Science.gov

Sample records for abuse family violence

  1. Abuse and violence in families.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Denise; Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Campbell, Jacquelyn

    2017-03-31

    Abuse and violence within families is both a global and gendered health issue (World Health Organization, 2013, 2014). In fact, one in every three women have experienced violence from an intimate partner in their lifetime, presenting equity, social justice and human rights concerns across the globe (García-Moreno, Jansen, Ellsberg, Heise, & Watts, 2005). Abuse and violence in families occurs in varying forms: intimate partner violence or maltreatment of children (often referred to as domestic violence), child to mother violence, or abuse of elder family members. These cut across ethnic groups, socioeconomic levels, and family configurations, including nuclear families comprised of two parents and children as well as extended family networks. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Family of Origin Violence and Courtship Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Linda L.; Rose, Patricia

    1988-01-01

    Responses from 336 undergraduates revealed 75 percent of respondents had expressed threats or actual violence and 64 percent had received abuse in intimate relationship. In the sample, 30 percent had parents who abused each other; less often the mother or father had been sole abuser. Multiple regression indicated being abused as child predicted…

  3. Family Violence

    MedlinePlus

    ... Deployment & Transition Home » Health & Wellness » Family Violence Family Violence Recognize the warning signs . Know how to report. ... Love Every Day Making Relationships Work National Domestic Violence Hotline Signs of Child Abuse INSTALLATION PROGRAM DIRECTORY ...

  4. Family Violence: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Child Abuse and Neglect (DHHS/OHDS), Washington, DC.

    Family violence is a widespread problem; research has shown multiple factors are associated with family violence. Types of family violence include spouse abuse; elder abuse and neglect; child abuse and neglect; parent abuse; and sibling abuse. There are three types of spouse abuse: physical abuse, sexual violence, and psychological/emotional…

  5. Family Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorgen, Carol, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    This quarterly publication, issued by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), contains articles dealing with family violence and alcohol abuse, children of alcoholic parents, training programs for counselors, and confidentiality of client records. The three articles on alcohol abuse suggest that: (1) there is a clear…

  6. Assertion and Family Violence: Correlates of Spouse Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Leary, K. Daniel; Curley, Alison D.

    1986-01-01

    Abusive, discordant, and satisfactorily married couples were compared on self-report measures of general assertion, spouse-specific assertion, spouse-specific aggression, and spousal physical aggression in their families of origin. Low levels of spouse-specific assertion were characteristic of discordant couples whether abusive or not. Spousal…

  7. Screening for Partner Violence Among Family Mediation Clients: Differentiating Types of Abuse.

    PubMed

    Cleak, Helen; Schofield, Margot J; Axelsen, Lauren; Bickerdike, Andrew

    2015-12-16

    Family mediation is mandated in Australia for couples in dispute over separation and parenting as a first step in dispute resolution, except where there is a history of intimate partner violence. However, validation of effective well-differentiated partner violence screening instruments suitable for mediation settings is at an early phase of development. This study contributes to calls for better violence screening instruments in the mediation context to detect a differentiated range of abusive behaviors by examining the reliability and validity of both established scales, and newly developed scales that measured intimate partner violence by partner and by self. The study also aimed to examine relationships between types of abuse, and between gender and types of abuse. A third aim was to examine associations between types of abuse and other relationship indicators such as acrimony and parenting alliance. The data reported here are part of a larger mixed method, naturalistic longitudinal study of clients attending nine family mediation centers in Victoria, Australia. The current analyses on baseline cross-sectional screening data confirmed the reliability of three subscales of the Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2), and the reliability and validity of three new scales measuring intimidation, controlling and jealous behavior, and financial control. Most clients disclosed a history of at least one type of violence by partner: 95% reported psychological aggression, 72% controlling and jealous behavior, 50% financial control, and 35% physical assault. Higher rates of abuse perpetration were reported by partner versus by self, and gender differences were identified. There were strong associations between certain patterns of psychologically abusive behavior and both acrimony and parenting alliance. The implications for family mediation services and future research are discussed.

  8. Making the Everyday Extraordinary: A Theatre in Education Project to Prevent Child Abuse, Neglect and Family Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Peter; O'Connor, Briar; Welsh-Morris, Marlane

    2006-01-01

    This article examines a national applied theatre programme coordinated through the Department of Child, Youth and Family in New Zealand. The programme uses dramatic processes to create opportunities for communities to discuss and find their own answers to the issues of child abuse and family violence. The programme utilises a sophisticated in-role…

  9. Alcohol and Family Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covington, Stephanie S.

    There is growing acknowledgement of the association between family violence and alcohol use. A study was conducted to examine the role that abuse plays in the lives of women and to investigate the relationship between alcohol and violence. Data were collected from 35 recovering female alcoholics and 35 nonalcoholic women on their sexual experience…

  10. Do family order and neighbor intervention against intimate partner violence protect children from abuse? Findings from Kathmandu.

    PubMed

    Emery, Clifton R; Thapa, Sirjana; Do, Mi Hyang; Chan, Ko Ling

    2015-03-01

    Drawing on previous research on intimate partner violence, child maltreatment, and informal social control, we hypothesized relationships between child abuse severity and (1) protective informal social control of intimate partner violence (ISC_IPV) by neighbors, (2) intimate terrorism, (3) family order, and (4) the power of mothers in intimate relationships. In what we believe may be a first study of physical child abuse by parents in Nepal, we used a three stage cluster approach to draw a random sample of 300 families in Kathmandu. Random effects regression models were used to test the study hypotheses. The analyses found support for hypotheses one and two, but with an important caveat. Although observed (actual) protective ISC_IPV had the hypothesized negative association with child abuse severity, in one of our models perceived protective ISC_IPV was positively associated with child abuse severity. The models clarify that the overall direction of protective ISC_IPV appears to be negative (protective), but the positive finding is important to consider for both research and practice. A significant relationship between family order and child abuse severity was found, but the direction was negative rather than positive as in hypothesis three. Implications for neighborhood research and typological research on IPV and child maltreatment are discussed.

  11. Co-Occurrence of Intimate Partner Violence and Child Abuse in Hong Kong Chinese Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ko Ling

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the prevalence of co-occurrence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and child abuse and neglect (CAN) in a cohort of Chinese parents drawn from a large representative sample in Hong Kong. It also investigates the risk factors for CAN with a special emphasis on the role of IPV. A subsample of 2,363 parents was invited to complete…

  12. Domestic Violence and Child Abuse: A Selective Bibliography. Bibliography Series Eighteen. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Mary Louise, Comp.

    This bibliography of materials on domestic violence and child abuse available in the Robert E. Kennedy Library at California Polytechnic State University is divided into sections by type of abuse, with sections on family violence, child abuse, emotional child abuse, incest and sexual abuse of children, the child-abusing mother, infant abuse, wife…

  13. Domestic Violence and Sexual Abuse of Children: A Review of Research in the Eighties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelles, Richard J.; Conte, Jon R.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews research on family violence and sexual abuse of children in the 1980s. Examines family violence rates, intergenerational transmission of violence, effects of violence on children and women, and effectiveness of interventions. Review of child sexual abuse examines defining sexual abuse, its prevalence, research on sexual offenders and risk…

  14. Suicidal ideations and attempts among adolescents subjected to childhood sexual abuse and family conflict/violence: the mediating role of anger and depressed mood.

    PubMed

    Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Asgeirsdottir, Bryndis Bjork; Gudjonsson, Gisli H; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik

    2013-12-01

    Based on a sample of 9085 16- to 19-year-old students attending all high schools in Iceland in 2004, the current study examines depressed mood and anger as potential mediators between family conflict/violence and sexual abuse, on the one hand, and suicidal ideations and suicide attempts on the other. Agnew's general strain theory provides the theoretical framework for the study. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was conducted allowing explicit modelling of both direct and mediating effects using observed and latent variables. The findings showed that both depressed mood and anger mediated the relationship between family conflict/violence and sexual abuse and suicidal attempts. However, when testing the mediating pathways between sexual abuse and family conflict/violence and suicidal ideations, only depressed mood but not anger turned out to be a significant mediator. The authors discuss how these finding may inform and facilitate the design and development of interventions to reduce the likelihood of suicide attempts among young people.

  15. [Violence in the family: survey].

    PubMed

    1996-07-01

    The Mexican Association Against Violence Towards Women (COVAC) surveyed 3300 men and women aged 18-65 in Mexico City and nine other cities in 1995 to assess public opinion regarding domestic violence. 17% of respondents were of high socioeconomic status, 33% of middle status, and 50% of low status. 61% of respondents stated that children are the family members most frequently abused physically or mentally, 21% identified mothers, and 10% other female family members. 96% of respondents considered physical and mental mistreatment to be forms of violence. 70% considered physical mistreatment and psychological damage to occur very frequently. 21% knew of someone who was abused in the preceding 6 months. 74% of the abused persons were women. 52% were mothers and 30% were daughters. Of the abused males, 21% were 13-17 years old and 71% were 5-24 years of age. 69% were sons and 12% were fathers. Only 20% of cases were reported to any authority. 46% of the cases reported led to jailing of the aggressor. 43% of the cases were not reported for fear of provoking greater violence. 83% of respondents approved of separation of the aggressor from the family if necessary. 90% approved of seeking orientation or legal protection from an authority, and 94% approved of shelters for abused women and children. 54% knew of the existence of some legal mechanism to confront violence even though there is no legislation in Mexico specifically against domestic violence.

  16. Status Compatibility, Physical Violence, and Emotional Abuse in Intimate Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaukinen, Catherine

    2004-01-01

    This article analyzing national data (N=7,408) examines the connection between men's and women's relative economic contributions in families and the risk of husband-to-wife physical violence and emotional abuse. Family violence researchers have conceptualized the association between economic variables and the risk of intimate partner violence with…

  17. Associations between Sexual Abuse and Family Conflict/Violence, Self-Injurious Behavior, and Substance Use: The Mediating Role of Depressed Mood and Anger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asgeirsdottir, Bryndis Bjork; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora; Gudjonsson, Gisli H.; Sigurdsson, Jon Fridrik

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether depressed mood and anger mediate the effects of sexual abuse and family conflict/violence on self-injurious behavior and substance use. Methods: A cross-sectional national survey was conducted including 9,085 16-19 year old students attending all high schools in Iceland in 2004. Participants reported frequency of…

  18. "Family" support for family violence: exploring community support systems for lesbian and bisexual women who have experienced abuse.

    PubMed

    Turell, Susan C; Herrmann, Molly M

    2008-01-01

    "Family" is a euphemistic term that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) people use among ourselves to designate membership in lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender communities. Ironically, this "family" may be the most sought, yet least successful, support for dealing with the intimate partner violence that occurs within LGBT families. This study of 11 lesbian and bisexual women's experiences seeking support revealed several tiers of unmet needs within the LGBT community. They rarely used services in the general community, although these services are often the focus of both criticism and efforts to build support systems for LGBT victim/survivors. A model presents the different stages and potential sources of support.

  19. Child-to-Parent Violence: Challenging Perspectives on Family Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coogan, Declan

    2011-01-01

    Until relatively recently, the focus of research, policy and intervention responses to abuse and violence within families has been almost exclusively on the behaviour of adults rather than on the violence within families carried out by children and adolescents. As a consequence, the aggressive and violent behaviour of children and adolescents at…

  20. Family Violence and Family Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Herbert, Carol P.

    1991-01-01

    The acronym IDEALS summarizes family physicians' obligations when violence is suspected: to identify family violence; document injuries; educate families and ensure safety for victims; access resources and coordinate care; co-operate in the legal process; and provide support for families. Failure to respond reflects personal and professional experience and attitudes, fear of legal involvement, and lack of knowledge. Risks of intervention include physician burnout, physician overfunctioning, escalation of violence, and family disruption. PMID:21228987

  1. Family Violence & Sexual Assault Bulletin, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geffner, Robert, Ed.

    These two Bulletins contain selected articles that highlight research and treatment issues in child abuse and child sexual abuse. The first issue includes the following featured articles: (1) "The Relationships between Animal Abuse and Other Forms of Family Violence" (Phil Arkow), which addresses animal cruelty as a harbinger of…

  2. A Public Health Initiative for Preventing Family Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargens, Yvonne Marie

    A community task force studying violence issues closely examined police statistics for domestic calls. Few records of referrals were made in response to these calls. Other statistics on child abuse and family violence reinforced the fact that family violence was a significant problem, making program response to family violence issues a top…

  3. Intersection of child abuse and children's exposure to domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Herrenkohl, Todd I; Sousa, Cynthia; Tajima, Emiko A; Herrenkohl, Roy C; Moylan, Carrie A

    2008-04-01

    This review addresses research on the overlap in physical child abuse and domestic violence, the prediction of child outcomes, and resilience in children exposed to family violence. The authors explore current findings on the intersection of physical child abuse and domestic violence within the context of other risk factors, including community violence and related family and environmental stressors. Evidence from the studies reviewed suggests considerable overlap, compounding effects, and possible gender differences in outcomes of violence exposure. The data indicate a need to apply a broad conceptualization of risk to the study of family violence and its effects on children. Further testing of competing theoretical models will advance understanding of the pathways through which exposure leads to later problems in youth, as well as protective factors and processes through which resilience unfolds.

  4. Concurrent Treatment of Substance Abuse, Child Neglect, Bipolar Disorder, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, and Domestic Violence: A Case Examination Involving Family Behavior Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Donohue, Brad C.; Romero, Valerie; Herdzik, Karen; Lapota, Holly; Al, Ruwida Abdel; Allen, Daniel N.; Azrin, Nathan H.; Van Hasselt, Vincent B.

    2012-01-01

    High rates of co-occurrence between substance abuse and child neglect have been well documented and especially difficult to treat. As a first step in developing a comprehensive evidence-based treatment for use in this population, the present case examination underscores Family Behavior Therapy (FBT) in the treatment of a mother who evidenced Substance Dependence, child neglect, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Bipolar I Disorder, and domestic violence. Utilizing psychometrically validated self-report inventories and objective urinalysis, treatment was found to result in the cessation of substance use, lower risk of child maltreatment, improved parenting attitudes and practices, and reduced instances of violence in the home. The importance of utilizing validity scales in the assessment of referrals from child welfare settings is discussed, and future directions are reported in light of the results. PMID:23457426

  5. Family representative payeeship and violence risk in severe mental illness.

    PubMed

    Elbogen, Eric B; Swanson, Jeffrey W; Swartz, Marvin S; Van Dorn, Richard

    2005-10-01

    Although representative payeeship is prevalent among people with mental illness and shows promise to positively influence clinically relevant outcomes, research also suggests this legal mechanism could be implemented in ways that are problematic. The current study examined whether family representative payeeship was associated with elevated risk of family violence perpetrated by persons with severe mental illness (SMI). Data were collected every 4 months for 1 year in structured interviews with N = 245 persons with SMI who received disability benefits. Multivariate analyses showed that substance abuse, history of violence, frequency of family contact, and family representative payeeship were associated with elevated odds of family violence. Analyses also showed family contact and family representative payeeship had a cumulative effect on increasing the predicted probability of family violence (controlling for covariates such as violence history and substance abuse). The data shed light on the potential for family representative payeeship to be associated with increased risk of interpersonal conflict and violence in SMI.

  6. Indigenous family violence: a statistical challenge.

    PubMed

    Cripps, Kyllie

    2008-12-01

    The issue of family violence and sexual abuse in Indigenous communities across Australia has attracted much attention throughout 2007, including significant intervention by the federal government into communities deemed to be in crisis. This paper critically examines the reporting and recording of Indigenous violence in Australia and reflects on what 'statistics' can offer as we grapple with how to respond appropriately to a problem defined as a 'national emergency'.

  7. The relationship between domestic violence and animal abuse: an Australian study.

    PubMed

    Volant, Anne M; Johnson, Judy A; Gullone, Eleonora; Coleman, Grahame J

    2008-09-01

    Several North American studies have found a connection between domestic violence and animal abuse. This article reports on the first Australian research to examine this connection. A group of 102 women recruited through 24 domestic violence services in the state of Victoria and a nondomestic violence comparison group (102 women) recruited from the community took part in the study. Significantly higher rates of partner pet abuse, partner threats of pet abuse, and pet abuse by other family members were found in the violent families compared with the nondomestic violence group. As hypothesized, children from the violent families were reported by their mothers to have witnessed and committed significantly more animal abuse than children from the nonviolent families. Logistic regression analyses revealed, for the group as a whole, that a woman whose partner had threatened the pets was 5 times more likely to belong to the intimate partner violence group.

  8. Identifying families with complex needs after an initial child abuse investigation: A comparison of demographics and needs related to domestic violence, mental health, and substance use.

    PubMed

    Simon, James David; Brooks, Devon

    2017-03-16

    Families with complex needs related to domestic violence, mental health, and substance use have some of the worst child protective services (CPS) outcomes. Although many of these families are identified during a CPS investigation and subsequently referred to home-based postinvestigation services (HBPS), many are re-reported to CPS, so it is important to understand the postinvestigation experiences of this vulnerable group. Therefore, this study compared families with and without complex needs to understand their uniquedemographics, needs, and postinvestigation outcomes. The sample consisted of 2008 caregivers who received HBPS following an initial CPS investigation. The Family Assessment Form (FAF) was used to measure family functioning in eight domains using a 1-5 scale with higher ratings representing worse functioning. Complex needs were indicated by a mean FAF score of 3 or higher for either domestic violence, mental health, or substance use. Using Pearson chi-square analyses and two-sample t-tests, comparisons were made between families with (n=836) and without (n=1172) complex needs. Half of caregivers with complex needs had a history of abuse, 25% had three to five needs, and nearly half had six to eight needs; 90% of caregivers without complex needs had zero to two needs. Furthermore, caregivers with complex needs had higher mean scores for concrete, educational, and clinical needs. These findings highlight the importance of recognizing variation among families referred to HBPS and accurate screening to ensure that families with complex needs are offered and receive services matched to their unique characteristics and needs.

  9. A cycle of violence? Examining family-of-origin violence, attitudes, and intimate partner violence perpetration.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Li; Mazerolle, Paul

    2015-03-01

    Exposure to violence in the family-of-origin has consistently been linked to intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration in adulthood. However, whether the transmission of violence across generations is role- and gender-specific still remains unclear. The current study examined the effects of experiencing child abuse and observing parental violence on IPV perpetration among a sample of male arrestees (N = 303). The differential effects of observing violence perpetrated by same-sex (father to mother), opposite-sex (mother to father), and both parents on subsequent IPV perpetration were examined. Logistic regression analyses showed that while observing father-only violence and bidirectional interparental violence was predictive of IPV perpetration, observing mother-only violence and direct experiences of child abuse was not. These findings suggest that the transmission of violence across generations is both role- and gender-specific and highlight the importance of examining unique dimensions of partner violence to assess influences on children. The study further examined whether attitudes justifying wife beating mediate the effect of exposure to violence and subsequent IPV perpetration. Results showed that although attitudes were predictive of perpetration, these attitudes did not mediate the relationship.

  10. The relationship between violence in the family of origin and dating violence among college students.

    PubMed

    Gover, Angela R; Kaukinen, Catherine; Fox, Kathleen A

    2008-12-01

    Prior research has established that violence in dating relationships is a serious social problem among adolescents and young adults. Exposure to violence during childhood has been linked to dating violence victimization and perpetration. Also known as the intergenerational transmission of violence, the link between violence during childhood and dating violence has traditionally focused on physical violence. This research examines the relationship between experiencing and perpetrating dating violence and exposure to violence in the family of origin. Specifically, the current research examines gender differences in the relationship between exposure to violence during childhood and physical and psychological abuse perpetration and victimization. Data were collected from a sample of approximately 2,500 college students at two southeastern universities. Findings indicate that childhood exposure to violence is a consistent predictor of involvement in relationships characterized by violence for males and females. The implications of the current research on policy are discussed.

  11. Family Violence. Attorney General's Task Force Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, William L.; And Others

    This document reviews the problem of family violence, including child abuse, spouse abuse, and elder abuse. The role of the Justice System is outlined with recommendations for law enforcement, for prosecutors, and for judges. Needs and recommendations for victim assistance are discussed, as are the issues of prevention and awareness, education and…

  12. The Consequences of Witnessing Family Violence on Children and Implications for Family Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Christopher M.

    2006-01-01

    Although a large number of children are directly abused, an even larger number may indirectly experience the effects of abuse as witnesses of family violence. However, the effects on children who witness such violence have long been unaddressed, although a growing body of research indicates that these children are affected in various domains,…

  13. Incorporating a Healthy Living Curriculum within Family Behavior Therapy: A Clinical Case Example in a Woman with a History of Domestic Violence, Child Neglect, Drug Abuse, and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Lapota, Holly B; Donohue, Brad; Warren, Cortney S; Allen, Daniel N

    2011-04-01

    Women reported to child protective service agencies frequently report problems that significantly interfere with the health and well-being of their children and themselves. Behavioral treatment programs appear to be effective in managing these co-existing problems, such as domestic violence and substance abuse. However, evidence-supported interventions are rarely exemplified in complicated clinical cases, especially within child welfare settings. Therefore, in this case example, we describe the process of adapting an evidence-supported treatment to assist in managing significant co-existing health-related problems in a mother who was referred due to child neglect and drug abuse. At the conclusion of therapy, the participant reported improvements in perceived family relationships, illicit drug use, child maltreatment potential, whereas other health-related outcomes were mixed. Most improvements were maintained at 4-month follow-up. Issues relevant to implementing evidence-based treatments within community contexts are discussed, including methods of increasing the likelihood of valid outcome assessment, managing treatment integrity, and adjusting standardized treatments to accommodate co-occurring problems.

  14. Heavy alcohol use and dating violence perpetration during adolescence: family, peer and neighborhood violence as moderators.

    PubMed

    McNaughton Reyes, Heathe Luz; Foshee, Vangie A; Bauer, Daniel J; Ennett, Susan T

    2012-08-01

    We examined the hypothesis that family, peer and neighborhood violence would moderate relations between heavy alcohol use and adolescent dating violence perpetration such that relations would be stronger for teens in violent contexts. Random coefficients growth models were used to examine the main and interaction effects of heavy alcohol use and four measures of violence (family violence, friend dating violence, friend peer violence and neighborhood violence) on levels of physical dating violence perpetration across grades 8 through 12. The effects of heavy alcohol use on dating violence tended to diminish over time and were stronger in the spring than in the fall semesters. Consistent with hypotheses, across all grades, relations between heavy alcohol use and dating violence were stronger for teens exposed to higher levels of family violence and friend dating violence. However, neither friend peer violence nor neighborhood violence moderated relations between alcohol use and dating violence. Taken together, findings suggest that as adolescents grow older, individual and contextual moderators may play an increasingly important role in explaining individual differences in relations between alcohol use and dating violence. Implications for the design and evaluation of dating abuse prevention programs are discussed.

  15. Anger-Related Dysregulation as a Factor Linking Childhood Physical Abuse and Interparental Violence to Intimate Partner Violence Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Iverson, Katherine M.; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Adair, Kathryn C.; Monson, Candice M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Childhood family violence exposure is associated with increased risk for experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) in adulthood, but the mechanisms underlying this relationship remain inadequately understood. Difficulties with emotion regulation may be one factor that helps to explain this relationship. Method Childhood physical abuse and interparental violence, as well as subsequent IPV experiences, were assessed in a large sample of young adults (N = 670). Several indicators of anger-related dysregulation were also assessed. Structural equation modeling was used to create a latent variable of anger-related dysregulation, which was examined as a potential mediator of the associations between childhood family violence exposure and IPV. Results Childhood physical abuse and interparental violence were associated with greater physical, sexual, and emotional IPV victimization. Childhood physical abuse and interparental violence were also associated with anger-related dysregulation, which was positively associated with all three types of IPV experiences. Anger-related dysregulation fully mediated the association between witnessing interparental violence and physical IPV. Anger-related dysregulation partially mediated the association between witnessing interparental violence and psychological IPV and the associations of childhood physical abuse with all three forms of IPV. These associations were consistent across gender. Conclusions Interventions aimed at reducing IPV risk among survivors of childhood family violence may benefit from including techniques to target anger-related emotion regulation skills. PMID:25199386

  16. Beyond "Witnessing": Children's Experiences of Coercive Control in Domestic Violence and Abuse.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Jane E M; Alexander, Joanne H; Sixsmith, Judith; Fellin, Lisa Chiara

    2015-12-10

    Children's experiences and voices are underrepresented in academic literature and professional practice around domestic violence and abuse. The project "Understanding Agency and Resistance Strategies" (UNARS) addresses this absence, through direct engagement with children. We present an analysis from interviews with 21 children in the United Kingdom (12 girls and 9 boys, aged 8-18 years), about their experiences of domestic violence and abuse, and their responses to this violence. These interviews were analyzed using interpretive interactionism. Three themes from this analysis are presented: (a) "Children's experiences of abusive control," which explores children's awareness of controlling behavior by the adult perpetrator, their experience of that control, and its impact on them; (b) "Constraint," which explores how children experience the constraint associated with coercive control in situations of domestic violence; and (c) "Children as agents," which explores children's strategies for managing controlling behavior in their home and in family relationships. The article argues that, in situations where violence and abuse occur between adult intimate partners, children are significantly affected, and can be reasonably described as victims of abusive control. Recognizing children as direct victims of domestic violence and abuse would produce significant changes in the way professionals respond to them, by (a) recognizing children's experience of the impact of domestic violence and abuse; (b) recognizing children's agency, undermining the perception of them as passive "witnesses" or "collateral damage" in adult abusive encounters; and (c) strengthening professional responses to them as direct victims, not as passive witnesses to violence.

  17. Animal Abuse and Youth Violence. Juvenile Justice Bulletin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ascione, Frank R.

    The forms of abuse that animals are subjected to are similar to the forms of abuse children experience, such as physical abuse, serious neglect, and psychological abuse. This document describes psychiatric, psychological, and criminal research linking animal abuse to violence perpetrated by juveniles and adults. Particular attention is given to…

  18. Violence and Pregnancy: Are Pregnant Women at Greater Risk of Abuse?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gelles, Richard J.

    1988-01-01

    Examined data from Second National Family Violence Survey. Found women under age 25 to be more likely than older women to be both pregnant and to be hit and abused by husbands and partners. Although pregnant women were not particularly vulnerable group, pregnancy did not insulate them from high rates of violence experienced by young women.…

  19. Aggression and Violence in Households of Crack Sellers/Abusers.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Eloise; Johnson, Bruce D; Rath, Julia W

    1996-01-01

    While the consequences of aggression and violence in family settings have been extensively documented, the intergenerational processes by which such behaviors are modeled, learned, and practiced have not been firmly established. This research was derived from a larger ethnographic study of crack sellers and their family systems and provides a case study of one kin network in Harlem where many adults were actively involved in alcohol and hard drug use and sales. "Illuminating episodes" suggest the various processes by which aggression and violence were directly modeled by adults and observed and learned by children.Aggression and violent behavior were entrenched in the Jones and Smith family, as was drug consumption and sales. Adults often fought over drugs or money and feuded while under the influence of crack and alcohol. They used aggression and violence against family members as retribution or punishment for previous aggressive and violent acts. Aggressive language and excessive profanity were routine adult behaviors and a major means of communication; jokes and insults led to arguments, often followed by fights. Most adults who were abused physically or sexually as children did the same to their own as when one mother was knifed by her daughter. Children rarely obtained special attention and support and had almost no opportunity to learn nonaggressive patterns. Rather, youths learned to model adult behaviors, such that the intergenerational transmission of aggression and violence was well established in this kin network.

  20. Aggression and Violence in Households of Crack Sellers/Abusers

    PubMed Central

    DUNLAP, ELOISE; JOHNSON, BRUCE D.; RATH, JULIA W.

    2009-01-01

    While the consequences of aggression and violence in family settings have been extensively documented, the intergenerational processes by which such behaviors are modeled, learned, and practiced have not been firmly established. This research was derived from a larger ethnographic study of crack sellers and their family systems and provides a case study of one kin network in Harlem where many adults were actively involved in alcohol and hard drug use and sales. “Illuminating episodes” suggest the various processes by which aggression and violence were directly modeled by adults and observed and learned by children. Aggression and violent behavior were entrenched in the Jones and Smith family, as was drug consumption and sales. Adults often fought over drugs or money and feuded while under the influence of crack and alcohol. They used aggression and violence against family members as retribution or punishment for previous aggressive and violent acts. Aggressive language and excessive profanity were routine adult behaviors and a major means of communication; jokes and insults led to arguments, often followed by fights. Most adults who were abused physically or sexually as children did the same to their own as when one mother was knifed by her daughter. Children rarely obtained special attention and support and had almost no opportunity to learn nonaggressive patterns. Rather, youths learned to model adult behaviors, such that the intergenerational transmission of aggression and violence was well established in this kin network. PMID:19920879

  1. The Rate of Physical Child Abuse in Chinese Families: A Community Survey in Hong Kong.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Catherine So-kum

    1998-01-01

    A telephone survey of 1,019 Chinese Hong Kong households found families showed slightly lower rates of minor violence than U.S. families, but higher rates of severe violence toward children. The highest rate of severe violence occurred among boys or children ages 3-6. Female caregivers were the most likely abusers. (Author/CR)

  2. Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... member, a trusted teacher, a doctor, or a school or religious youth counselor. Many teachers and counselors have training in how to recognize and report abuse. Telephone and online directories list local child abuse and family violence hotline numbers that you can call for help. ...

  3. Effects of adolescent physical abuse, exposure to neighborhood violence, and witnessing parental violence on adult socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Covey, Herbert C; Menard, Scott; Franzese, Robert J

    2013-05-01

    Research on the effects of adolescent physical abuse, witnessing domestic violence, and perceptions of community violence have generally, with few exceptions, found them to be predictive of subsequent negative behavioral outcomes, such as substance abuse, crime, and other problem behaviors. Less frequently studied is the relationship of these adverse adolescent experiences to adult socioeconomic statuses. This study utilizes longitudinal self-report data from the National Youth Survey Family Study to investigate how these three factors influence future socioeconomic statuses: marital status, educational attainment, employment, income, and wealth (net worth). Significant associations with adult socioeconomic statuses are found most often for physical abuse, but neighborhood violence is the only one of the three that is predictive of adult employment. Witnessing parental violence is associated with adult income and net worth. Limitations and policy implications of the present research, in the context of past research in this area, are considered.

  4. Battered pets and domestic violence: animal abuse reported by women experiencing intimate violence and by nonabused women.

    PubMed

    Ascione, Frank R; Weber, Claudia V; Thompson, Teresa M; Heath, John; Maruyama, Mika; Hayashi, Kentaro

    2007-04-01

    Women residing at domestic violence shelters (S group) were nearly 11 times more likely to report that their partner had hurt or killed pets than a comparison group of women who said they had not experienced intimate violence (NS group). Reports of threatened harm to pets were more than 4 times higher for the S group. Using the Conflict Tactics Scale, the authors demonstrated that severe physical violence was a significant predictor of pet abuse. The vast majority of shelter women described being emotionally close to their pets and distraught by the abuse family pets experienced. Children were often exposed to pet abuse, and most reported being distressed by these experiences. A substantial minority of S-group women reported that their concern for their pets' welfare prevented them from seeking shelter sooner. This seemed truer for women without children, who may have had stronger pet attachments. This obstacle to seeking safety should be addressed by domestic violence agencies.

  5. Domestic Violence

    MedlinePlus

    Domestic violence is a type of abuse. It usually involves a spouse or partner, but it can also be ... child, elderly relative, or other family member. Domestic violence may include Physical violence that can lead to ...

  6. When I was in my home I suffered a lot: Mexican women's descriptions of abuse in family of origin.

    PubMed

    Belknap, Ruth Ann; Cruz, Nancy

    2007-05-01

    In this descriptive study we employ episodic narrative interviews and narrative analysis to explore experiences of abuse and violence within the families of origin of Mexican women entering adulthood. Twenty-four Mexican women, 18 years of age and about to graduate from a residential school in central Mexico, were interviewed about life in their families of origin. Participants were from several Mexican states and of low socioeconomic status. Nineteen of the participants described either witnessing or experiencing violence or abuse within their families. We present an analysis of the interviews in which violence or abuse was disclosed. Women who witnessed violence against their mothers did not see this as prescriptive of their own future relationships and articulated strategies for avoiding entering an abusive relationship. Women who experienced nonsexual physical violence described physical violence as punishment. Women who experienced sexual abuse did not provide explanations for the abuse and described being silent in response to the abuse.

  7. Family violence: contemporary research findings and practice issues.

    PubMed

    Yegidis, B L

    1992-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe recent empirical research findings about family violence, and to explore selected social work treatment issues in the light of these findings. The last two decades has seen a proliferation of research about family violence. Most of the early research used small clinical samples and so generalizing findings to other groups has been difficult. However, the recent research has examined a number of important psychosocial correlates of family violence using more methodologically sound methods. As a result, we now know quite a bit about how and why family violence occurs. Also, within the last decade a number of studies have explicated the kinds of treatments and approaches that are most effective in dealing with abusive people. This paper summarizes these treatment strategies.

  8. Clinical Intervention with the Abused Elderly and Their Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphreys, Janice; And Others

    Elder abuse has received attention among professionals only recently; consequently, guidelines for identification and intervention strategies for the professional in the clinical setting remain speculative and untested. Because the problem of family violence is multidimensional, no professional can be expected to meet the needs of every member of…

  9. Maternal substance abuse and children's exposure to violence.

    PubMed

    Conners-Burrow, Nicola A; Johnson, Betsy; Whiteside-Mansell, Leanne

    2009-10-01

    This article focuses on exposure to violence and violence-related activities (i.e., crime and drug use) in 70 children whose mothers are addicted to alcohol or other drugs and explores maternal characteristics associated with violence exposure. Results suggest that exposure to violence is relatively common for these children, with many exposed to repeated violence in both the home and community. Findings also suggest higher levels of exposure to violence among children whose mothers reported fewer symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and held beliefs and attitudes about child rearing that have been associated with abusive and neglectful parenting. Levels of violence exposure were also higher when mothers reported more severe drug use in the recent past. These findings point to the need for assessment and treatment for children whose mothers abuse alcohol and other drugs.

  10. Conflict, Power, and Violence in Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kristin L.

    2010-01-01

    Research on conflict, power, and violence in families in the 2000s developed a promising focus on the interconnections between types of violence and between the experience of violence and locations in larger structures of power and inequality. I examine research on poly-victimization, typologies of violence, dyadic research, and links between…

  11. Examining the nexus between domestic violence and animal abuse in a national sample of service providers.

    PubMed

    Krienert, Jessie L; Walsh, Jeffrey A; Matthews, Kevin; McConkey, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Companion animals play a complex role in families impacted by violence. An outlet of emotional support for victims, the family pet often becomes a target for physical abuse. Results from a comprehensive e-survey of domestic violence shelters nationwide (N = 767) highlight both improvements and existing gaps in service provision for domestic violence victims and their pets. Quantitative and qualitative data noted frequently encountered obstacles to successful shelter seeking by abuse victims with companion animals including a lack of availability, funding, space, and reliable programming. Although results indicate an overall improvement in organizational awareness, fewer than half of surveyed shelters include intake questions about animals. Continued awareness and an expansion of services is needed to create viable safety planning strategies and reliable alternatives for women with companion animals in order to improve the likelihood that abuse victims will seek escape and refuge for themselves, their children, and their pets.

  12. Working with Families Affected by Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, R. William

    This paper focuses on assisting families who have been damaged by substance abuse and on constructive involvement of families to help all members cope. The four main topics are: (1) "Substance Abuse and Family Systems," including the effects of substance abuse on families and children; (2) "Theories and Approaches to Family…

  13. Family Violence Prevention: Handbook for Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Human Resources, Raleigh.

    Prevention of family violence must begin in the community, with people who care enough about others to turn their concern into action. This family violence prevention handbook provides useful information which will help individuals become more sensitive to the early warning signs of violence and more knowledgeable about legal responsibility. The…

  14. Treating Family Violence in a Pediatric Hospital: A Program of Training, Research, and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Kathleen M.; And Others

    This monograph describes a project developed at Children's Hospital of Boston as an innovative, exemplary program of training, research, and services for the treatment of family violence in a pediatric hospital, with a particular focus on child abuse and neglect. Chapter 1 explains why it is important to study the area of family violence,…

  15. Testing the Link between Child Maltreatment and Family Violence among Police Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zavala, Egbert

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to document the relationship between physical abuse during childhood and family violence among a group of police officers from the Baltimore Police Department in the United States. Analyzing data from the Police and Domestic Violence in Police Families in Baltimore, Maryland, 1997-1999, this study found a positive…

  16. Substance abuse and intimate partner violence: treatment considerations

    PubMed Central

    Klostermann, Keith C

    2006-01-01

    Given the increased use of marital- and family-based treatments as part of treatment for alcoholism and other drug disorders, providers are increasingly faced with the challenge of addressing intimate partner violence among their patients and their intimate partners. Yet, effective options for clinicians who confront this issue are extremely limited. While the typical response of providers is to refer these cases to some form of batterers' treatment, three fundamental concerns make this strategy problematic: (1) most of the agencies that provide batterers' treatment only accept individuals who are legally mandated to complete their programs; (2) among programs that do accept nonmandated patients, most substance-abusing patients do not accept such referrals or drop out early in the treatment process; and (3) available evidence suggests these programs may not be effective in reducing intimate partner violence. Given these very significant concerns with the current referral approach, coupled with the high incidence of IPV among individuals entering substance abuse treatment, providers need to develop strategies for addressing IPV that can be incorporated and integrated into their base intervention packages. PMID:16925813

  17. Mexican immigrant survivors of intimate partner violence: conceptualization and descriptions of abuse.

    PubMed

    Kyriakakis, Stavroula; Dawson, Beverly Araujo; Edmond, Tonya

    2012-01-01

    This phenomenological qualitative study examines intimate partner violence (IPV) experienced by a sample of 29 Mexican immigrant women residing in New York and St. Louis. The findings reveal important insights about culturally specific abuse tactics employed by batterers and the forms of abuse that are experienced as most hurtful to the survivors. Ten different abusive tactics emerged: verbal, economic, physical, sexual, and extended family abuse, social isolation, physical abuse of children, stalking and monitoring, stolen bride, and sex trafficking. Cultural values and expectations appear to be inextricably linked to how the participants characterized the severity of each of the abusive tactics as evidenced by which abusive behaviors the participants found most hurtful. The findings will help service providers have a better understanding of the role cultural context plays in the IPV experiences of Mexican immigrant women.

  18. Silent Victims: Children Exposed to Family Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolar, Kathryn R.; Davey, Debrynda

    2007-01-01

    Annually an estimated 3 million or more children are exposed to acts of domestic violence between adults in their homes. These children are at risk for abuse themselves as well as other immediate and long-term problems, especially if they have been exposed to repeated episodes of domestic violence. Multiple behavioral manifestations, including…

  19. The process of adapting a universal dating abuse prevention program to adolescents exposed to domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Foshee, Vangie A; Dixon, Kimberly S; Ennett, Susan T; Moracco, Kathryn E; Bowling, J Michael; Chang, Ling-Yin; Moss, Jennifer L

    2015-07-01

    Adolescents exposed to domestic violence are at increased risk of dating abuse, yet no evaluated dating abuse prevention programs have been designed specifically for this high-risk population. This article describes the process of adapting Families for Safe Dates (FSD), an evidenced-based universal dating abuse prevention program, to this high-risk population, including conducting 12 focus groups and 107 interviews with the target audience. FSD includes six booklets of dating abuse prevention information, and activities for parents and adolescents to do together at home. We adapted FSD for mothers who were victims of domestic violence, but who no longer lived with the abuser, to do with their adolescents who had been exposed to the violence. Through the adaptation process, we learned that families liked the program structure and valued being offered the program and that some of our initial assumptions about this population were incorrect. We identified practices and beliefs of mother victims and attributes of these adolescents that might increase their risk of dating abuse that we had not previously considered. In addition, we learned that some of the content of the original program generated negative family interactions for some. The findings demonstrate the utility of using a careful process to adapt evidence-based interventions (EBIs) to cultural sub-groups, particularly the importance of obtaining feedback on the program from the target audience. Others can follow this process to adapt EBIs to groups other than the ones for which the original EBI was designed.

  20. Sexual orientation, child abuse, and intimate partner violence victimization.

    PubMed

    Koeppel, Maria D H; Bouffard, Leana

    2014-01-01

    Research has consistently found rates of intimate partner violence (IPV) in nonheterosexual relationships to be comparable or higher than rates of IPV in heterosexual relationship. Less is understood about the relationship between child abuse, sexual orientation, and IPV victimization. The role of sexual orientation in the relationship between child abuse and IPV victimization is important to consider given research has found higher rates of childhood abuse among nonheterosexual individuals. In addition, the relationship between child abuse victimization and IPV victimization in adulthood has also been documented. This research extends the literature on IPV by comparing child abuse victimization as a predictor for IPV between heterosexual and nonheterosexual IPV victims. Using the National Violence Against Women Survey, this study used logistic regression models to find partial support for the hypothesis that nonheterosexuals who experience child abuse will be more likely to be IPV victims as adults than similarly situated heterosexuals.

  1. Sexual victimization and family violence among urban African American adolescent women: do violence cluster profiles predict partner violence victimization and sex trade exposure?

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Angie C; Bybee, Deborah; Kulkarni, Shanti J; Archer, Gretchen

    2012-11-01

    Guided by an intersectional feminist perspective, we examined sexual victimization, witnessing intimate partner violence (IPV) in the family, and familial physical abuse among a sample of 180 urban African American adolescent women. We used cluster analysis to better understand the profiles of cumulative victimization, and the relationships between profiles and IPV victimization and personal exposure to the sex trade. Just under one third of the sample reported sexual victimization, with cooccurrence with both forms of family violence common. The cluster profile with high levels of severe family violence was associated with the highest rate of IPV victimization and sex trade exposure.

  2. Preventing Violence through Empathy Development in Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swick, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    Families can help prevent violence through nurturing empathy in their children. This article provides the framework for supporting families in becoming active in their children's development of empathy. Strategies are provided that help parents and family implement empathy development.

  3. Is animal cruelty a "red flag" for family violence? Investigating co-occurring violence toward children, partners, and pets.

    PubMed

    Degue, Sarah; Dilillo, David

    2009-06-01

    Cross-reporting legislation, which permits child and animal welfare investigators to refer families with substantiated child maltreatment or animal cruelty for investigation by parallel agencies, has recently been adopted in several U.S. jurisdictions. The current study sheds light on the underlying assumption of these policies-that animal cruelty and family violence commonly co-occur. Exposure to family violence and animal cruelty is retrospectively assessed using a sample of 860 college students. Results suggest that animal abuse may be a red flag indicative of family violence in the home. Specifically, about 60% of participants who have witnessed or perpetrated animal cruelty as a child also report experiences with child maltreatment or domestic violence. Differential patterns of association were revealed between childhood victimization experiences and the type of animal cruelty exposure reported. This study extends current knowledge of the links between animal- and human-directed violence and provides initial support for the premise of cross-reporting legislation.

  4. Beyond PTSD: An Evolving Relationship Between Trauma Theory and Family Violence Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker-Blease, Kathryn A.; Freyd, Jennifer J.

    2005-01-01

    During the past 20 years, we have learned how similarly harmful are experiences of terror, violence, and abuse, whether they occur on the combat field or at home. The field of family violence has gained much from the field of traumatic stress, and collaborations between these two previously separate fields have yielded important new answers, as…

  5. The Dynamics of Violence and Homelessness among Young Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swick, Kevin James

    2008-01-01

    Violence is one of the most prevalent elements in the lives of homeless families with young children. This violence may come in various forms: domestic violence, street violence, violence in one's childhood, witnessing violence, and other avenues and modes. Violence disrupts the normal bonding between parent and child. It isolates and degrades…

  6. Mothers' physical abusiveness in a context of violence: effects on the mother-child relationship.

    PubMed

    Timmer, Susan G; Thompson, Dianne; Culver, Michelle A; Urquiza, Anthony J; Altenhofen, Shannon

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of mothers' physical abusiveness on the quality of the mother-child relationship, and note how it further varied by their exposure to interparental violence (IPV). The sample consisted of 232 clinic-referred children, aged 2 to 7 years, and their biological mothers. Slightly more than a quarter of the children (N = 63, 27.2%) had been physically abused by their mothers; approximately half of these children also had a history of exposure to IPV (N = 34, 54%). Investigating effects of physical abuse in the context of IPV history on mothers' and children's emotional availability, we found that physically abused children with no IPV exposure appeared less optimally emotionally available than physically abused children with an IPV exposure. However, subsequent analyses showed that although dyads with dual-violence exposure showed emotional availability levels similar those of nonabusive dyads, they were more overresponsive and overinvolving, a kind of caregiving controllingness charasteric of children with disorganized attachment styles. These findings lend some support to the notion that the effects of abuse on the parent-child relationship are influenced by the context of family violence, although the effects appear to be complex.

  7. ADULTHOOD ANIMAL ABUSE AMONG MEN ARRESTED FOR DOMESTIC VIOLENCE

    PubMed Central

    Febres, Jeniimarie; Brasfield, Hope; Shorey, Ryan C.; Elmquist, Joanna; Ninnemann, Andrew; Schonbrun, Yael C.; Temple, Jeff R.; Recupero, Patricia R.; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2014-01-01

    Learning more about intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrators could aid the development of more effective treatments. The prevalence of adulthood animal abuse (AAA) perpetration and its association with IPV perpetration, antisociality, and alcohol use in 307 men arrested for domestic violence was examined. 41% (n = 125) of the men committed at least one act of animal abuse since the age of 18, in contrast to the 3.0% prevalence rate reported by men in the general population. Controlling for antisociality and alcohol use, AAA showed a trend towards a significant association with physical and severe psychological IPV perpetration. PMID:25324474

  8. Adulthood animal abuse among men arrested for domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Febres, Jeniimarie; Brasfield, Hope; Shorey, Ryan C; Elmquist, Joanna; Ninnemann, Andrew; Schonbrun, Yael C; Temple, Jeff R; Recupero, Patricia R; Stuart, Gregory L

    2014-09-01

    Learning more about intimate partner violence (IPV), perpetrators could aid the development of more effective treatments. The prevalence of adulthood animal abuse (AAA) perpetration and its association with IPV perpetration, antisociality, and alcohol use in 307 men arrested for domestic violence were examined. Forty-one percent (n = 125) of the men committed at least one act of animal abuse since the age of 18, in contrast to the 1.5% prevalence rate reported by men in the general population. Controlling for antisociality and alcohol use, AAA showed a trend toward a significant association with physical and severe psychological IPV perpetration.

  9. The Abuse of Technology in Domestic Violence and Stalking.

    PubMed

    Woodlock, Delanie

    2016-05-12

    We focus on an emerging trend in the context of domestic violence-the use of technology to facilitate stalking and other forms of abuse. Surveys with 152 domestic violence advocates and 46 victims show that technology-including phones, tablets, computers, and social networking websites-is commonly used in intimate partner stalking. Technology was used to create a sense of the perpetrator's omnipresence, and to isolate, punish, and humiliate domestic violence victims. Perpetrators also threatened to share sexualized content online to humiliate victims. Technology-facilitated stalking needs to be treated as a serious offense, and effective practice, policy, and legal responses must be developed.

