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Sample records for abuse inhalants marijuana

  1. Neurobiology of marijuana abuse.

    PubMed

    Abood, M E; Martin, B R

    1992-05-01

    Marijuana has a long history of abuse yet, as described here by Mary Abood and Billy Martin, there is little evidence that animals will self-administer the primary psychoactive constituent, tetrahydrocannabinol, or that marijuana stimulates brain reward pathways. While marked tolerance develops to marijuana, it has been difficult to demonstrate physical dependence, and until recently the mechanisms by which cannabinoids produced their behavioral effects were poorly defined. The development of new synthetic analogs played a critical role in the characterization and cloning of the cannabinoid receptor. Insight into cannabinoid receptors may lead to a better understanding of marijuana abuse in humans and provide new therapeutic strategies for several disorders.

  2. Inhalant Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... risk of being hurt in a fall, a fire or a car crash (for example, if your child tries to drive while he or she is high on an inhalant). Inhalants block oxygen flow to the brain and every other organ ...

  3. Inhalant Abuse and Dextromethorphan.

    PubMed

    Storck, Michael; Black, Laura; Liddell, Morgan

    2016-07-01

    Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of a volatile substance for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. As an important, yet underrecognized form of substance abuse, inhalant abuse crosses all demographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries, causing significant morbidity and mortality in school-aged and older children. This review presents current perspectives on epidemiology, detection, and clinical challenges of inhalant abuse and offers advice regarding the medical and mental health providers' roles in the prevention and management of this substance abuse problem. Also discussed is the misuse of a specific "over-the-counter" dissociative, dextromethorphan. PMID:27338970

  4. Pulmonary effects of marijuana inhalation.

    PubMed

    Howden, Megan L; Naughton, Matthew T

    2011-02-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug around the world. It is most often consumed through smoking, placing the respiratory system in direct contact with the toxic constituents of the drug, which are similar to those of tobacco cigarettes. However, accurate study of the adverse effects of marijuana is difficult to perform, owing to marijuana's illegal status, variation in smoking technique, often short duration of use compared with tobacco and the frequently confounding factor of concomitant consumption of both marijuana and tobacco. Despite this, there is evidence to suggest that marijuana can impair lung function, damage large airway mucosa and possibly contribute to bullous disease, while its carcinogenic potential is controversial. PMID:21348589

  5. Medical marijuana users in substance abuse treatment

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The rise of authorized marijuana use in the U.S. means that many individuals are using cannabis as they concurrently engage in other forms of treatment, such as substance abuse counseling and psychotherapy. Clinical and legal decisions may be influenced by findings that suggest marijuana use during treatment serves as an obstacle to treatment success, compromises treatment integrity, or increases the prevalence or severity of relapse. In this paper, the author reviews the relationship between authorized marijuana use and substance abuse treatment utilizing data from a preliminary pilot study that, for the first time, uses a systematic methodology to collect data examining possible effects on treatment. Methods Data from the California Outcomes Measurement System (CalOMS) were compared for medical (authorized) marijuana users and non-marijuana users who were admitted to a public substance abuse treatment program in California. Behavioral and social treatment outcomes recorded by clinical staff at discharge and reported to the California Department of Alcohol and Drug Programs were assessed for both groups, which included a sample of 18 reported medical marijuana users. Results While the findings described here are preliminary and very limited due to the small sample size, the study demonstrates that questions about the relationship between medical marijuana use and involvement in drug treatment can be systematically evaluated. In this small sample, cannabis use did not seem to compromise substance abuse treatment amongst the medical marijuana using group, who (based on these preliminary data) fared equal to or better than non-medical marijuana users in several important outcome categories (e.g., treatment completion, criminal justice involvement, medical concerns). Conclusions This exploratory study suggests that medical marijuana is consistent with participation in other forms of drug treatment and may not adversely affect positive treatment outcomes

  6. Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    Marijuana is a green, brown, or gray mix of dried, crumbled parts from the marijuana plant. It can be rolled up and smoked ... in food or inhale it using a vaporizer. Marijuana can cause problems with memory, learning, and behavior. ...

  7. Parent's Guide to Preventing Inhalant Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... conditioning coolants. How can you tell if a young person is an inhalant abuser? If someone is ... youths involved with inhalant abuse. How does a young person who abuses inhalants die? There are many ...

  8. Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine ... efficacy of preemployment drug screening for marijuana and cocaine in predicting employment outcome. JAMA . 1990;264(20): ...

  9. Medical Marijuana Use among Adolescents in Substance Abuse Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Sakai, Joseph T.; Thurstone, Christian; Corley, Robin; Hopfer, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence and frequency of medical marijuana diversion and use among adolescents in substance abuse treatment and to identify factors related to their medical marijuana use. Method This study calculated the prevalence and frequency of diverted medical marijuana use among adolescents (N = 164), ages 14–18 (x□ age = 16.09, SD = 1.12), in substance abuse treatment in the Denver metropolitan area. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were completed to determine factors related to adolescents' use of medical marijuana. Results Approximately 74% of the adolescents had used someone else's medical marijuana and they reported using diverted medical marijuana a median of 50 times. After adjusting for gender and race/ethnicity, adolescents who used medical marijuana had an earlier age of regular marijuana use, more marijuana abuse and dependence symptoms, and more conduct disorder symptoms compared to those who did not use medical marijuana. Conclusions Medical marijuana use among adolescent patients in substance abuse treatment is very common, implying substantial diversion from registered users. These results support the need for policy changes that protect against diversion of medical marijuana and reduce adolescent access to diverted medical marijuana. Future studies should examine patterns of medical marijuana diversion and use in general population adolescents. PMID:22721592

  10. Talcum induced pneumoconiosis following inhalation of adulterated marijuana, a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Talcosis, a granulomatous inflammation of the lungs caused by inhalation of talcum dust, is a rare form of pneumoconiosis. Besides inhalative occupational exposure, intravenous abuse of adulterated drugs is a major cause for this condition. Minerals such as talcum (magnesium silicate) and sand (predominant silicon dioxide) are used to increase both volume and weight of illicit substances. In intravenous heroin-abuse, talcosis is a well-known complication. Here we describe a case of talcosis caused by inhalative abuse of adulterated marijuana. Clinical history A 29-year old man presented with persistent fever, dyspnea and cervical emphysema. He admitted consumption of 'cut' marijuana for several years, preferentially by water pipe smoking. Morphologic findings Lung-biopsies showed chronic interstitial lung disease, anthracotic pigments and birefringent material. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy revealed silicon-containing particles (1-2 μm) and fine aluminum particles (< 1 μm), magnesium and several other elements forming a spectrum compatible with the stated water pipe smoking of talcum-adulterated marijuana. Conclusions The exacerbated chronic interstitial lung disease in a 29-year old patient could be attributed to his prolonged abuse of talcum-adulterated marjuana by histopathology and x-ray spectroscopy. Since cannabis consumption is widely spread among young adults, it seems to be justified to raise attention to this form of interstitial pulmonary disease. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnomx.eu/vs/krause/html/start.html. PMID:22420484

  11. Medical Marijuana Use among Adolescents in Substance Abuse Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Sakai, Joseph T.; Thurstone, Christian; Corley, Robin; Hopfer, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence and frequency of medical marijuana diversion and use among adolescents in substance abuse treatment and to identify factors related to their medical marijuana use. Method: This study calculated the prevalence and frequency of diverted medical marijuana use among adolescents (n = 164), ages 14-18 years (mean age…

  12. Examining the Relationship between Marijuana Use, Medical Marijuana Dispensaries, and Abusive and Neglectful Parenting

    PubMed Central

    Freisthler, Bridget; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Wolf, Jennifer Price

    2015-01-01

    The current study extends previous research by examining whether and how current marijuana use and the physical availability of marijuana are related to child physical abuse, supervisory neglect, or physical neglect by parents while controlling for child, caregiver, and family characteristics in a general population survey in California. Individual level data on marijuana use and abusive and neglectful parenting were collected during a telephone survey of 3,023 respondents living in 50 mid-size cities in California. Medical marijuana dispensaries and delivery services data were obtained via six websites and official city lists. Data were analyzed using negative binomial and linear mixed effects multilevel models with individuals nested within cities. Current marijuana use was positively related to frequency of child physical abuse and negatively related to physical neglect. There was no relationship between supervisory neglect and marijuana use. Density of medical marijuana dispensaries and delivery services was positively related to frequency of physical abuse. As marijuana use becomes more prevalent, those who work with families, including child welfare workers must screen for how marijuana use may affect a parent’s ability to provide for care for their children, particularly related to physical abuse. PMID:26198452

  13. Examining the relationship between marijuana use, medical marijuana dispensaries, and abusive and neglectful parenting.

    PubMed

    Freisthler, Bridget; Gruenewald, Paul J; Wolf, Jennifer Price

    2015-10-01

    The current study extends previous research by examining whether and how current marijuana use and the physical availability of marijuana are related to child physical abuse, supervisory neglect, or physical neglect by parents while controlling for child, caregiver, and family characteristics in a general population survey in California. Individual level data on marijuana use and abusive and neglectful parenting were collected during a telephone survey of 3,023 respondents living in 50 mid-size cities in California. Medical marijuana dispensaries and delivery services data were obtained via six websites and official city lists. Data were analyzed using negative binomial and linear mixed effects multilevel models with individuals nested within cities. Current marijuana use was positively related to frequency of child physical abuse and negatively related to physical neglect. There was no relationship between supervisory neglect and marijuana use. Density of medical marijuana dispensaries and delivery services was positively related to frequency of physical abuse. As marijuana use becomes more prevalent, those who work with families, including child welfare workers must screen for how marijuana use may affect a parent's ability to provide for care for their children, particularly related to physical abuse.

  14. Signs of Marijuana Abuse and Addiction

    MedlinePlus

    ... the munchies." When someone smokes marijuana, they often smell like it afterwards. Marijuana smells sweeter than cigarette smoke. A person might use incense, cologne, or perfume to hide the smell. Some people get addicted to marijuana after using ...

  15. The impacts of marijuana dispensary density and neighborhood ecology on marijuana abuse and dependence

    PubMed Central

    Mair, Christina; Freisthler, Bridget; Ponicki, William R.; Gaidus, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background As an increasing number of states liberalize cannabis use and develop laws and local policies, it is essential to better understand the impacts of neighborhood ecology and marijuana dispensary density on marijuana use, abuse, and dependence. We investigated associations between marijuana abuse/dependence hospitalizations and community demographic and environmental conditions from 2001–2012 in California, as well as cross-sectional associations between local and adjacent marijuana dispensary densities and marijuana hospitalizations. Methods We analyzed panel population data relating hospitalizations coded for marijuana abuse or dependence and assigned to residential ZIP codes in California from 2001 through 2012 (20,219 space-time units) to ZIP code demographic and ecological characteristics. Bayesian space-time misalignment models were used to account for spatial variations in geographic unit definitions over time, while also accounting for spatial autocorrelation using conditional autoregressive priors. We also analyzed cross-sectional associations between marijuana abuse/dependence and the density of dispensaries in local and spatially adjacent ZIP codes in 2012. Results An additional one dispensary per square mile in a ZIP code was cross-sectionally associated with a 6.8% increase in the number of marijuana hospitalizations (95% credible interval 1.033, 1.105) with a marijuana abuse/dependence code. Other local characteristics, such as the median household income and age and racial/ethnic distributions, were associated with marijuana hospitalizations in cross-sectional and panel analyses. Conclusions Prevention and intervention programs for marijuana abuse and dependence may be particularly essential in areas of concentrated disadvantage. Policy makers may want to consider regulations that limit the density of dispensaries. PMID:26154479

  16. HIV/AIDS and Drug Abuse: Intertwined Epidemics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... Medicine Abuse Electronic Cigarettes (e-Cigarettes) Fentanyl Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Is Marijuana Medicine? Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) ...

  17. Inhalant abuse: youth at risk.

    PubMed

    Ahern, Nancy R; Falsafi, Nasrin

    2013-08-01

    Inhalant abuse is a significant problem affecting many people, particularly youth. The easy availability of products containing volatile substances (e.g., aerosol sprays, cleaning products, paint) provides opportunity for mind-altering experiences. Unfortunately, serious complications such as brain, cardiovascular, liver, and renal damage or even death may ensue. Adolescents perceive the risk as low, and parents may be unaware of the risks. Health care providers, particularly psychiatric nurses, should undertake strategies of prevention, assessment, and treatment of this challenging problem. PMID:23786241

  18. Recognition and prevention of inhalant abuse.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Carrie E; Loomis, Glenn A

    2003-09-01

    Inhalant abuse is a prevalent and often overlooked form of substance abuse in adolescents. Survey results consistently show that nearly 20 percent of children in middle school and high school have experimented with inhaled substances. The method of delivery is inhalation of a solvent from its container, a soaked rag, or a bag. Solvents include almost any household cleaning agent or propellant, paint thinner, glue, and lighter fluid. Inhalant abuse typically can cause a euphoric feeling and can become addictive. Acute effects include sudden sniffing death syndrome, asphyxia, and serious injuries (e.g., falls, burns, frostbite). Chronic inhalant abuse can damage cardiac, renal, hepatic, and neurologic systems. Inhalant abuse during pregnancy can cause fetal abnormalities. Diagnosis of inhalant abuse is difficult and relies almost entirely on a thorough history and a high index of suspicion. No specific laboratory tests confirm solvent inhalation. Treatment is generally supportive, because there are no reversal agents for inhalant intoxication. Education of young persons and their parents is essential to decrease experimentation with inhalants. PMID:13678134

  19. Medical marijuana laws in 50 states: investigating the relationship between state legalization of medical marijuana and marijuana use, abuse and dependence

    PubMed Central

    Cerdá, Magdalena; Wall, Melanie; Keyes, Katherine M; Galea, Sandro; Hasin, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Background Marijuana is the most frequently used illicit substance in the United States. Little is known of the role that macro-level factors, including community norms and laws related to substance use, play in determining marijuana use, abuse and dependence. We tested the relationship between state-level legalization of medical marijuana and marijuana use, abuse, and dependence. Methods We used the second wave of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC), a national survey of adults aged 18+ (n=34,653). Selected analyses were replicated using the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH), a yearly survey of ~68,000 individuals aged 12+. We measured past-year cannabis use and DSM-IV abuse/dependence. Results In NESARC, residents of states with medical marijuana laws had higher odds of marijuana use (OR: 1.92; 95% CI: 1.49-2.47) and marijuana abuse/dependence (OR: 1.81; 95% CI: 1.22-2.67) than residents of states without such laws. Marijuana abuse/dependence was not more prevalent among marijuana users in these states (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.67-1.60), suggesting that the higher risk for marijuana abuse/dependence in these states was accounted for by higher rates of use. In NSDUH, states that legalized medical marijuana also had higher rates of marijuana use. Conclusions States that legalized medical marijuana had higher rates of marijuana use. Future research needs to examine whether the association is causal, or is due to an underlying common cause, such as community norms supportive of the legalization of medical marijuana and of marijuana use. PMID:22099393

  20. Inhalant Abuse. Research Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Institutes of Health (DHHS), Bethesda, MD.

    Although many parents are appropriately concerned about illicit drugs such as marijuana, cocaine, and LSD, they often ignore the dangers posed to their children from common household products such as glues, nail polish remover, lighter fluid, spray paints, deodorant and hair sprays, canned whipped cream, and cleaning fluids. Many young people…

  1. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold ... Notes Articles Adolescent Cigarette, Alcohol Use Declines as Marijuana Use Rises ( February 2013 ) Program Helps Troubled Boys ...

  2. Prolonged atrial fibrillation precipitated by new-onset seizures and marijuana abuse.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dinesh; Huntwork, Margaret; Shetty, Varun; Sequeira, Gina; Akingbola, Olugbenga

    2014-02-01

    We report a case of prolonged atrial fibrillation (AF) precipitated by new-onset generalized tonic-clonic convulsions and marijuana abuse in a developmentally normal 18-year-old adolescent with a structurally normal heart. Our case highlights an interesting association and a unique pathophysiology between generalized tonic-clonic convulsions, marijuana abuse, and AF. We suggest that seizures and marijuana abuse should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the etiology of AF in children. PMID:24420812

  3. Decreased dopamine brain reactivity in marijuana abusers is associated with negative emotionality and addiction severity.

    PubMed

    Volkow, Nora D; Wang, Gene-Jack; Telang, Frank; Fowler, Joanna S; Alexoff, David; Logan, Jean; Jayne, Millard; Wong, Christopher; Tomasi, Dardo

    2014-07-29

    Moves to legalize marijuana highlight the urgency to investigate effects of chronic marijuana in the human brain. Here, we challenged 48 participants (24 controls and 24 marijuana abusers) with methylphenidate (MP), a drug that elevates extracellular dopamine (DA) as a surrogate for probing the reactivity of the brain to DA stimulation. We compared the subjective, cardiovascular, and brain DA responses (measured with PET and [(11)C]raclopride) to MP between controls and marijuana abusers. Although baseline (placebo) measures of striatal DA D2 receptor availability did not differ between groups, the marijuana abusers showed markedly blunted responses when challenged with MP. Specifically, compared with controls, marijuana abusers had significantly attenuated behavioral ("self-reports" for high, drug effects, anxiety, and restlessness), cardiovascular (pulse rate and diastolic blood pressure), and brain DA [reduced decreases in distribution volumes (DVs) of [(11)C]raclopride, although normal reductions in striatal nondisplaceable binding potential (BPND)] responses to MP. In ventral striatum (key brain reward region), MP-induced reductions in DVs and BPND (reflecting DA increases) were inversely correlated with scores of negative emotionality, which were significantly higher for marijuana abusers than controls. In marijuana abusers, DA responses in ventral striatum were also inversely correlated with addiction severity and craving. The attenuated responses to MP, including reduced decreases in striatal DVs, are consistent with decreased brain reactivity to the DA stimulation in marijuana abusers that might contribute to their negative emotionality (increased stress reactivity and irritability) and addictive behaviors.

  4. Marijuana use, abuse, and dependence: evaluation of panic responsivity to biological challenge.

    PubMed

    Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2009-12-01

    The present investigation examined marijuana use, abuse, and dependence in relation to anxious and fearful responding to panic-relevant bodily sensations elicited by a biological challenge procedure among a sample of young adult marijuana users (n = 64; 46.9% women; M(age) = 20.97, SD = 6.01). Results indicated that those who were dependent on marijuana had greater self-reported panic attack symptoms post-challenge than those who abused marijuana. No differences were found between those who did not meet criteria for either abuse or dependence (users), and those who abused or were dependent on marijuana. No group differences were found for heart rate reactivity. Results are discussed in relation to better understanding the role of marijuana use and its disorders in terms of panic responsivity. PMID:20235439

  5. Enhancing prediction of inhalant abuse risk in samples of early adolescents: a secondary analysis.

    PubMed

    Crano, William D; Gilbert, Cindy; Alvaro, Eusebio M; Siegel, Jason T

    2008-07-01

    The theory of reasoned action (TRA) was used to estimate adolescents' vulnerability to inhalant abuse, operationalized by intentions to use or avoid inhalants. The model correctly differentiated 78% of all respondents (N=596). A second analysis highlighted variables that discriminated properly identified from misclassified youth. False positives, those defined as being at-risk, but who repudiated inhalants, were significantly less likely than their at-risk peers to have used inhalants; they used inhalants and marijuana less frequently; were monitored more closely by parents; and were less rebellious (all p<.05). False negatives, defined as not at-risk, but who had not unequivocally rejected inhalants, were significantly more likely than their similarly classed peers to have used inhalants and marijuana, and to have used both more frequently; also, they were less highly acculturated. This study reaffirmed the utility of the TRA and underscored factors that might improve classification accuracy. This approach may facilitate prevention efforts, and may be extrapolated to any context in which risk categorization is used as a basis for prevention or amelioration. PMID:18367345

  6. Enhancing prediction of inhalant abuse risk in samples of early adolescents: a secondary analysis.

    PubMed

    Crano, William D; Gilbert, Cindy; Alvaro, Eusebio M; Siegel, Jason T

    2008-07-01

    The theory of reasoned action (TRA) was used to estimate adolescents' vulnerability to inhalant abuse, operationalized by intentions to use or avoid inhalants. The model correctly differentiated 78% of all respondents (N=596). A second analysis highlighted variables that discriminated properly identified from misclassified youth. False positives, those defined as being at-risk, but who repudiated inhalants, were significantly less likely than their at-risk peers to have used inhalants; they used inhalants and marijuana less frequently; were monitored more closely by parents; and were less rebellious (all p<.05). False negatives, defined as not at-risk, but who had not unequivocally rejected inhalants, were significantly more likely than their similarly classed peers to have used inhalants and marijuana, and to have used both more frequently; also, they were less highly acculturated. This study reaffirmed the utility of the TRA and underscored factors that might improve classification accuracy. This approach may facilitate prevention efforts, and may be extrapolated to any context in which risk categorization is used as a basis for prevention or amelioration.

  7. Inhalant Abuse and Dependence Among Adolescents in the United States

    PubMed Central

    WU, LI-TZY; PILOWSKY, DANIEL J.; SCHLENGER, WILLIAM E.

    2005-01-01

    Objective To examine the patterns of inhalant use and correlates of the progression from inhalant use to abuse and dependence among adolescents aged 12 to 17. Method Study data were drawn from the 2000 and 2001 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse. Multinominal logistic regression was used to identify the characteristics associated with progression to inhalant abuse and dependence. Results Inhalant use was common among the studied adolescents. Among adolescents aged 12 to 17, 0.4% met DSM-IV inhalant abuse or dependence criteria in the past year. Inhalant abuse and dependence affected adolescents regardless of gender, age, race/ethnicity, and family income. The progression from inhalant use to abuse or dependence was related to early first use, use of multiple inhalants, and weekly inhalant use. Adolescents with inhalant use disorders reported coexisting multiple drug abuse and dependence, mental health treatment, and delinquent behaviors. Conclusions Adolescents with an inhalant use disorder may represent a subgroup of highly troubled youths with multiple vulnerabilities. Because early use is associated with progression to abuse and dependence, prevention programs should target elementary school–age children. PMID:15381887

  8. Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... Teen Users’ IQ Decline ( August 2016 ) Study Links Medical Marijuana Dispensaries to Reduced Mortality From Opioid Overdose ( May ... Marijuana in Teen Users’ IQ Decline Study Links Medical Marijuana Dispensaries to Reduced Mortality From Opioid Overdose Nora's ...

  9. Inhalant abuse among adolescents: neurobiological considerations.

    PubMed

    Lubman, D I; Yücel, M; Lawrence, A J

    2008-05-01

    Experimentation with volatile substances (inhalants) is common during early adolescence, yet limited work has been conducted examining the neurobiological impact of regular binge use during this key stage of development. Human studies consistently demonstrate that chronic use is associated with significant toxic effects, including neurological and neuropsychological impairment, as well as diffuse and subtle changes in white matter. However, most preclinical research has tended to focus on acute exposure, with limited work examining the neuropharmacological or toxicological mechanisms underpinning these changes or their potential reversibility with abstinence. Nevertheless, there is growing evidence that commonly abused inhalants share common cellular mechanisms, and have similar actions to other drugs of abuse. Indeed, the majority of acute behavioural effects appear to be underpinned by changes in receptor and/or ion channel activity (for example, GABA(A), glycine and 5HT(3) receptor activation, NMDA receptor inhibition), although nonspecific interactions can also arise at high concentrations. Recent studies examining the effects of toluene exposure during the early postnatal period are suggestive of long-term alterations in the function of NMDA and GABA(A) receptors, although limited work has been conducted investigating exposure during adolescence. Given the critical role of neurotransmitter systems in cognitive, emotional and brain development, future studies will need to take account of the substantial neuromaturational changes that are known to occur in the brain during childhood and adolescence, and to specifically investigate the neuropharmacological and toxicological profile of inhalant exposure during this period of development. PMID:18332858

  10. Marijuana Use by Heroin Abusers as a Factor in Program Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellner, Melvyn

    1977-01-01

    Primary heroin abusers who remained in a voluntary drug-free treatment program for an average of nine months were carefully matched with not-retained control subjects. Marijuana was used by the retained subjects as a heroin substitute and those who used marijuana were more apt to remain in the treatment program. (Author)

  11. Marijuana: respiratory tract effects.

    PubMed

    Owen, Kelly P; Sutter, Mark E; Albertson, Timothy E

    2014-02-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used drug of abuse in the USA. It is commonly abused through inhalation and therefore has effects on the lung that are similar to tobacco smoke, including increased cough, sputum production, hyperinflation, and upper lobe emphysematous changes. However, at this time, it does not appear that marijuana smoke contributes to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Marijuana can have multiple physiologic effects such as tachycardia, peripheral vasodilatation, behavioral and emotional changes, and possible prolonged cognitive impairment. The carcinogenic effects of marijuana are unclear at this time. Studies are mixed on the ability of marijuana smoke to increase the risk for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, lung cancer, prostate cancer, and cervical cancer. Some studies show that marijuana is protective for development of malignancy. Marijuana smoke has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on the immune system. Components of cannabis are under investigation as treatment for autoimmune diseases and malignancy. As marijuana becomes legalized in many states for medical and recreational use, other forms of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) have been developed, such as food products and beverages. As most research on marijuana at this time has been on whole marijuana smoke, rather than THC, it is difficult to determine if the currently available data is applicable to these newer products. PMID:23715638

  12. Marijuana: respiratory tract effects.

    PubMed

    Owen, Kelly P; Sutter, Mark E; Albertson, Timothy E

    2014-02-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used drug of abuse in the USA. It is commonly abused through inhalation and therefore has effects on the lung that are similar to tobacco smoke, including increased cough, sputum production, hyperinflation, and upper lobe emphysematous changes. However, at this time, it does not appear that marijuana smoke contributes to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Marijuana can have multiple physiologic effects such as tachycardia, peripheral vasodilatation, behavioral and emotional changes, and possible prolonged cognitive impairment. The carcinogenic effects of marijuana are unclear at this time. Studies are mixed on the ability of marijuana smoke to increase the risk for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, lung cancer, prostate cancer, and cervical cancer. Some studies show that marijuana is protective for development of malignancy. Marijuana smoke has been shown to have an inhibitory effect on the immune system. Components of cannabis are under investigation as treatment for autoimmune diseases and malignancy. As marijuana becomes legalized in many states for medical and recreational use, other forms of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) have been developed, such as food products and beverages. As most research on marijuana at this time has been on whole marijuana smoke, rather than THC, it is difficult to determine if the currently available data is applicable to these newer products.

  13. Adverse cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular effects of marijuana inhalation: what cardiologists need to know.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Grace; Kloner, Robert A; Rezkalla, Shereif

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug, with approximately 200 million users worldwide. Once illegal throughout the United States, cannabis is now legal for medicinal purposes in several states and for recreational use in 3 states. The current wave of decriminalization may lead to more widespread use, and it is important that cardiologists be made aware of the potential for marijuana-associated adverse cardiovascular effects that may begin to occur in the population at a greater frequency. In this report, the investigators focus on the known cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and peripheral effects of marijuana inhalation. Temporal associations between marijuana use and serious adverse events, including myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, cardiomyopathy, stroke, transient ischemic attack, and cannabis arteritis have been described. In conclusion, the potential for increased use of marijuana in the changing legal landscape suggests the need for the community to intensify research regarding the safety of marijuana use and for cardiologists to maintain an awareness of the potential for adverse effects.

  14. Adverse cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and peripheral vascular effects of marijuana inhalation: what cardiologists need to know.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Grace; Kloner, Robert A; Rezkalla, Shereif

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug, with approximately 200 million users worldwide. Once illegal throughout the United States, cannabis is now legal for medicinal purposes in several states and for recreational use in 3 states. The current wave of decriminalization may lead to more widespread use, and it is important that cardiologists be made aware of the potential for marijuana-associated adverse cardiovascular effects that may begin to occur in the population at a greater frequency. In this report, the investigators focus on the known cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and peripheral effects of marijuana inhalation. Temporal associations between marijuana use and serious adverse events, including myocardial infarction, sudden cardiac death, cardiomyopathy, stroke, transient ischemic attack, and cannabis arteritis have been described. In conclusion, the potential for increased use of marijuana in the changing legal landscape suggests the need for the community to intensify research regarding the safety of marijuana use and for cardiologists to maintain an awareness of the potential for adverse effects. PMID:24176069

  15. Marijuana.

    PubMed

    Ammerman, Seth

    2014-04-01

    Marijuana use in pediatric populations remains an ongoing concern, and marijuana use by adolescents had known medical, psychological, and cognitive side effects. Marijuana alters brain development and has detrimental effects on brain structure and function in ways that are incompletely understood at this point in time. Furthermore, marijuana smoke contains tar and other harmful chemicals, so marijuana cannot be recommended by physicians. At this time, no studies suggest a benefit of marijuana use by children and adolescents. In the context of limited but clear evidence showing harm or potential harm from marijuana use by adolescents, any recommendations for medical marijuana use by adolescents are based on research studies with adults and on anecdotal evidence. Criminal prosecution for marijuana possession adversely affects hundreds of thousands of youth yearly in the United States, particularly minority youth. Current evidence does not support a focus on punishment for youth who use marijuana. Rather, drug education and treatment programs should be encouraged to better help youth who are experimenting with or are dependent on marijuana. Decriminalization of recreational use of marijuana by adults has not led to an increase in youth use rates of recreational marijuana. Thus, decriminalization may be a reasonable alternative to outright criminalization, as long as it is coupled with drug education and treatment programs. The effect of outright legalization of adult recreational use of marijuana on youth use is unknown.

  16. Late onset epilepsy associated with marijuana abuse: a case report with MRI findings

    PubMed Central

    Fogang, Yannick Fogoum; Camara, Massaman; Mbonda, Paul Chimi; Toffa, Dènahin; Touré, Kamadore

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana is the most widely used illicit substance in the world. The relation between marijuana use and epileptic seizures is still controversial. We report a case of late onset epilepsy associated with marijuana abuse, with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings. A 44-year-old patient was admitted for 03 isolated episodes of secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizures. He had a history of 26 years regular marijuana smoking. On admission, we found a tachycardia, psychomotor slowing, asymmetric hyperreflexia, bilateral Babinski sign without weakness. Laboratory work-up showed a high level of urine of Δ-9-tétrahydroxycannabinol. Electroencephalogram was normal. Brain MRI revealed abnormal signal intensities in the right frontal lobe and basal ganglia. Seizures cessation was obtained with anti-epileptic treatment. We suggest that marijuana abuse through vascular and toxic mechanisms could explain seizures in this case. PMID:25120871

  17. Abused inhalants and central reward pathways: electrophysiological and behavioral studies in the rat.

    PubMed

    Riegel, Arthur C; French, Edward D

    2002-06-01

    Inhalant abuse remains a significant health problem among the younger segment of society. In fact, the use of inhalants in this population trails only that of nicotine, alcohol, and marijuana. Toluene is a common ingredient in many of the substances sought out for inhalation abuse, apparently for its euphorigenic and hallucinogenic effects. Because drugs of abuse share the common property of altering the activity of mesolimbic dopamine neurons, it is reasonable to suspect that toluene-induced changes in this CNS pathway may underlie its abuse potential. Here we will provide in vivo and in vitro electrophysiological data and behavioral evidence linking toluene exposure in rats to activation of mesolimbic dopamine neurons. Exposure of rats to 11,000 ppm of inhaled toluene produced time-dependent activation of dopamine neurons within the midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA). In the rat brain slice preparation, perfusion with toluene (23-822 microM) also evoked an increase in activity of both dopamine and nondopamine neurons within the VTA. These excitatory effects could not be found in adjacent non-VTA nuclei, nor were they sensitive to the glutamate antagonists CGS19755 or CNQX. In behavioral studies, systemic administration of toluene produced a dose-dependent locomotor hyperactivity that was attenuated by either pretreatment with the D2 dopamine receptor antagonist remoxipride or by 6-hydroxydopamine lesions of the nucleus accumbens. These findings show that toluene can activate dopamine neurons within the mesolimbic reward pathway, an effect that may underlie the abuse potential of inhaled substances containing toluene.

  18. Marijuana use is associated with risky sexual behaviors in treatment-seeking polysubstance abusers

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Leonardo F.; Carroll, Kathleen M.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Multiple types of substance use are associated with HIV risk behaviors, but relatively little research has examined the association between marijuana use and risky sexual activities in treatment-seeking polysubstance abuse patients. Objectives This study evaluated the relationship between marijuana use and sexual behaviors in 239 patients with cocaine, opioid, or alcohol use disorders who were initiating outpatient substance use treatment. Methods Participants completed the HIV Risk Behavior Scale and were classified into one of three groups based on their marijuana use histories: never (n = 66), past but not current use (n = 124), or current use (n = 49). Results Compared to never marijuana users, current and former marijuana users had a greater likelihood of having more than 50 lifetime sexual partners [odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.9 (1.0 – 15.7) and 5.2 (1.6 – 17.3), respectively]. Former marijuana users had increased risk of low frequency condom use with casual partners relative to never users [OR (95% CI) = 2.9 (1.1 – 7.6)]. Moreover, current marijuana users were more likely than never users to have had more than two recent sexual partners [OR (95% CI) = 8.1 (1.94 – 33.44)]. Conclusion Treatment-seeking polysubstance abusers with current or past marijuana use histories may be at greater risk of HIV infection than their counterparts who do not use marijuana. These data underscore the importance of increasing awareness about the potential association between marijuana use and increased high risk sexual behavior among polysubstance abusing patients. PMID:23841867

  19. Childhood histories of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders in Japanese methamphetamine and inhalant abusers: preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Toshihiko; Kamijo, Atsushi; Yamaguchi, Akiko; Iseki, Eizo; Hirayasu, Yoshio

    2005-02-01

    The present study examined childhood histories of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in 54 methamphetamine and 12 inhalant abusers using the Wender Utah Rating Scale. The inhalant abusers experienced initial drinking at a younger age than methamphetamine abusers (P=0.038). The Wender Utah Rating Scale score was significantly higher in the inhalant abusers than in the methamphetamine abusers (P=0.013) although 83.3% of inhalant and 55.6% of methamphetamine abusers had higher scores than the cut-off for ADHD. These findings suggest that drug abuse is associated with childhood ADHD, and that inhalant abusers have a higher incidence of childhood ADHD than methamphetamine abusers.

  20. The Formation of Marijuana Risk Perception in a Population of Substance Abusing Patients.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Samuel T; van Schalkwyk, Gerrit I; Davidson, Larry; D'Souza, Deepak C

    2016-03-01

    Risk perception has been shown to be protective with regard to marijuana use. Notably, the risk perception of marijuana in individuals with substance abuse problems varies significantly from that of the general public. Understanding how risk perception is formed in substance users could explain these differences and help predict the consequences of policy changes. Using this framework, we explored risk perception and its formation in a sample of substance abusing veterans. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with veterans who were receiving treatment for substance abuse. Interviews were recorded digitally, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using inductive thematic analysis. A prominent perspective among the 31 participants was that marijuana is significantly different from other drugs because it is safe, not addictive, not associated with physical withdrawal, and has less overt behavioral effects than other substances. Many of these participants drew upon their own innocuous experiences with the drug in developing this perspective, more so than information from any other source. A contrasting narrative emphasized marijuana's capacity to cause negative social consequences, act as a gateway to the use of other, more harmful substances, and cause paranoia or worsen psychosis. In conclusion, individual experience with marijuana featured more prominently in informing risk perception than any other source of information. Our results and previous literature suggest that the significant disconnect between the individual experiences of substance users and the current clinical and legal policy towards marijuana may weaken the legitimacy of public policy or the authority of the medical community. PMID:25982082

  1. Substance use - marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... abuse - marijuana; Drug abuse - marijuana; Drug use - marijuana; Cannabis; Grass; Hashish; Mary Jane; Pot; Weed ... et al. Acute and long-term effects of cannabis use: a review. Curr Pharm Des . 2014;20( ...

  2. Laboratory approach for diagnosis of toluene-based inhalant abuse in a clinical setting

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Raka; Verma, Arpita

    2016-01-01

    The steady increase of inhalant abuse is a great challenge for analytical toxicologists. This review describes an overview of inhalant abuse including the extent of the problem, types of products abused, modes of administration, pharmacology and effects of inhalants, the role of laboratory, interpretation of laboratory results and clinical considerations. Regular laboratory screening for inhalant abuse as well as other substance abuse and health risk behaviors must be a part of standard clinical care. PMID:26957863

  3. Marijuana-based Drugs: Innovative Therapeutics or Designer Drugs of Abuse?

    PubMed Central

    Seely, Kathryn A.; Prather, Paul L.; James, Laura P.; Moran, Jeffery H.

    2011-01-01

    Marijuana has been used recreationally and medicinally for centuries. The principle psychoactive component, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), activates CB1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1Rs). CB1R agonists and antagonists could potentially treat a wide variety of diseases; unfortunately, therapeutic doses produce unacceptable psychiatric effects. “K2” or “Spice” (K2/Spice), an emerging drug of abuse, exhibits psychotropic actions via CB1R activation. Because of structural dissimilarity to Δ9-THC, these drugs are widely unregulated and touted as “legal” marijuana. This review summarizes current and future therapeutic uses of CB1R ligands and provides a historical perspective of the K2/Spice “phenomenon” so the reader can decide if marijuana-based drugs will truly provide innovative therapeutics or instead perpetuate drug abuse. PMID:21441120

  4. Psychiatric Syndromes in Adolescents with Marijuana Abuse and Dependency in Outpatient Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diamond, Guy; Panichelli-Mindel, Susan M.; Shera, David; Dennis, Mike; Tims, Frank; Ungemack, Jane

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the current study to assist in understanding the prevalence and clinical correlates of psychiatric distress in adolescents seeking outpatient services for marijuana abuse or dependency. Methods: In a multi-site randomized clinical trial, 600 adolescents and their parents were assessed at intake using the Global Appraisals…

  5. Adolescent Substance Abuse: The Effects of Alcohol and Marijuana on Neuropsychological Performance

    PubMed Central

    Thoma, Robert J.; Monnig, Mollie A.; Lysne, Per A.; Ruhl, David A.; Pommy, Jessica A.; Bogenschutz, Michael; Tonigan, J. Scott; Yeo, Ronald A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Adolescence is a period in which cognition and brain undergo dramatic parallel development. Whereas chronic use of alcohol and marijuana is known to cause cognitive impairments in adults, far less is known about the effect of these substances of abuse on adolescent cognition, including possible interactions with developmental processes. Methods Neuropsychological performance, alcohol use, and marijuana use were assessed in 48 adolescents (ages 12–18), recruited in three groups: a healthy control group (HC, n = 15), a group diagnosed with substance abuse or dependence (SUD, n = 19), and a group with a family history positive for alcohol use disorder (AUD) but no personal substance use disorder (FHP, n = 14). Age, drinks per drinking day, percentage days drinking, and percentage days using marijuana were considered as covariates in a MANCOVA in which 6 neuropsychological composites (Verbal Reasoning, Visuospatial Ability, Executive Function, Memory, Attention, and Processing Speed) served as dependent variables. Results More drinks per drinking day predicted poorer performance on Attention and Executive Function composites, and more frequent use of marijuana use was associated with poorer Memory performance. In separate analyses, adolescents in the SUD group had lower scores on Attention, Memory, and Processing Speed composites, and FHP adolescents had poorer Visuospatial Ability. Conclusions In combination, these analyses suggest that heavy alcohol use in adolescence leads to reduction in attention and executive functioning and that marijuana use exerts an independent deleterious effect on memory. At the same time, premorbid deficits associated with family history of AUD appeared to be specific to Visuospatial Ability. PMID:20958330

  6. Nicotine nasal spray and vapor inhaler: abuse liability assessment.

    PubMed

    Schuh, K J; Schuh, L M; Henningfield, J E; Stitzer, M L

    1997-04-01

    Acute subjective and physiological effects were examined to provide information relevant to abuse liability of new nicotine delivery systems. Subjects (n = 12) were overnight-deprived smokers who received 0, 4, 8 and 16 active puffs from nicotine-containing cigarettes (0.1 mg per puff), 0, 1, 2 or 4 nasal sprays (0.5 mg nicotine per spray) and 0, 30, 60 and 120 vapor inhalations (estimated 0.013 mg nicotine per inhalation) in a within-subject single blinded design. While smokers clearly liked cigarette puffs, there was much less evidence of liking produced by either nasal spray or vapor inhaler; only modest elevations on a measure of good drug effects were observed. The novel delivery products engendered unpleasant effects of burning throat and nose, watery eyes, runny nose, coughing and sneezing that might be expected to limit abuse liability. Nicotine plasma level and heart rate increase was dose-related for cigarettes and nasal spray but not for vapor inhaler, indicating limited nicotine delivery with the latter device. Overall, results are consistent with the conclusion that the nicotine nasal spray and vapor inhaler are of substantially lower abuse liability than cigarettes in experienced cigarette smokers receiving initial exposure to these products. PMID:9160851

  7. Marijuana-based drugs: innovative therapeutics or designer drugs of abuse?

    PubMed

    Seely, Kathryn A; Prather, Paul L; James, Laura P; Moran, Jeffery H

    2011-02-01

    The principal psychoactive component of marijuana, Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), activates CB1 cannabinoid receptors (CB1Rs). Unfortunately, pharmacological research into the design of effective THC analogs has been hampered by psychiatric side effects. THC-based drug design of a less academic nature, however, has led to the marketing of "synthetic marijuana," labeled as K2 or "Spice," among other terms, which elicits psychotropic actions via CB1R activation. Because of structural dissimilarity to THC, the active ingredients of K2/Spice preparations are widely unregulated. The K2/Spice "phenomenon" provides a context for considering whether marijuana-based drugs will truly provide innovative therapeutics or merely perpetuate drug abuse.

  8. Among High School Seniors, Driving After Marijuana Use Surpasses Drunk Driving

    MedlinePlus

    ... Commonly Abused Drugs Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA ( ... straight years, whereas driving under the influence of alcohol or riding with a driver who had been ...

  9. Inhalant-Abuse Myocarditis Diagnosed by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Krishnasree; Matulevicius, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Multiple reports of toxic myocarditis from inhalant abuse have been reported. We now report the case of a 23-year-old man found to have toxic myocarditis from inhalation of a hydrocarbon. The diagnosis was made by means of cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with delayed enhancement. The use of cardiac magnetic resonance to diagnose myocarditis has become increasingly common in clinical medicine, although there is not a universally accepted criterion for diagnosis. We appear to be the first to document a case of toxic myocarditis diagnosed by cardiac magnetic resonance. In patients with a history of drug abuse who present with clinical findings that suggest myocarditis or pericarditis, cardiac magnetic resonance can be considered to support the diagnosis. PMID:27303242

  10. Age of Inhalant First Time Use and Its Association to the Use of Other Drugs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ding, Kele; Chang, G. Andy; Southerland, Ron

    2009-01-01

    Inhalants are the 4th most commonly abused drugs after alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. Although inhalants are often referred as Gateway Drugs this hypothesis is less examined. Using the 2003 National Survey on Drug Use and Health data, age of first time inhalant use was compared with the age of onset of other drugs among 6466 inhalant users who…

  11. Inhalant Use, Abuse, and Dependence among Adolescent Patients: Commonly Comorbid Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakai, Joseph T.; Hall, Shannon K.; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Crowley, Thomas J.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Little is known about adolescents with DSM-IV-defined inhalant abuse and dependence. The aim of this study was to compare comorbidity among (1) adolescents with inhalant use disorders, (2) adolescents who reported using inhalants without inhalant use disorder, and (3) other adolescent patients drawn from an adolescent drug and alcohol…

  12. Comorbid mood, psychosis, and marijuana abuse disorders: a theoretical review.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Natascha; Cadet, Jean Lud

    2009-10-01

    There is a need to bridge the gap between the fields of addiction psychiatry and general psychiatry to effectively treat co-morbid substance abuse and psychiatric disorders. This alarming epidemic transcends communities and severely impacts healthcare worldwide, yielding poor treatment outcomes and prognoses for afflicted patients. Because substance abuse can exacerbate or trigger psychosis and mood disorders, it is important to keep these issues in the forefront when evaluating patients. To address some of the complications stemming from not enough interactions between various groups of practitioners, this review addresses the neurobehavioral effects of cannabis use and their impact on patients who suffer from psychotic or affective disorders. The hope is that this article will serve as a spring board for further discussions among practitioners who treat these patients. Greater interactions between caretakers are bound to impact the care of our patients in a very positive way.

  13. An unusual presentation of inhalant abuse with dissociative amnesia.

    PubMed

    Miller, Paul W; Mycyk, Mark B; Leikin, Jerrold B; Ruland, Sean D

    2002-02-01

    A 38-y-old male with occult inhalant abuse underwent an 18-mo evaluation for presumed seizure disorder. Although past medical history was significant for alcohol abuse, his wife confirmed a 6-y histoy of abstinence. His seizures were characterized as episodes of unconsciousness preceded by a feeling of "things slowing down". No muscular activity was witnessed during these episodes, and upon regaining consciousness the patient had slurred speech, disorientation, dissociative amnesia, and bizarre behavior that resolved spontaneously. Despite 4 emergency department visits, 4 hospital admissions, 5 neurologic and 7 psychiatric outpatient evaluations, extensive work-up was non-diagnostic. These episodes recurred until his wife found him huffing trichloroethylene. Questioning of the patient revealed that huffing always preceded these episodes and that he started huffing after discontinuing alcohol. The patient underwent addiction treatment. Toxic inhalants should be suspected as a substitute drug of abuse in patients attempting abstention. Disorientation clinically similar to dissociative amnesia can occur following loss of consciousness during an episode of trichloroethylene use.

  14. Inhalant and Prescription Medication Abuse among Adolescents: An Inexpensive, Accessible, and Misperceived Trend

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikes, April; Walley, Cynthia; McBride, Rebecca; Fusco, Angela; Cole, Rebekah F.; Lauka, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Inhalant and prescription medication abuse, particularly among adolescents, are serious problems in our society. Several risk factors associated with inhalant and medication abuse among adolescents have been identified. As a result, adolescents may suffer multiple consequences in a range of developmental areas. The purpose of this article is to…

  15. Treatment of Adolescent Marijuana Abuse: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Presentation 1: Structure of the Cannabis Youth Treatment Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Titus, Janet C.; Dennis, Michael L.; Diamond, Guy; Godley, Susan H.; Babor, Thomas; Donaldson, Jean; Herrell, James; Tims, Frank; Webb, Charles

    The Cannabis Youth Treatment (CYT) study is a multi-site randomized field experiment examining five outpatient treatment protocols for adolescents who abuse or are dependent on marijuana. The purpose of the CYT project is twofold: (a) to test the relative clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of five promising interventions targeted at…

  16. Passive inhalation of marijuana smoke: urinalysis and room air levels of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol

    SciTech Connect

    Cone, E.J.; Johnson, R.E.; Darwin, W.D.; Yousefnejad, D.; Mell, L.D.; Paul, B.D.; Mitchell, J.

    1987-05-01

    In two separate studies, 5 drug-free male volunteers with a history of marijuana use were passively exposed to the sidestream smoke of 4 and 16 marijuana cigarettes (2.8% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)) for 1 h each day for 6 consecutive days. A third study was similarly performed with 2 marijuana-naive subjects passively exposed to the smoke of 16 marijuana cigarettes. Passive smoke exposure was conducted in a small, unventilated room. Room air levels of THC and CO were monitored frequently. All urine specimens were collected and analyzed by EMIT d.a.u. assay, Abuscreen radioimmunoassay and GC/MS. The studies show that significant amounts of THC were absorbed by all subjects at the higher level of passive smoke exposure (eg., smoke from 16 marijuana cigarettes), resulting in urinary excretion of significant amounts of cannabinoid metabolites. However, it seems improbable that subjects would unknowingly tolerate the noxious smoke conditions produced by this exposure. At the lower level of passive marijuana-smoke exposure, specimens tested positive only infrequently or were negative. Room air levels of THC during passive smoke exposure appeared to be the most critical factor in determining whether a subject produced cannabinoid-positive urine specimens.

  17. Medical marijuana.

    PubMed

    Marmor, J B

    1998-06-01

    Although many clinical studies suggest the medical utility of marijuana for some conditions, the scientific evidence is weak. Many patients in California are self-medicating with marijuana, and physicians need data to assess the risks and benefits. The only reasonable solution to this problem is to encourage research on the medical effects of marijuana. The current regulatory system should be modified to remove barriers to clinical research with marijuana. The NIH panel has identified several conditions for which there may be therapeutic benefit from marijuana use and that merit further research. Marijuana should be held to the same evaluation standards of safety and efficacy as other drugs (a major flaw in Proposition 215) but should not have to be proved better than current medications for its use to be adopted. The therapeutic window for marijuana and THC between desired effect and unpleasant side effects is narrow and is a major reason for discontinuing use. Although the inhaled route of administration has the benefit of allowing patients to self-titrate the dose, the smoking of crude plant material is problematic. The NIH panel recommended that a high priority be given to the development of a controlled inhaled form of THC. The presence of a naturally occurring cannabinoid-receptor system in the brain suggests that research on selective analogues of THC may be useful to enhance its therapeutic effects and minimize adverse effects.

  18. Reliability of use, abuse, and dependence of four types of inhalants in adolescents and young adults.

    PubMed

    Ridenour, Ty A; Bray, Bethany C; Cottler, Linda B

    2007-11-01

    Inhalants, as a class of drugs, consists of heterogeneous substances that increase the probability of many serious illnesses and death. Research on inhalant abuse has lagged behind other drugs partly because of the need for a diagnostic instrument of different types of inhalants. This study was conducted to obtain reliability estimates for the new Substance Abuse Module DSM-IV inhalants diagnoses for four types of inhalants: aerosols, gases, nitrites, and solvents as well as different diagnostic configurations of inhalant-related criteria. Participants were 162 community sample adolescents or young adults (mean age=20.3 years, S.D.=2.4). Two-thirds of the sample was male and 83.3% was Caucasian. Kappas and intraclass correlation coefficients were computed to estimate test-retest reliabilities. Results suggested (a) abuse was more common than dependence (34.6% versus 12.3%), (b) reliabilities of abuse criteria and diagnosis were good to excellent across subtypes, and (c) reliabilities of dependence criteria and diagnoses were poor to good across subtypes. Alternative configurations of DSM-IV criteria that were consistent with previous research on adolescents provided excellent reliabilities across subtypes of inhalants. Moreover, 11.1% of participants experienced inhalants withdrawal.

  19. A prospective study of off-label use of, abuse of, and dependence on nicotine inhaler

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, J; Adams, E; Franzon, M; Maguire, M; Guary, J

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine the incidence of off-label use of, abuse of, and dependence on prescription nicotine inhaler. Design: Prospective telephone and internet interviews for six months. Participants: 535 new inhaler users. Main outcome: Structured interview about off-label use (that is, use of inhaler for non-cessation reasons or concurrent use of inhaler and cigarettes) and Diagnostic and statistical manual, fourth edition (DSM-IV) and International classification of diseases, 10th edition (ICD-10) criteria for abuse and dependence Results: Although many used inhaler and cigarettes concurrently at some time (43–55%), few used inhaler for non-cessation reasons (4–9%) and few persisted in off label use (8–16%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 5% to 19%). No participant met ICD-10 criteria for harmful use/abuse (95% CI 0% to 3.3%). Eight subjects (1.4%) appeared to meet DSM-IV or ICD-10 criteria for dependence on inhaler, but none were found dependent in a clinical expert interview (95% CI 0% to 3.3%). Conclusions: Although transient concurrent use of inhaler and cigarettes often occurs, use for non-cessation reasons, abuse and dependence are rare. PMID:15735300

  20. Inhaled vs. oral alprazolam: subjective, behavioral and cognitive effects, and modestly increased abuse potential

    PubMed Central

    Reissig, Chad J.; Harrison, Joseph A.; Carter, Lawrence P.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Infrahuman and human studies suggest that a determinant of the abuse potential of a drug is rate of onset of subjective effects. Objectives This study sought to determine if the rate of onset of subjective effects and abuse potential of alprazolam would be increased when administered via inhalation vs. the oral route. Methods Placebo, inhaled alprazolam (0.5, 1, 2 mg), and oral alprazolam (1, 2, 4 mg) were administered under double-blind, double-dummy conditions using a cross-over design in 14 healthy participants with histories of drug abuse. Participant and observer ratings, and behavioral and cognitive performance measures were assessed repeatedly during 9 hour sessions. Results Both routes of administration produced orderly dose and time-related effects, with higher doses producing greater and longer lasting effects. Onset of subjective effects following inhaled alprazolam was very rapid (e.g., 2 vs. 49 minutes after 2 mg inhaled vs. oral). On measures of abuse potential (e.g., liking and good effects), inhaled alprazolam was more potent, as evidenced by a leftward shift in the dose response curve. Despite the potency difference, at the highest doses, peak ratings of subjective effects related to abuse potential (e.g., “drug liking”) were similar across the two routes. On other measures (e.g., sedation and performance) the routes were equipotent. Conclusions The inhaled route of administration modestly increased the abuse potential of alprazolam despite significantly increasing its rate of onset. If marketed, the reduced availability and increased cost of inhaled alprazolam may render the societal risk of increased abuse to be low. PMID:25199955

  1. Orofacial and digital frostbite caused by inhalant abuse.

    PubMed

    Koehler, Matthew M; Henninger, Camille A

    2014-05-01

    Inhalation of volatile substances is a cheap and accessible way for individuals, most commonly teenagers, to ingest mind-altering substances. The adverse effects of using inhalants, including cardiac dysrhythmia, respiratory tract injury, and asphyxiation, can be devastating. Detection often is difficult, but a high degree of suspicion with patterns of perioral, perinasal, and/or digital lesions can help identify use. We report an uncommon case of severe orofacial and digital frostbite initially mistaken for an allergic reaction in a 20-year-old man following intentional inhalation of a commercial air-dusting agent containing 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a).

