probable risks in any projects such as Abu Bakar Dam and it is a way to identify and suspected and actual dam safety emergencies.

  17. Severe deterministic effects of external exposure and intake of radioactive material: basis for emergency response criteria.

    PubMed

    Kutkov, V; Buglova, E; McKenna, T

    2011-06-01

    Lessons learned from responses to past events have shown that more guidance is needed for the response to radiation emergencies (in this context, a 'radiation emergency' means the same as a 'nuclear or radiological emergency') which could lead to severe deterministic effects. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) requirements for preparedness and response for a radiation emergency, inter alia, require that arrangements shall be made to prevent, to a practicable extent, severe deterministic effects and to provide the appropriate specialised treatment for these effects. These requirements apply to all exposure pathways, both internal and external, and all reasonable scenarios, to include those resulting from malicious acts (e.g. dirty bombs). This paper briefly describes the approach used to develop the basis for emergency response criteria for protective actions to prevent severe deterministic effects in the case of external exposure and intake of radioactive material. PMID:21617296

  18. Project Responder: technology needs for local emergency response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beakley, Guy; Garwin, Thomas; Pollard, Neal A.; Singley, George T., III; Tuohy, Robert V.; Lupo, Jasper

    2003-09-01

    Since April 2001, the Oklahoma City National Memorial Institute for the Prevention of Terrorism has funded an effort by Hicks &Associates, Inc. and the Terrorism Research Center, Inc., aimed ultimately at improving local, state, and federal emergency responders" capabilities for mitigating the effects of chemical, biological, radiological, nuclear or explosive/ incendiary (CBRNE) terrorism. This effort, titled "Project Responder," began by developing an understanding of how state and local responders view their current capabilities, shortfalls, and needs. This paper discusses some of the results of this first phase of the effort that has resulted in a comprehensive report titled "Emergency Responders" Needs, Goals, and Priorities." This paper addresses two of the capabilities from that report which we believe are of most interest to this conference. There are ten other capabilities discussed in the report, which may also be of interest.

  19. Emergency response concept plan for Tooele Army Depot and vicinity

    SciTech Connect

    Carnes, S.A.; Sorensen, J.H.; Rogers, G.O.; Shumpert, B.L.; Miller, R.L.; Watson, A.P.; Chester, C.V.

    1989-10-01

    The continued storage and disposal of the United States' unitary chemical stockpile, including that portion stored at Tooele Army Depot (TEAD) near Tooele, Utah, have the potential for accidental releases that could escape installation boundaries and pose a threat to civilian populations. The US Army, in conjunction with the Federal Emergency Management Agency and other federal agencies, is committed to implement an emergency preparedness program that will significantly reduce the probability of adverse effects from such releases. This concept plan, which is but a part of a comprehensive ongoing effort, provides a framework for initiating such a program for the TEAD stockpile. This report develops information and methodologies that bear on two major decisions for such a program -- determining emergency planning zones and selecting protective action strategies. These decisions are based on the hazards posed by the TEAD stockpile and its disposal. These hazards, in turn, are based largely on the distribution of potential accidental releases associated with interim storage and disposal activities and associated external events (e.g., earthquakes and airplane crashes), the distribution of natural features that can affect an agent release (topographical features and meteorological characteristics), and the distribution of people and resources (e.g., homes, schools, and hospitals) potentially affected by an accidental release. 22 refs., 9 figs., 12 tabs.

  20. Conceptual design report, Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Training Center

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, K.E.

    1994-11-09

    For the next 30 years, the main activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site will involve the management, handling, and cleanup of toxic substances. If the DOE is to meet its high standards of safety, the thousands of workers involved in these activities will need systematic training appropriate to their tasks and the risks associated with these tasks. Furthermore, emergency response for DOE shipments is the primary responsibility of state, tribal, and local governments. A collaborative training initiative with the DOE will strengthen emergency response at the Hanford Site and within the regional communities. Local and international labor has joined the Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) partnership, and will share in the HAMMER Training Center core programs and facilities using their own specialized trainers and training programs. The HAMMER Training Center will provide a centralized regional site dedicated to the training of hazardous material, emergency response, and fire fighting personnel.

  1. Abusive Relationships

    MedlinePlus

    ... relationships and friendships. Emotional abuse (stuff like teasing, bullying, and humiliating others) can be difficult to recognize ... How to Break Up Respectfully Abuse Dealing With Bullying Date Rape Getting Over a Break-Up Posttraumatic ...

  2. Emergence of microbial networks as response to hostile environments

    PubMed Central

    Madeo, Dario; Comolli, Luis R.; Mocenni, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    The majority of microorganisms live in complex communities under varying conditions. One pivotal question in evolutionary biology is the emergence of cooperative traits and their sustainment in altered environments or in the presence of free-riders. Co-occurrence patterns in the spatial distribution of biofilms can help define species' identities, and systems biology tools are revealing networks of interacting microorganisms. However, networks of inter-dependencies involving micro-organisms in the planktonic phase may be just as important, with the added complexity that they are not bounded in space. An integrated approach linking imaging, “Omics” and modeling has the potential to enable new hypothesis and working models. In order to understand how cooperation can emerge and be maintained without abilities like memory or recognition we use evolutionary game theory as the natural framework to model cell-cell interactions arising from evolutive decisions. We consider a finite population distributed in a spatial domain (biofilm), and divided into two interacting classes with different traits. This interaction can be weighted by distance, and produces physical connections between two elements allowing them to exchange finite amounts of energy and matter. Available strategies to each individual of one class in the population are the propensities or “willingness” to connect any individual of the other class. Following evolutionary game theory, we propose a mathematical model which explains the patterns of connections which emerge when individuals are able to find connection strategies that asymptotically optimize their fitness. The process explains the formation of a network for efficiently exchanging energy and matter among individuals and thus ensuring their survival in hostile environments. PMID:25191306

  3. Emergence of microbial networks as response to hostile environments.

    PubMed

    Madeo, Dario; Comolli, Luis R; Mocenni, Chiara

    2014-01-01

    The majority of microorganisms live in complex communities under varying conditions. One pivotal question in evolutionary biology is the emergence of cooperative traits and their sustainment in altered environments or in the presence of free-riders. Co-occurrence patterns in the spatial distribution of biofilms can help define species' identities, and systems biology tools are revealing networks of interacting microorganisms. However, networks of inter-dependencies involving micro-organisms in the planktonic phase may be just as important, with the added complexity that they are not bounded in space. An integrated approach linking imaging, "Omics" and modeling has the potential to enable new hypothesis and working models. In order to understand how cooperation can emerge and be maintained without abilities like memory or recognition we use evolutionary game theory as the natural framework to model cell-cell interactions arising from evolutive decisions. We consider a finite population distributed in a spatial domain (biofilm), and divided into two interacting classes with different traits. This interaction can be weighted by distance, and produces physical connections between two elements allowing them to exchange finite amounts of energy and matter. Available strategies to each individual of one class in the population are the propensities or "willingness" to connect any individual of the other class. Following evolutionary game theory, we propose a mathematical model which explains the patterns of connections which emerge when individuals are able to find connection strategies that asymptotically optimize their fitness. The process explains the formation of a network for efficiently exchanging energy and matter among individuals and thus ensuring their survival in hostile environments. PMID:25191306

  4. Hospital emergency preparedness and response during Superstorm Sandy.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the findings of a report by the HHS Office of Inspector General (OIG) on the performance of 172 Medicare-certified hospitals in the New York Metropolitan Area before, during, and after Sandy. It makes recommendations on how to close gaps that were found in emergency planning and execution for a disaster of this magnitude. To download the complete 40-page report and a Podcast based on it, go to http://oig.hhs.gov/oei/ reports/oei-06-13-00260. asp. PMID:26647499

  5. Design of highway landslide warning and emergency response systems based on UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yujie; Yi, Shen; Li, Zongyu; Shao, Shegang; Qin, Xiaochun

    2010-09-01

    Landslide is one of the serious geological disasters that bring serious impact on transportation construction and highway traffics. It is critical to improve the level of warning and emergency response to the highway landslide. Based on the application of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV), the highway landslide warning and emergency response system is developed in this paper. The system consists of two main components, including landslide warning sub-system and the UAV emergency response sub-system. The establishment of this system will contribute to: 1) improving the warning and monitoring of highway landslide; 2) quickly understanding the situation of landslide disaster, and therefore helping the policy-makers with emergency rescue, disaster assessment, and reconstruction; and 3) using it as a research platform for large-scale landslides, debris flow monitoring and warning, and other emergency relief work.

  6. EMERGENCY RESPONSE PROCEDURES FOR CONTROL OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCE RELEASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Information is provided for selecting the best spill stabilization controls for hazardous substances regulated by the Comprehensive Enviromental Response, Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA). Information is also provided on the onsite assessment of spill severity, app...

  7. 33 CFR 127.1505 - Emergency response and rescue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... furnished to those personnel. Training and equipment that meets 29 CFR 1910.120, hazardous-waste operations... and rescue pending the arrival of resources for firefighting or pollution control. Response and...

  8. A GLIMPSE INTO THE EYE OF THE EMERGENCY RESPONSE AT EPA KATRINA AND RITA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation was given at the Texas Environmental Health Association Annual Meeting in Round Rock, TX on October 12, 2005. The keynote address was focused on the conditions after Katrins, organizing response, field response, EPA's role in emergency response, what is EPA doi...

  9. Elder Abuse.

    PubMed

    Lachs, Mark S; Pillemer, Karl A

    2015-11-12

    Because older victims of abuse tend to be isolated, their interactions with physicians are important opportunities to recognize abuse and intervene. This review explores the manifestations of elder abuse and the role of multidisciplinary teams in its assessment and management. PMID:26559573

  10. Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to homelessness, crime, and missed work or problems with keeping a job. It harms unborn babies and destroys families. There are different types of treatment for drug abuse. But the best is to prevent drug ...

  11. Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... or become violent. An older child may use drugs or alcohol, try to run away or abuse others. Child abuse is a serious problem. If you suspect a child is being abused or neglected, call the police or your local child welfare agency.

  12. Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Cynthia L.; Liddle, Howard A.