  10. Family and partner interpersonal violence among American Indians/Alaska Natives.

    PubMed

    Sapra, Katherine J; Jubinski, Sarah M; Tanaka, Mina F; Gershon, Robyn Rm

    2014-12-01

    Family and partner interpersonal violence are common among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations. AI/AN women have the second highest prevalence of violence against women among all racial/ethnic groups in the United States, and child abuse prevalence rates in AI/AN populations are among the highest. Elder abuse in AI/AN is also an important concern, although data on this are sparse. This review describes the epidemiology of child abuse, violence against women, and elder abuse among AI/AN, including prevalence and associated risk factors. The authors discuss potential reasons for the high burden of interpersonal violence among AI/AN, including common risk factors. Important limitations in existing literature are also highlighted, along with recommendations for future research on this topic.

  11. Intimate Partner Violence during Pregnancy and Mothers' Child Abuse Potential

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casanueva, Cecilia E.; Martin, Sandra L.

    2007-01-01

    This research examines whether women who have experienced intimate partner violence (IPV) during pregnancy have a higher child abuse potential than women who have not experienced IPV. Data were analyzed from a longitudinal investigation of IPV during pregnancy. This study recruited 88 pregnant women during prenatal care and followed them for 1 1/2…

  12. Testing the Cycle of Violence Hypothesis: Child Abuse and Adolescent Dating Violence as Predictors of Intimate Partner Violence in Young Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Anu Manchikanti

    2011-01-01

    Child abuse is an important determinant of future violence perpetration and victimization. Past research examining linkages between child abuse and adult intimate partner violence (IPV) has predominantly focused on married individuals and not considered adolescent dating violence. In the present study, data from three waves of the National…

  13. Impacts of family and community violence exposure on child coping and mental health.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Esror Tamim; Shapiro, Ester R; Wainwright, Laurel D; Carter, Alice S

    2015-02-01

    An ecological stress process model was employed to explore relations between children's exposures to family and community violence and child mental health, and emotionally-regulated coping (ERC) as a protective factor among Latino, European-American, and African-American school-aged children (n = 91; girls, n = 50[54 %]) living in single-parent families who were either homeless and residing in emergency shelters or housed but living in poverty. Mothers reported domestic violence experiences and their child's history of physical/sexual abuse, community violence exposures, and mental health. Children reported on exposure to community violence, internalizing symptoms, and coping. The mental health impacts of multi-level violence exposures and ERC as a moderator of associations between violence exposures and child mental health was tested with structural equation modeling. Family abuse was uniquely associated with PTSD, and community violence with anxiety and aggression. Latent interaction tests revealed that ERC moderated relations between family abuse and anxiety, aggression and PTSD. Emotionally-regulated coping appears to play a protective role for children's mental health in contexts of violence exposure, offering opportunities for intervention and prevention.

  14. Physical Family Violence and Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviors Among Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Renner, Lynette M; Boel-Studt, Shamra

    2017-03-13

    Family violence has been associated with various negative outcomes among children and adolescents. Yet, less is known about how unique forms of physical family violence contribute to externalizing and internalizing behaviors based on a child's developmental stage. Using data from the Illinois Families Study and administrative Child Protective Services data, we explored the relation between 3 types of physical family violence victimization and externalizing and internalizing behaviors among a sample of 2,402 children and adolescents. After including parent and family level covariates in Poisson regressions, we found that a unique form of family violence victimization was associated with increased externalizing behaviors among children at each age group: exposure to physical intimate partner violence (IPV) among children ages 3-5, exposure to the physical abuse of a sibling among children ages 6-12, and child physical abuse among adolescents ages 13-18. No form of physical family violence was significantly associated with internalizing behaviors for children in any age group. Including exposure to the child maltreatment of a sibling is crucial when attempting to contextualize children's responses to family violence and providing comprehensive services in an effort to enhance the well-being of all children in a family. (PsycINFO Database Record

  15. Melancholic Mothering: Mothers, Daughters and Family Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenway, Jane; Fahey, Johannah

    2008-01-01

    Through selected theories of melancholia, this paper seeks to shed some fresh interpretive light on the reproduction and disruption of gender, violence and family turmoil across generations of mothers and daughters. The originality of the paper lies in its exploratory deployment of theories of melancholia to consider issues of women, violence and…

  16. Family-of-origin factors and partner violence in the intimate relationships of gay men who are HIV positive.

    PubMed

    Craft, Shonda M; Serovich, Julianne M

    2005-07-01

    This exploratory study examined the prevalence of intimate partner violence in a sample of gay men who are HIV positive. The concept of intergenerational transmission of violence, from family systems theory, provided the basis of this examination. It was hypothesized that men who had witnessed or experienced violence in their families of origin would be more likely to perpetrate or experience violence in their intimate relationships. Perpetration and receipt of abuse were assessed to provide a more comprehensive examination of these relationships. The results of this study indicated that psychological abuse was the most commonly reported form of violence in these relationships. The results also provided partial support for the hypothesized relationship between family-of-origin violence and subsequent violence in an intimate relationship. Implications for future research and intervention are discussed.

  17. Abuse Characteristics and Individual Differences Related to Disclosing Childhood Sexual, Physical, and Emotional Abuse and Witnessed Domestic Violence.

    PubMed

    Bottoms, Bette L; Peter-Hagene, Liana C; Epstein, Michelle A; Wiley, Tisha R A; Reynolds, Carrie E; Rudnicki, Aaron G

    2016-04-01

    Many adult survivors of childhood abuse hide their victimization, avoiding disclosure that could identify perpetrators, end the abuse, and bring help to the victim. We surveyed 1,679 women undergraduates to understand disclosure of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional abuse, and, for the first time, witnessed domestic violence, which many consider to be emotionally abusive. A substantial minority of victims failed to ever disclose their sexual abuse (23%), physical abuse (34%), emotional abuse (20%), and witnessed domestic violence (29%). Overall, abuse-specific factors were better predictors of disclosure than individual-level characteristics. Disclosure of sexual abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and by multiple perpetrators), being more worried about injury and more upset at the time of the abuse, and self-labeling as a victim of abuse. Disclosure of physical abuse was related to experiencing more frequent abuse (by the same and multiple perpetrators), being less emotionally close to the perpetrator, being older when the abuse ended, being more worried and upset, and self-labeling as a victim. Disclosure of emotional abuse was associated with being older when the abuse ended, and being more worried and upset. Disclosure was unrelated to victim demographic characteristics or defensive reactions (dissociative proneness, fantasy proneness, repressive coping style, and temporary forgetting), except that among physical and emotional abuse victims, repressors were less likely to disclose than non-repressors. Disclosure of witnessing domestic violence was not significantly related to any factors measured.

  18. Brainwashing and battering fatigue. Psychological abuse in domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Mega, L T; Mega, J L; Mega, B T; Harris, B M

    2000-01-01

    Intimate partner violence occurs often in the United States; it involves an interrelated combination of physical, sexual, and psychological abuse, usually directed against women. The psychological aspect deserves special attention because victims who lose their independence, self-esteem, and dignity tend to remain in abusive situations. The abuse is perpetrated by a domestic partner to maintain power and control in the relationship. To assert control, the abuser uses "brainwashing tactics" similar to those used on prisoners of war, hostages, or members of a cult. Common features of brainwashing include isolation, humiliation, accusation, and unpredictable attacks. The abusive environment produces real and anticipated fear, which contributes to the battered woman's belief that her situation is hopeless and that she must depend on her abuser. She develops coping strategies to deal with her oppressive environment, but eventually exhibits symptoms of "battering fatigue," similar to the battle fatigue of soldiers in combat who, like battered women, live in fear of being killed or severely injured. Recognizing the state of mind of these women can help us understand why it is difficult for them to flee their traumatic environment and why they may resort to suicide or homicide. For healthcare providers to screen and treat their patients adequately, it is imperative that they appreciate the complex and devastating psychological aspects of domestic violence.

  19. Adolescent-to-Parent Abuse as a Form of "Domestic Violence": A Conceptual Review.

    PubMed

    Holt, Amanda

    2016-12-01

    Across the Global North, adolescent-to-parent abuse (APA) is becoming recognized as a significant social problem and is receiving attention from researchers, policymakers, and practitioners who work in the intersecting fields of juvenile justice, child protection, and domestic violence. One of the key questions shaping current debates concerns the extent to which APA maps onto the contours of domestic violence, in terms of research and theory, policy, and practice. In particular, to what extent can our established ways of working with domestic violence be applied when working with APA? This article begins by reviewing definitions and prevalence rates of APA. It then considers how the problem fits into the "family conflicts" and "gender-based violence" paradigms that are most frequently used to conceptualize domestic violence. The article then examines how APA represents a similar but distinct phenomenon to adult-instigated domestic violence and identifies how its departures represent particular challenges in working toward its elimination. The article concludes by reviewing intervention programs that work with APA and exploring some of the ways in which they adopt and reject elements of good practice from the domestic violence practice field.

  20. CASAWORKS for Families: A Promising Approach to Welfare Reform and Substance-Abusing Women. A CASA White Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    CASAWORKS for Families is the first national demonstration program to provide simultaneously drug and alcohol treatment; literacy, job, parenting, and social skills training; family violence prevention; and health care to help substance-abusing welfare parents recover. Its mission is to help women on welfare with substance abuse problems achieve…

  1. Parenting in Females Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence and Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaffe, Anna E.; Cranston, Christopher C.; Shadlow, Joanna O.

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was…

  2. Intimate partner violence by men abusing and non-abusing alcohol in Poland.

    PubMed

    Makara-Studzinska, Marta; Gustaw, Katarzyna

    2007-03-01

    Alcohol use is to one of the most of risk factors for intimate partner violence. The aim of this study was to check the difference of demographic characteristics and type of violence between of the perpetrators with a history of alcohol abuse (A) versus the perpetrators without a history of alcohol abuse (N). Data were obtained from the survey conducted in the office of the Association for Violence Prevention in the city of Lublin, Poland. 400 perpetrators and their victims (400 subjects) were examined. To collect information from victims a specially designed questionnaire was used (VQ). Besides, another questionnaire (PQ) and The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) was used to measure alcohol use in the perpetrators. About 76% of the perpetrators scored 8 and above (AUDIT). 84.8% of the perpetrators with a history of alcohol abuse (A) versus 9.2% of the perpetrators without a history of alcohol abuse (N) committed acts of violence after alcohol consumption. The A-perpetrators were more likely to be younger, have lower education and break law, and less likely to have permanent jobs than the N- perpetrators. The significant difference in the type of violence was found: the A-perpetrators were more likely to commit physical violence (78.2%) than the Nperpetrators (33.2%) and the N-perpetrators were more likely to commit sexual violence (32.2%) than A-perpetrators (9.14%). We would like to conclude that despite similarities among perpetrators, they are not a homogenous group so different therapeutic approach should be considered.

  3. Prevention of adolescent reoccurring violence and alcohol abuse: a multiple site evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wodarski, John S

    2010-07-01

    "Prevention of Adolescent Reoccurring Violence and Alcohol Abuse: A Multiple Site Evaluation" is a multiple component alcohol abuse and violent behavior prevention strategy, targeted to adolescents ages 16-21 who have high levels of anger, or who are victims/perpetrators of violence, and their families. Three community centers located in upstate New York provided group participants (N = 210) known to have conduct disorder and substance abuse history. The centers were used as the intervention sites over a seven-week period with the youth assessment staff using objective screening measures. The participants were exposed to a two-pronged intervention, using a parental involvement cohort with approximately half of the study participants. The Teams, Games, and Tournaments strategy was the intervention method. Teams, Games, and Tournaments is a Social Learning Theory-based intervention with demonstrated empirical evidence of the model's effectiveness. A 2 x 3 factorial design with two follow-up points encompassed: anger control, alcohol/substance abuse, and family interactive education. The goals of the study were to help adolescents reduce their alcohol use, to increase productive family interaction, and ultimately to reduce the adolescents' aggression levels and subsequently reduce the possibility of their becoming victims or perpetrators of a violent crime. Consistent with Social Learning Theory, the Teams, Games, and Tournaments treatment intervention makes use of adolescents as peer counselors. The practical implications include that professionals or students in our public schools, juvenile courts, correctional institutions, and residential treatment centers can easily implement this program. A standardized treatment manual is available. It offers a complete, ready-to-use, and cost-effective tool for reducing adolescent violence and alcohol abuse. Further, the data provide support for a hypothesis of social learning theory, that is: interventions using multiple

  4. Family violence: guidelines for recognition and management

    PubMed Central

    Ghent, William R.; Da Sylva, Normand P.; Farren, Margo E.

    1985-01-01

    Chronic and intermittent abuse of one family member by another is common. Victims may be children who are sexually or physically abused, wives or live-in partners, or older relatives. Physicians are often the first points of contact for patients who have been abused, but the abuse is frequently concealed by the victims. Physicians should be alert to signs of battering such as bruises in various stages of healing, unusual behaviour in children and interpersonal difficulties in the family. There are a number of options in prevention and treatment, including referral to social service and legal authorities, calling on other resources in the family and helping the individual develop coping skills. This review also lists a large number of social agencies in Canada that are willing to help victims of abuse. PMID:3971273

  5. Violence against Women: Safety Planning for Abusive Situations

    MedlinePlus

    ... abuser Discuss how to deal with emergencies Suggest safe places to go, such as a shelter or the home of a friend or family member where your abuser might not look Help you learn ... Hotline at 800-799-SAFE (7233) or TDD 800-787-3224. You can ...

  6. Family Medicine Curriculum Guide to Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liepman, Michael R., Ed.; And Others

    This curriculum guide on substance abuse is intended for teachers of family medicine. Comments, learning objectives, teaching hints, and evaluations of knowledge are provided for each area in all chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on the pharmacology of commonly abused drugs including depressants, opioids, stimulants, hallucinogens, inhalants, and…

  7. Substance Abuse in Families: Educational Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Rivka

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the teacher's role as an advocate for a child's educational needs when parents are involved in substance abuse treatment. Discusses substance abuse treatment issues, including addiction, the treatment process, and agencies involved with the family, and provides a list of recommendations for educators and administrators to assist…

  8. Prevalence and Predictors of Dating Violence among Adolescent Female Victims of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cyr, Mireille; McDuff, Pierre; Wright, John

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to advance knowledge of dating violence behaviors among adolescent victims of child sexual abuse (CSA), first, by determining the prevalence of psychological and physical dating violence and the reciprocity of violence, and second, by investigating the influence of certain CSA characteristics to dating violence.…

  9. Physiologic changes associated with violence and abuse exposure: an examination of related medical conditions.

    PubMed

    Keeshin, Brooks R; Cronholm, Peter F; Strawn, Jeffrey R

    2012-01-01

    Although the extant evidence is replete with data supporting linkages between exposure to violence or abuse and the subsequent development of medical illnesses, the underlying mechanisms of these relationships are poorly defined and understood. Physiologic changes occurring in violence- or abuse-exposed individuals point to potentially common biological pathways connecting traumatic exposures with medical outcomes. Herein, the evidence describing the long-term physiologic changes in abuse- and violence-exposed populations and associated medical illnesses are reviewed. Current data support that (a) specific neurobiochemical changes are associated with exposure to violence and abuse; (b) several biological pathways have the potential to lead to the development of future illness; and (c) common physiologic mechanisms may moderate the severity, phenomenology, or clinical course of medical illnesses in individuals with histories of exposure to violence or abuse. Importantly, additional work is needed to advance our emerging understanding of the biological mechanisms connecting exposure to violence and abuse and negative health outcomes.

  10. Male soldier family violence offenders: spouse and child offenders compared to child offenders.

    PubMed

    Martin, Sandra L; Gibbs, Deborah A; Johnson, Ruby E; Rentz, E Danielle; Clinton-Sherrod, Monique; Walters, Jennifer L Hardison; Sullivan, Kristen

    2009-01-01

    Army data from 2000 to 2004 were used to compare two groups of married, male, Army soldier, first-time family violence offenders: 760 dual offenders (whose initial incident included both child maltreatment and spouse abuse) and 2,209 single offenders (whose initial incident included only child maltreatment). The majority (81%) of dual offenders perpetrated physical spouse abuse; however, dual offenders were less likely than single offenders to perpetrate physical child abuse (16% vs. 42%) or sexual child abuse (1% vs. 11%), but they were more likely to perpetrate emotional child abuse (45% vs. 12%). These findings may be, at least in part, explained in light of the Army Family Advocacy Program policy, which considers spouse offenders as also being emotional child abuse offenders since children may be traumatized by exposure to spouse abuse.

  11. Paraprofessional Home Visitors' Perspectives on Addressing Poor Mental Health, Substance Abuse, and Domestic Violence: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tandon, S. Darius; Mercer, Constance D.; Saylor, Elizabeth L.; Duggan, Anne K.

    2008-01-01

    This research was conducted to understand paraprofessional home visitors' perceptions of their training in addressing poor mental health, substance abuse, and domestic violence, and their actions in working with families in addressing these issues. Five focus groups were conducted with a total of 28 paraprofessional home visitors. Three main…

  12. Maternal Experiences of Childhood Abuse and Intimate Partner Violence: Psychopathology and Functional Impairment in Clinical Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miranda, Jenniffer K.; de la Osa, Nuria; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: The current study examined the independent effects of mothers' childhood abuse (CA) and intimate partner violence (IPV) on psychopathology and functional impairment in children; and the potential moderating and mediating role of individual and family factors in these relationships. Additionally, this study explored the potential…

  13. Family Violence & Sexual Assault Bulletin, 1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Family Violence & Sexual Assault Bulletin, 1997

    1997-01-01

    These two issues contain reviews of legal/legislative issues, research and treatment issues, book and video materials, and on-line resources and websites relating to family violence and sexual assault. The first issue, contains "Empowering African American Children To Become Resilient: Early Success in Overcoming Violent Families and Communities…

  14. Post-traumatic Stress in Children and Adolescents Exposed to Family Violence: I. Overview and Issues

    PubMed Central

    Margolin, Gayla; Vickerman, Katrina A.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to child physical abuse and parents’ domestic violence can subject youth to pervasive traumatic stress and lead to Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The often repeating and ongoing nature of family violence exposure may result in youth exhibiting problems in multiple domains of functioning and meeting criteria for multiple disorders in addition to PTSD. These characteristics as well as unique factors related to children’s developmental level and symptom presentation complicate a PTSD diagnosis. This paper describes evolving conceptualizations in the burgeoning field of trauma related to family violence exposure, and reviews considerations that inform assessment and treatment planning for this population. PMID:20107623

  15. Longitudinal Mediators of Relations Between Family Violence and Adolescent Dating Aggression Perpetration.

    PubMed

    Reyes, H Luz McNaughton; Foshee, Vangie A; Fortson, Beverly L; Valle, Linda A; Breiding, Matthew J; Merrick, Melissa T

    2015-08-01

    Few longitudinal studies have examined the pathways through which family violence leads to dating aggression. In the current study the authors used 3 waves of data obtained from 8th- and 9th-grade adolescents (N = 1,965) to examine the hypotheses that the prospective relationship between witnessing family violence and directly experiencing violence and physical dating aggression perpetration is mediated by 3 constructs: (a) normative beliefs about dating aggression (norms), (b) anger dysregulation, and (c) depression. Results from cross-lagged regression models suggest that the relationship between having been hit by an adult and dating aggression is mediated by changes in norms and anger dysregulation, but not depression. No evidence of indirect effects from witnessing family violence to dating aggression was found through any of the proposed mediators. Taken together, the findings suggest that anger dysregulation and normative beliefs are potential targets for dating abuse prevention efforts aimed at youth who have directly experienced violence.

  16. Domestic violence

    MedlinePlus

    Intimate partner violence; Spousal abuse; Elder abuse; Child abuse; Sexual abuse - domestic violence ... Domestic violence can include any of these behaviors: Physical abuse, including hitting, kicking, biting, slapping, choking, or attacking with ...

  17. Multiple mediators of the relationships among maternal childhood abuse, intimate partner violence, and offspring psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Jenniffer K; de la Osa, Nuria; Granero, Roser; Ezpeleta, Lourdes

    2013-09-01

    The aim of the study was to examine whether maternal depression, mothers' and fathers' parenting, child physical punishment and negative life events (NLE) mediate the effect of maternal childhood abuse (CA), intimate partner violence (IPV) and cumulative violence (both CA and IPV) on Spanish children's and adolescents' psychopathology. Furthermore, multiple mediator models examine whether IPV mediates the effect of CA on the contextual and family factors mentioned above. Three hundred and eighteen Spanish outpatients aged 7 to 18 and their parents were assessed using a structured interview and other instruments for measuring the study variables. Structural equation models (SEMs) showed multiple pathways explaining psychopathological problems among offspring of mothers who suffered CA, IPV and both of these violent experiences. In particular, mothers' depression mediated the link between maternal CA, IPV, cumulative violence and children's externalizing, and total behavior problems. Child NLE was an important pathway between maternal CA and total behavior problems, as well as between cumulative violence and both externalizing and total problems. IPV contributed to explaining the link between maternal CA and contextual and family factors, such as child physical punishment and NLE, which were in turn, associated with children's behavior problems. Findings show the complex interconnections between different types of violence and their harmful effects on the mental health of women and their offspring, as well as the need to extend our knowledge on this subject.

  18. Family violence in the Air Force: a look at offenders and the role of the family advocacy program.

    PubMed

    Mollerstrom, W W; Patchner, M A; Milner, J S

    1992-07-01

    Family violence exists throughout society and, unfortunately, also among military families. The Air Force's Family Advocacy Program is designed not only to treat victims, offenders, and families of abuse and neglect, but also to provide prevention services. Each Air Force base has a Family Advocacy Officer, who is a credentialed clinical social worker, charged with the duty of addressing spouse abuse and child maltreatment problems. To evaluate the effectiveness of current services, and to improve the quality of the services provided through the Family Advocacy Program, the Air Force is currently conducting a 4-year evaluation study. This research represents the largest study ever conducted on family violence, with either military or civilian offenders. This paper, based upon the first year of data collected at approximately one-third of all Air Force medical treatment facilities, reported on the descriptive characteristics of the substantiated cases of spouse abuse and child abuse/neglect, and the interventions which were being recommended to alleviate the abusive situations and to prevent future maltreatment. The results will guide policy and future manning and staffing decisions for the Air Force Family Advocacy Program, and serve to document the kinds of treatment strategies which work most effectively for which kinds of problems. Findings are expected to help improve the quality of services to victims, offenders, and families, and to do so for those who are civilians as well as for those who are in the military.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Shattered Vision: Disenchantment of Couplehood among Female Survivors of Violence in the Shadow of Their Family-of-Origin Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchbinder, Eli; Goldblatt, Hadass

    2011-01-01

    This article describes and analyzes the relationship disenchantment of couplehood among female survivors of violence and their family-of-origin experiences of abuse. Twenty Israeli women who were survivors of violence participated in this qualitative research. Each woman underwent three in-depth interviews, two for data collection and one for…

  20. Mother abuse: a matter of youth justice, child welfare or domestic violence?

    PubMed

    Hunter, Caroline; Nixon, Judy; Parr, Sadie

    2010-01-01

    International evidence suggests that in advanced welfare states the abuse of parents, most particularly mothers, by their (most frequently male) adolescent children is increasingly prevalent. In the United Kingdom, however, child-to-mother abuse remains one of the most under-acknowledged and under-researched forms of family violence. Although it is an issue shrouded in silence, stigma, and shame, the authors' work in the youth justice sphere, focusing on interventions to deal with anti-social behaviour, suggests that adolescent violence toward mothers is a topical and prevalent issue. We identify different ways of conceptualizing it in the policy realms of youth justice, child welfare, and domestic violence. The behaviour of both child/young person and mother is constructed in ways which inform the assignment of blame and responsibility. The paper highlights the silence that surrounds the issue in both the policy and wider academic spheres, hiding the failure of service providers to respond to this very destructive form of intimate interpersonal violence.

  1. The Association Between Family Violence and Adolescent Dating Violence Onset: Does it Vary by Race, Socioeconomic Status, and Family Structure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foshee, Vangie A.; Ennett, Susan T.; Bauman, Karl E.; Benefield, Thad; Suchindran, Chirayath

    2005-01-01

    The authors determine if the associations between family violence (corporal punishment, violence against the child with the intention of harm, and witnessing violence between parents) and adolescent dating violence vary by subgroups based on race, socioeconomic status, and family structure. This study is guided by the theoretical propositions of…

  2. Domestic Violence and Abuse in Intimate Relationship from Public Health Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Rakovec-Felser, Zlatka

    2014-01-01

    In this article we pay attention to the violence which, due to the fear of social stigma, could be hidden from the public eye for a long time but could have serious health consequences for the individual, family, and society – physical and psychological forms of domestic violence and abuse in male-female intimate relationship. Besides its nature and extent data in general population, we review also the surveys data about its theoretical basis, its risk factors and possible effects on mental and physical health, not only on in conflicts involved partners, but also on family as a whole, and especially on the children that growing up in such a problematic domestic circumstances. PMID:26973948

  3. Intergenerational continuity of child abuse among adolescent mothers: authoritarian parenting, community violence, and race.

    PubMed

    Valentino, Kristin; Nuttall, Amy K; Comas, Michelle; Borkowski, John G; Akai, Carol E

    2012-05-01

    Among the negative sequelae of child maltreatment is increased risk for continuity of maltreatment into subsequent generations. Despite acknowledgment in the literature that the pathways toward breaking the cycle of maltreatment are likely the result of dynamic interactions of risk and protective factors across multiple ecological levels, few studies have followed high-risk samples of maltreated and nonmaltreated parents over time to evaluate such processes. In the current investigation, exposure to community violence and authoritarian parenting attitudes were evaluated as predictors of the intergenerational continuity of abuse, and the moderating effect of African American race was examined. The sample included 70 mothers and their 18-year-old children, who have been followed longitudinally since the third trimester of the adolescent mothers' pregnancy. Results revealed that among mothers with a child abuse history, higher exposure to community violence and lower authoritarian parenting attitudes were associated with increased risk for intergenerational continuity of abuse. The relation of authoritarian parenting attitudes to intergenerational continuity was moderated by race; the protective effects of authoritarian parenting were limited to the African American families only. The salience of multiple ecological levels in interrupting the intergenerational continuity of child abuse is discussed, and implications for preventive programs are highlighted.

  4. The Impact of Child, Family, and Child Protective Services Factors on Reports of Child Sexual Abuse Recurrence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinanan, Allison N.

    2011-01-01

    This study identified selected child factors (e.g., age, gender, race/ethnicity, disabilities, prior victimization, and relationship to perpetrator of abuse), family risk factors (e.g., substance abuse, domestic violence, inadequate housing, and financial problems), and services provided by child protective services that likely increased reports…

  5. Mentalizing Family Violence Part 1: Conceptual Framework.

    PubMed

    Asen, Eia; Fonagy, Peter

    2017-03-01

    This is the first of two companion papers describing concepts and techniques of a mentalization-based approach to understanding and managing family violence. We review evidence that attachment difficulties, sudden high levels of arousal, and poor affect control contribute to a loss of mentalizing capacity, which, in turn, undermines social learning and can favor the transgenerational transmission of violent interaction patterns. It is suggested that physically violent acts are only possible if mentalizing is temporarily inhibited or decoupled. However, being mentalized in the context of attachment relationships in the family generates epistemic trust within the family unit and reduces the likelihood of family violence. The implications of this framework for therapeutic work with families are discussed.

  6. Alcohol, Stress, and Violence in American Indian Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bachman, Ronet; Straus, Murray A.

    This study examined the link between alcohol use and domestic violence in the American Indian population. A total of 204 American Indian families and 2,007 non-American Indian Whites were analyzed using the 1985 National Family Violence Resurvey. The rates of family violence were first calculated by ethnicity, and then compared to a sample of…

  7. Stopping Family Violence: Steps along the Road = Eliminer la violence familiale: les etapes franches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theilheimer, Ish, Ed.; Eisner, Kathy, Ed.

    1995-01-01

    This topical quarterly newsletter issue examines the prevention of family violence, with a specific focus on activities, trends, and research dealing with Canadian families. Four feature articles include: (1) "Stopping Family Violence: Steps Along the Road," in which researchers and social workers discuss the meaning of violence, the…

  8. Two Generations at Risk: Child Welfare, Institutional Boundaries, and Family Violence in Grandparent Homes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Susan E.; Bazemore, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    Participation of extended family members, particularly custodial grandparents, has generally resulted in better outcomes for abused children and relief for an overburdened child welfare system. This research explores the risk of adolescent perpetrated violence in custodial grandparent households with data from the Florida Department of Juvenile…

  9. Keeping it in the family: intergenerational transmission of violence in Cebu, Philippines.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Mahua; Hindin, Michelle J

    2015-03-01

    While witnessing violence between parents is one of the most consistent correlates of experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) in later life, little research exists in developing countries on the effects of witnessing interparental IPV on young adults' involvement with family violence. This study examines the relation between witnessing interparental IPV and young adults' subsequent use and experience with family intimidation and physical abuse (FIPA) in Cebu, Philippines. Using data from the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, recent use and experience of FIPA among 21-22 year old young adults was assessed through self-reports from the 2005 survey, and childhood witnessing of interparental IPV assessed from the 2002 survey. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the effect of witnessing interparental IPV on young adults' use and experience of FIPA. Among all young adults, witnessing paternal perpetration of IPV predicted using FIPA, and witnessing maternal perpetration predicted experiencing FIPA. Among young adult females only, witnessing reciprocal IPV between parents predicted experiencing FIPA. Witnessing paternal perpetration of IPV among young adult males, maternal perpetration among young adult females, and reciprocal interparental IPV among all young adults predicted young adults both using and experiencing FIPA. Violence prevention efforts should reach all family members through family centered interventions. School based curricula, which largely focus on intimate partner and peer violence, should recognize adolescents' use and experience of violence with family members, and design modules accordingly. Further research on gender differences in family violence is recommended.

  10. Alcoholism and Familial Abuse: Enhancement of Quality Force Programs Using a Companion-Problem Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-01

    physical auc] sexual abuse and spouse abuse) hurt Air Force readiness and mission accomiplishmnent. The Air Force needs better means of problem identi- A...Abuse and Domestic Violence ................... 7 Alcohol Abuse and Child Physical Abuse ............... 9 i Alcohol Abuse and Child Sexual Abuse...abuse (spouse abuse, child phyzical abuse, and child sexual abuse) are serious problems in today’s Air Force. Beyond the moral considerations, they

  11. The Relationship between Domestic Violence and Animal Abuse: An Australian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Volant, Anne M.; Johnson, Judy A.; Gullone, Eleonora; Coleman, Grahame J.

    2008-01-01

    Several North American studies have found a connection between domestic violence and animal abuse. This article reports on the first Australian research to examine this connection. A group of 102 women recruited through 24 domestic violence services in the state of Victoria and a nondomestic violence comparison group (102 women) recruited from the…

  12. The role of family-of-origin violence in men's marital violence perpetration.

    PubMed

    Delsol, Catherine; Margolin, Gayla

    2004-03-01

    This paper presents overall transmission rates between family-of-origin violence and marital violence, as well as theoretical and empirical work on possible mechanisms of transmission. In identified samples, approximately 60% of the maritally violent men report family-of-origin violence, whereas slightly over 20% of the comparison group of maritally nonviolent men report family-of-origin violence. Modest associations between experiencing violence in the family of origin and marital violence are found in community samples and in studies with prospective and longitudinal designs. Variables that intervene in the association between family-of-origin violence and marital violence are reviewed, with a focus on personal characteristics such as antisocial personality, psychological distress, and attitudes condoning violence, as well as on contextual factors, such as marital problems and conflict resolution style. Variables associated with nonviolence in men who grew up in violent families also are identified, including strong interpersonal connections and the ability to create psychological distance from the family-of-origin violence. Continued empirical investigation of variables that potentiate or mitigate the association between family-of-origin violence and marital violence at different developmental stages is needed to identify explanatory mechanisms and, ultimately, to interrupt the intergenerational transmission of marital violence.

  13. Recognizing abuse.

    PubMed

    Davidhizar, R; Newman-Giger, J

    1996-01-01

    After years as a taboo topic, abuse has come "out of the closet" and is being talked about openly in society. Yet, while abuse in the workplace is being confronted, abuse within families still often goes unrecognized by outsiders, including by nurses. Failure of nurses to recognize abuse is unfortunate since frequently they are the first point of contact with the victim of abuse in the emergency room, clinic and home. Understanding and insight into the problem of family violence by nurses is critical in addressing this problem. Knowledge is crucial in planning strategies that will have the long-lasting effect of decreasing the cycle of abuse in families.

  14. Neighborhood Crime Rates among Drug Abusing and Non-Drug Abusing Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Norris; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines the relationship between paternal drug abuse status and neighborhood crime rates. Although paternal drug abusing families resided in neighborhoods with higher crime rates than parental non-drug abusing families, when controlling for socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and domicile, drug abuse status was not associated with neighborhood crime…

  15. Family troubles - resources

    MedlinePlus

    The following organizations are good resources for information on child abuse , incest, domestic violence, and family troubles: National Domestic Violence Hotline -- www.thehotline.org Prevent Child Abuse America -- ...

  16. Family interventions to prevent substance abuse: children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Loveland-Cherry, C J

    2000-01-01

    Substance abuse often begins in adolescence and is a major factor determining health outcomes for adolescents and adults; thus, it is an important focus for prevention strategies. The use of drugs, especially alcohol, can lead to chronic addiction to substances as well as contribute to a number of common chronic conditions. These conditions include cancer, cardiovascular disease, disability from accidents or violence, and unplanned pregnancy and are major causes of morbidity and mortality among adolescents and adults. As the major social unit responsible for socialization of children and stabilization of adult personalities, the family has been the target of prevention efforts. In this chapter the empirical literature on family interventions to prevent substance use in adolescents is critically reviewed, generalizations and implications for practice identified, and directions for future research projected.

  17. Childhood Exposure to Family Violence and Attrition in the Navy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-02-01

    Press, 2001. 13. Levendosky AA, Graham-Bermann SA: Parenting in battered women: The effects of domestic violence on women and their children , J. Fam...that childhood violence negatively impacts adolescent and adult socio-emotional functioning.7-16 Children exposed to family violence are at risk...childhood violence experiences – CSA, CPA, and domestic violence (DV) – and attrition in Navy recruits during and after BMT. The effect of each form

  18. Domestic Violence and Child Abuse: A Selective Bibliography. Bibliography Series Eight.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brady, Mary Louise, Comp.

    This selective bibliography contains information on material dealing with domestic violence in the home with a special emphasis on child abuse, that may be obtained in the Robert E. Kennedy Library at California Polytechnic University. The bibliography is divided according to different forms of abuse, e.g., emotional child abuse, incest/sexual…

  19. The Relationship of Animal Abuse to Violence and Other Forms of Antisocial Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arluke, Arnold; Levin, Jack; Luke, Carter; Ascione, Frank

    1999-01-01

    Criminal records of 153 animal abusers and 153 control participants were tracked and compared. Animal abusers were more likely to commit property offenses, drug offenses, and public disorder offenses. Thus, results show an association between animal abuse and a variety of antisocial behavior, but not violence alone. Implications of these findings…

  20. Urban adolescent mothers exposed to community, family, and partner violence: prevalence, outcomes, and welfare policy implications.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Angie C

    2006-01-01

    The federal welfare reforms of 1996 mandated that all minor adolescent mothers receiving cash assistance must attend school and live at home to receive their cash grant. Though this law has been in place for over 8 years, little research has been done that explores the barriers facing adolescent mothers who try to attend school and live at home. Anecdotal and qualitative evidence from welfare reform evaluation studies suggests that violence may be just such a barrier. This article reviews the recent empirical literature on urban adolescent mothers' exposure to multiple forms of violence. The author delineates and critiques the existing research on the prevalence of and outcomes linked with exposure to community violence, witnessed parental violence, physical abuse within the family, and partner violence among this population. The article concludes with recommendations for researchers, practitioners, and policy makers in light of the reviewed findings.

  1. Dating violence victimization across the teen years: Abuse frequency, number of abusive partners, and age at first occurrence

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prior longitudinal studies have shown high cumulative dating violence exposure rates among U.S adolescents, with 36 percent of males and 44 percent to 88 percent of females experiencing victimization across adolescence/young adulthood. Despite promising information characterizing adolescents’ dating violence experiences longitudinally, prior studies tended to concentrate on physical and sexual types of violence only, and did not report information on the number of times dating violence was experienced across multiple abusive partners. We used a method similar to the timeline follow-back interview to query adolescents about dating violence victimization from age 13 to 19—including dating violence types (physical, sexual, and psychological), frequency, age at first occurrence, and number of abusive partners. Methods A total of 730 subjects were randomly sampled from university registrar records and invited to complete an online survey, which utilized methods similar to the timeline follow-back interview, to retrospectively assess relationship histories and dating violence victimization from age 13 to 19 (eight questions adapted from widely-used surveys covering physical, sexual, and psychological abuse). Then, for each dating violence type, we asked about the number of occurrences, number of abusive partners, and age at first occurrence. Of 341 subjects who completed the survey, we included 297 (64 percent females; 36 percent males) who had a dating partner from age 13 to 19. Results Fully 64.7 percent of females and 61.7 percent of males reported dating violence victimization between age 13 and 19, with most experiencing multiple occurrences. More than one-third of abused females had two or more abusive partners: controlling behavior (35.6 percent); put downs/name calling (37.0); pressured sex (42.9); insults (44.3); slapped/hit (50.0); and threats (62.5). Males also had two or more abusive partners, as follows: controlling behavior (42.1 percent

  2. Children's Adjustment Problems in Families Characterized by Men's Severe Violence toward Women: Does Other Family Violence Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Renee; Jouriles, Ernest N.; Tart, Candyce D.; Minze, Laura C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This research examined whether additional forms of family violence (partner-child aggression, mother-child aggression, and women's intimate partner violence [IPV]) contribute to children's adjustment problems in families characterized by men's severe violence toward women. Methods: Participants were 258 children and their mothers…

  3. Time to tackle domestic violence: identifying and supporting families.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Tanya

    2014-09-01

    Domestic violence and abuse (DVA) is a serious societal and public health issue that takes place within family-type intimate relationships and forms a pattern of coercive and controlling behaviours, which can escalate over time. DVA rarely exists in isolation from other social 'ills' and can have an enormous impact on people's health and wellbeing. Recently, family violence has become more visible to health visitors and increasingly presents challenges to practice. Some are practical challenges faced by practitioners who seek to comprehend the evolving phenomenon and others involve the clinical dilemmas surrounding service delivery. The deeply vexed question is how health visitors can work towards ending the cycle of DVA, especially where there are unclear parameters between the victim and perpetrator, and when clients are accepting of, and dismissive about, DVA. The recent government strategy-based move towards greater emphasis on prevention has provided an opportunity for health visitors to intervene in DVA. In light of the nature of safeguarding responsibilities, and a wider public health role as providers of universal health services, health visitors are well placed to offer early support to families.

  4. Treating substance abuse: partner and family approaches.

    PubMed

    Klostermann, Keith; O'Farrell, Timothy J

    2013-01-01

    Historically, alcohol and other substance use disorders were viewed as individual-based problems that were most effectively treated by focusing on the diagnosed individual. However, in response to numerous clinical trials demonstrating the efficacy (and often superiority) of couple and family treatments for alcoholism and drug abuse, this emphasis on treating the individual has slowly given way to a greater awareness of family members' crucial roles in the etiology, maintenance, and long-term course of substance use and addictive behavior. As a result, clinicians are increasingly interested in understanding substance misuse from a systemic perspective and exploring how partner- and family-involved interventions may be used to address individuals' substance abuse.

  5. The impact of child, family, and child protective services factors on reports of child sexual abuse recurrence.

    PubMed

    Sinanan, Allison N

    2011-11-01

    This study identified selected child factors (e.g., age, gender, race/ethnicity, disabilities, prior victimization, and relationship to perpetrator of abuse), family risk factors (e.g., substance abuse, domestic violence, inadequate housing, and financial problems), and services provided by child protective services that likely increased reports of child sexual abuse recurrence by type of reporter. Survival analysis was conducted using the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data System data set of 2002-2004. Child disability, being a prior victim, having a perpetrator as a caregiver, family financial problems, and receiving family supportive services increased the likelihood for reports of child sexual abuse by mandated reporters. Being Hispanic, having a disability, having a perpetrator as a caregiver, financial problems, and receiving family preservation services statistically decreased the likelihood for reports of child sexual abuse recurrence.

  6. Emotional functioning, attachment style, and attributions as predictors of child abuse potential in domestic violence victims.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Christina M

    2006-04-01

    To explore cognitive and emotional factors that may exacerbate child-abuse potential among domestic violence victims, 80 participants reported on their depression, hopelessness, anxiety, and anger as well as their attachment style and attributional style. Increased emotional difficulties as well as insecure attachment styles were significantly positively correlated with child abuse potential, although depression and anxiety were the strongest predictors. Externalizing blame for the spousal abuse was not associated with abuse risk. Women residing in shelters demonstrated significantly greater abuse risk than those in transitional housing programs, suggesting that greater temporal proximity to the spousal abuse may in part account for the increased abuse potential. Depression and hopelessness, however, appeared particularly relevant to increased abuse risk in domestic violence victims in the transitional housing system. Implications of these findings for working with battered women in terms of their emotional functioning and attachment style are discussed.

  7. What the Literature Tells Us: Relationships between Family Violence, School Behavior Problems, Juvenile Delinquency, and Adult Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudo, Zena H.

    This paper constructs a multi-systemic picture of the impact of family violence on children, families, and society through a review of the empirical literature in these areas and their inter-relationships. Findings from the review include: (1) the experience of physical abuse has been associated with aggression toward others, children who have…

  8. Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration by Court-Ordered Men: Distinctions and Intersections among Physical Violence, Sexual Violence, Psychological Abuse, and Stalking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basile, Kathleen C.; Hall, Jeffrey E.

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the construct validity of two different measurement models of male partners' perpetration of physical violence, sexual violence, psychological abuse, and stalking against intimate partners. Data were obtained from a sample of 340 men arrested for physical assault of a female spouse or partner and court ordered into batterer…

  9. Elder abuse and neglect in South Africa: a case of marginalization, disrespect, exploitation and violence.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Monica; Lindgren, Pat

    2008-01-01

    The problem of elder abuse and neglect in South Africa is widespread, but the definition of abuse remains problematic. An expanded typology is needed to classify certain types of abuse reported commonly, such as marginalization, disrespect, exploitation and violence. The history of elder abuse and responses is traced, relevant legislation and selected intervention programs are reviewed, and research and the status of elder abuse are evaluated. Interventions to address sociostructural factors that impact elders' settings, increase their vulnerability, and diminish their ability to realize human rights can contribute to an improvement in their condition and a reduction in abuse and rights violations in the long-term.

  10. Elder abuse--a family experience.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Franciene E

    2007-04-01

    Abuse happens every day to elderly and disabled individuals either through ignorance or design. Protecting your patient or loved one requires you to be suspicious of everyone who has access to the patient, even other family members. It is the most difficult and demanding task you will ever undertake. Our story is a long and emotional one, If you wish to read an account of our experiences, please visit my Web site at www.iannarino.us/elderabuse.

  11. Youth Experiences of Family Violence and Teen Dating Violence Perpetration: Cognitive and Emotional Mediators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jouriles, Ernest N.; McDonald, Renee; Mueller, Victoria; Grych, John H.

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a conceptual model of cognitive and emotional processes proposed to mediate the relation between youth exposure to family violence and teen dating violence perpetration. Explicit beliefs about violence, internal knowledge structures, and executive functioning are hypothesized as cognitive mediators, and their potential…

  12. Pathways from physical childhood abuse to partner violence in young adulthood.

    PubMed

    Herrenkohl, Todd I; Mason, W Alex; Kosterman, Rick; Lengua, Liliana J; Hawkins, J David; Abbott, Robert D

    2004-04-01

    Analyses investigated several competing hypotheses about developmental pathways from childhood physical abuse and early aggression to intimate partner violence (IPV) for young adult males and females at age 24. Potential intervening variables included: adolescent violence (age 15 to 18), negative emotionality at age 21, and quality of one's relationship with an intimate partner at age 24. At the bivariate level, nearly all variables were associated in the expected directions. However, tests of possible intervening variables revealed only a few significant results. For males, a strong direct effect of abuse on later partner violence was maintained in each model. For females, the quality of one's relationship with an intimate partner did appear to mediate the effect of childhood abuse on later violence to a partner, raising the possibility of gender differences in developmental pathways linking abuse to IPV. Implications with regard to prevention are discussed.

  13. Intimate partner violence perpetration by court-ordered men: distinctions among subtypes of physical violence, sexual violence, psychological abuse, and stalking.

    PubMed

    Hall, Jeffrey E; Walters, Mikel L; Basile, Kathleen C

    2012-05-01

    This study continues previous work documenting the structure of violence perpetrated by males against their female intimate partners. It assesses the construct validity of a measurement model depicting associations among eight subtypes of perpetration: moderate physical violence, severe physical violence, forced or coerced sexual violence, sexual violence where consent was not possible, emotional/verbal psychological abuse, dominance/isolation psychological abuse, interactional contacts/surveillance related stalking, and stalking involving mediated contacts. Data were obtained from a sample of 340 men arrested for physical assault of a female spouse or partner, and court ordered into batterer intervention programs. Men were surveyed before starting the intervention. Confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) supported the validity of model as evidenced by good model to data fit and satisfaction of requirements for fit statistics. In addition, the eight factor solution was characterized by a slightly better model to data fit than a four factor higher order solution described in the author's previous work. Latent variable correlations across the broader categories of intimate partner violence (IPV) revealed that the violence subtypes were mostly moderately positively correlated and ranged from .381 (emotional/verbal psychological abuse with interactional contacts/surveillance related stalking) to .795 (dominance/isolation psychological with abuse with forced sex). Future studies should determine whether there are distinct risk factors and health outcomes associated with each of the eight IPV perpetration subtypes and identify possible patterns of co-occurrence.

  14. Exposure to partner, family, and community violence: gang-affiliated Latina women and risk of unintended pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Miller, Elizabeth; Levenson, Rebecca; Herrera, Lili; Kurek, Laura; Stofflet, Marney; Marin, Leni

    2012-02-01

    While teen pregnancy rates appear to be declining in the U.S.A. overall, the rate of decline among young Latinas has been less than other ethnic groups. Among the myriad factors associated with elevated pregnancy rates, for Latina girls living in the inner city, exposure to gang and community violence may be a critical context for increased pregnancy risk. This study explores the relationship between gang involvement and reproductive health, and the pathways through which childhood, family, and relationship violence exposure may lead to unintended pregnancy. Interviews of 20 young adult Latinas with known gang involvement in Los Angeles County were audiotaped, transcribed, and coded for key themes related to violence exposure and reproductive health. Limited access to reproductive health care compounded by male partner sexual and pregnancy coercion, as well as physical and sexual violence, emerged in the interviews. Exposures to interparental domestic violence, childhood physical and sexual abuse, and gang violence were prominent and closely associated with unhealthy and abusive intimate relationships. Adverse childhood experiences and exposure to partner, family, and community violence impact the reproductive lives and choices of young Latina women in gangs. These findings may guide targeted pregnancy prevention efforts among urban gang-affiliated Latinas as well as encourage the integration of sexual violence prevention and reproductive health promotion within gang violence intervention programs.