  2. The links between religiosity, childhood sexual abuse, and subsequent marijuana use: an empirical inquiry of a sample of female college students.

    PubMed

    Chu, Doris C

    2012-09-01

    A number of studies indicate that childhood sexual abuse (CSA) has a negative impact on later psychological well-being. It is well documented that experiences of CSA are associated with depression, self-destructiveness, and subsequent substance abuse or alcohol consumption. Compared with women who experienced no such sexual abuse in childhood, women who were victims of sexual abuse in childhood were more likely to be depressed and use drugs or consume alcohol in later life. Analyzing data of 1,569 females derived from the "Longitudinal Study of Violence Against Women," this study examines whether the strain caused by sexual victimization leads to a higher level of subsequent marijuana use and whether religiosity moderates the negative effects of CSA. It was found that CSA was associated with an increased level of marijuana use in high school. However, more proximate sexual victimization (victimization in college) seemed to override the impact of CSA on subsequent marijuana use. Religiosity was found to moderate the effect of CSA on marijuana use in high school. Religiosity was negatively associated with marijuana use in high school as well as the second and fourth collegiate years. Policy implications and promising directions for future research are discussed.

  3. Mediation effects of problem drinking and marijuana use on HIV sexual risk behaviors among childhood sexually abused South African heterosexual men☆

    PubMed Central

    Icard, Larry D.; Jemmott, John B.; Teitelman, Anne; O'Leary, Ann; Heeren, G. Anita

    2013-01-01

    HIV/AIDS prevalence in South Africa is one of the highest in the world with heterosexual, transmission predominantly promoting the epidemic. The goal of this study is to examine whether, marijuana use and problem drinking mediate the relationship between histories of childhood sexual, abuse (CSA) and HIV risk behaviors among heterosexual men. Participants were 1181 Black men aged, 18–45 from randomly selected neighborhoods in Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. Audio computer assisted, self-interviewing was used to assess self-reported childhood sexual abuse, problem drinking, and marijuana (dagga) use, and HIV sexual transmission behavior with steady and casual partners. Data were analyzed using multiple meditational modeling. There was more support for problem, drinking than marijuana use as a mediator. Findings suggest that problem drinking and marijuana use, mediate HIV sexual risk behaviors in men with histories of CSA. Focusing on men with histories of CSA, and their use of marijuana and alcohol may be particularly useful for designing strategies to reduce, HIV sexual transmission in South Africa. PMID:24041455

  4. Marijuana's dose-dependent effects in daily marijuana smokers.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Divya; Haney, Margaret; Cooper, Ziva D

    2013-08-01

    Active marijuana produces significant subjective, psychomotor, and physiological effects relative to inactive marijuana, yet demonstrating that these effects are dose-dependent has proven difficult. This within-subject, double-blind study was designed to develop a smoking procedure to obtain a marijuana dose-response function. In four outpatient laboratory sessions, daily marijuana smokers (N = 17 males, 1 female) smoked six 5-s puffs from 3 marijuana cigarettes (2 puffs/cigarette). The number of puffs from active (≥5.5% Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol/THC) and inactive (0.0% THC) marijuana varied according to condition (0, 2, 4, or 6 active puffs); active puffs were always smoked before inactive puffs. Subjective, physiological, and performance effects were assessed prior to and at set time points after marijuana administration. Active marijuana dose-dependently increased heart rate and decreased marijuana craving, despite evidence (carbon monoxide expiration, weight of marijuana cigarettes post-smoking) that participants inhaled less of each active marijuana cigarette than inactive cigarettes. Subjective ratings of marijuana "strength," "high," "liking," "good effect," and "take again" were increased by active marijuana compared with inactive marijuana, but these effects were not dose-dependent. Active marijuana also produced modest, non-dose-dependent deficits in attention, psychomotor function, and recall relative to the inactive condition. In summary, although changes in inhalation patterns as a function of marijuana strength likely minimized the difference between dose conditions, dose-dependent differences in marijuana's cardiovascular effects and ratings of craving were observed, whereas subjective ratings of marijuana effects did not significantly vary as a function of dose.

  5. Marijuana's dose-dependent effects in daily marijuana smokers.

    PubMed

    Ramesh, Divya; Haney, Margaret; Cooper, Ziva D

    2013-08-01

    Active marijuana produces significant subjective, psychomotor, and physiological effects relative to inactive marijuana, yet demonstrating that these effects are dose-dependent has proven difficult. This within-subject, double-blind study was designed to develop a smoking procedure to obtain a marijuana dose-response function. In four outpatient laboratory sessions, daily marijuana smokers (N = 17 males, 1 female) smoked six 5-s puffs from 3 marijuana cigarettes (2 puffs/cigarette). The number of puffs from active (≥5.5% Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol/THC) and inactive (0.0% THC) marijuana varied according to condition (0, 2, 4, or 6 active puffs); active puffs were always smoked before inactive puffs. Subjective, physiological, and performance effects were assessed prior to and at set time points after marijuana administration. Active marijuana dose-dependently increased heart rate and decreased marijuana craving, despite evidence (carbon monoxide expiration, weight of marijuana cigarettes post-smoking) that participants inhaled less of each active marijuana cigarette than inactive cigarettes. Subjective ratings of marijuana "strength," "high," "liking," "good effect," and "take again" were increased by active marijuana compared with inactive marijuana, but these effects were not dose-dependent. Active marijuana also produced modest, non-dose-dependent deficits in attention, psychomotor function, and recall relative to the inactive condition. In summary, although changes in inhalation patterns as a function of marijuana strength likely minimized the difference between dose conditions, dose-dependent differences in marijuana's cardiovascular effects and ratings of craving were observed, whereas subjective ratings of marijuana effects did not significantly vary as a function of dose. PMID:23937597

  6. Health and Educational Effects of Marijuana on Youth. Hearing Before the Subcommittee on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse of the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, Ninety-Seventh Congress, First Session (October 21, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    These proceedings of a hearing before the Alcohol and Drug Abuse Subcommittee include testimony about the health and educational effects of marijuana on young people. The materials describe recent findings on the extent of drug use among youth, recent changes in drug use trends, and the consequences of marijuana use on health and intellectual…

  7. Marijuana Neurobiology and Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkashef, Ahmed; Vocci, Frank; Huestis, Marilyn; Haney, Margaret; Budney, Alan; Gruber, Amanda; el-Guebaly, Nady

    2008-01-01

    Marijuana is the number one illicit drug of abuse worldwide and a major public health problem, especially in the younger population. The objective of this article is to update and review the state of the science and treatments available for marijuana dependence based on a pre-meeting workshop that was presented at ISAM 2006. At the workshop,…

  8. Marijuana: Facts Parents Need To Know. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This booklet is designed to educate parents about marijuana so that they can communicate with their children in a way that will prevent drug abuse. The information is presented in a question/answer format. The following 25 questions are addressed: What is marijuana? What are the current slang terms for marijuana? How is marijuana used? How many…

  9. Marijuana intoxication

    MedlinePlus

    Cannabis intoxication; Intoxication - marijuana (cannabis); Pot; Mary Jane; Weed; Grass; Cannabis ... The intoxicating effects of marijuana include relaxation, ... to fast and predictable signs and symptoms. Eating marijuana ...

  10. Acute Sensorineural Hearing Loss After Abuse of an Inhaled, Crushed Oxymorphone Extended-Release Tablet.

    PubMed

    MacDonald, Lisa E; Onsrud, Jennifer E; Mullins-Hodgin, Rita

    2015-07-01

    Oxymorphone, a semisynthetic μ-opioid receptor agonist, is the major active metabolite of oxycodone. It is a highly potent narcotic analgesic due to its high lipid solubility, which allows it to readily cross the blood-brain barrier and enter the central nervous system. It is available as both an immediate-release and extended-release (ER) formulation. Oxymorphone can be abused by injection or inhalation of crushed tablets; thus, in 2011, the manufacturer of ER oxymorphone reformulated the drug with crush-resistant technology to deter its misuse and abuse. We describe the case of a previously healthy, 24-year-old male who experienced reproducible acute subjective bilateral temporary hearing loss that occurred after inhalation of oxymorphone. He presented to the emergency department complaining of acute bilateral hearing loss after he reported snorting a crushed oxymorphone ER 30-mg tablet. Emergency department evaluation revealed obvious bilateral hearing loss as well as coincidental aspiration pneumonia. The patient's medical history revealed that he had experienced a similar episode of hearing loss after a previous episode of oxymorphone inhalation. His hearing loss began to improve 3 hours after presentation to the emergency department and was completely resolved by the following day. Use of the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale revealed oxymorphone to be a probable cause of this patient's acute hearing loss (score of 6). The mechanism of action of opioid-associated hearing loss (OAHL) is not completely understood, but it is thought to be due to disturbances within the cochlea, such as cochlear ischemia. To our knowledge, this is only the second published case report of acute reversible hearing loss following oxymorphone inhalation and the first published case report of reproducible OAHL. Since opioid misuse continues to be prevalent despite attempts at reformulations to make the drugs crush resistant, a high degree of clinical suspicion is needed

  11. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Facts Chat Day: Inhalants Drug Facts Chat Day: Inhalants Print Can you get high off of ... Cool Order Free Materials National Drugs & Alcohol Chat Day Newsletter Sign up to receive National Drug & Alcohol ...

  12. Drug Abuse Among Indian Children: Inhalant Abuse Among Young Native Americans. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oetting, E. R.; Goldstein, George S.

    Because of the relatively high rate of drug use among American Indian adolescents, this project was planned to survey the use of drugs, especially inhalants, by American Indian children aged 9-12. As a means of gathering data, interviews were rejected in favor of a simply-worded survey administered to over 1000 children in 9 Southwestern tribes.…

  13. Synthesis and evaluation of inhaled [11C]butane and intravenously injected [11C]acetone as potential radiotracers for studying inhalant abuse.

    PubMed

    Gerasimov, Madina R; Ferrieri, Richard A; Pareto, Deborah; Logan, Jean; Alexoff, David; Ding, Yu-Shin

    2005-02-01

    The phenomenon of inhalant abuse is a growing problem in the US and many countries around the world. Yet, relatively little is known about the pharmacokinetic properties of inhalants that underlie their abuse potential. While the synthesis of 11C-labeled toluene, acetone and butane has been proposed in the literature, none of these compounds has been developed as radiotracers for PET studies. In the present report we extend our previous studies with [11C]toluene to include [11C]acetone and [11C]butane with the goal of comparing the pharmacokinetic profiles of these three volatile abused substances. Both [11C]toluene and [11C]acetone were administered intravenously and [11C]butane was administered via inhalation to anesthesized baboons. Rapid and efficient uptake of radiolabeled toluene and acetone into the brain was followed by fast clearance in the case of toluene and slower kinetics in the case of acetone. [11C]Butane was detected in the blood and brain following inhalation, but the levels of radioactivity in both tissues dropped to half of the maximal values over the period of less than a minute. To our knowledge, this is the first reported study of the in vivo brain pharmacokinetics of labeled acetone and butane in nonhuman primates. These data provide insight into the pharmacokinetic features possibly associated with the abuse liability of toluene, acetone and butane.

  14. Marijuana poisoning.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

    2013-02-01

    The plant Cannabis sativa has been used for centuries for the effects of its psychoactive resins. The term "marijuana" typically refers to tobacco-like preparations of the leaves and flowers. The plant contains more than 400 chemicals but the cannabinoid δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the major psychoactive constituent. "Hashish" is the resin extracted from the tops of flowering plants and generally has a much higher THC concentration. Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States. Currently, several states have passed legislation to decriminalize possession of small amounts of marijuana for both medical and personal use and several other states have similar legislation under consideration. The most common form of marijuana use in humans is inhalation of the smoke of marijuana cigarettes, followed by ingestion. In animals, although secondhand smoke inhalation is possible, the most common source of exposure is through ingestion of the owner's marijuana supply. The minimum lethal oral dose for dogs for THC is more than 3 g/kg. Although the drug has a high margin of safety, deaths have been seen after ingestion of food products containing the more concentrated medical-grade THC butter. There are two specific cannabinoid receptors in humans and dogs, CB1 (primarily in central nervous system) and CB2 (peripheral tissues). In animals, following oral ingestion, clinical effects begin within 60 minutes. All of the neuropharmacologic mechanisms by which cannabinoids produce psychoactive effects have not been identified. However, CB1 activity is believed to be responsible for the majority of cannabinoid clinical effects. Highly lipid soluble, THC is distributed in fat, liver, brain, and renal tissue. Fifteen percent of THC is excreted into the urine and the rest is eliminated in the feces through biliary excretion. Clinical signs of canine intoxication include depression, hypersalivation, mydriasis, hypermetria, vomiting, urinary incontinence

  15. Marijuana poisoning.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kevin T; Bronstein, Alvin C; Newquist, Kristin L

    2013-02-01

    The plant Cannabis sativa has been used for centuries for the effects of its psychoactive resins. The term "marijuana" typically refers to tobacco-like preparations of the leaves and flowers. The plant contains more than 400 chemicals but the cannabinoid δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the major psychoactive constituent. "Hashish" is the resin extracted from the tops of flowering plants and generally has a much higher THC concentration. Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States. Currently, several states have passed legislation to decriminalize possession of small amounts of marijuana for both medical and personal use and several other states have similar legislation under consideration. The most common form of marijuana use in humans is inhalation of the smoke of marijuana cigarettes, followed by ingestion. In animals, although secondhand smoke inhalation is possible, the most common source of exposure is through ingestion of the owner's marijuana supply. The minimum lethal oral dose for dogs for THC is more than 3 g/kg. Although the drug has a high margin of safety, deaths have been seen after ingestion of food products containing the more concentrated medical-grade THC butter. There are two specific cannabinoid receptors in humans and dogs, CB1 (primarily in central nervous system) and CB2 (peripheral tissues). In animals, following oral ingestion, clinical effects begin within 60 minutes. All of the neuropharmacologic mechanisms by which cannabinoids produce psychoactive effects have not been identified. However, CB1 activity is believed to be responsible for the majority of cannabinoid clinical effects. Highly lipid soluble, THC is distributed in fat, liver, brain, and renal tissue. Fifteen percent of THC is excreted into the urine and the rest is eliminated in the feces through biliary excretion. Clinical signs of canine intoxication include depression, hypersalivation, mydriasis, hypermetria, vomiting, urinary incontinence

  16. Effects of the abused inhalant toluene on the mesolimbic dopamine system

    PubMed Central

    Woodward, John J.; Beckley, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    Toluene is a representative member of a class of inhaled solvents that are voluntarily used by adolescents and adults for their euphorigenic effects. Research into the mechanisms of action of inhaled solvents has lagged behind that of other drugs of abuse despite mounting evidence that these compounds exert profound neurobehavioral and neurotoxicological effects. Results from studies carried out by the authors and others suggest that the neural effects of inhalants arise from their interaction with a discrete set of ion channels that regulate brain activity. Of particular interest is how these interactions allow toluene and other solvents to engage portions of an addiction neurocircuitry that includes midbrain and cortical structures. In this review, we focus on the current state of knowledge regarding toluene’s action on midbrain dopamine neurons, a key brain region involved in the initial assessment of natural and drug-induced rewards. Findings from recent studies in the authors’ laboratory show that brief exposures of adolescent rats to toluene vapor induce profound changes in markers of glutamatergic plasticity in VTA DA neurons. These changes are restricted to VTA DA neurons that project to limbic structures and are prevented by transient activation of the medial prefrontal cortex prior to toluene exposure. Together, these data provide the first evidence linking the voluntary inhalation of solvents to changes in reward –sensitive dopamine neurons. PMID:25360326

  17. Small Molecule Detection in Saliva Facilitates Portable Tests of Marijuana Abuse.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Rok; Choi, Joohong; Shultz, Tyler O; Wang, Shan X

    2016-08-01

    As medical and recreational use of cannabis, or marijuana, becomes more prevalent, law enforcement needs a tool to evaluate whether drivers are operating vehicles under the influence of cannabis, specifically the psychoactive substance, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). However, the cutoff concentration of THC that causes impairment is still controversial, and current on-site screening tools are not sensitive enough to detect trace amounts of THC in oral fluids. Here we present a novel sensing platform that employs giant magnetoresistive (GMR) biosensors integrated with a portable reader system and smartphone to detect THC in saliva using competitive assays. With a simple saliva collection scheme, we have optimized the assay to measure THC in the range from 0 to 50 ng/mL, covering most cutoff values proposed in previous studies. This work facilitates on-site screening for THC and shows potential for testing of other small molecule drugs and analytes in point-of-care (POC) settings. PMID:27434697

  18. EEG and autonomic responding to verbal, spatial and emotionally arousing tasks: differences among adults, adolescents and inhalant abusers.

    PubMed

    Smith, D B; Gatchel, R J; Korman, M; Saffer, S

    1979-11-01

    The present study investigated the physiological responses of an adolescent inhalant abuse group, an adolescent non-abuse group, and an adult non-abuse group elicited by three types of tasks: verbal, spatial, and emotionally arousing. Each group consisted of 10 male Mexican-American subjects. Bilateral EEG and electrodermal activity, as well as heart rate, were monitored. While exploring for possible heart rate and hemispheric alpha wave differences in response to predominantly verbal and spatial tasks, an attempt was also made to discover if electrodermal responses could be bilaterally differentiated. Another purpose of the study was to explore possible psychophysiological differences between a younger and older group, and between an inhalant abusing group and a non-abuse group, in response to the three types of tasks. Results indicated that attempts to produce task-related EEG hemispheric asymmetry were largely nonsuccessful. Bilateral electrodermal responses were also not greatly differentiated. It was suggested that stronger task manipulations were needed. Significant group differences were found for initial physiological response levels (adults demonstrated higher levels than the two adolescent groups) and for heart rate response to the emotionally arousing task (non-abusing subjects demonstrated greater heart rate acceleration than inhalant abusing subjects). It was suggested that group differences in initial levels occurred due to the adult groups's greater involvement in the experimental situation. Heart rate differences to the emotionally arousing situation were discussed in terms of Zuckerman's sensation seeking hypothesis.

  19. Markers of Marijuana Use Outcomes within Adolescent Substance Abuse Group Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engle, Brett; Macgowan, Mark J.; Wagner, Eric F.; Amrhein, Paul C.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: Despite their popularity, little is known about what distinguishes effective from ineffective or even iatrogenic adolescent group interventions. Methods: Audio recordings and transcripts from 19, 8-10 session, school-based treatment groups comprised of 108, substance abusing 10- to 19-year olds were analyzed. "Group leader empathy" was…

  20. Adolescent Marijuana Abusers and Their Families. Research Monograph Series, No. 40.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendin, Herbert; And Others

    Substantial evidence is accumulating which emphasizes the significant role of the family for drug abusing adolescents. To investigate the influence of the family on adolescents (N=17) involved in heavy marihuana use, interviews with family members, case studies of each adolescent, and psychological evaluations were conducted to determine the…

  1. The Relationship Between Friends' Marijuana Use, Family Cohesion, School Interest and Drug Abuse Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babst, Dean V.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine how different types of students respond to various drug abuse prevention areas. This study is based on a school survey completed by 4,000 rural students and 2,700 suburban students. Students most involved with drugs were those least receptive to traditional educational programs. (Author)

  2. Ischemic stroke following abuse of Marijuana in a Nigerian adult male.

    PubMed

    Oyinloye, Olalekan; Nzeh, Donald; Yusuf, Ayodeji; Sanya, Emmanuel

    2014-10-01

    Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug among adolescents and young adults. Despite its widespread use, only a few reports exist on the association of cannabis use and stroke. A 26-year-old Nigerian male, developed right-sided ischemic stroke few hours after smoking three wraps of cannabis. He had smoked cannabis consistently for the past 4 years prior to the development of the stroke. Known stroke etiology and abuse of other illicit drugs were ruled out from history and investigations. Neuroimaging studies of the brain revealed infarcts in basal ganglia secondary to occlusion of blood flow in the left anterior and middle cerebral arteries. The mechanism of stroke in this patient was thought to be a cannabis-induced vasculopathy. Many cases of stroke in the young are increasingly being seen in hospitals in resource scarce countries. There seems to be a predilection for the basal ganglia in ischemic stroke following cannabis abuse. Therefore, cannabis abuse should be considered in young adults with basal ganglia infarcts, after excluding other known etiologies. PMID:25288854

  3. Clinical consequences of marijuana.

    PubMed

    Khalsa, Jag H; Genser, Sander; Francis, Henry; Martin, Billy

    2002-11-01

    As documented in national surveys, for the past several years, marijuana has been the most commonly abused drug in the United States, with approximately 6% of the population 12 years and older having used the drug in the month prior to interview. The use of marijuana is not without significant health hazards. Marijuana is associated with effects on almost every organ system in the body, ranging from the central nervous system to the cardiovascular, endocrine, respiratory/pulmonary, and immune systems. Research presented in this special supplement will show that in addition to marijuana abuse/dependence, marijuana use is associated in some studies with impairment of cognitive function in the young and old, fetal and developmental consequences, cardiovascular effects (heart rate and blood pressure changes), respiratory/pulmonary complications such as chronic cough and emphysema, impaired immune function leading to vulnerability to and increased infections, and the risk of developing head, neck, and/or lung cancer. In general, acute effects are better studied than those of chronic use, and more studies are needed that focus on disentangling effects of marijuana from those of other drugs and adverse environmental conditions.

  4. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... or LSD. But you may not realize the dangers of substances in your own home. Household products such as glues, hair sprays, paints and lighter fluid can be drugs for kids in search of a quick high. Many young people ... need to know the dangers. Even inhaling once can disrupt heart rhythms and ...

  5. Promoting the implementation of an evidence-based intervention for adolescent marijuana abuse in community settings: testing the use of intensive quality assurance.

    PubMed

    Henggeler, Scott W; Sheidow, Ashli J; Cunningham, Phillippe B; Donohue, Bradley C; Ford, Julian D

    2008-07-01

    The development and evaluation of effective strategies for transporting evidence-based practices to community-based clinicians has become a research and policy priority. Using multisystemic therapy programs as a platform, an experimental design examined the capacity of an Intensive Quality Assurance (IQA) system to promote therapist implementation of contingency management (CM) for adolescent marijuana abuse. Participants included 30 therapists assigned to Workshop Only (WSO) versus IQA training conditions, and 70 marijuana-abusing youths and their caregivers who were treated by these clinicians. Analyses showed that IQA was more effective than WSO at increasing practitioner implementation of CM cognitive-behavioral techniques in the short-term based on youth and caregiver reports, and these increases were sustained based on youth reports. On the other hand, IQA did not increase therapist use of CM monitoring techniques relative to WSO, likely because of an unanticipated ceiling effect. Both sets of findings contribute to the emerging literature on the transport of evidence-based practice to real-world clinical settings.

  6. Medical Marijuana.

    PubMed

    Capriotti, Teri

    2016-01-01

    The use of medicinal marijuana is increasing. Marijuana has been shown to have therapeutic effects in certain patients, but further research is needed regarding the safety and efficacy of marijuana as a medical treatment for various conditions. A growing body of research validates the use of marijuana for a variety of healthcare problems, but there are many issues surrounding the use of this substance. This article discusses the use of medical marijuana and provides implications for home care clinicians.

  7. Medical marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... people who have not had relief from other treatments. Unlike medical marijuana, the active ingredient in these drugs can be ... American Academy of Neurology. Medical Marijuana in Certain Medical Disorders. ... . Accessed August 24, 2015. ...

  8. Marijuana: still a "signal of misunderstanding".

    PubMed

    Ungerleider, J T

    1999-01-01

    This article reviews four decades of my professional experience with marijuana, including: 1) my treatment of marijuana-dependent patients, particularly adolescents; 2) my research on the general effects and medical uses of the government-grown marijuana and of oral tetrahydrocannabinol (Marinol); and 3) my social policy experiences, both nationally and internationally, as a member of the National Commission on Marijuana Drug Abuse. The article emphasizes the mythology, morality, and misunderstanding that clouds so much of the thinking about marijuana in general and its medical utility in particular.

  9. Daily marijuana users with past alcohol problems increase alcohol consumption during marijuana abstinence.

    PubMed

    Peters, Erica N; Hughes, John R

    2010-01-15

    Drug abuse treatment programs typically recommend complete abstinence because of a fear that clients who stop use of one drug will substitute another. A within-subjects study investigated whether consumption of alcohol and other substances changes during marijuana abstinence. Twenty-eight daily marijuana users who were not trying to stop or reduce their marijuana consumption completed an 8-day baseline period in which they used marijuana and other drugs as usual, a 13-day marijuana abstinence period, and a 7-day return-to-baseline period. Participants provided self-report of substance use daily and submitted urine samples twice weekly to verify marijuana abstinence. A diagnosis of past alcohol abuse or dependence significantly moderated the alcohol increase from baseline to marijuana abstinence (p<0.01), such that individuals with this diagnosis significantly increased alcohol use (52% increase) but those without this history did not (3% increase). Increases in marijuana withdrawal discomfort scores and alcohol craving scores from baseline to marijuana abstinence significantly and positively correlated with increases in alcohol use. Increases in cigarettes, caffeine, and non-marijuana illicit drugs did not occur. This study provides empirical validation of drug substitution in a subgroup of daily marijuana users, but results need to be replicated in individuals who seek treatment for marijuana problems.

  10. Marijuana: a realistic approach.

    PubMed

    Chun, G

    1971-04-01

    Much of the current confusion concerning marijuana has been caused by a lack of definition of terms. Variations in drug effect that are related to the type and potency of cannabis preparation and route of administration need clarification. When domestic strength marijuana is smoked recreationally, the subjective effects include relaxation, mild euphoria and increased sensory awareness. The objective effects include tachycardia, reddening of the conjunctivae and a distorted sense of time. Undesirable effects such as panic reactions, amotivational behavior, and acute toxic psychosis occur infrequently and are reversible with proper therapy. Other effects which have been attributed to marijuana are unsubstantiated. The recent upsurge in use of marijuana involves persons of a different type than those who used it heretofore and has greatly increased the number of people familiar with the drug. The disparity between what many people know empirically and the information disseminated through official media has lessened the credibility of physicians with many of our younger citizens. When young people recognize misinformation about marijuana, they are no longer listening when the facts are presented about more dangerous drugs, and the abuse of these drugs must be our main concern. To be considered is the potential hazard to adolescent users who may concomitantly be exposed to a subculture of experimentation with stronger drugs at a time when the opinion of a peer group is a strong factor in their behavior. PMID:5551311

  11. Acute marijuana effects on social conversation.

    PubMed

    Higgins, S T; Stitzer, M L

    1986-01-01

    The present study assessed the acute effects of smoked marijuana on social conversation. Speech quantity was recorded continuously in seven moderate marijuana users during separate 1 h experimental sessions following the paced smoking of 0, 1.01, 1.84, and 2.84% THC marijuana cigarettes. Subjects engaged in conversation with undrugged partners who smoked placebo marijuana cigarettes. The active marijuana produced significant decreases in speech quantity, increases in heart rate, and increases in self-reports of "high" and sedation. Partners showed no effects in speech quantity or self-reports of drug effects that were systematically related to the doses administered to the subject pair members. The effects on speech quantity observed in the present study after acute dosing are similar to the effects on social conversation reported previously during chronic marijuana dosing. Marijuana appears to be an exception to the general rule that drugs of abuse increase verbal interaction.

  12. Performance-based testing for drugs of abuse: dose and time profiles of marijuana, amphetamine, alcohol, and diazepam.

    PubMed

    Kelly, T H; Foltin, R W; Emurian, C S; Fischman, M W

    1993-09-01

    The time courses of the effects of acute doses of amphetamine (5 and 10 mg/70 kg), alcohol (0.3 and 0.6 g/kg), diazepam (5 and 10 mg/70 kg), and marijuana (2.0% and 3.5% delta 9-THC) on performance engendered by each of four computerized behavioral tasks were evaluated in six human subjects. These performance-based tasks have potential commercial utility for drug-use detection in the workplace. Alcohol and marijuana effects were reliably detected for up to three hours following dose administration with most procedures. Amphetamine and diazepam effects were also detected, but the dose effects and time courses were variable. The profile of behavioral effects varied across drugs, suggesting that performance-based testing procedures might be useful in discriminating which drug was administered and the time course of the drug's effects. Results indicate that repeated measurement with performance-based drug detection procedures can provide immediate indications of performance impairment in a cost-effective and noninvasive manner and, as such, would be a useful supplement to biological sample testing for drug-use detection.

  13. Adolescent Marijuana Use and School Attendance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roebuck, M. Christopher; French, Michael T.; Dennis, Michael L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between adolescent marijuana use and school attendance. Data were pooled from the 1997 and 1998 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse to form a sample of 15 168 adolescents, aged 12-18 years, who had not yet complete high school. The analysis determined the role of marijuana use in adolescent school dropout…

  14. Expectancies and marijuana use frequency and severity among young females.

    PubMed

    Hayaki, Jumi; Hagerty, Claire E; Herman, Debra S; de Dios, Marcel A; Anderson, Bradley J; Stein, Michael D

    2010-11-01

    This study examined associations between the endorsement of drug use expectancies and the frequency and severity of marijuana use in a community sample of 332 women aged 18-24years who were not explicitly seeking treatment for their marijuana use. Participants were enrolled in a larger intervention study of motivational interviewing for various health behaviors and provided self-reports of their current and past marijuana use, marijuana abuse/dependence symptoms, and marijuana use expectancies. Marijuana use expectancies were measured using the six subscales of the Marijuana Effects Expectancy Questionnaire (MEEQ). Use frequency was defined as the number of use days in the past month, severity as the total number of DSM-IV marijuana abuse or dependence symptom criteria met. Replicating and extending prior research, expectations regarding Relaxation and Tension Reduction emerged as a robust belief in this cohort, predicting not only frequency (p<.01) but also severity (p<.01) of marijuana use in multivariate analyses. Severity of marijuana use was further predicted by expectations regarding loss of control, affective changes following marijuana use, and other aspects of emotion dysregulation (Global Negative Effects, p<.01). These findings document meaningful associations between substance-related cognitions and use behavior and suggest that marijuana users who hold certain beliefs regarding marijuana use may be particularly susceptible to clinically significant problems associated with their substance use. As such, marijuana use expectancies may represent a clinical target that could be incorporated into future interventions.

  15. Substance Abuse and Dependency Risk: The Role of Peer Perceptions, Marijuana Involvement, and Attitudes toward Substance Use among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Todd F.; Mobley, A. Keith

    2010-01-01

    Many college students are using substances at levels consistent with Substance Abuse or Dependence, yet little explanation for this phenomenon exits. The aim of this study was to explore a risk factor profile that best separates those with low and high potential for having a Substance Use Disorder (SUD). A discriminant function analysis revealed…

  16. Marijuana: Facts for Teens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS), Rockville, MD. Div. of Research.

    Using a question and answer format, this booklet is designed to inform teens about the dangers of marijuana usage. Inset facts about marijuana and teen perspectives compliment the following topics: (1) What is marijuana? (2) How is marijuana used? (3) How long does marijuana stay in the user's body? (4) How many teens smoke marijuana? (5) Why do…

  17. Facial injury and airway threat from inhalant abuse: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kurbat, R S; Pollack, C V

    1998-01-01

    Fluorinated hydrocarbons cause toxicity in humans via their dysrhythmogenic potential and their local physical effects on the skin and mucous membranes. The former is generally the more life-threatening toxic consequence. We present a case of fluorinated hydrocarbon injury resulting from an intentional inhalation exposure that created facial frostbite, which threatened the patient's airway. The clinical range and management of these tissue-toxic effects are reviewed.

  18. Self-reported marijuana effects and characteristics of 100 San Francisco medical marijuana club members.

    PubMed

    Harris, D; Jones, R T; Shank, R; Nath, R; Fernandez, E; Goldstein, K; Mendelson, J

    2000-01-01

    In order to assess the relationships between medical marijuana users' reasons for use, side effects, and drug use patterns, 100 participants were recruited from the San Francisco Cannabis Cultivator's Club. Users, averaging 14 years pre-illness use, perceived marijuana to be more effective than other treatments and to have less severe side effects. Urine drug assays showed recent use of other drugs, particularly stimulants. History of substance abuse or dependence and other psychiatric disorders was common. Those with greater past dependence on other drugs thought marijuana to be more effective but also reported worse side effects and quality of life. Quality of life was associated more with marijuana side effects rating than effectiveness. Patients reported potentially serious marijuana side effects on some questionnaires but not others. Inconsistencies in reporting made interpretation of results difficult. Physician supervision of medical marijuana use would allow more effective monitoring of therapeutic and unwanted effects, some unrecognized by patients.

  19. Decriminalizing Marijuana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettman, Jon

    1989-01-01

    Argues for the decriminalization of marijuana and claims this action would provide a number of policy options. Cautions that a policy of total prohibition has unattainable goals. Points to the failure of recriminalization policies of the past 10 years as the most persuasive argument for decriminalization. (KO)

  20. Marijuana Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, James, Jr.; Lopata, Ann

    1979-01-01

    This review examines recent research on psychological effects of marijuana. The article contains material on potency, research problems, use patterns in the United States, and expectancy, as well as a review of research on acute effects, including psychosis, toxic delirium, acute anxiety, and brain damage. (Author)

  1. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor inhibitory potencies of aromatic inhaled drugs of abuse: evidence for modulation by cation-pi interactions.

    PubMed

    Raines, Douglas E; Gioia, Fredrick; Claycomb, Robert J; Stevens, Renna J

    2004-10-01

    Benzene and several close structural analogs are inhaled drugs of abuse with general anesthetic activity. By virtue of their pi electron clouds, they may engage in attractive electrostatic interactions with cationic atomic charges on protein targets. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that inhaled drugs of abuse inhibit human N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors with potencies that correlate with their abilities to engage in cation-pi interactions. Electrophysiological techniques were used to define the NR1/NR2B NMDA receptor inhibitory concentrations of volatile benzene analogs, and computer modeling was used to quantify their abilities to engage in cation-pi interactions and their molecular volumes. In addition, each compound's octanol/gas partition coefficient (a measure of hydrophobicity) was quantified. All 18 compounds inhibited human NR1/NR2B NMDA receptors reversibly and in a concentration-dependent manner. NMDA receptor inhibitory potency correlated strongly with the ability to engage in cation-pi interactions, weakly with hydrophobicity, and was independent of molecular volume. This is consistent with the hypothesis that cation-pi interactions enhance the binding of inhaled drugs of abuse to the NMDA receptor and suggests that the receptor binding site(s) for these drugs possesses significant cationic character.

  2. Adolescents, Young Adults, and the Legalization of Marijuana.

    PubMed

    Hoopes, Andrea J; Manskopf, Inga; Walker, Leslie

    2014-08-01

    Marijuana is the most common illicit drug of abuse in adolescents, nationally and globally. What is currently known about the effects of marijuana on adolescents and their lives reveals a number of concerns, ranging from acute physical effects to long-term physical, mental, and social consequences. As states begin to re-evaluate marijuana policies, it is important that the health and well-being of adolescents and young adults remain a priority. Much about marijuana and its medicinal uses is still not known, nor is there adequate data about the long-term effects of use of stronger marijuana products over the life course. Although much research is needed on marijuana and its derivatives, enough is known about its effects on adolescents to recommend an increased focus on preventing marijuana use in this stage of life.

  3. Medical marijuana.

    PubMed

    1999-04-30

    The Florida Supreme Court heard oral arguments in April regarding a glaucoma patient's request for a medical exception to the State prohibition on use of marijuana. [Name removed] was convicted on possession and cultivation charges, and a trial judge refused to allow a medical necessity defense. A State appeals court subsequently overturned [name removed]'s conviction. The case focuses on whether the legislature intended to prohibit such a defense when it declared in 1993 that the substance had no medicinal benefits.

  4. Immunomodulation by morphine and marijuana.

    PubMed

    Yahya, M D; Watson, R R

    1987-12-01

    The immunomodulatory effects of morphine and the active components of marijuana, particularly tetrahydrocannabinol, on various aspects of the host immune parameters include alterations in humoral, cell-mediated and innate immunity. Most studies have shown immunosuppressive effects due to use of these abused substances, although there are reports that they may not produce any deleterious effect and may even enhance some aspects of host immunity. They reduce resistance to cancer growth and microbial pathogens in animals.

  5. Acute myocardial infarction due to marijuana smoking in a young man: guilty should not be underestimated.

    PubMed

    Velibey, Yalcin; Sahin, Sinan; Tanık, Ozan; Keskin, Muhammed; Bolca, Osman; Eren, Mehmet

    2015-08-01

    Marijuana (cannabis) is a frequently used recreational drug that potentially imposes serious health problems. We present a case of acute myocardial infarction with chronic total occlusion of left main coronary artery due to marijuana smoking in a 27-year-old man, which was not previously reported. This case illustrate that marijuana abuse can lead to serious cardiovascular events.

  6. Paraquat and marijuana: epidemiologic risk assessment.

    PubMed Central

    Landrigan, P J; Powell, K E; James, L M; Taylor, P R

    1983-01-01

    In March 1978, 13 (21 per cent) of 61 marijuana samples from the southwestern United States were found to be contaminated with the herbicide paraquat, a pulmonary toxin, in concentrations from 3 to 2,264 parts per million. The source of the contamination was an aerial spraying program in Mexico, supported indirectly by United States funds. To evaluate US exposure, a nationwide survey of the paraquat content of confiscated marijuana was conducted. The survey found 33 (3.6 per cent) of 910 marijuana specimens to contain detectable paraquat. In states adjacent to Mexico (Census Region VI), 23 (12.8 per cent) of 180 specimens were contaminated. Combustion testing indicated that approximately 0.2 per cent of paraquat on marijuana passes into smoke. From these data, we projected that 100-200 marijuana smokers in Census Region VI would be exposed by inhalation to 500 micrograms or more of paraquat per year, a dose judged to represent a health hazard; nationally, between 150 and 300 smokers were projected to have such exposure. Another 6,000 persons in Region VI and 9,000 nationally were projected to be at risk of exposure to between 100 and 499 micrograms of paraquat annually. The risk of paraquat exposure was greatest among those smokers who make one large purchase of marijuana per year. No clinical cases of paraquat poisoning were recognized among marijuana smokers during these studies, but no systematic national search for such cases was undertaken. PMID:6859364

  7. Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... also may fall prey to strangers who take advantage of their cognitive impairment. Types of abuse Signs ... property) to his or her disadvantage or the advantage of someone else Sexual abuse: touching, fondling or ...

  8. Medical Marijuana: More Questions than Answers

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Kevin P.

    2014-01-01

    With 23 states and the District of Columbia having enacted medical marijuana laws as of August 2014, it is important that psychiatrists be able to address questions about medical marijuana from patients, families, and other health care professionals. The author discusses the limited medical literature on synthetic cannabinoids and medical marijuana. The synthetic cannabinoids dronabinol and nabilone are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy and appetite stimulation in patients with wasting diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results of clinical trials of these agents for other conditions have varied widely thus far. In addition, few data are available on the use of the marijuana plant as a medical treatment. The author concludes that there is a clear need for additional research on possible medical uses of cannabinoids. He notes that discussions with prospective medical marijuana patients should emphasize the importance of communication among all parties due to the possible side effects of treatment with marijuana and its potential to interact with other medications the patient may be taking. Facilitating a thorough substance abuse consultation is one of most positive ways that psychiatrists, especially addiction psychiatrists, can make an impact as medical marijuana becomes increasingly common. A careful review of the prospective medical marijuana user's substance use history, co-occurring medical and psychiatric conditions, family history, and psychosocial stressors is essential in evaluating the potential risks of medical marijuana for these patients. The author concludes that psychiatrists can have a significant impact by increasing the likelihood that medical marijuana will be used in a safe and responsible way. PMID:25226202

  9. Medical marijuana: more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kevin P

    2014-09-01

    With 23 states and the District of Columbia having enacted medical marijuana laws as of August 2014, it is important that psychiatrists be able to address questions about medical marijuana from patients, families, and other health care professionals. The author discusses the medical literature on synthetic cannabinoids and medical marijuana. The synthetic cannabinoids dronabinol and nabilone are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy and appetite stimulation in patients with wasting diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results of clinical trials of these agents for other conditions have varied widely thus far. In addition, few data are available on the use of the marijuana plant as a medical treatment. The author concludes that there is a clear need for additional research on possible medical uses of cannabinoids. He notes that discussions with prospective medical marijuana patients should emphasize the importance of communication among all parties due to the possible side effects of treatment with marijuana and its potential to interact with other medications the patient may be taking. Facilitating a thorough substance abuse consultation is one of most positive ways that psychiatrists, especially addiction psychiatrists, can make an impact as medical marijuana becomes increasingly common. A careful review of the prospective medical marijuana user's substance use history, co-occurring medical and psychiatric conditions, family history, and psychosocial stressors is essential in evaluating the potential risks of medical marijuana for these patients. The author concludes that psychiatrists can have a significant impact by increasing the likelihood that medical marijuana will be used in a safe and responsible way. PMID:25226202

  10. Medical marijuana: more questions than answers.

    PubMed

    Hill, Kevin P

    2014-09-01

    With 23 states and the District of Columbia having enacted medical marijuana laws as of August 2014, it is important that psychiatrists be able to address questions about medical marijuana from patients, families, and other health care professionals. The author discusses the medical literature on synthetic cannabinoids and medical marijuana. The synthetic cannabinoids dronabinol and nabilone are approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy and appetite stimulation in patients with wasting diseases such as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Results of clinical trials of these agents for other conditions have varied widely thus far. In addition, few data are available on the use of the marijuana plant as a medical treatment. The author concludes that there is a clear need for additional research on possible medical uses of cannabinoids. He notes that discussions with prospective medical marijuana patients should emphasize the importance of communication among all parties due to the possible side effects of treatment with marijuana and its potential to interact with other medications the patient may be taking. Facilitating a thorough substance abuse consultation is one of most positive ways that psychiatrists, especially addiction psychiatrists, can make an impact as medical marijuana becomes increasingly common. A careful review of the prospective medical marijuana user's substance use history, co-occurring medical and psychiatric conditions, family history, and psychosocial stressors is essential in evaluating the potential risks of medical marijuana for these patients. The author concludes that psychiatrists can have a significant impact by increasing the likelihood that medical marijuana will be used in a safe and responsible way.

  11. Twitter Chatter about Marijuana

    PubMed Central

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia; Krauss, Melissa; Fisher, Sherri L.; Salyer, Patricia; Grucza, Richard A; Bierut, Laura Jean

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We sought to examine the sentiment and themes of marijuana-related chatter on Twitter sent by influential Twitter users, and to describe the demographics of these Twitter users. Methods We assessed the sentiment and themes of a random sample (n=7000) of influential marijuana-related Tweets (sent from 2/5 – 3/5/2014). Demographics of the users Tweeting about marijuana were inferred using a social media analytics company (DemographicsPro for Twitter). Results Most marijuana-related tweets reflected a positive sentiment towards marijuana use, with pro-marijuana Tweets outnumbering anti-marijuana Tweets by a factor of over 15. The most common theme of pro-marijuana Tweets included the Tweeter stating that he/she wants/plans to use marijuana, followed by Tweeting about frequent/heavy/or regular marijuana use and stating that marijuana has health benefits and/or should be legalized. Tweeters of marijuana-related content were younger and a greater proportion was African American compared to the Twitter average. Conclusions Marijuana Twitter chatter sent by influential Twitter users tends to be pro-marijuana and popular among African Americans and youth/young adults. Marijuana-related harms may afflict some individuals; therefore, our findings should be used to inform online and offline prevention efforts that work to target individuals who are most at-risk for harms associated with marijuana use. PMID:25620299

  12. Comparison of the analgesic effects of dronabinol and smoked marijuana in daily marijuana smokers.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Ziva D; Comer, Sandra D; Haney, Margaret

    2013-09-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids to treat pain, yet none have compared the analgesic effectiveness of smoked marijuana to orally administered Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; dronabinol). This randomized, placebo-controlled, double-dummy, double-blind study compared the magnitude and duration of analgesic effects of smoked marijuana and dronabinol under well-controlled conditions using a validated experimental model of pain. Healthy male (N=15) and female (N=15) daily marijuana smokers participated in this outpatient study comparing the analgesic, subjective, and physiological effects of marijuana (0.00, 1.98, or 3.56% THC) to dronabinol (0, 10, or 20 mg). Pain response was assessed using the cold-pressor test (CPT): participants immersed their left hand in cold water (4 °C), and the time to report pain (pain sensitivity) and withdraw the hand from the water (pain tolerance) were recorded. Subjective pain and drug effect ratings were also measured as well as cardiovascular effects. Compared with placebo, marijuana and dronabinol decreased pain sensitivity (3.56%; 20 mg), increased pain tolerance (1.98%; 20 mg), and decreased subjective ratings of pain intensity (1.98, 3.56%; 20 mg). The magnitude of peak change in pain sensitivity and tolerance did not differ between marijuana and dronabinol, although dronabinol produced analgesia that was of a longer duration. Marijuana (1.98, 3.56%) and dronabinol (20 mg) also increased abuse-related subjective ratings relative to placebo; these ratings were greater with marijuana. These data indicate that under controlled conditions, marijuana and dronabinol decreased pain, with dronabinol producing longer-lasting decreases in pain sensitivity and lower ratings of abuse-related subjective effects than marijuana.

  13. Marijuana’s Dose-Dependent Effects in Daily Marijuana Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Ramesh, Divya; Haney, Margaret; Cooper, Ziva D.

    2015-01-01

    Active marijuana produces significant subjective, psychomotor, and physiological effects relative to inactive marijuana, yet demonstrating that these effects are dose-dependent has proven difficult. This within-subject, double-blind study was designed to develop a smoking procedure to obtain a marijuana dose–response function. In four outpatient laboratory sessions, daily marijuana smokers (N = 17 males, 1 female) smoked six 5-s puffs from 3 marijuana cigarettes (2 puffs/cigarette). The number of puffs from active (≥5.5% Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol/THC) and inactive (0.0% THC) marijuana varied according to condition (0, 2, 4, or 6 active puffs); active puffs were always smoked before inactive puffs. Subjective, physiological, and performance effects were assessed prior to and at set time points after marijuana administration. Active marijuana dose-dependently increased heart rate and decreased marijuana craving, despite evidence (carbon monoxide expiration, weight of marijuana cigarettes post-smoking) that participants inhaled less of each active marijuana cigarette than inactive cigarettes. Subjective ratings of marijuana “strength,” “high,” “liking,” “good effect,” and “take again” were increased by active marijuana compared with inactive marijuana, but these effects were not dose-dependent. Active marijuana also produced modest, non-dose-dependent deficits in attention, psychomotor function, and recall relative to the inactive condition. In summary, although changes in inhalation patterns as a function of marijuana strength likely minimized the difference between dose conditions, dose-dependent differences in marijuana’s cardiovascular effects and ratings of craving were observed, whereas subjective ratings of marijuana effects did not significantly vary as a function of dose. PMID:23937597

  14. Inhalants in Peru.

    PubMed

    Lerner, R; Ferrando, D

    1995-01-01

    In Peru, the prevalence and consequences of inhalant abuse appear to be low in the general population and high among marginalized children. Inhalant use ranks third in lifetime prevalence after alcohol and tobacco. Most of the use appears to be infrequent. Among marginalized children, that is, children working in the streets but living at home or children living in the street, the problem of inhalant abuse is a serious problem. Among children working in the streets but living at home, the lifetime prevalence rate for inhalant abuse is high, ranging from 15 to 45 percent depending on the study being cited. For children living in the streets, the use of inhalant is even more severe. As mentioned earlier in this chapter, most of these street children use inhalants on a daily basis. The lack of research on the problem of inhalant abuse is a serious impediment to development of intervention programs and strategies to address this problem in Peru. Epidemiologic and ethnographic research on the nature and extent of inhalant abuse are obvious prerequisites to targeted treatment and preventive intervention programs. The urgent need for current and valid data is underscored by the unique vulnerability of the youthful population at risk and the undisputed harm that results from chronic abuse of inhalants. Nonetheless, it is important to mention several programs that work with street children. Some, such as the Information and Education Center for the Prevention of Drug Abuse, Generation, and Centro Integracion de Menores en Abandono have shelters where street children are offered transition to a less marginal lifestyle. Teams of street educators provide the children with practical solutions and gain their confidence, as well as offer them alternative socialization experiences to help them survive the streets and avoid the often repressive and counterproductive environments typical of many institutions. Most of the children who go through these programs tend to abandon

  15. Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Marijuana Sections Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma? Why Eye ... Don't Recommend Marijuana for Glaucoma Infographic Does Marijuana Help Treat Glaucoma? Written by: David Turbert , contributing ...

  16. Breathhold duration and response to marijuana smoke.

    PubMed

    Zacny, J P; Chait, L D

    1989-06-01

    Marijuana smokers are frequently observed to hold the smoke in their lungs for prolonged periods (10-15 sec) apparently in the belief that prolonged breathholding intensifies the effects of the drug. The actual influence of breathhold duration on response to marijuana smoke has not been studied. The present study examined the effects of systematic manipulation of breathhold duration on the physiological, cognitive and subjective response to marijuana smoke in a group of eight regular marijuana smokers. Subjects were exposed to each of three breathhold duration conditions (0, 10 and 20 sec) on three occasions, scheduled according to a randomized block design. A controlled smoking procedure was used in which the number of puffs, puff volume and postpuff inhalation volume were held constant. Expired air carbon monoxide levels were measured before and after smoking to monitor smoke intake. Typical marijuana effects (increased heart rate, increased ratings of "high" and impaired memory performance) were observed under each of the breathhold conditions, but there was little evidence that response to marijuana was a function of breathhold duration.

  17. Medical Consequences of Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... Public Health What Can We Do About the Heroin Overdose Epidemic? NIDA's Publication Series Brain Power DrugFacts ...

  18. Trends in Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... View all ​Research Reports Opioids: The Prescription Drug & Heroin Overdose Epidemic (HHS website) NIDA Home Site Map ...

  19. Research Reports: Prescription Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... since 1999, and by 2007, outnumbered those involving heroin and cocaine. NIDA hopes to change this situation ...

  20. Marijuana: Facts for Teens. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHEW/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    This booklet provides teenagers with information concerning the use of marijuana. It is presented in a question/answer format. The following sixteen questions are briefly answered: What is marijuana? How is marijuana used? How long does marijuana stay in the user's body? How many teens smoke marijuana? Why do young people use marijuana? What…

  1. Treat Jail Detainees' Drug Abuse to Lower HIV Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Charts Emerging Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine ... Amphetamines Bath Salts Brain and Addiction Club Drugs Cocaine Emerging Drugs GHB Hallucinogens Heroin Illegal Drugs Inhalants ...

  2. "Smoking wet": respiratory failure related to smoking tainted marijuana cigarettes.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Christopher R; Baram, Michael; Cavarocchi, Nicholas C

    2013-01-01

    Reports have suggested that the use of a dangerously tainted form of marijuana, referred to in the vernacular as "wet" or "fry," has increased. Marijuana cigarettes are dipped into or laced with other substances, typically formaldehyde, phencyclidine, or both. Inhaling smoke from these cigarettes can cause lung injuries. We report the cases of 2 young adults who presented at our hospital with respiratory failure soon after they had smoked "wet" marijuana cigarettes. In both patients, progressive hypoxemic respiratory failure necessitated rescue therapy with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. After lengthy hospitalizations, both patients recovered with only mild pulmonary function abnormalities. To our knowledge, this is the first 2-patient report of severe respiratory failure and rescue therapy with extracorporeal oxygenation after the smoking of marijuana cigarettes thus tainted. We believe that, in young adults with an unexplained presentation of severe respiratory failure, the possibility of exposure to tainted marijuana cigarettes should be considered. PMID:23466531

  3. Marijuana and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    Marijuana and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to marijuana may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  4. “Time for dabs”: Analyzing Twitter data on marijuana concentrates across the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Daniulaityte, Raminta; Nahhas, Ramzi W.; Wijeratne, Sanjaya; Carlson, Robert G.; Lamy, Francois R.; Martins, Silvia S.; Boyer, Edward W.; Smith, G. Alan; Sheth, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Aims Media reports suggest increasing popularity of marijuana concentrates (“dabs”; “earwax”; “budder”; “shatter; “butane hash oil”) that are typically vaporized and inhaled via a bong, vaporizer or electronic cigarette. However, data on the epidemiology of marijuana concentrate use remain limited. This study aims to explore Twitter data on marijuana concentrate use in the U.S. and identify differences across regions of the country with varying cannabis legalization policies. Methods Tweets were collected between October 20 and December 20, 2014, using Twitter's streaming API. Twitter data filtering framework was available through the eDrugTrends platform. Raw and adjusted percentages of dabs-related tweets per state were calculated. A permutation test was used to examine differences in the adjusted percentages of dabs-related tweets among U.S. states with different cannabis legalization policies. Results eDrugTrends collected a total of 125,255 tweets. Almost 22% (n=27,018) of these tweets contained identifiable state-level geolocation information. Dabs-related tweet volume for each state was adjusted using a general sample of tweets to account for different levels of overall tweeting activity for each state. Adjusted percentages of dabs-related tweets were highest in states that allowed recreational and/or medicinal cannabis use and lowest in states that have not passed medical cannabis use laws. The differences were statistically significant. Conclusions Twitter data suggest greater popularity of dabs in the states that legalized recreational and/or medical use of cannabis. The study provides new information on the epidemiology of marijuana concentrate use and contributes to the emerging field of social media analysis for drug abuse research. PMID:26338481

  5. Is Marijuana Medicine?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications » DrugFacts » Is Marijuana Medicine? DrugFacts: Is Marijuana Medicine? Email Facebook Twitter Revised July 2015 What is ... isn’t the marijuana plant an FDA-approved medicine? The FDA requires carefully conducted studies (clinical trials) ...