    2003-01-01

    Liddle and Dakof's (1995) comprehensive review of the status of family-based treatment for drug abuse concluded that this modality offered a "promising, but not definitive" approach to treating drug abuse among adolescents and adults. Less than a decade later, significant progress can be seen in the treatment of drug abuse problems using…

  13. Concealment of Child Sexual Abuse in Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartill, Mike

    2013-01-01

    When the sexual abuse of children is revealed, it is often found that other nonabusing adults were aware of the abuse but failed to act. During the past twenty years or so, the concealment of child sexual abuse (CSA) within organizations has emerged as a key challenge for child protection work. Recent events at Pennsylvania State University (PSU)…

  14. Three Essays on Law Enforcement and Emergency Response Information Sharing and Collaboration: An Insider Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Treglia, Joseph V.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation identifies what may be done to overcome barriers to information sharing among federal, tribal, state, and local law enforcement agencies and emergency responders. Social, technical, and policy factors related to information sharing and collaboration in the law enforcement and emergency response communities are examined. This…

  15. Emergency Response System for Pollution Accidents in Chemical Industrial Parks, China.

    PubMed

    Duan, Weili; He, Bin

    2015-07-01

    In addition to property damage and loss of lives, environment pollution, such as water pollution and air pollution caused by accidents in chemical industrial parks (CIPs) is a significant issue in China. An emergency response system (ERS) was therefore planned to properly and proactively cope with safety incidents including fire and explosions occurring in the CIPs in this study. Using a scenario analysis, the stages of emergency response were divided into three levels, after introducing the domino effect, and fundamental requirements of ERS design were confirmed. The framework of ERS was composed mainly of a monitoring system, an emergency command center, an action system, and a supporting system. On this basis, six main emergency rescue steps containing alarm receipt, emergency evaluation, launched corresponding emergency plans, emergency rescue actions, emergency recovery, and result evaluation and feedback were determined. Finally, an example from the XiaoHu Chemical Industrial Park (XHCIP) was presented to check on the integrality, reliability, and maneuverability of the ERS, and the result of the first emergency drill with this ERS indicated that the developed ERS can reduce delays, improve usage efficiency of resources, and raise emergency rescue efficiency. PMID:26184260

  16. Emergency Response System for Pollution Accidents in Chemical Industrial Parks, China

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Weili; He, Bin

    2015-01-01

    In addition to property damage and loss of lives, environment pollution, such as water pollution and air pollution caused by accidents in chemical industrial parks (CIPs) is a significant issue in China. An emergency response system (ERS) was therefore planned to properly and proactively cope with safety incidents including fire and explosions occurring in the CIPs in this study. Using a scenario analysis, the stages of emergency response were divided into three levels, after introducing the domino effect, and fundamental requirements of ERS design were confirmed. The framework of ERS was composed mainly of a monitoring system, an emergency command center, an action system, and a supporting system. On this basis, six main emergency rescue steps containing alarm receipt, emergency evaluation, launched corresponding emergency plans, emergency rescue actions, emergency recovery, and result evaluation and feedback were determined. Finally, an example from the XiaoHu Chemical Industrial Park (XHCIP) was presented to check on the integrality, reliability, and maneuverability of the ERS, and the result of the first emergency drill with this ERS indicated that the developed ERS can reduce delays, improve usage efficiency of resources, and raise emergency rescue efficiency. PMID:26184260

  17. Association between neuroticism and amygdala responsivity emerges under stressful conditions.

    PubMed

    Everaerd, Daphne; Klumpers, Floris; van Wingen, Guido; Tendolkar, Indira; Fernández, Guillén

    2015-05-15

    Increased amygdala reactivity in response to salient stimuli is seen in patients with affective disorders, in healthy subjects at risk for these disorders, and in stressed individuals, making it a prime target for mechanistic studies into the pathophysiology of affective disorders. However, whereas individual differences in neuroticism are thought to modulate the effect of stress on mental health, the mechanistic link between stress, neuroticism and amygdala responsivity is unknown. Thus, we studied the relationship between experimentally induced stress, individual differences in neuroticism, and amygdala responsivity. To this end, fearful and happy faces were presented to a large cohort of young, healthy males (n=120) in two separate functional MRI sessions (stress versus control) in a randomized, controlled cross-over design. We revealed that amygdala reactivity was modulated by an interaction between the factors of stress, neuroticism, and the emotional valence of the facial stimuli. Follow-up analysis showed that neuroticism selectively enhanced amygdala responses to fearful faces in the stress condition. Thus, we show that stress unmasks an association between neuroticism and amygdala responsivity to potentially threatening stimuli. This effect constitutes a possible mechanistic link within the complex pathophysiology of affective disorders, and our novel approach appears suitable for further studies targeting the underlying mechanisms. PMID:25776217

  18. Training and exercises of the Emergency Response Team at the Los Alamos Plutonium Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Yearwood, D.D.

    1988-01-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Plutonium Facility has an active Emergency Response Team. The Emergency Response Team is composed of members of the operating and support groups within the Plutonium Facility. In addition to their initial indoctrination, the members are trained and certified in first-aid, CPR, fire and rescue, and the use of self-contained-breathing-apparatus. Training exercises, drills, are conducted once a month. The drills consist of scenarios which require the Emergency Response Team to apply CPR and/or first aid. The drills are performed in the Plutonium Facility, they are video taped, then reviewed and critiqued by site personnel. Through training and effective drills and the Emergency Response Team can efficiently respond to any credible accident which may occur at the Plutonium Facility. 3 tabs.

  19. Time/Loss Analysis in the development and evaluation of emergency response procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Francis, A.A.

    1994-08-01

    Time/Loss Analysis (T/LA) provides a standard for conducting technically consistent and objective evaluations of emergency response planning and procedures. T/LA is also a sound tool for evaluating the performance of safeguards and procedures.

  20. 77 FR 35962 - Utilizing Rapidly Deployable Aerial Communications Architecture in Response to an Emergency

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... COMMISSION Utilizing Rapidly Deployable Aerial Communications Architecture in Response to an Emergency AGENCY... seeks comment on the role of deployable aerial communications architecture (DACA) in facilitating... on the role of DACA, the communication service architecture and various DACA platform...

  1. Indian Point Nuclear Power Station: verification analysis of County Radiological Emergency-Response Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Nagle, J.; Whitfield, R.

    1983-05-01

    This report was developed as a management tool for use by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) Region II staff. The analysis summarized in this report was undertaken to verify the extent to which procedures, training programs, and resources set forth in the County Radiological Emergency Response Plans (CRERPs) for Orange, Putnam, and Westchester counties in New York had been realized prior to the March 9, 1983, exercise of the Indian Point Nuclear Power Station near Buchanan, New York. To this end, a telephone survey of county emergency response organizations was conducted between January 19 and February 22, 1983. This report presents the results of responses obtained from this survey of county emergency response organizations.

  2. The computer emergency response team system (CERT-System)

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, E.E.

    1991-10-11

    This paper describes CERT-System, an international affiliation of computer security response teams. Formed after the WANK and OILZ worms attacked numerous systems connected to the Internet, an operational charter was signed by representatives of 11 response teams. This affiliation's purpose is to provide a forum for ideas about incident response and computer security, share information, solve common problems, and develop strategies for responding to threats, incidents, etc. The achievements and advantages of participation in CERT-System are presented along with suggested growth areas for this affiliation. The views presented in this paper are the views of one member, and do not necessarily represent the views of others affiliated with CERT-System.

  3. The computer emergency response team system (CERT-System)

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, E.E.

    1991-10-11

    This paper describes CERT-System, an international affiliation of computer security response teams. Formed after the WANK and OILZ worms attacked numerous systems connected to the Internet, an operational charter was signed by representatives of 11 response teams. This affiliation`s purpose is to provide a forum for ideas about incident response and computer security, share information, solve common problems, and develop strategies for responding to threats, incidents, etc. The achievements and advantages of participation in CERT-System are presented along with suggested growth areas for this affiliation. The views presented in this paper are the views of one member, and do not necessarily represent the views of others affiliated with CERT-System.

  4. A proposed architecture for emergency response systems based on Digital Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dapeng; Cheng, Chengqi

    2010-11-01

    Emergencies are incidents that threaten public safety, health and welfare. Many disastrous emergency events that happened in recent years have drawn great attention to more effective Emergency Response Systems (ERS). ERS need to integrate various kinds of information to support quick emergency response. Digital Earth can solve data interoperation and information integration problems in emergency response. This paper aims to establish the system architecture for quick emergency response based on relevant principles and technologies in the domain of Digital Earth. First, this paper analyzes the system requirements of ERS in terms of information integration, fast data access, timeliness and information updating, etc. Second, this paper explores the useful principles and technologies in Digital Earth and discusses how to incorporate them into the architecture of ERS. More attention is paid to Open Geospatial Consortium's Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) information standards. Furthermore, Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) and Location-Based Services (LBS) are also reviewed and the "From Sensor to User" application pattern in emergency response is put forward. Finally, a system architecture based on Digital Earth is proposed for ERS.

  5. A proposed architecture for emergency response systems based on Digital Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dapeng; Cheng, Chengqi

    2009-09-01

    Emergencies are incidents that threaten public safety, health and welfare. Many disastrous emergency events that happened in recent years have drawn great attention to more effective Emergency Response Systems (ERS). ERS need to integrate various kinds of information to support quick emergency response. Digital Earth can solve data interoperation and information integration problems in emergency response. This paper aims to establish the system architecture for quick emergency response based on relevant principles and technologies in the domain of Digital Earth. First, this paper analyzes the system requirements of ERS in terms of information integration, fast data access, timeliness and information updating, etc. Second, this paper explores the useful principles and technologies in Digital Earth and discusses how to incorporate them into the architecture of ERS. More attention is paid to Open Geospatial Consortium's Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) information standards. Furthermore, Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) and Location-Based Services (LBS) are also reviewed and the "From Sensor to User" application pattern in emergency response is put forward. Finally, a system architecture based on Digital Earth is proposed for ERS.