  15. Parenting in females exposed to intimate partner violence and childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, Anna E; Cranston, Christopher C; Shadlow, Joanna O

    2012-01-01

    Child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence may have a significant impact on parenting. The current study expands on existing research by examining the effects of child sexual abuse and intimate partner violence on parenting styles and parenting self-efficacy. In women from a parenting intervention program (n = 20), child sexual abuse was related to lower parenting self-efficacy and more permissive parenting. In women at a domestic violence shelter (n = 45), child sexual abuse was related to current sexual coercion of the partner, and authoritative parenting was related to higher parenting self-efficacy. These results indicate that having a history of child sexual abuse should be taken into consideration when dealing with mothers in violent relationships.

  16. Child abuse and neglect and intimate partner violence victimization and perpetration: a prospective investigation.

    PubMed

    Widom, Cathy Spatz; Czaja, Sally; Dutton, Mary Ann

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes the extent to which abused and neglected children report intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and perpetration when followed up into middle adulthood. Using data from a prospective cohort design study, children (ages 0-11) with documented histories of physical and sexual abuse and/or neglect (n=497) were matched with children without such histories (n=395) and assessed in adulthood (Mage=39.5). Prevalence, number, and variety of four types of IPV (psychological abuse, physical violence, sexual violence, and injury) were measured. Over 80% of both groups - childhood abuse and neglect (CAN) and controls - reported some form of IPV victimization during the past year (most commonly psychological abuse) and about 75% of both groups reported perpetration of IPV toward their partner. Controlling for age, sex, and race, overall CAN [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.60, 95% CI [1.03, 2.49

  17. The connection between animal abuse and interpersonal violence: A review from the veterinary perspective.

    PubMed

    Monsalve, Stefany; Ferreira, Fernando; Garcia, Rita

    2017-03-01

    Several studies have reported a connection between animal abuse and interpersonal violence. The importance of veterinarians in recognizing and intervening in the cycle of violence has been debated in different articles. This review outlines the findings about this connection around the world and describes the role veterinarians play in this field. We looked up electronic databases and analyzed articles published between 1960 and 2016. Publications were classified into three categories: area of publication, topic of the study and continent where the study had been conducted. Out of the 96 articles included, 76 (79.2%) were from North America. None were from South America or Africa. Ninety-four articles (97.9%) found some association between animal abuse and violence against people. The rates of co-occurrence between domestic violence and animal abuse reported varied between 25% and 86%. Furthermore, children who were abused, exposed to domestic violence, or animal abuse were at risk of developing criminal behavior. Veterinarians play an important role in public health and animal welfare. Yet, only seven articles (7.3%) were published in the field of veterinary medicine. Studies report that between 42.8% and 86% of veterinarians know about the "Link". However, most veterinarians not being trained to intervene in cases of animal abuse and human violence. This emphasizes the importance of educating veterinarians about this topic and their participation in this area.

  18. Writing the Male Abuser in Cultural Responses to Domestic Violence in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godsland, Shelley

    2012-01-01

    The article analyzes the portrayal of the male perpetrator of heterosexual domestic violence in a selection of contemporary Spanish texts (novel, drama, and autobiography) that form part of a clearly discernible cultural response to the issue of intimate partner violence in Spain today. It reads the figure of the abuser in conjunction with a range…

  19. Attention bias and anxiety in young children exposed to family violence

    PubMed Central

    Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J.; Pollak, Seth D.; Grasso, Damion; Voss, Joel; Mian, Nicholas D.; Zobel, Elvira; McCarthy, Kimberly J.; Wakschlag, Lauren S.; Pine, Daniel S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Attention bias towards threat is associated with anxiety in older youth and adults and has been linked with violence exposure. Attention bias may moderate the relationship between violence exposure and anxiety in young children. Capitalizing on measurement advances, the current study examines these relationships at a younger age than previously possible. Methods Young children (mean age 4.7, ±0.8) from a cross-sectional sample oversampled for violence exposure (N = 218) completed the dot-probe task to assess their attention biases. Observed fear/anxiety was characterized with a novel observational paradigm, the Anxiety Diagnostic Observation Schedule. Mother-reported symptoms were assessed with the Preschool-Age Psychiatric Assessment and Trauma Symptom Checklist for Young Children. Violence exposure was characterized with dimensional scores reflecting probability of membership in two classes derived via latent class analysis from the Conflict Tactics Scales: Abuse and Harsh Parenting. Results Family violence predicted greater child anxiety and trauma symptoms. Attention bias moderated the relationship between violence and anxiety. Conclusions Attention bias towards threat may strengthen the effects of family violence on the development of anxiety, with potentially cascading effects across childhood. Such associations may be most readily detected when using observational measures of childhood anxiety. PMID:26716142

  20. Intensification of the phenomenon of violence in the family environment of teenagers.

    PubMed

    Latalski, Maciej; Skórzyńska, Hanna; Pacian, Anna; Sokół, Marlena

    2004-01-01

    Childhood and adolescence are the periods of life when the experience of violence accumulates. As socially weaker individuals, children and teenagers are exposed to violence. The factors that increase the risk of child maltreatment include, above all, social and cultural factors and the stress that family suffer from. The literature on this subject distinguishes four categories of child maltreatment, namely: emotional, physical, negligence and sexual abuse. The survey involved 250 representatives of high school teenagers aged 15-20, including 145 girls and 105 boys. The research method was the survey estimating the Scale of Battered Child Syndrome (for teenagers and adults). The results show that a big group of teenagers admitted to having experienced at least one of four kinds of domestic violence. The group is not uniform, however, and the socio-cultural factors that affect the kind and intensification of the phenomenon of violence have been revealed. The most frequent reasons for using violence are: low level of education, unemployment of parents and material status connected with this fact, low frequency of attendance to religious services, alcohol abuse, and place of living. On account of the intensification of the phenomenon of violence in the domestic environment and both direct and distant consequences of the phenomenon in the form of mental and physical disorders of individuals as well as the dangers for the proper development of the society that result from it, there is a need to continue doing research on this phenomenon.

  1. Informal Control by Family and Risk Markers for Alcohol Abuse/Dependence in Seoul.

    PubMed

    Emery, Clifton R; Wu, Shali; Yang, Hyerin; Lee, Hotaek; Kim, Junpyo; Chan, Ko Ling

    2016-05-08

    Although previous research documents a reliable relationship between physical intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization and alcoholism, relatively little research has examined new theoretical constructs in IPV research that may increase risk for or help buffer women from alcohol abuse/dependence. The purpose of the present study was to examine informal social control of IPV by family members as a protective factor against and coercive control as a risk factor for alcohol abuse/dependence in a small population sample of married women in Seoul, South Korea. We hypothesized that (a) informal social control by family members would be negatively associated with victim alcohol abuse/dependence and (b) husband's coercive control would be positively associated with victim alcohol abuse/dependence. We measured alcohol abuse/dependence (CAGE scale), IPV and coercive control by husbands, and informal social control of IPV (ISC_IPV) by extended family members in a three-stage random cluster sample of 462 married women in Seoul, South Korea. Both random effects regression and zero-inflated Poisson regression models found that ISC_IPV by extended family members was associated with a significantly lower CAGE scores, and coercive control was associated with significantly higher CAGE scores. Interventions to boost ISC_IPV by extended family members may mitigate some of the risk of alcohol abuse/dependence by victims.

  2. The dark side of family communication: a communication model of elder abuse and neglect.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mei-Chen; Giles, Howard

    2013-08-01

    To further address the potential factors that lead up to elder abuse in domestic settings, this paper proposes a model from a communication approach to explain dyadic influences between the family caregiver and the elderly care receiver that give rise to the abuse. That is, dysfunctional communication between the caregivers and care receivers may, therefore, increase the likelihood of elder abuse. Grounded in Bugental and her colleagues' work (1993, 1999, 2002) on child abuse, we propose a power-oriented communication model based, in part, on research in the fields of family violence and intergenerational communication to explain the likelihood of occurrence of elder abuse in family caregiving situations. We argue that certain risk factors pertaining to caregivers' characteristics--those who perceive high stress in caregiving, have mental health issues, have a history of substance abuse, and/or display verbal aggressiveness--may be more likely to attribute considerable power to those elderly under their custodianship. At the same time, such caregivers tend to feel powerless and experience loss of control when interacting with their elderly counterparts. When an elderly care receiver displays noncompliant behaviors, caregivers may be prone to employ abusive behaviors (in our model, it refers to physical abuse, verbal abuse, or communication neglect) to seek such compliance. Consequences of such abuse may result in lower self-esteem or lower confidence in one's ability to manage his/her life. It is suggested that researchers and practitioners investigate both parties' interactions closely and the role of elderly care receivers in order to detect, intervene, and prevent elder abuse.

  3. History of Abuse and Neglect in Patients with Schizophrenia Who Have a History of Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennouna-Greene, Mehdi; Bennouna-Greene, Valerie; Berna, Fabrice; Defranoux, Luc

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of five forms of abuse/neglect during childhood and adolescence in a group of schizophrenic patients with a history of violence. Methods: Twenty-eight patients hospitalized in a highly secured psychiatric unit were included. Abuse and neglect during patients' growth were evaluated with the childhood trauma…

  4. Abused Women's Perspectives on the Criminal Justice System's Response to Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barata, Paula C.

    2007-01-01

    This study used Q methodology to better understand battered women's views about the criminal justice system (CJS). Fifty-eight abused and formerly abused women, representing a broad range of experiences, were involved in the study. Participants sorted 72 statements about domestic violence and the CJS according to how strongly they agreed with each…

  5. 75 FR 14596 - Family Violence Prevention and Services/Grants for Domestic Violence Shelters/Grants to Native...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ... violence public awareness campaigns, and violence prevention counseling services to abusers; (2) Counseling... health care services (including alcohol and drug abuse treatment), but shall not include reimbursement... Regarding Drug-Free Workplace Requirements (See Attachment D): By signing and submitting the...

  6. Coordinated Community Response to Family Violence: The Role of Domestic Violence Service Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Neena M.; Ward, Kristin; Janczewski, Colleen

    2008-01-01

    There is increasing awareness that domestic violence (DV) and child maltreatment often overlap and that there are significant negative consequences to women and children who are victims in the same families. The present study contains data from a participatory evaluation of a multisite national demonstration project on family violence (the…

  7. Dating violence: mental health consequences based on type of abuse.

    PubMed

    Eshelman, Lee; Levendosky, Alytia A

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to determine the relationship between psychological, physical, and sexual abuse, and mental health symptoms. Female college students (N = 499) completed anonymous online surveys to report experiences of abuse, as well as symptoms of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and physical injuries. Five groups of participants were found: no abuse; psychological abuse; physical abuse; psychological and physical abuse; and psychological, physical, and sexual abuse. The multiple abuse groups showed the highest rate of mental health symptoms. In addition, increased frequency of abuse was related to more mental health symptoms and more physical injuries.

  8. Behavioral couples and family therapy for substance abusers.

    PubMed

    O'Farrell, Timothy J; Fals-Stewart, William

    2002-10-01

    Behavioral couples therapy (BCT) sees the substance-abusing patient with the spouse to arrange a daily "sobriety contract" in which the patient states his or her intent not to drink or use drugs, and the spouse expresses support for the patient's efforts to stay abstinent. For patients taking a recovery-related medication (eg, disulfiram, naltrexone), daily medication ingestion witnessed and verbally reinforced by the spouse also is part of the contract. Behavioral couples therapy also teaches communication and increases positive activities. Findings of the past few years have added considerably to the evidence base showing that BCT produces greater abstinence and better relationship functioning than typical individual-based treatment; BCT also reduces social costs and domestic violence. Noteworthy recent advances have extended the positive effects of BCT to women drug abusers, showed the indirect benefits of BCT for the couple's children, expanded BCT to include family members other than spouses, integrated BCT with pharmacotherapy, and started to address barriers to technology transfer.

  9. Women's Initiation of Physical Violence Against an Abusive Partner Outside of a Violent Episode.

    PubMed

    Fanslow, Janet L; Gulliver, Pauline; Dixon, Robyn; Ayallo, Irene

    2015-09-01

    This article explores women's use of physical violence against an abusive male partner, outside of the context of a violence episode. Data were drawn from the New Zealand Violence Against Women Study, a cross-sectional household survey conducted using a population-based cluster-sampling scheme. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with women initiating physical violence against their male partners. Of the 845 women who had experienced physical violence perpetrated by their intimate partner, 19% reported physically mistreating their partner at least once outside of a male initiated violent episode, while 81% never initiated violence against their partner. Analyses showed that women's initiation of violence under these circumstances was strongly associated with either or both partners having alcohol problems, her recreational drug use, her number of violent partners, and her mother being hit or beaten by her father when she was a child.

  10. Males’ Reactions to Participating in Research on Dating Violence Victimization and Childhood Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Zucosky, Heather; Febres, Jeniimarie; Brasfield, Hope; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    Childhood abuse and dating violence victimization are prevalent and devastating problems. While there has been an abundance of research on these topics in recent years, researchers and Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) often struggle with determining whether asking respondents questions on previous violence will result in increased emotional distress or other negative research outcomes. Empirical data is therefore needed that examines the research reactions of individuals who participate in research on childhood abuse and dating violence. The current study examined this topic among a sample of male college students (N = 193). Results showed that victims of childhood sexual abuse had more negative emotional reactions and victims of physical dating violence had more negative perceived drawbacks to research participation than non-victims. However, victims and non-victims did not differ on positive research reactions. These findings suggest that there are few differences between victims and non-victims on research reactions. PMID:23741174

  11. Violence against Native Women in Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saylors, Karen; Daliparthy, Nalini

    2006-01-01

    Many mental health problems among substance abusing populations are directly linked to high rates of abuse and trauma. There is increasing evidence of associations between childhood physical and sexual abuse to adult substance use and HIV-risk behavior. The relationship of abuse, mental health problems, substance abuse, and high-risk sexual…

  12. Family Violence Prevention and Services Programs. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2016-11-02

    This rule will better prevent and protect survivors of family violence, domestic violence, and dating violence, by clarifying that all survivors must have access to services and programs funded under the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act. More specifically, the rule enhances accessibility and non-discrimination provisions, clarifies confidentiality rules, promotes coordination among community-based organizations, State Domestic Violence Coalitions, States, and Tribes, as well as incorporates new discretionary grant programs. Furthermore, the rule updates existing regulations to reflect statutory changes made to the Family Violence Prevention and Services Act, and updates procedures for soliciting and awarding grants. The rule also increases clarity and reduces potential confusion over statutory and regulatory standards. The rule codifies standards already used by the program in the Funding Opportunity Announcements and awards, in technical assistance, in reporting requirements, and in sub-regulatory guidance.

  13. Family Factors in the Lives of Drug Users and Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurich, Anthony; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Reviewed literature which suggested nine family factors that influence children's drug use. Conducted one-on-one interviews with 48 students to compare family factors of drug users with those of drug abusers. Results showed drug abusers were from families that had a communication gap and either laissez faire or authoritarian discipline. (BH)

  14. Income, Family Characteristics, and Physical Violence toward Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, L.M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: This paper discusses the ways in which existing microeconomic theories of partner abuse, intra-family bargaining, and distribution of resources within families may contribute to our current understanding of physical child abuse. The empirical implications of this discussion are then tested on data from the 1985 National Family Violence…

  15. Intergenerational violence in Burundi: Experienced childhood maltreatment increases the risk of abusive child rearing and intimate partner violence

    PubMed Central

    Crombach, Anselm; Bambonyé, Manassé

    2015-01-01

    Background Experiencing abuse during childhood affects the psychological well-being of individuals throughout their lives and may even influence their offspring by enhancing the likelihood of an intergenerational transmission of violence. Understanding the effects of childhood maltreatment on child-rearing practices and intimate partner violence might be of particular importance to overcome the consequences of violent conflicts in African societies. Objective Using Burundi as an example, we aimed to explore the associations between childhood maltreatment, intimate partner violence, perceived partner intimidation, gender and the probability of violently acting out against one's own children or romantic partner. Methods Amongst a sample of 141 men and 141 women in the capital of Burundi, we identified those who had biological children and those who lived or had lived in relationships. Using culturally appropriate instruments, we enquired about their exposure to childhood maltreatment and partner violence as well as their inclinations to act out violently. Results We found that childhood maltreatment and perceived partner intimidation were strong predictors for the perpetration of violence against children. Moreover, we found that women were more likely to use violence against children if they experienced partner violence and less likely to resort to violence if they felt intimidated. Men were more likely to perpetrate violence against their partner. Childhood maltreatment was again a strong predictor. The more women experienced partner violence, the more they fought back. Conclusions Childhood maltreatment is a strong predictor for domestic violence and has to be addressed to interrupt the cycle of violence in post-conflict countries. PMID:26679146

  16. An Overview of "Violence: Diverse Populations and Communities."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Anda, Diane; Becerra, Rosina M.

    2000-01-01

    Provides background to a theme volume on violence in the broader community and in the family. Discusses the incidence in various ethnic and racial groups of adolescent violence, dating violence and sexual assault, domestic violence, child abuse, and elder abuse. (Contains 32 references.) (SV)

  17. Shattered vision: disenchantment of couplehood among female survivors of violence in the shadow of their family-of-origin experiences.

    PubMed

    Buchbinder, Eli; Goldblatt, Hadass

    2011-03-01

    This article describes and analyzes the relationship disenchantment of couplehood among female survivors of violence and their family-of-origin experiences of abuse. Twenty Israeli women who were survivors of violence participated in this qualitative research. Each woman underwent three in-depth interviews, two for data collection and one for validating the themes emerging from content analysis. Data analysis revealed that female survivors of violence aim to overcome the distress and pain of emotional and physical violence experienced in their family of origin, by constructing a couplehood vision imbued with a feeling of power, meaning, hope, and freedom. Partner violence shattered the women's vision of couplehood, leading to crisis, disillusionment, and disenchantment in their marital relationships.

  18. Violence exposure as a predictor of internalizing and externalizing problems among children of substance abusers.

    PubMed

    Conners-Burrow, Nicola; McKelvey, Lorraine; Kyzer, Angela; Swindle, Taren; Cheerla, Rajalakshmi; Kraleti, Shashank

    2013-01-01

    We explore the associations between exposure to conflict and crime in the home and community, and child anxiety and self-control problems among 60 children whose mothers were in treatment for substance abuse problems. Experiences with violence and crime were widespread, with many children exposed to multiple incidents. Approximately one-third (35.5%) of children exhibited clinically elevated anxiety. Controlling for other potential predictors, both children's exposure to violence and the number of years the mother had been using substances predicted higher anxiety in children, while only exposure to violence predicted problems in self-control. Results highlight the importance of screening for violence exposure.

  19. Innovative Strategies to Help Families Cope with the Effects of Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haeseler, Lisa Ann

    2011-01-01

    Women and children coping with issues of domestic violence abuse urgently require help from early childhood professionals. The U.S. Department of Justice (2008) details these women and children are in peril. This article focuses on female domestic violence abuse. It presents some warning signs of domestic violence. It also offers steps on how to…

  20. Are experiences of family and of organized violence predictors of aggression and violent behavior? A study with unaccompanied refugee minors

    PubMed Central

    Mueller-Bamouh, Veronika; Ruf-Leuschner, Martina; Dohrmann, Katalin; Schauer, Maggie; Elbert, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Background There is strong support for familial abuse as a risk factor for later delinquency and violent offending, whereas empirical evidence about the contribution of experienced organized violence to the cycle of violence is less clear. Nevertheless not all abused children do become violent offenders. This raises the question of which factors influence these children's risk of future aggressive behavior. Recent evidence suggests that the trait of appetitive aggression plays an important role in the prediction of aggressive behavior. Objective The focus of the study is to investigate whether exposures to 1) organized; and 2) family violence equally contribute to aggressive behavior and how this is related to a trait of appetitive aggression. Furthermore it is of interest to uncover how the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms modulates associations between violent experiences and aggression. Method To answer these questions, we investigated unaccompanied refugee minors who had been exposed to varying levels of both violence types. Using structured interviews, experiences of organized and familial violence, self-committed aggressive acts, the trait of appetitive aggression, and PTSD symptoms were assessed in 49 volunteers. Results A sequential regression analysis revealed that the trait of appetitive aggression and experienced family violence were independent and significant predictors of self-committed aggressive acts, altogether accounting for 70% of the variance. Exposure to organized violence, however, was not significantly associated with aggressive acts or appetitive aggression. PTSD symptom severity was not correlated with measures of aggression but with the exposure to familial and organized violence. Conclusions Results suggest that in addition to the impact of family violence, an elevated trait of appetitive aggression plays a crucial role in aggressive behavior and should be considered in psychotherapeutic treatment. PMID:26886483

  1. Structural Pathways between Child Abuse, Poor Mental Health Outcomes and Male-Perpetrated Intimate Partner Violence (IPV)

    PubMed Central

    Machisa, Mercilene T.; Christofides, Nicola; Jewkes, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Background Violent trauma exposures, including child abuse, are risk factors for PTSD and comorbid mental health disorders. Child abuse experiences of men exacerbate adult male-perpetrated intimate partner violence (IPV). The relationship between child abuse, poor mental health and IPV perpetration is complex but research among the general population is lacking. This study describes the relationship and pathways between history of child abuse exposure and male-perpetrated IPV while exploring the potentially mediating effect of poor mental health. Methods We analysed data from a randomly selected, two-stage clustered, cross-sectional household survey conducted with 416 adult men in Gauteng Province of South Africa. We used multinomial regression modelling to identify associated factors and Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) to test the primary hypothesis that poor mental health (defined as abusing alcohol or having PTSD or depressive symptoms) mediates the relationship between child abuse and IPV perpetration. Results Eighty eight percent of men were physically abused, 55% were neglected, 63% were emotionally abused and 20% were sexually abused at least once in their childhood. Twenty four percent of men had PTSD symptoms, 24% had depressive symptoms and 36% binge drank. Fifty six percent of men physically abused and 31% sexually abused partners at least once in their lifetime. Twenty two percent of men had one episode and 40% had repeat episodes of IPV perpetration. PTSD symptomatology risk increased with severity of child trauma and other trauma. PTSD severity increased the risk for binge drinking. Child trauma, other trauma and PTSD symptomatology increased the severity of depressive symptoms. PTSD symptomatology was comorbid with alcohol abuse and depressive symptoms. Child trauma, having worked in the year before the survey, other trauma and PTSD increased the risk of repeat episodes of IPV perpetration. Highly equitable gender attitudes were protective

  2. Men Who Are Abusive to Their Female Intimate Partners: Incorporating Family of Origin Work into Group Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Musick-Neily, Erin Francess; McBride, Dawn Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines and provides a rationale for incorporating past victimization into group treatment for men who have been abusive to their female intimate partners. It begins with providing a general overview of the issue of family violence in Canada and in the U.S including statistics and an overview of group treatment effectiveness overall.…

  3. Sexual abuse and violence among adolescent girls in Botswana: a mental health perspective.

    PubMed

    Seloilwe, Esther Salang; Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, Gloria

    2009-07-01

    The presence of sexual abuse among societies in Botswana is a phenomenon whose occurrence is usually denied albeit the police report on it and legal frameworks have been established to combat it. Several factors influence the concealment of sexual abuse among adolescent girls, which includes cultural factors and social status of the perpetrators. This paper espouses the concept of sexual abuse among adolescent girls, the existence of the problem, its magnitude, the factors that increase vulnerability to violence and abuse, and how these factors intersect with HIV and AIDS. Two case studies using a discovery method were used to explore the phenomenon under the study. The findings of the study indicated that sexual abuse and violence have profound mental health consequences including guilt, anxiety, depression and anger. Future research is suggested to explore this problem on a wider scale and develop interventions that can assist victims and perpetrators to cope with the situation.

  4. Hispanic Women’s Experiences With Substance Abuse, Intimate Partner Violence, and Risk for HIV

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Vasquez, Elias P.; Urrutia, Maria T.; Villarruel, Antonia M.; Peragallo, Nilda

    2011-01-01

    Hispanic females are disproportionately affected by substance abuse, intimate partner violence, and HIV. Despite these disparities, research describing the cultural and gender-specific experiences of Hispanic women with regard to these conditions is lacking. The purpose of this study is to describe the experiences that Hispanic community-dwelling women have with regard to substance abuse, violence, and risky sexual behaviors. Eight focus groups with 81 women were conducted. A bilingual, bicultural moderator asked women open-ended questions regarding the experiences that Hispanic women have with these conditions. Focus groups were audiotaped, transcribed, translated, verified, and then analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Participants discussed substance abuse, violence, and risky sexual behaviors interchangeably, often identifying common risk factors associated with these. Nevertheless, intimate partner violence was the most salient of conditions discussed. Three major themes emerged from the analysis: Transplantadas en otro mundo (Uprooted in another world), El criador de abuso (The breeding ground of abuse), and Rompiendo el silencio (Breaking the silence). This study supports the importance of addressing substance abuse, violence, and risk for HIV in an integrated manner and stresses the importance of addressing associated cultural factors (e.g., acculturation, machismo) in interventions targeting Hispanics. PMID:21191036

  5. Prevalence of abusive encounters in the workplace of family physicians

    PubMed Central

    Miedema, Baukje; Hamilton, Ryan; Lambert-Lanning, Anita; Tatemichi, Sue R.; Lemire, Francine; Manca, Donna; Ramsden, Vivian R.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To examine the career prevalence of abusive encounters for family physicians in Canada. DESIGN A 7-page cross-sectional mailed survey in English and French. SETTING Canada. PARTICIPANTS A total of 3802 randomly selected practising family physicians who were members of the College of Family Physicians of Canada. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Demographic characteristics of survey participants, career prevalence of abusive encounters, and perpetrators of abuse. MAIN FINDINGS Twenty percent (20.4%) of the surveys (n = 774) were returned. Of the respondents, 44% were men and 56% were women. Most were in private practice in urban settings. The average number of years in practice was 15. The career prevalence of abusive encounters was divided into “minor,” “major,” and “severe” incidents. Of all the respondents, 98% had experienced at least 1 incident of minor abuse, 75% had experienced at least 1 incident of major abuse, and 39% had experienced at least 1 incident of severe abuse. Using χ2 analysis, a number of demographic variables were found to be significantly associated with abuse including the physician’s race and sex. Patients were the most common perpetrators of abuse. Ninety percent of family physicians surveyed reported that they had been abused by patients, while 70% reported that they had been abused by family members of patients. CONCLUSION Approximately 2 in 5 family physicians surveyed were subjected to a considerable amount of severe abuse during practice. Abuse in the office setting might have grave consequences for the health and well-being of the victimized physicians and might hinder service retention where the risk of abuse is greatest. PMID:20228289

  6. Addressing substance abuse and violence in substance use disorder treatment and batterer intervention programs

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Substance use disorders and perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV) are interrelated, major public health problems. Methods We surveyed directors of a sample of substance use disorder treatment programs (SUDPs; N=241) and batterer intervention programs (BIPs; N=235) in California (70% response rate) to examine the extent to which SUDPs address IPV, and BIPs address substance abuse. Results Generally, SUDPs were not addressing co-occurring IPV perpetration in a formal and comprehensive way. Few had a policy requiring assessment of potential clients, or monitoring of admitted clients, for violence perpetration; almost one-quarter did not admit potential clients who had perpetrated IPV, and only 20% had a component or track to address violence. About one-third suspended or terminated clients engaging in violence. The most common barriers to SUDPs providing IPV services were that violence prevention was not part of the program’s mission, staff lacked training in violence, and the lack of reimbursement mechanisms for such services. In contrast, BIPs tended to address substance abuse in a more formal and comprehensive way; e.g., one-half had a policy requiring potential clients to be assessed, two-thirds required monitoring of substance abuse among admitted clients, and almost one-half had a component or track to address substance abuse. SUDPs had clients with fewer resources (marriage, employment, income, housing), and more severe problems (both alcohol and drug use disorders, dual substance use and other mental health disorders, HIV + status). We found little evidence that services are centralized for individuals with both substance abuse and violence problems, even though most SUDP and BIP directors agreed that help for both problems should be obtained simultaneously in separate programs. Conclusions SUDPs may have difficulty addressing violence because they have a clientele with relatively few resources and more complex psychological and medical

  7. Homeless in Dhaka: violence, sexual harassment, and drug-abuse.

    PubMed

    Koehlmoos, Tracey Pérez; Uddin, Md Jasim; Ashraf, Ali; Rashid, Mashida

    2009-08-01

    Bangladesh has experienced one of the highest urban population growth rates (around 7% per year) over the past three decades. Dhaka, the capital city, attracts approximately 320,000 migrants from rural areas every year. The city is unable to provide shelter, food, education, healthcare, and employment for its rapidly-expanding population. An estimated 3.4 million people live in the overcrowded slums of Dhaka, and many more live in public spaces lacking the most basic shelter. While a small but growing body of research describes the lives of people who live in urban informal settlements or slums, very little research describes the population with no housing at all. Anecdotally, the homeless population in Dhaka is known to face extortion, erratic unemployment, exposure to violence, and sexual harassment and to engage in high-risk behaviours. However, this has not been systematically documented. This cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted to better understand the challenges in the lives of the homeless population in 11 areas of Dhaka during a 13-month period from June 2007 to June 2008. A modified cluster-sampling method was used for selecting 32 clusters of 14 female and male respondents, for a sample of 896. In addition to sociodemographic details, this paper focuses specifically on violence, drug-abuse, and sexual harassment. The findings showed that physical assaults among the homeless, particularly among women, were a regular phenomenon. Eighty-three percent of female respondents (n=372) were assaulted by their husbands, station masters, and male police officers. They were subjected to lewd gestures, unwelcome advances, and rape. Male respondents reported being physically assaulted while trying to collect food, fighting over space, or while stealing, by police officers, miscreants, or other homeless people. Sixty-nine percent of the male respondents (n=309) used locally-available drugs, such as marijuana and heroin, and two-thirds of injecting drug

  8. Children's experiences of domestic violence and abuse: Siblings' accounts of relational coping.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Jane E M; Alexander, Joanne H; Sixsmith, Judith; Fellin, Lisa C

    2016-10-01

    This article explores how children see their relationships, particularly their sibling relationships, in families affected by domestic violence (DV) and how relationality emerges in their accounts as a resource to build an agentic sense of self. The 'voice' of children is largely absent from the DV literature, which typically portrays them as passive, damaged and relationally incompetent. Children's own understandings of their relational worlds are often overlooked, and consequently, existing models of children's social interactions give inadequate accounts of their meaning-making-in-context. Drawn from a larger study of children's experiences of DV and abuse, this article uses two case studies of sibling relationships to explore young people's use of relational resources, for coping with violence in the home. The article explores how relationality and coping intertwine in young people's accounts and disrupts the taken-for-granted assumption that children's 'premature caring' or 'parentification' is (only) pathological in children's responses to DV. This has implications for understanding young people's experiences in the present and supporting their capacity for relationship building in the future.

  9. EXPOSURE TO DOMESTIC VIOLENCE AND CHILDHOOD EMOTIONAL ABUSE

    PubMed Central

    MBILINYI, LYUNGAI F.; LOGAN-GREENE, PATRICIA B.; NEIGHBORS, CLAYTON; WALKER, DENISE D.; ROFFMAN, ROGER A.; ZEGREE, JOAN

    2017-01-01

    The association between childhood exposure to domestic violence and later intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration in adulthood has been well established in the literature. However, the literature examining the factors of exposure that contribute to perpetration in adulthood is fraught with mixed findings, with some studies finding a direct link between childhood domestic violence exposure and later IPV perpetration and others ruling out a link after controlling for other contextual barriers such as community violence and socioeconomic status. This study examined 124 non-treatment-seeking and unadjudicated adult male IPV perpetrators and found exposure to domestic violence in childhood contributes to the normalization of violence, which could predict future adult IPV perpetration. Practice implications are discussed, namely primary and secondary prevention of intimate partner violence.

  10. Secret Wounds: Working with Child Observers of Family Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee Associates, Skillman, NJ.

    Noting that children who witness family violence, but are not direct victims of the violence, are frequently forgotten, this 33-minute video and complementary written materials provide a highly flexible program designed to address the multiple needs of these children with diverse backgrounds and a wide range of experiences. The first part of the…

  11. Interrelationship of Family and Extrafamilial Violence in a Representative Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandel, Elizabeth

    With limited exceptions, existing research has focused on either intrafamily violence or crime and violence outside the family. This study examined the proportion of men who only offend extrafamilially, the proportion of men who are violent only towards their wives, and the proportion of men who are violent in both spheres. Unincarcerated males…

  12. Can Evolutionary Principles Explain Patterns of Family Violence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, John

    2013-01-01

    The article's aim is to evaluate the application of the evolutionary principles of kin selection, reproductive value, and resource holding power to the understanding of family violence. The principles are described in relation to specific predictions and the mechanisms underlying these. Predictions are evaluated for physical violence perpetrated…

  13. La Mancha Negra: Substance Abuse, Violence, and Sexual Risks Among Hispanic Males

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Ortega, Johis; Vasquez, Elias P.; De Santis, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Hispanics are disproportionately affected by substance abuse, intimate partner violence, and HIV. Although the relationship between these conditions has been documented in the literature, few studies have explored the intersection of these health problems and their culture-related risk factors in an integrative manner. The purpose of this study is to explore the experiences that Hispanic heterosexual males in South Florida have with substance abuse, violence, and risky sexual behaviors. Three focus groups with a total of 25 Hispanic adult men are completed and analyzed using grounded theory. Three core categories emerge from the data. These include la cuna de problemas sociales (the cradle of social problems), ramas de una sola mata (branches from one same tree), and la mancha negra (the black stain). This study suggests that substance abuse, violence, and risky sexual behaviors are linked conditions with common cultural and socioenvironmental risk factors and consequences. PMID:19915207

  14. La mancha negra: substance abuse, violence, and sexual risks among Hispanic males.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Ortega, Johis; Vasquez, Elias P; De Santis, Joseph

    2010-02-01

    Hispanics are disproportionately affected by substance abuse, intimate partner violence, and HIV. Although the relationship between these conditions has been documented in the literature, few studies have explored the intersection of these health problems and their culture-related risk factors in an integrative manner. The purpose of this study is to explore the experiences that Hispanic heterosexual males in South Florida have with substance abuse, violence, and risky sexual behaviors. Three focus groups with a total of 25 Hispanic adult men are completed and analyzed using grounded theory. Three core categories emerge from the data. These include la cuna de problemas sociales (the cradle of social problems), ramas de una sola mata (branches from one same tree), and la mancha negra (the black stain). This study suggests that substance abuse, violence, and risky sexual behaviors are linked conditions with common cultural and socioenvironmental risk factors and consequences.

  15. What do we know about older abusers? a typology of violent husbands dwelling in lifelong intimate violence relationships.

    PubMed

    Band-Winterstein, Tova

    2013-07-01

    Most research on intimate partner violence to date has focused on young men. Although interest and research regarding older abused women has increased in recent years, research on the voices and experiences of older abusive men is still scarce. The purpose of this article is to present a typology of older battering men dwelling in lifelong intimate violence relationships. Fifteen older Israeli abusive men, aged 65 to 84 years, were interviewed in depth. Four types were identified: the "Non-quitter," the "Cover-up"-er, the "In-between"-er, and the "Normalizer." These types were constructed based on four dimensions: the construction of violence over the years, the perception of the spouse over the years, losses accompanying the violent relationship, and the meaning of violence in old age. The four types enable an in-depth look at the experiential world of older abusers and paint a complex picture of various ways in which abusive men live with violence over time.

  16. Associations between family support, family intimacy, and neighborhood violence and physical activity in urban adolescent girls.

    PubMed

    Kuo, JoAnn; Voorhees, Carolyn C; Haythornthwaite, Jennifer A; Young, Deborah Rohm

    2007-01-01

    We examined the association between various dimensions of the family environment, including family intimacy and involvement in activities, family support for physical activity, and neighborhood violence (perceived and objective) and physical activity among urban, predominantly African American, ninth-grade girls in Baltimore, Md. Greater family intimacy (P = .05) and support (P = .01), but not neighborhood violence, was associated with physical activity. Family factors, including family intimacy and support, are potential targets in physical activity interventions for urban high-school girls.

  17. Child victims and poly-victims in China: are they more at-risk of family violence?

    PubMed

    Chan, Ko Ling

    2014-11-01

    Multiple forms of violence may co-occur on a child. These may include various forms of child victimization and different types of family violence. However, evidence that child victims are more likely to witness other types of family violence has been lacking in China. Using data of a large and diverse sample of children recruited from 6 regions in China during 2009 and 2010 (N=18,341; 47% girls; mean age=15.9 years), the associations between child victimization and family violence witnessed were examined. Descriptive statistics and the associations between child victimization, demographic characteristics, and family violence witnessed were analyzed. Lifetime and preceding-year rates were 71.7% and 60.0% for any form of child victimization and 14.0% and 9.2% for poly-victimization (having four or more types of victimization), respectively. Family disadvantages (i.e., lower socio-economic status, single parents, and having more than one child in the family) were associated with child victimization and poly-victimization. Witnessing of parental intimate partner violence, elder abuse, and in-law conflict also increased the likelihood of child victimization and poly-victimization, even after the adjustment of demographic factors. Possible mechanisms for the links between family violence and child victimization are discussed. The current findings indicated the need for focusing on the whole family rather than the victim only. For example, screening for different types of family violence when child victims are identified may help early detection of other victims within the family.

  18. Family Center: A Community Based Approach to the Problems of Abusive Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Margaret A., Ed.; Schneider, Carol J., Ed.

    Presented is the final report of the Family Center Project, a program designed to increase the number of reported cases of suspected child abuse and neglect and increase the services for abused and neglected children and their families in Adams County, Colorado. Three chapters which address the goal of increasing child abuse referrals focus on…

  19. Violence against health workers in Family Medicine Centers

    PubMed Central

    Al-Turki, Nouf; Afify, Ayman AM; AlAteeq, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Background Health care violence is a significant worldwide problem with negative consequences on both the safety and well-being of health care workers as well as workplace activities. Reports examining health care violence in Saudi Arabia are limited and the results are conflicting. Objective To estimate the prevalence and determine the demographic and occupational characteristics associated with workplace violence in primary care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods A cross-sectional study included 270 health care workers in 12 family medicine centers in Riyadh during November and December 2014. A structured self-administered questionnaire was used to estimate the frequency, timing, causes, reactions, and consequences of workplace violence plus participants’ demographic and occupational data. Results A total 123 health care workers (45.6%) experienced some kind of violence over 12 months prior to the study. These included physical (6.5%) and nonphysical violence (99.2%), including verbal violence (94.3%) and intimidation (22.0%). Offenders were patients (71.5%) in the majority of cases, companions (20.3%), or both (3.3%). Almost half (48.0%) of health care workers who experienced violence did nothing, 38.2% actively reported the event, and 13.8% consulted a colleague. A significant association of workplace violence was found with working multiple shifts, evening or night shift, and lack of an encouraging environment to report violence. Conclusion Workplace violence is still a significant problem in primary care centers. The high frequency of violence together with underreporting may indicate the inefficiency of the current safety program. More safety programs and training activities for health care workers, efficient reporting system, and zero tolerance policies need to be implemented to minimize workplace violence against health workers. PMID:27330300

  20. Violence against women by male partners and against children within the family: prevalence, associated factors, and intergenerational transmission in Romania, a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Domestic violence is a public health problem with negative consequences. We aimed to determine the prevalence of violence between parents and by parents against children, types of intimate partner violence against women, the intergenerational transmission of violence, and to identify a profile of beliefs and judgements regarding violent behaviour. Methods The data used for this article were sourced from three cross-sectional studies performed in Romania in 2009–2011. We sampled 869 respondents (male and female) with a homogenous distribution between environment, gender, educational level, and age group (18 to 75). From a 96-item questionnaire regarding family and reproductive health, this article refers to four items: (1) feelings relating to the family in which they were raised; (2) whether they witnessed violence between parents or were victims of violence by parents or other family members during childhood or the teenage years; (3) opinions relating to 10 statements on violence from Maudsley Violence Questionnaire; (4) the manifestation of psychological, emotional, and sexual abuse from the partner in the family of procreation (FOP). The data were analysed by Pearson chi-square tests and latent class analysis. Results During childhood, 35% of respondents witnessed parental violence and 53.7% were victims of family violence. Psychological abuse by men against women was the most common type of violence reported in the FOP (45.1%). Violence in childhood and adolescence correlated with the perception of the family of origin as a hostile environment and of violence against women as a corrective measure, and that insults, swearing, and humiliation by their partner within the FOP is acceptable (p < 0.05). A profile of beliefs and judgements about violent behaviour indicated that the Impulsive reactive cluster is represented by men in rural areas, and by subjects who witnessed parental violence or were victims of violence during childhood (p < 0

  1. Risk of Behaviors Associated with Lethal Violence and Functional Outcomes for Abused Women Who Do and Do Not Return to the Abuser Following a Community-Based Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Nava, Angeles; Gilroy, Heidi; Maddoux, John

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: To determine the differential risk of behaviors associated with lethal violence and functioning outcomes for abused women with children who received an intervention of shelter or justice services and return to the abuser were compared with women who did not return. Methods: The study was carried out using a matched-pair analysis of 152 women. Measures of risk of behaviors associated with lethal violence, type, and severity of abuse, and poor mental health symptoms were measured every 4 months for 24 months. Results: Irrespective of service used, women returning to the abuser reported significantly (p<0.001) more risk of behaviors associated with lethal violence compared to women who did not return. Additionally, severity of physical abuse was significantly higher (p<0.01) for women returning to the abuser who had been in a shelter but not for women who received a protection order. Similarly, levels of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and anxiety were significantly higher (p<0.01) for sheltered women who returned to the abuser but not for women using a protection order who returned. Conclusions: Risk of behaviors associated with lethal violence increases when abused women return to live with the abuser. Abused women should be informed of the heightened risk and greater probability for poor mental health. PMID:25714332

  2. Behind the cycle of violence, beyond abuse history: a brief report on the association of parental attachment to physical child abuse potential.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Christina M; Tucker, Meagan C

    2011-01-01

    Although the concept of a cycle of violence presumes that the transmission of violence is expressed directly across generations, the role of the overall quality of the parent-child relationship may ultimately be more influential in later parenting behavior. This study investigated whether mothers' poorer attachment to their parents was associated with their current increased child abuse potential and dysfunctional disciplinary style independent of a personal history of child abuse. A sample of 73 at-risk mothers raising children with behavior problems reported on their parental attachment, abuse potential, dysfunctional parenting style, and personal abuse history. An at-risk sample, rather than a sample of identified abuse victims or perpetrators, was studied to better examine the potential continuity or discontinuity from history of abuse to current abuse risk, allowing consideration of those who may break the cycle versus those who potentially initiate abuse in the absence of a personal history. Findings indicate that poor attachment significantly predicted both dysfunctional parenting practices and elevated child abuse potential, controlling for personal child abuse history. Such results highlight the importance of the overall quality of the relationship between the parent and child in potentially shaping future abuse risk. Findings are discussed in terms of continuity or discontinuity in the cycle of violence and future directions for research on attachment in relation to the development of later child abuse risk.

  3. Child sexual abuse--children and families referred to a treatment project and the effects of intervention.

    PubMed

    Bentovim, A; Boston, P; van Elburg, A

    1987-12-05

    The characteristics of a series of 274 families who were referred to a sexual abuse treatment programme were analysed. Information was obtained on 411 abused children and 362 non-abused children. Different forms of sexual abuse were noted, with 77% of girls and 23% of boys affected. Boys tended to be abused at a younger age, more severely, and for longer periods than girls. There was a predominance of lower social class groups among the parents, and a wide variety of family structures, with reasonable stability over time. Ninety six per cent of perpetrators were men, and biological and step-parents predominated. Contributing factors in both the family history and the current perpetrators and their wives included sexual abuse, violence, chaotic families, marital problems, sexual difficulties, alcoholism, and subnormality. Follow up of 120 families, 180 victims, and 226 siblings showed that prosecution occurred in 60% of cases, with a high percentage of perpetrators being imprisoned. Treatment was offered to 87% of families, but because the treatment programme was in the early stages of development a variable number of children and parents were offered family treatment or treatment in groups for parents and children separately. There was an improvement in the victim's circumstances in 61% of cases, and a noticeable reduction in "sexualised" and general emotional difficulties among victims, but there was reabuse rate of 16%. Protection of children was achieved through changes of family attitude and changes in family structure including divorce and separation: 14% of victims were rehabilitated to both parents, 33% to mothers only, and 26% to new families or other residences. Consensus in the family that abuse had occurred was seen as an important factor in determining which children could be rehabilitated with both their parents, with their mothers only, or with new families; which families could be offered or accepted treatment; and whether positive changes in the

  4. Child sexual abuse--children and families referred to a treatment project and the effects of intervention.

    PubMed Central

    Bentovim, A; Boston, P; van Elburg, A

    1987-01-01

    The characteristics of a series of 274 families who were referred to a sexual abuse treatment programme were analysed. Information was obtained on 411 abused children and 362 non-abused children. Different forms of sexual abuse were noted, with 77% of girls and 23% of boys affected. Boys tended to be abused at a younger age, more severely, and for longer periods than girls. There was a predominance of lower social class groups among the parents, and a wide variety of family structures, with reasonable stability over time. Ninety six per cent of perpetrators were men, and biological and step-parents predominated. Contributing factors in both the family history and the current perpetrators and their wives included sexual abuse, violence, chaotic families, marital problems, sexual difficulties, alcoholism, and subnormality. Follow up of 120 families, 180 victims, and 226 siblings showed that prosecution occurred in 60% of cases, with a high percentage of perpetrators being imprisoned. Treatment was offered to 87% of families, but because the treatment programme was in the early stages of development a variable number of children and parents were offered family treatment or treatment in groups for parents and children separately. There was an improvement in the victim's circumstances in 61% of cases, and a noticeable reduction in "sexualised" and general emotional difficulties among victims, but there was reabuse rate of 16%. Protection of children was achieved through changes of family attitude and changes in family structure including divorce and separation: 14% of victims were rehabilitated to both parents, 33% to mothers only, and 26% to new families or other residences. Consensus in the family that abuse had occurred was seen as an important factor in determining which children could be rehabilitated with both their parents, with their mothers only, or with new families; which families could be offered or accepted treatment; and whether positive changes in the

  5. Intimate Partner Violence and Miscarriage: Examination of the Role of Physical and Psychological Abuse and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morland, Leslie A.; Leskin, Gregory A.; Block, Carolyn Rebecca; Campbell, Jacquelyn C.; Friedman, Matthew J.