  6. Research Reports: Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... Publications » Research Reports » Marijuana » Letter From the Director Marijuana Email Facebook Twitter Letter From the Director Changes ... PDF (3MB) ePub (319KB) Kindle (625KB) Online Only Marijuana and Cannabinoids: A Neuroscience Research Summit March 22- ...

  7. Further Validation of a Marijuana Purchase Task

    PubMed Central

    Aston, Elizabeth R.; Metrik, Jane; MacKillop, James

    2015-01-01

    Background A valid measure of the relative economic value of marijuana is needed to characterize individual variation in the drug’s reinforcing value and inform evolving national marijuana policy. Relative drug value (demand) can be measured via purchase tasks, and demand for alcohol and cigarettes has been associated with craving, dependence, and treatment response. This study examined marijuana demand with a marijuana purchase task (MPT). Methods The 22-item self-report MPT was administered to 99 frequent marijuana users (37.4% female, 71.5% marijuana use days, 15.2% cannabis dependent). Results Pearson correlations indicated a negative relationship between intensity (free consumption) and age of initiation of regular use (r=−0.34, p<0.001), and positive associations with use days (r=0.26, p<0.05) and subjective craving (r=0.43, p<0.001). Omax (maximum expenditure) was positively associated with use days (r=0.29, p<0.01) and subjective craving (r=0.27, p<0.01). Income was not associated with demand. An exponential demand model provided an excellent fit to the data across users (R2=0.99). Group comparisons based on presence or absence of DSM-IV cannabis dependence symptoms revealed that users with any dependence symptoms showed significantly higher intensity of demand and more inelastic demand, reflecting greater insensitivity to price increases. Conclusions These results provide support for construct validity of the MPT, indicating its sensitivity to marijuana demand as a function of increasing cost, and its ability to differentiate between users with and without dependence symptoms. The MPT may denote abuse liability and is a valuable addition to the behavioral economic literature. Potential applications to marijuana pricing and tax policy are discussed. PMID:26002377

  8. Temporal trends in marijuana attitudes, availability and use in Colorado compared to non-medical marijuana states: 2003-2011*

    PubMed Central

    Schuermeyer, Joseph; Salomonsen-Sautel, Stacy; Price, Rumi Kato; Balan, Sundari; Thurstone, Christian; Min, Sung-Joon; Sakai, Joseph T.

    2014-01-01

    Background In 2009, policy changes were accompanied by a rapid increase in the number of medical marijuana cardholders in Colorado. Little published epidemiological work has tracked changes in the state around this time. Methods Using the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, we tested for temporal changes in marijuana attitudes and marijuana-use-related outcomes in Colorado (2003-2011) and differences within-year between Colorado and thirty-four non-medical-marijuana states (NMMS). Using regression analyses, we further tested whether patterns seen in Colorado prior to (2006-8) and during (2009-11) marijuana commercialization differed from patterns in NMMS while controlling for demographics. Results Within Colorado those reporting “great-risk” to using marijuana 1-2 times/week dropped significantly in all age groups studied between 2007-8 and 2010-11 (e.g. from 45% to 31% among those 26 years and older; p=0.0006). By 2010-11 past-year marijuana abuse/dependence had become more prevalent in Colorado for 12-17 year olds (5% in Colorado, 3% in NMMS; p=0.03) and 18-25 year olds (9% vs. 5%; p=0.02). Regressions demonstrated significantly greater reductions in perceived risk (12-17 year olds, p=0.005; those 26 years and older, p=0.01), and trend for difference in changes in availability among those 26 years and older and marijuana abuse/dependence among 12-17 year olds in Colorado compared to NMMS in more recent years (2009-11 vs. 2006-8). Conclusions Our results show that commercialization of marijuana in Colorado has been associated with lower risk perception. Evidence is suggestive for marijuana abuse/dependence. Analyses including subsequent years 2012+ once available, will help determine whether such changes represent momentary vs. sustained effects. PMID:24837585

  9. Blurred boundaries: the therapeutics and politics of medical marijuana.

    PubMed

    Bostwick, J Michael

    2012-02-01

    , dronabinol, nabiximols, rimonabant, marijuana legislation, marijuana abuse, marijuana dependence, and marijuana and schizophrenia. Bibliographies were hand searched for additional references relevant to clarifying the relationships between medical and recreational marijuana use and abuse.

  10. Blurred boundaries: the therapeutics and politics of medical marijuana.

    PubMed

    Bostwick, J Michael

    2012-02-01

    , dronabinol, nabiximols, rimonabant, marijuana legislation, marijuana abuse, marijuana dependence, and marijuana and schizophrenia. Bibliographies were hand searched for additional references relevant to clarifying the relationships between medical and recreational marijuana use and abuse. PMID:22305029

  11. Blurred Boundaries: The Therapeutics and Politics of Medical Marijuana

    PubMed Central

    Bostwick, J. Michael

    2012-01-01

    , dronabinol, nabiximols, rimonabant, marijuana legislation, marijuana abuse, marijuana dependence, and marijuana and schizophrenia. Bibliographies were hand searched for additional references relevant to clarifying the relationships between medical and recreational marijuana use and abuse. PMID:22305029

  12. Inhalant Initiation and the Relationship of Inhalant Use to the Use of Other Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamblen, Stephen R.; Miller, Ted

    2012-01-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that inhalant use is primarily isolated to youthful experimentation; however, a growing body of evidence suggests that inhalant use (a) occurs after use of common substances of experimentation (e.g., alcohol, marijuana), (b) can persist into later life, and (c) is associated with severe consequences. The current study…

  13. Marijuana and Body Weight

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2014-01-01

    Acute marijuana use is classically associated with snacking behavior (colloquially referred to as “the munchies”). In support of these acute appetite-enhancing effects, several authorities report that marijuana may increase body mass index in patients suffering from human immunodeficiency virus and cancer. However, for these medical conditions, while appetite may be stimulated, some studies indicate that weight gain is not always clinically meaningful. In addition, in a study of cancer patients in which weight gain did occur, it was less than the comparator drug (megestrol). However, data generally suggest that acute marijuana use stimulates appetite, and that marijuana use may stimulate appetite in low-weight individuals. As for large epidemiological studies in the general population, findings consistently indicate that users of marijuana tend to have lower body mass indices than nonusers. While paradoxical and somewhat perplexing, these findings may be explained by various study confounds, such as potential differences between acute versus chronic marijuana use; the tendency for marijuana use to be associated with other types of drug use; and/or the possible competition between food and drugs for the same reward sites in the brain. Likewise, perhaps the effects of marijuana are a function of initial weight status—i.e., maybe marijuana is a metabolic regulatory substance that increases body weight in low-weight individuals but not in normal-weight or overweight individuals. Only further research will clarify the complex relationships between marijuana and body weight. PMID:25337447

  14. Assessing the Effects of Medical Marijuana Laws on Marijuana Use: The Devil is in the Details

    PubMed Central

    Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Powell, David; Heaton, Paul; Sevigny, Eric L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper sheds light on previous inconsistencies identified in the literature regarding the relationship between medical marijuana laws (MMLs) and recreational marijuana use by closely examining the importance of policy dimensions (registration requirements, home cultivation, dispensaries) and the timing of when particular policy dimensions are enacted. Using data from our own legal analysis of state MMLs, we evaluate which features are associated with adult and youth recreational and heavy use by linking these policy variables to data from the Treatment Episodes Data System (TEDS) and the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY97). We employ differences-in-differences techniques, controlling for state and year fixed effects, allowing us to exploit within-state policy changes. We find that while simple dichotomous indicators of MML laws are not positively associated with marijuana use or abuse, such measures hide the positive influence legal dispensaries have on adult and youth use, particularly heavy use. Sensitivity analyses that help address issues of policy endogeneity and actual implementation of dispensaries support our main conclusion that not all MML laws are the same. Dimensions of these policies, in particular legal protection of dispensaries, can lead to greater recreational marijuana use and abuse among adults and those under the legal age of 21 relative to medical marijuana laws without this supply source. PMID:25558490

  15. State Medical Marijuana Laws and Adolescent Marijuana Use in The United States: 1991 – 2014

    PubMed Central

    Hasin, Deborah S.; Wall, Melanie; Keyes, Katherine M.; Cerdá, Magdalena; Schulenberg, John; O’Malley, Patrick M.; Galea, Sandro; Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Feng, Tianshu

    2015-01-01

    Background Adolescent marijuana use is associated with adverse later-life consequences, so identifying factors underlying adolescent use is of substantial public health importance. The relationship of U.S. state medical marijuana laws (MML) to adolescent marijuana use has been controversial. Such laws could convey a message about marijuana acceptability that increases marijuana use soon after passage, even if implementation is delayed or the law narrowly limits use. We used 24 years of U.S. national data to examine the relationship between state MML and adolescent marijuana use. Methods Data came from 1,098,270 U.S. adolescents in 8th, 10th, and 12th grade in the national Monitoring the Future annual surveys conducted between 1991–2014. The main outcome was any marijuana use in the prior 30 days. Using multilevel regression modeling, we examined marijuana use in adolescents nested within states, including whether marijuana use was higher overall in states that ever passed a MML up to 2014, and whether the risk of use changed after state MML were passed. Individual-, school- and state-level covariates were controlled. Findings Overall, marijuana use was more prevalent in states that enacted MML up to 2014 than in other states (AOR=1.27, 95%CI=1.07–1.51). Pre- and post-MML risk did not differ in the full sample (AOR=0.92, 95%CI=0.82–1.04). A significant interaction (p<0.001) indicated differential post-MML risk by grade. In 8th graders, post-MML use decreased (AOR=0.73, 95%CI=0.63–0.84), while no significant change occurred in 10th or 12th graders. Results were generally robust across sensitivity analyses. Interpretation Previous evidence and this study show that MML passage does not result in increased adolescent marijuana use. However, overall, adolescent use is higher in states that ever enacted MML than in other states. State-level risk factors other than MML may contribute to both marijuana use and MML, warranting investigation. An observed 8th

  16. Sexual abuse, alcohol and other drug use, and suicidal behaviors in homeless adolescents.

    PubMed

    Rew, L; Taylor-Seehafer, M; Fitzgerald, M L

    2001-01-01

    Previous research has shown that homeless youth have high rates of suicidal ideation, sexual abuse, and abuse of alcohol and other drugs. However, little is known about how these rates differ by gender and ethnicity. Our objective was to describe patterns of sexual abuse, alcohol and other drug use, and indicators of suicidal behaviors in homeless adolescents and to determine gender and ethnic differences in these factors. We used secondary data analysis of data from surveys completed by 96 homeless youth whose average age was 17.9 years. Over 60% of the sample reported a history of sexual abuse; the majority were under the age of 12 years when they first tried alcohol, marijuana, and cocaine; 56.3% had injected drugs, and 46.9% had tried inhalants. During the past 12 months, 35.1% had seriously considered suicide and 12.3% had actually attempted suicide at least once. Significantly more Hispanics than Whites had considered suicide (chi 2 = 4.31, p = .038). A disproportionate number of Hispanics (95% of the sample) reported a history of sexual abuse. Participants with a history of sexual abuse were significantly more likely than those who did not have a history of sexual abuse to have used alcohol and/or marijuana (chi 2 = 9.93, p < .01) and to have considered suicide in the past 12 months (F = 14.93, p < .001). We found that sexual abuse history is greater in this sample than in the general population and is particularly prevalent among Hispanic/Latino subjects. As in other studies, sexual abuse was more common among females than among males. High prevalence of sexual abuse, alcohol and other drug use, and suicidal behaviors in this sample of homeless youth underscores the need to develop and test community-based interventions to improve their health status. PMID:11769208

  17. Medical marijuana: legal considerations.

    PubMed

    Schouten, J T

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, Washington State passed a law, Initiative 692 (I-692), that gives individuals who are charged with possession of marijuana for medical purposes a possible affirmative defense. The law lets these individuals provide a note from their doctor or a copy of their medical records stating they have a condition that may benefit from the use of marijuana. I-692 does not legalize the medical use of marijuana and does not affect Federal law, which makes obtaining, possessing, and growing marijuana illegal. The Washington law limits the amount of marijuana a patient can possess to a 60-day supply and defines the conditions for which medical marijuana may be used. These conditions include HIV, cancer, multiple sclerosis, and epilepsy.

  18. Marijuana use and pregnancy: prevalence, associated characteristics, and birth outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mark, Katrina; Desai, Andrea; Terplan, Mishka

    2016-02-01

    This study examines the prevalence, behaviors, and birth outcomes associated with marijuana use in pregnancy. This was a retrospective cohort from a university-based prenatal care clinic from July 1, 2009 to June 30, 2010. The primary exposure was marijuana use, defined by self-report or urine toxicology. Demographic and outcome data were determined by chart review and analyzed by chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, ANOVA, and logistic regression. Three hundred and ninety-six patients initiated prenatal care during this time frame; 116 (29.3 %) of whom screened positive for marijuana at initial visit. Patients who used marijuana were less likely to have graduated high school (p = 0.016) or be employed (p = 0.015); they were more likely to use tobacco (p < 0.001) or alcohol (p = 0.032) and report a history of abuse (p = 0.010) or depressed mood (p = 0.023). When analyzed via logistic regression, only tobacco use remained associated with marijuana use (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 3.3; 95 % confidence interval (CI): 1.9-5.9). Birth outcomes were available for 170 (43.0 %) patients. Only 3 (1.9 %) tested positive for marijuana at the time of delivery. Marijuana use was not related to incidence of low birth weight (13.8 % vs 14.0 %, p = 1.00), preterm delivery (17.7 % vs 12.0 %, p = 0.325), or NICU admissions (25.5 % vs 15.8 %, p = 0.139). Prenatal care utilization was equal between marijuana users and non-users. Although marijuana is common among obstetric patients at prenatal care initiation, most cease use by delivery. Marijuana is strongly correlated with cigarette use. We found no differences in birth outcomes or utilization of prenatal care by marijuana exposure.

  19. Getting higher: Co-occurring drug use among marijuana using emerging adults

    PubMed Central

    Tzilos, Golfo K.; Reddy, Madhavi K.; Caviness, Celeste M.; Anderson, Bradley J.; Stein, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    The most widely used illicit drug in the United States (US) continues to be marijuana, and its use among emerging adults continues to rise. Marijuana use can result in a range of negative consequences and has been associated with other drug use in adolescents and emerging adults. This study examined the relationship between marijuana use frequency and use of six other drug classes (opiates, cocaine, stimulants, hallucinogens, inhalants, and sleep medications) among emerging adults. The design was a cross-sectional interview with a community sample of 1,075 emerging adults in the northeastern US. Using logistic regression analysis controlling for age, ethnicity, gender, and frequency of binge alcohol, daily marijuana use was associated with a significant increase in the expected odds of opiate, cocaine, stimulant, hallucinogen, inhalant, and tobacco use. The findings identify a subgroup of emerging adult marijuana users – those who use daily –that may be vulnerable to additional negative consequences associated with polysubstance use. PMID:25115183

  20. Legalization of medical marijuana and marijuana use among youths

    PubMed Central

    Friese, Bettina; Grube, Joel W.

    2012-01-01

    Aims This study examined the relationship of youth marijuana use and perceived ease of access with the number of medical marijuana cards at the county-level, and marijuana norms as indicated by percent of voters approving legalization of medical marijuana in 2004. Methods Survey data from 17,482 youths (ages 13 – 19) in Montana and county-level archival data, including votes for the legalization of medical marijuana and the number of medical marijuana cards were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling. Findings Living in a county with more medical marijuana cards was not related to lifetime or 30 day marijuana use. However, voter approval of medical marijuana was positively related to lifetime and 30 day use. Perceived ease of access to marijuana was positively related to medical marijuana cards, but this relation became non-significant when voter approval was controlled. Among marijuana users, marijuana cards and voter approval were positively related to perceived ease of access. Conclusions The relation between medical marijuana cards and youth use may be related to an overall normative environment that is more tolerant of marijuana use. Interventions to prevent youth marijuana use should focus on adult norms regarding use by and provision of marijuana to youths. PMID:23641127

  1. What Are Some Commonly Abused Prescription Drugs?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... View all ​Research Reports Opioids: The Prescription Drug & Heroin Overdose Epidemic (HHS website) NIDA Home Site Map ...

  2. Correlates of Alcohol and Marijuana Use within a College Freshman Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dull, R. Thomas

    1992-01-01

    Studied correlations between self-reported alcohol and marijuana use by college students (n=557) and peer and parental alcohol use, family alcohol abuse, and legalization attitudes. Major predictors for alcohol use were maternal alcohol use followed by peer use. Major predictors for marijuana use were desire for legalization followed by peer use…

  3. A Collection of NIDA Notes: Articles That Address Research on Marijuana.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Bethesda, MD.

    Included in this document are selections of topic-specific articles on marijuana research reprinted from the National Institute on Drug Abuse's (NIDA) research newsletter, NIDA Notes. The collection features articles originally published from 1995 through 2002. Topics include long-term cognitive impairments in heavy marijuana users, evidence that…

  4. Marijuana as a Predictor of Concurrent Substance Use Among Motor Vehicle Operators

    PubMed Central

    Scherer, Michael; Voas, Robert B.; Furr-Holden, Debra

    2014-01-01

    Despite the adverse effects associated with marijuana abuse and dependence, marijuana is becoming more common-place in activities such as driving. Previous literature has discussed the high rates of cocaine, opioid and benzodiazepine use among users of marijuana, but no research has addressed the rates of concurrent use among drivers meeting Abuse or Dependence criteria. Each of these substances may produce effects detrimental to driving safety which may be compounded by concurrent substance use. This research examines rates of marijuana use, abuse and dependence among an active sample of drivers (N = 7,734) in the 2007 National Roadside Survey. Mean age of participants was 36.89 years, and the majority was male (60.1%) and identified as White (59.2%). Participants who used marijuana but did not meet diagnostic criteria for Abuse (n = 165) or Dependence (n = 112) were significantly more likely to test positive for all substances than were those who did not use marijuana. Further, those that met criteria for Marijuana Abuse or Dependence were more likely than those who did not meet criteria to test positive for THC, cocaine and benzodiazepines and THC, cocaine, and opioids respectively. The current research has implications for policy development and drugged driving interventions. PMID:24175485

  5. Reliability and validity of young adults’ anonymous online reports of marijuana use and thoughts about use

    PubMed Central

    Ramo, Danielle E.; Liu, Howard; Prochaska, Judith J.

    2012-01-01

    With growing interest in online assessment of substance abuse behaviors, there is a need to formally evaluate the validity of the data gathered. The current investigation evaluated the reliability and validity of anonymous, online reports of young adults’ marijuana use and related cognitions. Young adults age 18 to 25 who had smoked at least one cigarette in the past 30 days were recruited over 14 months to complete an anonymous online survey. Of 3106 eligible cases, 1617 (52%) completed the entire survey. Of those, 54% (n = 884) reported past-month marijuana use (65% male, 70% Caucasian, mean age was 20.4 years [SD = 2.0]). Prevalence of marijuana use was reported reliably across three similar items, and inter-item correlations ranged from fair to excellent for measures of marijuana dependence symptoms and thoughts about marijuana use. Marijuana use frequency demonstrated good construct validity through expected correlations with marijuana use constructs, and non-significant correlations with thoughts about tobacco use. Marijuana frequency distinguished among stages of change for marijuana use and goals for use, but not among gender, ethnicity, or employment groups. Marijuana use and thoughts about use differed by stage of change in the hypothesized directions. Self-reported marijuana use and associated cognitions reported anonymously online from young adults are generally reliable and valid. Online assessments of substance use broaden the reach of addictions research. PMID:22082344

  6. The histopathology of drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Milroy, Christopher Mark; Parai, Jacqueline Louise

    2011-10-01

    The use of drugs for recreational purposes is widespread. The drugs used can be divided into groups including stimulants (cocaine, amphetamines, etc.), opiates and opioids (heroin, oxycodone, methadone, fentanyl, etc.), sedatives (benzodiazepines and related substances) and miscellaneous drugs, including ketamine and cannabis (marijuana). These drugs can have profound effects on all organ systems in the body. The method of administration, whether by injection or inhalation, can cause localized and systemic effects, including the transmission of infection and granulomata at the site of injection and in the lungs. Suppurative abscesses from injection can result in systemic amyloidosis. Stimulants have profound effects on the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular systems, with enlarged hearts with fibrosis seen microscopically and cerebral infarction and haemorrhage. Crack cocaine use is also associated with changes in the pulmonary system, including carbon pigmented intra-alveolar macrophages, emphysema and pulmonary arterial changes. Cannabis use is associated with brown pigmented macrophages in the lung as well as changes in the respiratory tract epithelium. Opiates/opioids are associated with inhalational pneumonitis and hypoxic brain damage due to their respiratory depressant effects. Heroin use has been associated with focal segmental glomerulonephritis (heroin-associated nephropathy: HAN). 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA; ecstasy) use is associated with changes in the cardiovascular system. Its use can lead to hyperpyrexia, which results in systemic changes. Ketamine abuse has been associated with cystitis. Drugs of abuse may affect testicular function. In analysing the effects of drugs at autopsy a systematic approach to sampling of histology is required.

  7. Parental Involvement in Brief Interventions for Adolescent Marijuana Use

    PubMed Central

    Piehler, Timothy F.; Winters, Ken C.

    2015-01-01

    Adolescents (aged 12–18 years) identified in a school setting as abusing marijuana and other drugs were randomly assigned to complete one of two brief interventions (BIs). Adolescents and their parent (N = 259) were randomly assigned to receive either a 2-session adolescent only (BI-A) or a 2-session adolescent and additional parent session (BI-AP). Interventions were manualized and delivered in a school setting by trained counselors. Adolescents were assessed at intake and at 6 months following the completion of the intervention. Using a latent construct representing 6-month marijuana use outcomes, current findings supported previous research that BI-AP resulted in superior outcomes when compared to BI-A. The presence of a marijuana dependence diagnosis at baseline predicted poorer outcomes when compared to youth without a diagnosis. Both baseline diagnostic status and co-occurring conduct problems interacted with intervention condition in predicting marijuana use outcomes. A marijuana dependence diagnosis resulted in a greater negative impact on marijuana use outcomes within the BI-A condition when compared to BI-AP. Co-occurring conduct problems had a greater negative impact on marijuana use outcomes within the BI-AP intervention when compared to BI-A. Implications for implementing BIs given diagnostic status, parent involvement and co-occurring conduct problems are discussed. PMID:26415058

  8. Marijuana for Glaucoma: A Recipe for Disaster or Treatment?

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoshen; Xu, Chaoying S; Chadha, Nisha; Chen, Allshine; Liu, Ji

    2015-09-01

    Marijuana has been shown to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) but with limited duration of action and numerous adverse effects. Use of marijuana to lower IOP as a means of glaucoma treatment would require frequent use throughout the day, leading to significant adverse effects, possible progression toward Cannabis Use Disorder (CUD), and/or withdrawal symptoms. The treatment of glaucoma based on the cannabis plant or drugs based on the cannabinoid molecule should be considered carefully before being prescribed. Considerations should include the adverse physical and psychological adverse effects, including substance abuse. Currently, the deleterious effects of marijuana outweigh the benefits of its IOP-lowering capacity in most glaucoma patients. Under extremely rare circumstances, a few categories of glaucoma patients may be potential candidates for treatment with medical marijuana. Further studies on alternate routes and more focused means of cannabinoid molecule delivery to the eye for glaucoma treatment are needed. PMID:26339209

  9. Marijuana for Glaucoma: A Recipe for Disaster or Treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaoshen; Xu, Chaoying S.; Chadha, Nisha; Chen, Allshine; Liu, Ji

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana has been shown to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) but with limited duration of action and numerous adverse effects. Use of marijuana to lower IOP as a means of glaucoma treatment would require frequent use throughout the day, leading to significant adverse effects, possible progression toward Cannabis Use Disorder (CUD), and/or withdrawal symptoms. The treatment of glaucoma based on the cannabis plant or drugs based on the cannabinoid molecule should be considered carefully before being prescribed. Considerations should include the adverse physical and psychological adverse effects, including substance abuse. Currently, the deleterious effects of marijuana outweigh the benefits of its IOP-lowering capacity in most glaucoma patients. Under extremely rare circumstances, a few categories of glaucoma patients may be potential candidates for treatment with medical marijuana. Further studies on alternate routes and more focused means of cannabinoid molecule delivery to the eye for glaucoma treatment are needed. PMID:26339209

  10. Marijuana for Glaucoma: A Recipe for Disaster or Treatment?

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoshen; Xu, Chaoying S; Chadha, Nisha; Chen, Allshine; Liu, Ji

    2015-09-01

    Marijuana has been shown to lower intraocular pressure (IOP) but with limited duration of action and numerous adverse effects. Use of marijuana to lower IOP as a means of glaucoma treatment would require frequent use throughout the day, leading to significant adverse effects, possible progression toward Cannabis Use Disorder (CUD), and/or withdrawal symptoms. The treatment of glaucoma based on the cannabis plant or drugs based on the cannabinoid molecule should be considered carefully before being prescribed. Considerations should include the adverse physical and psychological adverse effects, including substance abuse. Currently, the deleterious effects of marijuana outweigh the benefits of its IOP-lowering capacity in most glaucoma patients. Under extremely rare circumstances, a few categories of glaucoma patients may be potential candidates for treatment with medical marijuana. Further studies on alternate routes and more focused means of cannabinoid molecule delivery to the eye for glaucoma treatment are needed.

  11. Changing Community Readiness To Prevent The Abuse Of Inhalants And Other Harmful Legal Products In Alaska1

    PubMed Central

    Ogilvie, Kristen A.; Moore, Roland S.; Ogilvie, Diane C.; Johnson, Knowlton W.; Collins, David A.; Shamblen, Stephen R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents results from an application of the Community Readiness Model (CRM) as part of a multi-stage community mobilization strategy to engage community leaders, retailers, parents, and school personnel in preventing youth use of inhalants and other harmful legal products in rural Alaska. The CRM is designed to assess readiness to address a single social problem, based on a limited set of key informant interviews. In this study, researchers conducted 32 baseline and 34 post-intervention community readiness assessment interviews in four rural Alaskan communities. These interviews with key informants from the communities were coded and analyzed using CRM methods to yield readiness scores for each community. The aggregate results were analyzed using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), and the individual community scores were analyzed in the context of the overall study. Significant positive changes in community readiness were found across six readiness dimensions as well as for the overall readiness score. Variation in the degree of changes in readiness across the four communities is attributed to differences in the intervention’s implementation. The implications of these results include the potential for CRM assessments to serve as an integral component of a community mobilization strategy and also to offer meaningful feedback to communities participating in prevention research. PMID:18392927

  12. Analysis of a Commercial Marijuana e-Cigarette Formulation.

    PubMed

    Peace, Michelle R; Stone, Joseph W; Poklis, Justin L; Turner, Joseph B M; Poklis, Alphonse

    2016-06-01

    Personal battery-powered vaporizers or electronic cigarettes were developed to deliver a nicotine vapor such that smokers could simulate smoking tobacco without the inherent pathology of inhaled tobacco smoke. With four states within the USA having legalized the cultivation, distribution and recreational use of marijuana and an additional 23 states plus the District of Columbia with laws that legalize marijuana in some form, it was inevitable that suppliers of legal marijuana would develop marijuana products for use in these electronic cigarettes. Presented is the analysis of one such marijuana electronic cigarette formulation sold under the brand name Liberty Reach. The cannabinoid concentrations in Liberty Reach as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrapole mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-MS) were Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, 42.6% (w/v) and cannabidiol 0.5% (w/v). These concentrations were significantly lower than the labeled 69% Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and 1% cannabidiol. Furthermore, 4 cannabinoids, 13 marijuana terpenes, and propylene glycol were identified by a combination of Direct Analysis in Real Time-AccuTOF™ mass spectrometry (DART-MS), HPLC-MS-MS and gas chromatography-MS.

  13. Analysis of a Commercial Marijuana e-Cigarette Formulation.

    PubMed

    Peace, Michelle R; Stone, Joseph W; Poklis, Justin L; Turner, Joseph B M; Poklis, Alphonse

    2016-06-01

    Personal battery-powered vaporizers or electronic cigarettes were developed to deliver a nicotine vapor such that smokers could simulate smoking tobacco without the inherent pathology of inhaled tobacco smoke. With four states within the USA having legalized the cultivation, distribution and recreational use of marijuana and an additional 23 states plus the District of Columbia with laws that legalize marijuana in some form, it was inevitable that suppliers of legal marijuana would develop marijuana products for use in these electronic cigarettes. Presented is the analysis of one such marijuana electronic cigarette formulation sold under the brand name Liberty Reach. The cannabinoid concentrations in Liberty Reach as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography-triple quadrapole mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-MS) were Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol, 42.6% (w/v) and cannabidiol 0.5% (w/v). These concentrations were significantly lower than the labeled 69% Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and 1% cannabidiol. Furthermore, 4 cannabinoids, 13 marijuana terpenes, and propylene glycol were identified by a combination of Direct Analysis in Real Time-AccuTOF™ mass spectrometry (DART-MS), HPLC-MS-MS and gas chromatography-MS. PMID:27059691

  14. Inhalants. Specialized Information Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Do It Now Foundation, Phoenix, AZ.

    The document presents a collection of articles about inhalant abuse. Article 1 presents findings on the psychophysiological effects related to the use of amyl or butyl nitrate as a "recreational drug." Article 2 suggests a strong association between chronic sniffing of the solvent toulene and irreversible brain damage. Article 3 warns about the…

  15. Inhalant Use in Florida Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siqueira, Lorena; Crandall, Lee A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine (1) the prevalence of use, (2) risk and protective factors for use of inhalants in Florida youth. Methods: The Florida Youth Substance Abuse Survey 2004 is a comprehensive assessment of youth substance abuse attitudes and practices obtained by sampling youth from sixty-five counties. Results: The sample consisted of 60,345…

  16. Marijuana May Blunt Bone Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161575.html Marijuana May Blunt Bone Health Study finds heavy users ... 19, 2016 WEDNESDAY, Oct. 19, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Marijuana may be bad to the bone, a new ...

  17. The disruption of marijuana intoxication.

    PubMed

    Pihl, R O; Spiers, P; Shea, D

    1977-05-01

    Ninety-six males Ss were divided into four drug conditions; coltsfoot, placebo, marijuana low dose, and marijuana high dose. Half of the Ss smoked marijuana while listening to music in a relaxing environment, and half smoked marijuana in the same environment but had two 10-min periods of aversive-noise superimposed over the music. A subjective measure of intoxication demonstrated significant drug and environmental group effects with suppression of self-report of intoxication being especially strong for the marijuana low dose noise group. The usual positive correlation between subjective measures and pulse rate measures of marijuana intoxication was interfered with by the noise effect. Although subjective ratings were suppressed, the noise group demonstrated significantly higher pulse rates than the music group. The results are discussed in terms of the effect of extraneous factors on marijuana intoxication, the significance of dosage in this type of research, and the nature of marijuana intoxication.

  18. New Perspectives on Marijuana and Youth: Abstainers Are Not Maladjusted, but Lone Users Face Difficulties. Research Highlights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RAND Corporation, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Many adolescents experiment with marijuana; the National Institute on Drug Abuse estimates that 46% of high school seniors have tried this drug at some time. Pushing boundaries is what young people do, and some researchers believe that trying marijuana is a normal part of growing up. RAND Corporation researchers have revisited Shedler and Block's…

  19. Cow Dung Ingestion and Inhalation Dependence: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khairkar, Praveen; Tiple, Prashant; Bang, Govind

    2009-01-01

    Although abuse of several unusual inhalants had been documented, addiction to cow dung fumes or their ashes has not been reported in medical literature as yet. We are reporting a case of cow dung dependence in ingestion and inhalational form.

  20. Abuse of Prescription (Rx) Drugs Affects Young Adults Most

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... died from overdoses of any other drug, including heroin and cocaine combined—and many more needed emergency ...

  1. Stimulant ADHD Medications -- Methylphenidate and Amphetamines

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trends and Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription ... Medicine Abuse Electronic Cigarettes (e-Cigarettes) Fentanyl Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Is Marijuana Medicine? Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) ...

  2. Endocrine effects of marijuana.

    PubMed

    Brown, Todd T; Dobs, Adrian S

    2002-11-01

    In the 35 years since the active compound of marijuana, delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol, was isolated, the psychological and physiological impact of marijuana use has been actively investigated. Animal models have demonstrated that cannabinoid administration acutely alters multiple hormonal systems, including the suppression of the gonadal steroids, growth hormone, prolactin, and thyroid hormone and the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. These effects are mediated by binding to the endogenous cannabinoid receptor in or near the hypothalamus. Despite these findings in animals, the effects in humans have been inconsistent, and discrepancies are likely due in part to the development of tolerance. The long-term consequences of marijuana use in humans on endocrine systems remain unclear.

  3. Marijuana: Current Concepts†

    PubMed Central

    Greydanus, Donald E.; Hawver, Elizabeth K.; Greydanus, Megan M.; Merrick, Joav

    2013-01-01

    Marijuana (cannabis) remains a controversial drug in the twenty-first century. This paper considers current research on use of Cannabis sativa and its constituents such as the cannabinoids. Topics reviewed include prevalence of cannabis (pot) use, other drugs consumed with pot, the endocannabinoid system, use of medicinal marijuana, medical adverse effects of cannabis, and psychiatric adverse effects of cannabis use. Treatment of cannabis withdrawal and dependence is difficult and remains mainly based on psychological therapy; current research on pharmacologic management of problems related to cannabis consumption is also considered. The potential role of specific cannabinoids for medical benefit will be revealed as the twenty-first century matures. However, potential dangerous adverse effects from smoking marijuana are well known and should be clearly taught to a public that is often confused by a media-driven, though false message and promise of benign pot consumption. PMID:24350211

  4. Characteristics of Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Marijuana Use: A Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Dubowitz, Howard; Thompson, Richard; Arria, Amelia M.; English, Diana; Metzger, Richard; Kotch, Jonathan B.

    2015-01-01

    There has been increasing acceptance of marijuana use in the US in recent years, and rates among adolescents have risen. At the same time, marijuana use during adolescence has been linked to an array of health and social problems. Maltreated children are at risk for marijuana use, but the relationships among characteristics of maltreatment and marijuana use are unclear. In this paper we examine how the type and the extent of maltreatment are related to the level of adolescent marijuana use. Data analyses were conducted on a subsample of maltreated adolescents (n = 702) from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect (LONGSCAN) project. Approximately half the sample had used marijuana, and maltreatment was associated with its use. Multivariate regression models showed that being male, extensive maltreatment, and peer marijuana use were associated with Heavy Use of marijuana. These findings suggest the importance of comprehensively assessing children’s maltreatment experiences and their peers’ drug use to help prevent or address possible marijuana use in these high-risk adolescents. PMID:26715532

  5. Characteristics of Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Marijuana Use: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Dubowitz, Howard; Thompson, Richard; Arria, Amelia M; English, Diana; Metzger, Richard; Kotch, Jonathan B

    2016-02-01

    There has been increasing acceptance of marijuana use in the United States in recent years, and rates among adolescents have risen. At the same time, marijuana use during adolescence has been linked to an array of health and social problems. Maltreated children are at risk for marijuana use, but the relationships among characteristics of maltreatment and marijuana use are unclear. In this article, we examine how the type and the extent of maltreatment are related to the level of adolescent marijuana use. Data analyses were conducted on a subsample of maltreated adolescents (n = 702) from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect project. Approximately half the sample had used marijuana, and maltreatment was associated with its use. Multivariate regression models showed that being male, extensive maltreatment, and peer marijuana use were associated with heavy use of marijuana. These findings suggest the importance of comprehensively assessing children's maltreatment experiences and their peers' drug use to help prevent or address possible marijuana use in these high-risk adolescents. PMID:26715532

  6. Characteristics of Child Maltreatment and Adolescent Marijuana Use: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Dubowitz, Howard; Thompson, Richard; Arria, Amelia M; English, Diana; Metzger, Richard; Kotch, Jonathan B

    2016-02-01

    There has been increasing acceptance of marijuana use in the United States in recent years, and rates among adolescents have risen. At the same time, marijuana use during adolescence has been linked to an array of health and social problems. Maltreated children are at risk for marijuana use, but the relationships among characteristics of maltreatment and marijuana use are unclear. In this article, we examine how the type and the extent of maltreatment are related to the level of adolescent marijuana use. Data analyses were conducted on a subsample of maltreated adolescents (n = 702) from the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect project. Approximately half the sample had used marijuana, and maltreatment was associated with its use. Multivariate regression models showed that being male, extensive maltreatment, and peer marijuana use were associated with heavy use of marijuana. These findings suggest the importance of comprehensively assessing children's maltreatment experiences and their peers' drug use to help prevent or address possible marijuana use in these high-risk adolescents.

  7. Chronic pain and marijuana use among a nationally representative sample of adults.

    PubMed

    Zvolensky, Michael J; Cougle, Jesse R; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O; Norberg, Melissa M; Johnson, Kirsten; Kosiba, Jesse; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2011-01-01

    This study sought to examine the relations between chronic pain and marijuana use in a large nationally representative survey of adults (n = 5,672; 53% female; M(age) = 45.05, SD = 17.9) conducted in the United States. After controlling for sociodemographic variables, lifetime history of depression, and alcohol abuse/dependence, there was a significant association between lifetime chronic pain and lifetime and current marijuana use. Moreover, current chronic pain was significantly associated with lifetime marijuana use. There was no significant association between current chronic pain and current marijuana use, possibly owing to limited statistical power. Results suggest that there are generally consistent statistically significant relations between chronic pain and marijuana use. Future work is needed to explicate the developmental patterning between chronic pain and marijuana use. This paper presents the potential linkage between chronic pain and marijuana use. Results from this study suggest that it may be beneficial for clinicians to assess for marijuana use among patients suffering from chronic pain. Such patients may be using marijuana as a maladaptive coping strategy.

  8. Active and realistic passive marijuana exposure tested by three immunoassays and GC/MS in urine

    SciTech Connect

    Mule, S.J.; Lomax, P.; Gross, S.J.

    1988-05-01

    Human urine samples obtained before and after active and passive exposure to marijuana were analyzed by immune kits (Roche, Amersham, and Syva) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Seven of eight subjects were positive for the entire five-day test period with one immune kit. The latter correlated with GC/MS in 98% of the samples. Passive inhalation experiments under conditions likely to reflect realistic exposure resulted consistently in less than 10 ng/mL of cannabinoids. The 10-100-ng/mL cannabinoid concentration range essential for detection of occasional and moderate marijuana users is thus unaffected by realistic passive inhalation.

  9. Marijuana Use and Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Franz, Christopher A; Frishman, William H

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is currently the most used illicit substance in the world. With the current trend of decriminalization and legalization of marijuana in the US, physicians in the US will encounter more patients using marijuana recreationally over a diverse range of ages and health states. Therefore, it is relevant to review marijuana's effects on human cardiovascular physiology and disease. Compared with placebo, marijuana cigarettes cause increases in heart rate, supine systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and forearm blood flow via increased sympathetic nervous system activity. These actions increase myocardial oxygen demand to a degree that they can decrease the time to exercise-induced angina in patients with a history of stable angina. In addition, marijuana has been associated with triggering myocardial infarctions (MIs) in young male patients. Smoking marijuana has been shown to increase the risk of MI onset by a factor of 4.8 for the 60 minutes after marijuana consumption, and to increase the annual risk of MI in the daily cannabis user from 1.5% to 3% per year. Human and animal models suggest that this effect may be due to coronary arterial vasospasm. However, longitudinal studies have indicated that marijuana use may not have a significant effect on long-term mortality. While further research is required to definitively determine the impact of marijuana on cardiovascular disease, it is reasonable to recommend against recreational marijuana use, especially in individuals with a history of coronary artery disorders.

  10. Marijuana Use and Cardiovascular Disease.

    PubMed

    Franz, Christopher A; Frishman, William H

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is currently the most used illicit substance in the world. With the current trend of decriminalization and legalization of marijuana in the US, physicians in the US will encounter more patients using marijuana recreationally over a diverse range of ages and health states. Therefore, it is relevant to review marijuana's effects on human cardiovascular physiology and disease. Compared with placebo, marijuana cigarettes cause increases in heart rate, supine systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and forearm blood flow via increased sympathetic nervous system activity. These actions increase myocardial oxygen demand to a degree that they can decrease the time to exercise-induced angina in patients with a history of stable angina. In addition, marijuana has been associated with triggering myocardial infarctions (MIs) in young male patients. Smoking marijuana has been shown to increase the risk of MI onset by a factor of 4.8 for the 60 minutes after marijuana consumption, and to increase the annual risk of MI in the daily cannabis user from 1.5% to 3% per year. Human and animal models suggest that this effect may be due to coronary arterial vasospasm. However, longitudinal studies have indicated that marijuana use may not have a significant effect on long-term mortality. While further research is required to definitively determine the impact of marijuana on cardiovascular disease, it is reasonable to recommend against recreational marijuana use, especially in individuals with a history of coronary artery disorders. PMID:26886465

  11. Marijuana: Modern Medical Chimaera

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamarine, Roland J.

    2012-01-01

    Marijuana has been used medically since antiquity. In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in medical applications of various cannabis preparations. These drugs have been cited in the medical literature as potential secondary treatment agents for severe pain, muscle spasticity, anorexia, nausea, sleep disturbances, and numerous…

  12. Marijuana: College Students' Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumstein, Regina

    College students' expectations regarding the physiological, psychological, and social effects of marijuana were investigated. A sample of 210 undergraduates stated their expectations about the effect of the drug by answering a series of structured-response type questions. Also, Ss provided background information related to their expectations about…

  13. Medical marijuana for cancer.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Joan L

    2015-03-01

    Answer questions and earn CME/CNE Marijuana has been used for centuries, and interest in its medicinal properties has been increasing in recent years. Investigations into these medicinal properties has led to the development of cannabinoid pharmaceuticals such as dronabinol, nabilone, and nabiximols. Dronabinol is best studied in the treatment of nausea secondary to cancer chemotherapy and anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for those indications. Nabilone has been best studied for the treatment of nausea secondary to cancer chemotherapy. There are also limited studies of these drugs for other conditions. Nabiximols is only available in the United States through clinical trials, but is used in Canada and the United Kingdom for the treatment of spasticity secondary to multiple sclerosis and pain. Studies of marijuana have concentrated on nausea, appetite, and pain. This article will review the literature regarding the medical use of marijuana and these cannabinoid pharmaceuticals (with emphasis on indications relevant to oncology), as well as available information regarding adverse effects of marijuana use. PMID:25503438

  14. Medical marijuana for cancer.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Joan L

    2015-03-01

    Answer questions and earn CME/CNE Marijuana has been used for centuries, and interest in its medicinal properties has been increasing in recent years. Investigations into these medicinal properties has led to the development of cannabinoid pharmaceuticals such as dronabinol, nabilone, and nabiximols. Dronabinol is best studied in the treatment of nausea secondary to cancer chemotherapy and anorexia associated with weight loss in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for those indications. Nabilone has been best studied for the treatment of nausea secondary to cancer chemotherapy. There are also limited studies of these drugs for other conditions. Nabiximols is only available in the United States through clinical trials, but is used in Canada and the United Kingdom for the treatment of spasticity secondary to multiple sclerosis and pain. Studies of marijuana have concentrated on nausea, appetite, and pain. This article will review the literature regarding the medical use of marijuana and these cannabinoid pharmaceuticals (with emphasis on indications relevant to oncology), as well as available information regarding adverse effects of marijuana use.

  15. The effects of medical marijuana laws on illegal marijuana use.

    PubMed

    Chu, Yu-Wei Luke

    2014-12-01

    More and more states have passed laws that allow individuals to use marijuana for medical purposes. There is an ongoing, heated policy debate over whether these laws have increased marijuana use among non-patients. In this paper, I address that question empirically by studying marijuana possession arrests in cities from 1988 to 2008. I estimate fixed effects models with city-specific time trends that can condition on unobserved heterogeneities across cities in both their levels and trends. I find that these laws increase marijuana arrests among adult males by about 15-20%. These results are further validated by findings from data on treatment admissions to rehabilitation facilities: marijuana treatments among adult males increased by 10-20% after the passage of medical marijuana laws. PMID:25205609

  16. Cannabinoid modulation of drug reward and the implications of marijuana legalization.

    PubMed

    Covey, Dan P; Wenzel, Jennifer M; Cheer, Joseph F

    2015-12-01

    Marijuana is the most popular illegal drug worldwide. Recent trends indicate that this may soon change; not due to decreased marijuana use, but to an amendment in marijuana's illegal status. The cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor mediates marijuana's psychoactive and reinforcing properties. CB1 receptors are also part of the brain endocannabinoid (eCB) system and support numerous forms of learning and memory, including the conditioned reinforcing properties of cues predicting reward or punishment. This is accomplished via eCB-dependent alterations in mesolimbic dopamine function, which plays an obligatory role in reward learning and motivation. Presynaptic CB1 receptors control midbrain dopamine neuron activity and thereby shape phasic dopamine release in target regions, particularly the nucleus accumbens (NAc). By also regulating synaptic input to the NAc, CB1 receptors modulate NAc output onto downstream neurons of the basal ganglia motor circuit, and thereby support goal-directed behaviors. Abused drugs promote short- and long-term adaptations in eCB-regulation of mesolimbic dopamine function, and thereby hijack neural systems related to the pursuit of rewards to promote drug abuse. By pharmacologically targeting the CB1 receptors, marijuana has preferential access to this neuronal system and can potently alter eCB-dependent processing of reward-related stimuli. As marijuana legalization progresses, greater access to this drug should increase the utility of marijuana as a research tool to better understand the eCB system, which has the potential to advance cannabinoid-based treatments for drug addiction.

  17. Cannabinoid modulation of drug reward and the implications of marijuana legalization.

    PubMed

    Covey, Dan P; Wenzel, Jennifer M; Cheer, Joseph F

    2015-12-01

    Marijuana is the most popular illegal drug worldwide. Recent trends indicate that this may soon change; not due to decreased marijuana use, but to an amendment in marijuana's illegal status. The cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor mediates marijuana's psychoactive and reinforcing properties. CB1 receptors are also part of the brain endocannabinoid (eCB) system and support numerous forms of learning and memory, including the conditioned reinforcing properties of cues predicting reward or punishment. This is accomplished via eCB-dependent alterations in mesolimbic dopamine function, which plays an obligatory role in reward learning and motivation. Presynaptic CB1 receptors control midbrain dopamine neuron activity and thereby shape phasic dopamine release in target regions, particularly the nucleus accumbens (NAc). By also regulating synaptic input to the NAc, CB1 receptors modulate NAc output onto downstream neurons of the basal ganglia motor circuit, and thereby support goal-directed behaviors. Abused drugs promote short- and long-term adaptations in eCB-regulation of mesolimbic dopamine function, and thereby hijack neural systems related to the pursuit of rewards to promote drug abuse. By pharmacologically targeting the CB1 receptors, marijuana has preferential access to this neuronal system and can potently alter eCB-dependent processing of reward-related stimuli. As marijuana legalization progresses, greater access to this drug should increase the utility of marijuana as a research tool to better understand the eCB system, which has the potential to advance cannabinoid-based treatments for drug addiction. PMID:25463025

  18. The diagnosis of marijuana (cannabis) dependence.

    PubMed

    Miller, N S; Gold, M S

    1989-01-01

    The definition of marijuana (Cannabis) dependence (addiction) contains three critical elements. These are (a) preoccupation with the acquisition of marijuana, (b) compulsive use of marijuana, (c) relapse to or recurrent use of the marijuana. The manifestations of abnormal marijuana use may assume many forms. Medical, psychiatric, neurological, traumatic, and sociological sequelae occur commonly in acute and chronic marijuana use. Marijuana dependence must be diagnosed primarily as the etiological or precipitating agent to adequately prevent and treat these conditions. The central role of marijuana addiction can be identified. The consequences of the marijuana addiction should be separated from the marijuana addict's actual motivation or craving to use marijuana. Marijuana addicts use abnormally because of what marijuana does to them and not for them. Marijuana reinforces its own use. Psychosocial stressors are not required to produce a marijuana addiction in biologically susceptible individuals. Consequences that result from an addiction to marijuana do not produce the abnormal use. A presumptive diagnosis of marijuana dependence (addiction) can be established by detecting significant consequences associated with marijuana use. A definitive diagnosis entails confirming the presence of addictive behavior by identifying a preoccupation, compulsivity and relapse relative to the drug, marijuana. PMID:2677398

  19. Marijuana: Facts Parents Need to Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... Parents Need to Know » A Letter to Parents Marijuana: Facts Parents Need to Know Email Facebook Twitter ... their children to review the scientific facts about marijuana: (1) Marijuana: Facts Parents Need to Know and ( ...

  20. Altered subjective reward valuation among drug-deprived heavy marijuana users: Aversion to uncertainty

    PubMed Central

    Hefner, Kathryn R.; Starr, Mark. J.; Curtin, John. J.

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States and its use is rising. Nonetheless, scientific efforts to clarify the risk for addiction and other harm associated with marijuana use have been lacking. Maladaptive decision-making is a cardinal feature of addiction that is likely to emerge in heavy users. In particular, distorted subjective reward valuation related to homeostatic or allostatic processes has been implicated for many drugs of abuse. Selective changes in responses to uncertainty have been observed in response to intoxication and deprivation from various drugs of abuse. To assess for these potential neuroadaptive changes in reward valuation associated with marijuana deprivation, we examined the subjective value of uncertain and certain rewards among deprived and non-deprived heavy marijuana users in a behavioral economics decision-making task. Deprived users displayed reduced valuation of uncertain rewards, particularly when these rewards were more objectively valuable. This uncertainty aversion increased with increasing quantity of marijuana use. These results suggest comparable decision-making vulnerability from marijuana use as other drugs of abuse, and highlights targets for intervention. PMID:26595464

  1. Altered subjective reward valuation among drug-deprived heavy marijuana users: Aversion to uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Hefner, Kathryn R; Starr, Mark J; Curtin, John J

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug in the United States and its use is rising. Nonetheless, scientific efforts to clarify the risk for addiction and other harm associated with marijuana use have been lacking. Maladaptive decision-making is a cardinal feature of addiction that is likely to emerge in heavy users. In particular, distorted subjective reward valuation related to homeostatic or allostatic processes has been implicated for many drugs of abuse. Selective changes in responses to uncertainty have been observed in response to intoxication and deprivation from various drugs of abuse. To assess for these potential neuroadaptive changes in reward valuation associated with marijuana deprivation, we examined the subjective value of uncertain and certain rewards among deprived and nondeprived heavy marijuana users in a behavioral economics decision-making task. Deprived users displayed reduced valuation of uncertain rewards, particularly when these rewards were more objectively valuable. This uncertainty aversion increased with increasing quantity of marijuana use. These results suggest comparable decision-making vulnerability from marijuana use as other drugs of abuse, and highlights targets for intervention. PMID:26595464

  2. Inhalation Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... you can inhale that can cause acute internal injuries. Particles in the air from fires and toxic ... and lung diseases worse. Symptoms of acute inhalation injuries may include Coughing and phlegm A scratchy throat ...

  3. Impulsivity, Attention, Memory, and Decision-Making among Adolescent Marijuana Users

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Donald M.; Mathias, Charles W.; Dawes, Michael A.; Furr, R. Michael; Charles, Nora E.; Liguori, Anthony; Shannon, Erin E.; Acheson, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Marijuana is a popular drug of abuse among adolescents, and they may be uniquely vulnerable to resulting cognitive and behavioral impairments. Previous studies have found impairments among adolescent marijuana users. However, the majority of this research has examined measures individually rather than multiple domains in a single cohesive analysis. This study used a logistic regression model that combines performance on a range of tasks to identify which measures were most altered among adolescent marijuana users. Objectives The purpose of this research was to determine unique associations between adolescent marijuana user and performances on multiple cognitive and behavioral domains (attention, memory, decision-making, and impulsivity) in 14- to 17-year-olds while simultaneously controlling for performances across the measures to determine which measures most strongly distinguish marijuana users from non-users. Methods Marijuana-using adolescents (n=45) and controls (n=48) were tested. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to test for: (a) differences between marijuana users and non-users on each measure, (b) associations between marijuana use and each measure after controlling for the other measures, and (c) the degree to which (a) and (b) together elucidated differences among marijuana users and non-users. Results Of all the cognitive and behavioral domains tested, impaired short-term recall memory and consequence sensitivity impulsivity were associated with marijuana use after controlling for performances across all measures. Conclusions This study extends previous findings by identifying cognitive and behavioral impairments most strongly associated with adolescent marijuana users. These specific deficits are potential targets of intervention for this at-risk population. PMID:23138434

  4. Marijuana-Related Posts on Instagram.

    PubMed

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Krauss, Melissa J; Sowles, Shaina J; Bierut, Laura J

    2016-08-01

    Instagram is a highly visual social networking site whose audience continues to grow, especially among young adults. In the present study, we examine marijuana-related content on Instagram to better understand the varied types of marijuana-related social networking occurring on this popular social media platform. We collected 417,561 Instagram posts with marijuana-related hashtags from November 29 to December 12, 2014. We assessed content of a random sample (n = 5000) of these posts with marijuana-related hashtags. Approximately 2136 (43 %) were explicit about marijuana and further analyzed. Of the 2136 marijuana-related posts, images of marijuana were common (n = 1568). Among these 1568 marijuana images, traditional forms (i.e., buds/leaves) were the most common (63 %), followed by some novel forms of marijuana, including marijuana concentrates (20 %). Among the 568 posts that displayed marijuana being ingested, 20 % showed someone dabbing marijuana concentrates. Marijuana-related advertisements were also observed among the 2136 marijuana-related posts (9 %). Our findings signal the promotion of marijuana use in its traditional plant-based form; trendy and novel modes of marijuana ingestion were also endorsed. This content along with the explicit marketing of marijuana that we observed on Instagram have potential to influence social norms surrounding marijuana use. PMID:27262456

  5. Marijuana-Related Posts on Instagram.

    PubMed

    Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A; Krauss, Melissa J; Sowles, Shaina J; Bierut, Laura J

    2016-08-01

    Instagram is a highly visual social networking site whose audience continues to grow, especially among young adults. In the present study, we examine marijuana-related content on Instagram to better understand the varied types of marijuana-related social networking occurring on this popular social media platform. We collected 417,561 Instagram posts with marijuana-related hashtags from November 29 to December 12, 2014. We assessed content of a random sample (n = 5000) of these posts with marijuana-related hashtags. Approximately 2136 (43 %) were explicit about marijuana and further analyzed. Of the 2136 marijuana-related posts, images of marijuana were common (n = 1568). Among these 1568 marijuana images, traditional forms (i.e., buds/leaves) were the most common (63 %), followed by some novel forms of marijuana, including marijuana concentrates (20 %). Among the 568 posts that displayed marijuana being ingested, 20 % showed someone dabbing marijuana concentrates. Marijuana-related advertisements were also observed among the 2136 marijuana-related posts (9 %). Our findings signal the promotion of marijuana use in its traditional plant-based form; trendy and novel modes of marijuana ingestion were also endorsed. This content along with the explicit marketing of marijuana that we observed on Instagram have potential to influence social norms surrounding marijuana use.