  6. Are archetypes transmitted or emergent? A response to Christian Roesler.

    PubMed

    Martin-Vallas, François

    2013-04-01

    In this paper the author argues that Jung's concept of archetype should not be reduced to an univocal definition. Jung himself proposed many definitions of this concept, some of them being partially or totally contradictory to others. A univocal and logical way of thinking can lead us to refute and reject part of those definitions, but a complex way of thinking, as proposed by Edgar Morin or Roy Bhaskar for example, can allow us to consider that those apparent contradictions in Jung's definitions of archetype reflect the complexity of the psychic reality. The main argument of the author is that Jung was missing the epistemological concept of emergence (which appeared in science at the time of his death) and that he tried to express it with the epistemological concepts of his time. PMID:23550577

  7. Business Responses to Climate Change. Identifying Emergent Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Kolk, A.; Pinkse, J.

    2005-07-01

    Companies face much uncertainty about the competitive effects of the recently adopted Kyoto Protocol on global climate change and the current and future regulations that may emerge from it. Companies have considerable discretion to explore different market strategies to address global warming and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This article examines these strategic options by reviewing the market-oriented actions that are currently being taken by 136 large companies that are part of the Global 500. There are six different market strategies that companies use to address climate change and that consist of different combinations of the market components available to managers. Managers can choose between more emphasis on improvements in their business activities through innovation or employ compensatory approaches such as emissions trading. They can either act by themselves or work with other companies, NGOs, or (local) governments.

  8. Emerging Responsibilities, Emerging Persons: Reflective and Relational Religious Education in Three Episcopal High Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Matthew W.

    2016-01-01

    Based in an ethnographic project involving three Episcopal Church-affiliated high schools, this article considers how reflective and relational pedagogy influenced students' personal growth in religious education classes. Students became self-responsible for their spiritual development in the school settings where the practice of…

  9. Uses of the Internet in post-emergency response: Some issues

    SciTech Connect

    Herzenberg, C.L.

    1998-09-01

    Can the Internet be of value in post-emergency response? The answer is yes, to judge by its use following the Kobe earthquake in Japan and the ice storms in the US and Canada last winter. This will not be a technical account of the Internet, but rather a quick look at some advantages, disadvantages, promising applications, and issues that may arise in using the Internet for post-emergency response.

  10. Use of Antiretroviral HIV Post-Exposure Prophylaxis in Sexually Abused Children and Adolescents Treated in an Inner-City Pediatric Emergency Department

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fajman, Nancy; Wright, Richelle

    2006-01-01

    Background: In 2002, Georgia had the United States' eighth highest number of persons living with AIDS. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission as a result of sexual abuse is uncommon but definitely occurs. In certain circumstances of sexual abuse, antiretroviral post-exposure prophylaxis (ARV-PEP) has been suggested as a means to decrease…

  11. Effects of Nalbuphine on Anterior Pituitary and Adrenal Hormones and Subjective Responses in Male Cocaine Abusers

    PubMed Central

    Goletiani, Nathalie V.; Mendelson, Jack H.; Sholar, Michelle B.; Siegel, Arthur J.; Skupny, Alicja J.; Mello, Nancy K.

    2007-01-01

    Nalbuphine (Nubain®) is a mixed action mu-kappa agonist used clinically for the management of pain. Nalbuphine and other mu-kappa agonists decreased cocaine self-administration in preclinical models. Cocaine stimulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, but the effects of nalbuphine on the HPA axis are unknown. Analgesic doses (5 and 10 mg/70 kg) of IV nalbuphine were administered to healthy male cocaine abusers, and plasma levels of PRL, ACTH and cortisol were measured before and at 10, 17, 19, 23, 27, 31, 35, 40, 45, 60, 75, 105, 135 min after nalbuphine administration. Subjective effects were measured on a Visual Analog Scale (VAS). Prolactin (PRL) increased significantly within 17 min (P=.04) and reached peak levels of 22.1 ± 7.1 ng/ml and 54.1 ± 11.3 at 60 min after low and high dose nalbuphine administration, respectively. VAS reports of “Sick,” “Bad” and “Dizzy” were significantly higher after 10 mg/70 kg than after 5 mg/70 kg nalbuphine (P=.05−.0001), and were significantly correlated with increases in PRL (P=.05−.0003). However, sedation and emesis were observed only after a 10 mg/70 kg dose of nalbuphine. Interestingly, ACTH and cortisol levels did not change significantly after administration of either dose of nalbuphine. Taken together, these data suggest that nalbuphine had both mu- and kappa-like effects on PRL (PRL increase) but did not increase ACTH and cortisol. PMID:17391744

  12. Emergency response planning to reduce the impact of contaminated drinking water during natural disasters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, Craig L.; Adams, Jeffrey Q.

    2011-12-01

    Natural disasters can be devastating to local water supplies affecting millions of people. Disaster recovery plans and water industry collaboration during emergencies protect consumers from contaminated drinking water supplies and help facilitate the repair of public water systems. Prior to an event, utilities and municipalities can use "What if"? scenarios to develop emergency operation, response, and recovery plans designed to reduce the severity of damage and destruction. Government agencies including the EPA are planning ahead to provide temporary supplies of potable water and small drinking water treatment technologies to communities as an integral part of emergency response activities that will ensure clean and safe drinking water.

  13. The Evaluation of Time Performance in the Emergency Response Center to Provide Pre-Hospital Emergency Services in Kermanshah

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Mohsen; Nasiripour Amir, Ashkan; Fakhri, Mahmood; Bakhtiari, Ahad; Azari, Samad; Akbarzadeh, Arash; Goli, Ali; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the time performance in the emergency response center to provide pre-hospital emergency services in Kermanshah. This study was a descriptive retrospective cross-sectional study. In this study 500 cases of patients from Shahrivar (September) 2012 to the end of Shahrivar (September) 2013 were selected and studied by the non-probability quota method. The measuring tool included a preset cases record sheet and sampling method was completing the cases record sheet by referring to the patients’ cases. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 18 and the concepts of descriptive and inferential statistics (Kruskal-Wallis test, benchmark Eta (Eta), Games-Howell post hoc test). The results showed that the interval mean between receiving the mission to reaching the scene, between reaching the scene to moving from the scene, and between moving from the scene to a health center was 7.28, 16.73 and 7.28 minutes. The overall mean of time performance from the scene to the health center was 11.34 minutes. Any intervention in order to speed up service delivery, reduce response times, ambulance equipment and facilities required for accuracy, validity and reliability of the data recorded in the emergency dispatch department, Continuing Education of ambulance staffs, the use of manpower with higher specialize levels such as nurses, supply the job satisfaction, and increase the coordination with other departments that are somehow involved in this process can provide the ground for reducing the loss and disability resulting from traffic accidents. PMID:25560357

  14. The evaluation of time performance in the emergency response center to provide pre-hospital emergency services in Kermanshah.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Mohsen; Nasiripour, Amir Ashkan; Fakhri, Mahmood; Bakhtiari, Ahad; Azari, Samad; Akbarzadeh, Arash; Goli, Ali; Mahboubi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the time performance in the emergency response center to provide pre-hospital emergency services in Kermanshah. This study was a descriptive retrospective cross-sectional study. In this study 500 cases of patients from Shahrivar (September) 2012 to the end of Shahrivar (September) 2013 were selected and studied by the non-probability quota method. The measuring tool included a preset cases record sheet and sampling method was completing the cases record sheet by referring to the patients' cases. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 18 and the concepts of descriptive and inferential statistics (Kruskal-Wallis test, benchmark Eta (Eta), Games-Howell post hoc test). The results showed that the interval mean between receiving the mission to reaching the scene, between reaching the scene to moving from the scene, and between moving from the scene to a health center was 7.28, 16.73 and 7.28 minutes. The overall mean of time performance from the scene to the health center was 11.34 minutes. Any intervention in order to speed up service delivery, reduce response times, ambulance equipment and facilities required for accuracy, validity and reliability of the data recorded in the emergency dispatch department, Continuing Education of ambulance staffs, the use of manpower with higher specialize levels such as nurses, supply the job satisfaction, and increase the coordination with other departments that are somehow involved in this process can provide the ground for reducing the loss and disability resulting from traffic accidents. PMID:25560357

  15. Automating Hyperspectral Data for Rapid Response in Volcanic Emergencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Ashley G.; Doubleday, Joshua R.; Chien, Steve A.

    2013-01-01

    In a volcanic emergency, time is of the essence. It is vital to quantify eruption parameters (thermal emission, effusion rate, location of activity) and distribute this information as quickly as possible to decision-makers in order to enable effective evaluation of eruption-related risk and hazard. The goal of this work was to automate and streamline processing of spacecraft hyperspectral data, automate product generation, and automate distribution of products. Visible and Short-Wave Infrared Images of volcanic eruption in Iceland in May 2010." class="caption" align="right">The software rapidly processes hyperspectral data, correcting for incident sunlight where necessary, and atmospheric transmission; detects thermally anomalous pixels; fits data with model black-body thermal emission spectra to determine radiant flux; calculates atmospheric convection thermal removal; and then calculates total heat loss. From these results, an estimation of effusion rate is made. Maps are generated of thermal emission and location (see figure). Products are posted online, and relevant parties notified. Effusion rate data are added to historical record and plotted to identify spikes in activity for persistently active eruptions. The entire process from start to end is autonomous. Future spacecraft, especially those in deep space, can react to detection of transient processes without the need to communicate with Earth, thus increasing science return. Terrestrially, this removes the need for human intervention.

  16. Response to Cross and Saxe's "A Critique of the Validity of Polygraph Testing in Child Sexual Abuse Cases."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Vergil L.

    1995-01-01

    Responds to an article (1992) in which Cross and Saxe assert that polygraph testing is inaccurate and inappropriate in the area of child sexual abuse. Presents a summary of recent polygraph validity and reliability studies to refute their claims, and discusses current uses of polygraph testing in child sexual abuse cases. (JPS)

  17. Cannabis Abusers Show Hypofrontality and Blunted Brain Responses to a Stimulant Challenge in Females but not in Males.