    2008-01-01

    Despite research documenting high rates of violence during pregnancy, few studies have examined the impact of physical abuse, psychological abuse, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on miscarriage. Secondary analysis of data collected by the Chicago Women's Health Risk Study permitted an exploration of the relationships among physical abuse,…

  6. The Rate of Cyber Dating Abuse among Teens and How It Relates to Other Forms of Teen Dating Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zweig, Janine M.; Dank, Meredith; Yahner, Jennifer; Lachman, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    To date, little research has documented how teens might misuse technology to harass, control, and abuse their dating partners. This study examined the extent of cyber dating abuse--abuse via technology and new media--in youth relationships and how it relates to other forms of teen dating violence. A total of 5,647 youth from ten schools in three…

  7. Relationships of Depression to Child and Adult Abuse and Bodily Pain among Women Who Have Experienced Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koopman, Cheryl; Ismailji, Tasneem; Palesh, Oxana; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; Narayanan, Amrita; Saltzman, Kasey M.; Holmes, Danielle; McGarvey, Elizabeth L.

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates whether depression in women who experienced intimate partner violence is associated with having also experienced childhood sexual and physical abuse, psychological abuse by an intimate partner, recent involvement with the abusive partner, and bodily pain. Fifty-seven women who had left a violent relationship with an…

  8. Can evolutionary principles explain patterns of family violence?

    PubMed

    Archer, John

    2013-03-01

    The article's aim is to evaluate the application of the evolutionary principles of kin selection, reproductive value, and resource holding power to the understanding of family violence. The principles are described in relation to specific predictions and the mechanisms underlying these. Predictions are evaluated for physical violence perpetrated by (a) parents to unrelated children, (b) parents to genetic offspring, and (c) offspring to parents and between (d) siblings and (e) sexual partners. Precise figures for risks have been calculated where possible. The major conclusions are that most of the evidence is consistent with evolutionary predictions derived from kin selection and reproductive value: There were (a) higher rates of violence to stepchildren, (b) a decline in violence with the age of offspring, and (c) an increase in violence with parental age, while (d) violence between siblings was generally at a low level and concerned resource disputes. The issue of distinguishing evolutionary from alternative explanations is addressed throughout and is problematic for predictions derived from reproductive value. The main evolutionary explanation for male partner violence, mate guarding as a result of paternity uncertainty, cannot explain Western studies where sex differences in control and violence between partners were absent, although other aspects of male partner violence are consistent with it, and it may explain sex differences in traditional cultures. Recurrent problems in evaluating the evidence were to control for possible confounds and thus to distinguish evolutionary from alternative explanations. Suggestions are outlined to address this and other issues arising from the review.

  9. Intimate Partner Violence and Animal Abuse in an Immigrant-Rich Sample of Mother-Child Dyads Recruited From Domestic Violence Programs.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Christie A; Hageman, Tina; Williams, James Herbert; Ascione, Frank R

    2015-11-25

    We examined rates of animal abuse in pet-owning families experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). We also examined whether higher levels of IPV (as measured by subscales from the Conflict Tactics Scales) predicted increased risk for partner-perpetrated animal abuse. Our sample included 291 mother-child dyads, where the mothers sought services from domestic violence agencies. Nearly half the sample is comprised of Mexican immigrants. Mothers reported that 11.7% of partners threatened to harm a pet and 26.1% actually harmed a pet, the latter of which represents a lower rate than in similar studies. When examining animal abuse by "Hispanic status," follow-up analyses revealed significant omnibus differences between groups, in that non-Hispanic U.S.-born partners (mostly White) displayed higher rates of harming pets (41%) than either U.S.-born or Mexican-born Hispanic groups (27% and 12.5%, respectively). Differences in rates for only threatening (but not harming) pets were not significant, possibly due to a small number of partners (n = 32) in this group. When examining whether partners' IPV predicted only threatening to harm pets, no IPV subscale variables (Physical Assault, Psychological Aggression, Injury, or Sexual Coercion) were significant after controlling for income, education, and Hispanic status. When examining actual harm to pets, more Psychological Aggression and less Physical Assault significantly predicted slightly higher risk of harm. However, Mexican-born partners had nearly 4 times lower risk of harming a pet. Overall, these results suggest that Hispanic men who are perpetrators of IPV are less likely to harm pets than non-Hispanic perpetrators of IPV, particularly if Mexican-born. Considering that the United States has a significant proportion of Mexican immigrants, it may be worthwhile to explore the topics of IPV and animal abuse within this group.

  10. Abuse of family physicians by patients seeking controlled substances

    PubMed Central

    Saveland, Christine; Hawker, Leisha; Miedema, Baukje; MacDougall, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective To examine family physicians’ career prevalence and monthly incidence of workplace abuse by controlled substance prescription seekers. Design A 4-page cross-sectional survey. Setting A family medicine continuing medical education event in Halifax, NS. Participants The survey was distributed to 316 family physicians attending the continuing medical education event. Main outcome measures Career prevalence and monthly incidence of workplace abuse related to the act of prescribing controlled substances. Results Fifty-six percent (n = 178) of the 316 surveys were returned completed. Half the study participants were men (49%). Most study participants were in private practice and lived in Nova Scotia, and approximately half (51%) practised in urban settings. On average, the study participants had 20 years of practice experience. The career prevalence of abusive encounters related to controlled substance prescribing was divided into “minor,” “major,” and “severe” incidents. Overall, 95% of study participants reported having experienced at least 1 incident of minor abuse; 48% had experienced at least 1 incident of major abuse; and 17% had experienced at least 1 incident of severe abuse during their careers. Further, 30% reported having been abused in the past month; among those, the average number of abusive encounters was 3. Most (82%) of the abusers were male with a history of addiction (85%) and mental illness (39%). Opioids were the most frequently sought controlled substance. Conclusion Abuse of family physicians by patients seeking controlled substances is substantial. Family physicians who prescribe controlled substances are at risk of being subjected to minor, major, or even severe abuse. Opioids were the most often sought controlled substance. A national discussion to deal with this issue is needed. PMID:24522691

  11. From Family Violence to Dating Violence: Testing a Dual Pathway Model.

    PubMed

    Morris, Anjana Madan; Mrug, Sylvie; Windle, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Risk factors for adolescent perpetration of or victimization by dating violence stem from different levels of adolescents' social ecologies, including the family, individual, and peer domains. However, these multiple risk factors have not been fully integrated into a single comprehensive model of dating violence development. The present study examined prospective links between exposure to family violence in pre-adolescence; pro-violent beliefs, aggression, deviant peer affiliation, and aggression toward opposite-sex peers in early adolescence and dating violence in late adolescence. Using a longitudinal study of 461 youth (51 % female; 80 % African American, 19 % Caucasian, 1 % other ethnicities), path modeling evaluated a theoretically developed dual pathway model involving a general violence pathway and an early romantic aggression pathway. Each pathway links exposure to family violence in pre-adolescence with early adolescent pro-violent beliefs and/or aggressive behavior. In both pathways, pro-violent beliefs may reinforce aggressive behaviors between same-sex and opposite-sex peers, as well as strengthen bonds with deviant peers. In the last part of both pathways, aggressive behavior and peer deviance in early adolescence may contribute directly to late adolescent dating violence perpetration and victimization. The findings provided support for both pathways, as well as sex differences in the model.

  12. The Association of Telomere Length With Family Violence and Disruption

    PubMed Central

    Mabile, Emily; Brett, Zoë H.; Esteves, Kyle; Jones, Edward; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Theall, Katherine P.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To enhance the understanding of biological mechanisms connecting early adversity and negative health, we examine the association between family interpersonal violence and disruption and telomere length in youth. These specific exposures were selected because of their established links with negative health consequences across the life-course. METHODS: Children, age 5 to 15, were recruited from the greater New Orleans area, and exposure to family disruption and violence was assessed through caregiver report. Telomere length, from buccal cell DNA (buccal telomere length [bTL]), was determined by using monochrome multiplex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. The association between bTL and adversity exposure was tested (n = 80). RESULTS: Cumulative exposure to interpersonal violence and family disruption was correlated with bTL. Controlling for other sociodemographic factors, bTL was significantly shorter in children with higher exposure to family violence and disruption. Witnessing family violence exerted a particularly potent impact. A significant gender interaction was found (β = −0.0086, SE = 0.0031, z test= −2.79, P = .0053) and analysis revealed the effect only in girls. CONCLUSIONS: bTL is a molecular biomarker of adversity and allostatic load that is detectable in childhood. The present results extend previous studies by demonstrating that telomeres are sensitive to adversity within the overarching family domain. These findings suggest that the family ecology may be an important target for interventions to reduce the biological impact of adversity in the lives of children. PMID:24936002

  13. The Assessment of Intimate Partner Violence in Spanish Women: The Index of Spouse Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plazaola-Castano, Juncal; Ruiz-Perez, Isabel; Escriba-Aguir, Vicenta; Montero-Pinar, Isabel; Vives-Cases, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to analyze the internal consistency and construct validity of the Spanish version of the Index of Spouse Abuse (ISA) in a representative sample of 8,995 women attending general practice in Spain in 2006-2007. The factor structure analysis shows that the ISA measures four intimate partner violence (IPV) dimensions: emotional, physical, and…

  14. Violence against Pregnant Women Can Increase the Risk of Child Abuse: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ko Ling; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Fong, Daniel Y. T.; Tiwari, Agnes; Leung, Wing Cheong; Ho, Pak Chung

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of intimate partner violence (IPV) against pregnant women on subsequent perpetration of child abuse and neglect (CAN) by parents; and to test the mediation effect of recent IPV on the link between IPV during pregnancy and subsequent CAN. Methods: This study was a longitudinal follow-up of a population-based study on…

  15. Influence of a Substance-Abuse-Prevention Curriculum on Violence-Related Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon, Thomas R.; Sussman, Steve; Dahlberg, Linda L.; Dent, Clyde W.

    2002-01-01

    Examined the impact of a school-based substance abuse prevention program on alternative high school students' risk for violence. Analysis of students followed over 12 months indicated that there was a higher risk for victimization among male control students. No intervention effect was observed for female students or for perpetration among males.…

  16. Writing to Survive: How Teachers and Teens Negotiate the Effects of Abuse, Violence, and Disaster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Deborah M.

    2010-01-01

    This ethnographic research investigates how adolescents use writing. Deborah M. Alvarez uncovers the hidden abuses and violence that adolescents bore with each school day. In two different research sites, the author follows adolescents through their academic and personal lives to discover how they use writing only to uncover the impact the public…

  17. Violence and Abuse Among HIV-Infected Women and Their Children in Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Laura K.; Haworth, Alan; Semrau, Katherine; Singh, Mini; Aldrovandi, Grace M.; Sinkala, Moses; Thea, Donald M.; Bolton, Paul A.

    2009-01-01

    HIV and violence are two major public health problems increasingly shown to be connected and relevant to international mental health issues and HIV-related services. Qualitative research is important due to the dearth of literature on this association in developing countries, cultural influences on mental health syndromes and presentations, and the sensitive nature of the topic. The study presented in this paper sought to investigate the mental health issues of an HIV-affected population of women and children in Lusaka, Zambia, through a systematic qualitative study. Two qualitative methods resulted in the identification of three major problems for women: domestic violence (DV), depression-like syndrome, and alcohol abuse; and children: defilement, DV, and behavior problems. DV and sexual abuse were found to be closely linked to HIV and alcohol abuse. This study shows the local perspective of the overlap between violence and HIV. Results are discussed in relation to the need for violence and abuse to be addressed as HIV services are implemented in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:16909070

  18. New Technology Tools: Using Social Media for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2011

    2011-01-01

    When it comes to using social media technology for alcohol, drug abuse, and violence prevention, Thomas Workman, at Baylor College of Medicine's John M. Eisenberg Center for Clinical Decisions and Communications Science, points out that social media is interactive. This means that a person is entering a conversation rather than a declaration, and…

  19. Criminal Violence and Drug Use: An Exploratory Study among Substance Abusers in Residential Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Workowski, Eric J.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between criminal violence and type of substance abuse among 184 current and former residents of an inpatient non-hospital drug and alcohol treatment facility. The criminal justice system functioned as the source of referral into the program for 89% of the subjects studied while only 11% came to treatment…

  20. The relationship between organized violence, family violence and mental health: findings from a community-based survey in Muhanga, Southern Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Rieder, Heide; Elbert, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationship between organized violence and family violence, and their cumulative effect on mental health in post-conflict regions remains poorly understood. Objective The aim of the present study was to establish prevalence rates and predictors of family violence in post-conflict Rwanda. And to examine whether higher levels of war-related violence and its socio-economic consequences would result in higher levels of violence within families and whether this would be related to an increase of psychological distress in descendants. Method One hundred and eighty-eight parent–child pairs from four sectors of the district Muhanga, Southern Province of Rwanda, were randomly selected for participation in the study. Trained local psychologists administered structured diagnostic interviews. A posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) diagnosis was established using the PTSD Symptom Scale Interview (PSS-I) and child maltreatment was assessed by means of the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Additionally, the Hopkins Symptom Checklist (HSCL-25) assessed symptoms of depression and anxiety in descendants. Results Prevalence rates of child abuse and neglect among descendants were below 10%. Ordinal regression analyses revealed that the level of child maltreatment in descendants was predicted by female sex, poverty, loss of the mother, exposure to war and genocide as well as parents’ level of PTSD and reported child maltreatment. Poor physical health, exposure to war and genocide, parental PTSD symptoms, and reported childhood trauma were significantly associated with depressive and anxious symptoms, while only exposure to war and genocide and poor physical health predicted the level of PTSD. Conclusion The results indicate that cumulative stress such as exposure to organized violence and family violence in Rwandan descendants poses a risk factor for the development of depressive and anxious symptoms. Besides the support for families to cope with stress

  1. [Family violence, the use of drugs in the couple, from the mistreated woman's perspective].

    PubMed

    Bonifaz, Rosa G Vaiz; Nakano, Ana Marcia Spanó

    2004-01-01

    The present study has the visibilizar purpose the violence that affects the women, having as main elements precipitants of the aggressor's violent attitude the ingest of alcohol and/or it drugs. The objectives of the present study are: to know the meanings that the woman attributes to the violence; to recognize the different factors related to the occurrence of the family violence and to identify like the consumption of drugs is processed in the couple. The study type is exploratory and descriptive, the qualitative methodology, the empiric cutting was used six women they constituted it who went to carry out its accusation to the police station of women from Lima. The discoveries show that the time of union oscillated between two months and eighteen years, happening the abuse in case the whole time of union. With regard to the type of suffering violence that of more magnitude was the physics; in a subtler way the psychological one, the sexual violence was not referred, the money and jealousy were referred as focuses desencadenantes of the discussions, those that are associated to the use of alcohol and it drugs in the aggressor. The established categories were: the type of violence undergone by the women, the context of the violence, the repercussion of the violence undergone by the women in its health and the reaction of violence undergone by means of the denunciation. As main conclusions we have that the violence against the women is revealed like social and sanitary topic, with repercussions in the morbi-mortality and in terms of warm of the women's life, in the field of the health, it is necessary to recognize the women in situations of violence, to consider as factors of risk for the couple the use of the alcohol and drugs, the women hide for shame the problem that you/they live, the personnel of health it should be able to diagnose the violence in their different forms, expressed by complaints or chronic pains without apparent causes.

  2. Moving beyond disrespect and abuse: addressing the structural dimensions of obstetric violence.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Michelle; Santos, Mário Jds; Ruiz-Berdún, Dolores; Rojas, Gonzalo Leiva; Skoko, Elena; Gillen, Patricia; Clausen, Jette A

    2016-05-01

    During recent decades, a growing and preoccupying excess of medical interventions during childbirth, even in physiological and uncomplicated births, together with a concerning spread of abusive and disrespectful practices towards women during childbirth across the world, have been reported. Despite research and policy-making to address these problems, changing childbirth practices has proved to be difficult. We argue that the excessive rates of medical interventions and disrespect towards women during childbirth should be analysed as a consequence of structural violence, and that the concept of obstetric violence, as it is being used in Latin American childbirth activism and legal documents, might prove to be a useful tool for addressing structural violence in maternity care such as high intervention rates, non-consented care, disrespect and other abusive practices.

  3. Effects of Abusive Parenting, Caretaker Arrests, and Deviant Behavior on Dating Violence among Homeless Young Adults

    PubMed Central

    Tyler, Kimberly A.; Schmitz, Rachel M.

    2016-01-01

    Though dating violence is widespread among young adult homeless populations, its risk factors are poorly understood by scholars. To address this gap, the current study uses a social learning theory to examine the effects of abusive parenting and caretaker arrests on dating violence among 172 homeless young adults. Results from path analyses revealed that child physical abuse and caretaker arrests were positively associated with engaging in a greater number of school fights, which, in turn, was strongly and positively correlated with participating in more deviant subsistence strategies (e.g., stealing) since being on the street. Young people who participated in a greater number of delinquent acts were more likely to report higher levels of dating violence. Study results highlight the extent of social learning within the lives of homeless young adults, which is evident prior to their leaving home and while they are on the street. PMID:26989342

  4. Effects of Abusive Parenting, Caretaker Arrests, and Deviant Behavior on Dating Violence among Homeless Young Adults.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Kimberly A; Schmitz, Rachel M

    2015-11-26

    Though dating violence is widespread among young adult homeless populations, its risk factors are poorly understood by scholars. To address this gap, the current study uses a social learning theory to examine the effects of abusive parenting and caretaker arrests on dating violence among 172 homeless young adults. Results from path analyses revealed that child physical abuse and caretaker arrests were positively associated with engaging in a greater number of school fights, which, in turn, was strongly and positively correlated with participating in more deviant subsistence strategies (e.g., stealing) since being on the street. Young people who participated in a greater number of delinquent acts were more likely to report higher levels of dating violence. Study results highlight the extent of social learning within the lives of homeless young adults, which is evident prior to their leaving home and while they are on the street.

  5. Intimate partner violence perpetration by court-ordered men: distinctions and intersections among physical violence, sexual violence, psychological abuse, and stalking.

    PubMed

    Basile, Kathleen C; Hall, Jeffrey E

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the construct validity of two different measurement models of male partners' perpetration of physical violence, sexual violence, psychological abuse, and stalking against intimate partners. Data were obtained from a sample of 340 men arrested for physical assault of a female spouse or partner and court ordered into batterer intervention programs. Men were surveyed before starting the intervention. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to compare the construct validity of a four-factor measurement model of intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration to a three-factor measurement model that combined psychological abuse with stalking; overlap in the perpetration of the various forms of IPV was also examined. CFA results supported the superiority of a four-factor measurement model. There were 96.8% of participants who reported perpetration of all four types of violence; most men perpetrated multiple types of violence. Future studies should determine whether there are distinct risk factors associated with each of the four types of IPV perpetration.

  6. Alcohol and drug abuse in men who sustain intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Hines, Denise A; Douglas, Emily M

    2012-01-01

    Extensive work has documented an association between sustaining intimate partner violence (IPV) and alcohol/drug abuse among women, yet little research has documented the same association in men, even though men comprise 25-50% of all IPV victims in a given year. This study investigates the associations among sustaining IPV and alcohol/drug abuse among both a clinical and community sample of men. The clinical sample is comprised of 302 men who sustained intimate terrorism-a form of IPV that is characterized by much violence and controlling behavior-from their female partners and sought help. The community sample is composed of 520 men, 16% of whom sustained common couple violence, a lower level of more minor reciprocal IPV. Analyses showed that among both groups of men who sustained IPV, the prevalence and frequency of alcohol/drug abuse was significantly higher than in men who did not sustain IPV. However, a dose-response relationship between sustaining IPV and alcohol/drug abuse was found only among men in the community sample. Path modeling showed that, for the community sample, the best fitting models were ones that showed that the alcohol/drug abuse predicted IPV victimization, an association that was fully mediated by their use of IPV.

  7. Drug Abuse and Criminal Violence in Urban Communities.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    support their habits. 6 **~Drug abuse contributes significantly to the amount of violent crime found in urban cities. SDrug trafficking is a multi...million dollar business that is by far the major cause of vio- lence in urban areas. SDrug abuse is a problem which is impossible to eradicate because of

  8. Is It Abuse? Deaf Female Undergraduates' Labeling of Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Melissa L.; Kobek Pezzarossi, Caroline M.

    2012-01-01

    The current study investigated the labeling of abuse experiences in a sample of 97 Deaf female undergraduate students, exploring the following questions: What is the prevalence of violent behaviors experienced by Deaf female undergraduates in their past-year relationships, what proportion of these relationships are identified as "abuse," and what…

  9. Cumulative Effects of Multiple Forms of Violence and Abuse on Women.

    PubMed

    MacIntosh, Judith; Wuest, Judith; Ford-Gilboe, Marilyn; Varcoe, Colleen

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about how patterns of workplace bullying contribute to the negative effects of lifetime violence. Analysis of longitudinal data from a study of women's health after separating from an abusive partner revealed that 76% of 229 women had experienced workplace bullying. Workplace bullying was associated with child sexual abuse, adult sexual assault, and ongoing partner abuse. Timing was critical, with those experiencing past workplace bullying having poorer health and fewer personal and social resources than those experiencing none, ongoing, or past and ongoing bullying. Lifetime sexual harassment (54%) was associated with higher posttraumatic stress disorder symptomology and greater likelihood of leaving workplaces and physical bullying (16%) with poorer health and personal, social, and economic resources. These findings highlight the importance of including bullying in studying lifetime violence.

  10. Comparison of violence and abuse in juvenile correctional facilities and schools.

    PubMed

    Davidson-Arad, Bilha; Benbenishty, Rami; Golan, Miriam

    2009-02-01

    Peer violence, peer sexual harassment and abuse, and staff abuse experienced by boys and girls in juvenile correctional facilities are compared with those experienced by peers in schools in the community. Responses of 360 youths in 20 gender-separated correctional facilities in Israel to a questionnaire tapping these forms of mistreatment were compared with those of 7,012 students in a representative sample of Israeli junior high and high schools. Victimization was reported more frequently by those in correctional facilities than by those in schools. However, some of the more prevalent forms of violence and abuse were reported with equal frequency in both settings, and some more frequently in schools. Despite being victimized more frequently, those in the correctional facilities tended to view their victimization as a significantly less serious problem than those in the schools and to rate the staff as doing a better job of dealing with the problem.

  11. 78 FR 20648 - Standing Funding Opportunity Announcement for Family Violence Prevention and Services/Grants to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ...This notice for family violence prevention and services grants to Coalitions serves four purposes: To confirm a Federal commitment to reducing family violence, domestic violence, and dating violence; to provide for Coalitions to collaborate and coordinate with States, tribes, localities, cities, and the private sector to be involved in State and local planning towards an integrated service......

  12. Nurses and workplace violence: nurses' experiences of verbal and physical abuse at work.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Angela D

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes nurses' experiences of violence and abuse in the workplace and the ways in which those experiences influence their abilities to care for patients. The original purpose of the research from which these findings derive was to explore nurses' work with abused women. The qualitative study utilizing a Social Constructivism approach was conducted in two countries: Canada and the United Kingdom. Forty-nine nurses from four clinical areas were interviewed, both in focus groups and individually, about factors influencing their care of abused women. In the course of the original study, the degree of verbal abuse and physical violence that nurses routinely encounter in their work became apparent. It also became clear that abuse against nurses is an important issue that has a significant impact on nurses' abilities to offer effective care. Findings indicated that nurses experience significant threat, frequently in the context of their work, at the hands of patients and their relatives; that verbal abuse is an almost daily occurrence; and that support from other healthcare professionals or from administration in addressing the issue, while improving somewhat, is inadequate. This work has implications not only for nurses' health and safety but also, in the broader sense, for the profession's ability to attract and retain nurses within the healthcare system.

  13. Dissociation in families experiencing Intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Miller, Alison

    2017-02-16

    This paper, using an illustrative case study, presents the hypothesis that cyclical spouse abusers suffer from a dissociative condition (or perhaps a personality disorder in which dissociation is a prominent feature) that results from disorganized attachment. The partner of the spouse abuser tries various unsuccessful strategies to appease her spouse in order to change his behavior. If the relationship lasts for years, she adapts by developing a milder but parallel dissociative process, developing chains of state-dependent memory and resultant ego states for the different phases of the domestic abuse cycle. The children suffer from attachment disruption which can potentially continue the process to the next generation.

  14. Linking childhood and adult criminality: using a life course framework to examine childhood abuse and neglect, substance use and adult partner violence.

    PubMed

    Minh, Anita; Matheson, Flora I; Daoud, Nihaya; Hamilton-Wright, Sarah; Pedersen, Cheryl; Borenstein, Heidi; O'Campo, Patricia

    2013-10-28

    Child abuse and neglect, considered criminal acts under the Criminal Code of Canada, play an important role in substance use, violence, and other criminal behaviour in adulthood. We adopted the life course perspective to identify modifiable contextual influences and co-occurring individual, social, and familial determinants associated with adult criminality. Using in-depth interview data, a sub-sample of 13 women who had recently experienced intimate partner violence, recounted their experiences of childhood abuse, their own substance use or criminality, as well as implications of these factors on their children's life trajectories. For the purposes of this paper criminality was defined as child abuse and neglect, domestic violence, illegal substance use and underage alcohol use. Our objective was to explore, in our data: (1) patterns and trajectories of criminality from childhood to adulthood among women who were victims of violence, and (2) cumulative effects of early life exposures on experiences of criminality; with the aim of describing the life course perspective as a useful framework to understand criminality along the life trajectory. The analysis was not designed to demonstrate causal connections between early childhood and adulthood experiences of criminality. Rather we generated qualitative and quantitative hypotheses to guide future research in the field. Implications for research and interventions are discussed.

  15. Linking Childhood and Adult Criminality: Using a Life Course Framework to Examine Childhood Abuse and Neglect, Substance Use and Adult Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Minh, Anita; Matheson, Flora I.; Daoud, Nihaya; Hamilton-Wright, Sarah; Pedersen, Cheryl; Borenstein, Heidi; O’Campo, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Child abuse and neglect, considered criminal acts under the Criminal Code of Canada, play an important role in substance use, violence, and other criminal behaviour in adulthood. We adopted the life course perspective to identify modifiable contextual influences and co-occurring individual, social, and familial determinants associated with adult criminality. Using in-depth interview data, a sub-sample of 13 women who had recently experienced intimate partner violence, recounted their experiences of childhood abuse, their own substance use or criminality, as well as implications of these factors on their children’s life trajectories. For the purposes of this paper criminality was defined as child abuse and neglect, domestic violence, illegal substance use and underage alcohol use. Our objective was to explore, in our data: (1) patterns and trajectories of criminality from childhood to adulthood among women who were victims of violence, and (2) cumulative effects of early life exposures on experiences of criminality; with the aim of describing the life course perspective as a useful framework to understand criminality along the life trajectory. The analysis was not designed to demonstrate causal connections between early childhood and adulthood experiences of criminality. Rather we generated qualitative and quantitative hypotheses to guide future research in the field. Implications for research and interventions are discussed. PMID:24169410

  16. Post-Separation Abuse of Women and their Children: Boundary-setting and Family Court Utilization among Victimized Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Zeoli, April M.; Rivera, Echo A.; Sullivan, Cris M.; Kubiak, Sheryl

    2013-01-01

    Continued abuse of themselves and their children is a concern for many mothers leaving intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrating husbands. This research examines women’s responses to abuse committed by ex-husbands with whom they had undergone custody disputes. In-depth, qualitative interviews were conducted with 19 mothers who had divorced IPV-perpetrating husbands between one and three years prior. Participants were located through publicly available family court divorce records and interviews were examined using analytic induction. Women’s strategies to protect themselves and their children from abuse involved setting boundaries to govern their interactions with ex-husbands. Mothers often turned to family court for assistance in setting boundaries to keep children safe, but found that family court did not respond in ways they believed protected their children. Conversely, when women turned to the justice system for restraining orders or called the police for help against IPV, they generally found the justice system responsive. PMID:23956494

  17. When Wife-Beating Is Not Necessarily Abuse: A Feminist and Cross-Cultural Analysis of the Concept of Abuse as Expressed by Tibetan Survivors of Domestic Violence.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Hamsa

    2016-11-20

    This article describes the views of Tibetan women who have experienced physical violence from male intimate partners. How they conceptualise abuse, their views on acceptable versus unacceptable hitting, and the acts besides hitting which they felt to be unacceptable or abusive, are explored. Views of survivors' relatives/friends and men who have hit their wives are also included. Western-based domestic violence theory is shown to be incommensurate with abuse in particular socio-cultural settings. As feminist scholars emphasize listening deeply to voices of women in the global South, this article demonstrates how such listening might be undertaken when the views expressed by women diverge from feminism.

  18. CULTURAL PHENOMENA AND THE SYNDEMIC FACTOR: SUBSTANCE ABUSE, VIOLENCE, HIV, AND DEPRESSION AMONG HISPANIC WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa M.; McCabe, Brian E.; Vermeesch, Amber L.; Cianelli, Rosina; Florom-Smith, Aubrey L.; Peragallo, Nilda

    2014-01-01

    Researchers exploring the health of Hispanics in South Florida utilizing a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods have identified that substance abuse, violence, risky sexual behavior, and depression are not only conceptualized as tightly interrelated health and social problems, but also hold together in a measurement model to represent an underlying phenomenon (i.e., the Syndemic Factor). The purpose of this study is to test hypothesized relationships between cultural phenomena and the Syndemic Factor among community-dwelling Hispanic women. Standardized questionnaires assessing Acculturation, Hispanic Stress, Familism, and the Syndemic Factor were administered to a cross-sectional sample of 548 Hispanic women from South Florida. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze relationships. The model explained 61 percent of the variance in the Syndemic Factor. There was a large positive relationship between the Syndemic Factor and Hispanic Stress, and a small inverse relationship between the Syndemic Factor and Familism. Women with high Hispanic Acculturation and low U.S. Acculturation scored lower on the Syndemic Factor than Integrated/Bicultural women. Familism buffered the relationship between Hispanic Stress and the Syndemic Factor. Structural, community, family, and individual prevention strategies that address underlying conditions associated with the Syndemic Factor must be developed and formally evaluated. PMID:24575326

  19. [Domestic violence against children and prospects for intervention of the Family Health Program: the experience of the Family Doctor Program/Niterói (RJ, Brazil)].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Pedro Carlos Xavier da; Moraes, Claudia Leite

    2011-07-01

    This study seeks to estimate the prevalence of psychological and physical violence practiced against children in the family environment among clients of the Family Medical Program in Niterói (RJ). It also discloses some potential opportunities for action in the prevention, early detection and monitoring of families experiencing violence. This population-based survey was conducted with face-to-face interviews with parents or legal sponsors of 278 children registered in 27 teams of the Family Health Program. The population studied was randomly selected among children up to ten years of age. The Brazilian version of Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales - CTSPC was employed to assess the occurrence of this type of violence. Psychological aggression occurred in 96.7% (CI 95%: 94.7-98.8) of the households, and corporal punishment occurred in 93.8% (CI 95%: 92.0-96.7). Minor physical violence was reported by 51.4% (CI 95%: 45.5-57.3) of the respondents, and severe physical maltreatment by 19.8% (CI 95%: 15.1-24.5) of them. Although the mother was the foremost perpetrator of all kinds of maltreatment, most of the children were abused by both parents. In view of these results, domestic violence against children should be seen as a main concern for the Family Health Program.

  20. [A sociography of elderly victims of family violence in Portugal].

    PubMed

    Gil, Ana Paula; Santos, Ana João; Kislaya, Irina; Santos, César; Mascoli, Luísa; Ferreira, Alexandra Inácio; Vieira, Duarte Nuno

    2015-06-01

    This article presents data on violence against persons aged 60 years or older and living in Portugal for at least 12 months. The cross-sectional descriptive study collected data with a face-to-face questionnaire applied to victims that had sought assistance at three government institutions and one non-governmental support service for victims. The non-probabilistic sample included 510 victims of violence in family settings. Physical and psychological violence were the most common (87.8% and 69.6%, respectively). Financial violence was reported by 47.5% of the victims, followed by sexual assault (7.5%) and neglect (6.5%). The majority of victims (74.1%) reported more than one type of violence. Victims were mostly women, and mean age was 70.7 years. Most of the perpetrators belonged to the nuclear family, namely spouses or partners, sons/sons-in-law, and daughters/daughters-in-law. However, differences were observed according to victim's gender. The results indicate that violence is not a uniform phenomenon, presenting different configurations.

  1. Characteristic of victims of family violence seeking care at health centers in Maputo, Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Jethá, Eunice Abdul Remane; Lynch, Catherine A; Houry, Debra E; Rodrigues, Maria Alexendra; Chilundo, Baltazar; Sasser, Scott M; Wright, David W

    2011-01-01

    Background: Family violence (FV) is a common, yet often invisible, cause of violence. To date, most literature on risk factors for family, interpersonal and sexual violence is from high-income countries and might not apply to Mozambique. Aims: To determine the individual risk factors for FV in a cohort of patients seeking care for injuries at three health centers in Maputo, Mozambique. Setting and Design: A prospective multi-center study of patients presenting to the emergency department for injuries from violence inflicted by a direct family member in Maputo, Mozambique, was carried out. Materials and Methods: Patients who agreed to participate and signed the informed consent were verbally administered a pilot-tested blank-item questionnaire to ascertain demographic information, perpetrator of the violence, historical information regarding prior abuse, and information on who accompanied the victim and where they received their initial evaluation. De-identified data were entered into SPSS 13.0 (SPSS, version 13.0) and analyzed for frequencies. Results: During the 8-week study period, 1206 assault victims presented for care, of whom 216 disclosed the relationship of the assailant, including 92 being victims of FV (42.6%). The majority of FV victims were women (63.0%) of age group 15-34 years (76.1%) and were less educated (84%) compared to national averages. Of the patients who reported assault on a single occasion, most were single (58.8%), while patients with multiple assaults were mostly married (63.2%). Most commonly, the spouse was the aggressor (50%) and a relative accompanied the victim seeking care (54.3%). Women most commonly sought police intervention prior to care (63.2%) in comparison to men (35.3%). Conclusion: In Mozambique, FV affects all ages, sexes and cultures, but victims seeking care for FV were more commonly women who were less educated and poorer. PMID:21887028

  2. Treating Adolescent Drug Abuse: A Comparison of Family Systems Therapy, Group Therapy, and Family Drug Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joanning, Harvey; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Assessed differential effectiveness of three models of adolescent drug abuse treatment: Family Systems Therapy (FST), Adolescent Group Therapy (AGT), and Family Drug Education (FDE). FST appeared more effective in stopping adolescent drug abuse than AGT or FDE, registering twice as many apparently drug-free clients as FDE and three times as many…

  3. Violence Prevention for Families of Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychological Association, Washington, DC.

    Based on the view that violent behavior is learned and often learned early in life, this pamphlet shows parents how they can help protect young children from getting involved with violence and increase that child's chances for a safe and productive future. The pamphlet cautions parents that early learning is powerful and that children learn how to…

  4. Intimate Partner Violence within Law Enforcement Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Anita S.; Lo, Celia C.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Baltimore Police Stress and Domestic Violence study, the authors examined how exposure to stressful events on the job affects law enforcement employees' physical aggression toward domestic partners, evaluating the role of negative emotions and authoritarian spillover in mediating the impact of such task-related stress. The…

  5. An Exploratory Study of the Nature of Family Resilience in Families Affected by Parental Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, James P.; Nochajski, Thomas; Maguin, Eugene; Safyer, Andrew; DeWit, David; Macdonald, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Resilient families are able to adapt to adversities, but the nature of family resilience is not well understood. This study examines patterns of family functioning that may protect families from the negative impact of alcohol abuse. Naturally occurring patterns of family functioning are identified and associations between these patterns and…

  6. Multi-Family Group Therapy for Sexually Abusive Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahum, David; Brewer, Marci Mandel

    2004-01-01

    Although Multi-Family Group Therapy (MFGT) has been a researched intervention for nearly 40 years, clinicians working with sexually abusive youth and their families have only more recently begun to utilize the intervention. We believe MFGT for a sexual offense-specific treatment population is a sophisticated and powerful clinical intervention with…

  7. Deficiency of Maternal Approval in the Abusive Family Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Herrenkohl, Ellen C.

    This study examines the hypothesis that the lack of parental approval of the child characterizes child-abusing families. As part of a larger study of the coping styles of such families, a variety of verbal and non-verbal behaviors in parent-child interactions was examined. Subjects were 80 mother-child pairs from among four groups of comparable…

  8. The Safe Futures Substance Abuse and Violence Prevention Program at Chief Leschi Elementary School, 1996-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guilmet, George M.; Whited, David L.

    A 3-year intervention project focused on preventing substance abuse, violence, gang violence, and truancy among K-12 students at the Chief Leschi School in Tacoma, Washington, a tribally controlled, urban school for high risk and adjudicated Native youth. This paper reports the elementary school results. The Positive Reinforcement in Drug…

  9. Service Providers' Reactions to Intimate Partner Violence as a Function of Victim Sexual Orientation and Type of Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basow, Susan A.; Thompson, Janelle

    2012-01-01

    In this online vignette study, a national sample of domestic violence shelter service providers (N = 282) completed a 10-item questionnaire about a woman experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). Scenarios varied in terms of couple sexual orientation (heterosexual or lesbian) and type of abuse (physical or nonphysical). Results indicate that…

  10. Childhood Sexual Abuse Associated with Dating Partner Violence and Suicidal Ideation in a Representative Household Sample in Hong Kong

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Ko Ling; Yan, Elsie; Brownridge, Douglas A.; Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Y. T.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence and impact of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) on future intimate partner violence (IPV) in dating relationship in Hong Kong, China. A total of 1,154 Chinese adult respondents engaged in dating relationships were interviewed face-to-face about their CSA histories, childhood witnessing of parental violence, adult…

  11. Dramatising Family Violence: The Domestic Politics of Shame and Blame

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Helen

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines an education programme devised by the New Zealand educational theatre company, "Everyday Theatre," which offers a fictional representation of family abuse. The paper raises political questions about the dramatic representation of the family as a social system, and examines how the boundaries between private feelings…

  12. The impact of family violence, family functioning, and parental partner dynamics on Korean juvenile delinquency.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Sil; Kim, Hun-Soo

    2008-12-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the family factors related to juvenile delinquency and identifying the effect of family violence, family functioning, parental partner dynamics, and adolescents' personality on delinquent behavior among Korean adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed using an anonymous, self-reporting questionnaire. The subjects for this study consisted of 1,943 Korean adolescents, including 1,236 students and 707 juvenile delinquents, using a proportional stratified random sampling method. Compared to student adolescents, delinquent adolescents perceived their parents as having a higher level of dysfunctional parental partner dynamics, poorer family functioning, and a higher level of family violence. Furthermore, delinquent adolescents were more likely to report a greater incidence of antisocial personality tendencies, a higher level of psychosomatic symptoms and frustration, and higher frequencies of delinquent behavior compared to student adolescents. Antisocial personality tendency and gender had the largest significant total effects on delinquent behavior, followed by family violence, psychosomatic symptoms, family functioning, parental partner dynamics and need frustration. On the other hand, family functioning and parental partner dynamics had the largest indirect effect on delinquent behavior. Gender, antisocial personality tendency, and family violence, in that order, had the largest direct effects on delinquent behavior. In conclusion, it is apparent from the results of the present study that delinquent Korean adolescents perceived and experienced significantly more family dysfunction, family violence, and poor parental partner dynamics than did non-delinquents.

  13. Sexual Violence and Abuse Against Children: A First Review Through the Lens of Environmental Criminology.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Benoit; Chiu, Yi-Ning; Cale, Jesse

    2016-05-01

    Most criminal justice responses to address sexual violence and abuse against children are aimed at identifying and incarcerating offenders or at best, trying to prevent them from reoffending. This policy situation, primarily characterized by tertiary intervention strategies, is exacerbated by a lack of evidence-based knowledge about the circumstances in which this phenomenon occurs. This specific information can inform certain types of primary and secondary prevention strategies. In this study, we are taking the first steps to address this situation by (a) organising and reviewing for the first time the empirical knowledge on this phenomenon according to questions asked by environmental criminologists and crime analysts, that is, the who, what, where, when, and how this phenomenon occurs, and (b) discussing directions for future research. By engaging in this exercise, we argue that environmental criminology can substantially contribute to understanding and informing prevention practices in the field of sexual violence and abuse against children.

  14. Does Steroid Abuse Cause--Or Excuse--Violence?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubell, Adele

    1989-01-01

    Use of anabolic steroids is believed to increase the odds of violent antisocial behavior, thus posing risks to consumers and the general public. Some research shows the danger of steroids in inducing severe adverse psychiatric effects. Certain lawyers use this abuse to plead insanity for their clients. (SM)

  15. Intimate violence, family, and femininity: women's narratives on their construction of violence and self.

    PubMed

    Mitra, Nishi

    2013-10-01

    In the context of a high threshold for violence in everyday living and the cultural value of the institution of family, this article looks at women's narratives from counseling settings in India to comment on the cultural processes of explaining and rationalizing domestic violence that silence women. Definitions of femininity, marriage, and motherhood in India that are hinged on women's responsibility toward holding a family together have obstructed an understanding of women's individual rights and of violations of these rights. There is need to address both the public and professionals on the specific nature of domestic violence, and its ideological and structural context for creating recognition of the issue as a major social problem.

  16. Combating Violence against Children: Jordanian Pre-Service Early Childhood Teachers' Perceptions towards Child Abuse and Neglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fayez, Merfat; Takash, Hanan Mahmoud; Al-Zboon, Eman Khleif

    2014-01-01

    Early childhood teachers play major roles in defying child abuse and neglect and alleviating its detrimental effects on young children. Therefore, this study aimed at exploring how Jordanian pre-service early childhood teachers define and perceive violence against children and their role in child abuse detection and prevention. Furthermore, the…

  17. Embarazadas y maltratadas (Pregnant and Abused): Domestic Violence among Latinas. JSRI Occasional Paper No. 44. Latino Studies Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Ester Ruiz

    This paper examines the prevalence of domestic violence directed against pregnant women of Mexican origin. About 18 percent of Hispanic women experience abuse by a partner. Over half of abused women incur injuries during pregnancy, which subjects the fetus to significant risks of preterm birth, low birth weight, injury, or death. Interviews and…

  18. Male abuser: type of violence and perception of the relationship with the victim.

    PubMed

    Boira, Santiago; Marcuello, Chaime

    2013-02-01

    This article explores violent behavior within a relationship from the male abuser's perspective. A systemic approach was used, combining qualitative and quantitative information in two parallel studies. The first (Study 1) is a descriptive analysis of a group of men (N = 220) who participated in a program to address violence within the couple. In the second (Study 2), a subgroup of 8 participants was interviewed in-depth for describing and analyzing their perceptions of violence. The data analysis suggest that relationship violence (a) begins in the early stages of the relationship, (b) is long-term, (c) rarely includes serious physical aggression, (d) is dominated by a growing hostility and isolation, (e) is characterized by a lack of awareness and responsibility for the violent behavior, and (f) includes intentional and strategic use of violent behavior.

  19. Five Year Report: Office on Family Violence and Sexual Assault.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose Enterprises, Wright, WY.

    This report describes family violence and sexual assault and the specific nature and extent of the problem in Wyoming as illustrated by data obtained from statewide surveys and studies. Past efforts to address the problem are presented in an historical overview. Program operations are described, including the areas of safe houses, support groups,…

  20. The Relationship between Adolescents' Experience of Family Violence and Dating Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laporte, Lise; Jiang, Depeng; Pepler, Debra J.; Chamberland, Claire

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether experiences of familial victimization and aggression are potential risk factors for dating violence in male and female teenage relationships. The authors compare 471 adolescents aged 12 to 19 in the care of a youth protection agency and from a community sample. Results show that adolescents carry negative childhood…

  1. Self-Reported Childhood Physical Abuse and Perpetration of Intimate Partner Violence: The Moderating Role of Psychopathic Traits

    PubMed Central

    Swogger, Marc T.; Walsh, Zach; Kosson, David S.; Cashman-Brown, Sarah; Caine, Eric D.

    2012-01-01

    Whereas considerable evidence links childhood physical abuse with later perpetration of intimate partner violence (IPV), research to identify moderators of this relationship will increase our understanding of which victims of childhood abuse are at risk for later IPV. The present study examined dimensions of psychopathy as moderators of the relationship between physical abuse in childhood and perpetration of IPV in a sample of criminal offenders. Results indicated that, among individuals with higher levels of impulsive-irresponsible (i.e., Lifestyle) traits of psychopathy, childhood physical abuse was associated with later perpetration of IPV. Findings have implications for the propensity toward IPV perpetration among individuals who have experienced childhood physical abuse. PMID:22984318

  2. Epidemiology and family characteristics of severely-abused children.

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, J A; Oliver, J E

    1975-01-01

    Severe child abuse in north-east Wiltshire was studied retrospectively during the period 1965-71, and prospectively for 18 months from January 1972, after a period of consultative activity with those actively involved to increase awareness of the phenomenon. Severe abuse was strictly defined. A rate of 1 per thousand children under four years old was obtained, together with a death rate of 0-1 per thousand. The families of the retrospective series of abused children were studied in detail and identifying characteristics of large family size, youthfulness, low social-class, instability, and gross psychiatric, medical, and social pathology described. The implications of the ascertainment and death rates are discussed in relation to data from some other studies, and the need emphasized for detailed studies of the apparent clustering of disorder in the families, using linked record systems. PMID:1220832

  3. Monthly Incidence Rates of Abusive Encounters for Canadian Family Physicians by Patients and Their Families

    PubMed Central

    Miedema, Baukje (Bo); Hamilton, Ryan; Tatemichi, Sue; Lambert-Lanning, Anita; Lemire, Francine; Manca, Donna; Ramsden, Vivian R.

    2010-01-01

    Objective. The goal of this study was to examine the monthly incidence rates of abusive encounters for family physicians in Canada. Methods. A 7-page cross-sectional survey. Results. Of the entire study sample (N = 720), 29% of the physicians reported having experienced an abusive event in the last month by a patient or patient family member. Abusive incidents were classified as minor, major, or severe. Of the physician participants who reported having been abused, all reported having experienced a minor event, 26% a major, and 8% a severe event. Of the physicians who experienced an abusive event, 55% were not aware of any policies to protect them, 76% did not seek help, and 64% did not report the abusive event. Conclusion. Family physicians are subjected to significant amounts of abuse in their day-to-day practices. Few physicians are aware of workplace policies that could protect them, and fewer report abusive encounters. Physicians would benefit from increased awareness of institutional policies that can protect them against abusive patients and their families and from the development of a national policy. PMID:22332007

  4. The Impact of Family Violence, Family Functioning, and Parental Partner Dynamics on Korean Juvenile Delinquency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyun-Sil; Kim, Hun-Soo

    2008-01-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the family factors related to juvenile delinquency and identifying the effect of family violence, family functioning, parental partner dynamics, and adolescents' personality on delinquent behavior among Korean adolescents. A cross-sectional study was performed using an anonymous, self-reporting…

  5. Association of violence against partner and former victim experiences: a sample of clients voluntarily attending therapy.