  6. Medical Marijuana for Epilepsy?

    PubMed Central

    Kolikonda, Murali K.; Srinivasan, Kavitha; Enja, Manasa; Sagi, Vishwanath

    2016-01-01

    Treatment-refractory epilepsy remains an important clinical problem. There is considerable recent interest by the public and physicians in using medical marijuana or its derivatives to treat seizures. The endocannabinoid system has a role in neuronal balance and ictal control. There is clinical evidence of success in diminishing seizure frequencies with cannabis derivatives, but also documentation about exacerbating epilepsy or of no discernible effect. There are lay indications and anecdotal reports of success in attenuating the severity of epilepsy, but without solid investigational corroboration. Marijuana remains largely illegal, and may induce adverse consequences. Clinical applications are not approved, thus are restricted and only recommended in selected treatment unresponsive cases, with appropriate monitoring. PMID:27354925

  7. Marijuana effects on associative processes.

    PubMed

    Block, R I; Wittenborn, J R

    1985-01-01

    Acute marijuana effects on associative processes involved in long-term memory retrieval were studied. Results were partially consistent with expectations based on previous subjective reports that marijuana promotes more uncommon associations. Marijuana altered responses when people gave as many examples of a specified category (e.g., CLOTHING) as they could for 2 min, and when they gave an example of a specified category beginning with a specified letter (e.g., WEAPON - G). Reaction time in the latter task and in prior studies was not altered in the expected manner, a finding problematic for some theoretic interpretations of marijuana's effects on associative processes.

  8. Displays of dabbing marijuana extracts on YouTube

    PubMed Central

    Krauss, Melissa J.; Sowles, Shaina J.; Mylvaganam, Shalinee; Zewdie, Kidist; Bierut, Laura J.; Cavazos-Rehg, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Dabbing involves heating marijuana extracts to a high temperature and inhaling the vapor. Little is known about this new method of using marijuana. YouTube, the most popular platform for sharing online videos, may be a go-to resource for individuals interested in learning about dabbing. Our objective was to explore the content of dabbing-related videos on YouTube. Methods We searched for dabbing related videos on YouTube using the search terms “dabbing” and “dabs” on January 22, 2015. For each term, videos were sorted by relevance and view count. A sample of 116 dabbing videos were viewed and coded for content. Results The 116 videos (published by 75 unique channels) had a total of 9,545,482 views. Most (76%) of the channels had a specific focus on marijuana and 23% were located in California. 89% of the videos showed at least one person dabbing, and 61% of these showed someone dabbing repeatedly. Most dabbers were male (67%) and many appeared to be >25 years old (42%). Approximately 34% of the videos contained a product review, 28% provided instructions on dabbing or other educational information, and 21% contained at least a brief cautionary message. Over half (54%) of the videos referenced medical marijuana, and only 20% of the videos had an age restriction. Conclusions Dabbing-related videos are easily found and can be readily viewed on YouTube. As marijuana use becomes more accepted by the general population, the popularity of dabbing-related videos could increase, potentially normalizing this potent form of marijuana use. PMID:26347408

  9. Odor and marijuana intoxication.

    PubMed

    Pihl, R O; Shea, D; Costa, L

    1978-07-01

    Assigned 48 volunteer adult males to four groups: a marijuana high dose, a marijuana low dose, a placebo, and a coltsfoot group. Each S participated in two 80-minute sessions; one involved listening to music, socializing, and smoking the drug, and the second was identical to the first with the addition of two extra placebo cigarettes which contained finely cut amounts of human hair. The odor of burning hair was rated previously as quite aversive by non-intoxicated Ss. Contrary to expectation, Ss in the odor condition indicated on self-ratings that they became significantly more intoxicated after the smoking of the hair cigarette. The opposite effect was found with a pulse rate measure. An additional 24 Ss were divided into high and low dose marijuana groups and run in an odor session, in which they were informed prior to smoking of the hair content. Heart rate for these Ss decreased significantly more than for the comparable uninformed Ss, although self-ratings continued to reflect increased intoxication.

  10. Substance abuse and child maltreatment.

    PubMed

    Wells, Kathryn

    2009-04-01

    Pediatricians and other medical providers caring for children need to be aware of the dynamics in the significant relationship between substance abuse and child maltreatment. A caregiver's use and abuse of alcohol, marijuana, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, and other drugs place the child at risk in multiple ways. Members of the medical community need to understand these risks because the medical community plays a unique and important role in identifying and caring for these children. Substance abuse includes the abuse of legal drugs as well as the use of illegal drugs. The abuse of legal substances may be just as detrimental to parental functioning as abuse of illicit substances. Many substance abusers are also polysubstance users and the compounded effect of the abuse of multiple substances may be difficult to measure. Often other interrelated social features, such as untreated mental illness, trauma history, and domestic violence, affect these families.

  11. The Deliberate Inhalation of Volatile Substances. Series 30, No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamage, James R.; Zerkin, E. Lief

    This report, prepared by the National Clearinghouse for Drug Abuse Information, presents information on the deliberate inhalation of volatile substances--the treatment modalities, the pharmacology and chemistry of this drug abuse, and the opinions and practices of recognized authorities in the field. Substances which are currently being inhaled to…

  12. Marijuana Use from Adolescence to Adulthood: Developmental Trajectories and Their Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Brook, Judith S.; Zhang, Chenshu; Leukefeld, Carl G.; Brook, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Background The study assesses the degree to which individuals in different trajectories of marijuana use are similar or different in terms of unconventional behavior, sensation seeking, emotional dysregulation, nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence/abuse, children living at home, and spouse/partner marijuana use at age 43. Method This study used a longitudinal design. The sample participants (N=548) were first studied at mean age 14 and last studied at mean age 43. Results Six trajectories of marijuana use were identified: chronic/heavy users (3.6%), increasing users (5.1%), chronic/occasional users (20%), decreasers (14.3%), quitters (22.5%), and nonusers/experimenters (34.5%). With three exceptions, as compared with being a nonuser/experimenter, a higher probability of belonging to the chronic/heavy, the increasing, or the chronic/occasional user trajectory group was significantly associated with a greater likelihood of unconventional behavior, sensation seeking, emotional dysregulation, nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence/abuse, having children who lived at home, and having a spouse/partner who used marijuana at early midlife. In addition, compared with being a quitter, a higher probability of belonging to the chronic/heavy user trajectory group was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of unconventional behavior, sensation seeking, emotional dysregulation, alcohol dependence/abuse, and spouse/partner marijuana use. Implications for intervention are presented. Conclusions Trajectories of marijuana use, especially chronic/heavy use, increasing use, and chronic/occasional use, are associated with unconventional behavior, sensation seeking, emotional dysregulation, nicotine dependence, alcohol dependence/abuse, having children who lived at home, and spouse/partner marijuana use at age 43. The importance of the findings for prevention and treatment programs are discussed. PMID:27168181

  13. Alcohol and marijuana: effects on epilepsy and use by patients with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Gordon, E; Devinsky, O

    2001-10-01

    We review the safety of alcohol or marijuana use by patients with epilepsy. Alcohol intake in small amounts (one to two drinks per day) usually does not increase seizure frequency or significantly affect serum levels of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Adult patients with epilepsy should therefore be allowed to consume alcohol in limited amounts. However, exceptions may include patients with a history of alcohol or substance abuse, or those with a history of alcohol-related seizures. The most serious risk of seizures in connection with alcohol use is withdrawal. Alcohol withdrawal lowers the seizure threshold, an effect that may be related to alcohol dose, rapidity of withdrawal, and chronicity of exposure. Individuals who chronically abuse alcohol are at significantly increased risk of developing seizures, which can occur during withdrawal or intoxication. Alcohol abuse predisposes to medical and metabolic disorders that can lower the seizure threshold or cause symptoms that mimic seizures. Therefore, in evaluating a seizure in a patient who is inebriated or has abused alcohol, one must carefully investigate to determine the cause. Animal and human research on the effects of marijuana on seizure activity are inconclusive. There are currently insufficient data to determine whether occasional or chronic marijuana use influences seizure frequency. Some evidence suggests that marijuana and its active cannabinoids have antiepileptic effects, but these may be specific to partial or tonic-clonic seizures. In some animal models, marijuana or its constituents can lower the seizure threshold. Preliminary, uncontrolled clinical studies suggest that cannabidiol may have antiepileptic effects in humans. Marijuana use can transiently impair short-term memory, and like alcohol use, may increase noncompliance with AEDs. Marijuana use or withdrawal could potentially trigger seizures in susceptible patients.

  14. Marijuana Is Far From "Harmless."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuPont, Robert L.

    1981-01-01

    Citing harmful physiological effects of marijuana, the author asserts that it is the single most serious new threat to our nation's health. He urges parents and school personnel to learn about marijuana and take a strong stand against it. (Condensed from "PTA Today," May 1981, p3-5.) (Author/SJL)

  15. Smoking Marijuana and the Lungs

    MedlinePlus

    ... also allow for health care providers to prescribe medical marijuana for health reasons. Can smoking marijuana help me ... not be used as a substitute for the medical advice one one’s personal health ... series, contact J.Corn at jcorn@thoracic.org. www.thoracic.org

  16. Marijuana use/cessation expectancies and marijuana use in college students

    PubMed Central

    Brackenbury, Lauren M.; Ladd, Benjamin O.; Anderson, Kristen G.

    2016-01-01

    Background Research suggests that marijuana expectancies are associated with problematic marijuana use; however, these marijuana-related cognitions remain relatively understudied. Objective This study examined marijuana-related decision-making among college students by exploring the relationships among marijuana expectancies and marijuana use variables. Method College students (N = 357) endorsing lifetime marijuana use completed an online survey on marijuana use expectancies, marijuana cessation expectancies, marijuana use, and future marijuana use intentions. A simple regression framework was used to test the effect of each type of expectancies on marijuana outcome; a hierarchical regression framework tested the unique predictive validity when both types were entered into the same model. Results Both marijuana use expectancies and marijuana cessation expectancies independently predicted a number of marijuana use variables. Additionally, marijuana use expectancies and marijuana cessation expectancies contributed significant unique variance to the prediction of marijuana use. Conclusions It is important to consider both use expectancies and cessation expectancies, as these two domains of marijuana-related cognitions appear to act independently, rather than as opposite ends of the same construct. Longitudinal studies are needed to further examine how these factors interact to influence marijuana use and problems over time. PMID:26678375

  17. Personality Correlates of Polydrug Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Dean G.; And Others

    Although the personality correlates of heroin addiction, LSD use, and marijuana smoking have been frequently investigated, relatively few data are available to describe the personality or lifestyle variables correlated with the pattern of polydrug abuse. In an attempt to gather such information, 17 polydrug users, selected from a group of 224…

  18. Prevalence and Perceived Financial Costs of Marijuana versus Tobacco use among Urban Low-Income Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Beatty, Jessica R; Svikis, Dace S; Ondersma, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine the relative prevalence of marijuana and tobacco use among low-income post-partum women, using self-report, urine, and hair testing data; and to further explore perceptions of the substances among postpartum women by evaluating perceived risk and monetary cost of prenatal marijuana versus tobacco use. Methods Data from two studies were available for a total of 100 (Study 1) and 50 (Study 2) low-income, primarily African-American post-partum women. Study 1 participants completed brief self-report measures of substance use as well as urine and hair samples; study 2 participants completed a brief opinion survey regarding the risks and monetary costs of prenatal marijuana use. Results In Study 1, the self-reported prevalence of any tobacco or marijuana use in the past three months was 17% and 11%, respectively. However, objectively-defined marijuana use was more prevalent than self-reported tobacco use: 14% tested positive for marijuana by urinalysis, and 28% by hair analysis. Study 2 participants were more likely to believe that there is a safe level of marijuana use during pregnancy, and nearly half believed that using marijuana during pregnancy was less expensive than smoking cigarettes. Conclusion Marijuana use may be as or more prevalent than tobacco use among low-income, African-American pregnant women. These findings may in part be attributable to perceptions of roughly equivalent cost and the lack of a clear public health message regarding prenatal marijuana use, combined with growing pro-marijuana advocacy. A broader public health response to address prenatal marijuana use, along with other substances of abuse, is needed. PMID:23858392

  19. Distress tolerance predicts coping motives for marijuana use among treatment seeking young adults.

    PubMed

    Semcho, Stephen; Bilsky, Sarah A; Lewis, Sarah F; Leen-Feldner, Ellen W

    2016-07-01

    Given increasing marijuana use and abuse among young adults in the United States and the associated physical and mental health consequences, it is important to improve our understanding of factors that may contribute to problematic marijuana use. A convergence of theory and research underscores the relevance of particular marijuana use motives generally, and coping-related motives specifically, in enhancing risk for marijuana use problems. Distress tolerance is a transdiagnostic emotion vulnerability factor that may relate to coping-related motives for marijuana use. The current study was designed to further explore this relationship within a treatment-seeking sample of young adults (Mage=24.40; SD=2.06 years). Results were consistent with hypotheses, suggesting distress tolerance is related to coping motives for marijuana use within this treatment-seeking sample, even after accounting for a number of theoretically relevant covariates. Theoretical and applied implications of distress tolerance as it relates to coping motives for marijuana use as treatment targets are discussed.

  20. Cannabinoid receptor 1 gene polymorphisms and marijuana misuse interactions on white matter and cognitive deficits in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ho, Beng-Choon; Wassink, Thomas H; Ziebell, Steven; Andreasen, Nancy C

    2011-05-01

    Marijuana exposure during the critical period of adolescent brain maturation may disrupt neuro-modulatory influences of endocannabinoids and increase schizophrenia susceptibility. Cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1/CNR1) is the principal brain receptor mediating marijuana effects. No study to-date has systematically investigated the impact of CNR1 on quantitative phenotypic features in schizophrenia and inter-relationships with marijuana misuse. We genotyped 235 schizophrenia patients using 12 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) that account for most of CB1 coding region genetic variability. Patients underwent a high-resolution anatomic brain magnetic resonance scan and cognitive assessment. Almost a quarter of the sample met DSM marijuana abuse (14%) or dependence (8%) criteria. Effects of CNR1 tSNPs and marijuana abuse/dependence on brain volumes and neurocognition were assessed using ANCOVA, including co-morbid alcohol/non-marijuana illicit drug misuse as covariates. Significant main effects of CNR1 tSNPs (rs7766029, rs12720071, and rs9450898) were found in white matter (WM) volumes. Patients with marijuana abuse/dependence had smaller fronto-temporal WM volumes than patients without heavy marijuana use. More interestingly, there were significant rs12720071 genotype-by-marijuana use interaction effects on WM volumes and neurocognitive impairment; suggestive of gene-environment interactions for conferring phenotypic abnormalities in schizophrenia. In this comprehensive evaluation of genetic variants distributed across the CB1 locus, CNR1 genetic polymorphisms were associated with WM brain volume variation among schizophrenia patients. Our findings suggest that heavy cannabis use in the context of specific CNR1 genotypes may contribute to greater WM volume deficits and cognitive impairment, which could in turn increase schizophrenia risk.

  1. Trends in Adolescent Inhalant Use: 2002 to 2007. The NSDUH Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Preventing and treating inhalant use problems, as well as raising awareness about the dangers of inhalant use, are important ongoing goals of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Monitoring trends in inhalant use is vital to assessing policies intended to reduce inhalant use. This issue of "The NSDUH Report"…

  2. Effects of State Medical Marijuana Laws on Adolescent Marijuana Use

    PubMed Central

    Lynne-Landsman, Sarah D.; Livingston, Melvin D.; Wagenaar, Alexander C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Medical marijuana laws (MMLs) have been suggested as a possible cause of increases in marijuana use among adolescents in the United States. We evaluated the effects of MMLs on adolescent marijuana use from 2003 through 2011. Methods. We used data from the Youth Risk Behavior Survey and a difference-in-differences design to evaluate the effects of passage of state MMLs on adolescent marijuana use. The states examined (Montana, Rhode Island, Michigan, and Delaware) had passed MMLs at different times over a period of 8 years, ensuring that contemporaneous history was not a design confound. Results. In 40 planned comparisons of adolescents exposed and not exposed to MMLs across states and over time, only 2 significant effects were found, an outcome expected according to chance alone. Further examination of the (nonsignificant) estimates revealed no discernible pattern suggesting an effect on either self-reported prevalence or frequency of marijuana use. Conclusions. Our results suggest that, in the states assessed here, MMLs have not measurably affected adolescent marijuana use in the first few years after their enactment. Longer-term results, after MMLs are more fully implemented, might be different. PMID:23763418

  3. Cardiac asystole following cannabis (marijuana) usage--additional mechanism for sudden death?

    PubMed

    Menahem, Samuel

    2013-12-10

    A 21 year old university student previously operated during infancy for an unobstructed total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage with an excellent result, was noted on a routine follow up 24 h Holter monitor to have multiple pauses related to cardiac asystole, the longest lasting 5.8 s and temporally related to marijuana inhalation. A repeat Holter was normal following a two week cessation of marijuana usage and again when carried out 3 months later. The documented periods of asystole may be a precursor of sudden death seen in addicts even without evidence of ischaemic heart disease. PMID:24200372

  4. The association between substance use disorders and early and combined use of alcohol and marijuana in two American Indian populations

    PubMed Central

    O'CONNELL, JOAN M.; NOVINS, DOUGLAS K.; BEALS, JANETTE; WHITESELL, NANCY R.; SPICER, PAUL

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the relationships between early and combined use of alcohol and marijuana with diagnoses of alcohol and marijuana use disorders in two American Indian (AI) populations. Method Data were drawn from a psychiatric epidemiologic study of 3084 AIs living on or near two reservations. We analysed data for adults aged 18–54 years at the time of interview (n = 2739). Logistic regression models were estimated to examine associations between early and combined use of alcohol and marijuana with lifetime diagnoses of abuse and dependence. Results Overall, younger AIs (18–29 years old) were more likely than older AIs (40–54 years old) to initiate substance use early and initiate use with marijuana, with or without alcohol. Persons who initiated alcohol use before age 14 were more than twice as likely as those who initiated use at older ages to meet criteria for alcohol or marijuana use disorders (p < 0.01). The odds of abuse or dependence were two to five times higher among persons who reported combined use of alcohol and marijuana (p < 0.01) than among those who reported use of either substance. Conclusions These findings document the need to address both early and combined use of alcohol and marijuana in prevention and treatment programmes. PMID:26582968

  5. Marijuana Usage and Hypnotic Susceptibility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzini, Louis R.; McDonald, Roy D.

    1973-01-01

    Anonymous self-reported drug usage data and hypnotic susceptibility scores were obtained from 282 college students. Frequent marijuana users (more than 10 times) showed greater susceptibility to hypnosis than nonusers. (Author)

  6. Genetic effects of marijuana.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, S; Zimmerman, A M

    Marijuana and its constitutive cannabinoids--tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabinol (CBN), and cannabidiol (CBD)--markedly affect mammalian cells. Cytogenetic studies have revealed that cannabinoids induce chromosome aberrations in both in vivo and in vitro studies. These aberrations include chromosomal breaks, deletions, translocations, errors in chromosomal segregation, and hypoploidy, and are due to the clastogenic action of cannabinoids or to cannabinoid-induced disruption of mitotic events or both. Conflicting reports of the cytogenetic effects of cannabinoids are partially explained by the different experimental protocols, cell types, and animals used by investigators. Cannabinoids also suppress macromolecular synthesis (DNA, RNA, and protein) as well as reduce the level of histone gene expression. In general these studies show that cannabinoids are detrimental to the health of an individual.

  7. Marijuana: modern medical chimaera.

    PubMed

    Lamarine, Roland J

    2012-01-01

    Marijuana has been used medically since antiquity. In recent years there has been a resurgence of interest in medical applications of various cannabis preparations. These drugs have been cited in the medical literature as potential secondary treatment agents for severe pain, muscle spasticity, anorexia, nausea, sleep disturbances, and numerous other uses. This article reviews the research literature related to medical applications of various forms of cannabis. Benefits related to medical use of cannabinoids are examined and a number of potential risks associated with cannabis use, both medical and recreational, are considered. There is a clearly identified need for further research to isolate significant benefits from the medical application of cannabinoids and to establish dosage levels, appropriate delivery mechanisms and formulations, and to determine what role, if any, cannabinoids might play in legitimate medical applications. It is also imperative to determine if reported dangers pose a significant health risks to users.

  8. Substitution of Marijuana for Alcohol: The Role of Perceived Access and Harm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alter, Randi J.; Lohrmann, David K.; Greene, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Research has shown significant declines in gateway drug use among participants in a school/community substance abuse prevention intervention in a midwestern, suburban school district (Lohrmann, Alter, Greene, & Younoszai, 2005). Though still at or below national levels, student marijuana use was not impacted as positively. The current study…

  9. Drug abuse in Slovak Republic.

    PubMed

    Kresanek, Jaroslav; Plackova, Silvia; Caganova, Blazena; Klobusicka, Zora

    2005-01-01

    The drug abusing structure has dramatically changed since 1989. While in 1989 the sniffing of the fluid drugs represented 98% of the global drug abuse, the most abused drugs were: heroin, marijuana, cocaine, amphetamine and its derivatives. During last 10 years situation with drug abuse has changed. Currently the most abused drugs: cannabinoides, amphetamines. The plant drugs (Datura stramonium, hallucinogenic mushrooms Psilocybe semilanceata, nutmeg--the seed of Myristica fragrans) combined with the alcohol are popular among the young abusers. According to an analysis of the phone consultations in our Toxicological Information Centre (TIC) we found out, that the number of intoxications with the plant drugs has increased five times during the last year (comparing with the year 2000), because of their easy availability, low price and quick spreading of information.

  10. Effects of Chronic Solvent Abuse on Public School Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullwood, Harry L.; Fournet, Glenn P.

    School youth have been increasingly involved in the dangerous abuse of volatile inhalants. The basic reason to inhale substances is to reach an altered state of consciousness. The 12-17 and 18-25-year-old age groups had the highest rates of inhalant abuse in 1993. Among eighth graders, almost one in five (19%) said they have used inhalants and 5%…

  11. Profile of narcotic abuse in peninsula Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Buhrich, N; Haq, S

    1980-01-01

    Demographic and drug abuse characteristics of 3,484 new drug abuse contacts presenting to the General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia are reported. The large majority were heroin inhalers. They were different from the traditional Eastern opium inhalers and similar to Western heroin injectors in that they were young, male, single, and frequently unemployed. These features and the relative underrepresentation of Chinese suggest that the Chinese of this study did not learn narcotic abuse from opium-smoking relatives. PMID:7446511

  12. Asthma Inhalers

    MedlinePlus

    ... reduce the release of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) into the atmosphere when taking certain asthma medications. Until recently, most ... hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) inhalers, that do not rob the atmosphere of ozone. “The FDA [Food and Drug Administration] ...

  13. Synthetic marijuana and acute kidney injury: an unforeseen association

    PubMed Central

    Kazory, Amir; Aiyer, Ravi

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) have emerged as drugs of abuse with increasing popularity among young adults. The potential renal complication related to the abuse of SC was not recognized until recently. Here, we present a case of severe acute kidney injury (AKI) that developed after inhalation of SC in an otherwise healthy young patient. A kidney biopsy revealed severe acute tubular necrosis, and supportive management resulted in the recovery of the kidney function. Herein, we briefly summarize the only two previous reports (a total of 21 cases) on the association between SC abuse and renal dysfunction and identify the common aspects in all observations. PMID:26064495

  14. Marijuana Use and New Concerns about Medical Marijuana. E-Fact Sheet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    While alcohol remains the drug of choice among college students, marijuana ranks number two with 32 percent reporting using marijuana in 2008. That's a modest decline from 2001, when 36 percent of college students reported marijuana use. While levels of marijuana use by students are determined through a number of national and local surveys, no…

  15. Making sense of medical marijuana.

    PubMed

    Rosenthal, M S; Kleber, H D

    1999-01-01

    The case for marijuana's medical use is primarily from anecdotal clinical reports, human studies of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, and animal studies on constituent compounds. The authors believe that while a key policy issue is to keep marijuana out of the hands of children, its use for medicinal purposes should be resolved by scientific research and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) review. Weighed against possible benefits are increased risks such as cancer, pulmonary problems, damage to the immune system, and unacceptable psychological effects. More study is needed to determine the efficacy of marijuana as an antiemetic for cancer patients, as an appetite stimulant for AIDS and cancer patients, as a treatment for neuropathic pain, and as an antispasmodic for multiple sclerosis patients. If this new research shows marijuana to have important medical uses, FDA approval could be sought. However, the better response is accelerated development of delivery systems other than smoking for key ingredients, as well as the identification of targeted molecules that deliver beneficial effects without intoxicating effects. If the National Institutes of Health conducts research on marijuana, we would propose parallel trials on those indications under careful controls making marijuana available to appropriate patients who fail to benefit from standard existing treatments. This effort would begin after efficacy trials and sunset no later than 5 years. If this open-trial mechanism is adopted, the compassion that Americans feel for seriously ill individuals would have an appropriate medical/scientific outlet and not need to rely on referenda that can confuse adolescents by disseminating misleading information about marijuana effects.

  16. Stigma Among California's Medical Marijuana Patients

    PubMed Central

    Satterlund, Travis D.; Lee, Juliet P.; Moore, Roland S.

    2014-01-01

    The enactment of California's Proposition 215 stipulates that patients may use marijuana for medical reasons, provided that it is recommended by a physician. Yet, medical marijuana patients risk being stigmatized for this practice. This paper examines the way in which medical marijuana patients perceive and process stigma, and how it affects their interactions and experiences with others. Eighteen semi-structured interviews of medical marijuana patients were carried out using a semi-structured interview guide. Most patients circumvented their own physicians in obtaining a recommendation to use medicinal marijuana, and also used a host of strategies in order to justify their medical marijuana use to family, friends and colleagues in order to stave off potential stigma. The stigmatization of medical marijuana thus has a profound effect on how patients seek treatment, and whether they seek medical marijuana treatment at all. PMID:25715067

  17. Prisoner denied access to medical marijuana.

    PubMed

    Wells, Joanna

    2004-12-01

    In a case that has recently come to the attention of the editors, the Federal Court refused to order Health Canada to provide a federal prisoner with medical marijuana, even though he possessed legal authorization to possess marijuana. PMID:15810136

  18. Medical use of marijuana in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Johannigman, Suzanne; Eschiti, Valerie

    2013-08-01

    Marijuana has been documented to provide relief to patients in palliative care. However, healthcare providers should use caution when discussing medical marijuana use with patients. This article features a case study that reveals the complexity of medical marijuana use. For oncology nurses to offer high-quality care, examining the pros and cons of medical marijuana use in the palliative care setting is important. PMID:23899972

  19. Effects of Marijuana on Fetal Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoyt, Les Leanne

    1981-01-01

    Presents an historical perspective of the public view of marijuana and examines current empirical research concerning the consequences of marijuana use on the human fetus. Included are 1979 university survey results which explore respondents' knowledge about the effects of marijuana and the relationship this has to the mass media. (Author)

  20. Marijuana: Facts Parents Need To Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS), Rockville, MD. Div. of Research.

    Marijuana is the illegal drug most often used in the United States. In the early 1990s marijuana use doubled among 8th graders and significantly increased among 10th and 12th graders. Accompanying this pattern of use is a significant erosion in antidrug perceptions and knowledge among young people. While marijuana use among high school seniors…

  1. Medical marijuana: Legal and regulatory considerations.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Louise

    2015-10-16

    Nearly half of the United States has legalized medical marijuana. Advanced practice registered nurses (APRNs) in six states can authorize patients for medical marijuana use. Knowledge of legal and regulatory aspects of medical marijuana laws will protect an APRN's license and the public.

  2. Troubled times for Canada's medical marijuana program.

    PubMed

    Thaczuk, Derek

    2003-04-01

    Health Canada finally produces a good marijuana crop, but its medical marijuana program is in a state of upheaval as it faces internal dissent regarding a crucial aspect of its mandate, as well as fundamental challenges from the courts. Meanwhile, the Justice Minister said that the government will introduce legislation to decriminalize the possession of small amounts of marijuana.

  3. Marijuana: A Study of State Policies & Penalties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., Columbia, MD.

    This study is a comprehensive analysis of issues concerning marijuana that are of importance to state policy makers. It reviews the medical, legal, and historical dimensions of marijuana use and examines the range of policy approaches toward marijuana possession and use which state officials have considered. Attention is directed to the experience…

  4. Prevalence and Pedagogy: Understanding Substance Abuse in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salm, Twyla; Sevigny, Phil; Mulholland, Val; Greenberg, Hirsch

    2011-01-01

    This case study examines not only the prevalence of substance abuse in one rural, Canadian high school, but also how teachers understand teaching and learning in relation to substance abuse. Over one third of students reported that they had used marijuana (37%) and alcohol (38%) in the last seven days, a rate considerably higher than typical…

  5. Medical Marijuana in the Workplace

    PubMed Central

    Targino, Marcelo C.; Fanciullo, Gilbert J.; Martin, Douglas W.; Hartenbaum, Natalie P.; White, Jeremy M.; Franklin, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Although possession and use of marijuana is prohibited by federal law, legalization in four states (Alaska, Colorado, Oregon, and Washington) and allowance for palliation and therapy in 19 others may reposition the drug away from the fringes of society. This evolving legal environment, and growing scientific evidence of its effectiveness for select health conditions, requires assessment of the safety and appropriateness of marijuana within the American workforce. Although studies have suggested that marijuana may be used with reasonable safety in some controlled environments, there are potential consequences to its use that necessitate employer scrutiny and concern. Several drug characteristics must be considered, including Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC, or THC) concentration, route of administration, dose and frequency, and pharmacokinetics, as well as the risks inherent to particular workplace environments. PMID:25951421

  6. Marijuana: current concepts(†).

    PubMed

    Greydanus, Donald E; Hawver, Elizabeth K; Greydanus, Megan M; Merrick, Joav

    2013-10-10

    Marijuana (cannabis) remains a controversial drug in the twenty-first century. This paper considers current research on use of Cannabis sativa and its constituents such as the cannabinoids. Topics reviewed include prevalence of cannabis (pot) use, other drugs consumed with pot, the endocannabinoid system, use of medicinal marijuana, medical adverse effects of cannabis, and psychiatric adverse effects of cannabis use. Treatment of cannabis withdrawal and dependence is difficult and remains mainly based on psychological therapy; current research on pharmacologic management of problems related to cannabis consumption is also considered. The potential role of specific cannabinoids for medical benefit will be revealed as the twenty-first century matures. However, potential dangerous adverse effects from smoking marijuana are well known and should be clearly taught to a public that is often confused by a media-driven, though false message and promise of benign pot consumption.

  7. Indacaterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a powder-filled capsule to inhale by mouth using a special inhaler. It is usually inhaled ... stop the pieces of capsule from reaching your mouth as you inhale the medication. Very tiny pieces ...

  8. Inhaled Asthma Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... metered – dose inhaler (MDI), which uses a chemical propellant to push the medication out of the inhaler. ... powder inhalers (DPIs) deliver medication without using chemical propellants, but they require a strong and fast inhalation. ...

  9. Physical Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for Victims ...

  10. Sexual Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    Navigation Physical Abuse Sexual Abuse Domestic Violence Psychological Abuse Financial Abuse Neglect Critical Issues What Communities Can Do The Role of Professionals and Concerned Citizens Help for Victims ...

  11. Estrogenic effects of marijuana smoke condensate and cannabinoid compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Soo Yeun; Oh, Seung Min; Chung, Kyu Hyuck . E-mail: khchung@skku.edu

    2006-08-01

    Chronic exposure to marijuana produces adverse effects on the endocrine and reproductive systems in humans; however, the experimental evidence for this presented thus far has not been without controversy. In this study, the estrogenic effect of marijuana smoke condensate (MSC) was evaluated using in vitro bioassays, viz., the cell proliferation assay, the reporter gene assay, and the ER competitive binding assay. The results of these assays were compared with those of three major cannabinoids, i.e., THC, CBD, and CBN. The estrogenic effect of MSC was further confirmed by the immature female rat uterotrophic assay. MSC stimulated the estrogenicity related to the ER-mediated pathway, while neither THC, CBD, nor CBN did. Moreover, treatment with 10 and 25 mg/kg MSC induced significant uterine response, and 10 mg/kg MSC resulted in an obvious change in the uterine epithelial cell appearance. MSC also enhanced the IGFBP-1 gene expression in a dose-dependent manner. To identify the constituents of MSC responsible for its estrogenicity, the MSC fractionated samples were examined using another cell proliferation assay, and the estrogenic active fraction was analyzed using GC-MS. In the organic acid fraction that showed the strongest estrogenic activity among the seven fractions of MSC, phenols were identified. Our results suggest that marijuana abuse is considered an endocrine-disrupting factor. Furthermore, these results suggest that the phenolic compounds contained in MSC play a role in its estrogenic effect.

  12. Marijuana's acute effects on cognitive bias for affective and marijuana cues.

    PubMed

    Metrik, Jane; Aston, Elizabeth R; Kahler, Christopher W; Rohsenow, Damaris J; McGeary, John E; Knopik, Valerie S

    2015-10-01

    Marijuana produces acute increases in positive subjective effects and decreased reactivity to negative affective stimuli, though may also acutely induce anxiety. Implicit attentional and evaluative processes may explicate marijuana's ability to acutely increase positive and negative emotions. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2.7-3.0% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), relative to placebo, acutely changed attentional processing of rewarding and negative affective stimuli as well as marijuana-specific stimuli. On 2 separate days, regular marijuana users (N = 89) smoked placebo or active THC cigarette and completed subjective ratings of mood, intoxication, urge to smoke marijuana, and 2 experimental tasks: pleasantness rating (response latency and perceived pleasantness of affective and marijuana-related stimuli) and emotional Stroop (attentional bias to affective stimuli). On the pleasantness rating task, active marijuana increased response latency to negatively valenced and marijuana-related (vs. neutral) visual stimuli, beyond a general slowing of response. Active marijuana also increased pleasantness ratings of marijuana images, although to a lesser extent than placebo due to reduced marijuana urge after smoking. Overall, active marijuana did not acutely change processing of positive emotional stimuli. There was no evidence of attentional bias to affective word stimuli on the emotional Stroop task with the exception of attentional bias to positive word stimuli in the subgroup of marijuana users with cannabis dependence. Marijuana may increase allocation of attentional resources toward marijuana-specific and negatively valenced visual stimuli without altering processing of positively valenced stimuli. Marijuana-specific cues may be more attractive with higher levels of marijuana craving and less wanted with low craving levels.

  13. Marijuana's acute effects on cognitive bias for affective and marijuana cues.

    PubMed

    Metrik, Jane; Aston, Elizabeth R; Kahler, Christopher W; Rohsenow, Damaris J; McGeary, John E; Knopik, Valerie S

    2015-10-01

    Marijuana produces acute increases in positive subjective effects and decreased reactivity to negative affective stimuli, though may also acutely induce anxiety. Implicit attentional and evaluative processes may explicate marijuana's ability to acutely increase positive and negative emotions. This within-subjects study examined whether smoked marijuana with 2.7-3.0% delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), relative to placebo, acutely changed attentional processing of rewarding and negative affective stimuli as well as marijuana-specific stimuli. On 2 separate days, regular marijuana users (N = 89) smoked placebo or active THC cigarette and completed subjective ratings of mood, intoxication, urge to smoke marijuana, and 2 experimental tasks: pleasantness rating (response latency and perceived pleasantness of affective and marijuana-related stimuli) and emotional Stroop (attentional bias to affective stimuli). On the pleasantness rating task, active marijuana increased response latency to negatively valenced and marijuana-related (vs. neutral) visual stimuli, beyond a general slowing of response. Active marijuana also increased pleasantness ratings of marijuana images, although to a lesser extent than placebo due to reduced marijuana urge after smoking. Overall, active marijuana did not acutely change processing of positive emotional stimuli. There was no evidence of attentional bias to affective word stimuli on the emotional Stroop task with the exception of attentional bias to positive word stimuli in the subgroup of marijuana users with cannabis dependence. Marijuana may increase allocation of attentional resources toward marijuana-specific and negatively valenced visual stimuli without altering processing of positively valenced stimuli. Marijuana-specific cues may be more attractive with higher levels of marijuana craving and less wanted with low craving levels. PMID:26167716

  14. Substance abuse on the college campus.

    PubMed

    Rimsza, Mary Ellen; Moses, Karen S

    2005-02-01

    Substance abuse is a major health and behavioral concern in college students. Alcohol and marijuana are the most commonly abused drugs on college campuses. Others include tobacco, 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine, gamma-hydroxybutyrate, flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), lysergic acid, ketamine, methamphetamine, phencyclidine, cocaine, and psilocybin mushrooms. This article reviews the use of these drugs by college students. Substance use is a major contributing factor in poor academic performance and failure to successfully complete a college education.

  15. Marijuana and Children. Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endsley, Patricia; Embrey, Mary Louise

    2014-01-01

    Registered professional school nurses (hereinafter referred to as school nurses) promote wellness and disease prevention to improve health outcomes for our nation's children. It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the marijuana plant remain under the United States Drug Enforcement Agency's (DEA) Schedule I…

  16. Behavioral Aspects of Marijuana Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, Patricia

    This paper examines the behavioral aspects of marijuana use. The focus of the study was to investigate the attitudes and practices toward drugs by users and non-users and the relationship of these attitudes and practices to selected psychosocial factors. A survey instrument in the form of an anonymous questionnaire was developed and administered…

  17. Childhood abuse related to nicotine, illicit and prescription drug use by women: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pederson, Cathy L; Vanhorn, Daniel R; Wilson, Josephine F; Martorano, Lisa M; Venema, Jana M; Kennedy, Sarah M

    2008-10-01

    A sample of 811 women ages 18 to 59 (M=26.0, SD=6.5) responded to an advertisement by telephone. Inquiries were made about childhood abuse status and adult use of alcohol, nicotine, and prescription and illicit drugs. Significant associations were noted for reported sexual, physical, and emotional childhood abuse with use of nicotine, marijuana, and antidepressants in adulthood. Reported childhood physical and emotional abuses were also significantly associated with use of cocaine and anxiolytics, and sexual abuse with antipsychotic use in adulthood. Only childhood emotional abuse was associated with the use of sleeping pills. Number of types of abuse was significantly related with use of nicotine, marijuana, cocaine, antidepressants, antipsychotics, and anxiolytics. Alcohol use was not related to any type of abuse. The long-term effects of childhood emotional abuse may be just as severe as physical or sexual abuse. PMID:19102471

  18. The "new" marijuana.

    PubMed

    Wells, Daina L; Ott, Carol A

    2011-03-01

    Synthetic cannabinoid-induced toxicity is increasing in frequency across the US, with more than 1057 reported cases as of August 2010. There is a paucity of literature on synthetic cannabinoid toxicity; however, there are various reports of adverse effects including tachycardia, hypertension, tachypnea, chest pain, heart palpitations, hallucinations, racing thoughts, and seizures. While reports suggest that toxic symptoms last no longer than 3-4 hours, with no residual adverse effects in many cases, there is concern about serious acute and long-term toxicities. This article reviews the development, abuse, toxicity, treatment, and legal status of synthetic cannabinoids. It is important for health-care professionals to recognize and appropriately treat synthetic cannabinoid-induced toxicity. PMID:21325097

  19. The "new" marijuana.

    PubMed

    Wells, Daina L; Ott, Carol A

    2011-03-01

    Synthetic cannabinoid-induced toxicity is increasing in frequency across the US, with more than 1057 reported cases as of August 2010. There is a paucity of literature on synthetic cannabinoid toxicity; however, there are various reports of adverse effects including tachycardia, hypertension, tachypnea, chest pain, heart palpitations, hallucinations, racing thoughts, and seizures. While reports suggest that toxic symptoms last no longer than 3-4 hours, with no residual adverse effects in many cases, there is concern about serious acute and long-term toxicities. This article reviews the development, abuse, toxicity, treatment, and legal status of synthetic cannabinoids. It is important for health-care professionals to recognize and appropriately treat synthetic cannabinoid-induced toxicity.

  20. Inhaled Corticosteroids

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the most effective controllers of asthma. They suppress inflammation mainly by switching off multiple activated inflammatory genes through reversing histone acetylation via the recruitment of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2). Through suppression of airway inflammation ICS reduce airway hyperresponsiveness and control asthma symptoms. ICS are now first-line therapy for all patients with persistent asthma, controlling asthma symptoms and preventing exacerbations. Inhaled long-acting β2-agonists added to ICS further improve asthma control and are commonly given as combination inhalers, which improve compliance and control asthma at lower doses of corticosteroids. By contrast, ICS provide much less clinical benefit in COPD and the inflammation is resistant to the action of corticosteroids. This appears to be due to a reduction in HDAC2 activity and expression as a result of oxidative stress. ICS are added to bronchodilators in patients with severe COPD to reduce exacerbations. ICS, which are absorbed from the lungs into the systemic circulation, have negligible systemic side effects at the doses most patients require, although the high doses used in COPD has some systemic side effects and increases the risk of developing pneumonia.

  1. Variation in Youthful Risks of Progression from Alcohol and Tobacco to Marijuana and to Hard Drugs Across Generations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golub, Andrew; Johnson, Bruce D.

    2001-01-01

    Examined 1979-97 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse data to investigate the probabilities of progression through a sequence of stages of substance use. Progression to marijuana and hard drugs was uncommon in people born before World War II. The stages phenomenon emerged with the baby boom and peaked among people born around 1960.…

  2. The Use of Fry (Embalming Fluid and PCP-Laced Cigarettes or Marijuana Sticks) among Crack Cocaine Smokers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Ronald J.; Williams, Mark; Ross, Michael W.; Atkinson, John; McCurdy, Sherly A.

    2009-01-01

    Statistics show that the prevalence of crack cocaine use and embalming fluid and phencyclidine (PCP)-laced cigarettes or marijuana sticks, commonly referred to on the street as "fry" or "wet" is a problem; however, the relationship between these substances of abuse and concurrent polydrug use is unknown. In the present study, a cross-sectional…

  3. Ecological Factors and Adolescent Marijuana Use: Results of a Prospective Study in Santiago, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Delva, Jorge; Lee, Wonhyung; Sanchez, Ninive; Andrade, Fernando H.; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Sanhueza, Guillermo; Ho, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Despite the growing evidence that ecological factors contribute to substance use, the relationship of ecological factors and illicit drugs such as marijuana use is not well understood, particularly among adolescents in Latin America. Guided by social disorganization and social stress theories, we prospectively examined the association of disaggregated neighborhood characteristics with marijuana use among adolescents in Santiago, Chile, and tested if these relationships varied by sex. Methods: Data for this study are from 725 community-dwelling adolescents participating in the Santiago Longitudinal Study, a study of substance using behaviors among urban adolescents in Santiago, Chile. Adolescents completed a two-hour interviewer administered questionnaire with questions about drug use and factors related to drug using behaviors. Results: As the neighborhood levels of drug availability at baseline increased, but not crime or noxious environment, adolescents had higher odds of occasions of marijuana use at follow up, approximately 2 years later (odds ratio [OR] = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.16–1.66), even after controlling for the study’s covariates. No interactions by sex were significant. Discussion: The findings suggest that “poverty”, “crime”, and “drug problems” may not be synonyms and thus can be understood discretely. As Latin American countries re-examine their drug policies, especially those concerning decriminalizing marijuana use, the findings suggest that attempts to reduce adolescent marijuana use in disadvantaged neighborhoods may do best if efforts are concentrated on specific features of the “substance abuse environment”. PMID:24662965

  4. Marijuana Smoking in Patients With Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Khwaja, Sara; Yacoub, Abraham; Cheema, Asima; Rihana, Nancy; Russo, Robin; Velez, Ana Paula; Nanjappa, Sowmya; Sandin, Ramon L; Bohra, Chandrashekar; Gajanan, Ganesh; Greene, John N

    2016-07-01

    Worldwide, marijuana (cannabis) is a widely used drug. The incidence of marijuana smoking is increasing and is second only to tobacco as the most widely smoked substance in the general population. It is also the second most commonly used recreational drug after alcohol. Some adverse effects of marijuana smoking have been documented; however, the number of studies on the pulmonary effects of marijuana in individuals with leukemia is limited. In our case series, we report on 2 men with acute myeloid leukemia with miliary nodular lung patterns on computed tomography of the chest due to heavy marijuana use. We also report on 2 patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia who had a history of smoking marijuana and then developed lung opacities consistent with mold infection.

  5. Marijuana Smoking in Patients With Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Khwaja, Sara; Yacoub, Abraham; Cheema, Asima; Rihana, Nancy; Russo, Robin; Velez, Ana Paula; Nanjappa, Sowmya; Sandin, Ramon L; Bohra, Chandrashekar; Gajanan, Ganesh; Greene, John N

    2016-07-01

    Worldwide, marijuana (cannabis) is a widely used drug. The incidence of marijuana smoking is increasing and is second only to tobacco as the most widely smoked substance in the general population. It is also the second most commonly used recreational drug after alcohol. Some adverse effects of marijuana smoking have been documented; however, the number of studies on the pulmonary effects of marijuana in individuals with leukemia is limited. In our case series, we report on 2 men with acute myeloid leukemia with miliary nodular lung patterns on computed tomography of the chest due to heavy marijuana use. We also report on 2 patients with acute lymphocytic leukemia who had a history of smoking marijuana and then developed lung opacities consistent with mold infection. PMID:27556668

  6. Expert-recommended warnings for medical marijuana.

    PubMed

    Malouff, John M; Rooke, Sally E

    2013-01-01

    Medical marijuana is legal in some countries, including in many US states. At present, there are no government-mandated warnings on packages of marijuana, even though the substance has dangers similar to those of alcohol, tobacco, and various prescribed drugs. This article reports the results of an effort to collect marijuana warnings recommended by scientific experts on marijuana. The recommended warnings, the first ever from marijuana experts, come from 13 experts. The expert-recommended warnings pertain to risks relating to (1) safety, (2) physical health, (3) fetal harm, (4) mental health, (5) withdrawal and dependence, and (6) adolescent development. The results provide initial expert recommendations for warnings to be required on packages of medical marijuana.

  7. Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Additional Resources Return to: What is Elder Abuse? Elder Abuse and Substance Abuse Substance abuse has been identified ... the most frequently cited risk factor associated with elder abuse and neglect. It may be the victim and/ ...

  8. State Estimates of Adolescent Marijuana Use and Perceptions of Risk of Harm from Marijuana Use: 2013 and 2014

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2014 estimates to 2012–2013 estimates). However, youth perceptions of great risk of harm from monthly marijuana ... change. State Estimates of Adolescent Marijuana Use and Perceptions of Risk of Harm From Marijuana Use: 2013 ...

  9. Marijuana effects on simulated flying ability.

    PubMed

    Janowsky, D S; Meacham, M P; Blaine, J D; Schoor, M; Bozzetti, L P

    1976-04-01

    The authors studied the effects of marijuana intoxication on the ability of 10 certified airplane pilots to operate a flight simulator. They used a randomized double-blind crossover design to compare the effect of active versus placebo marijuana. They found that all 10 pilots showed a significant decrease in measurements of flying performance 30 minutes after smoking active marijuana. For a group of 6 pilots tested sequentially for 6 hours, a nonsignificant decrease in flying performance continued for 2 hours after smoking the active drug. The authors conclude that the effects of marijuana on flying performance may represent a sensitive indicator of the drug's psychomotor effects.

  10. Sex, drugs, and cognition: effects of marijuana.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Beth M; Rizzo, Matthew; Block, Robert I; Pearlson, Godfrey D; O'Leary, Daniel S

    2010-12-01

    Despite the knowledge that many drugs affect men and women differently, few studies exploring the effects of marijuana use on cognition have included women. Findings from both animal and human studies suggest marijuana may have more marked effects in women. This study examined sex differences in the acute effects of marijuana on cognition in 70 (n=35 male, 35 female) occasional users of marijuana. Tasks were chosen to tap a wide variety of cognitive domains affected by sex and/or marijuana including attention, cognitive flexibility, time estimation, and visuospatial processing. As expected, acute marijuana use impaired performance on selective and divided attention, time estimation, and cognitive flexibility. While there did not appear to be sex differences in marijuana's effects on cognition, women requested to discontinue the smoking session more often than men, likely leading to an underestimation of differences. Further study of psychological differences in marijuana's effects on men and women following both acute and residual effects of marijuana is warranted. PMID:21305906

  11. Marijuana-related problems and social anxiety: the role of marijuana behaviors in social situations.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Julia D; Heimberg, Richard G; Matthews, Russell A; Silgado, Jose

    2012-03-01

    Individuals with elevated social anxiety appear particularly vulnerable to marijuana-related problems. In fact, individuals with social anxiety may be more likely to experience marijuana-related impairment than individuals with other types of anxiety. It is therefore important to determine whether constructs particularly relevant to socially anxious individuals play a role in the expression of marijuana-related problems in this vulnerable population. Given that both social avoidance and using marijuana to cope with negative affect broadly have been found to play a role in marijuana-related problems, the current study utilized a new measure designed to simultaneously assess social avoidance and using marijuana to cope in situations previously identified as anxiety-provoking among those with elevated social anxiety. The Marijuana Use to Cope with Social Anxiety Scale (MCSAS) assessed behaviors regarding 24 social situations: marijuana use to cope in social situations (MCSAS-Cope) and avoidance of social situations if marijuana was unavailable. In Study 1, we found preliminary support for the convergent and discriminant validity and internal consistency of the MCSAS scales. In Study 2, we examined if MCSAS scores were related to marijuana problems among those with (n = 44) and without (n = 44) clinically elevated social anxiety. Individuals with clinically meaningful social anxiety were more likely to use marijuana to cope in social situations and to avoid social situations if marijuana was unavailable. Of importance, MCSAS-Cope uniquely mediated the relationship between social anxiety group status and marijuana-related problems. Results highlight the importance of contextual factors in assessing marijuana-related behaviors among high-risk populations. PMID:22004129

  12. Multigenerational and transgenerational inheritance of drug exposure: The effects of alcohol, opiates, cocaine, marijuana, and nicotine.

    PubMed

    Yohn, Nicole L; Bartolomei, Marisa S; Blendy, Julie A

    2015-07-01

    Familial inheritance of drug abuse is composed of both genetic and environmental factors. Additionally, epigenetic transgenerational inheritance may provide a means by which parental drug use can influence several generations of offspring. Recent evidence suggests that parental drug exposure produces behavioral, biochemical, and neuroanatomical changes in future generations. The focus of this review is to discuss these multigenerational and transgenerational phenotypes in the offspring of animals exposed to drugs of abuse. Specifically, changes found following the administration of alcohol, opioids, cocaine, marijuana, and nicotine will be discussed. In addition, epigenetic modifications to the genome following administration of these drugs will be detailed as well as their potential for transmission to the next generation.