    PubMed

    Wiers, Corinde E; Shokri-Kojori, Ehsan; Wong, Christopher T; Abi-Dargham, Anissa; Demiral, Şükrü B; Tomasi, Dardo; Wang, Gene-Jack; Volkow, Nora D

    2016-09-01

    The extent to which cannabis is deleterious to the human brain is not well understood. Here, we test whether cannabis abusers (CA) have impaired frontal function and reactivity to dopaminergic signaling, which are fundamental to relapse in addiction. We measured brain glucose metabolism using PET and [(18)F]FDG both at baseline (placebo) and after challenge with methylphenidate (MP), a dopamine-enhancing drug, in 24 active CA (50% female) and 24 controls (HC; 50% female). Results show that (i) CA had lower baseline glucose metabolism than HC in frontal cortex including anterior cingulate, which was associated with negative emotionality. (ii) MP increased whole-brain glucose metabolism in HC but not in CA; and group by challenge effects were most profound in putamen, caudate, midbrain, thalamus, and cerebellum. In CA, MP-induced metabolic increases in putamen correlated negatively with addiction severity. (iii) There were significant gender effects, such that both the group differences at baseline in frontal metabolism and the attenuated regional brain metabolic responses to MP were observed in female CA but not in male CA. As for other drug addictions, reduced baseline frontal metabolism is likely to contribute to relapse in CA. The attenuated responses to MP in midbrain and striatum are consistent with decreased brain reactivity to dopamine stimulation and might contribute to addictive behaviors in CA. The gender differences suggest that females are more sensitive than males to the adverse effects of cannabis in brain. PMID:27156854

  18. The effects of age and delay on responses to repeated questions in forensic interviews with children alleging sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Samantha J; Lamb, Michael E

    2014-04-01

    We examined transcripts of forensic interviews with 115 children aged between 3 and 12 years, interviewed between 1 day and 18 months after allegedly experiencing a single incident of sexual abuse. Repeated questions were categorized with respect to the reasons why interviewers asked questions again, how interviewers asked repeated questions, and how children responded. On average, interviewers asked 3 repeated questions per interview. As age increased, the frequency of question repetition declined but there was no association between repetition and delay. Interviewers most often repeated questions for clarification (53.1%), but questions were also repeated frequently to challenge children's previous responses (23.7%), and for no apparent reason (20.1%). In response, children typically repeated (54.1%) or elaborated on (31.5%) their previous answers; they contradicted themselves less often (10.8%). Questions repeated using suggestive prompts were more likely to elicit contradictions. There was no association between age or delay and the reasons why questions were repeated, how they were repeated, and how children responded. These findings emphasize the importance of training forensic interviewers to repeat questions only when the children or interviewers seek clarification and to encourage children who are anxious or reluctant to disclose. All repeated questions should be open-ended and interviewers should explain to children why questions are being repeated. PMID:24341834

  19. Primary prevention of child abuse.

    PubMed

    Bethea, L

    1999-03-15

    In 1993, the U.S. Advisory Board on Child Abuse and Neglect declared a child protection emergency. Between 1985 and 1993, there was a 50 percent increase in reported cases of child abuse. Three million cases of child abuse are reported in the United States each year. Treatment of the abuser has had only limited success and child protection agencies are overwhelmed. Recently, efforts have begun to focus on the primary prevention of child abuse. Primary prevention of child abuse is defined as any intervention that prevents child abuse before it occurs. Primary prevention must be implemented on many levels before it can be successful. Strategies on the societal level include increasing the "value" of children, increasing the economic self-sufficiency of families, discouraging corporal punishment and other forms of violence, making health care more accessible and affordable, expanding and improving coordination of social services, improving the identification and treatment of psychologic problems, and alcohol and drug abuse, providing more affordable child care and preventing the birth of unwanted children. Strategies on the familial level include helping parents meet their basic needs, identifying problems of substance abuse and spouse abuse, and educating parents about child behavior, discipline, safety and development. PMID:10193598

  20. Using Geo-Data Corporately on the Response Phase of Emergency Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir Ozbek, E.; Ates, S.; Aydinoglu, A. C.

    2015-08-01

    Response phase of emergency management is the most complex phase in the entire cycle because it requires cooperation between various actors relating to emergency sectors. A variety of geo-data is needed at the emergency response such as; existing data provided by different institutions and dynamic data collected by different sectors at the time of the disaster. Disaster event is managed according to elaborately defined activity-actor-task-geodata cycle. In this concept, every activity of emergency response is determined with Standard Operation Procedure that enables users to understand their tasks and required data in any activity. In this study, a general conceptual approach for disaster and emergency management system is developed based on the regulations to serve applications in Istanbul Governorship Provincial Disaster and Emergency Directorate. The approach is implemented to industrial facility explosion example. In preparation phase, optimum ambulance locations are determined according to general response time of the ambulance to all injury cases in addition to areas that have industrial fire risk. Management of the industrial fire case is organized according to defined actors, activities, and working cycle that describe required geo-data. A response scenario was prepared and performed for an industrial facility explosion event to exercise effective working cycle of actors. This scenario provides using geo-data corporately between different actors while required data for each task is defined to manage the industrial facility explosion event. Following developing web technologies, this scenario based approach can be effective to use geo-data on the web corporately.

  1. Emergency response to a highway accident in Springfield, Massachusetts, on December 16, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    On December 16, 1991, a truck carrying unirradiated (fresh) nuclear fuel was involved in an accident on US Interstate 91, in Springfield, Massachusetts. This report describes the emergency response measures undertaken by local, State, Federal, and private parties. The report also discusses ``lessons learned`` from the response to the accident and suggests areas where improvements might be made.

  2. Emergency response to a highway accident in Springfield, Massachusetts, on December 16, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    On December 16, 1991, a truck carrying unirradiated (fresh) nuclear fuel was involved in an accident on US Interstate 91, in Springfield, Massachusetts. This report describes the emergency response measures undertaken by local, State, Federal, and private parties. The report also discusses lessons learned'' from the response to the accident and suggests areas where improvements might be made.

  3. 44 CFR 352.26 - Arrangements for Federal response in the licensee offsite emergency response plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: EMERGENCY PREPAREDNESS PLANNING Federal Participation § 352.26 Arrangements for... from commercial nuclear power plant licensees to State and local governments and to surrounding...

  4. 44 CFR 352.26 - Arrangements for Federal response in the licensee offsite emergency response plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY PREPAREDNESS COMMERCIAL... from commercial nuclear power plant licensees to State and local governments and to surrounding...

  5. GIS-based emergency response system for sudden water pollution accidents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rui, Yikang; Shen, Dingtao; Khalid, Shoaib; Yang, Zaigui; Wang, Jiechen

    The frequent occurrence of sudden water pollution accidents brings enormous risks to water environment safety. Therefore, there is great need for the modeling and development of early warning systems and rapid response procedures for current water pollution situation in China. This paper proposes an emergency response system based on the integration of Geographic Information System (GIS) technology and a hydraulic/water-quality model. Using the spatial analysis and three-dimensional visualization capabilities of GIS technology, we calculated pollutant diffusion measures, and visualized and analyzed the simulation results, in order to provide the services of early warning and emergency response for sudden water pollution accidents in the Xiangjia Dam area on the Yangtze River. The results show that the proposed system offers reliable technological support for emergency response to sudden water pollution events, and it shows good potential for wide applications in various aspects of water resources protection.

  6. Radiological emergency response for community agencies with cognitive task analysis, risk analysis, and decision support framework.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Travis S; Muething, Joseph Z; Lima, Gustavo Amoras Souza; Torres, Breno Raemy Rangel; del Rosario, Trystyn Keia; Gomes, José Orlando; Lambert, James H

    2012-01-01

    Radiological nuclear emergency responders must be able to coordinate evacuation and relief efforts following the release of radioactive material into populated areas. In order to respond quickly and effectively to a nuclear emergency, high-level coordination is needed between a number of large, independent organizations, including police, military, hazmat, and transportation authorities. Given the complexity, scale, time-pressure, and potential negative consequences inherent in radiological emergency responses, tracking and communicating information that will assist decision makers during a crisis is crucial. The emergency response team at the Angra dos Reis nuclear power facility, located outside of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, presently conducts emergency response simulations once every two years to prepare organizational leaders for real-life emergency situations. However, current exercises are conducted without the aid of electronic or software tools, resulting in possible cognitive overload and delays in decision-making. This paper describes the development of a decision support system employing systems methodologies, including cognitive task analysis and human-machine interface design. The decision support system can aid the coordination team by automating cognitive functions and improving information sharing. A prototype of the design will be evaluated by plant officials in Brazil and incorporated to a future trial run of a response simulation. PMID:22317163

  7. LEADERS: Lightweight Epidemiology Advanced Detection and Emergency Response System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Todd A.

    2002-06-01

    Technological advancements in molecular biology now offer a wide-range of applications for bio-warfare defense, medical surveillance, agricultural surveillance and pure research. Idaho Technology has designed and produced the world's fastest DNA-based identifiers. The R.A.P.I.D. TM (Ruggedized Advanced Pathogen Identification Device) provides several options for using sensitive and specific molecular biology-based technology One of the key features of the RAPID is a software package called Detector*. Detector* allows Minimally Trained Care Providers (MTCP) to operate the instrument by automating the steps of running PCR and automatically analyzing the sample data. Pathogen identification is carried out automatically using positive and negative controls to protect against false positive and false negative results. As part of the LEADER system, the Remote RAPID Viewer (RRV) component allows for real-time remote monitoring of PCR reactions run on the RAPID, thus giving the Subject Matter Expert (SME) the ability to request specific tests when triggered by the auto-analysis system. In addition the RRV component facilitates in result verification of tests run by MTCP, assists in tracking outbreaks, and helps coordinate large scale real-time crisis management. The system will allow access to epidemiological data from thin client (i.e. web browser), thus allowing the SME to connect from anywhere with an internet connection. In addition the LEADER system will automatically contact and alert SME when threshold criteria are met, helping reduce the time to first response.