    PubMed

    Askeland, Ingunn Rangul; Evang, Are; Heir, Trond

    2011-04-01

    The authors addressed the associations between childhood and adolescence victimization and partner violence in adulthood. Data were collected on 480 men voluntarily attending therapy with a semistructured interview that assessed (a) violent behavior, categorized as physical violence, physical controlling behavior, property violence, psychologically controlling behavior, psychological degradation, indirect aggression, or sexual violence and (b) victim experiences during childhood or adolescence, categorized as physical abuse, psychological abuse, sexual abuse, or exposure to violence between family members. Prior victim experiences of family violence were reported by 60% of participants. Regression analyses showed that past victim experiences, especially physical abuse, was associated with adult violence (p < .05). Specifically, physical abuse was associated with psychologically controlling behavior (p < .05) and sexual abuse with sexual violence (p < .05).

  6. HIV testing in an ethnically diverse sample of American university students: associations with violence/abuse and covariates.

    PubMed

    DiStefano, Anthony S; Gill, Jasmeet K; Hubach, Randolph D; Cayetano, Reggie T; Hilbert, Cary J

    2014-10-01

    Associations linking HIV infection to violence and abuse are well documented; however, little is known about how violence/abuse is related to HIV testing behavior, particularly among undergraduate university students, who test at lower rates compared to non-student peers in the United States. We assessed history of HIV testing in an ethnically diverse sample of undergraduates in California (n = 1,210); and examined potential associations between testing and various forms of violence/abuse, while controlling for covariates. Whereas 73.4% of students were sexually active in the past year, only 26.3% had ever tested for HIV. At the bivariate level, testing was associated with experiencing verbal abuse and sexual violence/coercion, and perpetrating verbal abuse. Experiencing verbal abuse remained significant in multivariate analysis. We discuss findings in a syndemics framework, considered in combination with social psychology-based health behavior theories. Enhanced HIV testing scale-up initiatives for undergraduates are needed and should consider integration with violence prevention programs.

  7. Parenting and children's externalizing problems in substance-abusing families.

    PubMed

    Stanger, Catherine; Dumenci, Levent; Kamon, Jody; Burstein, Marcy

    2004-09-01

    This study tested associations in path models among positive and negative parenting and children's rule-breaking behavior, aggressive and oppositional behavior, and attention problems for families with a drug-dependent parent. A structural model tested relations between parenting and children's externalizing problems for 251 families with 399 children between the ages of 6 and 18, controlling for nonindependence of ratings at the family level. The model also tested potential moderators, including child age, gender, and ethnicity (White vs. other), and caregiver gender (families with a female substance-abusing caregiver vs. families with a male substance-abusing caregiver). Results indicated that caregiver ratings of monitoring predicted rule-breaking behavior and use of inconsistent discipline predicted ratings of all 3 externalizing syndromes, after controlling parenting and externalizing problems for the effects of the moderators and after controlling significant relations among types of parenting and types of externalizing problems.

  8. The effects of moms and teens for safe dates: a dating abuse prevention program for adolescents exposed to domestic violence.

    PubMed

    Foshee, Vangie A; Benefield, Thad; Dixon, Kimberly S; Chang, Ling-Yin; Senkomago, Virginia; Ennett, Susan T; Moracco, Kathryn E; Michael Bowling, J

    2015-05-01

    Adolescents exposed to domestic violence are at high risk for dating abuse. This randomized controlled trial evaluated a dating abuse prevention program designed specifically for this risk group. Moms and Teens for Safe Dates consisted of six mailed booklets of dating abuse prevention information and interactive activities. Mothers who had been victims of domestic violence but no longer lived with the abuser delivered the program to their adolescents who had been exposed to the abuse. Mother and adolescent pairs (N = 409) were recruited through community advertising; the adolescents ranged from 12 to 16 years old and 64 % were female. Mothers and adolescents completed baseline and 6-month follow-up telephone interviews. Booklet completion in the treatment group ranged from 80 % for the first to 62 % for the last booklet. The analyses first tested whether program effects on dating abuse varied by four a priori identified moderators (mother's psychological health, the amount of adolescent exposure to domestic violence, and adolescent sex and race/ethnicity). Main effects of the program were examined when there were no differential program effects. Program effects on psychological and physical victimization and psychological and cyber perpetration were moderated by the amount of adolescent exposure to domestic violence; there were significant favorable program effects for adolescents with higher, but not lower levels of exposure to domestic violence. There were no moderated or main effects on sexual violence victimization and perpetration or cyber victimization. The findings suggest that a dating abuse prevention program designed for adolescents exposed to domestic violence can have important positive effects.

  9. Psychological intimate partner violence: the major predictor of posttraumatic stress disorder in abused women.

    PubMed

    Pico-Alfonso, Maria Angeles

    2005-02-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) significantly impacts women mental and physical wellbeing and therefore represents a worldwide public health problem. A clear association between IPV and increased risk to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been documented. However, few studies examined how different features of IPV (physical, psychological, sexual) interact with other traumatic stress experiences (physical, psychological and sexual childhood abuse and adulthood victimization by other/s than the partner) in determining PTSD. Women abused by the partner (n=75) were compared with non-abused control women (n=52). Information about sociodemographic profile and relevant personal characteristics was obtained through structured interviews. A comprehensive questionnaire was designed for a face-to-face interview in order to obtain detailed information about duration and frequency of the different types of violent acts above mentioned. The incidence and severity of symptoms of current PTSD were assessed with Echeburua's Severity of Symptom Scale of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, a structured interview based on DSM-IV criteria. Women suffering from IPV had a significantly higher rate of PTSD symptomatology as compared to control women, whereas childhood abuse variables did not explain PTSD score variance. In addition, the severity of IPV was significantly and positively correlated with the intensity of PTSD symptoms. Women involved in an abusive relationship were more frequently exposed to other experiences of adulthood victimization, suggesting that their higher PTSD vulnerability could be a result of cumulative traumatic experiences. A relevant result of the correlation analysis was the strong, positive association between PTSD and each different type of IPV. In particular, the psychological component of intimate partner violence was the strongest predictor of posttraumatic stress disorder. This study underlines the importance of separating the effects of the

  10. [Addressing intimate partner violence in substance-abuse treatment programmes: a challenge for the future].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Montalvo, Javier; López-Goñi, José Javier

    2011-01-01

    There is a close relationship between substance abuse (alcohol and other drugs) and intimate partner violence. Studies carried out with male offenders and with addicted patients show a high comorbidity rate between these two phenomena. However, few batterer intervention programmes have been implemented to date in the field of drug addiction. This paper proposes, first, the need to detect cases of intimate partner violence that are camouflaged beneath a drug problem. Thus, it is important to determine the prevalence rate of intimate partner aggressors among users of drug-addiction treatment programmes, as well as identifying the specific characteristics of these patients. Second, once aggressors are identified, it would be possible to develop specific programmes for the simultaneous treatment of the two problems (addiction and intimate partner violence). Some studies have already been carried with joint treatments for addiction and intimate partner violence. The results obtained are encouraging, and show that intervention programs with addictions can be a useful framework for applying also, where necessary, specific treatments for those addicted patients with an associated problem of intimate partner violence. Finally, implications for clinical practice and future research in this field are discussed.

  11. "It's a Dog's Life": Culture, Empathy, Gender, and Domestic Violence Predict Animal Abuse in Adolescents-Implications for Societal Health.

    PubMed

    Plant, Malcolm; van Schaik, Paul; Gullone, Eleonora; Flynn, Clifton

    2016-07-19

    Whereas the majority of previous research conducted on animal abuse has been in environments where animal abuse is rarely evidenced, the current study investigated the ramifications of animal abuse in an environment wherein the national culture creates an ethos of the "social acceptability" of animal abuse in society. Two survey studies were conducted with adolescent participants, to investigate the role played by several factors in the prediction of animal abuse in this age group. In Study 1, with samples from two different national cultures (101 from Germany and 169 from Romania; 143 boys/135 girls; age 13 to 17), animal abuse was negatively associated with affective empathy and national culture; more frequent animal abuse was found in Romania. Affective empathy fully mediated the association between gender and animal abuse. Specifically, girls were found to be higher in affective empathy; in turn, participants who were higher in affective empathy committed less animal abuse. Witnessing animal abuse was also predictive of engaging in animal abuse, but not independent of national culture. In Study 2, 15-year-old males (n = 21) and females (n = 39) took part, 29 from rural and 31 from urban locations in Romania. Rural adolescents were more likely to abuse animals and had higher exposure to domestic violence, which (in turn) was associated with more animal abuse. The implications of these findings in a society where animal abuse is encouraged and enacted on a national scale are discussed.

  12. Family and community violence of schoolchildren from the city of São Gonçalo, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Liana Wernersbach; Gonçalves de Assis, Simone

    2013-06-01

    This descriptive study aimed to investigate the association between violence in the family, school and community experienced by school children/adolescents of the city of São Gonçalo (RJ), Brazil. Questionnaires were administered to the mothers/guardians to assess violence in the family and school and to children to check their perceptions of community violence. Multiple correspondence analysis and cluster analysis, two exploratory descriptive techniques, were employed. Data from 280 schoolchildren were analyzed. A total of 43.9% of mothers reported that their children had been physically abused in their homes. With regard to children's/adolescents' perception of community violence, 93.2% said they had experienced or witnessed these events in their communities. For both sexes there was the formation of a cluster of categories with the presence of violence among siblings, presence of severe physical assault and verbal assault committed by parents. Among girls, the presence of violence in the school formed a cluster with the highest category of violence in the community. In conclusion, it should be emphasized that public policies aimed at dealing with violence should expand their scope to the various forms of violence affecting children.

  13. Rural Domestic Violence

    MedlinePlus

    ... discuss abuse or violence. Similarly, relationships with an abuser may limit the extent to which an abuse ... violence report that successful transition away from their abusers are often made with the assistance of social ...

  14. Comparing policies for children of parents attending hospital emergency departments after intimate partner violence, substance abuse or suicide attempt.

    PubMed

    Hoytema van Konijnenburg, Eva M M; Diderich, Hester M; Teeuw, Arianne H; Klein Velderman, Mariska; Oudesluys-Murphy, Anne Marie; van der Lee, Johanna H

    2016-03-01

    To improve identification of child maltreatment, a new policy ('Hague protocol') was implemented in hospitals in The Netherlands, stating that adults attending the hospital emergency department after intimate partner violence, substance abuse or a suicide attempt should be asked whether they care for children. If so, these children are referred to the Reporting Center for Child Abuse and Neglect (RCCAN), for assessment and referrals to support services. An adapted, hospital-based version of this protocol ('Amsterdam protocol') was implemented in another region. Children are identified in the same manner, but, instead of a RCCAN referral, they are referred to the pediatric outpatient department for an assessment, including a physical examination, and referrals to services. We compared results of both protocols to assess how differences between the protocols affect the outcomes on implementation, detection of child maltreatment and referrals to services. Furthermore, we assessed social validity and results of a screening physical examination. We included 212 families from the Amsterdam protocol (cohort study with reports by pediatric staff and parents) and 565 families from the Hague protocol (study of RCCAN records and telephone interviews with parents). We found that the RCCAN identified more maltreatment than pediatric staff (98% versus at least 51%), but referrals to services were similar (82% versus 80% of the total sample) and parents were positive about both interventions. Physical examination revealed signs of maltreatment in 5%. We conclude that, despite the differences, both procedures can serve as suitable methods to identify and refer children at risk for maltreatment.

  15. Understanding Adolescent and Family Influences on Intimate Partner Psychological Violence during Emerging Adulthood and Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lohman, Brenda J.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Senia, Jennifer M.; Schofield, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    The intergenerational transmission of violence directed toward intimate partners has been documented for the past three decades. Overall, the literature shows that violence in the family of origin leads to violence in the family of destination. However, this predominately cross-sectional or retrospective literature is limited by self-selection,…

  16. Overcoming Obstacles to Drug Abuse Research with Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glynn, Thomas J.

    Although there has been a significant amount of research on the families of drug abusers, this field has encountered a number of obstacles to its continued growth. Some of these problems include an emphasis of research on opiate use, methodological hindrances, and lack of a constituency. A review of two concurrent national processes, the White…

  17. Dating Violence Victimization Among High School Students in Minnesota: Associations With Family Violence, Unsafe Schools, and Resources for Support.

    PubMed

    Earnest, Alicia A; Brady, Sonya S

    2016-02-01

    The present study examines whether being a victim of violence by an adult in the household, witnessing intra-familial physical violence, and feeling unsafe at school are associated with physical dating violence victimization. It also examines whether extracurricular activity involvement and perceived care by parents, teachers, and friends attenuate those relationships, consistent with a stress-buffering model. Participants were 75,590 ninth-and twelfth-grade students (51% female, 77% White, 24% receiving free/reduced price lunch) who completed the 2010 Minnesota Student Survey. Overall, 8.5% of students reported being victims of dating violence. Significant differences were found by gender, grade, ethnicity, and free/reduced price lunch status. Logistic regression analyses demonstrated that being a victim of violence by an adult in the household, witnessing intra-familial physical violence, feeling unsafe at school, and low perceived care by parents were strongly associated with dating violence victimization. Associations of moderate strength were found for low perceived care by teachers and friends. Little to no extracurricular activity involvement was weakly associated with dating violence victimization. Attenuating effects of perceived care and extracurricular activity involvement on associations between risk factors (victimization by a family adult, witnessing intra-familial violence, feeling unsafe at school) and dating violence victimization were smaller in magnitude than main effects. Findings are thus more consistent with an additive model of risk and protective factors in relation to dating violence victimization than a stress-buffering model. Health promotion efforts should attempt to minimize family violence exposure, create safer school environments, and encourage parental involvement and support.

  18. Abusive Drinking in Young Adults: Personality Type and Family Role as Moderators of Family-of-Origin Influences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Judith L.; Wampler, Richard S.

    1994-01-01

    Examined relationship between roles in the family and individual personality types and abusive drinking among young adults (n=674). Family roles and personality type were found to moderate effects of family-of-origin variables on abusive drinking: family role of hero acted as buffer between family of origin and young adult's drinking behaviors;…

  19. High school students' posttraumatic symptoms, substance abuse and involvement in violence in the aftermath of war.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Miriam; Pat-Horenczyk, Ruth; Benbenishty, Rami; Brom, Danny; Baum, Naomi; Astor, Ron Avi

    2012-10-01

    This study examined one-year after effects of exposure to war events on adolescents' Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms (PTS) and risk behaviors (substance use and involvement in school violence). In addition, it addressed two potential vulnerability factors: at the micro level, it examined whether childhood trauma raised the vulnerability of Israeli adolescents to PTS and risk behaviors when exposed to war events. At the macro level, we explored whether ethnicity, i.e., being an Israeli Arab, is a vulnerability factor to PTS and risk behaviors. We used a representative sample of 7th to 11th grade students from the north of Israel that included 4151 students: 1800 Jewish (54.4% boys) and 2351 Arab (41.5% boys). We assessed exposure to war events and childhood traumatic events, PTS and PTSD, substance use (alcohol, cannabis, Ecstasy) and involvement in school violence. The findings revealed extensive exposure to war events among both Jewish and Arab students. A year after the war, its effects on adolescents were still manifested in PTS, and involvement in school violence and substance use. Exposure to child physical abuse was associated with higher levels of PTS symptoms, substance use and involvement in violence. Exposure to other traumatic events was also associated with greater PTS symptoms and involvement in violence but not with greater substance use. Arab students were a more vulnerable population. They reported higher PTS symptoms, more cannabis use and greater involvement in school violence than Jewish students. However, exposure to war events had similar effects on both Arab and Jewish students. We conclude that war effects include a broad range of psychological distress and risk behaviors that last long after the war ends, especially among youth who have experienced childhood trauma and high exposure to war-related stressors.

  20. Problem gambling and family violence: prevalence and patterns in treatment-seekers.

    PubMed

    Dowling, N A; Jackson, A C; Suomi, A; Lavis, T; Thomas, S A; Patford, J; Harvey, P; Battersby, M; Koziol-McLain, J; Abbott, M; Bellringer, M E

    2014-12-01

    The primary aim of this study was to explore the prevalence and patterns of family violence in treatment-seeking problem gamblers. Secondary aims were to identify the prevalence of problem gambling in a family violence victimisation treatment sample and to explore the relationship between problem gambling and family violence in other treatment-seeking samples. Clients from 15 Australian treatment services were systematically screened for problem gambling using the Brief Bio-Social Gambling Screen and for family violence using single victimisation and perpetration items adapted from the Hurt-Insulted-Threatened-Screamed (HITS): gambling services (n=463), family violence services (n=95), alcohol and drug services (n=47), mental health services (n=51), and financial counselling services (n=48). The prevalence of family violence in the gambling sample was 33.9% (11.0% victimisation only, 6.9% perpetration only, and 16.0% both victimisation and perpetration). Female gamblers were significantly more likely to report victimisation only (16.5% cf. 7.8%) and both victimisation and perpetration (21.2% cf. 13.0%) than male gamblers. There were no other demographic differences in family violence prevalence estimates. Gamblers most commonly endorsed their parents as both the perpetrators and victims of family violence, followed by current and former partners. The prevalence of problem gambling in the family violence sample was 2.2%. The alcohol and drug (84.0%) and mental health (61.6%) samples reported significantly higher rates of any family violence than the gambling sample, while the financial counselling sample (10.6%) reported significantly higher rates of problem gambling than the family violence sample. The findings of this study support substantial comorbidity between problem gambling and family violence, although this may be accounted for by a high comorbidity with alcohol and drug use problems and other psychiatric disorders. They highlight the need for routine

  1. Adolescents' Perceptions of Attachments to Their Mothers and Fathers in Families with Histories of Domestic Violence: A Longitudinal Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternberg, Kathleen J.; Lamb, Michael E.; Guterman, Eva; Abbott, Craig B.; Dawud-Noursi, Samia

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The effects of both childhood and teenage experiences of domestic violence on adolescent-parent attachments were examined. Method: Israeli adolescents (M=15.9 years) who were either victims of physical abuse, witnesses of physical spouse abuse, victims and witnesses of abuse, or neither victims nor witnesses of abuse were questioned…

  2. State of the science on prevention of elder abuse and lessons learned from child abuse and domestic violence prevention: Toward a conceptual framework for research.

    PubMed

    Teresi, Jeanne A; Burnes, David; Skowron, Elizabeth A; Dutton, Mary Ann; Mosqueda, Laura; Lachs, Mark S; Pillemer, Karl

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this review is to discuss the state of the science in elder abuse prevention. Findings from evidence-based programs to reduce elder abuse are discussed, drawing from findings and insights from evidence-based programs for child maltreatment and domestic/intimate partner violence. A conceptual measurement model for the study of elder abuse is presented and linked to possible measures of risk factors and outcomes. Advances in neuroscience in child maltreatment and novel measurement strategies for outcome assessment are presented.

  3. Mentalizing Family Violence Part 2: Techniques and Interventions.

    PubMed

    Asen, Eia; Fonagy, Peter

    2017-03-01

    This is the second of two companion papers that provide an overview of mentalization-based concepts and techniques when working with the seeming "mindlessness" of intra-family violence. The focus of this paper is on general mentalization-oriented approaches and specific interventions that aim to (1) disrupt the non-mentalizing cycles that can generate intra-family violence and (2) encourage the emergence of patterns of family interactions that provide the foundation for non-violent alternatives. Various playful exercises and activities are described, including the taking of "mental state snapshots" and "selfies" in sessions and staging inverted role-plays, as well as using theatrical masks and creating body-mind maps and scans. These can make "chronic" relationship issues come alive in session and permit "here and now" experiences that generate a safe context for mentalizing to take place. At the core of the work is the continuous focus on integrating experience and reflection. Without acute awareness of the thoughts and feelings occurring in the sessions, mere reflection is not likely to enable change. By increasing mentalizing in the family system, family members' trusting attitudes grow, both within and outside the family.

  4. Entrapment of Victims of Spousal Abuse in Ghana: A Discursive Analysis of Family Identity and Agency of Battered Women.

    PubMed

    Adjei, Stephen Baffour

    2015-06-02

    Drawing on discursive psychology and positioning theory, this study explores the influence of cultural and familial value orientations on battered women's identity, agency, and decision to leave or stay in abusive conjugal relationship in Ghana. Two semi-structured focus group discussions and four in-depth personal interviews were conducted with 16 victims of husband-to-wife abuse from rural and urban Ghana. The findings indicate that entrapment of victims of spousal abuse in Ghana reflects their social embeddedness and that battered women's identities and agency are expressed in the context of familial and cultural value orientations. The primacy of family identity and victims' apparent implicit moral obligation to preserve the social image of their extended family influence their entrapment. Participants' discursive accounts further suggest that stay or leave decisions of battered women in Ghana reflect a joint product of negotiated agency between victims and their extended family. It is thus argued that the agency of battered women in Ghana is not constituted by individual psychological states or motives, but instead, viewed as a property of victims who exercise it in a given relational context, and partly constituted by familial relationships and identities. The study suggests that intervention initiatives in Ghana should focus on the phenomenon of conjugal violence beyond immediate victims to include families and the larger communities in which victims are embedded.

  5. International Olympic Committee consensus statement: harassment and abuse (non-accidental violence) in sport.

    PubMed

    Mountjoy, Margo; Brackenridge, Celia; Arrington, Malia; Blauwet, Cheri; Carska-Sheppard, Andrea; Fasting, Kari; Kirby, Sandra; Leahy, Trisha; Marks, Saul; Martin, Kathy; Starr, Katherine; Tiivas, Anne; Budgett, Richard

    2016-09-01

    Despite the well-recognised benefits of sport, there are also negative influences on athlete health, well-being and integrity caused by non-accidental violence through harassment and abuse. All athletes have a right to engage in 'safe sport', defined as an athletic environment that is respectful, equitable and free from all forms of non-accidental violence to athletes. Yet, these issues represent a blind spot for many sport organisations through fear of reputational damage, ignorance, silence or collusion. This consensus statement extends the 2007 IOC Consensus Statement on Sexual Harassment and Abuse in Sport, presenting additional evidence of several other types of harassment and abuse-psychological, physical and neglect. All ages and types of athletes are susceptible to these problems but science confirms that elite, disabled, child and lesbian/gay/bisexual/trans-sexual (LGBT) athletes are at highest risk, that psychological abuse is at the core of all other forms and that athletes can also be perpetrators. Harassment and abuse arise from prejudices expressed through power differences. Perpetrators use a range of interpersonal mechanisms including contact, non-contact/verbal, cyber-based, negligence, bullying and hazing. Attention is paid to the particular risks facing child athletes, athletes with a disability and LGBT athletes. Impacts on the individual athlete and the organisation are discussed. Sport stakeholders are encouraged to consider the wider social parameters of these issues, including cultures of secrecy and deference that too often facilitate abuse, rather than focusing simply on psychopathological causes. The promotion of safe sport is an urgent task and part of the broader international imperative for good governance in sport. A systematic multiagency approach to prevention is most effective, involving athletes, entourage members, sport managers, medical and therapeutic practitioners, educators and criminal justice agencies. Structural and

  6. Men's recognition of violence against women and spousal abuse: comparison of three groups of men.

    PubMed

    Chamberland, Claire; Fortin, Andrée; Turgeon, Joane; Laporte, Lise

    2007-01-01

    Our goal was to assess whether men in the following three groups differ in their ability to recognize and judge the severity of diverse forms of aggressive behavior: (a) men who reported being physically aggressive toward their spouses and who were entering treatment for domestic violence; (b) men who, after participating in a treatment program, were no longer physically violent; and (c) men who reported never having been physically violent towards their spouses (NPV group-non-physically violent). All 81 men in the study reported being verbally aggressive toward their spouses. Men who had been in treatment for spousal abuse and who had not been physically violent toward their spouses since finishing the program were better able than the other two groups to recognize emotionally abusive behaviors.

  7. Students' Personal Traits, Violence Exposure, Family Factors, School Dynamics and the Perpetration of Violence in Taiwanese Elementary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi

    2011-01-01

    School violence has become an international problem affecting the well-being of students. To date, few studies have examined how school variables mediate between personal and family factors and school violence in the context of elementary schools in Asian cultures. Using a nationally representative sample of 3122 elementary school students in…

  8. Behavior Problems Among Adolescents Exposed to Family and Community Violence in Chile.

    PubMed

    Ma, Julie; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Delva, Jorge

    2016-07-01

    Research that simultaneously examines the relationship of multiple types of family and community violence with youth outcomes is limited in the previous research literature, particularly in Latin America. This study examined the relationship of youth exposure to family and community violence-parental use of corporal punishment, violence in the community, intimate partner physical aggression-with eight subscales of the Youth Self Report among a Chilean sample of 593 youth-mother pairs. Results from multilevel models indicated a positive association between youth exposure to violence in the family and community, and a wide range of behavior problem outcomes, in particular, aggression. With growing evidence concerning the detrimental effect of violence on youth's well-being, these findings highlight the need for a more comprehensive understanding of the various kinds of violence youth are exposed to within the family and community and the concomitant need to reduce multiple forms of violence.

  9. Gender Inequality Prevents Abused Women from Seeking Care Despite Protection Given in Gender-Based Violence Legislation: A Qualitative Study from Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Mogren, Ingrid; Krantz, Gunilla

    2016-01-01

    Objective Despite its burden on a person’s life, Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is known to be poorly recognised and managed in most countries and communities. This study aimed to explore health care professionals’ experiences of the health care seeking processes of women exposed to intimate partner violence in Rwanda. Methods Six focus group discussions were conducted in three district hospitals and three mental health units in Rwanda. A sample of 43 health care professionals with various professions and length of work experience, who regularly took care of patients subjected to IPV, was selected for focus group discussions. The analysis was performed using qualitative content analysis. Results The theme “Gendered norms and values defeat the violence legislation in women’s health care seeking when women are abused” expressed the health care professionals’ experiences of the double-faced situation which women exposed to IPV met in their help seeking process. Positive initiatives to protect women were identified, but the potential for abused women to seek help and support was reduced because of poverty, gender inequality with prevailing strong norms of male superiority, and the tendency to keep abuse as a private family matter. Conclusion Legislative measures have been instituted to protect women from abuse. Still many Rwandan women do not benefit from these efforts. The role of the health care services needs to be reinforced as an important and available resource for help and support for abused women but further legislative changes are also needed. Initiatives to further improve gender equality, and institutionalised collaboration between different sectors in society would contribute to protecting women from IPV. PMID:27152680

  10. Early Family Environments and Traumatic Experiences Associated with Borderline Personality Disorder.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weaver, Terri L.; Clum, George A.

    1993-01-01

    Assessed childhood trauma experiences (sexual abuse, physical abuse, witnessed violence, early separation) and family environment characteristics of 17 depressed female patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) and 19 without BPD. Significantly, more BPD subjects reported histories of sexual abuse, physical abuse, and witnessed violence.…

  11. Family Functioning and Children's Post-Traumatic Stress Symptoms in a Referred Sample Exposed to Interparental Violence.

    PubMed

    Telman, Machteld D; Overbeek, Mathilde M; de Schipper, J Clasien; Lamers-Winkelman, Francien; Finkenauer, Catrin; Schuengel, Carlo

    This study examined the association between interparental violence (IPV), child abuse and neglect, other traumatic experiences, and children's post-traumatic stress (PTS) symptoms and explored the moderating role of family functioning in the aftermath of IPV. One hundred and twenty IPV-exposed children (53.3 % male, M age = 9.85) and parents who were referred to community mental health centers participated in the study. Combined, IPV, child abuse and neglect, and other traumatic experiences were associated with PTS symptoms. For family functioning, higher levels of parenting stress were associated with higher levels of PTS symptoms. No moderating effects were found. To understand the variability in PTS symptoms among children exposed to IPV, other traumatic and stressful experiences need to be taken into account.

  12. The rate of cyber dating abuse among teens and how it relates to other forms of teen dating violence.

    PubMed

    Zweig, Janine M; Dank, Meredith; Yahner, Jennifer; Lachman, Pamela

    2013-07-01

    To date, little research has documented how teens might misuse technology to harass, control, and abuse their dating partners. This study examined the extent of cyber dating abuse-abuse via technology and new media-in youth relationships and how it relates to other forms of teen dating violence. A total of 5,647 youth from ten schools in three northeastern states participated in the survey, of which 3,745 reported currently being in a dating relationship or having been in one during the prior year (52 % were female; 74 % White). Just over a quarter of youth in a current or recent relationship said that they experienced some form of cyber dating abuse victimization in the prior year, with females reporting more cyber dating abuse victimization than males (particularly sexual cyber dating abuse). One out of ten youth said that they had perpetrated cyber dating abuse, with females reporting greater levels of non-sexual cyber dating abuse perpetration than males; by contrast, male youth were significantly more likely to report perpetrating sexual cyber dating abuse. Victims of sexual cyber dating abuse were seven times more likely to have also experienced sexual coercion (55 vs. 8 %) than were non-victims, and perpetrators of sexual cyber dating abuse were 17 times more likely to have also perpetrated sexual coercion (34 vs. 2 %) than were non-perpetrators. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

  13. Individual and Family Predictors of the Perpetration of Dating Violence and Victimization in Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makin-Byrd, Kerry; Bierman, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Teen dating violence is a crime of national concern with approximately one-fourth of adolescents reporting victimization of physical, psychological, or sexual dating violence each year. The present study examined how aggressive family dynamics in both childhood and early adolescence predicted the perpetration of dating violence and victimization…

  14. Community Violence in Context: Risk and Resilience in Children and Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aisenberg, Eugene; Herrenkohl, Todd

    2008-01-01

    Although some community violence research has examined the context of community violence, including the social, economic, and structural organization of neighborhoods, more needs to be learned about family, school, and community-level factors that may promote and lessen the incidence and prevalence of community violence. In addition, further…

  15. 45 CFR 260.52 - What are the basic provisions of the Family Violence Option (FVO)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Violence Option (FVO)? 260.52 Section 260.52 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE... Provisions Apply to Victims of Domestic Violence? § 260.52 What are the basic provisions of the Family Violence Option (FVO)? Section 402(a)(7) of the Act provides that States electing the FVO certify that...

  16. 45 CFR 260.52 - What are the basic provisions of the Family Violence Option (FVO)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Violence Option (FVO)? 260.52 Section 260.52 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE... Provisions Apply to Victims of Domestic Violence? § 260.52 What are the basic provisions of the Family Violence Option (FVO)? Section 402(a)(7) of the Act provides that States electing the FVO certify that...

  17. 45 CFR 260.52 - What are the basic provisions of the Family Violence Option (FVO)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Violence Option (FVO)? 260.52 Section 260.52 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE... Provisions Apply to Victims of Domestic Violence? § 260.52 What are the basic provisions of the Family Violence Option (FVO)? Section 402(a)(7) of the Act provides that States electing the FVO certify that...

  18. 45 CFR 260.52 - What are the basic provisions of the Family Violence Option (FVO)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Violence Option (FVO)? 260.52 Section 260.52 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE... Provisions Apply to Victims of Domestic Violence? § 260.52 What are the basic provisions of the Family Violence Option (FVO)? Section 402(a)(7) of the Act provides that States electing the FVO certify that...

  19. 45 CFR 260.52 - What are the basic provisions of the Family Violence Option (FVO)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Violence Option (FVO)? 260.52 Section 260.52 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE... Provisions Apply to Victims of Domestic Violence? § 260.52 What are the basic provisions of the Family Violence Option (FVO)? Section 402(a)(7) of the Act provides that States electing the FVO certify that...

  20. Family Violence and Migrant Women: Implications for Practice. Migrant Clinicians Network Clinical Supplement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Rachel; And Others

    1993-01-01

    This newsletter supplement is devoted to the theme of domestic violence affecting migrant women. It contains four articles describing programs providing violence prevention education to migrant women and children. "Family Violence and Migrant Women: Implications for Practice" (Rachel Rodriguez) discusses the social isolation of migrant women;…

  1. Family Violence Prevention Programs in Immigrant Communities: Perspectives of Immigrant Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simbandumwe, Louise; Bailey, Kim; Denetto, Shereen; Migliardi, Paula; Bacon, Brenda; Nighswander, Maggie

    2008-01-01

    The Strengthening Families in Canada Family Violence Prevention Project was aimed at engaging immigrant and refugee communities in family violence prevention. The project, which received support from the Community Mobilization Program, National Crime Prevention Strategy, involved a partnership of four community health and education organizations.…

  2. Understanding Contexts of Family Violence in Rural, Farming Communities: Implications for Rural Women's Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendt, Sarah; Hornosty, Jennie

    2010-01-01

    Research on family violence in rural communities in Australia and Canada has shown that women's experience of family violence is shaped by social and cultural factors. Concern for economic security and inheritance for children, closeness and belonging, and values of family unity and traditional gender roles are factors in rural communities that…

  3. Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... abuse also plays a role in many major social problems, such as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to homelessness, crime, and missed work or problems with keeping a ...

  4. Effect of co-occurring disorders and intimate partner violence on substance abuse treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lipsky, Sherry; Krupski, Antoinette; Roy-Byrne, Peter; Lucenko, Barbara; Mancuso, David; Huber, Alice

    2010-04-01

    This retrospective cohort study examined risk factors for co-occurring substance use and mental disorders (COD) and the effect of COD and intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization among women and IPV-related arrest among men on 1-year substance abuse treatment outcomes. The study sample included clients admitted to Washington State publicly funded substance abuse treatment facilities in 2004-2007. COD was associated with a high substance use and IPV risk profile at admission. Having a COD decreased the odds of completing treatment by 30% among men and women and increased the risk of treatment reentry by 9% and 12% among men and women, respectively. IPV also decreased the odds of completing treatment among women and increased the risk of treatment reentry among men. Men with COD were less likely than those without COD to be arrested for substance-related crimes but more likely to be arrested for violence-related crimes in the follow-up period. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  5. Domestic/family violence death reviews: an international comparison.

    PubMed

    Bugeja, Lyndal; Dawson, Myrna; McIntyre, Sara-Jane; Walsh, Carolyn

    2015-04-01

    Domestic/Family Violence Death Reviews (D/FVDRs) have been established in a number of high-income countries since 1990 as a mechanism to inform prevention-focused interventions to reduce domestic/family violence. D/FVDRs differ in their structure, governance, case identification processes and inclusion criteria, review measures, and outputs. Outside of the United States, the extent of heterogeneity across and within countries has not been explored. This study comprised an international comparison of D/FVDRs and their core elements to inform the establishment of D/FVDRs in other developed countries, and potentially low- and middle-income countries where violence is a leading cause of death. Such a review is also a necessary foundation for any future evaluation D/FVDRs. The review identified 71 jurisdictions where a D/FVDRs had been established in the past two decades, 25 of which met the inclusion criteria. All D/FVDRs examined stated a reduction in deaths as a goal of the review process; however, none reported an actual reduction. The focus of the D/FVDRs examined was on intimate partner homicides; however, more recently established D/FVDRs include other familial relationships. Almost one third of the D/FVDRs examined reported changes to the domestic/family system that occurred as a result of recommendations made from the review process. While similar in many ways, D/FVDRs differ along a number of important dimensions that make it difficult to identify best practices for jurisdictions considering the establishment of such an initiative. To share knowledge, existing networks should be expanded nationally and internationally to include jurisdictions that may be considering this initiative.

  6. Family violence and body mass index among adolescents enrolled in the Bolsa Família Program and treated at a primary care clinic.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ana Maria Vieira Lourenço da; Taquette, Stella Regina; Hasselmann, Maria Helena

    2014-03-01

    This article aimed to investigate the relationship between family violence and body mass index (BMI) in adolescents whose families were enrolled in the Bolsa Família Program. The cross-sectional study included 201 adolescents of both sexes, 10 to 19 years of age, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2008-2009. BMI and physical, psychological, and verbal abuse of adolescents by their parents were evaluated. The association between family violence and BMI was measured via linear regression models. In girls, verbal abuse was directly associated with BMI, showing a significant mean increase of 2.064, 2.438, and 2.403 in BMI when perpetrated by the mother, father, and both parents, respectively. Among boys, family violence was associated with lower BMI (but without reaching statistical significance). The findings point to the need for innovative practices and approaches in the nutritional care of adolescents enrolled in the Bolsa Família Program, considering family violence as a contributing factor to inadequate nutritional status.

  7. Battered bodies & shattered minds: violence against women in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Wahed, Tania; Bhuiya, Abbas

    2007-10-01

    Violence against women is a common and insidious phenomenon in Bangladesh. The types of violence commonly committed are domestic violence, acid throwing, rape, trafficking and forced prostitution. Domestic violence is the most common form of violence and its prevalence is higher in rural areas. A higher prevalence of verbal abuse than physical abuse by partners has been observed. The reasons mentioned for abuse were trivial and included questioning of the husband, failure to perform household work and care of children, economic problems, stealing, refusal to bring dowry, etc. The factors associated with violence were the age of women, age of husband, past exposure to familial violence, and lack of spousal communication. The majority of abused women remained silent about their experience because of the high acceptance of violence within society, fear of repercussion, tarnishing family honour and own reputation, jeopardizing children's future, and lack of an alternative place to stay. However, severely abused women, women who had frequent verbal disputes, higher level of education, and support from natal homes were more likely to disclose violence. A very small proportion of women approached institutional sources for help and only when the abuse was severe, became life threatening or children were at risk. Interestingly, violence increased with membership of women in micro-credit organizations initially but tapered off as duration of involvement increased. The high acceptability of violence within society acts as a deterrent for legal redress. Effective strategies for the prevention of violence should involve public awareness campaigns and community-based networks to support victims.

  8. Working with abused older women from a feminist perspective.

    PubMed

    Vinton, L

    1999-01-01

    Domestic violence in older families is often referred to not as family violence but as elder abuse. This chapter will begin by discussing how perceptions of this type of violence impact informal and formal interventions. The prevalence and etiology of domestic violence are described, along with how the joint forces of ageism and sexism affect older female victims. National, state, and local efforts to prevent and remediate the abuse of older women are also covered. In conclusion, the author presents implications for working with groups and individual abused older women from a feminist perspective.

  9. The Relationship between Violence in the Family of Origin and Dating Violence among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gover, Angela R.; Kaukinen, Catherine; Fox, Kathleen A.

    2008-01-01

    Prior research has established that violence in dating relationships is a serious social problem among adolescents and young adults. Exposure to violence during childhood has been linked to dating violence victimization and perpetration. Also known as the intergenerational transmission of violence, the link between violence during childhood and…

  10. An exploration of violence, mental health and substance abuse in post-conflict Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Branas, Charles C; Dinardo, Andrew R; Puac Polanco, Victor D; Harvey, Michael J; Vassy, Jason L; Bream, Kent

    2013-05-01

    Guatemala's 36-year civil war officially ended in December 1996 after some 200,000 deaths and one million refugees. Despite the ceasefire, Guatemala continues to be a violent country with one of the highest homicide rates in the world. We investigated potential associations between violence, mental health, and substance abuse in post-conflict Guatemala using a community-based survey of 86 respondents living in urban and rural Guatemala. Overall, 17.4% of our respondents had at least one, direct violent experience during the civil war. In the post-conflict period, 90.7% of respondents reported being afraid that they might be hurt by violence, 40.7% screened positive for depression, 50.0% screened positive for PTSD, and 23.3% screened positive for alcohol dependence. Potential associations between prior violent experiences during the war and indicators of PTSD and aspects of alcohol dependence were found in regression-adjusted models (p < 0.05). Certain associations between prior civil war experiences, aspects of PTSD and alcohol dependence in this cohort are remarkable, raising concerns for the health and safety of the largely indigenous populations we studied. Higher than expected rates of depression, PTSD, and substance abuse in our cohort may be related to the ongoing violence, injury and fear that have persisted since the end of the civil war. These, in turn, have implications for the growing medical and surgical resources needed to address the continuing traumatic and post-traumatic complications in the post-conflict era. Limitations of the current study are discussed. These findings are useful in beginning to understand the downstream effects of the Guatemalan civil war, although a much larger, randomly sampled survey is now needed.

  11. An exploration of violence, mental health and substance abuse in post-conflict Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Branas, Charles C.; Dinardo, Andrew R.; Puac Polanco, Victor D.; Harvey, Michael J.; Vassy, Jason L.; Bream, Kent

    2016-01-01

    Guatemala’s 36-year civil war officially ended in December 1996 after some 200,000 deaths and one million refugees. Despite the ceasefire, Guatemala continues to be a violent country with one of the highest homicide rates in the world. We investigated potential associations between violence, mental health, and substance abuse in post-conflict Guatemala using a community-based survey of 86 respondents living in urban and rural Guatemala. Overall, 17.4% of our respondents had at least one, direct violent experience during the civil war. In the post-conflict period, 90.7% of respondents reported being afraid that they might be hurt by violence, 40.7% screened positive for depression, 50.0% screened positive for PTSD, and 23.3% screened positive for alcohol dependence. Potential associations between prior violent experiences during the war and indicators of PTSD and aspects of alcohol dependence were found in regression-adjusted models (p < 0.05). Certain associations between prior civil war experiences, aspects of PTSD and alcohol dependence in this cohort are remarkable, raising concerns for the health and safety of the largely indigenous populations we studied. Higher than expected rates of depression, PTSD, and substance abuse in our cohort may be related to the ongoing violence, injury and fear that have persisted since the end of the civil war. These, in turn, have implications for the growing medical and surgical resources needed to address the continuing traumatic and post-traumatic complications in the post-conflict era. Limitations of the current study are discussed. These findings are useful in beginning to understand the downstream effects of the Guatemalan civil war, although a much larger, randomly sampled survey is now needed. PMID:27818726

  12. High School Polydrug Users and Abusers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Loyd S.

    1985-01-01

    Among 433 high school seniors, 12 percent were determined to be either polydrug users or abusers. Comparisons between nonpolydrug users and polydrug users on family violence, personality traits, psychological characteristics, and behavior are given. (Author/BL)

  13. Association of Childhood Physical and Sexual Abuse with Intimate Partner Violence, Poor General Health and Depressive Symptoms among Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Barrios, Yasmin V.; Gelaye, Bizu; Zhong, Qiuyue; Nicolaidis, Christina; Rondon, Marta B.; Garcia, Pedro J.; Sanchez, Pedro A. Mascaro; Sanchez, Sixto E.; Williams, Michelle A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examined associations of childhood physical and sexual abuse with risk of intimate partner violence (IPV). We also evaluated the extent to which childhood abuse was associated with self-reported general health status and symptoms of antepartum depression in a cohort of pregnant Peruvian women. Methods In-person interviews were conducted to collect information regarding history of childhood abuse and IPV from 1,521 women during early pregnancy. Antepartum depressive symptomatology was evaluated using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Multivariable logistic regression procedures were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). Results Any childhood abuse was associated with 2.2-fold increased odds of lifetime IPV (95%CI: 1.72–2.83). Compared with women who reported no childhood abuse, those who reported both, childhood physical and sexual abuse had a 7.14-fold lifetime risk of physical and sexual IPV (95%CI: 4.15–12.26). The odds of experiencing physical and sexual abuse by an intimate partner in the past year was 3.33-fold higher among women with a history of childhood physical and sexual abuse as compared to women who were not abused as children (95%CI 1.60–6.89). Childhood abuse was associated with higher odds of self-reported poor health status during early pregnancy (aOR = 1.32, 95%CI: 1.04–1.68) and with symptoms of antepartum depression (aOR = 2.07, 95%CI: 1.58–2.71). Conclusion These data indicate that childhood sexual and physical abuse is associated with IPV, poor general health and depressive symptoms in early pregnancy. The high prevalence of childhood trauma and its enduring effects of on women’s health warrant concerted global health efforts in preventing violence. PMID:25635902

  14. Brief Family Based Intervention for Substance Abusing Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Lynn; Rodriguez, Ana Maria; Spirito, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Research has consistently shown that a lack of parental involvement in the activities of their children predicts initiation and escalation of substance use. Parental monitoring, as well as youth disclosure about their whereabouts, parent child communication, positive parenting and family management strategies, e.g., consistent limit setting, and parental communication about and disapproval of substance use, have all been shown to protect against adolescent substance abuse and substance problems. Given the empirical evidence, family and parenting approaches to preventing and intervening on adolescent substance misuse have received support in the literature. This article discusses the theoretical foundations as well as the application of the Family Check-up, a brief family-based intervention for adolescent substance use. PMID:26092741

  15. Perceived Mattering to the Family and Physical Violence within the Family by Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, Gregory C.; Cunningham, Susan M.; Colangelo, Melissa; Gelles, Richard J.

    2011-01-01

    Mattering is the extent to which people believe they make a difference in the world around them. This study hypothesizes that adolescents who believe they matter less to their families will more likely threaten or engage in intrafamily physical violence. The data come from a national sample of 2,004 adolescents. Controlling for respondents' age,…

  16. Understanding adolescent and family influences on intimate partner psychological violence during emerging adulthood and adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lohman, Brenda J; Neppl, Tricia K; Senia, Jennifer M; Schofield, Thomas J

    2013-04-01

    The intergenerational transmission of violence directed toward intimate partners has been documented for the past three decades. Overall, the literature shows that violence in the family of origin leads to violence in the family of destination. However, this predominately cross-sectional or retrospective literature is limited by self-selection, endogeneity, and reporter biases as it has not been able to assess how individual and family behaviors simultaneously experienced during adolescence influence intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. The present study used data from the Iowa Youth and Families Project (IYFP; N = 392; 52 % Female), a multi-method, multi-trait prospective approach, to overcome this limitation. We focused on psychological intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood (19-23 years) and adulthood (27-31 years), and include self and partner ratings of violence as well as observational data in a sample of rural non-Hispanic white families. Controlling for a host of individual risk factors as well as interparental psychological violence from adolescence (14-15 years), the results show that exposure to parent-to-child psychological violence during adolescence is a key predictor of intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. In addition, negative emotionality and the number of sexual partners in adolescence predicted intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood and adulthood. Exposure to family stress was associated positively with intimate partner violence in adulthood but not in emerging adulthood, whereas academic difficulties were found to increase violence in emerging adulthood only. Unlike previous research, results did not support a direct effect of interparental psychological violence on psychological violence in the next generation. Gender differences were found only in emerging adulthood. Implications of these findings are discussed in light of the current literature and future directions.