  13. Functions of Marijuana Use in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Julie K.; Accordino, Michael P.; Hewes, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Hierarchical regression analysis was used to test the hypothesis that specific functional factors of marijuana use would predict past 30-day marijuana use in 425 college students more precisely than demographic variables alone. This hypothesis was confirmed. Functional factors of personal/physical enhancement as well as activity enhancement were…

  14. Medical marijuana: medical necessity versus political agenda.

    PubMed

    Clark, Peter A; Capuzzi, Kevin; Fick, Cameron

    2011-12-01

    Marijuana is classified by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) as an illegal Schedule I drug which has no accepted medical use. However, recent studies have shown that medical marijuana is effective in controlling chronic non-cancer pain, alleviating nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy, treating wasting syndrome associated with AIDS, and controlling muscle spasms due to multiple sclerosis. These studies state that the alleviating benefits of marijuana outweigh the negative effects of the drug, and recommend that marijuana be administered to patients who have failed to respond to other therapies. Despite supporting evidence, the DEA refuses to reclassify marijuana as a Schedule II drug, which would allow physicians to prescribe marijuana to suffering patients. The use of medical marijuana has continued to gain support among states, and is currently legal in 16 states and the District of Columbia. This is in stark contrast to the federal government's stance of zero-tolerance, which has led to a heated legal debate in the United States. After reviewing relevant scientific data and grounding the issue in ethical principles like beneficence and nonmaleficence, there is a strong argument for allowing physicians to prescribe marijuana. Patients have a right to all beneficial treatments and to deny them this right violates their basic human rights. PMID:22129912

  15. The Effects of Marijuana on Human Cognition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearl, Joseph H.

    Investigating the effects of marijuana on human psychological functioning, this study differs from previous research in two ways: 1) it is concerned with relatively complex cognitive processes; 2) it has a theoretical rationale. The general hypothesis of the study states that marijuana will impair its user's ability to form and use abstract…

  16. Medical marijuana: medical necessity versus political agenda.

    PubMed

    Clark, Peter A; Capuzzi, Kevin; Fick, Cameron

    2011-12-01

    Marijuana is classified by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) as an illegal Schedule I drug which has no accepted medical use. However, recent studies have shown that medical marijuana is effective in controlling chronic non-cancer pain, alleviating nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy, treating wasting syndrome associated with AIDS, and controlling muscle spasms due to multiple sclerosis. These studies state that the alleviating benefits of marijuana outweigh the negative effects of the drug, and recommend that marijuana be administered to patients who have failed to respond to other therapies. Despite supporting evidence, the DEA refuses to reclassify marijuana as a Schedule II drug, which would allow physicians to prescribe marijuana to suffering patients. The use of medical marijuana has continued to gain support among states, and is currently legal in 16 states and the District of Columbia. This is in stark contrast to the federal government's stance of zero-tolerance, which has led to a heated legal debate in the United States. After reviewing relevant scientific data and grounding the issue in ethical principles like beneficence and nonmaleficence, there is a strong argument for allowing physicians to prescribe marijuana. Patients have a right to all beneficial treatments and to deny them this right violates their basic human rights.

  17. Facts on Marijuana. Clearinghouse Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brick, John

    Marijuana or Cannabis is a weed which grows in many different parts of the world. The plant may be altered into different forms to allow various forms of ingestion. Although marijuana's psychoactive properties have been known for almost 5,000 years, the plant first attracted public attention in the United States during the first half of this…

  18. Medical marijuana: Medical necessity versus political agenda

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Peter A.; Capuzzi, Kevin; Fick, Cameron

    2011-01-01

    Summary Marijuana is classified by the Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) as an illegal Schedule I drug which has no accepted medical use. However, recent studies have shown that medical marijuana is effective in controlling chronic non-cancer pain, alleviating nausea and vomiting associated with chemotherapy, treating wasting syndrome associated with AIDS, and controlling muscle spasms due to multiple sclerosis. These studies state that the alleviating benefits of marijuana outweigh the negative effects of the drug, and recommend that marijuana be administered to patients who have failed to respond to other therapies. Despite supporting evidence, the DEA refuses to reclassify marijuana as a Schedule II drug, which would allow physicians to prescribe marijuana to suffering patients. The use of medical marijuana has continued to gain support among states, and is currently legal in 16 states and the District of Columbia. This is in stark contrast to the federal government’s stance of zero-tolerance, which has led to a heated legal debate in the United States. After reviewing relevant scientific data and grounding the issue in ethical principles like beneficence and nonmaleficence, there is a strong argument for allowing physicians to prescribe marijuana. Patients have a right to all beneficial treatments and to deny them this right violates their basic human rights. PMID:22129912

  19. A Synthesis of Current Research On Marijuana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brubaker, Timothy H.

    1973-01-01

    Since the isolation of the active component of marijuana (THC), studies have revealed various effects to the memory, specific physiological effects, and definite visual effects to individuals while under the influence of marijuana. The sociological aspects of the drug may stimulate an individual into the use of this drug. (Author)

  20. Tips for Teens: The Truth about Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    Q & A Q. Isn’t smoking marijuana less dangerous than smoking cigarettes? A. No. It’s even worse. Five joints a day can be as harmful as 20 cigarettes a day. 10 Q. Can people become addicted to marijuana? A. Yes. Research confirms you can become hooked ...

  1. Marijuana Effects on Human Forgetting Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Scott D.; Cherek, Don R.; Lieving, Lori M.; Tcheremissine, Oleg V.

    2005-01-01

    It has long been known that acute marijuana administration impairs working memory (e.g., the discrimination of stimuli separated by a delay). The determination of which of the individual components of memory are altered by marijuana is an unresolved problem. Previous human studies did not use test protocols that allowed for the determination of…

  2. Marijuana: The Real Story. It's Your Choice!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronck, David R.

    This informational book on marijuana is part of a series of three interactive books on tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana; three informational books containing parallel content; and three teacher guides designed to give students in grades five through eight practice in using the information and skills presented in the books. The goal of this book and…

  3. Rules regarding Marijuana and Its Use in Personal Residences: Findings from Marijuana Users and Nonusers Recruited through Social Media

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Carla J.; Buller, David B.; Schauer, Gillian L.; Windle, Michael; Stratton, Erin; Kegler, Michelle C.

    2015-01-01

    Recent changes in policy and social norms related to marijuana use have increased its use and concern about how/where marijuana should be used. We aimed to characterize rules regarding marijuana and its use in homes. We recruited 1,567 US adults aged 18–34 years through Facebook advertisements to complete an online survey assessing marijuana use, social factors, perceptions of marijuana, and rules regarding marijuana and its use in the home, targeting tobacco and marijuana users to ensure the relevance of this topic. Overall, 648 (41.6%) were current marijuana users; 46.0% of participants reported that “marijuana of any type is not allowed in their home or on their property.” Of those allowing marijuana on their property, 6.4% prohibited use of marijuana in their home. Of the remainder, 29.2% prohibited smoking marijuana, and 11.0% prohibited vaping, eating, or drinking marijuana. Correlates of more restrictive rules included younger age, being female, having marijuana, perceiving use to be less socially acceptable and more harmful, and being a nonuser (p's <.05). Attitudes and subjective norms regarding marijuana are correlates of allowing marijuana in residential settings. Future work should examine areas of risk regarding household marijuana rules. PMID:26576162

  4. Rules regarding marijuana and its use in personal residences: findings from marijuana users and nonusers recruited through social media.

    PubMed

    Berg, Carla J; Buller, David B; Schauer, Gillian L; Windle, Michael; Stratton, Erin; Kegler, Michelle C

    2015-01-01

    Recent changes in policy and social norms related to marijuana use have increased its use and concern about how/where marijuana should be used. We aimed to characterize rules regarding marijuana and its use in homes. We recruited 1,567 US adults aged 18-34 years through Facebook advertisements to complete an online survey assessing marijuana use, social factors, perceptions of marijuana, and rules regarding marijuana and its use in the home, targeting tobacco and marijuana users to ensure the relevance of this topic. Overall, 648 (41.6%) were current marijuana users; 46.0% of participants reported that "marijuana of any type is not allowed in their home or on their property." Of those allowing marijuana on their property, 6.4% prohibited use of marijuana in their home. Of the remainder, 29.2% prohibited smoking marijuana, and 11.0% prohibited vaping, eating, or drinking marijuana. Correlates of more restrictive rules included younger age, being female, having marijuana, perceiving use to be less socially acceptable and more harmful, and being a nonuser (p's <.05). Attitudes and subjective norms regarding marijuana are correlates of allowing marijuana in residential settings. Future work should examine areas of risk regarding household marijuana rules. PMID:26576162

  5. Family Medicine Curriculum Guide to Substance Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liepman, Michael R., Ed.; And Others

    This curriculum guide on substance abuse is intended for teachers of family medicine. Comments, learning objectives, teaching hints, and evaluations of knowledge are provided for each area in all chapters. Chapter 1 focuses on the pharmacology of commonly abused drugs including depressants, opioids, stimulants, hallucinogens, inhalants, and…

  6. Effects of Alcohol and Combined Marijuana and Alcohol Use During Adolescence on Hippocampal Volume and Asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Schweinsburg, Alecia D.; Cohen-Zion, Mairav; Nagel, Bonnie J.; Tapert, Susan F.

    2007-01-01

    Background Converging lines of evidence suggest that the hippocampus may be particularly vulnerable to deleterious effects of alcohol and marijuana use, especially during adolescence. The goal of this study was to examine hippocampal volume and asymmetry in adolescent users of alcohol and marijuana. Methods Participants were adolescent (aged 15–18) alcohol (ALC) users (n=16), marijuana and alcohol (MJ+ALC) users (n=26), and demographically similar controls (n=21). Extensive exclusionary criteria included prenatal toxic exposure, left handedness, and psychiatric and neurologic disorders. Substance use, cognitive, and anatomical measures were collected after at least 2 days of abstinence from all substances. Results Adolescent ALC users demonstrated a significantly different pattern of hippocampal asymmetry (p<.05) and reduced left hippocampal volume (p<.05) compared to MJ+ALC users and non-using controls. Increased alcohol abuse/dependence severity was associated with increased right > left (R>L) asymmetry and smaller left hippocampal volumes while marijuana abuse/dependence was associated with increased L>R asymmetry and larger left hippocampal volumes. Although MJ+ALC users did not differ from controls in asymmetry, functional relationships with verbal learning were found only among controls, among whom greater right than left hippocampal volume was associated with superior performance (p<.05). Conclusions Aberrations in hippocampal asymmetry and left hippocampal volumes were found for adolescent heavy drinkers. Further, the functional relationship between hippocampal asymmetry and verbal learning was abnormal among adolescent substance users compared to healthy controls. These findings suggest differential effects of alcohol and combined marijuana and alcohol use on hippocampal morphometry and the relationship between hippocampal asymmetry and verbal learning performance among adolescents. PMID:17169528

  7. Inhalational anthrax.

    PubMed

    Cuneo, Brian M

    2004-03-01

    Anthrax remains a real threat. In a spore form, it is highly infectious and dispersible. The initial symptoms are similar to those of influenza, and the early stage of inhalational anthrax may not be recognized. Early antibiotic treatment is important to achieving a good outcome. Contrary to historical experience. many patients with even advanced anthrax can be saved with aggressive medical care. Prevention of anthrax infections requires vigilant infection control methods as well as a rational prophylactic plan. All health care providers should be familiar with the symptoms and treatment of this disease. It is hoped that future research will clarify tests for early diagnosis, the best methods of prophylaxis, and the most effective treatments. Unfortunately the threat of bioterrorism, and anthrax in particular, is unlikely to go away. PMID:15062228

  8. Notes from the Field: Death Following Ingestion of an Edible Marijuana Product--Colorado, March 2014.

    PubMed

    Hancock-Allen, Jessica B; Barker, Lisa; VanDyke, Michael; Holmes, Dawn B

    2015-07-24

    In March 2014, the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) learned of the death of a man aged 19 years after consuming an edible marijuana product. CDPHE reviewed autopsy and police reports to assess factors associated with his death and to guide prevention efforts. The decedent's friend, aged 23 years, had purchased marijuana cookies and provided one to the decedent. A police report indicated that initially the decedent ate only a single piece of his cookie, as directed by the sales clerk. Approximately 30-60 minutes later, not feeling any effects, he consumed the remainder of the cookie. During the next 2 hours, he reportedly exhibited erratic speech and hostile behaviors. Approximately 3.5 hours after initial ingestion, and 2.5 hours after consuming the remainder of the cookie, he jumped off a fourth floor balcony and died from trauma. The autopsy, performed 29 hours after time of death, found marijuana intoxication as a chief contributing factor. Quantitative toxicologic analyses for drugs of abuse, synthetic cannabinoid, and cathinones ("bath salts") were performed on chest cavity blood by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The only confirmed findings were cannabinoids (7.2 ng/mL delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol [THC] and 49 ng/mL delta-9 carboxy-THC, an inactive marijuana metabolite). The legal whole blood limit of delta-9 THC for driving a vehicle in Colorado is 5.0 ng/mL. This was the first reported death in Colorado linked to marijuana consumption without evidence of polysubstance use since the state approved recreational use of marijuana in 2012. PMID:26203632

  9. Chronic Offenders: A Life-Course Analysis of Marijuana Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragan, Daniel T.; Beaver, Kevin M.

    2010-01-01

    Marijuana is the most widely used illegal drug, and the use of marijuana has been linked to a wide array of maladaptive outcomes. As a result, there is great interest in identifying the factors that are associated with the use of marijuana and with desistance from marijuana. The current study employed a life-course framework to examine the factors…

  10. Sex and Grade Level Differences in Marijuana Use among Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Keith A.; Vidourek, Rebecca A.; Hoffman, Ashlee R.

    2012-01-01

    A total of 54,361 students in seventh through twelfth grades completed a survey examining the impact of perceived harm of marijuana use, ease of access in obtaining marijuana, and perceived parent/peer disapproval of marijuana use on youth involvement in annual and recent marijuana use. Results indicated that 1 in 6 (16%) students used marijuana…

  11. Medical and recreational marijuana: commentary and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Samuel T

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen substantial shifts in cultural attitudes towards marijuana for medical and recreational use. Potential problems with the approval, production, dispensation, route of administration, and negative health effects of medical and recreational marijuana are reviewed. Medical marijuana should be subject to the same rigorous approval process as other medications prescribed by physicians. Legalizing recreational marijuana may have negative public health effects.

  12. Nabilone Decreases Marijuana Withdrawal and a Laboratory Measure of Marijuana Relapse

    PubMed Central

    Haney, Margaret; Cooper, Ziva D; Bedi, Gillinder; Vosburg, Suzanne K; Comer, Sandra D; Foltin, Richard W

    2013-01-01

    Few individuals seeking treatment for marijuana use achieve sustained abstinence. The cannabinoid receptor agonist, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC; dronabinol), decreases marijuana withdrawal symptoms, yet does not decrease marijuana use in the laboratory or clinic. Dronabinol has poor bioavailability, which may contribute to its poor efficacy. The FDA-approved synthetic analog of THC, nabilone, has higher bioavailability and clearer dose-linearity than dronabinol. This study tested whether nabilone administration would decrease marijuana withdrawal symptoms and a laboratory measure of marijuana relapse relative to placebo. Daily, nontreatment-seeking marijuana smokers (8 men and 3 women), who reported smoking 8.3±3.1 marijuana cigarettes/day completed this within-subject study comprising three, 8-day inpatient phases; each phase tested a different nabilone dose (0, 6, 8 mg/day, administered in counter-balanced order on days 2–8). On the first inpatient day, participants took placebo capsules and smoked active marijuana (5.6% THC) at six timepoints. For the next 3 days, they had the opportunity to self-administer placebo marijuana (0.0% THC; withdrawal), followed by 4 days in which active marijuana was available for self-administration (5.6% THC; relapse). Both nabilone dose conditions decreased marijuana relapse and reversed withdrawal-related irritability and disruptions in sleep and food intake (p<0.05). Nabilone (8 mg/day) modestly worsened psychomotor task performance. Neither dose condition increased ratings of capsule ‘liking' or desire to take the capsules relative to placebo. Thus, nabilone maintenance produced a robust attenuation of marijuana withdrawal symptoms and a laboratory measure of relapse even with once per day dosing. These data support testing of nabilone for patients seeking marijuana treatment. PMID:23443718

  13. Relapse Among Adolescent Drug Abusers Following Treatment: The Role of Probable ADHD Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latimer, William W.; Ernst, Jenna; Hennessey, Jodi; Stinchfield, Randy D.; Winters, Ken C.

    2004-01-01

    This is a report on a sample of adolescent drug abusers in treatment (N = 220) to estimate the degree to which probable ADHD status increases the odds of posttreatment alcohol, marijuana, and other drug relapse during the initial 6 months following discharge. Drug abusing youth with probable ADHD status exhibited 2.5 times the risk of…

  14. Prescription and Over-the-Counter Drug Abuse Prevention. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2010

    2010-01-01

    According to the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy, "abuse of prescription drugs to get high has become increasingly prevalent among teens and young adults. Past year abuse of prescription pain killers now ranks second--only behind marijuana--as the Nation's most prevalent illegal drug problem." Use of prescription drugs without a…

  15. Is Substance Abuse Increasing among WCPSS High School Students? Eye on Evaluation. E&R Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wake County Public Schools System, Raleigh, NC. Dept. of Evaluation and Research.

    After more than a decade of decline in the use of drugs by American high school students, national, state and local data sources seem to indicate that high school student substance abuse, particularly the use of marijuana and hallucinogens such as LSD, has been increasing for the past two years. Indicators of student substance abuse can be found…

  16. Marijuana Use and Motor Vehicle Crashes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mu-Chen; Brady, Joanne E.; DiMaggio, Charles J.; Lusardi, Arielle R.; Tzong, Keane Y.; Li, Guohua

    2012-01-01

    Since 1996, 16 states and the District of Columbia in the United States have enacted legislation to decriminalize marijuana for medical use. Although marijuana is the most commonly detected nonalcohol drug in drivers, its role in crash causation remains unsettled. To assess the association between marijuana use and crash risk, the authors performed a meta-analysis of 9 epidemiologic studies published in English in the past 2 decades identified through a systematic search of bibliographic databases. Estimated odds ratios relating marijuana use to crash risk reported in these studies ranged from 0.85 to 7.16. Pooled analysis based on the random-effects model yielded a summary odds ratio of 2.66 (95% confidence interval: 2.07, 3.41). Analysis of individual studies indicated that the heightened risk of crash involvement associated with marijuana use persisted after adjustment for confounding variables and that the risk of crash involvement increased in a dose-response fashion with the concentration of 11-nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol detected in the urine and the frequency of self-reported marijuana use. The results of this meta-analysis suggest that marijuana use by drivers is associated with a significantly increased risk of being involved in motor vehicle crashes. PMID:21976636

  17. Political and medical views on medical marijuana and its future.

    PubMed

    Rubens, Muni

    2014-01-01

    The policies, laws, politics, public opinions, and scientific inferences of medical marijuana are rapidly changing as the debate on medical use of marijuana has always been political, rather than scientific. Federal law has barred the use of medical marijuana though 18 state governments and Washington, DC, support the medical use of marijuana. Unfortunately, not many studies exist on medical marijuana to back these laws and policies. The judiciary, on the other hand, has elicited a diverse response to medical marijuana through its rulings over several decades. Some rulings favored the federal government's opinion, and others supported the larger public view and many state governments with legalized medical marijuana. Public opinion on legalizing medical marijuana has always favored the use of medical marijuana. The movement of scientific knowledge of medical marijuana follows an erratic, discontinuous pathway. The future place of medical marijuana in U.S. society remains unknown. The three forces-scientific knowledge, social-political acceptance, and laws-play a role in the direction that medical marijuana takes in society. Overcoming political-social forces requires a concerted effort from the scientific community and political leaders. The results of scientific research must guide the decisions for laws and medical use of marijuana. This article aims to trace the political dilemma and contradictory views shared by federal and state governments and predict the future of medical marijuana by tracing the past history of medical marijuana with its bumpy pathway in the social-political arena.

  18. Trajectories of Marijuana Use and Psychological Adjustment Among Urban African American and Puerto Rican Women

    PubMed Central

    Pahl, Kerstin; Brook, Judith S.; Koppel, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    Background The current longitudinal study examined the developmental patterns of marijuana use, as well as their relationship with subsequent psychological adjustment in a community-based sample of urban African American and Puerto Rican women. Method Participants were interviewed five times over a period ranging from adolescence (mean age 14.0 years) to adulthood (mean age 32.5). Outcome measures included depressive symptoms, anger/hostility, as well as the presence of a substance use disorder (abuse/dependence). Results Three distinct trajectories of marijuana use were identified: nonusers, increasers, and quitters. Increasers reported higher levels of depressive symptoms and anger/hostility than did nonusers, and were more likely to meet criteria for a substance use disorder at age 32.5 years. Conclusions Findings indicated that early-starting long-term use of marijuana is associated with psychological maladjustment among women. Prevention efforts should emphasize the long-term cost associated with marijuana use, and that the best psychological health is reported by those who abstain from the drug. PMID:21205359

  19. Voucher-based contingent reinforcement of marijuana abstinence among individuals with serious mental illness.

    PubMed

    Sigmon, Stacey C; Higgins, Stephen T

    2006-06-01

    Previous studies by our group have used money given contingent on abstinence to reduce drug use by individuals with schizophrenia. In this study, we examined the sensitivity of marijuana use by individuals with serious mental illness to voucher-based contingent reinforcement, which represents the first study to date investigating the efficacy of voucher incentives with this population. This within-subject reversal design consisted of three conditions: 4-week baseline, 12-week voucher intervention, and 4-week baseline. During baseline periods, subjects received 10 US dollars vouchers per urine specimen, independent of urinalysis results. During voucher intervention, only specimens testing negative for marijuana earned vouchers, with total possible earnings of 930 US dollars. Seven adults with schizophrenia or other serious mental illnesses participated in the study. The percentage of marijuana-negative specimens was significantly greater during voucher intervention than during baseline periods. These results provide evidence that marijuana use among individuals with serious mental illness is sensitive to voucher-based incentives and further support the potential feasibility of using voucher-based contingency management to reduce substance abuse in this challenging population.

  20. Driving Under the Influence of Alcohol, Marijuana, and Alcohol and Marijuana Combined Among Persons Aged 16-25 Years - United States, 2002-2014.

    PubMed

    Azofeifa, Alejandro; Mattson, Margaret E; Lyerla, Rob

    2015-12-11

    Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of death among youths and young adults aged 16-25 years in the United States (1). The prevalence of drinking and driving among high school students aged 16-19 years has declined by 54%, from 22.3% in 1991 to 10.3% in 2011 (2). However, the prevalence of weekend nighttime driving under the influence of marijuana (based on biochemical assays) among drivers aged ≥16 years has increased by 48%, from 8.6% in 2007 to 12.6% in 2013-2014 (3). Use of marijuana alone and in combination with alcohol has been shown to impair driving abilities (4-9). This report provides the most recent self-reported national estimates of driving under the influence of alcohol, marijuana, and alcohol and marijuana combined among persons aged 16-25 years, using data from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) from 2002-2014. Prevalence data on driving under the influence of both substances were examined for two age groups (16-20 years and 21-25 years) and by sex and race/ethnicity. During 2002-2014, the prevalence of driving under the influence of alcohol alone significantly declined by 59% among persons aged 16-20 years (from 16.2% in 2002 to 6.6% in 2014; p<0.001) and 38% among persons 21-25 years (from 29.1% in 2002 to 18.1% in 2014; p<0.001). In addition, the prevalence of driving under the influence of alcohol and marijuana combined significantly declined by 39%, from 2.3% in 2002 to 1.4% in 2014 (p<0.001) among persons aged 16-20 years and from 3.1% in 2002 to 1.9% in 2014 (p<0.001) among persons aged 21-25 years. The prevalence of driving under the influence of marijuana alone declined 18%, from 3.8% in 2002 to 3.1% in 2014 (p = 0.05) only among persons aged 16-20 years. Effective public safety interventions,* such as minimum legal drinking age laws, prohibition of driving with any alcohol level >0 for persons aged <21 years, targeted mass media campaigns

  1. Driving Under the Influence of Alcohol, Marijuana, and Alcohol and Marijuana Combined Among Persons Aged 16-25 Years - United States, 2002-2014.

    PubMed

    Azofeifa, Alejandro; Mattson, Margaret E; Lyerla, Rob

    2015-12-11

    Motor vehicle accidents are the leading cause of death among youths and young adults aged 16-25 years in the United States (1). The prevalence of drinking and driving among high school students aged 16-19 years has declined by 54%, from 22.3% in 1991 to 10.3% in 2011 (2). However, the prevalence of weekend nighttime driving under the influence of marijuana (based on biochemical assays) among drivers aged ≥16 years has increased by 48%, from 8.6% in 2007 to 12.6% in 2013-2014 (3). Use of marijuana alone and in combination with alcohol has been shown to impair driving abilities (4-9). This report provides the most recent self-reported national estimates of driving under the influence of alcohol, marijuana, and alcohol and marijuana combined among persons aged 16-25 years, using data from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) from 2002-2014. Prevalence data on driving under the influence of both substances were examined for two age groups (16-20 years and 21-25 years) and by sex and race/ethnicity. During 2002-2014, the prevalence of driving under the influence of alcohol alone significantly declined by 59% among persons aged 16-20 years (from 16.2% in 2002 to 6.6% in 2014; p<0.001) and 38% among persons 21-25 years (from 29.1% in 2002 to 18.1% in 2014; p<0.001). In addition, the prevalence of driving under the influence of alcohol and marijuana combined significantly declined by 39%, from 2.3% in 2002 to 1.4% in 2014 (p<0.001) among persons aged 16-20 years and from 3.1% in 2002 to 1.9% in 2014 (p<0.001) among persons aged 21-25 years. The prevalence of driving under the influence of marijuana alone declined 18%, from 3.8% in 2002 to 3.1% in 2014 (p = 0.05) only among persons aged 16-20 years. Effective public safety interventions,* such as minimum legal drinking age laws, prohibition of driving with any alcohol level >0 for persons aged <21 years, targeted mass media campaigns

  2. Medical marijuana: the state of the research.

    PubMed

    Mirken, B

    1996-10-18

    Recent raids on buyers' clubs in San Francisco have focused attention on medicinal uses of marijuana. The Clinton administration's policy is that there is no scientific evidence that smoked marijuana is useful in treating pain and nausea in AIDS and cancer patients. However, mainstream medical literature has supported the use of cannabis in managing symptoms of diseases such as glaucoma and multiple sclerosis. Well designed, controlled studies of marijuana are needed to determine the effective medical uses of the drug and break the political stalemate on this issue.

  3. Stress system changes associated with marijuana dependence may increase craving for alcohol and cocaine

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Helen C.; Tuit, Keri L.; Sinha, Rajita

    2013-01-01

    Objective To date, little research exists defining bio-behavioral adaptations associated with both marijuana abuse and risk of craving and relapse to other drugs of abuse during early abstinence. Method Fifty-nine treatment-seeking individuals dependent on alcohol and cocaine were recruited. Thirty of these individuals were also marijuana (MJ) dependent; 29 were not. Twenty-six socially drinking healthy controls were also recruited. All participants were exposed to three 5-min guided imagery conditions (stress, alcohol/cocaine cue and relaxing), presented randomly, one per day across three consecutive days. Measures of craving, anxiety, heart rate, blood pressure, plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone and cortisol were collected at baseline and subsequent recovery time points. Results The MJ-dependent group showed increased basal anxiety ratings and cardiovascular output alongside enhanced alcohol craving and cocaine craving, and dampened cardiovascular response to stress and cue. They also demonstrated elevated cue-induced anxiety and stress-induced cortisol and adrenocorticotrophic hormone levels, which were not observed in the non-MJ-dependent group or controls. Cue-related alcohol craving and anxiety were both predictive of a shorter number of days to marijuana relapse following discharge from inpatient treatment. Conclusions Findings provide some support for drug cross-sensitization in terms of motivational processes associated with stress-related and cue-related craving and relapse. PMID:23280514

  4. Gender-Specific Outcomes for Sexually Abused Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandy, Joseph M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A study of 370 male and 2,681 female adolescents with a history of sexual abuse found that males were at higher risk than females for poor school performance, delinquent activities, extreme use of alcohol and marijuana, and sexual risk taking. Female victims showed higher risk for suicidal ideation and behavior, frequent use of alcohol, and…

  5. Marijuana, the Endocannabinoid System and the Female Reproductive System.

    PubMed

    Brents, Lisa K

    2016-06-01

    Marijuana use among women is highly prevalent, but the societal conversation on marijuana rarely focuses on how marijuana affects female reproduction and endocrinology. This article reviews the current scientific literature regarding marijuana use and hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis regulation, ovarian hormone production, the menstrual cycle, and fertility. Evidence suggests that marijuana can reduce female fertility by disrupting hypothalamic release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), leading to reduced estrogen and progesterone production and anovulatory menstrual cycles. Tolerance to these effects has been shown in rhesus monkeys, but the effects of chronic marijuana use on human female reproduction are largely unknown. Marijuana-induced analgesia, drug reinforcement properties, tolerance, and dependence are influenced by ovarian hormones, with estrogen generally increasing and progesterone decreasing sensitivity to marijuana. Carefully controlled regulation of the Endocannabinoid System (ECS) is required for successful reproduction, and the exogenous cannabinoids in marijuana may disrupt the delicate balance of the ECS in the female reproductive system. PMID:27354844

  6. Marijuana, the Endocannabinoid System and the Female Reproductive System.

    PubMed

    Brents, Lisa K

    2016-06-01

    Marijuana use among women is highly prevalent, but the societal conversation on marijuana rarely focuses on how marijuana affects female reproduction and endocrinology. This article reviews the current scientific literature regarding marijuana use and hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis regulation, ovarian hormone production, the menstrual cycle, and fertility. Evidence suggests that marijuana can reduce female fertility by disrupting hypothalamic release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), leading to reduced estrogen and progesterone production and anovulatory menstrual cycles. Tolerance to these effects has been shown in rhesus monkeys, but the effects of chronic marijuana use on human female reproduction are largely unknown. Marijuana-induced analgesia, drug reinforcement properties, tolerance, and dependence are influenced by ovarian hormones, with estrogen generally increasing and progesterone decreasing sensitivity to marijuana. Carefully controlled regulation of the Endocannabinoid System (ECS) is required for successful reproduction, and the exogenous cannabinoids in marijuana may disrupt the delicate balance of the ECS in the female reproductive system.

  7. Marijuana, the Endocannabinoid System and the Female Reproductive System

    PubMed Central

    Brents, Lisa K.

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana use among women is highly prevalent, but the societal conversation on marijuana rarely focuses on how marijuana affects female reproduction and endocrinology. This article reviews the current scientific literature regarding marijuana use and hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian (HPO) axis regulation, ovarian hormone production, the menstrual cycle, and fertility. Evidence suggests that marijuana can reduce female fertility by disrupting hypothalamic release of gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH), leading to reduced estrogen and progesterone production and anovulatory menstrual cycles. Tolerance to these effects has been shown in rhesus monkeys, but the effects of chronic marijuana use on human female reproduction are largely unknown. Marijuana-induced analgesia, drug reinforcement properties, tolerance, and dependence are influenced by ovarian hormones, with estrogen generally increasing and progesterone decreasing sensitivity to marijuana. Carefully controlled regulation of the Endocannabinoid System (ECS) is required for successful reproduction, and the exogenous cannabinoids in marijuana may disrupt the delicate balance of the ECS in the female reproductive system. PMID:27354844

  8. Marijuana: interaction with the estrogen receptor.

    PubMed

    Sauer, M A; Rifka, S M; Hawks, R L; Cutler, G B; Loriaux, D L

    1983-02-01

    Crude marijuana extract competed with estradiol for binding to the estrogen receptor of rat uterine cytosol. Condensed marijuana smoke also competed with estradiol for its receptor. Pure delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, however, did not interact with the estrogen receptor. Ten delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol metabolites also failed to compete with estradiol for its receptor. Of several other common cannabinoids tested, only cannabidiol showed any estrogen receptor binding. This was evident only at very high concentrations of cannabidiol. Apigenin, the aglycone of a flavinoid phytoestrogen found in cannabis, displayed high affinity for the estrogen receptor. To assess the biological significance of these receptor data, estrogen activity was measured in vivo with the uterine growth bioassay, using immature rats. Cannabis extract in large doses exhibited neither estrogenic nor antiestrogenic effects. Thus, although estrogen receptor binding activity was observed in crude marijuana extract, marijuana smoke condensate and several known components of cannabis, direct estrogenic activity of cannabis extract could not be demonstrated in vivo.

  9. Dimensions of the subjective marijuana experience.

    PubMed

    Pihl, R O; Shea, D; Costa, L

    1979-01-01

    A Drug History Questionnaire and a Marihuana Effects Questionnaire were completed by 91 male volunteers who were experienced marijuana smokers. A factor analysis was performed on the frequency of occurrence data for the Marihuana Effects Questionnaire. The resultant factors were similar to those reported previously in the literature supporting the existence of a stable, verbally definable marijuana experience. In comparison to the drug history variables of marijuana smokers in the late 1960s, our population showed increased multiple drug use, an earlier age of introduction to cannabis, and heavier use of cannabis. An analysis of the interaction of drug history variables with experienced marijuana effects suggested that the more frequently one uses cannabis, the less pronounced the experienced effects tend to be.

  10. The Use of Medical Marijuana in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Birdsall, Shauna M; Birdsall, Timothy C; Tims, Lucas A

    2016-07-01

    The use of medical marijuana in cancer care presents a dilemma for both patients and physicians. The scientific evidence is evolving, yet much of the known information is still insufficient to adequately inform patients as to risks and benefits. In addition, evidence-based dosing and administration information on medical marijuana is lacking. Medical marijuana is now legal, on some level, in 24 states plus the District of Columbia, yet is not legal on the federal level. This review addresses the current state of the research, including potential indications, risks and adverse effects, preliminary data on anticancer effects, as well as legal and quality issues. A summary of the clinical trials underway on medical marijuana in the oncology setting is discussed.

  11. The Use of Medical Marijuana in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Birdsall, Shauna M; Birdsall, Timothy C; Tims, Lucas A

    2016-07-01

    The use of medical marijuana in cancer care presents a dilemma for both patients and physicians. The scientific evidence is evolving, yet much of the known information is still insufficient to adequately inform patients as to risks and benefits. In addition, evidence-based dosing and administration information on medical marijuana is lacking. Medical marijuana is now legal, on some level, in 24 states plus the District of Columbia, yet is not legal on the federal level. This review addresses the current state of the research, including potential indications, risks and adverse effects, preliminary data on anticancer effects, as well as legal and quality issues. A summary of the clinical trials underway on medical marijuana in the oncology setting is discussed. PMID:27215434

  12. Alcohol and marijuana use while driving--an unexpected crash risk in Pakistani commercial drivers: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A significant proportion of road traffic crashes are attributable to alcohol and marijuana use while driving globally. Sale and use of both substances is illegal in Pakistan and is not considered a threat for road traffic injuries. However literature hints that this may not be the case. We did this study to assess usage of alcohol and marijuana in Pakistani commercial drivers. Methods A sample of 857 commercial bus and truck drivers was interviewed in October 2008 at the largest commercial vehicle station in Rawalpindi and Islamabad, Pakistan. Time location cluster sampling was used to select the subjects and a structured questionnaire was used to assess the basic demographic profile, substance abuse habits of the drivers while on the road, and reasons for usage of illicit substances while driving were recorded. Self reported information was collected after obtaining informed consent. Chi square and fisher exact tests were used to assess differences between groups and logistic regression was used to identify significant associations between driver characteristics and alcohol and marijuana use. Results Almost 10% of truck drivers use alcohol while driving on Pakistani roads. Marijuana use is almost 30% in some groups. Statistically different patterns of usage are seen between population subgroups based on age, ethnicity, education, and marital status. Regression analysis shows association of alcohol and marijuana use with road rage and error behaviours, and also with an increased risk of being involved in road crashes. The reported reasons for using alcohol or marijuana show a general lack of awareness of the hazardous nature of this practice among the commercial driver population. Conclusion Alcohol and marijuana use is highly prevalent in Pakistani commercial drivers. The issue needs to be recognized by concerned authorities and methods such as random breath tests and sobriety check points need to be employed for proper law enforcement. PMID:22369479

  13. Marijuana effects on associations to novel stimuli.

    PubMed

    Tinklenberg, J R; Darley, C F; Roth, W T; Pfefferbaum, A; Kopell, B S

    1978-05-01

    Sixteen college-educated male subjects were given an object description task during placebo conditions and while intoxicated with marijuana extract cookies calibrated to 0.3 mg/kg delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, a dose within the range of usual social use. The task was scored for fluency, flexibility, elaboration, and uniqueness, all of which represent associational thinking and are considered to be components of creativity. Marijuana did not enhance any of these measures.

  14. Problematic Substance Use in Urban Adolescents: Role of Intrauterine Exposures to Cocaine and Marijuana and Post-Natal Environment

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Deborah A.; Kuranz, Seth; Appugliese, Danielle; Cabral, Howard; Chen, Clara; Crooks, Denise; Heeren, Timothy; Liebschutz, Jane; Richardson, Mark; Rose-Jacobs, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    Background Linkages between intrauterine exposures to cocaine and marijuana and adolescents’ problematic substance use have not been fully delineated. Methods Prospective longitudinal study with assessors unaware of intrauterine exposure history followed 157 urban participants from birth until late adolescence. Level of intrauterine exposures was identified by mother's report and infant’s meconium. Problematic substance use, identified by the Voice Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (V-DISC) or the Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interview (ACASI) and urine assay, was a composite encompassing DSM-IV indication of tolerance, abuse, and dependence on alcohol, marijuana, and tobacco and any use of cocaine, glue, or opiates. Results Twenty percent (32/157) of the sample experienced problematic substance use by age 18 years, of whom the majority (22/157) acknowledged abuse, tolerance or dependence on marijuana with or without other substances. Structural equation models examining direct and indirect pathways linking a Cox survival model for early substance initiation to a logistic regression models found effects of post-natal factors including childhood exposure to violence and household substance use, early youth substance initiation, and ongoing youth violence exposure contributing to adolescent problematic substance use. Conclusion We did not identify direct relationships between intrauterine cocaine or marijuana exposure and problematic substance use, but did find potentially modifiable post-natal risk factors also noted to be associated with problematic substance use in the general population including earlier substance initiation, exposure to violence and to household substance use. PMID:24999059

  15. Variation in youthful risks of progression from alcohol and tobacco to marijuana and to hard drugs across generations.

    PubMed Central

    Golub, A; Johnson, B D

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Much research has documented that youthful substance use typically follows a sequence starting with use of alcohol or tobacco or both and potentially proceeding to marijuana and then hard drug use. This study explicitly examined the probabilities of progression through each stage and their covariates. METHODS: A secondary analysis of data from the National Household Survey on Drug Abuse (1979-1997) was conducted with particular sensitivity to the nature of substance use progression, sampling procedures, and reliability of self-report data. RESULTS: Progression to marijuana and hard drug use was uncommon among persons born before World War II. The stages phenomenon essentially emerged with the baby boom and rose to a peak among persons born around 1960. Subsequently, progression risks at each stage declined. Progression risks were also higher among younger initiators of alcohol, tobacco, or marijuana use. CONCLUSIONS: The recent increase in youthful marijuana use has been offset by lower rates of progression to hard drug use among youths born in the 1970s. Dire predictions of future hard drug abuse by youths who came of age in the 1990s may be greatly overstated. PMID:11211630

  16. The Genetic Structure of Marijuana and Hemp.

    PubMed

    Sawler, Jason; Stout, Jake M; Gardner, Kyle M; Hudson, Darryl; Vidmar, John; Butler, Laura; Page, Jonathan E; Myles, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Despite its cultivation as a source of food, fibre and medicine, and its global status as the most used illicit drug, the genus Cannabis has an inconclusive taxonomic organization and evolutionary history. Drug types of Cannabis (marijuana), which contain high amounts of the psychoactive cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), are used for medical purposes and as a recreational drug. Hemp types are grown for the production of seed and fibre, and contain low amounts of THC. Two species or gene pools (C. sativa and C. indica) are widely used in describing the pedigree or appearance of cultivated Cannabis plants. Using 14,031 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 81 marijuana and 43 hemp samples, we show that marijuana and hemp are significantly differentiated at a genome-wide level, demonstrating that the distinction between these populations is not limited to genes underlying THC production. We find a moderate correlation between the genetic structure of marijuana strains and their reported C. sativa and C. indica ancestry and show that marijuana strain names often do not reflect a meaningful genetic identity. We also provide evidence that hemp is genetically more similar to C. indica type marijuana than to C. sativa strains.

  17. Marijuana Use, Driving, and Related Cognitions

    PubMed Central

    Arterberry, Brooke J.; Treloar, Hayley R.; Smith, Ashley E.; Martens, Matthew P.; Pedersen, Sarah; McCarthy, Denis M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of the present study was to examine cognitive risk factors for driving after use of marijuana. We tested whether marijuana outcome expectancies and specific cognitions about driving after marijuana use were uniquely associated with the likelihood and frequency of driving while high (DWH) and riding with a high driver (RWHD). Method Participants were college students recruited from introductory psychology classes at a Midwestern university who reported ever using marijuana in their lifetime and reported having access to a car or driving at least once a month (n = 506). Results Greater perceived dangerousness of DWH was associated with decreased likelihood of DWH and RWHD. Negative marijuana expectancies were associated with decreased likelihood of DWH, and social norms were associated with decreased likelihood of RWHD. All cognitive predictors were associated with decreased frequency of DWH and RWHD for individuals with the propensity to engage in these behaviors. Conclusions Findings suggest interventions to reduce risk of DWH and RWHD may benefit from targeting general expectancies about the negative effects of marijuana. Similarly, results suggest increasing students' knowledge of the potential danger of DWH may help to reduce the likelihood of and frequency of DWH and RWHD. PMID:23276319

  18. The Genetic Structure of Marijuana and Hemp.

    PubMed

    Sawler, Jason; Stout, Jake M; Gardner, Kyle M; Hudson, Darryl; Vidmar, John; Butler, Laura; Page, Jonathan E; Myles, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Despite its cultivation as a source of food, fibre and medicine, and its global status as the most used illicit drug, the genus Cannabis has an inconclusive taxonomic organization and evolutionary history. Drug types of Cannabis (marijuana), which contain high amounts of the psychoactive cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), are used for medical purposes and as a recreational drug. Hemp types are grown for the production of seed and fibre, and contain low amounts of THC. Two species or gene pools (C. sativa and C. indica) are widely used in describing the pedigree or appearance of cultivated Cannabis plants. Using 14,031 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 81 marijuana and 43 hemp samples, we show that marijuana and hemp are significantly differentiated at a genome-wide level, demonstrating that the distinction between these populations is not limited to genes underlying THC production. We find a moderate correlation between the genetic structure of marijuana strains and their reported C. sativa and C. indica ancestry and show that marijuana strain names often do not reflect a meaningful genetic identity. We also provide evidence that hemp is genetically more similar to C. indica type marijuana than to C. sativa strains. PMID:26308334

  19. The Genetic Structure of Marijuana and Hemp

    PubMed Central

    Sawler, Jason; Stout, Jake M.; Gardner, Kyle M.; Hudson, Darryl; Vidmar, John; Butler, Laura; Page, Jonathan E.; Myles, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Despite its cultivation as a source of food, fibre and medicine, and its global status as the most used illicit drug, the genus Cannabis has an inconclusive taxonomic organization and evolutionary history. Drug types of Cannabis (marijuana), which contain high amounts of the psychoactive cannabinoid Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), are used for medical purposes and as a recreational drug. Hemp types are grown for the production of seed and fibre, and contain low amounts of THC. Two species or gene pools (C. sativa and C. indica) are widely used in describing the pedigree or appearance of cultivated Cannabis plants. Using 14,031 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 81 marijuana and 43 hemp samples, we show that marijuana and hemp are significantly differentiated at a genome-wide level, demonstrating that the distinction between these populations is not limited to genes underlying THC production. We find a moderate correlation between the genetic structure of marijuana strains and their reported C. sativa and C. indica ancestry and show that marijuana strain names often do not reflect a meaningful genetic identity. We also provide evidence that hemp is genetically more similar to C. indica type marijuana than to C. sativa strains. PMID:26308334

  20. Medical marijuana: time to contact your U.S. representative.

    PubMed

    James, J S

    1998-04-01

    Advocates for legalizing marijuana for medicinal use are encouraged to contact their U.S. representatives. The first congressional vote on medicinal use of marijuana, House Resolution 372 (the anti-medicinal-marijuana resolution), takes place on April 21. H. Res. 372 states that marijuana is a dangerous and addictive drug. Nine Democrats on the House Judiciary Committee strongly disagreed with the statement and supported State initiatives to legalize marijuana for medicinal purposes. The Marijuana Policy Project offers a script to use when contacting representatives. Contact information is provided.

  1. La Marihuana: Informacion para los Adolescentes. Revisada (Marijuana: Facts for Teens. Revised).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Drug Abuse (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD.

    Using a question and answer format, this booklet is designed to inform teens about the dangers of marijuana usage. Inset facts about marijuana and teen perspectives compliment the following topics: (1) What is marijuana? (2) How is marijuana used? (3) How long does marijuana stay in the user's body? (4) How many teens smoke marijuana? (5) Why do…

  2. Mometasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... or she watches.The dose counter on the base of your mometasone inhaler tells you how many ... Hold the inhaler straight up with the colored base on the bottom. Twist the white cap counterclockwise ...

  3. Budesonide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... 6 years of age and older. Budesonide suspension (liquid) for oral inhalation (Pulmicort Respules) is used in ... of inhalations even if it still contains some liquid and continues to release a spray when it ...

  4. Coping and Self-Efficacy in Marijuana Treatment: Results from the Marijuana Treatment Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litt, Mark D.; Kadden, Ronald M.; Stephens, Robert S.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined whether a coping-skills-based treatment for marijuana dependence operated by encouraging the use of coping skills or via other mechanisms. Participants were 450 men and women treated in the multisite Marijuana Treatment Project who were randomly assigned to motivational enhancement therapy plus cognitive-behavioral (MET-CB)…

  5. The Significance of Marijuana Use Among Alcohol Using Adolescent ED Patients

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Thomas H.; Spirito, Anthony; Hernández, Lynn; Fairlie, Anne M.; Sindelar-Manning, Holly; Eaton, Cheryl A.; Lewander, William

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To determine if adolescents presenting to a Pediatric Emergency Department (PED) for an alcohol-related event requiring medical care differ in terms of substance use, behavioral and mental health problems, peer relationships, and parental monitoring, based on their history of marijuana use. Methods Cross-sectional comparison of adolescents 13–17 years old, with evidence of recent alcohol use, 13–17 years old, presenting to a PED based on a self-reported history of marijuana use. Assessment tools included the Adolescent Drinking Inventory, Adolescent Drinking Questionnaire, Young Adult Drinking and Driving Questionnaire, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, Behavioral Assessment System for Children, and Peer Substance Use and Tolerance of Substance Use Scale, Results Compared to alcohol only (AO) using adolescents, adolescents who use alcohol and marijuana (AM) have higher rates of smoking (F=23.62) and binge drinking (F=11.56), consume more drinks per sitting (F=9.03), have more externalizing behavior problems (F=12.53), and report both greater peer tolerance of substance use (F=12.99) and lower parental monitoring (F=7.12). Conclusions Adolescents who use both AM report greater substance use and more risk factors for substance abuse than AO using adolescents. Screening for a history of marijuana use may be important when treating adolescents presenting with an alcohol-related event. Alcohol and marijuana co-use may identify a high risk population, which may have important implications for ED clinicians in the ED care of these patients, providing parental guidance, and planning follow-up care. PMID:20078438

  6. Beclomethasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... with water and spit. Do not swallow the water. Keep the inhaler clean and dry with the cover tightly in place ... all times. To clean your inhaler, use a clean, dry tissue or cloth. Do not wash or put any part of your inhaler in water.

  7. Conflict Between Maternal Autonomy and Child Health in Substance-use

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-09-07

    Substance-Related Disorders; Alcohol-Related Disorders; Amphetamine-Related Disorders; Inhalant Abuse; Cocaine-Related Disorders; Opioid-Related Disorders; Marijuana Abuse; Substance Abuse, Intravenous; Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome; Pregnancy; Pregnancy, High-Risk

  8. Nitrite inhalants: history, epidemiology, and possible links to AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Haverkos, H W; Kopstein, A N; Wilson, H; Drotman, P

    1994-01-01

    Nitrite inhalants have been commonly abused substances in the United States. Nitrite inhalants and AIDS was a popular topic in the early 1980s, when the cause of AIDS was not known. With the discovery of HIV, concern about nitrite use in the USA waned. However, nitrite inhalant use is associated with behavioral relapse and HIV transmission among gay men, with decreased lymphocyte counts and natural killer cell activity in a few laboratory studies, and it remains a candidate cofactor in the pathogenesis of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. Discouraging nitrite use continues to be a worthwhile public health goal. PMID:9644194

  9. Adolescent inhalant use prevention, assessment, and treatment: A literature synthesis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Jacqueline; O'Brien, Casey; Schapp, Salena

    2016-05-01

    Inhalant use refers to the use of substances such as gases, glues, and aerosols in order to achieve intoxication, while inhalant use disorder (IUD) encompasses both DSM-IV-TR criteria for inhalant abuse and dependence. Inhalant use among adolescents is an international public health concern considering the severe medical and cognitive consequences and biopsychosocial correlates. In this paper, we summarize the current state of the literature on inhalant use among adolescents focusing on social context, prevention, assessment, and treatment strategies. Psychoeducation, skills training, and environmental supply reduction are helpful strategies for preventing adolescent inhalant use, while parent and adolescent self-report as well as physician report of medical signs and symptoms can aid in assessment and diagnosis. Although research has only begun to explore the treatment of inhalant use, preliminary findings suggest that a multimodal approach involving individual counselling (i.e., CBT brief intervention), family therapy, and activity and engagement programs is the first-line treatment, with residential treatment programs indicated for more severe presentations. The limited nature of treatments developed specifically for inhalant use combined with high prevalence rates and potential for significant impairment within the adolescent population indicate the need for further research. Research should focus on understanding the social context of use, establishing the efficacy of current adolescent substance use treatments adapted for inhalant use, and exploring long-term outcomes. PMID:26969125

  10. A human laboratory study investigating the effects of quetiapine on marijuana withdrawal and relapse in daily marijuana smokers

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Ziva D.; Foltin, Richard W.; Hart, Carl L.; Vosburg, Suzanne K.; Comer, Sandra D.; Haney, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Marijuana withdrawal contributes to the high relapse rates in individuals seeking treatment for marijuana-use disorders. Quetiapine, an atypical antipsychotic, reduces characteristic symptoms of marijuana withdrawal in a variety of psychiatric conditions including mood lability, sleep disruption, and anorexia. This human laboratory study investigated the effectiveness of quetiapine to decrease marijuana withdrawal and relapse to marijuana use in nontreatment seeking marijuana smokers. Volunteers were maintained on placebo or quetiapine (200 mg/day) in this double-blind, counter-balanced, within-subject study consisting of two 15-day medication phases, the last 8 days of which were inpatient. On the first inpatient day, active marijuana (6.2% delta (9)-tetrahydrocannabinol [THC]) was repeatedly smoked under controlled conditions. For the next 3 days, inactive marijuana (0.0% THC) was available for self-administration (withdrawal). On the subsequent 4 days, active marijuana (6.2% THC) was available for self-administration (relapse). Volunteers (n = 14) who smoked an average of 10 marijuana cigarettes/day, 7 days/week completed the study. Under placebo, withdrawal was marked by increased subjective ratings of negative mood, decreased sleep quality, decreased caloric intake, and weight loss. Compared to placebo, quetiapine improved sleep quality, increased caloric intake, and decreased weight loss. However, quetiapine increased marijuana craving and marijuana self-administration during the relapse phase. These data do not suggest that quetiapine shows promise as a potential treatment for marijuana dependence. PMID:22741619

  11. Medical Marijuana's Pain Relief May Work Better for Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160603.html Medical Marijuana's Pain Relief May Work Better for Men Study ... a new study indicates. Researchers asked 42 recreational marijuana smokers to place one hand in extremely cold ...

  12. Medical Marijuana Not a Lure for Kids: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161668.html Medical Marijuana Not a Lure for Kids: Study Found no ... kids who live in states with legal medical marijuana more likely to smoke pot? The answer appears ...

  13. More U.S. Adults Using Marijuana Than Ever

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160720.html More U.S. Adults Using Marijuana Than Ever Daily use nearly doubled between 2002 ... Aug. 31, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- As perceptions of marijuana change, more American adults are using pot than ...

  14. Mind Over Matter: The Brain's Response to Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... The Brain's Response to Marijuana Print The Brain's Response to Marijuana Hi, my name is Sara Bellum. Welcome to my magazine series exploring the brain's response to drugs. In this issue, we'll investigate ...

  15. Health Canada considers dispensing medical marijuana through pharmacies.

    PubMed

    Thaczuk, Derek

    2004-08-01

    Health Canada may be poised to emulate the Netherlands' system of distributing marijuana to HIV/AIDS and other patients through pharmacies. Meanwhile, revisions to the much-criticized medical marijuana regulatory system are under development. PMID:15540329

  16. Contingency Management in Community Programs Treating Adolescent Substance Abuse: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Killeen, Therese K.; McRae-Clark, Aimee L.; Waldrop, Angela E.; Upadhyaya, Himanshu; Brady, Kathleen T.

    2012-01-01

    PROBLEM Adolescent substance abuse remains a public health problem, and more effective treatment approaches are needed. PURPOSE The study aims to determine the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of implementing a cost-effective contingency management (CM) intervention in community substance abuse treatment for adolescents with marijuana use disorders. METHODS Thirty-one adolescents with primary marijuana use disorder enrolled in a community treatment program were randomized. FINDINGS There were no significant group differences in percent negative UDS, sustained negative UDS, or retention in treatment. CONCLUSIONS CM was difficult to integrate into community treatment programs and did not seem to be an effective adjunct to standard community substance abuse treatment for adolescents with marijuana use disorders. Modifying the CM procedure for adolescents, changing staff attitudes toward CM, and/or combining CM with other evidence-based psychosocial treatment may improve outcomes. PMID:22299805

  17. 21 CFR 250.101 - Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded... DRUGS New Drug or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.101 Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs. (a) Recurring reports of abuse and misuse of methamphetamine...