  8. Immune response in pemphigus and beyond: progresses and emerging concepts.

    PubMed

    Di Zenzo, Giovanni; Amber, Kyle T; Sayar, Beyza S; Müller, Eliane J; Borradori, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) and pemphigus foliaceus (PF) are two severe autoimmune bullous diseases of the mucosae and/or skin associated with autoantibodies directed against desmoglein (Dsg) 3 and/or Dsg1. These two desmosomal cadherins, typifying stratified epithelia, are components of cell adhesion complexes called desmosomes and represent extra-desmosomal adhesion receptors. We herein review the advances in our understanding of the immune response underlying pemphigus, including human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class II-associated genetic susceptibility, characteristics of pathogenic anti-Dsg antibodies, antigenic mapping studies as well as findings about Dsg-specific B and T cells. The pathogenicity of anti-Dsg autoantibodies has been convincingly demonstrated. Disease activity and clinical phenotype correlate with anti-Dsg antibody titers and profile while passive transfer of anti-Dsg IgG from pemphigus patients' results in pemphigus-like lesions in neonatal and adult mice. Finally, adoptive transfer of splenocytes from Dsg3-knockout mice immunized with murine Dsg3 into immunodeficient mice phenotypically recapitulates PV. Although the exact pathogenic mechanisms leading to blister formation have not been fully elucidated, intracellular signaling following antibody binding has been found to be necessary for inducing cell-cell dissociation, at least for PV. These new insights not only highlight the key role of Dsgs in maintenance of tissue homeostasis but are expected to progressively change pemphigus management, paving the way for novel targeted immunologic and pharmacologic therapies. PMID:26597100

  9. Project plan, Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response Training Center: Project 95L-EWT-100

    SciTech Connect

    Borgeson, M.E.

    1994-11-09

    The Hazardous Materials Management and Emergency Response (HAMMER) Training Center will provide for classroom lectures and hands-on practical training in realistic situations for workers and emergency responders who are tasked with handling and cleanup of toxic substances. The primary objective of the HAMMER project is to provide hands-on training and classroom facilities for hazardous material workers and emergency responders. This project will also contribute towards complying with the planning and training provisions of recent legislation. In March 1989 Title 29 Code of Federal Regulations Occupational Safety and Health Administration 1910 Rules and National Fire Protection Association Standard 472 defined professional requirements for responders to hazardous materials incidents. Two general types of training are addressed for hazardous materials: training for hazardous waste site workers and managers, and training for emergency response organizations.

  10. Medical and radiological aspects of emergency preparedness and response at SevRAO facilities.

    PubMed

    Savkin, M N; Sneve, M K; Grachev, M I; Frolov, G P; Shinkarev, S M; Jaworska, A

    2008-12-01

    Regulatory cooperation between the Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority and the Federal Medical Biological Agency (FMBA) of the Russian Federation has the overall goal of promoting improvements in radiation protection in Northwest Russia. One of the projects in this programme has the objectives to review and improve the existing medical emergency preparedness capabilities at the sites for temporary storage of spent nuclear fuel and radioactive waste. These are operated by SevRAO at Andreeva Bay and in Gremikha village on the Kola Peninsula. The work is also intended to provide a better basis for regulation of emergency response and medical emergency preparedness at similar facilities elsewhere in Russia. The purpose of this paper is to present the main results of that project, implemented by the Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Centre. The first task was an analysis of the regulatory requirements and the current state of preparedness for medical emergency response at the SevRAO facilities. Although Russian regulatory documents are mostly consistent with international recommendations, some distinctions lead to numerical differences in operational intervention criteria under otherwise similar conditions. Radiological threats relating to possible accidents, and related gaps in the regulation of SevRAO facilities, were also identified. As part of the project, a special exercise on emergency medical response on-site at Andreeva Bay was prepared and carried out, and recommendations were proposed after the exercise. Following fruitful dialogue among regulators, designers and operators, special regulatory guidance has been issued by FMBA to account for the specific and unusual features of the SevRAO facilities. Detailed sections relate to the prevention of accidents, and emergency preparedness and response, supplementing the basic Russian regulatory requirements. Overall it is concluded that (a) the provision of medical and sanitary components of emergency

  11. Experiences of Mothers Who Are Child Sexual Abuse Survivors: A Qualitative Exploration.

    PubMed

    Cavanaugh, Courtenay E; Harper, Bianca; Classen, Catherine C; Palesh, Oxana; Koopman, Cheryl; Spiegel, David

    2015-01-01

    Child sexual abuse has been associated with a number of problems affecting women over their lifespan, including difficulties with parenting. However, there is a modest number of qualitative studies examining the impact of child sexual abuse on survivors who are mothers. There is a particular need for qualitative investigations that ask survivors who are mothers general questions about the impact of child sexual abuse on their lives rather than those that specifically ask about the impact of child sexual abuse on parenting. The former approach would allow survivors to describe effects that may impact parenting but that survivors do not consciously link to affecting their parenting. Such information may inform interventions to assist this population of survivors. This secondary data analysis examined themes revealed in interviews with 44 survivors of child sexual abuse who were mothers. Participants were seeking treatment for their child sexual abuse and completed an in-person interview in which they were asked open-ended questions about the sexual abuse they experienced as a child and how their abuse affects them now as adults. The interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded using thematic analysis. The following six themes emerged from the narratives: (a) being a parent, (b) family of origin dysfunction, (c) the impact of abuse, (d) the abuse history and response to abuse, (e) coping, and (f) hopes and desires for the future. This study highlights several ways in which child sexual abuse impacts survivors who are mothers, areas for further study, and the need for interventions to assist this population in meeting the challenges they face as mothers. PMID:26301437

  12. Coordinating a Team Response to Behavioral Emergencies in the Emergency Department: A Simulation-Enhanced Interprofessional Curriculum

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Ambrose H.; Wing, Lisa; Weiss, Brenda; Gang, Maureen

    2015-01-01

    Introduction While treating potentially violent patients in the emergency department (ED), both patients and staff may be subject to unintentional injury. Emergency healthcare providers are at the greatest risk of experiencing physical and verbal assault from patients. Preliminary studies have shown that a team-based approach with targeted staff training has significant positive outcomes in mitigating violence in healthcare settings. Staff attitudes toward patient aggression have also been linked to workplace safety, but current literature suggests that providers experience fear and anxiety while caring for potentially violent patients. The objectives of the study were (1) to develop an interprofessional curriculum focusing on improving teamwork and staff attitudes toward patient violence using simulation-enhanced education for ED staff, and (2) to assess attitudes towards patient aggression both at pre- and post-curriculum implementation stages using a survey-based study design. Methods Formal roles and responsibilities for each member of the care team, including positioning during restraint placement, were predefined in conjunction with ED leadership. Emergency medicine residents, nurses and hospital police officers were assigned to interprofessional teams. The curriculum started with an introductory lecture discussing de-escalation techniques and restraint placement as well as core tenets of interprofessional collaboration. Next, we conducted two simulation scenarios using standardized participants (SPs) and structured debriefing. The study consisted of a survey-based design comparing pre- and post-intervention responses via a paired Student t-test to assess changes in staff attitudes. We used the validated Management of Aggression and Violence Attitude Scale (MAVAS) consisting of 30 Likert-scale questions grouped into four themed constructs. Results One hundred sixty-two ED staff members completed the course with >95% staff participation, generating a total of

  13. Statistical study of emerging flux regions and the response of the upper atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jie; Li, Hui

    2012-12-01

    We statistically study the properties of emerging flux regions (EFRs) and response of the upper solar atmosphere to the flux emergence using data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager and the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Parameters including total emerged flux, flux growth rate, maximum area, duration of the emergence and separation speed of the opposite polarities are adopted to delineate the properties of EFRs. The response of the upper atmosphere is addressed by the response of the atmosphere at different wavelengths (and thus at different temperatures). According to our results, the total emerged fluxes are in the range of (0.44-11.2)×1019 Mx while the maximum area ranges from 17 to 182 arcsec2. The durations of the emergence are between 1 and 12 h, which are positively correlated to both the total emerged flux and the maximum area. The maximum distances between the opposite polarities are 7-25 arcsec and are also positively correlated to the duration. The separation speeds are from 0.05 to 1.08 km s-1, negatively correlated to the duration. The derived flux growth rates are (0.1-1.3)×1019 Mx h-1, which are positively correlated to the total emerging flux. The upper atmosphere first responds to the flux emergence in the 1600Å chromospheric line, and then tens to hundreds of seconds later, in coronal lines, such as the 171Å (T = 105.8 K) and 211Å (T = 106.3 K) lines almost simultaneously, suggesting the successive heating of the atmosphere from the chromosphere to the corona.

  14. Survey of state and tribal emergency response capabilities for radiological transportation incidents

    SciTech Connect

    Vilardo, F J; Mitter, E L; Palmer, J A; Briggs, H C; Fesenmaier, J

    1990-05-01

    This publication is the final report of a project to survey the fifty states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and selected Indian Tribal jurisdictions to ascertain their emergency-preparedness planning and capabilities for responding to transportation incidents involving radioactive materials. The survey was conducted to provide the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and other federal agencies with information concerning the current level of emergency-response preparedness of the states and selected tribes and an assessment of the changes that have occurred since 1980. There have been no major changes in the states' emergency-response planning strategies and field tactics. The changes noted included an increased availability of dedicated emergency-response vehicles, wider availability of specialized radiation-detection instruments, and higher proportions of police and fire personnel with training in the handling of suspected radiation threats. Most Indian tribes have no capability to evaluate suspected radiation threats and have no formal relations with emergency-response personnel in adjacent states. For the nation as a whole, the incidence of suspected radiation threats declined substantially from 1980 to 1988. 58 tabs.

  15. The changing nature and scope of public health emergencies in response to annual flu.

    PubMed

    Hodge, James G

    2013-06-01

    The rapid spread of influenza during the 2012-13 season brought a series of public health challenges and corresponding response efforts. For decades, responses to annual flu have been undertaken routinely without extensive legal intervention. With the recent declaration of states of public health emergencies in Boston (January 9, 2013) and New York State (January 12, 2013), however, the legal baseline is changing. Propelled by a slate of state and local emergency declarations during the 2009-10 H1N1 pandemic, public officials are beginning to show cause for the issuance of formal emergency declarations in support of flu response efforts. The legal effects of these types of declarations are profound. Public and private actors are given significant, expedited public health powers. Scarce resources like vaccines can be more efficiently allocated. Laws relating to licensure, scope of practice, and liability can be effectively waived. Though originally conceptualized and once reserved for catastrophic, long-term health-related or bioterrorism events, public health emergency declarations are evolving to address temporary impacts on health care and public health services arising annually from flu outbreaks. This commentary explores the changing nature of public health emergencies and their current and potential impact on the provision of healthcare services in response to national or regional threats to the public's health. PMID:23641729

  16. Screening Spouse Abusers for Child Abuse Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milner, Joel S.; Gold, Ruth G.