  17. Understanding Adolescent and Family Influences on Intimate Partner Psychological Violence During Emerging Adulthood and Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Lohman, Brenda J.; Neppl, Tricia K.; Senia, Jennifer M.; Schofield, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    The intergenerational transmission of violence directed toward intimate partners has been documented for the past three decades. Overall, the literature shows that violence in the family of origin leads to violence in the family of destination. However, this predominately cross–sectional or retrospective literature is limited by self–selection, endogeneity, and reporter biases as it has not been able to assess how individual and family behaviors simultaneously experienced during adolescence influence intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. The present study used data from the Iowa Youth and Families Project (IYFP; N = 392; 52 % Female), a multi–method, multi–trait prospective approach, to overcome this limitation. We focused on psychological intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood (19 – 23 years) and adulthood (27 – 31 years), and include self and partner ratings of violence as well as observational data in a sample of rural non-Hispanic white families. Controlling for a host of individual risk factors as well as interparental psychological violence from adolescence (14 – 15 years), the results show that exposure to parent–to–child psychological violence during adolescence is a key predictor of intimate partner violence throughout adulthood. In addition, negative emotionality and the number of sexual partners in adolescence predicted intimate partner violence in both emerging adulthood and adulthood. Exposure to family stress was associated positively with intimate partner violence in adulthood but not in emerging adulthood, whereas academic difficulties were found to increase violence in emerging adulthood only. Unlike previous research, results did not support a direct effect of interparental psychological violence on psychological violence in the next generation. Gender differences were found only in emerging adulthood. Implications of these findings are discussed in light of the current literature and future directions

  18. Cumulative Environmental Risk in Substance Abusing Women: Early Intervention, Parenting Stress, Child Abuse Potential and Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Susan J.

    2003-01-01

    A study of 161 substance-abusing mothers assessed 10 maternal risk factors: maternal depression; domestic violence; nondomestic violence; family size; incarceration; no significant other at home; negative life events; psychiatric problems; homelessness; and drug use severity. Parenting stress and child abuse potential was higher for women with…

  19. The Impact of Childhood Abuse History and Domestic Violence on the Mental Health of Women in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujiwara, Takeo; Okuyama, Makiko; Izumi, Mayuko; Osada, Yukiko

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To understand the independent and interactive effects of childhood abuse history (CAH) and domestic violence (DV) on the mental health status of women in Japan. Methods: A self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted among a sample of 340 women staying in 83 Mother-Child Homes in Japan to assess the women's CAH and DV…

  20. Promising Strategies: Results of the Fourth National Survey on Community Efforts To Reduce Substance Abuse and Gun Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Steven Rathgeb; Dretler, Astrid K.; Rosenbloom, David L.; Paine, Kay H.; Levinson, Suzette; Hingson, Ralph; Bell, Nicole

    More than 4,000 people responded to a survey about community efforts to reduce substance abuse and gun violence. Six major findings were identified from the responses of 1,608 people who identified themselves as leaders of community efforts in these areas. Community leaders want significant changes in long-standing public policies and a change in…

  1. History of Interpersonal Violence, Abuse, and Nonvictimization Trauma and Severity of Psychiatric Symptoms among Children in Outpatient Psychiatric Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Julian D.; Gagnon, Kerry; Connor, Daniel F.; Pearson, Geraldine

    2011-01-01

    In a clinical sample of child psychiatry outpatients, chart review data were collected for 114 consecutive admissions over a 1-year period at a Child and Adolescent Outpatient Psychiatry Clinic. Data included history of documented maltreatment, potentially traumatic domestic or community violence, neglect or emotional abuse, and noninterpersonal…

  2. 25 CFR 63.34 - How are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds distributed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How are Indian child protection and family violence... INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.34 How are Indian child protection and family...

  3. 25 CFR 63.35 - How may Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false How may Indian child protection and family violence... INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.35 How may Indian child protection and family...

  4. 25 CFR 63.35 - How may Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true How may Indian child protection and family violence... INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.35 How may Indian child protection and family...

  5. 25 CFR 63.34 - How are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds distributed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true How are Indian child protection and family violence... INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.34 How are Indian child protection and family...

  6. 25 CFR 63.35 - How may Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How may Indian child protection and family violence... INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.35 How may Indian child protection and family...

  7. 25 CFR 63.35 - How may Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How may Indian child protection and family violence... INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.35 How may Indian child protection and family...

  8. 25 CFR 63.35 - How may Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How may Indian child protection and family violence... INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.35 How may Indian child protection and family...

  9. 25 CFR 63.34 - How are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds distributed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false How are Indian child protection and family violence... INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.34 How are Indian child protection and family...

  10. 25 CFR 63.34 - How are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds distributed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How are Indian child protection and family violence... INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.34 How are Indian child protection and family...

  11. 25 CFR 63.34 - How are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds distributed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How are Indian child protection and family violence... INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.34 How are Indian child protection and family...

  12. Protective factors for adolescent violence against authority.

    PubMed

    Ibabe, Izaskun; Jaureguizar, Joana; Bentler, Peter M

    2013-01-01

    Both the family and school environments influence adolescents' violence, but there is little research focusing simultaneously on the two contexts. This study analyzed the role of positive family and classroom environments as protective factors for adolescents' violence against authority (parent abuse and teacher abuse) and the relations between antisocial behavior and child-to-parent violence or student-to-teacher violence. The sample comprised 687 Spanish students aged 12-16 years, who responded to the Family Environment Scale (FES) and the Classroom Environment Scale (CES). Structural Equation Modeling was used to test our model of violent behavior towards authority based on Catalano and Hawkins' Social Developmental Model (1996). Perceived family cohesion and organization showed an inverse association with parent abuse, suggesting that a positive family environment was a protective factor for the development of violence against parents. Family and classroom environments had direct effects on adolescents' violence against authority, and antisocial behavior showed a mediating effect in this relationship. The model accounted for 81% of the variance in violence against authority. As family environment was a better predictor of violence against authority than school environment, intervention efforts to reduce rates of adolescent violence should focus on helping parents to increase family cohesion and to manage conflictive relationships with their children.

  13. Exploring the relationship between child physical abuse and adult dating violence using a causal inference approach in an emerging adult population in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Jennings, Wesley G; Park, MiRang; Richards, Tara N; Tomsich, Elizabeth; Gover, Angela; Powers, Ráchael A

    2014-12-01

    Child maltreatment is one of the most commonly examined risk factors for violence in dating relationships. Often referred to as the intergenerational transmission of violence or cycle of violence, a fair amount of research suggests that experiencing abuse during childhood significantly increases the likelihood of involvement in violent relationships later, but these conclusions are primarily based on correlational research designs. Furthermore, the majority of research linking childhood maltreatment and dating violence has focused on samples of young people from the United States. Considering these limitations, the current study uses a rigorous, propensity score matching approach to estimate the causal effect of experiencing child physical abuse on adult dating violence among a large sample of South Korean emerging adults. Results indicate that the link between child physical abuse and adult dating violence is spurious rather than causal. Study limitations and implications are discussed.

  14. Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol) abuse in combination with alcohol causes premeditated, grievous violence in male juvenile offenders.

    PubMed

    Dåderman, A M; Lidberg, L

    1999-01-01

    This study focuses on 19 juvenile offenders who were frequently intoxicated by flunitrazepam (FZ), almost exclusively under the brand name Rohypnol. Street names for Rohypnol tablets are Rophies, Ropies, Roofies, Ropes, Roches, Rochas, Rochas Dos, Rophs, Ropers, Ribs, R-25, Roach-2s, Trip and Fall, Remember All, Mind Erasers, Forget Pills, and the Date Rape Drug. An overdose of FZ gives an increased feeling of power and self-esteem, reduces fear and insecurity, and provides the belief that everything is possible. FZ is also associated with loss of episodic memory and with impulsive violence, particularly when combined with alcohol. The subjects were taken from a subpopulation of 47 male juvenile offenders from Swedish national correctional institutions. Background information for subjects was obtained by in-depth interviewing and personality inventories including the Zuckerman Sensation-Seeking Scales, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and the Karolinska Scales of Personality. Data concerning previous criminal offenses was obtained from the Swedish National Police Board. Almost all of the FZ abusers had been previously sentenced for serious violent offenses. Our data suggest that FZ abused by psychiatrically vulnerable subjects (i.e., with high scores on boredom susceptibility and verbal aggression) poses a serious hazard both to the abusers as well as the community. Our results support the finding that FZ should be classified as a Schedule I drug (i.e., a drug similar to heavy narcotics).

  15. Relationship between School Violence and Depressive Symptoms among Multicultural Families' Offspring in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Cheol-Soon; Lee, Dongyun; Seo, Ji-Young; Ahn, In-Young; Bhang, Soo-Young

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of school violence on depressive symptoms among the offspring of multicultural families in South Korea. Data from the National Survey of Multicultural Families 2012, conducted by the Korean Women's Development Institute and Statistics Korea, were used in this study. Complex samples logistic regression was performed to determine the effect of school violence on depressive mood. The survey participants were 3999 students between the ages of 9 and 24. Of the participants, 22.1% reported experiencing depressive symptoms and 9.1% reported experiencing school violence within the last year. School violence was a strong risk factor (OR=5.142, 95% CI=4.067-6.500) for depressive symptoms after adjusting for personal, familial and school factors. School violence is a serious contributor to depressive mood among the offspring of multicultural families. There is a significant need to monitor school violence among this vulnerable group.

  16. Relationship between School Violence and Depressive Symptoms among Multicultural Families' Offspring in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheol-Soon; Lee, Dongyun; Seo, Ji-Young; Ahn, In-Young

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of school violence on depressive symptoms among the offspring of multicultural families in South Korea. Data from the National Survey of Multicultural Families 2012, conducted by the Korean Women's Development Institute and Statistics Korea, were used in this study. Complex samples logistic regression was performed to determine the effect of school violence on depressive mood. The survey participants were 3999 students between the ages of 9 and 24. Of the participants, 22.1% reported experiencing depressive symptoms and 9.1% reported experiencing school violence within the last year. School violence was a strong risk factor (OR=5.142, 95% CI=4.067–6.500) for depressive symptoms after adjusting for personal, familial and school factors. School violence is a serious contributor to depressive mood among the offspring of multicultural families. There is a significant need to monitor school violence among this vulnerable group. PMID:28326121

  17. Domestic violence: the cost to society, the challenge to development.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C

    1997-01-01

    The United Nations defines domestic violence as violence which occurs within the private sphere, mainly between individuals who are related through intimacy, blood, or law. Such violence is a problem which occurs in every country of the world and is perhaps the most insidious form of gender violence. Available data on domestic violence indicate that from 25% to more than half of all women worldwide have been physically abused by a present or former intimate partner, while an even larger proportion have experienced ongoing emotional and psychological abuse. However, even though domestic violence takes place so extensively, societal norms discourage women from speaking out about the domestic abuse they suffer. Shame and the fear of reprisals from the abuser, his family, and the community intimate victims. Moreover, women may accept physical and emotional abuse as a husband's right, causing women to view some violent behavior as less than violent. Some cultures also blame women for provoking a husband's violence. Women may not speak out against the abuser or press charges because they depend upon the man for economic support and their cultural identity. For example, throughout Asia and Africa, women cannot sustain themselves and their children if they disengage from extended families. In many countries, battered women who leave an abusive marriage risk losing their income, children, shelter, land, and social standing. The lack of comprehensive data on the nature and extent of domestic violence, domestic violence as a development issue, and a framework to address domestic violence are discussed.

  18. Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe Forum, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Highlighting the issue of violence, this Forum issue contains 12 essays. Titles and authors are: "Passivity in the Face of Violence" (Henri Laborit); "Democratisation without Violence?" (Friedrich Hacker); "Ritualised Violence in Sport" (Christian Bromberger); "Violence in Prisons" (Luige Daga); "Racial Aggression" (Geoffrey Bindman); "Violence in…

  19. Normalization of Violence: Experiences of Childhood Abuse by Inner-City Crack Users

    PubMed Central

    DUNLAP, ELOISE; GOLUB, ANDREW; JOHNSON, BRUCE D.; BENOIT, ELLEN

    2010-01-01

    An increasing literature mostly based on retrospective surveys has been consistently documenting a correlation between physical abuse in childhood (CPA) and substance abuse in adulthood (ASA). This article uses ethnographic data to reveal the processes behind and context of this linkage for one population—poor, inner-city New York residents who became crack users. Life in the inner city is qualitatively different than in more fortunate circumstances. CPA is but one of numerous stressors and factors contributing to ASA. Approximately half of the subjects reported clear recollections of being physically beaten by their mothers or their various male partners. Although several denied being beaten in childhood, they typically reported various forms of physical assaults that they “deserved.” Physical assaults, especially by mothers, were often understood as expressions of love. As such, these respondents viewed their ongoing physical assaults as an ordinary part of their childhood and adolescence. Such physical punishment also socialized and prepared children for the violence that would likely occur during their childhood in their inner-city communities. This analysis highlights how reducing substance abuse in the inner city may require a much more comprehensive effort than a focus on reducing CPA. These findings also have important implications for quantitative research regarding CPA and ASA. Such studies should subdivide their analyses by socioeconomic status to more clearly measure how much of a risk factor CPA represents among wealthier populations and how much not being abused may serve as a protective factor among poor inner-city populations. PMID:19266372

  20. Distance Education in Social Work: An Evaluation of an Undergraduate Course on Family Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Christine Ann; Baynton, Myra

    2012-01-01

    Social work is a discipline that emphasizes personal contact and has traditionally been taught face-to-face. This paper examines whether online learning is appropriate for educating social workers about family violence. It describes a newly-developed online course in family violence and evaluates its effectiveness. Two surveys of the class and an…

  1. The Role of Family Conflict in the Relation between Exposure to Community Violence and Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holtzman, Rochelle J.; Roberts, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the role of family conflict as a mediator in the relation between exposure to community violence and depressive symptoms. Two hundred thirty-two early adolescents (aged 11-16 years) completed a demographics questionnaire, the Survey of Exposure to Community Violence, the 9-item conflict subscale of the Family Environment…

  2. Violence and the American Family: Report of a Workshop (Racine, Wisconsin, May 11-13, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chalk, Rosemary, Ed.

    This report reviews the activities of a workshop on violence and the American family that was conducted to consider the nexus between research and policy issues in the field, identify key issues that need to be addressed in responding to the problem of family violence, and highlight program initiatives to address the problem. It lists workshop…

  3. Adolescent-to-Parent Violence in Adoptive Families

    PubMed Central

    Selwyn, Julie; Meakings, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent-to-parent violence (APV) has received little attention in the social work literature, although it is known to be a factor in families whose children are at risk of entry to care. The behaviour patterns that characterise APV include coercive control, domination and intimidation. Crucially, parental behaviours are compromised by fear of violence. This article discusses the unexpected findings from two recent adoption studies of previously looked after children in England and Wales. The studies exposed the prevalence of APV in the lives of families who had experienced an adoption disruption and those who were finding parenting very challenging. Two main APV patterns emerged: early onset (pre-puberty) that escalated during adolescence, and late onset that surfaced during puberty and rapidly escalated. The stigma and shame associated with APV delayed help seeking. The response from services was often to blame the adoptive parents and to instigate child protection procedures. There is an urgent need for a greater professional recognition of APV and for interventions to be evaluated with children who have been maltreated and showing symptoms of trauma. PMID:27559224

  4. School District Officials' and City Stakeholders' Perceptions Regarding School Violence and Ways to Prevent School Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Rita Mabon; Maldonado, Nancy; Howe, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Violence is a problem that affects the family structure, schools, and communities. Although some violence takes place behind closed doors, the effects are devastating to society and the community. The overwhelming results are seen with the increase of visits to abuse shelters and emergency rooms. Domestic violence in households tends to continue…

  5. Reviewing the Association between the History of Parental Substance Abuse and the Rate of Child Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Yaghoubi-Doust, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Background Substance abuse is a social, and health problem in Middle Eastern countries such as Iran. One of its most devastating effects is domestic violence against children. This study examined the association between the history of parental substance abuse, and rate of child abuse in Ahvaz, Iran. Methods This was a case-control study. The study population included all parents with high school children in Ahwaz within the academic year 2012-2013. The sample size was 384 people in two groups; with a history of substance abuse (case group) and no history of substance abuse (control group). Multi-stage cluster random sampling method was used through the Cochran formula. The data collection tools included a Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) (Bernstein, 1995), a demographic questionnaire, Duncan Socioeconomic Index (DSI), and a researcher-made questionnaire for the history of substance abuse. For data analysis, statistical indicators such as percentage, mean, standard deviation, t-test, and correlation and regression analysis were used. Findings Data analysis showed that there was a significant positive correlation among parents with a history of substance abuse and domestic violence toward children. Mean and standard deviation of the violence level in families with normal parents were 61.34 ± 16.88, and in families with a history of substance abuse were 98.99 ± 32.07. Therefore, the test results showed that there was a significant difference between normal families and families with history of substance abuse and violence toward children (P < 0.001, t = 8.60). Conclusion Based on the findings, the history of domestic violence and parental substance abuse (physical and emotional abuse, emotional and physical neglect) had a significant positive correlation with their behavior toward their children. After matching the two groups we found that the most common types of violence against children by their parents were, respectively, emotional violence (r = 58

  6. Examining Perpetration of Physical Violence by Women: The Influence of Childhood Adversity, Victimization, Mental Illness, Substance Abuse, and Anger.

    PubMed

    Kubiak, Sheryl; Fedock, Gina; Kim, Woo Jong; Bybee, Deborah

    2017-02-01

    Research on women's perpetration of physical violence has focused primarily on partners, often neglecting perpetration against nonpartners. This study proposes a conceptual model with direct and indirect relationships between childhood adversity and different targets of violence (partners and nonpartners), mediated by victimization experiences (by partner and nonpartners), mental illness, substance abuse, and anger. Using survey data from a random sample of incarcerated women (N = 574), structural equation modeling resulted in significant, albeit different, indirect paths from childhood adversity, through victimization, to perpetration of violence against partners (β = .20) and nonpartners (β = .19). The results indicate that prevention of women's violence requires attention to specific forms of victimization, anger expression, and targets of her aggression.

  7. Upset among youth in response to questions about exposure to violence, sexual assault and family maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Finkelhor, David; Vanderminden, Jennifer; Turner, Heather; Hamby, Sherry; Shattuck, Anne

    2014-02-01

    To assess whether youth are upset by being asked questions about sensitive kinds of abuse, victimization, family maltreatment, and sexual victimization in the course of standard epidemiological surveys. A national sample of youth aged 10-17 were interviewed on the telephone by experienced interviewers as part of the National Survey of Children Exposed to Violence. At the end they were asked whether answering questions had upset them. Of the youth interviewed, 4.5% reported being at all upset and 0.8% reported being pretty or a lot upset. However, only a minority of those upset, .3% of the total sample, said they would not participate again had they known about the content. But even in this group, the regret about participation was mostly due to the length of the survey, not the types of questions being asked. Thus, asking about exposure to abuse and sensitive kinds of victimization in standard interview surveys is associated with low levels of respondent upset due to the nature of the questions.

  8. Correlates of partner and family violence among older Canadians: a life-course approach

    PubMed Central

    Miszkurka, M.; Steensma, C.; Phillips, S. P.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Knowledge about individual and interpersonal correlates of violence in Canadian seniors is limited. This study identifies correlates of current and past violence by intimate partner and family member(s) in community-dwelling Canadian seniors, while accounting for childhood adverse circumstances. Methods: We performed logistic regression analysis of baseline data from a longitudinal study of community-dwelling individuals aged 65 to 74 years and living in Kingston (Ontario) and Saint-Hyacinthe (Quebec). Domestic violence was assessed using the Hurt-Insult-Threaten-Scream (HITS) screening tool. Odds ratios (ORs) are reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: Current violence of a psychological nature was reported by 18% of the sample. Women were at greater risk of current and lifetime violence perpetrated by a family member (current violence: adjusted OR  =  1.83; 95% CI: 1.02–3.30) as well as experiencing violence from their intimate partner in their lifetime than were men (adjusted OR  =  2.48; 95% CI: 1.40–4.37). Risk factors have accumulated over the life course that were found to be consistently associated with both current and lifetime violence included having witnessed violence at home in childhood (lifetime violence by family member: adjusted OR  =  9.46; 95% CI: 5.11–17.52), as well as poor quality of relationships with intimate partners, family and friends. Conclusion: Our research documents the ongoing impact of early adversity on subsequent partner and family violence in Canada. Findings identify some preventable factors associated with current psychological violence and past violence among community-dwelling Canadian seniors. PMID:26959723

  9. The curriculum revolution in action: nursing and crisis intervention for victims of family violence.

    PubMed

    Mandt, A K

    1993-01-01

    The curriculum revolution might have been born at the University of Detroit in their RN-to-BSN program. Situated in an urban environment where violence is an ever-present problem, the faculty developed an innovative clinical course for senior students, entitled Nursing and Crises Intervention for Victims of Family Violence. The curriculum was designed to respond to a social problem that affects individuals, families, and groups at both physical and psychological levels. It was hoped that creative use of the educational process would promote nursing intervention with a population whose needs have traditionally been unrecognized and unmet by the profession. The response to the course has been very positive and students have applied the content in nontraditional clinical agencies such as shelters for battered women and children, sexual abuse centers, and phone crisis centers. More importantly, these RN students report not only a change in personal attitudes, but an integration and application of their knowledge in their own professional practice. They act as educators to their peers and colleagues while reshaping their own practice in light of their newly acquired sensitivity. By creatively using the nursing curriculum, educators can prepare nurses to deal with many of the social ills affecting individuals, families, and groups. In so doing, they encourage nurses to step into the forefront of health care. They invite nursing practitioners to become proactive rather than reactive. Ultimately, such curriculum creativity will ensure that clients currently ignored or unrecognized by the health care system are identified and treated in a caring fashion by the profession that prides itself on its ability to care.

  10. An Ecostructural Family Therapy Approach to the Rehabilitation of the Latino Drug Abuser: History and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scopetta, Mercedes A.

    An approach to the treatment of Hispanic (particularly Cuban) American families with drug abusing members is presented in this paper. The approach, developed by the Spanish Family Guidance Center in Miami, Florida, views dysfunctionality and drug abuse as emerging from a family's internal disorganization and ecological imbalance. In order to treat…

  11. Animal Abuse and Interpersonal Violence: The Cruelty Connection and Its Implications for Veterinary Pathology.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, R; Arkow, P

    2016-09-01

    The role of the veterinary forensic pathologist in the investigation of animal abuse or neglect can go beyond documenting the condition of animals presented as evidence. Although animal cruelty is a moral concern and a crime in itself, law enforcement response to such crimes is often enhanced by the recognition that crimes against animals can be both indicators of other ongoing crimes against people and predictors of the potential for interpersonal violence. An understanding of common motives underlying animal cruelty can aid the pathologist in asking appropriate questions. The authors review the forms of pathology evidence commonly seen in various presentations of animal cruelty. Understanding these forms of evidence can help the pathologist describe findings that can be significant for assessing the potential risks the alleged perpetrator may pose to other animals and humans.

  12. Compensating for the harms of family violence: statutory barriers in Australian victims of crime compensation schemes.

    PubMed

    Forster, Christine

    2014-09-01

    This article considers the compensative capacity of the victims of crime statutory schemes that are present in all eight Australian jurisdictions for primary victims of family violence. It argues that the recommendations of the Final Report on Family Violence conducted jointly by the Australian Law Reform Commission and the New South Wales Law Reform Commission in 2010, although a positive step, are insufficient to facilitate meaningful compensation to victims of family violence. In addition to the primary limitations identified by the Commissions--a requirement to report the crime to the police within a reasonable time and a requirement for multiple acts of violence to be reduced to a single act if they are related--there are other statutory barriers that disproportionately disadvantage victims of family violence. These include time limitation provisions, a requirement to report the crime to police, the restriction of compensation to prescribed categories of loss which exclude many of the social, vocational, emotional and psychological harms suffered by victims of family violence, and significant cut-backs on the non-economic component of the schemes. This article further argues that the statutory barriers cumulatively contribute to the perception of a crime as an isolated event perpetrated by a deviant individual. The article recommends that specific provisions for family violence victims should be introduced into all schemes including three categories of compensation not tied to criminal offences but rather the different forms of family violence, with a generous compensation range, and no requirement for proof of injury.

  13. 25 CFR 63.32 - Under what authority are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program funds awarded? 63.32 Section 63.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.32 Under what authority are Indian...

  14. 25 CFR 63.36 - What are the special requirements for Indian child protection and family violence prevention...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... protection and family violence prevention programs? 63.36 Section 63.36 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.36 What are the special requirements...

  15. 25 CFR 63.33 - What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program funds include? 63.33 Section 63.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.33 What must an application for...

  16. 25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program? 63.30 Section 63.30 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.30 What is the purpose of the Indian child...

  17. 25 CFR 63.33 - What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program funds include? 63.33 Section 63.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.33 What must an application for...

  18. 25 CFR 63.32 - Under what authority are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program funds awarded? 63.32 Section 63.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.32 Under what authority are Indian...

  19. 25 CFR 63.36 - What are the special requirements for Indian child protection and family violence prevention...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... protection and family violence prevention programs? 63.36 Section 63.36 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.36 What are the special requirements...

  20. 25 CFR 63.36 - What are the special requirements for Indian child protection and family violence prevention...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... protection and family violence prevention programs? 63.36 Section 63.36 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.36 What are the special requirements...

  1. 25 CFR 63.32 - Under what authority are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program funds awarded? 63.32 Section 63.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.32 Under what authority are Indian...

  2. 25 CFR 63.32 - Under what authority are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program funds awarded? 63.32 Section 63.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.32 Under what authority are Indian...

  3. 25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program? 63.30 Section 63.30 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.30 What is the purpose of the Indian child...

  4. 25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program? 63.30 Section 63.30 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.30 What is the purpose of the Indian child...

  5. 25 CFR 63.36 - What are the special requirements for Indian child protection and family violence prevention...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... protection and family violence prevention programs? 63.36 Section 63.36 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.36 What are the special requirements...

  6. 25 CFR 63.33 - What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program funds include? 63.33 Section 63.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.33 What must an application for...

  7. 25 CFR 63.36 - What are the special requirements for Indian child protection and family violence prevention...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... protection and family violence prevention programs? 63.36 Section 63.36 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.36 What are the special requirements...

  8. 25 CFR 63.33 - What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program funds include? 63.33 Section 63.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.33 What must an application for...

  9. 25 CFR 63.32 - Under what authority are Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program funds awarded? 63.32 Section 63.32 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.32 Under what authority are Indian...

  10. 25 CFR 63.33 - What must an application for Indian child protection and family violence prevention program funds...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program funds include? 63.33 Section 63.33 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.33 What must an application for...

  11. 25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program? 63.30 Section 63.30 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.30 What is the purpose of the Indian child...

  12. 25 CFR 63.30 - What is the purpose of the Indian child protection and family violence prevention program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... family violence prevention program? 63.30 Section 63.30 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Program § 63.30 What is the purpose of the Indian child...

  13. [Violence against children].

    PubMed

    Daher, Michel

    2007-01-01

    The Convention of Human Rights defines violence as "all forms of physical or mental violence, injury and abuse, neglect or negligent treatment, maltreatment or exploitation, including sexual abuse". Violence against children cuts across boundaries of geography, race, class, religion and culture. It occurs in homes, schools and streets ; in places of work and entertainment, and in care and detention centers. Perpetrators include parents, family members, teachers, caretakers, law enforcement authorities and other children. Some children are particularly vulnerable because of gender, race, ethnic origin, disability or social status. And no country is immune, whether rich or poor. Although the consequences of violence for children may vary according to its nature and severity, the short- and long-term repercussions are very often grave and damaging. Violence may result in greater susceptibility to lifelong social, emotional, and cognitive impairments and to health-risk behaviors, such as substance abuse and early initiation of sexual behavior. Governments are ultimately responsible for the protection of children. It is therefore up to governments to act now, to fulfill their human rights obligations and other commitments, to ensure the protection of children from all forms of violence. Violence against children is never justifiable. Nor is it inevitable. After providing a global picture of violence against children, we propose recommendations to prevent and respond to this issue.

  14. [Violence against children].

    PubMed

    Ziegenhain, Ute; Künster, Anne Katrin; Besier, Tanja

    2016-01-01

    Violence against children is a widespread phenomenon. Interpersonal violence within the family context is typical in childhood, whereas violence occurs more frequently in the leisure and peer context during adolescence, often involving new media. The risk for experiencing violence is associated with many different factors, for example the age, psychosocial context, and cultural background of a child. Data on the prevalence of violence vary by country, depending on the available documentation systems. It is estimated that the number of unreported cases is high. Meta-analyses comprising mainly retrospective self-report studies indicate prevalence estimates between 12 and 19% for neglect, physical, and sexual abuse. Emotional child abuse is reported far more often, with a prevalence as high as 36.3%. German studies, however, weren't able to replicate these international findings. Here, child emotional abuse is reported less often. Violence against children has many negative consequences for physical, emotional, and psychosocial development. Violence prevention therefore comprises different international and national programs and strategies, which are able to successfully reduce violence against children. Programs focusing on the promotion of adequate parenting behavior show especially promising results.

  15. Co-occurrence of intimate partner violence and child sexual abuse: Prevalence, risk factors and related issues.

    PubMed

    Bidarra, Zelimar S; Lessard, Geneviève; Dumont, Annie

    2016-05-01

    This article proposes a review of the scientific literature on the cooccurrence of intimate partner violence and intrafamilial child sexual abuse. The review of these two types of violence has evolved in distinct research fields and their cooccurrence has rarely been examined. The objective of this article is to examine the existing knowledge about this cooccurrence. A systematic examination of the scientific literature in several relevant databases was conducted using combinations of 20 keywords so as to identify scientific articles, published between 2003 and 2013, that investigated this cooccurrence. The final sample comprised 10 studies. These studies revealed the presence of much heterogeneity regarding the prevalence of the cooccurrence for intimate partner violence with sexual abuse and other maltreatment (from 12% to 70%). The review also highlighted a greater risk for children to be victims of sexual abuse or other maltreatment when exposed to intimate partner violence. The implications of these results and the ensuing recommendations for practice and future research are considered in the discussion section.

  16. Therapeutic Change in Colombian Families Dealing with Violence: Therapists, Clients, and Referring Systems in Conversation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ripoll-Nunez, Karen; Villar-Guhl, Carlos Felipe; Villar-Concha, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    There is a gap in the Marriage and Family Therapy literature regarding clients', therapists', and family judges' theories of change in relational therapy for family violence. We conducted in-depth interviews with eleven court-referred families, their therapists, and two family judges in Bogota, Colombia. Interviews focused on their expectations of…

  17. Family violence and maltreatment of women during the perinatal period: Associations with infant morbidity in Indian slum communities

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Jay G.; Balaiah, Donta; Decker, Michele R.; Ritter, Julie; Naik, D.D.; Nair, Saritha; Saggurti, Niranjan; Raj, Anita

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of non-violent, gender-based forms of maltreatment of women by husbands and in-laws (i.e., gender-based household maltreatment; GBHM) during pregnancy and postpartum; to clarify the role of GBHM in compromising infant health, and whether this role extends beyond that previously observed for intimate partner violence (IPV). Methods Cross-sectional, quantitative data were collected from women (ages 15-35) seeking immunizations for their infants <6 months of age (N=1061) in urban health centers in Mumbai, India. Logistic regression models were constructed to assess associations between maternal abuse (perinatal IPV, in-law violence and GBHM) and recent infant morbidity (diarrhea, respiratory distress, fever, colic and vomiting). Results More than one in four women (28.4%) reported IPV during their recent pregnancy and/or during the postpartum period, 2.6% reported perinatal violence from in-laws, and 49.0% reported one or more forms of perinatal GBHM. In adjusted regression models that included all forms of family violence and maltreatment, perinatal GBHM remained significantly associated with infant morbidity (AORs 1.4-1.9); perinatal IPV and in-law violence ceased to predict infant morbidity in models including GBHM. Conclusions Findings indicate that non-violent expressions of gender inequity (e.g., nutritional deprivation, deprivation of sleep, blocking access to health care during pregnancy) are more strongly associated with poor infant health than physical or sexual violence from husbands or in-laws in urban India. These results strongly suggest the need to expand the conception of gender inequities beyond IPV to include non-violent forms of gendered mistreatment in considering their impact on infant health. PMID:26440937

  18. The Relationships of Dissociation and Affective Family Environment with the Intergenerational Cycle of Child Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Narang, D.S.; Contreras, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: The purpose was to test a model that may explain how physically abused children become physically abusive parents. It was predicted that when the family's affective environment is uncohesive, unexpressive, and conflictual, a history of abuse experiences would be associated with elevated dissociation. It was hypothesized that…

  19. Sin Verguenza: Addressing Shame with Latino Victims of Child Sexual Abuse and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontes, Lisa Aronson

    2007-01-01

    This article explores shame issues for Latino children who have been sexually abused and their families. Latino cultural concerns around shame that are associated with sexual abuse include: attributions for the abuse, fatalism, virginity, sexual taboos, predictions of a shameful future, revictimization, machismo, and fears of homosexuality for boy…

  20. Infant Abuse Runs in Families of Group-Living Pigtail Macaques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maestripieri, Dario; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Infant abuse and neglect were investigated in five families of group-living pigtail macaques over five generations. Neglect was mostly limited to first-born and newborns; closely related rather than distantly related females were more prone to abuse; and infants with siblings previously abused were at highest risk. Results provide evidence of…

  1. Addressing Wife Abuse in Mexican Immigrant Couples: Challenges for Family Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hancock, Tina

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses wife abuse in undocumented Mexican immigrant couples and suggests an ecosystems treatment approach that takes into consideration the structural forces of oppression and discrimination on abusive behaviors in the home and combines individual, family and community level interventions to help immigrant men stop the abuse.…

  2. Post-traumatic Stress in Children and Adolescents Exposed to Family Violence: II. Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Vickerman, Katrina A.; Margolin, Gayla

    2010-01-01

    Interventions for youth exposed to family violence recently have incorporated a trauma focus with the objective of reducing Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms along with alleviating other wide-ranging childhood disorders. This paper describes generally agreed-upon treatment components for youth exposed to violence in the home, including re-exposure interventions, education about violence and cognitive restructuring, processing of emotional cues, social problem-solving skills, and parenting interventions. Empirically evaluated treatment programs for different developmental stages (preschool, school-age, and adolescence) are summarized and remaining questions about how to best focus treatment efforts for youth traumatized by family violence are presented. PMID:20104253

  3. Multimethod prediction of child abuse risk in an at-risk sample of male intimate partner violence offenders.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Christina M; Gracia, Enrique; Lila, Marisol

    2016-10-01

    The vast majority of research on child abuse potential has concentrated on women demonstrating varying levels of risk of perpetrating physical child abuse. In contrast, the current study considered factors predictive of physical child abuse potential in a group of 70 male intimate partner violence offenders, a group that would represent a likely high risk group. Elements of Social Information Processing theory were evaluated, including pre-existing schemas of empathy, anger, and attitudes approving of parent-child aggression considered as potential moderators of negative attributions of child behavior. To lend methodological rigor, the study also utilized multiple measures and multiple methods, including analog tasks, to predict child abuse risk. Contrary to expectations, findings did not support the role of anger independently predicting child abuse risk in this sample of men. However, preexisting beliefs approving of parent-child aggression, lower empathy, and more negative child behavior attributions independently predicted abuse potential; in addition, greater anger, poorer empathy, and more favorable attitudes toward parent-child aggression also exacerbated men's negative child attributions to further elevate their child abuse risk. Future work is encouraged to consider how factors commonly considered in women parallel or diverge from those observed to elevate child abuse risk in men of varying levels of risk.

  4. The Relationship Between Family-of-Origin Violence, Hostility, and Intimate Partner Violence in Men Arrested for Domestic Violence: Testing a Mediational Model.

    PubMed

    Elmquist, JoAnna; Shorey, Ryan C; Labrecque, Lindsay; Ninnemann, Andrew; Zapor, Heather; Febres, Jeniimarie; Wolford-Clevenger, Caitlin; Plasencia, Maribel; Temple, Jeff R; Stuart, Gregory L

    2016-09-01

    Although research has shown links between family-of-origin violence (FOV), intimate partner violence (IPV), and hostility, research has not examined whether hostility mediates the relationship between FOV and IPV. The current study examined whether hostility mediates FOV and IPV perpetration in 302 men arrested for domestic violence. Results demonstrated that hostility fully mediated the relationship between father-to-participant FOV and physical and psychological IPV, and the relationship between mother-to-participant FOV and physical IPV. Results indicated that hostility fully mediated the relationship between experiencing and witnessing FOV and physical IPV (composite FOV), and partially mediated the relationship between composite FOV and psychological aggression.

  5. Human Trafficking: The Role of Medicine in Interrupting the Cycle of Abuse and Violence.

    PubMed

    Macias-Konstantopoulos, Wendy

    2016-10-18

    Human trafficking, a form of modern slavery, is an egregious violation of human rights with profound personal and public health implications. It includes forced labor and sexual exploitation of both U.S. and non-U.S. citizens and has been reported in all 50 states. Victims of human trafficking are currently among the most abused and disenfranchised persons in society, and they face a wide range of negative health outcomes resulting from their subjugation and exploitation. Medicine has an important role to play in mitigating the devastating effects of human trafficking on individuals and society. Victims are cared for in emergency departments, primary care offices, urgent care centers, community health clinics, and reproductive health clinics. In addition, they are unknowingly being treated in hospital inpatient units. Injuries and illnesses requiring medical attention thus represent unique windows of opportunity for trafficked persons to receive assistance from trusted health care professionals. With education and training, health care providers can recognize signs and symptoms of trafficking, provide trauma-informed care to this vulnerable population, and respond to exploited persons who are interested and ready to receive assistance. Multidisciplinary response protocols, research, and policy advocacy can enhance the impact of antitrafficking health care efforts to interrupt the cycle of abuse and violence for these victims.

  6. Preschool children's cardiac reactivity moderates relations between exposure to family violence and emotional adjustment.

    PubMed

    Cipriano, Elizabeth A; Skowron, Elizabeth A; Gatzke-Kopp, Lisa M

    2011-08-01

    This study examined relations between cardiac reactivity, family violence exposure (i.e., child maltreatment [CM] and inter-partner violence [IPV]), and preschool children's emotional adjustment. A sample of 92 mother-preschooler dyads was drawn from predominantly low-income, rural communities. Dyads participated in a laboratory session in which children's Electrocardiograph (ECG) monitoring occurred during a resting baseline, joint-challenge, and individual emotional and cognitive tasks. Mothers consented to review of Children & Youth Services (CYS) records for CM and completed an IPV measure. Mothers rated children's emotional adjustment, and observers rated children on their frustration and positive affect. Children's vagal suppression was shown to moderate relations between family violence exposure and emotional adjustment. Findings indicated that children greater in vagal suppression showed better emotional adjustment when from families low in violence. However, regardless of children's level of vagal suppression, all children showed poorer emotional adjustment when from families high in violence.

  7. Intimate Partner Violence Perpetration by Court-Ordered Men: Distinctions among Subtypes of Physical Violence, Sexual Violence, Psychological Abuse, and Stalking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Jeffrey E.; Walters, Mikel L.; Basile, Kathleen C.

    2012-01-01

    This study continues previous work documenting the structure of violence perpetrated by males against their female intimate partners. It assesses the construct validity of a measurement model depicting associations among eight subtypes of perpetration: moderate physical violence, severe physical violence, forced or coerced sexual violence, sexual…

  8. Testing the woman abuse screening tool to identify intimate partner violence in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Iskandar, Livia; Braun, Kathryn L; Katz, Alan R

    2015-04-01

    Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a global public health problem. IPV prevalence in Indonesia has been estimated to be less than 1%, based on reported cases. It is likely that IPV prevalence is underreported in Indonesia, as it is in many other countries. Screening for IPV has been found to increase IPV identification, but no screening tools are in use in Indonesia. The aim of this study was to test the translated Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) for detecting IPV in Indonesia. The WAST was tested against a diagnostic interview by a trained psychologist on 240 women attending two Primary Health Centers in Jakarta. IPV prevalence and the reliability, sensitivity, and specificity of the WAST were estimated. Prevalence of IPV by diagnostic interview was 36.3%, much higher than published estimates. The most common forms of IPV identified were psychological (85%) and physical abuse (24%). Internal reliability of the WAST was high (α = .801). A WAST score of 13 (out of 24) is the recommended cutoff for identifying IPV, but only 17% of the Indonesian sample scored 13 or higher. Test sensitivity of the WAST with a cutoff score of 13 was only 41.9%, with a specificity of 96.8%. With a cutoff score of 10, the sensitivity improved to 84.9%, while the specificity decreased to 61.0%. Use of the WAST with a cutoff score of 10 provides good sensitivity and reasonable specificity and would provide a much-needed screening tool for use in Indonesia. Although a lower cutoff would yield a greater proportion of false positives, most of the true cases would be identified, increasing the possibility that women experiencing abuse would receive needed assistance.

  9. Testing the Woman Abuse Screening Tool to Identify Intimate Partner Violence in Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Iskandar, Livia; Braun, Kathryn L.; Katz, Alan R.

    2015-01-01

    Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) is a global public health problem. IPV prevalence in Indonesia has been estimated to be less than 1%, based on reported cases. It is likely that IPV prevalence is underreported in Indonesia, as it is in many other countries. Screening for IPV has been found to increase IPV identification, but no screening tools are in use in Indonesia. The aim of this study was to test the translated Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) for detecting IPV in Indonesia. The WAST was tested against a diagnostic interview by a trained psychologist on 240 women attending two Primary Health Centers in Jakarta. IPV prevalence and the reliability, sensitivity, and specificity of the WAST were estimated. Prevalence of IPV by diagnostic interview was 36.3%, much higher than published estimates. The most common forms of IPV identified were psychological (85%) and physical abuse (24%). Internal reliability of the WAST was high (α = .801). A WAST score of 13 (out of 24) is the recommended cutoff for identifying IPV, but only 17% of the Indonesian sample scored 13 or higher. Test sensitivity of the WAST with a cutoff score of 13 was only 41.9%, with a specificity of 96.8%. With a cutoff score of 10, the sensitivity improved to 84.9%, while the specificity decreased to 61.0%. Use of the WAST with a cutoff score of 10 provides good sensitivity and reasonable specificity and would provide a much-needed screening tool for use in Indonesia. Although a lower cutoff would yield a greater proportion of false positives, most of the true cases would be identified, increasing the possibility that women experiencing abuse would receive needed assistance. PMID:25012952

  10. New hospital-based policy for children whose parents present at the ER due to domestic violence, substance abuse and/or a suicide attempt.

    PubMed

    Hoytema van Konijnenburg, Eva M M; Sieswerda-Hoogendoorn, Tessa; Brilleslijper-Kater, Sonja N; van der Lee, Johanna H; Teeuw, Arianne H

    2013-02-01

    Child maltreatment is a major social problem with many adverse consequences, and a substantial number of maltreated children are not identified by health care professionals. In 2010, in order to improve the identification of maltreated children in hospitals, a new hospital-based policy was developed in Amsterdam, The Netherlands. This policy was adapted from another policy that was developed in The Hague, the Netherlands, in 2007. In the new Amsterdam policy, all adults presenting at the emergency department due to domestic violence, substance abuse, and/or a suicide attempt are asked whether they have any children in their care. If this is the case, parents are urged to visit the outpatient pediatric department together with all of their children. During this visit, problems are evaluated and voluntary referrals can be arranged to different care organizations. If parents refuse to cooperate, their children are reported to the Dutch Child Abuse Counseling and Reporting Centre. The two aims of this study are to describe (1) characteristics of the identified families and (2) the referrals made to different voluntary and involuntary care organizations during the first 2 years after implementation of the policy. Data were collected from medical records. One hundred and six children from 60 households were included, of which 68 children because their mother was a victim of domestic violence. Referrals to care organizations were arranged for 99 children, of which 67 on a voluntary basis. The Amsterdam policy seems successful in arranging voluntary support for the majority of identified children.

  11. Students' personal traits, violence exposure, family factors, school dynamics and the perpetration of violence in Taiwanese elementary schools.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ji-Kang; Astor, Ron Avi

    2011-02-01

    School violence has become an international problem affecting the well-being of students. To date, few studies have examined how school variables mediate between personal and family factors and school violence in the context of elementary schools in Asian cultures. Using a nationally representative sample of 3122 elementary school students in Taiwan, this study examined a theoretical model proposing that negative personal traits, exposure to violence and parental monitoring knowledge have both direct influences as well as indirect influences mediated through school engagement, at-risk peers and poor student-teacher relationships on school violence committed by students against students and teachers. The results of a structural equation modeling analysis provided a good fit for the sample as a whole. The final model accounted for 32% of the variance for student violence against students and 21% for student violence against teachers. The overall findings support the theoretical model proposed in this study. Similar findings were obtained for both male and female students. The study indicated that to reduce school violence more effectively in the context of elementary schools, intervention may exclusively focus on improving students' within-school experiences and the quality of the students' relationships with teachers and school peers.

  12. Perspectives on Elder Abuse and Neglect in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezerra-Flanders, Wilson; Clark, Jennifer C.

    2006-01-01

    In a sample of 70 Brazilian participants (46 females and 24 males) who responded to the cross-cultural survey on family violence and abuse, nearly half of the participants provided no examples of extreme, moderate, or mild elder abuse. In the sample of responses that were provided, the most commonly cited form of abuse overall was psychological…

  13. Family characteristics and long-term effects of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Suchitra; Winter, David; Messer, David; Metcalfe, Chris

    2011-11-01

    OBJECTIVES. This study investigated the role of family variables in the development of psychological problems in childhood sexual abuse (CSA) survivors, contributing to the debate between the 'abuse related' perspective, which assumes a direct causal link between abuse and later problems, and the 'family dysfunction' perspective, which assumes that these problems are caused by the dysfunctional nature of families in which abuse occurs. The two questions of central concern were: (1) whether maladaptive family dynamics and CSA were each associated with later adjustment; and (2) whether these associations acted independently of one another. DESIGN. A retrospective cohort study comparing sexually abused and non-abused participants matched one-to-one on demographic variables. METHODS. The 64 clinical participants were recruited by sending questionnaires to clients on a psychological therapy waiting list, and 44 students were recruited from questionnaires made available at University Health Centres. Participants completed measures of psychological and sexual adjustment, family functioning, and construing. Multiple linear regression models investigated overall and independent associations between abuse, family circumstances, and adjustment in adulthood. RESULTS. There was only weak evidence for the influence of CSA, independently of family environment, on later psychological distress and sexual adjustment, but strong evidence for the influence of aspects of family environment, independent of abuse, on later psychological distress, sexual adjustment, self-esteem, body image, and sexual attitude. CONCLUSIONS. The findings provide support for the 'family dysfunction' perspective on the long-term effects of CSA.