  18. 21 CFR 250.101 - Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded... DRUGS New Drug or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.101 Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs. (a) Recurring reports of abuse and misuse of methamphetamine...

  19. 21 CFR 250.101 - Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded... DRUGS New Drug or Prescription Status of Specific Drugs § 250.101 Amphetamine and methamphetamine inhalers regarded as prescription drugs. (a) Recurring reports of abuse and misuse of methamphetamine...

  20. METABOLIC EFFECTS OF MARIJUANA USE AMONG BLACKS

    PubMed Central

    Racine, C.; Vincent, M.; Rogers, A.; Donat, M.; Ojike, N. I.; Necola, O.; Yousef, E.; Masters-Israilov, A.; Jean-Louis, G.; McFarlane, S. I.

    2015-01-01

    Background Increased legalization of marijuana has resulted in renewed interest in its effects on body weight and cardiometabolic risk. Conflicting data exist regarding marijuana effects on body weight, waist circumference as well as lipid profiles, blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, there is a dearth of data available on this effect in the black population. Objective To assess the metabolic profile and cardiovascular risk factors as well as body weight and waist circumference among urban black marijuana users. Methods A cross sectional study design involving 100 patients seen in a Family Practice clinic at University hospital of Brooklyn, NY, USA, over a period of 3 months from January 2014 to March 2014. Participants were administered a questionnaire regarding marijuana use, and other associated behaviors. Socio-demographic, laboratory, and clinical data were collected. We report measures of central tendencies, and dispersion for continuous variables and the frequency of distribution for categorical variables. Results Of the 100 patients surveyed, 57% were females. The mean (±SEM) age of the entire cohort was 46.3 years±1.5; range, 19–78 years. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 29.6 kg/m2±0.73; SBP=128.0 mmHg±1.69; DBP=76.1 mmHg±1.17. Current marijuana users had the lowest waist circumference compared to former or never users respectively (32.9±0.66 vs. 35.9±0.88 vs. 33.4±0.74), p<0.01. Diastolic blood pressure in mmHg was significantly higher among former marijuana users compared to current or never users, (80.0±2.1 vs. 73.3±2.3 vs. 73.4±1.6), p<0.01. Current marijuana users showed a tendency (not statistically significant) towards lower total cholesterol, Triglycerides (TG), High Density Lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, body mass index (BMI) and systolic blood pressure, compared to former users or never users. Conclusion Current marijuana use is associated with significantly lower waist

  1. Cannabis expectancies in substance misusers: French validation of the Marijuana Effect Expectancy Questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Guillem, Eric; Notides, Christine; Vorspan, Florence; Debray, Marcel; Nieto, Isabel; Leroux, Mayliss; Lépine, Jean-Pierre

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the French version of the Marijuana Effect Expectancy Questionnaire (48 items) and study the cannabis expectancies according to the patterns of substance use and psychiatric disorders (DSM-IV). A sample of 263 subjects (average age 33.1 years [SD = 8.7], 56% men) consisting of cannabis users (n = 64), psychiatric inpatients (n = 175, most of whom were hospitalized for withdrawal), and a control group (n = 24) completed the questionnaire. Internal reliability was good (α= .87) and temporal reliability was satisfactory, with 24 of 48 items having a significant κ ≥ .41. Factor analysis showed four main factors that explained 42.1% of the total variance. The women feared Cognitive Impairment and Negative Effects, and Negative Behavioral Effects more than the men. The onset age of cannabis use, onset age of abuse, abuse and dependence were associated with fewer negative expectancies. Cannabis dependents differed from abusers by more Relaxation and Social Facilitation expectancies. Patients with major depressive episodes, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, or posttraumatic stress disorder feared negative effects the most. Schizophrenic patients expected more Perceptual Enhancement and Craving. The French version of the Marijuana Effect Expectancy Questionnaire has good psychometric properties and is valid to assess cannabis expectancies in adolescents and adults with substance use disorders.

  2. Marijuana effects on human forgetting functions.

    PubMed

    Lane, Scott D; Cherek, Don R; Lieving, Lori M; Tcheremissine, Oleg V

    2005-01-01

    It has long been known that acute marijuana administration impairs working memory (e.g., the discrimination of stimuli separated by a delay). The determination of which of the individual components of memory are altered by marijuana is an unresolved problem. Previous human studies did not use test protocols that allowed for the determination of delay-independent (initial discrimination) from delay-dependent (forgetting or retrieval) components of memory. Using methods developed in the experimental analysis of behavior and signal detection theory, we tested the acute effects of smoked marijuana on forgetting functions in 5 humans. Immediately after smoking placebo, a low dose, or a high dose of marijuana (varying in delta9-THC content), subjects completed delayed match-to-sample testing that included a range of retention intervals within each test session (0.5, 4, 12, and 24 s). Performances (discriminability) at each dose were plotted as forgetting functions, as described and developed by White and colleagues (White, 1985; White & Ruske, 2002). For all 5 subjects, both delta9-THC doses impaired delay-dependent discrimination but not delay-independent discrimination. The outcome is consistent with current nonhuman studies examining the role of the cannabinoid system on delayed matching procedures, and the data help illuminate one behavioral mechanism through which marijuana alters memory performance.

  3. [Pros and cons of legalizing marijuana].

    PubMed

    Mönckeberg B, Fernando

    2014-04-01

    There are already several countries that have accepted marijuana as a soft drug, separating it from more dangerous ones. Yarious therapeutic properties have even been attributed to its use. Others, however, think that its use should be prohibited due to the mental interference and behavioral changes produced either by its occasional use as well as the permanent mental damage linked to chronic marijuana use. In order to clarify this divergence of opinions, the scientific literature is reviewed. It is concluded that there is a serious risk, especially for teenagers, associated to chronic marijuana use due to the presence of more frequent psychotic and schizophrenic episodes, which can be permanent, while consumption during pregnancy results in brain damage to the fetus, similar to fetal alcohol syndrome. Scientific research also indicated that smoking marijuana produces an even more severe bronchial damage than tobacco, with risk of lung cancer. In conclusion, the notion that marijuana is a risk-free soft drug is a serious mistake, based on the available conclusive scientific research that shows the opposite. PMID:25697213

  4. Marijuana Use at School and Achievement-Linked Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Kristin V.

    2012-01-01

    Marijuana remains one of the most frequently used drugs among adolescents and usage has increased in recent years. In addition to general use, many high school students use marijuana during the school day. The present study focused on achievement-linked correlates of in-school marijuana use by comparing non-users, general users, and school users…

  5. Media Use and Perceived Risk as Predictors of Marijuana Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudoin, Christopher E.; Hong, Traci

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the influence of media use and perceived risk on marijuana use outcomes. Methods: With survey data from 750 US young adults, structural equation modeling tested how attitudes, behaviors, and behavioral intention specific to marijuana use are influenced by perceived personal and societal risk of marijuana use, media campaign…

  6. Delay Discounting in Current and Former Marijuana-Dependent Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Bickel, Warren K.; Baker, Forest; Moore, Brent A.; Badger, Gary J.; Budney, Alan J.

    2010-01-01

    Studies have found that a variety of drug dependent groups discount delayed rewards more than matched-controls. This study compared delay discounting for a hypothetical $1000 reward among dependent marijuana users, former dependent marijuana users, and matched-controls. Discounting of marijuana was also assessed in the currently marijuana-dependent group. No significant difference in discounting was detected among the groups, however currently dependent users showed a trend to discount money more than the other two groups. Within the dependent marijuana group, marijuana was discounted more than money, and discounting for money and marijuana were significantly and positively correlated. Regression analyses indicated that delay discounting was more closely associated with tobacco use than marijuana use. A variety of questionnaires were also administered, including impulsivity questionnaires. Dependent marijuana users scored as significantly more impulsive on the Impulsiveness subscale of the Eysenck Impulsiveness-Venturesomeness-Empathy questionnaire than controls. However, the three groups did not significantly differ on several other personality questionnaires including the Barratt Impulsivity Scale-11. The Stanford Time Perception Inventory Present-Fatalistic subscale was positively correlated with money and marijuana discounting, indicating that a greater sense of powerlessness over the future is related to greater delay discounting. Results suggest that current marijuana dependence may be associated with a trend toward increased delay discounting, but this effect size appears to be smaller for marijuana than for previously examined drugs. PMID:20158299

  7. Delay Discounting Predicts Adolescent Substance Abuse Treatment Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Stanger, Catherine; Ryan, Stacy R.; Fu, Hongyun; Landes, Reid D.; Jones, Bryan A.; Bickel, Warren K.; Budney, Alan J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to identify predictors of delay discounting among adolescents receiving treatment for marijuana abuse or dependence, and to test delay discounting as a predictor of treatment outcome. Participants for this study were 165 adolescents (88% male) between the ages of 12 and 18 (M =15.8; SD = 1.3) who enrolled in a clinical trial comparing three behavioral treatments for adolescent marijuana abuse or dependence. Participants completed a delay discounting task at treatment onset for $100 and $1,000 of hypothetical money and marijuana. Overall, smaller magnitude rewards were discounted more than larger magnitude rewards. Delay discounting rates were concurrently related to demographic variables (SES, race). Delay discounting of $1,000 of money predicted during treatment abstinence outcomes among adolescent marijuana abusers, over and above the effects of type of treatment received. Teens who show higher levels of discounting of the future may be an important subgroup to identify at treatment onset. Youth with a greater tendency to discount the future may require different intervention strategies that address their impulsivity (e.g., targeting executive function or inhibitory control) and/or different schedules of reinforcement to address their degree of preference for immediate rewards. PMID:22182419

  8. Can marijuana make it better? Prospective effects of marijuana and temperament on risk for anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Grunberg, Victoria A; Cordova, Kismet A; Bidwell, L Cinnamon; Ito, Tiffany A

    2015-09-01

    Increases in marijuana use in recent years highlight the importance of understanding how marijuana affects mental health. Of particular relevance is the effect of marijuana use on anxiety and depression given that marijuana use is highest among late adolescents/early adults, the same age range in which risk for anxiety and depression is the highest. Here we examine how marijuana use moderates the effects of temperament on level of anxiety and depression in a prospective design in which baseline marijuana use and temperament predict anxiety and depression 1 year later. We found that harm avoidance (HA) is associated with higher anxiety and depression a year later, but only among those low in marijuana use. Those higher in marijuana use show no relation between HA and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Marijuana use also moderated the effect of novelty seeking (NS), with symptoms of anxiety and depression increasing with NS only among those with high marijuana use. NS was unrelated to symptoms of anxiety and depression among those low in marijuana use. The temperament dimension of reward dependence was unrelated to anxiety and depression symptoms. Our results suggest that marijuana use does not have an invariant relationship with anxiety and depression, and that the effects of relatively stable temperament dimensions can be moderated by other contextual factors. PMID:26415059

  9. Can marijuana make it better? Prospective effects of marijuana and temperament on risk for anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Grunberg, Victoria A; Cordova, Kismet A; Bidwell, L Cinnamon; Ito, Tiffany A

    2015-09-01

    Increases in marijuana use in recent years highlight the importance of understanding how marijuana affects mental health. Of particular relevance is the effect of marijuana use on anxiety and depression given that marijuana use is highest among late adolescents/early adults, the same age range in which risk for anxiety and depression is the highest. Here we examine how marijuana use moderates the effects of temperament on level of anxiety and depression in a prospective design in which baseline marijuana use and temperament predict anxiety and depression 1 year later. We found that harm avoidance (HA) is associated with higher anxiety and depression a year later, but only among those low in marijuana use. Those higher in marijuana use show no relation between HA and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Marijuana use also moderated the effect of novelty seeking (NS), with symptoms of anxiety and depression increasing with NS only among those with high marijuana use. NS was unrelated to symptoms of anxiety and depression among those low in marijuana use. The temperament dimension of reward dependence was unrelated to anxiety and depression symptoms. Our results suggest that marijuana use does not have an invariant relationship with anxiety and depression, and that the effects of relatively stable temperament dimensions can be moderated by other contextual factors.

  10. Can Marijuana Make It Better? Prospective Effects of Marijuana and Temperament on Risk for Anxiety and Depression

    PubMed Central

    Grunberg, Victoria A.; Cordova, Kismet A.; Bidwell, L. Cinnamon; Ito, Tiffany A.

    2015-01-01

    Increases in marijuana use in recent years highlight the importance of understanding how marijuana affects mental health. Of particular relevance is the effect of marijuana use on anxiety and depression given that marijuana use is highest among late adolescents/early adults, the same age range in which risk for anxiety and depression is the highest. Here we examine how marijuana use moderates the effects of temperament on level of anxiety and depression in a prospective design in which baseline marijuana use and temperament predict anxiety and depression one year later. We found that harm avoidance (HA) is associated with higher anxiety and depression a year later, but only among those low in marijuana use. Those higher in marijuana use show no relation between HA and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Marijuana use also moderated the effect of novelty seeking (NS), with symptoms of anxiety and depression increasing with NS only among those with high marijuana use. NS was unrelated to symptoms of anxiety and depression among those low in marijuana use. The temperament dimension of reward dependence was unrelated to anxiety and depression symptoms. Our results suggest that marijuana use does not have an invariant relationship with anxiety and depression, and that the effects of relatively stable temperament dimensions can be moderated by other contextual factors. PMID:26415059

  11. A behavioral economic approach to assessing demand for marijuana.

    PubMed

    Collins, R Lorraine; Vincent, Paula C; Yu, Jihnhee; Liu, Liu; Epstein, Leonard H

    2014-06-01

    In the United States, marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug. Its prevalence is growing, particularly among young adults. Behavioral economic indices of the relative reinforcing efficacy (RRE) of substances have been used to examine the appeal of licit (e.g., alcohol) and illicit (e.g., heroin) drugs. The present study is the first to use an experimental, simulated purchasing task to examine the RRE of marijuana. Young-adult (M age = 21.64 years) recreational marijuana users (N = 59) completed a computerized marijuana purchasing task designed to generate demand curves and the related RRE indices (e.g., intensity of demand-purchases at lowest price; Omax-max. spent on marijuana; Pmax-price at which marijuana expenditure is max). Participants "purchased" high-grade marijuana across 16 escalating prices that ranged from $0/free to $160/joint. They also provided 2 weeks of real-time, ecological momentary assessment reports on their marijuana use. The purchasing task generated multiple RRE indices. Consistent with research on other substances, the demand for marijuana was inelastic at lower prices but became elastic at higher prices, suggesting that increases in the price of marijuana could lessen its use. In regression analyses, the intensity of demand, Omax, and Pmax, and elasticity each accounted for significant variance in real-time marijuana use. These results provide support for the validity of a simulated marijuana purchasing task to examine marijuana's reinforcing efficacy. This study highlights the value of applying a behavioral economic framework to young-adult marijuana use and has implications for prevention, treatment, and policies to regulate marijuana use. PMID:24467370

  12. Medical Marijuana in Pediatric Neurological Disorders.

    PubMed

    Patel, Anup D

    2016-03-01

    Marijuana and marijuana-based products have been used to treat medical disease. Recently, derivatives of the plant have been separated or synthesized to treat various neurological disorders, many of them affecting children. Unfortunately, data are sparse in regard to treating children with neurologic illness. Therefore, formal conclusions about the potential efficacy, benefit, and adverse effects for these products cannot be made at this time. Further robust research using strong scientific methodology is desperately needed to formally evaluate the role of these products in children.

  13. Medical association supports studies on marijuana therapy.

    PubMed

    1995-06-16

    The Gay and Lesbian Medical Association (GLMA) issued a statement on May 19, 1995, announcing its support of clinical trials of the therapeutic uses of marijuana. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services has continued to resist permitting clinical trials of marijuana despite evidence that it can relieve symptoms of cancer, multiple sclerosis, and glaucoma. According to Dr. Alvin Novick, head of GLMA's AIDS Task Force, the Clinton Administration is being asked to not let its political fears blind it to the positive and legitimate scientific research designed to alleviate the suffering of thousands of AIDS patients.

  14. Voters in two States endorse medicinal marijuana.

    PubMed

    1996-11-29

    Voters in California and Arizona decided that the medical use of marijuana should be legal and available to treat people with terminal illnesses, such as AIDS. These initiatives were opposed by both President Clinton and his challenger Bob Dole, and three former presidents warn that these measures will undermine drug prevention efforts. Law enforcement officials in both States campaigned against these initiatives. The measures do not change Federal laws, leaving physicians with a legal dilemma. If physicians prescribe marijuana, the Drug Enforcement Administration could investigate them and revoke their licenses to dispense prescriptions. PMID:11364055

  15. The effects of chronic marijuana use on circadian entrainment.

    PubMed

    Whitehurst, Lauren N; Fogler, Kethera; Hall, Kate; Hartmann, Matthew; Dyche, Jeff

    2015-05-01

    Animal literature suggests a connection between marijuana use and altered circadian rhythms. However, the effect has not yet been demonstrated in humans. The present study examined the effect of chronic marijuana use on human circadian function. Participants consisted of current users who reported smoking marijuana daily for at least a year and non-marijuana user controls. Participants took a neurocognitive assessment, wore actigraphs and maintained sleep diaries for three weeks. While no significant cognitive changes were found between groups, data revealed that chronic marijuana use may act as an additional zeitgeber and lead to increased entrainment in human users.

  16. Does increasing the beer tax reduce marijuana consumption?

    PubMed

    Pacula, R L

    1998-10-01

    Previous studies suggest that alcohol and marijuana are economic substitutes, so recent policies restricting the availability of alcohol have led to an increase in the amount of marijuana consumed. Using micro-level data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY) to estimate individual demand equations for alcohol and marijuana, this research finds that alcohol and marijuana are economic complements, not substitutes. Further, this research finds that increases in the federal tax on beer will generate a larger reduction in the unconditional demand for marijuana than for alcohol in percentage terms.

  17. [Inhaled therapy in asthma].

    PubMed

    Plaza Moral, Vicente; Giner Donaire, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Because of its advantages, inhaled administration of aerosolized drugs is the administration route of choice for the treatment of asthma and COPD. Numerous technological advances in the devices used in inhaled therapy in recent decades have boosted the appearance of multiple inhalers and aerosolized drugs. However, this variety also requires that the prescribing physician is aware of their characteristics. The main objective of the present review is to summarize the current state of knowledge on inhalers and inhaled drugs commonly used in the treatment of asthma. The review ranges from theoretical aspects (fundamentals and available devices and drugs) to practical and relevant aspects for asthma care in the clinical setting (therapeutic strategies, education, and adherence to inhalers). PMID:26683076

  18. Marijuana as doping in sports.

    PubMed

    Campos, Daniel R; Yonamine, Mauricio; de Moraes Moreau, Regina L

    2003-01-01

    A high incidence of positive cases for cannabinoids, in analyses for doping control in sports, has been observed since the International Olympic Committee (IOC) included them in the 1989 list of prohibited drugs under the title of classes of prohibited substances in certain circumstances. Where the rules of sports federations so provide, tests are conducted for marijuana, hashish or any other cannabis product exposure by means of urinalysis of 11-nor-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-9-carboxylic acid (carboxy-THC) the main metabolite of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Concentrations >15 ng/mL (cut-off value) in confirmatory analytical procedures are considered doping. Cannabis is an illicit drug in several countries and has received much attention in the media for its potential therapeutic uses and the efforts to legalise its use. Studies have demonstrated that the use of cannabinoids can reduce anxiety, but it does not have ergogenic potential in sports activities. An increase in heart rate and blood pressure, decline of cardiac output and reduced psychomotor activity are some of the pharmacological effects of THC that will determine a decrease in athletic performance. An ergolytic activity of cannabis products has been observed in athletes of several different sport categories. In Brazil, analyses for doping control in sports, performed in our laboratories, have detected positive cases for carboxy-THC in urine samples of soccer, volleyball, cycling and other athletes. It is our intention to discuss in this article some points that may discourage individuals from using cannabis products during sports activities, even in the so-called permitted circumstances defined by the IOC and some sports federations. PMID:12744713

  19. Infant with Altered Consciousness after Cannabis Passive Inhalation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarfin, Yehoshua; Yefet, Enav; Abozaid, Said; Nasser, Wael; Mor, Tamer; Finkelstein, Yoram

    2012-01-01

    We report on an infant who was admitted to hospital with severe neurological symptoms following passive inhalation of cannabis. To date, cannabis abuse has been described almost entirely in adolescents and adults. In early childhood, however, cannabis effects were almost exclusively discussed in the context of maternal prenatal exposure, and the…

  20. Acute Effects of Marijuana Smoking on Negative and Positive Affect.

    PubMed

    Metrik, Jane; Kahler, Christopher W; McGeary, John E; Monti, Peter M; Rohsenow, Damaris J

    2011-02-01

    Human studies and animal experiments present a complex and often contradictory picture of the acute impact of marijuana on emotions. The few human studies specifically examining changes in negative affect find either increases or reductions following delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration. In a 2 × 2, instructional set (told THC vs. told no THC) by drug administration (smoked marijuana with 2.8% THC vs. placebo) between-subjects design, we examined the pharmacologic effect of marijuana on physiological and subjective stimulation, subjective intoxication, and self-reported negative and positive affect with 114 weekly marijuana smokers. Individuals were first tested under a baseline/no smoking condition and again under experimental condition. Relative to placebo, THC significantly increased arousal and confusion/bewilderment. However, the direction of effect on anxiety varied depending on instructional set: Anxiety increased after THC for those told placebo but decreased among other participants. Furthermore, marijuana users who expected more impairment from marijuana displayed more anxiety after smoking active marijuana, whereas those who did not expect the impairment became less anxious after marijuana. Both pharmacologic and stimulus expectancy main effects significantly increased positive affect. Frequent marijuana users were less anxious after smoking as compared to less frequent smokers. These findings show that expectancy instructions and pharmacology play independent roles in effects of marijuana on negative affect. Further studies examining how other individual difference factors impact marijuana's effects on mood are needed.

  1. Acute Effects of Marijuana Smoking on Negative and Positive Affect

    PubMed Central

    Metrik, Jane; Kahler, Christopher W.; McGeary, John E.; Monti, Peter M.; Rohsenow, Damaris J.

    2013-01-01

    Human studies and animal experiments present a complex and often contradictory picture of the acute impact of marijuana on emotions. The few human studies specifically examining changes in negative affect find either increases or reductions following delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration. In a 2 × 2, instructional set (told THC vs. told no THC) by drug administration (smoked marijuana with 2.8% THC vs. placebo) between-subjects design, we examined the pharmacologic effect of marijuana on physiological and subjective stimulation, subjective intoxication, and self-reported negative and positive affect with 114 weekly marijuana smokers. Individuals were first tested under a baseline/no smoking condition and again under experimental condition. Relative to placebo, THC significantly increased arousal and confusion/bewilderment. However, the direction of effect on anxiety varied depending on instructional set: Anxiety increased after THC for those told placebo but decreased among other participants. Furthermore, marijuana users who expected more impairment from marijuana displayed more anxiety after smoking active marijuana, whereas those who did not expect the impairment became less anxious after marijuana. Both pharmacologic and stimulus expectancy main effects significantly increased positive affect. Frequent marijuana users were less anxious after smoking as compared to less frequent smokers. These findings show that expectancy instructions and pharmacology play independent roles in effects of marijuana on negative affect. Further studies examining how other individual difference factors impact marijuana's effects on mood are needed. PMID:24319318

  2. The Current Status of Medical Marijuana in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Medical marijuana is currently a controversial issue in medicine. There are strong pro and con opinions but relatively little scientific data on which to base medical decisions. The unfortunate scheduling of marijuana in class I has limited research and only serves to fuel the controversy. This article will review the history of laws to regulate drugs in the United States in the 20th century to provide context for the current status of medical marijuana. It will include the rationale for opposing medical marijuana laws and the problem of the Schedule I inclusion of marijuana as well as other drugs. It will examine the problems associated with smoking raw marijuana and review other routes of administration. Finally, it examines the inadvisability of medicine's promotion of smoked marijuana. PMID:24765557

  3. Pharmacy Students’ Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Medical Marijuana

    PubMed Central

    Woods, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To determine pharmacy students’ knowledge of and attitudes toward medical marijuana and to determine if pharmacy students need additional education on the topic. Methods. Pharmacy students were asked to complete a survey on medical marijuana that assessed their knowledge of, medical uses of, adverse effects with, and attitudes toward medical marijuana through 23 Likert-scale questions. Results. Three hundred eleven students completed the survey. Fifty-eight percent of the students felt that medical marijuana should be legalized in all states. However, the majority of students did not feel comfortable answering consumers’ questions regarding efficacy, safety, or drug interactions related to the substance. Accurate responses for diseases or conditions for permitted medical marijuana use was low, with only cancer (91%) and glaucoma (57%) identified by more than half the students. Conclusion. With an increasing number of states adopting medical marijuana use, pharmacy schools need to evaluate the adequacy of medical marijuana education in their curriculum. PMID:26430272

  4. Medicinal and recreational marijuana: what are the risks?

    PubMed

    Van Gerpen, Shawn; Vik, Tamara; Soundy, Timothy J

    2015-01-01

    With the recent legalization of recreational marijuana in Colorado, Washington, Alaska, the District of Columbia and legislation pending for both medical and recreational marijuana in several other states, it is important for the facts regarding its potential for serious mental health consequences to be known. Little has been said about the psychiatric risks of this substance, particularly in youth. Several studies have shown increased rates of depression, anxiety and schizophrenia among those who use marijuana on a regular basis. In addition, permanent loss of IQ and structural changes in the brain have been demonstrated with habitual use. Legalization of marijuana for recreational use can influence an adolescent's perception of this substance as "safe." In states that have legalized marijuana for medical purposes, there is the very real problem of "diversion." As many as 34 percent of 12th-graders who use marijuana in states with legalized marijuana had obtained it from a person who had received it through a prescription.

  5. Variability in Medical Marijuana Laws in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bestrashniy, Jessica; Winters, Ken C.

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana use and its distribution raise several complex health, social and legal issues in the United States. Marijuana is prohibited in only 23 states and pro-marijuana laws are likely to be introduced in these states in the future. Increased access to and legalization of medical marijuana may have an impact on recreational marijuana use and perception through increased availability and decreased restrictiveness around the drug. The authors undertook an analysis to characterize the policy features of medical marijuana legislation, including an emphasis on the types of medical conditions that are included in medical marijuana laws. A high degree of variability in terms of allowable medical conditions, limits on cultivation and possession, and restrictiveness of policies was discovered. Further research is needed to determine if this variability impacts recreational use in those states. PMID:26415061

  6. 25 CFR 11.451 - Abuse of psychotoxic chemical solvents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Abuse of psychotoxic chemical solvents. 11.451 Section 11... OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.451 Abuse of psychotoxic chemical solvents. (a) It is unlawful to: (1) Intentionally smell or inhale the fumes of any psychotoxic chemical solvent...

  7. 25 CFR 11.451 - Abuse of psychotoxic chemical solvents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Abuse of psychotoxic chemical solvents. 11.451 Section 11... OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.451 Abuse of psychotoxic chemical solvents. (a) It is unlawful to: (1) Intentionally smell or inhale the fumes of any psychotoxic chemical solvent...

  8. 25 CFR 11.451 - Abuse of psychotoxic chemical solvents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Abuse of psychotoxic chemical solvents. 11.451 Section 11... OFFENSES AND LAW AND ORDER CODE Criminal Offenses § 11.451 Abuse of psychotoxic chemical solvents. (a) It is unlawful to: (1) Intentionally smell or inhale the fumes of any psychotoxic chemical solvent...

  9. A Behavioral Economic Approach to Assessing Demand for Marijuana

    PubMed Central

    Collins, R. Lorraine; Vincent, Paula C.; Yu, Jihnhee; Liu, Liu; Epstein, Leonard H.

    2014-01-01

    In the U.S., marijuana is the most commonly used illicit drug. Its prevalence is growing, particularly among young adults. Behavioral economic indices of the relative reinforcing efficacy (RRE) of substances have been used to examine the appeal of licit (e.g., alcohol) and illicit (e.g., heroin) drugs. The present study is the first to use an experimental, simulated purchasing task to examine the RRE of marijuana. Young-adult (M age = 21.64 years) recreational marijuana users (N = 59) completed a computerized marijuana purchasing task designed to generate demand curves and the related RRE indices (e.g., intensity of demand - purchases at lowest price; Omax - max. spent on marijuana; Pmax - price at which marijuana expenditure is max). Participants “purchased” high-grade marijuana across 16 escalating prices that ranged from $0/free to $160/joint. They also provided 2-weeks of real-time, ecological momentary assessment reports on their marijuana use. The purchasing task generated multiple RRE indices. Consistent with research on other substances, the demand for marijuana was inelastic at lower prices but became elastic at higher prices, suggesting that increases in the price of marijuana could lessen its use. In regression analyses, the intensity of demand, Omax and Pmax, and elasticity each accounted for significant variance in real-time marijuana use. These results provide support for the validity of a simulated marijuana purchasing task to examine its reinforcing efficacy. This study highlights the value of applying a behavioral economic framework to young-adult marijuana use and has implications for prevention, treatment, and policies to regulate marijuana use. PMID:24467370

  10. Adolescents’ Attitudes toward Anti-marijuana Ads, Usage Intentions, and Actual Marijuana Usage

    PubMed Central

    Alvaro, Eusebio M.; Crano, William D.; Siegel, Jason T.; Hohman, Zachary; Johnson, Ian; Nakawaki, Brandon

    2015-01-01

    The association of adolescents’ appraisals of the anti-marijuana television ads used in the National Youth Anti-drug Media Campaign with future marijuana use was investigated. The 12 to 18 year old respondents (N = 2993) were first classified as users, resolute nonusers, or vulnerable nonusers (Crano, Siegel, Alvaro, Lac, & Hemovich, 2008). Usage status and the covariates of gender, age, and attitudes toward marijuana were used to predict attitudes toward the ads (Aad) in the first phase of a multi-level linear analysis. All covariates were significantly associated with Aad, as was usage status: resolute nonusers evaluated the ads significantly more positively than vulnerable nonusers and users (all p < .001), who did not differ. In the second phase, the covariates along with Aad and respondents’ usage status predicted intentions and actual usage one year after initial measurement. The lagged analysis disclosed negative associations between Aad and usage intentions, and between Aad and actual marijuana use (both p < .05); however, this association held only for users (p < .01), not vulnerable or resolute nonusers. Users reporting more positive attitudes towards the ads were less likely to report intention to use marijuana and to continue marijuana use at 1-year follow-up. These findings may inform designers of persuasion-based prevention campaigns, guiding pre-implementation efforts in the design of ads that targeted groups find appealing and thus, influential. PMID:23528197

  11. Modeling Deposition of Inhaled Particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mathematical modeling of the deposition and distribution of inhaled aerosols within human lungs is an invaluable tool in predicting both the health risks associated with inhaled environmental aerosols and the therapeutic dose delivered by inhaled pharmacological drugs. Howeve...

  12. Abusive Relationships

    MedlinePlus

    ... relationships and friendships. Emotional abuse (stuff like teasing, bullying, and humiliating others) can be difficult to recognize ... How to Break Up Respectfully Abuse Dealing With Bullying Date Rape Getting Over a Break-Up Posttraumatic ...

  13. The effect of marijuana scenes in anti-marijuana public service announcements on adolescents' evaluation of ad effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yahui; Cappella, Joseph N; Fishbein, Martin

    2009-09-01

    This study explored the possible negative impact of a specific ad feature-marijuana scenes-on adolescents' perceptions of ad effectiveness. A secondary data analysis was conducted on adolescents' evaluations of 60 anti-marijuana public service announcements that were a part of national and state anti-drug campaigns directed at adolescents. The major finding of the study was that marijuana scenes in anti-marijuana public service announcements negatively affected ad liking and thought valence toward the ads among adolescents who were at higher levels of risk for marijuana use. This negative impact was not reversed in the presence of strong anti-marijuana arguments. The results may be used to partially explain the lack of effectiveness of the anti-drug media campaign. It may also help researchers design more effective anti-marijuana ads by isolating adverse elements in the ads that may elicit boomerang effects in the target population. PMID:19735026

  14. History of alcohol or drug problems, current use of alcohol or marijuana, and success in quitting smoking.

    PubMed

    Humfleet, G; Muñoz, R; Sees, K; Reus, V; Hall, S

    1999-01-01

    Previous research suggests higher rates of smoking, and smoking cessation failure, in alcohol- and drug-abusing populations. The present study examined the relationship of alcohol/drug treatment history and current alcohol and marijuana consumption with success in smoking cessation treatment in a smoking clinic population. Participants were 199 smokers; 23% reported a history of alcohol/drug problems, 12.6% reported a history of drug treatment, 78.7% reported alcohol use, and 21.3% reported marijuana use during treatment. Results indicate no significant differences in abstinence rates based on history of alcohol/drug problem or treatment. Differences were found for any current alcohol use but not for marijuana use. Both alcohol use at baseline and any alcohol use during treatment predicted smoking at all follow-up points. Alcohol users had significantly lower quit rates than did participants reporting no use. Neither use of marijuana at baseline nor during treatment predicted outcome. These findings suggest that even low to moderate levels of alcohol consumption during smoking cessation may decrease treatment success. PMID:10189984

  15. Immediate Antecedents of Marijuana Use: An Analysis from Ecological Momentary Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Buckner, Julia D.; Crosby, Ross D.; Silgado, Jose; Wonderlich, Stephen A.; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives Marijuana remains the most commonly used illicit substance. Marijuana craving, anxiety, and peer marijuana use are thought to play important roles in the etiology and maintenance of marijuana use. The present study aimed to identify patterns between marijuana use and these affective and situational risk factors in the natural environment. Methods The sample consisted of 49 current marijuana users (38.8% female), 63.2% of whom evinced a current cannabis use disorder. Ecological momentary assessment was used to collect multiple daily ratings of marijuana craving, state anxiety, and peer marijuana use over two weeks. Mixed effects linear models were used to examine within- and between-day antecedents, correlates, and consequences of marijuana use. Results Between-day analyses indicated that marijuana use days were associated with higher marijuana craving but lower state anxiety. Within-day analyses confirmed that marijuana craving was higher prior to marijuana use and lower following use. Anxiety was related to marijuana craving. Although anxiety was somewhat higher prior to marijuana use, it did not decrease significantly following use. The vast majority of marijuana use occurred when others were also using marijuana. Limitations The sample was comprised of college students, a group at particular risk for marijuana use and use-related problems. Future work is necessary to determine whether results generalize to other populations. Conclusions These data support the contention that marijuana craving, anxiety, and peer use play important roles in the maintenance of marijuana use. PMID:21946296

  16. The Association between Early Conduct Problems and Early Marijuana Use in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falls, Benjamin J.; Wish, Eric D.; Garnier, Laura M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; O'Grady, Kevin E.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; Arria, Amelia M.

    2011-01-01

    Early conduct problems have been linked to early marijuana use in adolescence. The present study examines this association in a sample of 1,076 college students that was divided into three groups: (1) early marijuana users (began marijuana use prior to age 15; N = 126), (2) late marijuana users (began marijuana use at or after age 15; N = 607),…

  17. Saying No to Marijuana: A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbey, Nancy; Wagman, Ellen

    This teacher's guide is part of a series of three interactive books on tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana; three informational books containing parallel content; and three teacher guides designed to give students in grades five through eight practice in using the information and skills presented in the books. The guide provides teachers with a…

  18. Stigma towards Marijuana Users and Heroin Users.

    PubMed

    Brown, Seth A

    2015-01-01

    Despite high levels of stigmatizing attitudes and behaviors toward individuals with substance use problems, there is surprisingly limited research on understanding the contributors to such high levels. College students with no history of marijuana or heroin use (N=250) completed self-report measures to examine the level of substance use stigma towards individuals using two illicit substances (marijuana and heroin) and the contribution of three perceiver characteristics (sex, previous contact with substance users, and five beliefs about substance use) to three dimensions of stigma (social distance, negative emotions, and forcing treatment). Greater levels of internalized stigma were noted towards individuals who use heroin (versus marijuana). For marijuana use, those who had less previous contact and higher endorsement of certain beliefs (rarity, severity, and less controllability) were associated with greater stigmatizing attitudes. For heroin use, the associations were weak or non-existent. The findings strengthen the argument that substance use stigma needs to be examined and perhaps addressed substance by substance, rather than as a group. Further, contact interventions may be a particularly effective strategy for altering substance use stigma. PMID:26148124

  19. The subjective marijuana experience: great expectations.

    PubMed

    Stark-Adamec, C; Adamec, R E; Pihl, R O

    1981-10-01

    Participants' expectations of marijuana effects are frequently cited as unmeasured post hoc explanations of variability in response to the drug, or of the data which fail to conform to the experimenters' expectations of the drug's effects. Twenty-four male volunteers, experienced in the use of marijuana, participated in research involving the administration of coltsfoot, placebo, and marijauna to investigate whether expectancy of marijuana effects could be measured and related to observed effects. Data for the Expectancy Questionnaire were derived from the Marihuana Effects Questions filled out when potential participants volunteered for the study and were compared to the High Questionnaire filled out after drug administration sessions. Expectancy was shown to have a quantifiable effect on the drug experience (both placebo and marijuana), even in an experimental situation. Prior frequency of occurrence of specific effects was positively related to both the intensity and duration of the effects in the laboratory. The data are discussed in terms of the learned components in getting stoned, and in terms of the social nature of cannabis intoxication.

  20. Passive marijuana usage and water intoxication.

    PubMed Central

    Quinton, B. A.; Logan, S. J.; Ramdial, H. L.; Walton, S. A.

    1993-01-01

    This article reports a case of a 3-month-old male presenting with hyponatremic seizure and hypothermia. The presence of marijuana in the infant's urine was remarkable. An etiologic role for the drug is questioned. A review of the literature is provided and the hypothesis of child neglect in the genesis of water intoxication is explored. PMID:8478974

  1. Health Implications of Marijuana Use: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petersen, Robert C.

    1979-01-01

    Summarizes what is known about the effects of marijuana use on health. The topics included are its chemistry and the metabolism; the effects of acute intoxication on learning, memory, intellectual performance, driving, and other skilled performances; and effects on lungs, brain, heart, and other systems. (SA)

  2. Government delays release of medical marijuana supply.

    PubMed

    Scanlon, Liz

    2002-07-01

    The federal government's initiative to make marijuana available for medical use continues to run into problems and delays. In a recent development, the first crop produced by the government's designated grower turned out to be too impure to use. The delays have led to the launch of a lawsuit against the federal government. PMID:14765485

  3. Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... as drugged driving, violence, stress, and child abuse. Drug abuse can lead to homelessness, crime, and missed work or problems with keeping a job. It harms unborn babies and destroys families. There are different types of treatment for drug abuse. But the best is to prevent drug ...

  4. Child Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... or become violent. An older child may use drugs or alcohol, try to run away or abuse others. Child abuse is a serious problem. If you suspect a child is being abused or neglected, call the police or your local child welfare agency.

  5. Multigenerational and Transgenerational Inheritance of Drug Exposure: The effects of alcohol, opiates, cocaine, marijuana, and nicotine

    PubMed Central

    Yohn, Nicole L.; Bartolomei, Marisa S.; Blendy, Julie A.

    2015-01-01

    Familial inheritance of drug abuse is composed of both genetic and environmental factors. Additionally, epigenetic transgenerational inheritance may provide a means by which parental drug use can influence several generations of offspring. Recent evidence suggests that parental drug exposure produces behavioral, biochemical, and neuroanatomical changes in future generations. The focus of this review is to discuss these multigenerational and transgenerational phenotypes in the offspring of animals exposed to drugs of abuse. Specifically, changes found following the administration of alcohol, opioids, cocaine, marijuana, and nicotine will be discussed. In addition, epigenetic modifications to the genome following administration of these drugs will be detailed as well as their potential for transmission to the next generation. PMID:25839742

  6. Acute marijuana effects on human risk taking.

    PubMed

    Lane, Scott D; Cherek, Don R; Tcheremissine, Oleg V; Lieving, Lori M; Pietras, Cythia J

    2005-04-01

    Previous studies have established a relationship between marijuana use and risky behavior in natural settings. A limited number of laboratory investigations of marijuana effects on human risk taking have been conducted. The present study was designed to examine the acute effects of smoked marijuana on human risk taking, and to identify behavioral mechanisms that may be involved in drug-induced changes in the probability of risky behavior. Using a laboratory measure of risk taking designed to address acute drug effects, 10 adults were administered placebo cigarettes and three doses of active marijuana cigarettes (half placebo and half 1.77%; 1.77%; and 3.58% Delta9-THC) in a within-subject repeated-measures experimental design. The risk-taking task presented subjects with a choice between two response options operationally defined as risky and nonrisky. Data analyses examined cardiovascular and subjective effects, response rates, distribution of choices between the risky and nonrisky option, and first-order transition probabilities of trial-by-trial data. The 3.58% THC dose increased selection of the risky response option, and uniquely shifted response probabilities following both winning and losing outcomes following selection of the risky option. Acute marijuana administration thereby produced measurable changes in risky decision making under laboratory conditions. Consistent with previous risk-taking studies, shifts in trial-by-trial response probabilities at the highest dose suggested a change in sensitivity to both reinforced and losing risky outcomes. Altered sensitivity to consequences may be a mechanism in drug-induced changes in risk taking. Possible neurobiological sites of action related to THC are discussed.

  7. The Changing Drug Culture: Medical and Recreational Marijuana.

    PubMed

    Albertson, Timothy E; Chenoweth, James A; Colby, Daniel K; Sutter, Mark E

    2016-02-01

    The major psychoactive compounds in marijuana (cannabis) are cannabinoids, the most significant of which is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. There are also two synthetic pharmaceutical cannabinoids, nabilone and dronabinol, available by prescription in the United States. The use of marijuana has increased in the United States with passage of medical marijuana laws in many states and legalization of recreational marijuana use in several states. In addition, the potency of marijuana has increased in recent years. Marijuana has been used for a variety of medical purposes, including management of nausea and vomiting, appetite and immunologic stimulation in patients with HIV infection and AIDS, glaucoma, neurologic disorders, and pain relief. Studies on the benefits of marijuana as a treatment for various conditions have been inconsistent, except for those on pain management. Marijuana has adverse effects, and has been associated with driving impairment, psychosis, dependence and withdrawal syndromes, hyperemesis, acute cardiac events, some cancers, and impaired lung function. As with studies on the benefits of marijuana, studies of adverse effects have yielded inconsistent results. Except for impaired driving and the occurrence of dependence and withdrawal syndromes, the adverse effects of marijuana use have not been fully studied.

  8. The Changing Drug Culture: Medical and Recreational Marijuana.

    PubMed

    Albertson, Timothy E; Chenoweth, James A; Colby, Daniel K; Sutter, Mark E

    2016-02-01

    The major psychoactive compounds in marijuana (cannabis) are cannabinoids, the most significant of which is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol. There are also two synthetic pharmaceutical cannabinoids, nabilone and dronabinol, available by prescription in the United States. The use of marijuana has increased in the United States with passage of medical marijuana laws in many states and legalization of recreational marijuana use in several states. In addition, the potency of marijuana has increased in recent years. Marijuana has been used for a variety of medical purposes, including management of nausea and vomiting, appetite and immunologic stimulation in patients with HIV infection and AIDS, glaucoma, neurologic disorders, and pain relief. Studies on the benefits of marijuana as a treatment for various conditions have been inconsistent, except for those on pain management. Marijuana has adverse effects, and has been associated with driving impairment, psychosis, dependence and withdrawal syndromes, hyperemesis, acute cardiac events, some cancers, and impaired lung function. As with studies on the benefits of marijuana, studies of adverse effects have yielded inconsistent results. Except for impaired driving and the occurrence of dependence and withdrawal syndromes, the adverse effects of marijuana use have not been fully studied. PMID:26881768

  9. Relief-oriented use of marijuana by teens

    PubMed Central

    Bottorff, Joan L; Johnson, Joy L; Moffat, Barbara M; Mulvogue, Tamsin

    2009-01-01

    Background There are indications that marijuana is increasingly used to alleviate symptoms and for the treatment of a variety of medical conditions both physical and psychological. The purpose of this study was to describe the health concerns and problems that prompt some adolescents to use marijuana for therapeutic reasons, and their beliefs about the risks and benefits of the therapeutic use of marijuana. Methods As part of a larger ethnographic study of 63 adolescents who were regular marijuana users, we analyzed interviews conducted with 20 youth who self-identified as using marijuana to relieve or manage health problems. Results Thematic analysis revealed that these teens differentiated themselves from recreational users and positioned their use of marijuana for relief by emphasizing their inability to find other ways to deal with their health problems, the sophisticated ways in which they titrated their intake, and the benefits that they experienced. These teens used marijuana to gain relief from difficult feelings (including depression, anxiety and stress), sleep difficulties, problems with concentration and physical pain. Most were not overly concerned about the risks associated with using marijuana, maintaining that their use of marijuana was not 'in excess' and that their use fit into the realm of 'normal.' Conclusion Marijuana is perceived by some teens to be the only available alternative for teens experiencing difficult health problems when medical treatments have failed or when they lack access to appropriate health care. PMID:19389223

  10. Medical marijuana for digestive disorders: high time to prescribe?

    PubMed

    Gerich, Mark E; Isfort, Robert W; Brimhall, Bryan; Siegel, Corey A

    2015-02-01

    The use of recreational and medical marijuana is increasingly accepted by the general public in the United States. Along with growing interest in marijuana use has come an understanding of marijuana's effects on normal physiology and disease, primarily through elucidation of the human endocannabinoid system. Scientific inquiry into this system has indicated potential roles for marijuana in the modulation of gastrointestinal symptoms and disease. Some patients with gastrointestinal disorders already turn to marijuana for symptomatic relief, often without a clear understanding of the risks and benefits of marijuana for their condition. Unfortunately, that lack of understanding is shared by health-care providers. Marijuana's federal legal status as a Schedule I controlled substance has limited clinical investigation of its effects. There are also potential legal ramifications for physicians who provide recommendations for marijuana for their patients. Despite these constraints, as an increasing number of patients consider marijuana as a potential therapy for their digestive disorders, health-care providers will be asked to discuss the issues surrounding medical marijuana with their patients.

  11. Medical marijuana for digestive disorders: high time to prescribe?

    PubMed

    Gerich, Mark E; Isfort, Robert W; Brimhall, Bryan; Siegel, Corey A

    2015-02-01

    The use of recreational and medical marijuana is increasingly accepted by the general public in the United States. Along with growing interest in marijuana use has come an understanding of marijuana's effects on normal physiology and disease, primarily through elucidation of the human endocannabinoid system. Scientific inquiry into this system has indicated potential roles for marijuana in the modulation of gastrointestinal symptoms and disease. Some patients with gastrointestinal disorders already turn to marijuana for symptomatic relief, often without a clear understanding of the risks and benefits of marijuana for their condition. Unfortunately, that lack of understanding is shared by health-care providers. Marijuana's federal legal status as a Schedule I controlled substance has limited clinical investigation of its effects. There are also potential legal ramifications for physicians who provide recommendations for marijuana for their patients. Despite these constraints, as an increasing number of patients consider marijuana as a potential therapy for their digestive disorders, health-care providers will be asked to discuss the issues surrounding medical marijuana with their patients. PMID:25199471

  12. Multiple Gastrointestinal Complications of Crack Cocaine Abuse

    PubMed Central

    Carlin, Neal; Nguyen, Nhat; DePasquale, Joseph R.

    2014-01-01

    Cocaine and its alkaloid free base “crack-cocaine” have long since been substances of abuse. Drug abuse of cocaine via oral, inhalation, intravenous, and intranasal intake has famously been associated with a number of medical complications. Intestinal ischemia and perforation remain the most common manifestations of cocaine associated gastrointestinal disease and have historically been associated with oral intake of cocaine. Here we find a rare case of two relatively uncommon gastrointestinal complications of hemorrhage and pancreatitis presenting within a single admission in a chronic crack cocaine abuser. PMID:24839446

  13. National Survey of American Attitudes on Substance Abuse II: Teens and Their Parents Conducted by Luntz Research Companies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse.

    Illegal drug use by adolescents is on the rise. This alarming trend was quantified in this national survey of the attitudes of teens and their parents (1,200 teens and 1,166 parents, including 819 sets of teens and parents from the same households) towards cigarettes, alcohol, inhalants, marijuana, LSD, cocaine, heroin, and other illegal drugs.…

  14. The impact of marijuana policies on youth: clinical, research, and legal update.

    PubMed

    Ammerman, Seth; Ryan, Sheryl; Adelman, William P

    2015-03-01

    This technical report updates the 2004 American Academy of Pediatrics technical report on the legalization of marijuana. Current epidemiology of marijuana use is presented, as are definitions and biology of marijuana compounds, side effects of marijuana use, and effects of use on adolescent brain development. Issues concerning medical marijuana specifically are also addressed. Concerning legalization of marijuana, 4 different approaches in the United States are discussed: legalization of marijuana solely for medical purposes, decriminalization of recreational use of marijuana, legalization of recreational use of marijuana, and criminal prosecution of recreational (and medical) use of marijuana. These approaches are compared, and the latest available data are presented to aid in forming public policy. The effects on youth of criminal penalties for marijuana use and possession are also addressed, as are the effects or potential effects of the other 3 policy approaches on adolescent marijuana use. Recommendations are included in the accompanying policy statement.

  15. The impact of marijuana policies on youth: clinical, research, and legal update.

    PubMed

    Ammerman, Seth; Ryan, Sheryl; Adelman, William P

    2015-03-01

    This technical report updates the 2004 American Academy of Pediatrics technical report on the legalization of marijuana. Current epidemiology of marijuana use is presented, as are definitions and biology of marijuana compounds, side effects of marijuana use, and effects of use on adolescent brain development. Issues concerning medical marijuana specifically are also addressed. Concerning legalization of marijuana, 4 different approaches in the United States are discussed: legalization of marijuana solely for medical purposes, decriminalization of recreational use of marijuana, legalization of recreational use of marijuana, and criminal prosecution of recreational (and medical) use of marijuana. These approaches are compared, and the latest available data are presented to aid in forming public policy. The effects on youth of criminal penalties for marijuana use and possession are also addressed, as are the effects or potential effects of the other 3 policy approaches on adolescent marijuana use. Recommendations are included in the accompanying policy statement. PMID:25624385

  16. Protecting Against Intergenerational Problem Behavior: Mediational Effects of Prevented Marijuana Use on Second-Generation Parent-Child Relationships and Child Impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Pentz, Mary Ann; Chou, Chih-Ping

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aims of the study were to identify pathways from parent marijuana use to child problem behavior and parent-child relationships, and to evaluate whether effects of an earlier prevention program delivered to parents when they themselves were early adolescents would have a protective effect on these relationships one generation later. METHODS Structural equation models were applied to the data of a second generation study of a drug abuse prevention trial. Models assessed whether there were sustained marijuana prevention effects on adults who had at least one school-age child at the end of the emerging adulthood period (age 26, N=257), and whether these effects mediated subsequent parent-child relationships and child impulsivity when parents were between the ages of 28 and 34. RESULTS Participants originally assigned to the program group used significantly less marijuana in early adulthood than did controls. In turn, parental marijuana use was positively related to child impulsivity and negatively to parental warmth, but not significantly related to parental aggression. CONCLUSIONS Results suggest both a direct relationship from parental marijuana use to child impulsivity, as well as indirect relationships through parent-child interactions. Results also strongly support a role for early adolescent prevention programs for drug use, both for participants’ own long-term benefit, as well as for the benefit of their future children. PMID:19036535

  17. Age of Onset of Marijuana Use and Executive Function

    PubMed Central

    Gruber, Staci A.; Sagar, Kelly A.; Dahlgren, Mary Kathryn; Racine, Megan; Lukas, Scott E.

    2012-01-01

    Marijuana (MJ) remains the most widely abused illicit substance in the United States, and in recent years, a decline in perceived risk of MJ use has been accompanied by a simultaneous increase in rates of use among adolescents. In the current study, we hypothesized that chronic MJ smokers would perform cognitive tasks, specifically those that require executive function more poorly than control subjects, and that individuals who started smoking MJ regularly prior to age 16 (early onset) would have more difficulty than those who started after age 16 (late onset). Thirty-four chronic, heavy MJ smokers separated into early and late onset groups and 28 non-MJ smoking controls completed a battery of neurocognitive measures. As hypothesized, MJ smokers performed more poorly than controls on several measures of executive function. Age of onset analyses revealed that these between-group differences were largely attributed to the early onset group, who were also shown to smoke twice as often and nearly three times as much MJ per week relative to the late onset smokers. Age of onset, frequency and magnitude of MJ use were all shown to impact cognitive performance. Findings suggest that earlier MJ onset is related to poorer cognitive function and increased frequency and magnitude of MJ use relative to later MJ onset. Exposure to MJ during a period of neurodevelopmental vulnerability, such as adolescence, may result in altered brain development and enduring neuropsychological changes. PMID:22103843

  18. State medical marijuana laws: understanding the laws and their limitations.

    PubMed

    Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Chriqui, Jamie F; Reichmann, Deborah A; Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M

    2002-01-01

    Significant attention has been given to the debate regarding allowances for medical marijuana use since the 1996 California and Arizona ballot initiatives. State medical marijuana allowances, however, have existed since the mid-1970s. Much of the current debate stems from confusion about the various ways states approach the issue. In this paper, we present original legal research on current state medical marijuana laws identifying four different ways states statutorily enable the medical use of marijuana. We discuss the tension these approaches have with federal law as well as their implications regarding real access for patients. In addition, we present information on how a small number of states are trying to deal with the issue of access within the context of their medical marijuana laws, and discuss the implication of various supply approaches on the enforcement of other state marijuana laws.