    1986-01-01

    Investigated the ability of the Child Abuse Potential Inventory to screen for child abuse in a group of spouse abusers. The completed, valid protocols revealed that 36.5 percent of the spouse abusers had elevated child abuse scores, while only 9.1 percent of the nonabusers had elevated abuse scores. (Author/BL)

  17. The Child Abuse Storm Scale: Part 2--Presumed Abusive.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Jim

    1999-01-01

    Presents the Child Abuse Storm Scale as a method for assessing the potential for false reports of child abuse resulting in prosecutions. Focuses on the prosecutorial techniques that contribute to false-report errors. Maintains that safeguarding the separation of the responsibilities of protective service workers and therapists from…

  18. Fetal Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Lindsey; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Five cases of fetal abuse by mothers suffering from depression are discussed. Four of the women had unplanned pregnancies and had considered termination of the pregnancy. Other factors associated with fetal abuse include pregnancy denial, pregnancy ambivalence, previous postpartum depression, and difficulties in relationships. Vigilance for…

  19. Rainfall intensity-duration thresholds for postfire debris-flow emergency-response planning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, S.H.; Boldt, E.M.; Laber, J.L.; Kean, J.W.; Staley, D.M.

    2011-01-01

    Following wildfires, emergency-response and public-safety agencies can be faced with evacuation and resource-deployment decisions well in advance of coming winter storms and during storms themselves. Information critical to these decisions is provided for recently burned areas in the San Gabriel Mountains of southern California. A compilation of information on the hydrologic response to winter storms from recently burned areas in southern California steeplands is used to develop a system for classifying magnitudes of hydrologic response. The four-class system describes combinations of reported volumes of individual debris flows, consequences of debris flows and floods in an urban setting, and spatial extents of the hydrologic response. The range of rainfall conditions associated with different magnitude classes is defined by integrating local rainfall data with the response magnitude information. Magnitude I events can be expected when within-storm rainfall accumulations (A) of given durations (D) fall above the threshold A = 0.4D0.5 and below A = 0.5D0.6 for durations greater than 1 h. Magnitude II events will be generated in response to rainfall accumulations and durations between A = 0.4D0.5 and A = 0.9D0.5 for durations less than 1 h, and between A = 0.5D0.6 and A = 0.9D0.5 or durations greater than 1 h. Magnitude III events can be expected in response to rainfall conditions above the threshold A = 0.9D0.5. Rainfall threshold-magnitude relations are linked with potential emergency-response actions as an emergency-response decision chart, which leads a user through steps to determine potential event magnitudes and identify possible evacuation and resource-deployment levels. Use of this information in planning and response decision-making process could result in increased safety for both the public and emergency responders. ?? 2011 US Government.

  20. SAVANNAH RIVER SITE CAPABILITIES FOR CONDUCTING INGESTION PATHWAY CONSEQUENCE ASSESSMENTS FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSE

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, C

    2007-12-11

    Potential airborne releases of radioactivity from facilities operated for the U. S. Department of Energy at the Savannah River Site could pose significant consequences to the public through the ingestion pathway. The Savannah River National Laboratory has developed a suite of technologies needed to conduct assessments of ingestion dose during emergency response, enabling emergency manager at SRS to develop initial protective action recommendation for state agencies early in the response and to make informed decisions on activation of additional Federal assets that would be needed to support long-term monitoring and assessment activities.

  1. A Coordinated Emergency Response: A Color Dust Explosion at a 2015 Concert in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chih-Ching

    2016-01-01

    In June 2015, nearly 500 concert attendees suffered injuries from smoke inhalation and severe burns following a color-dust explosion at a waterpark in Taiwan. We report on the progressions of the incident and government responses, share cross-departmental mobilization and case management lessons, and reflect on clinical and complex policy issues emerged. The timely and coordinated emergency responses, a high-quality universal health care system, and dedicated clinicians voluntarily working overtime resulted in an unprecedented 2.4% mortality rate (international statistics predicted 26.8%). PMID:27459446

  2. A Coordinated Emergency Response: A Color Dust Explosion at a 2015 Concert in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chih-Ching; Shih, Chung-Liang

    2016-09-01

    In June 2015, nearly 500 concert attendees suffered injuries from smoke inhalation and severe burns following a color-dust explosion at a waterpark in Taiwan. We report on the progressions of the incident and government responses, share cross-departmental mobilization and case management lessons, and reflect on clinical and complex policy issues emerged. The timely and coordinated emergency responses, a high-quality universal health care system, and dedicated clinicians voluntarily working overtime resulted in an unprecedented 2.4% mortality rate (international statistics predicted 26.8%). PMID:27459446

  3. Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Centers: Using a Public Health Systems Approach to Improve All-Hazards Preparedness and Response

    PubMed Central

    Leinhos, Mary; Williams-Johnson, Mildred

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, at the request of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Institute of Medicine (IOM) prepared a report identifying knowledge gaps in public health systems preparedness and emergency response and recommending near-term priority research areas. In accordance with the Pandemic and All-Hazards Preparedness Act mandating new public health systems research for preparedness and emergency response, CDC provided competitive awards establishing nine Preparedness and Emergency Response Research Centers (PERRCs) in accredited U.S. schools of public health. The PERRCs conducted research in four IOM-recommended priority areas: (1) enhancing the usefulness of public health preparedness and response (PHPR) training, (2) creating and maintaining sustainable preparedness and response systems, (3) improving PHPR communications, and (4) identifying evaluation criteria and metrics to improve PHPR for all hazards. The PERRCs worked closely with state and local public health, community partners, and advisory committees to produce practice-relevant research findings. PERRC research has generated more than 130 peer-reviewed publications and nearly 80 practice and policy tools and recommendations with the potential to significantly enhance our nation's PHPR to all hazards and that highlight the need for further improvements in public health systems. PMID:25355970

  4. Moderating effects of physical abuse and perceived social support on the potential to abuse.

    PubMed

    Litty, C G; Kowalski, R; Minor, S

    1996-04-01

    This study investigated the moderating effects of perceived prepubertal social support on the relationship between prepubertal childhood physical abuse and child abuse potential as well as on the relationship between a childhood history of abuse and conflict and depth in adult relationships. Three hundred and sixty-nine undergraduate men and women were classified as abused or nonabused based on their responses to the Childhood History Questionnaire. Multiple regression analyses revealed interactions of social support and a childhood history of physical abuse on both the potential to abuse and the quality of participants' relationships with their parents. Differences between abused and nonabused individuals were obtained only under conditions of low perceived social support. When social support was perceived to be high, abused and nonabused individuals did not differ in the potential to abuse or in the ratings of the depth of their relationships with parents. Implications of these findings for the intergenerational transmission of abuse are discussed. PMID:8730766

  5. Substance Abuse Treatment, HIV/AIDS, and the Continuum of Response for People Who Inject Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Kresina, Thomas F.; Lubran, Robert; Clark, H. Westley; Cheever, Laura W.

    2012-01-01

    The continuum of response (CoR) to HIV/AIDS is a framework for implementation of HIV prevention, care, and treatment programs based on a national strategic plan for HIV/AIDS services. The CoR for people who inject drugs (PWID) is an important extension of the developed CoR to HIV/AIDS. The CoR-PWID employs stakeholders who together plan, develop, pilot, and provide a full range of services that address the various prevention, care/support, and treatment needs of people, families, and communities infected or affected by HIV/AIDS and injection drug use. The CoR-PWID comprises a broad range of services that include but are not limited to the World Health Organization priority interventions for HIV/AIDS prevention, treatment, and care in the health sector and the package of essential interventions for the prevention, treatment, and care of HIV for people who inject drugs. Implementation of these well-defined, essential prevention, care/support, and treatment services, in addition to locally defined needed services, in a coordinated fashion is important to clients, their families, and communities. The CoR-PWID is, therefore, a necessary framework essential for service development for countries that address HIV/AIDS in populations of PWID. PMID:23243517

  6. Akt inhibition improves irinotecan treatment and prevents cell emergence by switching the senescence response to apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Vétillard, Alexandra; Jonchère, Barbara; Moreau, Marie; Toutain, Bertrand; Henry, Cécile; Fontanel, Simon; Bernard, Anne-Charlotte; Campone, Mario; Guette, Catherine; Coqueret, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Activated in response to chemotherapy, senescence is a tumor suppressive mechanism that induces a permanent loss of proliferation. However, in response to treatment, it is not really known how cells can escape senescence and how irreversible or incomplete this pathway is. We have recently described that cells that escape senescence are more transformed than non-treated parental cells, they resist anoikis and rely on Mcl-1. In this study, we further characterize this emergence in response to irinotecan, a first line treatment used in colorectal cancer. Our results indicate that Akt was activated as a feedback pathway during the early step of senescence. The inhibition of the kinase prevented cell emergence and improved treatment efficacy, both in vitro and in vivo. This improvement was correlated with senescence inhibition, p21waf1 downregulation and a concomitant activation of apoptosis due to Noxa upregulation and Mcl-1 inactivation. The inactivation of Noxa prevented apoptosis and increased the number of emergent cells. Using either RNA interference or p21waf1-deficient cells, we further confirmed that an intact p53-p21-senescence pathway favored cell emergence and that its downregulation improved treatment efficacy through apoptosis induction. Therefore, although senescence is an efficient suppressive mechanism, it also generates more aggressive cells as a consequence of apoptosis inhibition. We therefore propose that senescence-inducing therapies should be used sequentially with drugs favoring cell death such as Akt inhibitors. This should reduce cell emergence and tumor relapse through a combined induction of senescence and apoptosis. PMID:26485768

  7. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Emergency Response Capability Baseline Needs Assessment Requirement Document