  14. Family and school socioeconomic disadvantage: interactive influences on adolescent dating violence victimization.

    PubMed

    Spriggs, Aubrey L; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Herring, Amy H; Schoenbach, Victor J

    2009-06-01

    Although low socioeconomic status has been positively associated with adult partner violence, its relationship to adolescent dating violence remains unclear. Further, few studies have examined the relationship between contextual disadvantage and adolescent dating violence, or the interactive influences of family and contextual disadvantage. Guided by social disorganization theory, relative deprivation theory, and gendered resource theory, we analyzed data from the U.S. National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1994-1996) to explore how family and school disadvantage relate to dating violence victimization. Psychological and minor physical victimization were self-reported by adolescents in up to six heterosexual romantic or sexual relationships. Family and school disadvantage were based on a principal component analysis of socioeconomic indicators reported by adolescents and parents. In weighted multilevel random effects models, between-school variability in dating violence victimization was proportionately small but substantive: 10% for male victimization and 5% for female victimization. In bivariate analyses, family disadvantage was positively related to victimization for both males and females; however, school disadvantage was only related to males' physical victimization. In models adjusted for race/ethnicity, relative age within the school, and mean school age, neither family nor school disadvantage remained related to males' victimization. For females, family disadvantage remained significantly positively associated with victimization, but was modified by school disadvantage: family disadvantage was more strongly associated with dating violence victimization in more advantaged schools. Findings support gendered resource theory, and suggest that status differentials between females and their school context may increase their vulnerability to dating violence victimization.

  15. Child abuse in the context of intimate partner violence against women: the impact of women's depressive and posttraumatic stress symptoms on maternal behavior.

    PubMed

    Boeckel, Mariana G; Blasco-Ros, Concepción; Grassi-Oliveira, Rodrigo; Martínez, Manuela

    2014-05-01

    Intimate male partner violence against women has been recognized as an important public health problem, with a high impact on women's mental health, including depressive and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. However, fathers who have been involved in intimate partner violence (IPV) have an increased probability of being violent toward their children. The aim of this study was to assess the relation between the mental health status of abused women, their partner's violence toward the children, and their maternal behavior.

  16. Violence and Hate in the Family and Neighborhood: New Perspectives, Policy and Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Janet R., Ed.

    There is accumulating research in diverse areas about the social conditions that are likely to promote violent environments, and the effects of these environments upon the development of children and youth. This series of papers on violence and hate traces abusive relationships through childhood and into adulthood, suggesting how these…

  17. Counseling Female Offenders and Victims: A Strengths-Restorative Approach. Springer Series on Family Violence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Wormer, Katherine

    This books considers the many aspects of how the criminal justice system can be reshaped to address the needs of victims of violence and offenders who themselves are often the victims of abuse. It presents a new model that offers an integrated framework to combine tenets of social work's strengths framework with the restorative justice model. It…

  18. Police and mental health professionals. Collaborative responses to the impact of violence on children and families.

    PubMed

    Marans, S; Berkowitz, S J; Cohen, D J

    1998-07-01

    responses from 57% to 62% for sixth-grade students, 48% to 66% for eighth-grade students, and 53% to 73% for tenth-grade students, and when asked if they had seen someone shot or stabbed there was a decrease in positive responses from 43% to 28% for sixth-grade students, 46% to 31% for eighth-grade students, and 34% to 28% for tenth-grade students. Today, we are all too familiar with the developmental trajectory that leads children into violent crime. Newspaper articles and clinical case reports have taken on a dreary repetitiveness. These young criminals are often poor, minority, inner-city children who are known to many agencies to be at risk because of family disorganization, neglect, and abuse. They are failing in school or are already on the streets. One day they are victims and the very next they are assailants. We are all familiar with the inadequacies in the social response to these children, from their preschool years through the point at which they become assailants themselves. What is shocking is that the age at which children make the transition from being abused to being abusive seems to be getting earlier, and the number appears to be increasing. On the positive side, there is an increased awareness of the need and the ability of the various sectors of society to respond in concert. The institutions that function in the inner city--schools, police, mental health and child welfare agencies, churches--are all concerned about the same children and families. By working together, with a shared orientation to the best interests of the children, they can intervene earlier and more effectively: first, to disrupt the trajectory leading to violence; and, second, to help those children who are already caught in the web of exposure to violent crime and inner-city trauma. The experience with community-based policing and mental health in New Haven, now being replicated throughout the United States, can thus stand as a model of an active social response to an overwhel

  19. Sexual Risk Behaviors, Alcohol Abuse, and Intimate Partner Violence among Sex Workers in Mongolia: Implications for HIV Prevention Intervention Development

    PubMed Central

    Witte, Susan S.; Batsukh, Altantsetseg; Chang, Mingway

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY This study examines HIV/STI risk behaviors, alcohol abuse, intimate partner violence, and psychological distress among 48 female sex workers in Mongolia to inform the design of a gender-specific, HIV/STI prevention intervention for this population. Quantitative findings demonstrate that over 85% of women reported drinking alcohol at harmful levels; 70% reported using condoms inconsistently with any sexual partner; 83% reported using alcohol before engaging in sex with paying partners, and 38% reported high levels of depression. Focus group findings provide contextual support and narrative descriptions for the ways that poverty, alcohol abuse, interpersonal violence, and cultural norms that stigmatize and marginalize women are intertwined risk factors for STIs, including HIV, among these vulnerable women. PMID:20391057

  20. Parent abuse: a review.

    PubMed

    Kennair, Nicola; Mellor, David

    2007-10-01

    A recent focus of research and clinical practice has been on the issue of abuse of parents by their children (parent abuse). This paper reviews the literature on this phenomenon. While parent abuse falls under the umbrella of family violence, it appears to be qualitatively different from other forms of intra-family abuse. Research has primarily focused on prevalence rates and the characteristics of perpetrators and victims. While various factors such as gender, age, emotional attachment to parents, race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status, family stress and parenting style and structure have been associated with parent abuse, findings are equivocal. Etiological models are general and untested, and treatment approaches lack empirical support. It is concluded that more rigorous and extensive research is required in order to provide a deeper understanding of this complex issue, and to inform treatment approaches.

  1. Domestic Violence and Poverty: Some Women's Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slabbert, Ilze

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Domestic violence poses a major challenge to social workers. Low-income families are significantly more likely to have to contend with domestic violence, as poverty can act as a fuelling factor in this type of conflict. The objective of this study was to explore and describe the experiences of low-income abused women. Method: A…

  2. Helping Affluent Families Help Their Acting-Out, Alienated Drug Abusing Adolescent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratter, Thomas Edward

    1974-01-01

    Suggests that the psychotherapist working with families of adolescent drug abuser must work for parental involvement, strengthening of the family group, and increased adolescent responsibility and independence from parents who unwittingly encourage a prolonged symbiotic relationship. (Author/CJ)

  3. Family Trauma and Dysfunction in Sexually Abused Female Adolescent Psychiatric Control Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wherry, Jeffrey N.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Differences in family trauma, stressors, and dysfunction among adolescent psychiatric inpatients grouped by sexual abuse self-reports were investigated. Family trauma/dysfunction was determined from a composite score derived from the Traumatic Antecedents Scale. The results indicated that sexually abused adolescents reported more family…

  4. The Duke Endowment Child Abuse Prevention Initiative: Durham Family Initiative Implementation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daro, Deborah; Huang, Lee Ann; English, Brianna

    2009-01-01

    The Durham Family Initiative (DFI) is one of two community-based child abuse prevention efforts that comprise The Duke Endowment's Child Abuse Prevention Initiative. Beginning in 2002, the Endowment provided support to the Durham Family Initiative (DFI) in North Carolina and Strong Communities in South Carolina to develop a comprehensive approach…

  5. Supporting Substance-Abusing Families: A Technical Assistance Manual for the Head Start Management Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kropenske, Vickie, Ed.

    This manual provides assistance for Head Start managers and caregivers in providing support for substance-abusing families. The manual builds on the Head Start Substance Abuse Circle of Capacities continuum, which addresses areas of: (1) staff preparation and support; (2) prevention and family wellness; (3) early intervention, referral, and…

  6. Predictors of Substance Use and Family Therapy Outcome among Physically and Sexually Abused Runaway Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slesnick, Natasha; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Gangamma, Rashmi

    2006-01-01

    There is a dearth of research that examines the impact of family systems therapy on problems among sexually and/or physically abused youth. Given this void, differential outcome and predictors of substance use change were evaluated for abused, as compared with nonabused, runaway adolescents who were randomly assigned to family therapy or treatment…

  7. 78 FR 27240 - Announcing the Award of a New Single-Source Award to the National Council on Family Violence in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-09

    ... Award to the National Council on Family Violence in Austin, TX AGENCY: Family and Youth Services Bureau... Council on Family Violence to support the National Domestic Violence Hotline (Hotline). SUMMARY: The... Youth Services Bureau (FYSB), Division of Family Violence and Prevention Services (DFVPS) announces...

  8. A National Descriptive Portrait of Adolescent Relationship Abuse: Results From the National Survey on Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Bruce G; Mumford, Elizabeth A

    2016-03-01

    This article reports results from the National Survey on Teen Relationships and Intimate Violence (STRiV) for 12- to 18-year-old youth (n = 1,804). STRiV provides the first nationally representative household survey focused on adolescent relationship abuse (ARA), covering perpetration and victimization. Among respondents (37%) reporting current- or past-year dating, 69% reported lifetime ARA victimization (63% lifetime ARA perpetration). Although psychological abuse was most common for these youth (more than 60%), the rates of sexual abuse (18%) and physical abuse victimization (18%), as well as 12% reporting perpetrating physical abuse and/or sexual abuse (12%) were substantial as well. Other than differences by age and gender, ARA rates were consistent by race/ethnicity, geographic region, urbanicity, and household characteristics, highlighting the importance of universal prevention programs. Compared with youth aged 15 to 18, those 12 to 14 years old reported lower rates of psychological and sexual ARA victimization. Similarly, we found lower ARA perpetration rates for those 12 to 14. We found no gender differences for ARA victimization but found that girls perpetrated more physical ARA than boys. Girls aged 15 to 18 reported perpetrating moderate threats/physical violence at more than twice the rate of younger girls and 3 times the rate compared with boys aged 15 to 18; girls aged 15 to 18 reported perpetrating more than 4 times the rate of serious psychological abuse than boys 15 to 18. Finally, these data document the significant positive correlation between ARA victimization and perpetration. Findings suggest that when working with youth in prevention services, interventions should not be designed for monolithic groups of "victims" or "perpetrators."

  9. Violence and Abuse Against Women Who Have Attempted Suicide by Deliberate Self-Poisoning: A 2-Year Follow-Up Study in Iran.

    PubMed

    Hassanian-Moghaddam, Hossein; Zamani, Nasim; Sarjami, Saeedeh

    2016-04-01

    Sources of data about the occurrence of domestic violence are scarce in Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavioral effects of different types of domestic violence on women who had attempted suicide by deliberate self-poisoning (DSP). A total of 195 women who had attempted suicide by DSP in response to "violence and abuse" were followed up for 2 years. The most common type of violence, as mentioned by the women themselves as the motive of self-poisoning, was physical abuse (92%) followed by verbal abuse (2.1%), multi-abuses (2.1%), emotional abuse (1.6%), and sexual abuse (1.1%). Suicidal ideation and attempt were more common in those who were consulted sometime after they had initially presented to the hospital with DSP or those who had suffered repeated domestic abuse. It was concluded that invention of methods other than the current consultation system is necessary to prevent repeated suicide attempts among abused women in Iran.

  10. Does Childhood Sexual Abuse Set in Motion a Cycle of Violence Against Women? What We Know and What We Need to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Jennie G.

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews evidence for the deleterious effects of childhood sexual abuse on female development in both the acute and long-term phases. Taken in aggregate, there is evidence to suggest a persistent cycle of violence perpetrated against women that begins in childhood in the form of sexual abuse, reemerges later in adolescence and early…

  11. Making a place for teaching about family violence in medical school.

    PubMed

    Alpert, E J

    1995-11-01

    Although family violence is a common cause of patients' problems, it has not yet received sufficient attention in medical school curricula. There are several possible reasons for this delay, including the fact that teaching about family violence is complicated because there are no "quick fix" interventions, the approaches are often complex and multidisciplinary, and there may be limited resources for response in many communities. The author offers a variety of suggestions for incorporating family violence topics in the medical school curriculum, such as: (1) expose students to information about family violence in their preclinical training, and integrate family violence issues into clinical instruction (several examples are given); (2) use problem-based teaching formats when possible, since these lend themselves well to the integration of family violence issues into case presentations; (3) enrich the curriculum by the participation of a variety of non-MD experts who deal with family violence issues, and take students out of the classroom to shelters and other relevant locations; (4) teach a prevention-oriented approach, just as is taught for the areas of smoking, seat belt use, weight control, etc.; (5) use standardized patients, interactive computer-based learning, and other innovative methodologies to help preclinical students perfect their interviewing and examination skills; (6) during the clinical years, include violence as part of the differential diagnosis of common medical complaints; (7) give attention to the education of residents for consistent teaching and reinforcement of principles learned in medical school, and integrate family violence education into the entire continuum of physicians' education; (8) build appropriate expectations into accreditation requirements and into medical licensing and specialty certifying examinations.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Effects of Family Violence on Psychopathology Symptoms in Children Previously Exposed to Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maikovich, Andrea Kohn; Jaffee, Sara R.; Odgers, Candice L.; Gallop, Robert

    2008-01-01

    Although many studies suggest that family violence is associated with child psychopathology, multiple features of the home environment might account for this association, such as poverty and caregiver psychopathology. Studies are needed examining how change in psychopathology symptoms is affected by home violence, controlling for children's own…

  13. Domestic Violence in India: Insights from the 2005-2006 National Family Health Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimuna, Sitawa R.; Djamba, Yanyi K.; Ciciurkaite, Gabriele; Cherukuri, Suvarna

    2013-01-01

    This article assesses the prevalence and risk factors of domestic violence in India. The study uses the 2005-2006 India National Family Health Survey-III (NFHS-III) and focuses on the 69,484 ever-married women ages 15 to 49 from all regions, who were administered the domestic violence module. The results show that 31% of respondents experienced…

  14. Family Violence: A Workshop Manual for Clergy and Other Service Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortune, Marie M.; Hormann, Denise

    This workshop manual is an education and training resource tool for the religious community, both individuals and groups, working to mobilize resources in response to sexual and domestic violence in rural areas. The first section presents an approach to education and training on family violence (goals; where to begin, how to proceed, and why;…

  15. Socialization of Coping with Community Violence: Influences of Caregiver Coaching, Modeling, and Family Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kliewer, Wendy; Parrish, Katie Adams; Taylor, Kelli W.; Jackson, Kate; Walker, Jean M.; Shivy, Victoria A.

    2006-01-01

    A socialization model of coping with community violence was tested in 101 African American adolescents (55% male, ages 9-13) and their maternal caregivers living in high-violence areas of a mid-sized, southeastern city. Participants completed interviews assessing caregiver coping, family context, and child adjustment. Caregiver-child dyads also…

  16. Predictors of Preschoolers' Appraisals of Conflict in Families Experiencing Intimate Partner Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Laura E.; Howell, Kathryn H.; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.

    2012-01-01

    Factors that may contribute to preschool-aged children's appraisals of their parent's violent conflicts in families experiencing recent intimate partner violence (IPV) were evaluated for 116 mother-child dyads. Mothers and children were interviewed using empirically-validated measures to assess level of violence, maternal and child mental health,…

  17. The Effects of Family and Community Violence Exposure among Youth: Recommendations for Practice and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voisin, Dexter R.

    2007-01-01

    Compared with other segments of the population, adolescents and, in particular, African Americans are disproportionately exposed to family and community violence. Research has consistently documented that exposure to such violence is often associated with psychological difficulties, poor educational and behavioral outcomes, and juvenile justice…

  18. Gender-based violence: a crucial challenge for public health.

    PubMed

    Sanjel, S

    2013-01-01

    This article attempts to summarize the situations of gender-based violence, a major public health issue. Due to the unequal power relations between men and women, women are violated either in family, in the community or in the State. Gender-based violence takes different forms like physical, sexual or psychological/ emotional violence. The causes of gender-based violence are multidimensional including social, economic, cultural, political and religious. The literatures written in relation to the gender-based violence are accessed using electronic databases as PubMed, Medline and Google scholar, Google and other Internet Websites between 1994 and first quarter of 2013 using an internet search from the keywords such as gender-based violence, women violence, domestic violence, wife abuse, violence during pregnancy, women sexual abuse, political gender based violence, cultural gender-based violence, economical gender-based violence, child sexual abuse and special forms of gender-based violence in Nepal. As GBVs remain one of the most rigorous challenges of women's health and well-being, it is one of the indispensable issues of equity and social justice. To create a gender-based violence free environment, a lot works has to be done. Hence, it is suggested to provide assistance to the victims of violence developing the mechanism to support them.

  19. The effects of combat exposure, abusive violence, and sense of coherence on PTSD and depression in Portuguese colonial war veterans.

    PubMed

    Ferrajão, Paulo Correia; Oliveira, Rui Aragão

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the effects of 3 war components-combat exposure (CES), observation of abusive violence (OBS), and participation in abusive violence (PARTC)-and sense of coherence (SOC) on the development of both posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression among a sample of war veterans. We also analyzed the role of SOC as a mediator of the effects of CES, OBS, and PARTC on both depression and PTSD symptoms. Sample was composed of 120 Portuguese Colonial War veterans. A binomial logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the effects of these variables on depression and PTSD diagnosis. Mediation test was performed by conducting several hierarchical regression analyses. Results showed that OBS and PARTC, and lower levels of SOC were associated with increased odds for exceeding the clinical cutoff scores for diagnosis of depression. All variables were associated with increased odds for exceeding the clinical cutoff scores for diagnosis of PTSD. In mediation analysis, at first step, PARTC was not a significant predictor of both PTSD and depression symptoms, and PARTC did not enter in subsequent analysis. SOC was a full mediator of the effects of OBS and CES on both depression and PTSD symptoms. We propose that treatment of war veterans should aim the reconciliation of traumatic incongruent experiences in veterans' personal schemas to strengthen veterans' sense of coherence, especially for those exposed to acts of abusive violence.

  20. Exciting Discoveries on the Health Effects of Family Violence: Where We Are, Where We Need to Go

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kendall-Tackett, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    In the 20 years since the founding of the "Journal of Interpersonal Violence," there have been exciting new discoveries on the long-term physical health effects of family violence. As exciting as these discoveries have been, we still know little about why the experience of family violence makes people sick. Some of the most promising areas of…

  1. Family-of-Origin Factors and Partner Violence in the Intimate Relationships of Gay Men Who Are HIV Positive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craft, Shonda M.; Serovich, Julianne M.

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory study examined the prevalence of intimate partner violence in a sample of gay men who are HIV positive. The concept of intergenerational transmission of violence, from family systems theory, provided the basis of this examination. It was hypothesized that men who had witnessed or experienced violence in their families of origin…

  2. Domestic Violence and Private Family Court Proceedings: Promoting Child Welfare or Promoting Contact?

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Gillian S

    2016-06-01

    Despite improved understanding regarding domestic violence, child welfare and child contact, and related policy developments, problems persist regarding how the family courts deal with fathers' violence in contested contact/residence cases. In the study reported here, analysis was undertaken of welfare reports prepared for the courts in such cases to investigate how and to what extent issues of domestic violence and children's perspectives on these issues were taken into account when making recommendations to the courts. Analysis found that despite evidence of domestic violence and child welfare concerns, contact with fathers was viewed as desirable and inevitable in the vast majority of cases.

  3. Perceptions of Domestic Violence: The Effects of Domestic Violence Myths, Victim's Relationship with Her Abuser, and the Decision to Return to Her Abuser

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yamawaki, Niwako; Ochoa-Shipp, Monica; Pulsipher, Craig; Harlos, Andrew; Swindler, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Researchers in this study examined the attitudes toward domestic violence, the victim, and her perpetrator. A total of 194 participants were randomly assigned to one of 4 hypothetical scenarios to evaluate how observers' perceptions were influenced by their own sex and myths about domestic violence, by the victim's decision to return to the…

  4. The intergenerational transmission of relationship violence.

    PubMed

    Kwong, Marilyn J; Bartholomew, Kim; Henderson, Antonia J; Trinke, Shanna J

    2003-09-01

    This study explored the intergenerational transmission of violence in a community sample. A telephone survey of 1,249 adults in the City of Vancouver assessed family-of-origin violence (father to mother, mother to father, father to self, and mother to self), as well as physical and psychological abuse in intimate relationships. All forms of family-of-origin violence were predictive of all forms of relationship abuse, consistent with a general social learning model of relationship violence. There was no evidence of gender-specific or role-specific patterns of transmission. For example, father-to-mother violence was not specifically predictive of men's perpetration and women's victimization in adult relationships. Nor was parent-to-self violence more predictive of victimization than perpetration. The methodological and theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  5. Sexual orientation disparities in substance misuse: the role of childhood abuse and intimate partner violence among patients in care at an urban community health center.

    PubMed

    Reisner, Sari L; Falb, Kathryn L; Wagenen, Aimee Van; Grasso, Chris; Bradford, Judith

    2013-02-01

    This study examined disparities in lifetime substance misuse by sexual orientation among 2,653 patients engaged in care at an urban community health center in Boston, MA, as well as the potential mediating roles of childhood abuse violence (IPV). Violence indicators were highly associated with substance misuse, as was identifying as a sexual minority compared to heterosexual. CA and IPV experiences partly explained disparities in substance abuse by sexual orientation with differences seen by sex. Clinicians should assess history of CA and IPV among sexual minorities presenting with a history of substance abuse disorders. The study's limitations are noted.

  6. Gun Violence: Making Connections with Suicide, Domestic Violence, and Substance Abuse. Join Together Action Kit, Spring 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Join Together, Boston, MA.

    Frequently, firearm fatalities occur in the context of domestic violence, suicide, or acts committed under the influence of alcohol and/or other drugs. Because gun violence is related to these other social problems, it must be considered more than just a criminal justice issue. It is also a public health issue that should be addressed by domestic…

  7. Family environment in Hispanic college females with a history of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Maureen C; McEachern, Adriana Garcia

    2007-01-01

    This study sought to examine the family environments of a sample of Hispanic women who reported childhood sexual abuse. Eighteen women, taken from a larger college sample, were individually interviewed and administered the Family Environment Scale (FES; Moos & Moos, 1994). Cultural values and the relationship of family characteristics to the individual's experience of sexual abuse were explored. The abused women obtained significantly higher scores on the Achievement-Orientation subscale of the FES than the normative group. Qualitative data revealed some patterns in these families regarding sexual discussions and poor conflict resolution skills. Implications for treatment of Hispanic victims are discussed.

  8. Reduction of Family Violence in Aboriginal Communities: A Systematic Review of Interventions and Approaches1

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Beverley; Nahwegahbow, Amy; Andersson, Neil

    2010-01-01

    Many efforts to reduce family violence are documented in the published literature. We conducted a systematic review of interventions intended to prevent family violence in Aboriginal communities. We retrieved studies published up to October 2009; 506 papers included one systematic review, two randomized controlled trials, and fourteen nonrandomized studies or reviews. Two reviews discussed interventions relevant to primary prevention (reducing the risk factors for family violence), including parenting, role modelling, and active participation. More studies addressed secondary prevention (where risk factors exist, reducing outbreaks of violence) such as restriction on the trading hours for take away alcohol and home visiting programs for high risk families. Examples of tertiary prevention (preventing recurrence) include traditional healing circles and group counselling. Most studies contributed a low level of evidence. PMID:21052554

  9. Individual, family background, and contextual explanations of racial and ethnic disparities in youths' exposure to violence.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Gregory M; Messner, Steven F

    2013-03-01

    We used data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods to examine the extent to which individual, family, and contextual factors account for the differential exposure to violence associated with race/ethnicity among youths. Logistic hierarchical item response models on 2344 individuals nested within 80 neighborhoods revealed that the odds of being exposed to violence were 74% and 112% higher for Hispanics and Blacks, respectively, than for Whites. Appreciable portions of the Hispanic-White gap (33%) and the Black-White gap (53%) were accounted for by family background factors, individual differences, and neighborhood factors. The findings imply that programs aimed at addressing the risk factors for exposure to violence and alleviating the effects of exposure to violence may decrease racial/ethnic disparities in exposure to violence and its consequences.

  10. Individual, Family Background, and Contextual Explanations of Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Youths’ Exposure to Violence

    PubMed Central

    Messner, Steven F.

    2013-01-01

    We used data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods to examine the extent to which individual, family, and contextual factors account for the differential exposure to violence associated with race/ethnicity among youths. Logistic hierarchical item response models on 2344 individuals nested within 80 neighborhoods revealed that the odds of being exposed to violence were 74% and 112% higher for Hispanics and Blacks, respectively, than for Whites. Appreciable portions of the Hispanic–White gap (33%) and the Black–White gap (53%) were accounted for by family background factors, individual differences, and neighborhood factors. The findings imply that programs aimed at addressing the risk factors for exposure to violence and alleviating the effects of exposure to violence may decrease racial/ethnic disparities in exposure to violence and its consequences. PMID:23327266

  11. Distal and proximal factors related to aggression severity among patients in substance abuse treatment: family history, alcohol use and expectancies.

    PubMed

    Chermack, Stephen T; Wryobeck, John M; Walton, Maureen A; Blow, Frederic C

    2006-05-01

    This study examined the relationships among distal (paternal and maternal family history of alcohol problems and violence) and proximal (general alcohol use, acute use associated with conflict incidents, alcohol-aggression expectancies) factors and physical aggression severity among 125 men and 125 women recruited from substance abuse treatment. Paternal alcohol problem history (PA) was related to alcohol-aggression expectancies, but no family history factors were related to general or acute alcohol use. Separate analyses examining predictors of aggression were conducted, one with general alcohol use and one with acute alcohol use. In both analyses, alcohol use and the maternal violence (MV) by PA interaction were significant. Specifically, MV was associated with aggression severity for those with a history of PA. The general alcohol use model also revealed significant alcohol by expectancy and MV by gender interactions. The findings suggest that expectancies are not the primary mediator of the alcohol-aggression relationship, alcohol use measurement issues may impact whether expectancies are observed to moderate the alcohol-aggression relationship, and that both maternal and paternal family history factors appear to impact aggression severity.

  12. How the Medical Culture Contributes to Coworker-Perpetrated Harassment and Abuse of Family Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Miedema, Baukje; MacIntyre, Leslie; Tatemichi, Sue; Lambert-Lanning, Anita; Lemire, Francine; Manca, Donna; Ramsden, Vivian

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE Harassment and abuse in the workplace of family physicians has been associated with higher levels of stress, increased consumption of alcohol, and higher risk for developing mental health problems. Few studies have examined issues contributing to abusive encounters in the workplace of family physicians. METHODS For the overall study we used a mixed methods design, which included a cross-sectional survey of a randomly selected sample of active family physicians from the database of the College of Family Physicians of Canada and telephone interviews with those who reported experiencing work related harassment and abuse in the last year. The data presented here arise from the qualitative interviews of the study, which were analyzed thematically. RESULTS The interview arm of the study included 23 female and 14 male participants. The major themes that emerged from the study were (1) modeling of abusive behaviors, (2) status hierarchy among various medical disciplines, (3) shortage of physicians, and (4) lack of transparent policies and follow-up procedures after abusive encounters. The results are discussed using the broken window theory. CONCLUSION Many family physicians experience harassing and abusive encounters during their training or in the workplace. The current medical culture appears to contribute to harassment and abuse in the workplace of family physicians in Canada. We described the components that intentionally or unintentionally facilitate abusive behavior in the medical culture. PMID:22412002

  13. Academic Failure and Child-to-Parent Violence: Family Protective Factors

    PubMed Central

    Ibabe, Izaskun

    2016-01-01

    A reduction in academic achievement over the course of adolescence has been observed. School failure is characterized by difficulties to teaching school goals. A variety of other behavioral problems are often associated with school failure. Child-to-parent violence has been associated with different school problems. The main objective of current study was to examine the contribution of family variables (parental education level, family cohesion, and positive family discipline) on academic failure and child-to-parent violence of adolescents from a community sample. Moreover, a goal was to explore if academic failure was a valid predictor of child-to-parent violence. To this end, it has been developed a comprehensive statistical model through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Participants were 584 children from eight secondary schools in the Basque Country (Spain) and aged between 12 and 18. Among other scales Conflict Tactics Scale and Family Environment Scale were administrated for measuring child-to-parent violence and family cohesion environment, respectively. The structural model revealed that parental education level is a relevant protective factor against academic failure. Positive family discipline (inductive discipline, supervision, and penalty) show a significant association with child-to-parent violence and academic failure. Disciplinary practices could be more efficient to prevent child-to-parent violence or school failure if children perceive a positive environment in their home. However, these findings could be explained by inverse causality, because some parents respond to child-to-parent violence or academic failure with disciplinary strategies. School failure had indirect effects on child-to-parent violence through family cohesion. For all that, education policies should focus on parental education courses for disadvantaged families in order to generate appropriate learning environments at home and to foster improvement of parent

  14. Academic Failure and Child-to-Parent Violence: Family Protective Factors.

    PubMed

    Ibabe, Izaskun

    2016-01-01

    A reduction in academic achievement over the course of adolescence has been observed. School failure is characterized by difficulties to teaching school goals. A variety of other behavioral problems are often associated with school failure. Child-to-parent violence has been associated with different school problems. The main objective of current study was to examine the contribution of family variables (parental education level, family cohesion, and positive family discipline) on academic failure and child-to-parent violence of adolescents from a community sample. Moreover, a goal was to explore if academic failure was a valid predictor of child-to-parent violence. To this end, it has been developed a comprehensive statistical model through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Participants were 584 children from eight secondary schools in the Basque Country (Spain) and aged between 12 and 18. Among other scales Conflict Tactics Scale and Family Environment Scale were administrated for measuring child-to-parent violence and family cohesion environment, respectively. The structural model revealed that parental education level is a relevant protective factor against academic failure. Positive family discipline (inductive discipline, supervision, and penalty) show a significant association with child-to-parent violence and academic failure. Disciplinary practices could be more efficient to prevent child-to-parent violence or school failure if children perceive a positive environment in their home. However, these findings could be explained by inverse causality, because some parents respond to child-to-parent violence or academic failure with disciplinary strategies. School failure had indirect effects on child-to-parent violence through family cohesion. For all that, education policies should focus on parental education courses for disadvantaged families in order to generate appropriate learning environments at home and to foster improvement of parent

  15. Temperament-induced father-son family dysfunction: etiological implications for child behavior problems and substance abuse.

    PubMed

    Blackson, T C; Tarter, R E; Martin, C S; Moss, H B

    1994-04-01

    The impact on family dysfunction and child behavior problems of difficult affective temperament in fathers and sons was investigated. In preadolescent sons of both substance-abusing and non-substance-abusing fathers, temperament was found to mediate the relationship between family history of substance abuse and family dysfunction.

  16. Nipping early risk factors in the bud: preventing substance abuse, delinquency, and violence in adolescence through interventions targeted at young children (0-8 years).

    PubMed

    Webster-Stratton, C; Taylor, T

    2001-09-01

    This bulletin describes state-of-the-art universal and selective prevention programs designed to promote parent and teacher competencies and to prevent conduct problems. In addition, it describes indicated interventions designed for children who already have been diagnosed with oppositional defiant disorder and/or conduct disorder. Emphasis is placed on empirically supported programs that have identified key malleable risk factors in children, families, and schools, which have been shown in longitudinal research to be related to later development of substance abuse, delinquency, and violence. We have targeted preschool and primary grade children, ages 0-8 years, in this review because research suggests that the most effective interventions can nip in the bud risk behaviors in the early years, before antisocial behaviors become crystallized. Guidelines for selecting effective interventions are provided.

  17. Family profile of victims of child abuse and neglect in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Almuneef, Maha A.; Alghamdi, Linah A.; Saleheen, Hassan N.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To describe the family profile of child abuse and neglect (CAN) subjects in Saudi Arabia. Methods: Data were collected retrospectively between July 2009 and December 2013 from patients’ files, which were obtained from the Child Protection Centre (CPC) based in King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Four main sets of variables were examined: demographics of victim, family profile, parental information, and information on perpetrator and forms of abuse. Results: The charts of 220 CAN cases were retrospectively reviewed. Physical abuse was the most common form of abuse (42%), followed by neglect (39%), sexual abuse (14%), and emotional abuse (4%). Children with unemployed fathers were 2.8 times as likely to experience physical abuse. Children living in single/step-parent households were 4 times as likely to experience physical abuse. Regarding neglect children living in larger households (≥6) were 1.5 times as likely to be neglected by their parents as were children living in smaller households (<6). Regarding sexual abuse, male children were 2.9 times as likely to be abused as were female children. Conclusions: The recent acknowledgment of CAN as a public health problem in Saudi Arabia suggests that time will be needed to employ effective and culturally sensitive prevention strategies based on family risk factors. PMID:27464866

  18. Finding the Way out: A Non-Dichotomous Understanding of Violence and Depression Resilience of Adolescents Who Are Exposed to Family Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassis, Wassilis; Artz, Sibylle; Scambor, Christian; Scambor, Elli; Moldenhauer, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In this cross-sectional study on family violence and resilience in a random sample of 5,149 middle school students with a mean age of 14.5 years from four EU-countries (Austria, Germany, Slovenia, and Spain) we examined the prevalence of exposure to family violence, and we worked from the premise that adolescent can be resilient to…

  19. Substance abuse and child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Wells, Kathryn

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  20. Inequality and adolescent violence: an exploration of community, family, and individual factors.

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Marino A.

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: The study seeks to examine whether the relationships among community, family, individual factors, and violent behavior are parallel across race- and gender-specific segments of the adolescent population. METHODS: Data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health are analyzed to highlight the complex relationships between inequality, community, family, individual behavior, and violence. RESULTS: The results from robust regression analysis provide evidence that social environmental factors can influence adolescent violence in race- and gender-specific ways. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this study establish the plausibility of multidimensional models that specify a complex relationship between inequality and adolescent violence. PMID:15101669

  1. [Impact of violence on the health of families at Fortaleza, Ceará State].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Luiza Jane Eyre de Souza; Arcoverde, Márcia Liduína Vasconcelos; Araújo, Maria Alix Leite; Ferreira, Renata Carneiro; Fialho, Ana Virgínia de Melo; Pordeus, Augediva Maria Jucá

    2009-01-01

    The study describes the impact of the violence on the quality of life of the families, which were attended at the Relatives and Friends Violence Victims Association (ARFVV) in Fortaleza, Ceará State. The case study was accomplished among five mothers that were involved in a NGO on the battle against the violence. The semi-structured interview, the participation at the institution's meetings and the documental research were the data collecting techniques, being these last ones, submitted to the thematic analysis and discussed according to the literature and Letters of Health Promotion. The impacts caused by the violence comprise the physical, emotional and social family's health, cause changes on behavior between the members, and lead to the increasing of smoking, drinking, social isolation and exacerbate revolt feelings, vengeance and pessimism. The NGO's work has been important to support the families on the conflicts overcoming, health familiar restoration, redeeming the self-expectation, the hope on the justice and social mobility. The health of families' victims from violence is affected on the biological, emotional and social aspects, favoring the process of sickness. These have appealed to the support from NGOs to transform the 'victim condition' - violence hostage to the 'responsible citizenship' - guardians of peace on the battle against the urban violence.

  2. Support Services for Victims of Political Violence and Their Families: A Comparison between Israelis and Palestinians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Douglas A.

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes interviews with five social workers who helped families that experienced political violence, and with 16 families that lost a family member due to terrorist activity in Israel and Palestine from 2000 to 2005. Results revealed a great disparity between the Israelis and the Palestinians on the types of and extent of benefits…

  3. One-Year Outcomes from the CASAWORKS for Families Intervention for Substance-Abusing Women on Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mclellan, A. Thomas; Gutman, Marjorie; Lynch, Kevin; Mckay, James R.; Ketterlinus, Robert; Morgenstern, Jon; Woolis, Diana

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effectiveness of a multiservice intervention designed to move substance-abusing women on welfare to sobriety and self-sufficiency by addressing their substance abuse, domestic violence, employment, and basic needs. Design: A field evaluation with repeated measures at 6 and 12 months on an intent-to-treat sample of 529 women…

  4. Detection of Intrafamilial Child Abuse: Children at Intake at a Children's Observation Home in India.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Uma A.; Ashtekar, Aruna

    1994-01-01

    Interviews with 515 children brought to a home for neglected, destitute, and delinquent children in Bombay (India) resulted in self-reports of familial physical violence from approximately 50% of the sample, with two-thirds of those reporting abusive violence. Over 60% of the children who had run away from home cited violence by parents as the…

  5. An investigation of scale effects in family substance abuse treatment programs.

    PubMed

    Lee, A James

    2010-07-05

    This short report investigates scale effects in family substance abuse treatment programs. In Massachusetts, the family substance abuse treatment programs were much more costly than other adult residential treatment models. State officials were concerned that the "scale" or size of these programs (averaging just eight families) was too small to be economical. Although the sample size (just nine programs) was too small to permit reliable inference, the data clearly signalled the importance of "scale effects" in these family substance abuse treatment programs. To further investigate scale effects in family substance abuse treatment programs, data from the Center for Substance Abuse Treatment's (CSAT's) Residential Women and Children and Pregnant and Postpartum Women (RWC-PPW) Demonstration were re-analyzed, focusing on the relationship between cost per family-day and the estimated average family census. This analysis indicates strong economies of scale up until an average family census of about 14, and less apparent scale effects beyond that point. In consideration of these and other study findings, a multidisciplinary interagency team redesigned the Massachusetts' family treatment program model. The new programs are larger than the former family treatment programs, with each new program having capacity to treat 11 to 15 families depending on family makeup.

  6. Multidimensional Family Therapy: Addressing Co-Occurring Substance Abuse and Other Problems among Adolescents with Comprehensive Family-Based Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Cynthia L.

    2010-01-01

    Synopsis Adolescent substance abuse rarely occurs without other psychiatric and developmental problems, yet it is often treated and researched as if it can be isolated from comorbid conditions. Few comprehensive interventions are available that effectively address the range of co-occurring problems associated with adolescent substance abuse. This article reviews the clinical interventions and research evidence supporting the use of Multidimensional Family Therapy (MDFT) for adolescents with substance abuse and co-occurring problems. MDFT is uniquely suited to address adolescent substance abuse and related disorders given its comprehensive interventions that systematically target the multiple interacting risk factors underlying many developmental disruptions of adolescence. PMID:20682221

  7. Family of Origin Environments in Two Clinical Samples of Survivors of Intra-Familial, Extra-Familial, and Both Types of Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, S.N.; Hyman, S.M.; Andres-Hyman, R.C.

    2004-01-01

    e family members, non-family members, or both family and non-family members.Objective:: It has been suggested that survivors of ongoing childhood sexual abuse (CSA) tend to have been reared in ineffective family environments that render them particularly vulnerable to maltreatment and which foster psychological difficulties beyond those accounted…

  8. Family Violence and Risk of Substance Use among Mexican Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caballero, Miguel Angel; Ramos, Luciana; Gonzalez, Catalina; Saltijeral, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Determine the relationship between psychological and physical violence, exerted by fathers and/or mothers, and inter- or extra-familiar sexual violence with risk for consuming tobacco, alcohol and drugs among adolescents. Method: A cross-sectional study was carried out with students in two secondary schools in Mexico City. A total of…

  9. Posttraumatic Stress among Young Urban Children Exposed to Family Violence and Other Potentially Traumatic Events

    PubMed Central

    Crusto, Cindy A.; Whitson, Melissa L.; Walling, Sherry N.; Feinn, Richard; Friedman, Stacey R.; Reynolds, Jesse; Amer, Mona; Kaufman, Joy S.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between the number of types of traumatic events experienced by children 3 to 6 years old, parenting stress, and children’s posttraumatic stress (PTS). Parents/caregivers provided data for 154 urban children admitted into community-based mental health and/or developmental services. By parent/caregiver report, children experienced an average of 4.9 different types of potentially traumatic events. Nearly one-quarter of the children evidenced clinically significant PTS. PTS was positively and significantly related to family violence and other family-related trauma exposure, nonfamily violence/trauma exposure, and parenting stress. Additionally, parenting stress partially mediated the relationship between family violence/trauma exposure and PTS. This study highlights the need for early violence/trauma exposure screening in help-seeking populations so that appropriate interventions are initiated. PMID:21171132

  10. Domestic violence in India: insights from the 2005-2006 national family health survey.

    PubMed

    Kimuna, Sitawa R; Djamba, Yanyi K; Ciciurkaite, Gabriele; Cherukuri, Suvarna

    2013-03-01

    This article assesses the prevalence and risk factors of domestic violence in India. The study uses the 2005-2006 India National Family Health Survey-III (NFHS-III) and focuses on the 69,484 ever-married women ages 15 to 49 from all regions, who were administered the domestic violence module. The results show that 31% of respondents experienced physical violence in the past 12 months before the survey; the corresponding figure for sexual violence was 8.3%. The multivariate logistic regression results show key determinants of physical and sexual violence. Some of the most salient findings are that urban residence, household wealth, affiliation with Christian religious denominations, wife's age at marriage and education are associated with lower risk of physical and sexual violence. In contrast, being employed and being the wife of a man who drank alcohol increased the odds of experiencing both physical and sexual violence. Moreover, respondents who believed that wife-beating was justified under certain circumstances were more likely to experience domestic violence. These results and significant regional differences observed in this study suggest that gender role conditioning and cultural norms both contribute to domestic violence. Interventions, therefore, need to go beyond the institutional and legal levels to include cultural capital, which addresses partner and relationship issues.

  11. Hearing children's voices? Including children's perspectives on their experiences of domestic violence in welfare reports prepared for the English courts in private family law proceedings.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Gillian S

    2017-03-01

    This research examined Children and Family Court Advisory and Support Service (Cafcass) reports prepared for private family court proceedings in domestic violence cases in England. The research found that in cases where children's accounts identified them as victims of violence, these disclosures regularly disappeared from report recommendations. Particular discourses regarding 'child welfare' and 'contact' were identified, which routinely impacted on the ways in which children's voices were taken into account. Whilst culturally there has undoubtedly been an influential move towards including children's perspectives in decision-making that affects them, how these views are interpreted and represented is subject to adult 'gate-keeping' and powerful cultural and professional ideologies regarding 'child welfare' and 'post-separation family relationships'. This research found that the unrelenting influence of deeply embedded beliefs regarding the preservation or promotion of relationships with fathers continues to have the effect of marginalising issues of safeguarding, including children's voiced experiences of violence, in all but the most exceptional of cases. Rather, safeguarding concerns in respect of domestic violence and child abuse were persistently overshadowed by a dominant presumption of the overall benefits of contact with fathers.

  12. "Preventing the pain" when working with family and sexual violence in primary care.

    PubMed

    Coles, Jan; Dartnall, Elizabeth; Astbury, Jill

    2013-01-01

    Primary care professionals (PCPs) are increasingly being expected to identify and respond to family and sexual violence as the chronic nature and severity of the long-term health impacts are increasingly recognized. This discussion paper reports the authors' expert opinion from their experiences running international workshops to prevent trauma among those who work and research sexual violence. It describes the burnout and secondary traumatic stress literature which provides the evidence supporting their work. Implications for practicing basic training in response to trauma and ongoing education are a key area for responding to family violence and preventing professional stress. A professional culture that supports and values caring well for those who have experienced family violence as well as "caring for the carer" is needed. Working in teams and having more support systems in place are likely to protect PCPs from secondary traumatic stress and burnout. Undergraduate and postgraduate training of PCPs to develop trauma knowledge and the skills to ask about and respond to family violence safely are essential. In addition, the healthcare system, workplace, and the individual practitioner support structures need to be in place to enable PCPs to provide safe and effective long-term care and access to other appropriate services for those who have experienced family violence.

  13. PREDICTORS OF SUBSTANCE USE AND FAMILY THERAPY OUTCOME AMONG PHYSICALLY AND SEXUALLY ABUSED RUNAWAY ADOLESCENTS

    PubMed Central

    Slesnick, Natasha; Bartle-Haring, Suzanne; Gangamma, Rashjmi

    2008-01-01

    There is a dearth of research that examines the impact of family systems therapy on problems among sexually and/or physically abused youth. Given this void, differential outcome and predictors of substance use change were evaluated for abused, as, compared with nonabused, runaway adolescents who were randomly assigned to family therapy or treatment as usual Abused adolescents reported lower family cohesion at baseline, although both abused and nonabused adolescents showed similar substance use reductions. Utilizing hierarchical linear modeling, we found that substance use changed with change in cohesion over time. These findings link change in family functioning to change in adolescent substance use, supporting family systems theory. Findings suggest that a potent target of intervention involves focus on increasing positive communication interactions. PMID:16933433

  14. Marriage and Family Therapists Working with Family Violence: Strained Bedfellows or Compatible Partners?: A Commentary on Avis, Kaufman, and Bograd.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meth, Richard L.

    1992-01-01

    Responds to previous articles by Avis, Kaufman, and Bograd on role of marital and family therapists in dealing with family violence among clients. Comments on presentation style of earlier articles and then discusses points of agreement and disagreement with each of the three authors. Concludes by urging therapists to learn more so they can…

  15. Intimate partner violence, depressive symptoms, and immigration status: does existing advocacy intervention work on abused immigrant women in the Chinese community?

    PubMed

    Wong, Janet Y H; Tiwari, Agnes; Fong, Daniel Y T; Yuen, K H; Humphreys, Janice; Bullock, Linda

    2013-07-01

    Advocacy intervention has been shown to be efficacious at reducing depressive symptoms in women who suffer from intimate partner violence (IPV). However, the intervention effect among abused immigrant women has not been well studied. This study compares the demographic and psychosocial characteristics between abused immigrant and nonimmigrant women, and evaluates the impact of immigration status on the efficacy of an advocacy intervention in reducing depressive symptoms and improving perceived social support. Two hundred abused Chinese women recruited from a local community center in Hong Kong were randomized to receive either the advocacy intervention or usual care. The advocacy intervention was found to be effective at reducing depressive symptoms and improving social support for abused Chinese nonimmigrant women, but the same effects were not seen for abused immigrant women. The findings provide essential insights into the need for developing targeted and efficacious advocacy interventions for abused immigrant women. Effective services to address abused immigrant women's needs were also suggested.

  16. Substance Abuse Treatment And Family Therapy. A Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) Series 39

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilbert, Jonathan Max; Oliff, Helen; Sutton, David; Bartlett, Catalina; Henderson, Randi

    2004-01-01

    This Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) addresses substance abuse treatment in the context of family therapy. TIPs are best-practice guidelines for the treatment of substance use disorders that make the latest research in substance abuse treatment available to counselors and educators. The content was generated by a panel of experts in the…

  17. Parenting and Family Stress as Mediators of the Long-Term Effects of Child Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wind, Tiffany Weissmann; Silvern, Louise

    1994-01-01

    Data on child physical/sexual abuse, family stress histories, perceived parental warmth, and current psychological functioning were gathered from 259 working women. Multiple regression analyses showed that parental warmth strongly influenced or mediated the relationship of intrafamilial child abuse to depression and self-esteem levels. However,…

  18. The Use of Family Therapy in Drug Abuse Treatment: A National Survey. Services Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George Washington Univ. Medical Center, Washington, DC.