  19. [Marijuana for medical purposes--public health perspective].

    PubMed

    Gazdek, Davorka

    2014-01-01

    Studies show significant negative effects of smoking marijuana on physical and mental health as well as social and occupational functioning. At the same time, there are more considerations about its ability to treat a number of diseases. This review summarizes current data in scientific literature that examines the medical effects of marijuana on human health with particular emphasis on its potential in medicine. Marijuana has a range of adverse health effects, particularly relating to young people because of higher risk for psychosis, traffic accidents, and cognitive impairment. Marijuana may be helpful in relieving symptoms of nausea and vomiting, increasing appetite and pain relief for persons with cancer, AIDS and multiple sclerosis. Smoking marijuana can impose significant public health risks. If there is a medical role for using marijuana, it lies in the application of clearly defined medical protocols and chemically defined compounds, not with using the unprocessed cannabis plant.

  20. The association of family and peer factors with tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use among Chilean adolescents in neighborhood context

    PubMed Central

    Horner, Pilar; Grogan-Kaylor, Andy; Delva, Jorge; Bares, Cristina B; Andrade, Fernando; Castillo, Marcela

    2011-01-01

    Research on adolescent use of substances has long sought to understand the family factors that may be associated with use of different substances such as alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana. However, scant attention has been focused on these questions in Latin American contexts, despite growing concerns about substance use among Latin American youth. Using data from a sample of 866 Chilean youth, we examined the relationship of family and neighborhood factors with youth substance abuse. We found that in a Latin American context, access to substances is an important predictor of use, but that neighborhood effects differ for marijuana use as opposed to cigarettes or alcohol. Age of youth, family and peer relationships, and gender all play significant roles in substance use. The study findings provide additional evidence that the use of substances is complex, whereby individual, family, and community influences must be considered jointly to prevent or reduce substance use among adolescents. PMID:22224067

  1. The Association of Family and Peer Factors with Tobacco, Alcohol, and Marijuana Use Among Chilean adolescents in Neighborhood Context.

    PubMed

    Horner, Pilar; Grogan-Kaylor, Andy; Delva, Jorge; Bares, Cristina B; Andrade, Fernando; Castillo, Marcela

    2011-09-01

    Research on adolescent use of substances has long sought to understand the family factors that may be associated with use of different substances such as alcohol, tobacco and marijuana. However, scant attention has been focused on these questions in Latin American contexts, despite growing concerns about substance use among Latin American youth. Using data from a sample of 866 Chilean youth, we examined the relationship of family and neighborhood factors with youth substance abuse. We found that in a Latin American context access to substances is an important predictor of use, but that neighborhood effects differ for marijuana use as opposed to cigarettes or alcohol. Age of youth, family and peer relationships, and gender all play significant roles of substance use.The study findings provide additional evidence that the use of substances is complex whereby individual, family, and community influences must be considered jointly to prevent or reduce substance use among adolescents.

  2. Does using marijuana increase the risk for developing schizophrenia?

    PubMed

    Evins, A Eden; Green, Alan I; Kane, John M; Murray, Robin M

    2013-04-01

    As more US states and other countries consider legalizing marijuana, clinicians need to know the possible effects of this drug. Research has shown a connection between marijuana use and an increased risk for schizophrenia in young people who are vulnerable to developing psychosis. An international panel of experts addresses topics such as risk factors for schizophrenia, the potency and effects of cannabis use on adolescents, the effects of concurrent drug use with cannabis on schizophrenia risk, and current attitudes toward marijuana.

  3. Synthetic Marijuana Induced Acute Nonischemic Left Ventricular Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Elsheshtawy, Moustafa; Sriganesh, Priatharsini; Virparia, Vasudev; Patel, Falgun; Khanna, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic marijuana is an uptrending designer drug currently widely spread in the US. We report a case of acute deterioration of nonischemic left ventricular dysfunction after exposure to synthetic marijuana. This case illustrates the importance of history taking in cardiac patients and identifies a negative cardiovascular effect of synthetic marijuana known as K2, not yet well detected by urine toxicology screening tools. PMID:27119030

  4. Synthetic Marijuana Induced Acute Nonischemic Left Ventricular Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Sriganesh, Priatharsini; Virparia, Vasudev; Patel, Falgun; Khanna, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic marijuana is an uptrending designer drug currently widely spread in the US. We report a case of acute deterioration of nonischemic left ventricular dysfunction after exposure to synthetic marijuana. This case illustrates the importance of history taking in cardiac patients and identifies a negative cardiovascular effect of synthetic marijuana known as K2, not yet well detected by urine toxicology screening tools. PMID:27119030

  5. Bongs and blunts: notes from a suburban marijuana subculture.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Brian C

    2005-01-01

    Bongs and blunts constitute significant elements of marijuana consumption in the United States, especially among youth. The author draws upon ethnographic methods to provide rich descriptions of these practices amongst a network of suburban marijuana users. The author first provides a description of bong use in a suburban home prior to detailing the same youth network engaging in the process of rolling and smoking a blunt in a public environment. Ultimately, the author examines and contrasts these two features of American marijuana consumption.

  6. Gateway to curiosity: Medical marijuana ads and intention and use during middle school.

    PubMed

    D'Amico, Elizabeth J; Miles, Jeremy N V; Tucker, Joan S

    2015-09-01

    Over the past several years, medical marijuana has received increased attention in the media, and marijuana use has increased across the United States. Studies suggest that as marijuana has become more accessible and adults have become more tolerant regarding marijuana use, adolescents perceive marijuana as more beneficial and are more likely to use if they are living in an environment that is more tolerant of marijuana use. One factor that may influence adolescents' perceptions about marijuana and marijuana use is their exposure to advertising of this product. We surveyed sixth- to eighth-grade youth in 2010 and 2011 in 16 middle schools in Southern California (n = 8,214; 50% male; 52% Hispanic; mean age = 13 years) and assessed exposure to advertising for medical marijuana, marijuana intentions, and marijuana use. Cross-lagged regressions showed a reciprocal association of advertising exposure with marijuana use and intentions during middle school. Greater initial medical marijuana advertising exposure was significantly associated with a higher probability of marijuana use and stronger intentions to use 1 year later, and initial marijuana use and stronger intentions to use were associated with greater medical marijuana advertising exposure 1 year later. Prevention programs need to better explain medical marijuana to youth, providing information on the context for proper medical use of this drug and the potential harms from use during this developmental period. Furthermore, as this is a new frontier, it is important to consider regulating medical marijuana advertisements, as is currently done for alcohol and tobacco products. PMID:26030167

  7. Gateway to Curiosity: Medical Marijuana Ads and Intention and Use during Middle School

    PubMed Central

    D’Amico, Elizabeth J.; Miles, Jeremy N.V.; Tucker, Joan S.

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several years, medical marijuana has received increased attention in the media, and marijuana use has increased across the United States. Studies suggest that as marijuana has become more accessible and adults have become more tolerant regarding marijuana use, adolescents perceive marijuana as more beneficial and are more likely to use if they are living in an environment that is more tolerant of marijuana use. One factor that may influence adolescents’ perceptions about marijuana and marijuana use is their exposure to advertising of this product. We surveyed 6th–8th grade youth in 2010 and 2011 in 16 middle schools in southern California (n= 8214; 50% male; 52% Hispanic; mean age = 13) and assessed exposure to advertising for medical marijuana, marijuana intentions and marijuana use. Cross-lagged regressions showed a reciprocal association of advertising exposure with marijuana use and intentions during middle school. Greater initial medical marijuana advertising exposure was significantly associated with a higher probability of marijuana use and stronger intentions to use one year later, and initial marijuana use and stronger intentions to use were associated with greater medical marijuana advertising exposure one year later. Prevention programs need to better explain medical marijuana to youth, providing information on the context for proper medical use of this drug and the potential harms from use during this developmental period. Furthermore, as this is a new frontier, it is important to consider regulating medical marijuana advertisements, as is currently done for alcohol and tobacco products. PMID:26030167

  8. Exploring the Relationship between Social Interest, Social Bonding, and Collegiate Substance Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giordano, Amanda L.; Cashwell, Craig S.

    2014-01-01

    Substance abuse continues to be prevalent on college campuses. This study explored the relationships between social interest, social bonding, and hazardous drinking and marijuana use among college students. Results indicate that the social bonding elements of religious commitment, respect for authority, and acceptance of conventional beliefs,…

  9. An acute post-rape intervention to prevent substance use and abuse.

    PubMed

    Acierno, Ron; Resnick, Heidi S; Flood, Amanda; Holmes, Melisa

    2003-12-01

    The trauma of rape is routinely associated with extreme acute distress. Such peri-event anxiety increases risk of developing psychopathology and substance use or abuse post-rape, with the degree of initial distress positively predicting future problems. Unfortunately, the nature of post-rape forensic evidence collection procedures may exacerbate initial distress, thereby potentiating post-rape negative emotional sequelae. Consequently, substance use may increase in an effort to ameliorate this distress. To address this, a two-part video intervention was developed for use in acute post-rape time frames to (a) minimize anxiety during forensic rape examinations, thereby reducing risk of future emotional problems, and (b) prevent increased post-rape substance use and abuse. Pilot study data with 124 rape victims indicated that the low-cost, easily administered intervention was effective in reducing risk of marijuana abuse at 6 weeks. Nonstatistically significant trends also were evident for reduced marijuana use. Trends were also noted in favor of the intervention in the subgroup of women who were actively using substances pre-rape (among pre-rape alcohol users, 28% viewers vs. 43% nonviewers met criteria for post-rape alcohol abuse; among pre-rape marijuana users, the rates of post-marijuana use were 17% vs. 43%).

  10. An acute post-rape intervention to prevent substance use and abuse.

    PubMed

    Acierno, Ron; Resnick, Heidi S; Flood, Amanda; Holmes, Melisa

    2003-12-01

    The trauma of rape is routinely associated with extreme acute distress. Such peri-event anxiety increases risk of developing psychopathology and substance use or abuse post-rape, with the degree of initial distress positively predicting future problems. Unfortunately, the nature of post-rape forensic evidence collection procedures may exacerbate initial distress, thereby potentiating post-rape negative emotional sequelae. Consequently, substance use may increase in an effort to ameliorate this distress. To address this, a two-part video intervention was developed for use in acute post-rape time frames to (a) minimize anxiety during forensic rape examinations, thereby reducing risk of future emotional problems, and (b) prevent increased post-rape substance use and abuse. Pilot study data with 124 rape victims indicated that the low-cost, easily administered intervention was effective in reducing risk of marijuana abuse at 6 weeks. Nonstatistically significant trends also were evident for reduced marijuana use. Trends were also noted in favor of the intervention in the subgroup of women who were actively using substances pre-rape (among pre-rape alcohol users, 28% viewers vs. 43% nonviewers met criteria for post-rape alcohol abuse; among pre-rape marijuana users, the rates of post-marijuana use were 17% vs. 43%). PMID:14656554

  11. Evaluation of Project Chrysalis: A School-based Intervention To Reduce Negative Consequences of Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Kelly J.; Block, Audrey J.

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated a school-based program that served female adolescents with histories of physical, sexual, or emotional abuse. Found that participation produced healthier beliefs and attitudes about alcohol and other drug use and reduced initiation of tobacco and marijuana use. Findings support enrolling younger girls before they develop negative…

  12. A longitudinal study of marijuana effects.

    PubMed

    Halikas, J A; Weller, R A; Morse, C L; Hoffmann, R G

    1985-05-01

    One hundred regular marijuana users volunteered to be extensively interviewed in 1968-1970, and 97 were located and reinterviewed 6 to 8 years later. As part of each interview the subjects filled out a checklist review of 105 effects of marijuana. This report focuses on the differential patterns of effects found at the two time intervals. Scores on groupings of items were examined for changes over time. Reports of sensory and hallucinatory items dropped substantially. Reports of appetite effects, sex effects, and intoxication effects on sleep remained stable. Reports of cognitive effects, mood effects, and aftereffects on sleep appeared to be shifting from desirable to undesirable, with the frequency of desirable effects dropping while frequency of undesirable effects remained the same.

  13. Medical marijuana: clearing away the smoke.

    PubMed

    Grant, Igor; Atkinson, J Hampton; Gouaux, Ben; Wilsey, Barth

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in understanding of the mode of action of tetrahydrocannabinol and related cannabinoid in-gredients of marijuana, plus the accumulating anecdotal reports on potential medical benefits have spurred increasing re-search into possible medicinal uses of cannabis. Recent clinical trials with smoked and vaporized marijuana, as well as other botanical extracts indicate the likelihood that the cannabinoids can be useful in the management of neuropathic pain, spasticity due to multiple sclerosis, and possibly other indications. As with all medications, benefits and risks need to be weighed in recommending cannabis to patients. We present an algorithm that may be useful to physicians in determining whether cannabis might be recommended as a treatment in jurisdictions where such use is permitted.

  14. Medical Marijuana: Clearing Away the Smoke

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Igor; Atkinson, J. Hampton; Gouaux, Ben; Wilsey, Barth

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in understanding of the mode of action of tetrahydrocannabinol and related cannabinoid in-gredients of marijuana, plus the accumulating anecdotal reports on potential medical benefits have spurred increasing re-search into possible medicinal uses of cannabis. Recent clinical trials with smoked and vaporized marijuana, as well as other botanical extracts indicate the likelihood that the cannabinoids can be useful in the management of neuropathic pain, spasticity due to multiple sclerosis, and possibly other indications. As with all medications, benefits and risks need to be weighed in recommending cannabis to patients. We present an algorithm that may be useful to physicians in determining whether cannabis might be recommended as a treatment in jurisdictions where such use is permitted. PMID:22629287

  15. Marijuana: A Fifty-Year Personal Addiction Medicine Perspective.

    PubMed

    Smith, David E

    2016-01-01

    As of September 2015, the cultivation, possession, and/or use of marijuana is illegal under U.S. federal law as a Schedule I narcotic; however, it is legal in four states and Washington, D.C. Forty-six states allow some form of medicinal marijuana or decriminalization. Marijuana has been used medicinally for thousands of years; Marijuana's regulation by law enforcement in the U.S., rather than the medical community, led to an almost complete halt to academic and scientific research after the 1930s. The late 1960s saw an upsurge in recreational marijuana use by middle-class youth, the majority of whom experienced minimal adverse effects aside from arrest and attendant legal complications. Since the mid-1990s, the use of medicinal marijuana for certain conditions has gained increasing acceptance. Stronger strains and formulations of marijuana pose a risk to the developing brains of adolescents. Within the addiction medicine community, there is currently no consensus on marijuana. In the East, the feeling is primarily that marijuana continue to be proscribed. In the West, where clinicians must face the realities of medicalization, decriminalization, and/or legalization, as well as widespread recreational use, there is more of a movement to minimize adverse effects, particularly on youth.

  16. Failure to Sustain Prepulse Inhibition in Adolescent Marijuana Users

    PubMed Central

    Mathias, Charles W.; Blumenthal, Terry D.; Dawes, Michael A.; Liguori, Anthony; Richard, Dawn M.; Bray, Bethany; Tong, Weiqun; Dougherty, Donald M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Marijuana use is typically initiated during adolescence, which is a critical period for neural development. Studies have reported reductions in prepulse inhibition (PPI) among adults who use marijuana chronically, although no human studies have been conducted during the critical adolescent period. Methods This study tested PPI of acoustic startle among adolescents who were either frequent marijuana Users or naïve to the drug (Controls). Adolescents were tested using two intensities of prepulses (70 and 85 dB) combined with a 105 dB startle stimulus, delivered across two testing blocks. Results There was a significant interaction of group by block for PPI; marijuana Users experienced a greater decline in the PPI across the testing session than Controls. The change in PPI of response magnitude for Users was predicted by change in urine THC/creatinine after atleast 18 hours of abstinence, the number of joints used during the previous week before testing, as well as self-reported DSM-IV symptoms of marijuana tolerance, and time spent using marijuana rather than participating in other activities. Conclusions These outcomes suggest that adolescents who are frequent marijuana users have problems maintaining of prepulse inhibition, possibly due to lower quality of information processing or sustained attention, both of may contribute to maintaining continued marijuana use as well as attrition from marijuana treatment. PMID:21196088

  17. Keep off the grass: marijuana use and acute cardiovascular events.

    PubMed

    Caldicott, David G E; Holmes, James; Roberts-Thomson, Kurt C; Mahar, Leo

    2005-10-01

    Marijuana is one of the most widely used recreational substances in the world, considered by many consumers as a relatively safe drug with few significant side-effects. We report the case of a 21-year-old man who suffered an acute myocardial infarction following the use of marijuana, despite having no other identifiable risk factors for an acute cardiovascular event. We review the published medical literature regarding acute cardiovascular events following marijuana use and postulate a possible mechanism for this unusual pathological consequence of marijuana use.

  18. Proposed amendments to medical marijuana regulations released for comment.

    PubMed

    Betteridge, Glenn

    2004-12-01

    On 23 October 2004, Health Canada released proposed amendments to the Marihuana Medical Access Regulations (MMAR) for public comment. The amendments are intended to respond to consumer concerns about the onerous bureaucratic requirements for obtaining legal permission to possess and cultivate marijuana for medical purposes, and to address the need for a safe, reliable, legal source of medical marijuana. Under the proposed amendments, police forces throughout Canada will be able to access limited information about people authorized to possess marijuana, people licensed to produce marijuana, and legal grow operations. PMID:15801111

  19. Marijuana: A Fifty-Year Personal Addiction Medicine Perspective.

    PubMed

    Smith, David E

    2016-01-01

    As of September 2015, the cultivation, possession, and/or use of marijuana is illegal under U.S. federal law as a Schedule I narcotic; however, it is legal in four states and Washington, D.C. Forty-six states allow some form of medicinal marijuana or decriminalization. Marijuana has been used medicinally for thousands of years; Marijuana's regulation by law enforcement in the U.S., rather than the medical community, led to an almost complete halt to academic and scientific research after the 1930s. The late 1960s saw an upsurge in recreational marijuana use by middle-class youth, the majority of whom experienced minimal adverse effects aside from arrest and attendant legal complications. Since the mid-1990s, the use of medicinal marijuana for certain conditions has gained increasing acceptance. Stronger strains and formulations of marijuana pose a risk to the developing brains of adolescents. Within the addiction medicine community, there is currently no consensus on marijuana. In the East, the feeling is primarily that marijuana continue to be proscribed. In the West, where clinicians must face the realities of medicalization, decriminalization, and/or legalization, as well as widespread recreational use, there is more of a movement to minimize adverse effects, particularly on youth. PMID:26757396

  20. Spiritual abuse.

    PubMed

    Purcell, B C

    1998-01-01

    Spiritual abuse is the act of making people believe--whether by stating or merely implying--that they are going to be punished in this life and/or tormented in hell-fire forever for failure to live life good enough to please God and thus earn admission to heaven. Spiritual terrorism is the most extreme form of spiritual abuse and may cause serious mental health problems. Those people who have not been spiritually terrorized have not necessarily been spared from spiritual abuse and therefore may still be in need of competent, spiritual counseling. Spiritual abuse, which may be active or passive, can best be conceptualized on a continuum from terroristic to zero abuse. Severity is determined by intensity, age of onset, duration, and individual reaction. The underlying issue in all forms of abuse is control. PMID:9729974

  1. Clearing the smoke around medical marijuana.

    PubMed

    Ware, M A

    2011-12-01

    The hazy world of "medical marijuana" continues to cry out for clear data on which to base medical decision making and rational policy design. In this issue of Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, Abrams and colleagues report that vaporized cannabis does not meaningfully affect opioid plasma levels and may even augment the efficacy of oxycodone and morphine in patients with chronic non-cancer pain. This Commentary considers the implications of this work for clinical practice and further research initiatives. PMID:22089341

  2. Drug abuse in Asia.

    PubMed

    Suwanwela, C; Poshyachinda, V

    1986-01-01

    The article focuses on countries and areas of South-East Asia, which are seriously affected by drug abuse and the problems associated with it. Opium has traditionally been used for treating illnesses and alleviating physical and mental stress, as well as for recreational and social purposes. The prohibition of the sale and use of opium in Burma, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand forced many habitual opium users to switch to heroin. Over the past two decades there has been an increasing trend towards drug use, often involving experimentation with more than one substance, among youth in and out of school. For example, a survey of students at teachers' colleges in northern Thailand showed that at some time in their lives 30-40 per cent of the male respondents and 3-6 per cent of the female respondents had used cannabis, and that 18-20 per cent of the males and 12-27 per cent of the females had sniffed volatile solvents. The same survey showed that 5-10 per cent of both the males and females had used stimulants and nearly 2 per cent had used heroin. During the 1970s the abuse of heroin and other opiates emerged as a serious problem of epidemic nature, predominantly affecting young people in many countries of South-East Asia. While opiates, including heroin, have been abused by inhaling and by smoking, there has recently been an increasing trend towards injecting heroin of high purity (80-90 per cent pure heroin). Heroin addiction spread first to the populations of capital cities and then to other cities and towns and even to the hill tribes, as studies in Thailand have revealed. Most recent studies have shown that heroin abuse has spread further in Asia, both socially and geographically, involving such countries as India and Sri Lanka, which had no previous experience with the problem. Studies have also shown that the abuse of manufactured psychotropic substances has been increasing and that heroin addicts resort to these substances when heroin is difficult

  3. Drug abuse in Asia.

    PubMed

    Suwanwela, C; Poshyachinda, V

    1986-01-01

    The article focuses on countries and areas of South-East Asia, which are seriously affected by drug abuse and the problems associated with it. Opium has traditionally been used for treating illnesses and alleviating physical and mental stress, as well as for recreational and social purposes. The prohibition of the sale and use of opium in Burma, Hong Kong, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand forced many habitual opium users to switch to heroin. Over the past two decades there has been an increasing trend towards drug use, often involving experimentation with more than one substance, among youth in and out of school. For example, a survey of students at teachers' colleges in northern Thailand showed that at some time in their lives 30-40 per cent of the male respondents and 3-6 per cent of the female respondents had used cannabis, and that 18-20 per cent of the males and 12-27 per cent of the females had sniffed volatile solvents. The same survey showed that 5-10 per cent of both the males and females had used stimulants and nearly 2 per cent had used heroin. During the 1970s the abuse of heroin and other opiates emerged as a serious problem of epidemic nature, predominantly affecting young people in many countries of South-East Asia. While opiates, including heroin, have been abused by inhaling and by smoking, there has recently been an increasing trend towards injecting heroin of high purity (80-90 per cent pure heroin). Heroin addiction spread first to the populations of capital cities and then to other cities and towns and even to the hill tribes, as studies in Thailand have revealed. Most recent studies have shown that heroin abuse has spread further in Asia, both socially and geographically, involving such countries as India and Sri Lanka, which had no previous experience with the problem. Studies have also shown that the abuse of manufactured psychotropic substances has been increasing and that heroin addicts resort to these substances when heroin is difficult

  4. Dimensions and Severity of Marijuana Consequences: Development and Validation of the Marijuana Consequences Questionnaire (MACQ)

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Jeffrey S.; Dvorak, Robert D.; Merrill, Jennifer E.; Read, Jennifer P.

    2012-01-01

    The Marijuana Consequences Questionnaire (MACQ) is a 50-item self-report measure modeled after the Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire (YAACQ). College students (n = 315) completed questionnaires online. A confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized 8-factor structure. The results indicate good convergent and discriminant validity of the MACQ. A brief, unidimensional, 21-item version (B-MACQ) was developed by a Rasch model. Comparison of item severity estimates of the B-MACQ items and the corresponding items from the YAACQ indicate that the severity of alcohol- and marijuana- problems is defined by a relatively unique pattern of consequences. The MACQ and B-MACQ provide promising new alternatives to assessing marijuana-related problems. PMID:22305645

  5. Levalbuterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... inhaler or nebulizer. Ask your doctor, pharmacist, or respiratory therapist to show you how to use it. ... propranolol (Inderal); digoxin (Digitek, Lanoxin); diuretics ('water pills'); epinephrine (Epipen, Primatene Mist); medications for colds; and other ...

  6. Albuterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... on the bottom and the inhaler pointing upwards, load the dose by opening the protective dust cap ... or face mask. Connect the nebulizer to the compressor. Place the mouthpiece in your mouth or put ...

  7. Substance use - inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... it has been sprayed or put into a paper or plastic bag Ballooning. Inhaling a gas from ... empty soda cans, empty perfume bottles, and toilet paper tubes stuffed with rags or toilet paper soaked ...

  8. Formoterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; a group of lung diseases that includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema) in adults. Formoterol inhalation powder ...

  9. Olodaterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... of breath, coughing, and chest tightness caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; a group of diseases that affect the lungs and airways, which includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema). Olodaterol oral inhalation is in ...

  10. Umeclidinium Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... of breath, coughing, and chest tightness caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; a group of diseases that affect the lungs and airways, that includes chronic bronchitis and emphysema). Umeclidinium inhalation is in a ...

  11. Cromolyn Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... difficulties (bronchospasm) caused by exercise, cold and dry air, or by inhaling substances such as pet dander, ... of substances that cause inflammation (swelling) in the air passages of the lungs.

  12. Fluticasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... you are near an open flame or a heat source. The inhaler may explode if it is ... Nizoral); clarithromycin (Biaxin); HIV protease inhibitors such as atazanavir (Reyataz, in Evotaz), indinavir (Crixivan), nelfinavir (Viracept), ritonavir ( ...

  13. Pirbuterol Acetate Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pirbuterol is in a class of medications called beta-agonist bronchodilators. It works by relaxing and opening ... cleaning. Once a week, remove the mouthpiece cover, turn the inhaler upside down and wipe the mouthpiece ...

  14. Overview of inhalation toxicology.

    PubMed Central

    Dorato, M A

    1990-01-01

    The development of inhalation toxicology as a distinct discipline can be traced back well over one hundred years. The technology has advanced in terms of materials and designs used to construct inhalation chambers and the equipment used to generate controlled test atmospheres of a wide variety of gases, vapors, dusts, and droplets. Consideration of metered dose inhalers, a relatively recent concern, has led to the design of new equipment for administering this unique dosage form. The parameters used to evaluate inhalation toxicity are similar to those used for any other route of administration. In addition, there are some unique procedures for early screening of pulmonary toxicity, especially within a series of related chemicals. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. PMID:2200660

  15. Prediction and Prevention of Prescription Drug Abuse: Role of Preclinical Assessment of Substance Abuse Liability.

    PubMed

    Marusich, Julie A; Lefever, Timothy W; Novak, Scott P; Blough, Bruce E; Wiley, Jenny L

    2013-07-01

    In 2011, the prevalence of prescription drug abuse exceeded that of any other illicit drug except marijuana. Consequently, efforts to curtail abuse of new medications should begin during the drug development process, where abuse liability can be identified and addressed before a candidate medication has widespread use. The first step in this process is scheduling with the Drug Enforcement Agency so that legal access is appropriately restricted, dependent upon levels of abuse risk and medical benefit. To facilitate scheduling, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has published guidance for industry that describes assessment of abuse liability. The purpose of this paper is to review methods that may be used to satisfy the FDA's regulatory requirements for animal behavioral and dependence pharmacology. Methods include psychomotor activity, self-administration (an animal model of the rewarding effects of a drug), drug discrimination (an animal model of the subjective effects of a drug), and evaluation of tolerance and dependence. Data from tests conducted at RTI with known drugs of abuse illustrate typical results, and demonstrate that RTI is capable of performing these tests. While using preclinical data to predict abuse liability is an imperfect process, it has substantial predictive validity. The ultimate goal is to increase consumer safety through appropriate scheduling of new medications.

  16. Ovarian hormones and drug abuse.

    PubMed

    Moran-Santa Maria, Megan M; Flanagan, Julianne; Brady, Kathleen

    2014-11-01

    There are significant gender differences in course, symptomology, and treatment of substance use disorders. In general data from clinical and preclinical studies of substance use disorders suggest that women are more vulnerable than men to the deleterious consequences of drug use at every phase of the addiction process. In addition data from epidemiologic studies suggest that the gender gap in the prevalence of substance use is narrowing particularly among adolescence. Therefore, understanding the role of estrogen and progesterone in mediating responses to drugs of abuse is of critical importance to women's health. In this review we will discuss findings from clinical and preclinical studies of (1) reproductive cycle phase; (2) endogenous ovarian hormones; and (3) hormone replacement on responses to stimulants, nicotine, alcohol, opioids, and marijuana. In addition, we discuss data from recent studies that have advanced our understanding of the neurobiologic mechanisms that interact with estrogen and progesterone to mediate drug-seeking behavior.

  17. The Effects of Medical Marijuana Laws on Potency

    PubMed Central

    Pacula, Rosalie Liccardo; Heaton, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Background Marijuana potency has risen dramatically over the past two decades. In the United States, it is unclear whether state medical marijuana policies have contributed to this increase. Methods Employing a differences-in-differences model within a mediation framework, we analyzed data on n = 39,157 marijuana samples seized by law enforcement in 51 U.S. jurisdictions between 1990-2010, producing estimates of the direct and indirect effects of state medical marijuana laws on potency, as measured by Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol content. Results We found evidence that potency increased by a half percentage point on average after legalization of medical marijuana, although this result was not significant. When we examined specific medical marijuana supply provisions, results suggest that legal allowances for retail dispensaries had the strongest influence, significantly increasing potency by about one percentage point on average. Our mediation analyses examining the mechanisms through which medical marijuana laws influence potency found no evidence of direct regulatory impact. Rather, the results suggest that the impact of these laws occurs predominantly through a compositional shift in the share of the market captured by high-potency sinsemilla. Conclusion Our findings have important implications for policymakers and those in the scientific community trying to understand the extent to which greater availability of higher potency marijuana increases the risk of negative public health outcomes, such as drugged driving and drug-induced psychoses. Future work should reconsider the impact of medical marijuana laws on health outcomes in light of dramatic and ongoing shifts in both marijuana potency and the medical marijuana policy environment. PMID:24502887

  18. Implications of marijuana legalization for adolescent substance use.

    PubMed

    Hopfer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana that is legally available for adults has multiple implications for adolescent substance use. One potential effect that legalization may have is an increase in adolescent use to due increased availability, greater social acceptance, and possibly lower prices. Legalization may also facilitate the introduction of new formulations of marijuana (edible, vaporized) and with potentially higher potencies. It is unknown what adolescent consumption patterns will be if marijuana is widely available and marketed in different forms, or what effects different patterns of adolescent use will have on cognition, the development of marijuana use disorders, school performance, and the development of psychotic illnesses. Also unclear is whether adolescent users will be experiencing higher levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) compared with previous generations of users due to higher potencies. Although previous studies of the effects of adolescent marijuana use provide some guidance for current policy and public health recommendations, many new studies will be needed that answer questions in the context of use within a legal adult environment. Claims that marijuana has medicinal benefits create additional challenges for adolescent prevention efforts, as they contrast with messages of its harmfulness. Prevention and treatment approaches will need to address perceptions of the safety of marijuana, claims of its medicinal use, and consider family-wide effects as older siblings and parents may increasingly openly consume and advocate for marijuana use. Guidance for primary care physicians will be needed regarded screening and counseling. Widespread legalization and acceptance of marijuana implies that as law enforcement approaches for marijuana control decline, public health, medical, and scientific efforts to understand and reduce negative consequences of adolescent marijuana use need to be substantially increased to levels commensurate with those efforts for tobacco and alcohol.

  19. Implications of Marijuana Legalization for Adolescent Substance Use

    PubMed Central

    Hopfer, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana that is legally available for adults has multiple implications for adolescent substance use. One potential effect that legalization may have is an increase in adolescent use to due increased availability, greater social acceptance, and possibly lower prices. Legalization may also facilitate the introduction of new formulations of marijuana (edible, vaporized) and with potentially higher potencies. It is unknown what adolescent consumption patterns will be if marijuana is widely available and marketed in different forms, or what effects different patterns of adolescent use will have on cognition, the development of marijuana use disorders, school performance, and the development of psychotic illnesses. Also unclear is whether adolescent users will be experiencing higher levels of THC compared with previous generations of users due to higher potencies. While previous studies of the effects of adolescent marijuana use provide some guidance for current policy and public health recommendations, many new studies will be needed that answer questions in the context of use within a legal adult environment. Claims that marijuana has medicinal benefits create additional challenges for adolescent prevention efforts as they contrast with messages of its harmfulness. Prevention and treatment approaches will need to address perceptions of the safety of marijuana, claims of its medicinal use, and consider family-wide effects as older siblings and parents may increasingly openly consume and advocate for marijuana use. Guidance for primary care physicians will be needed regarded screening and counseling. Widespread legalization and acceptance of marijuana implies that as law enforcement approaches for marijuana control decline, public health, medical, and scientific efforts to understand and reduce negative consequences of adolescent marijuana use need to be substantially increased to levels commensurate with those efforts for tobacco and alcohol. PMID:25127003

  20. The Economic Geography of Medical Marijuana Dispensaries in California

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Chris; Gruenewald, Paul J.; Freisthler, Bridget; Ponicki, William R.; Remer, Lillian G.

    2014-01-01

    Background The introduction of laws that permit the use of marijuana for medical purposes has led to the emergence of a medical marijuana industry in some US states. This study assessed the spatial distribution of medical marijuana dispensaries according to estimated marijuana demand, socioeconomic indicators, alcohol outlets and other socio-demographic factors. Method Telephone survey data from 5,940 residents of 39 California cities were used to estimate social and demographic correlates of marijuana demand. These individual-level estimates were then used to calculate aggregate marijuana demand (i.e. market potential) for 7,538 census block groups. Locations of actively operating marijuana dispensaries were then related to the measure of demand and the socio-demographic characteristics of census block groups using multilevel Bayesian conditional autoregressive logit models. Results Marijuana dispensaries were located in block groups with greater marijuana demand, higher rates of poverty, alcohol outlets, and in areas just outside city boundaries. For the sampled block groups, a 10% increase in demand within a block group was associated with 2.4% greater likelihood of having a dispensary, and a 10% increase in the city-wide demand was associated with a 6.7% greater likelihood of having a dispensary. Conclusion High demand for marijuana within individual block groups and within cities is related to the location of marijuana dispensaries at a block-group level. The relationship to low income, alcohol outlets and unincorporated areas indicates that dispensaries may open in areas that lack the resources to resist their establishment. PMID:24439710

  1. Fetal Abuse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kent, Lindsey; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Five cases of fetal abuse by mothers suffering from depression are discussed. Four of the women had unplanned pregnancies and had considered termination of the pregnancy. Other factors associated with fetal abuse include pregnancy denial, pregnancy ambivalence, previous postpartum depression, and difficulties in relationships. Vigilance for…

  2. Pie Graph Data: Number of Americans Dependent on or Abusing Alcohol and Illicit Drugs

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1,921 Sedatives / 162 Tranquilizers / 521 Stimulants / 357 Heroin / 359 Hallucinogens / 397 Cocaine / 1,003 Inhalants / 161 Source: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2005 National Survey on Drug Use ...

  3. [Clinical study of BRON-L syrup (cough suppressant) abuse].

    PubMed

    Miyatake, Ryosuke; Doi, Tomoko; Date, Kenji; Naitoh, Tomomichi; Suwaki, Hiroshi

    2002-02-01

    In 1980s, abuse and dependence of BRON-W syrup (cough suppressant), which contains methylephedrine, dihydrocodeine, chlorpheniramine and caffeine, were prevalent in Japan. Pharmacological and clinical studies suggest that methylephedrine and dihydrocodeine cause dependence. Although BRON-L syrup, newly modified cough suppressant contains only chlorpheniramine and caffeine, there still are abuse and dependence of this drug. In this report, three cases of BRON-L syrup abuse are demonstrated. All cases started using BRON-L syrup in the late teens in their peer groups, and dropped out from school. Case 1 misused only BRON-L syrup, but case 2 and 3 were multi-drug abusers (case 2: amphetamine, cocaine, and marijuana, case 3: solvent, alcohol, bromovalerylurea), and had kept in tough with the peer groups. Case 2 and 3 hospitalized more than 2 times. Withdrawal symptoms, such as headache, insomnia, and irritability were mild and improved in a few weeks after drug use was stopped. These findings suggest that 1) psychosocial backgrounds of these cases are in common with those of BRON-W syrup abusers, but 2) the clinical course and prognosis of multi-drug abusers are different from the BRON single abuser, 3) chlorpheniramine and caffeine possibly cause dependence, 4) abusers are likely to choose BRON brand although two main dependence-producing constituents are removed from it now. Therefore, prevention and care of BRON-L abusers requires both psychosocial and pharmacological aspects. PMID:11915306

  4. Committee Opinion No. 637: Marijuana Use During Pregnancy and Lactation.

    PubMed

    2015-07-01

    Cannabis sativa (marijuana) is the illicit drug most commonly used during pregnancy. The self-reported prevalence of marijuana use during pregnancy ranges from 2% to 5% in most studies. A growing number of states are legalizing marijuana for medicinal or recreational purposes, and its use by pregnant women could increase even further as a result. Because of concerns regarding impaired neurodevelopment, as well as maternal and fetal exposure to the adverse effects of smoking, women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy should be encouraged to discontinue marijuana use. Obstetrician-gynecologists should be discouraged from prescribing or suggesting the use of marijuana for medicinal purposes during preconception, pregnancy, and lactation. Pregnant women or women contemplating pregnancy should be encouraged to discontinue use of marijuana for medicinal purposes in favor of an alternative therapy for which there are better pregnancy-specific safety data. There are insufficient data to evaluate the effects of marijuana use on infants during lactation and breastfeeding, and in the absence of such data, marijuana use is discouraged. PMID:26241291

  5. Self-Efficacy and Marijuana Cessation: A Construct Validity Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Robert S.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines possible relationships between self-efficacy for avoiding marijuana use and theoretically related measures in a sample of 161 men and 51 women who sought marijuana cessation treatments. Predictive validity was stronger for frequency of posttreatment use than for abstinence status. Discusses the need for better assessment of the efficacy…

  6. Prenatal Marijuana Exposure and Intelligence Test Performance at Age 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldschmidt, Lidush; Richardson, Gale A.; Willford, Jennifer; Day, Nancy L.

    2008-01-01

    A study was conducted on lower income population women who were moderate users of marijuana to examine the effects of prenatal marijuana exposure on children's intellectual development at the age of six. Results concluded that the Cognitive deficits noticed at the age of six were specific to verbal and quantitative reasoning and short-term memory.

  7. Marijuana Use in Suburban Schools among Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Kristin V.; Lopata, Christopher; Marable, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Although much research exists on adolescent marijuana use, few studies have examined marijuana use in school settings. Students experiencing academic and social difficulties at school, such as those receiving special education services, may be more at risk for school-related substance use. Nevertheless, virtually no research has examined this…

  8. Does Marijuana Use Lead to Aggression and Violent Behavior?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrowsky, Michael K.

    2011-01-01

    Marijuana use and violent behavior are causing widespread public concern. This article reviews theory and research on the relation between marijuana use and aggressive/violent behavior. It is evident from the inconsistent findings in the literature that the exact nature of the relation remains unclear. This article identifies several possible…

  9. Marijuana and Cocaine Effect Expectancies and Drug Use Patterns.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schafer, John; Brown, Sandra A.

    1991-01-01

    Content analyzed self-reports from 704 college students and used results to develop Marijuana Effect Expectancy Questionnaire and Cocaine Effect Expectancy Questionnaire. Identified six marijuana expectancies and five cocaine expectancies. Drug effect expectancies distinguished between patterns of nonuse and varying degrees of use of these two…

  10. Committee Opinion No. 637: Marijuana Use During Pregnancy and Lactation.

    PubMed

    2015-07-01

    Cannabis sativa (marijuana) is the illicit drug most commonly used during pregnancy. The self-reported prevalence of marijuana use during pregnancy ranges from 2% to 5% in most studies. A growing number of states are legalizing marijuana for medicinal or recreational purposes, and its use by pregnant women could increase even further as a result. Because of concerns regarding impaired neurodevelopment, as well as maternal and fetal exposure to the adverse effects of smoking, women who are pregnant or contemplating pregnancy should be encouraged to discontinue marijuana use. Obstetrician-gynecologists should be discouraged from prescribing or suggesting the use of marijuana for medicinal purposes during preconception, pregnancy, and lactation. Pregnant women or women contemplating pregnancy should be encouraged to discontinue use of marijuana for medicinal purposes in favor of an alternative therapy for which there are better pregnancy-specific safety data. There are insufficient data to evaluate the effects of marijuana use on infants during lactation and breastfeeding, and in the absence of such data, marijuana use is discouraged.

  11. An epidemiologic review of marijuana and cancer: an update.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Hui Jenny; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Tashkin, Donald P; Feng, Bingjian; Straif, Kurt; Hashibe, Mia

    2015-01-01

    Marijuana use is legal in two states and additional states are considering legalization. Approximately 18 million Americans are current marijuana users. There is currently no consensus on whether marijuana use is associated with cancer risk. Our objective is to review the epidemiologic studies on this possible association. We identified 34 epidemiologic studies on upper aerodigestive tract cancers (n = 11), lung cancer (n = 6), testicular cancer (n = 3), childhood cancers (n = 6), all cancers (n = 1), anal cancer (n = 1), penile cancer (n = 1), non-Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 2), malignant primary gliomas (n = 1), bladder cancer (n = 1), and Kaposi sarcoma (n = 1). Studies on head and neck cancer reported increased and decreased risks, possibly because there is no association, or because risks differ by human papillomavirus status or geographic differences. The lung cancer studies largely appear not to support an association with marijuana use, possibly because of the smaller amounts of marijuana regularly smoked compared with tobacco. Three testicular cancer case-control studies reported increased risks with marijuana use [summary ORs, 1.56; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.09-2.23 for higher frequency and 1.50 (95% CI, 1.08-2.09) for ≥10 years]. For other cancer sites, there is still insufficient data to make any conclusions. Considering that marijuana use may change due to legalization, well-designed studies on marijuana use and cancer are warranted. PMID:25587109

  12. An epidemiologic review of marijuana and cancer: an update

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu-Hui Jenny; Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Tashkin, Donald P.; Feng, Bingjian; Straif, Kurt; Hashibe, Mia

    2014-01-01

    Marijuana use is legal in two states and additional states are considering legalization. Approximately 18 million Americans are current marijuana users. There is currently no consensus on whether marijuana use is associated with cancer risk. Our objective is to review the epidemiologic studies on this possible association. We identified 34 epidemiologic studies on upper aerodigestive tract cancers (n=11), lung cancer (n=6), testicular cancer (n=3), childhood cancers (n=6), all cancers (n=1), anal cancer (n=1), penile cancer (n=1), non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (n=2), malignant primary gliomas(n=1), bladder cancer (n=1), and Kaposi's sarcoma (n=1). Studies on head and neck cancer reported increased and decreased risks, possibly because there is no association, or because risks differ by HPV status or geographic differences. The lung cancer studies largely appear not to support an association with marijuana use, possibly because of the smaller amounts of marijuana regularly smoked compared to tobacco. Three testicular cancer case-control studies reported increased risks with marijuana use (summary odds ratios 1.56 (95%CI=1.09-2.23) for higher frequency; 1.50 (95%=1.08-2.09) for ≥10 years). For other cancer sites, there is still insufficient data to make any conclusions. Considering that marijuana use may change due to legalization, well-designed studies on marijuana use and cancer are warranted. PMID:25587109

  13. Urinary concentrations of PAH and VOC metabolites in marijuana users

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Binnian; Alwis, K. Udeni; Li, Zheng; Wang, Lanqing; Valentin-Blasini, Liza; Sosnoff, Connie S.; Xia, Yang; Conway, Kevin P.; Blount, Benjamin C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Marijuana is seeing increased therapeutic use, and is the world’s third most-popular recreational drug following alcohol and tobacco. This widening use poses increased exposure to potentially toxic combustion by-products from marijuana smoke and the potential for public health concerns. Objectives To compare urinary metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) among self-reported recent marijuana users and nonusers, while accounting for tobacco smoke exposure. Methods Measurements of PAH and VOC metabolites in urine samples were combined with questionnaire data collected from participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from 2005 to 2012 in order to categorize participants (≥18 years) into exclusive recent marijuana users and nonusers. Adjusted geometric means (GMs) of urinary concentrations were computed for these groups using multiple regression analyses to adjust for potential confounders. Results Adjusted GMs of many individual monohydroxy PAHs (OH-PAHs) were significantly higher in recent marijuana users than in nonusers (p < 0.05). Urinary thiocyanate (p < 0.001) and urinary concentrations of many VOC metabolites, including metabolites of acrylonitrile (p < 0.001) and acrylamide (p < 0.001), were significantly higher in recent marijuana users than in nonusers. Conclusions We found elevated levels of biomarkers for potentially harmful chemicals among self-identified, recent marijuana users compared with nonusers. These findings suggest that further studies are needed to evaluate the potential health risks to humans from the exposure to these agents when smoking marijuana. PMID:26690539

  14. Medical marijuana users continue to experience legal barriers.

    PubMed

    Betteridge, Glenn

    2006-04-01

    Four recent developments highlight that people continue to face significant legal and administrative barriers to using marijuana for medical purposes--despite the existence of the Marihuana Medical Access Regulations (MMAR), enacted by the federal government, as a result of court rulings, to enable people who require marijuana for medical purposes to exercise their constitutional right to such medicine. PMID:16805005

  15. Court strikes down restriction in Ottawa's medical marijuana program.

    PubMed

    2008-07-01

    On 10 January 2008, the Federal Court struck down a key restriction in Ottawa's medical marijuana program.1 The ruling grants approved medical marijuana users more freedom in picking their own grower, and allows growers to supply the drug to more than one patient. PMID:18754124

  16. Marijuana safety study completed: weight gain, no safety problems.

    PubMed

    James, J S

    2000-08-01

    No safety problems specific to HIV or protease inhibitors were found in a study in which volunteers stayed in a research hospital 24 hours a day and were randomly assigned to either smoke marijuana, take oral THC, or take an oral placebo. Marijuana and THC use was associated with weight gain. PMID:12170987

  17. Marijuana Experiences, Voting Behaviors, and Early Perspectives Regarding Marijuana Legalization among College Students from 2 States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Megan A.; Whitehill, Jennifer M.; Quach, Vincent; Midamba, Nikita; Manskopf, Inga

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to understand college students' (1) views and experiences regarding marijuana, (2) voting behaviors, and (3) early perceptions of the impact of legislation. Participants: College students from Washington and Wisconsin were interviewed between May and September 2013. Methods: Participants…

  18. Marijuana experiences, voting behaviors and early perspectives regarding marijuana legalization among college students from two states

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Megan A; Whitehill, Jennifer M; Quach, Vincent; Midamba, Nikita; Manskopf, Inga

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to understand college students’ 1) views and experiences regarding marijuana, 2) voting behaviors, and 3) early perceptions of the impact of legislation. PARTICIPANTS College students from Washington and Wisconsin were interviewed between May–September 2013 METHODS Participants completed phone interviews assessing marijuana attitudes, intentions, behaviors, voting behaviors or intentions, and perceptions of the impact of legislation. RESULTS A total of 283 participants completed the interview (83.7% retention rate): 56.8% were female, 57.2% were from Wisconsin, and 74.6% were Caucasian. Almost half of Washington participants (46.3%) indicated that they voted for marijuana legalization. Participants most commonly responded that the legislation did not change their attitudes towards marijuana, though some participants discussed perceived safety of the product because legislation passed. CONCLUSIONS Findings indicate similarities in views and experiences among college students from states affected and unaffected by legalization; legalization may increase perceptions of safety. PMID:26182234

  19. Marijuana effects on long-term memory assessment and retrieval.

    PubMed

    Darley, C F; Tinklenberg, J R; Roth, W T; Vernon, S; Kopell, B S

    1977-05-01

    The ability of 16 college-educated male subjects to recall from long-term memory a series of common facts was tested during intoxication with marijuana extract calibrated to 0.3 mg/kg delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol and during placebo conditions. The subjects' ability to assess their memory capabilities was then determined by measuring how certain they were about the accuracy of their recall performance and by having them predict their performance on a subsequent recognition test involving the same recall items. Marijuana had no effect on recall or recognition performance. These results do not support the view that marijuana provides access to facts in long-term storage which are inaccessible during non-intoxication. During both marijuana and placebo conditions, subjects could accurately predict their recognition memory performance. Hence, marijuana did not alter the subjects' ability to accurately assess what information resides in long-term memory even though they did not have complete access to that information.

  20. Cyclic Vomiting Presentations Following Marijuana Liberalization in Colorado

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Howard S.; Anderson, John D.; Saghafi, Omeed; Heard, Kennon J.; Monte, Andrew A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Case reports have described a syndrome of cyclic vomiting associated with chronic marijuana use, termed cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome. The primary objective was to determine the prevalence of patients presenting with cyclic vomiting before and after the liberalization of medical marijuana in Colorado in 2009. The secondary objective was to describe the odds of marijuana use among cyclic vomiting visits in these same time periods. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of cyclic vomiting visits to the emergency department (ED) before and after marijuana liberalization. ED visits with International Classification of Diseases, ninth revision, coding for cyclic vomiting or that met diagnostic criteria for cyclic vomiting by the Rome III criteria were included. Results The authors reviewed 2,574 visits and identified 36 patients diagnosed with cyclic vomiting over 128 visits. The prevalence of cyclic vomiting visits increased from 41 per 113,262 ED visits to 87 per 125,095 ED visits after marijuana liberalization, corresponding to a prevalence ratio of 1.92 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.33 to 2.79). Patients with cyclic vomiting in the postliberalization period were more likely to have marijuana use documented than patients in the preliberalization period (odds ratio = 3.59, 95% CI = 1.44 to 9.00). Conclusions The prevalence of cyclic vomiting presentations nearly doubled after the liberalization of medical marijuana. Patients presenting with cyclic vomiting in the postliberalization period were more likely to endorse marijuana use, although it is unclear whether this was secondary to increased marijuana use, more accurate marijuana reporting, or both. PMID:25903855

  1. Surveying Lactation Professionals Regarding Marijuana Use and Breastfeeding

    PubMed Central

    Heil, Sarah H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Breastfeeding is associated with substantial benefits for both the child and mother. Most guidelines state that women who use illicit drugs should not breastfeed. Although this recommendation has traditionally included marijuana, this drug's changing legal status and the limited scientific research regarding marijuana's effect on breastfeeding and the nursing child may lead to varying recommendations made by lactation professionals to clients who use marijuana. Additionally, to our knowledge, there are no data estimating the prevalence of marijuana use among breastfeeding women, making it unclear how common it is. This study assessed recommendations around breastfeeding and marijuana use and estimated the prevalence of marijuana use among breastfeeding women. Materials and Methods: A convenience sample of lactation professionals who practice throughout New England and were attending the 2014 Vermont Lactation Consultant Association conference was offered the opportunity to complete a five-item survey. Results: Of 120 conference attendees, 74 completed the survey. Forty-four percent reported their recommendations around breastfeeding and marijuana use depended on factors like the severity of maternal use. Another 41% reported recommending continued breastfeeding because the benefits outweigh the harms. The remaining 15% reported recommending that a woman should stop breastfeeding if she cannot stop using marijuana. Survey completers estimated that 15% (1,203/7,843) of their breastfeeding clients in the past year used marijuana. Conclusions: Lactation professionals vary widely in their recommendations to breastfeeding clients who use marijuana. The estimate of prevalence also suggests this is a relatively common issue. More research is needed to assess the generalizability of these findings. PMID:26252053

  2. Evidence for Connections between Prosecutor-Reported Marijuana Case Dispositions and Community Youth Marijuana-Related Attitudes and Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; McBride, Duane C.; Chriqui, Jamie F.; O'Malley, Patrick M.; VanderWaal, Curtis J.; Chaloupka, Frank J.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines relationships between local drug policy (as represented by prosecutor-reported case outcomes for first-offender juvenile marijuana possession cases) and youth self-reported marijuana use, perceived risk, and disapproval. Interviews with prosecutors and surveys of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students in the United States were…

  3. Marijuana Craving During a Public Speaking Challenge: Understanding Marijuana Use Vulnerability among Women and those with Social Anxiety Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Silgado, José; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2010-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is associated with risk for developing marijuana dependence, yet it remains unclear whether urge to use marijuana increases in anticipation of social anxiety-provoking situation, during the situation, or afterwards (to avoid post-event processing). The present study examined the timing of marijuana craving in response to a social anxiety task among 60 (50% female; 33% with SAD) marijuana users randomly assigned to either a speech or reading task. Participants completed ratings of marijuana craving at baseline (prior to being informed of task assignment), before, during, and after task. Among women and participants with SAD, the speech task was associated with greater craving than the reading task. This effect was particularly pronounced during the social anxiety induction task. This effect was not observed for men or participants without SAD. Identification of timing of urge to use marijuana has important implications for treatment and relapse prevention of marijuana problems among women and people with SAD (a group at particular risk for marijuana-related problems). PMID:20797696

  4. Acute Inhalation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Gorguner, Metin; Akgun, Metin

    2010-01-01

    Inhaled substances may cause injury in pulmonary epithelium at various levels of respiratory tract, leading from simple symptoms to severe disease. Acute inhalation injury (AII) is not uncommon condition. There are certain high risk groups but AII may occur at various places including home or workplace. Environmental exposure is also possible. In addition to individual susceptibility, the characteristics of inhaled substances such as water solubility, size of substances and chemical properties may affect disease severity as well as its location. Although AII cases may recover in a few days but AII may cause long-term complications, even death. We aimed to discuss the effects of short-term exposures (minutes to hours) to toxic substances on the lungs. PMID:25610115

  5. Inhalation exposure methodology.

    PubMed Central

    Phalen, R F; Mannix, R C; Drew, R T

    1984-01-01

    Modern man is being confronted with an ever-increasing inventory of potentially toxic airborne substances. Exposures to these atmospheric contaminants occur in residential and commercial settings, as well as in the workplace. In order to study the toxicity of such materials, a special technology relating to inhalation exposure systems has evolved. The purpose of this paper is to provide a description of the techniques which are used in exposing laboratory subjects to airborne particles and gases. The various modes of inhalation exposure (whole body, head only, nose or mouth only, etc.) are described at length, including the advantages and disadvantages inherent to each mode. Numerous literature citations are included for further reading. Among the topics briefly discussed are the selection of appropriate animal species for toxicological testing, and the types of inhalation studies performed (acute, chronic, etc.). PMID:6383799

  6. Spontaneous pneumothorax associated with talc pulmonary granulomatosis after cocaine inhalation.

    PubMed

    Fiorelli, Alfonso; Accardo, Marina; Rossi, Francesco; Santini, Mario

    2016-03-01

    We report a case of recurrent spontaneous pneumothorax in a patient with cocaine abuse through inhalation alone. He underwent thoracoscopic apical lung resection with mechanical pleurodesis. Despite the lack of significant radiological features of talc induced pulmonary granulomatosis, pathological findings showed granulomas with foreign materials suggestive of being talc. Electronic microscopy showed that the size of talc particles were <4.0 µm and thus small enough to reach the alveoli.

  7. [Inhalational or intravenous anesthesia?].

    PubMed

    Dahan, A; Aarts, L P H J

    2016-01-01

    The debate continues whether there is a difference in patient outcome following inhalational versus intravenous anesthesia. A recent meta-analysis showed improved outcome following inhalational anesthesia in patients undergoing cardiac surgery but not in patients undergoing non-cardiac procedures. In this article we discuss the meta-analysis and its caveats, taking into account additional comparative studies. Our overall conclusion is that it is too early to definitively claim that one anesthesia technique results in a better outcome than the other. PMID:27650024

  8. Initiation of use of alcohol, cigarettes, marijuana, cocaine, and other substances in US birth cohorts since 1919.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, R A; Gerstein, D R

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined recent trends in initiation of psychoactive drug use. METHODS: Data from the 1991 through 1993 National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse were used to compare the percentages of US cohorts born from 1919 through 1975 who began using drugs before the ages of 15, 21, and 35. RESULTS: Initiation of cigarette smoking by males peaked in the 1941-1945 cohort, then declined steadily. For females, early smoking initiation rose through the 1951-1955 cohort and then stabilized. Initiation of alcohol use was less common than smoking for pre1950 cohorts but increased steadily, approaching cigarette use for cohorts born in the early 1970s. Only 2% of teenagers born in 1930-1940 tried marijuana; half the teenagers born in 1956-1965 did so. The percentage initiating marijuana use declined in the 1980s, more so among young adults than among teenagers. The use of cocaine and other illicit drugs echoed the rise of marijuana use but peaked later and showed less evidence of subsequent decline. Sex differences declined over time for every drug. CONCLUSIONS: Cohorts born since World War II have had much higher rates of illicit drug use initiation, but trends have varied by drug type, possibly reflecting changes in relative prices. PMID:9584029

  9. It's not your mother's marijuana: effects on maternal-fetal health and the developing child.

    PubMed

    Warner, Tamara D; Roussos-Ross, Dikea; Behnke, Marylou

    2014-12-01

    Pro-marijuana advocacy efforts exemplified by the "medical" marijuana movement, coupled with the absence of conspicuous public health messages about the potential dangers of marijuana use during pregnancy, could lead to greater use of today's more potent marijuana, which could have significant short- and long-term consequences. This article reviews the current literature regarding the effects of prenatal marijuana use on the pregnant woman and her offspring.

  10. MODELING DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeling Deposition of Inhaled Particles: ABSTRACT

    The mathematical modeling of the deposition and distribution of inhaled aerosols within human lungs is an invaluable tool in predicting both the health risks associated with inhaled environmental aerosols and the therapeut...

  11. High-performance sport, marijuana, and cannabimimetics.

    PubMed

    Hilderbrand, Richard L

    2011-11-01

    The prohibition on use of cannabinoids in sporting competitions has been widely debated and continues to be a contentious issue. Information continues to accumulate on the adverse health effects of smoked marijuana and the decrement of performance caused by the use of cannabinoids. The objective of this article is to provide an overview of cannabinoids and cannabimimetics that directly or indirectly impact sport, the rules of sport, and performance of the athlete. This article reviews some of the history of marijuana in Olympic and Collegiate sport, summarizes the guidelines by which a substance is added to the World Anti-Doping Agency Prohibited List, and updates information on the pharmacologic effects of cannabinoids and their mechanism of action. The recently marketed cannabimimetics Spice and K2 are included in the discussion as they activate the same receptors as are activated by THC. The article also provides a view as to why the World Anti-Doping Agency prohibits cannabinoid or cannabimimetic use incompetition and should continue to do so. PMID:22080902

  12. Alcohol and marijuana effects on ocular tracking.

    PubMed

    Flom, M C; Brown, B; Adams, A J; Jones, R T

    1976-12-01

    Experienced alcohol and marijuana users were instructed to track with their eyes a small spot that moved horizontally back and forth in pendular (sinusoidal) motion across a 7.5-degree field. The frequency of spot oscillation was gradually increased from 0.5 to 3.0 Hz in 40 sec. Eye movement recordings showed the frequency at which smooth tracking and, soon thereafter, saccadic tracking broke down. These smooth and saccadic cutoff frequencies were reduced after administration of alcohol, but not after marijuana or placebo. For low alcohol doses, smooth tracking was impaired and saccadic tracking was unaffected, much like an effect previously reported for barbiturates. Alcohol seems to affect smooth tracking by increasing the central processing time required to generate the appropriate eye movement. It affects saccadic tracking by slightly decreasing saccadic velocity and to a greater extent by increasing latency time, part of which may be devoted to central processing. The site of action of alcohol appears to be central to both the paramedian pontine reticular formation and the flocculus of the cerebellum.

  13. Gender effects on amygdala morphometry in adolescent marijuana users

    PubMed Central

    McQueeny, Tim; Padula, Claudia B.; Price, Jenessa; Medina, Krista Lisdahl; Logan, Patrick; Tapert, Susan F.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent developments in limbic structures and the endogenous cannabinoid system suggest that teenagers may be more vulnerable to the negative consequences of marijuana use. This study examined the relationships between amygdala volume and internalizing symptoms in teenaged chronic marijuana users. Participants were 35 marijuana users and 47 controls ages 16–19 years. Exclusions included psychiatric (e.g., mood and anxiety) or neurologic disorders. Substance use, internalizing (anxiety/depression) symptoms and brain scans were collected after 28 days of monitored abstinence. Reliable raters manually traced amygdala and intracranial volumes on high-resolution magnetic resonance images. Female marijuana users had larger right amygdala volumes and more internalizing symptoms than female controls, after covarying head size, alcohol, nicotine and other substance use (p<0.05), while male users had similar volumes as male controls. For female controls and males, worse mood/anxiety was linked to smaller right amygdala volume (p<0.05), whereas more internalizing problems was associated with bigger right amygdala in female marijuana users. Gender interactions may reflect marijuana-related interruptions to sex-specific neuromaturational processes and staging. Subtle amygdala development abnormalities may underlie particular vulnerabilities to sub-diagnostic depression and anxiety in teenage female marijuana users. PMID:21664935

  14. Marijuana Legalization: Impact on Physicians and Public Health.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Samuel T; Yarnell, Stephanie; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv; Ball, Samuel A; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is becoming legal in an increasing number of states for both medical and recreational use. Considerable controversy exists regarding the public health impact of these changes. The evidence for the legitimate medical use of marijuana or cannabinoids is limited to a few indications, notably HIV/AIDS cachexia, nausea/vomiting related to chemotherapy, neuropathic pain, and spasticity in multiple sclerosis. Although cannabinoids show therapeutic promise in other areas, robust clinical evidence is still lacking. The relationship between legalization and prevalence is still unknown. Although states where marijuana use is legal have higher rates of use than nonlegal states, these higher rates were generally found even prior to legalization. As states continue to proceed with legalization for both medical and recreational use, certain public health issues have become increasingly relevant, including the effects of acute marijuana intoxication on driving abilities, unintentional ingestion of marijuana products by children, the relationship between marijuana and opioid use, and whether there will be an increase in health problems related to marijuana use, such as dependence/addiction, psychosis, and pulmonary disorders. In light of this rapidly shifting legal landscape, more research is urgently needed to better understand the impact of legalization on public health.

  15. Neurocognition in College-Aged Daily Marijuana Users

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Mary P.; Collins, Paul F.; Luciana, Monica

    2014-01-01

    Background Marijuana is the most commonly used illicit substance in the United States. Use, particularly when it occurs early, has been associated with cognitive impairments in executive functioning, learning, and memory. Methods This study comprehensively measured cognitive ability as well as comorbid psychopathology and substance use history to determine the neurocognitive profile associated with young adult marijuana use. College-aged marijuana users who initiated use prior to age 17 (n=35) were compared to demographically-matched controls (n=35). Results Marijuana users were high functioning, demonstrating comparable IQs to controls and relatively better processing speed. Marijuana users demonstrated relative cognitive impairments in verbal memory, spatial working memory, spatial planning, and motivated decision-making. Comorbid use of alcohol, which was heavier in marijuana users, was unexpectedly found to be associated with better performance in some of these areas. Conclusions This study provides additional evidence of neurocognitive impairment in the context of adolescent and young adult marijuana use. Findings are discussed in relation to marijuana’s effects on intrinsic motivation and discrete aspects of cognition. PMID:24620756

  16. Is today's marijuana more potent simply because it's fresher?

    PubMed

    Sevigny, Eric L

    2013-01-01

    The average potency of illicit marijuana in the USA has increased substantially over the past four decades, and observers have suggested a number of likely reasons for this. One set of hypotheses points to a market that has evolved from foreign to domestic sources of supply, and to continuing advances in sophisticated cultivation techniques. Another set of hypotheses points to testing artifacts related to changes in the sampling, handling, and testing of illicit marijuana. The current study uses data from the federally sponsored Potency Monitoring Program, which performs ongoing forensic analysis of seized marijuana samples, to assess the extent to which the observed increase in cannabis potency in the USA between 1970 and 2010 is a function of genuine shifts in illicit marijuana markets or testing artifacts related to changes in the quality of seized marijuana. The study finds, after adjusting for marijuana quality, that the apparent 10.5 factor increase in mean reported THC% between the 1970s and the 2000s is instead on the order of a six- to seven-fold increase. By this accounting, then, the reported long-term rise in potency is roughly 57-67% as great when the quality of the tested marijuana is taken into account. This study's findings, therefore, caution against the uncritical use of potency monitoring data and highlight the importance of assessing potency measurement reliability and addressing data quality issues in future policy analytic research. PMID:23169764

  17. Marijuana Legalization: Impact on Physicians and Public Health.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Samuel T; Yarnell, Stephanie; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv; Ball, Samuel A; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is becoming legal in an increasing number of states for both medical and recreational use. Considerable controversy exists regarding the public health impact of these changes. The evidence for the legitimate medical use of marijuana or cannabinoids is limited to a few indications, notably HIV/AIDS cachexia, nausea/vomiting related to chemotherapy, neuropathic pain, and spasticity in multiple sclerosis. Although cannabinoids show therapeutic promise in other areas, robust clinical evidence is still lacking. The relationship between legalization and prevalence is still unknown. Although states where marijuana use is legal have higher rates of use than nonlegal states, these higher rates were generally found even prior to legalization. As states continue to proceed with legalization for both medical and recreational use, certain public health issues have become increasingly relevant, including the effects of acute marijuana intoxication on driving abilities, unintentional ingestion of marijuana products by children, the relationship between marijuana and opioid use, and whether there will be an increase in health problems related to marijuana use, such as dependence/addiction, psychosis, and pulmonary disorders. In light of this rapidly shifting legal landscape, more research is urgently needed to better understand the impact of legalization on public health. PMID:26515984

  18. Marijuana Legalization: Impact on Physicians and Public Health

    PubMed Central

    Wilkinson, Samuel T.; Yarnell, Stephanie; Radhakrishnan, Rajiv; Ball, Samuel A.; D'Souza, Deepak Cyril

    2016-01-01

    Marijuana is becoming legal in an increasing number of states for both medical and recreational use. Considerable controversy exists regarding the public health impact of these changes. The evidence for the legitimate medical use of marijuana or cannabinoids is limited to a few indications, notably HIV/AIDS cachexia, nausea/vomiting related to chemotherapy, neuropathic pain, and spasticity in multiple sclerosis. Although cannabinoids show therapeutic promise in other areas, robust clinical evidence is still lacking. The relationship between legalization and prevalence is still unknown. Although states where marijuana use is legal have higher rates of use than nonlegal states, these higher rates were generally found even prior to legalization. As states continue to proceed with legalization for both medical and recreational use, certain public health issues have become increasingly relevant, including the effects of acute marijuana intoxication on driving abilities, unintentional ingestion of marijuana products by children, the relationship between marijuana and opioid use, and whether there will be an increase in health problems related to marijuana use, such as dependence/addiction, psychosis, and pulmonary disorders. In light of this rapidly shifting legal landscape, more research is urgently needed to better understand the impact of legalization on public health. PMID:26515984

  19. Liposomal formulations for inhalation.

    PubMed

    Cipolla, David; Gonda, Igor; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2013-08-01

    No marketed inhaled products currently use sustained release formulations such as liposomes to enhance drug disposition in the lung, but that may soon change. This review focuses on the interaction between liposomal formulations and the inhalation technology used to deliver them as aerosols. There have been a number of dated reviews evaluating nebulization of liposomes. While the information they shared is still accurate, this paper incorporates data from more recent publications to review the factors that affect aerosol performance. Recent reviews have comprehensively covered the development of dry powder liposomes for aerosolization and only the key aspects of those technologies will be summarized. There are now at least two inhaled liposomal products in late-stage clinical development: ARIKACE(®) (Insmed, NJ, USA), a liposomal amikacin, and Pulmaquin™ (Aradigm Corp., CA, USA), a liposomal ciprofloxacin, both of which treat a variety of patient populations with lung infections. This review also highlights the safety of inhaled liposomes and summarizes the clinical experience with liposomal formulations for pulmonary application. PMID:23919478

  20. Preventing Adolescent Drug Abuse through a Multimodal Cognitive-Behavioral Approach: Results of a 3-Year Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botvin, Gilbert J.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Students (N=4,466) in 56 schools participated in 3-year study on effectiveness of cognitive-behavioral approach to substance abuse prevention. Students who received at least 60 percent of prevention program (N=3,684) were included in analyses of program effectiveness. Significant prevention effects were found for cigarette smoking, marijuana use,…

  1. Smoked marijuana effects on tobacco cigarette smoking behavior.

    PubMed

    Kelly, T H; Foltin, R W; Rose, A J; Fischman, M W; Brady, J V

    1990-03-01

    The effects of marijuana smoke exposure on several measures of tobacco cigarette smoking behavior were examined. Eight healthy adult male volunteers, who smoked both tobacco and marijuana cigarettes, participated in residential studies, lasting 10 to 15 days, designed to measure the effects of marijuana smoke exposure on a range of behavioral variables. Tobacco cigarettes were available throughout the day (9:00 A.M. until midnight). Each day was divided into a private period (9:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M.), during which subjects were socially isolated, and a social period (5:00 P.M. to midnight), during which subjects could interact. Under blind conditions, subjects smoked placebo and active marijuana cigarettes (0%, 1.3%, 2.3%, or 2.7% delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol) four times daily (9:45 A.M., 1:30 P.M., 5:00 P.M. and 8:30 P.M.). Each subject was exposed to both placebo and one active dose over 2- to 5-consecutive-day intervals, and dose conditions (i.e., placebo or active) alternated throughout the study. Active marijuana smoking significantly decreased the number of daily tobacco smoking bouts, increased inter-bout intervals and decreased inter-puff intervals. Marijuana decreased the number of tobacco smoking bouts by delaying the initiation of tobacco cigarette smoking immediately after marijuana smoking, whereas decreases in inter-puff intervals were unrelated to the time of marijuana smoking. No consistent interactions between marijuana effects and social or private periods (i.e., time of day) were observed.

  2. Inhalation Exposure to Smoke from Synthetic “Marijuana” Produces Potent Cannabimimetic Effects in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wiebelhaus, Jason M.; Poklis, Justin L.; Poklis, Alphonse; Vann, Robert E.; Lichtman, Aron H.; Wise, Laura E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Use of synthetic “marijuana” has increased in recent years, produced adverse effects and prompted the temporary DEA ban of five specific cannabinoid analogs, including JWH-018. The objectives of the current study include determining the chemical content of the herbal product, Buzz, assessing its behavioral effects upon inhalation exposure to mice, determining whether CB1 receptors mediate its pharmacological activity, and ascertaining its biodisposition in blood and various organs. METHODS Using a nose-only exposure system, mice were exposed to smoke produced from combustion of an herbal incense product, Buzz, which contained 5.4% JWH-018. Cannabimimetic effects following smoke exposure were evaluated using the tetrad procedure, consisting of the following indices: hypomotility, antinociception, catalepsy, and hypothermia. Additionally, blood and tissues were collected for JWH-018 quantification. RESULTS Inhalation exposure to Buzz produced dose-related tetrad effects similar to marijuana as well as dose-related increased levels of JWH-018 in the blood, brain, heart, kidney, liver, lung, and spleen. The behavioral effects were blocked by rimonabant, a CB1 receptor antagonist. Effects produced by Buzz were similar in magnitude and time-course to those produced by marijuana, though equipotent doses of Buzz and marijuana yielded considerably lower brain levels of JWH-018 than THC for the respective materials. CONCLUSIONS Inhalation exposure to a product containing JWH-018 penetrates into the brain and other organs and produces CB1 receptor-mediated behavioral pharmacological effects in mice. The increased potency of JWH-018 compared to THC, the variable amount of drug added to various herbal products, and unknown toxicity, undoubtedly contribute to public health risks of synthetic cannabinoids. PMID:22776442

  3. Medicinal Use of Marijuana: What School Nurses Need to Know.

    PubMed

    DeWitt-Parker, Christene

    2016-05-01

    The subject of medical marijuana is complex and currently of interest and concern to patients and health care providers. Legislators throughout the United States have passed state-specific laws and regulations that impact medical practice and the use of marijuana as a therapeutic modality. In November 2015, New Jersey became the first state to specifically allow the administration of medical marijuana for students and persons with developmental disabilities. The purpose of this article is to provide a frame of reference for school nurses and to encourage awareness of the implications for student health and relevant nursing interventions in the school setting. PMID:27037260

  4. A social-learning approach to student marijuana use.

    PubMed

    Krakowiak, P A; Cross, H J

    1979-08-01

    Three hundred seventy-two college students were administered a battery of questionnaires designed to assess the predictive power of four social variables (social support, perceived sanctions, availability, family models), and six psychological ones (locus of control, mortality-conscience guilt, personal meanings, functions for continuing use, belief in consequences, societal and non-societal means of valued goal attainment) with respect to marijuana use. Results support a social learning theory interpretation of marijuana use. Users have had pleasant experiences, believe that sanctions are minimal, and that marijuana is not harmful. Six predictor variables correlated +.76 with use.

  5. Media exposure and marijuana and alcohol use among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Primack, Brian A; Kraemer, Kevin L; Fine, Michael J; Dalton, Madeline A

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to determine which media exposures are most strongly associated with marijuana and alcohol use among adolescents. In 2004, we surveyed 1,211 students at a large high school in suburban Pittsburgh regarding substance use, exposure to entertainment media, and covariates. Of the respondents, 52% were female, 8% were non-White, 27% reported smoking marijuana, and 60% reported using alcohol. They reported average exposure to 8.6 hr of media daily. In adjusted models, exposure to music was independently associated with marijuana use, but exposure to movies was independently associated with alcohol use. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for further research are discussed. PMID:19306219

  6. Epidemiologic review of marijuana use and cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Hashibe, Mia; Straif, Kurt; Tashkin, Donald P; Morgenstern, Hal; Greenland, Sander; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2005-04-01

    Marijuana is the most commonly used illegal drug in the United States and is considered by young adults to be the illicit drug with the least risk. On the other hand, marijuana smoke contains several of the same carcinogens and co-carcinogens as the tar from tobacco, raising concerns that smoking of marijuana may be a risk factor for tobacco-related cancers. We reviewed two cohort studies and 14 case-control studies with assessment of the association of marijuana use and cancer risk. In the cohort studies, increased risks of lung or colorectal cancer due to marijuana smoking were not observed, but increased risks of prostate and cervical cancers among non-tobacco smokers, as well as adult-onset glioma among tobacco and non-tobacco smokers, were observed. The 14 case-control studies included four studies on head and neck cancers, two studies on lung cancer, two studies on non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, one study on anal cancer, one study on penile cancer, and four studies on childhood cancers with assessment of parental exposures. Zhang and colleagues reported that marijuana use may increase risk of head and neck cancers in a hospital-based case-control study in the United States, with dose-response relations for both frequency and duration of use. However, Rosenblatt and co-workers reported no association between oral cancer and marijuana use in a population-based case-control study. An eightfold increase in risk among marijuana users was observed in a lung cancer study in Tunisia. However, there was no assessment of the dose response, and marijuana may have been mixed with tobacco. Parental marijuana use during gestation was associated with increased risks of childhood leukemia, astrocytoma, and rhabdomyosarcoma, but dose-response relations were not assessed. In summary, sufficient studies are not available to adequately evaluate marijuana impact on cancer risk. Several limitations of previous studies include possible underreporting where marijuana use is illegal, small

  7. Completing substance abuse treatment in child welfare: the role of co-occurring problems and primary drug of choice.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sam; Ryan, Joseph P

    2006-11-01

    A significant number of substance-abusing parents in the child welfare system do not complete substance abuse treatments. Consequently, their children experience longer stays in substitute care settings, and the risk of the termination of parental rights is increased. This study identifies and determines the specific factors that explain the completion of substance abuse treatment for substance-abusing caregivers in child welfare. The sample includes 871 caregivers enrolled in the Illinois Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse waiver demonstration. Approximately 22% of these caregivers successfully completed all required levels of substance abuse treatment. The multivariate models indicate that age, employment status, and legal involvement were significantly associated with the likelihood of completing substance abuse treatment. Heroin users were significantly less likely to complete treatment as compared with alcohol, cocaine, and marijuana users. The findings are discussed in terms of policy and practice implications for public child welfare systems.

  8. Helium inhalation in adolescents: characteristics of users and prevalence of use.

    PubMed

    Whitt, Ahmed; Garland, Eric L; Howard, Matthew O

    2012-01-01

    Although helium-related fatalities and concerns about potentially harmful effects of helium use have increased in recent years, virtually nothing is known about the epidemiology of helium inhalation in adolescents. This exploratory investigation examined the prevalence and correlates of helium inhalation in a large sample of at-risk youth. Study participants were 723 Missouri adolescents (M age = 15.5, SD = 1.2) in residential treatment for delinquent behavior. More than one-in-nine (N = 81, 11.5%) adolescents had inhaled helium with the intention of getting high, and one-third (N = 27, 34.2%) of helium users reported they actually did get high when they inhaled helium. Helium users were significantly more likely to be Caucasian, to live in rural/small town areas, and to have histories of mental illness, auditory hallucinations, and alcohol and marijuana use than nonusers. Helium users also reported significantly more current psychiatric distress, suicidality, traumatic life experiences, and antisocial attitudes, traits, and behaviors than nonusers. Helium inhalation was prevalent in this sample and many such users reported getting high while using helium. Helium users had psychosocial profiles similar to those of volatile solvent users, suggesting that they may be at substantial risk for a variety of adverse health outcomes.

  9. Assessing the Relationship between Marijuana Availability and Marijuana Use: A Legal and Sociological Comparison between the United States and the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yacoubian, George S., Jr.

    2007-01-01

    The United States and the Netherlands have antithetical marijuana control policies. The United States' laws criminalize the possession of even small amounts of marijuana, while the Netherlands have maintained, over the past several decades, two relatively liberal marijuana policies implemented during the 1970s and 1980s. According to the…

  10. Associations of marijuana use and sex-related marijuana expectancies with HIV/STD risk behavior in high-risk adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Hendershot, Christian S.; Magnan, Renee E.; Bryan, Angela D.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple studies suggest an association of marijuana use with increased rates of sexual risk behavior and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). Most studies have focused on global associations of marijuana use with sexual risk outcomes and few have examined relevant cognitive variables. Adolescents in the juvenile justice system are at elevated risk for HIV/STDs and preliminary evidence suggests that marijuana is a potentially important cofactor for sexual risk behavior in this population. This study evaluated global, situational and event-level associations of marijuana use and sex-related marijuana expectancies with sexual risk outcomes in a large, racially diverse sample of adjudicated youth (n = 656, 66% male, mean age = 16.7 years). Cross-sectional and prospective analyses identified associations of marijuana use and dependence symptoms with sexual risk outcomes, including lower frequency of condom use and higher STD incidence. Stronger sex-related marijuana expectancies predicted greater intentions for and frequency of marijuana use in sexual situations. In event-level analyses that controlled for alcohol, marijuana use predicted a significantly decreased likelihood of condom use; this association was moderated by sex-related marijuana expectancies. Mediation analyses suggested that behavioral intentions partly accounted for the prospective association of expectancies with marijuana use before sex. These results provide further evidence that marijuana use is a potentially important cofactor for HIV/STD transmission in high-risk adolescents and suggest that cognitive factors could be important for characterizing this association. PMID:20853925

  11. Frequency and Risk of Marijuana Use among Substance-Using Health Care Patients in Colorado with and without Access to State Legalized Medical Marijuana.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Melissa K; Pampel, Fred C; Rivera, Laura S; Broderick, Kerryann B; Reimann, Brie; Fischer, Leigh

    2015-01-01

    With increasing use of state legalized medical marijuana across the country, health care providers need accurate information on patterns of marijuana and other substance use for patients with access to medical marijuana. This study compared frequency and severity of marijuana use, and use of other substances, for patients with and without state legal access to medical marijuana. Data were collected from 2,030 patients who screened positive for marijuana use when seeking health care services in a large, urban safety-net medical center. Patients were screened as part of a federally funded screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) initiative. Patients were asked at screening whether they had a state-issued medical marijuana card and about risky use of tobacco, alcohol, and other illicit substances. A total of 17.4% of marijuana users had a medical marijuana card. Patients with cards had higher frequency of marijuana use and were more likely to screen at moderate than low or high risk from marijuana use. Patients with cards also had lower use of other substances than patients without cards. Findings can inform health care providers of both the specific risks of frequent, long-term use and the more limited risks of other substance use faced by legal medical marijuana users. PMID:25715066

  12. Gang membership and marijuana use among African American female adolescents in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Doherty, Irene A; Browne, Felicia A; Kline, Tracy L; Carry, Monique G; Raiford, Jerris L; Herbst, Jeffrey H

    2015-01-01

    The southeastern US sustains the highest high school dropout rates, and gangs persist in underserved communities. African American female adolescents who drop out of school and are gang members are at substantial risk of exposure to severe violence, physical abuse, and sexual exploitation. In this study of 237 female African American adolescents 16-19 years of age from North Carolina who dropped out or considered dropping out, 11% were current or past gang members. Adolescents who reported gang membership began smoking marijuana at a mean age of 13, whereas those who reported no gang membership began at a mean age of 15 years (P<0.001). The mean ages of first alcohol use were 14 years and 15 years for gang members and non-gang members, respectively (P=0.04). Problem alcohol use was high in both groups: 40% and 65% for non-gang and gang members, respectively (P=0.02). Controlling for frequent marijuana use and problem alcohol use, adolescents who reported gang membership were more likely than non-gang members to experience sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] =2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.06, 6.40]), experience physical abuse (OR =7.33, 95% CI [2.90, 18.5]), report emotional abuse from their main partner (OR =3.55, 95% CI [1.44, 8.72]), run away from home (OR =4.65, 95% CI [1.90, 11.4]), get arrested (OR =2.61, 95% CI [1.05, 6.47]), and report violence in their neighborhood including murder (OR =3.27, 95% CI [1.35, 7.96]) and fights with weapons (OR =3.06, 95% CI [1.15, 8.11]). Gang members were less likely to receive emotional support (OR =0.89, 95% CI [0.81, 0.97]). These findings reinforce the urgent need to reach young African American women in disadvantaged communities affiliated with gangs to address the complexity of context and interconnected risk behaviors.

  13. Gang membership and marijuana use among African American female adolescents in North Carolina.

    PubMed

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Doherty, Irene A; Browne, Felicia A; Kline, Tracy L; Carry, Monique G; Raiford, Jerris L; Herbst, Jeffrey H

    2015-01-01

    The southeastern US sustains the highest high school dropout rates, and gangs persist in underserved communities. African American female adolescents who drop out of school and are gang members are at substantial risk of exposure to severe violence, physical abuse, and sexual exploitation. In this study of 237 female African American adolescents 16-19 years of age from North Carolina who dropped out or considered dropping out, 11% were current or past gang members. Adolescents who reported gang membership began smoking marijuana at a mean age of 13, whereas those who reported no gang membership began at a mean age of 15 years (P<0.001). The mean ages of first alcohol use were 14 years and 15 years for gang members and non-gang members, respectively (P=0.04). Problem alcohol use was high in both groups: 40% and 65% for non-gang and gang members, respectively (P=0.02). Controlling for frequent marijuana use and problem alcohol use, adolescents who reported gang membership were more likely than non-gang members to experience sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] =2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.06, 6.40]), experience physical abuse (OR =7.33, 95% CI [2.90, 18.5]), report emotional abuse from their main partner (OR =3.55, 95% CI [1.44, 8.72]), run away from home (OR =4.65, 95% CI [1.90, 11.4]), get arrested (OR =2.61, 95% CI [1.05, 6.47]), and report violence in their neighborhood including murder (OR =3.27, 95% CI [1.35, 7.96]) and fights with weapons (OR =3.06, 95% CI [1.15, 8.11]). Gang members were less likely to receive emotional support (OR =0.89, 95% CI [0.81, 0.97]). These findings reinforce the urgent need to reach young African American women in disadvantaged communities affiliated with gangs to address the complexity of context and interconnected risk behaviors. PMID:26635492

  14. Gang membership and marijuana use among African American female adolescents in North Carolina

    PubMed Central

    Wechsberg, Wendee M; Doherty, Irene A; Browne, Felicia A; Kline, Tracy L; Carry, Monique G; Raiford, Jerris L; Herbst, Jeffrey H

    2015-01-01

    The southeastern US sustains the highest high school dropout rates, and gangs persist in underserved communities. African American female adolescents who drop out of school and are gang members are at substantial risk of exposure to severe violence, physical abuse, and sexual exploitation. In this study of 237 female African American adolescents 16–19 years of age from North Carolina who dropped out or considered dropping out, 11% were current or past gang members. Adolescents who reported gang membership began smoking marijuana at a mean age of 13, whereas those who reported no gang membership began at a mean age of 15 years (P<0.001). The mean ages of first alcohol use were 14 years and 15 years for gang members and non-gang members, respectively (P=0.04). Problem alcohol use was high in both groups: 40% and 65% for non-gang and gang members, respectively (P=0.02). Controlling for frequent marijuana use and problem alcohol use, adolescents who reported gang membership were more likely than non-gang members to experience sexual abuse (odds ratio [OR] =2.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.06, 6.40]), experience physical abuse (OR =7.33, 95% CI [2.90, 18.5]), report emotional abuse from their main partner (OR =3.55, 95% CI [1.44, 8.72]), run away from home (OR =4.65, 95% CI [1.90, 11.4]), get arrested (OR =2.61, 95% CI [1.05, 6.47]), and report violence in their neighborhood including murder (OR =3.27, 95% CI [1.35, 7.96]) and fights with weapons (OR =3.06, 95% CI [1.15, 8.11]). Gang members were less likely to receive emotional support (OR =0.89, 95% CI [0.81, 0.97]). These findings reinforce the urgent need to reach young African American women in disadvantaged communities affiliated with gangs to address the complexity of context and interconnected risk behaviors. PMID:26635492

  15. Effects of Marijuana Use on Impulsivity and Hostility in Daily Life

    PubMed Central

    Ansell, Emily B.; Laws, Holly B.; Roche, Michael J.; Sinha, Rajita

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Marijuana use is increasingly prevalent among young adults. While research has found adverse effects associated with marijuana use within experimentally controlled laboratory settings, it is unclear how recreational marijuana use affects day-to-day experiences in users. The present study sought to examine the effects of marijuana use on within-person changes in impulsivity and interpersonal hostility in daily life using smartphone administered assessments. METHODS Forty-three participants with no substance dependence reported on their alcohol consumption, tobacco use, recreational marijuana use, impulsivity, and interpersonal hostility over the course of 14 days. Responses were analyzed using multilevel modeling. RESULTS Marijuana use was associated with increased impulsivity on the same day and the following day relative to days when marijuana was not used, independent of alcohol use. Marijuana was also associated with increased hostile behaviors and perceptions of hostility in others on the same day when compared to days when marijuana was not used. These effects were independent of frequency of marijuana use or alcohol use. There were no significant effects of alcohol consumption on impulsivity or interpersonal hostility. CONCLUSIONS Marijuana use is associated with changes in impulse control and hostility in daily life. This may be one route by which deleterious effects of marijuana are observed for mental health and psychosocial functioning. Given the increasing prevalence of recreational marijuana use and the potential legalization in some states, further research on the potential consequences of marijuana use in young adults’ day-to-day life is warranted. PMID:25595054

  16. Marijuana Use in Epilepsy: The Myth and the Reality.

    PubMed

    Detyniecki, Kamil; Hirsch, Lawrence

    2015-10-01

    Marijuana has been utilized as a medicinal plant to treat a variety of conditions for nearly five millennia. Over the past few years, there has been an unprecedented interest in using cannabis extracts to treat epilepsy, spurred on by a few refractory pediatric cases featured in the media that had an almost miraculous response to cannabidiol-enriched marijuana extracts. This review attempts to answer the most important questions a clinician may have regarding the use of marijuana in epilepsy. First, we review the preclinical and human evidences for the anticonvulsant properties of the different cannabinoids, mainly tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). Then, we explore the safety data from animal and human studies. Lastly, we attempt to reconcile the controversy regarding physicians' and patients' opinions about whether the available evidence is sufficient to recommend the use of marijuana to treat epilepsy. PMID:26299273

  17. Marijuana Use in Epilepsy: The Myth and the Reality.

    PubMed

    Detyniecki, Kamil; Hirsch, Lawrence

    2015-10-01

    Marijuana has been utilized as a medicinal plant to treat a variety of conditions for nearly five millennia. Over the past few years, there has been an unprecedented interest in using cannabis extracts to treat epilepsy, spurred on by a few refractory pediatric cases featured in the media that had an almost miraculous response to cannabidiol-enriched marijuana extracts. This review attempts to answer the most important questions a clinician may have regarding the use of marijuana in epilepsy. First, we review the preclinical and human evidences for the anticonvulsant properties of the different cannabinoids, mainly tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). Then, we explore the safety data from animal and human studies. Lastly, we attempt to reconcile the controversy regarding physicians' and patients' opinions about whether the available evidence is sufficient to recommend the use of marijuana to treat epilepsy.

  18. Marijuana extracts possess the effects like the endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kazuhito; Motoya, Erina; Matsuzawa, Naoki; Funahashi, Tatsuya; Kimura, Toshiyuki; Matsunaga, Tamihide; Arizono, Koji; Yamamoto, Ikuo

    2005-01-31

    The progesterone 17alpha-hydroxylase activity, which is one of the steroidogenic enzymes in rat testis microsomes, was significantly inhibited by crude marijuana extracts from Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA)- and cannabidiolic acid (CBDA)-strains. Delta(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol, cannabidiol and cannabinol also inhibited the enzymatic activity with relatively higher concentration (100-1000 microM). Testosterone 6beta- and 16alpha-hydroxylase activities together with androstenedione formation from testosterone in rat liver microsomes were also significantly inhibited by the crude marijuana extracts and the cannabinoids. Crude marijuana extracts (1 and 10 microg/ml) of THCA strain stimulated the proliferation of MCF-7 cells, although the purified cannabinoids (THC, CBD and CBN) did not show significant effects, such as the extract at the concentration of 0.01-1000 nM. These results indicate that there are some metabolic interactions between cannabinoid and steroid metabolism and that the constituents showing estrogen-like activity exist in marijuana.

  19. Is the Hype of Medical Marijuana All Smoke and Mirrors?

    PubMed

    Koliani-Pace, Jenna; Siegel, Corey A

    2016-02-01

    Being classified as a Schedule I drug by the Federal government has not prevented states from passing their own medical marijuana laws. While there is no denying that marijuana's euphoria makes people feel better, there is a lack of scientific data to support the efficacy of marijuana for gastrointestinal diseases. Marijuana, when used as a medical treatment, should be held to the same standards as any other drug coming to market including investigating the adverse event profile and ensuring a rigorous quality control program. Although we are not writing a prescription in the classic definition, we are signing state paperwork supporting the use as a treatment for a medical illness. Therefore, we have the obligation to our patients to ensure that we are recommending a safe and effective drug. More research needs to be conducted until we can reach that conclusion.

  20. Progressions of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Duncan, S C; Duncan, T E; Hops, H

    1998-08-01

    This study examined the progressive relations among adolescent use of alcohol, cigarettes and marijuana using latent growth curve analyses. Specifically, the present study examined three models to determine (1) the effect of prior cigarette use on alcohol use and development and the relationship between change in cigarette use and the development of alcohol use (N = 115), (2) the effect of prior alcohol use on cigarette use and development and the relationship between change in alcohol use and the development of cigarette use (N = 199); and (3) the effect of prior alcohol and cigarette use on marijuana use and development, and the relationship between change in alcohol use and cigarette use and the development, of marijuana use (N = 287). Support was found for the relation between prior levels of substance use and involvement in other substances. Cigarette use, in particular, was particularly important in the subsequent involvement of alcohol and marijuana.

  1. Predicting Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use From Preferential Music Consumption.

    PubMed

    Oberle, Crystal D; Garcia, Javier A

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana may be predicted from preferential consumption of particular music genres. Undergraduates (257 women and 78 men) completed a questionnaire assessing these variables. Partial correlation analyses, controlling for sensation-seeking tendencies and behaviors, revealed that listening to conventional music (pop, country, and religious genres) was negatively correlated with cigarette smoking (p=.001) and marijuana use (p<.001). Additionally, listening to energetic music (rap or hip-hop and soul or funk genres) was positively correlated with marijuana use (p=.004). The only significant predictor of alcohol use was country music, with which it was positively correlated (p=.04). This research suggests an especially harmful influence of energetic music on marijuana use. PMID:26400900

  2. Medical marijuana use for chronic pain: risks and benefits.

    PubMed

    Greenwell, Garth T

    2012-01-01

    Questions from patients about medical marijuana use for chronic pain are becoming more common. The information in this report will help patients understand the potential risks and benefits of using this substance for painful conditions.

  3. Health Canada unveils plan to distribute marijuana for medical use.

    PubMed

    Thaczuk, Derek

    2003-08-01

    Under pressure from the courts, Health Canada reluctantly comes up with a distribution plan to provide dried cannabis and seeds to patients using medical marijuana. The plan has been greeted with considerable criticism

  4. What You Need to Know about Drugs: Marijuana

    MedlinePlus

    ... leaves, stems, seeds, and flowers of the hemp ( Cannabis sativa ) plant. It looks like green, brown, or ... Called: weed, grass, pot, chronic, joint, blunt, herb, cannabis, hashish, Mary Jane How It's Used: Marijuana is ...

  5. Cue reactivity in young marijuana smokers: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Gray, Kevin M; LaRowe, Steven D; Upadhyaya, Himanshu P

    2008-12-01

    To develop and evaluate the feasibility of a cue reactivity paradigm for young marijuana smokers, the authors set up a laboratory procedure involving neutral and marijuana-related imagery, video, and in vivo cues. Fifteen adolescents and young adults with cannabis use disorders completed the procedure, which included continuous measurement of skin conductance and heart rate. Participants also completed questionnaires regarding marijuana craving before, during, and after cue presentations. Higher levels of craving and skin conductance were observed during marijuana cue presentations. The procedure appears to elicit cue reactivity among adolescents and young adults with cannabis use disorders and should be further evaluated and refined with a larger sample. Implications for future studies are discussed. PMID:19071985

  6. Health Canada unveils plan to distribute marijuana for medical use.

    PubMed

    Thaczuk, Derek

    2003-08-01

    Under pressure from the courts, Health Canada reluctantly comes up with a distribution plan to provide dried cannabis and seeds to patients using medical marijuana. The plan has been greeted with considerable criticism PMID:14746292

  7. Medical marijuana: important vote coming, you can help.

    PubMed

    James, John S

    2004-06-25

    Congress will vote soon on an amendment to stop Attorney General Ashcroft's crusade against medical marijuana, in states where laws recognize medical use. This amendment received 152 votes in Congress last year. PMID:15272460

  8. Minister reaffirms commitment to provide medical marijuana, but delays continue.

    PubMed

    Thaczuk, Derek

    2002-12-01

    Amid ongoing doubts about the federal government's commitment to provide marijuana for medical use, the first Canadian clinical trial of smoked cannabis has been launched, and a Senate committee has released its controversial and much-anticipated report. PMID:14719490

  9. Predicting Alcohol, Cigarette, and Marijuana Use From Preferential Music Consumption.

    PubMed

    Oberle, Crystal D; Garcia, Javier A

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated whether use of alcohol, cigarettes, and marijuana may be predicted from preferential consumption of particular music genres. Undergraduates (257 women and 78 men) completed a questionnaire assessing these variables. Partial correlation analyses, controlling for sensation-seeking tendencies and behaviors, revealed that listening to conventional music (pop, country, and religious genres) was negatively correlated with cigarette smoking (p=.001) and marijuana use (p<.001). Additionally, listening to energetic music (rap or hip-hop and soul or funk genres) was positively correlated with marijuana use (p=.004). The only significant predictor of alcohol use was country music, with which it was positively correlated (p=.04). This research suggests an especially harmful influence of energetic music on marijuana use.

  10. Medical marijuana: questions raised on San Francisco raid.

    PubMed

    Mirken, B

    1997-05-01

    The District Attorney of San Francisco, Terence Hallinan, has questioned whether a recent raid on a San Francisco medical marijuana buyer's club was a routine enforcement action by the Drug Enforcement Administration. Hallinan has urged the U.S. Attorneys' Office not to prosecute individuals who might be arrested in the raid's aftermath. It appears that the raid was ordered by someone who opposed Proposition 215, which legalized marijuana use for medicinal purposes.

  11. Smoking tobacco along with marijuana increases symptoms of cannabis dependence

    PubMed Central

    Ream, Geoffrey L.; Benoit, Ellen; Johnson, Bruce D.; Dunlap, Eloise

    2008-01-01

    Aim User practices/rituals that involve concurrent use of tobacco and marijuana – smoking blunts and “chasing” marijuana with tobacco – are hypothesized to increase cannabis dependence symptoms. Design Ethnographers administered group surveys to a diverse, purposive sample of marijuana users who appeared to be 17–35 years old. Setting New York City, including non-impoverished areas of Manhattan, the transitional area of East Village/Lower East Side, low-income areas of northern Manhattan and South Bronx, and diverse areas of Brooklyn and Queens. Participants 481 marijuana users ages 14–35, 57% male, 43% female; 27% White, 30% Black, 19% Latino, 5% Asian, 20% of other/multiple race. Measurements Among many other topics, group surveys measured cannabis dependence symptoms; frequencies of chasing, blunt smoking, joint/pipe smoking, using marijuana while alone, and general tobacco use; and demographic factors. Findings Blunt smoking and chasing marijuana with tobacco were each uniquely associated with five of the seven cannabis dependence symptoms. Across symptoms, predicted odds were 2.4–4.1 times greater for participants who smoked blunts on all 30 of the past 30 days than for participants who did not smoke blunts in the past 30 days. Significant increases in odds over the whole range of the five-point chasing frequency measure (from never to always) ranged from 3.4 times to 5.1 times. Conclusions Using tobacco with marijuana – smoking blunts and “chasing” marijuana with tobacco – contributes to cannabis dependence symptoms. Treatment for cannabis dependence may be more effective it addresses the issue of concurrent tobacco use. PMID:18339491

  12. Marijuana use and social control: a sociological perspective on deviance.

    PubMed

    Murray, G F

    1986-06-01

    Drug use must be understood within the larger context of deviance. Certainly, the tendency to examine drug use in isolation from the more general study of delinquent behavior requires redress. By definition, illicit drug use is delinquent behavior. In the present paper, a theory of delinquent behavior is applied to marijuana use. A powerful explanation of marijuana use is offered by this modified version of social control theory. PMID:3744617

  13. The Academic Consequences of Marijuana Use during College

    PubMed Central

    Arria, Amelia M.; Caldeira, Kimberly M.; Bugbee, Brittany A.; Vincent, Kathryn B.; O’Grady, Kevin E.

    2015-01-01

    Although several studies have shown that marijuana use can adversely affect academic achievement among adolescents, less research has focused on its impact on post-secondary educational outcomes. This study utilized data from a large longitudinal cohort study of college students to test the direct and indirect effects of marijuana use on college GPA and time to graduation, with skipping class as a mediator of these outcomes. A structural equation model was evaluated taking into account a variety of baseline risk and protective factors (i.e., demographics, college engagement, psychological functioning, alcohol and other drug use) thought to contribute to college academic outcomes. The results showed a significant path from baseline marijuana use frequency to skipping more classes at baseline to lower first-semester GPA to longer time to graduation. Baseline measures of other drug use and alcohol quantity exhibited similar indirect effects on GPA and graduation time. Over time, the rate of change in marijuana use was negatively associated with rate of change in GPA, but did not account for any additional variance in graduation time. Percentage of classes skipped was negatively associated with GPA at baseline and over time. Thus, even accounting for demographics and other factors, marijuana use adversely affected college academic outcomes, both directly and indirectly through poorer class attendance. Results extend prior research by showing that marijuana use during college can be a barrier to academic achievement. Prevention and early intervention might be important components of a comprehensive strategy for promoting post-secondary academic achievement. PMID:26237288

  14. Marijuana impairs growth in mid-gestation fetuses.

    PubMed

    Hurd, Y L; Wang, X; Anderson, V; Beck, O; Minkoff, H; Dow-Edwards, D

    2005-01-01

    Marijuana (Cannabis sativa) is the most commonly used illicit drug by pregnant women, but information is limited about the effects of prenatal cannabis exposure on fetal development. The present study evaluated the influence of early maternal marijuana use on fetal growth. Women electing voluntary saline-induced abortions were recruited at a mid-gestational stage of pregnancy (weeks 17-22), and detailed drug use and medical histories were obtained. Toxicological assays (maternal urine and fetal meconium) were used in conjunction with the maternal report to assign groups. Subjects with documented cocaine and opiate use were excluded. Main developmental outcome variables were fetal weight, foot length, body length, and head circumference; ponderal index was also examined. Analyses were adjusted for maternal alcohol and cigarette use. Marijuana (n=44)- and nonmarijuana (n=95)-exposed fetuses had similar rates of growth with increased age. However, there was a 0.08-cm (95% CI -0.15 to -0.01) and 14.53-g (95% CI -28.21 to 0.86) significant reduction of foot length and body weight, respectively, for marijuana-exposed fetuses. Moreover, fetal foot length development was negatively correlated with the amount and frequency of marijuana use reported by the mothers. These findings provide evidence of a negative impact of prenatal marijuana exposure on the mid-gestational fetal growth even when adjusting for maternal use of other substances well known to impair fetal development.

  15. The academic consequences of marijuana use during college.

    PubMed

    Arria, Amelia M; Caldeira, Kimberly M; Bugbee, Brittany A; Vincent, Kathryn B; O'Grady, Kevin E

    2015-09-01

    Although several studies have shown that marijuana use can adversely affect academic achievement among adolescents, less research has focused on its impact on postsecondary educational outcomes. This study utilized data from a large longitudinal cohort study of college students to test the direct and indirect effects of marijuana use on college grade point average (GPA) and time to graduation, with skipping class as a mediator of these outcomes. A structural equation model was evaluated taking into account a variety of baseline risk and protective factors (i.e., demographics, college engagement, psychological functioning, alcohol and other drug use) thought to contribute to college academic outcomes. The results showed a significant path from baseline marijuana use frequency to skipping more classes at baseline to lower first-semester GPA to longer time to graduation. Baseline measures of other drug use and alcohol quantity exhibited similar indirect effects on GPA and graduation time. Over time, the rate of change in marijuana use was negatively associated with rate of change in GPA, but did not account for any additional variance in graduation time. Percentage of classes skipped was negatively associated with GPA at baseline and over time. Thus, even accounting for demographics and other factors, marijuana use adversely affected college academic outcomes, both directly and indirectly through poorer class attendance. Results extend prior research by showing that marijuana use during college can be a barrier to academic achievement. Prevention and early intervention might be important components of a comprehensive strategy for promoting postsecondary academic achievement.

  16. Impulsivity, negative expectancies, and marijuana use: a test of the acquired preparedness model.

    PubMed

    Vangsness, Laura; Bry, Brenna H; LaBouvie, Erich W

    2005-06-01

    According to the 'acquired preparedness model,' expectancies mediate the relationship between an impulsive personality style and alcohol use. The current study evaluated whether the model can also be applied to marijuana use. Estimated probabilities and subjective evaluations of personally expected marijuana effects, along with impulsivity and frequency of marijuana use, were assessed in 337 college undergraduates. Tests of mediation examining positive and negative marijuana expectancies showed negative expectancies to be a significant mediator for both males and females. That is, participants who were higher on impulsivity had fewer negative expectancies and in turn used more marijuana. This study provides evidence that the acquired preparedness model may help to explain marijuana use.

  17. Voucher-based incentives. A substance abuse treatment innovation.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Stephen T; Alessi, Sheila M; Dantona, Robert L

    2002-01-01

    In this report we provide an overview of research on the voucher-based incentives approach to substance abuse treatment. This approach was originally developed as a novel method for improving retention and increasing cocaine abstinence among cocaine-dependent outpatients. The efficacy of vouchers for those purposes is now well established, and plans are underway to move the intervention into effectiveness testing in community clinics. The use of vouchers also has been extended to the treatment of alcohol, marijuana, nicotine, and opioid dependence. Particularly noteworthy is that vouchers hold promise as an efficacious intervention with special populations of substance abusers, including pregnant and recently postpartum women, adolescents, and those with serious mental illness. Overall, voucher-based incentives hold promise as an innovative treatment intervention that has efficacy across a wide range of substance abuse problems and populations.

  18. Incapacitated, forcible, and drug/alcohol-facilitated rape in relation to binge drinking, marijuana use, and illicit drug use: a national survey.

    PubMed

    McCauley, Jenna L; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Resnick, Heidi S; Kilpatrick, Dean G

    2010-02-01

    This study examined the relation between rape and substance use problems as a function of three legally recognized forms of rape: forcible, incapacitated, and drug/alcohol facilitated rape. Data were collected via structured telephone interview within a national household sample of U.S. women aged 18-34 years (n = 1,998). Lifetime experience of incapacitated rape was associated with increased odds of past-year binge drinking, marijuana use, and illicit drug use. Lifetime history of forcible rape and drug/alcohol facilitated rape were associated with increased odds of marijuana and illicit drug use. Findings highlight the importance of including incapacitated and drug/alcohol facilitated rape in trauma history assessments, particularly among substance abusing populations, and have implications for secondary prevention and treatment of women with victimization histories.

  19. Perceived Harm, Addictiveness, and Social Acceptability of Tobacco Products and Marijuana Among Young Adults: Marijuana, Hookah, and Electronic Cigarettes Win

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Carla J.; Stratton, Erin; Schauer, Gillian L.; Lewis, Michael; Wang, Yanwen; Windle, Michael; Kegler, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    Background There has been an increase in non-daily smoking, alternative tobacco product and marijuana use among young adults in recent years. Objectives This study examined perceptions of health risks, addictiveness, and social acceptability of cigarettes, cigar products, smokeless tobacco, hookah, electronic cigarettes, and marijuana among young adults and correlates of such perceptions. Methods In Spring 2013, 10,000 students at two universities in the Southeastern United States were recruited to complete an online survey (2,002 respondents), assessing personal, parental, and peer use of each product; and perceptions of health risks, addictiveness, and social acceptability of each of these products. Results Marijuana was the most commonly used product in the past month (19.2%), with hookah being the second most commonly used (16.4%). The least commonly used were smokeless tobacco products (2.6%) and electronic cigarettes (4.5%). There were high rates of concurrent product use, particularly among electronic cigarette users. The most positively perceived was marijuana, with hookah and electronic cigarettes being second. While tobacco use and related social factors, related positively, influenced perceptions of marijuana, marijuana use and related social factors were not associated with perceptions of any tobacco product. Conclusions/Importance Marketing efforts to promote electronic cigarettes and hookah to be safe and socially acceptable seem to be effective, while policy changes seem to be altering perceptions of marijuana and related social norms. Research is needed to document the health risks and addictive nature of emerging tobacco products and marijuana and evaluate efforts to communicate such risks to youth. PMID:25268294

  20. How to Use Metered-Dose Inhalers

    MedlinePlus

    ... methods really work, and people who use these methods may continue to use their inhalers after the inhalers are empty.Some inhalers come with a counter that shows the number of sprays that remain in the inhaler. If your inhaler ...