    SciTech Connect

    Sharry, J A

    2009-12-30

    This revision of the LLNL Fire Protection Baseline Needs Assessment (BNA) was prepared by John A. Sharry, LLNL Fire Marshal and LLNL Division Leader for Fire Protection and reviewed by Martin Gresho, Sandia/CA Fire Marshal. The document follows and expands upon the format and contents of the DOE Model Fire Protection Baseline Capabilities Assessment document contained on the DOE Fire Protection Web Site, but only address emergency response. The original LLNL BNA was created on April 23, 1997 as a means of collecting all requirements concerning emergency response capabilities at LLNL (including response to emergencies at Sandia/CA) into one BNA document. The original BNA documented the basis for emergency response, emergency personnel staffing, and emergency response equipment over the years. The BNA has been updated and reissued five times since in 1998, 1999, 2000, 2002, and 2004. A significant format change was performed in the 2004 update of the BNA in that it was 'zero based.' Starting with the requirement documents, the 2004 BNA evaluated the requirements, and determined minimum needs without regard to previous evaluations. This 2010 update maintains the same basic format and requirements as the 2004 BNA. In this 2010 BNA, as in the previous BNA, the document has been intentionally divided into two separate documents - the needs assessment (1) and the compliance assessment (2). The needs assessment will be referred to as the BNA and the compliance assessment will be referred to as the BNA Compliance Assessment. The primary driver for separation is that the needs assessment identifies the detailed applicable regulations (primarily NFPA Standards) for emergency response capabilities based on the hazards present at LLNL and Sandia/CA and the geographical location of the facilities. The needs assessment also identifies areas where the modification of the requirements in the applicable NFPA standards is appropriate, due to the improved fire protection provided, the

  8. The Umbra Simulation and Integration Framework Applied to Emergency Response Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, Paul Lawrence; Britain, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The Mine Emergency Response Interactive Training Simulation (MERITS) is intended to prepare personnel to manage an emergency in an underground coal mine. The creation of an effective training environment required realistic emergent behavior in response to simulation events and trainee interventions, exploratory modification of miner behavior rules, realistic physics, and incorporation of legacy code. It also required the ability to add rich media to the simulation without conflicting with normal desktop security settings. Our Umbra Simulation and Integration Framework facilitated agent-based modeling of miners and rescuers and made it possible to work with subject matter experts to quickly adjust behavior through script editing, rather than through lengthy programming and recompilation. Integration of Umbra code with the WebKit browser engine allowed the use of JavaScript-enabled local web pages for media support. This project greatly extended the capabilities of Umbra in support of training simulations and has implications for simulations that combine human behavior, physics, and rich media.

  9. International Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support Emergency Response Verification for Node 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, David E.

    2008-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper provides a summary of the Node 1 Emergency Response capability, which includes nominal and off-nominal FDS operation, off nominal ACS operation, and off-nominal THC operation. These subsystems provide the capability to help aid the crew members during an emergency cabin depressurization, a toxic spill, or a fire. The paper will also provide a discussion of the detailed Node 1 ECLS Element Verification methodologies for operation of the Node 1 Emergency Response hardware operations utilized during the Qualification phase.

  10. Emergency Preparedness and Response in the School Setting--The Role of the School Nurse. Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuck, Christine M.; Haynie, Kathey; Davis, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) provides leadership in all phases of emergency preparedness and response. School nurses are a vital part of the school team responsible for developing emergency response procedures for the…

  11. Teacher Awareness of Child Abuse and Neglect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Thomas C.

    1987-01-01

    Results of surveying 440 teachers indicated most teachers believed they had never had an abused or neglected child in class, that they would recognize signs of physical abuse but not sexual abuse, and that they knew their responsibilities under law (though few would report suspected cases if parents or principal objected). (DB)

  12. National Training Course. Emergency Medical Technician. Paramedic. Instructor's Lesson Plans. Module I. The Emergency Medical Technician, His Role, Responsibility, and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This instructor's lesson plan guide is one of fifteen modules designed for use in the training of emergency medical technicians (EMT). Four units are presented: (1) role of the EMT, including the operation of an emerging medical services system; (2) the laws relevant to EMTs functioning in the field; (3) activities and responsibilities of an EMT…

  13. We Need to "Catch Them before They Fall": Response to Intervention and Elementary Emergent Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    López, Minda Morren; Mendoza, Marie Arnold

    2013-01-01

    The authors of this case study examine response to intervention (RTI) implementation with Emergent Bilinguals in a large urban district. As participants noted, it is not appropriate to assess, instruct, and intervene with students through a one-size-fits-all approach. Instead, multiple factors such as language background, program participation,…

  14. A Quantitative Assessment of the Factors that Influence Technology Acceptance in Emergency Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiter, Thomas C.

    2012-01-01

    Traditional models for studying user acceptance and adoption of technology focused on the factors that identify and tested the relationships forged between the user and the technology in question. In emergency response, implementing technology without user acceptance may affect the safety of the responders and citizenry. Integrating the factors…

  15. A Guide to Performing Reinspections under the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pollution Prevention and Toxics.

    Under the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA), the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires each elementary and secondary school to perform an inspection for asbestos-containing building material (ACBM) and to prepare an asbestos management plan. The AHERA regulations further require a reinspection of the ACBM at…

  16. Asbestos in Schools: Evaluation of the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA): A Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Toxic Substances.

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recently completed an evaluation of the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) regulatory program in schools. The purpose of the fact sheet is to inform schools of their initial AHERA successes, note areas for improvement, and provide additional guidance. Major findings pertaining to school building…

  17. Community emergency response to nuclear power plant accidents: A selected and partially annotated bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Youngen, G.

    1988-10-01

    The role of responding to emergencies at nuclear power plants is often considered the responsibility of the personnel onsite. This is true for most, if not all, of the incidents that may happen during the course of the plant`s operating lifetime. There is however, the possibility of a major accident occurring at anytime. Major nuclear accidents at Chernobyl and Three Mile Island have taught their respective countries and communities a significant lesson in local emergency preparedness and response. Through these accidents, the rest of the world can also learn a great deal about planning, preparing and responding to the emergencies unique to nuclear power. This bibliography contains books, journal articles, conference papers and government reports on emergency response to nuclear power plant accidents. It does not contain citations for ``onsite`` response or planning, nor does it cover the areas of radiation releases from transportation accidents. The compiler has attempted to bring together a sampling of the world`s collective written experience on dealing with nuclear reactor accidents on the sate, local and community levels. Since the accidents at Three Mile Island and Chernobyl, that written experience has grown enormously.

  18. 29 CFR 1910.120 - Hazardous waste operations and emergency response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Hazardous waste operations and emergency response. 1910.120 Section 1910.120 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Hazardous Materials § 1910.120 Hazardous waste operations and...

  19. EMERGENCY RESPONSE EQUIPMENT TO CLEAN UP HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL RELEASES AT SPILLS AND UNCONTROLLED WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reviews some of the research activities of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regarding the development of emergency response equipment to control hazardous chemical releases. Several devices and systems have been developed by EPA for environmental emergenc...

  20. Emotional Intelligence in Library Disaster Response Assistance Teams: Which Competencies Emerged?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkinson, Frances C.

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study examines the relationship between emotional intelligence competencies and the personal attributes of library disaster response assistance team (DRAT) members. Using appreciative inquiry protocol to conduct interviews at two academic libraries, the study presents findings from emergent thematic coding of interview…

  1. Work Scope for Developing Standards for Emergency Preparedness and Response: Fiscal Year 2004 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Stenner, Robert D.

    2005-09-28

    Summarizes the fiscal year 2004 work completed on PNNL's Department of Homeland Security Emergency Preparedness and Response Standards Development Project. Also, the report includes key draft standards, in various stages of development and publication, that were associated with various tasks of the fiscal year 2004 scope of the project.

  2. 14 CFR 431.45 - Mishap investigation plan and emergency response plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Mishap investigation plan and emergency response plan. 431.45 Section 431.45 Aeronautics and Space COMMERCIAL SPACE TRANSPORTATION, FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION LICENSING LAUNCH AND REENTRY OF A REUSABLE LAUNCH VEHICLE (RLV) Safety Review and Approval...

  3. Brief Report: Effects of Tact Training on Emergent Intraverbal Vocal Responses in Adolescents with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Richard J.; Hawkins, Emma; Dymond, Simon

    2013-01-01

    The present study evaluated the emergence of intraverbal responses following tact training with three adolescents diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders. Participants were taught to tact the name of a cartoon character (e.g., "What is the name of this monster?" ["Simon"]) and that character's preferred food (e.g., "What food does this monster…

  4. INVESTIGATION OF OPEN-PATH FTIR FOR FAST DEPLOYMENT EMERGENCY RESPONSE TO CHEMICAL THREATS AND ACCIDENTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have performed a series of experiments to determine the tradeoff in detection sensitivity for implementing design features for an Open-Path Fourier Transform Infrared (OP-FTIR) chemical analyzer that would be quick to deploy under emergency response conditions. The fast-deplo...

  5. New Jersey's EMS response to Superstorm Sandy: a case study of the emergency management assistance compact.

    PubMed

    Clancy, Terry; Christensen, Kenneth; Cortacans, Henry P

    2014-06-01

    In the United States, understanding the Emergency Management Assistance Compact (EMAC) is critical to responding to a natural disaster or manmade event. Recently, the State of New Jersey responded to Superstorm Sandy and implemented the EMAC system by requesting ambulances to aid in the Emergency Medical Services response. New Jersey's response to Superstorm Sandy was unprecedented in that this storm affected the entire state and EMS community. New Jersey's EMS community and infrastructure were impacted greatly, despite years of planning and preparation for such an event. Once received, out-of-state EMS resources were integrated into New Jersey's emergency management and EMS systems. In this report, each phase of the EMAC in New Jersey is explored, from how the response was coordinated to how it ultimately was executed. The state coordinated its response on multiple levels and, as such, tested the practical applicability of the EMAC process and employed best practices and solutions to issues that arose. These best practices and solutions may prove invaluable for any state or territory that may activate the EMAC system for emergency medical service resources. PMID:24844291

  6. NOAA's National Geodetic Survey Utilization of Aerial Sensors for Emergency Response Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    Remote Sensing Division has a Coastal Mapping program and a Airport Survey program and research and development that support both programs. NOAA/NGS/RSD plans to acquire remotely sensed data to support the agency's homeland security and emergency response requirements.

  7. Crisis and Response: The Emergence of Modern Jewish Politics in Russia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritterband, Paul

    This collection of documents examines the response of the Jewish people--primarily in Russia but also in the West--to the sociological and political crises of Tsarist Russia between the years 1800 and 1914. It emphasizes in particular the emergence and interaction of the two ideologies which formulated the most radical solutions to the Jewish…

  8. 29 CFR 1926.65 - Hazardous waste operations and emergency response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hazardous waste operations and emergency response. 1926.65 Section 1926.65 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental Controls §...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.65 - Hazardous waste operations and emergency response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Hazardous waste operations and emergency response. 1926.65 Section 1926.65 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Occupational Health and Environmental Controls §...

  10. 29 CFR 1910.120 - Hazardous waste operations and emergency response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Hazardous waste operations and emergency response. 1910.120 Section 1910.120 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS Hazardous Materials § 1910.120 Hazardous waste operations and...

  11. Effects of Instructional Art Projects on Children's Behavioral Responses and Creativity within an Emergency Shelter.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Mary B.; Vandiver, Trish A.

    2003-01-01

    Compares the effects of instructional art projects on children's behavioral responses and creativity in a sample of children residing in an emergency shelter. Results reveal that children produced more formed expressions and creative/design elements and less chaotic discharge and stereotypic art through the art project that involved few…

  12. Structure and Components of the Warning and Emergency Response System at Turtle Mountain, Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Froese, C. R.; Moreno, F.

    2009-04-01

    Since 2003, a series of over eighty sensors have been installed at Turtle Mountain, site of the 1903 Frank Slide. The purpose of these instruments is both to characterize and provide warning for a second large rock avalanche from the eastern face of the mountain, where various unstable masses have been identified. Although studies continue on the mountain to better understand the deformation patterns and interpretations of the slope kinematics, significant effort has been expended to develop a structure for the warning and emergency response that clearly outlines not only responsibilities and communications protocols during an emergency, but also day-to-day operational responses and procedures to ensure that the system remains operational. From a day-to-day operational perspective, a systematic and repeatable set of procedures is required in order to ensure that not only are data trends reviewed and reported on, but that scheduled checks of system functionality are undertaken. An internal Roles and Responsibilities Manual has been developed to clearly outline responsibilities for geo-engineering, IT and management staff to ensure that system checks are completed and that support is in place on a 24/7 basis should components of the system cease to operate properly or should unacceptable deformations require review. In addition to that, a clear and concise troubleshooting manual was developed, this document provides simple diagnosis of problems within the system and a clear roadmap of how to fix each component. On the other hand, from a warning and emergency response perspective, a series of colour coded alert conditions has been developed should unacceptable deformations be observed. At each alert level, clear responsibilities for actions and communications have been identified for geo-engineering staff, provincial emergency management authorities, municipal official and first responders. This has been documented in the Emergency Response Protocol. All documents

  13. Elder abuse.

    PubMed

    Costa, A J

    1993-06-01

    Elder abuse is a tragedy both for the individual and for society because it occupies a pivotal position in the family life cycle of violence. Great variety exists among victims, abusers, and situations; thus, no single model is adequate to explain cause and direct treatment. Primary care physicians must be alert to the possibility of elder abuse in their patients and aware of resources within their community for managing cases once identified. Federal laws and regulations must take a proactive, long-term approach to the solution of this problem and must respect the autonomy of competent elderly patients. PMID:8356158

  14. Filament Activation in Response to Magnetic Flux Emergence and Cancellation in Filament Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ting; Zhang, Jun; Ji, Haisheng

    2015-06-01

    We conducted a comparative analysis of two filaments that showed a quite different activation in response to the flux emergence within the filament channels. The observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) were made to analyze the two filaments on 2013 August 17 - 20 (SOL2013-08-17) and September 29 (SOL2013-09-29). The first event showed that the main body of the filament was separated into two parts when an active region (AR) emerged with a maximum magnetic flux of about 6.4×1021 Mx underlying the filament. The close neighborhood and common direction of the bright threads in the filament and the open AR fan loops suggest a similar magnetic connectivity of these two flux systems. The equilibrium of the filament was not destroyed three days after the start of the emergence of the AR. To our knowledge, similar observations have never been reported before. In the second event, the emerging flux occurred nearby a barb of the filament with a maximum magnetic flux of 4.2×1020 Mx, about one order of magnitude lower than that of the first event. Two patches of parasitic polarity in the vicinity of the barb merged, then cancelled with nearby network fields. About 20 hours after the onset of the emergence, the filament erupted. Our findings imply that the location of emerging flux within the filament channel is probably crucial to filament evolution. If the flux emergence appears nearby the barbs, it is highly likely that the emerging flux and the filament magnetic fields will cancel, which may lead to the eruption of the filament. The comparison of the two events shows that the emergence of a small AR may still not be enough to disrupt the stability of a filament system, and the actual eruption only occurs after the flux cancellation sets in.

  15. Elder Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... to watch or be part of sexual acts. Money Matters: Financial Abuse and Healthcare Fraud After Victor’s ... the past 6 months, Victor has been taking money from their account for his own use. He ...

  16. Results of an emergency response atmospheric dispersion model comparison using a state accepted statistical protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Ciolek, J.T. Jr.

    1993-10-01

    The Rocky Flats Plant, located approximately 26 km northwest of downtown Denver, Colorado, has developed an emergency response atmospheric dispersion model for complex terrain applications. Plant personnel would use the model, known as the Terrain-Responsive Atmospheric Code (TRAC) (Hodgin 1985) to project plume impacts and provide off-site protective action recommendations to the State of Colorado should a hazardous material release occur from the facility. The Colorado Department of Health (CDH) entered into an interagency agreement with the Rocky Flats Plant prime contractor, EG&G Rocky Flats, and the US Department of Energy to evaluate TRAC as an acceptable emergency response tool. After exhaustive research of similar evaluation processes from other emergency response and regulatory organizations, the interagency committee devised a formal acceptance process. The process contains an evaluation protocol (Hodgin and Smith 1992), descriptions of responsibilities, an identified experimental data set to use in the evaluation, and judgment criteria for model acceptance. The evaluation protocol is general enough to allow for different implementations. This paper explains one implementation, shows protocol results for a test case, and presents results of a comparison between versions of TRAC with different wind Field codes: a two dimensional mass consistent code called WINDS (Fosberg et al. 1976) that has been extended to three dimensions, and a fully 3 dimensional mass conserving code called NUATMOS (Ross and Smith 1987, Ross et al. 1988).

  17. Emergency leak response earns A.G.A. honors for Consumers Energy

    SciTech Connect

    1997-02-01

    Consumers Energy (formerly Consumers Power Company) has moved to the forefront as an industry leader in emergency natural gas leak response through the use of an innovative method of communication installed on its mainframe computer. Called WIN (Workload Information Network), the paperless work order system provides electronic management of 2.5 million short-cycle work orders each year for about 600 field employees. Functions include work order creation; workload forecasting, planning and scheduling; same-day wireless order dispatch and workload management; automated work order closing, archiving and on-line review, and improved radio network management. Consumers Energy`s gas business unit comprises gas service, distribution, storage and transmission businesses. The American Gas Association recently selected Consumers as a benchmark company for its gas leak response strategies, including emergency response time, productivity and the use of the WIN system.

  18. Factors responsible for the emergence of arboviruses; strategies, challenges and limitations for their control.

    PubMed

    Liang, Guodong; Gao, Xiaoyan; Gould, Ernest A

    2015-03-01

    Slave trading of Africans to the Americas, during the 16th to the 19th century was responsible for the first recorded emergence in the New World of two arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses), yellow fever virus and dengue virus. Many other arboviruses have since emerged from their sylvatic reservoirs and dispersed globally due to evolving factors that include anthropological behaviour, commercial transportation and land-remediation. Here, we outline some characteristics of these highly divergent arboviruses, including the variety of life cycles they have developed and the mechanisms by which they have adapted to evolving changes in habitat and host availability. We cite recent examples of virus emergence that exemplify how arboviruses have exploited the consequences of the modern human lifestyle. Using our current understanding of these viruses, we also attempt to demonstrate some of the limitations encountered in developing control strategies to reduce the impact of future emerging arbovirus diseases. Finally, we present recommendations for development by an international panel of experts reporting directly to World Health Organization, with the intention of providing internationally acceptable guidelines for improving emerging arbovirus disease control strategies. Success in these aims should alleviate the suffering and costs encountered during recent decades when arboviruses have emerged from their sylvatic environment. PMID:26038768

  19. Radiological transportation emergency response training course funding and timing in the southern states

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The following is a review of the enabling statutes of 16 southern states regarding training for personnel preparing for or responding to a transportation-related emergency involving highway route-controlled quantities of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This report outlines the funding sources and procedures for administering funds for programs attended by state and local officials. Additionally, the report outlines the views of emergency response officials in the southem states concerning the timing and administration of future federal assistance to be provided under {section}180(c) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act. Under {section}180(c) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the US Department of Energy (DOE) is required to provide technical assistance and funds to states for training public safety officials of appropriate units of local government and Indian tribes when spent nuclear fuel or high-level radioactive waste is transported through their jurisdictions. The Comprehensive Cooperative Agreement (CCA) is the primary funding mechanism for federal assistance to states for the development of their overall emergency management capabilities. FEMA supports 12 separate emergency management programs including the Emergency Management Training program (EMT). This program provides funds for emergency management training and technical assistance to states for unique state training needs. Funds may be used for instructors, students and other related costs.

  20. Radiological transportation emergency response training course funding and timing in the southern states

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The following is a review of the enabling statutes of 16 southern states regarding training for personnel preparing for or responding to a transportation-related emergency involving highway route-controlled quantities of spent fuel and high-level radioactive waste. This report outlines the funding sources and procedures for administering funds for programs attended by state and local officials. Additionally, the report outlines the views of emergency response officials in the southem states concerning the timing and administration of future federal assistance to be provided under [section]180(c) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act. Under [section]180(c) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987, the US Department of Energy (DOE) is required to provide technical assistance and funds to states for training public safety officials of appropriate units of local government and Indian tribes when spent nuclear fuel or high-level radioactive waste is transported through their jurisdictions. The Comprehensive Cooperative Agreement (CCA) is the primary funding mechanism for federal assistance to states for the development of their overall emergency management capabilities. FEMA supports 12 separate emergency management programs including the Emergency Management Training program (EMT). This program provides funds for emergency management training and technical assistance to states for unique state training needs. Funds may be used for instructors, students and other related costs.