    A survey sought to determine the nature and extent of family therapy practiced in treatment and rehabilitation agencies serving drug abuse clients. Questionnaire responses to a three-phase study were on a voluntary basis. Phase I, with a 60% response rate, gathered information on the number of drug abuse treatment agencies providing family…

  19. Substance abuse as a risk factor for violence in mental illness: some implications for forensic psychiatric practice and clinical ethics

    PubMed Central

    Pickard, Hanna; Fazel, Seena

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review To review recent research on the relationship between substance abuse, crime, violence and mental illness, and suggest how this research could aid forensic psychiatrists, psychologists and other mental health professionals in assessing and managing risk, and balancing patient care and public protection. Recent findings Substance abuse in mentally ill forensic psychiatric patients should be considered an important risk factor for violence and re-offending. Summary Improved treatment for substance abuse in forensic psychiatric patients and other mentally disordered offenders together with the offer of monitored abstinence as a condition of leave or discharge could be usefully considered as a means of reducing and managing risk. This may improve patient care by addressing mental health needs and increasing opportunity and likelihood of successful re-integration into the community and better life prospects; protect the public by reducing risk of re-offending and offering real time monitoring and potential intervention when risk is heightened; and help forensic psychiatrists strike a balance between patient care and public protection, potentially alleviating some of the difficulty and anxiety that decisions to grant leave or discharge can create. PMID:23722099

  20. Intimate partner, familial and community violence among men who have sex with men in Namibia

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Rob; Hast, Marisa; Finneran, Catherine; Sineath, Craig R.

    2015-01-01

    Men who have sex with men in sub-Saharan Africa are known to experience high levels of violence, yet little research has focused on their perceptions of intimate partner violence (IPV). This study examines the perceived typologies and sources of multiple forms of violence, including IPV, family/community violence and discrimination from healthcare workers, among men who have sex with men in Namibia. Focus-group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted with a 52 men residing in five cities across Namibia. Results indicate that violence, in varying forms, is commonplace in the lives of men who have sex with men in this community, and may be associated with HIV testing patterns. PMID:24735113

  1. Exploring Empathy and Callous-Unemotional Traits as Predictors of Animal Abuse Perpetrated by Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Christie; Hageman, Tina; Williams, James Herbert; Mary, Jason St; Ascione, Frank R

    2016-07-25

    We explored the relation between empathy, callous-unemotional (CU) traits, and animal abuse in a sample of 290 seven- to twelve-year-old children whose mothers were exposed to intimate partner violence (IPV). The sample comprises mostly Latino and White participants, and 55% of the children's mothers were born outside the United States (primarily Mexico). To our knowledge, among studies examining child-perpetrated animal abuse, this study is the first to examine empathy levels and one of only a few to examine CU traits. When comparing Griffith Empathy Measure (empathy) and Inventory of Callous-Unemotional Traits (callous-unemotional [CU] traits) scores with those from studies of White schoolchildren, our sample scored lower on affective empathy, higher on cognitive empathy, and lower for overall CU scores as well as Callous and Unemotional subscales. Of 290 children, 47 (16.2%) harmed an animal at least once according to either mother or child report. There were no significant sex or age differences between Abuse and No Abuse groups. The Abuse group scored significantly higher on affective empathy, CU, and Callousness/Unemotional subscales, and significantly lower on cognitive empathy. However, in regression analyses that controlled for income, only lower cognitive empathy and higher CU significantly predicted having abused an animal. In summary, low cognitive empathy (but not affective empathy) and CU traits may serve as reliable predictors of child animal abuse. However, replication of these results is necessary. A larger sample with a high percentage of Latino children whose mothers were exposed to IPV, along with a non-exposed comparison group, would be ideal.

  2. Urban adolescent mothers exposed to community, family, and partner violence: is cumulative violence exposure a barrier to school performance and participation?

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Angie C; Bennett, Larry

    2006-06-01

    Using a risk and resilience perspective, the authors assessed urban adolescent mothers' exposure to community, family, and partner violence and analyzed the relationships between cumulative violence exposure and multiple school outcomes, within the context of welfare reforms. Positive attitude toward school and social support were examined as moderators of violence exposure on school outcomes. The authors pilot tested the questionnaire with 10 participants, then surveyed 120 adolescent mothers regarding their violence exposure, school performance and participation, positive attitude toward school, and social support. Results indicate very high rates of lifetime exposure to violence; intercorrelations and regression analyses indicate that as violence exposure increases, school outcomes tend to worsen, with positive attitude toward school found to be a significant moderator of the effects of exposure to community violence on behavior problems in school. Implications for researchers, practitioners, school policies and programs, and welfare policies and programs conclude the article.

  3. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among Sri Lankan University Students as a Consequence of Their Exposure to Family Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haj-Yahia, Muhammad M.; Tishby, Orya; de Zoysa, Piyanjali

    2009-01-01

    The article presents the results of a study on the association between exposure to family violence (i.e., witnessing interparental violence and experiencing parental violence) during childhood and adolescence and adult posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The study was conducted among a self-selected convenience sample of 476 students from Sri…

  4. Commissioner's Annual Report to the Education Committees of the Senate and General Assembly on Violence, Vandalism and Substance Abuse in New Jersey Public Schools, July 1, 2005 to June 30, 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Commissioner of Education's Report on Violence, Vandalism and Substance Abuse in New Jersey Public Schools, submitted annually to the education committees of the Senate and Assembly, provides the Legislature with data in four broad incident categories: violence, vandalism, weapons, and substance abuse. The report also summarizes initiatives…

  5. Commissioner's Annual Report to the Education Committees of the Senate and General Assembly on Violence, Vandalism and Substance Abuse in New Jersey Public Schools, July 1, 2006 to June 30, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The "Commissioner of Education's Report on Violence, Vandalism and Substance Abuse in New Jersey Public Schools", submitted annually to the education committees of the Senate and Assembly, provides the Legislature with data in four broad incident categories: violence, vandalism, weapons, and substance abuse. This year's report highlights…

  6. From Family to Friends: Does Witnessing Interparental Violence Affect Young Adults’ Relationships with Friends?

    PubMed Central

    Mandal, Mahua; Hindin, Michelle J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Childhood exposure to violence in one’s family of origin has been closely linked to subsequent perpetration and victimization of intimate partner violence. There is, however, little research on the relationship between witnessing violence and subsequent peer violence. This study investigates the effects of witnessing interparental violence among Filipino young adults on their use and experience of psychological aggression with friends. Methods The data source for this study was the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey. Recent perpetration and victimization of friend psychological aggression among young adults ages 21–22 years was assessed through self-reports from the 2005 survey, and witnessing interparental violence during childhood was assessed through self-reports from the 2002 survey. Multinomial logistic regression was used to examine the effects of witnessing interparental violence on subsequent use and experience of friend psychological aggression. Analyses were stratified by gender. Results About 13% of females and 4% of males perpetrated psychological aggression towards close friends, and about 4% of females and males were victims. Fourteen percent of females and 3% of males experienced bidirectional psychological aggression. About 44% of females and 47% of males had, during childhood, witnessed their parents physically hurt one another. Witnessing maternal and reciprocal interparental violence during childhood significantly predicted bidirectional friend psychological aggression among males. Among females, witnessing interparental violence did not significantly predict involvement with friend psychological aggression. Conclusions Violence prevention programs should consider using family-centered interventions, and apply a gendered lens to their application. Further research on gender differences in friend aggression is recommended. PMID:23697789

  7. [Family health and family physician's influence on prevention psychoactive substances abuse].

    PubMed

    Lapčević, Mirjana; Dimitrijević, Ivan

    2010-01-01

    The family, as the basic social unit, has a decisive role in the health and disease of its members. It is the primary unit where health needs are formed and solved. By its own resources the family independently resolves about 75% of the total health requirements. In the paper the authors study family characteristics which influence family health and diseases, indicators of family health and the scale of life values. Also, the study evaluates social factors, communication and the influence of the usage of psychoactive substances on family health and the quality of family life. To form the personality of a child three factors are most significant: love, the feeling of safety and the presence of harmonious relationship between the parents. Life harmony in a family also depends on the quality of structural components of the personality and the interaction of motivation of its members. Early childhood determines the future personality of the adult person. At that period, habits and partially attitudes are formed. In harmonious family relationships the parents are the role model to children. Verbal and non-verbal communication enrich the relationship among people and enable efforts in supporting understanding, compassion and care for others by mutual agreement. On the scale of life values of Serbian citizens health holds the first position. Immediately following the health issue is good relationship in the family. As healthcare is not only the task of healthcare services, but also of each individual, family and the society as a whole, it is on healthcare personnel to educate the citizens how to preserve and improve their own health and the health of their family by a continual healthcare and education. Above all, this concerns avoidance of bad habits, such as smoking, immoderate alcohol consumption, narcotic abuse, physical inactivity, hypercaloric nutrition, etc. Also, it is significant to make an early recognition of disease symptoms and to turn for help to the chosen

  8. Posttraumatic Stress, Family Functioning, and Externalizing in Adolescents Exposed to Violence: A Moderated Mediation Model.

    PubMed

    Deane, Kyle; Richards, Maryse; Mozley, Michaela; Scott, Darrick; Rice, Catherine; Garbarino, James

    2016-09-02

    Exposure to community violence disproportionately impacts low-income, minority youth and is associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms and maladaptive adjustment. This study investigates whether posttraumatic stress mediates the relation between exposure to community violence and externalizing symptoms and the moderating role of family cohesion and daily family support in buffering these effects on later externalizing. Low-income, African American 7th-grade students (M age = 12.57 years; N = 254) from high-crime neighborhoods participated in a 2-year longitudinal study measuring the effects of community violence exposure. The students completed questionnaires administered by research staff over 5 consecutive days for each year of the study. Family cohesion and daily family support exhibited a significant buffering effect for several outcomes. Posttraumatic stress significantly mediated the effect of witnessing community violence on subsequent aggression. The strength of these indirect effects depended on level of family cohesion. The findings provide evidence in support of interventions provided at both individual and family levels. Mental health providers working with this population should be aware of the intertwined nature of exposure to community violence, posttraumatic stress, and subsequent maladaptive outcomes.

  9. Family History of Alcohol Abuse Moderates Effectiveness of a Group Motivational Enhancement Intervention in College Women

    PubMed Central

    LaBrie, Joseph W.; Feres, Nashla; Kenney, Shannon R.; Lac, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    This study examined whether a self-reported family history of alcohol abuse (FH+) moderated the effects of a female-specific group motivational enhancement intervention with first-year college women. First-year college women (N= 287) completed an initial questionnaire and attended an intervention (n=161) or control (n=126) group session, of which 118 reported FH+. Repeated measures ANCOVA models were estimated to investigate whether the effectiveness of the intervention varied as a function of one’s reported family history of alcohol abuse. Results revealed that family history of alcohol abuse moderated intervention efficacy. Although the intervention was effective in producing less risky drinking relative to controls, among those participants who received the intervention, FH+ women drank less across five weeks of follow-up than FH− women. The current findings provide preliminary support for the differential effectiveness of motivational enhancement interventions with FH+ women. Keywords: college women, intervention, alcohol abuse, family history, motivational interviewing PMID:19162406

  10. Parenting of Men with Co-Occurring Intimate Partner Violence and Substance Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Stover, Carla Smith; Easton, Caroline; McMahon, Thomas J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective No studies to date have compared parenting behaviors of men with co-occurring intimate partner violence (IPV) and substance abuse (SA) with community controls. This study was designed to document mediators of differences in parenting behavior of fathers and the emotional-behavioral problems of their children for men with co-occurring SA and IPV. Method The self-reported parenting (negative, positive and co-parenting behaviors) and the child emotional-behavioral problems of 43 fathers with children aged 2 to 6 years with a recent history of SA + IPV were compared to a sample of 43 community control fathers with the same socio-economic and cultural backgrounds. Fathers completed measures on their parenting behavior with a target child, co-parenting behavior with the child’s mother, emotion regulation, romantic attachment, psychiatric symptoms, and the behavior of the target child. Results Men with co-occurring SA + IPV had significantly less positive co-parenting and more negative parenting behaviors than community control fathers. Negative parenting and co-parenting were mediated by the fathers’ avoidant attachment problems. SA + IPV fathers also reported more emotional and behavioral problems in their children. These poor child outcome differences between groups were mediated by the negative parenting behaviors of the fathers. Conclusions These results suggest areas of potential focus in interventions with fathers who have co-occurring SA + IPV issues. Focus on attachment difficulties with his co-parent, which may include affect regulation, coping with emotions, and communication skills training related to co-parenting, may yield significant changes in parenting behaviors and ultimately child functioning. PMID:23422845

  11. Understanding the role of culture in domestic violence: the Ahimsa Project for Safe Families.

    PubMed

    Pan, Amy; Daley, Sandra; Rivera, Lourdes M; Williams, Kara; Lingle, Danielle; Reznik, Vivian

    2006-01-01

    Domestic violence affects women across all racial, national, social, and economic groups. In particular, immigrant and refugee families are at risk for domestic violence because of their migration history and differences in cultural values and norms. The Ahimsa for Safe Families Project is an innovative collaborative project that addresses domestic violence in immigrant and refugee communities in San Diego. The project is designed to increase awareness of domestic violence among Latino, Somali, and Vietnamese communities and to develop and implement culturally specific programs aimed at each community. Here the authors describe the Project's needs assessment and community dialogues that guided the development of specific interventions; present the lessons learned; and describe replicable, culturally specific prevention strategies utilized by the Project.

  12. The Effects of Family Therapies for Adolescent Delinquency and Substance Abuse: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Scott A.; Christian, Sarah; Berkeljon, Arjan; Shadish, William R.

    2012-01-01

    This meta-analysis summarizes results from k = 24 studies comparing either Brief Strategic Family Therapy, Functional Family Therapy, Multidimensional Family Therapy, or Multisystemic Therapy to either treatment-as-usual, an alternative therapy, or a control group in the treatment of adolescent substance abuse and delinquency. Additionally, the…

  13. Effects of an Educational and Support Program for Family and Friends of a Substance Abuser

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffrey Platter, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Many family members are adversely affected by their loved ones drinking or drug problem. The aim of the present study was to explore changes in coping and enabling behaviors among family members who attended a community educational and psychosocial group for friends and family of a substance abuser, and to examine the concerns of these family…

  14. Healthy Families New York (HFNY) Randomized Trial: Effects on Early Child Abuse and Neglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuMont, Kimberly; Mitchell-Herzfeld, Susan; Greene, Rose; Lee, Eunju; Lowenfels, Ann; Rodriguez, Monica; Dorabawila, Vajeera

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of a home visiting program modeled after Healthy Families America on parenting behaviors in the first 2 years of life. Methods: A sample of 1173 families at risk for child abuse and neglect who met the criteria for Healthy Families New York (HFNY) was randomly assigned to either an intervention group that was…

  15. Adolescent Marijuana Abusers and Their Families. Research Monograph Series, No. 40.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendin, Herbert; And Others

    Substantial evidence is accumulating which emphasizes the significant role of the family for drug abusing adolescents. To investigate the influence of the family on adolescents (N=17) involved in heavy marihuana use, interviews with family members, case studies of each adolescent, and psychological evaluations were conducted to determine the…

  16. Family Environment in Hispanic College Females with a History of Childhood Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Maureen C.; McEachern, Adriana Garcia

    2007-01-01

    This study sought to examine the family environments of a sample of Hispanic women who reported childhood sexual abuse. Eighteen women, taken from a larger college sample, were individually interviewed and administered the Family Environment Scale (FES; Moos & Moos, 1994). Cultural values and the relationship of family characteristics to the…

  17. Delinquent behaviors among students exposed to family violence in Quebec schools

    PubMed Central

    Cénat, Jude Mary; Hébert, Martine; Blais, Martin; Lavoie, Francine; Guerrier, Mireille

    2016-01-01

    Objective Juvenile delinquency is one of the major public concerns in many countries. This study aims to document the association between exposure to interparental violence and delinquent behaviors among high school students in Quebec (Canada). Methods A representative sample of 8194 students aged 14–20 years was recruited in Quebec (Canada) high schools. Participants completed a questionnaire describing delinquent behaviors as well as exposure to interparental psychological and physical violence. Findings Overall, one out of two participants has experienced delinquent behaviors and 61.8% of them have reported having been exposed to at least one of the two forms of family violence. Overall, youth exposed to interparental violence are more likely to experience delinquent behaviors. Both psychological and physical interparental violence were significantly and independently associated with delinquent behaviors. Conclusion The findings of this study point out the vulnerability of youth exposed to interparental violence. They also highlight the need in the prevention of juvenile delinquency to focus not only on youth but also on both parents that may have been involved in family violence. PMID:28111591

  18. Caring for adult survivors of child sexual abuse. Issues for family physicians.

    PubMed

    Bala, M

    1994-05-01

    Traditional medical education has not taught physicians about the long-term effects of child sexual abuse. Family physicians often feel poorly equipped to appreciate the effect of such a childhood history on current health or to recognize and treat survivors. This article links the experience of the sexually abused child to long-term effects and outlines the role of family physicians in screening and caring for survivors.

  19. How ineffective family environments can compound maldevelopment of critical thinking skills in childhood abuse survivors.

    PubMed

    Kostolitz, Alessandra C; Hyman, Scott M; Gold, Steven N

    2014-01-01

    The high stress of childhood abuse is associated with neurobiological detriments to executive function. Child abuse survivors may also be cognitively and relationally disadvantaged as a result of being raised in emotionally impoverished families that lack cohesion, organization, flexibility, self-expression, and moral and ethical values and fail to provide opportunities for effective learning. A review of literature demonstrates how dysfunctional family of origin environments common to child abuse survivors, concomitant with the extreme stress of overt acts of abuse, can act as a barrier to the development of higher-order critical thinking skills. The article concludes by discussing ramifications of critical thinking skill deficits in child abuse survivors and highlights the importance of integrating and prioritizing critical thinking skills training in treatment.

  20. Alcohol Abuse Mediates the Association between Baseline T/C Ratio and Anger Expression in Intimate Partner Violence Perpetrators

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Martínez, Ángel; Lila, Marisol; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2015-01-01

    The imbalance between testosterone (T) and cortisol (C) levels has been proposed as a possible marker of risk for intimate partner violence (IPV). Moreover, it could be related to a high probability of adopting risky behaviors such as alcohol abuse which, in turn, promotes the onset of IPV. This study tested the potential mediating effect of alcohol consumption on the relationship between baseline T/C ratio and anger expression in IPV perpetrators and non-violent controls. Alcohol consumption was higher in the former than controls. A high baseline T/C ratio was only associated with high anger expression in IPV perpetrators, and this association was mediated by high alcohol consumption. Thus, alcohol abuse may act as a catalytic factor in this relationship, high consumption promoting the onset of IPV. These findings contribute to the development of effective treatment and prevention programs, which could introduce the use of biological markers for preventing the onset, development and recidivism of IPV. PMID:25803635

  1. Inter-personal violence and abuse in adolescent intimate relationships: mental health impact and implications for practice.

    PubMed

    Barter, Christine; Stanley, Nicky

    2016-10-01

    This paper provides a narrative review of the knowledge on inter-personal violence and abuse (IPVA) in adolescents' intimate relationships. It draws on the authors' own research, published reviews, and a rapid review on IPVA victimization and mental health outcomes for adolescents. The research reviewed identified associations between adolescent IPVA and substance misuse, depressive symptoms and PTSD, eating disorders and suicidal thinking, and behaviour in young people. Generally, girls appeared more likely to report severe mental health outcomes than boys. Adolescents rarely disclose IPVA to adults and delivering preventative programmes that promote knowledge and help seeking may offer a means of building on young people's tendency to seek help from friends. These preventative interventions, usually delivered in schools, need to be closely linked to support services for adolescents who disclose abuse. While there are some practice examples of emerging interventions for both victims and perpetrators of adolescent IPVA, there is as yet little robust evidence regarding their effectiveness.

  2. Adolescents’ and Adults’ Experiences of Being Surveyed About Violence and Abuse: A Systematic Review of Harms, Benefits, and Regrets

    PubMed Central

    Lund, Crick; de Vries, Petrus J.; Mathews, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    The neuroscience and psychological literatures suggest that talking about previous violence and abuse may not only be beneficial, as previously believed, but may also be associated with risks. Thus, studies on such topics introduce ethical questions regarding the risk–benefit ratio of sensitive research. We performed a systematic review of participants’ experiences related to sensitive research and compared consequent harms, benefits, and regrets among victims and nonvictims of abuse. Thirty studies were included (4 adolescent and 26 adult studies). In adolescent studies, 3% to 37% of participants (median: 6%) reported harms, but none of these studies measured benefits or regrets. Among adults, 4% to 50% (median: 25%) reported harms, 23% to 100% (median: 92%) reported benefits, and 1% to 6% (median: 2%) reported regrets. Our results suggest that the risk–benefit ratio related to sensitive research is not unfavorable, but there are gaps in the evidence among adolescents. PMID:25521894

  3. Relationships between Caregiver Violence Exposure, Caregiver Depression, and Youth Behavioral Health among Homeless Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGuire-Schwartz, Mandy; Small, Latoya A.; Parker, Gary; Kim, Patricia; McKay, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Homelessness affects a large and increasing number of families in the United States, and exposure to violence and other potentially traumatic events is common among homeless families. It is important to understand more about this population and, more specifically, about the relationship between youth mental health and caregiver mental health and…

  4. A Review of Family-Based Programs to Prevent Youth Violence among Latinos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leidy, Melinda S.; Guerra, Nancy G.; Toro, Rosa I.

    2010-01-01

    At present, there is limited evidence supporting the effectiveness of family-based intervention programs to prevent violence or related behavior problems with Latino youth and families. Although progress has been made, a number of important issues remain. In this article, the authors review several of the more prominent interventions for Latino…

  5. Violence Exposure and Early Adolescent Alcohol Use: An Exploratory Study of Family Risk and Protective Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelli W.; Kliewer, Wendy

    2006-01-01

    In this short-term longitudinal exploratory interview study, the relations between exposure to community violence and subsequent alcohol use were examined, with a focus on caregiver and family variables as moderators. Maternal caregivers and their children (N = 101 families; 98% African American; M child age = 11.2 yrs) were interviewed separately…

  6. Child-to-Parent Violence: An Exploratory Study of the Roles of Family Violence and Parental Discipline Through the Stories Told by Spanish Children and Their Parents.

    PubMed

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun; Gámez-Guadix, Manuel; del Hoyo-Bilbao, Joana; de Arroyabe, Elena López

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the role of exposure to family violence and parental discipline in the development of child-to-parent violence (CPV). A qualitative in-depth interview design was used. Fifteen adolescents (10 boys) who have perpetrated CPV (Mage=16 years; SDage=1.33 years) and their parents or foster parents took part in the study. Individually, they answered questions about exposure to violence and parenting practices. Results suggest that adolescents were frequently direct victims and also witnesses of violence. Furthermore, emotional neglect in the parent-child relationship was frequent and families were characterized by rules that are not consistently implemented. Different forms of violence seem to coexist in these families, and CPV should also be a target in the interventions.

  7. Information on Child Abuse: A Selected Bibliography of Federal Government Publications. Research Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Timothy

    The overall topic of this annotated bibliography, directed to users of the Auburn University libraries, is child abuse. It contains 63 federal government publications in 4 major areas: (1) definitions and prevalence of child abuse, including child pornography and pedophilia, family violence, abductions, and emotional abuse; (2) recent legislation,…

  8. Longitudinal study on the effects of child abuse and children's exposure to domestic violence, parent-child attachments, and antisocial behavior in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Cindy; Herrenkohl, Todd I; Moylan, Carrie A; Tajima, Emiko A; Klika, J Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C; Russo, M Jean

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the unique and combined effects of child abuse and children's exposure to domestic violence on later attachment to parents and antisocial behavior during adolescence. Analyses also investigated whether the interaction of exposure and low attachment predicted youth outcomes. Findings suggest that, although youth dually exposed to abuse and domestic violence were less attached to parents in adolescence than those who were not exposed, for those who were abused only and those who were exposed only to domestic violence, the relationship between exposure types and youth outcomes did not differ by level of attachment to parents. However, stronger bonds of attachment to parents in adolescence did appear to predict a lower risk of antisocial behavior independent of exposure status. Preventing child abuse and children's exposure to domestic violence could lessen the risk of antisocial behavior during adolescence, as could strengthening parent-child attachments in adolescence. However, strengthening attachments between parents and children after exposure may not be sufficient to counter the negative impact of earlier violence trauma in children.

  9. ICDP approach to awareness-raising about children's rights and preventing violence, child abuse, and neglect.

    PubMed

    Hundeide, Karsten; Armstrong, Nicoletta

    2011-12-01

    In April 2011, the Committee on the Rights of the Child issued the General Comment No. 13 on the right of the child to freedom from all forms of violence. Its Article 19 declares that "protective measures should, as appropriate, include effective procedures for the establishment of social programs to provide necessary support for the child and for those who have the care of the child." One available social program that focuses on providing support for parents, caregivers and children is the International Child Development Program (ICDP), which is presented in this article. The ICDP is designed to influence and improve the quality of contact and relation between the caregivers, usually parents, and children, through the practical application of the eight themes or guidelines for positive interaction. The Convention on the Rights of the Child is a value-based legal document ratified by most countries in the world. This is a significant achievement and it gives a new basis and legitimization for a more humane treatment of children all over the world. Nevertheless, it is important to understand that there is a big gap between a legal document describing ideal conditions for children at a macro-governmental level and its implementation at the microlevel of families and communities. The ICDP is another expression of the same humanitarian spirit as it is encoded in the convention of children' rights. ICDP can be put in practice in any community to create positive conditions for the fulfillment of fundamental children's rights: the right to be protected from violence and to receive the loving care and guidance from the immediate environment which is required to ensure healthy human development. Introducing children's rights is likely to have a major impact on families (and all levels of authorities) if efforts are also made to activate awareness and deeper bonding to children as persons. Without a deep activation of a more humanized and caring relationship to children

  10. Financial abuse of older people by a family member: a difficult terrain for service providers in Australia.

    PubMed

    Adams, Valerie Margaret; Bagshaw, Dale; Wendt, Sarah; Zannettino, Lana

    2014-01-01

    Financial abuse by a family member is the most common form of abuse experienced by older Australians, and early intervention is required. National online surveys of 228 chief executive officers and 214 aged care service providers found that, while they were well placed to recognize financial abuse, it was often difficult to intervene successfully. Problems providers encountered included difficulties in detecting abuse, the need for consent before they could take action, the risk that the abusive family member would withdraw the client from the service, and a lack of resources to deal with the complexities inherent in situations of financial abuse.

  11. Origins and consequences of child neglect in substance abuse families.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Marija G; Tarter, Ralph E; Mezzich, Ada C; Vanyukov, Michael; Kirisci, Levent; Kirillova, Galina

    2002-09-01

    The empirical literature pertaining to the prevalence, origins, and consequences of neglectful parenting as it relates to substance abuse is critically reviewed. Available evidence indicates that children who experience parental neglect, with or without parental alcohol or drug abuse, are at high risk for substance use disorder (SUD). The effects of parental substance abuse on substance abuse outcome of their children appear to be partly mediated by their neglectful parenting. The discussion concludes with presentation of a developmental multifactorial model in which neglect, in conjunction with other individual and environmental factors, can be integratively investigated to quantify the child's overall liability across successive stages of development as well as to map the trajectory toward good and poor outcomes.

  12. Abuse and Older Persons: Issues and Implications for Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Jane E.; Shelton, Barbara

    1987-01-01

    Explores violence against the elderly in the home and in institutions. Includes areas of physical violence, neglect, financial exploitation and psychological abuse by caretakers, and whether these caretakers are family members, relatives, or persons employed to care for the frail, older adult. Explores the role counselors can play in addressing…

  13. The Relations Among Abuse, Depression, and Adolescents' Autobiographical Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Rebecca J.; Greenhoot, Andrea Follmer; Glisky, Elizabeth; McCloskey, Laura A.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the relations among early and recent experiences with abuse, depression, and adolescents' autobiographical memory in a longitudinal study of family violence. Participants' (N = 134) exposure to violence was documented when they were 6 to 12 years old and again when they were 12 to 18 years old. The second assessment included…

  14. Hope and Healing for Children Affected by Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polites, Andrea; Kuchar, Karen; Bigelow, Shauna

    2010-01-01

    Domestic violence is a devastating social problem that leaves an enduring, negative impact on all family members, especially the victims and their children. The costs to children and to society as a whole are enormous. Children who have witnessed domestic violence or have been threatened or abused by a parent are at great risk for emotional and…

  15. Testing Cermak's hypothesis: is dissociation the mediating variable that links substance abuse in the family of origin with offspring codependency?

    PubMed

    Harkness, D

    2001-01-01

    This is a pilot study of substance abuse in the family of origin and its relation to offspring dissociation and offspring codependency. Cermak contends that substance abuse in the family of origin exposes offspring to trauma, that exposure to trauma in the family of origin engenders offspring dissociation, and that dissociation is the process underlying offspring codependency. Assuming that substance abuse in the family of origin exposes offspring to trauma, this experiment tested the hypothesis that dissociation mediates the relationship between substance abuse in the family of origin and offspring codependency. Although it was found that substance abuse in the family of origin, offspring dissociation, and offspring codependency were associated, no support was found for the prediction that dissociation mediates the relationship between substance abuse in the family of origin and offspring codependency. Replications are called for.

  16. Comparing corporal punishment and children's exposure to violence between caregivers: Towards better diagnosis and prevention of intrafamilial physical abuse of children.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Cristina Silveira; Coelho, Luís; Magalhães, Teresa

    2016-02-01

    Any intervention involving child victims of intrafamilial abuse must take the alleged underlying motives for the abuse into account. The aim of this study is to further our understanding of intrafamilial physical abuse of children, by comparing its various aspects while considering the alleged underlying motives. A preliminary sample of 1656 cases of alleged physical abuse in the northern region of Portugal was analysed, with two main motives being identified: corporal punishment (CP) (G1 = 927) and exposure to violence between caregivers (EVC) (G2 = 308). Statistically significant differences were found between the two motives (p < 0.05) for the following variables: (1) age of the alleged victims, (2) sex of the alleged abuser, (3) risk factors affecting the alleged abuser, (4) abuser/victim relationship, (5) injury-producing mechanism, (6) time between last abuse and forensic medical examination and (7) location of injuries. Evidence-based knowledge of these differences may help in accurate diagnosis by doctors (particularly forensic physicians) and prevention of this type of violence through support strategies (including tertiary prevention strategies).

  17. [Strengthening family interventions for the prevention of substance abuse in children of addicted parents].

    PubMed

    Kumpfer, Karol L; Johnson, Jeannette L

    2007-01-01

    The scientific literature consistently reports that while children of substance abusers may be at biological, psychological, or environmental risk, the effects of these risks can be abbreviated through the use of effective interventions and treatments. Research has consistently demonstrated reductions in family and child dysfunction when effective family intervention programs are consistently utilized. While a number of effective family-based approaches have been developed and evaluated, only a few have been designed specifically for children of substance abusing parents. Just two have been tested in randomized control trials -The Streghtening Families Program and Focus on the Family. The Streghtening Families Program has demonstrated statistically significant reductions in family and child dysfunctions across several ethnocultural groups when consistently utilized. Clinical and advanced graduate programs should stress training in these evidence-based practices as well as how to adapt these models to be more culturally sensitive and age or gender appropriate in order to serve a growing and needy population of families.

  18. The Impact of Childhood Emotional Abuse and Experiential Avoidance on Maladaptive Problem Solving and Intimate Partner Violence

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Kathryn M.; Higgins, Lorrin

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the joint influences of experiential avoidance and social problem solving on the link between childhood emotional abuse (CEA) and intimate partner violence (IPV). Experiential avoidance following CEA may interfere with a person’s ability to effectively problem solve in social situations, increasing risk for conflict and interpersonal violence. As part of a larger study, 232 women recruited from the community completed measures assessing childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, experiential avoidance, maladaptive social problem solving, and IPV perpetration and victimization. Final trimmed models indicated that CEA was indirectly associated with IPV victimization and perpetration via experiential avoidance and Negative Problem Orientation (NPO) and Impulsivity/Carelessness Style (ICS) social problem solving strategies. Though CEA was related to an Avoidance Style (AS) social problem solving strategy, this strategy was not significantly associated with IPV victimization or perpetration. Experiential avoidance had both a direct and indirect effect, via NPO and ICS social problem solving, on IPV victimization and perpetration. Findings suggest that CEA may lead some women to avoid unwanted internal experiences, which may adversely impact their ability to effectively problem solve in social situations and increase IPV risk. PMID:25893570

  19. The impact of childhood emotional abuse and experiential avoidance on maladaptive problem solving and intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Bell, Kathryn M; Higgins, Lorrin

    2015-04-16

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the joint influences of experiential avoidance and social problem solving on the link between childhood emotional abuse (CEA) and intimate partner violence (IPV). Experiential avoidance following CEA may interfere with a person's ability to effectively problem solve in social situations, increasing risk for conflict and interpersonal violence. As part of a larger study, 232 women recruited from the community completed measures assessing childhood emotional, physical, and sexual abuse, experiential avoidance, maladaptive social problem solving, and IPV perpetration and victimization. Final trimmed models indicated that CEA was indirectly associated with IPV victimization and perpetration via experiential avoidance and Negative Problem Orientation (NPO) and Impulsivity/Carelessness Style (ICS) social problem solving strategies. Though CEA was related to an Avoidance Style (AS) social problem solving strategy, this strategy was not significantly associated with IPV victimization or perpetration. Experiential avoidance had both a direct and indirect effect, via NPO and ICS social problem solving, on IPV victimization and perpetration. Findings suggest that CEA may lead some women to avoid unwanted internal experiences, which may adversely impact their ability to effectively problem solve in social situations and increase IPV risk.

  20. Individual and family predictors of the perpetration of dating violence and victimization in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Makin-Byrd, Kerry; Bierman, Karen L

    2013-04-01

    Teen dating violence is a crime of national concern with approximately one-fourth of adolescents reporting victimization of physical, psychological, or sexual dating violence each year. The present study examined how aggressive family dynamics in both childhood and early adolescence predicted the perpetration of dating violence and victimization in late adolescence. Children (n = 401, 43 % female) were followed from kindergarten entry to the age of 18 years. Early adolescent aggressive-oppositional problems at home and aggressive-oppositional problems at school each made unique predictions to the emergence of dating violence in late adolescence. The results suggest that aggressive family dynamics during childhood and early adolescence influence the development of dating violence primarily by fostering a child's oppositional-aggressive responding style initially in the home, which is then generalized to other contexts. Although this study is limited by weaknesses detailed in the discussion, the contribution of longitudinal evidence including parent, teacher, and adolescent reports from both boys and girls, a dual-emphasis on the prediction of perpetration and victimization, as well as an analysis of both relations between variables and person-oriented group comparisons combine to make a unique contribution to the growing literature on adolescent partner violence.

  1. Predictors of violence against children in Tamil families in northern Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Sriskandarajah, Vathsalan; Neuner, Frank; Catani, Claudia

    2015-12-01

    Children living in post-conflict settings are not only at high risk of developing war-related psychopathology but also of experiencing maltreatment within their families. However, little is known about the mechanisms of the relationship between war and family violence. In order to investigate the variables associated with the experience and perpetration of child maltreatment, we conducted a two-generational study with Tamil families in the North of Sri Lanka, a region affected by war and Tsunami. We interviewed children and the corresponding family dyads and triads with 359 children, 122 mothers, and 88 fathers on the basis of standardized questionnaires to assess their exposure to adverse life experiences and mental health symptoms. Using multivariate regression analyses, we found that the strongest predictors for children's report of victimization were children's exposure to mass trauma and child psychopathology. Mothers' experiences of mass trauma, family violence and partner violence were each significantly related to mother-reported maternal perpetration as well as child-reported victimization. Likewise, all types of traumatic events reported by fathers were significantly related to child-reported victimization and father-reported perpetration. Fathers' alcohol use was the strongest predictor of father-reported paternal perpetration. These findings provide further support for the transmission of mass trauma into family violence, and emphasize the role of child psychopathology as well as alcohol consumption in this relationship.

  2. Spousal Concordance in Attitudes toward Violence and Reported Physical Abuse in African Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alio, Amina P.; Clayton, Heather B.; Garba, Madeleine; Mbah, Alfred K.; Daley, Ellen; Salihu, Hamisu M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: We examined the potential association between African couples' concordance on attitudes toward violence (ATV) and risk for intimate partner violence (IPV). Method: Analyses included 13,837 couples from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted between 2003 and 2007, from six African countries. Concordance on ATV was defined as both spouses…

  3. Repeating the Errors of Our Parents? Parental Violence in Men's Family of Origin and Conflict Management in Dating Couples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skuja, Kathy; Halford, W. Kim

    2004-01-01

    Within a social learning model, family-of-origin violence places men at risk for developing negative communication in their adult relationships. Thirty young men exposed to family-of-origin violence (exposed group) and 30 unexposed young men were videotaped discussing a conflict topic with their female dating partners. Relative to the unexposed…

  4. The Association of Current Violence from Adult Family Members with Adolescent Bullying Involvement and Suicidal Feelings.

    PubMed

    Fujikawa, Shinya; Ando, Shuntaro; Shimodera, Shinji; Koike, Shinsuke; Usami, Satoshi; Toriyama, Rie; Kanata, Sho; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Kasai, Kiyoto; Okazaki, Yuji; Nishida, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Although several studies have reported that child physical abuse increased the risk for bullying involvement, the effect of current violence from adult family members (CVA) on bullying involvement and suicidal feelings among adolescents has not been sufficiently examined. This study investigated the association of CVA with adolescent bullying involvement and the interaction effect of CVA and bullying involvement on suicidal feelings. This cross-sectional study used data from a school-based survey with a general population of adolescents (grades 7 to 12). Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire completed by 17,530 students. Logistic regression analyses were performed to explore the association of CVA with adolescent bullying involvement and suicidal feelings. The overall response rate was 90.2%. The odds of students being characterized as bullies, victims, and bully-victims were higher among adolescents with CVA than without CVA (odds ratios (OR) = 2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI), [2.3-3.7], 4.6 [3.6-5.8], and 5.8 [4.4-7.6], respectively). Both CVA (OR = 3.4 [95% CI 2.7-4.3]) and bullying (bullies, victims, and bully-victims; OR = 2.0 [95% CI 1.6-2.6], 4.0 [3.1-5.1], 4.1 [3.0-5.6], respectively), were associated with increased odds of current suicidal feelings after adjusting for confounding factors. Furthermore, positive additive effects of CVA and all three types of bullying involvement on suicidal feelings were found. For example, bully-victims with CVA had about 19-fold higher odds of suicidal feelings compared with uninvolved adolescents without CVA. This study, although correlational, suggested that CVA avoidance might prevent bullying involvement and suicidal feelings in adolescents.

  5. The Association of Current Violence from Adult Family Members with Adolescent Bullying Involvement and Suicidal Feelings

    PubMed Central

    Shimodera, Shinji; Koike, Shinsuke; Usami, Satoshi; Toriyama, Rie; Kanata, Sho; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Kasai, Kiyoto; Okazaki, Yuji; Nishida, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Although several studies have reported that child physical abuse increased the risk for bullying involvement, the effect of current violence from adult family members (CVA) on bullying involvement and suicidal feelings among adolescents has not been sufficiently examined. This study investigated the association of CVA with adolescent bullying involvement and the interaction effect of CVA and bullying involvement on suicidal feelings. This cross-sectional study used data from a school-based survey with a general population of adolescents (grades 7 to 12). Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire completed by 17,530 students. Logistic regression analyses were performed to explore the association of CVA with adolescent bullying involvement and suicidal feelings. The overall response rate was 90.2%. The odds of students being characterized as bullies, victims, and bully-victims were higher among adolescents with CVA than without CVA (odds ratios (OR) = 2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI), [2.3–3.7], 4.6 [3.6–5.8], and 5.8 [4.4–7.6], respectively). Both CVA (OR = 3.4 [95% CI 2.7–4.3]) and bullying (bullies, victims, and bully-victims; OR = 2.0 [95% CI 1.6–2.6], 4.0 [3.1–5.1], 4.1 [3.0–5.6], respectively), were associated with increased odds of current suicidal feelings after adjusting for confounding factors. Furthermore, positive additive effects of CVA and all three types of bullying involvement on suicidal feelings were found. For example, bully-victims with CVA had about 19-fold higher odds of suicidal feelings compared with uninvolved adolescents without CVA. This study, although correlational, suggested that CVA avoidance might prevent bullying involvement and suicidal feelings in adolescents. PMID:27711150

  6. Intimate Partner Violence: Building Resilience with Families and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wortham, Thomasine T.

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence includes physical, emotional, or sexual maltreatment from an intimate partner that may include name-calling, hitting, controlling behaviors, use of weapons, rape, intimidation, and a plethora of other physical and emotional tactics (Kress, Protivnak, & Sadlak, 2008; United States Department of Justice, 2013). Such…

  7. Laying down the Family Burden: A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Resilience in the Midst of Family Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kassis, Wassilis; Artz, Sibylle; Moldenhauer, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    Questionnaire data from a cross-sectional study of a randomly selected sample of 5,149 middle-school students from four EU countries (Austria, Germany, Slovenia, and Spain) were used to explore the effects of family violence burden level, structural and procedural risk and protective factors, and personal characteristics on adolescents who are…

  8. Exploring family and community involvement to protect Thai youths from alcohol and illegal drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Wongtongkam, Nualnong; Ward, Paul Russell; Day, Andrew; Winefield, Anthony Harold

    2015-01-01

    Youth substance abuse is widely recognized as a major public health issue in Thailand. This study explores family and community risk and protective factors relevant to alcohol and illegal drug misuse in 1,778 Thai teenagers. Strong family attachment and a family history of antisocial behaviors were strongly associated with nearly all forms of substance abuse, with adjusted odds ratios ranging from 5.05 to 8.45. Community disorganization was strongly associated with self-reported substance use, although involvement in prosocial activities acted as a protective factor. The findings suggest that interventions that promote family cohesion and encourage community involvement may have considerable benefits in reducing substance abuse in Thai adolescents.

  9. Intrapersonal and Familial Effects of Child Sexual Abuse on Female Partners of Male Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Christine M. Anderson; Veach, Patricia McCarthy

    2005-01-01

    Intrapersonal and familial effects of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) were investigated by interviewing 10 female partners of male survivors. Consensual qualitative research analysis (C. Hill, B. Thompson, & E. Nutt Williams, 1997) yielded 13 domains describing male partner, female partner, couple, and family functioning. Findings concerning…

  10. Recurrent Disruptions of Rituals and Routines in Families with Paternal Alcohol Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haugland, Bente Storm Mowatt

    2005-01-01

    Changes in rituals and routines between drinking and sobriety were examined in families in treatment due to paternal alcohol abuse. Information was gathered through a semistructured family interview. Recurrent disruptions of rituals and routines were found between different phases in the drinking cycle. Disruptions were found typically with regard…

  11. The Role of Interagency Collaboration for Substance-Abusing Families Involved with Child Welfare

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Beth L.; Rockhill, Anna; Burrus, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Meeting the needs of families who are involved with the child welfare system because of a substance abuse issue remains a challenge for child welfare practitioners. In order to improve services to these families, there has been an increasing focus on improving collaboration between child welfare, treatment providers, and the court systems. This…

  12. Toward a stress process model of children's exposure to physical family and community violence.

    PubMed

    Foster, Holly; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2009-06-01

    Theoretically informed models are required to further the comprehensive understanding of children's ETV. We draw on the stress process paradigm to forward an overall conceptual model of ETV (ETV) in childhood and adolescence. Around this conceptual model, we synthesize research in four dominant areas of the literature which are detailed but often disconnected including: (1) exposure to three forms of physical violence (e.g., child physical maltreatment, interparental violence, and community ETV); (2) the multilevel correlates and causes of ETV (e.g., neighborhood characteristics including concentrated disadvantage; family characteristics including socio-economic status and family stressors); (3) a range of consequences of ETV (e.g., internalizing and externalizing mental health problems, role transitions, and academic outcomes); and (4) multilevel and cross domain mediators and moderators of ETV influences (e.g., school and community factors, family social support, and individual coping resources). We highlight the range of interconnected processes through which violence exposures may influence children and suggest opportunities for prevention and intervention. We further identify needed future research on children's ETV including coping resources as well as research on cumulative contributions of violence exposure, violence exposure modifications, curvilinearity, and timing of exposure.

  13. The Influence of Family Therapy on Flexibility and Cohesion among Family Members Seeking Male Residential Treatment for Adolescent and Young Adult Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlowe, Stephanie L.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated within a substance abuse treatment center the influence of family therapy on flexibility and cohesion among family members. Past studies have suggested adolescents who abuse substances exist in families who have a lack of balance of flexibility and cohesion. Unfortunately, few studies have examined the influence of…

  14. The Co-Occurrence of Childhood Sexual Abuse, Adult Sexual Assault, Intimate Partner Violence, and Sexual Harassment: A Mediational Model of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Physical Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rebecca; Greeson, Megan R.; Bybee, Deborah; Raja, Sheela

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the co-occurrence of childhood sexual abuse, adult sexual assault, intimate partner violence, and sexual harassment in a predominantly African American sample of 268 female veterans, randomly sampled from an urban Veterans Affairs hospital women's clinic. A combination of hierarchical and iterative cluster analysis was used to…

  15. Longitudinal Study on the Effects of Child Abuse and Children's Exposure to Domestic Violence, Parent-Child Attachments, and Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sousa, Cindy; Herrenkohl, Todd I.; Moylan, Carrie A.; Tajima, Emiko A.; Klika, J. Bart; Herrenkohl, Roy C.; Russo, M. Jean

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the unique and combined effects of child abuse and children's exposure to domestic violence on later attachment to parents and antisocial behavior during adolescence. Analyses also investigated whether the interaction of exposure and low attachment predicted youth outcomes. Findings suggest that, although youth dually exposed…

  16. Distress Resulting from Perceivers' Own Intimate Partner Violence Experiences Predicts Culpability Attributions toward a Battered Woman on Trial for Killing Her Abuser: A Path Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Michelle L.; Miller, Audrey K.

    2012-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) constitutes the majority of assaults against women in the United States, and greater than one third of female homicide victims are murdered by an intimate partner. In a small percentage of cases, battered women kill their abusers, and evidence of battering and its effects may be used to support a plea of…

  17. 25 CFR 63.13 - What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the Bureau of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence... GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Minimum Standards of Character and Suitability for Employment § 63.13 What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention...

  18. 25 CFR 63.13 - What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the Bureau of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence... GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Minimum Standards of Character and Suitability for Employment § 63.13 What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention...

  19. 25 CFR 63.13 - What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the Bureau of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence... GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Minimum Standards of Character and Suitability for Employment § 63.13 What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention...

  20. 25 CFR 63.13 - What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention Act require of the Bureau of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence... GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Minimum Standards of Character and Suitability for Employment § 63.13 What does the Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention...